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Sample records for canadian environmental protection

  1. The Canadian experience in frontier environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.H. )

    1991-03-01

    Early Canadian frontier exploration (from 1955 onshore and from 1966 for offshore drilling) caused insignificant public concern. The 1967-1968 Torrey Canyon Tanker and Santa Barbara disasters roused public opinion and governments. In Canada, 1969-1970 Arctic gas blowouts, a tanker disaster, and damage to the 'Manhattan' exacerbated concerns and resulted in new environmental regulatory constraints. From 1970, the Arctic Petroleum Operations Association learned to operate safely with environmental responsibility. It studied physical environment for design criteria, and the biological and human environment to ameliorate impact. APOA's research projects covered sea-ice, permafrost, sea-bottom, oil-spills, bird and mammal migration, fish habitat, food chains, oceanography, meteorology, hunters'/trappers' harvests, etc. In 1971 Eastcoast Petroleum Operators' Association and Alaska Oil and Gas Association followed APOA's cooperative research model. EPOA stressed icebergs and fisheries. Certain research was handled by the Canadian Offshore Oil Spill Research Association. By the mid-1980s these associations had undertaken $70,000,000 of environmental oriented research, with equivalent additional work by member companies on specific needs and similar sums by Federal agencies often working with industry on complementary research. The frontier associations then merged with the Canadian Petroleum Association, already active environmentally in western Canada. Working with government and informing environmental interest groups, the public, natives, and local groups, most Canadian frontier petroleum operations proceeded with minimal delay and environmental disturbance.

  2. Environmental contaminants in Canadian shorebirds.

    PubMed

    Braune, Birgit M; Noble, David G

    2009-01-01

    Canadian shorebirds are exposed to environmental contaminants throughout their annual cycle. Contaminant exposure among species varies with diet, foraging behaviour and migration patterns. We sampled twelve species of shorebirds from four locations across Canada to assess their exposure to PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, as well as four trace elements (Hg, Se, Cd, As). SigmaPCB and SigmaDDT followed by SigmaCHL were most frequently found above trace level in the shorebird carcasses. In general, the plover species (American golden, semipalmated, black-bellied) appear to be the most contaminated with organochlorines, whereas Hudsonian and marbled godwits appear to be the least contaminated. Among adult birds, the greater and lesser yellowlegs had the highest hepatic Hg concentrations (2.4-2.7 microg g(-1) dw), whereas American golden plovers as well as Hudsonian and marbled godwits contained relatively low levels of Hg (<1 microg g(-1) dw). Renal Se concentrations varied from 3.2 to 16.7 microg g(-1) dw and exhibited little interspecific or seasonal variation. Renal Cd levels in adult birds were highest in Hudsonian godwits from Quill Lakes (43 microg g(-1) dw) and Cape Churchill (12 microg g(-1) dw), and lowest (0.8-1.5 microg g(-1) dw) in greater and lesser yellowlegs from Cape Churchill and Bay of Fundy. Renal As concentrations varied from 0.06 microg g(-1) dw in golden plovers from Cape Churchill to 4.6 and 5.1 microg g(-1) dw in dunlin samples from the Pacific coast. There is no evidence that contaminants were adversely affecting the shorebirds sampled from the Canadian locations in this study.

  3. Canadian Environmental Issues in Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaakson, Reiner, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Traces Canada's conservation practices and environmental concerns from settlement to the present. The relationship between Canada and the United States on several issues is discussed. Acid rain, water resources, toxic substances, natural resource management, energy consciousness, environmental impact statements, and increased public awareness are…

  4. COMMUNITY BASED ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Community Based Environmental Protection intends to make environmental protection spring from the needs and values of the community of interest. Real community involvement in protecting the environment requires a process in which the environmental needs of communities and ecosyst...

  5. Testing decisions of the TSCA Interagency Testing Committee for chemicals on the Canadian Environmental Protection Act Domestic Substances List and Priority Substances List: Di-tert-butylphenol, ethyl benzene, brominated flame retardants, phthalate esters, chloroparaffins, chlorinated benzenes, and anilines

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    In 1976, under section 4(e) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), the US Congress created the TSCA Interagency Testing Committee (ITC) to decide which chemicals should be recommended to the Administrator of the US Environmental Protection Agency for testing. In 1988, under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA), the Government of Canada created the Domestic Substances List and Priority Substances List. This paper briefly describes the ITC, the different ITC testing decisions and a few of the ITC`s 11,150 testing decisions for the 21,413 chemicals on the CEPA Domestic Substances List and some of the 24 testing decisions for the 44 chemicals and chemical groups on the CEPA.

  6. Careers in Environmental Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Reed

    The book presents concerns of our society in protecting our environment and the challenges involved in meaningful careers in environmental protection and management. "Estimates by the Environmental Protection Agency indicate that, compared with their numbers in the mid-'70's, the need for environmental professionals will triple by 1980.'" In a…

  7. Canadian soil quality guidelines for copper: Environmental and human health

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This report begins with background information on the physical and chemical properties of copper, the production and use of copper in Canada, its levels in the Canadian environment, and existing guidelines and criteria regarding copper concentrations in various media. It then reviews the environmental fate and behaviour of copper, notably in the soil; the behavior and effects of copper in biota, including soil microbial processes, terrestrial plants and invertebrates, livestock and wildlife, and bioaccumulation; and the pharmacokinetics and toxicology of copper in mammals and humans, concluding with an overall toxicological evaluation and human exposure estimates. This information is used to derive environmental and human health soil quality guidelines for copper to protect environmental and human health receptors, for agricultural, residential/parkland, commercial, and industrial land uses.

  8. Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E.; Ooi, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services. PMID:12894328

  9. Health, safety and environmental education at the Canadian Labour Congress.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Dave

    2011-01-01

    This piece describes involvement and reflections by Dave Bennett in three areas: 1) union education at the Canadian Labour Congress (CLC) from the late 1970s onwards; 2) insights regarding how the CLC moved into health and safety education in the early 1980s; and 3) further thoughts on how the CLC moved from health and safety into environmental protection education in the early 1990s, and consequent changes in the perspective adopted by health and safety courses. There are two types of critical comment on these educational processes, one which examines the educational dilemmas at the time, with an evaluation of the decisions reached, and the other a retrospective view of the educational process as a result of reflective hindsight.

  10. Environmental economics for environmental protection.

    PubMed

    van Ierland, Ekko; Brink, Corjan; Hordijk, Leen; Kroeze, Carolien

    2002-05-10

    Environmental economics deals with the optimal allocation of production factors and correcting market failure in protecting the environment. Market failure occurs because of externalities, common property resources, and public goods. Environmental policy instruments include direct regulation, taxes/subsidies, tradable permits, deposit systems, voluntary agreements, and persuasion. Environmental policies usually focus on one pollutant or environmental issue but may have substantial impacts on other emissions and environmental problems. Neglecting these impacts will result in suboptimal policies. We present an integrated optimisation model for determining cost-effective strategies to simultaneously reduce emissions of several pollutants from several sources, allowing for interrelations between sources and abatement options. Our integrated approach in regard to acidifying compounds and greenhouse gases will be able to provide cost-effective policy options that will result in lower overall abatement costs. This paper shows that efficient emission reduction can be calculated, but we argue that, for transboundary air pollution and climate change, it is difficult to implement the socially optimal solution because strong incentives exist for "free-riding". In order to implement efficient policies, international environmental agreements like the Gothenburg or the Kyoto Protocol are necessary to establish stable coalitions. The stability of these agreements depends on the distribution of costs and benefits over countries and on the redistribution of the gains of cooperation.

  11. American and Canadian environmental federalism: A game-theoretic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gillroy, J.M.

    1999-07-01

    To understand why environmental federalism is different in Canada and the United States, one might begin with the initial strategic realities that faced the Fathers of Canadian Confederation and the Framers of the Constitution of the US. This essay examined federalism from a game theoretic point of view, to integrate and expose the rational properties of the decision to federate and the logical entailments of that choice for environmental policy within two specific strategic contexts. Specifically, the author suggests that American environmental federalism has arisen in response to the strategic reality of a prisoner's dilemma, while Canadian environmental federalism can be analyzed as an effort to regulate confrontations within a game of chicken. In addition to the analysis of each federated structure, evidence from five case studies demonstrates the usefulness of games to the study of comparative federalism.

  12. Environmental Drivers of the Canadian Arctic Megabenthic Communities

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Virginie; Iken, Katrin; Archambault, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Environmental gradients and their influence on benthic community structure vary over different spatial scales; yet, few studies in the Arctic have attempted to study the influence of environmental gradients of differing spatial scales on megabenthic communities across continental-scales. The current project studied for the first time how megabenthic community structure is related to several environmental factors over 2000 km of the Canadian Arctic, from the Beaufort Sea to northern Baffin Bay. Faunal trawl samples were collected between 2007 and 2011 at 78 stations from 30 to 1000 m depth and patterns in biomass, density, richness, diversity, and taxonomic composition were examined in relation to indirect/spatial gradients (e.g., depth), direct gradients (e.g., bottom oceanographic variables), and resource gradients (e.g., food supply proxies). Six benthic community types were defined based on their biomass-based taxonomic composition. Their distribution was significantly, but moderately, associated with large-scale (100–1000 km) environmental gradients defined by depth, physical water properties (e.g., bottom salinity), and meso-scale (10–100 km) environmental gradients defined by substrate type (hard vs. soft) and sediment organic carbon content. We did not observe a strong decline of bulk biomass, density and richness with depth or a strong increase of those community characteristics with food supply proxies, contrary to our hypothesis. We discuss how local- to meso-scale environmental conditions, such as bottom current regimes and polynyas, sustain biomass-rich communities at specific locations in oligotrophic and in deep regions of the Canadian Arctic. This study demonstrates the value of considering the scales of variability of environmental gradients when interpreting their relevance in structuring of communities. PMID:25019385

  13. CEBAF - environmental protection program plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    An important objective in the successful operation of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) is to ensure protection of the public and the environment. To meet this objective, the Southeastern Universities Research Association, Inc., (SURA) is committed to working with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop, implement, and manage a sound and workable environmental protection program at CEBAF. This environmental protection plan includes information on environmental monitoring, long-range monitoring, groundwater protection, waste minimization, and pollution prevention awareness program plan.

  14. Environmental contaminants and human health in the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, S G; Van Oostdam, J; Tikhonov, C; Feeley, M; Armstrong, B; Ayotte, P; Boucher, O; Bowers, W; Chan, L; Dallaire, F; Dallaire, R; Dewailly, E; Edwards, J; Egeland, G M; Fontaine, J; Furgal, C; Leech, T; Loring, E; Muckle, G; Nancarrow, T; Pereg, D; Plusquellec, P; Potyrala, M; Receveur, O; Shearer, R G

    2010-10-15

    The third Canadian Arctic Human Health Assessment conducted under the Canadian Northern Contaminants Program (NCP), in association with the circumpolar Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), addresses concerns about possible adverse health effects in individuals exposed to environmental contaminants through a diet containing country foods. The objectives here are to: 1) provide data on changes in human contaminant concentrations and exposure among Canadian Arctic peoples; 2) identify new contaminants of concern; 3) discuss possible health effects; 4) outline risk communication about contaminants in country food; and 5) identify knowledge gaps for future contaminant research and monitoring. The nutritional and cultural benefits of country foods are substantial; however, some dietary studies suggest declines in the amount of country foods being consumed. Significant declines were found for most contaminants in maternal blood over the last 10 years within all three Arctic regions studied. Inuit continue to have the highest levels of almost all persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals among the ethnic groups studied. A greater proportion of people in the East exceed Health Canada's guidelines for PCBs and mercury, although the proportion of mothers exceeding these guidelines has decreased since the previous assessment. Further monitoring and research are required to assess trends and health effects of emerging contaminants. Infant development studies have shown possible subtle effects of prenatal exposure to heavy metals and some POPs on immune system function and neurodevelopment. New data suggest important beneficial effects on brain development for Inuit infants from some country food nutrients. The most successful risk communication processes balance the risks and benefits of a diet of country food through input from a variety of regional experts and the community, to incorporate the many socio-cultural and economic factors to arrive at a risk

  15. Environmental fate and effects of dicamba: a Canadian perspective.

    PubMed

    Caux, P Y; Kent, R A; Taché, M; Grande, C; Fan, G T; MacDonald, D D

    1993-01-01

    Literature on the environmental fate and effects of the benzoic acid herbicide dicamba was reviewed to provide a scientific basis to derive Canadian Water Quality Guidelines. Included in the review was information on the uses and production of dicamba, its physical and chemical properties, environmental monitoring data in Canadian surface water and groundwater, soils, sediments, and biota, and its environmental degradation, persistence, and fate. Through monitoring, dicamba has been detected in less than 8% of surface-water samples to a maximum concentration of 13 micrograms.L-1, while 2% of groundwater samples were positive up to 517 micrograms.L-1. Only one study that analyzed sediments (with no detections) and no field studies that investigated residues in biota were found. Microbial degradation is the most important process governing the dissipation of dicamba in aquatic and soil environments. Photolysis, hydrolysis, volatilization, adsorption to sediment, and bioconcentration are not expected to be significant removal processes, based on limited environmental fate data. The half-life of dicamba in water is < 7 d, although residues have been detected in surface-water supplies in Alberta more than 6 mon after application. The literature reports the half-life in soils ranges from 4 to 555 d; however, < 12 wk would be typical under Canadian conditions. High moisture and temperature, and other conditions that favor microbial degradation, would likely reduce the half-life to < 4 wk. The principal soil and plant metabolite is 3,6-dichlorosalicylic acid, with minor amounts of 2,5-dihydroxy-3,6-dichlorobenzoic acid and 5-hydroxydicamba found. Dicamba is highly mobile in soil, and significant leaching is possible; its water solubility is 6.5 g.L-1 (25 degrees C) and it has a log octanol-water partition coefficient of 0.477. Acute and chronic toxicological studies for all nontarget plants and animals were also reviewed. The major groups of organisms for which

  16. Environmental agreements, EIA follow-up and aboriginal participation in environmental management: The Canadian experience

    SciTech Connect

    O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran . E-mail: Ciaran.Ofaircheallaigh@griffith.edu.au

    2007-05-15

    During the last decade a number of environmental agreements (EAs) have been negotiated in Canada involving industry, government and Aboriginal peoples. This article draws on the Canadian experience to consider the potential of such negotiated agreements to address two issues widely recognised in academic and policy debates on environmental impact assessment (EIA) and environmental management. The first relates to the need to secure indigenous participation in environmental management of major projects that affect indigenous peoples. The second and broader issue involves the necessity for specific initiatives to ensure effective follow-up of EIA. The Canadian experience indicates that negotiated environmental agreements have considerable potential to address both issues. However, if this potential is to be realized, greater effort must be made to develop structures and processes specifically designed to encourage Aboriginal participation; and EAs must themselves provide the financial and other resource required to support EIA follow-up and Aboriginal participation.

  17. Environmental protection in China

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M. Univ. of Knoxville, TN )

    1990-01-01

    Environmental conditions in China are dramatically worse than those in the USA, but the Chinese are acting with commendable vigor in attempting to contain and ultimately reverse the damage. The Chinese have air, water and soil contamination, along with garbage and trash problems. They are also experiencing deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, destruction of wildlife habitat and wetlands, and the depletion of ground water. Attempts are being made to reduce the pollutants being produced, but economic factors weigh heavily against cleaning up current pollution.

  18. Environmental diplomacy: an examination and a prospective of Canadian-US transboundary environmental relations

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    This book is the first major study of the totality of Canadian-US environmental relations on three oceans and along the great midcontinent landmass. It is therefore a mirror of the times that a vital interest in shared resource areas, and equally vital concerns with adjacent and interacting environmental systems, inevitably have prompted a holistic look at the Canadian-US environmental interface and beyond. This volume represents perhaps the most exhaustive effort to date to examine hydrocarbons and the common oceanic neighborhood together with the pollution-resource-navigation complex of issues now so conspicuous in all Canadian-US seacoast dealings. The twelve chapters are essentially concerned with the quality (or lack thereof) of air, water, and, in some cases, land. Natural resources including wildlife, forests, agricultural crops, commercial fisheries, and soils, which are more appropriately treated under the equally broad term conservation, are largely ignored here. The study attempts to present a reasonably comprehensive general introduction to all aspects of, first, water quality and quantity at the border (while not delving into the issues of continental water management, or of international water export or import), and, second, air quality at the border and across the continent as well.

  19. A Lesson on Environmental Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhongzheng, Wang

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a first-hand account of teaching environmental protection in the Wushan Mountain area of China. Combining the knowledge in the textbook with social practice, the lessons focused on enabling the students to develop a sense of responsibility and duty through personal experiences. What began as a lesson in…

  20. Radiation protection issues related to Canadian museum operations.

    PubMed

    Waller, Edward J; Cole, David; Jamieson, Terry

    2008-02-01

    Museums in Canada have been found to possess radioactive items. The origin of the radiation can be broadly categorized as either natural (generally, radioactive ores) or anthropogenic (generally, luminous gauges). Radioluminescent gauges, especially bearing radium (226Ra), can also generate significant radiation fields. This is especially true if many gauges are located in close proximity. In addition, the radon may out-gas from these gauges, and generate a loose contamination problem in enclosed spaces (such as display cases). Radioactive ores, bearing naturally occurring uranium and thorium, can generate radiation fields many times greater than the ambient background levels. In addition, they will increase the ambient radon level and potentially generate loose contamination. In this paper, we discuss the specific results of radiological decommissioning at three museums: the National Air Force Museum of Canada (Trenton, Ontario); the Quebec Air and Space Museum (Montreal, PQ); and the Canadian Museum of Nature (Aylmer, PQ). In addition, a radiological survey performed at Canadian Forces Detachment Mountain View (Mountain View, Ontario) of surplus aircraft is included. The primary conclusion is that museums holding radioactive materials may have detectable levels of loose Ra and progeny contamination. They, therefore, have a requirement to be surveyed for loose contamination periodically with the potential for periodic decontamination caused by radon out-gassing. In addition, public access to displays bearing radioactive material should generally be restricted, and comprehensive radiation safety and security programs at museum facilities should be developed and enacted. PMID:18192793

  1. Regulatory experience in applying a radiological environmental protection framework for existing and planned nuclear facilities.

    PubMed

    Mihok, S; Thompson, P

    2012-01-01

    Frameworks and methods for the radiological protection of non-human biota have been evolving rapidly at the International Commission on Radiological Protection and through various European initiatives. The International Atomic Energy Agency has incorporated a requirement for environmental protection in the latest revision of its Basic Safety Standards. In Canada, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission has been legally obligated to prevent unreasonable risk to the environment since 2000. Licensees have therefore been meeting generic legal requirements to demonstrate adequate control of releases of radioactive substances for the protection of both people and biota for many years. In the USA, in addition to the generic requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Department of Energy facilities have also had to comply with specific dose limits after a standard assessment methodology was finalised in 2002. Canadian regulators developed a similar framework for biota dose assessment through a regulatory assessment under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act in the late 1990s. Since then, this framework has been applied extensively to satisfy legal requirements under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act and the Nuclear Safety and Control Act. After approximately a decade of experience in applying these methods, it is clear that simple methods are fit for purpose, and can be used for making regulatory decisions for existing and planned nuclear facilities.

  2. Canadian municipal environmental directory: A compendium of initiatives, contacts and documents

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This directory provides information about municipal government actions for a sustainable environment and is designed as a resource guide to help Canadian municipalities share information, develop innovative and cost-effective environmental programs, and initiate new strategies toward sustainable development. The first part of the directory compiles over 1,200 initiatives organized according to 18 major sectors of municipal environmental intervention. Information in this part includes title of project, budget, implementing city and department, contact person, and project description. The second part lists 850 Canadian municipalities and over 3,200 municipal contact persons having environmental responsibilities. The third part is a selected bibliography of municipal documents, organized by environmental sector. An index of municipalities is appended.

  3. 43 CFR 3802.3 - Environmental protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Environmental protection. 3802.3 Section 3802.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Exploration and Mining, Wilderness Review Program § 3802.3 Environmental protection....

  4. 43 CFR 3802.3 - Environmental protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Environmental protection. 3802.3 Section 3802.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Exploration and Mining, Wilderness Review Program § 3802.3 Environmental protection....

  5. Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Czech, Bryan

    2012-01-09

    The conflict between economic growth and environmental protection may not be reconciled via technological progress. The fundamentality of the conflict ultimately boils down to laws of thermodynamics. Physicists and other scholars from the physical sciences are urgently needed for helping the public and policy makers grasp the conflict between growth and environmental protection.

  6. 43 CFR 3802.3 - Environmental protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Environmental protection. 3802.3 Section 3802.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Exploration and Mining, Wilderness Review Program § 3802.3 Environmental protection....

  7. 43 CFR 3802.3 - Environmental protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Environmental protection. 3802.3 Section 3802.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Exploration and Mining, Wilderness Review Program § 3802.3 Environmental protection....

  8. Introduction to China's Environmental Protection Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntao, Li; Wenzeng, Li

    2004-01-01

    This article deals with China's environmental protection laws. In order to coordinate the relationship between humankind and the environment, protect and improve the environment, protect people's health, and safeguard sustainable and steady economic and social development, the Chinese government has formulated a series of laws and regulations in…

  9. Pressure Shell Approach to Integrated Environmental Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2011-01-01

    The next generation of exploration mission human systems will require environmental protection such as radiation protection that is effective and efficient. In order to continue human exploration, habitat systems will require special shells to protect astronauts from hostile environments. The Pressure Shell Approach to integrated environmental (radiation) protection is a multi-layer shell that can be used for multifunctional environmental protection. Self-healing, self-repairing nano technologies and sensors are incorporated into the shell. This shell consists of multiple layers that can be tailored for specific environmental protection needs. Mainly, this innovation focuses on protecting crew from exposure to micrometeorites, thermal, solar flares, and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) radiation. The Pressure Shell Approach consists of a micrometeoroid and secondary ejecta protection layer; a thin, composite shell placed in between two layers that is non-structural; an open cavity layer that can be filled with water, regolith, or polyethylene foam; a thicker composite shell that is a structural load bearing that is placed between two layers; and a bladder coating on the interior composite shell. This multi-layer shell creates an effective radiation protection system. Most of its layers can be designed with the materials necessary for specific environments. In situ materials such as water or regolith can be added to the shell design for supplemental radiation protection.

  10. GENETIC INDICATORS IN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    University of California, Davis, Bodega Bay Marine Laboratory; US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory, Molecular Ecology Research Division, Cincinnati, OH; US EPA National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), Gulf Ecology Division, Gulf Breeze, FL;...

  11. Development of Composite Indices to Measure the Adoption of Pro-Environmental Behaviours across Canadian Provinces

    PubMed Central

    Canuel, Magalie; Abdous, Belkacem; Bélanger, Diane; Gosselin, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Objective The adoption of pro-environmental behaviours reduces anthropogenic environmental impacts and subsequent human health effects. This study developed composite indices measuring adoption of pro-environmental behaviours at the household level in Canada. Methods The 2007 Households and the Environment Survey conducted by Statistics Canada collected data on Canadian environmental behaviours at households' level. A subset of 55 retained questions from this survey was analyzed by Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) to develop the index. Weights attributed by MCA were used to compute scores for each Canadian province as well as for socio-demographic strata. Scores were classified into four categories reflecting different levels of adoption of pro-environmental behaviours. Results Two indices were finally created: one based on 23 questions related to behaviours done inside the dwelling and a second based on 16 questions measuring behaviours done outside of the dwelling. British Columbia, Quebec, Prince-Edward-Island and Nova-Scotia appeared in one of the two top categories of adoption of pro-environmental behaviours for both indices. Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Newfoundland-and-Labrador were classified in one of the two last categories of pro-environmental behaviours adoption for both indices. Households with a higher income, educational attainment, or greater number of persons adopted more indoor pro-environmental behaviours, while on the outdoor index, they adopted fewer such behaviours. Households with low-income fared better on the adoption of outdoors pro-environmental behaviours. Conclusion MCA was successfully applied in creating Indoor and Outdoor composite Indices of pro-environmental behaviours. The Indices cover a good range of environmental themes and the analysis could be applied to similar surveys worldwide (as baseline weights) enabling temporal trend comparison for recurring themes. Much more than voluntary measures, the study shows that

  12. An environmental radionuclide baseline study near three Canadian naval ports

    SciTech Connect

    Waller, E.J.; Cole, D. )

    1999-07-01

    This paper summarizes an environmental radionuclide baseline study undertaken for the Department of National Defence in Canada. The purpose of the project was to establish levels of radionuclides present in the environment around areas where nuclear propelled vessels may be berthed. Specifically, this report describes environmental baselines near Halifax (Nova Scotia), Esquimalt (British Columbia), and Nanoose Bay (British Columbia). Valued ecosystem component samples were taken from dairy farms, beef producers, market gardens, vegetables, tree fruits and berries within the study areas, as well as marine bivalves (mussels and clams), salmon, seaweed, and food from native fisheries. Numerous naturally occurring isotopes were detected and quantified. The only non-naturally occurring isotope positively identified was in the form of trace quantities of [sup 131]I, measured in the Halifax study zone (attributed to local hospital cancer therapy). [sup 137]Cs is the only other anthropogenic radionuclide detected. Its origin may be the combination of fallout from the Chernobyl accident and fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. The results indicate that nuclear-powered vessels have not resulted in activity levels that would contribute a significant radiation exposure to the public, the biota, and the environment within the three study zones.

  13. Environmental monitoring for protected areas: Review and prospect.

    PubMed

    Slocombe, D S

    1992-04-01

    Monitoring activities in protected areas have a long history. Internal planning and management needs early led to ecological inventories. More recently the increasing number and awareness of external threats to parks has led to a variety of monitoring programs. Efforts to use protected areas, and especially biosphere reserves, as ecological baselines, have reinforced this trend. And as protected areas are increasingly recognized to be islands with complex internal and regional interactions, holistic, systems approaches to inventory, monitoring, and assessment of their state are being developed. This paper begins by reviewing threats to parks and the origins and importance of inventory and monitoring activities. A review of resource survey methods follows. Ecosystem science and environmental monitoring are introduced as a foundation for consideration of several newer approaches to monitoring and assessing the state of natural environments. These newer approaches are stress/response frameworks, landscape ecology, ecosystem integrity, and state of the environment reporting. A final section presents some principles for monitoring the state of protected areas. Examples are drawn from experience with Canadian national parks.

  14. Environmental monitoring for protected areas: Review and prospect.

    PubMed

    Slocombe, D S

    1992-04-01

    Monitoring activities in protected areas have a long history. Internal planning and management needs early led to ecological inventories. More recently the increasing number and awareness of external threats to parks has led to a variety of monitoring programs. Efforts to use protected areas, and especially biosphere reserves, as ecological baselines, have reinforced this trend. And as protected areas are increasingly recognized to be islands with complex internal and regional interactions, holistic, systems approaches to inventory, monitoring, and assessment of their state are being developed. This paper begins by reviewing threats to parks and the origins and importance of inventory and monitoring activities. A review of resource survey methods follows. Ecosystem science and environmental monitoring are introduced as a foundation for consideration of several newer approaches to monitoring and assessing the state of natural environments. These newer approaches are stress/response frameworks, landscape ecology, ecosystem integrity, and state of the environment reporting. A final section presents some principles for monitoring the state of protected areas. Examples are drawn from experience with Canadian national parks. PMID:24234344

  15. Multi-jurisdictional environmental impact assessment: Canadian experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, Patricia; Sinclair, A. John

    2009-07-15

    This research examines complexities surrounding environmental impact assessment (EIA) in a multi-jurisdictional environment, with a specific focus on opportunities for public participation. With almost universal adoption of EIA, projects are increasingly subject to more than one assessment process. Thus there is demand to facilitate inter-jurisdictional coordination of EIAs. Canada has growing expertise with multijuristictional EIA that serves to illustrate the costs and opportunities associated with three different approaches to coordination: standardization, harmonization and substitution. Findings suggest that, although fraught with issues, harmonization is the most realistic approach for coordinating efforts. Harmonization has the potential to minimize duplication, avoid process uncertainty and increase efficiency and effectiveness in EIA. Furthermore, the analysis demonstrates that a bilateral agreement between jurisdictions is the best approach to harmonization, so long as negotiation of the agreement includes opportunities for meaningful participation, and implementation includes activities designed to communicate the assessment responsibilities of each jurisdiction, activities and schedules to the public. The experience of participants of different coordinated EIAs in Canada serves as counsel for on-going and future efforts to facilitate inter-jurisdictional coordination.

  16. Environmental protection in Eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Kabala, S. )

    1990-12-01

    There is a need for the development of institutional structures to make the transfer of technology work to improve the ability of Eastern Europe to find solutions to its environmental problems. Envisioned is technical assistance: U.S. experts who will work on-site with Eastern European experts. The idea is to technically train individuals in pollution-prevention methods. Trained experts could then upgrade processes to save input, energy, and materials. In the exchange of environmental information, discussions have led to four issues: it is expensive to transfer equipment and make qualified personnel available for a long period; information is comparatively inexpensive to convey; in Eastern Europe there are trained and competent personnel; the theoretical knowledge, academic knowledge, and education are at a very high level but little of this knowledge has been put into practice. The technology transfer goal is to develop a response to needs identified by partner institutions and counterpart professionals that will enable Eastern Europe to tap resources that do exist- scientific, managerial, and economic resources and tap information resources in the US in order to address the environmental problems that exist in Eastern Europe.

  17. China's environmental protection: challenges and countermeasures.

    PubMed

    1993-10-01

    The following suggestions are made to improve environmental quality in China: control population growth, develop ecofarming, protect biodiversity, explore new energy sources, practice safe and sustainable consumption, adopt an efficient strategy for use of natural resources, use industrial production to maintain sustainable development, strengthen management, guide urbanization, and increase international cooperation. The environmental problems are identified as the low use of industrial technology for preventing undesirable waste or emissions, increased sewage discharges in rural areas, water pollution, increased acid rain, increased pollution from solid waste and toxic chemicals, soil erosion and desertification, and agricultural pollution from chemical fertilizers. Environmental pollution is the result of economic development. Economic development should, therefore, take responsibility for the solutions. Current funding for environmental protection is an inadequate 0.67% of the gross national product. Environmental management needs to be strengthened, given greater priority, and balanced with sustainable development. The entire population should be made aware of the importance of protecting the environment. Progress has been made in increasing cultivated forest preserves, in decreasing discharges of wastes into the water, and in decreasing noise pollution. 1098 districts in 216 cities meet environmental noise control standards. The 1991 environmental protection staff consisted of 71,000 persons who were employed in 2199 monitoring stations for soot control, 61 natural reserves, and 6400 environmental pollution projects. A total investment of 1.74 billion RMB yuan was invested in environmental pollution control projects. Environmental quality has been maintained at 1980 standards, and further environmental pollution has been avoided. Atmospheric pollution in the third quarter of 1991 in large and medium-sized cities was 0.067 to 0.450 milligrams per cubic meter

  18. China's environmental protection: challenges and countermeasures.

    PubMed

    1993-10-01

    The following suggestions are made to improve environmental quality in China: control population growth, develop ecofarming, protect biodiversity, explore new energy sources, practice safe and sustainable consumption, adopt an efficient strategy for use of natural resources, use industrial production to maintain sustainable development, strengthen management, guide urbanization, and increase international cooperation. The environmental problems are identified as the low use of industrial technology for preventing undesirable waste or emissions, increased sewage discharges in rural areas, water pollution, increased acid rain, increased pollution from solid waste and toxic chemicals, soil erosion and desertification, and agricultural pollution from chemical fertilizers. Environmental pollution is the result of economic development. Economic development should, therefore, take responsibility for the solutions. Current funding for environmental protection is an inadequate 0.67% of the gross national product. Environmental management needs to be strengthened, given greater priority, and balanced with sustainable development. The entire population should be made aware of the importance of protecting the environment. Progress has been made in increasing cultivated forest preserves, in decreasing discharges of wastes into the water, and in decreasing noise pollution. 1098 districts in 216 cities meet environmental noise control standards. The 1991 environmental protection staff consisted of 71,000 persons who were employed in 2199 monitoring stations for soot control, 61 natural reserves, and 6400 environmental pollution projects. A total investment of 1.74 billion RMB yuan was invested in environmental pollution control projects. Environmental quality has been maintained at 1980 standards, and further environmental pollution has been avoided. Atmospheric pollution in the third quarter of 1991 in large and medium-sized cities was 0.067 to 0.450 milligrams per cubic meter

  19. Strategic Environmental Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in the Canadian Agricultural Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Bram F.; Christmas, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a methodological framework for strategic environmental assessment (SEA) application. The overall objective is to demonstrate SEA as a systematic and structured policy, plan, and program (PPP) decision support tool. In order to accomplish this objective, a stakeholder-based SEA application to greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policy options in Canadian agriculture is presented. Using a mail-out impact assessment exercise, agricultural producers and nonproducers from across the Canadian prairie region were asked to evaluate five competing GHG mitigation options against 13 valued environmental components (VECs). Data were analyzed using multi-criteria and exploratory analytical techniques. The results suggest considerable variation in perceived impacts and GHG mitigation policy preferences, suggesting that a blanket policy approach to GHG mitigation will create gainers and losers based on soil type and associate cropping and on-farm management practices. It is possible to identify a series of regional greenhouse gas mitigation programs that are robust, socially meaningful, and operationally relevant to both agricultural producers and policy decision makers. The assessment demonstrates the ability of SEA to address, in an operational sense, environmental problems that are characterized by conflicting interests and competing objectives and alternatives. A structured and systematic SEA methodology provides the necessary decision support framework for the consideration of impacts, and allows for PPPs to be assessed based on a much broader set of properties, objectives, criteria, and constraints whereas maintaining rigor and accountability in the assessment process.

  20. Strategic environmental assessment of greenhouse gas mitigation options in the Canadian agricultural sector.

    PubMed

    Noble, Bram F; Christmas, Lisa M

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a methodological framework for strategic environmental assessment (SEA) application. The overall objective is to demonstrate SEA as a systematic and structured policy, plan, and program (PPP) decision support tool. In order to accomplish this objective, a stakeholder-based SEA application to greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policy options in Canadian agriculture is presented. Using a mail-out impact assessment exercise, agricultural producers and nonproducers from across the Canadian prairie region were asked to evaluate five competing GHG mitigation options against 13 valued environmental components (VECs). Data were analyzed using multi-criteria and exploratory analytical techniques. The results suggest considerable variation in perceived impacts and GHG mitigation policy preferences, suggesting that a blanket policy approach to GHG mitigation will create gainers and losers based on soil type and associate cropping and on-farm management practices. It is possible to identify a series of regional greenhouse gas mitigation programs that are robust, socially meaningful, and operationally relevant to both agricultural producers and policy decision makers. The assessment demonstrates the ability of SEA to address, in an operational sense, environmental problems that are characterized by conflicting interests and competing objectives and alternatives. A structured and systematic SEA methodology provides the necessary decision support framework for the consideration of impacts, and allows for PPPs to be assessed based on a much broader set of properties, objectives, criteria, and constraints whereas maintaining rigor and accountability in the assessment process.

  1. Burnout, psychological morbidity, job satisfaction, and stress: a survey of Canadian hospital based child protection professionals

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, S; Plint, A; Clifford, T

    2005-01-01

    Aims: (1) To measure the prevalence of burnout, psychological morbidity, job satisfaction, job stress, and consideration of alternate work among multidisciplinary hospital based child and youth protection (CYP) professionals; (2) to understand the relations between these variables; and (3) to understand the reasons for leaving among former programme members. Methods: Mailed survey of current and former members of all Canadian academic hospital based CYP programmes. Surveys for current members contained validated measures of burnout, psychological morbidity, job satisfaction/stress, and questions about consideration of alternate work. Surveys for former members examined motivation(s) for leaving. Results: One hundred and twenty six of 165 current members (76.4%) and 13/14 (92.9%) former members responded. Over one third (34.1%) of respondents exhibited burnout while psychological morbidity was present in 13.5%. Job satisfaction was high, with 68.8% finding their job "extremely" or "quite" satisfying, whereas 26.2% found their job "extremely" or "quite" stressful. Psychological morbidity, job satisfaction, and job stress were not associated with any of the demographic variables measured, but burnout was most prevalent among non-physician programme members. Almost two thirds of current members indicated that they had seriously considered a change in work situation. Former members indicated that burnout and high levels of job stress were most responsible for their decision to leave and that increasing the number of programme staff and, consequently, reducing the number of hours worked would have influenced their decision to stay. Conclusions: Current levels of burnout and the large proportion of individuals who have contemplated leaving the service suggest a potential crisis in Canadian hospital based CYP services. PMID:16243862

  2. Inorganic polymers for environmental protection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenzie, K. J. D.

    2011-10-01

    Aluminosilicate inorganic polymers have been proposed as low-energy cements since, unlike Portland cement, their production does not require high temperatures or generate large quantities of greenhouse gases. Other environmental protection applications for inorganic polymers are to encapsulate hazardous mining or radioactive wastes for safe long-term storage and as fireproof components for buildings and vehicles. However, newly developed methods for synthesising these materials have opened up the possibility of other novel environmental protection applications. These include porous cladding material for passive cooling of buildings, cost-effective exchange materials for removing heavy metals from wastewater, bacteriocidal materials for purifying polluted drinking water and materials for photodegrading hazardous organic environmental pollutants. The nature and synthesis of inorganic polymers for these environmental applications will be discussed here.

  3. Interns Strengthen Tribal Sovereignty and Environmental Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durant, Celeste

    2001-01-01

    A nonprofit institute works to enhance tribal sovereignty and increase tribal capacity to protect the environment and manage both natural and human resources. Through internships, the institute aims to develop a cadre of scientific, environmental, legal, and other professionals knowledgeable about indigenous issues and cultural concerns. Tribes…

  4. 40 CFR 18.3 - Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.3 Section 18.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.3 Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Environmental Protection...

  5. 40 CFR 18.3 - Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.3 Section 18.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.3 Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Environmental Protection...

  6. 40 CFR 18.3 - Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.3 Section 18.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.3 Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Environmental Protection...

  7. 40 CFR 18.3 - Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.3 Section 18.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.3 Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Environmental Protection...

  8. 40 CFR 18.3 - Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.3 Section 18.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.3 Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Environmental Protection...

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH INDICATORS AT UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has recently published two different indicators reports, America's Children and the Environment (ACE) and the Draft Report on the Environment (see: http://www.epa.gov/indicators/ and http://www.epa.gov/envirohealth/children/). ACE...

  10. Environmental radiation protection: philosophy, monitoring and standards.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Augustin

    2004-01-01

    The Euratom Treaty confers important powers to the European Commission with regard to monitoring and assessment of levels of radioactivity in the environment and discharges with effluents (Articles 35-37 of the Euratom Treaty). Current developments in the area relate to harmonised reporting of environmental data and to harmonisation of effluent monitoring data. Both developments relate to the requirement under the new Basic Safety Standards (BSS) for a realistic assessment of population exposure. Guidance to this effect is being prepared by the Article 31 Group of Experts. In the context of Article 36 intercomparison exercises for radionuclides measurements in environmental samples are organised. New challenges for environmental monitoring result from the requirement under the BSS to regulate also industries processing NORM materials. Also the international move towards extending the scope of environmental radioactivity to the protection of biota opens new perspectives.

  11. Defining the role of omics in assessing ecosystem health: Perspectives from the Canadian environmental monitoring program.

    PubMed

    Bahamonde, Paulina A; Feswick, April; Isaacs, Meghan A; Munkittrick, Kelly R; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Scientific reviews and studies continue to describe omics technologies as the next generation of tools for environmental monitoring, while cautioning that there are limitations and obstacles to overcome. However, omics has not yet transitioned into national environmental monitoring programs designed to assess ecosystem health. Using the example of the Canadian Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) program, the authors describe the steps that would be required for omics technologies to be included in such an established program. These steps include baseline collection of omics endpoints across different species and sites to generate a range of what is biologically normal within a particular ecosystem. Natural individual variability in the omes is not adequately characterized and is often not measured in the field, but is a key component to an environmental monitoring program, to determine the critical effect size or action threshold for management. Omics endpoints must develop a level of standardization, consistency, and rigor that will allow interpretation of the relevance of changes across broader scales. To date, population-level consequences of routinely measured endpoints such as reduced gonad size or intersex in fish is not entirely clear, and the significance of genome-wide molecular, proteome, or metabolic changes on organism or population health is further removed from the levels of ecological change traditionally managed. The present review is not intended to dismiss the idea that omics will play a future role in large-scale environmental monitoring studies, but rather outlines the necessary actions for its inclusion in regulatory monitoring programs focused on assessing ecosystem health.

  12. Postglacial environmental succession of Nettilling Lake (Baffin Island, Canadian Arctic) inferred from biogeochemical and microfossil proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narancic, Biljana; Pienitz, Reinhard; Chapligin, Bernhard; Meyer, Hanno; Francus, Pierre; Guilbault, Jean-Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Nettilling Lake (Baffin Island, Nunavut) is currently the largest lake in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Despite its enormous size, this freshwater system remains little studied until the present-day. Existing records from southern Baffin Island indicate that in the early postglacial period, the region was submerged by the postglacial Tyrell Sea due to isostatic depression previously exerted by the Laurentide Ice Sheet. However, these records are temporally and spatially discontinuous, relying on qualitative extrapolation. This paper presents the first quantitative reconstruction of the postglacial environmental succession of the Nettilling Lake basin based on a 8300 yr-long high resolution sedimentary record. Our multi-proxy investigation of the glacio-isostatic uplift and subsequent changes in paleosalinity and sediment sources is based on analyses of sediment fabric, elemental geochemistry (μ-XRF), diatom assemblage composition, as well as on the first diatom-based oxygen isotope record from the eastern Canadian Arctic. Results indicate that the Nettilling Lake basin experienced a relatively rapid and uniform marine invasion in the early Holocene, followed by progressive freshening until about 6000 yr BP when limnological conditions similar to those of today were established. Our findings present evidence for deglacial processes in the Foxe Basin that were initiated at least 400yrs earlier than previously thought.

  13. 44 CFR 351.22 - The Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Assignments § 351.22 The Environmental Protection Agency. (a) Establish Protective Action Guides (PAGs) for... guidance will be presented in the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) “Manual of Protective Action Guides... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true The Environmental...

  14. 44 CFR 351.22 - The Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Assignments § 351.22 The Environmental Protection Agency. (a) Establish Protective Action Guides (PAGs) for... guidance will be presented in the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) “Manual of Protective Action Guides... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false The Environmental...

  15. 44 CFR 351.22 - The Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Assignments § 351.22 The Environmental Protection Agency. (a) Establish Protective Action Guides (PAGs) for... guidance will be presented in the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) “Manual of Protective Action Guides... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The Environmental...

  16. 44 CFR 351.22 - The Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Assignments § 351.22 The Environmental Protection Agency. (a) Establish Protective Action Guides (PAGs) for... guidance will be presented in the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) “Manual of Protective Action Guides... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The Environmental...

  17. Formulating an Ecosystem Approach to Environmental Protection

    PubMed

    Gonzalez

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has embraced a new strategy of environmental protection that is place-driven rather than program-driven. This new approach focuses on the protection of entire ecosystems. To develop an effective strategy of ecosystem protection, however, EPA will need to: (1) determine how to define and delineate ecosystems and (2) categorize threats to individual ecosystems and priority rank ecosystems at risk. Current definitions of ecosystem in use at EPA are inadequate for meaningful use in a management or regulatory context. A landscape-based definition that describes an ecosystem as a volumetric unit delineated by climatic and landscape features is suggested. Following this definition, ecosystems are organized hierarchically, from megaecosystems, which exist on a continental scale (e.g., Great Lakes), to small local ecosystems.Threats to ecosystems can generally be categorized as: (1) ecosystem degradation (occurs mainly through pollution) (2) ecosystem alteration (physical changes such as water diversion), and (3) ecosystem removal (e.g., conversion of wetlands or forest to urban or agricultural lands). Level of threat (i.e., how imminent), and distance from desired future condition are also important in evaluating threats to ecosystems. Category of threat, level of threat, and "distance" from desired future condition can be combined into a three-dimensional ranking system for ecosystems at risk. The purpose of the proposed ranking system is to suggest a preliminary framework for agencies such as EPA to prioritize responses to ecosystems at risk.KEY WORDS: Ecosystem approach; Ecological risk assessment; Environmental protection; EPA

  18. Ethical foundations of environmental radiological protection.

    PubMed

    Oughton, D H

    2016-06-01

    Assessing the potential ecological impact of ionising radiation raises a number of ethical questions. These include fundamental questions such as what exactly constitutes harming the environment, and how the environment should be valued, as well as links to political protection principles such as sustainability and biodiversity. Starting from developments within ecological risk assessment, this paper summarises some of the ethical issues concerning the protection of the environment from radiation. Chapter 2 gives a brief overview of different philosophical and cultural world views on valuing the environment in a context of radiation risk. Chapter 3 addresses some recent challenges to proposed environmental protection frameworks, including practical applications following the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents, and some scientific developments such as the ecosystem approach. Finally, Chapter 4 offers some recommendations on how ethical evaluation can help produce a more robust and transparent approach to the protection of the environment. In conclusion, there is a need for a holistic evaluation of the environmental impacts of ionising radiation that not only considers the direct consequences on the health of humans and non-human species, but also the more complex social, ethical, and economic consequences of both human and non-human exposures. PMID:27048755

  19. Ethical foundations of environmental radiological protection.

    PubMed

    Oughton, D H

    2016-06-01

    Assessing the potential ecological impact of ionising radiation raises a number of ethical questions. These include fundamental questions such as what exactly constitutes harming the environment, and how the environment should be valued, as well as links to political protection principles such as sustainability and biodiversity. Starting from developments within ecological risk assessment, this paper summarises some of the ethical issues concerning the protection of the environment from radiation. Chapter 2 gives a brief overview of different philosophical and cultural world views on valuing the environment in a context of radiation risk. Chapter 3 addresses some recent challenges to proposed environmental protection frameworks, including practical applications following the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents, and some scientific developments such as the ecosystem approach. Finally, Chapter 4 offers some recommendations on how ethical evaluation can help produce a more robust and transparent approach to the protection of the environment. In conclusion, there is a need for a holistic evaluation of the environmental impacts of ionising radiation that not only considers the direct consequences on the health of humans and non-human species, but also the more complex social, ethical, and economic consequences of both human and non-human exposures.

  20. Formulating an ecosystem approach to environmental protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Otto J.

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has embraced a new strategy of environmental protection that is place-driven rather than program-driven. This new approach focuses on the protection of entire ecosystems. To develop an effective strategy of ecosystem protection, however, EPA will need to: (1) determine how to define and delineate ecosystems and (2) categorize threats to individual ecosystems and priority rank ecosystems at risk. Current definitions of ecosystem in use at EPA are inadequate for meaningful use in a management or regulatory context. A landscape-based definition that describes an ecosystem as a volumetric unit delineated by climatic and landscape features is suggested. Following this definition, ecosystems are organized hierarchically, from megaecosystems, which exist on a continental scale (e.g., Great Lakes), to small local ecosystems. Threats to ecosystems can generally be categorized as: (1) ecosystem degradation (occurs mainly through pollution) (2) ecosystem alteration (physical changes such as water diversion), and (3) ecosystem removal (e.g., conversion of wetlands or forest to urban or agricultural lands). Level of threat (i.e., how imminent), and distance from desired future condition are also important in evaluating threats to ecosystems. Category of threat, level of threat, and “distance” from desired future condition can be combined into a three-dimensional ranking system for ecosystems at risk. The purpose of the proposed ranking system is to suggest a preliminary framework for agencies such as EPA to prioritize responses to ecosystems at risk.

  1. Congressional committee scrutinizes Environmental Protection Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), a favored target of criticism by those claiming the agency's regulatory actions hurt the economy, faced further scrutiny during a 17 November House of Representatives hearing to review the agency's research and development activities and discuss the Environmental Research, Development and Demonstration Act (ERDDA), which authorizes research and development activities at EPA. Although the act has not been reauthorized since 1980, EPA also derives authority from a number of other specific environmental laws such as the Clean Air Act, Safe Drinking Water Act, and Clean Water Act. The House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology's Subcommittee on Energy and Environment, which held the hearing, is undertaking the process for reauthorizing ERDDA, according to Rep. Andrew Harris (R-Md.), subcommittee chair.

  2. 40 CFR 18.5 - Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.5 Section 18.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.5 Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Scholastic and...

  3. 40 CFR 18.4 - Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.4 Section 18.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.4 Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. All...

  4. 40 CFR 18.4 - Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.4 Section 18.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.4 Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. All...

  5. 40 CFR 18.4 - Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.4 Section 18.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.4 Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. All...

  6. 40 CFR 18.5 - Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.5 Section 18.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.5 Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Scholastic and...

  7. 40 CFR 18.4 - Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.4 Section 18.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.4 Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. All...

  8. 40 CFR 18.5 - Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.5 Section 18.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.5 Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Scholastic and...

  9. 40 CFR 18.5 - Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.5 Section 18.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.5 Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Scholastic and...

  10. 40 CFR 18.4 - Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.4 Section 18.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.4 Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. All...

  11. 40 CFR 18.5 - Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.5 Section 18.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.5 Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Scholastic and...

  12. 1982 UCC-ND/GAT environmental protection seminar: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This environmental protection seminar was divided into seven sessions: (1) general environmental protection, (2) air and water pollution control, (3) spill control and countermeasures, (4) toxic materials control, (5) hazardous materials control, (6) environmental protection projects, and (7) cost benefit analysis. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 41 papers presented therein. (ACR)

  13. 10 CFR 501.14 - Notice to Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notice to Environmental Protection Agency. 501.14 Section... General Provisions § 501.14 Notice to Environmental Protection Agency. A copy of any proposed rule or... Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Administrator of EPA shall be given the...

  14. 10 CFR 501.14 - Notice to Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notice to Environmental Protection Agency. 501.14 Section... General Provisions § 501.14 Notice to Environmental Protection Agency. A copy of any proposed rule or... Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Administrator of EPA shall be given the...

  15. 10 CFR 501.14 - Notice to Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice to Environmental Protection Agency. 501.14 Section... General Provisions § 501.14 Notice to Environmental Protection Agency. A copy of any proposed rule or... Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Administrator of EPA shall be given the...

  16. 10 CFR 501.14 - Notice to Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notice to Environmental Protection Agency. 501.14 Section... General Provisions § 501.14 Notice to Environmental Protection Agency. A copy of any proposed rule or... Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Administrator of EPA shall be given the...

  17. 10 CFR 501.14 - Notice to Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notice to Environmental Protection Agency. 501.14 Section... General Provisions § 501.14 Notice to Environmental Protection Agency. A copy of any proposed rule or... Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Administrator of EPA shall be given the...

  18. Environmental protection, inequality, and institutional change.

    PubMed

    Magnani, Elisabetta

    2011-02-01

    The contemporary world faces an unprecedented environmental challenge. Past international research has amply shown that we cannot afford to wait for a "development path" that automatically takes us on a sustainable future. Whether we look at global or local problems, the international debate increasingly points to the importance of popular support for environmental protection by a broad spectrum of stakeholders. Because environmental sustainability questions the way we produce, consume, and distribute the product of our work, an economic analysis that is limited to one market is insufficient. In addressing Bromley's question, "How do we wish the future to unfold for us?" this paper argues for the need to devote resources to understanding the spillovers between institutional settings and preferences toward the provision of global public goods. Here, this review focuses on labor-market institutions, as labor markets are traditionally the context in which inequality is created at the local and global levels. Labor-market institutional design, via its impact on risk and uncertainty and inequality, may have sizable implications on the provision of environmental care.

  19. Forensic source differentiation of petrogenic, pyrogenic, and biogenic hydrocarbons in Canadian oil sands environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhendi; Yang, C; Parrott, J L; Frank, R A; Yang, Z; Brown, C E; Hollebone, B P; Landriault, M; Fieldhouse, B; Liu, Y; Zhang, G; Hewitt, L M

    2014-04-30

    To facilitate monitoring efforts, a forensic chemical fingerprinting methodology has been applied to characterize and differentiate pyrogenic (combustion derived) and biogenic (organism derived) hydrocarbons from petrogenic (petroleum derived) hydrocarbons in environmental samples from the Canadian oil sands region. Between 2009 and 2012, hundreds of oil sands environmental samples including water (snowmelt water, river water, and tailings pond water) and sediments (from river beds and tailings ponds) have been analyzed. These samples were taken from sites where assessments of wild fish health, invertebrate communities, toxicology and detailed chemistry are being conducted as part of the Canada-Alberta Joint Oil Sands Monitoring Plan (JOSMP). This study describes the distribution patterns and potential sources of PAHs from these integrated JOSMP study sites, and findings will be linked to responses in laboratory bioassays and in wild organisms collected from these same sites. It was determined that hydrocarbons in Athabasca River sediments and waters were most likely from four sources: (1) petrogenic heavy oil sands bitumen; (2) biogenic compounds; (3) petrogenic hydrocarbons of other lighter fuel oils; and (4) pyrogenic PAHs. PAHs and biomarkers detected in snowmelt water samples collected near mining operations imply that these materials are derived from oil sands particulates (from open pit mines, stacks and coke piles).

  20. Inventory of current environmental monitoring projects in the US-Canadian transboundary region

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, C.S.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Chapman, E.G.

    1986-05-01

    This document presents the results of a study commissioned to survey and summarize major environmental monitoring projects in the US-Canadian transboundary region. Projects with field sites located within 400 km (250 mi) of the border and active after 1980 were reviewed. The types of projects included: ambient air-quality monitoring, ambient water-quality monitoring, deposition monitoring, forest/vegetation monitoring and research, soil studies, and ecosystem studies. Ecosystem studies included projects involving the measurement of parameters from more than one monitoring category (e.g., studies that measured both water and soil chemistry). Individual descriptions were formulated for 184 projects meeting the spatial and temporal criteria. Descriptions included the official title for the project, its common abbreviation, program emphasis, monitoring site locations, time period conducted, parameters measured, protocols employed, frequency of sample collection, data storage information, and the principal contact for the project. A summary inventory subdivided according to the six monitoring categories was prepared using a computerized data management system. Information on major centralized data bases in the field of environmental monitoring was also obtained, and summary descriptions were prepared. The inventory and data base descriptions are presented in appendices to this document.

  1. 40 CFR 18.7 - Selection and appointment of Environmental Protection Research Fellows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Research Fellows. 18.7 Section 18.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR... Environmental Protection Research fellowships; and establish procedures for the appointment of...

  2. 40 CFR 18.7 - Selection and appointment of Environmental Protection Research Fellows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Research Fellows. 18.7 Section 18.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR... Environmental Protection Research fellowships; and establish procedures for the appointment of...

  3. 40 CFR 18.7 - Selection and appointment of Environmental Protection Research Fellows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Research Fellows. 18.7 Section 18.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR... Environmental Protection Research fellowships; and establish procedures for the appointment of...

  4. 40 CFR 18.7 - Selection and appointment of Environmental Protection Research Fellows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Research Fellows. 18.7 Section 18.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR... Environmental Protection Research fellowships; and establish procedures for the appointment of...

  5. 40 CFR 18.7 - Selection and appointment of Environmental Protection Research Fellows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Research Fellows. 18.7 Section 18.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR... Environmental Protection Research fellowships; and establish procedures for the appointment of...

  6. 40 CFR 18.9 - Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.9 Section 18.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.9 Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Initial appointments to...

  7. 40 CFR 18.9 - Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.9 Section 18.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.9 Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Initial appointments to...

  8. 40 CFR 18.9 - Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.9 Section 18.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.9 Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Initial appointments to...

  9. 40 CFR 18.9 - Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.9 Section 18.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.9 Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Initial appointments to...

  10. 40 CFR 18.9 - Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.9 Section 18.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.9 Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Initial appointments to...

  11. Environmental mediation: A method for protecting environmental sciences and scientists

    SciTech Connect

    Vigerstad, T.J.; Berdt Romilly, G. de; MacKeigan, P.

    1995-12-31

    The primary role for scientific analysis of environmental and human risks has been to support decisions that have arisen out of a regulatory decision-making model called ``Command and Control`` or ``Decide and Defend``. A project or a policy is proposed and permission for its implementation is sought. Permission-gaining sometimes requires a number of technical documents: Environmental Impact Statements, Public Health Risk Evaluations, policy analysis documents. Usually, little of this analysis is used to make any real decisions. This is a fact that has lead to enormous frustration and an atmosphere of distrust of government, industry and consulting scientists. There have been a number of responses by governmental and industrial managers, some scientists, and even the legal system, to mitigate the frustration and distrust. One response has been to develop methods of packaging information using language which is considered more ``understandable`` to the public: Ecosystem Health, Social Risk Assessment, Economic Risk Management, Enviro-hazard Communication, Risk Focus Analysis, etc. A second is to develop more sophisticated persuasion techniques-a potential misuse of Risk Communication. A third is proposing to change the practice of science itself: e.g., ``post-normal science`` and ``popular epidemiology``. A fourth has been to challenge the definition of ``expert`` in legal proceedings. All of these approaches do not appear to address the underlying issue: lack of trust and credibility. To address this issue requires an understanding of the nature of environmental disputes and the development of an atmosphere of trust and credibility. The authors propose Environmental Mediation as a response to the dilemma faced by professional environmental scientists, engineers, and managers that protects the professionals and their disciplines.

  12. National Ignition Facility environmental protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, J.M.; Reitz, T.C.; Tobin, M.T.

    1994-06-01

    The conceptual design of Environmental Protection Systems (EPS) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is described. These systems encompass tritium and activated debris handling, chamber, debris shield and general decontamination, neutron and gamma monitoring, and radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste handling. Key performance specifications met by EPS designs include limiting the tritium inventory to 300 Ci and total tritium release from NIF facilities to less than 10 Ci/yr. Total radiation doses attributable to NIF shall remain below 10 mrem/yr for any member of the general public and 500 mrem/yr for NIF staff. ALARA-based design features and operational procedures will, in most cases, result in much lower measured exposures. Waste minimization, improved cycle time and reduced exposures all result from the proposed CO2 robotic arm cleaning and decontamination system, while effective tritium control is achieved through a modern system design based on double containment and the proven detritiation technology.

  13. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study: assessment of environmental exposures

    PubMed Central

    Takaro, Tim K; Scott, James A; Allen, Ryan W; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Duncan, Joanne; Lefebvre, Diana L; Lou, Wendy; Mandhane, Piush J; McLean, Kathleen E; Miller, Gregory; Sbihi, Hind; Shu, Huan; Subbarao, Padmaja; Turvey, Stuart E; Wheeler, Amanda J; Zeng, Leilei; Sears, Malcolm R; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort was designed to elucidate interactions between environment and genetics underlying development of asthma and allergy. Over 3600 pregnant mothers were recruited from the general population in four provinces with diverse environments. The child is followed to age 5 years, with prospective characterization of diverse exposures during this critical period. Key exposure domains include indoor and outdoor air pollutants, inhalation, ingestion and dermal uptake of chemicals, mold, dampness, biological allergens, pets and pests, housing structure, and living behavior, together with infections, nutrition, psychosocial environment, and medications. Assessments of early life exposures are focused on those linked to inflammatory responses driven by the acquired and innate immune systems. Mothers complete extensive environmental questionnaires including time-activity behavior at recruitment and when the child is 3, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 48, and 60 months old. House dust collected during a thorough home assessment at 3–4 months, and biological specimens obtained for multiple exposure-related measurements, are archived for analyses. Geo-locations of homes and daycares and land-use regression for estimating traffic-related air pollution complement time-activity-behavior data to provide comprehensive individual exposure profiles. Several analytical frameworks are proposed to address the many interacting exposure variables and potential issues of co-linearity in this complex data set. PMID:25805254

  14. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study: assessment of environmental exposures.

    PubMed

    Takaro, Tim K; Scott, James A; Allen, Ryan W; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Duncan, Joanne; Lefebvre, Diana L; Lou, Wendy; Mandhane, Piush J; McLean, Kathleen E; Miller, Gregory; Sbihi, Hind; Shu, Huan; Subbarao, Padmaja; Turvey, Stuart E; Wheeler, Amanda J; Zeng, Leilei; Sears, Malcolm R; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort was designed to elucidate interactions between environment and genetics underlying development of asthma and allergy. Over 3600 pregnant mothers were recruited from the general population in four provinces with diverse environments. The child is followed to age 5 years, with prospective characterization of diverse exposures during this critical period. Key exposure domains include indoor and outdoor air pollutants, inhalation, ingestion and dermal uptake of chemicals, mold, dampness, biological allergens, pets and pests, housing structure, and living behavior, together with infections, nutrition, psychosocial environment, and medications. Assessments of early life exposures are focused on those linked to inflammatory responses driven by the acquired and innate immune systems. Mothers complete extensive environmental questionnaires including time-activity behavior at recruitment and when the child is 3, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 48, and 60 months old. House dust collected during a thorough home assessment at 3-4 months, and biological specimens obtained for multiple exposure-related measurements, are archived for analyses. Geo-locations of homes and daycares and land-use regression for estimating traffic-related air pollution complement time-activity-behavior data to provide comprehensive individual exposure profiles. Several analytical frameworks are proposed to address the many interacting exposure variables and potential issues of co-linearity in this complex data set.

  15. Evaluation of the 1996 NRC beef model under western Canadian environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Block, H C; McKinnon, J J; Mustafa, A F; Christensen, D A

    2001-01-01

    Two feedlot trials were conducted to evaluate the 1996 NRC beef model under western Canadian conditions. In the first trial, 144 Charolais- (304.6 +/- 16.3 kg) and 144 Hereford- (295.1 +/- 20.8 kg) cross steers were used, whereas the second trial used 88 Angus- (289.7 +/- 15.0 kg), 88 Charolais- (299.8 +/- 17.9 kg), and 88 Hereford- (291.1 +/- 20.9 kg) cross steers. Diets were based on barley silage, rolled barley grain, canola meal, and cereal straw and were analyzed according to the 1996 NRC methodologies. Animal performance and environmental data were collected for 24 pens of steers per trial for the backgrounding and finishing periods. Levels 1 and 2 of the 1996 NRC model were used to generate predictions of DMI and ADG for each pen. Results showed that actual finishing DMI was accurately predicted for Trial 1 and for the combined trials but not for Trial 2. Predicted ADG was lower (P < 0.05) than actual ADG for all feeding periods except Level 1 of the Trial 1 finishing period. All ADG residuals were significant (P < 0.05), indicating inaccurate prediction of ADG in all feeding periods. The 1996 NRC model consistently predicted that protein was not limiting gain. Further investigations and model refinement regarding animal energy requirements under cold weather conditions and effects of limit feeding are required to increase the accuracy of the 1996 NRC model in predicting animal performance. PMID:11204711

  16. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study: assessment of environmental exposures.

    PubMed

    Takaro, Tim K; Scott, James A; Allen, Ryan W; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Duncan, Joanne; Lefebvre, Diana L; Lou, Wendy; Mandhane, Piush J; McLean, Kathleen E; Miller, Gregory; Sbihi, Hind; Shu, Huan; Subbarao, Padmaja; Turvey, Stuart E; Wheeler, Amanda J; Zeng, Leilei; Sears, Malcolm R; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort was designed to elucidate interactions between environment and genetics underlying development of asthma and allergy. Over 3600 pregnant mothers were recruited from the general population in four provinces with diverse environments. The child is followed to age 5 years, with prospective characterization of diverse exposures during this critical period. Key exposure domains include indoor and outdoor air pollutants, inhalation, ingestion and dermal uptake of chemicals, mold, dampness, biological allergens, pets and pests, housing structure, and living behavior, together with infections, nutrition, psychosocial environment, and medications. Assessments of early life exposures are focused on those linked to inflammatory responses driven by the acquired and innate immune systems. Mothers complete extensive environmental questionnaires including time-activity behavior at recruitment and when the child is 3, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 48, and 60 months old. House dust collected during a thorough home assessment at 3-4 months, and biological specimens obtained for multiple exposure-related measurements, are archived for analyses. Geo-locations of homes and daycares and land-use regression for estimating traffic-related air pollution complement time-activity-behavior data to provide comprehensive individual exposure profiles. Several analytical frameworks are proposed to address the many interacting exposure variables and potential issues of co-linearity in this complex data set. PMID:25805254

  17. Health and Environmental Protection: A Survey of Student Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtowicz, G. Greg

    Are students aware of the link between environmental hazards and disease? What are the parameters of individual and social responsibility as they relate to environmental protection? What are the attitudes that inhibit or support the development of environmental protection behavior? Answers to these questions may help teachers to develop effective…

  18. Accounting for uncertainty in the quantification of the environmental impacts of Canadian pig farming systems.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, S G; Leinonen, I; Ferguson, N; Kyriazakis, I

    2015-06-01

    the other impact categories were not significantly different between the 2 systems, despite their aforementioned differences. In conclusion, a probabilistic approach was used to develop an LCA that systematically dealt with uncertainty in the data when comparing multiple environmental impacts measures in pig farming systems for the first time. The method was used to identify differences between Canadian pig production systems but can also be applied for comparisons between other agricultural systems that include inherent variation.

  19. Accounting for uncertainty in the quantification of the environmental impacts of Canadian pig farming systems.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, S G; Leinonen, I; Ferguson, N; Kyriazakis, I

    2015-06-01

    the other impact categories were not significantly different between the 2 systems, despite their aforementioned differences. In conclusion, a probabilistic approach was used to develop an LCA that systematically dealt with uncertainty in the data when comparing multiple environmental impacts measures in pig farming systems for the first time. The method was used to identify differences between Canadian pig production systems but can also be applied for comparisons between other agricultural systems that include inherent variation. PMID:26115299

  20. Individual, social, environmental, and physical environmental correlates with physical activity among Canadians: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Sai Yi; Cameron, Christine; DesMeules, Marie; Morrison, Howard; Craig, Cora Lynn; Jiang, XiaoHong

    2009-01-01

    Background The identification of various individual, social and physical environmental factors affecting physical activity (PA) behavior in Canada can help in the development of more tailored intervention strategies for promoting higher PA levels in Canada. This study examined the influences of various individual, social and physical environmental factors on PA participation by gender, age and socioeconomic status, using data from the 2002 nationwide survey of the Physical Activity Monitor. Methods In 2002, 5,167 Canadians aged 15–79 years, selected by random-digit dialling from household-based telephone exchanges, completed a telephone survey. The short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to collect information on total physical activity. The effects of socio-economical status, self-rated health, self-efficacy, intention, perceived barriers to PA, health benefits of PA, social support, and facility availability on PA level were examined by multiple logistic regression analyses. Results Self-efficacy and intention were the strongest correlates and had the greatest effect on PA. Family income, self-rated health and perceived barriers were also consistently associated with PA. The effects of the perceived health benefits, education and family income were more salient to older people, whereas the influence of education was more important to women and the influence of perceived barriers was more salient to women and younger people. Facility availability was more strongly associated with PA among people with a university degree than among people with a lower education level. However, social support was not significantly related to PA in any subgroup. Conclusion This study suggests that PA promotion strategies should be tailored to enhance people's confidence to engage in PA, motivate people to be more active, educate people on PA's health benefits and reduce barriers, as well as target different factors for men and women and for

  1. Rates and environmental controls of aeolian dust accumulation, Athabasca River Valley, Canadian Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugenholtz, Chris H.; Wolfe, Stephen A.

    2010-09-01

    Despite an abundance of sedimentary archives of mineral dust (i.e. loess) accumulations from cold, humid environments, the absence of contemporary process investigations limits paleoenvironmental interpretations in these settings. Dust accumulations measured at Jasper Lake, a seasonally-filled reach of the glacially-fed Athabasca River in the Canadian Rocky Mountains, are some of the highest contemporary rates recorded to date. High deposition rates, including a maximum of 27,632 kg ha -1 month -1, occur during river low-flow periods, but even the lowest deposition rates, occurring during bankfull periods, exceed other contemporary rates of deposition. High rates of dust deposition may be attributed to geomorphic and climatic controls affecting sediment supply, availability and transport, and biologic factors affecting accumulation. Localized confinement of the Jasper River by tributary river alluvial fans has caused channel expansion upstream, and formation of the shallow depositional basin known as Jasper Lake. This localized sedimentary basin, coupled with large seasonal water level fluctuations and suitably high wind speeds, favors seasonal dust production. In addition, a dense source-proximal coniferous forest stand encourages high dust accumulation, via increased aerodynamic roughness and airflow deceleration. The forest stand also appears to act as an efficient dust filter, with the interception and storage of dust by the forest canopy playing a significant role with regards to secondary fallout and sediment accumulation. Overall, these results provide new insights on the environmental controls of dust entrainment and accumulation in cold, humid settings, and help clarify controls on the formation of Holocene river-sourced loess deposits.

  2. US-Soviet cooperation in environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    McClave, D.

    1989-03-01

    As the first and fourth largest countries in the world, the Soviet Union and the US together are custodians of almost one-quarter of Earth's inhabited area, the air above it, and large portions of the seas surrounding it. The management, therefore, of these two countries' environments has a profound impact far beyond their national boundaries and affects the quality of the biosphere as a whole. In the interests of enhancing joint trusteeship, this essay advocates focusing on selected pressing clean-up projects, most of which will positively affect the shared resources of the Earth. Some of these endeavors could be administered by jointly staffed environmental protection offices in the capitals of the two countries. Related activities would include taking the ecological vital signs of each country at various bases - monitoring, for example, ambient air quality in industrial centers, or pooling scientific and technical expertise in an attempt to make accurate and timely predictions of earthquakes. Problems associated with water use and abuse in the arid regions of both countries are serious enough, to merit emergency corrective measures. Additional projects could also be launched to further cooperation in other spheres.

  3. UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS INITIATIVE AND BIOMARKERS DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Within the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), there are several on-going programs and projects that collect health and environmental information. The USEPA's Environmental Indicators Initiative is one such program which includes the development of environmenta...

  4. Y-12 Site environmental protection program implementation plan (EPPIP)

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The Y-12 Plant Environmental Protection Program is conducted to: (1) protect public health and the environment from chemical and radiological releases occurring from current plant operations and past waste management and operational practices; (2) ensure compliance with federal, state, and local environmental regulations and DOE directives; (3) identify potential environmental problems; (4) evaluate existing environmental contamination and determine the need for remedial actions and mitigative measures; (5) monitor the progress of ongoing remedial actions and cleanup measures; and (6) inform the public of environmental issues relating to DOE operations. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, defines the general requirements for environmental protection programs at DOE facilities. This Environmental Protection Program Implementation Plan (EPPIP) defines the methods by which the Y-12 Plant staff will comply with the order by: (1) referencing environmental protection goals and objectives and identifying strategies and timetables for attaining them; (2) providing the overall framework for the design and implementation of the Y-12 Environmental Protection Program; and (3) assigning responsibilities for complying with the requirements of the order. The EPPIP is revised and updated annually.

  5. Protective environmental factors for neuromyelitis optica

    PubMed Central

    Grandhe, Siri; Weinfurtner, Kelley; Krupp, Lauren; Belman, Anita; Chitnis, Tanuja; Ness, Jayne; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Gorman, Mark; Patterson, Marc; Rodriguez, Moses; Lotze, Tim; Aaen, Gregory; Mowry, Ellen M.; Rose, John W.; Simmons, Timothy; Casper, T. Charles; James, Judith; Waubant, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether early environmental factors, such as cesarean delivery, breastfeeding, and exposure to smoking or herpes viruses, are associated with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) risk in children. Methods: This is a case-control study of pediatric NMO, multiple sclerosis (MS), and healthy subjects. Early-life exposures were obtained by standardized questionnaire. Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus 1 antibody responses were determined by ELISA. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to adjust for age at sampling, sex, race, and ethnicity. Results: Early-life exposures were obtained from 36 pediatric subjects with NMO, 491 with MS, and 224 healthy controls. Daycare (odds ratio [OR] 0.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14, 0.78; p < 0.01) and breastfeeding (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.18, 0.99; p = 0.05) were associated with lower odds of having NMO compared with healthy subjects. Cesarean delivery tended to be associated with 2-fold-higher odds of NMO compared with having MS/clinically isolated syndrome (OR 1.98, 95% CI 0.88, 4.59; p = 0.12) or with being healthy (OR 1.95, 95% CI 0.81, 4.71; p = 0.14). Sera and DNA were available for 31 subjects with NMO, 189 with MS, and 94 healthy controls. Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus 1, cytomegalovirus exposure, and being HLA-DRB1*15 positive were not associated with odds of having NMO compared with healthy subjects. Conclusions: Exposure to other young children may be an early protective factor against the development of NMO, as previously reported for MS, consistent with the hypothesis that infections contribute to disease risk modification. Unlike MS, pediatric NMO does not appear to be associated with exposures to common herpes viruses. PMID:25339213

  6. 43 CFR 9268.6 - Environmental education and protection. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Environmental education and protection. 9268.6 Section 9268.6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... Recreation Programs § 9268.6 Environmental education and protection....

  7. 10 CFR 76.53 - Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency. 76.53 Section 76.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.53 Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency. In reviewing an application for...

  8. 10 CFR 76.53 - Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency. 76.53 Section 76.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.53 Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency. In reviewing an application for...

  9. 10 CFR 76.53 - Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency. 76.53 Section 76.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.53 Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency. In reviewing an application for...

  10. 10 CFR 76.53 - Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency. 76.53 Section 76.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.53 Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency. In reviewing an application for...

  11. 10 CFR 76.53 - Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency. 76.53 Section 76.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.53 Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency. In reviewing an application for...

  12. 30 CFR 282.28 - Environmental protection measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental protection measures. 282.28 Section 282.28 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE... Responsibilities of Lessees § 282.28 Environmental protection measures. (a) Exploration, testing,...

  13. 25 CFR 286.9 - Environmental and flood disaster protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental and flood disaster protection. 286.9... BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.9 Environmental and flood disaster protection. Grant funds will not be advanced until there is assurance of compliance with any applicable provisions of the Flood...

  14. 25 CFR 286.9 - Environmental and flood disaster protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Environmental and flood disaster protection. 286.9... BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.9 Environmental and flood disaster protection. Grant funds will not be advanced until there is assurance of compliance with any applicable provisions of the Flood...

  15. 25 CFR 286.9 - Environmental and flood disaster protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental and flood disaster protection. 286.9... BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.9 Environmental and flood disaster protection. Grant funds will not be advanced until there is assurance of compliance with any applicable provisions of the Flood...

  16. 25 CFR 286.9 - Environmental and flood disaster protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Environmental and flood disaster protection. 286.9 Section... BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.9 Environmental and flood disaster protection. Grant funds will not be advanced until there is assurance of compliance with any applicable provisions of the Flood...

  17. 25 CFR 286.9 - Environmental and flood disaster protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental and flood disaster protection. 286.9... BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.9 Environmental and flood disaster protection. Grant funds will not be advanced until there is assurance of compliance with any applicable provisions of the Flood...

  18. 49 CFR 192.515 - Environmental protection and safety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Environmental protection and safety requirements... Requirements § 192.515 Environmental protection and safety requirements. (a) In conducting tests under this... the general public during the testing. Whenever the hoop stress of the segment of the pipeline...

  19. 49 CFR 192.515 - Environmental protection and safety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Environmental protection and safety requirements... Requirements § 192.515 Environmental protection and safety requirements. (a) In conducting tests under this... the general public during the testing. Whenever the hoop stress of the segment of the pipeline...

  20. 49 CFR 192.515 - Environmental protection and safety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental protection and safety requirements... Requirements § 192.515 Environmental protection and safety requirements. (a) In conducting tests under this... the general public during the testing. Whenever the hoop stress of the segment of the pipeline...

  1. 43 CFR 9268.6 - Environmental education and protection. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Recreation Programs § 9268.6 Environmental education and protection. ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Environmental education and protection. 9268.6 Section 9268.6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU...

  2. 45 CFR 673.4 - Environmental protection information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Environmental protection information. 673.4 Section 673.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ANTARCTIC NON-GOVERNMENTAL EXPEDITIONS § 673.4 Environmental protection information. (a)...

  3. 45 CFR 673.4 - Environmental protection information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Environmental protection information. 673.4 Section 673.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ANTARCTIC NON-GOVERNMENTAL EXPEDITIONS § 673.4 Environmental protection information. (a)...

  4. EG and G Idaho Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (1990)

    SciTech Connect

    Wickham, L.E.

    1990-11-01

    This report describes the EG G Idaho strategy for implementation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 (a DOE-Headquarters directive establishing environmental protection program requirements, authorities, and responsibilities). Preparation of this Environmental Protection Implementation Plan is a requirement of DOE Order 5400.1. Additionally, this report is intended to supplement the Department of Energy--Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) Environmental Protection Implementation Plan by detailing EG G Idaho Environmental Protection Program activities. This report describes the current status of the EG G Idaho program, and the strategies for enhancing, as necessary, the current program to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1. Aspects of the Environmental Protection Program included in this report are the assignment of responsibilities to specific EG G organizations, a schedule for completion of enhancements, if necessary, and requirements for documentation and reporting. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Environmental Research In Practice: Restoration And Protection Of Water Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is tasked to protect human health and the environment. To carry out this task, the EPA makes use of technical expertise within its Office of Research and Development. Restoration and protection of water resources is one area of tec...

  6. 15 CFR 971.419 - Environmental protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Issuance/Transfer: Terms, Conditions and Restrictions Terms, Conditions and Restrictions § 971.419 Environmental... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental protection...

  7. Relationship between child abuse exposure and reported contact with child protection organizations: results from the Canadian Community Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Tracie O; MacMillan, Harriet L; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Turner, Sarah; Tonmyr, Lil; Hovdestad, Wendy

    2015-08-01

    Much of what is known about child abuse in Canada has come from reported cases of child abuse and at-risk samples, which likely represent the most severe cases of child abuse in the country. The objective of the current study is to examine the prevalence of a broad range of child abuse experiences (physical abuse, sexual abuse, and exposure to IPV) and investigate how such experiences and sociodemographic variables are related to contact with child protection organizations in Canada using a representative general population sample. Data were drawn from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health collected from the 10 provinces using a multistage stratified cluster design (n=23,395; household response rate=79.8%; aged 18 years and older). Physical abuse only (16.8%) was the most prevalent child abuse experience reported with the exposure to specific combinations of two or more types of child abuse ranging from 0.4% to 3.7%. Only 7.6% of the adult population with a history of child abuse reported having had contact with child protection organizations. Experiencing all three types of child abuse was associated with the greatest odds of contact with child protection organizations (AOR=15.8; 95% CI=10.1 to 24.6). Physical abuse only was associated with one of the lowest odds of contact with child protection organizations. Preventing child abuse is widely acknowledged as an important, but challenging public health goal. Strategies to increase reporting of child abuse may help to protect children and to connect families with necessary services. One obvious priority would be physical abuse.

  8. Visible Minority, Aboriginal, and Caucasian Children Investigated by Canadian Protective Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavergne, Chantal; Dufour, Sarah; Trocme, Nico; Larrivee, Marie-Claude

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this descriptive study was to compare the report profiles of Caucasian, Aboriginal, and other visible minority children whose cases were assessed by child protective services in Canada. The results show that children of Aboriginal ancestry and from visible minority groups are selected for investigation by child protective services 1.77…

  9. Exploring the middle ground between environmental protection and economic growth.

    PubMed

    Kaplowitz, Michael D; Lupi, Frank; Yeboah, Felix K; Thorp, Laurie G

    2013-05-01

    Public preference concerning the environment and the economy typically has been characterized as either pro-environmental protection or pro-economic development. Researchers and policymakers increasingly suggest that environmental protection and economic growth are not mutually exclusive. However, use of dichotomous-choice policy preference questions persists. This note empirically examines an alternative response format for the typical dichotomous-choice environmental/economic policy preference question and explores respondents' stated policy preferences in light of their support for recycling. We find that most respondents do not view environmental protection and economic development policy goals to be mutually exclusive. Most respondents view economic growth and environmental protection as compatible suggesting a more heterogeneous view of the environment-economic relationship than oft reported. Hence excluding a middle response choice to the standard environment/economic policy preference question may add measurement error, increase item nonresponse, and fail to account for the views of respondents who view these goals as complementary.

  10. GROUND WATER AND WATERSHEDS AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective watershed management has the potential to achieve both drinking water and ecological protection goals. However, it is important that the watershed perspective be three- dimensional and include the hidden subsurface. The subsurface catchment, or groundwatershed, is geohy...

  11. Cost-benefit analysis of riparian protection in an eastern Canadian watershed.

    PubMed

    Trenholm, Ryan; Lantz, Van; Martínez-Espiñeira, Roberto; Little, Shawn

    2013-02-15

    Forested riparian buffers have proved to be an effective management practice that helps maintain ecological goods and services in watersheds. In this study, we assessed the non-market benefits and opportunity costs associated with implementing these buffers in an eastern Canadian watershed using contingent valuation and wood supply modeling methods, respectively. A number of buffer scenarios were considered, including 30 and 60 m buffers on woodlots and on all land (including woodlots, agricultural, and residential lands) in the watershed. Household annual WTP estimates ranged from -$6.80 to $42.85, and total present value benefits ranged from -$11.7 to $121.7 million (CDN 2007), depending on the buffer scenario, affected population, time horizon, and econometric modeling assumptions considered. Opportunity cost estimates range from $1.3 to $10.4 million in present value terms, depending on silvicultural and agriculture land rental rate assumptions. Overall, we found that the net present value of riparian buffers was positive for the majority of scenarios and assumptions. Some exceptions were found under more conservative benefit, and higher unit cost, assumptions. These results provide decision makers with data on stated benefits and opportunity costs of riparian buffers, as well as insight into the importance of modeling assumptions when using this framework of analysis.

  12. Cost-benefit analysis of riparian protection in an eastern Canadian watershed.

    PubMed

    Trenholm, Ryan; Lantz, Van; Martínez-Espiñeira, Roberto; Little, Shawn

    2013-02-15

    Forested riparian buffers have proved to be an effective management practice that helps maintain ecological goods and services in watersheds. In this study, we assessed the non-market benefits and opportunity costs associated with implementing these buffers in an eastern Canadian watershed using contingent valuation and wood supply modeling methods, respectively. A number of buffer scenarios were considered, including 30 and 60 m buffers on woodlots and on all land (including woodlots, agricultural, and residential lands) in the watershed. Household annual WTP estimates ranged from -$6.80 to $42.85, and total present value benefits ranged from -$11.7 to $121.7 million (CDN 2007), depending on the buffer scenario, affected population, time horizon, and econometric modeling assumptions considered. Opportunity cost estimates range from $1.3 to $10.4 million in present value terms, depending on silvicultural and agriculture land rental rate assumptions. Overall, we found that the net present value of riparian buffers was positive for the majority of scenarios and assumptions. Some exceptions were found under more conservative benefit, and higher unit cost, assumptions. These results provide decision makers with data on stated benefits and opportunity costs of riparian buffers, as well as insight into the importance of modeling assumptions when using this framework of analysis. PMID:23291404

  13. Environmental and safety assessment for nuclear waste disposal - the canadian approach

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    The Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal involves immobilization and emplacement in a crystalline rock formation in the Canadian Shield. The assessments are divided into two parts: the pre-closure assessment and the post-closure assessment. For the pre-closure phase the total impact of transportation, immobilization, emplacement and decommissioning is considered. The object of the post-closure studies is to predict how radioactive material might escape from a disposal vault and migrate through the geosphere and biosphere to cause radiation dose to man. Detailed computer programs are being developed and applied for hydrogeological and chemical modeling. A ''systems variability analysis'' code integrates the total system and samples data. The resulting output is a histogram of consequence (dose to man) versus probability, indicating the most probable consequence of the project, and other consequence estimates, together with their probability of occurrence.

  14. Asbestos worker protection. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Final rule.

    PubMed

    2000-11-15

    In this Final Rule, EPA is amending both the Asbestos Worker Protection Rule (WPR) and the Asbestos-in-Schools Rule. The WPR amendment protects State and local government employees from the health risks of exposure to asbestos to the same extent as private sector workers by adopting for these employees the Asbestos Standards of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). The WPR's coverage is extended to State and local government employees who are performing construction work, custodial work, and automotive brake and clutch repair work. This final rule cross-references the OSHA Asbestos Standards for Construction and for General Industry, so that future amendments to these OSHA standards are directly and equally effective for employees covered by the WPR. EPA also amends the Asbestos-in-Schools Rule to provide coverage under the WPR for employees of public local education agencies who perform operations, maintenance, and repair activities. EPA is issuing this final rule under section 6 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA).

  15. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: ARSENIC TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This techn...

  16. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: ARSENIC MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This technology ...

  17. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This techn...

  18. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA), ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGAM: RESIDENTIAL NUTRIENT REDUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This technology ...

  19. Measuring Professional Behaviour in Canadian Physical Therapy Students' Objective Structured Clinical Examinations: An Environmental Scan

    PubMed Central

    Ellerton, Cindy; Evans, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To identify professional behaviours measured in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) by Canadian university physical therapy (PT) programs. Method: A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted to review current practice and determine which OSCE items Canadian PT programs are using to measure PT students' professional behaviours. Telephone interviews using semi-structured questions were conducted with individual instructors responsible for courses that included an OSCE as part of the assessment component. Results: Nine PT programmes agreed to take part in the study, and all reported conducting at least one OSCE. The number and characteristics of OSCEs varied both within and across programs. Participants identified 31 professional behaviour items for use in an OSCE; these items clustered into four categories: communication (n=14), respect (n=10), patient safety (n=4), and physical therapists' characteristics (n=3). Conclusions: All Canadian entry-level PT programmes surveyed assess professional behaviours in OSCE-type examinations; however, the content and style of assessment is variable. The local environment should be considered when determining what professional behaviours are appropriate to assess in the OSCE context in individual programmes. PMID:25931656

  20. 15 CFR 970.518 - Environmental protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Issuance... protection requirements. (a) Each exploration license must contain such terms, conditions and...

  1. 15 CFR 970.518 - Environmental protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Issuance... protection requirements. (a) Each exploration license must contain such terms, conditions and...

  2. 15 CFR 970.518 - Environmental protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Issuance... protection requirements. (a) Each exploration license must contain such terms, conditions and...

  3. 15 CFR 970.518 - Environmental protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Issuance... protection requirements. (a) Each exploration license must contain such terms, conditions and...

  4. 15 CFR 970.518 - Environmental protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Issuance... protection requirements. (a) Each exploration license must contain such terms, conditions and...

  5. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Organization chart Your Air Quality Your UV Index Climate change National Analytical Radiation Environmental Laboratory National Vehicle ... and engines, radon, acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion, climate change, and radiation protection. OAR is responsible for ...

  6. THE US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A scientifically rigorous determination of the condition of an aquatic resource is fundamental to all subsequent research, modeling, protection, and restoration issues. Environmental risk characterization is predicated on knowledge of condition and the rate at which that conditio...

  7. COMPUTATIONAL TOXICOLOGY: NEW APPROACHES TO IMPROVE ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mission of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is to safeguard public health and the environment from harmful effects that may be caused by exposure to pollutants in the air, water, soil and food.

  8. An Overview Of Current Research At The Environmental Protection Agency

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide an overview of the current research at the Environmental Protection Agency. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, CONTACT ROGER B. YEARDLEY, JR., LAND REMEDIATION AND POLLUTION CONTROL DIVISION, 513-569-7548.

  9. Environmental protection during animal disease eradication programmes.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, H A

    1991-09-01

    This paper identifies animal disease eradication (ADE) programme activities which may have a negative impact on the environment. It suggests ways to lessen the impact of such activities without compromising the programme objectives. Reducing losses from livestock and poultry diseases with prevention, control and eradication programmes produces a net positive impact on the environment. An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) should be integrated into the planning of any ADE programme. Decision-makers should give due consideration to the environmental effects of ADE programme activities, together with cost, personnel needs and other, more traditional, management concerns. A better environment will be a supplemental benefit from ADE programmes.

  10. Environmental protection during animal disease eradication programmes.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, H A

    1991-09-01

    This paper identifies animal disease eradication (ADE) programme activities which may have a negative impact on the environment. It suggests ways to lessen the impact of such activities without compromising the programme objectives. Reducing losses from livestock and poultry diseases with prevention, control and eradication programmes produces a net positive impact on the environment. An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) should be integrated into the planning of any ADE programme. Decision-makers should give due consideration to the environmental effects of ADE programme activities, together with cost, personnel needs and other, more traditional, management concerns. A better environment will be a supplemental benefit from ADE programmes. PMID:1782433

  11. THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATERSHED MANAGEMENT RESEARCH PROGRAM: AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has directed much attention to watersheds and water quality during its tenure as the United States Federal Agency charged with protection of human health and the environment. Watershed research as a vehicle to understand the interaction ...

  12. SUSTAINABILITY: THE NEXT GENERATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 21st century will provide us with a new era of environmental problems that will require new approaches to solve. These problems will be more subtle than past problems, such as the pesticide poisoning at Love Canal or burning of the Cuyahoga River, but will be just as urgent,...

  13. INTERSPECIES CORRELATION ESTIMATES PREDICT PROTECTIVE ENVIRONMENTAL CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental risk assessments often use multiple single species toxicity test results and species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) to derive a predicted no-effect concentration in the environment, typically the 5th percentile of the SSD, termed the HC5. The shape and location of...

  14. Protecting Privacy on the Canadian Information Highway: Policy Developments and Regulatory Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Colin J.

    1996-01-01

    Presents an overview of statutory and non-statutory data-protection provisions currently governing the processing of personal data in Canada's private sector, including federal and provincial legislation and efforts at self-regulation through voluntary codes of practice. Considers a more comprehensive system of regulation, contemporary policy…

  15. Development of Environmental Education Programs for Protected Areas in Madagascar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormsby, Alison

    2007-01-01

    Environmental education programs for schools in the peripheral zone of protected areas in Madagascar are still needed in numerous locations. My research investigated the status of environmental education and communication (EE&C) programs at Masoala National Park, Madagascar, as well as the attitudes of local residents toward the park and park…

  16. 1987 Oak Ridge model conference: Proceedings: Volume 2, Environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    See the abstract for Volume I for general information on the conference. Topics discussed in Volume II include data management techiques for environmental protection efforts, the use of models in environmental auditing, in emergency plans, chemical accident emergency response, risk assessment, monitoring of waste sites, air and water monitoring of waste sites, and in training programs. (TEM)

  17. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1991. Environmental protection group

    SciTech Connect

    Dewart, J.; Kohen, K.L.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1991. Routine monitoring for radiation and for radioactive and chemical materials is conducted on the Laboratory site as well as in the surrounding region. Monitoring results are used to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to permit early identification of potentially undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of data for 1991 cover external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface waters and groundwaters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Comparisons with appropriate standards, regulations, and background levels provide the basis for concluding that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment.

  18. Veterinarians in Environmental Health: Opportunities for Veterinarians at the Environmental Protection Agency

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created in 1970 partially in response to widespread public concern about environmental degradation. The EPA mission is to protect human health and the environment and the Agency is tasked with enforcing our nation's envi...

  19. Intelligent Processing Equipment Within the Environmental Protection Agency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greathouse, Daniel G.; Nalesnik, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    Protection of the environment and environmental remediation requires the cooperation, at all levels, of government and industry. Intelligent processing equipment, in addition to other artificial intelligence based tools, was used by the Environmental Protection Agency to provide personnel safety and improve the efficiency of those responsible for protection and remediation of the environment. These exploratory efforts demonstrate the feasibility and utility of expanding development and widespread use of these tools. A survey of current intelligent processing equipment applications in the Agency is presented and is followed by a brief discussion of possible uses in the future.

  20. Evaluating National Environmental Sustainability: Performance Measures and Influential Factors for OECD-Member Countries featuring Canadian Performance and Policy Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calbick, Kenneth S.

    This research reviews five studies that evaluate national environmental sustainability with composite indices; performs uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of techniques for building a composite index; completes principal components factor analysis to help build subindices measuring waste and pollution, sustainable energy, sustainable food, nature conservation, and sustainable cities (Due to its current importance, the greenhouse gases (GHG) indicator is included individually as another policy measure.); analyses factors that seem to influence performance: climate, population growth, population density, economic output, technological development, industrial structure, energy prices, environmental governance, pollution abatement and control expenditures, and environmental pricing; and explores Canadian policy implications of the results. The techniques to build composite indices include performance indicator selection, missing data treatment, normalisation technique, scale-effect adjustments, weights, and aggregation method. Scale-effect adjustments and normalisation method are significant sources of uncertainty inducing 68% of the observed variation in a country's final rank at the 95% level of confidence. Choice of indicators also introduces substantial variation as well. To compensate for this variation, the current study recommends that a composite index should always be analysed with other policy subindices and individual indicators. Moreover, the connection between population and consumption indicates that per capita scale-effect adjustments should be used for certain indicators. Rather than ranking normalisation, studies should use a method that retains information from the raw indicator values. Multiple regression and cluster analyses indicate economic output, environmental governance, and energy prices are major influential factors, with energy prices the most important. It is statistically significant for five out of seven performance measures at the 95

  1. Environmental protection for hazardous materials incidents

    SciTech Connect

    Barkenbus, B.D.; Carter, R.J.; Dobson, J.E.; Easterly, C.E.; Ogle, P.S.; VanCleave, A.K.

    1990-02-01

    This document was prepared to provide the US Air Force fire protection community with an integrated program for handling hazardous materials (HAZMAT)s and hazardous material incidents. The goal of the project was to define and identify a computer system for the base fire departments that would facilitate hazard assessment and response during HAZMAT emergencies, provide HAZMAT incident management guidelines, and provide a training tool to simulate emergency response during normal times. Site visits to Air Force bases were made to observe existing HAZMAT related organizations, their methods and procedures used in HAZMAT management, and to collect personnel input for the development of the computerized Hazardous Materials Incident Management System (HMIMS). The study concentrated on defining strategic areas of concern to emergency response personnel. Particular emphasis was given to such areas as responsibilities and roles for response agencies; personnel requirements to handle HAZMAT incidents; procedures to follow during HAZMAT incidents and decontamination; personnel evacuation; postincident evaluation and feedback; emergency response personnel participation in installation restoration program; personal protective clothing; mutual air requirements; and training. Future recommendations were made for purchase, use, storage, disposal, and management of HAZMATs during their life cycle on bases and during incidents. This detailed technical report and the HMIMS are expected to meet the integrated HAZMAT program needs primarily of Air Force fire departments and secondarily in other response agencies. 21 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. President Jiang Zemin on family planning and environmental protection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z

    1998-06-01

    This article is an excerpt of a speech delivered by the Party General-Secretary and President of China, Jiang Zemin, on March 15, 1998. The occasion was the National Forum on Family Planning and Environmental Protection. It is stated that the link between family planning (FP) and environmental protection is related to sustainable social and economic development and future survival. Basic FP and environmental policies are national policies that must be carried out effectively and resolutely. New progress has been made in cleaning up pollution, especially in the Huaihe River. Effort is needed to effectively curb population growth in poor, rural areas and to reduce environmental pollution and ecological disruption. The Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party has endorsed the goals of the FP program by 2000 and 2050. FP will be improved in poor areas, among the floating population, and according to the Three Stresses. The population policy aims to improve the quality of life. Emphasis should be placed on poverty stricken rural areas and those with ethnic minorities. Forceful measures to protect the environment are needed. Short term economic development should not compromise the environment. Environmental priorities should focus on the immediate problems that are a risk to public health. By the year 2000, all provinces should meet the standards for controlling industrial pollutants. Environmental deterioration must stop within the next 15 years. Restructuring of government and organizational reform should be conducive to FP and environmental protection.

  3. Environmental protection in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Minhali, A.A.N.

    1996-12-31

    The Arabian Gulf had been subjected to tremendous development activities in the past 40 years, this, in addition to two fierce wars which must have had some impact on the marine environment. This paper will investigate and summarize through review of numerous scientific studies, the recommended applied and or implemented strategies for conservation and how these may have an impact on the Offshore Oil and Gas Industry. The conclusions and recommendations made (in both, global terms and for oil and gas industry) primarily represent the author`s own views and in some parts acknowledged views of a number of professionals who were asked to contribute their vision on the future of protection of the Gulf marine environment. Whilst this paper is directed towards the Marine Environment, similar conclusions can be drawn for land and atmospheric issues.

  4. User's guide to a data base of current environmental monitoring projects in the US-Canadian transboundary region

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Defferding, J.; Chapman, E.G.; Bettinson, M.D.; Glantz, C.S.

    1987-11-01

    This document describes how to use a data base of current transboundary region environmental monitoring projects. The data base was prepared from data provided by Glantz et al. (1986) and Concord Scientific Corporation (1985), and contains information on 226 projects with monitoring stations located within 400 km (250 mi) of the US-Canadian border. The data base is designed for use with the dBASE III PLUS data management systems on IBM-compatible personal computers. Data-base searches are best accomplished using an accompanying command file called RETRIEVE or the dBASE command LIST. The user must carefully select the substrings on which the search is to be based. Example search requests and subsequent output are presented to illustrate substring selections and applications of the data base. 4 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Colloquium: Protecting quantum information against environmental noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suter, Dieter; Álvarez, Gonzalo A.

    2016-10-01

    Quantum technologies represent a rapidly evolving field in which the specific properties of quantum mechanical systems are exploited to enhance the performance of various applications such as sensing, transmission, and processing of information. Such devices can be useful only if the quantum systems also interact with their environment. However, the interactions with the environment can degrade the specific quantum properties of these systems, such as coherence and entanglement. It is therefore essential that the interaction between a quantum system and the environment is controlled in such a way that the unwanted effects of the environment are suppressed while the necessary interactions are retained. This Colloquium gives an overview, aimed at newcomers to this field, of some of the challenges that need to be overcome to achieve this goal. A number of techniques have been developed for this purpose in different areas of physics including magnetic resonance, optics, and quantum information. They include the application of static or time-dependent fields to the quantum system, which are designed to average the effect of the environmental interactions to zero. Quantum error correction schemes were developed to detect and eliminate certain errors that occur during the storage and processing of quantum information. In many physical systems, it is useful to use specific quantum states that are intrinsically less susceptible to environmental noise for encoding the quantum information. The dominant contribution to the loss of information is pure dephasing, i.e., through the loss of coherence in quantum mechanical superposition states. Accordingly, most schemes for reducing loss of information focus on dephasing processes. This is also the focus of this Colloquium.

  6. Field joint environmental protection system vibration/pressurization qualification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1989-01-01

    The procedures used and results obtained from vibration testing the redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM) field joint environmental protection system (FJEPS), hereafter referred to as the joint protection system (JPS) are documented. The major purposes were to certify that the flight-designed JPS will withstand the dynamic environmental conditions of the redesigned solid rocket booster, and to certify that the cartridge check valve (vent valve) will relieve pressure build-up under the JPS during the initial 120 sec of flight. Also, an evaluation of the extruded cork insulation bonding was performed after the vibration testing.

  7. 40 CFR 18.10 - Appointment of Special Research Consultants for Environmental Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Purpose. When the EPA requires the services of consultants with expertise in environmental sciences or... Consultants for Environmental Protection. 18.10 Section 18.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS...

  8. 40 CFR 18.10 - Appointment of Special Research Consultants for Environmental Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Purpose. When the EPA requires the services of consultants with expertise in environmental sciences or... Consultants for Environmental Protection. 18.10 Section 18.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS...

  9. 40 CFR 18.10 - Appointment of Special Research Consultants for Environmental Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Purpose. When the EPA requires the services of consultants with expertise in environmental sciences or... Consultants for Environmental Protection. 18.10 Section 18.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS...

  10. 40 CFR 18.10 - Appointment of Special Research Consultants for Environmental Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Purpose. When the EPA requires the services of consultants with expertise in environmental sciences or... Consultants for Environmental Protection. 18.10 Section 18.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS...

  11. 40 CFR 18.10 - Appointment of Special Research Consultants for Environmental Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Purpose. When the EPA requires the services of consultants with expertise in environmental sciences or... Consultants for Environmental Protection. 18.10 Section 18.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS...

  12. President Jiang Zemin on family planning and environmental protection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z

    1997-04-01

    Presented in this brief article are excerpts of a speech given by the Chinese State President and Party Secretary-General Jiang Zemin at the National Forum on Family Planning and Environmental Protection on March 8, 1997. He states that family planning and environmental policies require long-term considerations. Both family planning and environmental matters are correlated and relate to socioeconomic development in China. Population growth will have negative impacts on the environment, and environmental mismanagement will adversely affect people's health and living conditions. The importance of environmental and family planning policies must be known to every household, and these policies must be effectively implemented as part of socioeconomic development programs. Although China's family planning policy has been successful in reducing China's population size and growth, the task ahead of guaranteeing a population under 1.3 billion by 2000 is enormous. The challenge will be to implement effective programs in rural and poverty-stricken areas. Family planning should be combined with poverty alleviation and income development. Policies should give priority to poor family planning acceptors. China has made "significant progress in environmental protection," but the public is creating "a higher demand on the quality of the environment." By the year 2000, the trends in environmental pollution and ecological destruction must be controlled and the quality of the environment improved. By 2010, there should be evidence of environmental improvements in urban areas, in degraded situations, and in rural areas. Environmental protection will require the cooperation between all departments, the Communist Party, and the Chinese people.

  13. 40 CFR 600.514-12 - Reports to the Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection Agency. 600.514-12 Section 600.514-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 600.514-12 Reports to the Environmental Protection Agency. This section establishes requirements for automobile manufacturers to submit reports to the Environmental Protection Agency regarding their......

  14. 40 CFR 600.514-12 - Reports to the Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection Agency. 600.514-12 Section 600.514-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....514-12 Reports to the Environmental Protection Agency. This section establishes requirements for automobile manufacturers to submit reports to the Environmental Protection Agency regarding their......

  15. 40 CFR 600.514-12 - Reports to the Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection Agency. 600.514-12 Section 600.514-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 600.514-12 Reports to the Environmental Protection Agency. This section establishes requirements for automobile manufacturers to submit reports to the Environmental Protection Agency regarding their......

  16. 40 CFR 600.514-12 - Reports to the Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reports to the Environmental Protection Agency. 600.514-12 Section 600.514-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Environmental Protection Agency regarding their efforts to reduce automotive greenhouse gas emissions....

  17. Multicenter study of environmental contamination with antineoplastic drugs in 36 Canadian hospitals: a 2013 follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Berruyer, M; Tanguay, C; Caron, N J; Lefebvre, M; Bussières, J F

    2015-01-01

    No occupational exposure limit exists for antineoplastic drugs. The main objective of this study was to describe environmental contamination with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and methotrexate in pharmacy and patient care areas of Canadian hospitals in 2013. The secondary objective was to compare the 2013 environmental monitoring results with previous studies. Six standardized sites in the pharmacy and six sites on patient care areas were sampled in each participating center. Samples were analyzed for the presence of cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and methotrexate by UPLC-MSMS. The limit of detection (LOD) in pg/cm(2) was 1.8 for cyclophosphamide, 2.2 for ifosfamide, and 7.5 for methotrexate. The 75th percentile of cyclophosphamide concentration was compared between the 2013, 2008-2010, and 2012 studies. Thirty-six hospitals participated in the study and 422 samples were collected. Overall, 47% (198/422) of the samples were positive for cyclophosphamide, 18% (75/422) were positive for ifosfamide, and 3% (11/422) were positive for methotrexate. In 2013, the 75th percentile value of cyclophosphamide surface concentration was reduced to 8.4pg/cm(2) (n = 36), compared with 9.4pg/cm(2) in 2012 (n = 33) and 40pg/cm(2) (n = 25) in 2008-2010. The 75th percentile for ifosfamide and methotrexate concentration remained lower than the LOD. The 2013 study shows an improvement in the surface contamination level, and a plateau effect in the proportion of positive samples.

  18. 30 CFR 582.28 - Environmental protection measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 582.28 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE... Responsibilities of Lessees § 582.28 Environmental protection measures. (a) Exploration, testing, development... consequences of proposed OCS activities will follow the practices and procedures specified in 30 CFR...

  19. 30 CFR 582.28 - Environmental protection measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 582.28 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE... Responsibilities of Lessees § 582.28 Environmental protection measures. (a) Exploration, testing, development... consequences of proposed OCS activities will follow the practices and procedures specified in 30 CFR...

  20. 30 CFR 582.28 - Environmental protection measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 582.28 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE... Responsibilities of Lessees § 582.28 Environmental protection measures. (a) Exploration, testing, development... consequences of proposed OCS activities will follow the practices and procedures specified in 30 CFR...

  1. The Environmental Protection Agency: Legislation, Programs and Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Library Systems Branch.

    This document is designed to introduce the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and its programs. It is organized into four categories which discuss the legislation authorizing EPA activities, the history and present organization, the pollution control programs operated by the Agency, and budgetary appropriations. Specific program…

  2. Environmental Protection in the City of New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenbud, Merril

    1970-01-01

    Reviews New York City's Environmental Protection Administration two-year effort in air, water, noise, and solid waste pollution control. Successes and difficulties are seen as applicable to other urban areas. Long-term planning considers population control, poverty programs, traffic management, and land use. (JM)

  3. 49 CFR 192.515 - Environmental protection and safety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Environmental protection and safety requirements. 192.515 Section 192.515 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER...

  4. 49 CFR 192.515 - Environmental protection and safety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Environmental protection and safety requirements. 192.515 Section 192.515 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER...

  5. Research Funding Cut in Proposed Environmental Protection Agency Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-04-01

    The Obama administration's proposed budget for fiscal year (FY) 2014 provides a total of 8.153 billion to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), a decrease of 296 million from FY 2012 spending (comparisons are to FY 2012 because final appropriations for 2013 were not available when the president released his proposed FY 2014 budget).

  6. 45 CFR 673.4 - Environmental protection information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Conservation Act. (b) The National Science Foundation's Office of Polar Programs may prepare for publication... Section 673.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ANTARCTIC NON-GOVERNMENTAL EXPEDITIONS § 673.4 Environmental protection information. (a)...

  7. 36 CFR 228.8 - Requirements for environmental protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE MINERALS Locatable Minerals § 228.8 Requirements for environmental protection. All operations... as is practicable, its impact on the environment and the forest surface resources. All tailings..., arranged, disposed of or treated so as to minimize adverse impact upon the environment and forest...

  8. High herd-level prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Western Canadian dairy farms, based on environmental sampling.

    PubMed

    Wolf, R; Barkema, H W; De Buck, J; Slomp, M; Flaig, J; Haupstein, D; Pickel, C; Orsel, K

    2014-10-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes chronic progressive enteritis in ruminants. The pathogen is present in most countries with modern dairy production, causing substantial economic losses for the industry. The objectives of this study were to estimate dairy herd prevalence of MAP in the Western Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, and to determine whether herd size and housing system (tie-stall versus freestall or loose housing) affected the risk of a herd testing positive for MAP. Six environmental samples were collected on 360 Alberta farms (60% of registered producers) and on 166 Saskatchewan dairy farms (99%). In total, 47% of the sampled farms in Alberta and 53% of the sampled farms in Saskatchewan had at least one environmental sample that was MAP culture positive and were, therefore, defined as infected. Sensitivity of environmental sampling was estimated using 3 subsequent annual tests performed on 82 farms. Because laboratory protocols were continuously improved throughout the project, the sensitivity increased over time. Therefore, a mean of the sensitivity estimates weighted on sampling year was constructed; this resulted in sensitivities of 68 and 69% for Alberta and Saskatchewan, respectively. Implementing those estimates in an approximate Bayesian computation model resulted in a true herd prevalence of 68% (95% probability interval: 60-80%) for Alberta and 76% (95% probability interval: 70-85%) for Saskatchewan. Herds with >200 cows had 3.54 times higher odds of being environmental sample positive and had more positive samples than herds with <50 cows (neither province nor housing system affected those results). In conclusion, the majority of Alberta and Saskatchewan dairy farms were infected with MAP and larger herds were more often MAP positive than smaller herds.

  9. Protecting the environment: the role of environmental management systems.

    PubMed

    Watson, Michael

    2006-11-01

    Environmental management and auditing systems are increasingly important. They have significant roles to play in relation to environmental protection, workplace safety and public health. Businesses and non-commercial organisations adopt such systems for a variety of reasons. The extent to which they are used varies very considerably between developed countries. The effectiveness of national regulatory systems seems to be a major factor. In the United Kingdom environmental regulators have traditionally sought the voluntary compliance of businesses. This strategy is closely associated with the near absence of administrative penalties. It seems that a wide range of environmental administrative penalties will be introduced in the near future. This may greatly encourage more firms to introduce environmental management and auditing systems.

  10. Environmental protection and regulatory compliance at the Elk Hills Field

    SciTech Connect

    Chappelle, H.H.; Donahoe, R.L.; Kato, T.T.; Ordway, H.E.

    1991-12-31

    Environmental protection has played an integral role in the development and operation of the Elk Hills field since production at the maximum efficient rate was authorized in 1976. The field is located in a non-attainment area for California and National Ambient Air Quality Standards for two criteria pollutants and their associated precursors, is home to four endangered species, and operates within the California regulatory framework. Environmental protection and regulatory compliance is a multi-faceted program carried out through a substantial commitment of resources and workforce involvement. This paper describes the actions taken and resources employed to protect the environment, specific technologies and projects implement, and the ongoing nature of these efforts at Elk Hills.

  11. Environmental protection and regulatory compliance at the Elk Hills Field

    SciTech Connect

    Chappelle, H.H. ); Donahoe, R.L. ); Kato, T.T. ); Ordway, H.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Environmental protection has played an integral role in the development and operation of the Elk Hills field since production at the maximum efficient rate was authorized in 1976. The field is located in a non-attainment area for California and National Ambient Air Quality Standards for two criteria pollutants and their associated precursors, is home to four endangered species, and operates within the California regulatory framework. Environmental protection and regulatory compliance is a multi-faceted program carried out through a substantial commitment of resources and workforce involvement. This paper describes the actions taken and resources employed to protect the environment, specific technologies and projects implement, and the ongoing nature of these efforts at Elk Hills.

  12. Environmental Compliance and Protection Program Description Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2009-02-26

    The objective of the Environmental Compliance and Protection (EC and P) Program Description (PD) is to establish minimum environmental compliance requirements and natural resources protection goals for the Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) Oak Ridge Environmental Management Cleanup Contract (EMCC) Contract Number DE-AC05-98OR22700-M198. This PD establishes the work practices necessary to ensure protection of the environment during the performance of EMCC work activities on the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, by BJC employees and subcontractor personnel. Both BJC and subcontractor personnel are required to implement this PD. A majority of the decontamination and demolition (D and D) activities and media (e.g., soil and groundwater) remediation response actions at DOE sites on the ORR are conducted under the authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). CERCLA activities are governed by individual CERCLA decision documents (e.g., Record of Decision [ROD] or Action Memorandum) and according to requirements stated in the Federal Facility Agreement for the Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE 1992). Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for the selected remedy are the requirements for environmental remediation responses (e.g., removal actions and remedial actions) conducted under CERCLA.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (EMAP) IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agancy's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is improving the tools to assess status and trends in the condition of aquatic ecosystems across the U.S. Within the Office of Research and Development, EMAP has developed an approac...

  14. Protecting environmental flows through enhanced water licensing and water markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erfani, T.; Binions, O.; Harou, J. J.

    2015-02-01

    To enable economically efficient future adaptation to water scarcity some countries are revising water management institutions such as water rights or licensing systems to more effectively protect ecosystems and their services. However, allocating more flow to the environment can mean less abstraction for economic production, or the inability to accommodate new entrants (diverters). Modern licensing arrangements should simultaneously enhance environmental flows and protect water abstractors who depend on water. Making new licensing regimes compatible with tradable water rights is an important component of water allocation reform. Regulated water markets can help decrease the societal cost of water scarcity whilst enforcing environmental and/or social protections. In this article we simulate water markets under a regime of fixed volumetric water abstraction licenses with fixed minimum flows or under a scalable water license regime (using water "shares") with dynamic environmental minimum flows. Shares allow adapting allocations to available water and dynamic environmental minimum flows vary as a function of ecological requirements. We investigate how a short-term spot market manifests within each licensing regime. We use a river-basin-scale hydroeconomic agent model that represents individual abstractors and can simulate a spot market under both licensing regimes. We apply this model to the Great Ouse River basin in eastern England with public water supply, agricultural, energy and industrial water-using agents. Results show the proposed shares with dynamic environmental flow licensing system protects river flows more effectively than the current static minimum flow requirements during a dry historical year, but that the total opportunity cost to water abstractors of the environmental gains is a 10-15% loss in economic benefits.

  15. Environmental protection, the economy, and jobs: national and regional analyses.

    PubMed

    Bezdek, Roger H; Wendling, Robert M; Diperna, Paula

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between environmental protection (EP), the economy, and jobs has been an issue of harsh contention for decades. Does EP harm the economy and destroy jobs or facilitate economic growth and create jobs? We address this issue by summarizing the results of the Jobs and the Environment Initiative, research funded by nonprofit foundations to quantify the relationship between EP, the economy, and jobs. We estimate the size of the US environmental industry and the numbers of environment-related jobs at the national level and in the states of Florida, Michigan, Minnesota, North Carolina, Ohio, and Wisconsin. This is the first time that such comprehensive, detailed estimates have been developed. Our major finding is that, contrary to conventional wisdom, EP, economic growth, and jobs creation are complementary and compatible: investments in EP create jobs and displace jobs, but the net effect on employment is positive. Second, environment protection has grown rapidly to become a major sales-generating, job-creating industry--$300 billion/year and 5 million jobs in 2003. Third, most of the 5 million jobs created are standard jobs for accountants, engineers, computer analysts, clerks, factory workers, etc., and the classic environmental job (environmental engineer, ecologist, etc.) constitutes only a small portion of the jobs created. Most of the persons employed in the jobs created may not even realize that they owe their livelihood to protecting the environment. Fourth, at the state level, the relationship between environmental policies and economic/job growth is positive, not negative. States can have strong economies and simultaneously protect the environment. Finally, environmental jobs are concentrated in manufacturing and professional, information, scientific, and technical services, and are thus disproportionately the types of jobs all states seek to attract.

  16. Environmental Policy Beliefs of Stakeholders in Protected Area Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Kostas

    2007-04-01

    Although the importance of understanding stakeholder beliefs regarding environmental policy has been noted by many authors, research focusing on the heterogeneity of stakeholder views is still very scarce and concentrated on a product-oriented definition of stakeholders. The aim of the present study is to address this gap by examining environmental policy beliefs of stakeholder groups engaged in protected area management. Questionnaires containing 73 five-point Likert scale items were administered to eight different stakeholder groups involved in the management of Greek protected areas. Items referred to core beliefs on environmental policy, namely, the value framework and sustainable development, and secondary beliefs, that is, beliefs on social consensus and ecotourism development. Our study used as a starting point respondent recruitment on the basis of a traditional product-centered approach. We investigated whether environmental policy beliefs can be used to effectively segregate stakeholders in well-defined segments, which override the product-oriented definition of stakeholders. Indeed, K-means clustering revealed an innovation-introduction and an implementation-charged sample segment. The instrument utilized in this research proved quite reliable and valid in measuring stakeholder environmental policy beliefs. Furthermore, the methodology implied that stakeholder groups differ in a significant number of belief-system elements. On the other hand, stakeholder groups were effectively distinguished on a small set of both core and secondary beliefs. Therefore, the instrument used can be an effective tool for determining and monitoring environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management. This is of considerable importance in the Greek case, given the recent establishment of 27 administrative bodies of protected areas, all of which are required to incorporate public consultation into management practices.

  17. Environmental health needs and launching of an environmental health protection unit in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Z A; Kazi, B M; Bile, K M; Magan, M; Nasir, J A

    2010-01-01

    Pakistan is seriously confronted by many complex and difficult environmental challenges related to air, water, soil, forests and food including issues such as climate change. The close link between environment and health is neither well understood nor appreciated. The annual cost of environmental degradation in Pakistan has been estimated to be around US $4.0 billion orat least 6% of the country's GDP. Up to 35% of the burden of disease is attributable to environmental hazards and risk factors and most of this burden is preventable. A systematic process for identifying environmental health needs and issues as well as the efforts made by the government of Pakistan and the World Health Organization in establishing and launching an environmental health protection unit are described. Also presented are the mission, functions, structure (operational and logistical) and technical requirements as well as sustainability aspects of the environmental health protection unit.

  18. Protecting Privacy and Confidentiality in Environmental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental health researchers often need to make difficult decisions on how to protect privacy and confidentiality when they conduct research in the home or workplace. These dilemmas are different from those normally encountered in clinical research. Although protecting privacy and confidentiality is one of the most important principles of research involving human subjects, it can be overridden to prevent imminent harm to individuals or if required by law. Investigators should carefully consider the facts and circumstances and use good judgment when deciding whether to breach privacy or confidentiality. PMID:23620829

  19. Investigating environmental determinants of injury and trauma in the Canadian north.

    PubMed

    Durkalec, Agata; Furgal, Chris; Skinner, Mark W; Sheldon, Tom

    2014-01-28

    Unintentional injury and trauma rates are disproportionately high in Inuit regions, and environmental changes are predicted to exacerbate injury rates. However, there is a major gap in our understanding of the risk factors contributing to land-based injury and trauma in the Arctic. We investigated the role of environmental and other factors in search and rescue (SAR) incidents in a remote Inuit community in northern Canada using a collaborative mixed methods approach. We analyzed SAR records from 1995 to 2010 and conducted key consultant interviews in 2010 and 2011. Data showed an estimated annual SAR incidence rate of 19 individuals per 1,000. Weather and ice conditions were the most frequent contributing factor for cases. In contrast with other studies, intoxication was the least common factor associated with SAR incidents. The incidence rate was six times higher for males than females, while land-users aged 26-35 had the highest incidence rate among age groups. Thirty-four percent of individuals sustained physical health impacts. Results demonstrate that environmental conditions are critical factors contributing to physical health risk in Inuit communities, particularly related to travel on sea ice during winter. Age and gender are important risk factors. This knowledge is vital for informing management of land-based physical health risk given rapidly changing environmental conditions in the Arctic.

  20. An Overview of the State of Environmental Assessment Education at Canadian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stelmack, Colleen M.; Sinclair, John A.; Fitzpatrick, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Purpose--Environmental assessment (EA) is a proactive planning tool designed to consider the ecological, cultural, socio-political and economic impacts of potential projects, making it a major tool for achieving sustainable development. Meaningful EA requires a bridging of the natural sciences with the social sciences to broaden understanding of…

  1. The Canadian Environmental Education Catalogue: A Guide to Selected Resources and Materials. Premier Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrichs, Wally; And Others

    Despite their large numbers, environmental education resources can be difficult to find. The purpose of this catalogue is to broaden the awareness of available resources among educators and curriculum developers and facilitate their accessibility. This first edition of the catalogue contains approximately 1,200 of the more than 4,000 titles that…

  2. 40 CFR 10.10 - Limitation on Environmental Protection Agency's authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitation on Environmental Protection Agency's authority. 10.10 Section 10.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 10.10 Limitation on Environmental...

  3. 40 CFR 10.10 - Limitation on Environmental Protection Agency's authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Limitation on Environmental Protection Agency's authority. 10.10 Section 10.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 10.10 Limitation on Environmental...

  4. 40 CFR 10.10 - Limitation on Environmental Protection Agency's authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Limitation on Environmental Protection Agency's authority. 10.10 Section 10.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 10.10 Limitation on Environmental...

  5. 40 CFR 10.10 - Limitation on Environmental Protection Agency's authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Limitation on Environmental Protection Agency's authority. 10.10 Section 10.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 10.10 Limitation on Environmental...

  6. 40 CFR 10.10 - Limitation on Environmental Protection Agency's authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limitation on Environmental Protection Agency's authority. 10.10 Section 10.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 10.10 Limitation on Environmental...

  7. In Brief: Environmental Protection Agency releases strategic plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-10-01

    Five grand strategic goals are the centerpiece of a strategic plan released on 30 September by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The plan for fiscal years 2011-2015 outlines goals including taking action on climate change and improving air quality, protecting America's waters, cleaning up communities and advancing sustainable development, ensuring the safety of chemicals and preventing pollution, and enforcing environmental laws. “We will continue to affirm the core values of science, transparency, and the rule of law in addressing these priorities. These are the most urgent issues we must confront through 2015,” EPA administrator Lisa Jackson wrote in the plan. For more information, visit http://www.epa.gov/ocfo/plan/2015/FY2011_2015_EPA_Strategic_Plan.pdf.

  8. Trials and tribulations of protecting children from environmental hazards.

    PubMed

    Lanphear, Bruce P; Paulson, Jerome; Beirne, Sandra

    2006-10-01

    Society is increasingly aware of the profound impact that the environment has on children's health. Not surprisingly, there is increasing public scrutiny about children's exposures to environmental hazards, especially for disadvantaged children. These trends underscore the ethical imperative to develop a framework to protect children from environmental hazards. Such a framework must include regulations to test new chemicals and other potential hazards before they are marketed, a strategy to conduct research necessary to protect children from persistent hazards that are widely dispersed in their environment, stronger regulatory mechanisms to eliminate human exposures to recognized or suspected toxicants, and guidelines about the ethical conduct of research and the role of experimental trials that test the efficacy and safety of interventions to prevent or ameliorate children's exposure to persistent toxicants or hazards that are widely dispersed in their environment. PMID:17035151

  9. Trials and Tribulations of Protecting Children from Environmental Hazards

    PubMed Central

    Lanphear, Bruce P.; Paulson, Jerome; Beirne, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Society is increasingly aware of the profound impact that the environment has on children’s health. Not surprisingly, there is increasing public scrutiny about children’s exposures to environmental hazards, especially for disadvantaged children. These trends underscore the ethical imperative to develop a framework to protect children from environmental hazards. Such a framework must include regulations to test new chemicals and other potential hazards before they are marketed, a strategy to conduct research necessary to protect children from persistent hazards that are widely dispersed in their environment, stronger regulatory mechanisms to eliminate human exposures to recognized or suspected toxicants, and guidelines about the ethical conduct of research and the role of experimental trials that test the efficacy and safety of interventions to prevent or ameliorate children’s exposure to persistent toxicants or hazards that are widely dispersed in their environment. PMID:17035151

  10. Review of orders and regulations requiring environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, E.; Cunningham, R.; Michael, D.

    1996-09-01

    With the increased awareness of and interest in potential ecological risks associated with past, current, and future Department of Energy (DOE) activities, DOE`s Defense Programs (DP) Office of Technical and Environmental Support sponsored a study to (1) evaluate the effectiveness of the current compliance-driven environmental protection and assessment efforts relative to ecological concerns; (2) explore the need for a more focused, integrated approach to address ecological impacts; and (3) identify the requirements for an integrated approach. The study explored four questions. (a) Which federal regulations and DOE orders either explicitly require ecological assessments or implicitly require them through environmental protection language? (b) What currently is being done at selected DOE facilities to implement these regulations and orders? (c) What are private sector industries doing in terms of ecological risk assessments and how do industry approaches and issues compare with those of DOE? (d) What, if anything, in addition to current efforts is needed to ensure the protection of ecological resources associated with DOE facilities, to support defensible decision making, and to improve efficiency? The results of this study are presented in a report titled {open_quotes}Integrated, Comprehensive Ecological Impact Assessments In Support of Department of Energy Decision Making{close_quotes}. This report is a companion document to that report. This report provides a more detailed discussion of the document reviews of the relevant environmental protection regulations and current and pending DOE orders. The main goal of the document reviews was to understand existing requirements for ecological data collection and impact assessments.

  11. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 45 - Environmental Protection Agency Training Programs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Environmental Protection Agency Training Programs A Appendix A to Part 45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS... Protection Agency Training Programs Administering office Headquarters Regional Office of Air, Noise,...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 45 - Environmental Protection Agency Training Programs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Environmental Protection Agency Training Programs A Appendix A to Part 45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS... Protection Agency Training Programs Administering office Headquarters Regional Office of Air, Noise,...

  13. Evolution of environmental protection strategies in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, A.M.

    1992-05-01

    In performing this work, interviews were conducted with members of the Supreme Soviet Committee for Rational Use of Natural Resources, Moscow, City Council, and St. Petersburg City Council. These officials provided their views on the current status of environmental protection in the former Soviet Union. Literature published in English, although limited, supplemented these discussions. In addition, a literature search was conducted of recent articles about this topic. Although the research for this paper was conducted before and during the August 1991 coup attempt in the Soviet Union, and after the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), many of the observations expressed in this report may be relevant to the new states. This report provides to historical perspective on the barriers encountered while attempting to develop environmental policy in the former Soviet Union and establishes a context for problems facing the new states in developing their environmental policies. Organization changes that have occurred in environmental protection since the August coup are included to the extent they are known.

  14. Environmental fate of hexabromocyclododecane from a new Canadian electronic recycling facility.

    PubMed

    Tomko, Geoffrey; McDonald, Karen M

    2013-01-15

    An electronics recycling facility began operation at the municipal landfill site for the City of Edmonton, Canada in March 2008 with the goal of processing 30,000 tonnes of electronic wastes per year. Of the many by-products from the process, brominated fire retardants such as hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) can evolve off of e-wastes and be released into the environmental media. HBCD has been identified by many countries and international bodies as a chemical of concern because of its ability to bioaccumulate in the ecosystem. An evaluation of the potential emission of HBCD indicates that up to 500 kg per year may be released from a landfill and recycling facility such as that operating in Edmonton. A multimedia fugacity model was used to evaluate the dispersion and fate of atmospherically emitted HBCD traveling into surrounding agricultural land and forested parkland. The model indicates that the three isomers of HBCD partitioned into environmental media similarly. Much of the HBCD is lost through atmospheric advection, but it is also found in soil and sediment. Modeled air concentrations are similar to those measured at locations with a history of e-waste recycling. Since HBCD has been shown to bioaccumulate, the HBCD released from this source has the long-term potential to affect agricultural food crops and the park ecosystem.

  15. Correlates of joint child protection and police child sexual abuse investigations: results from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect–2008

    PubMed Central

    Tonmyr, L.; Gonzalez, A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Our study examines the frequency of joint investigations by child protection workers and the police in sexual abuse investigations compared to other maltreatment types and the association of child-, caregiver-, maltreatment- and investigation-related characteristics in joint investigations, focussing specifically on investigations involving sexual abuse. Methods: We analyzed data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect–2008 using logistic regression. Results: The data suggest that sexual abuse (55%), and then physical abuse, neglect and emotional maltreatment, are most often co-investigated. Substantiation of maltreatment, severity of maltreatment, placement in out-of-home care, child welfare court involvement and referral of a family member to specialized services was more likely when the police were involved in an investigation. Conclusion: This study adds to the limited information on correlates of joint child protection agency and police investigations. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of these joint investigations. PMID:26605560

  16. Environmental protection: researches in National Institute of Radiological Sciences.

    PubMed

    Fuma, Shoichi; Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Doi, Masahiro; Fujimori, Akira; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Ishikawa, Yuji; Kawaguchi, Isao; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Maruyama, Kouichi; Miyamoto, Kiriko; Nakamori, Taizo; Takeda, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yoshito; Yanagisawa, Kei; Yasuda, Takako; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2011-07-01

    Some studies for radiological protection of the environment have been made at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). Transfer of radionuclides and related elements has been investigated for dose estimation of non-human biota. A parameter database and radionuclide transfer models have been also developed for the Japanese environments. Dose (rate)-effect relationships for survival, growth and reproduction have been investigated in conifers, Arabidopsis, fungi, earthworms, springtails, algae, duckweeds, daphnia and medaka. Also genome-wide gene expression analysis has been carried out by high coverage expression profiling (HiCEP). Effects on aquatic microbial communities have been studied in experimental ecosystem models, i.e., microcosms. Some effects were detected at a dose rate of 1 Gy day(-1) and were likely to arise from interspecies interactions. The results obtained at NIRS have been used in development of frameworks for environmental protection by some international bodies, and will contribute to environmental protection in Japan and other Asian countries. PMID:21502302

  17. Economic incentives for environmental protection: Integrating theory and practice

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, R.W. Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA ); Stavins, R.N. Resources for the Future, Washington, DC )

    1992-05-01

    For decades, economists have been extolling the virtues of market-based or economic-incentive approaches to environmental protection. Some 70 years ago, Arthur Cecil Pigou (1920) suggested corrective taxes to discourage activities that generate externalities. A half century later, J. Dales (1968) showed how the introduction of transferable property rights could work to promote environmental protection at lower aggregate cost than conventional standards. From these two seminal ideas - corrective taxes and transferable property rights - a substantial body of research has developed. Both environmental taxes and marketable permits are coming of age in the policy arena. Examples include the introduction of marketable permits in the United States to control acid rain, the use of changes in Europe to limit air and water pollution, and the employment of deposit-refund schemes for products ranging from beverage containers to batteries. The introduction of these tools on a large scale provides a unique opportunity to extend the frontiers of knowledge. This essay strives to identify prominent issues that merit investigation. 8 refs.

  18. Canadian History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Libraries in Canada, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Includes 22 articles that address Canadian history and the importance of having students honor Canada's past by providing articles relating to the areas of History and Social Studies covering: historical fiction as instructional material; Canadian scientists; agricultural fairs; the Historical Foundation; social science books on Canada; student…

  19. Protection of chemolithoautotrophic bacteria exposed to simulated Mars environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Felipe; Mateo-Martí, Eva; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Martín-Gago, Jose; Amils, Ricardo

    2010-10-01

    Current surface conditions (strong oxidative atmosphere, UV radiation, low temperatures and xeric conditions) on Mars are considered extremely challenging for life. The question is whether there are any features on Mars that could exert a protective effect against the sterilizing conditions detected on its surface. Potential habitability in the subsurface would increase if the overlaying material played a protective role. With the aim of evaluating this possibility we studied the viability of two microorganisms under different conditions in a Mars simulation chamber. An acidophilic chemolithotroph isolated from Río Tinto belonging to the Acidithiobacillus genus and Deinococcus radiodurans, a radiation resistant microorganism, were exposed to simulated Mars conditions under the protection of a layer of ferric oxides and hydroxides, a Mars regolith analogue. Samples of these microorganisms were exposed to UV radiation in Mars atmospheric conditions at different time intervals under the protection of 2 and 5 mm layers of oxidized iron minerals. Viability was evaluated by inoculation on fresh media and characterization of their growth cultures. Here we report the survival capability of both bacteria to simulated Mars environmental conditions.

  20. Tough choices in proposed budget for Environmental Protection Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-03-01

    President Obama's proposed budget for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for fiscal year (FY) 2013 is $8.34 billion, a 1.2% decrease from the agency's 2012 enacted budget. "This budget is focused on fulfilling EPA's core mission to protect health and the environment for millions of American families. It demonstrates the fiscal responsibility called for at this moment, while still supporting clean air, healthy waters, and innovative safeguards that are essential to an America built to last," said EPA administrator Lisa Jackson in a 13 February briefing announcing the budget proposal. Balancing tight funding environments with EPA's goals "has required taking a step back from programs we have worked on for years, programs were we have had great success," she said. "There are difficult choices throughout this budget, but they enable us to do what is required for our immediate priorities as well as challenges down the road."

  1. International surgery: definition, principles and Canadian practice.

    PubMed

    Lett, Ronald

    2003-10-01

    This article is dedicated to the Canadian international surgeon, Norman Bethune (1890-1939). International surgery is defined as a humanitarian branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of bodily injuries or disorders by incision or manipulations, emphasizing cooperation and understanding among nations and involving education, research, development and advocacy. In this article I review the colonial past, the dark ages following the Declaration of Alma-Ata, the progress made and the present challenges in international surgery. I present a definition of international surgery that recognizes the current era of surgical humanitarianism, validates a global understanding of surgical issues and promotes cooperation among nations. Included are the principles of international surgery: education, research, infrastructure development and advocacy. International surgical projects are classified according to type (clinical, relief, developmental) and integration strategy (vertical or horizontal). Also reviewed are the Canadian practice of international surgery by nongovernmental, professional and academic organizations and the requirements of international and Canadian funding agencies, the development concepts basic to all projects, including results-based management and the cross-cutting themes of gender equity, environmental protection and human safety. I recommend formalizing international surgery into a discipline as a means of promoting surgical care in low-income countries. If international surgery is to be sustained in Canada, infrastructure and support from Canadian surgeons is particularly important. An understanding of the history, definition and classification of international surgery should promote surgical care in low-income countries.

  2. Water Efficiency Improvements At Various Environmental Protection Agency Sites

    SciTech Connect

    2011-03-24

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) built a successful water conservation program and reduced potable water use through a series of initiatives at EPA laboratories. The projects highlighted in this case study demonstrate EPA’s ability to reduce water use in laboratory and medical equipment by implementing vacuum pump and steam sterilizer replacements and retrofits. Due to the success of the initial vacuum pump and steam sterilizer projects described here, EPA is implementing similar projects at several laboratories throughout the nation.

  3. Advances in analytical technologies for environmental protection and public safety.

    PubMed

    Sadik, O A; Wanekaya, A K; Andreescu, S

    2004-06-01

    Due to the increased threats of chemical and biological agents of injury by terrorist organizations, a significant effort is underway to develop tools that can be used to detect and effectively combat chemical and biochemical toxins. In addition to the right mix of policies and training of medical personnel on how to recognize symptoms of biochemical warfare agents, the major success in combating terrorism still lies in the prevention, early detection and the efficient and timely response using reliable analytical technologies and powerful therapies for minimizing the effects in the event of an attack. The public and regulatory agencies expect reliable methodologies and devices for public security. Today's systems are too bulky or slow to meet the "detect-to-warn" needs for first responders such as soldiers and medical personnel. This paper presents the challenges in monitoring technologies for warfare agents and other toxins. It provides an overview of how advances in environmental analytical methodologies could be adapted to design reliable sensors for public safety and environmental surveillance. The paths to designing sensors that meet the needs of today's measurement challenges are analyzed using examples of novel sensors, autonomous cell-based toxicity monitoring, 'Lab-on-a-Chip' devices and conventional environmental analytical techniques. Finally, in order to ensure that the public and legal authorities are provided with quality data to make informed decisions, guidelines are provided for assessing data quality and quality assurance using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) methodologies. PMID:15173903

  4. Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R. L.

    2002-02-27

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued radiation protection standards for the potential spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste disposal system in Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These standards are found in Part 197 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part 197). The Energy Policy Act of 1992 directed, and gave the authority to, EPA to take this action based upon input from the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). The final standards were published in the Federal Register (66 FR 32073) on 13 June 2001. The 40 CFR Part 197 standards have four major parts: (1) individual-protection during storage activities; (2) individual-protection following closure of the repository; (3) human-intrusion; and (4) ground-water protection. The storage standard is 150 microsieverts (Sv) annual committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) to any member of the general public. The disposal standards are: (1) 150 Sv annual CEDE for the reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) for 10,000 years after disposal; (2) 150 Sv received by the RMEI within 10,000 years after disposal as a result of human intrusion; and (3) the levels of radionuclides in the ground water cannot exceed 40 Sv from beta and gamma emitters, 5 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) of radium-226 and -228, and 15 pCi/L of gross alpha activity. There are also requirements related to the post-10,000-year period, the basis of compliance judgments, and performance assessments. The Agency has published its responses to the comments received, its technical background document, and its economic impact analysis. In addition to printed form, the documents are available on the World Wide Web at http://www.epa.gov/radiation/yucca/index.html.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: WET-WEATHER FLOW/SOURCE WATER PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an overview of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program which was established to overcome the numerous impediments to commercialization experienced by developers of innovative environmental technologies. ...

  6. Examining the independent protective effect of subjective well-being on severe psychological distress among Canadian adults with a history of child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Baiden, Philip; Tarshis, Sarah; Antwi-Boasiako, Kofi; den Dunnen, Wendy

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the independent protective effect of subjective well-being on severe psychological distress among adult Canadians with a history of child maltreatment. Data for this study were obtained from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (CCHS-MH). A sample of 8126 respondents aged 20-69 years old who experienced at least one child maltreatment event was analyzed using binary logistic regression with severe psychological distress as the outcome variable. Of the 8126 respondents with a history of child maltreatment, 3.9% experienced severe psychological distress within the past month. Results from the multivariate logistic regression revealed that emotional and psychological well-being each had a significant effect on severe psychological distress. For each unit increase in emotional well-being, the odds of a respondent having severe psychological distress were predicted to decrease by a factor of 28% and for each unit increase in psychological well-being, the odds of a respondent having severe psychological distress were predicted to decrease by a factor of 10%, net the effect of demographic, socioeconomic, and health factors. Other factors associated with psychological distress included: younger age, poor self-perceived physical health, and chronic condition. Having post-secondary education, having a higher income, and being non-White predicted lower odds of severe psychological distress. Although, child maltreatment is associated with stressful life events later in adulthood, subjective well-being could serve as a protective factor against severe psychological distress among adults who experienced maltreatment when they were children. PMID:27372801

  7. Environmental assessment in The Netherlands: Effectively governing environmental protection? A discourse analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Runhaar, Hens; Laerhoven, Frank van; Driessen, Peter; Arts, Jos

    2013-02-15

    Environmental assessment (EA) aims to enhance environmental awareness and to ensure that environmental values are fully considered in decision-making. In the EA arena, different discourses exist on what EA should aim for and how it functions. We hypothesise that these discourses influence its application in practice as well as its effectiveness in terms of achieving the above goals. For instance, actors who consider EA as a hindrance to fast implementation of their projects will probably apply it as a mandatory checklist, whereas actors who believe that EA can help to develop more environmentally sound decisions will use EIA as a tool to design their initiatives. In this paper we explore discourses on EA in The Netherlands and elaborate on their implications for EA effectiveness. Based on an innovative research design comprising an online survey with 443 respondents and 20 supplementary semi-structured interviews we conclude that the dominant discourse is that EA is mainly a legal requirement; EAs are conducted because they have to be conducted, not because actors choose to do so. EA effectiveness however seems reasonably high, as a majority of respondents perceive that it enhances environmental awareness and contributes to environmental protection. However, the 'legal requirement' discourse also results in decision-makers seldom going beyond what is prescribed by EA and environmental law. Despite its mandatory character, the predominant attitude towards EA is quite positive. For most respondents, EA is instrumental in providing transparency of decision-making and in minimising the legal risks of not complying with environmental laws. Differences in discourses seldom reflect extreme opposites. The 'common ground' regarding EA provides a good basis for working with EA in terms of meeting legal requirements but at the same time does not stimulate creativity in decision-making or optimisation of environmental values. In countries characterised by less consensual

  8. Environmental and Economic Impacts of Integrating Photovoltaic and Wind-Turbine Energy Systems in the Canadian Residential Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Ali M.; Fung, Alan S.; Ugursal, V. Ismet

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian residential sector contributes approximately 80 megatons of GHGs to the environment yearly. With the ratification of Kyoto Protocol, Canada has committed to reduce its 1990 GHG emission levels by at least 5% between 2008 and 2012. To meet this target, Canada must evaluate and exploit all feasible means to reduce fossil fuel energy…

  9. 40 CFR 29.3 - What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these regulations? 29.3 Section 29.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 29.3 What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection......

  10. 40 CFR 29.3 - What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these regulations? 29.3 Section 29.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 29.3 What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection......

  11. 40 CFR 29.3 - What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these regulations? 29.3 Section 29.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 29.3 What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection......

  12. 40 CFR 29.3 - What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these regulations? 29.3 Section 29.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 29.3 What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection......

  13. 40 CFR 29.3 - What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these regulations? 29.3 Section 29.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 29.3 What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection......

  14. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program: An ecological status and trends program

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, J.F.; Holland, A.F.; Schimmel, S.C.; Summers, J.K.; Scott, K.J.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is initiating an Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) to monitor the status and trends of the Nation's near-coastal waters, forests, freshwater wetlands, surface waters, agroecosystems, deserts, and rangelands. The program is also intended to evaluate the effectiveness of EPA policies in protecting the ecological resources of these systems. The monitoring data collected for all ecosystems will be integrated for national status and trends assessments. The near-coastal component of EMAP consists of four ecosystem categories: estuaries, wetlands, coastal waters, and the Great Lakes. The near-coastal ecosystems have been regionalized and classified, an integrated sampling strategy has been designed, and quality-control procedures and data-base management designs will be implemented.

  15. PROFILE: Environmental Impact Assessment Under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty.

    PubMed

    Ensminger; McCold; Webb

    1999-07-01

    / Antarctica has been set aside by the international community for protection as a natural reserve and a place for scientific research. Through the Antarctic Treaty of 1961, the signing nations agreed to cooperate in protecting the antarctic environment, in conducting scientific studies, and in abstaining from the exercise of territorial claims. The 1991 signing of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (Protocol) by representatives of the 26 nations comprising the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (Parties) significantly strengthened environmental protection measures for the continent. The Protocol required ratification by each of the governments individually prior to official implementation. The US government ratified the Protocol by passage of the Antarctic Science, Tourism, and Conservation Act of 1997. Japan completed the process by ratifying the Protocol on December 15, 1997. US government actions undertaken in Antarctica are subject to the requirements of both the Protocol and the US National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). There are differences in the scope and intent of the Protocol and NEPA; however, both require environmental impact assessment (EIA) as part of the planning process for proposed actions that have the potential for environmental impacts. In this paper we describe the two instruments and highlight key similarities and differences with particular attention to EIA. Through this comparison of the EIA requirements of NEPA and the Protocol, we show how the requirements of each can be used in concert to provide enhanced environmental protection for the antarctic environment. NEPA applies only to actions of the US government; therefore, because NEPA includes certain desirable attributes that have been refined and clarified through numerous court cases, and because the Protocol is just entering implementation internationally, some recommendations are made for strengthening the procedural requirements of the Protocol

  16. Environmental influence of Wuhan urban agglomeration development and strategies of environmental protection.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qun; Liu, Ying-Tao; Mao, Han-Ying

    2006-01-01

    In Wuhan urban agglomeration (WUA), the population growth and concentration, the industrial development and urban sprawl have been affecting the environment fundamentally. Comparing with Yangtze delta metropolitan region, the level of urbanization and industrialization of WUA has lagged behind for about 10 years; but the problems in environmental protection and rehabilitation are commonly serious. In the future, WUA should avoid unnecessary mistakes and seek a win-win strategy for economy and environment in its large-scale development stage. Based on the analysis of the changing of main environmental pollutants and the coupled curves in past decades, the paper discussed the important links among the urban environmental pollutions, industry growth and urban sprawl in WUA. It is concluded that the integration of economic and environmental policies in urban development is more required and significant at the large urban agglomeration region. Four proactive and long-term strategies need to be adopted to provide prior guidance and better protection for the development of WUA.

  17. Is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency brownfields assessment pilot program environmentally just?

    PubMed

    Solitare, Laura; Greenberg, Micheal

    2002-04-01

    In the early 1990s, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) started a grant program to assist communities redevelop brownfields, which are abandoned or underutilized sites that have real or perceived contamination. In addition to determining if the communities receiving the grants were the most distressed cities in the United States, we also evaluate the U.S. EPA program in terms of environmental justice at the macro scale. Using 1990 U.S. Census of Housing and Population data and a matched-cities methodology, we compared the brownfields pilot cities to other communities in the United States. We found that regardless of intent, the U.S. EPA program is environmentally just by disproportionately awarding grants to the most economically distressed cities. We also found that the cities that received funding in the early years of the program were more economically distressed than cities receiving the funding more recently.

  18. Is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency brownfields assessment pilot program environmentally just?

    PubMed Central

    Solitare, Laura; Greenberg, Micheal

    2002-01-01

    In the early 1990s, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) started a grant program to assist communities redevelop brownfields, which are abandoned or underutilized sites that have real or perceived contamination. In addition to determining if the communities receiving the grants were the most distressed cities in the United States, we also evaluate the U.S. EPA program in terms of environmental justice at the macro scale. Using 1990 U.S. Census of Housing and Population data and a matched-cities methodology, we compared the brownfields pilot cities to other communities in the United States. We found that regardless of intent, the U.S. EPA program is environmentally just by disproportionately awarding grants to the most economically distressed cities. We also found that the cities that received funding in the early years of the program were more economically distressed than cities receiving the funding more recently. PMID:11929735

  19. [Environmental protection: ethical and scientific sources of tension].

    PubMed

    Devictor, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    Environmental ethic is complex, dynamic, and related to cultural contexts that are neither given once and for all, nor valid for all people. Yet, the current biodiversity crisis tends to be followed by the spread of universal values related to nature and its protection. Far from standardizing the pluralism of these values, this universal trend leads to two major tensions in the field of nature conservation. The first concerns the scientific or epistemic values: nature or "biodiversity" is altogether being reduced in sub-categories or by contrast considered as a complex object by modern ecological science. Biodiversity is indeed both increasingly considered in terms of its complexity and unpredictability, or on the contrary, as a collection of natural objects that can and must be managed with easily quantifiable indicators. The second tension concerns ethical values. These values tend to be reduced and simplified in equating nature with "services" that can benefit human societies. But this utilitarian reduction also hides a diversification of ethical values. This article aims to analyze what characterizes this contemporary ethical and scientific floating with respect to the values involved in the protection of nature. PMID:25073325

  20. [Environmental protection: ethical and scientific sources of tension].

    PubMed

    Devictor, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    Environmental ethic is complex, dynamic, and related to cultural contexts that are neither given once and for all, nor valid for all people. Yet, the current biodiversity crisis tends to be followed by the spread of universal values related to nature and its protection. Far from standardizing the pluralism of these values, this universal trend leads to two major tensions in the field of nature conservation. The first concerns the scientific or epistemic values: nature or "biodiversity" is altogether being reduced in sub-categories or by contrast considered as a complex object by modern ecological science. Biodiversity is indeed both increasingly considered in terms of its complexity and unpredictability, or on the contrary, as a collection of natural objects that can and must be managed with easily quantifiable indicators. The second tension concerns ethical values. These values tend to be reduced and simplified in equating nature with "services" that can benefit human societies. But this utilitarian reduction also hides a diversification of ethical values. This article aims to analyze what characterizes this contemporary ethical and scientific floating with respect to the values involved in the protection of nature.

  1. 10 CFR 20.2007 - Compliance with environmental and health protection regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compliance with environmental and health protection regulations. 20.2007 Section 20.2007 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2007 Compliance with environmental and health protection regulations....

  2. 10 CFR 20.2007 - Compliance with environmental and health protection regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance with environmental and health protection regulations. 20.2007 Section 20.2007 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2007 Compliance with environmental and health protection regulations....

  3. 10 CFR 20.2007 - Compliance with environmental and health protection regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Compliance with environmental and health protection regulations. 20.2007 Section 20.2007 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2007 Compliance with environmental and health protection regulations....

  4. 10 CFR 20.2007 - Compliance with environmental and health protection regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Compliance with environmental and health protection regulations. 20.2007 Section 20.2007 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2007 Compliance with environmental and health protection regulations....

  5. 10 CFR 20.2007 - Compliance with environmental and health protection regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Compliance with environmental and health protection regulations. 20.2007 Section 20.2007 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2007 Compliance with environmental and health protection regulations....

  6. Risk-based targeting: A new approach in environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Risk-based targeting has recently emerged as an effective tool to help prioritize efforts to identify and manage geographic areas, chemicals, facilities, and agricultural activities that cause the most environmental degradation. This paper focuses on how the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently used risk-based targeting to identify and screen Federal, industrial, commercial and municipal facilities which contribute to probable human health (fish consumption advisories and contaminated fish tissue) and aquatic life (contaminated sediments) impacts. Preliminary results identified several hundred potential contributors of problem chemicals to probable impacts within the same river reach in 1991--93. Analysis by industry sector showed that the majority of the facilities identified were publicly owned treatment works (POTWs), in addition to industry organic and inorganic chemical manufacturers, petroleum refineries, and electric services, coatings, engravings, and allied services, among others. Both compliant and non-compliant potentially contributing facilities were identified to some extent in all EPA regions. Additional results identifying possible linkages of other pollutant sources to probable impacts, as well as estimation of potential exposure of these contaminants to minority and/or poverty populations are also presented. Out of these analyses, a number of short and long-term strategies are being developed that EPA may use to reduce loadings of problem contaminants to impacted waterbodies.

  7. JTS and its Application in Environmental Protection Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Emanouil; Gurov, Todor; Slavov, Dimitar; Ivanovska, Sofiya; Karaivanova, Aneta

    2010-05-01

    The environmental protection was identified as a domain of high interest for South East Europe, addressing practical problems related to security and quality of life. The gridification of the Bulgarian applications MCSAES (Monte Carlo Sensitivity Analysis for Environmental Studies) which aims to develop an efficient Grid implementation of a sensitivity analysis of the Danish Eulerian Model), MSACM (Multi-Scale Atmospheric Composition Modeling) which aims to produce an integrated, multi-scale Balkan region oriented modelling system, able to interface the scales of the problem from emissions on the urban scale to their transport and transformation on the local and regional scales), MSERRHSA (Modeling System for Emergency Response to the Release of Harmful Substances in the Atmosphere) which aims to develop and deploy a modeling system for emergency response to the release of harmful substances in the atmosphere, targeted at the SEE and more specifically Balkan region) faces several challenges: These applications are resource intensive, in terms of both CPU utilization and data transfers and storage. The use of applications for operational purposes poses requirements for availability of resources, which are difficult to be met on a dynamically changing Grid environment. The validation of applications is resource intensive and time consuming. The successful resolution of these problems requires collaborative work and support from part of the infrastructure operators. However, the infrastructure operators are interested to avoid underutilization of resources. That is why we developed the Job Track Service and tested it during the development of the grid implementations of MCSAES, MSACM and MSERRHSA. The Job Track Service (JTS) is a grid middleware component which facilitates the provision of Quality of Service in grid infrastructures using gLite middleware like EGEE and SEEGRID. The service is based on messaging middleware and uses standart protocols like AMQP (Advanced

  8. Social Norms and Smoking Bans on Campus: Interactions in the Canadian University Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Procter-Scherdtel, Amy; Collins, Damian

    2013-01-01

    Smoking bans offer practical protection against environmental tobacco smoke and highlight the decreasing normative status of smoking. At Canadian universities, indoor smoking is now completely prohibited, but regulations vary with respect to outdoor smoking. The purpose of this research was to conceptualize the interactions of smoking bans on…

  9. CAN WE HAVE IT ALL? BALANCING ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND PUBLIC POLICY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency is charged with the responsibility for protecting public health and safeguarding our natural environment. This mission, developed in the aftermath of Silent Spring, faces new challenges with the ever increasing human domination of ecosystem...

  10. INTEGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

  11. INTERGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

  12. BEYOND REGULATION TO PROTECTION. THE APPLICATION OF NATIONAL RECONNAISSANCE SYSTEMS IN THE SCIENCE MISSION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of National Technical Means (NTM) data and advanced geospatial technologies has an important role in supporting the mission of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). EPA's responsibilities have grown beyond pollution compliance monitoring and enforcement to include t...

  13. Environmental Correlation Analysis for Genes Associated with Protection against Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Mackinnon, Margaret J.; Ndila, Carolyne; Uyoga, Sophie; Macharia, Alex; Snow, Robert W.; Band, Gavin; Rautanen, Anna; Rockett, Kirk A.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.; Williams, Thomas N.

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide searches for loci involved in human resistance to malaria are currently being conducted on a large scale in Africa using case-control studies. Here, we explore the utility of an alternative approach—“environmental correlation analysis, ECA,” which tests for clines in allele frequencies across a gradient of an environmental selection pressure—to identify genes that have historically protected against death from malaria. We collected genotype data from 12,425 newborns on 57 candidate malaria resistance loci and 9,756 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected at random from across the genome, and examined their allele frequencies for geographic correlations with long-term malaria prevalence data based on 84,042 individuals living under different historical selection pressures from malaria in coastal Kenya. None of the 57 candidate SNPs showed significant (P < 0.05) correlations in allele frequency with local malaria transmission intensity after adjusting for population structure and multiple testing. In contrast, two of the random SNPs that had highly significant correlations (P < 0.01) were in genes previously linked to malaria resistance, namely, CDH13, encoding cadherin 13, and HS3ST3B1, encoding heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferase 3B1. Both proteins play a role in glycoprotein-mediated cell-cell adhesion which has been widely implicated in cerebral malaria, the most life-threatening form of this disease. Other top genes, including CTNND2 which encodes δ-catenin, a molecular partner to cadherin, were significantly enriched in cadherin-mediated pathways affecting inflammation of the brain vascular endothelium. These results demonstrate the utility of ECA in the discovery of novel genes and pathways affecting infectious disease. PMID:26744416

  14. Sustainable Urban Waters: Opportunities to Integrate Environmental Protection in Multi-objective Projects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Nonpoint source pollution is an ongoing challenge for environmental agencies who seek to protect waters of the U.S. Urban stream and waterfront redevelopment projects present opportunities to achieve integrated environmental, economic, and social benefits in urban water...

  15. THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY VISUAL PLUMES MODELING SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Center for Exposure Assessment Modeling (CEAM) at the Ecosystems Research Division in Athens, Georgia develops environmental exposure models, including plume models, and provides technical assistance to model users. The mixing zone and f...

  16. Anaerobic digestion for energy production and environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Lettinga, G.; Haandel, A.C. Vaan

    1993-12-31

    Anaerobic digestion is the decomposition of complex molecules into simpler substances by micro-organisms in the absence of oxygen. Anaerobic digestion processes can be employed for resource conservation, for the production of biogas and other useful end products from biomass, and for environmental protection through waste and wastewater treatment. Modern high-rate anaerobic wastewater-treatment processes can effectively remove organic pollutants from wastewater at a cost far below that of conventional aerobic processes. These anaerobic wastewater treatment processes can also be profitably applied for the generation of biogas from energy crops such as sugarcane. In fact, these methods might even be an attractive alternative for the alcohol fermentation extensively employed in Brazil for the production of fuel alcohol from sugarcane. The potential of modern anaerobic processes for this purpose has not yet been widely recognized. This paper describes the principles and use of these processes and demonstrates their prospects for producing energy from sugarcane (1) by treating vinasse, the wastewater generated during the production of ethanol from sugarcane, and (2) as a direct method for producing biogas from sugarcane juice.

  17. The Environmental Protection Agency’s Brownfields Pilot Program

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Michael R.; Hollander, Justin

    2006-01-01

    Objective. We studied the diffusion of the US Environmental Protection Agency’s national brownfields pilot innovation to more than 300 local governments between 1993 through 2002 to determine why some local governments received grants very early in the process while other awardees received funding later. Methods. We did an ordinal regression analysis of the characteristics of all local government award recipients, and we conducted interviews with early-award recipients. Results. The first set of local government awardees had lost much of their manufacturing base, had large concentrations of economically disadvantaged minority residents, and had local capacity to compete for funding. Federal and state officials catalyzed the diffusion of the innovation by working with local governments. Conclusions. The widely praised program was diffused selectively at first and then more widely later on the basis of local need, local capacity to compete, and networks of contacts among entrepreneurs and local governments. The economic, social, political, and public health impacts must be monitored and reviewed. PMID:16380572

  18. Savannah River Site Environmental Implementation Plan. Volume 2, Protection programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    Formal sitewide environmental planning at the . Savannah River Site (SRS) began in 1986 with the development and adoption of the Strategic Environmental Plan. The Strategic Environmental Plan describes the philosophy, policy, and overall program direction of environmental programs for the operation of the SRS. The Strategic Environmental Plan (Volume 2) provided the basis for development of the Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP). The EIP is the detailed, comprehensive environmental master plan for operating contractor organizations at the SRS. The EIP provides a process to ensure that all environmental requirements and obligations are being met by setting specific measurable goals and objectives and strategies for implementation. The plan is the basis for justification of site manpower and funding requests for environmental projects and programs over a five-year planning period.

  19. A unique, environmentally sustainable and cost-effective programme to re-vegetate military training lands utilising composted wastewater biosolids at a large Canadian military training centre.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, R J; Allain, C J; Downe, S; Pond, N; Laughton, P J

    2006-01-01

    The Greater Moncton Sewerage Commission has developed, in concert with National Defence Canada, an environmentally sustainable and cost effective biosolids management and land reclamation programme at the Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Gagetown, New Brunswick, Canada (the second largest land based Military Training Facility in the British Commonwealth). The use of composted biosolids to revegetate military training lands is thought to be a unique application for the beneficial use of biosolids. Results and practical experience gained from this approach to successfully re-vegetate initial sections of extremely large and vast tracts of these lands are described. The paper also overviews the Commission's modern 115000 m3 x d(-1) advanced, chemically assisted primary wastewater treatment facility and associated alkaline (lime) sludge stabilisation process. Planning strategies, security aspects, special and unique challenges in operating adjacent to an active military training facility, costs, spreading techniques, monitoring, next steps and conclusions are also presented.

  20. Economic development and environmental protection: an ecological economics perspective.

    PubMed

    Rees, William E

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues on both theoretical and empirical grounds that, beyond a certain point, there is an unavoidable conflict between economic development (generally taken to mean 'material economic growth') and environmental protection. Think for a moment of natural forests, grasslands, marine estuaries, salt marshes, and coral reefs; and of arable soils, aquifers, mineral deposits, petroleum, and coal. These are all forms of 'natural capital' that represent highly-ordered self-producing ecosystems or rich accumulations of energy/matter with high use potential (low entropy). Now contemplate despoiled landscapes, eroding farmlands, depleted fisheries, anthropogenic greenhouse gases, acid rain, poisonous mine tailings and toxic synthetic compounds. These all represent disordered systems or degraded forms of energy and matter with little use potential (high entropy). The main thing connecting these two states is human economic activity. Ecological economics interprets the environment-economy relationship in terms of the second law of thermodynamics. The second law sees economic activity as a dissipative process. From this perspective, the production of economic goods and services invariably requires the consumption of available energy and matter. To grow and develop, the economy necessarily 'feeds' on sources of high-quality energy/matter first produced by nature. This tends to disorder and homogenize the ecosphere, The ascendance of humankind has consistently been accompanied by an accelerating rate of ecological degradation, particularly biodiversity loss, the simplification of natural systems and pollution. In short, contemporary political rhetoric to the contrary, the prevailing growth-oriented global development paradigm is fundamentally incompatible with long-term ecological and social sustainability. Unsustainability is not a technical nor economic problem as usually conceived, but rather a state of systemic incompatibility between a economy that is a fully

  1. Environmental Protection Department LLNL NESHAPs 2007 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bertoldo, N A; Larson, J M; Wilson, K R

    2008-06-25

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs; Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61, Subpart H). Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from operations in 2007 are summarized here. Livermore site: 0.0031 mrem (0.031 {micro}Sv) (42% from point source emissions, 58% from diffuse source emissions). The point source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IX; the resulting dose is used for compliance purposes. Site 300: 0.0035 mrem (0.035 {micro}Sv) (90% from point source emissions, 10% from diffuse source emissions). The EDEs were calculated using the U.S. EPA-approved CAP88-PC air dispersion/dose-assessment model, except for doses for two diffuse sources that were estimated using measured radionuclide concentrations and dose calculations. Specific inputs to CAP88-PC for the modeled sources included site-specific meteorological data and source emissions data, the latter variously based on continuous stack effluent monitoring data, stack flow or other release-rate information, ambient air monitoring data, and facility knowledge.

  2. 75 FR 75847 - 40th Anniversary of the Environmental Protection Agency

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... in environmental protection through pollution prevention and the development of clean-energy..., creating new clean-energy jobs and laying the foundation for our long-term economic security. Four decades... expect clean air and drinking water. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was...

  3. Environmental Globalization, Organizational Form, and Expected Benefits from Protected Areas in Central America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeffer, Max J.; Schelhas, John W.; Meola, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Environmental globalization has led to the implementation of conservation efforts like the creation of protected areas that often promote the interests of core countries in poorer regions. The creation of protected areas in poor areas frequently creates tensions between human needs like food and shelter and environmental conservation. Support for…

  4. 20 CFR 672.610 - What environmental protection laws apply to the YouthBuild program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What environmental protection laws apply to the YouthBuild program? 672.610 Section 672.610 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... Requirements § 672.610 What environmental protection laws apply to the YouthBuild program? YouthBuild...

  5. 20 CFR 672.610 - What environmental protection laws apply to the YouthBuild program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What environmental protection laws apply to the YouthBuild program? 672.610 Section 672.610 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... Requirements § 672.610 What environmental protection laws apply to the YouthBuild program? YouthBuild...

  6. 20 CFR 672.610 - What environmental protection laws apply to the YouthBuild program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What environmental protection laws apply to the YouthBuild program? 672.610 Section 672.610 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... Requirements § 672.610 What environmental protection laws apply to the YouthBuild program? YouthBuild...

  7. Air Force Institute of Technology, Civil Engineering School: Environmental Protection Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Force Inst. of Tech., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH. School of Engineering.

    This document contains information assembled by the Civil Engineering School to meet the initial requirements of NEPA 1969 and Executive Orders which required the Air Force to implement an effective environmental protection program. This course presents the various aspects of Air Force environmental protection problems which military personnel…

  8. Career Preparation in Environmental Protection: A Curriculum Guide for High School Vocational Agriculture. Test Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, David; Scott, Tressa

    This curriculum guide in environmental protection is one of 10 guides developed as part of a vocational project stressing agribusiness, natural resources, and environmental protection. The scope of this guide includes three occupational subgroups: water treatment, wastewater treatment, and air pollution control. It is meant as an aid to all who…

  9. Assessing Cumulative Impact and Risk - Approaches at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has a mission and regulatory mandate to protect human health and the environment. EPA’s primary role is to implement environmental laws by developing and enforcing national regulation. Cogent to the goals of this workshop, key envi...

  10. Government policy and environmental protection in the developing world: The example of Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chokor, Boyowa A.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental protection is a topical and controversial issue of contemporary Third World development. As a result of the growing crisis of environment and development as well as issues of global environmental balance, divergent views and proposals have been put forward by external governments, international agencies, and environmental groups in resolving the environmental degradation problems of the developing world. However, very little appraisal has been made of the efforts by indigenous Third World governments in facing up to their environmental conservation issues. This article examines the role of past and recent government environmental control policies and programs in Nigeria. The article analyzes three aspects of environmental protection: (1) the theoretical economic bases of environmental protection and the Nigerian approach to environmental protection, including traditional values and modern institutional control measures, the latter embracing nature conservation efforts; (2) environmental considerations in national development plans; and (3) the evolution of a federal environmental protection agency and a national policy on environment. Finally, the article discusses the future challenges and directions for environmental policy.

  11. Internal environmental protection audits: a suggested guide for US Department of Energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Barisas, S.; Polich, J.; Habegger, L.; Surles, T.

    1983-08-01

    This manual has been prepared for use by any DOE facility as an aid for conducting an internal environmental-protection audit. The manual is organized in modular format, with each module covering a separate area of environmental protection. The questions within each module were developed from existing DOE orders, executive orders, federal statutes, and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations issued pursuant to specific environmental legislation. A bibliography of such legislation is included at the end of this section. Each module also includes questions about a facility's use of industrial standards of practice.

  12. 28 CFR 0.65a - Litigation involving Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection Agency. With respect to any matter assigned to the Environment and Natural Resources Division in which the Environmental Protection Agency is a party, the Assistant Attorney General in charge of the... Protection Agency. 0.65a Section 0.65a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF...

  13. 28 CFR 0.65a - Litigation involving Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection Agency. With respect to any matter assigned to the Environment and Natural Resources Division in which the Environmental Protection Agency is a party, the Assistant Attorney General in charge of the... Protection Agency. 0.65a Section 0.65a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF...

  14. 28 CFR 0.65a - Litigation involving Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection Agency. With respect to any matter assigned to the Environment and Natural Resources Division in which the Environmental Protection Agency is a party, the Assistant Attorney General in charge of the... Protection Agency. 0.65a Section 0.65a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF...

  15. 28 CFR 0.65a - Litigation involving Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection Agency. With respect to any matter assigned to the Environment and Natural Resources Division in which the Environmental Protection Agency is a party, the Assistant Attorney General in charge of the... Protection Agency. 0.65a Section 0.65a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF...

  16. 28 CFR 0.65a - Litigation involving Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection Agency. With respect to any matter assigned to the Environment and Natural Resources Division in which the Environmental Protection Agency is a party, the Assistant Attorney General in charge of the... Protection Agency. 0.65a Section 0.65a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF...

  17. Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

  18. ROLE OF VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY AT THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY IN ATHENS, GEORGIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens GA, is best known by vibrational spectroscopists as the laboratory where much of the pioneering work on the development of a sensitive, real-time gas chromatograph/Fourier transform infrared syste...

  19. Support for Economic Growth and Environmental Protection 1973-1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, C. Paul; Christenson, James A.

    This study investigates preferences of public support for allocation of expenditures toward environmental controls or toward economic growth from 1973-1975. The author considered four previously noted correlates of environmental support--education, family income, place of residence, and political orientation. Two state-wide surveys were conducted…

  20. Reconciling Energy Use with Environmental Protection in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelrod, Regina S.

    1992-01-01

    Presents the energy and environmental policymaking strategies of the European Community to regulate the consumption of energy. Strategies include the stabilization of carbon dioxide emissions, the creation of the European Environmental Agency, the implementation of the European Energy Charter, the SAVE Program, and economic and fiscal instruments…

  1. Coated silicon comprising material for protection against environmental corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazel, Brian Thomas (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with an embodiment of the invention, an article is disclosed. The article comprises a gas turbine engine component substrate comprising a silicon material; and an environmental barrier coating overlying the substrate, wherein the environmental barrier coating comprises cerium oxide, and the cerium oxide reduces formation of silicate glass on the substrate upon exposure to corrodant sulfates.

  2. The Effects of World Society on Environmental Protection Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofer, Evan; Hironaka, Ann

    2005-01-01

    The world environmental regime has encouraged nations to adopt new environmental policies and laws worldwide. But, scholars question the impact on the environment, suggesting that national policies may be "decoupled" from outcomes. We fill a gap in neoinstitutional theory by specifying the circumstances in which institutions will affect…

  3. 44 CFR 351.22 - The Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS Interagency... all aspects of radiological emergency planning in coordination with appropriate Federal agencies. (b... officials regarding PAGs and protective actions, radiation dose assessment and decisionmaking....

  4. Political polarization on support for government spending on environmental protection in the USA, 1974-2012.

    PubMed

    McCright, Aaron M; Xiao, Chenyang; Dunlap, Riley E

    2014-11-01

    Since the early 1990s, the American conservative movement has become increasingly hostile toward environmental protection and Congressional Republicans have become increasingly anti-environmental in their voting records. Party sorting theory holds that such political polarization among elites will likely extend to the general public. Analyzing General Social Survey data from 1974 to 2012, we examine whether political polarization has occurred on support for government spending on environmental protection over this time period in the US general public. We find that there has been significant partisan and ideological polarization on support for environmental spending since 1992-consistent with the expectations of party sorting theory. This political polarization on environmental concern in the general public will likely endure save for political convergence on environmental concern among elites in the near future. Such polarization likely will inhibit the further development and implementation of environmental policy and the diffusion of environmentally friendly behaviors.

  5. ``Just Another Hoop to Jump Through?'' Using Environmental Laws and Processes to Protect Indigenous Rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Beth Rose

    2013-11-01

    Protection of culturally important indigenous landscapes has become an increasingly important component of environmental management processes, for both companies and individuals striving to comply with environmental regulations, and for indigenous groups seeking stronger laws to support site protection and cultural/human rights. Given that indigenous stewardship of culturally important sites, species, and practices continues to be threatened or prohibited on lands out of indigenous ownership, this paper examines whether or not indigenous people can meaningfully apply mainstream environmental management laws and processes to achieve protection of traditional sites and associated stewardship activities. While environmental laws can provide a “back door” to protect traditional sites and practices, they are not made for this purpose, and, as such, require specific amendments to become more useful for indigenous practitioners. Acknowledging thoughtful critiques of the cultural incommensurability of environmental law with indigenous environmental stewardship of sacred sites, I interrogate the ability of four specific environmental laws and processes—the Uniform Conservation Easement Act; the National Environmental Policy Act and the California Environmental Quality Act; the Pacific Stewardship Council land divestiture process; and Senate Bill 18 (CA-2004)—to protect culturally important landscapes and practices. I offer suggestions for improving these laws and processes to make them more applicable to indigenous stewardship of traditional landscapes.

  6. "Just another hoop to jump through?" using environmental laws and processes to protect indigenous rights.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Beth Rose

    2013-11-01

    Protection of culturally important indigenous landscapes has become an increasingly important component of environmental management processes, for both companies and individuals striving to comply with environmental regulations, and for indigenous groups seeking stronger laws to support site protection and cultural/human rights. Given that indigenous stewardship of culturally important sites, species, and practices continues to be threatened or prohibited on lands out of indigenous ownership, this paper examines whether or not indigenous people can meaningfully apply mainstream environmental management laws and processes to achieve protection of traditional sites and associated stewardship activities. While environmental laws can provide a "back door" to protect traditional sites and practices, they are not made for this purpose, and, as such, require specific amendments to become more useful for indigenous practitioners. Acknowledging thoughtful critiques of the cultural incommensurability of environmental law with indigenous environmental stewardship of sacred sites, I interrogate the ability of four specific environmental laws and processes-the Uniform Conservation Easement Act; the National Environmental Policy Act and the California Environmental Quality Act; the Pacific Stewardship Council land divestiture process; and Senate Bill 18 (CA-2004)-to protect culturally important landscapes and practices. I offer suggestions for improving these laws and processes to make them more applicable to indigenous stewardship of traditional landscapes. PMID:23232791

  7. "Just another hoop to jump through?" using environmental laws and processes to protect indigenous rights.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Beth Rose

    2013-11-01

    Protection of culturally important indigenous landscapes has become an increasingly important component of environmental management processes, for both companies and individuals striving to comply with environmental regulations, and for indigenous groups seeking stronger laws to support site protection and cultural/human rights. Given that indigenous stewardship of culturally important sites, species, and practices continues to be threatened or prohibited on lands out of indigenous ownership, this paper examines whether or not indigenous people can meaningfully apply mainstream environmental management laws and processes to achieve protection of traditional sites and associated stewardship activities. While environmental laws can provide a "back door" to protect traditional sites and practices, they are not made for this purpose, and, as such, require specific amendments to become more useful for indigenous practitioners. Acknowledging thoughtful critiques of the cultural incommensurability of environmental law with indigenous environmental stewardship of sacred sites, I interrogate the ability of four specific environmental laws and processes-the Uniform Conservation Easement Act; the National Environmental Policy Act and the California Environmental Quality Act; the Pacific Stewardship Council land divestiture process; and Senate Bill 18 (CA-2004)-to protect culturally important landscapes and practices. I offer suggestions for improving these laws and processes to make them more applicable to indigenous stewardship of traditional landscapes.

  8. Balancing economic development with environmental protection in developing and lesser developed countries

    SciTech Connect

    El-Ashry, M.T. )

    1993-01-01

    Recent experience suggests that poverty and environmental degradation go hand in hand. Economic development, on the other hand, provides the financial and technical resources needed for the protection of human health and natural ecosystems. Balancing economic development and environmental protection in developing countries requires a refocusing of economic activity -- not towards producing less, but producing differently. Strategies for the integration of economic development and environmental protection are outlined here, as is the proposed role that will need to be played by the World Bank. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Environmental protection to 922K (1200 F) for titanium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groves, M. T.

    1973-01-01

    Evaluations are presented of potential coating systems for protection of titanium alloys from hot-salt stress-corrosion up to temperatures of 755 K (900 F) and from oxidation embrittlement up to temperature of 922 K (1200 F). Diffusion type coatings containing Si, Al, Cr, Ni or Fe as single coating elements or in various combinations were evaluated for oxidation protection, hot-salt stress-corrosion (HSSC) resistance, effects on tensile properties, fatigue properties, erosion resistance and ballistic impact resistance on an alpha and beta phase titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo). All of the coatings investigated demonstrated excellent oxidation protectiveness, but none of the coatings provided protection from hot-salt stress-corrosion. Experimental results indicated that both the aluminide and silicide types of coatings actually decreased the HSSC resistance of the substrate alloy. The types of coatings which have typically been used for oxidation protection of refractory metals and nickel base superalloys are not suitable for titanium alloys because they increase the susceptibility to hot-salt stress-corrosion, and that entirely new coating concepts must be developed for titanium alloy protection in advanced turbine engines.

  10. A capacitive-coupled ground resistivity system for engineering and environmental applications: Results of two Canadian field tests

    SciTech Connect

    Douma, M.; Hunter, J.A.; Timofeev, V.M.; Rogozinski, A.W.

    1994-12-31

    Ground resistivity conditions in a variety of geological environments were measured using a technique that odes not rely on galvanic contact between the sensors and the terrain. The capacitive-coupling method converts a current applied through one pair of antennas and a voltage potential received through another set of antennas into apparent resistivity using a particular constant which is dependent upon the geometry of the antenna arrays. The method supports rapid data acquisition, and because contact resistance problems are obviated, surveys in very resistive conditions (> 10,000 ohm-m) can be conducted. Originally a Russian development, used in routine permafrost mapping along pipeline routes and at well-sites in Siberia, a version of the capacitive-coupled resistivity (CCR) system, called RUSCAN, is being developed by a Canadian firm, Androtex, Ltd. The development program is supported by the All-Russian Institute for Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology in Moscow and the Industrial Partners Program of the Geological Survey of Canada. Case studies in a variety of geological environments have been used to evaluate the new system, comparing results from electromagnetic, D.C. resistivity, drilling results, and borehole geophysics.

  11. A Comparative Study of Canadian and Taiwanese Grade 5 Children's Environmental Behaviors, Attitudes, Concerns, Emotional Dispositions, and Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hsin-Ping; Yore, Larry D.

    This study explored the cultural influences on children's self-reported environmental actions, perceptions, and understandings; investigated the relationships among the behavioral, affective, cognitive, and demographic variables; and developed models of children's responsible environmental behavior (Huang, 2001). The cross-cultural comparison…

  12. Symposium on Integrating the Science of Environmental Justice into Decision-Making at the Environmental Protection Agency: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Payne-Sturges, Devon; Garcia, Lisa; Lee, Charles; Zenick, Hal; Grevatt, Peter; Sanders, William H.; Case, Heather; Dankwa-Mullan, Irene

    2011-01-01

    In March 2010, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) collaborated with government and nongovernmental organizations to host a groundbreaking symposium, “Strengthening Environmental Justice Research and Decision Making: A Symposium on the Science of Disproportionate Environmental Health Impacts.” The symposium provided a forum for discourse on the state of scientific knowledge about factors identified by EPA that may contribute to higher burdens of environmental exposure or risk in racial/ethnic minorities and low-income populations. Also featured were discussions on how environmental justice considerations may be integrated into EPA's analytical and decision-making frameworks and on research needs for advancing the integration of environmental justice into environmental policymaking. We summarize key discussions and conclusions from the symposium and briefly introduce the articles in this issue. PMID:22028456

  13. Symposium on integrating the science of environmental justice into decision-making at the Environmental Protection Agency: an overview.

    PubMed

    Nweke, Onyemaechi C; Payne-Sturges, Devon; Garcia, Lisa; Lee, Charles; Zenick, Hal; Grevatt, Peter; Sanders, William H; Case, Heather; Dankwa-Mullan, Irene

    2011-12-01

    In March 2010, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) collaborated with government and nongovernmental organizations to host a groundbreaking symposium, "Strengthening Environmental Justice Research and Decision Making: A Symposium on the Science of Disproportionate Environmental Health Impacts." The symposium provided a forum for discourse on the state of scientific knowledge about factors identified by EPA that may contribute to higher burdens of environmental exposure or risk in racial/ethnic minorities and low-income populations. Also featured were discussions on how environmental justice considerations may be integrated into EPA's analytical and decision-making frameworks and on research needs for advancing the integration of environmental justice into environmental policymaking. We summarize key discussions and conclusions from the symposium and briefly introduce the articles in this issue.

  14. Protecting confidentiality in small population health and environmental statistics.

    PubMed

    Cox, L H

    Public policy decisions are fuelled by information. Often, this information is in the form of statistical data. Questions stemming from public health and environmental concerns often arise or are studied within small subgroups of a population. Continuing improvements in the performance and availability of computing resources, including geographic information systems, and the need to better understand environmental exposures and consequent health effects create increasing demand for small population health and environmental data. These demands are at odds with the need to preserve the privacy and data confidentiality of persons, groups or organizations covered by the data. Although confidentiality issues for demographic and economic data are well-studied and are gaining maturity for health data, these issues are only beginning to emerge for environmental data and combined environmental-health data. The aim of this paper is to provide a framework for that examination. Herein we examine confidentiality problems posed by small population health and environmental data, summarize available statistical methods, and propose avenues for the solution of new problems.

  15. UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY RESEARCH ACTIVITIES TO CHARACTERIZE CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Given the well-established vulnerability of children to the effects of environmental exposures and the array of environmental exposures that have not been studied, understanding the relationship between children's health outcomes and environmental exposures is critical for our ...

  16. Protecting environmental and nuclear whistle-blowers: A litigation manual

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book explains the employee protection provisions of federal Clean Air, Atomic Safety, Superfund, Water Pollution, Solid Waste (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act), Drinking Water, Toxic Waste, Surface Mining, and OSHA employee protection laws. These laws provide for: a quick and inexpensive administrative remedy before the Department of Labor, mandatory attorney's fees, actual and compensatory damages. The book also covers state laws which prevent an employee from being fired for reasons that are contrary to the public interest. Almost half the state provide local remedies which can include exemplary damages.

  17. Environmental Justice, Sustainability and Education at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    EPA Science Inventory

    Some of the supporting statutes and executive orders, current plans, recent research and tools, and training programs relating to sustainability, environmental justice and environmental education are presented.

  18. The annual cycle of particulate organic carbon export in Franklin Bay (Canadian Arctic): Environmental control and food web implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forest, Alexandre; Sampei, Makoto; Makabe, Ryosuke; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Barber, David G.; Gratton, Yves; Wassmann, Paul; Fortier, Louis

    2008-03-01

    As part of the Canadian Arctic Shelf Exchange Study (CASES), we assessed the importance of new production and resuspension in determining the nature and magnitude of the deep (210 m) particulate organic carbon (POC) flux from October 2003 to September 2004 in central Franklin Bay. In spring and summer, phytoplankton production was nutrient-limited in the stratified surface layer and the initial spring bloom evolved into a subsurface chlorophyll maximum (SCM) at the nutricline. Large herbivorous calanoid copepods intercepted little of the initial bloom but grazed intensely on the SCM. The phytoplankton and fecal pellet fluxes culminated simultaneously in July-August (24 and 23 mg C m-2 d-1, respectively). The detrital POC flux peaked in September (52 mg C m-2 d-1), coincident with wind-induced resuspension of recently settled POC. In the fall, detrital POC fluxes increased again to 22 mg C m-2 d-1, following the off-shelf transport of terrigenous POC carried by the Mackenzie River plume and POC resuspended by wind on the shelf. In winter, the relatively weak POC fluxes (2-7 mg C m-2 d-1, detrital at 90%) resulted from the settling down of resuspended sediments. We propose a conceptual model in which the ecosystem of Franklin Bay shifts from an algal to a detrital mode according to seasonal changes in the relative importance of fresh and old POC supplies. On the basis of this model, the ecosystem of southeastern Beaufort Sea could evolve toward a less productive equilibrium dominated by sediment resuspension in response to the ongoing reduction of the ice cover.

  19. 77 FR 21551 - New York City Department of Environmental Protection; Notice of Application Accepted for filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... Online Support. n. Any qualified applicant desiring to file a competing application must submit to the... 6717-01-P ..., New York City Department of Environmental Protection, 59-17 Junction Blvd., Flushing, NY...

  20. 77 FR 5010 - Notice of Availability of Memorandum of Understanding Between U.S. Environmental Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... assessments for 2, 4-D and clopyralid. List of Subjects Environmental protection, Confidential Business.... Crystal Dr., Arlington, VA. The hours of operation of this Docket Facility are from 8:30 a.m. to 4...

  1. Environmental mitigation at hydroelectric projects: Volume II. Benefits and costs of fish passage and protection

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J. E.; Cada, G. F.; Dauble, D. D.; Hunt, R. T.; Jones, D. W.; Rinehart, B. N.; Sommers, G. L.; Costello, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy, through its hydropower program, is studying environmental mitigation practices at hydroelectric projects. The study of environmental mitigation is intended to provide greater understanding of environmental problems and solutions that are associated with conventional hydroelectric projects. This volume examines upstream and downstream fish passage/protection technologies and the associated practices, benefits, and costs. Fish passage/protection mitigation technologies are investigated by three methods: (a) national, regional (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission regions), and temporal frequencies of fish passage/protection mitigation are examined at 1,825 operating and conventional (excludes pumped storage) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) regulated hydroelectric sites in the United States; (b) general fish passage/protection mitigation costs are discussed for 50 FERC regulated hydroelectric projects; and (c) 16 case studies are used to examine specific fish passage/protection mitigation practices, benefits, and costs.

  2. 2 CFR 1536.225 - Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency does a recipient other than an individual notify...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency... Other Than Individuals § 1536.225 Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency does a recipient other... criminal drug offense must notify the EPA award official from each Environmental Protection Agency...

  3. 2 CFR 1536.225 - Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency does a recipient other than an individual notify...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency... Other Than Individuals § 1536.225 Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency does a recipient other... criminal drug offense must notify the EPA award official from each Environmental Protection Agency...

  4. 26 CFR 1.179B-1T - Deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations (temporary). 1.179B-1T Section 1.179B-1T... Deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This section also provides rules for making elections under section...

  5. 26 CFR 1.179B-1T - Deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations (temporary). 1.179B-1T Section 1.179B-1T... Deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This section also provides rules for making elections under section...

  6. 26 CFR 1.179B-1T - Deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations (temporary). 1.179B-1T Section 1.179B-1T... Deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This section also provides rules for making elections under section...

  7. 2 CFR 1536.225 - Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency does a recipient other than an individual notify...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency... Other Than Individuals § 1536.225 Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency does a recipient other... criminal drug offense must notify the EPA award official from each Environmental Protection Agency...

  8. 2 CFR 1536.225 - Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency does a recipient other than an individual notify...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency... Other Than Individuals § 1536.225 Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency does a recipient other... criminal drug offense must notify the EPA award official from each Environmental Protection Agency...

  9. 26 CFR 1.179B-1T - Deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations (temporary). 1.179B-1T Section 1.179B-1T... Deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This section also provides rules for making elections under section...

  10. Engineering technology and behavior analysis for interdisciplinary environmental protection

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Richard P.; Geller, E. Scott

    1980-01-01

    Engineering strategies for saving environmental resources have been widespread. However, many of those engineering advances have not been widely accepted nor generally applied by large segments of the general population. This paper considers the need to examine behavioral/environmental variables in the application of engineering technology, with particular reference to specific behavioral strategies for encouraging the use of engineering technology from an interdisciplinary perspective. A model for the study of factors contributing to the solution of ecological/environmental problems is presented and examples of interdisciplinary research are described. The model implies a need for the examination of the effects of antecedent and consequent manipulation of a variety of variables including: behavioral, physiological, environmental, technical and legal conditions. It is concluded that while interdisciplinary research efforts between engineering technologists and behavioral analysts are necessary, they have not received sufficient attention in the literature nor have they focused on the comprehensive study of antecedents and consequences as they relate to ecological/environmental problems. Thus, an extended “family” of research efforts is important for the success of these efforts. PMID:22478473

  11. Computer Cache. Environmental Protection: Websites on the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byerly, Greg; Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    "Give a hoot, don't pollute!" "Save the environment!" "Save the Whales!" Ranger Rick. Recycle. These are all well-known phrases and emblems of the fight to "protect the environment." Young children seem to understand almost intuitively the need to do those simple things that will make the Earth a better place to live and play. However, especially…

  12. Development based on carrying capacity. A strategy for environmental protection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carey, D.I.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental degradation has accelerated in recent years because economic development activities have been inconsistent with a sustainable environment. In human ecology, the concept of 'carrying capacity' implies an optimum level of development and population size based on a complex of interacting factors - physical, institutional, social, and psychological. Development studies which have explicitly recognized carrying capacity have shown that this approach can be used to promote economic activities which are consistent with a sustainable social and physical environment. The concept of carrying capacity provides a framework for integrating physical, socioeconomic, and environmental systems into planning for a sustainable environment. ?? 1993.

  13. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S REGULATION AND MANAGEMENT OF WATERBORNE VIRUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) manages waterborne viruses and other pathogens through the establishment of rules and regulations that are designed to ensure public health protection. The rules that currently regulate pathogens focus on the management of viruses...

  14. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S COMPUTATIONAL TOXCIOLOGY PROGRAM - METABOLISM AND METABONOMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mission of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to safeguard public health and the environment from adverse effects that may be caused by exposure to pollutants in the air, water, soil and food. Protecting human health and the environment carries with it the ch...

  15. Information resources used in health risk assessment by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Post, G.B.; Baratta, M.; Wolfson, S.; McGeorge, L.

    1990-12-31

    The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection`s responsibilities related to health-based risk assessment are described, including its research projects and its development of health based compound specific standards and guidance levels. The resources used by the agency to support health risk assessment work are outlined.

  16. The Environmental protection agency industrial technology transfer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suter, K. H.

    1974-01-01

    Today TAC consists of a full service information center and five programs, which are: (1) our industrial program; (2) the energy information center; (3) the business and industry extension program; (4) the remote sensing program; and (5) the center for environmental research and development.

  17. Preparation of computer data bases for environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnesorge, W.F.; Carnes, D.P.; Haese, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Organizations which handle massive amounts of environmental data must use computer data bases to keep record costs as low as practicable and to make possible the efficient and timely assessment of the environment. This paper will review the basic steps necessary for planning, programming, testing and documentation of a computer program.

  18. Environmental controls on the 2H/1H values of terrestrial leaf waxes in the eastern Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanahan, Timothy M.; Hughen, Konrad A.; Ampel, Linda; Sauer, Peter E.; Fornace, Kyrstin

    2013-10-01

    The hydrogen isotope composition of plant waxes preserved in lacustrine sediments is a potentially valuable tool for reconstructing paleoenvironmental changes in the Arctic. However, in contrast to the mid- and low-latitudes, significantly less effort has been directed towards understanding the factors controlling D/H fractionation in high latitude plant waxes and the impact of these processes on the interpretation of sedimentary leaf wax δD records. To better understand these processes, we examined the D/H ratios of long chain fatty acids in lake surface sediments spanning a temperature and precipitation gradient on Baffin Island in the eastern Canadian Arctic. D/H ratios of plant waxes increase with increasing temperature and aridity, with values ranging from -240‰ to -160‰ over the study area. Apparent fractionation factors between n-alkanoic acids in Arctic lake sediments and precipitation(εFA-ppt) are less negative than those of mid-latitude lakes and modern plants by 25‰ to 65‰, consistent with n-alkane data from modern Arctic plants (Yang et al., 2011). Furthermore, εFA-ppt values from Arctic lakes become systematically more positive with increasing evaporation, in contrast to mid-latitude sites, which show little to no change in fractionation with aridity. These data are consistent with enhanced water loss and isotope fractionation at higher latitude in the Arctic summer, when continuous sunlight supports increased daily photosynthesis. The dominant control on δDFA variations on Baffin Island is temperature. However, changing εFA-ppt result in steeper δDFA-temperature relationships than observed for modern precipitation. The application of this δDFA-based paleotemperature calibration to existing δDFA records from Baffin Island produces much more realistic changes in late Holocene temperature and highlights the importance of these effects in influencing the interpretation of Arctic δDFA records. A better understanding of the controls on

  19. Assessment of public perception and environmental compliance at a pulp and paper facility: a Canadian case study.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Emma; Bernier, Meagan; Blotnicky, Brenden; Golden, Peter G; Janes, Jeffrey; Kader, Allison; Kovacs-Da Costa, Rachel; Pettipas, Shauna; Vermeulen, Sarah; Walker, Tony R

    2015-12-01

    Communities across Canada rely heavily on natural resources for their livelihoods. One such community in Pictou County, Nova Scotia, has both benefited and suffered, because of its proximity to a pulp and paper mill (currently owned by Northern Pulp). Since production began in 1967, there have been increasing impacts to the local environment and human health. Environmental reports funded by the mill were reviewed and compared against provincial and federal regulatory compliance standards. Reports contrasted starkly to societal perceptions of local impacts and independent studies. Most environmental monitoring reports funded by the mill indicate some levels of compliance in atmospheric and effluent emissions, but when compliance targets were not met, there was a lack of regulatory enforcement. After decades of local pollution impacts and lack of environmental compliance, corporate social responsibility initiatives need implementing for the mill to maintain its social licence to operate. PMID:26590146

  20. 48 CFR Appendix I to Chapter 15 - Environmental Protection Agency; Class Justification for Other Than Full and Open Competition in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Ch. 15, App. I Appendix I to Chapter 15—Environmental... Federal Prison Industries and the Government Printing Office 1. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Environmental...

  1. 48 CFR Appendix I to Chapter 15 - Environmental Protection Agency; Class Justification for Other Than Full and Open Competition in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Ch. 15, App. I Appendix I to Chapter 15—Environmental... Federal Prison Industries and the Government Printing Office 1. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Environmental...

  2. 7 CFR 650.21 - Working relations with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and related State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Protection Agency (EPA) and related State environmental agencies. 650.21 Section 650.21 Agriculture... with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and related State environmental agencies. (a) Background. The authorities and missions of NRCS, EPA, and state environmental agencies make it...

  3. 7 CFR 650.21 - Working relations with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and related State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Protection Agency (EPA) and related State environmental agencies. 650.21 Section 650.21 Agriculture... with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and related State environmental agencies. (a) Background. The authorities and missions of NRCS, EPA, and state environmental agencies make it...

  4. 48 CFR Appendix I to Chapter 15 - Environmental Protection Agency; Class Justification for Other Than Full and Open Competition in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Ch. 15, App. I Appendix I to Chapter 15—Environmental... Federal Prison Industries and the Government Printing Office 1. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Environmental...

  5. Searching for the Seventies: Photographs from the Environmental Protection Agency's DOCUMERICA Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bustard, Bruce; Potter, Lee Ann

    2013-01-01

    In 1971, the newly established Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) created DOCUMERICA, a federal government photography project born out of the nation's environmental crisis. The photographers hired by the EPA took thousands of photographs depicting pollution, waste, and blight, but they were given the freedom to capture the era's…

  6. CHAPTER 9: PROTECTING ENVIRONMENTAL WELFARE: COMPARISON OF EMERGETIC AND ECONOMIC VALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    To protect human and environmental welfare, the US EPA aims to base environmental regulations and policies on sound scientific and, where possible, economic analyses. The EPA has accordingly conducted analysis of the economic impact of regulations for three decades but has yet ...

  7. THE APPLICATION OF PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION AND RELATED TECHNOLOGIES IN MODERN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Imagery Interpretation is a timed-tested technique for extracting landscape-level information from aerial photographs and other types of remotely sensed data. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) has a 25+ year history...

  8. HISTORICAL ANALYSIS, A VALUABLE TOOL IN COMMUNITY-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A historical analysis of the ecological consequences of development can be a valuable tool in community-based environmental protection. These studies can engage the public in environmental issues and lead to informed decision making. Historical studies provide an understanding of...

  9. STATUS OF THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S ENCODRINE DISRUPTOR SCREENING PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Status of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. Susan Laws. Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, U.S. EPA, RTP, NC.

    In response to emergi...

  10. Situation in France: The Position of a Federation of Environmental Protection NGOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cambou, José; Proy, Dominique

    France Nature Environnement (www.fne.asso.fr) is the French federation of associations for the protection of nature and the environment, and a member of the European Environmental Bureau. Founded in 1968, it has explicitly been in charge of environmental health issues since 1997.

  11. ANIMAL WASTE IMPACT ON SOURCE WATERSAIDED BY EPA/NSF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) SOURCE WATER PROTECTION PILOT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) was established in 1995 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to encourage the development and commercialization of new environmental technologies through third part testing and reporting of performance data. By ensur...

  12. US Environmental Protection Agency Cold Climate Research Program: Status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-01

    This research covers the spectrum of environmental problems, including treatment control technology, human health, air pollution effects, water pollution effects, and solid waste disposal. Research priorities have been established through a series of meetings and workshops in Alaska with state and federal officials, and with the scientific community. Current projects of EPA's Cold Climate Research Program includes tundra development review and characterization and value ranking of waterbird habitat in an Alaskan Arctic wetland.

  13. Environmental protection and stewardship of subglacial aquatic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, Peter T.; Vincent, Warwick F.

    Environmental stewardship is a guiding principle of the Antarctic Treaty System. Efforts began in the 1990s to generate specific guidelines for stewardship of many terrestrial environments, including surface lakes and rivers. The relatively recent documentation of widespread subglacial aquatic environments, and planning for acquiring samples from them, has generated a need for stewardship guidelines for these environments. In response to a request from the U.S. National Science Foundation, the National Research Council of the National Academies of Sciences (NAS) created the Committee on the Principles of Environmental and Scientific Stewardship for the Exploration and Study of Subglacial Environments. The committee made 13 recommendations and a decision tree as a framework and flow chart for environmental management decisions. The committee report was also largely the basis of a Code of Conduct (CoC) for the exploration of subglacial environments formulated by a Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research Action Group. Both the NAS report and CoC have been used as guidance, to varying degrees, by subglacial research currently in progress.

  14. Developing strategies for automated remote plant production systems: Environmental control and monitoring of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamsey, M.; Berinstain, A.; Graham, T.; Neron, P.; Giroux, R.; Braham, S.; Ferl, R.; Paul, A.-L.; Dixon, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is a unique research facility dedicated to the study of greenhouse engineering and autonomous functionality under extreme operational conditions, in preparation for extraterrestrial biologically-based life support systems. The Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is located at the Haughton Mars Project Research Station on Devon Island in the Canadian High Arctic. The greenhouse has been operational since 2002. Over recent years the greenhouse has served as a controlled environment facility for conducting scientific and operationally relevant plant growth investigations in an extreme environment. Since 2005 the greenhouse has seen the deployment of a refined nutrient control system, an improved imaging system capable of remote assessment of basic plant health parameters, more robust communication and power systems as well as the implementation of a distributed data acquisition system. Though several other Arctic greenhouses exist, the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is distinct in that the focus is on autonomous operation as opposed to strictly plant production. Remote control and autonomous operational experience has applications both terrestrially in production greenhouses and extraterrestrially where future long duration Moon/Mars missions will utilize biological life support systems to close the air, food and water loops. Minimizing crew time is an important goal for any space-based system. The experience gained through the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is providing the experience necessary to optimize future plant production systems and minimize crew time requirements. Internal greenhouse environmental data shows that the fall growth season (July-September) provides an average photosynthetic photon flux of 161.09 μmol m -2 s -1 (August) and 76.76 μmol m -2 s -1 (September) with approximately a 24 h photoperiod. The spring growth season provides an average of 327.51 μmol m -2 s -1 (May) and 339.32 μmol m -2 s

  15. Environmental Media Systems: Innovations at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Exposure Research Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costelloe-Kuehn, Brandon

    2012-01-01

    This multi-sited ethnography analyzes challenges and opportunities in the design and development of digital media systems in the Office of Research and Development (ORD) at the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Drawing heavily from interviews conducted over the course of three years, primarily with scientists at the ORD's…

  16. Measuring the difference made by conservation initiatives: protected areas and their environmental and social impacts

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Paul J.; Pressey, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Success in conservation depends on our ability to reduce human pressures in areas that harbour biological diversity and ecosystem services. Legally protecting some of these areas through the creation of protected areas is a key component of conservation efforts globally. To develop effective protected area networks, practitioners need credible, scientific evidence about the degree to which protected areas affect environmental and social outcomes, and how these effects vary with context. Such evidence has been lacking, but the situation is changing as conservation scientists adopt more sophisticated research designs for evaluating protected areas' past impacts and for predicting their future impacts. Complementing these scientific advances, conservation funders and practitioners are paying increasing attention to evaluating their investments with more scientifically rigorous evaluation designs. This theme issue highlights recent advances in the science of protected area evaluations and explores the challenges to developing a more credible evidence base that can help societies achieve their goals of protecting nature while enhancing human welfare. PMID:26460123

  17. Fuzzy clustering of facial form for prototyping environmental protection equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D.G.

    1994-07-01

    Emphasis on the human-to-aircraft interface has magnified in importance as the performance envelope of today`s aircraft has continued to expand. A major problem is that there has been a corresponding increase in the need for better fitting protection equipment and unfortunately it has become increasingly difficult for aircrew members to find equipment that will provide this level of fit. While protection equipment has, historically had poor fit characteristics, the issue has grown tremendously with the recent increase in the numbers of minorities and women. Fundamental to this problem are the archaic methods for sizing individual equipment and the methods for establishing a sizing system. This paper documents recent investigations by the author into developing new methods to overcome these problems. Research centered on the development of a new statistically based method for describing form and the application of fuzzy clustering using the new shape descriptors. A sizing system was developed from the application of the research, prototype masks were constructed and the hardware tested under flight conditions.

  18. The Effects of Mothers' Educational Levels on University Students' Environmental Protection Commitments and Environmental Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saraçli, Sinan; Yilmaz, Veysel; Arslan, Talha

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: The damage caused by recent environmental problems has led to increased environmental concerns and the development of environment-friendly consumption behaviours in almost every society. Environment-friendly consumption involves the consideration of environmental benefits by minimizing any damage done to the environment at all…

  19. Consequences of Slot Transactions on Airport Congestion and Environmental Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeyratne, Ruwantissa I.R.

    2000-01-01

    Recent trends in the liberalization of market access by many commercial airlines have opened the skies to virtually unlimited flights between many countries. However, this liberalization is stultified by the lack of airport capacity to accommodate the many flights that are generated by demand for capacity. Accordingly, the allocation of slots for open skies airlines remain dependent on the expansion and effective management of airport capacity. This article examines the ramifications of slot allocation on traffic peaking at airports and environmental concerns, which may emerge with this activity.

  20. Federal environmental legislation in the U.S. for protection of wildlife and regulation of environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    Fairbrother, Anne

    2009-10-01

    The U.S. has a long history of legislation to protect wildlife, beginning with the Lacey Act of 1900. There are now over 170 Federal laws that regulate environmental activities which may affect wildlife. Two important laws are the Pittman-Robertson Act enacted in 1937 that authorizes a tax for wildlife management and the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act passed in 1958 whose primary purpose is conservation of fish and wildlife, both of which continue to provide significant funding for wildlife management. Modern environmental regulations began by passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1969, followed by the Clean Water Act, Superfund, and other laws to regulate pesticides and toxics and clean up contaminated sites. International conventions regulate sale, use and disposal of toxics and ocean dumping. These laws and conventions should protect wildlife from unintended consequences of global industrialization. PMID:19562483

  1. Federal environmental legislation in the U.S. for protection of wildlife and regulation of environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    Fairbrother, Anne

    2009-10-01

    The U.S. has a long history of legislation to protect wildlife, beginning with the Lacey Act of 1900. There are now over 170 Federal laws that regulate environmental activities which may affect wildlife. Two important laws are the Pittman-Robertson Act enacted in 1937 that authorizes a tax for wildlife management and the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act passed in 1958 whose primary purpose is conservation of fish and wildlife, both of which continue to provide significant funding for wildlife management. Modern environmental regulations began by passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1969, followed by the Clean Water Act, Superfund, and other laws to regulate pesticides and toxics and clean up contaminated sites. International conventions regulate sale, use and disposal of toxics and ocean dumping. These laws and conventions should protect wildlife from unintended consequences of global industrialization.

  2. Environmental protection of titanium alloys at high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, I. G.; Wood, R. A.; Seltzer, M. S.

    1974-01-01

    Various concepts were evaluated for protecting titanium alloys from oxygen contamination at 922 K (1200 F) and from hot-salt stress-corrosion at 755 K (900 F). It is indicated that oxygen-contamination resistance can be provided by a number of systems, but for hot-salt stress-corrosion resistance, factors such as coating integrity become very important. Titanium aluminides resist oxygen ingress at 922 K through the formation of alumina (on TiAl3) or modified TiO2 (on Ti3Al, TiAl) scales. TiAl has some resistance to attack by hot salt, but has limited ductility. Ductile Ti-Ni and Ti-Nb-Cr-Al alloys provide limited resistance to oxygen ingress, but are not greatly susceptible to hot-salt stress-corrosion cracking.

  3. Keeping the peace green: Integrating arms control and environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.; Kellman, B.

    1994-10-21

    This talk is about how to avoid turning swords into Superfund sites. The problem we address is the potential conflict between the desire to take advantage of the greater international security brought by the end of the Cold War by entering arms control agreements requiring various military weapons to be dismantled, and the desire to avoid further degrading the environment in the process of destroying them. We will use as an illustration of these issues the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), which is intended to cause the destruction of all chemical weapons in the world. First, we will provide a brief overview of the CWC, then we will focus in on its environmental provisions, and, finally, we will discuss potential conflicts with United States law and how they might be resolved.

  4. Environmental site assessments: Protecting the dealer and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Tate, L.R.; Ambrose, M.C. II

    1991-12-31

    The majority of fertilizer and pesticide dealers have envirorunental problems. These range from failure to file proper reports and maintain required documentation to contamination of soil and water on their own sites as well as on neighboring properties. Problems generally are caused by insufficient knowledge of regulations, accidents, inadequate storage, poor transfer procedures, and operating deficiencies. Professional evaluation of the facility`s site, buildings, operations, employee training and practices, and management`s attention to environmental matters is needed to reduce risks and liabilities. Envirorunental site assessments conducted by experienced and knowledgeable personnel can provide dealers with detailed information about problem areas and with practical economic recommendations that can be useful in developing an implementation plan, schedule, and budget.

  5. Environmental site assessments: Protecting the dealer and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Tate, L.R.; Ambrose, M.C. II.

    1991-01-01

    The majority of fertilizer and pesticide dealers have envirorunental problems. These range from failure to file proper reports and maintain required documentation to contamination of soil and water on their own sites as well as on neighboring properties. Problems generally are caused by insufficient knowledge of regulations, accidents, inadequate storage, poor transfer procedures, and operating deficiencies. Professional evaluation of the facility's site, buildings, operations, employee training and practices, and management's attention to environmental matters is needed to reduce risks and liabilities. Envirorunental site assessments conducted by experienced and knowledgeable personnel can provide dealers with detailed information about problem areas and with practical economic recommendations that can be useful in developing an implementation plan, schedule, and budget.

  6. Environmental liability protection and other advantages of voluntary cleanup programs

    SciTech Connect

    Bost, R.C.; Linton, K.E.

    1997-06-01

    Historically, regulatory agencies have required that contaminated sites be returned to pristine conditions, often at very high costs. Fear of these enormous environmental liabilities has resulted in abandonment of many industrial and commercial properties, referred to as brownfields. The development of Risk-Based Corrective Action programs has provided a means for regulatory agencies to evaluate contaminated sites based on risk to human health and the environment, resulting in more reasonable remedial measures and costs. Governmental bodies have created a more flexible means of addressing contaminated sites using Risk-Based Corrective Action and other incentives to encourage the redevelopment of sites through Voluntary Cleanup Programs. This study describes the development of Voluntary Cleanup Programs, and the successful implementation of Risk-Based Corrective Action with a focus on the states of Texas, Louisiana, and Oklahoma.

  7. Defence force activities in marine protected areas: environmental management of Shoalwater Bay Training Area, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wen; Wang, Xiaohua; Paull, David; Kesby, Julie

    2010-05-01

    Environmental management of military activities is of growing global concern by defence forces. As one of the largest landholders in Australia, the Australian Defence Force (ADF) is increasingly concerned with sustainable environmental management. This paper focuses on how the ADF is maintaining effective environmental management, especially in environmentally sensitive marine protected areas. It uses Shoalwater Bay Training Area (SWBTA) as a research example to examine environmental management strategies conducted by the ADF. SWBTA is one of the most significant Defence training areas in Australia, with a large number of single, joint and combined military exercises conducted in the area. With its maritime component contained in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA), and abutting Queensland’s State Marine Parks, it has high protection values. It is therefore vital for the ADF to adopt environmentally responsible management while they are conducting military activities. As to various tools employed to manage environmental performance, the ISO 14001 Environmental Management System (EMS) is widely used by the ADF. This paper examines military activities and marine environmental management within SWBTA, using the Talisman Saber (TS) exercise series as an example. These are extensive joint exercises conducted by the ADF and the United States defence forces. The paper outlines relevant legislative framework and environmental policies, analyses how the EMS operates in environmental management of military activities, and how military activities comply with these regulations. It discusses the implementation of the ADF EMS, including risk reduction measures, environmental awareness training, consultation and communication with stakeholders. A number of environmental management actions used in the TS exercises are presented to demonstrate the EMS application. Our investigations to this point indicate that the ADF is

  8. Biobeds for environmental protection from pesticide use--a review.

    PubMed

    Castillo, María del Pilar; Torstensson, Lennart; Stenström, John

    2008-08-13

    Biobeds originated in Sweden in response to the need for simple and effective methods to minimize environmental contamination from pesticide use, especially when filling spraying equipment, a typical point source of contamination. The biobed system has attracted attention in several countries, where work is being conducted to adapt it to local conditions and applications. As a consequence, the biobed system has been more or less modified and sometimes renamed, for example, as biomassbed in Italy, biofilter in Belgium, and Phytobac and biobac in France. The effectiveness and simplicity of the biobed also make it suitable for use in developing countries, and different adaptations of the biobed concept now exist in, for instance, Peru, Guatemala, and Ecuador. When the modification of the biobed includes an intention to use it for retention and degradation of pesticides in sprayer washings, the construction has to be adapted to, for example, lined biobeds to ensure that no pesticide leaching will occur. Replacement of some of the original materials in the Swedish biomixture (straw, peat, and soil) can also change the performance of the system, for instance, the amount, activity, and composition of the microbial community that develops. This review presents the state of the art of biobeds and similar systems in Sweden and worldwide and identifies future research needs. Factors affecting the efficiency of biobeds in terms of degradation and retention of pesticides are discussed, with particular emphasis on the microbial processes involved.

  9. 26 CFR 1.179B-1T - Deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations (temporary). 1.179B-1T Section 1.179B-1T... capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations (temporary... Protection Agency (EPA). This section also provides rules for making elections under section 179B....

  10. Tuberculosis Infection Control in Health-Care Facilities: Environmental Control and Personal Protection

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Transmission of tuberculosis (TB) is a recognized risk to patients and healthcare workers in healthcare settings. The literature review suggests that implementation of combination control measures reduces the risk of TB transmission. Guidelines suggest a three-level hierarchy of controls including administrative, environmental, and respiratory protection. Among environmental controls, installation of ventilation systems is a priority because ventilation reduces the number of infectious particles in the air. Natural ventilation is cost-effective but depends on climatic conditions. Supplemented intervention such as air-cleaning methods including high efficiency particulate air filtration and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation should be considered in areas where adequate ventilation is difficult to achieve. Personal protective equipment including particulate respirators provides additional benefit when administrative and environmental controls cannot assure protection. PMID:27790274

  11. A Fuzzy Logic Enhanced Environmental Protection Education Model for Policies Decision Support in Green Community Development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes the promotion of environmental protection education among communities as a solution to the serious problems of high energy consumption and carbon emissions around the world. Environmental protection education has direct and lasting influences on everyone in society; therefore, it is helpful in our fight against many serious problems caused by high energy consumption. In this study, the Delphi method and the fuzzy logic theory are used to develop a quantizing assessment model based on qualitative analysis. This model can be used to assess the results and influences of community residents' participation in environmental protection education on green community development. In addition, it can be used to provide references for governing authorities in their decision making of green community development policies. PMID:24363614

  12. A fuzzy logic enhanced environmental protection education model for policies decision support in green community development.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Sung-Lin

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes the promotion of environmental protection education among communities as a solution to the serious problems of high energy consumption and carbon emissions around the world. Environmental protection education has direct and lasting influences on everyone in society; therefore, it is helpful in our fight against many serious problems caused by high energy consumption. In this study, the Delphi method and the fuzzy logic theory are used to develop a quantitizing assessment model based on qualitative analysis. This model can be used to assess the results and influences of community residents' participation in environmental protection education on green community development. In addition, it can be used to provide references for governing authorities in their decision making of green community development policies.

  13. Protected Area Reconfiguration Project. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    DOE has decided to consolidate, process, and store Category I and II Special Nuclear Material (SNM) in Building 371 at Rocky Flats, in order to improve safeguards and security and to reduce baseline facility and personnel costs. Once all SNM in consolidated into this building, maintaining the full 200-acre protected area would no longer be necessary, and the protected area (PA) could be reconfigured to include only the protection requirements necessary for Building 371. DOE Environmental Assessment 1132 has been written to evaluate options for reconfiguration of the PA; it addressed potential environmental impacts resulting from construction of fence alternatives. Possible routes for the new fence section were examined for environmental impact, feasibility, cost, and complexity. A number of the alternatives, including the proposed action, would impact wetlands.

  14. Experimental Protection of Two-Qubit Quantum Gates against Environmental Noise by Dynamical Decoupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingfu; Suter, Dieter

    2015-09-01

    Hybrid systems consisting of different types of qubits are promising for building quantum computers if they combine useful properties of their constituent qubits. However, they also pose additional challenges if one type of qubits is more susceptible to environmental noise than the others. Dynamical decoupling can help to protect such systems by reducing the decoherence due to the environmental noise, but the protection must be designed such that it does not interfere with the control fields driving the logical operations. Here, we test such a protection scheme on a quantum register consisting of the electronic and nuclear spins of a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. The results show that processing is compatible with protection: The dephasing time was extended almost to the limit given by the longitudinal relaxation time of the electron spin.

  15. A community-based, environmental chronic disease prevention intervention to improve healthy eating psychosocial factors and behaviors in indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Mead, Erin L; Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Corriveau, André; Sharma, Sangita

    2013-10-01

    Diet-related chronic diseases are highly prevalent among indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic. A community-based, multi-institutional nutritional and lifestyle intervention-Healthy Foods North-was implemented to improve food-related psychosocial factors and behaviors among Inuit and Inuvialuit in four intervention communities (with two comparison communities) in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories, Canada, in 2008. The 12-month program was developed from theory (social cognitive theory and social ecological models), formative research, and a community participatory process. It included an environmental component to increase healthy food availability in local stores and activities consisting of community-wide and point-of-purchase interactive educational taste tests and cooking demonstrations, media (e.g., radio ads, posters, shelf labels), and events held in multiple venues, including recreation centers and schools. The intervention was evaluated using pre- and postassessments with 246 adults from intervention and 133 from comparison communities (311 women, 68 men; mean age 42.4 years; 78.3% retention rate). Outcomes included psychosocial constructs (healthy eating knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavioral intentions), frequency of healthy and unhealthy food acquisition, healthiness of commonly used food preparation methods, and body mass index (kg/m(2)). After adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic status, and body mass index variables, respondents living in intervention communities showed significant improvements in food-related self-efficacy (β = 0.15, p = .003) and intentions (β = 0.16, p = .001) compared with comparison communities. More improvements from the intervention were seen in overweight, obese, and high socioeconomic status respondents. A community-based, multilevel intervention is an effective strategy to improve psychosocial factors for healthy nutritional behavior change to reduce chronic disease in indigenous Arctic populations.

  16. Canadian asthma consensus report, 1999

    PubMed Central

    Boulet, L P; Becker, A; Bérubé, D; Beveridge, R; Ernst, P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To provide physicians with current guidelines for the diagnosis and optimal management of asthma in children and adults, including pregnant women and the elderly, in office, emergency department, hospital and clinic settings. OPTIONS: The consensus group considered the roles of education, avoidance of provocative environmental and other factors, diverse pharmacotherapies, delivery devices and emergency and in-hospital management of asthma. OUTCOMES: Provision of the best control of asthma by confirmation of the diagnosis using objective measures, rapid achievement and maintenance of control and regular follow-up. EVIDENCE: The key diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations are based on the 1995 Canadian guidelines and a critical review of the literature by small groups before a full meeting of the consensus group. Recommendations are graded according to 5 levels of evidence. Differences of opinion were resolved by consensus following discussion. VALUES: Respirologists, immunoallergists, pediatricians and emergency and family physicians gave prime consideration to the achievement and maintenance of optimal control of asthma through avoidance of environmental inciters, education of patients and the lowest effective regime of pharmacotherapy to reduce morbidity and mortality. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: Adherence to the guidelines should be accompanied by significant reduction in patients' symptoms, reduced morbidity and mortality, fewer emergency and hospital admissions, fewer adverse side-effects from medications, better quality of life for patients and reduced costs. RECOMMENDATIONS: Recommendations are included in each section of the report. In summary, after a diagnosis of asthma is made based on clinical evaluation, including demonstration of variable airflow obstruction, and contributing factors are identified, a treatment plan is established to obtain and maintain optimal asthma control. The main components of treatment are patient education

  17. Highlighting High Performance: Department of Environmental Protection; Cambria Office Building, Ebensburg, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2001-10-01

    The 36,000-square-foot Cambria Office building in Ebensbug, Pennsylvania houses the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. Designers of the energy-efficient building used integrated design to minimize energy use and pollution created in the production of the materials they used, and reduced the overall pollution and environmental impact the building will create over its lifetime. The building also employs daylighting and renewable energy technologies.

  18. [The contribution of health professionals in the integration of health and environmental protection].

    PubMed

    Faggioli, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This article first illustrates the EU and national regulatory frameworks related to policies and integrated actions for health and environmental protection, with particular reference to evaluation of the impact of the environment on health, then provides definitions of "evaluation of health impact" and of "environmental epidemiology" and provides synthetic proposals on procedures and operational levels (national, regional and local). Finally, the responsibilities of regional and local government bodies in supporting ARPA, Departments of Prevention of local health departments and physicians. PMID:26722828

  19. Environmental health sciences education--a tool for achieving environmental equity and protecting children.

    PubMed Central

    Claudio, L; Torres, T; Sanjurjo, E; Sherman, L R; Landrigan, P J

    1998-01-01

    Children are highly susceptible to deleterious effects of environmental toxins. Those who live in underserved communities may be particularly at risk because environmental pollution has been found to be disproportionately distributed among communities. Mounting evidence suggests that asthma rates are rising and that this disease can be caused or aggravated by air pollution. Although ambient air quality has generally improved, these improvements have not reached minority communities in equal proportions. This and other data has fueled the concept of environmental justice or environmental equity, which has led to community activism and government actions. One possible example of environmental inequity and its consequences is the Hunt's Point community, in the South Bronx, New York. This community experiences a high pollution burden with the siting of facilities that emit hazardous wastes into the air. Our approach to this problem has been the formation of mechanisms for bidirectional communication between community residents, government entities, and academic institutions such as Mount Sinai Medical Center. As a result of this experience, we believe that the key to achieving environmental health, especially in communities of color where many children are at risk, is to empower residents to take charge of their environment by providing relevant educational opportunities. Strategies for environmental health education include multitiered training approaches that include community residents, parent education, direct children education, and community education through professional counselors and train-the-trainer approaches. We propose that academic researchers must use community residents not just as subjects of our studies, but to increase our mutual understanding of environmental health, resulting in active participation of community members in research design, data collection, analysis, and dissemination of results in order to make intervention strategies more

  20. Perspective on the use of LNT for radiation protection and risk assessment by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

    PubMed

    Puskin, Jerome S

    2009-08-21

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) bases its risk assessments, regulatory limits, and nonregulatory guidelines for population exposures to low level ionizing radiation on the linear no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis, which assumes that the risk of cancer due to a low dose exposure is proportional to dose, with no threshold. The use of LNT for radiation protection purposes has been repeatedly endorsed by authoritative scientific advisory bodies, including the National Academy of Sciences' BEIR Committees, whose recommendations form a primary basis of EPA's risk assessment methodology. Although recent radiobiological findings indicate novel damage and repair processes at low doses, LNT is supported by data from both epidemiology and radiobiology. Given the current state of the science, the consensus positions of key scientific and governmental bodies, as well as the conservatism and calculational convenience of the LNT assumption, it is unlikely that EPA will modify this approach in the near future.

  1. Paleo-environmental gateways in the eastern Canadian arctic - Recent isotope hydrology and diatom oxygen isotopes from Nettilling Lake, Baffin Island, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapligin, B.; Narancic, B.; Meyer, H.; Pienitz, R.

    2016-09-01

    Nettilling Lake is located on Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada between the areas of past warming (Canadian High Arctic to the North) and climatic stability (Northern Quebec and Labrador region to the South). Despite being the largest lake in the Nunavut region with a postglacial marine to lacustrine transition history only a few paleo-environmental investigations were completed in this area. The oxygen isotope composition of diatoms (δ18Odiatom) can provide valuable insights into paleo-environmental conditions. Here, the recent (isotope) hydrology and hydrochemical data from the lake are presented to facilitate the interpretation of a δ18Odiatom record from an 82 cm sediment core (Ni-2B). The well-mixed lake (δ18Owater = -17.4‰) is influenced by a heavier (less negative) isotope composition (-18.80‰) from Amadjuak River draining Amadjuak Lake to the South and water of lighter (more negative) isotopic composition (-16.4‰) from the Isurtuq River originating from Penny Ice Cap in the North-East. From the δ18Owater and δ18Odiatom of the topmost sample of core Ni-2B a Δ18Osilica-water of 1000 ln α(silica-water) = 40.2‰ for sub-recent diatoms of Nettilling Lake was calculated matching the known water-silica fractionation for fossil sediments well and thereby showing the general applicability of this proxy for paleo-reconstructions in this region. Extremely large δ18Odiatom variations in the core of more than 13‰ are mainly induced by changes in the isotopic composition of the lake water due to a shift from glaciomarine (δ18Odiatom = +34.6‰) through brackish (+23.4 to +27.2‰) towards lacustrine (+21.5‰) conditions (transition zones glaciomarine to brackish at 69 cm/7300 yr cal. BP and brackish to lacustrine at 35 cm/6000 yr cal. BP) associated with a shift in the degree of salinity. Our study provides the first evidence that paleo-salinity can be reconstructed by δ18Odiatom. Additionally, for the lacustrine section it could be demonstrated that

  2. Minorities and Exploitation: A Canadian Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, David; Roberts, Barbara

    1981-01-01

    Illustrates the assertion that Canada's constitutional protection of minority rights has been used throughout history against the poor to protect the rich. Gives several examples of government policies and actions against the poor, against immigrants, against workers, and against native Canadians. (Author/GC)

  3. Investing in citizen science can improve natural resource management and environmental protection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinley, Duncan C.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Ballard, Heidi L.; Bonney, Rick; Brown, Hutch; Evans, Daniel M.; French, Rebecca A.; Parrish, Julia K.; Phillips, Tina B.; Ryan, Sean F.; Shanley, Lea A.; Shirk, Jennifer L.; Stepenuck, Kristine F.; Weltzin, Jake; Wiggins, Andrea; Boyle, Owen D.; Briggs, Russell D.; Chapin, Stuart F.; Hewitt, David A.; Preuss, Peter W.; Soukup, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Citizen science has made substantive contributions to science for hundreds of years. More recently, it has contributed to many articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals and has influenced natural resource management and environmental protection decisions and policies across the nation. Over the last 10 years, citizen science—participation by the public in a scientific project—has seen explosive growth in the United States, particularly in ecology, the environmental sciences, and related fields of inquiry. In this report, we explore the current use of citizen science in natural resource and environmental science and decision making in the United States and describe the investments organizations might make to benefit from citizen science.

  4. A Description of the Environmental Protection Agency's In-House Library Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sarah M.; Needle, Lester P.

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) inhouse library systems fall into two principle categories: basic library inventory systems and literature retrieval systems. Currently, the library network supports three inventory systems: the journal system; the hard bound book system; and the circulation system. At the same time, five efforts are…

  5. Air Pollution Technical Publications of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Air Pollution Technical Information Center.

    Contained in this catalog is a complete listing of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reports issued in the AP and APTD series and of selected reports in the EPA-R series. The AP group provides information of general interest in the field of air pollution control and is made available to the public through the Government Printing Office. The…

  6. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION OF PNEUMATIC FRACTURING EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in cooperation with Accutech Remedial Systems (ARS) and the New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) performed a field demonstration of Pneumatic Fracturing Extraction (PFE) for the removal of chlorinated volatile organics (VOCS) f...

  7. AN UPDATE ON SOME ARSENIC PROJECTS AT THE UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT Exposure to arsenic (As) has been reported to cause many adverse health effects in humans, including internal and skin cancers, vascular, neurological and dermal manifestations. Some Offices of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) deal with As and selected activ...

  8. THE MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE: THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S RESPONSE TO INVASIVE SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responding to the scientific and regulatory challenges of invasive species in a variety of ways. One response has been to use existing programs and regulations, as appropriate, to address invasive species. A recent example is th...

  9. Investigation of the Preservation Method within Environmental Protection Agency Method 200.8

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lead (Pb) is a trace metal that is closely regulated in drinking water systems because of its harmful toxicity. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) issued the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR), which defines the action level for Lead as 0.015 mg/L. Researchers and drinking ...

  10. 36 CFR 223.40 - Cancellation for environmental protection or inconsistency with plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.40 Cancellation for environmental protection or inconsistency with plans. Timber sale...

  11. 1990 UPDATE OF THE US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S SITE EMERGING TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) directed the U.S. Environmental Protection AGency (EPA) to establish an Alternative/Innovative Treatment Technology Research and Demonstration Program. The EPA's Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response and the ...

  12. THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S SITE EMERGING TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the SITE Emerging Technology Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is seeking to foster the further development of technol- ogies that have been successfully tested at bench-scale and are now ready for pilot-scale testing, prior to field- or full-scale demonstra...

  13. 75 FR 80287 - Environmental Protection Agency Implementation of OMB Guidance on Drug-Free Workplace Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... make no substantive change in Environmental Protection Agency policy or procedures for drug-free..., September 26, 2008] and finalized Governmentwide guidance with policies and procedures to implement drug... procedures for drug-free workplace. Thus, Executive Order 13175 (63 FR 67249, November 9, 2000) does...

  14. 77 FR 30274 - The Commission's Role Regarding the Environmental Protection Agency's Mercury and Air Toxics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    .../pkg/FR-2012-02-16/pdf/2012-806.pdf . I. Introduction 2. On December 21, 2011, the EPA released the... Mercury and Air Toxics Standards; Policy Statement on the Commission's Role Regarding the Environmental Protection Agency's Mercury and Air Toxics Standards Before Commissioners: Jon Wellinghoff, Chairman;...

  15. Training Future Science Librarians: A Successful Partnership between Academia and the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Kristen Conahan

    2000-01-01

    Describes a partnership between the School of Information and Library Science at the University of North Carolina (Chapel Hill) and the Environmental Protection Agency library in Research Park Triangle that provides the opportunity for master's level students to acquire practical experience working in a science library while taking classes.…

  16. Abatement and Pollution Control Training and Educational Programs Presented by the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This catalog is a compilation of training course and educational program descriptions in abatement and pollution control scheduled by the Environmental Protection Agency. Descriptions of programs include prerequisites, class size, and length of time with the content goals. Also given is general information concerning tuition fees, waiver requests,…

  17. The Environmental Protection Agency: A Profile of Its Information Collection and Dissemination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadec, Sarah T.

    1989-01-01

    Provides an overview of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and its publication distribution programs. Topics discussed include information collection, vehicles for dissemination, the application of information technologies, and primary users. The relationship of the EPA to the Government Printing Office (GPO) and the National Technical…

  18. EVALUATION OF A CRYPTOSPORIDIUM INTERNAL STANDARD FOR DETERMINING RECOVERY WITH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY METHOD 1623

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current benchmark method for detecting Cryptosporidium oocysts in water is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Method 1623. Studies evaluating this method report that recoveries are highly variable and dependent upon laboratory, water sample, and analyst. Ther...

  19. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL (MFFP2T)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed a pre-release version of a process simulation tool, the Metal Finishing Facility Pollution Prevention Tool (MFFP2T), for the metal finishing industry. This presentation will provide a demonstration of the current ver...

  20. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems for Mars Exploration: Issues and Concerns for Planetary Protection and the Protection of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Lange, Kevin; Anderson, Molly; Vonau, Walter

    2016-07-01

    Planetary protection represents an additional set of requirements that generally have not been considered by developers of technologies for Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS). Forward contamination concerns will affect release of gases and discharge of liquids and solids, including what may be left behind after planetary vehicles are abandoned upon return to Earth. A crew of four using a state of the art ECLSS could generate as much as 4.3 metric tons of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes and trash during a 500-day surface stay. These may present issues and concerns for both planetary protection and planetary science. Certainly, further closure of ECLSS systems will be of benefit by greater reuse of consumable products and reduced generation of waste products. It can be presumed that planetary protection will affect technology development by constraining how technologies can operate: limiting or prohibiting certain kinds of operations or processes (e.g. venting); necessitating that other kinds of operations be performed (e.g. sterilization; filtration of vent lines); prohibiting what can be brought on a mission (e.g. extremophiles); creating needs for new capabilities/ technologies (e.g. containment). Although any planned venting could include filtration to eliminate micro-organisms from inadvertently exiting the spacecraft, it may be impossible to eliminate or filter habitat structural leakage. Filtration will add pressure drops impacting size of lines and ducts, affect fan size and energy requirements, and add consumable mass. Technologies that may be employed to remove biomarkers and microbial contamination from liquid and solid wastes prior to storage or release may include mineralization technologies such as incineration, super critical wet oxidation and pyrolysis. These technologies, however, come with significant penalties for mass, power and consumables. This paper will estimate the nature and amounts of materials generated during Mars

  1. Environmental awareness and public support for protecting and restoring Puget sound.

    PubMed

    Safford, Thomas G; Norman, Karma C; Henly, Megan; Mills, Katherine E; Levin, Phillip S

    2014-04-01

    In an effort to garner consensus around environmental programs, practitioners have attempted to increase awareness about environmental threats and demonstrate the need for action. Nonetheless, how beliefs about the scope and severity of different types of environmental concerns shape support for management interventions are less clear. Using data from a telephone survey of residents of the Puget Sound region of Washington, we investigate how perceptions of the severity of different coastal environmental problems, along with other social factors, affect attitudes about policy options. We find that self-assessed environmental understanding and views about the seriousness of pollution, habitat loss, and salmon declines are only weakly related. Among survey respondents, women, young people, and those who believe pollution threatens Puget Sound are more likely to support policy measures such as increased enforcement and spending on restoration. Conversely, self-identified Republicans and individuals who view current regulations as ineffective tend to oppose governmental actions aimed at protecting and restoring Puget Sound. Support for one policy measure-tax credits for environmentally-friendly business practices-is not significantly affected by political party affiliation. These findings demonstrate that environmental awareness can influence public support for environmental policy tools. However, the nature of particular management interventions and other social forces can have important mitigating effects and need to be considered by practitioners attempting to develop environment-related social indicators and generate consensus around the need for action to address environmental problems. PMID:24488038

  2. Environmental awareness and public support for protecting and restoring Puget sound.

    PubMed

    Safford, Thomas G; Norman, Karma C; Henly, Megan; Mills, Katherine E; Levin, Phillip S

    2014-04-01

    In an effort to garner consensus around environmental programs, practitioners have attempted to increase awareness about environmental threats and demonstrate the need for action. Nonetheless, how beliefs about the scope and severity of different types of environmental concerns shape support for management interventions are less clear. Using data from a telephone survey of residents of the Puget Sound region of Washington, we investigate how perceptions of the severity of different coastal environmental problems, along with other social factors, affect attitudes about policy options. We find that self-assessed environmental understanding and views about the seriousness of pollution, habitat loss, and salmon declines are only weakly related. Among survey respondents, women, young people, and those who believe pollution threatens Puget Sound are more likely to support policy measures such as increased enforcement and spending on restoration. Conversely, self-identified Republicans and individuals who view current regulations as ineffective tend to oppose governmental actions aimed at protecting and restoring Puget Sound. Support for one policy measure-tax credits for environmentally-friendly business practices-is not significantly affected by political party affiliation. These findings demonstrate that environmental awareness can influence public support for environmental policy tools. However, the nature of particular management interventions and other social forces can have important mitigating effects and need to be considered by practitioners attempting to develop environment-related social indicators and generate consensus around the need for action to address environmental problems.

  3. Environmental Awareness and Public Support for Protecting and Restoring Puget Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safford, Thomas G.; Norman, Karma C.; Henly, Megan; Mills, Katherine E.; Levin, Phillip S.

    2014-04-01

    In an effort to garner consensus around environmental programs, practitioners have attempted to increase awareness about environmental threats and demonstrate the need for action. Nonetheless, how beliefs about the scope and severity of different types of environmental concerns shape support for management interventions are less clear. Using data from a telephone survey of residents of the Puget Sound region of Washington, we investigate how perceptions of the severity of different coastal environmental problems, along with other social factors, affect attitudes about policy options. We find that self-assessed environmental understanding and views about the seriousness of pollution, habitat loss, and salmon declines are only weakly related. Among survey respondents, women, young people, and those who believe pollution threatens Puget Sound are more likely to support policy measures such as increased enforcement and spending on restoration. Conversely, self-identified Republicans and individuals who view current regulations as ineffective tend to oppose governmental actions aimed at protecting and restoring Puget Sound. Support for one policy measure—tax credits for environmentally-friendly business practices—is not significantly affected by political party affiliation. These findings demonstrate that environmental awareness can influence public support for environmental policy tools. However, the nature of particular management interventions and other social forces can have important mitigating effects and need to be considered by practitioners attempting to develop environment-related social indicators and generate consensus around the need for action to address environmental problems.

  4. Review and challenges of policies of environmental protection and sustainable development in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun-Min; Wen, Zong-Guo

    2008-09-01

    China is confronted with the dual task of developing its national economy and protecting its ecological environment. Since the 1980s, China's policies on environmental protection and sustainable development have experienced five changes: (1) progression from the adoption of environmental protection as a basic state policy to the adoption of sustainable development strategy; (2) changing focus from pollution control to ecological conservation equally; (3) shifting from end-of-pipe treatment to source control; (4) moving from point source treatment to regional environmental governance; and (5) a turn away from administrative management-based approaches and towards a legal means and economic instruments-based approach. Since 1992, China has set down sustainable development as a basic national strategy. However, environmental pollution and ecological degradation in China have continued to be serious problems and have inflicted great damage on the economy and quality of life. The beginning of the 21st century is a critical juncture for China's efforts towards sustaining rapid economic development, intensifying environmental protection efforts, and curbing ecological degradation. As the largest developing country, China's policies on environmental protection and sustainable development will be of primary importance not only for China, but also the world. Realizing a completely well-off society by the year 2020 is seen as a crucial task by the Chinese government and an important goal for China's economic development in the new century, however, attaining it would require a four-fold increase over China's year 2000 GDP. Therefore, speeding up economic development is a major mission during the next two decades and doing so will bring great challenges in controlling depletion of natural resources and environmental pollution. By taking a critical look at the development of Chinese environmental policy, we try to determine how best to coordinate the relationship between the

  5. Review and challenges of policies of environmental protection and sustainable development in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun-Min; Wen, Zong-Guo

    2008-09-01

    China is confronted with the dual task of developing its national economy and protecting its ecological environment. Since the 1980s, China's policies on environmental protection and sustainable development have experienced five changes: (1) progression from the adoption of environmental protection as a basic state policy to the adoption of sustainable development strategy; (2) changing focus from pollution control to ecological conservation equally; (3) shifting from end-of-pipe treatment to source control; (4) moving from point source treatment to regional environmental governance; and (5) a turn away from administrative management-based approaches and towards a legal means and economic instruments-based approach. Since 1992, China has set down sustainable development as a basic national strategy. However, environmental pollution and ecological degradation in China have continued to be serious problems and have inflicted great damage on the economy and quality of life. The beginning of the 21st century is a critical juncture for China's efforts towards sustaining rapid economic development, intensifying environmental protection efforts, and curbing ecological degradation. As the largest developing country, China's policies on environmental protection and sustainable development will be of primary importance not only for China, but also the world. Realizing a completely well-off society by the year 2020 is seen as a crucial task by the Chinese government and an important goal for China's economic development in the new century, however, attaining it would require a four-fold increase over China's year 2000 GDP. Therefore, speeding up economic development is a major mission during the next two decades and doing so will bring great challenges in controlling depletion of natural resources and environmental pollution. By taking a critical look at the development of Chinese environmental policy, we try to determine how best to coordinate the relationship between the

  6. In the Field: The Canadian Ecology Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magee, Clare

    2000-01-01

    The Canadian Ecology Centre (Ontario) offers year-round residential and day programs in outdoor and environmental education for secondary students, field placement and internship opportunities for college students, and ecotourism programs, while providing employment and tax revenues to the local community. Dubbed consensus environmentalism, the…

  7. A Canadian View of Monitoring Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inhaber, Herbert

    1975-01-01

    A Canadian scientist discusses his country's environmental monitoring programs (by parameter and medium), points out their strengths and weaknesses, and indicates some possible directions for future efforts in the field of environmental monitoring at both the national and international level. (BT)

  8. Slope Gullies on Devon Island, Canadian Arctic: Possible Analogs for Gullies on Mars and Evidence for Recent Transient Environmental Change on Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, P.

    2002-12-01

    The origin and evolution of the relatively youthful slope gully features on Mars first reported by Malin and Edgett (2000) remain enigmatic. Two prevailing hypotheses concerning their formation involve the discharge of subsurface H2O at the gully sites: groundwater seepage (1) and/or the melting of ground-ice (2, 3). In the course of geologic field investigations on Devon Island, Canadian Arctic, we have identified morphologic and contextual analogs for the martian gullies that result from a radically different mechanism of formation (4). The gullies on Devon result mainly from the episodic melting of transient surface snow and ice deposits, with little contribution from subsurface H2O reservoirs. Timescales for gully formation on Devon Island are ­š104 years (5). The gullies on Devon suggest that the formation of gully features on Mars might not necessarily have involved discharges of subsurface H2O at the gully sites. Instead, gullies on Mars might be the result of transient surface snow and ice melting, which in turn might be the result of short-term changes in regional surface environmental conditions (on time-scales of ­š105-108 years?) possibly in association with high obliquity-induced climate change (6, 7) and/or volcanic activity. Acknowledgements: This research was conducted under the auspices of the NASA Haughton-Mars Project (HMP) with support from NASA and the National Geographic Society. References: (1) Malin, M. C. and K. S. Edgett 2000. Science 288, 2330-2335. (2) Mellon, M. T. and R. J. Phillips 2001. J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23165-23179. (3) Costard, F. et al. 2002. Science 295, 110-112. (4) Lee, P. et al. 2001. LPSC. XXXII, Houston, TX, Mar 12-16, 2001. (5) Lee, P, et al. 2002. LPSC XXXIII, Houston, TX, Mar 11-15, 2002. (6) Ward, W. R. (1973) Science 181, 260-262. (7) Touma, J. and J. Wisdom (1993) Science 259, 1294-1296.

  9. A Community-Based, Environmental Chronic Disease Prevention Intervention to Improve Healthy Eating Psychosocial Factors and Behaviors in Indigenous Populations in the Canadian Arctic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Erin L.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Corriveau, André; Sharma, Sangita

    2013-01-01

    Diet-related chronic diseases are highly prevalent among indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic. A community-based, multi-institutional nutritional and lifestyle intervention--Healthy Foods North--was implemented to improve food-related psychosocial factors and behaviors among Inuit and Inuvialuit in four intervention communities (with two…

  10. The policy and politics of environmental protection in the Republic of Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.

    1989-01-01

    This study examines the emergence, development, and institutionalization of environmental policy in the Republic of Korea. The Park Chunghee regime's commitment to rapid industrialization resulted in extensive damage to the environment. In the 1970s, there was no substantial effort to deal with pollution. As a reaction to several serious pollution crises, President Park ordered the establishment of the Office of Environment in May 1979. An examination of the policy process that established the Office of Environment reveals the characteristics of policy making in an authoritarian regime: the wide decision making authority of the president, the dominance of the executive branch, the passive role of the legislature, and the near exclusion of the public. This study argues that the 1980s governmental officials responsible for environmental policy have gone through a learning process and have adapted to the pervasive noncompliance of businesses. Despite some successes, however, they have not been able to significantly improve environmental conditions in Korea. First, the supremacy of economic growth goals continue to dictate national priorities. One result of this is that the tasks of the Office of Environment have been impeded by other powerful government agencies such as the Economic Planning Board and the Ministry of Commerce and Industry. Second, businesses have exploited regulatory ambiguity and the ambivalence of administrators to evade environmental policies. Thirdly, environmental protection has not become a major political issue. The public has perceived the importance of environmental protection, as of 1985 they tacitly agreed that the pursuit of economic growth is a more urgent task. This case study on Korea shows the possibility and limits of environmental protection in a rapidly industrializing country.

  11. Functional issues and environmental qualification of digital protection systems of advanced light-water nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, K.; Clark, R.L.; Wood, R.T.

    1994-04-01

    Issues of obsolescence and lack of infrastructural support in (analog) spare parts, coupled with the potential benefits of digital systems, are driving the nuclear industry to retrofit analog instrumentation and control (I&C) systems with digital and microprocessor-based systems. While these technologies have several advantages, their application to safety-related systems in nuclear power plants raises key issues relating to the systems` environmental qualification and functional reliability. To bound the problem of new I&C system functionality and qualification, the authors focused this study on protection systems proposed for use in ALWRs. Specifically, both functional and environmental qualification issues for ALWR protection system I&C were addressed by developing an environmental, functional, and aging data template for a protection division of each proposed ALWR design. By using information provided by manufacturers, environmental conditions and stressors to which I&C equipment in reactor protection divisions may be subjected were identified. The resulting data were then compared to a similar template for an instrument string typically found in an analog protection division of a present-day nuclear power plant. The authors also identified fiber-optic transmission systems as technologies that are relatively new to the nuclear power plant environment and examined the failure modes and age-related degradation mechanisms of fiber-optic components and systems. One reason for the exercise of caution in the introduction of software into safety-critical systems is the potential for common-cause failure due to the software. This study, however, approaches the functionality problem from a systems point of view. System malfunction scenarios are postulated to illustrate the fact that, when dealing with the performance of the overall integrated system, the real issues are functionality and fault tolerance, not hardware vs. software.

  12. 2 CFR 1536.505 - Who in the Environmental Protection Agency determines that a recipient who is an individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Who in the Environmental Protection Agency... Consequences § 1536.505 Who in the Environmental Protection Agency determines that a recipient who is an... 1536.505 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements...

  13. 2 CFR 1536.500 - Who in the Environmental Protection Agency determines that a recipient other than an individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Who in the Environmental Protection Agency... Consequences § 1536.500 Who in the Environmental Protection Agency determines that a recipient other than an... 1536.500 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements...

  14. 2 CFR 1536.505 - Who in the Environmental Protection Agency determines that a recipient who is an individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Who in the Environmental Protection Agency... Consequences § 1536.505 Who in the Environmental Protection Agency determines that a recipient who is an... 1536.505 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements...

  15. 2 CFR 1536.500 - Who in the Environmental Protection Agency determines that a recipient other than an individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Who in the Environmental Protection Agency... Consequences § 1536.500 Who in the Environmental Protection Agency determines that a recipient other than an... 1536.500 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements...

  16. 2 CFR 1536.505 - Who in the Environmental Protection Agency determines that a recipient who is an individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Who in the Environmental Protection Agency... Consequences § 1536.505 Who in the Environmental Protection Agency determines that a recipient who is an... 1536.505 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements...

  17. 2 CFR 1536.505 - Who in the Environmental Protection Agency determines that a recipient who is an individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Who in the Environmental Protection Agency... Consequences § 1536.505 Who in the Environmental Protection Agency determines that a recipient who is an... 1536.505 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements...

  18. 2 CFR 1536.500 - Who in the Environmental Protection Agency determines that a recipient other than an individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Who in the Environmental Protection Agency... Consequences § 1536.500 Who in the Environmental Protection Agency determines that a recipient other than an... 1536.500 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements...

  19. 2 CFR 1536.500 - Who in the Environmental Protection Agency determines that a recipient other than an individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Who in the Environmental Protection Agency... Consequences § 1536.500 Who in the Environmental Protection Agency determines that a recipient other than an... 1536.500 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements...

  20. Nanotechnology applications and implications research supported by the US Environmental Protection Agency STAR grants program.

    PubMed

    Savage, Nora; Thomas, Treye A; Duncan, Jeremiah S

    2007-10-01

    Since 2002, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been funding research on the environmental aspects of nanotechnology through its Science to Achieve Results (STAR) grants program. In total, more than $25 million has been awarded for 86 research projects on the environmental applications and implications of nanotechnology. In the applications area, grantees have produced promising results in green manufacturing, remediation, sensors, and treatment using nanotechnology and nanomaterials. Although there are many potential benefits of nanotechnology, there has also been increasing concern about the environmental and health effects of nanomaterials, and there are significant gaps in the data needed to address these concerns. Research performed by STAR grantees is beginning to address these needs.

  1. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault in Canadian Sports and Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Margery; Moriarty, Richard

    Sexual harassment is deemed a violation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms which provides protection from discrimination based on sex. Provincial jurisdictions may offer legislation more stringent than that reflected in the Canadian code. Recourse for acts of sexual harassment through the courts is sought by alleging discrimination.…

  2. Environmental protection in Italy: the emerging concept of a right to a healthful environment

    SciTech Connect

    Patti, S.

    1984-07-01

    Italy's concepts of private law limit the possibilities for environmental protection. The failure to use available public law effectively and the failure of other governments to solve the problem with constitutional changes, emphasizes the need to establish an effective legal means within the existing constitutional structure. A recent approach draws on the right of the individual to a healthful environment, but whether this succeeds in protecting the environment depends, to a large degree, on the ability of Italians to overcome a system characterized by economic individualism. 40 references.

  3. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) initiates wetlands research in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Kentula, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    In January 1986 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) adopted a Wetlands Research Plan (Zedler and Kentula 1986). The plan describes the research necessary to assist the Agency in implementing its responsibilities for protecting wetlands, including Section 404 of the Clean Water Act. Three research needs were identified and an emphasis on freshwater systems was recommended. Research will be implemented to: (1) assess the water quality functions of wetlands; (2) develop methods to predict the cumulative impact(s) associated with wetland loss; and (3) improve the formulation and evaluation of wetland creation/ restoration projects required as mitigation for unavoidable impacts.

  4. Use of the Oslo-Potsdam Solution to test the effect of an environmental education model on tangible measures of environmental protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Philip Craig

    The fundamental goals of environmental education include the creation of an environmentally literate citizenry possessing the knowledge, skills, and motivation to objectively analyze environmental issues and engage in responsible behaviors leading to issue resolution and improved or maintained environmental quality. No existing research, however, has linked educational practices and environmental protection. In an original attempt to quantify the pedagogy - environmental protection relationship, both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to investigate local environmental records and environmental quality indices that reflected the results of student actions. The data were analyzed using an educational adaptation of the "Oslo-Potsdam Solution for International Environmental Regime Effectiveness." The new model, termed the Environmental Education Performance Indicator (EEPI), was developed and evaluated as a quantitative tool for testing and fairly comparing the efficacy of student-initiated environmental projects in terms of environmental quality measures. Five case studies were developed from descriptions of student actions and environmental impacts as revealed by surveys and interviews with environmental education teachers using the IEEIA (Investigating and Evaluating Environmental Issues and Actions) curriculum, former students, community members, and agency officials. Archival information was also used to triangulate the data. In addition to evaluating case study data on the basis of the EEPI model, an expert panel of evaluators consisting of professionals from environmental education, natural sciences, environmental policy, and environmental advocacy provided subjective assessments on the effectiveness of each case study. The results from this study suggest that environmental education interventions can equip and empower students to act on their own conclusions in a manner that leads to improved or maintained environmental conditions. The EEPI model

  5. Recent studies of airblast from buried charges, for environmental charges, for environmental protection from HEST events

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Characteristics of blast waves from explosions in simple geometries and containment media have been well defined by hydrodynamic models and verified by experiment. A large class of useful explosions, those only partially contained by the close surrounding medium, are less-adequately understood. This report addresses the problem of airblast emitted into the atmosphere from explosions buried in the ground at less than containment depth. Examples of such explosions have arisen in cratering excavation, mining and quarrying, ordnance disposal, and military High Explosives Simulation Tests (HEST). Some recent HEST data have been assembled here to help define an empirical approach to airblast predictions, for operational safety as well as for controlling environmental impact on neighboring communities.

  6. 19th JANNAF Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, J. E. (Editor); Becker, D. L. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes, is a compilation of 22 unclassified/unlimited technical papers presented at the 19th Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Safety & Environmental Protection Subcommittee Meeting. The meeting was held 18-21 March 2002 at the Sheraton Colorado Springs Hotel, Colorado Springs, Colorado. Topics covered include green energetic materials and life cycle pollution prevention; space launch range safety; propellant/munitions demilitarization, recycling, and reuse: and environmental and occupational health aspects of propellants and energetic materials.

  7. Environmental Protection Department`s well inventory (through the second quarter of 1993)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This report is an inventory of the wells recorded in Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) documents since the startup of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and includes wells monitored by special request and SRS research wells. The purpose of this report is as follows: to provide a historical record of the wells that EPD/EMS has monitored; to provide a document containing a list of wells that are currently in the EPD/EMS Groundwater Monitoring Program; to provide pertinent information about all wells listed in EPD/EMS documents.

  8. Environmental Protection Department's well inventory through the second quarter of 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, C.D. )

    1992-09-01

    This report is an inventory of the wells recorded in Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) documents since the startup of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and includes wells monitored by special request and SRS research wells. Wells listed in this inventory are monitoring wells unless otherwise indicated. The purpose of this report is as follows: to provide a historical record of the wells that EPD/EMS has monitored, to provide a document containing a list of wells that are currently in the EPD/EMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, and to provide pertinent information about all wells listed in EPD/EMS documents.

  9. Environmental Protection Department`s well inventory through the second quarter of 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, C.D.

    1992-09-01

    This report is an inventory of the wells recorded in Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) documents since the startup of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and includes wells monitored by special request and SRS research wells. Wells listed in this inventory are monitoring wells unless otherwise indicated. The purpose of this report is as follows: to provide a historical record of the wells that EPD/EMS has monitored, to provide a document containing a list of wells that are currently in the EPD/EMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, and to provide pertinent information about all wells listed in EPD/EMS documents.

  10. Anti-environmental warfare: protecting the environment during wartime. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, R.O.

    1992-06-19

    This paper analyzes the operational impact resulting from the growing legal and political concerns over the environment during wartime. Current international law and national policies are examined to determine their potential effect on Rules of Engagement, and the resulting operational impact on means and methods of warfare. As illustrated during the recent Persian Gulf War, coalition leaders will be operationally constrained by political demands to protect the environment, and to mitigate ecological destruction caused by an opposing force. These constraints will effect how offensive action is conducted against environmentally sensitive industries including nuclear, chemical and petroleum. Commanders must adhere to the current environmental policies and place more emphasis on the principles of discrimination and military necessity in selecting and striking targets. Concurrently, commanders must balance protecting the environment and the requisite minimum casualties to obtain the objectives and preserve public support.

  11. The 1997 JANNAF Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee and Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee Joint Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Filliben, Jeff D. (Editor); Watson, Anne H. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    In the Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee (PDCS) meeting, topics included: the analysis, characterization, and processing of propellants and propellant ingredients; chemical reactivity; liquid propellants; test methods; rheology; surveillance and aging; and process engineering. In the Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee (S&EPS) meeting, topics covered included: hydrazine propellant vapor detection methods; toxicity of propellants and propellants; explosives safety; atmospheric modeling and risk assessment of toxic releases; reclamation, disposal, and demilitarization methods; and remediation of explosives or propellant contaminated sites.

  12. The fate and behaviour of enhanced natural radioactivity with respect to environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Michalik, B.; Brown, J.; Krajewski, P.

    2013-01-15

    In contrast to the monitoring and prevention of occupational radiation risk caused by enhanced natural radioactivity, relatively little attention has been paid to the environmental impact associated with residues containing enhanced activity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides. Such materials are often deposited directly into the environment, a practice which is strictly forbidden in the management of other types of radioactive waste. In view of the new trends in radiation protection, the need to consider the occurrence of anthropogenically enhanced natural radioactivity as a particular unique case of environmental hazard is quite apparent. Residues containing high activity concentrations of some natural radionuclides differ from radioactive materials arising from the nuclear industry. In addition, the radiation risk is usually combined with the risk caused by other pollutants. As such and to date, there are no precise regulations regarding this matter and moreover, the non-nuclear industry is often not aware of potential environmental problems caused by natural radioactivity. This article discusses aspects of environmental radiation risks caused by anthropogenically enhanced natural radioactivity stored at unauthorised sites. Difficulties and inconclusiveness in the application of recommendations and models for radiation risk assessment are explored. General terms such as 'environmental effects' and the basic parameters necessary to carry out consistent and comparable Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) have been developed and defined. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Features of environmental impact caused by residues containing high activity concentration of natural radionuclides Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Definition of an effect of radiation on an ecosystem and novel method for its assessment Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation protection regulation inconclusiveness in the aspects of enhanced natural radioactivity.

  13. Sustainable natural resource management and environmental assessment in the Salt Lake (Tuz Golu) Specially Protected Area.

    PubMed

    Dengiz, Orhan; Ozcan, Hesna; Koksal, E Selim; Baskan, Oguz; Kosker, Yakup

    2010-02-01

    The Salt Lake Specially Protected Area is a unique ecosystem for both agricultural activities and natural life in Turkey. In the present study, an attempt was made to develop a conceptual land use strategy and methodology, taking into account ecological factors for regional development in the Salt Lake Specially Protected Area. A detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis was done to create a comprehensive database including land use, land suitability, and environmental factors (soil, climate, water quality, fertilizing status, and heavy metal and pesticide pollution). The results of the land suitability survey for agricultural use showed that, while 62.6% of the study area soils were classified as best and relatively good, about 15% were classified as problematic and restricted lands, only 22.2% of the study area soils were not suitable for agricultural uses. However, this is not enough to derive maximum benefit with minimum degradation. Therefore, environmental factors and ecological conditions were combined to support this aim and to protect the ecosystem. Excessive irrigation practices, fertilizer and pesticide application, and incorrect management practices all accelerate salinization and degradation. In addition to this, it was found that a multi-layer GIS analysis made it easy to develop a framework for optimum land use and could increase the production yield preserving the environmental conditions. Finally, alternative management and crop patterns were undertaken to sustain this unique ecosystem, considering water, soil, climate, land use characteristics, and to provide guidance for planners or decision makers.

  14. Through what mechanisms do protected areas affect environmental and social outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Paul J.; Hanauer, Merlin M.

    2015-01-01

    To develop effective protected area policies, scholars and practitioners must better understand the mechanisms through which protected areas affect social and environmental outcomes. With strong evidence about mechanisms, the key elements of success can be strengthened, and the key elements of failure can be eliminated or repaired. Unfortunately, empirical evidence about these mechanisms is limited, and little guidance for quantifying them exists. This essay assesses what mechanisms have been hypothesized, what empirical evidence exists for their relative contributions and what advances have been made in the past decade for estimating mechanism causal effects from non-experimental data. The essay concludes with a proposed agenda for building an evidence base about protected area mechanisms. PMID:26460122

  15. Hendra virus vaccine, a one health approach to protecting horse, human, and environmental health.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Deborah; Pallister, Jackie; Klein, Reuben; Feng, Yan-Ru; Haining, Jessica; Arkinstall, Rachel; Frazer, Leah; Huang, Jin-An; Edwards, Nigel; Wareing, Mark; Elhay, Martin; Hashmi, Zia; Bingham, John; Yamada, Manabu; Johnson, Dayna; White, John; Foord, Adam; Heine, Hans G; Marsh, Glenn A; Broder, Christopher C; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, the emergence of several highly pathogenic zoonotic diseases in humans has led to a renewed emphasis on the interconnectedness of human, animal, and environmental health, otherwise known as One Health. For example, Hendra virus (HeV), a zoonotic paramyxovirus, was discovered in 1994, and since then, infections have occurred in 7 humans, each of whom had a strong epidemiologic link to similarly affected horses. As a consequence of these outbreaks, eradication of bat populations was discussed, despite their crucial environmental roles in pollination and reduction of the insect population. We describe the development and evaluation of a vaccine for horses with the potential for breaking the chain of HeV transmission from bats to horses to humans, thereby protecting horse, human, and environmental health. The HeV vaccine for horses is a key example of a One Health approach to the control of human disease.

  16. Hendra virus vaccine, a one health approach to protecting horse, human, and environmental health.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Deborah; Pallister, Jackie; Klein, Reuben; Feng, Yan-Ru; Haining, Jessica; Arkinstall, Rachel; Frazer, Leah; Huang, Jin-An; Edwards, Nigel; Wareing, Mark; Elhay, Martin; Hashmi, Zia; Bingham, John; Yamada, Manabu; Johnson, Dayna; White, John; Foord, Adam; Heine, Hans G; Marsh, Glenn A; Broder, Christopher C; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, the emergence of several highly pathogenic zoonotic diseases in humans has led to a renewed emphasis on the interconnectedness of human, animal, and environmental health, otherwise known as One Health. For example, Hendra virus (HeV), a zoonotic paramyxovirus, was discovered in 1994, and since then, infections have occurred in 7 humans, each of whom had a strong epidemiologic link to similarly affected horses. As a consequence of these outbreaks, eradication of bat populations was discussed, despite their crucial environmental roles in pollination and reduction of the insect population. We describe the development and evaluation of a vaccine for horses with the potential for breaking the chain of HeV transmission from bats to horses to humans, thereby protecting horse, human, and environmental health. The HeV vaccine for horses is a key example of a One Health approach to the control of human disease. PMID:24572697

  17. Dust protection for environmental control and life support systems in the lunar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuhs, Susan; Harris, Jeffrey

    1992-01-01

    Lunar dust is pervasive, and requirements for dust protection will affect both hardware design and operations planning for lunar surface systems. On Earth, mechanical problems caused by particulates include erosive and abrasive effects, clogging of mechanical equipment, and impairment of seals and bonds. In addition, dust tends to degrade the heat rejection properties of contaminated surfaces. All these effects have been observed on the lunar surface as well. This paper discusses the potential applicability of current dust protection methods to the problem of dust protection for the environmental control and life support (ECLS) systems of a lunar base, and highlights areas where development may be necessary. A review of dust problems experienced during the Apollo missions and of additional, ground-based experience with lunar dust provides a baseline for identifying operations and areas where dust may be expected to affect the ECLS systems. Current Earth-based methods of dust protection are identified and the impact of differences between the Earth and lunar environments on these methods is evaluated. Finally, integration of dust protection equipment with ECLS systems equipment is discussed.

  18. Environmental Assessment for the Health Protection Instrument Calibration Facility at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to review the possible environmental consequences associated with the construction and operation of a Health Protection Instrument Calibration Facility on the Savannah River Site (SRS). The proposed replacement calibration facility would be located in B Area of SRS and would replace an inadequate existing facility currently located within A Area of SRS (Building 736-A). The new facility would provide laboratories, offices, test equipment and the support space necessary for the SRS Radiation Monitoring Instrument Calibration Program to comply with DOE Orders 5480.4 (Environmental Protection, Safety and Health Protection Standards) and 5480.11 (Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers). The proposed facility would serve as the central site source for the evaluation, selection, inspection, testing, calibration, and maintenance of all SRS radiation monitoring instrumentation. The proposed facility would be constructed on a currently undeveloped portion in B Area of SRS. The exact plot associated with the proposed action is a 1.2 hectare (3 acre) tract of land located on the west side of SRS Road No. 2. The proposed facility would lie approximately 4.4 km (2.75 mi) from the nearest SRS site boundary. The proposed facility would also lie within the confines of the existing B Area, and SRS safeguards and security systems. Archaeological, ecological, and land use reviews have been conducted in connection with the use of this proposed plot of land, and a detailed discussion of these reviews is contained herein. Socioeconomic, operational, and accident analyses were also examined in relation to the proposed project and the findings from these reviews are also contained in this EA.

  19. [Classification of Priority Area for Soil Environmental Protection Around Water Sources: Method Proposed and Case Demonstration].

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Wang, Tie-yu; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiao, Rong-bo; Li, Qi-feng; Peng, Chi; Han, Cun-liang

    2016-04-15

    Based on comprehensive consideration of soil environmental quality, pollution status of river, environmental vulnerability and the stress of pollution sources, a technical method was established for classification of priority area of soil environmental protection around the river-style water sources. Shunde channel as an important drinking water sources of Foshan City, Guangdong province, was studied as a case, of which the classification evaluation system was set up. In detail, several evaluation factors were selected according to the local conditions of nature, society and economy, including the pollution degree of heavy metals in soil and sediment, soil characteristics, groundwater sensitivity, vegetation coverage, the type and location of pollution sources. Data information was mainly obtained by means of field survey, sampling analysis, and remote sensing interpretation. Afterwards, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was adopted to decide the weight of each factor. The basic spatial data layers were set up respectively and overlaid based on the weighted summation assessment model in Geographical Information System (GIS), resulting in a classification map of soil environmental protection level in priority area of Shunde channel. Accordingly, the area was classified to three levels named as polluted zone, risky zone and safe zone, which respectively accounted for 6.37%, 60.90% and 32.73% of the whole study area. Polluted zone and risky zone were mainly distributed in Lecong, Longjiang and Leliu towns, with pollutants mainly resulted from the long-term development of aquaculture and the industries containing furniture, plastic constructional materials and textile and clothing. In accordance with the main pollution sources of soil, targeted and differentiated strategies were put forward. The newly established evaluation method could be referenced for the protection and sustainable utilization of soil environment around the water sources.

  20. [Classification of Priority Area for Soil Environmental Protection Around Water Sources: Method Proposed and Case Demonstration].

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Wang, Tie-yu; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiao, Rong-bo; Li, Qi-feng; Peng, Chi; Han, Cun-liang

    2016-04-15

    Based on comprehensive consideration of soil environmental quality, pollution status of river, environmental vulnerability and the stress of pollution sources, a technical method was established for classification of priority area of soil environmental protection around the river-style water sources. Shunde channel as an important drinking water sources of Foshan City, Guangdong province, was studied as a case, of which the classification evaluation system was set up. In detail, several evaluation factors were selected according to the local conditions of nature, society and economy, including the pollution degree of heavy metals in soil and sediment, soil characteristics, groundwater sensitivity, vegetation coverage, the type and location of pollution sources. Data information was mainly obtained by means of field survey, sampling analysis, and remote sensing interpretation. Afterwards, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was adopted to decide the weight of each factor. The basic spatial data layers were set up respectively and overlaid based on the weighted summation assessment model in Geographical Information System (GIS), resulting in a classification map of soil environmental protection level in priority area of Shunde channel. Accordingly, the area was classified to three levels named as polluted zone, risky zone and safe zone, which respectively accounted for 6.37%, 60.90% and 32.73% of the whole study area. Polluted zone and risky zone were mainly distributed in Lecong, Longjiang and Leliu towns, with pollutants mainly resulted from the long-term development of aquaculture and the industries containing furniture, plastic constructional materials and textile and clothing. In accordance with the main pollution sources of soil, targeted and differentiated strategies were put forward. The newly established evaluation method could be referenced for the protection and sustainable utilization of soil environment around the water sources. PMID:27548986

  1. Canadian Materials 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wintrob, Ralph, Ed.

    A variety of media is encompassed in this annotated awareness list of Canadian produced or Canadian oriented materials. Its purpose is to include all materials published or reprinted in 1972 which are suitable for use in school resource centers from kindergarten to twelfth grade. Main entries are arranged alphabetically by title with some subject…

  2. Proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Budget Shows Belt-Tightening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-03-01

    President Barack Obama's proposed fiscal year (FY) 2012 budget for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is $8.97 billion, a 13% decrease from the agency's FY 2010 enacted budget of $10.3 billion. While Congress has approved a moderate continuing resolution (CR) to fund the federal government until 18 March, the House of Representatives also has passed a CR (House Resolution 1; HR 1) that would call for sharp cuts to the budget for EPA and other agencies for the current fiscal year (2011). EPA administrator Lisa Jackson acknowledged the difficult budget situation during a 14 February teleconference. The proposed budget “reflects the tough choices needed for our nation's short- and long-term fiscal health and allows EPA to maintain its fundamental mission of protecting human health and the environment,” she said. “This budget focuses our resources on the most urgent health and environmental challenges we face. Though it includes significant cuts, it provides EPA with what we need to fundamentally protect the health of the American people,” Jackson added.

  3. Implications of Environmental Regulations for Energy Production and Consumption. Analytical Studies for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Volume VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Natural Resources.

    This report is one of a series prepared by the National Research Council for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report takes a critical look at the relationship of energy and the environment and focuses on three main policy questions: (1) Do environmental regulations make too great a demand on scarce resources of energy and the…

  4. The Protective Role of Antioxidants in the Defence against ROS/RNS-Mediated Environmental Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Poljšak, Borut; Fink, Rok

    2014-01-01

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can result from exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ionising and nonionising radiation, ultraviolet radiation, elevated concentrations of ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, cigarette smoke, asbestos, particulate matter, pesticides, dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and many other compounds present in the environment. It appears that increased oxidative/nitrosative stress is often neglected mechanism by which environmental pollutants affect human health. Oxidation of and oxidative damage to cellular components and biomolecules have been suggested to be involved in the aetiology of several chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, and aging. Several studies have demonstrated that the human body can alleviate oxidative stress using exogenous antioxidants. However, not all dietary antioxidant supplements display protective effects, for example, β-carotene for lung cancer prevention in smokers or tocopherols for photooxidative stress. In this review, we explore the increases in oxidative stress caused by exposure to environmental pollutants and the protective effects of antioxidants. PMID:25140198

  5. Environmental protection appraisals: a suggested guide for US Department of Energy field organization. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Barisas, S.; Polich, J.; Surles, T.; Habegger, L.; Anderson, D.; Opelka, J.; Frangos, T.

    1985-03-01

    This manual has been prepared to assist DOE field organizations in conducting environmental protection appraisals of activities at DOE operating-level facilities. Its primary use will be by DOE operations offices in their appraisal of facilities operating under the authority of the Atomic Energy Act. However, the manual can also be used by other DOE field organizations. This manual is organized in modules that parallel those in the internal environmental audit checklist. It is assumed that the contractor is using the guide previously described (Internal Environmental Protection Audits) and that operations office staff members will have the opportunity to review or be cognizant of the contractor's completed internal audit, and other material generated within the facility, in preparation for the appraisal. This manual was developed to facilitate the appraisal process by providing operations office staff with a choice of modules that can be used independently or as a unit. The manual gives guidelines for reviewing information submitted to the operations office before the site visit and for conducting an on-site operating-level appraisal.

  6. Contaminated sites from the past: experience of the US Environmental Protection Agency.

    PubMed

    Boyd, M A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the experience of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in cleaning up radioactively contaminated sites. In the USA, EPA regulates the radiological clean-up of uranium mill tailings sites, some Department of Energy legacy sites within the US nuclear weapons complex, and Superfund National Priorities List sites. The approach to site remediation decisions, including the determination of clean-up levels, varies according to the enabling legislation granting EPA these authorities. Past practices that gave rise to many of the existing exposure situations at legacy sites were permissible before the advent of environmental clean-up legislation. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 authorised EPA to set applicable radioactivity concentration standards for soil clean-up at inactive uranium mill sites and vicinity properties. For the other categories of sites mentioned above, remediation goals are typically based on not exceeding a target excess cancer risk range established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (also known as 'Superfund'). EPA's regulations for cleaning up various contaminated sites in existing exposure situations often result in residual doses that are typical of optimised doses in planned exposure situations. Although the clean-up levels selected may differ from those adopted in other countries, recommendations from the International Commission on Radiological Protection are reflected in the exposure assessment methodologies used in their establishment. PMID:27012843

  7. Contaminated sites from the past: experience of the US Environmental Protection Agency.

    PubMed

    Boyd, M A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the experience of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in cleaning up radioactively contaminated sites. In the USA, EPA regulates the radiological clean-up of uranium mill tailings sites, some Department of Energy legacy sites within the US nuclear weapons complex, and Superfund National Priorities List sites. The approach to site remediation decisions, including the determination of clean-up levels, varies according to the enabling legislation granting EPA these authorities. Past practices that gave rise to many of the existing exposure situations at legacy sites were permissible before the advent of environmental clean-up legislation. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 authorised EPA to set applicable radioactivity concentration standards for soil clean-up at inactive uranium mill sites and vicinity properties. For the other categories of sites mentioned above, remediation goals are typically based on not exceeding a target excess cancer risk range established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (also known as 'Superfund'). EPA's regulations for cleaning up various contaminated sites in existing exposure situations often result in residual doses that are typical of optimised doses in planned exposure situations. Although the clean-up levels selected may differ from those adopted in other countries, recommendations from the International Commission on Radiological Protection are reflected in the exposure assessment methodologies used in their establishment.

  8. Optical and environmentally protective coatings for potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) harmonic converter crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, I.M.

    1991-06-24

    Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals have been used as harmonic converters on the Nova laser at LLNL for over six years. All crystals were coated with a single layer, quarterwave AR coating of porous silica with a refractive index of 1.22. This was prepared by a sol-gel process and was applied from a colloidal suspension by spin coating at room temperature. A few crystals were also coated with a methyl silicone coating prior to the application of the AR coating for environmental protection. The initial optical performance of all crystals was very good but there has been some deterioration over the years because of environmental and laser damage degradation. The deterioration in the silicone samples was, however, much less than the others. We are now in the process of replacing all ten KDP arrays with new crystals and will apply the silicone undercoat to all samples. Recently we have been evaluating a new perfluorinated organic polymer coating which has a refractive index of 1.29. This material is soluble in fluorinated solvents and can be applied by dip coating from solution at room temperature. We hope that this can provide environmental protection when applied to KDP and also act as an AR coating at the same time. The optical performance is not as good as our porous silica because of the higher index; about 0.3% reflection per surface is obtained. 4 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Application of the Environmental Protection Agency`s data quality objective process to environmental monitoring quality control

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, L.M.

    1995-11-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process was applied to two environmental monitoring networks for the purpose of optimizing field quality control sampling to give the highest quality monitoring data with minimal impact on resources. The DQO process, developed primarily to aid in cleanup and restoration activities, is a systematic approach to designing sampling, and analysis programs with improved efficiency, cost savings, and measureable and traceable data quality. The two monitoring- networks studied had not been subjected to the systematic review and analysis of the DQO process defined by the EPA. The two monitoring networks studied had relied upon field duplicates or replicates as the main source of field quality control data. Sometimes, both duplicate and routine sample were analyzed by the same analytical laboratory; at other times they were analyzed by different laboratories. This study identified some potential inconsistencies between analytical data and reporting limits from two different laboratories. Application of the EPA DQO process resulted in recommendations for changes in the field quality control sampling program, allowed new insight into the monitoring data, and raised several issues that should be the subject of further investigation.

  10. STRATEGIES FOR EVALUATING INDICATORS BASED ON GUIDELINES FROM THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development (ORD) has prepared technical guidelines to evaluate the suitability of ecological indicators for monitoring programs. The guidelines were adopted by ORD to provide a consistent framework for indicator review...

  11. MEASUREMENT OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY THE US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY COMPENDIUM METHOD TO-17 - EVALUATION OF PERFORMANCE CRITERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    An evaluation of performance criteria for US Environmental Protection Agency Compendium Method TO-17 for monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air has been accomplished. The method is a solid adsorbent-based sampling and analytical procedure including performance crit...

  12. THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S STRESSOR IDENTIFICATION GUIDANCE: A PROCESS FOR DETERMINING THE PROBABLE CAUSES OF BIOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has ongoing programs to encourage the evaluation of stream condition based on biological indicators. Bioassessments reveal impairments but do not identify causes of impairments, a necessary step in the restoration of aqua...

  13. Engineered nano materials and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Research at the Western Ecology Division in Oregon, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Engineered nanoparticles represent a unique hazard to human health and the environment because their inherent characteristics differ significantly from commonly used chemicals and bulk forms of materials. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for protecti...

  14. Chronic exposure to an environmental hazard: risk perceptions and self-protective behavior.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, E

    1993-01-01

    The risk perceptions and self-protective behavior of 282 immigrant farm workers (all of Mexican origin) in response to pesticide exposure were examined. Several variables were predicted to influence reactions, but some deviations from past studies were expected because cultural or socioeconomic factors could modify risk responses. In keeping with predictions, greater risk perceptions were associated with beliefs that past harm had occurred, future harm to self or offspring was likely, precautions were less effective, and cancer-causing agents were mostly unavoidable. Self-protective behavior was most likely for those receiving risk information, having greater perceptions of control over health and the occupational situation, and believing that precautionary methods were effective. The discussion considers variability in responses to chronic risk and the broader perspective offered by environmental hazard studies. PMID:8462503

  15. Economic and environmental impacts of water quality protection policies: 1. Framework for regional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardo, D. J.; Mapp, H. P.; Sabbagh, G. J.; Geleta, S.; Watkins, K. B.; Elliott, R. L.; Stone, J. F.

    1993-09-01

    Agricultural production systems provide some unique challenges for assessing the regional impacts of water quality protection policies. A modeling framework is proposed for assessing the environmental and economic consequences of groundwater quality protection policies at the regional level. The model consists of three components: (1) a crop simulation/chemical transport model, (2) a regional economic optimization model, and (3) an aquifer groundwater flow model. The three submodels are linked and run recursively to simulate producer response to alternative water quality policies over a multiple-year time horizon. Model solutions provide projections of production practices employed on various resource situations across the region. Economic evaluation of alternative policies may be based upon regional agricultural income, crop production levels, input use, and changes in aquifer water levels over time. Measures of agricultural nonpoint source pollution provided by the model include nitrate, phosphorus and pesticide loadings in deep percolation and runoff water, as well as sediment losses.

  16. Teaching First Nations History as Canadian History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Graham

    2000-01-01

    Argues for the integration of aboriginal content into social studies by teaching First Nations history as Canadian history. Provides an overview of this integrated history, focusing on Atlantic Canada. Addresses such topics as extending the coverage 10,000 years prior, the parallel between human history and environmental change, and cultural…

  17. Ethics and data protection in human biomarker studies in environmental health.

    PubMed

    Casteleyn, Ludwine; Dumez, Birgit; Van Damme, Karel; Anwar, Wagida A

    2013-08-01

    Human biomarker studies in environmental health are essential tools to study the relationship between health and environment. They should ultimately contribute to a better understanding of environmentally induced adverse health effects and to appropriate preventive actions. To ensure the protection of the rights and dignity of study participants a complex legal and ethical framework is applied, consisting of several international directives, conventions, and guidelines, whether or not translated in domestic laws. Main characteristics of ethics and data protection in studies using biomarkers in the field of environmental health are summarized and current discussions on related questions and bottlenecks highlighted. In the current regulatory context, dominated by the protection of the individual study participant, difficulties are reported due to the different interpretation and implementation of the regulations of concern within and across borders. Advancement of consistency and compatibility is recommended and efforts are ongoing. An increasing demand for secondary use of data and samples poses additional challenges in finding a right balance between the individual rights of the study participants on the one hand and the common interest of, and potential benefit for the public or community at large on the other. Ethics committees could play a key role in assessing problems originating from the sometimes competing needs at individual and societal level. Building trust in science amongst (potential) study participants and within the community allows the inclusion of arguments from the societal perspective. This requires increased attention for respectful communication efforts. Striving for public participation in decision making processes may promote policy relevant research and the related translation of study results into action.

  18. Physiological tolerance times while wearing explosive ordnance disposal protective clothing in simulated environmental extremes.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Ian B; Stewart, Kelly L; Worringham, Charles J; Costello, Joseph T

    2014-01-01

    Explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) technicians are required to wear protective clothing to protect themselves from the threat of overpressure, fragmentation, impact and heat. The engineering requirements to minimise these threats results in an extremely heavy and cumbersome clothing ensemble that increases the internal heat generation of the wearer, while the clothing's thermal properties reduce heat dissipation. This study aimed to evaluate the heat strain encountered wearing EOD protective clothing in simulated environmental extremes across a range of differing work intensities. Eight healthy males [age 25 ± 6 years (mean ± sd), height 180 ± 7 cm, body mass 79 ± 9 kg, VO2max 57 ± 6 ml(.) kg(-1.)min(-1)] undertook nine trials while wearing an EOD9 suit (weighing 33.4 kg). The trials involved walking on a treadmill at 2.5, 4 and 5.5 km ⋅ h(-1) at each of the following environmental conditions, 21, 30 and 37 °C wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) in a randomised controlled crossover design. The trials were ceased if the participants' core temperature reached 39 °C, if heart rate exceeded 90% of maximum, if walking time reached 60 minutes or due to fatigue/nausea. Tolerance times ranged from 10-60 minutes and were significantly reduced in the higher walking speeds and environmental conditions. In a total of 15 trials (21%) participants completed 60 minutes of walking; however, this was predominantly at the slower walking speeds in the 21 °C WBGT environment. Of the remaining 57 trials, 50 were ceased, due to attainment of 90% maximal heart rate. These near maximal heart rates resulted in moderate-high levels of physiological strain in all trials, despite core temperature only reaching 39 °C in one of the 72 trials. PMID:24586228

  19. Physiological Tolerance Times while Wearing Explosive Ordnance Disposal Protective Clothing in Simulated Environmental Extremes

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Ian B.; Stewart, Kelly L.; Worringham, Charles J.; Costello, Joseph T.

    2014-01-01

    Explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) technicians are required to wear protective clothing to protect themselves from the threat of overpressure, fragmentation, impact and heat. The engineering requirements to minimise these threats results in an extremely heavy and cumbersome clothing ensemble that increases the internal heat generation of the wearer, while the clothing’s thermal properties reduce heat dissipation. This study aimed to evaluate the heat strain encountered wearing EOD protective clothing in simulated environmental extremes across a range of differing work intensities. Eight healthy males [age 25±6 years (mean ± sd), height 180±7 cm, body mass 79±9 kg, V˙O2max 57±6 ml.kg−1.min−1] undertook nine trials while wearing an EOD9 suit (weighing 33.4 kg). The trials involved walking on a treadmill at 2.5, 4 and 5.5 km⋅h−1 at each of the following environmental conditions, 21, 30 and 37°C wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) in a randomised controlled crossover design. The trials were ceased if the participants’ core temperature reached 39°C, if heart rate exceeded 90% of maximum, if walking time reached 60 minutes or due to fatigue/nausea. Tolerance times ranged from 10–60 minutes and were significantly reduced in the higher walking speeds and environmental conditions. In a total of 15 trials (21%) participants completed 60 minutes of walking; however, this was predominantly at the slower walking speeds in the 21°C WBGT environment. Of the remaining 57 trials, 50 were ceased, due to attainment of 90% maximal heart rate. These near maximal heart rates resulted in moderate-high levels of physiological strain in all trials, despite core temperature only reaching 39°C in one of the 72 trials. PMID:24586228

  20. 2 CFR 1536.300 - Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency does a recipient who is an individual notify about a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency... Are Individuals § 1536.300 Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency does a recipient who is an... the EPA award official from each Environmental Protection Agency office from which it currently has...

  1. 2 CFR 1536.300 - Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency does a recipient who is an individual notify about a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency... Are Individuals § 1536.300 Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency does a recipient who is an... the EPA award official from each Environmental Protection Agency office from which it currently has...

  2. 2 CFR 1536.300 - Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency does a recipient who is an individual notify about a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency... Are Individuals § 1536.300 Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency does a recipient who is an... the EPA award official from each Environmental Protection Agency office from which it currently has...

  3. 2 CFR 1536.300 - Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency does a recipient who is an individual notify about a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency... Are Individuals § 1536.300 Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency does a recipient who is an... the EPA award official from each Environmental Protection Agency office from which it currently has...

  4. Worker and Environmental Protection Issues in the Remediation Of an Abandoned Source Manufacturing Facility.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Daniel E.

    2003-02-01

    The Gulf Nuclear Superfund Site located in Odessa, Texas, was an abandoned radioactive source production facility slated for cleanup as a Removal Action under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region VI Superfund program. Prior to cessation of operations and abandonment of the facility in 1992, it was used for the production of radioactive sources used in the oil and gas industry and nuclear medicine applications. Pangea Group was contracted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Kansas City District to perform remediation of the site and other contaminated debris, cleaning of interior building surfaces, building demolition, and excavation/removal of contaminated soils and septic system. The project scope also included loading, containerization and transportation of low-level radioactive wastes for offsite disposal. Primary radionuclides present at the facility were Cs, Co, and Am. The project also included packaging and removal of radioactive sources and mixed waste consisting of radiologically contaminated lead shot and lead source containers. Included in the paper is a discussion of primary worker protection and environmental protection measures employed on the project. Worker protection issues included the control of industrial and construction safety hazards as well as control of external and internal radiation dose. Control of air emissions and contaminated wastewater were also very important, especially due to the location of the site. The site was located in an area containing both residential and commercial properties. Several residences and businesses were located immediately adjacent to the site. The project involved the participation of the USACE Kansas City District, EPA Region 6, and the Texas Bureau of Radiological Health. Field work on the project started in April 2001 and was completed approximately five months later.

  5. Worker and environmental protection issues in the remediation of an abandoned source manufacturing facility.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Daniel E

    2003-02-01

    The Gulf Nuclear Superfund Site located in Odessa, Texas, was an abandoned radioactive source production facility slated for cleanup as a Removal Action under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region VI Superfund program. Prior to cessation of operations and abandonment of the facility in 1992, it was used for the production of radioactive sources used in the oil and gas industry and nuclear medicine applications. Pangea Group was contracted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Kansas City District to perform remediation of the site and other contaminated debris, cleaning of interior building surfaces, building demolition, and excavation/removal of contaminated soils and septic system. The project scope also included loading, containerization and transportation of low-level radioactive wastes for offsite disposal. Primary radionuclides present at the facility were 137Cs, 60Co, and 241Am. The project also included packaging and removal of radioactive sources and mixed waste consisting of radiologically contaminated lead shot and lead source containers. Included in the paper is a discussion of primary worker protection and environmental protection measures employed on the project. Worker protection issues included the control of industrial and construction safety hazards as well as control of external and internal radiation dose. Control of air emissions and contaminated wastewater were also very important, especially due to the location of the site. The site was located in an area containing both residential and commercial properties. Several residences and businesses were located immediately adjacent to the site. The project involved the participation of the USACE Kansas City District, EPA Region 6, and the Texas Bureau of Radiological Health. Field work on the project started in April 2001 and was completed approximately five months later.

  6. Design method of combined protective against space environmental effects on spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zicai; Gong, Zizheng; Ding, Yigang; Liu, Yuming; Liu, Yenan

    2016-01-01

    During its projected extended stay in LEO, spacecraft will encounter many environmental factors including energetic particles, ultraviolet radiation, atomic oxygen, and space debris and meteoroids, together with some induced environments such as contamination and discharging. These space environments and their effects have threat to the reliability and lifetime of spacecraft. So, it is important to give a combined design against the threat from space environments and their effects. The space environments and effects are reviewed in this paper firstly. Secondly, the design process and method against space environments are discussed. At last, some advices about protective structure and materials are proposed.

  7. Critical comments on the US Environmental Protection Agency Standards 40 CFR 191

    SciTech Connect

    Pflum, C.G.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Krishna, P.

    1993-01-14

    This paper is about the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ``Environmental Standards for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Wastes,`` 40 CFR 191. These standards regulate the disposal of radioactive wastes in geologic repositories. Currently, two repository sites are under investigation: The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, located near Carlsbad, New Mexico, may become the repository for defense-generated transuranic waste (TRU); and the Yucca Mountain site, located near Las Vegas, Nevada, may become the repository for spent reactor fuel and a small amount of reprocessing waste (hereinafter called high-level radioactive waste or HLW). The paper was written for readers who have an interest in 40 CFR 191 but do not have the time or inclination to ponder the technical details.

  8. Poverty within watershed and environmentally protected areas: the case of the indigenous community in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kari, Fatimah Binti; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Yahaya, Siti Rohani Binti; Saifullah, Md Khaled

    2016-03-01

    "Indigenous people" have been acknowledged as among the poorest and most socio-economically and culturally marginalized all over the world. This paper explores the socio-economic status of the indigenous people and their poverty profile within watershed and environmentally protected areas in Peninsular Malaysia. The findings of the study indicate that the "indigenous community" is likely to be poor if they live in environmentally sensitive and unprotected areas as compared to families under the new resettlement scheme. Inadequate access to basic education and employment contributed significantly to their poor economic status. The findings further reveal that the indigenous community is facing difficulties in receiving access and support in terms of basic needs such as housing, education, economic livelihood, and other social infrastructure. Moreover, the regulatory structure for the management of watershed areas as well as the emphasis for commodity crops such as palm oil and natural rubber have indirectly contributed toward the poverty level of the indigenous people. PMID:26887312

  9. [Application of hyper-spectral remote sensing technology in environmental protection].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Qiao; Yao, Yun-Jun; Wang, Zhong-Ting; You, Dai-An

    2013-12-01

    Hyper-spectral remote sensing (RS) technology has been widely used in environmental protection. The present work introduces its recent application in the RS monitoring of pollution gas, green-house gas, algal bloom, water quality of catch water environment, safety of drinking water sources, biodiversity, vegetation classification, soil pollution, and so on. Finally, issues such as scarce hyper-spectral satellites, the limits of data processing and information extract are related. Some proposals are also presented, including developing subsequent satellites of HJ-1 satellite with differential optical absorption spectroscopy, greenhouse gas spectroscopy and hyper-spectral imager, strengthening the study of hyper-spectral data processing and information extraction, and promoting the construction of environmental application system.

  10. Poverty within watershed and environmentally protected areas: the case of the indigenous community in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kari, Fatimah Binti; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Yahaya, Siti Rohani Binti; Saifullah, Md Khaled

    2016-03-01

    "Indigenous people" have been acknowledged as among the poorest and most socio-economically and culturally marginalized all over the world. This paper explores the socio-economic status of the indigenous people and their poverty profile within watershed and environmentally protected areas in Peninsular Malaysia. The findings of the study indicate that the "indigenous community" is likely to be poor if they live in environmentally sensitive and unprotected areas as compared to families under the new resettlement scheme. Inadequate access to basic education and employment contributed significantly to their poor economic status. The findings further reveal that the indigenous community is facing difficulties in receiving access and support in terms of basic needs such as housing, education, economic livelihood, and other social infrastructure. Moreover, the regulatory structure for the management of watershed areas as well as the emphasis for commodity crops such as palm oil and natural rubber have indirectly contributed toward the poverty level of the indigenous people.

  11. The Regional Approach to Information Sharing: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Experiences in Southern Africa and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Linda; Van Wingen, Rachel

    In response to the global outcry for environmental information, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched its International Data Sharing Program in 1989 and began to forge information partnerships with developing nations. The three objectives of the program are to establish EPA as a partner in information exchange, to disseminate…

  12. Occupational and Qualification Structures in the Field of Environmental Protection in the Metal and Chemical Industries in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanzani, Claudio

    This report provides an initial analysis of the occupational and qualification structures in the field of environmental protection in the Italian metal and chemical industries. The first two chapters review the legislative background, situation in industry, and provision of environmental education and training. The third chapter presents results…

  13. 7 CFR 650.21 - Working relations with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and related State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Working relations with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and related State environmental agencies. 650.21 Section 650.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  14. Economic and environmental impacts of water quality protection policies: 2. Application to the Central High Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardo, D. J.; Mapp, H. P.; Sabbagh, G. J.; Geleta, S.; Watkins, K. B.; Elliott, R. L.; Stone, J. F.

    1993-09-01

    A three-stage modeling framework is applied to evaluate the potential economic and environmental impacts of agricultural groundwater protection policies in the Central High Plains Region. Three alternative policies (limitations on total nitrogen applications, limitations on unit-area nitrogen applications, and restrictions on the use of selected herbicides) are compared to a baseline scenario that reflects the absence of any form of groundwater quality protection measures. In general, nitrogen restrictions are more effective in reducing nitrate loadings in percolation water if implemented on a unit-area basis rather than as a total (farm level) restriction. In contrast, the total restriction is more effective in controlling runoff losses of nitrogen. Both nitrogen restrictions have significant impacts on crop production levels and regional agricultural income, while the economic consequences of the pesticide restriction are much less pronounced. The proposed regional modeling framework provides critical information necessary to assess the economic and environmental tradeoffs of policy alternatives aimed at controlling agricultural nonpoint source pollution.

  15. United States Department of Energy Richland Operations Office Environmental Protection Implementation Plan: November 9, 1993, to November 9, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1993-11-01

    The hub of today`s programs at the Hanford Site are activities dedicated to managing stored and new wastes and cleanup of waste sites. To ensure focused planning and implementing efforts for these programs, management of the site is assigned to DOE`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. This report describes policies and procedures in the following areas: Compliance activities; Environmental restoration; Waste management; and Technology development. Procedures for notification of environmental occurrences, long-range environmental protection planning and reporting, waste management programs; environmental monitoring programs, and quality assurance and data verification are also described and discussed.

  16. Child custody disputes within the context of child protection investigations: secondary analysis of the Canadian Incident Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect.

    PubMed

    Saini, Michael A; Black, Tara; Fallon, Barbara; Marshall, Alena

    2013-01-01

    This national study of child custody disputes within the context of child protection investigations confirms and reinforces the perception in the field that child custody disputes are more likely to reopen for investigations, include higher rates of malicious referrals and involve a higher proportion of children with emotional and functioning issues compared to non-custody-related investigations. Future research might consider the reasons for these higher rates so to improve the identification of these cases and to make more informed decisions about how best to respond to these families. The greatest contribution of this study is that it provides important new evidence to reinforce the need to prioritize child custody disputes within the context of child protection services given the unique challenges and opportunities for making well-informed case plan decisions.

  17. Are Canadians Cultural Cuckoos?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickleburgh, Brita

    1977-01-01

    The author believes that teachers have been remiss in transmitting Canadian culture to their students. They have also neglected the development of self-realization and identity in the majority of students. (Author)

  18. A Planetary Protection Strategy for the Mars Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhl, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    The Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey (ARES) is a Mars exploration mission concept designed to send an airplane to fly through the lower atmosphere of Mars, with the goal of taking scientific measurements of the atmosphere, surface, and subsurface phenomenon. ARES was first proposed to the Mars Scout program in December 2002 for a 2007 launch opportunity and was selected to proceed with a Phase A study, step-2 proposal which was submitted in May 2003. ARES was not selected for the Scout mission, but efforts continued on risk reduction of the atmospheric flight system in preparation for the next Mars Scout opportunity in 2006. The ARES concept was again proposed in July 2006 to the Mars Scout program but was not selected to proceed into Phase A. This document describes the Planetary Protection strategy that was developed in ARES Pre Phase-A activities to help identify, early in the design process, certain hardware, assemblies, and/or subsystems that will require unique design considerations based on constraints imposed by Planetary Protection requirements. Had ARES been selected as an exploration project, information in this document would make up the ARES Project Planetary Protection Plan.

  19. Protecting a quantum state from environmental noise by an incompatible finite-time measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Brasil, Carlos Alexandre; Castro, L. A. de; Napolitano, R. d. J.

    2011-08-15

    We show that measurements of finite duration performed on an open two-state system can protect the initial state from a phase-noisy environment, provided the measured observable does not commute with the perturbing interaction. When the measured observable commutes with the environmental interaction, the finite-duration measurement accelerates the rate of decoherence induced by the phase noise. For the description of the measurement of an observable that is incompatible with the interaction between system and environment, we have found an approximate analytical expression, valid at zero temperature and weak coupling with the measuring device. We have tested the validity of the analytical predictions against an exact numerical approach, based on the superoperator-splitting method, that confirms the protection of the initial state of the system. When the coupling between the system and the measuring apparatus increases beyond the range of validity of the analytical approximation, the initial state is still protected by the finite-time measurement, according with the exact numerical calculations.

  20. Demographic pressure over the Environmental Protected Area of the Lagoa Santa Karst, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travassos, L. E. P.

    2009-04-01

    The State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is approximately 586.528 km2. From this total, it is believed that about 29,000 km2(Piló 1997; 1999) are composed by carbonatic rocks. With a total of 853 municipalities and some evident environmental problems, the biggest problem is the proper final waste disposal as noticed by Travassos et al (2008). This work is intended to demonstrate the potential degradation of karst scenarios due to the increasing urbanization in the so called "North Vector". There are two State Parks and six other Conservation Units in this region. Historically the cities near this region have been used as dormitory towns. Further north, various ranches, country houses for the weekend and rural hostels are set on karst terrains. The municipalities of Vespasiano, Pedro Leopoldo, Confins, Lagoa Santa, Matozinhos, Funilândia and Prudente de Morais are within the 360 km2-large Environmental Protected Area of the Lagoa Santa Karst. All these municipalities have been facing demographic growth and consequently generate the anthropogenic pressure over the karst. Up to the date on which this abstract was written, the Decree n˚ 6640/2008, signed by the Brazilian government, is in effect. It substituted the previous one, Decree n˚ 99556/1990, which protected the Brazilian speleological heritage. According to the new Decree, now there are no warranties that caves will be protected against infra-structure constructions and mining companies. Besides, it also establishes relevance criteria that point out which caves which can be destroyed without any compensation at all. Certainly the speleological community is already mobilized against this new Decree. Keywords: karst, endokarst, exokarst, Cordisburgo region, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

  1. Environmental enrichment protects against cognitive impairment following chemotherapy in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Winocur, Gordon; Wojtowicz, J Martin; Merkley, Christina M; Tannock, Ian F

    2016-08-01

    Clinical studies indicate that up to 70% of cancer patients who receive chemotherapy experience cognitive impairment. The present study investigated environmental enrichment as a protective factor against the adverse effects of anticancer drugs on cognitive and biological processes in an animal model. Adult rats were housed in group cages with environmental stimulation or in standard cages for 3 months, before receiving 3 weekly injections of methotrexate + 5-fluorouracil, or equal volumes of saline. Rats were then administered tests of learning and memory that are sensitive to hippocampal or frontal lobe dysfunction. The relationship between cognitive performance and hippocampal neurogenesis was examined through sensitive time-dependent measures of neuronal maturation. Chemotherapy-treated rats in the standard environment were impaired on tests of spatial memory, nonmatching-to-sample (NMTS) rule learning, and delayed-NMTS. Chemotherapy-treated rats in the enriched environment performed at or near normal levels. The performance of the chemotherapy groups on the hippocampus-sensitive, spatial memory and delayed-NMTS tests correlated with neurogenesis levels. The results show that environmental enrichment can reduce the risk of chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment, in part by promoting neuronal differentiation and growth during cell maturation. As well, they point to the importance of lifestyle factors in treating or preventing adverse effects of anticancer drugs on cognitive function. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Chronic exposure to environmental stressors induces fluctuating asymmetry in shrews inhabiting protected Mediterranean sites.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Chardi, Alejandro; García-Pando, Marián; López-Fuster, María José

    2013-10-01

    Many ecotoxicological studies have addressed the effects of contaminant exposure at various levels of biological organization. However, little information exists on the effects of toxicants on wildlife populations. Here we examined exposure of populations of the greater white-toothed shrew Crocidura russula (Soricomorpha, Soricidae) occupying two protected Mediterranean sites (a polluted area, the Ebro Delta, and a control site, Garraf Massif). Bioaccumulation of selected elements (Pb, Hg, Cd, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Cr, Mo, Sr, Ba, and B), a body condition index (BCI) and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) were used to assess the chronic exposure to environmental pollution. BCI was correlated neither to metal concentrations nor to FA, suggesting that this fitness measure only reflects environmental disturbances at a local level. However, shrews from the polluted area showed higher concentrations of metals and metalloids (Pb, Hg, B, and Sr) and greater shape FA than specimens from the reference area. A correlation between FA was found for both first and second principal component vectors suggesting that developmental instability increases as a result of exposure to multiple pollutants. Our results corroborate the suitability of C. russula as a bioindicator of environmental quality and show that FA is an appropriate index to examine impact of developmental stressors in populations inhabiting disturbed areas.

  3. Debt-for-nature swaps: A new strategy for protecting environmental interests in developing nations

    SciTech Connect

    Hamlin, T.B. )

    1989-01-01

    Nature swaps are a generally well-conceived approach to mitigating the destruction of environmentally sensitive areas in developing nations while remaining sensitive to the economic needs of developing countries. They allow developing countries to dedicate some of their debt repayment to local projects, thus benefiting both their economies and the environment. Swaps also help them obtain assistance from environmental organizations in developed nations to manage their own natural resources. Environmentalists, through the purchase of steeply discounted debt, maximize their investment in tropical forest preservation. In addition they can strengthen environmental organizations in developing nations by including local environmentalists in both policy decisionmaking and the implementation of conservation projects. Debt-for-nature swaps also keep the subject of tropical deforestation on the agenda of the international community and offer small international lending institutions a socially redeeming means of removing bad loans from their ledgers. Finally, each government's authority to choose its own development objectives is only slightly encumbered by sharing decisionmaking authority with the environmentalists. Essentially, the swapping governments have agreed to cooperate. consequently, tropical forests only have as much protection as the tropical states desire. This does not mean that swaps are of little moment. Hopefully, collaboration between conservationists in the developed world and leaders of the developing nations will contribute to a constructive framework for future efforts to preserve the earth's tropical forests.

  4. 78 FR 73875 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland... requirement concerning the Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (Form I-68). This request for comment is...

  5. The Renewable Energy and Environmental Protection (REEP) Academy: An international training and educational program

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.; Pichumani, J.; Linde, A. van der

    1999-07-01

    High school and college students are getting a global perspective of photovoltaic systems through a hands-on educational and training program. The Renewable Energy and Environmental Protection (REEP) Academy is a college preparatory program conducted by Texas Southern University (TSU), located in Houston, Texas, in partnership with Port Elizabeth Technikon, located in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. The program is designed to encourage minority high school students to pursue education in science, engineering and technology through a combination of lectures, laboratory activities, field trips and hands-on system installations. Also included in this program is an international exchange between TSU and Port Elizabeth Technikon that enables college students to study abroad and complete internships involving photovoltaics. Assessments show that the students' knowledge of renewable energy and sustainability increases by approximately 40% following their participation in the program. To date, approximately 60% of the participating students who are currently in college are enrolled in technical fields.

  6. An assessment of the Environmental Protection Agency's asbestos hazard evaluation algorithm.

    PubMed Central

    Findley, M E; Rose, V E; Cutter, G R; Windsor, R A

    1983-01-01

    We performed an exploratory evaluation of the Environmental Protection Agency's algorithm for assessment of risk of exposure to asbestos in buildings. Observers scored five sites using the algorithm. One group (N = 23) conducted their assessments relying only on written instructions, while another (N = 20) was trained in the use of the algorithm. Five professional industrial hygienists, experienced in risk assessment, also used the algorithm on the same sites. A wide range of highly variable results, for both untrained and trained observers coupled with poor comparability with expert's scores raise concern as to the reliability of this assessment tool. The development of a valid and reliable "lay" index of risk is still needed. PMID:6614272

  7. Integrating biodiversity management and indigenous biopiracy protection to promote environmental justice and global health.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A

    2012-06-01

    Many potentially useful medicines arise from developing countries' biodiverse environments and indigenous knowledge. However, global intellectual property rules have resulted in biopiracy, raising serious ethical concerns of environmental justice, exploitation, and health disparities in these populations. Furthermore, state-based approaches have not led to adequate biodiversity protection, management, or resource sharing, which affect access to lifesaving drugs. In response, country delegates adopted the Nagoya Protocol, which aims at promoting biodiversity management, combating biopiracy, and encouraging equitable benefits sharing with indigenous communities. However, the effectiveness of this framework in meeting these objectives remains in question. To address these challenges, we propose a policy building on the Nagoya Protocol that employs a World Health Organization-World Trade Organization Joint Committee on Bioprospecting and Biopiracy.

  8. US Environmental Protection Agency`s radon mitigation standards: A status report

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, G.L.; Fisher, E.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s Radon Mitigation Standards (RMS) and complementary standards developed through the American Society for Testing and Materials, E-6 committee on Performance of Building Constructions. In addition, the paper also discusses the application of the Radon Mitigation Standards through the voluntary EPA Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program and enforcement issues encountered during their first year of application. Adherance to Interim Radon Mitigation Standards was required of all program participants starting in December 1991. These interim standards were superseded by the final RMS as revised in April 1994. The EPA Radon Mitigation Standards have been incorporated into the radon certification programs in a number of states, including New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Iowa. The standards serve to ensure the quality, performance and long-term effectiveness of residential radon mitigation systems. They are also incorporated into hands-on radon mitigation training which is required of all newly entering RCP Program participants.

  9. United States Environmental Protection Agency Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy test program for emissions measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Lay, L.T.

    1994-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA) November 15, 1990. Title 3 of the CAA amendments included a list of 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) for which emission test procedures must be established. An extractive emission test method, using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, is being developed for measuring HAP compounds. The FTIR procedure has the potential to detect over 100 of the listed compounds plus additional compounds such as criteria pollutants. This procedure has the ability to detect multiple compounds simultaneously and will provide near real-time data. Since the development of the extractive FTIR procedure, many source categories have been screened for HAP emissions using this technique. Modifications to the procedure have been made and validation testing has been performed. Currently, this technique is being used to collect data for maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standard development.

  10. Integrating Biodiversity Management and Indigenous Biopiracy Protection to Promote Environmental Justice and Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Bryan A.

    2012-01-01

    Many potentially useful medicines arise from developing countries’ biodiverse environments and indigenous knowledge. However, global intellectual property rules have resulted in biopiracy, raising serious ethical concerns of environmental justice, exploitation, and health disparities in these populations. Furthermore, state-based approaches have not led to adequate biodiversity protection, management, or resource sharing, which affect access to lifesaving drugs. In response, country delegates adopted the Nagoya Protocol, which aims at promoting biodiversity management, combating biopiracy, and encouraging equitable benefits sharing with indigenous communities. However, the effectiveness of this framework in meeting these objectives remains in question. To address these challenges, we propose a policy building on the Nagoya Protocol that employs a World Health Organization–World Trade Organization Joint Committee on Bioprospecting and Biopiracy. PMID:22515858

  11. Committing Canadian sociology: developing a Canadian sociology and a sociology of Canada.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Ralph

    2014-05-01

    This paper is a slightly revised version of the author's "Outstanding Career Award Lecture" presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Sociological Association in Victoria, British Columbia on June 6, 2013. The paper distinguishes between Canadian Sociology and the Sociology of Canada. The former involves the explanatory stance that one takes to understanding Canada. The latter addresses the significant social dimensions that underlie Canadian social organization, culture, and behavior. I make a case for a Canadian Sociology that focuses on the unique features of Canadian society rather than adopting a comparative perspective. I also argue that there is a continuing need within the Sociology of Canada to address the issues of staples development. However, I argue that "new" staples analysis must have a directional change from that of the past, in that social processes now largely determine the pattern of staples development. Moreover, new staples analysis must include issues that were never part of earlier staples analysis, such as issues of environmental impacts and of staples depletion under conditions, such as climate change. The paper concludes by analyzing four factors that provide the dominant social contexts for analyzing modern staples development: (1) the rise of neoliberal government, (2) the implementation of globalization and its social consequences, (3) the assumption of aboriginal rights and entitlement, and (4) the rise of environmentalism. These factors were generally not considered in earlier staples approaches. They are critical to understanding the role of staples development and its impact on Canada in the present time. PMID:24964518

  12. Committing Canadian sociology: developing a Canadian sociology and a sociology of Canada.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Ralph

    2014-05-01

    This paper is a slightly revised version of the author's "Outstanding Career Award Lecture" presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Sociological Association in Victoria, British Columbia on June 6, 2013. The paper distinguishes between Canadian Sociology and the Sociology of Canada. The former involves the explanatory stance that one takes to understanding Canada. The latter addresses the significant social dimensions that underlie Canadian social organization, culture, and behavior. I make a case for a Canadian Sociology that focuses on the unique features of Canadian society rather than adopting a comparative perspective. I also argue that there is a continuing need within the Sociology of Canada to address the issues of staples development. However, I argue that "new" staples analysis must have a directional change from that of the past, in that social processes now largely determine the pattern of staples development. Moreover, new staples analysis must include issues that were never part of earlier staples analysis, such as issues of environmental impacts and of staples depletion under conditions, such as climate change. The paper concludes by analyzing four factors that provide the dominant social contexts for analyzing modern staples development: (1) the rise of neoliberal government, (2) the implementation of globalization and its social consequences, (3) the assumption of aboriginal rights and entitlement, and (4) the rise of environmentalism. These factors were generally not considered in earlier staples approaches. They are critical to understanding the role of staples development and its impact on Canada in the present time.

  13. Manpower for Environmental Pollution Control: A Report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency from the Committee for Study of Environmental Manpower. Analytical Studies for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Volume V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Human Resources.

    The Committee for Study of Environmental Manpower (CSEM), responsible for this report, was appointed by the Commission on Human Resources to review the literature in the field of environmental manpower and to make recommendations. The Committee involved experts from government, industry, environmental organizations, and the general public. In this…

  14. Survey of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an environmentally protected area in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Lara; Silva Reis, Alanna; Marteleto Nunes Rugani, Jeronimo; Sampaio Pereira, Agnes Antônia; Rêgo, Felipe Dutra; Vianna Mariano da Rocha Lima, Ana Cristina; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2015-01-01

    Brazil is one of the most important endemic areas for leishmaniasis worldwide. Protected areas that are tourist attractions likely present an important risk of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Furthermore, with the geographical expansion of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), several studies have recorded the occurrence of its vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis, and cases of human and canine VL in such tourist areas. The Parque Estadual do Sumidouro is an environmentally protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado biome and in an important area endemic for leishmaniasis in the state of Minas Gerais. The purpose of this study was to monitor the sand fly fauna in areas of tourist activity in the park. Sampling was performed every month, from September 2011 to August 2013, using CDC light traps at six sites of differing environmental characteristics. Sampled specimens were identified following Galati (2003), and females were submitted to molecular techniques for the detection and identification of Leishmania DNA. A total of 4,675 sand fly specimens of 25 species belonging to nine genera were collected. The most abundant species were Micropygomyia quinquefer, Lutzomyia renei and Pintomyia pessoai, although only Pi. pessoai is implicated in the transmission of Leishmania braziliensis. The species accumulation curve reached saturation on the 16th sampling event. Species richness, diversity and evenness differed among the sampled areas. The seasonal curve was not determined by a single unique species, and no single species was the most abundant in all environments sampled. The main vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, Lutzomyia longipalpis, accounted for only 5.35% of the specimens collected. Proven or suspected vectors of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis were recorded, and one female of the cortellezzii complex tested positive for Le. braziliensis DNA. Even with a low infection rate (0.62%), these data indicate the circulation of the parasite and reinforce

  15. Survey of Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an Environmentally Protected Area in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva Reis, Alanna; Marteleto Nunes Rugani, Jeronimo; Sampaio Pereira, Agnes Antônia; Rêgo, Felipe Dutra; Vianna Mariano da Rocha Lima, Ana Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Brazil is one of the most important endemic areas for leishmaniasis worldwide. Protected areas that are tourist attractions likely present an important risk of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Furthermore, with the geographical expansion of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), several studies have recorded the occurrence of its vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis, and cases of human and canine VL in such tourist areas. The Parque Estadual do Sumidouro is an environmentally protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado biome and in an important area endemic for leishmaniasis in the state of Minas Gerais. The purpose of this study was to monitor the sand fly fauna in areas of tourist activity in the park. Sampling was performed every month, from September 2011 to August 2013, using CDC light traps at six sites of differing environmental characteristics. Sampled specimens were identified following Galati (2003), and females were submitted to molecular techniques for the detection and identification of Leishmania DNA. A total of 4,675 sand fly specimens of 25 species belonging to nine genera were collected. The most abundant species were Micropygomyia quinquefer, Lutzomyia renei and Pintomyia pessoai, although only Pi. pessoai is implicated in the transmission of Leishmania braziliensis. The species accumulation curve reached saturation on the 16th sampling event. Species richness, diversity and evenness differed among the sampled areas. The seasonal curve was not determined by a single unique species, and no single species was the most abundant in all environments sampled. The main vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, Lutzomyia longipalpis, accounted for only 5.35% of the specimens collected. Proven or suspected vectors of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis were recorded, and one female of the cortellezzii complex tested positive for Le. braziliensis DNA. Even with a low infection rate (0.62%), these data indicate the circulation of the parasite and reinforce

  16. [Public health relevant levels of pollutants in soil. Considerations for preventive, environmental health protection].

    PubMed

    Müller, L

    1998-07-01

    A working document on nation-wide applicable health-related guiding levels of environmental pollutants in soil has been prepared. These levels are intended to be the base for the administrative regulation of soil contaminations in connection with the German "Bundesbodenschutzgesetz" (Federal law on the protection of soil). Legislation demands these base levels to be intensely related to protection against serious health effects (i.e. health hazards). Looking more closely at the toxicological deduction of these values and at some values extracted from that process some uncertainties become obvious with regard to a clearcut limit between dangerous and noxious levels in soil. Indeed there are some arguments which suggest a more conservative approach. Health-care based recommendations should be introduced also at lower contaminant levels in soil. Therefore, development of an internal administrative manual on basic noxious values of soil pollutants (e.g. values below the threshold of danger) is suggested which may be useful for health authorities to cope with special problems in individual cases. PMID:9738353

  17. Ocean thermal conversion (OTEC) project bottom cable protection study: environmental characteristics and hazards analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chern, C.; Tudor, W.

    1981-10-01

    Seafloor cable-protection criteria and technology as applied to the four proposed OTEC plant sites and cable routes at Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam and Florida were examined. Study of environmental characteristics for each site covered: (A) natural factors of location, tide and currents, wind and wave, bottom soil type and seafloor movement; and (B) man-made factors such as ship traffic, fishing activities, ocean mining, government regulations. These characteristics were studied to determine the hazards which are potential sources of damage to a cable system. Hazards include: chafe and corrosion, hydrodynamic forces due to wave and current action, mudslides, earthquakes, trawler and/or dredge action and ship anchors. An analysis of the history of submarine-cable failures was conducted. Included are the probabilities of damage related to water depth. Probabilities become minimal for all hazards in water depths of 1500 feet and more. Chafe and corrosion had the highest probability of causing damage to a seafloor cable compared to the other hazards. Because of the hazards present at all sites, cable burial is recommended as the best means of protection.

  18. Ten factors that affect the severity of environmental impacts of visitors in protected areas.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Catherine Marina

    2010-02-01

    Protected areas represent the major method for conserving biodiversity. However, visitor use can threaten their conservation value. Based on a review of recent research, I have categorized factors that affect the severity of environmental impacts of visitor use. These factors need to be considered or evaluated when assessing visitor use of sites in protected areas. They are: (i) the conservation value of the site, (ii) its resistance to use, (iii) its recovery from use, (iv) its susceptibility to erosion, (v) the severity of direct impacts associated with specific activities, (vi) the severity of indirect impacts, (vii) the amount of use, (viii) the social and (ix) ecological dimensions to the timing of use, and (x) the total area affected. Although the factors may not be of equal importance or necessarily assessed on an equal scale, they allow people to make more informed assessments of potential impacts, assist in identifying where monitoring may be required, and indicate where additional site- or activity-specific research may be appropriate.

  19. A novel AhR ligand, 2AI, protects the retina from environmental stress

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Mark A.; Davis, Sonnet S.; Rosko, Andrew; Nguyen, Steven M.; Mitchell, Kylie P.; Mateen, Samiha; Neves, Joana; Garcia, Thelma Y.; Mooney, Shaun; Perdew, Gary H.; Hubbard, Troy D.; Lamba, Deepak A.; Ramanathan, Arvind

    2016-01-01

    Various retinal degenerative diseases including dry and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), retinitis pigmentosa, and diabetic retinopathy are associated with the degeneration of the retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) layer of the retina. This consequently results in the death of rod and cone photoreceptors that they support, structurally and functionally leading to legal or complete blindness. Therefore, developing therapeutic strategies to preserve cellular homeostasis in the RPE would be a favorable asset in the clinic. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a conserved, environmental ligand-dependent, per ARNT-sim (PAS) domain containing bHLH transcription factor that mediates adaptive response to stress via its downstream transcriptional targets. Using in silico, in vitro and in vivo assays, we identified 2,2′-aminophenyl indole (2AI) as a potent synthetic ligand of AhR that protects RPE cells in vitro from lipid peroxidation cytotoxicity mediated by 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) as well as the retina in vivo from light-damage. Additionally, metabolic characterization of this molecule by LC-MS suggests that 2AI alters the lipid metabolism of RPE cells, enhancing the intracellular levels of palmitoleic acid. Finally, we show that, as a downstream effector of 2AI-mediated AhR activation, palmitoleic acid protects RPE cells from 4HNE-mediated stress, and light mediated retinal degeneration in mice. PMID:27364765

  20. Radial-interval linear programming for environmental management under varied protection levels.

    PubMed

    Tan, Qian; Huang, Guo H; Cai, Yanpeng

    2010-09-01

    In this study, a radial-interval linear programming (RILP) approach was developed for supporting waste management under uncertainty. RILP improved interval-parameter linear programming and its extensions in terms of input reasonableness and output robustness. From the perspective of modeling inputs, RILP could tackle highly uncertain information at the bounds of interval parameters through introducing the concept of fluctuation radius. Regarding modeling outputs, RILP allows controlling the degree of conservatism associated with interval solutions and is capable of quantifying corresponding system risks and benefits. This could facilitate the reflection of interactive relationship between the feasibility of system and the uncertainty of parameters. A computationally tractable algorithm was provided to solve RILP. Then, a long-term waste management case was studied to demonstrate the applicability of the developed methodology. A series of interval solutions obtained under varied protection levels were compared, helping gain insights into the interactions among protection level, violation risk, and system cost. Potential waste allocation alternatives could be generated from these interval solutions, which would be screened in real-world practices according to various projected system conditions as well as decision-makers' willingness to pay and risk tolerance levels. Sensitivity analysis further revealed the significant impact of fluctuation radii of interval parameters on the system. The results indicated that RILP is applicable to a wide spectrum of environmental management problems that are subject to compound uncertainties.

  1. Managing water to protect fish: a review of California's Environmental Water Account, 2001-2005.

    PubMed

    Brown, Larry R; Kimmerer, Wim; Brown, Randall

    2009-02-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, the landward reach of the San Francisco Estuary, provides habitat for threatened delta smelt, endangered winter-run Chinook salmon, and other species of concern. It is also the location of huge freshwater diversion facilities that entrain large numbers of fish. Reducing the entrainment of listed fishes into these facilities has required curtailment of pumping, reducing the reliability of water deliveries. We reviewed the first 5 years (2001-2005) of the Environmental Water Account (EWA), a program instituted to resolve conflicts between protecting listed fishes and providing a reliable water supply. The EWA provided fishery agencies with control over 0.2-0.4 km(3) of water to be used for fish protection at no cost to users of exported water, and fish agencies guaranteed no disruption of water supply for fish protection. The EWA was successful in reducing uncertainty in water supply; however, its contribution to the recovery of listed fishes was unclear. We estimated the effectiveness of the EWA to be modest, increasing the survival of winter-run Chinook salmon by 0-6% (dependent on prescreen mortality), adult delta smelt by 0-1%, and juvenile delta smelt by 2-4%. Allocating EWA water for a single life stage of one species could provide larger gains in survival. An optimally allocated EWA of equal size to the median of the first 5 years could increase abundance of juvenile delta smelt up to 7% in the springs of dry years. If the EWA is to become a long-term program, estimates of efficacy should be refined. If the program is to be held accountable for quantitative increases in fish populations, it will be necessary to integrate scientific, possibly experimental, approaches. PMID:18830738

  2. Managing Water to Protect Fish: A Review of California's Environmental Water Account, 2001-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Larry R.; Kimmerer, Wim; Brown, Randall

    2009-02-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, the landward reach of the San Francisco Estuary, provides habitat for threatened delta smelt, endangered winter-run Chinook salmon, and other species of concern. It is also the location of huge freshwater diversion facilities that entrain large numbers of fish. Reducing the entrainment of listed fishes into these facilities has required curtailment of pumping, reducing the reliability of water deliveries. We reviewed the first 5 years (2001-2005) of the Environmental Water Account (EWA), a program instituted to resolve conflicts between protecting listed fishes and providing a reliable water supply. The EWA provided fishery agencies with control over 0.2-0.4 km3 of water to be used for fish protection at no cost to users of exported water, and fish agencies guaranteed no disruption of water supply for fish protection. The EWA was successful in reducing uncertainty in water supply; however, its contribution to the recovery of listed fishes was unclear. We estimated the effectiveness of the EWA to be modest, increasing the survival of winter-run Chinook salmon by 0-6% (dependent on prescreen mortality), adult delta smelt by 0-1%, and juvenile delta smelt by 2-4%. Allocating EWA water for a single life stage of one species could provide larger gains in survival. An optimally allocated EWA of equal size to the median of the first 5 years could increase abundance of juvenile delta smelt up to 7% in the springs of dry years. If the EWA is to become a long-term program, estimates of efficacy should be refined. If the program is to be held accountable for quantitative increases in fish populations, it will be necessary to integrate scientific, possibly experimental, approaches.

  3. Managing water to protect fish: A review of California's environmental water account, 2001-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, L.R.; Kimmerer, W.; Brown, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, the landward reach of the San Francisco Estuary, provides habitat for threatened delta smelt, endangered winter-run Chinook salmon, and other species of concern. It is also the location of huge freshwater diversion facilities that entrain large numbers of fish. Reducing the entrainment of listed fishes into these facilities has required curtailment of pumping, reducing the reliability of water deliveries. We reviewed the first 5 years (2001-2005) of the Environmental Water Account (EWA), a program instituted to resolve conflicts between protecting listed fishes and providing a reliable water supply. The EWA provided fishery agencies with control over 0.2-0.4 km3 of water to be used for fish protection at no cost to users of exported water, and fish agencies guaranteed no disruption of water supply for fish protection. The EWA was successful in reducing uncertainty in water supply; however, its contribution to the recovery of listed fishes was unclear. We estimated the effectiveness of the EWA to be modest, increasing the survival of winter-run Chinook salmon by 0-6% (dependent on prescreen mortality), adult delta smelt by 0-1%, and juvenile delta smelt by 2-4%. Allocating EWA water for a single life stage of one species could provide larger gains in survival. An optimally allocated EWA of equal size to the median of the first 5 years could increase abundance of juvenile delta smelt up to 7% in the springs of dry years. If the EWA is to become a long-term program, estimates of efficacy should be refined. If the program is to be held accountable for quantitative increases in fish populations, it will be necessary to integrate scientific, possibly experimental, approaches. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  4. Media Coverage of Pediatric Environmental Health Risks and its Effects on Mothers' Protective Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Mello, Susan; Hornik, Robert C

    2016-03-01

    This study explores the relationship between exposure to U.S. media coverage of chemical threats to pediatric environmental health and mothers' behaviors to protect their children. Prior content analytic work revealed that media coverage volume from September 2012 to February 2013 differed significantly by type of chemical (i.e., pesticides = high coverage volume; bisphenol A [BPA] = moderate; and arsenic = low). Survey data collected from new and expecting mothers in March 2013 (n = 822) revealed mothers incidentally encountered-or scanned-this information in the media in the prior six months, and after adjusting for a series of potential confounders, such scanning was positively associated with mothers' self-reported behaviors to reduce chemical exposures. To test the hypothesis that coverage volume moderates the relationship between scanning and behavior, content analysis and survey data were combined in mixed effects regression analyses. Results showed significant differences between the effects of media scanning at different levels of coverage volume, but in a direction not entirely consistent with the study's hypothesis. The relationship between scanning and behavior was strongest for BPA, suggesting that a characteristic of media coverage other than volume may drive maternal responses to environmental health threats. Implications of these findings for risk communication research and practice are discussed.

  5. NASA/Air Force/Environmental Protection Agency Interagency Depainting Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia

    1998-01-01

    Many popular and widely used paint stripping products have traditionally contained methylene chloride as their main active ingredient. However, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has critically curved the allowable use of methylene chloride under the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants regulating Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities . Compliance with this rule was mandatory by September 1998 for affected facilities. An effort is underway to identify and evaluate alternative depainting technologies emphasizing those believed both effective and environmentally benign. On behalf of the EPA and in cooperation with the United States Air Force, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is conducting a technical assessment of several alternative technologies ( i.e. : chemical stripping, two CO2 blasting processes, CO2 xenon lamp coating removal, CO2 Laser stripping, plastic media blasting, sodium bicarbonate wet stripping, high pressure water stripping, and wheat starch blasting). These depainting processes represent five removal method categories, namely abrasive, impact, cryogenic, thermal, and/or molecular bonding dissociation. This paper discusses the test plan and parameters for this interagency study. Several thicknesses of clad and non-clad aluminum substrates were used to prepare test specimens. Each depainting process has been assigned a specimen lot, all of which have completed three to five stripping cycles. Numerous metallurgical evaluations are underway to assess the impact of these alternative depainting processes upon the structural integrity of the substrate.

  6. Environmental protection in Hong Kong amidst transition: Is Hong Kong ready to manage its environment by law?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wing-Hung Lo, Carlos

    1995-05-01

    Within the context of political democratization, this article explores environmental protection in Hong Kong since the government lauched a ten-year program to “save the environment” in 1989. Examining environmental management by law from a social-choice perspective, it argues that the government has yet to reach an integrative policy orocess. Hence the preconditions for an integrative set of environmental legislation are absent. Institutionally, without a comprehensive green policy, the current arrangements lack a vision as an integrative force to promote effective coordination among various sectoral environmental coordination among various sectoral environmental programs. The dominant approach of policy and law enforcement through consultation has rendered impossible strict enforcement of environmental rules and regulations as local economic growth enjoys a priority over environmental protection. At a time of environmental awakening, the people of Hong Kong are not yet prepared awakening, the people of Hong Kong are not yet prepared to participate in environmental management in a strict legal manner. The overall observation is that Hong Kong has yet to see more mature political, legal, administrative, and social conditions for managing its environment within a legal framework.

  7. Cryptosporidium and giardia recoveries in natural waters by using environmental protection agency method 1623.

    PubMed

    DiGiorgio, Carol L; Gonzalez, David A; Huitt, Christopher C

    2002-12-01

    Relatively few studies have examined recoveries from source waters by using Environmental Protection Agency method 1623 with organism spike doses that are environmentally realistic and at turbidity levels commonly found in surface waters. In this study, we evaluated the filtration capacities and recovery efficiencies of the Gelman Envirochek (standard filter) and the Gelman Envirochek high-volume (HV) sampling capsules under environmental conditions. We also examined the performance of method 1623 under ambient conditions with matrix spike experiments using 10 organisms/liter. Under turbid conditions, the HV capsule filtered approximately twice the volume filtered by the standard filter, but neither could filter 10 liters without clogging. In low-turbidity waters, oocyst, but not cyst, recoveries were significantly higher when the HV capsule was used. In turbid waters, organism recoveries were lower than those in nonturbid waters and were not significantly different for the different filters. When the HV capsule was used, Cryptosporidium recoveries ranged from 36 to 75%, and Giardia recoveries ranged from 0.5 to 53%. For both organisms, recoveries varied significantly by site. Turbidity could explain variation in Giardia recoveries (r(2) = 0.80) but not variation in Cryptosporidium recoveries (r(2) = 0.16). The inconsistent recoveries across sites suggested that the background matrix of the ambient water affected recovery by method 1623. A control sample collected at the height of the winter rainy season detected one organism, highlighting the difficulty of using this method to accurately measure pathogen abundance under natural conditions. Our findings support the use of the HV filter under field conditions but suggest that designing a cost-effective and statistically valid monitoring program to evaluate sources and loads of protozoan pathogens may be difficult.

  8. Corrosion-Activated Micro-Containers for Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Protective Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, J. W.; Zhang, X.; Johnsey, M. N.; Pearman, B. P.; Jolley, S. T.; Calle, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    indicators, inhibitors and self-healing agents. This allows the incorporation of autonomous corrosion control functionalities, such as corrosion detection and inhibition as well as the self-healing of mechanical damage, into coatings. This paper presents technical details on the characterization of inhibitor-containing particles and their corrosion inhibitive effects using electrochemical and mass loss methods.Three organic environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors were encapsulated in organic microparticles that are compatible with desired coatings. The release of the inhibitors from the microparticles in basic solution was studied. Fast release, for immediate corrosion protection, as well as long-term release for continued protection, was observed.The inhibition efficacy of the inhibitors, incorporated directly and in microparticles, on carbon steel was evaluated. Polarization curves and mass loss measurements showed that, in the case of 2MBT, its corrosion inhibition effectiveness was greater when it was delivered from microparticles.

  9. Determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions on two small Greek islands: is ecotourism possible at coastal protected areas?

    PubMed

    Kafyri, Andriani; Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Konstantinos

    2012-07-01

    A relatively under-researched question is whether there is a possibility of influencing environmentally aware tourists regarding ecotourism at destinations that continue to develop under a pattern of mass 'seaside' tourism. Our objective was to assess the pro-environmental intentions of visitors at two small Greek islands, which are within a Natura 2000 site, specifically Paxoi and Antipaxoi. Intentions involved willingness to receive information about the protected area, willingness to accept pro-environmental limitations on recreational experience, and willingness-to-pay a conditional environmental conservation value added tax. In addition, we aimed to identify determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions among visitor and visit characteristics, visitor satisfaction, and self-reported environmental knowledge, as well as anticipated outcomes of tourism development and suggestions for protected area management. We randomly collected 324 usable questionnaires during the summer season; 242 (74.69 %) by Greek visitors and 82 (25.31 %) by foreign visitors. Visitor satisfaction was quite high; however, visitors reported low levels of environmental knowledge. Our findings showed that the unique characteristics of the destination were not salient among visitors and that there is a lack of effective outreach campaigns, interpretation, and on-site environmental education programs. However, our study revealed high levels of visitor pro-environmental intentions that might support the promotion of ecotourism on the two islands. We provide recommendations based on determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions, which might assist towards advancing visitor participation in environmental education projects, environmentally responsible behavior among visitors, and financial contribution to environmental conservation by visitors.

  10. Determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions on two small Greek islands: is ecotourism possible at coastal protected areas?

    PubMed

    Kafyri, Andriani; Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Konstantinos

    2012-07-01

    A relatively under-researched question is whether there is a possibility of influencing environmentally aware tourists regarding ecotourism at destinations that continue to develop under a pattern of mass 'seaside' tourism. Our objective was to assess the pro-environmental intentions of visitors at two small Greek islands, which are within a Natura 2000 site, specifically Paxoi and Antipaxoi. Intentions involved willingness to receive information about the protected area, willingness to accept pro-environmental limitations on recreational experience, and willingness-to-pay a conditional environmental conservation value added tax. In addition, we aimed to identify determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions among visitor and visit characteristics, visitor satisfaction, and self-reported environmental knowledge, as well as anticipated outcomes of tourism development and suggestions for protected area management. We randomly collected 324 usable questionnaires during the summer season; 242 (74.69 %) by Greek visitors and 82 (25.31 %) by foreign visitors. Visitor satisfaction was quite high; however, visitors reported low levels of environmental knowledge. Our findings showed that the unique characteristics of the destination were not salient among visitors and that there is a lack of effective outreach campaigns, interpretation, and on-site environmental education programs. However, our study revealed high levels of visitor pro-environmental intentions that might support the promotion of ecotourism on the two islands. We provide recommendations based on determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions, which might assist towards advancing visitor participation in environmental education projects, environmentally responsible behavior among visitors, and financial contribution to environmental conservation by visitors. PMID:22538319

  11. Determinants of Visitor Pro-Environmental Intentions on Two Small Greek Islands: Is Ecotourism Possible at Coastal Protected Areas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafyri, Andriani; Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Konstantinos

    2012-07-01

    A relatively under-researched question is whether there is a possibility of influencing environmentally aware tourists regarding ecotourism at destinations that continue to develop under a pattern of mass `seaside' tourism. Our objective was to assess the pro-environmental intentions of visitors at two small Greek islands, which are within a Natura 2000 site, specifically Paxoi and Antipaxoi. Intentions involved willingness to receive information about the protected area, willingness to accept pro-environmental limitations on recreational experience, and willingness-to-pay a conditional environmental conservation value added tax. In addition, we aimed to identify determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions among visitor and visit characteristics, visitor satisfaction, and self-reported environmental knowledge, as well as anticipated outcomes of tourism development and suggestions for protected area management. We randomly collected 324 usable questionnaires during the summer season; 242 (74.69 %) by Greek visitors and 82 (25.31 %) by foreign visitors. Visitor satisfaction was quite high; however, visitors reported low levels of environmental knowledge. Our findings showed that the unique characteristics of the destination were not salient among visitors and that there is a lack of effective outreach campaigns, interpretation, and on-site environmental education programs. However, our study revealed high levels of visitor pro-environmental intentions that might support the promotion of ecotourism on the two islands. We provide recommendations based on determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions, which might assist towards advancing visitor participation in environmental education projects, environmentally responsible behavior among visitors, and financial contribution to environmental conservation by visitors.

  12. Development of EPA's (Environmental Protection Agency) BRC (below regulatory concern) criteria for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gruhlke, J.M.; Galpin, F.L.; Holcomb, W.F. )

    1989-11-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) program to develop proposed generally applicable environmental standards for land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and certain naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive wastes has been completed. The elements of the proposed standards for LLW under 40CFR193 of the Code of Federal Regulations include the following: 1. exposure limits for predisposal management and storage operations; 2. criteria for other regulatory agencies to follow in specifying wastes that are below regulatory concern (BRC); 3. postdisposal exposure limits; 4. groundwater protection requirements; and 5. qualitative implementation requirements. This paper focuses on the development of EPA's BRC criteria applicable to the disposal of LLW.

  13. Canadian global village reality

    PubMed Central

    He, Meizi; Li, E.T.S.; Harris, Stewart; Huff, Murray W.; Yau, Chun Y.; Anderson, G. Harvey

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To test the appropriateness of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) cutoff points derived in largely white populations (ie, those of European descent) for detecting obesity-related metabolic abnormalities among East Asian and South Asian Canadians. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. SETTING Primary care and community settings in Ontario. PARTICIPANTS Canadians of East Asian (n = 130), South Asian (n = 113), and European (n = 111) descent. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Variables for metabolic syndromes, including BMI, WC, body fat percentage, blood pressure, lipid profile, and fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, were measured. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis was used to generate BMI and WC cutoff points based on various criteria for metabolic syndromes. RESULTS Adjusting for sex and age, East Asian Canadians had a significantly lower mean BMI (23.2 kg/m2) and mean WC (79.6 cm) than did those of South Asian (26.1 kg/m2 and 90.3 cm) and European (26.5 kg/m2 and 89.3 cm) descent (P < .05). The BMI cutoffs for an increased risk of metabolic abnormalities ranged from 23.1 to 24.4 kg/m2 in East Asian Canadians; 26.6 to 26.8 kg/m2 in South Asian Canadians; and 26.3 to 28.2 kg/m2 in European Canadians. Waist circumference cutoffs for increased risk of metabolic abnormalities were relatively low in East Asian men (83.3 to 85.2 cm) and women (74.1 to 76.7 cm), compared with South Asian men (98.8 cm) and women (90.1 to 93.5 cm), as well as European men (91.6 to 95.2 cm) and women (82.8 to 88.3 cm). CONCLUSION The BMI and WC cutoffs used for defining risk of metabolic abnormalities should be lowered for East Asian Canadians but not for South Asian Canadians. The World Health Organization ethnic-specific BMI and WC cutoffs should be used with caution, particularly with Asian migrants who have resided in Canada for a long period of time. PMID:20463258

  14. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act and Marine Mammal Protection Act. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-31

    Two laws governing activities in the marine environment are considered in this Reference Book. The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA, P.L. 92-532) regulates ocean dumping of waste, provides for a research program on ocean dumping, and provides for the designation and regulation of marine sanctuaries. The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA, P.L. 92-522) establishes a federal program to protect and manage marine mammals. The Fishery Conservation and Management Act (FCMA, P.L. 94-265) establishes a program to regulate marine fisheries resources and commercial marine fishermen. Because the Department of Energy (DOE) is not engaged in any activities that could be classified as fishing under FCMA, this Act and its regulations have no implications for the DOE; therefore, no further consideration of this Act is given within this Reference Book. The requirements of the MPRSA and the MMPA are discussed in terms of their implications for the DOE.

  15. Overexpression of DeltaFosB in nucleus accumbens mimics the protective addiction phenotype, but not the protective depression phenotype of environmental enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yafang; Crofton, Elizabeth J.; Li, Dingge; Lobo, Mary Kay; Fan, Xiuzhen; Nestler, Eric J.; Green, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental enrichment produces protective addiction and depression phenotypes in rats. ΔFosB is a transcription factor that regulates reward in the brain and is induced by psychological stress as well as drugs of abuse. However, the role played by ΔFosB in the protective phenotypes of environmental enrichment has not been well studied. Here, we demonstrate that ΔFosB is differentially regulated in rats reared in an isolated condition (IC) compared to those in an enriched condition (EC) in response to restraint stress or cocaine. Chronic stress or chronic cocaine treatment each elevates ΔFosB protein levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of IC rats, but not of EC rats due to an already elevated basal accumulation of ΔFosB seen under EC conditions. Viral-mediated overexpression of ΔFosB in the NAc shell of pair-housed rats (i.e., independent of environmental enrichment/isolation) increases operant responding for sucrose when motivated by hunger, but decreases responding in satiated animals. Moreover, ΔFosB overexpression decreases cocaine self-administration, enhances extinction of cocaine seeking, and decreases cocaine-induced reinstatement of intravenous cocaine self-administration; all behavioral findings consistent with the enrichment phenotype. In contrast, however, ΔFosB overexpression did not alter responses of pair-housed rats in several tests of anxiety- and depression-related behavior. Thus, ΔFosB in the NAc the shell mimics the protective addiction phenotype, but not the protective depression phenotype of environmental enrichment. PMID:25221490

  16. The influence of control group reproduction on the statistical power of the Environmental Protection Agency’s medaka Extended One-Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of various Congressional mandates to protect the environment from endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) initiated the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. In the context of this framework, the Office of Research...

  17. Twitter and Canadian Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Max

    2012-01-01

    An emerging group of leaders in Canadian education has attracted thousands of followers. They've made Twitter an extension of their lives, delivering twenty or more tweets a day that can include, for example, links to media articles, research, new ideas from education bloggers, or to their own, or simply a personal thought. At their best,…

  18. Canadian Experience with MARC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapple, Sharon E.

    Canadian libraries have used Machine-readable Cataloging (MARC) since its beginnings in 1966, mainly for speeding up the cataloging of American imprints. The lack of bilingualism in Library of Congress MARC records was a major deficiency in Canada where bilingual access points are provided for all publications in the national bibliography,…

  19. Canadian Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooke, W. Michael, Comp.

    "Trends," a publication of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, is a collection of abstracts on selected subjects affecting adult education; this issue is on adult basic education (ABE). It covers teachers and teacher training, psychological factors relating to the ABE teacher and students, manuals for teachers, instructional materials,…

  20. Magsat investigation. [Canadian shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    A computer program was prepared for modeling segments of the Earth's crust allowing for heterogeneity in magnetization in calculating the Earth's field at Magsat heights. This permits investigation of a large number of possible models in assessing the magnetic signatures of subprovinces of the Canadian shield. The fit between the model field and observed fields is optimized in a semi-automatic procedure.