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Sample records for canadian environmental protection

  1. The Canadian experience in frontier environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.H. )

    1991-03-01

    Early Canadian frontier exploration (from 1955 onshore and from 1966 for offshore drilling) caused insignificant public concern. The 1967-1968 Torrey Canyon Tanker and Santa Barbara disasters roused public opinion and governments. In Canada, 1969-1970 Arctic gas blowouts, a tanker disaster, and damage to the 'Manhattan' exacerbated concerns and resulted in new environmental regulatory constraints. From 1970, the Arctic Petroleum Operations Association learned to operate safely with environmental responsibility. It studied physical environment for design criteria, and the biological and human environment to ameliorate impact. APOA's research projects covered sea-ice, permafrost, sea-bottom, oil-spills, bird and mammal migration, fish habitat, food chains, oceanography, meteorology, hunters'/trappers' harvests, etc. In 1971 Eastcoast Petroleum Operators' Association and Alaska Oil and Gas Association followed APOA's cooperative research model. EPOA stressed icebergs and fisheries. Certain research was handled by the Canadian Offshore Oil Spill Research Association. By the mid-1980s these associations had undertaken $70,000,000 of environmental oriented research, with equivalent additional work by member companies on specific needs and similar sums by Federal agencies often working with industry on complementary research. The frontier associations then merged with the Canadian Petroleum Association, already active environmentally in western Canada. Working with government and informing environmental interest groups, the public, natives, and local groups, most Canadian frontier petroleum operations proceeded with minimal delay and environmental disturbance.

  2. Indigenous populations health protection: A Canadian perspective

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The disproportionate effects of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic on many Canadian Aboriginal communities have drawn attention to the vulnerability of these communities in terms of health outcomes in the face of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Exploring the particular challenges facing these communities is essential to improving public health planning. In alignment with the objectives of the Pandemic Influenza Outbreak Research Modelling (Pan-InfORM) team, a Canadian public health workshop was held at the Centre for Disease Modelling (CDM) to: (i) evaluate post-pandemic research findings; (ii) identify existing gaps in knowledge that have yet to be addressed through ongoing research and collaborative activities; and (iii) build upon existing partnerships within the research community to forge new collaborative links with Aboriginal health organizations. The workshop achieved its objectives in identifying main research findings and emerging information post pandemic, and highlighting key challenges that pose significant impediments to the health protection and promotion of Canadian Aboriginal populations. The health challenges faced by Canadian indigenous populations are unique and complex, and can only be addressed through active engagement with affected communities. The academic research community will need to develop a new interdisciplinary framework, building upon concepts from ‘Communities of Practice’, to ensure that the research priorities are identified and targeted, and the outcomes are translated into the context of community health to improve policy and practice. PMID:23256553

  3. COMMUNITY BASED ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Community Based Environmental Protection intends to make environmental protection spring from the needs and values of the community of interest. Real community involvement in protecting the environment requires a process in which the environmental needs of communities and ecosyst...

  4. Environmental protection Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. Holland

    1999-12-01

    This ``Environmental Protection Implementation Plan'' is intended to ensure that the environmental program objectives of Department of Energy Order 5400.1 are achieved at SNL/California. This document states SNL/California's commitment to conduct its operations in an environmentally safe and responsible manner. The ``Environmental Protection Implementation Plan'' helps management and staff comply with applicable environmental responsibilities.

  5. Careers in Environmental Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Reed

    The book presents concerns of our society in protecting our environment and the challenges involved in meaningful careers in environmental protection and management. "Estimates by the Environmental Protection Agency indicate that, compared with their numbers in the mid-'70's, the need for environmental professionals will triple by…

  6. Canadian soil quality guidelines for copper: Environmental and human health

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This report begins with background information on the physical and chemical properties of copper, the production and use of copper in Canada, its levels in the Canadian environment, and existing guidelines and criteria regarding copper concentrations in various media. It then reviews the environmental fate and behaviour of copper, notably in the soil; the behavior and effects of copper in biota, including soil microbial processes, terrestrial plants and invertebrates, livestock and wildlife, and bioaccumulation; and the pharmacokinetics and toxicology of copper in mammals and humans, concluding with an overall toxicological evaluation and human exposure estimates. This information is used to derive environmental and human health soil quality guidelines for copper to protect environmental and human health receptors, for agricultural, residential/parkland, commercial, and industrial land uses.

  7. Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E.; Ooi, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services. PMID:12894328

  8. Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E; Ooi, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services.

  9. Health, safety and environmental education at the Canadian Labour Congress.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Dave

    2011-01-01

    This piece describes involvement and reflections by Dave Bennett in three areas: 1) union education at the Canadian Labour Congress (CLC) from the late 1970s onwards; 2) insights regarding how the CLC moved into health and safety education in the early 1980s; and 3) further thoughts on how the CLC moved from health and safety into environmental protection education in the early 1990s, and consequent changes in the perspective adopted by health and safety courses. There are two types of critical comment on these educational processes, one which examines the educational dilemmas at the time, with an evaluation of the decisions reached, and the other a retrospective view of the educational process as a result of reflective hindsight.

  10. Partners in Environmental Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morehouse, Karen

    1975-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) and the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act's (CETA) cooperative relationship regarding the development of environmental manpower programs on a State and local level is discussed. Environmental programs resulting from CETA aid are described and EPA statistics given, stating that such programs are…

  11. Canadian Environmental Protection Act, strategic options for the management of toxic substances: Electric power generation (fossil fuel) sector, report of stakeholder consultations

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The Electric Power Generation Sector Issue Table was formed to assess the management of toxic substances released from that sector, and more specifically, to develop (where warranted) goals, targets, and effective and efficient options for managing toxic releases in order to reduce potential risks to human health and the environment. This strategic options report sets out the recommendations of Issue Table members for the management of toxic substances. The introduction includes an industry profile and a review of the provincial management of electric power sector strategic options priority (SOP) substances. Chapter 2 discusses what substances are toxic, estimates releases of SOP substances from the sector, and reviews Issue Table approaches to risk assessment. Chapter 3 outlines Issue Table activities. Chapter 4 screens toxic substance management options, with evaluation of options against 13 groups of criteria. Chapter 5 presents toxic substances management proposals made to the Issue Table by the electric power generation industry, environmental groups, and Environment Canada.

  12. Flexing the PECs: Predicting environmental concentrations of veterinary drugs in Canadian agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Kullik, Sigrun A; Belknap, Andrew M

    2017-03-01

    Veterinary drugs administered to food animals primarily enter ecosystems through the application of livestock waste to agricultural land. Although veterinary drugs are essential for protecting animal health, their entry into the environment may pose a risk for nontarget organisms. A means to predict environmental concentrations of new veterinary drug ingredients in soil is required to assess their environmental fate, distribution, and potential effects. The Canadian predicted environmental concentrations in soil (PECsoil) for new veterinary drug ingredients for use in intensively reared animals is based on the approach currently used by the European Medicines Agency for VICH Phase I environmental assessments. The calculation for the European Medicines Agency PECsoil can be adapted to account for regional animal husbandry and land use practices. Canadian agricultural practices for intensively reared cattle, pigs, and poultry differ substantially from those in the European Union. The development of PECsoil default values and livestock categories representative of typical Canadian animal production methods and nutrient management practices culminates several years of research and an extensive survey and analysis of the scientific literature, Canadian agricultural statistics, national and provincial management recommendations, veterinary product databases, and producers. A PECsoil can be used to rapidly identify new veterinary drugs intended for intensive livestock production that should undergo targeted ecotoxicity and fate testing. The Canadian PECsoil model is readily available, transparent, and requires minimal inputs to generate a screening level environmental assessment for veterinary drugs that can be refined if additional data are available. PECsoil values for a hypothetical veterinary drug dosage regimen are presented and discussed in an international context. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:331-341. © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada

  13. Environmental Drivers of the Canadian Arctic Megabenthic Communities

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Virginie; Iken, Katrin; Archambault, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Environmental gradients and their influence on benthic community structure vary over different spatial scales; yet, few studies in the Arctic have attempted to study the influence of environmental gradients of differing spatial scales on megabenthic communities across continental-scales. The current project studied for the first time how megabenthic community structure is related to several environmental factors over 2000 km of the Canadian Arctic, from the Beaufort Sea to northern Baffin Bay. Faunal trawl samples were collected between 2007 and 2011 at 78 stations from 30 to 1000 m depth and patterns in biomass, density, richness, diversity, and taxonomic composition were examined in relation to indirect/spatial gradients (e.g., depth), direct gradients (e.g., bottom oceanographic variables), and resource gradients (e.g., food supply proxies). Six benthic community types were defined based on their biomass-based taxonomic composition. Their distribution was significantly, but moderately, associated with large-scale (100–1000 km) environmental gradients defined by depth, physical water properties (e.g., bottom salinity), and meso-scale (10–100 km) environmental gradients defined by substrate type (hard vs. soft) and sediment organic carbon content. We did not observe a strong decline of bulk biomass, density and richness with depth or a strong increase of those community characteristics with food supply proxies, contrary to our hypothesis. We discuss how local- to meso-scale environmental conditions, such as bottom current regimes and polynyas, sustain biomass-rich communities at specific locations in oligotrophic and in deep regions of the Canadian Arctic. This study demonstrates the value of considering the scales of variability of environmental gradients when interpreting their relevance in structuring of communities. PMID:25019385

  14. GEOGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency helps state and local governments protect the environment by encouraging good environmental management and by regulating human activities to ensure clean air and water. At the Corvallis research laboratory for the EPA, we improve the ways t...

  15. CEBAF - environmental protection program plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    An important objective in the successful operation of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) is to ensure protection of the public and the environment. To meet this objective, the Southeastern Universities Research Association, Inc., (SURA) is committed to working with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop, implement, and manage a sound and workable environmental protection program at CEBAF. This environmental protection plan includes information on environmental monitoring, long-range monitoring, groundwater protection, waste minimization, and pollution prevention awareness program plan.

  16. Environmental Protection Agency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Popular Topics Acid Rain Bed Bugs | Las Chinches Climate Change Drinking Water Facility Compliance Greenhouse Gas Radon Recycling ... Environmental Topics Air Bed Bugs Chemicals and Toxics Climate Change Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, ...

  17. Environmental contaminants and human health in the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, S G; Van Oostdam, J; Tikhonov, C; Feeley, M; Armstrong, B; Ayotte, P; Boucher, O; Bowers, W; Chan, L; Dallaire, F; Dallaire, R; Dewailly, E; Edwards, J; Egeland, G M; Fontaine, J; Furgal, C; Leech, T; Loring, E; Muckle, G; Nancarrow, T; Pereg, D; Plusquellec, P; Potyrala, M; Receveur, O; Shearer, R G

    2010-10-15

    The third Canadian Arctic Human Health Assessment conducted under the Canadian Northern Contaminants Program (NCP), in association with the circumpolar Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), addresses concerns about possible adverse health effects in individuals exposed to environmental contaminants through a diet containing country foods. The objectives here are to: 1) provide data on changes in human contaminant concentrations and exposure among Canadian Arctic peoples; 2) identify new contaminants of concern; 3) discuss possible health effects; 4) outline risk communication about contaminants in country food; and 5) identify knowledge gaps for future contaminant research and monitoring. The nutritional and cultural benefits of country foods are substantial; however, some dietary studies suggest declines in the amount of country foods being consumed. Significant declines were found for most contaminants in maternal blood over the last 10 years within all three Arctic regions studied. Inuit continue to have the highest levels of almost all persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals among the ethnic groups studied. A greater proportion of people in the East exceed Health Canada's guidelines for PCBs and mercury, although the proportion of mothers exceeding these guidelines has decreased since the previous assessment. Further monitoring and research are required to assess trends and health effects of emerging contaminants. Infant development studies have shown possible subtle effects of prenatal exposure to heavy metals and some POPs on immune system function and neurodevelopment. New data suggest important beneficial effects on brain development for Inuit infants from some country food nutrients. The most successful risk communication processes balance the risks and benefits of a diet of country food through input from a variety of regional experts and the community, to incorporate the many socio-cultural and economic factors to arrive at a risk

  18. Environmental protection in China

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M. Univ. of Knoxville, TN )

    1990-01-01

    Environmental conditions in China are dramatically worse than those in the USA, but the Chinese are acting with commendable vigor in attempting to contain and ultimately reverse the damage. The Chinese have air, water and soil contamination, along with garbage and trash problems. They are also experiencing deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, destruction of wildlife habitat and wetlands, and the depletion of ground water. Attempts are being made to reduce the pollutants being produced, but economic factors weigh heavily against cleaning up current pollution.

  19. Environmental modifications in the homes of elderly Canadians with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Fox, P L

    1995-01-01

    This study was performed to (1) determine if the use of architectural modifications in the homes of the disabled elderly can reduce the level of disability; (2) determine the predictors of the use of architectural modifications; and (3) estimate the degree of need for environmental modifications. The degree of need was estimated using data from 8895 respondents (55 years and older) from the Canadian Health and Disability Survey (1983-84). A subgroup of 1520 respondents who needed architectural modifications was selected to predict: (1) the ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and (2) the use of architectural modifications. These data were analysed using multiple linear regression. Approximately 37.9% of the disabled elderly required at least one modification to their home. About 40% did not have the architectural modification that was needed. Income was found to be a predictor of the use of architectural modifications (p = 0.0273). Users of architectural modifications were more independent in IADL than non-users (p < 0.0312). In conclusion, there is a substantial need for environmental modifications in the homes of the disabled elderly. Furthermore, architectural modifications should be available at a low cost.

  20. Environmental Protection Agency Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... [Environmental Protection Agency Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] Part XIV Environmental Protection Agency Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Ch. I EPA-HQ-OA-2007-1172 EPA-HQ-OW-2010-0169 EPA-HQ-OW-2010-0166 EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-0052 Spring 2010 Regulatory Agenda...

  1. Dictionary of environmental protection technology

    SciTech Connect

    Seidel, E.

    1987-01-01

    This dictionary comprises about 14,000 entries in each of the four languages covering the following fields: Air, Water, Water quality, Sewage treatment, Coastal engineering, Pollution of the sea, Flora and fauna, Ecosystems, Waste, Working environment, living conditions, environmental conditions, environmental monitoring. The dictionary deals above all with the technological aspects of environmental protection, i.e., techniques, methods, equipment, machinery, plants and plant systems. Terms regarding the scientific, socioeconomic and politico-cultural aspects have also been included, though in less detail.

  2. A Lesson on Environmental Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhongzheng, Wang

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a first-hand account of teaching environmental protection in the Wushan Mountain area of China. Combining the knowledge in the textbook with social practice, the lessons focused on enabling the students to develop a sense of responsibility and duty through personal experiences. What began as a lesson in…

  3. Radiation protection issues related to Canadian museum operations.

    PubMed

    Waller, Edward J; Cole, David; Jamieson, Terry

    2008-02-01

    Museums in Canada have been found to possess radioactive items. The origin of the radiation can be broadly categorized as either natural (generally, radioactive ores) or anthropogenic (generally, luminous gauges). Radioluminescent gauges, especially bearing radium (226Ra), can also generate significant radiation fields. This is especially true if many gauges are located in close proximity. In addition, the radon may out-gas from these gauges, and generate a loose contamination problem in enclosed spaces (such as display cases). Radioactive ores, bearing naturally occurring uranium and thorium, can generate radiation fields many times greater than the ambient background levels. In addition, they will increase the ambient radon level and potentially generate loose contamination. In this paper, we discuss the specific results of radiological decommissioning at three museums: the National Air Force Museum of Canada (Trenton, Ontario); the Quebec Air and Space Museum (Montreal, PQ); and the Canadian Museum of Nature (Aylmer, PQ). In addition, a radiological survey performed at Canadian Forces Detachment Mountain View (Mountain View, Ontario) of surplus aircraft is included. The primary conclusion is that museums holding radioactive materials may have detectable levels of loose Ra and progeny contamination. They, therefore, have a requirement to be surveyed for loose contamination periodically with the potential for periodic decontamination caused by radon out-gassing. In addition, public access to displays bearing radioactive material should generally be restricted, and comprehensive radiation safety and security programs at museum facilities should be developed and enacted.

  4. Regulatory experience in applying a radiological environmental protection framework for existing and planned nuclear facilities.

    PubMed

    Mihok, S; Thompson, P

    2012-01-01

    Frameworks and methods for the radiological protection of non-human biota have been evolving rapidly at the International Commission on Radiological Protection and through various European initiatives. The International Atomic Energy Agency has incorporated a requirement for environmental protection in the latest revision of its Basic Safety Standards. In Canada, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission has been legally obligated to prevent unreasonable risk to the environment since 2000. Licensees have therefore been meeting generic legal requirements to demonstrate adequate control of releases of radioactive substances for the protection of both people and biota for many years. In the USA, in addition to the generic requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Department of Energy facilities have also had to comply with specific dose limits after a standard assessment methodology was finalised in 2002. Canadian regulators developed a similar framework for biota dose assessment through a regulatory assessment under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act in the late 1990s. Since then, this framework has been applied extensively to satisfy legal requirements under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act and the Nuclear Safety and Control Act. After approximately a decade of experience in applying these methods, it is clear that simple methods are fit for purpose, and can be used for making regulatory decisions for existing and planned nuclear facilities.

  5. Environmental protection using social costing

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.

    1993-10-01

    Emissions and other residual wastes come from industrial production, commercial and household activities, and transportation. These wastes damage the environment, including human health. As economies grow, so does concern about balancing that growth with the desire for environmental protection. At issue is how much environmental protection we should have. We address this issue using the concept of social costing. The issue is discussed in the context of electric power generation. There is particular concern about the use of fossil fuels such as petroleum, the major fuel used in the Republic of China, and coal which is the most common fuel used in the U. S. Electric power generation is a major source of airborne pollutants such as SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, CO, and CO{sub 2}. It also results in liquid and solid wastes, and other effects such as changes in land use. To generate electric power, fuel (such as petroleum, coal or enriched uranium) or some other resource (e.g., wind or geothermal) is needed. A fuel cycle consists of a sequence of activities and processes involved in generating electric power. These activities include fuel extraction, treatment and processing; fuel conversion into electricity; transmission; waste disposal; and transportation of fuel and wastes between the different stages of the fuel cycle. Each stage results in emissions or other residuals. Several recent-studies have been about the environmental costs of electricity.

  6. Environmental Protection Agency Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... [The Regulatory Plan and Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions] Part XV Environmental Protection Agency Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Ch. I EPA-HQ-OA-2007-1172 EPA-HQ-OW-2010-0169 EPA-HQ-OW-2010-0166 EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-0052 EPA-HQ-OW-2010-0728...

  7. Environmental Quality: Environmental Protection and Enhancement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-17

    MTBE (20) Alachlor ESA (36) Lead- 210 (9) Nitrobenzene (21) 1,2-diphenylhydrazine (37) Polonium - 210 (10) Terbacil (22) Diazinon (11) Acetochlor (23... asbestos management, radon reduction, pollution prevention, environmental restoration, environmental quality technology, automated environmental...37 Complaint management • 7–4, page 37 Noise assessment • 7–5, page 38 Technical assistance • 7–6, page 39 Chapter 8 Asbestos Management, page 43

  8. 43 CFR 3802.3 - Environmental protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Environmental protection. 3802.3 Section 3802.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Exploration and Mining, Wilderness Review Program § 3802.3 Environmental protection....

  9. Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Czech, Bryan

    2012-01-09

    The conflict between economic growth and environmental protection may not be reconciled via technological progress. The fundamentality of the conflict ultimately boils down to laws of thermodynamics. Physicists and other scholars from the physical sciences are urgently needed for helping the public and policy makers grasp the conflict between growth and environmental protection.

  10. 43 CFR 3802.3 - Environmental protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Environmental protection. 3802.3 Section 3802.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Exploration and Mining, Wilderness Review Program § 3802.3 Environmental protection....

  11. 43 CFR 3802.3 - Environmental protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Environmental protection. 3802.3 Section 3802.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Exploration and Mining, Wilderness Review Program § 3802.3 Environmental protection....

  12. 43 CFR 3802.3 - Environmental protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Environmental protection. 3802.3 Section 3802.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Exploration and Mining, Wilderness Review Program § 3802.3 Environmental protection....

  13. Introduction to China's Environmental Protection Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntao, Li; Wenzeng, Li

    2004-01-01

    This article deals with China's environmental protection laws. In order to coordinate the relationship between humankind and the environment, protect and improve the environment, protect people's health, and safeguard sustainable and steady economic and social development, the Chinese government has formulated a series of laws and regulations in…

  14. Environmental performance indicators: an empirical study of Canadian manufacturing firms.

    PubMed

    Henri, Jean-François; Journeault, Marc

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this exploratory study is to examine the importance of measurement and use of environmental performance indicators (EPIs) within manufacturing firms. Two research questions are investigated: (i) To what extent are firm characteristics associated with the importance of measurement of various categories of EPIs? (ii) To what extent are firm characteristics associated with global and specific uses of EPIs? More specifically, this paper examines four uses of EPIs (i.e. to monitor compliance, to motivate continuous improvement, to support decision making, and to provide data for external reporting) as well as four characteristics of firms, namely environmental strategy, International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 compliance, size, and ownership. This study contributes to the environmental management accounting literature by collecting and analyzing empirical evidence that provides a better understanding of the associations among firm characteristics and EPIs.

  15. Pressure Shell Approach to Integrated Environmental Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2011-01-01

    The next generation of exploration mission human systems will require environmental protection such as radiation protection that is effective and efficient. In order to continue human exploration, habitat systems will require special shells to protect astronauts from hostile environments. The Pressure Shell Approach to integrated environmental (radiation) protection is a multi-layer shell that can be used for multifunctional environmental protection. Self-healing, self-repairing nano technologies and sensors are incorporated into the shell. This shell consists of multiple layers that can be tailored for specific environmental protection needs. Mainly, this innovation focuses on protecting crew from exposure to micrometeorites, thermal, solar flares, and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) radiation. The Pressure Shell Approach consists of a micrometeoroid and secondary ejecta protection layer; a thin, composite shell placed in between two layers that is non-structural; an open cavity layer that can be filled with water, regolith, or polyethylene foam; a thicker composite shell that is a structural load bearing that is placed between two layers; and a bladder coating on the interior composite shell. This multi-layer shell creates an effective radiation protection system. Most of its layers can be designed with the materials necessary for specific environments. In situ materials such as water or regolith can be added to the shell design for supplemental radiation protection.

  16. Environmental protection for subsea wells

    SciTech Connect

    Diehl, R.J.; Osborne, R.S.; Elwood, J.

    1991-09-24

    This patent describes an apparatus for receiving and containing surplus fluid from a subsea well installation on the ocean floor including a subsea wellhead assembly disposed in an enclosed protective chamber. It comprises a fluid-carrying conduit connected to the exterior of the protective chamber in fluid communication with the interior of the protective chamber; an inflatable dracon disposed upon and against the ocean floor in protective relation thereto when deflated and releasably connected in fluid communication to an outlet of the conduit; and pressure-balanced relief valve means disposed in the conduit between the outlet and the protective chamber for communicating surplus fluid from the interior of such chamber to the dracon when the fluid pressure within such chamber exceeds a predetermined value. This patent describes a method of completing an underwater well. It comprises installing a hollow cylindrical silo body with attached conductor guide casing into the sea floor; drilling and casing a well through the silo body and conductor guide casing; installing a wellhead assembly on top of the drilled and cased well inside of the silo body; installing a pressure-containing lid on top of the silo body, forming an enclosed protective chamber and isolating the interior of the chamber from the surrounding hydrostatic head of the sea water.

  17. Canadian insights: The challenges of an integrated environmental assessment framework

    SciTech Connect

    McCaig, Karen . E-mail: mccaig@interchange.ubc.ca

    2005-10-15

    The paper draws results from a review of literature to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the integrated environmental assessment framework in Canada with respect to the inclusion of health impact assessment. Insights include the legislative nature, rigid structure and priority for the natural environment that may restrict progress and the pool of government agencies that need to be convinced of the benefits of health impact assessment that may provide a strong structure for compliance in the long term.

  18. Development of Composite Indices to Measure the Adoption of Pro-Environmental Behaviours across Canadian Provinces

    PubMed Central

    Canuel, Magalie; Abdous, Belkacem; Bélanger, Diane; Gosselin, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Objective The adoption of pro-environmental behaviours reduces anthropogenic environmental impacts and subsequent human health effects. This study developed composite indices measuring adoption of pro-environmental behaviours at the household level in Canada. Methods The 2007 Households and the Environment Survey conducted by Statistics Canada collected data on Canadian environmental behaviours at households' level. A subset of 55 retained questions from this survey was analyzed by Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) to develop the index. Weights attributed by MCA were used to compute scores for each Canadian province as well as for socio-demographic strata. Scores were classified into four categories reflecting different levels of adoption of pro-environmental behaviours. Results Two indices were finally created: one based on 23 questions related to behaviours done inside the dwelling and a second based on 16 questions measuring behaviours done outside of the dwelling. British Columbia, Quebec, Prince-Edward-Island and Nova-Scotia appeared in one of the two top categories of adoption of pro-environmental behaviours for both indices. Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Newfoundland-and-Labrador were classified in one of the two last categories of pro-environmental behaviours adoption for both indices. Households with a higher income, educational attainment, or greater number of persons adopted more indoor pro-environmental behaviours, while on the outdoor index, they adopted fewer such behaviours. Households with low-income fared better on the adoption of outdoors pro-environmental behaviours. Conclusion MCA was successfully applied in creating Indoor and Outdoor composite Indices of pro-environmental behaviours. The Indices cover a good range of environmental themes and the analysis could be applied to similar surveys worldwide (as baseline weights) enabling temporal trend comparison for recurring themes. Much more than voluntary measures, the study shows that

  19. GENETIC INDICATORS IN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    University of California, Davis, Bodega Bay Marine Laboratory; US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory, Molecular Ecology Research Division, Cincinnati, OH; US EPA National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), Gulf Ecology Division, Gulf Breeze, FL;...

  20. An environmental radionuclide baseline study near three Canadian naval ports

    SciTech Connect

    Waller, E.J.; Cole, D. )

    1999-07-01

    This paper summarizes an environmental radionuclide baseline study undertaken for the Department of National Defence in Canada. The purpose of the project was to establish levels of radionuclides present in the environment around areas where nuclear propelled vessels may be berthed. Specifically, this report describes environmental baselines near Halifax (Nova Scotia), Esquimalt (British Columbia), and Nanoose Bay (British Columbia). Valued ecosystem component samples were taken from dairy farms, beef producers, market gardens, vegetables, tree fruits and berries within the study areas, as well as marine bivalves (mussels and clams), salmon, seaweed, and food from native fisheries. Numerous naturally occurring isotopes were detected and quantified. The only non-naturally occurring isotope positively identified was in the form of trace quantities of [sup 131]I, measured in the Halifax study zone (attributed to local hospital cancer therapy). [sup 137]Cs is the only other anthropogenic radionuclide detected. Its origin may be the combination of fallout from the Chernobyl accident and fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. The results indicate that nuclear-powered vessels have not resulted in activity levels that would contribute a significant radiation exposure to the public, the biota, and the environment within the three study zones.

  1. Prompt remedial action at Canadian tire fire mitigates environmental damage

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    In February of 1990 about 20 percent of an estimated 14 million tires were burned during a fire at a tire yard in Canada sending clouds of fumes over the surrounding rural area and forcing the evacuation of area residents. Since tens of thousands of gallons of oil were released each day during the 17-day-long fire, one of the first of the actions by the remediation team was to contain the oils. In addition, it was necessary to capture the fire water and other surface water run-off caused by the fire. Oil released by the fire was sold to a major oil company to be re-used as fuel in combustion chambers. Since fumes from the fire were presumed to be toxic, field crews required special procedures and physicians provided guidance for protecting worker health and safety. The team also advised on air quality monitoring and community involvement programs.

  2. Rethinking Environmental Protection: Meeting the Challenges ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Background: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has made great progress in addressing some major environmental problems. These successes were framed within EPA’s statutory mandates which are largely media-specific and receptor-focused and follow a segmented risk-based construct. Today’s environmental problems are increasingly complex, and new approaches are needed to achieve sustainable solutions that protect the environment and public health. Objectives: We provide an overview of environmental protection at EPA and highlight today’s environmental challenges. We provide case examples of systems approaches that consider the links between environment and human health. We offer a strategic framework for tackling challenges so EPA can continue to protect the environment and public health.Discussion: Expanded approaches will be transdisciplinary, informed by vast new sources of data, and build upon new stakeholder partnerships. A systems approach to environmental protection looks at problems holistically, includes the drivers and stressors that impact the issue and the dimensions that frame it, and integrates various types of data from health, ecological, and social sciences, with the goal of formulating sustainable solutions to environmental issues. Conclusions: The natural environment and human health are inextricably linked, and human health, well-being, and economic prosperity depend on healthy ecosystems. EPA research is leading an evolution in

  3. Occupational Profiles in Environmental Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEDEFOP Flash, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Two pilot projects on environmental profiles in the chemical and metal industries and in the public sector were conducted in four countries. Two aspects were studied: job requirements in selected enterprises and departments of the civil service and the occupational competencies of the staff carrying out these tasks. Studies on the chemical and…

  4. Environmental monitoring for protected areas: Review and prospect.

    PubMed

    Slocombe, D S

    1992-04-01

    Monitoring activities in protected areas have a long history. Internal planning and management needs early led to ecological inventories. More recently the increasing number and awareness of external threats to parks has led to a variety of monitoring programs. Efforts to use protected areas, and especially biosphere reserves, as ecological baselines, have reinforced this trend. And as protected areas are increasingly recognized to be islands with complex internal and regional interactions, holistic, systems approaches to inventory, monitoring, and assessment of their state are being developed. This paper begins by reviewing threats to parks and the origins and importance of inventory and monitoring activities. A review of resource survey methods follows. Ecosystem science and environmental monitoring are introduced as a foundation for consideration of several newer approaches to monitoring and assessing the state of natural environments. These newer approaches are stress/response frameworks, landscape ecology, ecosystem integrity, and state of the environment reporting. A final section presents some principles for monitoring the state of protected areas. Examples are drawn from experience with Canadian national parks.

  5. Advanced ceramics for environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    Advanced ceramic materials offer significant thermodynamic efficiency advantages over metals and alloys because of their higher use temperatures. Using ceramic components results in higher temperature industrial processes which convert fuels to energy more efficiently, reducing environmental emissions. Ceramics have always offered high temperature strength and superior corrosion and erosion resistance. However, brittleness, poor thermal stock resistance and catastrophic failure have slowed industrial adoptions of ceramics in environmental applications. This paper will focus on environmental applications of three new advanced ceramic materials that are overcoming these barriers to industrial utilization through improved toughness, reliability, and thermal shock performance. PRD-66, a layered oxide ceramic with outstanding thermal shock resistance and high use temperature with utility in catalyst support, insulation, and hot gas filtration applications, is discussed. Tough silicon carbide fiber reinforced silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) and carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC) ceramic composites made by chemical vapor infiltration, and silicon carbide particulate reinforced alumina (SiC{sub p}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) composites made through Lanxide Corporation`s DIMOX{trademark} directed metal oxidation process are described. Applications of these materials to pollution reduction and energy efficiency in medical and municipal waste incineration, heat management, aluminum remelting, pyrolysis, coal combustion and gasification, catalytic pollution control, and hot gas filtration, will be discussed.

  6. Environmental impact of adjuvants in crop protection.

    PubMed

    Ryckaert, B; Spanoghe, P; Steurbaut, W; Heremans, B; Haesaert, G; de Coen, W

    2005-01-01

    The overall performance of chemical and biological plant protection products is enhanced by the use of adjuvants in the formulation (formulation adjuvants) or in the spray tank (spray adjuvants). Both types of adjuvants aim to stabilize the formulation, to improve the efficiency of the active ingredients and to reduce application and environmental risks. As an important part of the formulation, both quantitatively and qualitatively, the environmental impact and toxicology of adjuvants can not always be considered as inert. However, little is known of their impact as part of plant protection products compared with the active substances. Therefore an experimental framework is needed as a tool for a consistent environmental legislation.

  7. Inorganic polymers for environmental protection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenzie, K. J. D.

    2011-10-01

    Aluminosilicate inorganic polymers have been proposed as low-energy cements since, unlike Portland cement, their production does not require high temperatures or generate large quantities of greenhouse gases. Other environmental protection applications for inorganic polymers are to encapsulate hazardous mining or radioactive wastes for safe long-term storage and as fireproof components for buildings and vehicles. However, newly developed methods for synthesising these materials have opened up the possibility of other novel environmental protection applications. These include porous cladding material for passive cooling of buildings, cost-effective exchange materials for removing heavy metals from wastewater, bacteriocidal materials for purifying polluted drinking water and materials for photodegrading hazardous organic environmental pollutants. The nature and synthesis of inorganic polymers for these environmental applications will be discussed here.

  8. 10 CFR 76.53 - Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency. 76.53... Certification § 76.53 Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency. In reviewing an application for a... Environmental Protection Agency and solicit the Environmental Protection Agency's written comments on......

  9. 10 CFR 76.53 - Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency. 76.53... Certification § 76.53 Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency. In reviewing an application for a... Environmental Protection Agency and solicit the Environmental Protection Agency's written comments on......

  10. 10 CFR 76.53 - Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency. 76.53... Certification § 76.53 Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency. In reviewing an application for a... Environmental Protection Agency and solicit the Environmental Protection Agency's written comments on......

  11. 10 CFR 76.53 - Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency. 76.53... Certification § 76.53 Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency. In reviewing an application for a... Environmental Protection Agency and solicit the Environmental Protection Agency's written comments on......

  12. 10 CFR 76.53 - Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency. 76.53... Certification § 76.53 Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency. In reviewing an application for a... Environmental Protection Agency and solicit the Environmental Protection Agency's written comments on......

  13. 40 CFR 18.3 - Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.3 Section 18.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.3 Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Environmental Protection...

  14. 40 CFR 18.3 - Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.3 Section 18.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.3 Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Environmental Protection...

  15. 40 CFR 18.3 - Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.3 Section 18.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.3 Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Environmental Protection...

  16. 40 CFR 18.3 - Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.3 Section 18.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.3 Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Environmental Protection...

  17. 40 CFR 18.3 - Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.3 Section 18.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.3 Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Environmental Protection...

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH INDICATORS AT UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has recently published two different indicators reports, America's Children and the Environment (ACE) and the Draft Report on the Environment (see: http://www.epa.gov/indicators/ and http://www.epa.gov/envirohealth/children/). ACE...

  19. Defining the role of omics in assessing ecosystem health: Perspectives from the Canadian environmental monitoring program.

    PubMed

    Bahamonde, Paulina A; Feswick, April; Isaacs, Meghan A; Munkittrick, Kelly R; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Scientific reviews and studies continue to describe omics technologies as the next generation of tools for environmental monitoring, while cautioning that there are limitations and obstacles to overcome. However, omics has not yet transitioned into national environmental monitoring programs designed to assess ecosystem health. Using the example of the Canadian Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) program, the authors describe the steps that would be required for omics technologies to be included in such an established program. These steps include baseline collection of omics endpoints across different species and sites to generate a range of what is biologically normal within a particular ecosystem. Natural individual variability in the omes is not adequately characterized and is often not measured in the field, but is a key component to an environmental monitoring program, to determine the critical effect size or action threshold for management. Omics endpoints must develop a level of standardization, consistency, and rigor that will allow interpretation of the relevance of changes across broader scales. To date, population-level consequences of routinely measured endpoints such as reduced gonad size or intersex in fish is not entirely clear, and the significance of genome-wide molecular, proteome, or metabolic changes on organism or population health is further removed from the levels of ecological change traditionally managed. The present review is not intended to dismiss the idea that omics will play a future role in large-scale environmental monitoring studies, but rather outlines the necessary actions for its inclusion in regulatory monitoring programs focused on assessing ecosystem health.

  20. Postglacial environmental succession of Nettilling Lake (Baffin Island, Canadian Arctic) inferred from biogeochemical and microfossil proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narancic, Biljana; Pienitz, Reinhard; Chapligin, Bernhard; Meyer, Hanno; Francus, Pierre; Guilbault, Jean-Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Nettilling Lake (Baffin Island, Nunavut) is currently the largest lake in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Despite its enormous size, this freshwater system remains little studied until the present-day. Existing records from southern Baffin Island indicate that in the early postglacial period, the region was submerged by the postglacial Tyrell Sea due to isostatic depression previously exerted by the Laurentide Ice Sheet. However, these records are temporally and spatially discontinuous, relying on qualitative extrapolation. This paper presents the first quantitative reconstruction of the postglacial environmental succession of the Nettilling Lake basin based on a 8300 yr-long high resolution sedimentary record. Our multi-proxy investigation of the glacio-isostatic uplift and subsequent changes in paleosalinity and sediment sources is based on analyses of sediment fabric, elemental geochemistry (μ-XRF), diatom assemblage composition, as well as on the first diatom-based oxygen isotope record from the eastern Canadian Arctic. Results indicate that the Nettilling Lake basin experienced a relatively rapid and uniform marine invasion in the early Holocene, followed by progressive freshening until about 6000 yr BP when limnological conditions similar to those of today were established. Our findings present evidence for deglacial processes in the Foxe Basin that were initiated at least 400yrs earlier than previously thought.

  1. 44 CFR 351.22 - The Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Assignments § 351.22 The Environmental Protection Agency. (a) Establish Protective Action Guides (PAGs) for... guidance will be presented in the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) “Manual of Protective Action Guides... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The Environmental...

  2. 44 CFR 351.22 - The Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Assignments § 351.22 The Environmental Protection Agency. (a) Establish Protective Action Guides (PAGs) for... guidance will be presented in the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) “Manual of Protective Action Guides... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false The Environmental...

  3. 44 CFR 351.22 - The Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Assignments § 351.22 The Environmental Protection Agency. (a) Establish Protective Action Guides (PAGs) for... guidance will be presented in the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) “Manual of Protective Action Guides... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The Environmental...

  4. 44 CFR 351.22 - The Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Assignments § 351.22 The Environmental Protection Agency. (a) Establish Protective Action Guides (PAGs) for... guidance will be presented in the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) “Manual of Protective Action Guides... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The Environmental...

  5. 44 CFR 351.22 - The Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Assignments § 351.22 The Environmental Protection Agency. (a) Establish Protective Action Guides (PAGs) for... guidance will be presented in the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) “Manual of Protective Action Guides... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true The Environmental...

  6. Formulating an Ecosystem Approach to Environmental Protection

    PubMed

    Gonzalez

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has embraced a new strategy of environmental protection that is place-driven rather than program-driven. This new approach focuses on the protection of entire ecosystems. To develop an effective strategy of ecosystem protection, however, EPA will need to: (1) determine how to define and delineate ecosystems and (2) categorize threats to individual ecosystems and priority rank ecosystems at risk. Current definitions of ecosystem in use at EPA are inadequate for meaningful use in a management or regulatory context. A landscape-based definition that describes an ecosystem as a volumetric unit delineated by climatic and landscape features is suggested. Following this definition, ecosystems are organized hierarchically, from megaecosystems, which exist on a continental scale (e.g., Great Lakes), to small local ecosystems.Threats to ecosystems can generally be categorized as: (1) ecosystem degradation (occurs mainly through pollution) (2) ecosystem alteration (physical changes such as water diversion), and (3) ecosystem removal (e.g., conversion of wetlands or forest to urban or agricultural lands). Level of threat (i.e., how imminent), and distance from desired future condition are also important in evaluating threats to ecosystems. Category of threat, level of threat, and "distance" from desired future condition can be combined into a three-dimensional ranking system for ecosystems at risk. The purpose of the proposed ranking system is to suggest a preliminary framework for agencies such as EPA to prioritize responses to ecosystems at risk.KEY WORDS: Ecosystem approach; Ecological risk assessment; Environmental protection; EPA

  7. Ethical foundations of environmental radiological protection.

    PubMed

    Oughton, D H

    2016-06-01

    Assessing the potential ecological impact of ionising radiation raises a number of ethical questions. These include fundamental questions such as what exactly constitutes harming the environment, and how the environment should be valued, as well as links to political protection principles such as sustainability and biodiversity. Starting from developments within ecological risk assessment, this paper summarises some of the ethical issues concerning the protection of the environment from radiation. Chapter 2 gives a brief overview of different philosophical and cultural world views on valuing the environment in a context of radiation risk. Chapter 3 addresses some recent challenges to proposed environmental protection frameworks, including practical applications following the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents, and some scientific developments such as the ecosystem approach. Finally, Chapter 4 offers some recommendations on how ethical evaluation can help produce a more robust and transparent approach to the protection of the environment. In conclusion, there is a need for a holistic evaluation of the environmental impacts of ionising radiation that not only considers the direct consequences on the health of humans and non-human species, but also the more complex social, ethical, and economic consequences of both human and non-human exposures.

  8. Formulating an ecosystem approach to environmental protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Otto J.

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has embraced a new strategy of environmental protection that is place-driven rather than program-driven. This new approach focuses on the protection of entire ecosystems. To develop an effective strategy of ecosystem protection, however, EPA will need to: (1) determine how to define and delineate ecosystems and (2) categorize threats to individual ecosystems and priority rank ecosystems at risk. Current definitions of ecosystem in use at EPA are inadequate for meaningful use in a management or regulatory context. A landscape-based definition that describes an ecosystem as a volumetric unit delineated by climatic and landscape features is suggested. Following this definition, ecosystems are organized hierarchically, from megaecosystems, which exist on a continental scale (e.g., Great Lakes), to small local ecosystems. Threats to ecosystems can generally be categorized as: (1) ecosystem degradation (occurs mainly through pollution) (2) ecosystem alteration (physical changes such as water diversion), and (3) ecosystem removal (e.g., conversion of wetlands or forest to urban or agricultural lands). Level of threat (i.e., how imminent), and distance from desired future condition are also important in evaluating threats to ecosystems. Category of threat, level of threat, and “distance” from desired future condition can be combined into a three-dimensional ranking system for ecosystems at risk. The purpose of the proposed ranking system is to suggest a preliminary framework for agencies such as EPA to prioritize responses to ecosystems at risk.

  9. 40 CFR 18.4 - Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.4 Section 18.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.4 Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. All...

  10. 40 CFR 18.5 - Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.5 Section 18.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.5 Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Scholastic and...

  11. 40 CFR 18.5 - Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.5 Section 18.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.5 Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Scholastic and...

  12. 40 CFR 18.4 - Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.4 Section 18.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.4 Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. All...

  13. 40 CFR 18.4 - Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.4 Section 18.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.4 Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. All...

  14. 40 CFR 18.4 - Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.4 Section 18.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.4 Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. All...

  15. 40 CFR 18.5 - Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.5 Section 18.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.5 Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Scholastic and...

  16. 40 CFR 18.5 - Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.5 Section 18.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.5 Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Scholastic and...

  17. 40 CFR 18.5 - Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.5 Section 18.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.5 Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Scholastic and...

  18. 40 CFR 18.4 - Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.4 Section 18.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.4 Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. All...

  19. Congressional committee scrutinizes Environmental Protection Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), a favored target of criticism by those claiming the agency's regulatory actions hurt the economy, faced further scrutiny during a 17 November House of Representatives hearing to review the agency's research and development activities and discuss the Environmental Research, Development and Demonstration Act (ERDDA), which authorizes research and development activities at EPA. Although the act has not been reauthorized since 1980, EPA also derives authority from a number of other specific environmental laws such as the Clean Air Act, Safe Drinking Water Act, and Clean Water Act. The House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology's Subcommittee on Energy and Environment, which held the hearing, is undertaking the process for reauthorizing ERDDA, according to Rep. Andrew Harris (R-Md.), subcommittee chair.

  20. Knowledge transfer and exchange processes for environmental health issues in Canadian Aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    Jack, Susan M; Brooks, Sandy; Furgal, Chris M; Dobbins, Maureen

    2010-02-01

    Within Canadian Aboriginal communities, the process for utilizing environmental health research evidence in the development of policies and programs is not well understood. This fundamental qualitative descriptive study explored the perceptions of 28 environmental health researchers, senior external decision-makers and decision-makers working within Aboriginal communities about factors influencing knowledge transfer and exchange, beliefs about research evidence and Traditional Knowledge and the preferred communication channels for disseminating and receiving evidence. The results indicate that collaborative relationships between researchers and decision-makers, initiated early and maintained throughout a research project, promote both the efficient conduct of a study and increase the likelihood of knowledge transfer and exchange. Participants identified that empirical research findings and Traditional Knowledge are different and distinct types of evidence that should be equally valued and used where possible to provide a holistic understanding of environmental issues and support decisions in Aboriginal communities. To facilitate the dissemination of research findings within Aboriginal communities, participants described the elements required for successfully crafting key messages, locating and using credible messengers to deliver the messages, strategies for using cultural brokers and identifying the communication channels commonly used to disseminate and receive this type of information.

  1. Upland Farmers' Comprehension of Pictorial Messages on Environmental Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravoso, R. S.; Stuart, T. H.

    2000-01-01

    A study to explore Filipino farmers' comprehension of pictorial messages on environmental protection found that educational attainment, visual exposure, and knowledge of environmental protection positively influenced visual comprehension. Color did not necessarily improve comprehension. (Contains 24 references.) (JOW)

  2. 15 CFR 970.518 - Environmental protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental protection requirements... protection, the Administrator will consult with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the... THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES...

  3. 15 CFR 970.518 - Environmental protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental protection requirements... protection, the Administrator will consult with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the... THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES...

  4. 45 CFR 673.4 - Environmental protection information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Environmental protection information. 673.4... FOUNDATION ANTARCTIC NON-GOVERNMENTAL EXPEDITIONS § 673.4 Environmental protection information. (a) Any... States shall notify expedition members of the environmental protection obligations of the...

  5. 15 CFR 971.419 - Environmental protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental protection requirements... establishing the TCRs pertaining to environmental protection, the Administrator will consult with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Secretary of State and the Secretary of the...

  6. 45 CFR 673.4 - Environmental protection information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Environmental protection information. 673.4... FOUNDATION ANTARCTIC NON-GOVERNMENTAL EXPEDITIONS § 673.4 Environmental protection information. (a) Any... States shall notify expedition members of the environmental protection obligations of the...

  7. 15 CFR 971.419 - Environmental protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental protection requirements... establishing the TCRs pertaining to environmental protection, the Administrator will consult with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Secretary of State and the Secretary of the...

  8. 15 CFR 971.419 - Environmental protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental protection requirements... establishing the TCRs pertaining to environmental protection, the Administrator will consult with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Secretary of State and the Secretary of the...

  9. 45 CFR 673.4 - Environmental protection information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Environmental protection information. 673.4... FOUNDATION ANTARCTIC NON-GOVERNMENTAL EXPEDITIONS § 673.4 Environmental protection information. (a) Any... States shall notify expedition members of the environmental protection obligations of the...

  10. 15 CFR 970.518 - Environmental protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental protection requirements... protection, the Administrator will consult with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the... THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES...

  11. 15 CFR 971.419 - Environmental protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental protection requirements... establishing the TCRs pertaining to environmental protection, the Administrator will consult with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Secretary of State and the Secretary of the...

  12. 45 CFR 673.4 - Environmental protection information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Environmental protection information. 673.4... FOUNDATION ANTARCTIC NON-GOVERNMENTAL EXPEDITIONS § 673.4 Environmental protection information. (a) Any... States shall notify expedition members of the environmental protection obligations of the...

  13. 15 CFR 970.518 - Environmental protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental protection requirements... protection, the Administrator will consult with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the... THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES...

  14. 15 CFR 971.419 - Environmental protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental protection requirements... establishing the TCRs pertaining to environmental protection, the Administrator will consult with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Secretary of State and the Secretary of the...

  15. 15 CFR 970.518 - Environmental protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental protection requirements... protection, the Administrator will consult with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the... THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES...

  16. 1982 UCC-ND/GAT environmental protection seminar: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This environmental protection seminar was divided into seven sessions: (1) general environmental protection, (2) air and water pollution control, (3) spill control and countermeasures, (4) toxic materials control, (5) hazardous materials control, (6) environmental protection projects, and (7) cost benefit analysis. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 41 papers presented therein. (ACR)

  17. 10 CFR 501.14 - Notice to Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notice to Environmental Protection Agency. 501.14 Section... General Provisions § 501.14 Notice to Environmental Protection Agency. A copy of any proposed rule or... Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Administrator of EPA shall be given the...

  18. 10 CFR 501.14 - Notice to Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notice to Environmental Protection Agency. 501.14 Section... General Provisions § 501.14 Notice to Environmental Protection Agency. A copy of any proposed rule or... Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Administrator of EPA shall be given the...

  19. 10 CFR 501.14 - Notice to Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notice to Environmental Protection Agency. 501.14 Section... General Provisions § 501.14 Notice to Environmental Protection Agency. A copy of any proposed rule or... Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Administrator of EPA shall be given the...

  20. 10 CFR 501.14 - Notice to Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notice to Environmental Protection Agency. 501.14 Section... General Provisions § 501.14 Notice to Environmental Protection Agency. A copy of any proposed rule or... Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Administrator of EPA shall be given the...

  1. Forensic source differentiation of petrogenic, pyrogenic, and biogenic hydrocarbons in Canadian oil sands environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhendi; Yang, C; Parrott, J L; Frank, R A; Yang, Z; Brown, C E; Hollebone, B P; Landriault, M; Fieldhouse, B; Liu, Y; Zhang, G; Hewitt, L M

    2014-04-30

    To facilitate monitoring efforts, a forensic chemical fingerprinting methodology has been applied to characterize and differentiate pyrogenic (combustion derived) and biogenic (organism derived) hydrocarbons from petrogenic (petroleum derived) hydrocarbons in environmental samples from the Canadian oil sands region. Between 2009 and 2012, hundreds of oil sands environmental samples including water (snowmelt water, river water, and tailings pond water) and sediments (from river beds and tailings ponds) have been analyzed. These samples were taken from sites where assessments of wild fish health, invertebrate communities, toxicology and detailed chemistry are being conducted as part of the Canada-Alberta Joint Oil Sands Monitoring Plan (JOSMP). This study describes the distribution patterns and potential sources of PAHs from these integrated JOSMP study sites, and findings will be linked to responses in laboratory bioassays and in wild organisms collected from these same sites. It was determined that hydrocarbons in Athabasca River sediments and waters were most likely from four sources: (1) petrogenic heavy oil sands bitumen; (2) biogenic compounds; (3) petrogenic hydrocarbons of other lighter fuel oils; and (4) pyrogenic PAHs. PAHs and biomarkers detected in snowmelt water samples collected near mining operations imply that these materials are derived from oil sands particulates (from open pit mines, stacks and coke piles).

  2. Inventory of current environmental monitoring projects in the US-Canadian transboundary region

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, C.S.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Chapman, E.G.

    1986-05-01

    This document presents the results of a study commissioned to survey and summarize major environmental monitoring projects in the US-Canadian transboundary region. Projects with field sites located within 400 km (250 mi) of the border and active after 1980 were reviewed. The types of projects included: ambient air-quality monitoring, ambient water-quality monitoring, deposition monitoring, forest/vegetation monitoring and research, soil studies, and ecosystem studies. Ecosystem studies included projects involving the measurement of parameters from more than one monitoring category (e.g., studies that measured both water and soil chemistry). Individual descriptions were formulated for 184 projects meeting the spatial and temporal criteria. Descriptions included the official title for the project, its common abbreviation, program emphasis, monitoring site locations, time period conducted, parameters measured, protocols employed, frequency of sample collection, data storage information, and the principal contact for the project. A summary inventory subdivided according to the six monitoring categories was prepared using a computerized data management system. Information on major centralized data bases in the field of environmental monitoring was also obtained, and summary descriptions were prepared. The inventory and data base descriptions are presented in appendices to this document.

  3. 40 CFR 18.9 - Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.9 Section 18.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.9 Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Initial appointments to...

  4. 40 CFR 18.9 - Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.9 Section 18.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.9 Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Initial appointments to...

  5. 40 CFR 18.9 - Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.9 Section 18.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.9 Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Initial appointments to...

  6. 40 CFR 18.9 - Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.9 Section 18.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.9 Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Initial appointments to...

  7. 40 CFR 18.9 - Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.9 Section 18.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.9 Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Initial appointments to...

  8. Environmental Protection Tools in Agricultural Management Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glowacka, Agnieszka; Taszakowski, Jaroslaw; Janus, Jaroslaw; Bozek, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    Land consolidation is a fundamental instrument for agricultural management. It facilitates comprehensive changes in the agricultural, social, and ecological domains. Consolidation and post-consolidation development-related investments are an opportunity to improve living conditions in rural areas, and simultaneously ensure its positive impact on the environment. One of the primary goals of consolidation, directly specified in the Act on land consolidation, is to improve farming conditions. In Poland, consolidation is possible due to EU funds: RDP 2007-2013 and RDP 2014-2020. In order for individual villages to be granted EU funds for consolidation and post-consolidation development under the Rural Development Programme 2014-2020, their consolidation has to implement actions with positive impact on the environment and the landscape. The goal of this paper is to analyse documentation in the form of assumptions for a land consolidation project enclosed to an RDP 2014-2020 grant application and project information sheets as the basis for environmental impact assessment in the context of detailed presentation of environmental protection solutions that ensure a positive impact of the project on the environment and landscape. The detailed study involved 9 villages in the Malopolskie Voivodeship, which applied for EU grants for land consolidation in the current financial perspective. The paper specifies the existing state of the analysed villages as regards the natural environment, lists agricultural management instruments that have a positive impact on the environment, and demonstrates that planning of actions aimed at environmental protection is a necessary element of assumptions for land consolidation projects.

  9. National Ignition Facility environmental protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, J.M.; Reitz, T.C.; Tobin, M.T.

    1994-06-01

    The conceptual design of Environmental Protection Systems (EPS) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is described. These systems encompass tritium and activated debris handling, chamber, debris shield and general decontamination, neutron and gamma monitoring, and radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste handling. Key performance specifications met by EPS designs include limiting the tritium inventory to 300 Ci and total tritium release from NIF facilities to less than 10 Ci/yr. Total radiation doses attributable to NIF shall remain below 10 mrem/yr for any member of the general public and 500 mrem/yr for NIF staff. ALARA-based design features and operational procedures will, in most cases, result in much lower measured exposures. Waste minimization, improved cycle time and reduced exposures all result from the proposed CO2 robotic arm cleaning and decontamination system, while effective tritium control is achieved through a modern system design based on double containment and the proven detritiation technology.

  10. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study: assessment of environmental exposures

    PubMed Central

    Takaro, Tim K; Scott, James A; Allen, Ryan W; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Duncan, Joanne; Lefebvre, Diana L; Lou, Wendy; Mandhane, Piush J; McLean, Kathleen E; Miller, Gregory; Sbihi, Hind; Shu, Huan; Subbarao, Padmaja; Turvey, Stuart E; Wheeler, Amanda J; Zeng, Leilei; Sears, Malcolm R; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort was designed to elucidate interactions between environment and genetics underlying development of asthma and allergy. Over 3600 pregnant mothers were recruited from the general population in four provinces with diverse environments. The child is followed to age 5 years, with prospective characterization of diverse exposures during this critical period. Key exposure domains include indoor and outdoor air pollutants, inhalation, ingestion and dermal uptake of chemicals, mold, dampness, biological allergens, pets and pests, housing structure, and living behavior, together with infections, nutrition, psychosocial environment, and medications. Assessments of early life exposures are focused on those linked to inflammatory responses driven by the acquired and innate immune systems. Mothers complete extensive environmental questionnaires including time-activity behavior at recruitment and when the child is 3, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 48, and 60 months old. House dust collected during a thorough home assessment at 3–4 months, and biological specimens obtained for multiple exposure-related measurements, are archived for analyses. Geo-locations of homes and daycares and land-use regression for estimating traffic-related air pollution complement time-activity-behavior data to provide comprehensive individual exposure profiles. Several analytical frameworks are proposed to address the many interacting exposure variables and potential issues of co-linearity in this complex data set. PMID:25805254

  11. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study: assessment of environmental exposures.

    PubMed

    Takaro, Tim K; Scott, James A; Allen, Ryan W; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Duncan, Joanne; Lefebvre, Diana L; Lou, Wendy; Mandhane, Piush J; McLean, Kathleen E; Miller, Gregory; Sbihi, Hind; Shu, Huan; Subbarao, Padmaja; Turvey, Stuart E; Wheeler, Amanda J; Zeng, Leilei; Sears, Malcolm R; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort was designed to elucidate interactions between environment and genetics underlying development of asthma and allergy. Over 3600 pregnant mothers were recruited from the general population in four provinces with diverse environments. The child is followed to age 5 years, with prospective characterization of diverse exposures during this critical period. Key exposure domains include indoor and outdoor air pollutants, inhalation, ingestion and dermal uptake of chemicals, mold, dampness, biological allergens, pets and pests, housing structure, and living behavior, together with infections, nutrition, psychosocial environment, and medications. Assessments of early life exposures are focused on those linked to inflammatory responses driven by the acquired and innate immune systems. Mothers complete extensive environmental questionnaires including time-activity behavior at recruitment and when the child is 3, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 48, and 60 months old. House dust collected during a thorough home assessment at 3-4 months, and biological specimens obtained for multiple exposure-related measurements, are archived for analyses. Geo-locations of homes and daycares and land-use regression for estimating traffic-related air pollution complement time-activity-behavior data to provide comprehensive individual exposure profiles. Several analytical frameworks are proposed to address the many interacting exposure variables and potential issues of co-linearity in this complex data set.

  12. Evaluation of the 1996 NRC beef model under western Canadian environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Block, H C; McKinnon, J J; Mustafa, A F; Christensen, D A

    2001-01-01

    Two feedlot trials were conducted to evaluate the 1996 NRC beef model under western Canadian conditions. In the first trial, 144 Charolais- (304.6 +/- 16.3 kg) and 144 Hereford- (295.1 +/- 20.8 kg) cross steers were used, whereas the second trial used 88 Angus- (289.7 +/- 15.0 kg), 88 Charolais- (299.8 +/- 17.9 kg), and 88 Hereford- (291.1 +/- 20.9 kg) cross steers. Diets were based on barley silage, rolled barley grain, canola meal, and cereal straw and were analyzed according to the 1996 NRC methodologies. Animal performance and environmental data were collected for 24 pens of steers per trial for the backgrounding and finishing periods. Levels 1 and 2 of the 1996 NRC model were used to generate predictions of DMI and ADG for each pen. Results showed that actual finishing DMI was accurately predicted for Trial 1 and for the combined trials but not for Trial 2. Predicted ADG was lower (P < 0.05) than actual ADG for all feeding periods except Level 1 of the Trial 1 finishing period. All ADG residuals were significant (P < 0.05), indicating inaccurate prediction of ADG in all feeding periods. The 1996 NRC model consistently predicted that protein was not limiting gain. Further investigations and model refinement regarding animal energy requirements under cold weather conditions and effects of limit feeding are required to increase the accuracy of the 1996 NRC model in predicting animal performance.

  13. Reaching for environmental health justice: Canadian experiences for a comprehensive research, policy and advocacy agenda in health promotion.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Jeffrey R; Poland, Blake; Baxter, Jamie

    2010-12-01

    Spatial disparities in environmental quality and practices are contributing to rising health inequalities worldwide. To date, the field of health promotion has not contributed as significantly as it might to a systematic analysis of the physical environment as a determinant of health nor to a critique of inequitable environmental governance practices responsible for social injustice-particularly in the Canadian context. In this paper, we explore ways in which health promotion and environmental justice perspectives can be combined into an integrated movement for environmental health justice in health promotion. Drawing on Canadian experiences, we describe the historical contributions and limitations of each perspective in research, policy and particularly professional practice. We then demonstrate how recent environmental justice research in Canada is moving toward a deeper and multi-level analysis of environmental health inequalities, a development that we believe can inform a comprehensive research, policy and advocacy agenda in health promotion toward environmental health justice as a fundamental determinant of health. Lastly, we propose four key considerations for health promotion professionals to consider in advancing this movement.

  14. Two Decades of Enhancing Children’s Environmental Health Protection at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    PubMed Central

    Firestone, Michael; Berger, Martha; Foos, Brenda; Etzel, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Summary: This article provides an overview of public health efforts by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) during the past two decades to protect children’s health from environmental hazards. It highlights examples of concrete steps and accomplishments toward improving environmental protection and health outcomes achieved through public policy, rules and regulations, increased scientific understanding, and public health messaging. Additionally, examples of future challenges for better understanding and improving children’s environmental health are discussed. PMID:27905272

  15. Health and Environmental Protection: A Survey of Student Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtowicz, G. Greg

    Are students aware of the link between environmental hazards and disease? What are the parameters of individual and social responsibility as they relate to environmental protection? What are the attitudes that inhibit or support the development of environmental protection behavior? Answers to these questions may help teachers to develop effective…

  16. 30 CFR 582.28 - Environmental protection measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to be inadequate to support an environmental evaluation of a proposed Delineation, Testing, or Mining... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Environmental protection measures. 582.28... Responsibilities of Lessees § 582.28 Environmental protection measures. (a) Exploration, testing,...

  17. 36 CFR 228.8 - Requirements for environmental protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... environmental protection. 228.8 Section 228.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Locatable Minerals § 228.8 Requirements for environmental protection. All operations shall be conducted so as, where feasible, to minimize adverse environmental impacts on National...

  18. 30 CFR 582.28 - Environmental protection measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to be inadequate to support an environmental evaluation of a proposed Delineation, Testing, or Mining... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Environmental protection measures. 582.28... Responsibilities of Lessees § 582.28 Environmental protection measures. (a) Exploration, testing,...

  19. 30 CFR 582.28 - Environmental protection measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to be inadequate to support an environmental evaluation of a proposed Delineation, Testing, or Mining... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Environmental protection measures. 582.28... Responsibilities of Lessees § 582.28 Environmental protection measures. (a) Exploration, testing,...

  20. Accounting for uncertainty in the quantification of the environmental impacts of Canadian pig farming systems.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, S G; Leinonen, I; Ferguson, N; Kyriazakis, I

    2015-06-01

    the other impact categories were not significantly different between the 2 systems, despite their aforementioned differences. In conclusion, a probabilistic approach was used to develop an LCA that systematically dealt with uncertainty in the data when comparing multiple environmental impacts measures in pig farming systems for the first time. The method was used to identify differences between Canadian pig production systems but can also be applied for comparisons between other agricultural systems that include inherent variation.

  1. History of children's environmental health protection at EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In 1995 the Environmental Protection Agency was directed to explicitly and consistently take into account environmental health risks to infants and children in all risk characterizations and public health standards set for the United States.

  2. 75 FR 22723 - Stream Protection Rule; Environmental Impact Statement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... Stream Protection Rule; Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule; notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement... environmental impact statement (EIS) under section 102(2)(C) of the National Environmental Policy Act of...

  3. UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS INITIATIVE AND BIOMARKERS DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Within the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), there are several on-going programs and projects that collect health and environmental information. The USEPA's Environmental Indicators Initiative is one such program which includes the development of environmenta...

  4. Rates and environmental controls of aeolian dust accumulation, Athabasca River Valley, Canadian Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugenholtz, Chris H.; Wolfe, Stephen A.

    2010-09-01

    Despite an abundance of sedimentary archives of mineral dust (i.e. loess) accumulations from cold, humid environments, the absence of contemporary process investigations limits paleoenvironmental interpretations in these settings. Dust accumulations measured at Jasper Lake, a seasonally-filled reach of the glacially-fed Athabasca River in the Canadian Rocky Mountains, are some of the highest contemporary rates recorded to date. High deposition rates, including a maximum of 27,632 kg ha -1 month -1, occur during river low-flow periods, but even the lowest deposition rates, occurring during bankfull periods, exceed other contemporary rates of deposition. High rates of dust deposition may be attributed to geomorphic and climatic controls affecting sediment supply, availability and transport, and biologic factors affecting accumulation. Localized confinement of the Jasper River by tributary river alluvial fans has caused channel expansion upstream, and formation of the shallow depositional basin known as Jasper Lake. This localized sedimentary basin, coupled with large seasonal water level fluctuations and suitably high wind speeds, favors seasonal dust production. In addition, a dense source-proximal coniferous forest stand encourages high dust accumulation, via increased aerodynamic roughness and airflow deceleration. The forest stand also appears to act as an efficient dust filter, with the interception and storage of dust by the forest canopy playing a significant role with regards to secondary fallout and sediment accumulation. Overall, these results provide new insights on the environmental controls of dust entrainment and accumulation in cold, humid settings, and help clarify controls on the formation of Holocene river-sourced loess deposits.

  5. Y-12 Site environmental protection program implementation plan (EPPIP)

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The Y-12 Plant Environmental Protection Program is conducted to: (1) protect public health and the environment from chemical and radiological releases occurring from current plant operations and past waste management and operational practices; (2) ensure compliance with federal, state, and local environmental regulations and DOE directives; (3) identify potential environmental problems; (4) evaluate existing environmental contamination and determine the need for remedial actions and mitigative measures; (5) monitor the progress of ongoing remedial actions and cleanup measures; and (6) inform the public of environmental issues relating to DOE operations. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, defines the general requirements for environmental protection programs at DOE facilities. This Environmental Protection Program Implementation Plan (EPPIP) defines the methods by which the Y-12 Plant staff will comply with the order by: (1) referencing environmental protection goals and objectives and identifying strategies and timetables for attaining them; (2) providing the overall framework for the design and implementation of the Y-12 Environmental Protection Program; and (3) assigning responsibilities for complying with the requirements of the order. The EPPIP is revised and updated annually.

  6. 49 CFR 192.515 - Environmental protection and safety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Environmental protection and safety requirements... Requirements § 192.515 Environmental protection and safety requirements. (a) In conducting tests under this...) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED)...

  7. 49 CFR 192.515 - Environmental protection and safety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Environmental protection and safety requirements... Requirements § 192.515 Environmental protection and safety requirements. (a) In conducting tests under this...) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED)...

  8. 49 CFR 192.515 - Environmental protection and safety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Environmental protection and safety requirements... Requirements § 192.515 Environmental protection and safety requirements. (a) In conducting tests under this...) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED)...

  9. 49 CFR 192.515 - Environmental protection and safety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Environmental protection and safety requirements... Requirements § 192.515 Environmental protection and safety requirements. (a) In conducting tests under this...) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED)...

  10. 49 CFR 192.515 - Environmental protection and safety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental protection and safety requirements... Requirements § 192.515 Environmental protection and safety requirements. (a) In conducting tests under this...) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED)...

  11. 45 CFR 673.4 - Environmental protection information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FOUNDATION ANTARCTIC NON-GOVERNMENTAL EXPEDITIONS § 673.4 Environmental protection information. (a) Any person who organizes a non-governmental expedition to Antarctica and who does business in the United States shall notify expedition members of the environmental protection obligations of the...

  12. 25 CFR 286.9 - Environmental and flood disaster protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Environmental and flood disaster protection. 286.9... BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.9 Environmental and flood disaster protection. Grant funds will not be advanced until there is assurance of compliance with any applicable provisions of the Flood...

  13. 25 CFR 286.9 - Environmental and flood disaster protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental and flood disaster protection. 286.9... BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.9 Environmental and flood disaster protection. Grant funds will not be advanced until there is assurance of compliance with any applicable provisions of the Flood...

  14. 25 CFR 286.9 - Environmental and flood disaster protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental and flood disaster protection. 286.9... BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.9 Environmental and flood disaster protection. Grant funds will not be advanced until there is assurance of compliance with any applicable provisions of the Flood...

  15. 25 CFR 286.9 - Environmental and flood disaster protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Environmental and flood disaster protection. 286.9 Section... BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.9 Environmental and flood disaster protection. Grant funds will not be advanced until there is assurance of compliance with any applicable provisions of the Flood...

  16. 25 CFR 286.9 - Environmental and flood disaster protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental and flood disaster protection. 286.9... BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.9 Environmental and flood disaster protection. Grant funds will not be advanced until there is assurance of compliance with any applicable provisions of the Flood...

  17. 10 CFR 501.14 - Notice to Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice to Environmental Protection Agency. 501.14 Section 501.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS General Provisions § 501.14 Notice to Environmental Protection Agency. A copy of any proposed rule...

  18. MyEnvironment | US Environmental Protection Agency

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The MyEnvironment search application is designed to provide a cross-section of environmental information based on the users location. Environmental data is displayed at local community locations. EPA Environmental data displayed within maps and reports. Results include: Environmental Data, Enviromental Map, EPA Data, EPA Map, Air, Water, Land, Health, Pollution, Climate Change, Permits, Statistics, Superfund, Brownfields, Hazardous Waste, Toxic, Releases, Cleanups, Community, Ecological Conditions

  19. 40 CFR 18.10 - Appointment of Special Research Consultants for Environmental Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Consultants for Environmental Protection. 18.10 Section 18.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.10 Appointment of Special Research Consultants for Environmental Protection.......

  20. 40 CFR 18.10 - Appointment of Special Research Consultants for Environmental Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Consultants for Environmental Protection. 18.10 Section 18.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.10 Appointment of Special Research Consultants for Environmental Protection.......

  1. 40 CFR 18.7 - Selection and appointment of Environmental Protection Research Fellows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Research Fellows. 18.7 Section 18.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.7 Selection and appointment of Environmental Protection Research Fellows.......

  2. 40 CFR 18.7 - Selection and appointment of Environmental Protection Research Fellows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Research Fellows. 18.7 Section 18.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.7 Selection and appointment of Environmental Protection Research Fellows.......

  3. 40 CFR 18.7 - Selection and appointment of Environmental Protection Research Fellows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Research Fellows. 18.7 Section 18.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.7 Selection and appointment of Environmental Protection Research Fellows.......

  4. 40 CFR 18.7 - Selection and appointment of Environmental Protection Research Fellows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Research Fellows. 18.7 Section 18.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.7 Selection and appointment of Environmental Protection Research Fellows.......

  5. 40 CFR 18.7 - Selection and appointment of Environmental Protection Research Fellows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Research Fellows. 18.7 Section 18.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.7 Selection and appointment of Environmental Protection Research Fellows.......

  6. 40 CFR 18.10 - Appointment of Special Research Consultants for Environmental Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Consultants for Environmental Protection. 18.10 Section 18.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.10 Appointment of Special Research Consultants for Environmental Protection.......

  7. Environmental protection facilities safety study: Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    The purpose of this Safety Study is to examine the existing facilities at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant that are dedicated to environmental protection. Seven separate, numbered facilities and five unnumbered continuous air sampling stations are identified as the fixed facilities to protect the environment. Each is examined from the standpoint of hazardous materials, monitoring and protection systems, confinement systems, ventilation systems, criticality control systems, fire protection systems, waste disposal systems, and safety systems.

  8. Exploring the middle ground between environmental protection and economic growth.

    PubMed

    Kaplowitz, Michael D; Lupi, Frank; Yeboah, Felix K; Thorp, Laurie G

    2013-05-01

    Public preference concerning the environment and the economy typically has been characterized as either pro-environmental protection or pro-economic development. Researchers and policymakers increasingly suggest that environmental protection and economic growth are not mutually exclusive. However, use of dichotomous-choice policy preference questions persists. This note empirically examines an alternative response format for the typical dichotomous-choice environmental/economic policy preference question and explores respondents' stated policy preferences in light of their support for recycling. We find that most respondents do not view environmental protection and economic development policy goals to be mutually exclusive. Most respondents view economic growth and environmental protection as compatible suggesting a more heterogeneous view of the environment-economic relationship than oft reported. Hence excluding a middle response choice to the standard environment/economic policy preference question may add measurement error, increase item nonresponse, and fail to account for the views of respondents who view these goals as complementary.

  9. GROUND WATER AND WATERSHEDS AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective watershed management has the potential to achieve both drinking water and ecological protection goals. However, it is important that the watershed perspective be three- dimensional and include the hidden subsurface. The subsurface catchment, or groundwatershed, is geohy...

  10. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: ARSENIC MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This technology ...

  11. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This techn...

  12. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA), ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGAM: RESIDENTIAL NUTRIENT REDUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This technology ...

  13. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: ARSENIC TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This techn...

  14. Collaboration with Environmental Protection Administration Taiwan (EPAT)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Through this partnership, U.S. and Taiwan environmental authorities have developed a strong capacity to reduce pollution and manage the environment through joint projects, innovate research, and knowledge exchange.

  15. Relationship between child abuse exposure and reported contact with child protection organizations: results from the Canadian Community Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Tracie O; MacMillan, Harriet L; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Turner, Sarah; Tonmyr, Lil; Hovdestad, Wendy

    2015-08-01

    Much of what is known about child abuse in Canada has come from reported cases of child abuse and at-risk samples, which likely represent the most severe cases of child abuse in the country. The objective of the current study is to examine the prevalence of a broad range of child abuse experiences (physical abuse, sexual abuse, and exposure to IPV) and investigate how such experiences and sociodemographic variables are related to contact with child protection organizations in Canada using a representative general population sample. Data were drawn from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health collected from the 10 provinces using a multistage stratified cluster design (n=23,395; household response rate=79.8%; aged 18 years and older). Physical abuse only (16.8%) was the most prevalent child abuse experience reported with the exposure to specific combinations of two or more types of child abuse ranging from 0.4% to 3.7%. Only 7.6% of the adult population with a history of child abuse reported having had contact with child protection organizations. Experiencing all three types of child abuse was associated with the greatest odds of contact with child protection organizations (AOR=15.8; 95% CI=10.1 to 24.6). Physical abuse only was associated with one of the lowest odds of contact with child protection organizations. Preventing child abuse is widely acknowledged as an important, but challenging public health goal. Strategies to increase reporting of child abuse may help to protect children and to connect families with necessary services. One obvious priority would be physical abuse.

  16. Environmental and safety assessment for nuclear waste disposal - the canadian approach

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    The Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal involves immobilization and emplacement in a crystalline rock formation in the Canadian Shield. The assessments are divided into two parts: the pre-closure assessment and the post-closure assessment. For the pre-closure phase the total impact of transportation, immobilization, emplacement and decommissioning is considered. The object of the post-closure studies is to predict how radioactive material might escape from a disposal vault and migrate through the geosphere and biosphere to cause radiation dose to man. Detailed computer programs are being developed and applied for hydrogeological and chemical modeling. A ''systems variability analysis'' code integrates the total system and samples data. The resulting output is a histogram of consequence (dose to man) versus probability, indicating the most probable consequence of the project, and other consequence estimates, together with their probability of occurrence.

  17. Measuring Professional Behaviour in Canadian Physical Therapy Students' Objective Structured Clinical Examinations: An Environmental Scan

    PubMed Central

    Ellerton, Cindy; Evans, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To identify professional behaviours measured in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) by Canadian university physical therapy (PT) programs. Method: A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted to review current practice and determine which OSCE items Canadian PT programs are using to measure PT students' professional behaviours. Telephone interviews using semi-structured questions were conducted with individual instructors responsible for courses that included an OSCE as part of the assessment component. Results: Nine PT programmes agreed to take part in the study, and all reported conducting at least one OSCE. The number and characteristics of OSCEs varied both within and across programs. Participants identified 31 professional behaviour items for use in an OSCE; these items clustered into four categories: communication (n=14), respect (n=10), patient safety (n=4), and physical therapists' characteristics (n=3). Conclusions: All Canadian entry-level PT programmes surveyed assess professional behaviours in OSCE-type examinations; however, the content and style of assessment is variable. The local environment should be considered when determining what professional behaviours are appropriate to assess in the OSCE context in individual programmes. PMID:25931656

  18. An Overview Of Current Research At The Environmental Protection Agency

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide an overview of the current research at the Environmental Protection Agency. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, CONTACT ROGER B. YEARDLEY, JR., LAND REMEDIATION AND POLLUTION CONTROL DIVISION, 513-569-7548.

  19. COMPUTATIONAL TOXICOLOGY: NEW APPROACHES TO IMPROVE ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mission of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is to safeguard public health and the environment from harmful effects that may be caused by exposure to pollutants in the air, water, soil and food.

  20. THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATERSHED MANAGEMENT RESEARCH PROGRAM: AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has directed much attention to watersheds and water quality during its tenure as the United States Federal Agency charged with protection of human health and the environment. Watershed research as a vehicle to understand the interaction ...

  1. INTERSPECIES CORRELATION ESTIMATES PREDICT PROTECTIVE ENVIRONMENTAL CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental risk assessments often use multiple single species toxicity test results and species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) to derive a predicted no-effect concentration in the environment, typically the 5th percentile of the SSD, termed the HC5. The shape and location of...

  2. Partnering with the Environmental Protection Agency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-12

    the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Installations and Enviro ,Environmental Management Directorate,3400 Defense Pentagon, Room 3B856A,Washington,DC...improve cleanup and share lessons learned but no clear path was identified – Chief concerns were with long-term management and community outreach 14

  3. SUSTAINABILITY: THE NEXT GENERATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 21st century will provide us with a new era of environmental problems that will require new approaches to solve. These problems will be more subtle than past problems, such as the pesticide poisoning at Love Canal or burning of the Cuyahoga River, but will be just as urgent,...

  4. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1991. Environmental protection group

    SciTech Connect

    Dewart, J.; Kohen, K.L.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1991. Routine monitoring for radiation and for radioactive and chemical materials is conducted on the Laboratory site as well as in the surrounding region. Monitoring results are used to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to permit early identification of potentially undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of data for 1991 cover external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface waters and groundwaters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Comparisons with appropriate standards, regulations, and background levels provide the basis for concluding that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment.

  5. Veterinarians in Environmental Health: Opportunities for Veterinarians at the Environmental Protection Agency

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created in 1970 partially in response to widespread public concern about environmental degradation. The EPA mission is to protect human health and the environment and the Agency is tasked with enforcing our nation's envi...

  6. Development of Environmental Education Programs for Protected Areas in Madagascar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormsby, Alison

    2007-01-01

    Environmental education programs for schools in the peripheral zone of protected areas in Madagascar are still needed in numerous locations. My research investigated the status of environmental education and communication (EE&C) programs at Masoala National Park, Madagascar, as well as the attitudes of local residents toward the park and park…

  7. 1987 Oak Ridge model conference: Proceedings: Volume 2, Environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    See the abstract for Volume I for general information on the conference. Topics discussed in Volume II include data management techiques for environmental protection efforts, the use of models in environmental auditing, in emergency plans, chemical accident emergency response, risk assessment, monitoring of waste sites, air and water monitoring of waste sites, and in training programs. (TEM)

  8. Rethinking Environmental Protection: Meeting the Challenges of a Changing World

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has made great progress in addressing some major environmental problems. These successes were framed within EPA’s statutory mandates which are largely media-specific and receptor-focused and follow a segmented risk-...

  9. 78 FR 70935 - Notice of Availability of the Environmental Protection Agency's 2011 Emissions Modeling Platform

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Notice of Availability of the Environmental Protection Agency's 2011 Emissions Modeling Platform AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of data availability (NODA). SUMMARY:...

  10. Force Health Protection (FHP): Occupational and Environmental Health (OEH) Threats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-27

    Occupational and Environmental Health (OEH) Threats Contract Number Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s) Project Number Task Number...situations during peacetime, Federal regulations governing environmental , safety, and occupational health hazards were applied. At the strategic level o f...o f t h e Army for FHP-OEH matters. DASA–ESOH SUBJECT: Force Health Protection (FHP): Occupational and Environmental Health (OEH) Threats 3 b. The ASA

  11. Intelligent Processing Equipment Within the Environmental Protection Agency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greathouse, Daniel G.; Nalesnik, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    Protection of the environment and environmental remediation requires the cooperation, at all levels, of government and industry. Intelligent processing equipment, in addition to other artificial intelligence based tools, was used by the Environmental Protection Agency to provide personnel safety and improve the efficiency of those responsible for protection and remediation of the environment. These exploratory efforts demonstrate the feasibility and utility of expanding development and widespread use of these tools. A survey of current intelligent processing equipment applications in the Agency is presented and is followed by a brief discussion of possible uses in the future.

  12. Evaluating National Environmental Sustainability: Performance Measures and Influential Factors for OECD-Member Countries featuring Canadian Performance and Policy Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calbick, Kenneth S.

    This research reviews five studies that evaluate national environmental sustainability with composite indices; performs uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of techniques for building a composite index; completes principal components factor analysis to help build subindices measuring waste and pollution, sustainable energy, sustainable food, nature conservation, and sustainable cities (Due to its current importance, the greenhouse gases (GHG) indicator is included individually as another policy measure.); analyses factors that seem to influence performance: climate, population growth, population density, economic output, technological development, industrial structure, energy prices, environmental governance, pollution abatement and control expenditures, and environmental pricing; and explores Canadian policy implications of the results. The techniques to build composite indices include performance indicator selection, missing data treatment, normalisation technique, scale-effect adjustments, weights, and aggregation method. Scale-effect adjustments and normalisation method are significant sources of uncertainty inducing 68% of the observed variation in a country's final rank at the 95% level of confidence. Choice of indicators also introduces substantial variation as well. To compensate for this variation, the current study recommends that a composite index should always be analysed with other policy subindices and individual indicators. Moreover, the connection between population and consumption indicates that per capita scale-effect adjustments should be used for certain indicators. Rather than ranking normalisation, studies should use a method that retains information from the raw indicator values. Multiple regression and cluster analyses indicate economic output, environmental governance, and energy prices are major influential factors, with energy prices the most important. It is statistically significant for five out of seven performance measures at the 95

  13. Photovoltaic array environmental protection program. [in Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilger, Kevin M.; Gjerde, Helen B.; Sater, Bernard L.

    1989-01-01

    During the photovoltaic array environmental protection program, a coating material, application technique, and design approach intended to protect flexible solar array blankets during a nominal fifteen-year operating lifetime were developed. Numerous thin-film coatings for protecting the Kapton polyimide material used in the construction of the Space Station Freedom flexible solar array blanket were evaluated. The critical solar array design features and protection measures are discussed with special emphasis on the effects of solar array fabrication and flexible printed circuit manufacturing processes on coating durability. The results of the mechanical and environmental test evaluation, including oxygen plasma, neutral oxygen beam, and UV/charged-particle combined exposure, are discussed. These results led to the selection of a silicon dioxide thin-film coating to protect the solar array blanket from the low-earth-orbit atomic oxygen environment.

  14. User's guide to a data base of current environmental monitoring projects in the US-Canadian transboundary region

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Defferding, J.; Chapman, E.G.; Bettinson, M.D.; Glantz, C.S.

    1987-11-01

    This document describes how to use a data base of current transboundary region environmental monitoring projects. The data base was prepared from data provided by Glantz et al. (1986) and Concord Scientific Corporation (1985), and contains information on 226 projects with monitoring stations located within 400 km (250 mi) of the US-Canadian border. The data base is designed for use with the dBASE III PLUS data management systems on IBM-compatible personal computers. Data-base searches are best accomplished using an accompanying command file called RETRIEVE or the dBASE command LIST. The user must carefully select the substrings on which the search is to be based. Example search requests and subsequent output are presented to illustrate substring selections and applications of the data base. 4 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Environmental protection of the solar power satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiff, P. H.; Freeman, J. W.; Cooke, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines theoretically several features of the interactions of the Solar Power Satellite (SPS) with its space environment. The leakage currents through the kapton and sapphire solar cell blankets are calculated. At geosynchronous orbit, this parasitic power loss is only 0.7%, and is easily compensated by oversizing. At low-earth orbit, the power loss is potentially much larger (3%), and anomalous arcing is expected for the high-voltage negative surfaces. Preliminary results of a three-dimensional self-consistent plasma and electric field computer program are presented, confirming the validity of the predictions made from the one-dimensional models. Lastly, the paper proposes magnetic shielding of the satellite, to reduce the power drain and to protect the solar cells from energetic electron and plasma ion bombardment. It is concluded that minor modifications from the baseline SPS design can allow the SPS to operate safely and efficiently in its space environment.

  16. Colloquium: Protecting quantum information against environmental noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suter, Dieter; Álvarez, Gonzalo A.

    2016-10-01

    Quantum technologies represent a rapidly evolving field in which the specific properties of quantum mechanical systems are exploited to enhance the performance of various applications such as sensing, transmission, and processing of information. Such devices can be useful only if the quantum systems also interact with their environment. However, the interactions with the environment can degrade the specific quantum properties of these systems, such as coherence and entanglement. It is therefore essential that the interaction between a quantum system and the environment is controlled in such a way that the unwanted effects of the environment are suppressed while the necessary interactions are retained. This Colloquium gives an overview, aimed at newcomers to this field, of some of the challenges that need to be overcome to achieve this goal. A number of techniques have been developed for this purpose in different areas of physics including magnetic resonance, optics, and quantum information. They include the application of static or time-dependent fields to the quantum system, which are designed to average the effect of the environmental interactions to zero. Quantum error correction schemes were developed to detect and eliminate certain errors that occur during the storage and processing of quantum information. In many physical systems, it is useful to use specific quantum states that are intrinsically less susceptible to environmental noise for encoding the quantum information. The dominant contribution to the loss of information is pure dephasing, i.e., through the loss of coherence in quantum mechanical superposition states. Accordingly, most schemes for reducing loss of information focus on dephasing processes. This is also the focus of this Colloquium.

  17. Environmental Protection Implementation Plan, November 9, 1991--November 9, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Latham, A.R.; Evans, R.B.

    1991-11-01

    DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program,'' established environmental protection program requirements, authorities, and responsibilities to assure that the Department of Energy (DOE) operations are in compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental protection laws and regulations, executive orders, and internal department policies. Chapter 3 of DOE Order 5400.1 required that each field organization prepare a plan for implementing the requirements of this order by no later than November 9, 1989, and update the plan annually. Therefore, the Department of Energy/Field Office, Nevada (DOE/NV) has prepared this second annual update of its Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (EPIP). The Order and corresponding guidances also require estimated budgetary resources necessary for implementation of the Order be identified in the Environmental Protection Implementation Plan. To satisfy this requirement, the estimated costs to effectuate necessary changes in existing programs or processes and to institute new programs or processes for compliance with the Order are provided in the following sections of this plan. The DOE/NV Assistant Manager for Operations (AMO), in consultation with other organizations responsible for line management of plan implementation, is responsible for annual plan revisions. 7 figs.

  18. Maritime Concept Development Approach for a Force Protection In-Harbour Transit of a Canadian Patrol Frigate. Concept Screening and Selection for the MCD&E Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Defence R&D Canada – Atlantic DEFENCE DÉFENSE & Maritime Concept Development Approach for a Force Protection In-Harbour Transit of a Canadian Patrol...Desired – Examine voter consensus ( Schools of Thought/Clustering) – Attempt to achieve better alternatives , greater consensus • Adjust as required...Defence Research and Development Canada Recherche et développement pour la défense Canada Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704

  19. Searches by environmental protection agencies: When is a warrant necessary?

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, D.

    1995-12-31

    During the course of fulfilling its duty to enforce the various environmental protection laws, the Environmental Protection Agency and its state equivalents are often called upon the perform searches of business facilities. The need for these searches, within the context of fulfilling enforcement responsibilities, raises the issue of whether the owners of these facilities suffer violations of their constitutional rights. Although one often thinks of constitutional violations in connection with the investigation of violent criminal offenses, the problem still exists under the rubric of the administrative agency search. This note will first examine the situations in which an environmental protection agency has been required to obtain a search warrant and will then examine situations in which an agency has been permitted to conduct a warrantless search of business premises. The focus will be upon information which a practitioner would find useful in advising business entities.

  20. Environmental Protection Directory: A Comprehensive Guide to Environmental Organizations in the United States and Canada. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trzyna, Thaddeus C., Ed.; Osberg, Sally R., Ed.

    This directory is designed to provide a comprehensive, up-to-date source of information on governmental and private organizations concerned with environmental quality in the United States and Canada. The book is divided into five major parts: the User's Guide, sections for U.S., Canadian, and international organizations, and the indexes. The…

  1. Environmental Protection: MTBE Contamination From Underground Storage Tanks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Underground Storage Tanks Statement of John Stephenson Director, Natural Resources and Environment GAO-02-753T Report Documentation Page Report Date...00MAY2002 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION: MTBE Contamination From Underground Storage Tanks Contract...Protection: Improved Inspections and Enforcement Would Better Ensure the Safety of Underground Storage Tanks (GAO-01-464, May 4, 2001). Page 2

  2. Field joint environmental protection system vibration/pressurization qualification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1989-01-01

    The procedures used and results obtained from vibration testing the redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM) field joint environmental protection system (FJEPS), hereafter referred to as the joint protection system (JPS) are documented. The major purposes were to certify that the flight-designed JPS will withstand the dynamic environmental conditions of the redesigned solid rocket booster, and to certify that the cartridge check valve (vent valve) will relieve pressure build-up under the JPS during the initial 120 sec of flight. Also, an evaluation of the extruded cork insulation bonding was performed after the vibration testing.

  3. Protecting intellectual property associated with Canadian academic clinical trials--approaches and impact.

    PubMed

    Ross, Sue; Magee, Laura; Walker, Mark; Wood, Stephen

    2012-12-27

    Intellectual property is associated with the creative work needed to design clinical trials. Two approaches have developed to protect the intellectual property associated with multicentre trial protocols prior to site initiation. The 'open access' approach involves publishing the protocol, permitting easy access to the complete protocol. The main advantages of the open access approach are that the protocol is freely available to all stakeholders, permitting them to discuss the protocol widely with colleagues, assess the quality and rigour of the protocol, determine the feasibility of conducting the trial at their centre, and after trial completion, to evaluate the reported findings based on a full understanding of the protocol. The main potential disadvantage of this approach is the potential for plagiarism; however if that occurred, it should be easy to identify because of the open access to the original trial protocol, as well as ensure that appropriate sanctions are used to deal with plagiarism. The 'restricted access' approach involves the use of non-disclosure agreements, legal documents that must be signed between the trial lead centre and collaborative sites. Potential sites must guarantee they will not disclose any details of the study before they are permitted to access the protocol. The main advantages of the restricted access approach are for the lead institution and nominated principal investigator, who protect their intellectual property associated with the trial. The main disadvantages are that ownership of the protocol and intellectual property is assigned to the lead institution; defining who 'needs to know' about the study protocol is difficult; and the use of non-disclosure agreements involves review by lawyers and institutional representatives at each site before access is permitted to the protocol, significantly delaying study implementation and adding substantial indirect costs to research institutes. This extra step may discourage sites from

  4. Protection goals in environmental risk assessment: a practical approach.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Alonso, Monica; Raybould, Alan

    2014-12-01

    Policy protection goals are set up in most countries to minimise harm to the environment, humans and animals caused by human activities. Decisions on whether to approve new agricultural products, like pesticides or genetically modified (GM) crops, take into account these policy protection goals. To support decision-making, applications for approval of commercial uses of GM crops usually comprise an environmental risk assessment (ERA). These risk assessments are analytical tools, based on science, that follow a conceptual model that includes a problem formulation step where policy protection goals are considered. However, in most countries, risk assessors face major problems in that policy protection goals set in the legislation are stated in very broad terms and are too ambiguous to be directly applicable in ERAs. This means that risk assessors often have to interpret policy protection goals without clear guidance on what effects would be considered harmful. In this paper we propose a practical approach that may help risk assessors to translate policy protection goals into unambiguous (i.e., operational) protection goals and to establish relevant assessment endpoints and risk hypotheses that can be used in ERAs. Examples are provided to show how this approach can be applied to two areas of environmental concern relevant to the ERAs of GM crops.

  5. 40 CFR 18.10 - Appointment of Special Research Consultants for Environmental Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Appointment of Special Research... PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.10 Appointment of Special Research Consultants for Environmental Protection....

  6. 40 CFR 18.10 - Appointment of Special Research Consultants for Environmental Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appointment of Special Research... PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.10 Appointment of Special Research Consultants for Environmental Protection....

  7. Reconstruction of Centennial and Millennial-scale Climate and Environmental Variability during the Holocene in the Central Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolland, N.; Porinchu, D.; MacDonald, G.; Moser, K.

    2007-12-01

    The Arctic and sub-Arctic regions are experiencing dramatic changes in surface temperature, sea-ice extent, glacial melt, river discharge, soil carbon storage and snow cover. According to the IPCC high latitude regions are expected to warm between 4°C and 7°C over the next 100 years. The magnitude of warming and the rate at which it occurs will dwarf any previous warming episodes experienced by latitude regions over the last 11,000 years. It is critical that we improve our understanding of how the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions responded to past periods of warming, especially in light of the changes these regions will be experiencing over the next 100 years. One of the lines of evidence increasingly utilized in multi-proxy paleolimnological research is the Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera). Also known as non-biting midge flies, chironomids are ubiquitous, frequently the most abundant insects found in freshwater ecosystems and very sensitive to environmental conditions. This research uses Chironomidae to quantitatively characterize climate and environmental conditions of the continental interior of Arctic Canada during the Holocene. Spanning four major vegetation zones (boreal forest, forest-tundra, birch tundra and herb tundra), the surface samples of 80 lakes recovered from the central Canadian Arctic were used to assess the relationship of 22 environmental variables with the chironomid distribution. Redundancy analysis (RDA) identified four variables, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), pH, summer surface water temperature (SSWT) and depth, which best explain the variance in the distribution of chironomids within these ecoregions. In order to provide new quantitative estimates of SSWT, a 1-component weighted average partial least square (WA-PLS) model was developed (r2jack = 0.76, RMSEP = 1.42°C) and applied downcore in two low arctic continental Nunavut lakes located approximately 50 km and 200 km north of modern treeline. This robust midge-inferred temperature

  8. Trend of Environmental Education in Canadian Pre-Service Teacher Education Programs from 1979 to 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Emily

    2002-01-01

    Points out that little attention is given to environmental education research in preservice education programs in Canada. Introduces a national survey using a modified version of Towler's questionnaire to investigate the current status of environmental education that preservice teachers receive in their preparation programs. (Contains 28…

  9. The Environmental Protection Agency: Legislation, Programs and Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Library Systems Branch.

    This document is designed to introduce the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and its programs. It is organized into four categories which discuss the legislation authorizing EPA activities, the history and present organization, the pollution control programs operated by the Agency, and budgetary appropriations. Specific program…

  10. 75 FR 34666 - Stream Protection Rule; Environmental Impact Statement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Chapter VII RIN 1029-AC63 Stream Protection Rule; Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement...: On April 30, 2010,\\1\\ we, the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), published...

  11. Environmental Protection in the City of New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenbud, Merril

    1970-01-01

    Reviews New York City's Environmental Protection Administration two-year effort in air, water, noise, and solid waste pollution control. Successes and difficulties are seen as applicable to other urban areas. Long-term planning considers population control, poverty programs, traffic management, and land use. (JM)

  12. 43 CFR 3802.3-2 - Requirements for environmental protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements for environmental protection...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINING CLAIMS UNDER THE GENERAL MINING LAWS Exploration and Mining, Wilderness Review Program § 3802.3-2 Requirements...

  13. 43 CFR 3802.3-2 - Requirements for environmental protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for environmental protection...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINING CLAIMS UNDER THE GENERAL MINING LAWS Exploration and Mining, Wilderness Review Program § 3802.3-2 Requirements...

  14. 43 CFR 3802.3-2 - Requirements for environmental protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... environmental protection. (a) Air quality. The operator shall comply with applicable Federal and State air quality standards, including the requirements of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 1857 et seq.). (b) Water quality. The operator shall comply with applicable Federal and State water quality standards,...

  15. Research Funding Cut in Proposed Environmental Protection Agency Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-04-01

    The Obama administration's proposed budget for fiscal year (FY) 2014 provides a total of 8.153 billion to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), a decrease of 296 million from FY 2012 spending (comparisons are to FY 2012 because final appropriations for 2013 were not available when the president released his proposed FY 2014 budget).

  16. Protecting the environment: the role of environmental management systems.

    PubMed

    Watson, Michael

    2006-11-01

    Environmental management and auditing systems are increasingly important. They have significant roles to play in relation to environmental protection, workplace safety and public health. Businesses and non-commercial organisations adopt such systems for a variety of reasons. The extent to which they are used varies very considerably between developed countries. The effectiveness of national regulatory systems seems to be a major factor. In the United Kingdom environmental regulators have traditionally sought the voluntary compliance of businesses. This strategy is closely associated with the near absence of administrative penalties. It seems that a wide range of environmental administrative penalties will be introduced in the near future. This may greatly encourage more firms to introduce environmental management and auditing systems.

  17. High herd-level prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Western Canadian dairy farms, based on environmental sampling.

    PubMed

    Wolf, R; Barkema, H W; De Buck, J; Slomp, M; Flaig, J; Haupstein, D; Pickel, C; Orsel, K

    2014-10-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes chronic progressive enteritis in ruminants. The pathogen is present in most countries with modern dairy production, causing substantial economic losses for the industry. The objectives of this study were to estimate dairy herd prevalence of MAP in the Western Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, and to determine whether herd size and housing system (tie-stall versus freestall or loose housing) affected the risk of a herd testing positive for MAP. Six environmental samples were collected on 360 Alberta farms (60% of registered producers) and on 166 Saskatchewan dairy farms (99%). In total, 47% of the sampled farms in Alberta and 53% of the sampled farms in Saskatchewan had at least one environmental sample that was MAP culture positive and were, therefore, defined as infected. Sensitivity of environmental sampling was estimated using 3 subsequent annual tests performed on 82 farms. Because laboratory protocols were continuously improved throughout the project, the sensitivity increased over time. Therefore, a mean of the sensitivity estimates weighted on sampling year was constructed; this resulted in sensitivities of 68 and 69% for Alberta and Saskatchewan, respectively. Implementing those estimates in an approximate Bayesian computation model resulted in a true herd prevalence of 68% (95% probability interval: 60-80%) for Alberta and 76% (95% probability interval: 70-85%) for Saskatchewan. Herds with >200 cows had 3.54 times higher odds of being environmental sample positive and had more positive samples than herds with <50 cows (neither province nor housing system affected those results). In conclusion, the majority of Alberta and Saskatchewan dairy farms were infected with MAP and larger herds were more often MAP positive than smaller herds.

  18. Environmental Compliance and Protection Program Description Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2009-02-26

    The objective of the Environmental Compliance and Protection (EC and P) Program Description (PD) is to establish minimum environmental compliance requirements and natural resources protection goals for the Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) Oak Ridge Environmental Management Cleanup Contract (EMCC) Contract Number DE-AC05-98OR22700-M198. This PD establishes the work practices necessary to ensure protection of the environment during the performance of EMCC work activities on the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, by BJC employees and subcontractor personnel. Both BJC and subcontractor personnel are required to implement this PD. A majority of the decontamination and demolition (D and D) activities and media (e.g., soil and groundwater) remediation response actions at DOE sites on the ORR are conducted under the authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). CERCLA activities are governed by individual CERCLA decision documents (e.g., Record of Decision [ROD] or Action Memorandum) and according to requirements stated in the Federal Facility Agreement for the Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE 1992). Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for the selected remedy are the requirements for environmental remediation responses (e.g., removal actions and remedial actions) conducted under CERCLA.

  19. Environmental protection: researches in National Institute of Radiological Sciences.

    PubMed

    Fuma, Shoichi; Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Doi, Masahiro; Fujimori, Akira; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Ishikawa, Yuji; Kawaguchi, Isao; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Maruyama, Kouichi; Miyamoto, Kiriko; Nakamori, Taizo; Takeda, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yoshito; Yanagisawa, Kei; Yasuda, Takako; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2011-07-01

    Some studies for radiological protection of the environment have been made at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). Transfer of radionuclides and related elements has been investigated for dose estimation of non-human biota. A parameter database and radionuclide transfer models have been also developed for the Japanese environments. Dose (rate)-effect relationships for survival, growth and reproduction have been investigated in conifers, Arabidopsis, fungi, earthworms, springtails, algae, duckweeds, daphnia and medaka. Also genome-wide gene expression analysis has been carried out by high coverage expression profiling (HiCEP). Effects on aquatic microbial communities have been studied in experimental ecosystem models, i.e., microcosms. Some effects were detected at a dose rate of 1 Gy day(-1) and were likely to arise from interspecies interactions. The results obtained at NIRS have been used in development of frameworks for environmental protection by some international bodies, and will contribute to environmental protection in Japan and other Asian countries.

  20. Environmental protection and regulatory compliance at the Elk Hills Field

    SciTech Connect

    Chappelle, H.H. ); Donahoe, R.L. ); Kato, T.T. ); Ordway, H.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Environmental protection has played an integral role in the development and operation of the Elk Hills field since production at the maximum efficient rate was authorized in 1976. The field is located in a non-attainment area for California and National Ambient Air Quality Standards for two criteria pollutants and their associated precursors, is home to four endangered species, and operates within the California regulatory framework. Environmental protection and regulatory compliance is a multi-faceted program carried out through a substantial commitment of resources and workforce involvement. This paper describes the actions taken and resources employed to protect the environment, specific technologies and projects implement, and the ongoing nature of these efforts at Elk Hills.

  1. Environmental protection and regulatory compliance at the Elk Hills Field

    SciTech Connect

    Chappelle, H.H.; Donahoe, R.L.; Kato, T.T.; Ordway, H.E.

    1991-12-31

    Environmental protection has played an integral role in the development and operation of the Elk Hills field since production at the maximum efficient rate was authorized in 1976. The field is located in a non-attainment area for California and National Ambient Air Quality Standards for two criteria pollutants and their associated precursors, is home to four endangered species, and operates within the California regulatory framework. Environmental protection and regulatory compliance is a multi-faceted program carried out through a substantial commitment of resources and workforce involvement. This paper describes the actions taken and resources employed to protect the environment, specific technologies and projects implement, and the ongoing nature of these efforts at Elk Hills.

  2. Environmental health needs and launching of an environmental health protection unit in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Z A; Kazi, B M; Bile, K M; Magan, M; Nasir, J A

    2010-01-01

    Pakistan is seriously confronted by many complex and difficult environmental challenges related to air, water, soil, forests and food including issues such as climate change. The close link between environment and health is neither well understood nor appreciated. The annual cost of environmental degradation in Pakistan has been estimated to be around US $4.0 billion orat least 6% of the country's GDP. Up to 35% of the burden of disease is attributable to environmental hazards and risk factors and most of this burden is preventable. A systematic process for identifying environmental health needs and issues as well as the efforts made by the government of Pakistan and the World Health Organization in establishing and launching an environmental health protection unit are described. Also presented are the mission, functions, structure (operational and logistical) and technical requirements as well as sustainability aspects of the environmental health protection unit.

  3. Protecting environmental flows through enhanced water licensing and water markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erfani, T.; Binions, O.; Harou, J. J.

    2015-02-01

    To enable economically efficient future adaptation to water scarcity some countries are revising water management institutions such as water rights or licensing systems to more effectively protect ecosystems and their services. However, allocating more flow to the environment can mean less abstraction for economic production, or the inability to accommodate new entrants (diverters). Modern licensing arrangements should simultaneously enhance environmental flows and protect water abstractors who depend on water. Making new licensing regimes compatible with tradable water rights is an important component of water allocation reform. Regulated water markets can help decrease the societal cost of water scarcity whilst enforcing environmental and/or social protections. In this article we simulate water markets under a regime of fixed volumetric water abstraction licenses with fixed minimum flows or under a scalable water license regime (using water "shares") with dynamic environmental minimum flows. Shares allow adapting allocations to available water and dynamic environmental minimum flows vary as a function of ecological requirements. We investigate how a short-term spot market manifests within each licensing regime. We use a river-basin-scale hydroeconomic agent model that represents individual abstractors and can simulate a spot market under both licensing regimes. We apply this model to the Great Ouse River basin in eastern England with public water supply, agricultural, energy and industrial water-using agents. Results show the proposed shares with dynamic environmental flow licensing system protects river flows more effectively than the current static minimum flow requirements during a dry historical year, but that the total opportunity cost to water abstractors of the environmental gains is a 10-15% loss in economic benefits.

  4. Protecting environmental flows through enhanced water licensing and water markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erfani, T.; Binions, O.; Harou, J. J.

    2014-03-01

    To enable economically efficient future adaptation to water scarcity some countries are revising water management institutions such as water rights or licensing systems to more effectively protect ecosystems and their services. Allocating more flow to the environment though can mean less abstraction for economic production, or the inability to accommodate new entrants (diverters). Modern licensing arrangements should simultaneously enhance environmental flows and protect water abstractors who depend on water. Making new licensing regimes compatible with tradable water rights is an important component of water allocation reform. Regulated water markets can help decrease the societal cost of water scarcity whilst enforcing environmental and/or social protections. In this article we simulate water markets under a regime of fixed volumetric water abstraction licenses with fixed minimum flows or under a scalable water license regime (using water "shares") with dynamic environmental minimum flows. Shares allow adapting allocations to available water and dynamic environmental minimum flows can vary as a function of ecological requirements. We investigate how a short-term spot market manifests within each licensing regime. We use a river-basin-scale hydro-economic agent model that represents individual abstractors and can simulate a spot market under both licensing regimes. We apply this model to the Great Ouse river basin in Eastern England with public water supply, agricultural, energy and industrial water using agents. Results show the proposed shares with dynamic environmental flow licensing system protects river flows more effectively than the current static minimum flow requirements during a dry historical year, but that the total opportunity cost to water abstractors of the environmental gains is a 10 to 15% loss in economic benefits.

  5. Environmental Policy Beliefs of Stakeholders in Protected Area Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Kostas

    2007-04-01

    Although the importance of understanding stakeholder beliefs regarding environmental policy has been noted by many authors, research focusing on the heterogeneity of stakeholder views is still very scarce and concentrated on a product-oriented definition of stakeholders. The aim of the present study is to address this gap by examining environmental policy beliefs of stakeholder groups engaged in protected area management. Questionnaires containing 73 five-point Likert scale items were administered to eight different stakeholder groups involved in the management of Greek protected areas. Items referred to core beliefs on environmental policy, namely, the value framework and sustainable development, and secondary beliefs, that is, beliefs on social consensus and ecotourism development. Our study used as a starting point respondent recruitment on the basis of a traditional product-centered approach. We investigated whether environmental policy beliefs can be used to effectively segregate stakeholders in well-defined segments, which override the product-oriented definition of stakeholders. Indeed, K-means clustering revealed an innovation-introduction and an implementation-charged sample segment. The instrument utilized in this research proved quite reliable and valid in measuring stakeholder environmental policy beliefs. Furthermore, the methodology implied that stakeholder groups differ in a significant number of belief-system elements. On the other hand, stakeholder groups were effectively distinguished on a small set of both core and secondary beliefs. Therefore, the instrument used can be an effective tool for determining and monitoring environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management. This is of considerable importance in the Greek case, given the recent establishment of 27 administrative bodies of protected areas, all of which are required to incorporate public consultation into management practices.

  6. Environmental protection, the economy, and jobs: national and regional analyses.

    PubMed

    Bezdek, Roger H; Wendling, Robert M; Diperna, Paula

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between environmental protection (EP), the economy, and jobs has been an issue of harsh contention for decades. Does EP harm the economy and destroy jobs or facilitate economic growth and create jobs? We address this issue by summarizing the results of the Jobs and the Environment Initiative, research funded by nonprofit foundations to quantify the relationship between EP, the economy, and jobs. We estimate the size of the US environmental industry and the numbers of environment-related jobs at the national level and in the states of Florida, Michigan, Minnesota, North Carolina, Ohio, and Wisconsin. This is the first time that such comprehensive, detailed estimates have been developed. Our major finding is that, contrary to conventional wisdom, EP, economic growth, and jobs creation are complementary and compatible: investments in EP create jobs and displace jobs, but the net effect on employment is positive. Second, environment protection has grown rapidly to become a major sales-generating, job-creating industry--$300 billion/year and 5 million jobs in 2003. Third, most of the 5 million jobs created are standard jobs for accountants, engineers, computer analysts, clerks, factory workers, etc., and the classic environmental job (environmental engineer, ecologist, etc.) constitutes only a small portion of the jobs created. Most of the persons employed in the jobs created may not even realize that they owe their livelihood to protecting the environment. Fourth, at the state level, the relationship between environmental policies and economic/job growth is positive, not negative. States can have strong economies and simultaneously protect the environment. Finally, environmental jobs are concentrated in manufacturing and professional, information, scientific, and technical services, and are thus disproportionately the types of jobs all states seek to attract.

  7. Rethinking Environmental Protection: Meeting the Challenges of a Changing World

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Thomas A.; Cascio, Wayne E.; Costa, Daniel L.; Deener, Kacee; Fontaine, Thomas D.; Fulk, Florence A.; Jackson, Laura E.; Munns, Wayne R.; Orme-Zavaleta, Jennifer; Slimak, Michael W.; Zartarian, Valerie G.

    2017-01-01

    Summary: From climate change to hydraulic fracturing, and from drinking water safety to wildfires, environmental challenges are changing. The United States has made substantial environmental protection progress based on media-specific and single pollutant risk-based frameworks. However, today’s environmental problems are increasingly complex and new scientific approaches and tools are needed to achieve sustainable solutions to protect the environment and public health. In this article, we present examples of today’s environmental challenges and offer an integrated systems approach to address them. We provide a strategic framework and recommendations for advancing the application of science for protecting the environment and public health. We posit that addressing 21st century challenges requires transdisciplinary and systems approaches, new data sources, and stakeholder partnerships. To address these challenges, we outline a process driven by problem formulation with the following steps: a) formulate the problem holistically, b) gather and synthesize diverse information, c) develop and assess options, and d) implement sustainable solutions. This process will require new skills and education in systems science, with an emphasis on science translation. A systems-based approach can transcend media- and receptor-specific bounds, integrate diverse information, and recognize the inextricable link between ecology and human health. PMID:28248180

  8. Maryland`s environmental export programs: Supporting job growth through environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, K.S.; O`Neill, P.G.

    1996-12-31

    Although a relatively small state with less than 6 million residents, Maryland is home to some 400 environmental products and services companies. These companies range in size from less than $1 million to more than $100 million in annual revenue. They include both manufacturing companies and consultants, covering many aspects of air, water and waste management, serving government and industry needs throughout the world. Maryland`s annual share of the market for environmental goods and services has been estimated at over $2 billion. Many of Maryland`s environmental technology companies play some part in limiting the environmental impact on one of the State`s greatest natural resources, the Chesapeake Bay. Maryland believes that economic development and environmental protection are mutually enforcing goals. The State strives to improve both in order to improve quality of life. Maryland recognizes that environmental protection creates jobs. The business environment in Maryland has created a climate for environmental companies to thrive, including those that export abroad. Due to the prevalence of environmental businesses in the State and the growing need for environmental management overseas, environmental technology became one of Maryland`s target export sectors under a recently unveiled strategic plan for international business in the State.

  9. Protecting Privacy and Confidentiality in Environmental Health Research.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2010-01-01

    Environmental health researchers often need to make difficult decisions on how to protect privacy and confidentiality when they conduct research in the home or workplace. These dilemmas are different from those normally encountered in clinical research. Although protecting privacy and confidentiality is one of the most important principles of research involving human subjects, it can be overridden to prevent imminent harm to individuals or if required by law. Investigators should carefully consider the facts and circumstances and use good judgment when deciding whether to breach privacy or confidentiality.

  10. Investigating Environmental Determinants of Injury and Trauma in the Canadian North

    PubMed Central

    Durkalec, Agata; Furgal, Chris; Skinner, Mark W.; Sheldon, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Unintentional injury and trauma rates are disproportionately high in Inuit regions, and environmental changes are predicted to exacerbate injury rates. However, there is a major gap in our understanding of the risk factors contributing to land-based injury and trauma in the Arctic. We investigated the role of environmental and other factors in search and rescue (SAR) incidents in a remote Inuit community in northern Canada using a collaborative mixed methods approach. We analyzed SAR records from 1995 to 2010 and conducted key consultant interviews in 2010 and 2011. Data showed an estimated annual SAR incidence rate of 19 individuals per 1,000. Weather and ice conditions were the most frequent contributing factor for cases. In contrast with other studies, intoxication was the least common factor associated with SAR incidents. The incidence rate was six times higher for males than females, while land-users aged 26–35 had the highest incidence rate among age groups. Thirty-four percent of individuals sustained physical health impacts. Results demonstrate that environmental conditions are critical factors contributing to physical health risk in Inuit communities, particularly related to travel on sea ice during winter. Age and gender are important risk factors. This knowledge is vital for informing management of land-based physical health risk given rapidly changing environmental conditions in the Arctic. PMID:24477214

  11. An Overview of the State of Environmental Assessment Education at Canadian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stelmack, Colleen M.; Sinclair, John A.; Fitzpatrick, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Purpose--Environmental assessment (EA) is a proactive planning tool designed to consider the ecological, cultural, socio-political and economic impacts of potential projects, making it a major tool for achieving sustainable development. Meaningful EA requires a bridging of the natural sciences with the social sciences to broaden understanding of…

  12. The Canadian Environmental Education Catalogue: A Guide to Selected Resources and Materials. Premier Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrichs, Wally; And Others

    Despite their large numbers, environmental education resources can be difficult to find. The purpose of this catalogue is to broaden the awareness of available resources among educators and curriculum developers and facilitate their accessibility. This first edition of the catalogue contains approximately 1,200 of the more than 4,000 titles that…

  13. 40 CFR 10.10 - Limitation on Environmental Protection Agency's authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Limitation on Environmental Protection Agency's authority. 10.10 Section 10.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 10.10 Limitation on Environmental...

  14. 40 CFR 10.10 - Limitation on Environmental Protection Agency's authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Limitation on Environmental Protection Agency's authority. 10.10 Section 10.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 10.10 Limitation on Environmental...

  15. 40 CFR 10.10 - Limitation on Environmental Protection Agency's authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitation on Environmental Protection Agency's authority. 10.10 Section 10.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 10.10 Limitation on Environmental...

  16. 40 CFR 10.10 - Limitation on Environmental Protection Agency's authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limitation on Environmental Protection Agency's authority. 10.10 Section 10.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 10.10 Limitation on Environmental...

  17. 40 CFR 10.10 - Limitation on Environmental Protection Agency's authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Limitation on Environmental Protection Agency's authority. 10.10 Section 10.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 10.10 Limitation on Environmental...

  18. In Brief: Environmental Protection Agency releases strategic plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-10-01

    Five grand strategic goals are the centerpiece of a strategic plan released on 30 September by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The plan for fiscal years 2011-2015 outlines goals including taking action on climate change and improving air quality, protecting America's waters, cleaning up communities and advancing sustainable development, ensuring the safety of chemicals and preventing pollution, and enforcing environmental laws. “We will continue to affirm the core values of science, transparency, and the rule of law in addressing these priorities. These are the most urgent issues we must confront through 2015,” EPA administrator Lisa Jackson wrote in the plan. For more information, visit http://www.epa.gov/ocfo/plan/2015/FY2011_2015_EPA_Strategic_Plan.pdf.

  19. Private power development and environmental protection in India

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S.; Wilbanks, T.J.

    1997-12-01

    This report assesses relationships between private power development in India and environmental protection in that country. The central question is whether private firms generating and distributing electricity in developing countries will do a better or a worse job in environmental protection, as a part of their overall corporate responsibility, than public-sector institutions. After reviewing the fundamental question, why it is asked, and the context in which it operates in the nation of India, this report continues with an analysis of available information, quantitative and qualitative, that can help to resolve the issues in the particular case of India. Finally, it ends with conclusions from the analysis and recommendations for reducing remaining uncertainties in the future.

  20. 40 CFR 1033.650 - Incidental use exemption for Canadian and Mexican locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Mexican locomotives. 1033.650 Section 1033.650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Provisions § 1033.650 Incidental use exemption for Canadian and Mexican locomotives. You may ask us to exempt... exempt locomotives that will not operate more than 25 miles from the border and will operate in...

  1. 40 CFR 1033.650 - Incidental use exemption for Canadian and Mexican locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Mexican locomotives. 1033.650 Section 1033.650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Provisions § 1033.650 Incidental use exemption for Canadian and Mexican locomotives. You may ask us to exempt... exempt locomotives that will not operate more than 25 miles from the border and will operate in...

  2. 40 CFR 1033.650 - Incidental use exemption for Canadian and Mexican locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Mexican locomotives. 1033.650 Section 1033.650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Provisions § 1033.650 Incidental use exemption for Canadian and Mexican locomotives. You may ask us to exempt... exempt locomotives that will not operate more than 25 miles from the border and will operate in...

  3. 40 CFR 1033.650 - Incidental use exemption for Canadian and Mexican locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Mexican locomotives. 1033.650 Section 1033.650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Provisions § 1033.650 Incidental use exemption for Canadian and Mexican locomotives. You may ask us to exempt... exempt locomotives that will not operate more than 25 miles from the border and will operate in...

  4. 40 CFR 1033.650 - Incidental use exemption for Canadian and Mexican locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Mexican locomotives. 1033.650 Section 1033.650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Provisions § 1033.650 Incidental use exemption for Canadian and Mexican locomotives. You may ask us to exempt... exempt locomotives that will not operate more than 25 miles from the border and will operate in...

  5. Development of Skylab environmental protection for photographic film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askew, W. C.; Clarke, W. A.; Best, C. A.

    1971-01-01

    The problems of providing adequate environmental protection for photographic film on three Skylab missions and the technical and management approach to resolving these problems are presented. The radiation, temperature, and humidity environments to which film will be exposed for up to 230 days in space and the effects of these environments on film are discussed. The report concludes with a definition of the design requirements for the Skylab film repository.

  6. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 45 - Environmental Protection Agency Training Programs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Environmental Protection Agency Training Programs A Appendix A to Part 45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS... Protection Agency Training Programs Administering office Headquarters Regional Office of Air, Noise,...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 45 - Environmental Protection Agency Training Programs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Environmental Protection Agency Training Programs A Appendix A to Part 45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS... Protection Agency Training Programs Administering office Headquarters Regional Office of Air, Noise,...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 45 - Environmental Protection Agency Training Programs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Environmental Protection Agency Training Programs A Appendix A to Part 45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS... Protection Agency Training Programs Administering office Headquarters Regional Office of Air, Noise,...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 45 - Environmental Protection Agency Training Programs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Environmental Protection Agency Training Programs A Appendix A to Part 45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS... Protection Agency Training Programs Administering office Headquarters Regional Office of Air, Noise,...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 45 - Environmental Protection Agency Training Programs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental Protection Agency Training Programs A Appendix A to Part 45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS... Protection Agency Training Programs Administering office Headquarters Regional Office of Air, Noise,...

  11. Evolution of environmental protection strategies in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, A.M.

    1992-05-01

    In performing this work, interviews were conducted with members of the Supreme Soviet Committee for Rational Use of Natural Resources, Moscow, City Council, and St. Petersburg City Council. These officials provided their views on the current status of environmental protection in the former Soviet Union. Literature published in English, although limited, supplemented these discussions. In addition, a literature search was conducted of recent articles about this topic. Although the research for this paper was conducted before and during the August 1991 coup attempt in the Soviet Union, and after the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), many of the observations expressed in this report may be relevant to the new states. This report provides to historical perspective on the barriers encountered while attempting to develop environmental policy in the former Soviet Union and establishes a context for problems facing the new states in developing their environmental policies. Organization changes that have occurred in environmental protection since the August coup are included to the extent they are known.

  12. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Multimedia Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ambutas, K.

    1994-12-31

    The Native American multimedia program was developed to facilitate the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) partnership with tribes in the delivery of environmental programs on reservation lands and to enhance the EPA`s ability to carry out its trust responsibility to the tribes. By providing the means for each tribe to employ its own environmental specialist, the multimedia program helps provide the foundation necessary to build environmental infrastructure for the protection of Native American lands and people and for the development of more rigorous medium-specific programs. The multimedia program began in 1991 with two pilot projects on the Bad River Chippewa Reservation, Wisconsin, and the Wind River Reservation, Wyoming. Expanded in 1992, Region 5 awarded ten multimedia cooperative agreements. At the time, Region 5 made the commitment to fund all reservations within the region, and by end of fiscal year 1993, 24 agreements brought the program to all 29 tribes. This has been a monumental effort, possible only by coupling fiscal year 1993`s funding from the Office of Federal Activities ($599050) with the region`s own reprogramming efforts ($510000).

  13. Environmental fate of hexabromocyclododecane from a new Canadian electronic recycling facility.

    PubMed

    Tomko, Geoffrey; McDonald, Karen M

    2013-01-15

    An electronics recycling facility began operation at the municipal landfill site for the City of Edmonton, Canada in March 2008 with the goal of processing 30,000 tonnes of electronic wastes per year. Of the many by-products from the process, brominated fire retardants such as hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) can evolve off of e-wastes and be released into the environmental media. HBCD has been identified by many countries and international bodies as a chemical of concern because of its ability to bioaccumulate in the ecosystem. An evaluation of the potential emission of HBCD indicates that up to 500 kg per year may be released from a landfill and recycling facility such as that operating in Edmonton. A multimedia fugacity model was used to evaluate the dispersion and fate of atmospherically emitted HBCD traveling into surrounding agricultural land and forested parkland. The model indicates that the three isomers of HBCD partitioned into environmental media similarly. Much of the HBCD is lost through atmospheric advection, but it is also found in soil and sediment. Modeled air concentrations are similar to those measured at locations with a history of e-waste recycling. Since HBCD has been shown to bioaccumulate, the HBCD released from this source has the long-term potential to affect agricultural food crops and the park ecosystem.

  14. Delivery of the Canadian Entitlement : Final Environmental Impact Statement : Record of Decision, Summary..

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-01-01

    The US Entity (the Administrator of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Division Engineer, North Pacific Division of the US Army Corps of Engineers) has decided to fulfill its obligation under the Columbia River Treaty (Treaty) between the US and Canada by delivering Canada`s Entitlement under the Treaty to a point on the US/Canada border near Oliver, British Columbia (BC). Delivering the Entitlement at that location will require BPA to construct and operate a new single-circuit 500-kV transmission line from Grand Coulee or Chief Joseph Substation to the US/Canada border, a distance of 135 to 155 kilometers (85 to 95 miles), depending on the alignment selected. This paper describes the decision process and its environmental impacts.

  15. Influence of seabird colonies and other environmental variables on benthic community structure, Lancaster Sound Region, Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard Marmen, Mariève; Kenchington, Ellen; Ardyna, Mathieu; Archambault, Philippe

    2017-03-01

    The Canadian Arctic shelters millions of seabirds each year during the breeding season. By the excretion of important quantities of guano, seabirds locally concentrate nutrient-rich organic matter in the marine areas surrounding colonies. Seabirds, acting as biological vectors of nutrients, can markedly affect terrestrial ecosystems, but their influence on the structure of marine benthic communities is still under-studied. Sessile and long-lived megabenthic species can integrate environmental variation into marine food webs over long time frames. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the epifaunal and infaunal communities of the Lancaster Sound Region (LSR) and (2) to test the influence of the presence of seabird colonies and other environmental parameters on the structure of those benthic communities. Our prediction was that benthic diversity, number of taxa, total biomass of infauna and total density of epifauna and infauna, would be higher in areas with colonies present. Photos of the seafloor (data on epifauna) and grab samples (data on infauna) were taken at three control areas and at five areas near seabird colonies, within a depth range of 122 to 442 m. A database of 26 environmental parameters was built to study the environment-benthos relationships. Infauna, which was relatively uniform across the LSR, was numerically dominated by Annelida. Epifauna was much patchier, with each study area having unique epibenthic assemblages. Brittle stars were highly abundant in epifaunal communities, reaching 600 individuals per square meter. The presence of seabird colonies was not a major driver of benthic community structure in the LSR at the depths studied. Negative effects of colonies were detected on the density and number of taxa of infauna, perhaps due to top-down effects transmitted by the seabirds which feed in the water column and can directly reduce the quantity of food reaching the seabed. Sediment concentration of pigment, percent cover of

  16. 77 FR 5513 - Public Availability of Environmental Protection Agency FY 2011 Service Contract Inventory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... inventory should be directed to Linear Cherry in the Office of Acquisition Management, Headquarters... AGENCY Public Availability of Environmental Protection Agency FY 2011 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of Public Availability of FY 2011 Service Contract...

  17. Environmental Media Systems: Innovations at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Exposure Research Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costelloe-Kuehn, Brandon

    2012-01-01

    This multi-sited ethnography analyzes challenges and opportunities in the design and development of digital media systems in the Office of Research and Development (ORD) at the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Drawing heavily from interviews conducted over the course of three years, primarily with scientists at the ORD's…

  18. Correlates of joint child protection and police child sexual abuse investigations: results from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect–2008

    PubMed Central

    Tonmyr, L.; Gonzalez, A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Our study examines the frequency of joint investigations by child protection workers and the police in sexual abuse investigations compared to other maltreatment types and the association of child-, caregiver-, maltreatment- and investigation-related characteristics in joint investigations, focussing specifically on investigations involving sexual abuse. Methods: We analyzed data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect–2008 using logistic regression. Results: The data suggest that sexual abuse (55%), and then physical abuse, neglect and emotional maltreatment, are most often co-investigated. Substantiation of maltreatment, severity of maltreatment, placement in out-of-home care, child welfare court involvement and referral of a family member to specialized services was more likely when the police were involved in an investigation. Conclusion: This study adds to the limited information on correlates of joint child protection agency and police investigations. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of these joint investigations. PMID:26605560

  19. 20 CFR 672.610 - What environmental protection laws apply to the YouthBuild program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What environmental protection laws apply to... Requirements § 672.610 What environmental protection laws apply to the YouthBuild program? YouthBuild Program grantees are required, where applicable, to comply with all environmental protection statutes...

  20. 20 CFR 672.610 - What environmental protection laws apply to the YouthBuild program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What environmental protection laws apply to... Requirements § 672.610 What environmental protection laws apply to the YouthBuild program? YouthBuild Program grantees are required, where applicable, to comply with all environmental protection statutes...

  1. 20 CFR 672.610 - What environmental protection laws apply to the YouthBuild program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What environmental protection laws apply to... Requirements § 672.610 What environmental protection laws apply to the YouthBuild program? YouthBuild Program grantees are required, where applicable, to comply with all environmental protection statutes...

  2. Tough choices in proposed budget for Environmental Protection Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-03-01

    President Obama's proposed budget for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for fiscal year (FY) 2013 is $8.34 billion, a 1.2% decrease from the agency's 2012 enacted budget. "This budget is focused on fulfilling EPA's core mission to protect health and the environment for millions of American families. It demonstrates the fiscal responsibility called for at this moment, while still supporting clean air, healthy waters, and innovative safeguards that are essential to an America built to last," said EPA administrator Lisa Jackson in a 13 February briefing announcing the budget proposal. Balancing tight funding environments with EPA's goals "has required taking a step back from programs we have worked on for years, programs were we have had great success," she said. "There are difficult choices throughout this budget, but they enable us to do what is required for our immediate priorities as well as challenges down the road."

  3. Protection of chemolithoautotrophic bacteria exposed to simulated Mars environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Felipe; Mateo-Martí, Eva; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Martín-Gago, Jose; Amils, Ricardo

    2010-10-01

    Current surface conditions (strong oxidative atmosphere, UV radiation, low temperatures and xeric conditions) on Mars are considered extremely challenging for life. The question is whether there are any features on Mars that could exert a protective effect against the sterilizing conditions detected on its surface. Potential habitability in the subsurface would increase if the overlaying material played a protective role. With the aim of evaluating this possibility we studied the viability of two microorganisms under different conditions in a Mars simulation chamber. An acidophilic chemolithotroph isolated from Río Tinto belonging to the Acidithiobacillus genus and Deinococcus radiodurans, a radiation resistant microorganism, were exposed to simulated Mars conditions under the protection of a layer of ferric oxides and hydroxides, a Mars regolith analogue. Samples of these microorganisms were exposed to UV radiation in Mars atmospheric conditions at different time intervals under the protection of 2 and 5 mm layers of oxidized iron minerals. Viability was evaluated by inoculation on fresh media and characterization of their growth cultures. Here we report the survival capability of both bacteria to simulated Mars environmental conditions.

  4. 78 FR 52909 - Consumer Financial Protection Bureau Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION BUREAU Consumer Financial Protection Bureau Notice of Availability of Final Environmental... Organization Headquarters Building, Washington, DC AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection....

  5. Water Efficiency Improvements At Various Environmental Protection Agency Sites

    SciTech Connect

    2011-03-24

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) built a successful water conservation program and reduced potable water use through a series of initiatives at EPA laboratories. The projects highlighted in this case study demonstrate EPA’s ability to reduce water use in laboratory and medical equipment by implementing vacuum pump and steam sterilizer replacements and retrofits. Due to the success of the initial vacuum pump and steam sterilizer projects described here, EPA is implementing similar projects at several laboratories throughout the nation.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: WET-WEATHER FLOW/SOURCE WATER PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an overview of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program which was established to overcome the numerous impediments to commercialization experienced by developers of innovative environmental technologies. ...

  7. Watsonville, Calif. students receive Presidents environmental education award for fighting to protect sea turtles worldwide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced that the fifth grade class at Mount Madonna School in Watsonville, Calif. will receive the President's Environmental Youth Award for their work to fight environmental threats

  8. Canadian History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Libraries in Canada, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Includes 22 articles that address Canadian history and the importance of having students honor Canada's past by providing articles relating to the areas of History and Social Studies covering: historical fiction as instructional material; Canadian scientists; agricultural fairs; the Historical Foundation; social science books on Canada; student…

  9. How we can make ecotoxicology more valuable to environmental protection.

    PubMed

    Hanson, M L; Wolff, B A; Green, J W; Kivi, M; Panter, G H; Warne, M St J; Ågerstrand, M; Sumpter, J P

    2017-02-01

    There is increasing awareness that the value of peer-reviewed scientific literature is not consistent, resulting in a growing desire to improve the practice and reporting of studies. This is especially important in the field of ecotoxicology, where regulatory decisions can be partly based on data from the peer-reviewed literature, with wide-reaching implications for environmental protection. Our objective is to improve the reporting of ecotoxicology studies so that they can be appropriately utilized in a fair and transparent fashion, based on their reliability and relevance. We propose a series of nine reporting requirements, followed by a set of recommendations for adoption by the ecotoxicology community. These reporting requirements will provide clarity on the the test chemical, experimental design and conditions, chemical identification, test organisms, exposure confirmation, measurable endpoints, how data are presented, data availability and statistical analysis. Providing these specific details will allow for a fuller assessment of the reliability and relevance of the studies, including limitations. Recommendations for the implementation of these reporting requirements are provided herein for practitioners, journals, reviewers, regulators, stakeholders, funders, and professional societies. If applied, our recommendations will improve the quality of ecotoxicology studies and their value to environmental protection.

  10. Application of radiological protection measures to meet different environmental protection criteria.

    PubMed

    Copplestone, D

    2012-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recognises that there is no simple or single universal definition of 'environmental protection', and that the concept differs from country to country and from one circumstance to another. However, there is an increasing need to be able to demonstrate that the environment is protected from radioactive substances released under authorisation for various reasons, such as for wildlife conservation requirements, or wildlife management for commercial reasons, or simply as part of pollution control. The Commission is developing the concept of Representative Organisms, which may be identified from any specific legal requirements or from more general requirements to protect local habitats or ecosystems. Such organisms may be the actual objects of protection or they may be hypothetical, depending on the objectives of the assessment. They may be similar to, or even congruent with, one or more of the Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs). Where this is not the case, attempts can be made to consider the extent to which the Representative Organisms differ from the nearest RAP in terms of known radiation effects upon it, basic biology, radiation dosimetry, and pathways of exposure. This paper discusses the practical implications of such an approach.

  11. Environmental assessment in The Netherlands: Effectively governing environmental protection? A discourse analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Runhaar, Hens; Laerhoven, Frank van; Driessen, Peter; Arts, Jos

    2013-02-15

    Environmental assessment (EA) aims to enhance environmental awareness and to ensure that environmental values are fully considered in decision-making. In the EA arena, different discourses exist on what EA should aim for and how it functions. We hypothesise that these discourses influence its application in practice as well as its effectiveness in terms of achieving the above goals. For instance, actors who consider EA as a hindrance to fast implementation of their projects will probably apply it as a mandatory checklist, whereas actors who believe that EA can help to develop more environmentally sound decisions will use EIA as a tool to design their initiatives. In this paper we explore discourses on EA in The Netherlands and elaborate on their implications for EA effectiveness. Based on an innovative research design comprising an online survey with 443 respondents and 20 supplementary semi-structured interviews we conclude that the dominant discourse is that EA is mainly a legal requirement; EAs are conducted because they have to be conducted, not because actors choose to do so. EA effectiveness however seems reasonably high, as a majority of respondents perceive that it enhances environmental awareness and contributes to environmental protection. However, the 'legal requirement' discourse also results in decision-makers seldom going beyond what is prescribed by EA and environmental law. Despite its mandatory character, the predominant attitude towards EA is quite positive. For most respondents, EA is instrumental in providing transparency of decision-making and in minimising the legal risks of not complying with environmental laws. Differences in discourses seldom reflect extreme opposites. The 'common ground' regarding EA provides a good basis for working with EA in terms of meeting legal requirements but at the same time does not stimulate creativity in decision-making or optimisation of environmental values. In countries characterised by less consensual

  12. 40 CFR 29.3 - What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these regulations? 29.3 Section 29.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 29.3 What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection......

  13. 40 CFR 29.3 - What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these regulations? 29.3 Section 29.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 29.3 What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection......

  14. 40 CFR 29.3 - What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these regulations? 29.3 Section 29.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 29.3 What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection......

  15. 40 CFR 29.3 - What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these regulations? 29.3 Section 29.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 29.3 What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection......

  16. 40 CFR 29.3 - What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these regulations? 29.3 Section 29.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 29.3 What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection......

  17. Environmental and Economic Impacts of Integrating Photovoltaic and Wind-Turbine Energy Systems in the Canadian Residential Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Ali M.; Fung, Alan S.; Ugursal, V. Ismet

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian residential sector contributes approximately 80 megatons of GHGs to the environment yearly. With the ratification of Kyoto Protocol, Canada has committed to reduce its 1990 GHG emission levels by at least 5% between 2008 and 2012. To meet this target, Canada must evaluate and exploit all feasible means to reduce fossil fuel energy…

  18. PROFILE: Environmental Impact Assessment Under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty.

    PubMed

    Ensminger; McCold; Webb

    1999-07-01

    / Antarctica has been set aside by the international community for protection as a natural reserve and a place for scientific research. Through the Antarctic Treaty of 1961, the signing nations agreed to cooperate in protecting the antarctic environment, in conducting scientific studies, and in abstaining from the exercise of territorial claims. The 1991 signing of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (Protocol) by representatives of the 26 nations comprising the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (Parties) significantly strengthened environmental protection measures for the continent. The Protocol required ratification by each of the governments individually prior to official implementation. The US government ratified the Protocol by passage of the Antarctic Science, Tourism, and Conservation Act of 1997. Japan completed the process by ratifying the Protocol on December 15, 1997. US government actions undertaken in Antarctica are subject to the requirements of both the Protocol and the US National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). There are differences in the scope and intent of the Protocol and NEPA; however, both require environmental impact assessment (EIA) as part of the planning process for proposed actions that have the potential for environmental impacts. In this paper we describe the two instruments and highlight key similarities and differences with particular attention to EIA. Through this comparison of the EIA requirements of NEPA and the Protocol, we show how the requirements of each can be used in concert to provide enhanced environmental protection for the antarctic environment. NEPA applies only to actions of the US government; therefore, because NEPA includes certain desirable attributes that have been refined and clarified through numerous court cases, and because the Protocol is just entering implementation internationally, some recommendations are made for strengthening the procedural requirements of the Protocol

  19. Environmental influence of Wuhan urban agglomeration development and strategies of environmental protection.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qun; Liu, Ying-Tao; Mao, Han-Ying

    2006-01-01

    In Wuhan urban agglomeration (WUA), the population growth and concentration, the industrial development and urban sprawl have been affecting the environment fundamentally. Comparing with Yangtze delta metropolitan region, the level of urbanization and industrialization of WUA has lagged behind for about 10 years; but the problems in environmental protection and rehabilitation are commonly serious. In the future, WUA should avoid unnecessary mistakes and seek a win-win strategy for economy and environment in its large-scale development stage. Based on the analysis of the changing of main environmental pollutants and the coupled curves in past decades, the paper discussed the important links among the urban environmental pollutions, industry growth and urban sprawl in WUA. It is concluded that the integration of economic and environmental policies in urban development is more required and significant at the large urban agglomeration region. Four proactive and long-term strategies need to be adopted to provide prior guidance and better protection for the development of WUA.

  20. Is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency brownfields assessment pilot program environmentally just?

    PubMed Central

    Solitare, Laura; Greenberg, Micheal

    2002-01-01

    In the early 1990s, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) started a grant program to assist communities redevelop brownfields, which are abandoned or underutilized sites that have real or perceived contamination. In addition to determining if the communities receiving the grants were the most distressed cities in the United States, we also evaluate the U.S. EPA program in terms of environmental justice at the macro scale. Using 1990 U.S. Census of Housing and Population data and a matched-cities methodology, we compared the brownfields pilot cities to other communities in the United States. We found that regardless of intent, the U.S. EPA program is environmentally just by disproportionately awarding grants to the most economically distressed cities. We also found that the cities that received funding in the early years of the program were more economically distressed than cities receiving the funding more recently. PMID:11929735

  1. Examining the independent protective effect of subjective well-being on severe psychological distress among Canadian adults with a history of child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Baiden, Philip; Tarshis, Sarah; Antwi-Boasiako, Kofi; den Dunnen, Wendy

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the independent protective effect of subjective well-being on severe psychological distress among adult Canadians with a history of child maltreatment. Data for this study were obtained from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (CCHS-MH). A sample of 8126 respondents aged 20-69 years old who experienced at least one child maltreatment event was analyzed using binary logistic regression with severe psychological distress as the outcome variable. Of the 8126 respondents with a history of child maltreatment, 3.9% experienced severe psychological distress within the past month. Results from the multivariate logistic regression revealed that emotional and psychological well-being each had a significant effect on severe psychological distress. For each unit increase in emotional well-being, the odds of a respondent having severe psychological distress were predicted to decrease by a factor of 28% and for each unit increase in psychological well-being, the odds of a respondent having severe psychological distress were predicted to decrease by a factor of 10%, net the effect of demographic, socioeconomic, and health factors. Other factors associated with psychological distress included: younger age, poor self-perceived physical health, and chronic condition. Having post-secondary education, having a higher income, and being non-White predicted lower odds of severe psychological distress. Although, child maltreatment is associated with stressful life events later in adulthood, subjective well-being could serve as a protective factor against severe psychological distress among adults who experienced maltreatment when they were children.

  2. Risk-based targeting: A new approach in environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Risk-based targeting has recently emerged as an effective tool to help prioritize efforts to identify and manage geographic areas, chemicals, facilities, and agricultural activities that cause the most environmental degradation. This paper focuses on how the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently used risk-based targeting to identify and screen Federal, industrial, commercial and municipal facilities which contribute to probable human health (fish consumption advisories and contaminated fish tissue) and aquatic life (contaminated sediments) impacts. Preliminary results identified several hundred potential contributors of problem chemicals to probable impacts within the same river reach in 1991--93. Analysis by industry sector showed that the majority of the facilities identified were publicly owned treatment works (POTWs), in addition to industry organic and inorganic chemical manufacturers, petroleum refineries, and electric services, coatings, engravings, and allied services, among others. Both compliant and non-compliant potentially contributing facilities were identified to some extent in all EPA regions. Additional results identifying possible linkages of other pollutant sources to probable impacts, as well as estimation of potential exposure of these contaminants to minority and/or poverty populations are also presented. Out of these analyses, a number of short and long-term strategies are being developed that EPA may use to reduce loadings of problem contaminants to impacted waterbodies.

  3. An Analysis of the Problems of Developing Environmental Education in Brazilian Federal Protected Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Carvalho, Cristina A. R.; Filho, Walter Leal; Hale, William H. G.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the problems encountered in developing environmental education in federally protected areas in Brazil. Suggests that the development of environmental education in those protected areas has several limitations including financial resources, lack of training, material resources, and lack of policy on environmental education. (Author/CCM)

  4. Social Norms and Smoking Bans on Campus: Interactions in the Canadian University Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Procter-Scherdtel, Amy; Collins, Damian

    2013-01-01

    Smoking bans offer practical protection against environmental tobacco smoke and highlight the decreasing normative status of smoking. At Canadian universities, indoor smoking is now completely prohibited, but regulations vary with respect to outdoor smoking. The purpose of this research was to conceptualize the interactions of smoking bans on…

  5. CAN WE HAVE IT ALL? BALANCING ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND PUBLIC POLICY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency is charged with the responsibility for protecting public health and safeguarding our natural environment. This mission, developed in the aftermath of Silent Spring, faces new challenges with the ever increasing human domination of ecosystem...

  6. BEYOND REGULATION TO PROTECTION. THE APPLICATION OF NATIONAL RECONNAISSANCE SYSTEMS IN THE SCIENCE MISSION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of National Technical Means (NTM) data and advanced geospatial technologies has an important role in supporting the mission of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). EPA's responsibilities have grown beyond pollution compliance monitoring and enforcement to include t...

  7. INTERGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

  8. INTEGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

  9. Compliance with environmental laws protects air, land, and water in communities across Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Seattle - April 1, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, completed over 25 environmental compliance and enforcement actions in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington from October 1, 2014 through December 31, 2014.

  10. Compliance with environmental laws protects air, land, and water in communities across Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Seattle - Feb. 5, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, completed 60 environmental compliance and enforcement actions in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington from July 1, 2014 through September 30, 2014. Violations of environme

  11. THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY VISUAL PLUMES MODELING SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Center for Exposure Assessment Modeling (CEAM) at the Ecosystems Research Division in Athens, Georgia develops environmental exposure models, including plume models, and provides technical assistance to model users. The mixing zone and f...

  12. EPA's FY 2017 Budget Request Increases Support for Communities to Deliver Core Environmental and Health Protection

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - The Obama Administration's Fiscal Year 2017 budget announced today for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) lays out a strategy to ensure that steady progress is made in addressing known environmental problems and ensuring the

  13. Compliance with environmental laws protects air, land, and water in communities across Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Seattle - May 27, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, completed over 40 environmental compliance and enforcement actions in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington from January 1, 2015 through March 31, 2015. Violations of envir

  14. Sustainable Urban Waters: Opportunities to Integrate Environmental Protection in Multi-objective Projects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Nonpoint source pollution is an ongoing challenge for environmental agencies who seek to protect waters of the U.S. Urban stream and waterfront redevelopment projects present opportunities to achieve integrated environmental, economic, and social benefits in urban water...

  15. Compliance with environmental laws protects air, land, and water in communities across Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Seattle - September 17, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, completed over 40 environmental compliance and enforcement actions in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington from April 1, 2015 through June 30, 2015.

  16. EPA Administrator McCarthy in Boston with Canada and Mexico for Commission on Environmental Cooperation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BOSTON, MA; WASHINGTON - On Tuesday and Wednesday, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Gina McCarthy will host Mexican Environment Deputy Secretary Dr. Rodolfo Lacy Tamayo representing Secretary Juan José Guerra Abud and Canadian E

  17. Environmental Correlation Analysis for Genes Associated with Protection against Malaria.

    PubMed

    Mackinnon, Margaret J; Ndila, Carolyne; Uyoga, Sophie; Macharia, Alex; Snow, Robert W; Band, Gavin; Rautanen, Anna; Rockett, Kirk A; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; Williams, Thomas N

    2016-05-01

    Genome-wide searches for loci involved in human resistance to malaria are currently being conducted on a large scale in Africa using case-control studies. Here, we explore the utility of an alternative approach-"environmental correlation analysis, ECA," which tests for clines in allele frequencies across a gradient of an environmental selection pressure-to identify genes that have historically protected against death from malaria. We collected genotype data from 12,425 newborns on 57 candidate malaria resistance loci and 9,756 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected at random from across the genome, and examined their allele frequencies for geographic correlations with long-term malaria prevalence data based on 84,042 individuals living under different historical selection pressures from malaria in coastal Kenya. None of the 57 candidate SNPs showed significant (P < 0.05) correlations in allele frequency with local malaria transmission intensity after adjusting for population structure and multiple testing. In contrast, two of the random SNPs that had highly significant correlations (P < 0.01) were in genes previously linked to malaria resistance, namely, CDH13, encoding cadherin 13, and HS3ST3B1, encoding heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferase 3B1. Both proteins play a role in glycoprotein-mediated cell-cell adhesion which has been widely implicated in cerebral malaria, the most life-threatening form of this disease. Other top genes, including CTNND2 which encodes δ-catenin, a molecular partner to cadherin, were significantly enriched in cadherin-mediated pathways affecting inflammation of the brain vascular endothelium. These results demonstrate the utility of ECA in the discovery of novel genes and pathways affecting infectious disease.

  18. Environmental Correlation Analysis for Genes Associated with Protection against Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Mackinnon, Margaret J.; Ndila, Carolyne; Uyoga, Sophie; Macharia, Alex; Snow, Robert W.; Band, Gavin; Rautanen, Anna; Rockett, Kirk A.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.; Williams, Thomas N.

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide searches for loci involved in human resistance to malaria are currently being conducted on a large scale in Africa using case-control studies. Here, we explore the utility of an alternative approach—“environmental correlation analysis, ECA,” which tests for clines in allele frequencies across a gradient of an environmental selection pressure—to identify genes that have historically protected against death from malaria. We collected genotype data from 12,425 newborns on 57 candidate malaria resistance loci and 9,756 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected at random from across the genome, and examined their allele frequencies for geographic correlations with long-term malaria prevalence data based on 84,042 individuals living under different historical selection pressures from malaria in coastal Kenya. None of the 57 candidate SNPs showed significant (P < 0.05) correlations in allele frequency with local malaria transmission intensity after adjusting for population structure and multiple testing. In contrast, two of the random SNPs that had highly significant correlations (P < 0.01) were in genes previously linked to malaria resistance, namely, CDH13, encoding cadherin 13, and HS3ST3B1, encoding heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferase 3B1. Both proteins play a role in glycoprotein-mediated cell-cell adhesion which has been widely implicated in cerebral malaria, the most life-threatening form of this disease. Other top genes, including CTNND2 which encodes δ-catenin, a molecular partner to cadherin, were significantly enriched in cadherin-mediated pathways affecting inflammation of the brain vascular endothelium. These results demonstrate the utility of ECA in the discovery of novel genes and pathways affecting infectious disease. PMID:26744416

  19. Anaerobic digestion for energy production and environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Lettinga, G.; Haandel, A.C. Vaan

    1993-12-31

    Anaerobic digestion is the decomposition of complex molecules into simpler substances by micro-organisms in the absence of oxygen. Anaerobic digestion processes can be employed for resource conservation, for the production of biogas and other useful end products from biomass, and for environmental protection through waste and wastewater treatment. Modern high-rate anaerobic wastewater-treatment processes can effectively remove organic pollutants from wastewater at a cost far below that of conventional aerobic processes. These anaerobic wastewater treatment processes can also be profitably applied for the generation of biogas from energy crops such as sugarcane. In fact, these methods might even be an attractive alternative for the alcohol fermentation extensively employed in Brazil for the production of fuel alcohol from sugarcane. The potential of modern anaerobic processes for this purpose has not yet been widely recognized. This paper describes the principles and use of these processes and demonstrates their prospects for producing energy from sugarcane (1) by treating vinasse, the wastewater generated during the production of ethanol from sugarcane, and (2) as a direct method for producing biogas from sugarcane juice.

  20. The Environmental Protection Agency’s Brownfields Pilot Program

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Michael R.; Hollander, Justin

    2006-01-01

    Objective. We studied the diffusion of the US Environmental Protection Agency’s national brownfields pilot innovation to more than 300 local governments between 1993 through 2002 to determine why some local governments received grants very early in the process while other awardees received funding later. Methods. We did an ordinal regression analysis of the characteristics of all local government award recipients, and we conducted interviews with early-award recipients. Results. The first set of local government awardees had lost much of their manufacturing base, had large concentrations of economically disadvantaged minority residents, and had local capacity to compete for funding. Federal and state officials catalyzed the diffusion of the innovation by working with local governments. Conclusions. The widely praised program was diffused selectively at first and then more widely later on the basis of local need, local capacity to compete, and networks of contacts among entrepreneurs and local governments. The economic, social, political, and public health impacts must be monitored and reviewed. PMID:16380572

  1. Savannah River Site Environmental Implementation Plan. Volume 2, Protection programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    Formal sitewide environmental planning at the . Savannah River Site (SRS) began in 1986 with the development and adoption of the Strategic Environmental Plan. The Strategic Environmental Plan describes the philosophy, policy, and overall program direction of environmental programs for the operation of the SRS. The Strategic Environmental Plan (Volume 2) provided the basis for development of the Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP). The EIP is the detailed, comprehensive environmental master plan for operating contractor organizations at the SRS. The EIP provides a process to ensure that all environmental requirements and obligations are being met by setting specific measurable goals and objectives and strategies for implementation. The plan is the basis for justification of site manpower and funding requests for environmental projects and programs over a five-year planning period.

  2. A unique, environmentally sustainable and cost-effective programme to re-vegetate military training lands utilising composted wastewater biosolids at a large Canadian military training centre.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, R J; Allain, C J; Downe, S; Pond, N; Laughton, P J

    2006-01-01

    The Greater Moncton Sewerage Commission has developed, in concert with National Defence Canada, an environmentally sustainable and cost effective biosolids management and land reclamation programme at the Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Gagetown, New Brunswick, Canada (the second largest land based Military Training Facility in the British Commonwealth). The use of composted biosolids to revegetate military training lands is thought to be a unique application for the beneficial use of biosolids. Results and practical experience gained from this approach to successfully re-vegetate initial sections of extremely large and vast tracts of these lands are described. The paper also overviews the Commission's modern 115000 m3 x d(-1) advanced, chemically assisted primary wastewater treatment facility and associated alkaline (lime) sludge stabilisation process. Planning strategies, security aspects, special and unique challenges in operating adjacent to an active military training facility, costs, spreading techniques, monitoring, next steps and conclusions are also presented.

  3. 30 CFR 817.97 - Protection of fish, wildlife, and related environmental values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.97 Protection of fish, wildlife, and related environmental... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of fish, wildlife, and related environmental values. 817.97 Section 817.97 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION...

  4. 30 CFR 816.97 - Protection of fish, wildlife, and related environmental values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.97 Protection of fish, wildlife, and related environmental values... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of fish, wildlife, and related environmental values. 816.97 Section 816.97 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION...

  5. EPA Awards $123,161 to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to Retrofit School Buses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has awarded $123,161 in Diesel Emission Reduction Act (DERA) funding to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to fund local school districts to replace four school buses. The older r

  6. Assessing Cumulative Impact and Risk - Approaches at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has a mission and regulatory mandate to protect human health and the environment. EPA’s primary role is to implement environmental laws by developing and enforcing national regulation. Cogent to the goals of this workshop, key envi...

  7. Air Force Institute of Technology, Civil Engineering School: Environmental Protection Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Force Inst. of Tech., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH. School of Engineering.

    This document contains information assembled by the Civil Engineering School to meet the initial requirements of NEPA 1969 and Executive Orders which required the Air Force to implement an effective environmental protection program. This course presents the various aspects of Air Force environmental protection problems which military personnel…

  8. Environmental Globalization, Organizational Form, and Expected Benefits from Protected Areas in Central America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeffer, Max J.; Schelhas, John W.; Meola, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Environmental globalization has led to the implementation of conservation efforts like the creation of protected areas that often promote the interests of core countries in poorer regions. The creation of protected areas in poor areas frequently creates tensions between human needs like food and shelter and environmental conservation. Support for…

  9. 76 FR 14969 - Public Availability of Environmental Protection Agency FY 2010 Service Contract Inventory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... service contract inventory should be directed to Linear Cherry in the Office of Acquisition Management... AGENCY Public Availability of Environmental Protection Agency FY 2010 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of public availability of FY 2010 Service Contract...

  10. Environmental Protection Department LLNL NESHAPs 2007 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bertoldo, N A; Larson, J M; Wilson, K R

    2008-06-25

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs; Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61, Subpart H). Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from operations in 2007 are summarized here. Livermore site: 0.0031 mrem (0.031 {micro}Sv) (42% from point source emissions, 58% from diffuse source emissions). The point source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IX; the resulting dose is used for compliance purposes. Site 300: 0.0035 mrem (0.035 {micro}Sv) (90% from point source emissions, 10% from diffuse source emissions). The EDEs were calculated using the U.S. EPA-approved CAP88-PC air dispersion/dose-assessment model, except for doses for two diffuse sources that were estimated using measured radionuclide concentrations and dose calculations. Specific inputs to CAP88-PC for the modeled sources included site-specific meteorological data and source emissions data, the latter variously based on continuous stack effluent monitoring data, stack flow or other release-rate information, ambient air monitoring data, and facility knowledge.

  11. Economic development and environmental protection: an ecological economics perspective.

    PubMed

    Rees, William E

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues on both theoretical and empirical grounds that, beyond a certain point, there is an unavoidable conflict between economic development (generally taken to mean 'material economic growth') and environmental protection. Think for a moment of natural forests, grasslands, marine estuaries, salt marshes, and coral reefs; and of arable soils, aquifers, mineral deposits, petroleum, and coal. These are all forms of 'natural capital' that represent highly-ordered self-producing ecosystems or rich accumulations of energy/matter with high use potential (low entropy). Now contemplate despoiled landscapes, eroding farmlands, depleted fisheries, anthropogenic greenhouse gases, acid rain, poisonous mine tailings and toxic synthetic compounds. These all represent disordered systems or degraded forms of energy and matter with little use potential (high entropy). The main thing connecting these two states is human economic activity. Ecological economics interprets the environment-economy relationship in terms of the second law of thermodynamics. The second law sees economic activity as a dissipative process. From this perspective, the production of economic goods and services invariably requires the consumption of available energy and matter. To grow and develop, the economy necessarily 'feeds' on sources of high-quality energy/matter first produced by nature. This tends to disorder and homogenize the ecosphere, The ascendance of humankind has consistently been accompanied by an accelerating rate of ecological degradation, particularly biodiversity loss, the simplification of natural systems and pollution. In short, contemporary political rhetoric to the contrary, the prevailing growth-oriented global development paradigm is fundamentally incompatible with long-term ecological and social sustainability. Unsustainability is not a technical nor economic problem as usually conceived, but rather a state of systemic incompatibility between a economy that is a fully

  12. Exploring Canadian Identity through Canadian Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantaleo, Sylvia

    2001-01-01

    Considers what commonplaces of culture and identity are being, could be, transmitted through the use of children's literature in classrooms. Explores what is Canadian about Canadian children's literature. Describes a study which involved Canadian elementary school children who read Canadian children's books. Concludes that literature plays a…

  13. 30 CFR 282.28 - Environmental protection measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Director to assess the impacts of exploration, testing, mining, and processing activities on the..., minimize, or otherwise mitigate environmental impacts and to demonstrate the effectiveness of efforts to... for mitigating environmental impacts. (e)...

  14. 30 CFR 282.28 - Environmental protection measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the Director to assess the impacts of exploration, testing, mining, and processing activities on the..., minimize, or otherwise mitigate environmental impacts and to demonstrate the effectiveness of efforts to... for mitigating environmental impacts. (e)...

  15. 30 CFR 282.28 - Environmental protection measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Director to assess the impacts of exploration, testing, mining, and processing activities on the..., minimize, or otherwise mitigate environmental impacts and to demonstrate the effectiveness of efforts to... for mitigating environmental impacts. (e)...

  16. Internal environmental protection audits: a suggested guide for US Department of Energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Barisas, S.; Polich, J.; Habegger, L.; Surles, T.

    1983-08-01

    This manual has been prepared for use by any DOE facility as an aid for conducting an internal environmental-protection audit. The manual is organized in modular format, with each module covering a separate area of environmental protection. The questions within each module were developed from existing DOE orders, executive orders, federal statutes, and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations issued pursuant to specific environmental legislation. A bibliography of such legislation is included at the end of this section. Each module also includes questions about a facility's use of industrial standards of practice.

  17. 30 CFR 282.28 - Environmental protection measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to be inadequate to support an environmental evaluation of a proposed Delineation, Testing, or Mining... mitigate environmental impacts and to demonstrate the effectiveness of efforts to that end. Based upon... environmental impacts. (e) In the event that equipment or procedural failure might result in...

  18. TODAY: EPA Administrator McCarthy in Boston with Canada and Mexico for Commission on Environmental Cooperation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BOSTON, MA; WASHINGTON - On Tuesday and Wednesday, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Gina McCarthy will host Mexican Environment Deputy Secretary Dr. Rodolfo Lacy Tamayo representing Secretary Juan José Guerra Abud and Canadian E

  19. ROLE OF VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY AT THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY IN ATHENS, GEORGIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens GA, is best known by vibrational spectroscopists as the laboratory where much of the pioneering work on the development of a sensitive, real-time gas chromatograph/Fourier transform infrared syste...

  20. 28 CFR 0.65a - Litigation involving Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection Agency. With respect to any matter assigned to the Environment and Natural Resources Division in which the Environmental Protection Agency is a party, the Assistant Attorney General in charge of the... Protection Agency. 0.65a Section 0.65a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF...

  1. 28 CFR 0.65a - Litigation involving Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection Agency. With respect to any matter assigned to the Environment and Natural Resources Division in which the Environmental Protection Agency is a party, the Assistant Attorney General in charge of the... Protection Agency. 0.65a Section 0.65a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF...

  2. 28 CFR 0.65a - Litigation involving Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection Agency. With respect to any matter assigned to the Environment and Natural Resources Division in which the Environmental Protection Agency is a party, the Assistant Attorney General in charge of the... Protection Agency. 0.65a Section 0.65a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF...

  3. 28 CFR 0.65a - Litigation involving Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection Agency. With respect to any matter assigned to the Environment and Natural Resources Division in which the Environmental Protection Agency is a party, the Assistant Attorney General in charge of the... Protection Agency. 0.65a Section 0.65a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF...

  4. 28 CFR 0.65a - Litigation involving Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection Agency. With respect to any matter assigned to the Environment and Natural Resources Division in which the Environmental Protection Agency is a party, the Assistant Attorney General in charge of the... Protection Agency. 0.65a Section 0.65a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF...

  5. What You Can Do to Protect Children from Environmental Risks

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Tips for protection from pesticides, chemical poisoning, lead poisoning, respiratory problems, carbon monoxide poisoning, contaminated fish, radon, too much sun, and mercury. Also how to promote healthier communities.

  6. 30 CFR 817.97 - Protection of fish, wildlife, and related environmental values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... environmental values. 817.97 Section 817.97 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.97 Protection of fish, wildlife, and related environmental..., minimize disturbances and adverse impacts on fish, wildlife, and related environmental values and...

  7. 30 CFR 816.97 - Protection of fish, wildlife, and related environmental values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... environmental values. 816.97 Section 816.97 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.97 Protection of fish, wildlife, and related environmental values..., minimize disturbances and adverse impacts on fish, wildlife, and related environmental values and...

  8. 30 CFR 817.97 - Protection of fish, wildlife, and related environmental values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... environmental values. 817.97 Section 817.97 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.97 Protection of fish, wildlife, and related environmental..., minimize disturbances and adverse impacts on fish, wildlife, and related environmental values and...

  9. 30 CFR 816.97 - Protection of fish, wildlife, and related environmental values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... environmental values. 816.97 Section 816.97 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.97 Protection of fish, wildlife, and related environmental values..., minimize disturbances and adverse impacts on fish, wildlife, and related environmental values and...

  10. Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

  11. Political polarization on support for government spending on environmental protection in the USA, 1974-2012.

    PubMed

    McCright, Aaron M; Xiao, Chenyang; Dunlap, Riley E

    2014-11-01

    Since the early 1990s, the American conservative movement has become increasingly hostile toward environmental protection and Congressional Republicans have become increasingly anti-environmental in their voting records. Party sorting theory holds that such political polarization among elites will likely extend to the general public. Analyzing General Social Survey data from 1974 to 2012, we examine whether political polarization has occurred on support for government spending on environmental protection over this time period in the US general public. We find that there has been significant partisan and ideological polarization on support for environmental spending since 1992-consistent with the expectations of party sorting theory. This political polarization on environmental concern in the general public will likely endure save for political convergence on environmental concern among elites in the near future. Such polarization likely will inhibit the further development and implementation of environmental policy and the diffusion of environmentally friendly behaviors.

  12. The Effects of World Society on Environmental Protection Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofer, Evan; Hironaka, Ann

    2005-01-01

    The world environmental regime has encouraged nations to adopt new environmental policies and laws worldwide. But, scholars question the impact on the environment, suggesting that national policies may be "decoupled" from outcomes. We fill a gap in neoinstitutional theory by specifying the circumstances in which institutions will affect…

  13. Coated silicon comprising material for protection against environmental corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazel, Brian Thomas (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with an embodiment of the invention, an article is disclosed. The article comprises a gas turbine engine component substrate comprising a silicon material; and an environmental barrier coating overlying the substrate, wherein the environmental barrier coating comprises cerium oxide, and the cerium oxide reduces formation of silicate glass on the substrate upon exposure to corrodant sulfates.

  14. 30 CFR 282.28 - Environmental protection measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Director to assess the impacts of exploration, testing, mining, and processing activities on the..., minimize, or otherwise mitigate environmental impacts and to demonstrate the effectiveness of efforts to... for mitigating environmental impacts. (e) In the event that equipment or procedural failure...

  15. Reconciling Energy Use with Environmental Protection in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelrod, Regina S.

    1992-01-01

    Presents the energy and environmental policymaking strategies of the European Community to regulate the consumption of energy. Strategies include the stabilization of carbon dioxide emissions, the creation of the European Environmental Agency, the implementation of the European Energy Charter, the SAVE Program, and economic and fiscal instruments…

  16. "Just another hoop to jump through?" using environmental laws and processes to protect indigenous rights.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Beth Rose

    2013-11-01

    Protection of culturally important indigenous landscapes has become an increasingly important component of environmental management processes, for both companies and individuals striving to comply with environmental regulations, and for indigenous groups seeking stronger laws to support site protection and cultural/human rights. Given that indigenous stewardship of culturally important sites, species, and practices continues to be threatened or prohibited on lands out of indigenous ownership, this paper examines whether or not indigenous people can meaningfully apply mainstream environmental management laws and processes to achieve protection of traditional sites and associated stewardship activities. While environmental laws can provide a "back door" to protect traditional sites and practices, they are not made for this purpose, and, as such, require specific amendments to become more useful for indigenous practitioners. Acknowledging thoughtful critiques of the cultural incommensurability of environmental law with indigenous environmental stewardship of sacred sites, I interrogate the ability of four specific environmental laws and processes-the Uniform Conservation Easement Act; the National Environmental Policy Act and the California Environmental Quality Act; the Pacific Stewardship Council land divestiture process; and Senate Bill 18 (CA-2004)-to protect culturally important landscapes and practices. I offer suggestions for improving these laws and processes to make them more applicable to indigenous stewardship of traditional landscapes.

  17. ``Just Another Hoop to Jump Through?'' Using Environmental Laws and Processes to Protect Indigenous Rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Beth Rose

    2013-11-01

    Protection of culturally important indigenous landscapes has become an increasingly important component of environmental management processes, for both companies and individuals striving to comply with environmental regulations, and for indigenous groups seeking stronger laws to support site protection and cultural/human rights. Given that indigenous stewardship of culturally important sites, species, and practices continues to be threatened or prohibited on lands out of indigenous ownership, this paper examines whether or not indigenous people can meaningfully apply mainstream environmental management laws and processes to achieve protection of traditional sites and associated stewardship activities. While environmental laws can provide a “back door” to protect traditional sites and practices, they are not made for this purpose, and, as such, require specific amendments to become more useful for indigenous practitioners. Acknowledging thoughtful critiques of the cultural incommensurability of environmental law with indigenous environmental stewardship of sacred sites, I interrogate the ability of four specific environmental laws and processes—the Uniform Conservation Easement Act; the National Environmental Policy Act and the California Environmental Quality Act; the Pacific Stewardship Council land divestiture process; and Senate Bill 18 (CA-2004)—to protect culturally important landscapes and practices. I offer suggestions for improving these laws and processes to make them more applicable to indigenous stewardship of traditional landscapes.

  18. Symposium on integrating the science of environmental justice into decision-making at the Environmental Protection Agency: an overview.

    PubMed

    Nweke, Onyemaechi C; Payne-Sturges, Devon; Garcia, Lisa; Lee, Charles; Zenick, Hal; Grevatt, Peter; Sanders, William H; Case, Heather; Dankwa-Mullan, Irene

    2011-12-01

    In March 2010, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) collaborated with government and nongovernmental organizations to host a groundbreaking symposium, "Strengthening Environmental Justice Research and Decision Making: A Symposium on the Science of Disproportionate Environmental Health Impacts." The symposium provided a forum for discourse on the state of scientific knowledge about factors identified by EPA that may contribute to higher burdens of environmental exposure or risk in racial/ethnic minorities and low-income populations. Also featured were discussions on how environmental justice considerations may be integrated into EPA's analytical and decision-making frameworks and on research needs for advancing the integration of environmental justice into environmental policymaking. We summarize key discussions and conclusions from the symposium and briefly introduce the articles in this issue.

  19. Balancing economic development with environmental protection in developing and lesser developed countries

    SciTech Connect

    El-Ashry, M.T. )

    1993-01-01

    Recent experience suggests that poverty and environmental degradation go hand in hand. Economic development, on the other hand, provides the financial and technical resources needed for the protection of human health and natural ecosystems. Balancing economic development and environmental protection in developing countries requires a refocusing of economic activity -- not towards producing less, but producing differently. Strategies for the integration of economic development and environmental protection are outlined here, as is the proposed role that will need to be played by the World Bank. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Under-ice ambient noise in Eastern Beaufort Sea, Canadian Arctic, and its relation to environmental forcing.

    PubMed

    Kinda, G Bazile; Simard, Yvan; Gervaise, Cédric; Mars, Jérome I; Fortier, Louis

    2013-07-01

    This paper analyzes an 8-month time series (November 2005 to June 2006) of underwater noise recorded at the mouth of the Amundsen Gulf in the marginal ice zone of the western Canadian Arctic when the area was >90% ice covered. The time-series of the ambient noise component was computed using an algorithm that filtered out transient acoustic events from 7-min hourly recordings of total ocean noise over a [0-4.1] kHz frequency band. Under-ice ambient noise did not respond to thermal changes, but showed consistent correlations with large-scale regional ice drift, wind speed, and measured currents in upper water column. The correlation of ambient noise with ice drift peaked for locations at ranges of ~300 km off the mouth of the Amundsen Gulf. These locations are within the multi-year ice plume that extends westerly along the coast in the Eastern Beaufort Sea due to the large Beaufort Gyre circulation. These results reveal that ambient noise in Eastern Beaufort Sea in winter is mainly controlled by the same meteorological and oceanographic forcing processes that drive the ice drift and the large-scale circulation in this part of the Arctic Ocean.

  1. Environmental protection to 922K (1200 F) for titanium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groves, M. T.

    1973-01-01

    Evaluations are presented of potential coating systems for protection of titanium alloys from hot-salt stress-corrosion up to temperatures of 755 K (900 F) and from oxidation embrittlement up to temperature of 922 K (1200 F). Diffusion type coatings containing Si, Al, Cr, Ni or Fe as single coating elements or in various combinations were evaluated for oxidation protection, hot-salt stress-corrosion (HSSC) resistance, effects on tensile properties, fatigue properties, erosion resistance and ballistic impact resistance on an alpha and beta phase titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo). All of the coatings investigated demonstrated excellent oxidation protectiveness, but none of the coatings provided protection from hot-salt stress-corrosion. Experimental results indicated that both the aluminide and silicide types of coatings actually decreased the HSSC resistance of the substrate alloy. The types of coatings which have typically been used for oxidation protection of refractory metals and nickel base superalloys are not suitable for titanium alloys because they increase the susceptibility to hot-salt stress-corrosion, and that entirely new coating concepts must be developed for titanium alloy protection in advanced turbine engines.

  2. A Comparative Study of Canadian and Taiwanese Grade 5 Children's Environmental Behaviors, Attitudes, Concerns, Emotional Dispositions, and Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hsin-Ping; Yore, Larry D.

    This study explored the cultural influences on children's self-reported environmental actions, perceptions, and understandings; investigated the relationships among the behavioral, affective, cognitive, and demographic variables; and developed models of children's responsible environmental behavior (Huang, 2001). The cross-cultural comparison…

  3. UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY RESEARCH ACTIVITIES TO CHARACTERIZE CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Given the well-established vulnerability of children to the effects of environmental exposures and the array of environmental exposures that have not been studied, understanding the relationship between children's health outcomes and environmental exposures is critical for our ...

  4. EPA's National Agenda to Protect Children's Health from Environmental Threats

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The seven steps of this agenda from 1996 address the need for scientific research, policies, standards, community right-to-know, education, and funding regarding child-specific susceptibility and exposure to environmental pollutants.

  5. Environmental Justice, Sustainability and Education at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    EPA Science Inventory

    Some of the supporting statutes and executive orders, current plans, recent research and tools, and training programs relating to sustainability, environmental justice and environmental education are presented.

  6. Notification: Assessment of the Qualifications of Environmental Protection Agency Personnel With Significant Security Responsibilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OMS-FY12-0006, February 15, 2012. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Inspector General plans to begin preliminary research for the subject project, which will be performed by a contractor.

  7. 10 CFR 20.2007 - Compliance with environmental and health protection regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2007 Compliance with environmental and health protection regulations. Nothing... regulations governing any other toxic or hazardous properties of materials that may be disposed of under...

  8. 10 CFR 20.2007 - Compliance with environmental and health protection regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2007 Compliance with environmental and health protection regulations. Nothing... regulations governing any other toxic or hazardous properties of materials that may be disposed of under...

  9. 10 CFR 20.2007 - Compliance with environmental and health protection regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2007 Compliance with environmental and health protection regulations. Nothing... regulations governing any other toxic or hazardous properties of materials that may be disposed of under...

  10. 10 CFR 20.2007 - Compliance with environmental and health protection regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2007 Compliance with environmental and health protection regulations. Nothing... regulations governing any other toxic or hazardous properties of materials that may be disposed of under...

  11. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems for Mars Missions — Issues and Concerns for Planetary Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barta, D. J.; Anderson, M. S.

    2015-03-01

    Planetary protection (PP) represents additional requirements for Environmental Control & Life Support (ECLSS). PP guidelines will affect operations, processes, and functions that can take place during future human planetary exploration missions.

  12. Universal Pressure Pumping Inc. Ordered to Comply with Environmental Laws and Protect Public Health

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (May 28, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently issued a consent agreement and final order to Universal Pressure Pumping Inc. (UPP) and eight of their facilities across Texas. The company violated laws under the Resource Co

  13. Notification: Review of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Purchase Card and Convenience Check Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OA-FY13-0116, December 20, 2012. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Inspector General, plans to begin preliminary research for an audit of the agency’s purchase card and convenience check programs.

  14. Notification: Evaluation of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Research on Human Subjects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    October 22, 2012. The purpose of this memorandum is to notify you that the Office of Inspector General (OIG) plans to begin an evaluation of the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Research on Human Subjects.

  15. EPA's FY 2016 Budget Proposal Increases Support for Communities to Deliver Core Environmental and Health Protections

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - The Obama Administration Fiscal Year 2016 budget announced today for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) lays out a strategy to ensure that all Americans benefit from the economic recovery we are seeing today. The proposed EP

  16. 2 CFR 1536.225 - Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency does a recipient other than an individual notify...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency... Other Than Individuals § 1536.225 Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency does a recipient other... criminal drug offense must notify the EPA award official from each Environmental Protection Agency...

  17. 2 CFR 1536.225 - Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency does a recipient other than an individual notify...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency... Other Than Individuals § 1536.225 Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency does a recipient other... criminal drug offense must notify the EPA award official from each Environmental Protection Agency...

  18. 26 CFR 1.179B-1T - Deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations (temporary). 1.179B-1T Section 1.179B-1T... Deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This section also provides rules for making elections under section...

  19. 26 CFR 1.179B-1T - Deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations (temporary). 1.179B-1T Section 1.179B-1T... Deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This section also provides rules for making elections under section...

  20. 2 CFR 1536.225 - Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency does a recipient other than an individual notify...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency... Other Than Individuals § 1536.225 Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency does a recipient other... criminal drug offense must notify the EPA award official from each Environmental Protection Agency...

  1. 26 CFR 1.179B-1T - Deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations (temporary). 1.179B-1T Section 1.179B-1T... Deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This section also provides rules for making elections under section...

  2. 2 CFR 1536.225 - Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency does a recipient other than an individual notify...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency... Other Than Individuals § 1536.225 Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency does a recipient other... criminal drug offense must notify the EPA award official from each Environmental Protection Agency...

  3. Environmental protection from allergic diseases: From humans to mice and back.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Bianca; Vercelli, Donata

    2015-10-01

    Allergic diseases have a strong environmental component, illustrated by the rapid rise of their prevalence in the Western world. Environmental exposures have been consistently shown to either promote or protect against allergic disease. Here we focus on protective exposures and the pathways they regulate. Traditional farming, natural environments with high biodiversity, and pets in the home (particularly dogs) have the most potent and consistent allergy-protective effects and are actively investigated to identify the environmental and host-based factors that confer allergy protection. Recent work emphasizes the critical protective role of microbial diversity and its interactions with the gut/lung and skin/lung axes-a cross-talk through which microbial exposure in the gut or skin powerfully influences immune responses in the lung.

  4. Environmental mitigation at hydroelectric projects: Volume II. Benefits and costs of fish passage and protection

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J. E.; Cada, G. F.; Dauble, D. D.; Hunt, R. T.; Jones, D. W.; Rinehart, B. N.; Sommers, G. L.; Costello, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy, through its hydropower program, is studying environmental mitigation practices at hydroelectric projects. The study of environmental mitigation is intended to provide greater understanding of environmental problems and solutions that are associated with conventional hydroelectric projects. This volume examines upstream and downstream fish passage/protection technologies and the associated practices, benefits, and costs. Fish passage/protection mitigation technologies are investigated by three methods: (a) national, regional (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission regions), and temporal frequencies of fish passage/protection mitigation are examined at 1,825 operating and conventional (excludes pumped storage) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) regulated hydroelectric sites in the United States; (b) general fish passage/protection mitigation costs are discussed for 50 FERC regulated hydroelectric projects; and (c) 16 case studies are used to examine specific fish passage/protection mitigation practices, benefits, and costs.

  5. Waste disposal and the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection - challenges for radioecology and environmental radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Carl-Magnus

    2009-12-01

    The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) represent a change from a process-based to an exposure-based approach, where exposure situations are categorised as planned, emergency, and existing exposure situations. Although the new Recommendations contain further changes based on, inter alia, scientific developments since the publication of the 1990 Recommendations, they overall represent more continuity than change - a notable exception being the direct consideration of environmental protection. The implications of the new Recommendations for radioactive waste management are fairly marginal, as earlier recommendations in this area are still considered valid. This communication provides a brief overview of the current ICRP system for radiological protection as applied to radioactive waste management, as well as an outlook including the possibility of using the developing ICRP system for management of environmental effects as an 'alternative way of reasoning' when building the safety case for a specific waste disposal concept.

  6. Computer Cache. Environmental Protection: Websites on the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byerly, Greg; Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    "Give a hoot, don't pollute!" "Save the environment!" "Save the Whales!" Ranger Rick. Recycle. These are all well-known phrases and emblems of the fight to "protect the environment." Young children seem to understand almost intuitively the need to do those simple things that will make the Earth a better place to live and play. However, especially…

  7. Development based on carrying capacity. A strategy for environmental protection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carey, D.I.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental degradation has accelerated in recent years because economic development activities have been inconsistent with a sustainable environment. In human ecology, the concept of 'carrying capacity' implies an optimum level of development and population size based on a complex of interacting factors - physical, institutional, social, and psychological. Development studies which have explicitly recognized carrying capacity have shown that this approach can be used to promote economic activities which are consistent with a sustainable social and physical environment. The concept of carrying capacity provides a framework for integrating physical, socioeconomic, and environmental systems into planning for a sustainable environment. ?? 1993.

  8. Environmental protection requirements for scout/shuttle auxiliary stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qualls, G. L.; Kress, S. S.; Storey, W. W.; Ransdell, P. N.

    1980-01-01

    The requirements for enabling the Scout upper stages to endure the expected temperature, mechanical shock, acoustical and mechanical vibration environments during a specified shuttle mission were determined. The study consisted of: determining a shuttle mission trajectory for a 545 kilogram (1200 pound) Scout payload; compilation of shuttle environmental conditions; determining of Scout upper stages environments in shuttle missions; compilation of Scout upper stages environmental qualification criteria and comparison to shuttle mission expected environments; and recommendations for enabling Scout upper stages to endure the exptected shuttle mission environments.

  9. 48 CFR Appendix I to Chapter 15 - Environmental Protection Agency; Class Justification for Other Than Full and Open Competition in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Ch. 15, App. I Appendix I to Chapter 15—Environmental... Federal Prison Industries and the Government Printing Office 1. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Environmental...

  10. 48 CFR Appendix I to Chapter 15 - Environmental Protection Agency; Class Justification for Other Than Full and Open Competition in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Ch. 15, App. I Appendix I to Chapter 15—Environmental... Federal Prison Industries and the Government Printing Office 1. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Environmental...

  11. 48 CFR Appendix I to Chapter 15 - Environmental Protection Agency; Class Justification for Other Than Full and Open Competition in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Ch. 15, App. I Appendix I to Chapter 15—Environmental... Federal Prison Industries and the Government Printing Office 1. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Environmental...

  12. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S COMPUTATIONAL TOXCIOLOGY PROGRAM - METABOLISM AND METABONOMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mission of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to safeguard public health and the environment from adverse effects that may be caused by exposure to pollutants in the air, water, soil and food. Protecting human health and the environment carries with it the ch...

  13. Information resources used in health risk assessment by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Post, G.B.; Baratta, M.; Wolfson, S.; McGeorge, L.

    1990-12-31

    The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection`s responsibilities related to health-based risk assessment are described, including its research projects and its development of health based compound specific standards and guidance levels. The resources used by the agency to support health risk assessment work are outlined.

  14. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S REGULATION AND MANAGEMENT OF WATERBORNE VIRUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) manages waterborne viruses and other pathogens through the establishment of rules and regulations that are designed to ensure public health protection. The rules that currently regulate pathogens focus on the management of viruses...

  15. Finding Protection in Definitions: The Quest for Environmental Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broda-Bahm, Kenneth T.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the definitional move of linking environmental concerns to security concerns. Reviews and critiques the arguments for and against this definitional change based on the degree to which they functionally view definitional argument as a strategy rather than as a truth claim. (SC)

  16. The Environmental protection agency industrial technology transfer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suter, K. H.

    1974-01-01

    Today TAC consists of a full service information center and five programs, which are: (1) our industrial program; (2) the energy information center; (3) the business and industry extension program; (4) the remote sensing program; and (5) the center for environmental research and development.

  17. An Environmental Sentinel Biomonitor System for Drinking Water Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    W.H. van der Schalie U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research Fort Detrick, MD 21702 N. Salazar Agave Biosystems Austin, TX 78708...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 substrate inhibition sensing (ECIS) device and a test for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. The ECIS test ( Agave

  18. ANIMAL WASTE IMPACT ON SOURCE WATERSAIDED BY EPA/NSF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) SOURCE WATER PROTECTION PILOT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) was established in 1995 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to encourage the development and commercialization of new environmental technologies through third part testing and reporting of performance data. By ensur...

  19. Assessment of public perception and environmental compliance at a pulp and paper facility: a Canadian case study.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Emma; Bernier, Meagan; Blotnicky, Brenden; Golden, Peter G; Janes, Jeffrey; Kader, Allison; Kovacs-Da Costa, Rachel; Pettipas, Shauna; Vermeulen, Sarah; Walker, Tony R

    2015-12-01

    Communities across Canada rely heavily on natural resources for their livelihoods. One such community in Pictou County, Nova Scotia, has both benefited and suffered, because of its proximity to a pulp and paper mill (currently owned by Northern Pulp). Since production began in 1967, there have been increasing impacts to the local environment and human health. Environmental reports funded by the mill were reviewed and compared against provincial and federal regulatory compliance standards. Reports contrasted starkly to societal perceptions of local impacts and independent studies. Most environmental monitoring reports funded by the mill indicate some levels of compliance in atmospheric and effluent emissions, but when compliance targets were not met, there was a lack of regulatory enforcement. After decades of local pollution impacts and lack of environmental compliance, corporate social responsibility initiatives need implementing for the mill to maintain its social licence to operate.

  20. Canadian Statistics in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Libraries in Canada, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Includes 22 articles that address the use of Canadian statistics in the classroom. Highlights include the Statistics Canada Web site; other Web resources; original sources; critical thinking; debating with talented and gifted students; teaching marketing; environmental resources; data management; social issues and values; math instruction; reading…

  1. HISTORICAL ANALYSIS, A VALUABLE TOOL IN COMMUNITY-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A historical analysis of the ecological consequences of development can be a valuable tool in community-based environmental protection. These studies can engage the public in environmental issues and lead to informed decision making. Historical studies provide an understanding of...

  2. CHAPTER 9: PROTECTING ENVIRONMENTAL WELFARE: COMPARISON OF EMERGETIC AND ECONOMIC VALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    To protect human and environmental welfare, the US EPA aims to base environmental regulations and policies on sound scientific and, where possible, economic analyses. The EPA has accordingly conducted analysis of the economic impact of regulations for three decades but has yet ...

  3. THE APPLICATION OF PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION AND RELATED TECHNOLOGIES IN MODERN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Imagery Interpretation is a timed-tested technique for extracting landscape-level information from aerial photographs and other types of remotely sensed data. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) has a 25+ year history...

  4. Searching for the Seventies: Photographs from the Environmental Protection Agency's DOCUMERICA Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bustard, Bruce; Potter, Lee Ann

    2013-01-01

    In 1971, the newly established Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) created DOCUMERICA, a federal government photography project born out of the nation's environmental crisis. The photographers hired by the EPA took thousands of photographs depicting pollution, waste, and blight, but they were given the freedom to capture the era's…

  5. 32 CFR Enclosure 2 - Requirements for Environmental Considerations-Foreign Nations and Protected Global Resources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of global importance designated for protection by the President or, in the case of such a resource... studies—bilateral or multilateral environmental studies, relevant or related to the proposed action, by... the procedures for the preparation of environmental studies or reviews when required by this...

  6. STATUS OF THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S ENCODRINE DISRUPTOR SCREENING PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Status of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. Susan Laws. Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, U.S. EPA, RTP, NC.

    In response to emergi...

  7. U.S. environmental law statutes in coastal zone protection.

    PubMed

    Rand, G M; Carriger, J F

    2001-01-01

    U.S. federal legislation relevant to the coastal zone and adjacent ocean was reviewed and included the Coastal Zone Management Act, Clean Water Act, Marine Protection Research and Sanctuaries Act, and Oil Pollution Act. Problems affecting these waters involve complex activities/issues related to multimedia sources of pollution and coastal land use planning. Effective pollution control requires state-local-federal interaction with a better understanding of scientific as well as social and economic issues.

  8. Cold Regions Environmental Test of CB Protective Masks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-28

    become foggy? (Note: fog means moisture on the inside or outside of the lenses ) Yes No b. If yes, how much time went by before the fogging disappeared? 6...the weather like and what were you doing? Question 24: a. Did you ever have any frost form on the lenses ? (note: frost means moisture /ice.) Yes No b...basis, some degree of flexibility in uniform requirements is necessary. The cold-wet uniform is designed to afford maximum protection against the hazards

  9. Environmental Statement for Local Flood Protection Project at Three Rivers, Texas. Supplement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-28

    Oak County, Texas Nueces River Three Rivers Local Flood Protection Project 20. AD6TRACT (C-Iut. u m ~ "d if ne~em and ~ideif by block nutbr...Environmental impact statement/report purposes to construct a levee system to protect the city of Three Rivers, Texas from flooding of Frio and Nueces Rivers. No...Construct levee system to protect the city of Three Rivers, Texas, from flooding of Frio and Nueces Rivers. 3. a. Environmental Impacts: The project

  10. Environmental protection and stewardship of subglacial aquatic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, Peter T.; Vincent, Warwick F.

    Environmental stewardship is a guiding principle of the Antarctic Treaty System. Efforts began in the 1990s to generate specific guidelines for stewardship of many terrestrial environments, including surface lakes and rivers. The relatively recent documentation of widespread subglacial aquatic environments, and planning for acquiring samples from them, has generated a need for stewardship guidelines for these environments. In response to a request from the U.S. National Science Foundation, the National Research Council of the National Academies of Sciences (NAS) created the Committee on the Principles of Environmental and Scientific Stewardship for the Exploration and Study of Subglacial Environments. The committee made 13 recommendations and a decision tree as a framework and flow chart for environmental management decisions. The committee report was also largely the basis of a Code of Conduct (CoC) for the exploration of subglacial environments formulated by a Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research Action Group. Both the NAS report and CoC have been used as guidance, to varying degrees, by subglacial research currently in progress.

  11. The Effects of Mothers' Educational Levels on University Students' Environmental Protection Commitments and Environmental Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saraçli, Sinan; Yilmaz, Veysel; Arslan, Talha

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: The damage caused by recent environmental problems has led to increased environmental concerns and the development of environment-friendly consumption behaviours in almost every society. Environment-friendly consumption involves the consideration of environmental benefits by minimizing any damage done to the environment at all…

  12. Awareness of environmental risks and protective actions among minority women in Northern Manhattan.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David Thompson; Fullilove, Mindy Thompson; Green, Lesley; Levison, Moshe

    2002-01-01

    We report findings of a survey of 555 women 18-35 years of age living in Northern Manhattan in New York City. The survey was conducted by the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health (CCCEH) to learn what community women knew about environmental risks to health and what they did to protect themselves and their families, to validate the findings of focus groups held with community women, and to provide information for planning the Healthy Home, Healthy Child campaign sponsored by CCCEH. Survey findings showed that overall awareness of environmental risks to children's health was high, with more than 95% of respondents identifying lead, household pests, pesticides, environmental tobacco smoke, and drugs as harmful to health. Similarly, more than 95% of respondents reported taking one or more protective actions to reduce these risks, suggesting that these factors significantly concern women living in Northern Manhattan. The reported levels of specific protective actions to reduce these risks, however, varied greatly. In each area of risk the most frequently reported actions were effective ones, but many other important protective actions were rarely mentioned, suggesting that there was room for an educational campaign to teach women new ways to protect their families. Survey respondents and CCCEH scientists differed in the priorities they placed on the importance of key protective actions, confirming earlier focus group findings and suggesting the importance of incorporating community concerns into the planning of environmental campaigns. PMID:11929738

  13. [High voltage objects and radiocommunication investments in view of requirements of the environmental protection act].

    PubMed

    Szuba, Marek

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the most important elements of the localization procedure of high voltage overhead lines and substations and radiocommunication objects which are the source of electromagnetic fields. These fields are perceived as a major threat to human health. The point of departure to make a choice of investments is the special classification of technical installations described in one of the executive directive issued by virtue of the Environmental Protection Act. This special executive directive enumerates a lot of technical objects (installation), classified in the group of investments which have significant impact on the environment and some objects which could be classified in this group. For all this technical installations (e.g., overhead high voltage power lines) the provisions of the Environmental Protection Act impose an obligation to take particular steps to assure transparency of the environmental protection procedures, transborder procedures and the protection of areas included in the Natura 2000 network.

  14. Developing strategies for automated remote plant production systems: Environmental control and monitoring of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamsey, M.; Berinstain, A.; Graham, T.; Neron, P.; Giroux, R.; Braham, S.; Ferl, R.; Paul, A.-L.; Dixon, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is a unique research facility dedicated to the study of greenhouse engineering and autonomous functionality under extreme operational conditions, in preparation for extraterrestrial biologically-based life support systems. The Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is located at the Haughton Mars Project Research Station on Devon Island in the Canadian High Arctic. The greenhouse has been operational since 2002. Over recent years the greenhouse has served as a controlled environment facility for conducting scientific and operationally relevant plant growth investigations in an extreme environment. Since 2005 the greenhouse has seen the deployment of a refined nutrient control system, an improved imaging system capable of remote assessment of basic plant health parameters, more robust communication and power systems as well as the implementation of a distributed data acquisition system. Though several other Arctic greenhouses exist, the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is distinct in that the focus is on autonomous operation as opposed to strictly plant production. Remote control and autonomous operational experience has applications both terrestrially in production greenhouses and extraterrestrially where future long duration Moon/Mars missions will utilize biological life support systems to close the air, food and water loops. Minimizing crew time is an important goal for any space-based system. The experience gained through the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is providing the experience necessary to optimize future plant production systems and minimize crew time requirements. Internal greenhouse environmental data shows that the fall growth season (July-September) provides an average photosynthetic photon flux of 161.09 μmol m -2 s -1 (August) and 76.76 μmol m -2 s -1 (September) with approximately a 24 h photoperiod. The spring growth season provides an average of 327.51 μmol m -2 s -1 (May) and 339.32 μmol m -2 s

  15. Cold Regions Environmental Test of CB Protective Masks.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    Question 23: a. When you put your mask on and cleared it, did the mask lenses become foggy? (Note: fog means moisture on the inside or outside of the...have any frost form on the lenses ? (note: frost means moisture /ice.) Yes No b. If yes, what was the problem and under what circumstances did you...cold-wet uniform is designed to afford maximum protection against the hazards of changing temperatures, rain, wet snow, mud, and slush of a cold-wet

  16. Mission Success and Environmental Protection: Orbital Debris Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    The current U.S. National Space Policy specifically calls on U.S. Government entities "to follow the United States Government Orbital Debris Mitigation Standard Practices, consistent with mission requirements and cost effectiveness, in the procurement and operation of spacecraft, launch services, and the operation of tests and experiments in space. Early assessment (pre-PDR) of orbital debris mitigation compliance is essential to minimize development impacts. Orbital debris mitigation practices today are the most effective means to protect the near-Earth space environment for future missions.

  17. Federal environmental legislation in the U.S. for protection of wildlife and regulation of environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    Fairbrother, Anne

    2009-10-01

    The U.S. has a long history of legislation to protect wildlife, beginning with the Lacey Act of 1900. There are now over 170 Federal laws that regulate environmental activities which may affect wildlife. Two important laws are the Pittman-Robertson Act enacted in 1937 that authorizes a tax for wildlife management and the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act passed in 1958 whose primary purpose is conservation of fish and wildlife, both of which continue to provide significant funding for wildlife management. Modern environmental regulations began by passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1969, followed by the Clean Water Act, Superfund, and other laws to regulate pesticides and toxics and clean up contaminated sites. International conventions regulate sale, use and disposal of toxics and ocean dumping. These laws and conventions should protect wildlife from unintended consequences of global industrialization.

  18. Measuring the difference made by conservation initiatives: protected areas and their environmental and social impacts

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Paul J.; Pressey, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Success in conservation depends on our ability to reduce human pressures in areas that harbour biological diversity and ecosystem services. Legally protecting some of these areas through the creation of protected areas is a key component of conservation efforts globally. To develop effective protected area networks, practitioners need credible, scientific evidence about the degree to which protected areas affect environmental and social outcomes, and how these effects vary with context. Such evidence has been lacking, but the situation is changing as conservation scientists adopt more sophisticated research designs for evaluating protected areas' past impacts and for predicting their future impacts. Complementing these scientific advances, conservation funders and practitioners are paying increasing attention to evaluating their investments with more scientifically rigorous evaluation designs. This theme issue highlights recent advances in the science of protected area evaluations and explores the challenges to developing a more credible evidence base that can help societies achieve their goals of protecting nature while enhancing human welfare. PMID:26460123

  19. Measuring the difference made by conservation initiatives: protected areas and their environmental and social impacts.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Paul J; Pressey, Robert L

    2015-11-05

    Success in conservation depends on our ability to reduce human pressures in areas that harbour biological diversity and ecosystem services. Legally protecting some of these areas through the creation of protected areas is a key component of conservation efforts globally. To develop effective protected area networks, practitioners need credible, scientific evidence about the degree to which protected areas affect environmental and social outcomes, and how these effects vary with context. Such evidence has been lacking, but the situation is changing as conservation scientists adopt more sophisticated research designs for evaluating protected areas' past impacts and for predicting their future impacts. Complementing these scientific advances, conservation funders and practitioners are paying increasing attention to evaluating their investments with more scientifically rigorous evaluation designs. This theme issue highlights recent advances in the science of protected area evaluations and explores the challenges to developing a more credible evidence base that can help societies achieve their goals of protecting nature while enhancing human welfare.

  20. Fuzzy clustering of facial form for prototyping environmental protection equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D.G.

    1994-07-01

    Emphasis on the human-to-aircraft interface has magnified in importance as the performance envelope of today`s aircraft has continued to expand. A major problem is that there has been a corresponding increase in the need for better fitting protection equipment and unfortunately it has become increasingly difficult for aircrew members to find equipment that will provide this level of fit. While protection equipment has, historically had poor fit characteristics, the issue has grown tremendously with the recent increase in the numbers of minorities and women. Fundamental to this problem are the archaic methods for sizing individual equipment and the methods for establishing a sizing system. This paper documents recent investigations by the author into developing new methods to overcome these problems. Research centered on the development of a new statistically based method for describing form and the application of fuzzy clustering using the new shape descriptors. A sizing system was developed from the application of the research, prototype masks were constructed and the hardware tested under flight conditions.

  1. Consequences of Slot Transactions on Airport Congestion and Environmental Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeyratne, Ruwantissa I.R.

    2000-01-01

    Recent trends in the liberalization of market access by many commercial airlines have opened the skies to virtually unlimited flights between many countries. However, this liberalization is stultified by the lack of airport capacity to accommodate the many flights that are generated by demand for capacity. Accordingly, the allocation of slots for open skies airlines remain dependent on the expansion and effective management of airport capacity. This article examines the ramifications of slot allocation on traffic peaking at airports and environmental concerns, which may emerge with this activity.

  2. Nutrition and Other Protective Behaviors Motivated by Environmental Health Risk Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Elizabeth W.; Feng, Limin; Dixon, Jane K.; Dixon, John P.; Hofe, Carolyn R.; Gaetke, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Research findings have suggested that exposure to environmental pollutants contributes to increased health risks, which may be modulated by certain nutrition and other protective health behaviors. Nutrition professionals play an important role in effectively disseminating this information and in devising specific community-based nutrition education programs for audiences located in areas with environmental health issues. Objective To assess awareness of environmental health problems and motivation to adopt protective health behaviors for use in planning nutrition education programs for communities exposed to environmental pollutants. Method Data were collected from a modified, validated Environmental Health Engagement Profile (EHEP) survey instrument administered to adults (n=774) participating in community events in Kentucky based on location relative to hazardous waste sites. Results The modified EHEP survey instrument showed good internal consistency reliability, and demographic characteristics were evaluated. Correlation analyses revealed significant positive correlations in all groups, separately and combined, between awareness of environmental pollution in an individual’s surroundings and the extent of concern that pollutants cause adverse health effects (P < 0.01) and between concern that pollutants cause adverse health effects and taking personal actions to protect against such environmental insults (P < 0.01). The groups having the highest level of awareness posed by pollution are those residing near federally designated hazardous waste sites. Conclusion These results suggest that determining and expanding an audience’s knowledge and perceptions of environmental health risks will enhance effective nutrition education program planning. PMID:28090221

  3. Environmental protection of titanium alloys at high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, I. G.; Wood, R. A.; Seltzer, M. S.

    1974-01-01

    Various concepts were evaluated for protecting titanium alloys from oxygen contamination at 922 K (1200 F) and from hot-salt stress-corrosion at 755 K (900 F). It is indicated that oxygen-contamination resistance can be provided by a number of systems, but for hot-salt stress-corrosion resistance, factors such as coating integrity become very important. Titanium aluminides resist oxygen ingress at 922 K through the formation of alumina (on TiAl3) or modified TiO2 (on Ti3Al, TiAl) scales. TiAl has some resistance to attack by hot salt, but has limited ductility. Ductile Ti-Ni and Ti-Nb-Cr-Al alloys provide limited resistance to oxygen ingress, but are not greatly susceptible to hot-salt stress-corrosion cracking.

  4. M-X Environmental Technical Report. Environmental Characteristics of Alternative Designated Deployment Areas, Protected Species.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-22

    Cactaceae and the genus Yucca and all evergreen trees are protected under NRS 527.050 and NRS 527.070. Utah has no state laws which afford protection to...endangered under NRS 527.270 occur in or near geotechnically suitable areas. In addition, all members of the family Cactaceae , all members of the

  5. Economic charges for environmental protection: ocean dumping fees

    SciTech Connect

    Lahey, W.L.

    1984-01-01

    Justifications for a system of fees for ocean dumping become clearer in an age of declining federal expenditures for environmental programs and anticipated increases in ocean dumping. A charge system could act as an effective regulatory tool to encourage sound waste disposal practices. The ocean dumping context also provides an opportunity to test the concept of economic disincentives on a national scale and provide Congress with valuable information on the effectiveness of pollution charges. A number of administrative, political, and legal questions require answers before a charge system can be implemented, but there is evidence that it would be feasible. It will be necessary to pay close attention to how the charge is characterized to avoid legal problems.

  6. Keeping the peace green: Integrating arms control and environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.; Kellman, B.

    1994-10-21

    This talk is about how to avoid turning swords into Superfund sites. The problem we address is the potential conflict between the desire to take advantage of the greater international security brought by the end of the Cold War by entering arms control agreements requiring various military weapons to be dismantled, and the desire to avoid further degrading the environment in the process of destroying them. We will use as an illustration of these issues the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), which is intended to cause the destruction of all chemical weapons in the world. First, we will provide a brief overview of the CWC, then we will focus in on its environmental provisions, and, finally, we will discuss potential conflicts with United States law and how they might be resolved.

  7. Cumulative Environmental Impacts: Science and Policy to Protect Communities.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Gina M; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Zeise, Lauren; Faust, John B

    2016-01-01

    Many communities are located near multiple sources of pollution, including current and former industrial sites, major roadways, and agricultural operations. Populations in such locations are predominantly low-income, with a large percentage of minorities and non-English speakers. These communities face challenges that can affect the health of their residents, including limited access to health care, a shortage of grocery stores, poor housing quality, and a lack of parks and open spaces. Environmental exposures may interact with social stressors, thereby worsening health outcomes. Age, genetic characteristics, and preexisting health conditions increase the risk of adverse health effects from exposure to pollutants. There are existing approaches for characterizing cumulative exposures, cumulative risks, and cumulative health impacts. Although such approaches have merit, they also have significant constraints. New developments in exposure monitoring, mapping, toxicology, and epidemiology, especially when informed by community participation, have the potential to advance the science on cumulative impacts and to improve decision making.

  8. Assessing protected area effectiveness using surrounding (buffer) areas environmentally similar to the target area.

    PubMed

    Mas, Jean-François

    2005-06-01

    Many studies are based on the assumption that an area and its surrounding (buffer) area present similar environmental conditions and can be compared. For example, in order to assess the effectiveness of a protected area, the land use/cover changes are compared inside the park with its surroundings. However, the heterogeneity in spatial variables can bias this assessment: we have shown that most of the protected areas in Mexico present significant environmental differences between their interior and their surroundings. Therefore, a comparison that aims at assessing the effectiveness of conservation strategies, must be cautioned. In this paper, a simple method which allows the generation of a buffer area that presents similar conditions with respect to a set of environmental variables is presented. The method was used in order to assess the effectiveness of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, a protected area located in the south-eastern part of Mexico. The annual rate of deforestation inside the protected area, the standard buffer area (based upon distance from the protected area only) and the similar buffer area (taking into account distance along with some environmental variables) were 0.3, 1.3 and 0.6%, respectively. These results showed that the protected area was effective in preventing land clearing, but that the comparison with the standard buffer area gave an over-optimistic vision of its effectiveness.

  9. Association between adolescent tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use and individual and environmental resilience protective factors

    PubMed Central

    Hodder, Rebecca Kate; Freund, Megan; Bowman, Jenny; Gillham, Karen; Dray, Julia; Wiggers, John

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Research suggests that individual and environmental resilience protective factors may be associated with adolescent substance use; however, the associations between a broad range of such factors and use of various types of substances have not been examined. The study aimed to determine the association between a comprehensive range of adolescent individual and environmental resilience protective factors and measures of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substance use. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting 32 Australian secondary schools. Participants Grade 7–10 students (aged 11–17 years). Measures Data regarding 14 student individual and environmental resilience protective factors and seven substance use measures (tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, other illicit drug use) were obtained via an online self-report survey. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression analyses examined the association between all student resilience protective factors and seven substance use measures. Results Inverse univariate associations were found for 94 of 98 relationships examined (n=10 092). Multivariate analyses found: consistent inverse associations between 2 of 14 protective factors and all substance use measures (‘goals and aspirations’, ‘prosocial peers’); inverse associations between 4 protective factors with multiple substance use measures (‘home support’ (5 of 7), ‘school support’ (3 of 7), ‘self-awareness’ (2 of 7), ‘community meaningful participation’ (2 of 7)); positive associations between 2 resilience protective factors with multiple measures of substance use (‘community support’ (3 of 7), ‘peer caring relationships’ (5 of 7)) and 6 protective factors not to be associated with any substance use measure. Conclusions Despite individual relationships between the majority of resilience protective factors and substance use types, the protective benefit of such factors for adolescent substance use was limited to only a small number of

  10. Defence force activities in marine protected areas: environmental management of Shoalwater Bay Training Area, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wen; Wang, Xiaohua; Paull, David; Kesby, Julie

    2010-05-01

    Environmental management of military activities is of growing global concern by defence forces. As one of the largest landholders in Australia, the Australian Defence Force (ADF) is increasingly concerned with sustainable environmental management. This paper focuses on how the ADF is maintaining effective environmental management, especially in environmentally sensitive marine protected areas. It uses Shoalwater Bay Training Area (SWBTA) as a research example to examine environmental management strategies conducted by the ADF. SWBTA is one of the most significant Defence training areas in Australia, with a large number of single, joint and combined military exercises conducted in the area. With its maritime component contained in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA), and abutting Queensland’s State Marine Parks, it has high protection values. It is therefore vital for the ADF to adopt environmentally responsible management while they are conducting military activities. As to various tools employed to manage environmental performance, the ISO 14001 Environmental Management System (EMS) is widely used by the ADF. This paper examines military activities and marine environmental management within SWBTA, using the Talisman Saber (TS) exercise series as an example. These are extensive joint exercises conducted by the ADF and the United States defence forces. The paper outlines relevant legislative framework and environmental policies, analyses how the EMS operates in environmental management of military activities, and how military activities comply with these regulations. It discusses the implementation of the ADF EMS, including risk reduction measures, environmental awareness training, consultation and communication with stakeholders. A number of environmental management actions used in the TS exercises are presented to demonstrate the EMS application. Our investigations to this point indicate that the ADF is

  11. Levels of tritium in soils and vegetation near Canadian nuclear facilities releasing tritium to the atmosphere: implications for environmental models.

    PubMed

    Thompson, P A; Kwamena, N-O A; Ilin, M; Wilk, M; Clark, I D

    2015-02-01

    Concentrations of organically bound tritium (OBT) and tritiated water (HTO) were measured over two growing seasons in vegetation and soil samples obtained in the vicinity of four nuclear facilities and two background locations in Canada. At the background locations, with few exceptions, OBT concentrations were higher than HTO concentrations: OBT/HTO ratios in vegetation varied between 0.3 and 20 and values in soil varied between 2.7 and 15. In the vicinity of the four nuclear facilities OBT/HTO ratios in vegetation and soils deviated from the expected mean value of 0.7, which is used as a default value in environmental transfer models. Ratios of the OBT activity concentration in plants ([OBT]plant) to the OBT activity concentration in soils ([OBT]soil) appear to be a good indicator of the long-term behaviour of tritium in soil and vegetation. In general, OBT activity concentrations in soils were nearly equal to OBT activity concentrations in plants in the vicinity of the two nuclear power plants. [OBT]plant/[OBT]soil ratios considerably below unity observed at one nuclear processing facility represents historically higher levels of tritium in the environment. The results of our study reflect the dynamic nature of HTO retention and OBT formation in vegetation and soil during the growing season. Our data support the mounting evidence suggesting that some parameters used in environmental transfer models approved for regulatory assessments should be revisited to better account for the behavior of HTO and OBT in the environment and to ensure that modelled estimates (e.g., plant OBT) are appropriately conservative.

  12. Biobeds for environmental protection from pesticide use--a review.

    PubMed

    Castillo, María del Pilar; Torstensson, Lennart; Stenström, John

    2008-08-13

    Biobeds originated in Sweden in response to the need for simple and effective methods to minimize environmental contamination from pesticide use, especially when filling spraying equipment, a typical point source of contamination. The biobed system has attracted attention in several countries, where work is being conducted to adapt it to local conditions and applications. As a consequence, the biobed system has been more or less modified and sometimes renamed, for example, as biomassbed in Italy, biofilter in Belgium, and Phytobac and biobac in France. The effectiveness and simplicity of the biobed also make it suitable for use in developing countries, and different adaptations of the biobed concept now exist in, for instance, Peru, Guatemala, and Ecuador. When the modification of the biobed includes an intention to use it for retention and degradation of pesticides in sprayer washings, the construction has to be adapted to, for example, lined biobeds to ensure that no pesticide leaching will occur. Replacement of some of the original materials in the Swedish biomixture (straw, peat, and soil) can also change the performance of the system, for instance, the amount, activity, and composition of the microbial community that develops. This review presents the state of the art of biobeds and similar systems in Sweden and worldwide and identifies future research needs. Factors affecting the efficiency of biobeds in terms of degradation and retention of pesticides are discussed, with particular emphasis on the microbial processes involved.

  13. From chemical risk assessment to environmental quality management: the challenge for soil protection.

    PubMed

    Bone, James; Head, Martin; Jones, David T; Barraclough, Declan; Archer, Michael; Scheib, Catherine; Flight, Dee; Eggleton, Paul; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    The 40 years that have passed since the beginning of the 'environmental revolution' has seen a large increase in development of policies for the protection of environmental media and a recognition by the public of the importance of environmental quality. There has been a shift from policy in reaction to high profile events, then to control of releases to single environmental media, and to the present position of moving toward integrated management of all environmental media at present. This development has moved away from classical chemical risk assessment toward environmental holism, including recognition of the ecological value of these media. This work details how policy developments have taken place for air and water, with examples from the USA and EU, in order to compare this with policy development regarding soil. Soil, with quite different policy frameworks and distinct uses, understanding, and threats compared to other environmental media, is currently attracting attention regarding the need for its protection independent of use. Challenges for soil policy are identified and evaluated, and recommendations on how these challenges can be overcome are discussed with relevance to water and air protection policy.

  14. A Fuzzy Logic Enhanced Environmental Protection Education Model for Policies Decision Support in Green Community Development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes the promotion of environmental protection education among communities as a solution to the serious problems of high energy consumption and carbon emissions around the world. Environmental protection education has direct and lasting influences on everyone in society; therefore, it is helpful in our fight against many serious problems caused by high energy consumption. In this study, the Delphi method and the fuzzy logic theory are used to develop a quantizing assessment model based on qualitative analysis. This model can be used to assess the results and influences of community residents' participation in environmental protection education on green community development. In addition, it can be used to provide references for governing authorities in their decision making of green community development policies. PMID:24363614

  15. Protected Area Reconfiguration Project. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    DOE has decided to consolidate, process, and store Category I and II Special Nuclear Material (SNM) in Building 371 at Rocky Flats, in order to improve safeguards and security and to reduce baseline facility and personnel costs. Once all SNM in consolidated into this building, maintaining the full 200-acre protected area would no longer be necessary, and the protected area (PA) could be reconfigured to include only the protection requirements necessary for Building 371. DOE Environmental Assessment 1132 has been written to evaluate options for reconfiguration of the PA; it addressed potential environmental impacts resulting from construction of fence alternatives. Possible routes for the new fence section were examined for environmental impact, feasibility, cost, and complexity. A number of the alternatives, including the proposed action, would impact wetlands.

  16. Tuberculosis Infection Control in Health-Care Facilities: Environmental Control and Personal Protection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Yeon

    2016-10-01

    Transmission of tuberculosis (TB) is a recognized risk to patients and healthcare workers in healthcare settings. The literature review suggests that implementation of combination control measures reduces the risk of TB transmission. Guidelines suggest a three-level hierarchy of controls including administrative, environmental, and respiratory protection. Among environmental controls, installation of ventilation systems is a priority because ventilation reduces the number of infectious particles in the air. Natural ventilation is cost-effective but depends on climatic conditions. Supplemented intervention such as air-cleaning methods including high efficiency particulate air filtration and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation should be considered in areas where adequate ventilation is difficult to achieve. Personal protective equipment including particulate respirators provides additional benefit when administrative and environmental controls cannot assure protection.

  17. A fuzzy logic enhanced environmental protection education model for policies decision support in green community development.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Sung-Lin

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes the promotion of environmental protection education among communities as a solution to the serious problems of high energy consumption and carbon emissions around the world. Environmental protection education has direct and lasting influences on everyone in society; therefore, it is helpful in our fight against many serious problems caused by high energy consumption. In this study, the Delphi method and the fuzzy logic theory are used to develop a quantitizing assessment model based on qualitative analysis. This model can be used to assess the results and influences of community residents' participation in environmental protection education on green community development. In addition, it can be used to provide references for governing authorities in their decision making of green community development policies.

  18. Tuberculosis Infection Control in Health-Care Facilities: Environmental Control and Personal Protection

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Transmission of tuberculosis (TB) is a recognized risk to patients and healthcare workers in healthcare settings. The literature review suggests that implementation of combination control measures reduces the risk of TB transmission. Guidelines suggest a three-level hierarchy of controls including administrative, environmental, and respiratory protection. Among environmental controls, installation of ventilation systems is a priority because ventilation reduces the number of infectious particles in the air. Natural ventilation is cost-effective but depends on climatic conditions. Supplemented intervention such as air-cleaning methods including high efficiency particulate air filtration and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation should be considered in areas where adequate ventilation is difficult to achieve. Personal protective equipment including particulate respirators provides additional benefit when administrative and environmental controls cannot assure protection. PMID:27790274

  19. Protecting children: reducing their environmental tobacco smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Klerman, Lorraine

    2004-04-01

    The present review examines the current status of efforts to reduce environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETS) among infants and young children. Estimates of the number of children exposed vary, but it is probably over 20 million or about 35% of all U.S. children. Healthy People 2010 sets as an objective the reduction, to 10%, of the proportion of children regularly exposed to tobacco smoke at home. Children with ETS exposure are at higher risk for upper respiratory illnesses, asthma, otitis media, and sudden infant death syndrome. Eight experimental or quasi-experimental studies of attempts to reduce children' ETS exposure with sample sizes of greater than 100 were conducted in the United States and published between 1990 and 2003. Most of these studies showed a significant impact on maternal smoking and on the number of cigarettes smoked in the home, although intervention-control differences were relatively small. Despite support from professional organizations and federal government groups, many pediatricians and family physicians do not routinely engage in intensive efforts to reduce children's ETS exposure. Training in techniques for reducing tobacco dependence should be included in professional education programs. Public and private insurance should reimburse providers for efforts in this area. An overall strategy for reducing children's ETS exposure should combine individual counseling and education in offices, clinics, and homes with community education and regulatory and economic policies (i.e., smoking bans and excise taxes). Additional funding is needed for studies of provider knowledge, attitudes, and practices; of the effectiveness of various communication strategies; and of office- and community-based strategies to reduce ETS exposure.

  20. A community-based, environmental chronic disease prevention intervention to improve healthy eating psychosocial factors and behaviors in indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Mead, Erin L; Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Corriveau, André; Sharma, Sangita

    2013-10-01

    Diet-related chronic diseases are highly prevalent among indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic. A community-based, multi-institutional nutritional and lifestyle intervention-Healthy Foods North-was implemented to improve food-related psychosocial factors and behaviors among Inuit and Inuvialuit in four intervention communities (with two comparison communities) in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories, Canada, in 2008. The 12-month program was developed from theory (social cognitive theory and social ecological models), formative research, and a community participatory process. It included an environmental component to increase healthy food availability in local stores and activities consisting of community-wide and point-of-purchase interactive educational taste tests and cooking demonstrations, media (e.g., radio ads, posters, shelf labels), and events held in multiple venues, including recreation centers and schools. The intervention was evaluated using pre- and postassessments with 246 adults from intervention and 133 from comparison communities (311 women, 68 men; mean age 42.4 years; 78.3% retention rate). Outcomes included psychosocial constructs (healthy eating knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavioral intentions), frequency of healthy and unhealthy food acquisition, healthiness of commonly used food preparation methods, and body mass index (kg/m(2)). After adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic status, and body mass index variables, respondents living in intervention communities showed significant improvements in food-related self-efficacy (β = 0.15, p = .003) and intentions (β = 0.16, p = .001) compared with comparison communities. More improvements from the intervention were seen in overweight, obese, and high socioeconomic status respondents. A community-based, multilevel intervention is an effective strategy to improve psychosocial factors for healthy nutritional behavior change to reduce chronic disease in indigenous Arctic populations.

  1. Getting their voices heard: three cases of public participation in environmental protection in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wanxin; Liu, Jieyan; Li, Duoduo

    2012-05-15

    By comparing three cases of environmental activism in China, our paper answers the following three questions about public participation in environment protection in China: (1) what are the drivers for public participation, (2) who are the agents leading the participation, and (3) do existing laws facilitate public participation? We find heightened public awareness of environmental degradation and increasing anxieties over health and property values drive people to fight for more political space to influence decisions that have an impact on the environment. Despite the promises one finds in the letter of Chinese laws, Chinese society lacks a meaningful institutional framework to allow public participation, even in the area of environmental protection. The Chinese government mainly passively responds to public demands on an ad hoc basis, with no institutional commitment for engaging the public on environmental issues. This is unfortunate, because public policies without adequate public input are doomed to be clouded by illegitimacy.

  2. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center, Ada, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar-Nagy, S.; Voss, P.; Van Geet, O.

    2006-10-01

    U.S. EPA's Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center, Ada, Oklahoma, has reduced its annual energy consumption by 45% by upgrading its building mechanical system and incorporating renewable energy.

  3. Environmental health sciences education--a tool for achieving environmental equity and protecting children.

    PubMed Central

    Claudio, L; Torres, T; Sanjurjo, E; Sherman, L R; Landrigan, P J

    1998-01-01

    Children are highly susceptible to deleterious effects of environmental toxins. Those who live in underserved communities may be particularly at risk because environmental pollution has been found to be disproportionately distributed among communities. Mounting evidence suggests that asthma rates are rising and that this disease can be caused or aggravated by air pollution. Although ambient air quality has generally improved, these improvements have not reached minority communities in equal proportions. This and other data has fueled the concept of environmental justice or environmental equity, which has led to community activism and government actions. One possible example of environmental inequity and its consequences is the Hunt's Point community, in the South Bronx, New York. This community experiences a high pollution burden with the siting of facilities that emit hazardous wastes into the air. Our approach to this problem has been the formation of mechanisms for bidirectional communication between community residents, government entities, and academic institutions such as Mount Sinai Medical Center. As a result of this experience, we believe that the key to achieving environmental health, especially in communities of color where many children are at risk, is to empower residents to take charge of their environment by providing relevant educational opportunities. Strategies for environmental health education include multitiered training approaches that include community residents, parent education, direct children education, and community education through professional counselors and train-the-trainer approaches. We propose that academic researchers must use community residents not just as subjects of our studies, but to increase our mutual understanding of environmental health, resulting in active participation of community members in research design, data collection, analysis, and dissemination of results in order to make intervention strategies more

  4. [The contribution of health professionals in the integration of health and environmental protection].

    PubMed

    Faggioli, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This article first illustrates the EU and national regulatory frameworks related to policies and integrated actions for health and environmental protection, with particular reference to evaluation of the impact of the environment on health, then provides definitions of "evaluation of health impact" and of "environmental epidemiology" and provides synthetic proposals on procedures and operational levels (national, regional and local). Finally, the responsibilities of regional and local government bodies in supporting ARPA, Departments of Prevention of local health departments and physicians.

  5. An objective decision model of power grid environmental protection based on environmental influence index and energy-saving and emission-reducing index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jun-shu; Jin, Yan-ming; Hao, Wei-hua

    2017-01-01

    Based on modelling the environmental influence index of power transmission and transformation project and energy-saving and emission-reducing index of source-grid-load of power system, this paper establishes an objective decision model of power grid environmental protection, with constraints of power grid environmental protection objectives being legal and economical, and considering both positive and negative influences of grid on the environmental in all-life grid cycle. This model can be used to guide the programming work of power grid environmental protection. A numerical simulation of Jiangsu province’s power grid environmental protection objective decision model has been operated, and the results shows that the maximum goal of energy-saving and emission-reducing benefits would be reached firstly as investment increasing, and then the minimum goal of environmental influence.

  6. Paleo-environmental gateways in the eastern Canadian arctic - Recent isotope hydrology and diatom oxygen isotopes from Nettilling Lake, Baffin Island, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapligin, B.; Narancic, B.; Meyer, H.; Pienitz, R.

    2016-09-01

    Nettilling Lake is located on Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada between the areas of past warming (Canadian High Arctic to the North) and climatic stability (Northern Quebec and Labrador region to the South). Despite being the largest lake in the Nunavut region with a postglacial marine to lacustrine transition history only a few paleo-environmental investigations were completed in this area. The oxygen isotope composition of diatoms (δ18Odiatom) can provide valuable insights into paleo-environmental conditions. Here, the recent (isotope) hydrology and hydrochemical data from the lake are presented to facilitate the interpretation of a δ18Odiatom record from an 82 cm sediment core (Ni-2B). The well-mixed lake (δ18Owater = -17.4‰) is influenced by a heavier (less negative) isotope composition (-18.80‰) from Amadjuak River draining Amadjuak Lake to the South and water of lighter (more negative) isotopic composition (-16.4‰) from the Isurtuq River originating from Penny Ice Cap in the North-East. From the δ18Owater and δ18Odiatom of the topmost sample of core Ni-2B a Δ18Osilica-water of 1000 ln α(silica-water) = 40.2‰ for sub-recent diatoms of Nettilling Lake was calculated matching the known water-silica fractionation for fossil sediments well and thereby showing the general applicability of this proxy for paleo-reconstructions in this region. Extremely large δ18Odiatom variations in the core of more than 13‰ are mainly induced by changes in the isotopic composition of the lake water due to a shift from glaciomarine (δ18Odiatom = +34.6‰) through brackish (+23.4 to +27.2‰) towards lacustrine (+21.5‰) conditions (transition zones glaciomarine to brackish at 69 cm/7300 yr cal. BP and brackish to lacustrine at 35 cm/6000 yr cal. BP) associated with a shift in the degree of salinity. Our study provides the first evidence that paleo-salinity can be reconstructed by δ18Odiatom. Additionally, for the lacustrine section it could be demonstrated that

  7. Canadian asthma consensus report, 1999

    PubMed Central

    Boulet, L P; Becker, A; Bérubé, D; Beveridge, R; Ernst, P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To provide physicians with current guidelines for the diagnosis and optimal management of asthma in children and adults, including pregnant women and the elderly, in office, emergency department, hospital and clinic settings. OPTIONS: The consensus group considered the roles of education, avoidance of provocative environmental and other factors, diverse pharmacotherapies, delivery devices and emergency and in-hospital management of asthma. OUTCOMES: Provision of the best control of asthma by confirmation of the diagnosis using objective measures, rapid achievement and maintenance of control and regular follow-up. EVIDENCE: The key diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations are based on the 1995 Canadian guidelines and a critical review of the literature by small groups before a full meeting of the consensus group. Recommendations are graded according to 5 levels of evidence. Differences of opinion were resolved by consensus following discussion. VALUES: Respirologists, immunoallergists, pediatricians and emergency and family physicians gave prime consideration to the achievement and maintenance of optimal control of asthma through avoidance of environmental inciters, education of patients and the lowest effective regime of pharmacotherapy to reduce morbidity and mortality. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: Adherence to the guidelines should be accompanied by significant reduction in patients' symptoms, reduced morbidity and mortality, fewer emergency and hospital admissions, fewer adverse side-effects from medications, better quality of life for patients and reduced costs. RECOMMENDATIONS: Recommendations are included in each section of the report. In summary, after a diagnosis of asthma is made based on clinical evaluation, including demonstration of variable airflow obstruction, and contributing factors are identified, a treatment plan is established to obtain and maintain optimal asthma control. The main components of treatment are patient education

  8. Compliance with Environmental Laws Helps Protect Air, Water and Lands in Oregon, Washington, Idaho and Alaska Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Seattle - April 6, 2016) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Pacific Northwest Region completed 22 environmental compliance and enforcement actions in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington from October 1, 2015 through December 31, 2015.

  9. Compliance with environmental laws helps protect air, water and land in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Seattle - December 15, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Region 10 completed over 50 environmental compliance and enforcement actions in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington from July 1, 2015 through September 30, 2015.

  10. Investing in citizen science can improve natural resource management and environmental protection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinley, Duncan C.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Ballard, Heidi L.; Bonney, Rick; Brown, Hutch; Evans, Daniel M.; French, Rebecca A.; Parrish, Julia K.; Phillips, Tina B.; Ryan, Sean F.; Shanley, Lea A.; Shirk, Jennifer L.; Stepenuck, Kristine F.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Wiggins, Andrea; Boyle, Owen D.; Briggs, Russell D.; Chapin, Stuart F.; Hewitt, David A.; Preuss, Peter W.; Soukup, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Citizen science has made substantive contributions to science for hundreds of years. More recently, it has contributed to many articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals and has influenced natural resource management and environmental protection decisions and policies across the nation. Over the last 10 years, citizen science—participation by the public in a scientific project—has seen explosive growth in the United States, particularly in ecology, the environmental sciences, and related fields of inquiry. In this report, we explore the current use of citizen science in natural resource and environmental science and decision making in the United States and describe the investments organizations might make to benefit from citizen science.

  11. Perspective on the use of LNT for radiation protection and risk assessment by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

    PubMed

    Puskin, Jerome S

    2009-08-21

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) bases its risk assessments, regulatory limits, and nonregulatory guidelines for population exposures to low level ionizing radiation on the linear no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis, which assumes that the risk of cancer due to a low dose exposure is proportional to dose, with no threshold. The use of LNT for radiation protection purposes has been repeatedly endorsed by authoritative scientific advisory bodies, including the National Academy of Sciences' BEIR Committees, whose recommendations form a primary basis of EPA's risk assessment methodology. Although recent radiobiological findings indicate novel damage and repair processes at low doses, LNT is supported by data from both epidemiology and radiobiology. Given the current state of the science, the consensus positions of key scientific and governmental bodies, as well as the conservatism and calculational convenience of the LNT assumption, it is unlikely that EPA will modify this approach in the near future.

  12. 76 FR 72436 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Protecting and Restoring Native Ecosystems by Managing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... Restoring Native Ecosystems by Managing Non-Native Ungulates. SUMMARY: The National Park Service (NPS...-72437] [FR Doc No: 2011-30170] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-PWR-PWRO-0927-8527; 2310-0057-422] Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Protecting and Restoring Native Ecosystems...

  13. 75 FR 75847 - 40th Anniversary of the Environmental Protection Agency

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... shields the Earth, and safe handling of electronic waste. Throughout its history, EPA has been a champion... water we drink, the quality of our environment has a profound effect on our public health, the well... expect clean air and drinking water. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was...

  14. A Description of the Environmental Protection Agency's In-House Library Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sarah M.; Needle, Lester P.

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) inhouse library systems fall into two principle categories: basic library inventory systems and literature retrieval systems. Currently, the library network supports three inventory systems: the journal system; the hard bound book system; and the circulation system. At the same time, five efforts are…

  15. RESEARCH ON ENDOCRINE DISRUPTERS IN THE AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT BY THE UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research on Endocrine Disrupters in the Aquatic Environment by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (Abstract). Presented at the Endocrine Disrupters Workshop sponsored by the UK Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, 8-9 September 2001, Weymouth, UK. 1 p...

  16. Public Notice: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Reviews Cleanup at Reynolds Metals Superfund Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting its third five-year review of the Reynolds Metals Superfund Site, located in the town of Massena, St. Lawrence County, New York. This review seeks to confirm that the implemented cleanup continue

  17. RESEARCH PROGRAMS AT THE ECOSYSTEMS RESEARCH DIVISION, U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation presents information on the research programs at the Ecosystems Research Division (ERD) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency located in Athens, Georgia. The presentation gives an overview of the Agency, laws and regulations that the Agency operates under,...

  18. THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S SITE EMERGING TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the SITE Emerging Technology Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is seeking to foster the further development of technol- ogies that have been successfully tested at bench-scale and are now ready for pilot-scale testing, prior to field- or full-scale demonstra...

  19. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION OF PNEUMATIC FRACTURING EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in cooperation with Accutech Remedial Systems (ARS) and the New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) performed a field demonstration of Pneumatic Fracturing Extraction (PFE) for the removal of chlorinated volatile organics (VOCS) f...

  20. Abatement and Pollution Control Training and Educational Programs Presented by the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This catalog is a compilation of training course and educational program descriptions in abatement and pollution control scheduled by the Environmental Protection Agency. Descriptions of programs include prerequisites, class size, and length of time with the content goals. Also given is general information concerning tuition fees, waiver requests,…

  1. The Environmental Protection Agency: A Profile of Its Information Collection and Dissemination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadec, Sarah T.

    1989-01-01

    Provides an overview of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and its publication distribution programs. Topics discussed include information collection, vehicles for dissemination, the application of information technologies, and primary users. The relationship of the EPA to the Government Printing Office (GPO) and the National Technical…

  2. 78 FR 33839 - Access by United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Contractors to Information Claimed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... and II and APPS, will begin on June 10, 2013. DATES: EPA will accept comments on this Notice through June 10, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jeffrey Kimes, Environmental Protection Agency, 1595... found in 40 CFR Parts 79, 80, 85, 86, 89-92, 94, 1033, 1039, 1042, 1043, 1045, 1048, 1051, 1054,...

  3. Indicators for the Evaluation of Environmental Education, Interpretation and Information in Protected Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sureda, Jaume; Oliver, Miquel F.; Castells, Margalida

    2004-01-01

    By petition of the regional government of the Balearic Islands (Spain), the authors of this article evaluated activities of environmental education, interpretation, and information carried out in the most important protected areas of these islands. The following is a presentation of the model of the evaluation that was developed. Based on the…

  4. Investigation of the Preservation Method within Environmental Protection Agency Method 200.8

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lead (Pb) is a trace metal that is closely regulated in drinking water systems because of its harmful toxicity. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) issued the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR), which defines the action level for Lead as 0.015 mg/L. Researchers and drinking ...

  5. Does infection with environmental mycobacteria suppress the protective response to subsequent vaccination with BCG?

    PubMed

    Smith, D; Reeser, P; Musa, S

    1985-03-01

    Using a guinea pig model of experimental airborne tuberculosis, we were unable to find evidence to support the hypothesis that infection with environmental mycobacteria (M. simiae or M. avium-intracellulare) interferes with the induction of a protective response in animals subsequently vaccinated with BCG.

  6. THE MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE: THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S RESPONSE TO INVASIVE SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responding to the scientific and regulatory challenges of invasive species in a variety of ways. One response has been to use existing programs and regulations, as appropriate, to address invasive species. A recent example is th...

  7. 36 CFR 223.40 - Cancellation for environmental protection or inconsistency with plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of trees or other forest products, with terms of longer than 2 years, shall provide for cancellation... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cancellation for environmental protection or inconsistency with plans. 223.40 Section 223.40 Parks, Forests, and Public...

  8. 36 CFR 223.40 - Cancellation for environmental protection or inconsistency with plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., permits, and other such instruments, authorizing the harvesting of trees or other forest products, with... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cancellation for environmental protection or inconsistency with plans. 223.40 Section 223.40 Parks, Forests, and Public...

  9. 36 CFR 223.40 - Cancellation for environmental protection or inconsistency with plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., permits, and other such instruments, authorizing the harvesting of trees or other forest products, with... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cancellation for environmental protection or inconsistency with plans. 223.40 Section 223.40 Parks, Forests, and Public...

  10. 36 CFR 223.40 - Cancellation for environmental protection or inconsistency with plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., permits, and other such instruments, authorizing the harvesting of trees or other forest products, with... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cancellation for environmental protection or inconsistency with plans. 223.40 Section 223.40 Parks, Forests, and Public...

  11. 36 CFR 223.40 - Cancellation for environmental protection or inconsistency with plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., permits, and other such instruments, authorizing the harvesting of trees or other forest products, with... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cancellation for environmental protection or inconsistency with plans. 223.40 Section 223.40 Parks, Forests, and Public...

  12. Training Future Science Librarians: A Successful Partnership between Academia and the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Kristen Conahan

    2000-01-01

    Describes a partnership between the School of Information and Library Science at the University of North Carolina (Chapel Hill) and the Environmental Protection Agency library in Research Park Triangle that provides the opportunity for master's level students to acquire practical experience working in a science library while taking classes.…

  13. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL (MFFP2T)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed a pre-release version of a process simulation tool, the Metal Finishing Facility Pollution Prevention Tool (MFFP2T), for the metal finishing industry. This presentation will provide a demonstration of the current ver...

  14. 77 FR 30274 - The Commission's Role Regarding the Environmental Protection Agency's Mercury and Air Toxics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... Mercury and Air Toxics Standards; Policy Statement on the Commission's Role Regarding the Environmental Protection Agency's Mercury and Air Toxics Standards Before Commissioners: Jon Wellinghoff, Chairman; Philip... for Administrative Orders (AO) to operate in noncompliance with EPA's Mercury and Air Toxics...

  15. 1990 UPDATE OF THE US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S SITE EMERGING TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) directed the U.S. Environmental Protection AGency (EPA) to establish an Alternative/Innovative Treatment Technology Research and Demonstration Program. The EPA's Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response and the ...

  16. AN UPDATE ON SOME ARSENIC PROJECTS AT THE UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT Exposure to arsenic (As) has been reported to cause many adverse health effects in humans, including internal and skin cancers, vascular, neurological and dermal manifestations. Some Offices of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) deal with As and selected activ...

  17. 40 CFR 600.514-12 - Reports to the Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy... Manufacturer's Average Carbon-Related Exhaust Emissions § 600.514-12 Reports to the Environmental Protection... future: (i) The manufacturer's estimate of its footprint-based fleet average CO2 standards...

  18. 78 FR 14298 - Public Availability of Environmental Protection Agency FY 2012 Service Contract Inventory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... Procurement Policy (OFPP), Service Contract Inventories (December 19, 2011). The Environmental Protection...., Washington, DC. The EPA Docket Center Public Reading Room is open from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through.... Electronic Access. You may access this Federal Register document electronically through the EPA...

  19. Amoco-US Environmental Protection Agency, pollution prevention project, Yorktown, Virginia: Executive summary (revised May 1992)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The volume summarizes results and policy alternatives identified during a 2-year pollution prevention study of Amoco Oil Company's Yorktown Virginia Refinery, jointly sponsored as a cooperative effort of Amoco Corporation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. A significant finding of the study was that at the facility, current and expected environmental regulatory requirements can be achieved for 20-25% of the cost of current mandated approaches. Major recommendations are: (1) Government and industry need to explore opportunities to produce better environmental results more cost effectively; (2) The authors need to improve environmental release data collection, analysis, and management; (3) EPA should provide incentives for conducting facility-wide assessments and developing multi-media release reduction strategies; (4) The authors should encourage additional public-private partnerships on environmental management issues; (5) EPA and the petroleum industry should conduct research on the potential health and ecological effects of VOCs.

  20. From endocrine disruptors to nanomaterials: advancing our understanding of environmental health to protect public health.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Linda S; Jung, Paul

    2011-05-01

    Environmental health science is the study of the impact of the environment on human health. This paper introduces basic topics in environmental health, including clean air, clean water, and healthful food, as well as a range of current issues and controversies in environmental health. Conceptual shifts in modern toxicology have changed the field. There is a new understanding of the effects of exposure to chemicals at low doses, and in combination, and the impact on human growth and development. Other emerging topics include the role of epigenetics, or changes in genes and gene expression that can be brought about by chemical exposure; environmental justice; and potential effects of engineered nanomaterials and climate change. We review the important implications for public health policy and recommend a broad environmental health research strategy aimed at protecting and improving human health.

  1. The "Canadian" in Canadian Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bainbridge, Joyce; Wolodko, Brenda

    2001-01-01

    Notes that a rich body of Canadian children's literature exists that reflects the country's literary and socio-cultural values, beliefs, themes and images, including those of geography, history, language and identity. Discusses how Canadians tend to identify themselves first by region or province and then by nation. (SG)

  2. Canadian Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Libraries in Canada, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Includes 15 articles that relate to Canadian children's literature, including the power of literature; using Canadian literature in Canada; the principal's role in promoting literacy; Canadian Children's Book Centre; the National Library of Canada's children's literature collection; book promotion; selection guide; publisher's perspective; and…

  3. Environmental Awareness and Public Support for Protecting and Restoring Puget Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safford, Thomas G.; Norman, Karma C.; Henly, Megan; Mills, Katherine E.; Levin, Phillip S.

    2014-04-01

    In an effort to garner consensus around environmental programs, practitioners have attempted to increase awareness about environmental threats and demonstrate the need for action. Nonetheless, how beliefs about the scope and severity of different types of environmental concerns shape support for management interventions are less clear. Using data from a telephone survey of residents of the Puget Sound region of Washington, we investigate how perceptions of the severity of different coastal environmental problems, along with other social factors, affect attitudes about policy options. We find that self-assessed environmental understanding and views about the seriousness of pollution, habitat loss, and salmon declines are only weakly related. Among survey respondents, women, young people, and those who believe pollution threatens Puget Sound are more likely to support policy measures such as increased enforcement and spending on restoration. Conversely, self-identified Republicans and individuals who view current regulations as ineffective tend to oppose governmental actions aimed at protecting and restoring Puget Sound. Support for one policy measure—tax credits for environmentally-friendly business practices—is not significantly affected by political party affiliation. These findings demonstrate that environmental awareness can influence public support for environmental policy tools. However, the nature of particular management interventions and other social forces can have important mitigating effects and need to be considered by practitioners attempting to develop environment-related social indicators and generate consensus around the need for action to address environmental problems.

  4. Environmental awareness and public support for protecting and restoring Puget sound.

    PubMed

    Safford, Thomas G; Norman, Karma C; Henly, Megan; Mills, Katherine E; Levin, Phillip S

    2014-04-01

    In an effort to garner consensus around environmental programs, practitioners have attempted to increase awareness about environmental threats and demonstrate the need for action. Nonetheless, how beliefs about the scope and severity of different types of environmental concerns shape support for management interventions are less clear. Using data from a telephone survey of residents of the Puget Sound region of Washington, we investigate how perceptions of the severity of different coastal environmental problems, along with other social factors, affect attitudes about policy options. We find that self-assessed environmental understanding and views about the seriousness of pollution, habitat loss, and salmon declines are only weakly related. Among survey respondents, women, young people, and those who believe pollution threatens Puget Sound are more likely to support policy measures such as increased enforcement and spending on restoration. Conversely, self-identified Republicans and individuals who view current regulations as ineffective tend to oppose governmental actions aimed at protecting and restoring Puget Sound. Support for one policy measure-tax credits for environmentally-friendly business practices-is not significantly affected by political party affiliation. These findings demonstrate that environmental awareness can influence public support for environmental policy tools. However, the nature of particular management interventions and other social forces can have important mitigating effects and need to be considered by practitioners attempting to develop environment-related social indicators and generate consensus around the need for action to address environmental problems.

  5. Review and challenges of policies of environmental protection and sustainable development in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun-Min; Wen, Zong-Guo

    2008-09-01

    China is confronted with the dual task of developing its national economy and protecting its ecological environment. Since the 1980s, China's policies on environmental protection and sustainable development have experienced five changes: (1) progression from the adoption of environmental protection as a basic state policy to the adoption of sustainable development strategy; (2) changing focus from pollution control to ecological conservation equally; (3) shifting from end-of-pipe treatment to source control; (4) moving from point source treatment to regional environmental governance; and (5) a turn away from administrative management-based approaches and towards a legal means and economic instruments-based approach. Since 1992, China has set down sustainable development as a basic national strategy. However, environmental pollution and ecological degradation in China have continued to be serious problems and have inflicted great damage on the economy and quality of life. The beginning of the 21st century is a critical juncture for China's efforts towards sustaining rapid economic development, intensifying environmental protection efforts, and curbing ecological degradation. As the largest developing country, China's policies on environmental protection and sustainable development will be of primary importance not only for China, but also the world. Realizing a completely well-off society by the year 2020 is seen as a crucial task by the Chinese government and an important goal for China's economic development in the new century, however, attaining it would require a four-fold increase over China's year 2000 GDP. Therefore, speeding up economic development is a major mission during the next two decades and doing so will bring great challenges in controlling depletion of natural resources and environmental pollution. By taking a critical look at the development of Chinese environmental policy, we try to determine how best to coordinate the relationship between the

  6. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems for Mars Exploration: Issues and Concerns for Planetary Protection and the Protection of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Lange, Kevin; Anderson, Molly; Vonau, Walter

    2016-07-01

    Planetary protection represents an additional set of requirements that generally have not been considered by developers of technologies for Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS). Forward contamination concerns will affect release of gases and discharge of liquids and solids, including what may be left behind after planetary vehicles are abandoned upon return to Earth. A crew of four using a state of the art ECLSS could generate as much as 4.3 metric tons of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes and trash during a 500-day surface stay. These may present issues and concerns for both planetary protection and planetary science. Certainly, further closure of ECLSS systems will be of benefit by greater reuse of consumable products and reduced generation of waste products. It can be presumed that planetary protection will affect technology development by constraining how technologies can operate: limiting or prohibiting certain kinds of operations or processes (e.g. venting); necessitating that other kinds of operations be performed (e.g. sterilization; filtration of vent lines); prohibiting what can be brought on a mission (e.g. extremophiles); creating needs for new capabilities/ technologies (e.g. containment). Although any planned venting could include filtration to eliminate micro-organisms from inadvertently exiting the spacecraft, it may be impossible to eliminate or filter habitat structural leakage. Filtration will add pressure drops impacting size of lines and ducts, affect fan size and energy requirements, and add consumable mass. Technologies that may be employed to remove biomarkers and microbial contamination from liquid and solid wastes prior to storage or release may include mineralization technologies such as incineration, super critical wet oxidation and pyrolysis. These technologies, however, come with significant penalties for mass, power and consumables. This paper will estimate the nature and amounts of materials generated during Mars

  7. In the Field: The Canadian Ecology Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magee, Clare

    2000-01-01

    The Canadian Ecology Centre (Ontario) offers year-round residential and day programs in outdoor and environmental education for secondary students, field placement and internship opportunities for college students, and ecotourism programs, while providing employment and tax revenues to the local community. Dubbed consensus environmentalism, the…

  8. A Community-Based, Environmental Chronic Disease Prevention Intervention to Improve Healthy Eating Psychosocial Factors and Behaviors in Indigenous Populations in the Canadian Arctic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Erin L.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Corriveau, André; Sharma, Sangita

    2013-01-01

    Diet-related chronic diseases are highly prevalent among indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic. A community-based, multi-institutional nutritional and lifestyle intervention--Healthy Foods North--was implemented to improve food-related psychosocial factors and behaviors among Inuit and Inuvialuit in four intervention communities (with two…

  9. Use of the Oslo-Potsdam Solution to test the effect of an environmental education model on tangible measures of environmental protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Philip Craig

    The fundamental goals of environmental education include the creation of an environmentally literate citizenry possessing the knowledge, skills, and motivation to objectively analyze environmental issues and engage in responsible behaviors leading to issue resolution and improved or maintained environmental quality. No existing research, however, has linked educational practices and environmental protection. In an original attempt to quantify the pedagogy - environmental protection relationship, both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to investigate local environmental records and environmental quality indices that reflected the results of student actions. The data were analyzed using an educational adaptation of the "Oslo-Potsdam Solution for International Environmental Regime Effectiveness." The new model, termed the Environmental Education Performance Indicator (EEPI), was developed and evaluated as a quantitative tool for testing and fairly comparing the efficacy of student-initiated environmental projects in terms of environmental quality measures. Five case studies were developed from descriptions of student actions and environmental impacts as revealed by surveys and interviews with environmental education teachers using the IEEIA (Investigating and Evaluating Environmental Issues and Actions) curriculum, former students, community members, and agency officials. Archival information was also used to triangulate the data. In addition to evaluating case study data on the basis of the EEPI model, an expert panel of evaluators consisting of professionals from environmental education, natural sciences, environmental policy, and environmental advocacy provided subjective assessments on the effectiveness of each case study. The results from this study suggest that environmental education interventions can equip and empower students to act on their own conclusions in a manner that leads to improved or maintained environmental conditions. The EEPI model

  10. 2 CFR 1536.505 - Who in the Environmental Protection Agency determines that a recipient who is an individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Who in the Environmental Protection Agency... Consequences § 1536.505 Who in the Environmental Protection Agency determines that a recipient who is an... 1536.505 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements...

  11. 2 CFR 1536.505 - Who in the Environmental Protection Agency determines that a recipient who is an individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Who in the Environmental Protection Agency... Consequences § 1536.505 Who in the Environmental Protection Agency determines that a recipient who is an... 1536.505 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements...

  12. 2 CFR 1536.505 - Who in the Environmental Protection Agency determines that a recipient who is an individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Who in the Environmental Protection Agency... Consequences § 1536.505 Who in the Environmental Protection Agency determines that a recipient who is an... 1536.505 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements...

  13. 2 CFR 1536.500 - Who in the Environmental Protection Agency determines that a recipient other than an individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Who in the Environmental Protection Agency... Consequences § 1536.500 Who in the Environmental Protection Agency determines that a recipient other than an... 1536.500 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements...

  14. 2 CFR 1536.500 - Who in the Environmental Protection Agency determines that a recipient other than an individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Who in the Environmental Protection Agency... Consequences § 1536.500 Who in the Environmental Protection Agency determines that a recipient other than an... 1536.500 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements...

  15. 2 CFR 1536.505 - Who in the Environmental Protection Agency determines that a recipient who is an individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Who in the Environmental Protection Agency... Consequences § 1536.505 Who in the Environmental Protection Agency determines that a recipient who is an... 1536.505 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements...

  16. 2 CFR 1536.500 - Who in the Environmental Protection Agency determines that a recipient other than an individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Who in the Environmental Protection Agency... Consequences § 1536.500 Who in the Environmental Protection Agency determines that a recipient other than an... 1536.500 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements...

  17. 2 CFR 1536.500 - Who in the Environmental Protection Agency determines that a recipient other than an individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Who in the Environmental Protection Agency... Consequences § 1536.500 Who in the Environmental Protection Agency determines that a recipient other than an... 1536.500 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements...

  18. 26 CFR 1.179B-1T - Deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations (temporary). 1.179B-1T Section 1.179B-1T... capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations (temporary... business refiner to comply with the highway diesel fuel sulfur control requirements of the...

  19. 26 CFR 1.179B-1T - Deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations (temporary). 1.179B-1T Section 1.179B-1T... Deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations... small business refiner to comply with the highway diesel fuel sulfur control requirements of...

  20. Functional issues and environmental qualification of digital protection systems of advanced light-water nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, K.; Clark, R.L.; Wood, R.T.

    1994-04-01

    Issues of obsolescence and lack of infrastructural support in (analog) spare parts, coupled with the potential benefits of digital systems, are driving the nuclear industry to retrofit analog instrumentation and control (I&C) systems with digital and microprocessor-based systems. While these technologies have several advantages, their application to safety-related systems in nuclear power plants raises key issues relating to the systems` environmental qualification and functional reliability. To bound the problem of new I&C system functionality and qualification, the authors focused this study on protection systems proposed for use in ALWRs. Specifically, both functional and environmental qualification issues for ALWR protection system I&C were addressed by developing an environmental, functional, and aging data template for a protection division of each proposed ALWR design. By using information provided by manufacturers, environmental conditions and stressors to which I&C equipment in reactor protection divisions may be subjected were identified. The resulting data were then compared to a similar template for an instrument string typically found in an analog protection division of a present-day nuclear power plant. The authors also identified fiber-optic transmission systems as technologies that are relatively new to the nuclear power plant environment and examined the failure modes and age-related degradation mechanisms of fiber-optic components and systems. One reason for the exercise of caution in the introduction of software into safety-critical systems is the potential for common-cause failure due to the software. This study, however, approaches the functionality problem from a systems point of view. System malfunction scenarios are postulated to illustrate the fact that, when dealing with the performance of the overall integrated system, the real issues are functionality and fault tolerance, not hardware vs. software.

  1. Nanotechnology applications and implications research supported by the US Environmental Protection Agency STAR grants program.

    PubMed

    Savage, Nora; Thomas, Treye A; Duncan, Jeremiah S

    2007-10-01

    Since 2002, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been funding research on the environmental aspects of nanotechnology through its Science to Achieve Results (STAR) grants program. In total, more than $25 million has been awarded for 86 research projects on the environmental applications and implications of nanotechnology. In the applications area, grantees have produced promising results in green manufacturing, remediation, sensors, and treatment using nanotechnology and nanomaterials. Although there are many potential benefits of nanotechnology, there has also been increasing concern about the environmental and health effects of nanomaterials, and there are significant gaps in the data needed to address these concerns. Research performed by STAR grantees is beginning to address these needs.

  2. [Protection against environmental tobacco smoke exposure according to eu and Polish legislation].

    PubMed

    Konieczko, Katarzyna; Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    Amendment to the Act on health protection against consequences of using tobacco and tobacco products, in force since 15 November 2010, has introduced a number of changes by extending the range of population protection against tobacco smoke exposure, of which the most controversial one for public was placing more restrictive ban on smoking in bars and restaurants. The changes in question caused that current legal bans, although more restrictive than earlier, are still not completely sufficient as far as the protection of all groups of workers against environmental tobacco smoke exposure is concerned. The text of WHO Framework Convention on Tobbacco Control, ratified by Poland, was discussed in the article together with the detailed WHO guidelines on the convention implementation in the field of workers' protection against tobacco smoke. In this paper the most important acts of EU, one of the convention parties, and current legislative situation in Poland were presented. Particular attention was paid to occupational groups, not yet fully protected against environmental tobacco smoke exposure and need to be the subject of future legislation.

  3. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) airborne gamma spectrometry system for environmental and emergency response surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardarelli, John, II; Thomas, Mark; Curry, Timothy

    2010-08-01

    The EPA Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology (ASPECT) Program provides airborne ortho-rectified imagery, video, chemical and now radiological information directly to emergency response personnel via a commercial satellite link onboard the aircraft. EPA initiated the ASPECT Gamma Emergency Mapper GEM Project in 2008 to improve its airborne gamma-screening and mapping capability for monitoring any ground-based gamma contamination. This paper will provide an overview of the system, which can be configured to carry six 2"x4"x16" NaI(Tl) detectors and two 3"x3" LaBr3(Ce) detectors or eight 2"x4"x16" NaI(Tl) detectors. The paper will provide an overview of the analysis of gamma radiation spectra, system limitations, and emergency response applications.

  4. Recent studies of airblast from buried charges, for environmental charges, for environmental protection from HEST events

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Characteristics of blast waves from explosions in simple geometries and containment media have been well defined by hydrodynamic models and verified by experiment. A large class of useful explosions, those only partially contained by the close surrounding medium, are less-adequately understood. This report addresses the problem of airblast emitted into the atmosphere from explosions buried in the ground at less than containment depth. Examples of such explosions have arisen in cratering excavation, mining and quarrying, ordnance disposal, and military High Explosives Simulation Tests (HEST). Some recent HEST data have been assembled here to help define an empirical approach to airblast predictions, for operational safety as well as for controlling environmental impact on neighboring communities.

  5. Environmental Protection Department's well inventory through the second quarter of 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, C.D. )

    1992-09-01

    This report is an inventory of the wells recorded in Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) documents since the startup of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and includes wells monitored by special request and SRS research wells. Wells listed in this inventory are monitoring wells unless otherwise indicated. The purpose of this report is as follows: to provide a historical record of the wells that EPD/EMS has monitored, to provide a document containing a list of wells that are currently in the EPD/EMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, and to provide pertinent information about all wells listed in EPD/EMS documents.

  6. Environmental Protection Department`s well inventory through the second quarter of 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, C.D.

    1992-09-01

    This report is an inventory of the wells recorded in Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) documents since the startup of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and includes wells monitored by special request and SRS research wells. Wells listed in this inventory are monitoring wells unless otherwise indicated. The purpose of this report is as follows: to provide a historical record of the wells that EPD/EMS has monitored, to provide a document containing a list of wells that are currently in the EPD/EMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, and to provide pertinent information about all wells listed in EPD/EMS documents.

  7. 19th JANNAF Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, J. E. (Editor); Becker, D. L. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes, is a compilation of 22 unclassified/unlimited technical papers presented at the 19th Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Safety & Environmental Protection Subcommittee Meeting. The meeting was held 18-21 March 2002 at the Sheraton Colorado Springs Hotel, Colorado Springs, Colorado. Topics covered include green energetic materials and life cycle pollution prevention; space launch range safety; propellant/munitions demilitarization, recycling, and reuse: and environmental and occupational health aspects of propellants and energetic materials.

  8. Environmental Protection Department`s well inventory (through the second quarter of 1993)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This report is an inventory of the wells recorded in Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) documents since the startup of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and includes wells monitored by special request and SRS research wells. The purpose of this report is as follows: to provide a historical record of the wells that EPD/EMS has monitored; to provide a document containing a list of wells that are currently in the EPD/EMS Groundwater Monitoring Program; to provide pertinent information about all wells listed in EPD/EMS documents.

  9. Environmental Protection Department`s well inventory (through the fourth quarter of 1991)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report is an inventory of the wells recorded in Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) documents since the startup of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and includes wells monitored by special request and SRS research wells. Wells listed in this inventory are monitoring wells unless otherwise indicated. The purpose of this report is as follows: to provide a historical record of the wells that EPD/EMS has monitored; to provide a document containing a list of wells that are currently in the EPD/EMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, and to provide pertinent information about all wells listed in EPD/EMS documents.

  10. Environmental Protection Department's well inventory (through the fourth quarter of 1991)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report is an inventory of the wells recorded in Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) documents since the startup of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and includes wells monitored by special request and SRS research wells. Wells listed in this inventory are monitoring wells unless otherwise indicated. The purpose of this report is as follows: to provide a historical record of the wells that EPD/EMS has monitored; to provide a document containing a list of wells that are currently in the EPD/EMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, and to provide pertinent information about all wells listed in EPD/EMS documents.

  11. Aspects sociolinguistiques du bilinguisme canadien (Aspects of Canadian Bilingualism).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Jacques, Bernard

    The Canadian government opted for a politics of bilingualism according to the "personal solution" whereby the Canadian citizen, whether English or French, can demand the protection of his language regardless of the section of the country in which he lives. In a "territorial solution," an individual can claim official status for…

  12. Anti-environmental warfare: protecting the environment during wartime. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, R.O.

    1992-06-19

    This paper analyzes the operational impact resulting from the growing legal and political concerns over the environment during wartime. Current international law and national policies are examined to determine their potential effect on Rules of Engagement, and the resulting operational impact on means and methods of warfare. As illustrated during the recent Persian Gulf War, coalition leaders will be operationally constrained by political demands to protect the environment, and to mitigate ecological destruction caused by an opposing force. These constraints will effect how offensive action is conducted against environmentally sensitive industries including nuclear, chemical and petroleum. Commanders must adhere to the current environmental policies and place more emphasis on the principles of discrimination and military necessity in selecting and striking targets. Concurrently, commanders must balance protecting the environment and the requisite minimum casualties to obtain the objectives and preserve public support.

  13. The fate and behaviour of enhanced natural radioactivity with respect to environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Michalik, B.; Brown, J.; Krajewski, P.

    2013-01-15

    In contrast to the monitoring and prevention of occupational radiation risk caused by enhanced natural radioactivity, relatively little attention has been paid to the environmental impact associated with residues containing enhanced activity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides. Such materials are often deposited directly into the environment, a practice which is strictly forbidden in the management of other types of radioactive waste. In view of the new trends in radiation protection, the need to consider the occurrence of anthropogenically enhanced natural radioactivity as a particular unique case of environmental hazard is quite apparent. Residues containing high activity concentrations of some natural radionuclides differ from radioactive materials arising from the nuclear industry. In addition, the radiation risk is usually combined with the risk caused by other pollutants. As such and to date, there are no precise regulations regarding this matter and moreover, the non-nuclear industry is often not aware of potential environmental problems caused by natural radioactivity. This article discusses aspects of environmental radiation risks caused by anthropogenically enhanced natural radioactivity stored at unauthorised sites. Difficulties and inconclusiveness in the application of recommendations and models for radiation risk assessment are explored. General terms such as 'environmental effects' and the basic parameters necessary to carry out consistent and comparable Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) have been developed and defined. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Features of environmental impact caused by residues containing high activity concentration of natural radionuclides Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Definition of an effect of radiation on an ecosystem and novel method for its assessment Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation protection regulation inconclusiveness in the aspects of enhanced natural radioactivity.

  14. The 1997 JANNAF Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee and Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee Joint Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Filliben, Jeff D. (Editor); Watson, Anne H. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    In the Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee (PDCS) meeting, topics included: the analysis, characterization, and processing of propellants and propellant ingredients; chemical reactivity; liquid propellants; test methods; rheology; surveillance and aging; and process engineering. In the Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee (S&EPS) meeting, topics covered included: hydrazine propellant vapor detection methods; toxicity of propellants and propellants; explosives safety; atmospheric modeling and risk assessment of toxic releases; reclamation, disposal, and demilitarization methods; and remediation of explosives or propellant contaminated sites.

  15. Environmental Assessment for Beach Shoreline Protection at Patrick Air Force Base, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-27

    unbalanced due to varying degrees of storm erosion. No other more environmentally preferable alternative was identified that would meet the purpose and...initially conducted in 2000/2001 after storm damage; CS II was used again by PAFB in 2005 after a destructive hurricane season in 2004. This EA is tiered... storm activity since 2005 in order to protect Air Force and State of Florida infrastructure. The Proposed Action involves obtaining a negotiated

  16. Sustainable natural resource management and environmental assessment in the Salt Lake (Tuz Golu) Specially Protected Area.

    PubMed

    Dengiz, Orhan; Ozcan, Hesna; Koksal, E Selim; Baskan, Oguz; Kosker, Yakup

    2010-02-01

    The Salt Lake Specially Protected Area is a unique ecosystem for both agricultural activities and natural life in Turkey. In the present study, an attempt was made to develop a conceptual land use strategy and methodology, taking into account ecological factors for regional development in the Salt Lake Specially Protected Area. A detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis was done to create a comprehensive database including land use, land suitability, and environmental factors (soil, climate, water quality, fertilizing status, and heavy metal and pesticide pollution). The results of the land suitability survey for agricultural use showed that, while 62.6% of the study area soils were classified as best and relatively good, about 15% were classified as problematic and restricted lands, only 22.2% of the study area soils were not suitable for agricultural uses. However, this is not enough to derive maximum benefit with minimum degradation. Therefore, environmental factors and ecological conditions were combined to support this aim and to protect the ecosystem. Excessive irrigation practices, fertilizer and pesticide application, and incorrect management practices all accelerate salinization and degradation. In addition to this, it was found that a multi-layer GIS analysis made it easy to develop a framework for optimum land use and could increase the production yield preserving the environmental conditions. Finally, alternative management and crop patterns were undertaken to sustain this unique ecosystem, considering water, soil, climate, land use characteristics, and to provide guidance for planners or decision makers.

  17. Canadian listeriosis reference service.

    PubMed

    Pagotto, Franco; Ng, Lai-King; Clark, Clifford; Farber, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, a psychrotrophic organism capable of growing at refrigeration temperatures, is of major concern in extended shelf life, refrigerated foods. Considering that as much as 80-90% of human listeriosis cases are linked to the ingestion of contaminated food, human cases are predominantly seen in high-risk individuals, including organ-transplant recipients, patients with AIDS and HIV-infected individuals, pregnant women, cancer patients, and the elderly. In 2001, the Canadian Listeriosis Reference Service (LRS) was created by the Bureau of Microbial Hazards (Health Canada) and the National Microbiology Laboratory (now part of the Public Health Agency of Canada). Major goals of the LRS include investigation of listeriosis cases and maintenance of a national collection of isolates. The LRS intends to create a comprehensive molecular epidemiological database of all isolates in Canada for use as a resource for outbreak investigations, research and other microbiological investigations. The PFGE profiles are being established and stored for clinical, food, environmental, and possibly animal strains of L. monocytogenes. The LRS pursues research activities for investigation and implementation of other molecular methods for characterizing L. monocytogenes isolates. Ribotyping, Multi-locus Sequence Typing (MLST), Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR), Multi-locus virulence sequence typing (MLVA), microarray- based technologies and sequence-based typing schemes, are being investigated on selected diversity sets. The LRS has also used PFGE typing for outbreak investigations. The molecular epidemiological data, timely coordination and exchange of information should help to reduce the incidence of listeriosis in Canada. In Canada, listeriosis is not a national notifiable disease, except for the province of Quebec, where it has been since 1999. The LRS, Canadian Public Health Laboratory Network, and federal epidemiologists are currently working on making human

  18. Through what mechanisms do protected areas affect environmental and social outcomes?

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Paul J; Hanauer, Merlin M

    2015-11-05

    To develop effective protected area policies, scholars and practitioners must better understand the mechanisms through which protected areas affect social and environmental outcomes. With strong evidence about mechanisms, the key elements of success can be strengthened, and the key elements of failure can be eliminated or repaired. Unfortunately, empirical evidence about these mechanisms is limited, and little guidance for quantifying them exists. This essay assesses what mechanisms have been hypothesized, what empirical evidence exists for their relative contributions and what advances have been made in the past decade for estimating mechanism causal effects from non-experimental data. The essay concludes with a proposed agenda for building an evidence base about protected area mechanisms.

  19. Through what mechanisms do protected areas affect environmental and social outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Paul J.; Hanauer, Merlin M.

    2015-01-01

    To develop effective protected area policies, scholars and practitioners must better understand the mechanisms through which protected areas affect social and environmental outcomes. With strong evidence about mechanisms, the key elements of success can be strengthened, and the key elements of failure can be eliminated or repaired. Unfortunately, empirical evidence about these mechanisms is limited, and little guidance for quantifying them exists. This essay assesses what mechanisms have been hypothesized, what empirical evidence exists for their relative contributions and what advances have been made in the past decade for estimating mechanism causal effects from non-experimental data. The essay concludes with a proposed agenda for building an evidence base about protected area mechanisms. PMID:26460122

  20. Environmental Toxicant Exposure and Cancer: The Role of Epigenetic Changes and Protection by Phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Yunes; Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Amirhamzeh, Amirali; Poursaleh, Zohreh; Saadat, Alireza; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to environmental toxicants is a well-documented predisposing factor for cancer. Although genetic alterations have long been known to occur through exposure to some environmental carcinogens, there is another layer of genome regulatory system named epigenetic system. Epigenetics is defined as any reversible and heritable change in cellular patterns of gene expression that does not alter DNA sequence. This layer of gene control plays a key role in early stages of carcinogenesis by reprogramming cells to what is known as cancer stem cells, a process with great similarities to somatic cell reprogramming into "induced pluripotent stem cell". Environmental toxicants could directly promote carcinogenesis through disturbing promoter CpG island hypermethylation, and silencing of tumor suppressor genes, hypomethylation of transposable elements and genomic instability induced by environmental toxicants. Environmental toxicants could also indirectly affect epigenetic programming of nucleus through inducing inflammatory signaling pathways that converge on NF-κB or STAT3 activation. Considering the reversibility of epigenetic alterations and their pivotal role in early carcinogenesis, reversion of these alterations could be a promising approach for chemoprevention. Selected phytochemicals have shown desirable effects through regulation of the most important epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNA expression, as well as modulation of SIRT-1 and STAT-3 signaling pathways. The present review aims to outline the epigenetic mechanisms underlying carcinogenic effects of environmental toxicants, and the protective effects of phytochemicals in reversing epigenetic aberrations in the regulatory pathways steering normal cell homeostasis.

  1. Factors influencing private and public environmental protection behaviors: results from a survey of residents in Shaanxi, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wang; Reisner, Ann

    2011-03-01

    Currently one of the largest and most rapidly developing countries, China also has some of the world's most severe environmental problems. China will most likely need to use all of the potential major strategies currently available to solve the country's huge environmental challenges, including promoting individual conservation behavior through educational campaigns and encouraging public environmental advocacy. This paper summarized the findings of a survey of 347 residents of Shaanxi province on environmental attitudes and behaviors. The survey found generally high levels of environmental knowledge and high recognition of the seriousness of environmental issues, moderate levels of individual actions supporting environmental resource conservation and low levels of public environmental behaviors, particularly for organized public advocacy. Further analysis indicated that the perceived importance of environmental protection is the most important factor influencing individual environmental resource conservation, but not public advocacy behaviors. Implications for environmental campaigns are discussed.

  2. Summary Report for the Environmental Protection Agency MERL/FRMAC Mission Alignment Exercise held at the Environmental Protection Agency Facility on June 24-26 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Mark B.; Shanks, Sonoya Toyoko; Fournier, Sean Donovan; Leonard, Elliott J.

    2014-09-01

    From June 24th thru June 26th 2014, members of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), FRMAC Fly Away Laboratory, and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) participated in a joint nuclear incident emergency response/round robin exercise at the EPA facility in Las Vegas, Nevada. The purpose of this exercise was to strengthen the interoperability relationship between the FRMAC Fly Away Laboratory (FAL) and the EPA Mobile Environmental Radiation Laboratory (MERL) stationed in Las Vegas, Nevada. The exercise was designed to allow for immediate delivery of pre-staged, spiked samples to the EPA MERL and the FAL for sample preparation and radiological analysis. Upon completion of laboratory analysis, data was reviewed and submitted back to the FRMAC via an electronic data deliverable (EDD). In order to conduct a laboratory inter-comparison study, samples were then traded between the two laboratories and re-counted. As part of the exercise, an evaluation was conducted to identify gaps and potential areas for improvements for FRMAC, FAL and EPA operations. Additionally, noteworthy practices and potential future areas of interoperability opportunities between the FRMAC, FAL and EPA were acknowledged. The exercise also provided a unique opportunity for FRMAC personnel to observe EPA sample receipt and sample preparation processes and to gain familiarity with the MERL laboratory instrumentation and radiation detection capabilities. The areas for potential improvements and interoperability from this exercise will be critical for developing a more efficient, integrated response for future interactions between the FRMAC and EPA MERL assets.

  3. Dust protection for environmental control and life support systems in the lunar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuhs, Susan; Harris, Jeffrey

    1992-01-01

    Lunar dust is pervasive, and requirements for dust protection will affect both hardware design and operations planning for lunar surface systems. On Earth, mechanical problems caused by particulates include erosive and abrasive effects, clogging of mechanical equipment, and impairment of seals and bonds. In addition, dust tends to degrade the heat rejection properties of contaminated surfaces. All these effects have been observed on the lunar surface as well. This paper discusses the potential applicability of current dust protection methods to the problem of dust protection for the environmental control and life support (ECLS) systems of a lunar base, and highlights areas where development may be necessary. A review of dust problems experienced during the Apollo missions and of additional, ground-based experience with lunar dust provides a baseline for identifying operations and areas where dust may be expected to affect the ECLS systems. Current Earth-based methods of dust protection are identified and the impact of differences between the Earth and lunar environments on these methods is evaluated. Finally, integration of dust protection equipment with ECLS systems equipment is discussed.

  4. Environmental Assessment for the Health Protection Instrument Calibration Facility at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to review the possible environmental consequences associated with the construction and operation of a Health Protection Instrument Calibration Facility on the Savannah River Site (SRS). The proposed replacement calibration facility would be located in B Area of SRS and would replace an inadequate existing facility currently located within A Area of SRS (Building 736-A). The new facility would provide laboratories, offices, test equipment and the support space necessary for the SRS Radiation Monitoring Instrument Calibration Program to comply with DOE Orders 5480.4 (Environmental Protection, Safety and Health Protection Standards) and 5480.11 (Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers). The proposed facility would serve as the central site source for the evaluation, selection, inspection, testing, calibration, and maintenance of all SRS radiation monitoring instrumentation. The proposed facility would be constructed on a currently undeveloped portion in B Area of SRS. The exact plot associated with the proposed action is a 1.2 hectare (3 acre) tract of land located on the west side of SRS Road No. 2. The proposed facility would lie approximately 4.4 km (2.75 mi) from the nearest SRS site boundary. The proposed facility would also lie within the confines of the existing B Area, and SRS safeguards and security systems. Archaeological, ecological, and land use reviews have been conducted in connection with the use of this proposed plot of land, and a detailed discussion of these reviews is contained herein. Socioeconomic, operational, and accident analyses were also examined in relation to the proposed project and the findings from these reviews are also contained in this EA.

  5. [Classification of Priority Area for Soil Environmental Protection Around Water Sources: Method Proposed and Case Demonstration].

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Wang, Tie-yu; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiao, Rong-bo; Li, Qi-feng; Peng, Chi; Han, Cun-liang

    2016-04-15

    Based on comprehensive consideration of soil environmental quality, pollution status of river, environmental vulnerability and the stress of pollution sources, a technical method was established for classification of priority area of soil environmental protection around the river-style water sources. Shunde channel as an important drinking water sources of Foshan City, Guangdong province, was studied as a case, of which the classification evaluation system was set up. In detail, several evaluation factors were selected according to the local conditions of nature, society and economy, including the pollution degree of heavy metals in soil and sediment, soil characteristics, groundwater sensitivity, vegetation coverage, the type and location of pollution sources. Data information was mainly obtained by means of field survey, sampling analysis, and remote sensing interpretation. Afterwards, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was adopted to decide the weight of each factor. The basic spatial data layers were set up respectively and overlaid based on the weighted summation assessment model in Geographical Information System (GIS), resulting in a classification map of soil environmental protection level in priority area of Shunde channel. Accordingly, the area was classified to three levels named as polluted zone, risky zone and safe zone, which respectively accounted for 6.37%, 60.90% and 32.73% of the whole study area. Polluted zone and risky zone were mainly distributed in Lecong, Longjiang and Leliu towns, with pollutants mainly resulted from the long-term development of aquaculture and the industries containing furniture, plastic constructional materials and textile and clothing. In accordance with the main pollution sources of soil, targeted and differentiated strategies were put forward. The newly established evaluation method could be referenced for the protection and sustainable utilization of soil environment around the water sources.

  6. Implications of Environmental Regulations for Energy Production and Consumption. Analytical Studies for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Volume VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Natural Resources.

    This report is one of a series prepared by the National Research Council for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report takes a critical look at the relationship of energy and the environment and focuses on three main policy questions: (1) Do environmental regulations make too great a demand on scarce resources of energy and the…

  7. Proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Budget Shows Belt-Tightening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-03-01

    President Barack Obama's proposed fiscal year (FY) 2012 budget for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is $8.97 billion, a 13% decrease from the agency's FY 2010 enacted budget of $10.3 billion. While Congress has approved a moderate continuing resolution (CR) to fund the federal government until 18 March, the House of Representatives also has passed a CR (House Resolution 1; HR 1) that would call for sharp cuts to the budget for EPA and other agencies for the current fiscal year (2011). EPA administrator Lisa Jackson acknowledged the difficult budget situation during a 14 February teleconference. The proposed budget “reflects the tough choices needed for our nation's short- and long-term fiscal health and allows EPA to maintain its fundamental mission of protecting human health and the environment,” she said. “This budget focuses our resources on the most urgent health and environmental challenges we face. Though it includes significant cuts, it provides EPA with what we need to fundamentally protect the health of the American people,” Jackson added.

  8. Citizen science can improve conservation science, natural resource management, and environmental protection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinley, Duncan C.; Miller-Rushing, Abe J.; Ballard, Heidi L.; Bonney, Rick; Brown, Hutch; Cook-Patton, Susan; Evans, Daniel M.; French, Rebecca A.; Parrish, Julia; Phillips, Tina B.; Ryan, Sean F.; Shanley, Lea A.; Shirk, Jennifer L.; Stepenuck, Kristine F.; Weltzin, Jake; Wiggins, Andrea; Boyle, Owen D.; Briggs, Russell D.; Chapin, Stuart F.; Hewitt, David A.; Preuss, Peter W.; Soukup, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Citizen science has advanced science for hundreds of years, contributed to many peer-reviewed articles, and informed land management decisions and policies across the United States. Over the last 10 years, citizen science has grown immensely in the United States and many other countries. Here, we show how citizen science is a powerful tool for tackling many of the challenges faced in the field of conservation biology. We describe the two interwoven paths by which citizen science can improve conservation efforts, natural resource management, and environmental protection. The first path includes building scientific knowledge, while the other path involves informing policy and encouraging public action. We explore how citizen science is currently used and describe the investments needed to create a citizen science program. We find that:Citizen science already contributes substantially to many domains of science, including conservation, natural resource, and environmental science. Citizen science informs natural resource management, environmental protection, and policymaking and fosters public input and engagement.Many types of projects can benefit from citizen science, but one must be careful to match the needs for science and public involvement with the right type of citizen science project and the right method of public participation.Citizen science is a rigorous process of scientific discovery, indistinguishable from conventional science apart from the participation of volunteers. When properly designed, carried out, and evaluated, citizen science can provide sound science, efficiently generate high-quality data, and help solve problems.

  9. The Protective Role of Antioxidants in the Defence against ROS/RNS-Mediated Environmental Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Poljšak, Borut; Fink, Rok

    2014-01-01

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can result from exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ionising and nonionising radiation, ultraviolet radiation, elevated concentrations of ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, cigarette smoke, asbestos, particulate matter, pesticides, dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and many other compounds present in the environment. It appears that increased oxidative/nitrosative stress is often neglected mechanism by which environmental pollutants affect human health. Oxidation of and oxidative damage to cellular components and biomolecules have been suggested to be involved in the aetiology of several chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, and aging. Several studies have demonstrated that the human body can alleviate oxidative stress using exogenous antioxidants. However, not all dietary antioxidant supplements display protective effects, for example, β-carotene for lung cancer prevention in smokers or tocopherols for photooxidative stress. In this review, we explore the increases in oxidative stress caused by exposure to environmental pollutants and the protective effects of antioxidants. PMID:25140198

  10. Contaminated sites from the past: experience of the US Environmental Protection Agency.

    PubMed

    Boyd, M A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the experience of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in cleaning up radioactively contaminated sites. In the USA, EPA regulates the radiological clean-up of uranium mill tailings sites, some Department of Energy legacy sites within the US nuclear weapons complex, and Superfund National Priorities List sites. The approach to site remediation decisions, including the determination of clean-up levels, varies according to the enabling legislation granting EPA these authorities. Past practices that gave rise to many of the existing exposure situations at legacy sites were permissible before the advent of environmental clean-up legislation. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 authorised EPA to set applicable radioactivity concentration standards for soil clean-up at inactive uranium mill sites and vicinity properties. For the other categories of sites mentioned above, remediation goals are typically based on not exceeding a target excess cancer risk range established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (also known as 'Superfund'). EPA's regulations for cleaning up various contaminated sites in existing exposure situations often result in residual doses that are typical of optimised doses in planned exposure situations. Although the clean-up levels selected may differ from those adopted in other countries, recommendations from the International Commission on Radiological Protection are reflected in the exposure assessment methodologies used in their establishment.

  11. Environmental protection appraisals: a suggested guide for US Department of Energy field organization. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Barisas, S.; Polich, J.; Surles, T.; Habegger, L.; Anderson, D.; Opelka, J.; Frangos, T.

    1985-03-01

    This manual has been prepared to assist DOE field organizations in conducting environmental protection appraisals of activities at DOE operating-level facilities. Its primary use will be by DOE operations offices in their appraisal of facilities operating under the authority of the Atomic Energy Act. However, the manual can also be used by other DOE field organizations. This manual is organized in modules that parallel those in the internal environmental audit checklist. It is assumed that the contractor is using the guide previously described (Internal Environmental Protection Audits) and that operations office staff members will have the opportunity to review or be cognizant of the contractor's completed internal audit, and other material generated within the facility, in preparation for the appraisal. This manual was developed to facilitate the appraisal process by providing operations office staff with a choice of modules that can be used independently or as a unit. The manual gives guidelines for reviewing information submitted to the operations office before the site visit and for conducting an on-site operating-level appraisal.

  12. Notable Canadian Children's Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrey, Irene E.

    This annotated bibliography dealing with Canadian children's books aims to show the historical development of the literature. Included within the bibliography are: (1) notable Canadian books from the eighteenth century to the modern period, (2) lists of books which were awarded a bronze medal for the years 1947-1975, and (3) a list of fiction for…

  13. Canadian Books for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Irma, Ed.

    The children's books listed and annotated in this book were selected by Canadian children's librarians; they represent the most informative and relevant books in print for children, providing knowledge and understanding of the Canadian environment and cultural milieu. Each entry indicates bibliographic information and availability.…

  14. 22 CFR 126.5 - Canadian exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PROVISIONS § 126.5 Canadian exemptions. (a) Temporary import of defense articles. Port Directors of U.S... that transit third countries, Port Directors of U.S. Customs and Border Protection and postmasters... State in a list of such persons publicly available through the Internet Web site of the Directorate...

  15. 22 CFR 126.5 - Canadian exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PROVISIONS § 126.5 Canadian exemptions. (a) Temporary import of defense articles. Port Directors of U.S... that transit third countries, Port Directors of U.S. Customs and Border Protection and postmasters... State in a list of such persons publicly available through the Internet Web site of the Directorate...

  16. Engineered nano materials and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Research at the Western Ecology Division in Oregon, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Engineered nanoparticles represent a unique hazard to human health and the environment because their inherent characteristics differ significantly from commonly used chemicals and bulk forms of materials. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for protecti...

  17. THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S STRESSOR IDENTIFICATION GUIDANCE: A PROCESS FOR DETERMINING THE PROBABLE CAUSES OF BIOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has ongoing programs to encourage the evaluation of stream condition based on biological indicators. Bioassessments reveal impairments but do not identify causes of impairments, a necessary step in the restoration of aqua...

  18. MEASUREMENT OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY THE US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY COMPENDIUM METHOD TO-17 - EVALUATION OF PERFORMANCE CRITERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    An evaluation of performance criteria for US Environmental Protection Agency Compendium Method TO-17 for monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air has been accomplished. The method is a solid adsorbent-based sampling and analytical procedure including performance crit...

  19. 2 CFR 1536.300 - Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency does a recipient who is an individual notify about a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency... Are Individuals § 1536.300 Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency does a recipient who is an... the EPA award official from each Environmental Protection Agency office from which it currently has...

  20. 2 CFR 1536.300 - Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency does a recipient who is an individual notify about a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency... Are Individuals § 1536.300 Whom in the Environmental Protection Agency does a recipient who is an... the EPA award official from each Environmental Protection Agency office from which it currently has...