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Sample records for canadian human rights

  1. Canadian Human Rights on the Internet. Internet Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Jack

    1999-01-01

    Explains that the Internet is a good source of information and misinformation about the rights that Canadians do and do not enjoy. Provides websites that address human rights issues, such as government and non-governmental organizations, and information for locating newsgroups and listservs. (CMK)

  2. Intersectionality and the Canadian Museum for Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhamoon, Rita Kaur; Hankivsky, Olena

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, the authors propose than an intersectionality perspective can transform understandings of the contentious content of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR). The use of an intersectionality perspective starts from the position that such discourses as racialization, gendering, capitalism, and ableism are mutually…

  3. Human Rights in Education: Recently Published Canadian Sources and an Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Douglas; Franco, Beatriz

    1986-01-01

    Bibliographies of 180 recent studies of Canadian themes or by Canadian authors on human rights in Canadian education are alphabetically listed. The studies are also indexed by the following topics: children's rights; education; ethnicity; financial; language; migration; multiculturalism; racism; sexism; special education; and theory. (SLD)

  4. Using Transformative Learning as a Model for Human Rights Education: A Case Study of the Canadian Human Rights Foundation's International Human Rights Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazzari, Vincenza; McAdams, Paul; Roy, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the essential practices and conditions for fostering transformative learning using the Canadian Human Rights Foundation's "International Human Rights Training Program" as a case study. It suggests that the program's participants challenge their own values and assumptions about human rights, their work and their society through…

  5. Human Rights and/or Market Logic: Neoliberalism, Difficult Knowledge, and the Canadian Museum for Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR) has been plagued by controversy since before its construction even began. Outcries regarding perceived oversights in the museum's programming and objections to the cost of construction, curatorial development, and staffing have erupted frequently in local media. Critical analyses of public responses to…

  6. Human Rights and/or Market Logic: Neoliberalism, Difficult Knowledge, and the Canadian Museum for Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR) has been plagued by controversy since before its construction even began. Outcries regarding perceived oversights in the museum's programming and objections to the cost of construction, curatorial development, and staffing have erupted frequently in local media. Critical analyses of public responses to…

  7. The Canadian Human Rights Commission and Issues of Concern for Aboriginal Women. Notes for Remarks, by the Deputy Chief Commissioner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falardeau-Ramsay, Michelle

    This speech by the deputy chief commissioner of the Canadian Human Rights Commission discusses human rights, employment security, and pay-equity issues for Native Canadian women. The speech, offered in both English and French, calls the inequality of opportunity for Native Canadians a "national tragedy." It describes efforts to bring…

  8. The Canadian Human Rights Commission and Issues of Concern for Aboriginal Women. Notes for Remarks, by the Deputy Chief Commissioner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falardeau-Ramsay, Michelle

    This speech by the deputy chief commissioner of the Canadian Human Rights Commission discusses human rights, employment security, and pay-equity issues for Native Canadian women. The speech, offered in both English and French, calls the inequality of opportunity for Native Canadians a "national tragedy." It describes efforts to bring…

  9. Hope without Consolation: Prospects for Critical Learning at the Canadian Museum for Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Failler, Angela

    2015-01-01

    From atop the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR), juts the Tower of Hope, a 23-story illuminated glass architectural feature meant to symbolize "the goal of the human-rights journey," namely, "hope for a changed world." The prominence of hope as an ideal is literally set in stone at the CMHR. Hope for the museum itself is…

  10. A Lovely Building for Difficult Knowledge: The Architecture of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodtke, Larissa

    2015-01-01

    One only needs to look at the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR) logo, with its abstract outline of the CMHR building, to see the way in which the museum's architecture has come to stand for the CMHR's immaterial meanings and content. The CMHR's architecture becomes a material intersection of discourses of cosmopolitanism, human rights, and…

  11. Hope without Consolation: Prospects for Critical Learning at the Canadian Museum for Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Failler, Angela

    2015-01-01

    From atop the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR), juts the Tower of Hope, a 23-story illuminated glass architectural feature meant to symbolize "the goal of the human-rights journey," namely, "hope for a changed world." The prominence of hope as an ideal is literally set in stone at the CMHR. Hope for the museum itself is…

  12. A Lovely Building for Difficult Knowledge: The Architecture of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodtke, Larissa

    2015-01-01

    One only needs to look at the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR) logo, with its abstract outline of the CMHR building, to see the way in which the museum's architecture has come to stand for the CMHR's immaterial meanings and content. The CMHR's architecture becomes a material intersection of discourses of cosmopolitanism, human rights, and…

  13. Canadian Human Rights Act. Office Consolidation = Loi canadienne sur les droits de la personne. Codification administrative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Supply and Services, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The Canadian Human Rights Act extends the laws in Canada that proscribe discrimination by establishing that each individual has the right to make the life for him- or herself that he or she is able and wishes to have, consistent with the duties and obligations of a member of society, without being hindered or prevented from doing so by…

  14. Insider/Outsider Ambiguities and the Canadian Museum for Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Author Julie Pelletier recently became part of a new committee at the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR): the Indigenous Education Working Group (IEWG). The IEWG is a working group made up of Indigenous individuals with a background in indigenous education. The first project the IEWG undertook was assisting with the development of Indigenous…

  15. Governing Difficult Knowledge: The Canadian Museum for Human Rights and Its Publics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR) comes to invoke, realize, and mediate museum publics. The author writes that she is interested in how the museum's architecture, rhetoric, and governance framings imagine, and engage with the public. As Canada's newest national museum and the first to be built outside of the…

  16. Governing Difficult Knowledge: The Canadian Museum for Human Rights and Its Publics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR) comes to invoke, realize, and mediate museum publics. The author writes that she is interested in how the museum's architecture, rhetoric, and governance framings imagine, and engage with the public. As Canada's newest national museum and the first to be built outside of the…

  17. Insider/Outsider Ambiguities and the Canadian Museum for Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Author Julie Pelletier recently became part of a new committee at the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR): the Indigenous Education Working Group (IEWG). The IEWG is a working group made up of Indigenous individuals with a background in indigenous education. The first project the IEWG undertook was assisting with the development of Indigenous…

  18. Do the Rights Thing?: The Canadian Museum for Human Rights and the MA in Cultural Studies at the University of Winnipeg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ready, Kathryn; Keshavjee, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Education is the self-declared "heart" of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR), already generating partnership projects and programs with such organizations as the Canadian Teachers' Federation, the Assembly of First Nations, the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, and the Robert F. Kennedy Center for Justice and Human Rights. The CMHR has…

  19. Do the Rights Thing?: The Canadian Museum for Human Rights and the MA in Cultural Studies at the University of Winnipeg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ready, Kathryn; Keshavjee, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Education is the self-declared "heart" of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR), already generating partnership projects and programs with such organizations as the Canadian Teachers' Federation, the Assembly of First Nations, the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, and the Robert F. Kennedy Center for Justice and Human Rights. The CMHR has…

  20. Let's Not Call in the Lawyers: Using the Canadian Human Rights Tribunal Decision in First Nations Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Ron S.

    2016-01-01

    In January 2016, the Canadian Human Rights Tribunal released its decision regarding the provision of Child and Family Services to First Nations living on reserves and the Yukon. The Tribunal found that the government of Canada had discriminated against First Nations children on the basis of their race. Many of the arguments made by the government…

  1. The Canadian Human Rights Act. Employer Guide = Loi canadienne sur les droits de la personne. Guide pour employeurs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Human Rights Commission, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The purpose of this brochure is to inform employers and their management personnel about the existence, requirements, and effects of the Canadian Human Rights Act. Section 1 is an introduction to the Act. Section 2 focuses on preventive action by employers to eliminate discrimination. Special programs/affirmative action undertaken by employers to…

  2. The Canadian Human Rights Act. Physical Handicap and Employment = Loi canadienne sur les droits de la personne. Le handicap physique et l'emploi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Human Rights Commission, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet presents administrative criteria for implementation of the Canadian Human Rights Act to be used by the Canadian Human Rights Commission to evaluate employment decisions affecting physically handicapped individuals. They are of value to employers who need to know how the Commission will analyze employer arguments that they have not…

  3. Human Rights Education: A Comparison of Canadian and U.S. Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarrow, Norma

    1990-01-01

    Efforts by Canada and the United States to implement human rights education programs in schools are described, with attention to legal and administrative structural influences. The rationale for inclusion of such programs is provided. Recently developed programs and hindrances to program implementation are also considered. (TJH)

  4. Methodology and Principles for Applying Section 11 of the Canadian Human Rights Act = Methodologie et principes d'application de l'article 11 de la Loi canadienne sur les droits de la personne.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Human Rights Commission, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The purpose of this paper is to help employers, employee groups, and others understand the concept of equal pay by explaining the intentions of section 11 of the Canadian Human Rights Act and the Canadian Human Rights Commission's approach to its application. It can be used as a reference by those responsible for developing pay systems or…

  5. Methodology and Principles for Applying Section 11 of the Canadian Human Rights Act = Methodologie et principes d'application de l'article 11 de la Loi canadienne sur les droits de la personne.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Human Rights Commission, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The purpose of this paper is to help employers, employee groups, and others understand the concept of equal pay by explaining the intentions of section 11 of the Canadian Human Rights Act and the Canadian Human Rights Commission's approach to its application. It can be used as a reference by those responsible for developing pay systems or…

  6. "We are not aliens, we're people, and we have rights." Canadian human rights discourse and high school climate for LGBTQ students.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Catherine; Peter, Tracey

    2011-08-01

    Canadian law protects people from discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation, but our public schools do not fulfill their ethical and legal obligations where sexual and gender minority youth are concerned. This article reports on a national survey study on homophobia and transphobia in Canadian high schools. Participants (n = 3,607) were questioned about school climate, harassment, school attachment, and institutional interventions. We found that schools were neither safe nor respectful for sexual and gender minority students, and we argue that ongoing exposure to this situation undermines students' respect for the Charter of Rights and their faith in adults.

  7. Human rights

    PubMed Central

    Powell, J Enoch

    1977-01-01

    What are human rights? In this article Enoch Powell, MP (a former Conservative Minister of Health), approaches this question through a critical discussion of Article 25 (I) of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Professor R S Downie in his accompanying commentary analyses Mr Powell's statements and takes up in particular Mr Powell's argument that claiming rights for one person entails compulsion on another person. In Professor Downie's view there is nothing in Article 25 (I) that cannot embody acceptable moral rights, the commonly accepted interpretation of that Article of the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights which many people think is wholly acceptable. PMID:604483

  8. Human rights issues and employee benefit plans.

    PubMed

    Campbell, F

    2001-03-01

    Canadians have human rights protections at both provincial and federal levels of government. At the federal level, the most important legislative enactments are the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (the "Charter") and the Canadian Human Rights Act. Provincially and territorially, human rights are legislatively safeguarded primarily by provincial human rights codes. Both federally and provincially, human rights may also be impacted by a variety of other statutes and regulations such as employment standards acts, workers' compensation acts, occupational health and safety acts, and pay equity legislation.

  9. Transgender Rights as Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Powell, Tia; Shapiro, Sophia; Stein, Ed

    2016-11-01

    Arguments to support transgender rights often rely on "born that way" arguments, which assert that gender identity is innate, immutable, and unassociated with choice. These arguments are vulnerable to attack on several grounds, including on the basis of emerging scientific data. Stronger support for transgender rights arises from human rights arguments.

  10. Women's Rights Are Human Rights!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salaam, Kalamu Ya

    1979-01-01

    This article emphasizes that the women's rights movement must be viewed as a vital part of the human rights struggle. It is argued that both men and women should speak out against sexism and support the struggles of women to defend and develop themselves. (Author/EB)

  11. Women's rights are human rights.

    PubMed

    Shalala, D E

    1998-09-01

    The US Secretary of Health and Human Services, Donna Shalala, challenged the world to live up to the affirmation made in Cairo: that women's rights are human rights. The US has responded to this affirmation with vigor by recognizing that when given knowledge, education, opportunity, and power, women can be heroines; they can move mountains to help themselves and the others whom they are destined to nurture. The US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has implemented numerous programs that will support these heroic acts. These programs include the Girl Power campaign (designed to help girls through the critical period of pre-adolescence), the National Strategy to Prevent Teen Pregnancy (promotes education to encourage abstinence), the National Plan on Breast Cancer, the Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Program (protects the health of low-income women), the Women's Health Initiative at the National Institutes of Health (designed to increase our knowledge about hormone replacement therapy, dietary patterns, and exercise), and a national 24-hour toll-free Violence Against Women hotline (1-800-799-SAFE). Although DHHS has done much in 5 years, the US has a long way to go in dealing with the interconnecting issues of the human rights of women everywhere.

  12. Whose Human Rights?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendel, Margherita

    During the last 50 years, principles, institutions, and policies of human rights have been developed worldwide. This book brings together European and international conventions on human rights, the rights of women, and the users and uses of education, and places them in their wider context. It examines issues in how human rights work, the ways in…

  13. Whose Human Rights?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendel, Margherita

    During the last 50 years, principles, institutions, and policies of human rights have been developed worldwide. This book brings together European and international conventions on human rights, the rights of women, and the users and uses of education, and places them in their wider context. It examines issues in how human rights work, the ways in…

  14. Special Section: Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frydenlund, Knut; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Eleven articles examine human rights in Europe. Topics include unemployment, human rights legislation, role of the Council of Europe in promoting human rights, labor unions, migrant workers, human dignity in industralized societies, and international violence. Journal available from Council of Europe, Directorate of Press and Information, 67006…

  15. Human rights and bioethics.

    PubMed

    Barilan, Y M; Brusa, M

    2008-05-01

    In the first part of this article we survey the concept of human rights from a philosophical perspective and especially in relation to the "right to healthcare". It is argued that regardless of meta-ethical debates on the nature of rights, the ethos and language of moral deliberation associated with human rights is indispensable to any ethics that places the victim and the sufferer in its centre. In the second part we discuss the rise of the "right to privacy", particularly in the USA, as an attempt to make the element of personal free will dominate over the element of basic human interest within the structure of rights and when different rights seem to conflict. We conclude by discussing the relationship of human rights with moral values beyond the realm of rights, mainly human dignity, free will, human rationality and response to basic human needs.

  16. Human Rights Resource Catalogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambrano, Elias, Comp.

    This document provides information about 25 programs/brochures which focus on human rights topics. Specific topics include: (1) counselor preparation; (2) multicultural awareness; (3) abuse and neglect; (4) Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; (5) self-awareness; (6) human rights awareness and human rights of students; (7) cultural diversity; (8)…

  17. Human Rights/Human Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canning, Cynthia

    1978-01-01

    The faculty of Holy Names High School developed an interdisciplinary human rights program with school-wide activities focusing on three selected themes: the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in conjunction with Human Rights Week; Food; and Women. This article outlines major program activities. (SJL)

  18. Special Issue: Labour Rights, Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Review, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Introduction"; "International Labour Standards and Human Rights" (Valticos); "The Origins of Convention No. 87 on Freedom of Association and the Right to Organize" (Dunning); "Human Rights Law and Freedom of Association" (Swepston); "Freedom of Association" (von Potobsky); "The ILO…

  19. A Human Rights Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Presents a human rights glossary that includes definitions of basic terms, treaties, charters, and groups/organizations that have been featured in previous articles in this edition of "Update on Law-Related Education"; the human rights terms have been compiled as part of the celebration of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights…

  20. A Human Rights Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Presents a human rights glossary that includes definitions of basic terms, treaties, charters, and groups/organizations that have been featured in previous articles in this edition of "Update on Law-Related Education"; the human rights terms have been compiled as part of the celebration of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights…

  1. [Human rights and procreation].

    PubMed

    Leroy, F

    1990-04-01

    The impact of procreation on freedom, health and welfare of human beings, is considerable. This relationship, however, is not mirrored in texts devoted to Human Rights. This omission obviously implies a neglect of women's and children's rights. The history of anticonceptive methods exemplifies the struggle for these rights. This conquest, which has lasted two hundred years, is far from completed. Because of the demographic outbreak in Third World countries, an ideological conflict has appeared between first generation Human Rights concerned with individual freedom ("rights of") and those of second generation aiming at social fairness ("rights to"). Adequate political and economic adjustment between North and South is a prerequisite to any balanced compromise that would resolve this conflict through democratic, albeit intensive, birth control.

  2. Abortion and human rights.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Dorothy

    2010-10-01

    Abortion has been a reality in women's lives since the beginning of recorded history, typically with a high risk of fatal consequences, until the last century when evolutions in the field of medicine, including techniques of safe abortion and effective methods of family planning, could have ended the need to seek unsafe abortion. The context of women's lives globally is an important but often ignored variable, increasingly recognised in evolving human rights especially related to gender and reproduction. International and regional human rights instruments are being invoked where national laws result in violations of human rights such as health and life. The individual right to conscientious objection must be respected and better understood, and is not absolute. Health professional organisations have a role to play in clarifying responsibilities consistent with national laws and respecting reproductive rights. Seeking common ground using evidence rather than polarised opinion can assist the future focus.

  3. Science and Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassin, Rene

    1972-01-01

    Practices and products of scientific research have been threatening human privacy. Strong guidelines should be enforced by world organizations to prevent this. Practicing professionals should also resist temptations for infringing upon other's rights. (PS)

  4. Fighting for Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Bao

    2011-01-01

    Speak Truth To Power consists of 17 teacher-developed lessons based on the stories of rights advocates from all over the world. The lessons were created for sixth-through 12th-grade students, and have come to New York schools thanks to the Robert F. Kennedy Center for Justice and Human Rights and the New York State United Teachers union. Speak…

  5. Fighting for Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Bao

    2011-01-01

    Speak Truth To Power consists of 17 teacher-developed lessons based on the stories of rights advocates from all over the world. The lessons were created for sixth-through 12th-grade students, and have come to New York schools thanks to the Robert F. Kennedy Center for Justice and Human Rights and the New York State United Teachers union. Speak…

  6. Tackling Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, four high school students from the Tashkent International School in the capital city confronted the issue of their nation's human rights problems head on by researching the topic and publishing their findings on the Web. The site, "Uzbekistan: Opaque Reality," was created as an entry for the non-profit Global SchoolNet's Doors…

  7. Tackling Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, four high school students from the Tashkent International School in the capital city confronted the issue of their nation's human rights problems head on by researching the topic and publishing their findings on the Web. The site, "Uzbekistan: Opaque Reality," was created as an entry for the non-profit Global SchoolNet's Doors…

  8. Nurse, legal society receive human rights award.

    PubMed

    2004-12-01

    The 2004 Canadian Awards for Action on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights have been presented to Megan Oleson, a Vancouver nurse who set up a temporary, unauthorized safe injection site (SIS) for intravenous drug users in the Downtown Eastside; and to the Pivot Legal Society (PLS), also of Vancouver. The PLS worked with Oleson to set up the temporary site while Canada's first legal SIS was still under construction.

  9. Human Rights in the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpham, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Human rights are rapidly entering the academic curriculum, with programs appearing all over the country--including at Duke, Harvard, Northeastern, and Stanford Universities; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Universities of Chicago, of Connecticut, of California at Berkeley, and of Minnesota; and Trinity College. Most of these…

  10. Human Rights in the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpham, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Human rights are rapidly entering the academic curriculum, with programs appearing all over the country--including at Duke, Harvard, Northeastern, and Stanford Universities; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Universities of Chicago, of Connecticut, of California at Berkeley, and of Minnesota; and Trinity College. Most of these…

  11. Leadership in Canadian urology: what is the right stuff?

    PubMed

    Robinson, Michael; Macneily, Andrew; Afshar, Kourosh; McInnes, Colin; Lennox, Peter; Carr, Nicholas; Skarlicki, Daniel; Masterson, John; Arneja, Jugpal

    2013-01-01

    There are little data characterizing leadership roles within Canadian Urology. The importance of these positions in urology underscores the need for further investigation to provide insight for recruitment, development, and success. All Canadian Urology Program Directors and Division/Department Heads were invited to complete an online leadership survey as part of a larger national cohort from 11 other surgical specialties. Response rate was 62% (13/21), the majority of whom were Caucasian (77%) and male (92%). Only 8% of respondents in urology hold an advanced degree compared with 45% in other specialties. Additional leadership training was done by 54% of the respondents. Residency was completed in Canada by 92%, but 62% completed fellowships abroad. A majority reported no well-defined job description for their role (54%). The top responsibility reported by leaders was mentoring residents (67%), followed by advising staff (62%). Excellence in patient care and teaching were seen as the most important professional characteristics, whereas integrity was the personal quality felt most important. Leaders reported 17% of their income came from their leadership role, equivalent to the time required for position duties (19%). "Time management" was listed as the greatest challenge faced (54%). Leadership style was reported as "democratic" by 92%. Leaders in urology most often self-rated their leadership skills lower than leaders from other surgical specialties (7 vs 8/10). Positions of leadership in urology are disproportionately represented by Caucasian males and comparatively few hold relevant advanced degrees. Excellence in the areas of teaching and patient care, and high personal integrity are felt to be the most important characteristics for success. Time management issues are viewed as the greatest challenge. These preliminary data may prove useful for the mentoring, recruitment, and success of future leaders in our specialty. Copyright © 2013 Association of Program

  12. The Northern Peoples and Canadian Federalism, 1975-1982: The Struggle for Aboriginal Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Paul W.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the efforts of native Canadian groups to secure greater legal equality and recognition of cultural rights in the face of opposition from most Canadian governments. Presents the text of the 1975 Dene Declaration, the 1980 Declaration of the First Nations, and excerpts from the 1982 Constitution Act, all of which deal with the rights of…

  13. The Northern Peoples and Canadian Federalism, 1975-1982: The Struggle for Aboriginal Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Paul W.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the efforts of native Canadian groups to secure greater legal equality and recognition of cultural rights in the face of opposition from most Canadian governments. Presents the text of the 1975 Dene Declaration, the 1980 Declaration of the First Nations, and excerpts from the 1982 Constitution Act, all of which deal with the rights of…

  14. Human Rights: The Essential Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Carol; Hansen, Carol Rae; Wilde, Ralph; Bronkhorst, Daan; Moritz, Frederic A.; Rolle, Baptiste; Sherman, Rebecca; Southard, Jo Lynn; Wilkinson, Robert; Poole, Hilary, Ed.

    This reference work documents the history of human rights theory, explains each article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, explores the contemporary human rights movement, and examines the major human rights issues facing the world today. This book is the first to combine historical and contemporary perspectives on these critical…

  15. The Equality Provisions of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Educational Policy: Preparations for Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manley-Casimir, Michael E.; Sussel, Terri A.

    1986-01-01

    Section 15 of the 1982 Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms guaranteed equality to Canadians by April 17, 1985. This study was designed to investigate preparation during the three-year deferral period by federal and provincial/territorial governments to harmonize legislation in the area of education with the Charter's guarantees. (MT)

  16. Human Rights Act, 12 February 1987.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    This document reprints major provisions of the Yukon's (Canada) 1987 Human Rights Act. The Act furthers the public policy that every individual is free and equal in dignity and rights, seeks to discourage and eliminate discrimination, and promotes the underlying principles of Canadian and international human rights instruments. Part 1 contains a Bill of Rights that protects the right to freedom of: 1) religion and conscience, 2) expression, 3) assembly and association, and 4) to enjoyment and disposition of property. Part 2 prohibits discrimination based on ancestry (including color and race), national origin, ethnic or linguistic background or origin, age, sex (including pregnancy), and marital or family status. Discrimination is also prohibited when offering services, goods, or facilities to the public; in connection with employment; in connection with membership in trade unions or trade, occupational, or professional associations; and in negotiation or performance of public contracts. The Bill of Rights lists reasonable causes for discrimination as well as exemptions, including preferential treatment for organization or family members or employment in a private home. Special programs and affirmative action programs are specifically not considered discrimination under this Act. The Act sets forth rules for providing equal pay for work of equal value and creates a Yukon Human Rights Commission to promote human rights and assist adjudication of complaints.

  17. Teachers and Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Audrey; Starkey, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    Why do teachers need to be familiar with human rights? In multicultural societies, whose values take precedence? How do schools resolve tensions between children's rights and teachers' rights? Campaigners, politicians and the media cite human rights to justify or challenge anything from peaceful protest to military action. The phrase "human…

  18. Teachers and Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Audrey; Starkey, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    Why do teachers need to be familiar with human rights? In multicultural societies, whose values take precedence? How do schools resolve tensions between children's rights and teachers' rights? Campaigners, politicians and the media cite human rights to justify or challenge anything from peaceful protest to military action. The phrase "human…

  19. Human Rights and Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowring, Bill

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts a contrast to the contribution by Hugh Starkey. Rather than his account of the inexorable rise of human rights discourse, and of the implementation of human rights standards, human rights are here presented as always and necessarily scandalous and highly contested. First, I explain why the UK has lagged so far behind its…

  20. Human Rights and the Statistician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spirer, Herbert F.

    Statisticians can help to improve human rights reporting. The statistician's approach to measurement, summary, and interpretation is needed to understand and help reduce human rights violations. Statistical problems in the measurement and analysis of human rights violations include: lack of agreement on the definition; great difficulties in…

  1. Human Rights and Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowring, Bill

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts a contrast to the contribution by Hugh Starkey. Rather than his account of the inexorable rise of human rights discourse, and of the implementation of human rights standards, human rights are here presented as always and necessarily scandalous and highly contested. First, I explain why the UK has lagged so far behind its…

  2. The Right to Live and Die. Canadian Critical Issues Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, John; Bourne, Paula

    One of a series adapted from the Canadian Public Issues Project, this book is designed to stimulate discussion and reflection about controversial issues through case studies. The book is based on high school units originally drawn from cases in newspapers, journals, books, legal documents, and government reports. Conflicts from issues arising over…

  3. The Right to Live and Die. Canadian Critical Issues Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, John; Bourne, Paula

    One of a series adapted from the Canadian Public Issues Project, this book is designed to stimulate discussion and reflection about controversial issues through case studies. The book is based on high school units originally drawn from cases in newspapers, journals, books, legal documents, and government reports. Conflicts from issues arising over…

  4. The Canadian Charter of Rights, American Jurisprudence, and Canadian Civil Libel Law: Will There Be an Occasion for Dancing in Canadian Streets?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizante, Gary

    The new and immense task that awaits the judiciary of Canada is to decide what limitations, if any, ought to be imposed upon freedom of expression as protected in the new Canadian Constitution with an entrenched Charter of Rights. The area of civil libel law provides special problems related to free speech and press. One source of help for…

  5. 75 FR 78147 - Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human Rights Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... Proclamation 8616--Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human Rights Week, 2010 #0; #0; #0; Presidential... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human Rights Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In 1948,...

  6. Canadian human resource needs in vascular surgery

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kenneth A.; Provan, John L.

    1998-01-01

    Objective To outline the distribution of vascular surgeons in Canada and to determine the present and future human resource needs in vascular surgery practice in Canada. Design Voluntary questionnaires sent to all members of the Canadian Society for Vascular Surgery (CSVS), the administrators of hospitals in Canada with more than 100 beds, and interrogation of the membership database of the CSVS. Main outcome measures The perceived present and future needs for fulltime and part-time vascular surgeons, determined by a variety of methods. Participants One hundred and forty active members of the CSVS and administrators of 120 hospitals. Main results From the CSVS members 62 responses were received from those residing in Canada, revealing 47 fulltime vascular (more than 75% of the practice) surgeons working with 0 to 5 colleagues (mean 1.8 [SD 1.3]). Fifteen responding surgeons combined the practice of vascular surgery with another specialty. Perceived immediate needs were 24 surgeons, with 42 required in 4.8 (1.8) years. Of 120 hospitals offering vascular surgery services, 90 stated that they met the needs of their community; however, additional immediate manpower requirements totalled 27 surgeons. Hospital administrators predicted a need of 55 additional vascular surgeons in a mean of 5.5 (4.6) years. Over 85% of hospitals stated that they had the resources to support the currently practising surgeons and their immediately required additions. Conclusions Prediction of the need for additional vascular surgeons should be based on an estimated retirement age of 65 years, with an adjustment for the increasing percentage of the Canadian population reaching the age of 60 years. All methodologies used in this study predict the need for additional human resources in vascular surgery. The need for continued training of new vascular surgeons is apparent, but the optimal number of trainees per year is less clear. PMID:9492746

  7. Civic Education and Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, R. Freeman

    In order to understand the context of the role that human rights should play in civic education in the United States, the era in which those rights were first debated (1789-1790's) must be examined, as well as contemporary political and education trends in the United States and the world. Human rights were at the heart of the democratic…

  8. Civic Education and Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, R. Freeman

    In order to understand the context of the role that human rights should play in civic education in the United States, the era in which those rights were first debated (1789-1790's) must be examined, as well as contemporary political and education trends in the United States and the world. Human rights were at the heart of the democratic…

  9. Breastmilk is a human right.

    PubMed

    Ball, Olivia

    2010-11-01

    All babies have a human right to breastmilk, based on the right to life, to adequate nutrition and to the highest attainable standard of health, and based on women's rights, which include the right to breastfeed, to breastfeeding education and to paid maternity leave. This article examines international human rights law as it applies to breastfeeding, with particular reference to the Australian context. It also lays out the rights obligations of organisations such as the Australian Breastfeeding Association, their relations with government and the merits of such organisations adopting a rights-based approach to advocacy.

  10. Home Education: A Human Right?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    The right of parents to home educate is sometimes described as a "human right." Underlying this "rights claim" is the perception that attempts to restrict home education are both unnecessary and dangerous. "Unnecessary," because home education does not harm children or deprive them of the right to education and…

  11. A Hierarchy of Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockett, Charles

    To establish an objective conception of human rights, one must first identify basic needs intrinsic to all people and then determine whether these needs are or can be hierarchically ordered. Many scholars have conducted research on the concept of human needs, particularly in the area of human rights. Among these scholars are Abraham H. Maslow…

  12. 76 FR 57798 - Canadian Pacific Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-CSX Transportation, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to Canadian Pacific Railway Company (CP) between milepost CH 5.0... agreement between CSXT and CP was filed with the notice of exemption. The unredacted version, as required by... Exemption--Consolidated Rail Corporation, in which CP seeks to obtain overhead trackage rights over CRC's...

  13. The International Human Rights Muddle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machan, Tibor R.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses confusion about the meaning of human rights in the United States. Suggests that welfare rights usurp the more traditional freedom rights of the founding fathers. Contrasts American interpretations with those of the Soviet Union. Journal availability: see SO 507 190. (KC)

  14. [Human rights and informed consent].

    PubMed

    Navarro-Reynoso, Francisco P; Argüelles-Mier, Miguel; Cicero-Sabido, Raúl

    2004-01-01

    The right to information is a right that all human beings have; it is unrenounceable and confers to the human being the Rights to the Political Constitution of the United States of Mexico, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Declaration of Geneva, and the Code of Behavior for Health Personnel. Information given to a sick person should suffice so that he/she can make a decision on management and treatment. Information is related directly with medical ethics and is obligatory not only for health workers but for all professionals in general.

  15. Australia: Abortion and Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Sifris, Ronli; Belton, Suzanne

    2017-06-01

    This article adopts a human rights lens to consider Australian law and practice regarding elective abortion. As such, it considers Australian laws within the context of the right to equality, right to privacy, right to health, and right to life. After setting out the human rights framework and noting the connected nature of many of the rights (and their corresponding violations), the article shifts its focus to analyzing Australian law and practice within the framework of these rights. It considers the importance of decriminalizing abortion and regulating it as a standard medical procedure. It discusses the need to remove legal and practical restrictions on access to abortion, including financial obstacles and anti-abortion protestors. Further, it comments on the importance of facilitating access; for example, by keeping accurate health data, securing continuity of health care, increasing the availability of medical abortion, and ensuring appropriate care is provided to the most marginalized and vulnerable women.

  16. Making the case for human rights in global health education, research and policy.

    PubMed

    Forman, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    If the 2010 CPHA conference is a bellwether of mainstream Canadian public and global health practice, its dearth of human rights papers suggests that, outside a small scholarly cohort, human rights remain marginal therein. This potential 'rights gap' conflicts with growing recognition of the relationship between health and human rights and ergo, the importance of human rights education for health professionals. This gap not only places Canadian health research outside the growing vanguard of academic research on health and human rights, but also ignores a potentially influential tool for achieving health equity. I suggest that human rights make a distinctive contribution to such efforts not replicated within other social justice and equity approaches, making human rights education a crucial complement to other ethical training. These contributions are evident in the normative specificity of the right to health in international law and its legally binding nature, in the success of litigation, the successful advocacy for AIDS treatment and the growing adoption of rights-based approaches to health. Canadian academic and research institutions should take up their rightful place within health and human rights research, education and practice globally, including by ramping up human rights-oriented education for health professionals within Canadian universities.

  17. Children's Books and Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soriano, Marc

    1977-01-01

    Provides an historical perspective on the social changes precipitated by invention of the printing press and widespread availability of books. Suggests ways in which to effectively incorporate human rights teaching into modern children's books. (AV)

  18. Scientific Freedom and Human Rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, Elisa

    2000-03-01

    As part of her ongoing work monitoring issues at the intersection of science and human rights, Ms. Munoz has highlighted violations of academic freedom in Serbia and Iran, the denial of visas and travel licenses to U.S. and Cuban scientists, interference with scientific freedom in Brazil, Mexico, Russia, and the Ukraine, the use of organs from executed prisoners in China, legislation jeopardizing women's health in Iran, and the closure of centers for the treatment of torture survivors in Turkey. Such violations contravene international human rights principles listed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights covenants. Ms. Munoz will describe current violations of scientific freedom and the relevant international principles on which these freedoms rest.

  19. Children's Books and Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soriano, Marc

    1977-01-01

    Provides an historical perspective on the social changes precipitated by invention of the printing press and widespread availability of books. Suggests ways in which to effectively incorporate human rights teaching into modern children's books. (AV)

  20. 76 FR 57798 - Canadian Pacific Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Consolidated Rail Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ...) will agree to grant overhead trackage rights to Canadian Pacific Railway Company (CP) over CRC's... between CRC and CP was filed with the notice of exemption. The unredacted version, as required by 49 CFR... CP, the purpose of the transaction is to allow for a more efficient routing of CP's trains into CP's...

  1. Relationship between Ontario chiropractors' attitudes toward drug prescription rights and Canadian versus non-Canadian college of graduation: results from an online survey.

    PubMed

    Emary, Peter Charles; Stuber, Kent Jason

    2016-03-01

    To investigate differences between chiropractors' attitudes toward drug prescription rights based on chiropractic college of graduation. A secondary data analysis of a 2015 survey of chiropractors from Ontario, Canada was performed. The questionnaire included 14 items concerning chiropractors' knowledge and attitudes toward drug prescription including demographics. 960 of 2,677 deliverable questionnaires were completed (36% response rate). The majority of respondents favoured limited prescribing rights for chiropractors regardless of college of graduation. Respondents who graduated from Canadian institutions were significantly more in favour of these privileges compared to graduates from non-Canadian schools. Over three-quarters of all respondents opposed the idea of chiropractors having full prescribing rights. No significant association was found between respondents' philosophical orientation and school attended. Ontario chiropractors who graduated from Canadian chiropractic institutions were most interested in obtaining limited drug prescription rights for the profession compared to non-Canadian chiropractic institution graduates.

  2. Speaking Truth to Power: Women's Rights as Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocco, Margaret Smith

    2007-01-01

    The author considers the treatment of women's rights as human rights in the social studies curriculum. She discusses the role of the United Nations in promoting women's rights since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. She also reviews the treatment of women's rights within social studies curriculum today through a…

  3. Speaking Truth to Power: Women's Rights as Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocco, Margaret Smith

    2007-01-01

    The author considers the treatment of women's rights as human rights in the social studies curriculum. She discusses the role of the United Nations in promoting women's rights since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. She also reviews the treatment of women's rights within social studies curriculum today through a…

  4. From Civil Rights to Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Julian

    2014-01-01

    This article traces the development of the "Deaf President Now" (DPN) movement and its similarities to the black civil rights movement. Movements typically begin with a concrete, precipitating event but are usually the result of known or shared incidents on the part of the participants, and the "Deaf President Now" movement…

  5. From Civil Rights to Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Julian

    2014-01-01

    This article traces the development of the "Deaf President Now" (DPN) movement and its similarities to the black civil rights movement. Movements typically begin with a concrete, precipitating event but are usually the result of known or shared incidents on the part of the participants, and the "Deaf President Now" movement…

  6. An African Perspective on Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiman, David

    1992-01-01

    Presents a series of classroom activities comparing differing views of human rights in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the African Charter on Human and People's Rights. Includes excerpts from the African Charter on Human and People's Rights and the full text of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. (CFR)

  7. Linguistic Human Rights and Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Lionel

    2007-01-01

    The Linguistic Human Rights (LHRs) paradigm is motivated by the desire to combat linguistic discrimination, where speakers of discriminated languages find themselves unable to use their preferred language in society at large. However, in an increasingly globalised world where speakers may feel the need or the desire to travel across state…

  8. Nutrition, health and human rights.

    PubMed

    Brundtland, G H

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the speech delivered by Gro Harlem Brundtland, Director-General of WHO, on issues related to nutrition from a health and a human rights perspective. According to Brundtland, nutrition is a universal factor that both affects and defines the health of all people. It affects not only growth and physical development of a child, but also his cognitive and social development. However, inequity, poverty, underdevelopment, as well as inadequate access to food, health and care still exist which have resulted to the deaths of millions of children and left many more suffering from diseases. Poverty has also been identified as the main obstacle to the attainment of health. The existence of structural poverty and ill health eventually leads to poor development, which includes poor nutrition, poor health, and poor human rights. The impact of poverty on health is further worsened by discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex, language, or religion. To address this issue, the WHO will renew their focus on the political and legal links between health and human rights. A human rights perspective provides the international community with an opportunity to support the development of public health policies and practices that promote healthy nutrition as a center of all social and economic development.

  9. Literacy, Human Rights, and Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Jose H.

    1989-01-01

    Notes 1990 is UNESCO's International Literacy Year. Presents alternative ways of overcoming illiteracy in Latin America. Suggests major contributing factors concern the region's weak economy. Argues the state's role is decisive in transferring resources to marginal sectors. Views literacy as a basic human right and that it allows for democratic…

  10. Human dignity, bioethics, and human rights.

    PubMed

    Häyry, Matti; Takala, Tuija

    2005-09-01

    The authors analyse and assess the Universal Draft Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights published by UNESCO. They argue that the Draft has two main weaknesses. It unnecessarily confines the scope of bioethics to life sciences and their practical applications. And it fails to spell out the intended role of human dignity in international ethical regulation.

  11. Child rights, right to water and sanitation, and human security.

    PubMed

    Pink, Ross

    2012-06-15

    The article explores the intersection between child rights, water scarcity, sanitation, and the human security paradigm. The recognition of child rights has been advanced through the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child and other international legal instruments, while water rights are increasingly affirmed in international law and through the historic July 2010 United Nations General Assembly resolution that strengthened the legal foundation for water security and human rights. Yet there remains a development gap in terms of child access to clean and secure water sources for basic human development needs. The human security paradigm provides a legal and humanitarian foundation for the extension of child rights related to water and sanitation.

  12. Comprehending Canadian police cautions: are the rights to silence and legal counsel understandable?

    PubMed

    Eastwood, Joseph; Snook, Brent

    2010-01-01

    Comprehension of a Canadian police right to silence caution and a right to legal counsel caution was examined. Each caution was first presented verbally in its entirety, followed by its sentence-by-sentence presentation in written format. Participants (N = 56) were asked to indicate, after each presentation, their understanding of the caution. When delivered in verbal format, 4 and 7% of participants fully understood the right to silence and legal counsel cautions, respectively. However, 48 and 32% of participants fully understood the right to silence and legal counsel cautions, respectively, when delivered in written format. Comprehension of the cautions was not influenced by gender, experience with the caution, or whether the caution was interpreted by a police recruit or regular student. The implications of the results for statement admissibility and protection of suspects' rights are discussed. 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Rights: A Human Rights Perspective. Human Rights Education Series, Topic Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, David M.

    This curriculum is intended to further thoughtful examination and responsible action among high school students about lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues. Unlike other curricula this discussion is not in the context of civil or political rights but in the broader context of human rights. These rights, as defined in the Universal…

  14. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Rights: A Human Rights Perspective. Human Rights Education Series, Topic Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, David M.

    This curriculum is intended to further thoughtful examination and responsible action among high school students about lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues. Unlike other curricula this discussion is not in the context of civil or political rights but in the broader context of human rights. These rights, as defined in the Universal…

  15. Minority-Majority Relations in Second Language Education and the New Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Angeline

    1984-01-01

    The implications of the new Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms for developing second language programs in Edmonton, Alberta, are explored. Immersion programs and ethnic survival programs are examined in depth. (BS)

  16. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landorf, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    A study of human rights prepares students for their role as global citizens and their study of practices in the world's countries that relate to the rights of human beings. Today, when one talks of human rights it is usually with reference to the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). It is the task of teachers to give students the…

  17. Human Rights Education Ways and Means

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajan, K. S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the importance of human rights education as proclaimed by UN (1994) and also the strategies for developing human rights education by UN General assembly 2005. In proclaiming the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004), in December 1994, the General Assembly defined human rights education as "a life-long…

  18. Teaching and Learning about Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lister, Ian

    What a human rights course should consist of, i.e., the objectives, course content, teaching methods, and evaluation techniques, are discussed. Human rights education must foster attitudes of tolerance and respect, provide knowledge about human rights, and develop students' awareness of how to translate human rights into social and political…

  19. Teaching Strategy: Using the Human Rights Poster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson focusing on a human-rights poster that provides visual reinforcement of the second article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that enforces freedom from discrimination. Presents students with examples of human-rights situations to assist them in understanding that all people are entitled to human rights. (CMK)

  20. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landorf, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    A study of human rights prepares students for their role as global citizens and their study of practices in the world's countries that relate to the rights of human beings. Today, when one talks of human rights it is usually with reference to the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). It is the task of teachers to give students the…

  1. Bioethics, Human Rights, and Childbirth.

    PubMed

    Erdman, Joanna

    2015-06-11

    The global reproductive justice community has turned its attention to the abuse and disrespect that many women suffer during facility-based childbirth. In 2014, the World Health Organization released a statement on the issue, endorsed by more than 80 civil society and health professional organizations worldwide.The statement acknowledges a growing body of research that shows widespread patterns of women's mistreatment during labor and delivery-physical and verbal abuse, neglect and abandonment, humiliation and punishment, coerced and forced care-in a range of health facilities from basic rural health centers to tertiary care hospitals. Moreover, the statement characterizes this mistreatment as a human rights violation. It affirms: "Every woman has the right to the highest attainable standard of health, which includes the right to dignified, respectful health care throughout pregnancy and childbirth."The WHO statement and the strong endorsement of it mark a critical turn in global maternal rights advocacy. It is a turn from the public health world of systems and resources in preventing mortality to the intimate clinical setting of patient and provider in ensuring respectful care. Copyright 2015 Erdman. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  2. Child feeding and human rights

    PubMed Central

    Kent, George

    2006-01-01

    Background The human right to adequate food needs to be interpreted for the special case of young children because they are vulnerable, others make the choices for them, and their diets are not diverse. There are many public policy issues relating to child feeding. Discussion The core of the debate lies in differences in views on the merits of infant formula. In contexts in which there is strong evidence and a clear consensus that the use of formula would be seriously dangerous, it might be sensible to adopt rules limiting its use. However, until there is broad consensus on this point, the best universal rule would be to rely on informed choice by mothers, with their having a clearly recognized right to objective and consistent information on the risks of using different feeding methods in their particular local circumstances. Summary The obligation of the state to assure that mothers are well informed should be viewed as part of its broader obligation to establish social conditions that facilitate sound child feeding practices. This means that mothers should not be compelled to feed in particular ways by the state, but rather the state should assure that mothers are supported and enabled to make good feeding choices. Thus, children should be viewed as having the right to be breastfed, not in the sense that the mother is obligated to breastfeed the child, but in the sense that no one may interfere with the mother's right to breastfeed the child. Breastfeeding should be viewed as the right of the mother and child together. PMID:17176464

  3. [The right to food as a human right].

    PubMed

    Jusidman-Rapoport, Clara

    2014-01-01

    The right to adequate food is included as a human right in Article 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in which dignity and equality are recognized as inherent to all people. The objective of the present work is to summarize the main statements contained in the international instruments related to this right. The text tries to clarify -according to such instruments and the derived thoughts in the international human rights system- what is the right to adequate food, what are the guarantees that can make it possible, what are the States commitments, what actions should be taken by them in order to effectively realize it, and what are the mechanisms that allow this right to be enforceable and justiciable. It ends stating that -with the aim to guarantee the right to food- interinstitutional, intergovernmental, academic and social participation are required, emphasizing the importance of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger worldwide.

  4. HIV, prisoners, and human rights.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, Leonard S; Amon, Joseph J; McLemore, Megan; Eba, Patrick; Dolan, Kate; Lines, Rick; Beyrer, Chris

    2016-09-17

    Worldwide, a disproportionate burden of HIV, tuberculosis, and hepatitis is present among current and former prisoners. This problem results from laws, policies, and policing practices that unjustly and discriminatorily detain individuals and fail to ensure continuity of prevention, care, and treatment upon detention, throughout imprisonment, and upon release. These government actions, and the failure to ensure humane prison conditions, constitute violations of human rights to be free of discrimination and cruel and inhuman treatment, to due process of law, and to health. Although interventions to prevent and treat HIV, tuberculosis, hepatitis, and drug dependence have proven successful in prisons and are required by international law, they commonly are not available. Prison health services are often not governed by ministries responsible for national public health programmes, and prison officials are often unwilling to implement effective prevention measures such as needle exchange, condom distribution, and opioid substitution therapy in custodial settings, often based on mistaken ideas about their incompatibility with prison security. In nearly all countries, prisoners face stigma and social marginalisation upon release and frequently are unable to access health and social support services. Reforms in criminal law, policing practices, and justice systems to reduce imprisonment, reforms in the organisation and management of prisons and their health services, and greater investment of resources are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Web Resources for Teaching about Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merryfield, Merry M.; Badang, Germain; Bragg, Christina; Kvasov, Aleksandr; Taylor, Nathan; Waliaula, Anne; Yamaguchi, Misato

    2012-01-01

    The study of human rights is inseparable from social studies. Beyond the basic political, economic, and social freedoms and rights spelled out in The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, hundreds of specialized topics have developed that demonstrate the complex nature of human rights in the twenty-first-century world--environmental exploitation…

  6. Web Resources for Teaching about Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merryfield, Merry M.; Badang, Germain; Bragg, Christina; Kvasov, Aleksandr; Taylor, Nathan; Waliaula, Anne; Yamaguchi, Misato

    2012-01-01

    The study of human rights is inseparable from social studies. Beyond the basic political, economic, and social freedoms and rights spelled out in The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, hundreds of specialized topics have developed that demonstrate the complex nature of human rights in the twenty-first-century world--environmental exploitation…

  7. Misconceptions about Human Rights and Women's Rights in Islam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Khalida Tanvir

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify three current misconceptions about the Islamic faith and issues of human rights and women's rights in the West. The first misconception is that Muslims are terrorists because they believe in Jihad. It is factually the case that Islamic teachings stress the value of peace and prosperity for all human beings. The second…

  8. Misconceptions about Human Rights and Women's Rights in Islam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Khalida Tanvir

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify three current misconceptions about the Islamic faith and issues of human rights and women's rights in the West. The first misconception is that Muslims are terrorists because they believe in Jihad. It is factually the case that Islamic teachings stress the value of peace and prosperity for all human beings. The second…

  9. Bringing Human Rights Home: Human Rights Education for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Loretta J.; Gupta, Meghna

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the purpose and focus of human-rights education. Traces the definition of human rights, emphasizing the role of the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). Compares the U.S. record on human rights against the UDHR. Suggests that human-rights education is limited, and offers ideas for improvement (DSK)

  10. Human rights and district nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    2005-02-01

    The main provisions of the European Convention on Human Rights were incorporated into UK law in the Human Rights Act 1998. Human Rights were described by Lord Hoffman in 'Matthews v Ministry of Defence' [2003] as the rights essential to the life and dignity of the individual in a democratic society. The fundamental nature of the rights demand that district nurses must inform their practice with a clear understanding of the main provisions of the Act and how they apply to health care.

  11. Building a Human Rights Youth Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyles, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Capital Territory's Human Rights Act 2004 and the establishment of an ACT Human Rights Commission have begun to create a human rights culture in the ACT. This paper highlights the influence of this culture on the design and build of the ACT's new youth justice centre. (Contains 2 figures.)

  12. Human Rights and Teaching for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landorf, Hilary

    2010-01-01

    According to the author, teaching for social justice entails the acquisition of the following learning outcomes: (1) knowledge of the meaning, historical development, and application of human rights; (2) ability to analyze human rights from multiple perspectives; and (3) willingness to address human rights issues in local, global, intercultural,…

  13. Population and Human Rights, Education and Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    A background paper for the Symposium on Population and Human Rights reviews the proceedings and resolutions of the United Nations Internal Conference on Human Rights of 1968, General Assembly resolutions, and relevant supporting statistics concerned with the relations of population and human rights. This information is organized into the following…

  14. Examining Human Rights in a Global Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Greg; Inoue, Keiko; Orrick, Stefanie

    The United Nations' founding in 1945 and the 1948 adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights reflected the international community's growing commitment to the protection and recognition of what is now referred to as human rights. Despite increased international attention, human rights violations continue to occur at the local, regional,…

  15. Building a Human Rights Youth Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyles, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Capital Territory's Human Rights Act 2004 and the establishment of an ACT Human Rights Commission have begun to create a human rights culture in the ACT. This paper highlights the influence of this culture on the design and build of the ACT's new youth justice centre. (Contains 2 figures.)

  16. Human Rights and Teaching for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landorf, Hilary

    2010-01-01

    According to the author, teaching for social justice entails the acquisition of the following learning outcomes: (1) knowledge of the meaning, historical development, and application of human rights; (2) ability to analyze human rights from multiple perspectives; and (3) willingness to address human rights issues in local, global, intercultural,…

  17. Examining Human Rights in a Global Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Greg; Inoue, Keiko; Orrick, Stefanie

    The United Nations' founding in 1945 and the 1948 adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights reflected the international community's growing commitment to the protection and recognition of what is now referred to as human rights. Despite increased international attention, human rights violations continue to occur at the local, regional,…

  18. Human rights to in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando; Dickens, Bernard M; Dughman-Manzur, Sandra

    2013-10-01

    The Inter-American Court of Human Rights (the Court) has ruled that the Supreme Court of Costa Rica's judgment in 2000 prohibiting in vitro fertilization (IVF) violated the human right to private and family life, the human right to found and raise a family, and the human right to non-discrimination on grounds of disability, financial means, or gender. The Court's conclusions of violations contrary to the American Convention on Human Rights followed from its ruling that, under the Convention, in vitro embryos are not "persons" and do not possess a right to life. Accordingly, the prohibition of IVF to protect embryos constituted a disproportionate and unjustifiable denial of infertile individuals' human rights. The Court distinguished fertilization from conception, since conception-unlike fertilization-depends on an embryo's implantation in a woman's body. Under human rights law, legal protection of an embryo "from conception" is inapplicable between its creation by fertilization and completion of its implantation in utero. © 2013.

  19. Uneasy promises: sexuality, health, and human rights.

    PubMed

    Miller, A M

    2001-06-01

    Although attention to the links between health and human rights is growing globally, the full potential of a progressive human rights approach to health has not yet been explored, and it is even more faintly understood in the United States than in the rest of the world. At the same time, global claims for sexual rights, particularly for those identifying as gay, lesbian, transsexual, or bisexual, are increasingly being made as human rights claims. All of these approaches to rights advocacy risk limiting their own transformative impact unless advocates critique their own strategies. Paradoxically, using health as a way to bring attention to nonheteronormative sexualities can be both helpful and potentially dangerous, especially when coupled with human rights. Recognizing sexuality as a critical element of humanity, and establishing a fundamental human right to health, can play a role in broader social justice claims, but the tendency of both public health and human rights advocacy to "normalize" and regulate must be scrutinized and challenged.

  20. The right to die in Canadian legislation, case law and legal doctrine.

    PubMed

    Plachta, M

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses moral, social, medical and legal problems pertaining to the so-called 'right to die' from the perspective of Canadian criminal legislation (the Criminal Code), constitutional law (the Charter of Rights and Freedoms) and court rulings. Regarding the latter, the opinions delivered in Nancy B v Hôtel-Dieu de Quebec and Rodriguez v British Columbia (Attorney General) are especially significant. In Rodriguez, the Supreme Court of British Columbia unequivocally rejected the petitioner's submission that the Charter of Rights and Freedoms guarantees the right to die. This judgment was upheld on appeal by both the British Columbia Court of Appeal and the Supreme Court of Canada. In addition, the article addresses the complex problem of legislating the right to die in Canada. Several options are examined, such as professional judgment and advance health care directives including living wills and powers of attorney for health care. In this context, the recommendations adopted by both the Law Reform Commission of Canada and provincial commissions are analysed. Finally, the article discusses the legislation proposed recently in Alberta, Manitoba, Newfoundland, Ontario and Saskatchewan. It seems doubtful, however, whether a nation-wide solution will be found in the near future.

  1. Incorporating Human Rights into the College Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledbetter, Pat

    This paper recounts development of a community college humanities course titled Human Rights/Human Wrongs: The History, Philosophy, Law, Art, and Literature of the Human Rights Movement. The author argues that a special focus, interdisciplinary course provides a broader base for exploring and understanding most of the pressing issues of our time.…

  2. Canadian soil quality guidelines for copper: Environmental and human health

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This report begins with background information on the physical and chemical properties of copper, the production and use of copper in Canada, its levels in the Canadian environment, and existing guidelines and criteria regarding copper concentrations in various media. It then reviews the environmental fate and behaviour of copper, notably in the soil; the behavior and effects of copper in biota, including soil microbial processes, terrestrial plants and invertebrates, livestock and wildlife, and bioaccumulation; and the pharmacokinetics and toxicology of copper in mammals and humans, concluding with an overall toxicological evaluation and human exposure estimates. This information is used to derive environmental and human health soil quality guidelines for copper to protect environmental and human health receptors, for agricultural, residential/parkland, commercial, and industrial land uses.

  3. [Human rights of the physician].

    PubMed

    García-Romero, H

    1995-01-01

    The physician rights may be classified in those related with his quality as a person, and those derived from his relationship with his patients and the institution to which he belongs. Among the first, liberty of expression, legal security, right of free association, the right of a dignified social position and neutral attitude towards the commitment of giving medical attention to whomever the patient may be. He has the right to receive a full and up-to-date training oriented to serve the community, supported by health institutions, and to have the means of utmost quality to give medical attention of the highest standard.

  4. Human rights and migration policies.

    PubMed

    Marmora, L

    1990-01-01

    This paper concerns the history of migration, migration policies, and the rights of migrants in Latin America from 1500 to the present. In the first part of the article, the author identifies and discusses the basic rights of migrants. In the second part, migration policies, migration flows, and the treatment of migrants are examined over time.

  5. Human Rights within Education: Assessing the Justifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCowan, Tristan

    2012-01-01

    While respect for human rights has long been endorsed as a goal of education, only recently has significant attention been paid to the need to incorporate rights within educational processes. Current support for human rights within education, however, has a variety of motivations. This paper provides a theoretical exploration of these diverse…

  6. Teaching about Human Rights and American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Karen D.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a flexible lesson plan integrating teaching about human rights into the existing curriculum about American Indians. Asserts that American Indians have the right to maintain their cultural ways and connects that subject to the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Includes three lists of resources and references. (MJP)

  7. Human Rights within Education: Assessing the Justifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCowan, Tristan

    2012-01-01

    While respect for human rights has long been endorsed as a goal of education, only recently has significant attention been paid to the need to incorporate rights within educational processes. Current support for human rights within education, however, has a variety of motivations. This paper provides a theoretical exploration of these diverse…

  8. Linguistic Human Rights: Overcoming Linguistic Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove, Ed.; Phillipson, Robert, Ed.

    A collection of essays on linguistic human rights includes: "Combining Immigrant and Autochthonous Language Rights: A Territorial Approach to Multilingualism" (Francois Grin); "On the Limits of Ethnolinguistic Democracy" (Joshua A. Fishman); "Linguistic Human Rights and Educational Policy in Russia" (Alexei A.…

  9. Cooperative Learning to Promote Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George M.

    2003-01-01

    When people think about how education at the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels can promote human rights, most people think about the content. For example, they think about lessons on topics such as overcoming discrimination or the right to a fair trial. However, teaching for human rights is not only about the "what," the content of…

  10. Linguistic Human Rights: Overcoming Linguistic Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove, Ed.; Phillipson, Robert, Ed.

    A collection of essays on linguistic human rights includes: "Combining Immigrant and Autochthonous Language Rights: A Territorial Approach to Multilingualism" (Francois Grin); "On the Limits of Ethnolinguistic Democracy" (Joshua A. Fishman); "Linguistic Human Rights and Educational Policy in Russia" (Alexei A.…

  11. Environmental contaminants and human health in the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, S G; Van Oostdam, J; Tikhonov, C; Feeley, M; Armstrong, B; Ayotte, P; Boucher, O; Bowers, W; Chan, L; Dallaire, F; Dallaire, R; Dewailly, E; Edwards, J; Egeland, G M; Fontaine, J; Furgal, C; Leech, T; Loring, E; Muckle, G; Nancarrow, T; Pereg, D; Plusquellec, P; Potyrala, M; Receveur, O; Shearer, R G

    2010-10-15

    The third Canadian Arctic Human Health Assessment conducted under the Canadian Northern Contaminants Program (NCP), in association with the circumpolar Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), addresses concerns about possible adverse health effects in individuals exposed to environmental contaminants through a diet containing country foods. The objectives here are to: 1) provide data on changes in human contaminant concentrations and exposure among Canadian Arctic peoples; 2) identify new contaminants of concern; 3) discuss possible health effects; 4) outline risk communication about contaminants in country food; and 5) identify knowledge gaps for future contaminant research and monitoring. The nutritional and cultural benefits of country foods are substantial; however, some dietary studies suggest declines in the amount of country foods being consumed. Significant declines were found for most contaminants in maternal blood over the last 10 years within all three Arctic regions studied. Inuit continue to have the highest levels of almost all persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals among the ethnic groups studied. A greater proportion of people in the East exceed Health Canada's guidelines for PCBs and mercury, although the proportion of mothers exceeding these guidelines has decreased since the previous assessment. Further monitoring and research are required to assess trends and health effects of emerging contaminants. Infant development studies have shown possible subtle effects of prenatal exposure to heavy metals and some POPs on immune system function and neurodevelopment. New data suggest important beneficial effects on brain development for Inuit infants from some country food nutrients. The most successful risk communication processes balance the risks and benefits of a diet of country food through input from a variety of regional experts and the community, to incorporate the many socio-cultural and economic factors to arrive at a risk

  12. Women's rights are human rights -- why development has failed women.

    PubMed

    1995-08-01

    Oxfam UK/I believes that all women have the right to a livelihood, reproductive choice, health care, education, and employment. Access to resources, decision-making, political and religious freedom of expression, and freedom from all forms of violence are also equally important. Oxfam UK/I recognizes that women worldwide from a diversity of cultures and religions are arguing for similar rights, but continuing efforts to create women's equality and empowerment have had only limited success. There has been no significant improvement in women's lifestyles, the feminization of poverty is increasing, growing religious fundamentalism threatens advances made toward equality, and there has been an increasing violation of women's individual human rights to development in the last decade. Human rights instruments to tackle gender inequality exist, but they are not implemented. The rights approach to development recognizes that unless inequalities at local, national, and international levels are seen and challenged, women will continue to face poverty, inadequate representation of their needs and views, and policies which are contrary to their interests. The rights approach encompasses all aspects of women's lives, recognizing that women's rights in the civil, political, social, economic, and cultural spheres are indivisible from one another in the realities of daily life. Oxfam UK/I acknowledges the complexity of the rights debate.

  13. Human rights: implications for patients and staff.

    PubMed

    Dreezen, I; Nys, H

    2003-01-01

    Originating from wider declarations of fundamental human rights, individual human rights in the field of health care, also called patients' rights, have been elaborated, developed and implemented by most international organisations, including the European Union and the World Health Organisation. The Council of Europe is however, particularly prominent in its work in the field of human rights, having drawn up a number of vital international treaties, among them and most importantly the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine, which strengthens internationally the legal position of the patient and the research subject in setting a minimum level of protection in respect of individual human rights and health and is binding upon the member states that have ratified it. Nonetheless, it needs to be examined to see if the European Union would be a better alternative to regulate these patients' rights.

  14. Are Pharmaceutical Patents Protected By Human Rights?

    PubMed Central

    Millum, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The International Bill of Rights enshrines a right to health, which includes a right to access essential medicines. This right frequently appears to conflict with the intellectual property regime that governs pharmaceutical patents. However, there is also a human right that protects creative works, including scientific productions. Does this right support intellectual property protections, even when they may negatively affect health? This article examines the recent attempt by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights to resolve this issue and argues that it fails. This is problematic because it means defenders of the present patent regime can continue using human rights documents to support their position. I offer a new framework for resolving the problem by examining the values that underlie human rights. PMID:18974405

  15. Professional Fulfillment and Satisfaction of US and Canadian Adult Education and Human Resource Development Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Shari L.; Wiesenberg, Faye

    2004-01-01

    This comparative study explored the professional fulfillment and job satisfaction of US and Canadian college and university faculty in the fields of Adult Education and Human Resource Development. In Autumn 2001, we disseminated electronically "The Adult Education and Human Resource Development Faculty Survey" to a selected sample of Canadian and…

  16. Bioethics and international human rights.

    PubMed

    Thomasma, D C

    1997-01-01

    Noting how the spread of medical technology is creating clashes with traditional values and within cultures, the author addresses the clash between Western rights-based incentives, as used by the United Nations to guarantee respect for life and dignity, and communitarian traditions. He proposes a mean between wholesale cultural relativism and international absolutism.

  17. Democracy, Human Rights and Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Safaei, Jalil

    2012-01-01

    Significant improvements in human rights and democracy have been made since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations in 1948. Yet, human rights, especially women's rights, are still being violated in many parts of the developing world. The adverse effects of such violations on women's and children's health are well known, but they are rarely measured. This study uses cross-national data from over 145 countries to estimate the impact of democracy and respect for human rights on various measures of women's health while controlling for confounding socio-economic factors such as income, education, fertility and healthcare. It finds that democracy and regards for human rights contribute positively to women's health outcomes, as do socio-economic variables.

  18. Democracy, Human Rights and Women's Health

    PubMed Central

    Safaei, Jalil

    2012-01-01

    Significant improvements in human rights and democracy have been made since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations in 1948. Yet, human rights, especially women's rights, are still being violated in many parts of the developing world. The adverse effects of such violations on women's and children's health are well known, but they are rarely measured. This study uses cross-national data from over 145 countries to estimate the impact of democracy and respect for human rights on various measures of women's health while controlling for confounding socio-economic factors such as income, education, fertility and healthcare. It finds that democracy and regards for human rights contribute positively to women's health outcomes, as do socio-economic variables. PMID:22654388

  19. (Public) Health and Human Rights in Practice.

    PubMed

    Annas, George J; Mariner, Wendy K

    2016-02-01

    Public health's reliance on law to define and carry out public activities makes it impossible to define a set of ethical principles unique to public health. Public health ethics must be encompassed within--and consistent with--a broader set of principles that define the power and limits of governmental institutions. These include human rights, health law, and even medical ethics. The human right to health requires governments not only to respect individual human rights and personal freedoms, but also, importantly, to protect people from harm from external sources and third parties, and to fulfill the health needs of the population. Even if human rights are the natural language for public health, not all public health professionals are comfortable with the language of human rights. Some argue that individual human rights--such as autonomy and privacy--unfairly limit the permissible means to achieve the goal of health protection. We argue that public health should welcome and promote the human rights framework. In almost every instance, this will make public health more effective in the long run, because the goals of public health and human rights are the same: to promote human flourishing. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  20. Two rights make a wrong: human left-right malformations.

    PubMed

    Casey, B

    1998-01-01

    Like all vertebrates, humans establish anatomical left-right asymmetry during embryogenesis. Variation from this normal arrangement (situs solitus) results in heterotaxy, expressed either as randomization (situs ambiguus) or complete reversal (situs inversus) of normal organ position. Familial heterotaxy occurs with autosomal dominant, recessive and X-linked inheritance. All possible situs variants, solitus, ambiguus and inversus, can appear among some heterotaxy families. Positional cloning has led to the identification of a gene on the X chromosome responsible for some cases of human heterotaxy. Additional candidate genes have emerged from recent studies of left-right axis development in chick, frog and mouse, which have begun to elucidate a tightly regulated genetic cascade that differentiates the left and right sides prior to the appearance of morphological asymmetry.

  1. Sovereignty transformed: a sociology of human rights.

    PubMed

    Levy, Daniel; Sznaider, Natan

    2006-12-01

    This paper examines how global interdependencies and the consolidation of a human rights discourse are transforming national sovereignty. Social researchers frequently address the supremacy of state sovereignty and the absoluteness of human rights as mutually exclusive categories. However, rather than presupposing that a universal rights discourse is necessarily leading to the demise of sovereignty, we suggest that an increasingly de-nationalized conception of legitimacy is contributing to a reconfiguration of sovereignty itself. Through the analytic prism of historical memories - which refers to shared understandings specific pasts carry for present concerns of a political community - we provide an explanatory factor for the salience of human rights norms as a globally available repertoire of legitimate claim making. While states retain most of their sovereign functions, their legitimacy is no longer exclusively conditioned by a contract with the nation, but also by their adherence to a set of nation-transcending human rights ideals. Legitimacy is mediated by how willing states are to engage with 'judicial memories' of human rights abuses and their articulation in cosmopolitan legal frames. Empirically, we focus on war crime trials and how legal inscriptions of memories of human rights abuses are recasting the jurisdiction of International Law. The readiness of states to engage with rights abuses is becoming politically and culturally consequential, as adherence to global human rights norms confers legitimacy.

  2. A human rights framework for midwifery care.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Joyce Beebe

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a rights-based model for midwifery care of women and childbearing families. Salient features include discussion of the influence of values on how women are viewed within cultures and societies, universal ethical principles applicable to health care services, and human rights based on the view of women as persons rather than as objects or chattel. Examples of the health impact on women of persistent violation of basic human rights are used to support the need for using a human rights framework for midwifery care--a model supported by codes of ethics, the midwifery philosophy of care, and standards of practice.

  3. The Human Right of Home Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Homeschooling is legal and growing in many countries but is virtually forbidden by law in Germany and a few others. The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) has reviewed and upheld this ban. Is home education a human right? How do these courts employ their jurisprudence of proportionality to find banning home education does not violate relevant…

  4. Patents and human rights: a heterodox analysis.

    PubMed

    Gold, E Richard

    2013-01-01

    Much international debate over access to medicines focuses on whether patent law accords with international human rights law. This article argues that this is the wrong question to ask. Following an analysis of both patent and human rights law, this article suggests that the better approach is to focus on national debates over the best calibration of patent law to achieve national objectives.

  5. The European Convention on Human Rights. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castberg, Frede

    This book outlines the contents of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and its Protocols 1 and 4. The major goal of the Convention, which constitutes an innovation in international law, is to guarantee the protection of "human rights" by allowing both member states and individuals to institute proceedings…

  6. Human Rights and Citizenship: an Unjustifiable Conflation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiwan, Dina

    2005-01-01

    Human rights discourses are increasingly being coupled to discourses on citizenship and citizenship education. In this paper, I consider the premise that human rights might provide a theoretical underpinning for citizenship. I categorise citizenship into five main categories -- moral, legal, identity-based, participatory and cosmopolitan. Bringing…

  7. The Human Right of Home Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Homeschooling is legal and growing in many countries but is virtually forbidden by law in Germany and a few others. The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) has reviewed and upheld this ban. Is home education a human right? How do these courts employ their jurisprudence of proportionality to find banning home education does not violate relevant…

  8. Human Rights, Diversity, and Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    2009-01-01

    The 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a propitious time for educators to examine its implications for educating citizens in multicultural nation states. The author argues that students must experience democratic classrooms and schools that reflect their cultures and identities to internalize human rights values,…

  9. Human Rights, Diversity, and Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    2009-01-01

    The 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a propitious time for educators to examine its implications for educating citizens in multicultural nation states. The author argues that students must experience democratic classrooms and schools that reflect their cultures and identities to internalize human rights values,…

  10. Poverty, equity, human rights and health.

    PubMed

    Braveman, Paula; Gruskin, Sofia

    2003-01-01

    Those concerned with poverty and health have sometimes viewed equity and human rights as abstract concepts with little practical application, and links between health, equity and human rights have not been examined systematically. Examination of the concepts of poverty, equity, and human rights in relation to health and to each other demonstrates that they are closely linked conceptually and operationally and that each provides valuable, unique guidance for health institutions' work. Equity and human rights perspectives can contribute concretely to health institutions' efforts to tackle poverty and health, and focusing on poverty is essential to operationalizing those commitments. Both equity and human rights principles dictate the necessity to strive for equal opportunity for health for groups of people who have suffered marginalization or discrimination. Health institutions can deal with poverty and health within a framework encompassing equity and human rights concerns in five general ways: (1) institutionalizing the systematic and routine application of equity and human rights perspectives to all health sector actions; (2) strengthening and extending the public health functions, other than health care, that create the conditions necessary for health; (3) implementing equitable health care financing, which should help reduce poverty while increasing access for the poor; (4) ensuring that health services respond effectively to the major causes of preventable ill-health among the poor and disadvantaged; and (5) monitoring, advocating and taking action to address the potential health equity and human rights implications of policies in all sectors affecting health, not only the health sector.

  11. Poverty, equity, human rights and health.

    PubMed Central

    Braveman, Paula; Gruskin, Sofia

    2003-01-01

    Those concerned with poverty and health have sometimes viewed equity and human rights as abstract concepts with little practical application, and links between health, equity and human rights have not been examined systematically. Examination of the concepts of poverty, equity, and human rights in relation to health and to each other demonstrates that they are closely linked conceptually and operationally and that each provides valuable, unique guidance for health institutions' work. Equity and human rights perspectives can contribute concretely to health institutions' efforts to tackle poverty and health, and focusing on poverty is essential to operationalizing those commitments. Both equity and human rights principles dictate the necessity to strive for equal opportunity for health for groups of people who have suffered marginalization or discrimination. Health institutions can deal with poverty and health within a framework encompassing equity and human rights concerns in five general ways: (1) institutionalizing the systematic and routine application of equity and human rights perspectives to all health sector actions; (2) strengthening and extending the public health functions, other than health care, that create the conditions necessary for health; (3) implementing equitable health care financing, which should help reduce poverty while increasing access for the poor; (4) ensuring that health services respond effectively to the major causes of preventable ill-health among the poor and disadvantaged; and (5) monitoring, advocating and taking action to address the potential health equity and human rights implications of policies in all sectors affecting health, not only the health sector. PMID:12973647

  12. Toward a Postmodern Notion of Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhihe

    2002-01-01

    The idea of human rights has increasingly been playing a very important part in people's contemporary life, the political in particular, the cultural in general. This explains why Dr. Griffin in "Beyond Anarchy and Plutocracy: the need for global democracy" includes a chapter on human rights. "My contention," Dr. Griffin writes, "is that now, in…

  13. Model Curriculum for Human Rights and Genocide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Board of Education, Sacramento.

    Concern for human rights is a major element in the California State Board of Education's "History-Social Science Framework for California Public Schools, Kindergarten through Grade Twelve," and this document contains resources and guidelines to help teachers and curriculum developers integrate the teaching of human rights into their…

  14. Diversity, Human Rights, and Curriculum in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Neyda H.

    Although a discussion of human rights is perhaps the most important topic of any social studies curriculum, such discussions are absent from even those curriculum topics where they would seem most appropriate. While the foundational principles of human rights are basic in all cultures throughout history, these basics are seldom taught. This paper…

  15. Are (Should) Human Rights (Be) Universal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Rhoda E.

    1998-01-01

    Believes that the purpose of human rights is to change many culturally ingrained habits and customs that violate the dignity of the individual. Expounds the differences between cultural relativism and cultural absolutism. States that "weak" cultural relativism is sometimes an appropriate response to human-rights violations. (CMK)

  16. Ritual male infant circumcision and human rights.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Allan J; Arora, Kavita Shah

    2015-01-01

    Opponents of male circumcision have increasingly used human rights positions to articulate their viewpoint. We characterize the meaning of the term "human rights." We discuss these human rights arguments with special attention to the claims of rights to an open future and to bodily integrity. We offer a three-part test under which a parental decision might be considered an unacceptable violation of a child's right. The test considers the impact of the practice on society, the impact of the practice on the individual, and the likelihood of adverse impact. Infant circumcision is permissible under this test. We conclude that infant circumcision may be proscribed as violating local norms, even though it does not violate human rights.

  17. Public health nursing, ethics and human rights.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L

    2013-05-01

    Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Human rights and the right to abortion in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga-Fajuri, Alejandra

    2014-03-01

    The scope of this study is to question the fact that in some countries in Latin America (Chile, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras and the Dominican Republic) abortion is still forbidden in all situations. Even after all the debate on this thorny issue, the theory of human rights is not often used in the defense of abortion. This is clearly related to the pervasive, albeit unspoken belief that, due to their condition, pregnant women inherently lose their full human rights and should surrender and even give up their lives in favor of the unborn child. This article seeks to show that an adequate reading of the theory of human rights should include abortion rights through the first two trimesters of pregnancy, based on the fact that basic liberties can only be limited for the sake of liberty itself. It also seeks to respond to those who maintain that the abortion issue cannot be resolved since the exact point in the development of the embryo that distinguishes legitimate from illegitimate abortion cannot be determined. There are strong moral and scientific arguments for an approach capable of reducing uncertainty and establishing the basis for criminal law reforms that focus on the moral importance of trimester laws.

  19. Women, reproductive health and international human rights.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    This article addresses the issue concerning the reproductive health and international human rights of women. The modern era of human rights applied to women's health started with the adoption of the UN Charter in 1946 and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the General Assembly in 1948. However, the leading instrument of women's equal rights is the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women adopted in 1979. This treaty assumed the legal responsibility to eradicate all forms of discrimination against women, particularly in the field of health care, thus ensuring that women will have access to health and family planning services. The concept of health as "the state of physical, mental and social well-being" as described by WHO emphasizes the significance of the social well-being in which the social, cultural, and economic factors plays a pivotal role in women's health status. In other parts of the world however, women are considered as relatively insignificant and are made to suffer discrimination in health because of their sex role. Such disadvantages against the female gender include injustices in the light of human rights law, particularly in the context of reproductive health services. Addressing the health disadvantages of women calls for actions gearing towards the promotion of women's empowerment. Efforts to advance the reproductive health through human rights of women should be rooted on the existing framework of human rights as recognized in most national constitutions and international human rights treaties.

  20. Symposium on Population and Human Rights.

    PubMed

    1981-06-01

    The objectives of the Symposium on Population and Human Rights, held at the Vienna International Center during June 1981, included the following: to review the progress or lack thereof in the observance of human rights in the context of demographic, economic and social conditions and changes since the Amsterdam Symposium of 1974; to review leading population trends and policy changes since 1974 and also examine some possible implications of recent development in the field of medicine, biology, and genetic engineering; and to identify which conceptions of human rights relating to demographic phenomenon are appropriate for today's population problems and to formulate guidelines and standards suitable for these problems. The agenda for the Symposium, attended by about 27 distinguished jurists and demographers, covered the following items: human rights and population trends and policies; morbidity/mortality and human rights; fertility and human rights; internal migration and human rights; status of women, population, and human rights; and new institutional functions in the area of human rights and population. The following were among the main themes and recommendations of the Symposium: 1) the problems of human rights should be contextually handled in such a way as to take adequate account of prevailing socioeconomic and cultural conditions; 2) the realization of a positive right to individual and social development is often impeded, particularly in developing areas, by the prevalence of high mortality, malnutrition, and inadequate health services; 3) policies designed to influence fertility should, within the framework of general population policies, be part of the national strategy for general development; 4) the Symposium recognized the problems of monitoring and appraising the observance or violation of human rights as they relate to the rights of the individual to free movement and residence and the rights to work and decent living; 5) considering the significant

  1. Is inclusive education a human right?

    PubMed

    Gordon, John-Stewart

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I question the general idea that inclusive education--i.e., to teach all students in one class--is a moral human right. The following discussion shows that the widespread view in disability studies that there is a moral human right to inclusive education can be reasonably called into question by virtue of the proposed counter arguments, but without denying that inclusive education is of utmost importance. Practically speaking, the legal human right to inclusive education is of great practical value for impaired students, and for their basic right to be free from discrimination in education, since their concern thereby gains great legal and moral force. But, theoretically speaking, this particular human right lacks an attainable consensus concerning proper moral justification.

  2. Transformative combinations: women's health and human rights.

    PubMed

    Yamin, A E

    1997-01-01

    From the human rights perspective proposed in this article, a woman's good or ill health reflects more than biology or individual behaviors; it reflects her enjoyment (or lack thereof) of fundamental human rights that enable her to exercise basic power over the course and quality of her life. The "structural" view of health that such a human rights perspective suggests is concerned first with identifying the effects of social, economic, and political relations on women's health and then with promoting "interventions" aimed at transforming the laws, institutions, and structures that deny women's rights and well-being. Yet, traditional human rights law and practice have been limited to narrowly defined abuses by public officials against individuals that fail to capture the most pervasive denials of women's rights, which, though rooted in systematic discrimination, are frequently played out in so-called "private" institutions, primarily within the family. The experiences of women's health advocates in addressing complex women's health issues makes it clear that women's lack of access to economic and political power in the public sphere creates the conditions under which they are discriminated against and physically and sexually abused in the private sphere. Combining the pragmatic understanding of women's health professionals with an expansive conception of human rights norms has the potential to transform the fields of women's health and human rights.

  3. 76 FR 77363 - Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8765 of December 8, 2011 Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation With the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights on December 10, 1948, the United Nations...

  4. Rethinking International Migration of Human Capital and Brain Circulation: The Case of Chinese-Canadian Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blachford, Dongyan Ru; Zhang, Bailing

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the dynamics of brain circulation through a historical review of the debates over international migration of human capital and a case study on Chinese-Canadian academics. Interviews with 22 Chinese-Canadian professors who originally came from China provide rich data regarding the possibilities and problems of the contemporary…

  5. Rethinking International Migration of Human Capital and Brain Circulation: The Case of Chinese-Canadian Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blachford, Dongyan Ru; Zhang, Bailing

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the dynamics of brain circulation through a historical review of the debates over international migration of human capital and a case study on Chinese-Canadian academics. Interviews with 22 Chinese-Canadian professors who originally came from China provide rich data regarding the possibilities and problems of the contemporary…

  6. The Foundations of a Human Right to Health: Human Rights and Bioethics in Dialogue.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Audrey

    2015-06-11

    Human rights, including the right to health, are grounded in protecting and promoting human dignity. Although commitment to human dignity is a widely shared value, the precise meaning and requirements behind the term are elusive. It is also unclear as to how a commitment to human dignity translates into specific human rights, such as the right to the highest attainable standard of health, and delineates their scope and obligations. The resulting lack of clarity about the foundations of and justification for the right to health has been problematic in a number of ways. This article identifies the strengths of and some of the issues with the grounding of the right to health in human dignity. It then examines ethical and philosophical expositions of human dignity and several alternative foundations proposed for the right to health, including capability theory and the work of Norman Daniels, to assess whether any offer a richer and more adequate conceptual grounding for the right to health.

  7. Human trafficking: an evaluation of Canadian medical students' awareness and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Wong, Janice C; Hong, Jonathan; Leung, Pearl; Yin, Penny; Stewart, Donna E

    2011-04-01

    Human trafficking is a human rights violation prevalent globally. Current guidelines highlight healthcare professionals' key role in responding to human trafficking, emphasizing the importance of medical education in raising awareness of trafficking. To assess pre-clerkship medical students' awareness of human trafficking and attitudes towards learning about trafficking in the medical curriculum at Canada's largest medical school. An anonymous, classroom-based questionnaire was designed, piloted and administered to first- and second-year medical students at one large Canadian medical school with a diverse student population. The questionnaire sought demographic data and information on students' self-perceived awareness of human trafficking and interest in learning about trafficking and other community health issues. 262 medical students completed the questionnaire (70.0% response). Most participants reported that they were not knowledgeable (48.5%) or only somewhat knowledgeable (45.4%) about human trafficking. 88.9% of participants were not familiar with signs and symptoms of trafficked persons. While students' responses indicated that they prioritized other social issues, a majority of participants (76.0%) thought that trafficking was important to learn about in medical school, especially identifying trafficked persons and their health needs. These medical students of one Canadian medical school demonstrated limited familiarity with the issue of human trafficking but largely felt that they should be taught more about this issue during their medical education. This assessment of early medical students' awareness of human trafficking is relevant to medical educators and the organizations that could develop the required educational curricula and resources.

  8. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading.

    PubMed

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-02-01

    Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded.

  9. Foucault and Human Rights: Seeking the Renewal of Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2016-01-01

    This article takes up Foucault's politics of human rights and suggests that it may constitute a point of departure for the renewal of HRE, not only because it rejects the moral superiority of humanism--the grounding for the dominant liberal framework of international human rights--but also because it makes visible the complexities of human rights…

  10. Foucault and Human Rights: Seeking the Renewal of Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2016-01-01

    This article takes up Foucault's politics of human rights and suggests that it may constitute a point of departure for the renewal of HRE, not only because it rejects the moral superiority of humanism--the grounding for the dominant liberal framework of international human rights--but also because it makes visible the complexities of human rights…

  11. International Human Rights Defense Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Tierney, John F. [D-MA-6

    2014-07-16

    09/08/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights and International Organizations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Sexuality and international human rights law.

    PubMed

    Tahmindjis, Phillip

    2005-01-01

    This essay considers the extent to which international human rights now protect, or might protect, GLBT communities. The counterpoint between the potential width of application of international human rights instruments and their silence on sexuality has become the leitmotif of sexuality and gender identity within the international human rights framework. In addition, there is a symbiotic relationship between the international norms and domestic legal systems which directly affects the meaning of those norms. Domestic laws are not only needed to implement international norms, but are essential in overcoming the equivocations and silences of international human rights law as it has traditionally applied to GLBT communities. A fusion of the international norms with domestic legal systems through the principle of diversity, rather than the principle of equality, is needed.

  13. International Human Rights Defense Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Tierney, John F. [D-MA-6

    2014-07-16

    09/08/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights and International Organizations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. International Human Rights Defense Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Tierney, John F. [D-MA-6

    2014-07-16

    House - 09/08/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights and International Organizations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Human Rights in the United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Information Service, New York, NY. Reference Div.

    This pamphlet uses the Articles of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a framework within which to describe legal safeguards of individual rights in the United Kingdom. Under each article of the Declaration, a historical perspective of the tradition of civil liberties is provided, as are descriptions of recent trends and…

  16. Economic Justice: Necessary Condition for Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloud, Fred

    1993-01-01

    Economic justice means taking the personhood of poor people into account; respecting their needs, personal ambitions, rights, and dignity; and affording equal opportunity and equal access to education, health care, housing, and jobs. Examples of injustice to minority groups are provided, citing the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. (SLD)

  17. Do human rights matter to health?

    PubMed

    Singh, Jerome Amir; Govender, Michelle; Mills, Edward J

    2007-08-11

    Legal instruments and litigation as a way to enforce the rights to life and to health is a relatively new strategy that is increasingly common. We show how legal measures have been used to attain health and human rights with case examples from India and South Africa that resulted in large public-health benefits.

  18. Human Rights in Sino-American Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    unidentified injections, the insertion of pepper , chili powder, or other substances into the nose, mouth, or genitals, and the insertion of horse hairs or...and the Empty Fortress: China’s Search For Security, (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1997), p. 186. 3 “Opposed to Any Hegemonic Activities on the...internal human rights conditions, as well as to play a more active role in the international human rights movement. However, in spite of China’s

  19. Human rights of persons with mental disabilities. The European Convention of Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Gostin, L O

    2000-01-01

    It is not necessary to recount the numerous charters and declarations ... to understand human rights.... All persons are born free and equal in dignity and rights. Everyone ... is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in the international human rights instruments without discrimination, such as the rights to life, liberty, security of the person, privacy, health, education, work, social security, and to marry and found a family. Yet, violations of human rights are a reality to be found in every corner of the globe.

  20. UK: impact of European human rights law.

    PubMed

    Brahams, D

    2000-10-21

    The UK's Human Rights Act 1998, which incorporates into that country's law the European Convention on Rights and Freedoms, came into full operation on Oct 2, 2000. The Act imposes duties on public authorities, who must now justify their position if that is in conflict with a Convention right. Four Articles in the Convention are potential flashpoints in respect of health cases, examples being patients' rights to receive expensive life-saving treatment and disciplinary procedures, including those of the General Medical Council and National Health Service trusts.

  1. Euthanasia: reconciling culture and human rights.

    PubMed

    Goolam, N M

    1996-01-01

    The constitutional justifiability of euthanasia will depend upon interpretation of the right to life and the right to respect for and protection of one's dignity. Pertinent issues arising hereto are: In our new value-based constitutional interpretation, what are the values underlying our multi-cultural society? Issues of death and dying are inter-linked to a civilization's world view and its approach to human dignity. Western, African and Islamic approaches will be compared. Does euthanasia negate the essential content of the right to life and is its limitation on such right reasonable/justifiable in an open and democratic society based on freedom and equality.

  2. Human rights in the biotechnology era 1

    PubMed Central

    Benatar, Solomon R

    2002-01-01

    Backgound The concept of Human Rights has become the modern civilising standard to which all should aspire and indeed attain. Discussion In an era characterised by widening disparities in health and human rights across the world and spectacular advances in biotechnology it is necessary to reflect on the extent to which human rights considerations are selectively applied for the benefit of the most privileged people. Attention is drawn particularly to sub-Saharan Africa as a marginalised region at risk of further marginalisation if the power associated with the new biotechnology is not used more wisely than power has been used in the past. To rectify such deficiencies it is proposed that the moral agenda should be broadened and at the very least the concept of rights should be more closely integrated with duties Summary New forms of power being unleashed by biotechnology will have to be harnessed and used with greater wisdom than power has been used in the past. Widening disparities in the world are unlikely to be diminished merely by appealing to human rights. We recommend that a deeper understanding is required of the underlying causes of such disparities and that the moral discourse should be extended beyond human rights language. PMID:11960562

  3. Human Rights Texts: Converting Human Rights Primary Source Documents into Data.

    PubMed

    Fariss, Christopher J; Linder, Fridolin J; Jones, Zachary M; Crabtree, Charles D; Biek, Megan A; Ross, Ana-Sophia M; Kaur, Taranamol; Tsai, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We introduce and make publicly available a large corpus of digitized primary source human rights documents which are published annually by monitoring agencies that include Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, the Lawyers Committee for Human Rights, and the United States Department of State. In addition to the digitized text, we also make available and describe document-term matrices, which are datasets that systematically organize the word counts from each unique document by each unique term within the corpus of human rights documents. To contextualize the importance of this corpus, we describe the development of coding procedures in the human rights community and several existing categorical indicators that have been created by human coding of the human rights documents contained in the corpus. We then discuss how the new human rights corpus and the existing human rights datasets can be used with a variety of statistical analyses and machine learning algorithms to help scholars understand how human rights practices and reporting have evolved over time. We close with a discussion of our plans for dataset maintenance, updating, and availability.

  4. Human Rights Texts: Converting Human Rights Primary Source Documents into Data

    PubMed Central

    Fariss, Christopher J.; Linder, Fridolin J.; Jones, Zachary M.; Crabtree, Charles D.; Biek, Megan A.; Ross, Ana-Sophia M.; Kaur, Taranamol; Tsai, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We introduce and make publicly available a large corpus of digitized primary source human rights documents which are published annually by monitoring agencies that include Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, the Lawyers Committee for Human Rights, and the United States Department of State. In addition to the digitized text, we also make available and describe document-term matrices, which are datasets that systematically organize the word counts from each unique document by each unique term within the corpus of human rights documents. To contextualize the importance of this corpus, we describe the development of coding procedures in the human rights community and several existing categorical indicators that have been created by human coding of the human rights documents contained in the corpus. We then discuss how the new human rights corpus and the existing human rights datasets can be used with a variety of statistical analyses and machine learning algorithms to help scholars understand how human rights practices and reporting have evolved over time. We close with a discussion of our plans for dataset maintenance, updating, and availability. PMID:26418817

  5. A Culture Of Health And Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Mariner, Wendy K; Annas, George J

    2016-11-01

    A culture of health can be seen as a social norm that values health as the nation's priority or as an appeal to improve the social determinants of health. Better population health will require changing social and economic policies. Effective changes are unlikely unless health advocates can leverage a framework broader than health to mobilize political action in collaboration with non-health sector advocates. We suggest that human rights-the dominant international source of norms for government responsibilities-provides this broader framework. Human rights, as expressed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and enforceable treaties, require governments to assure their populations nondiscriminatory access to food, water, education, work, social security, and a standard of living adequate for health and well-being. The policies needed to realize human rights also improve population health, well-being, and equity. Aspirations for human rights are strong enough to endure beyond inevitable setbacks to specific causes. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  6. Sexuality and human rights in europe.

    PubMed

    Graupner, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Written human rights law in Europe is as scanty as in the rest of the world. Case-law however provides considerable protection of sexual rights. It guarantees comprehensive protection of autonomy in sexual life, also for minors, and provides protection against discrimination based on sexual orientation. Negative attitudes of a majority may not justify interferences with the sexual rights of a minority and society could be expected to tolerate a certain inconvenience to enable individuals to live in dignity and worth in accordance with the sexual identity chosen by them. Compensation for interference with sexual autonomy and freedom is awarded. This high-level protection (as compared to other parts of the world) is however limited. It seems to be granted only in areas where it corresponds with public attitudes and social developments. And it is seldom secured on the national level but nearly exclusively by the European Court of Human Rights, whose case-law is often weakened by inconsistency.

  7. The Human Right to Access Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Tully, Stephen

    2006-04-15

    Electricity access is already well established within the framework of human rights, either as an implicit attribute of a pre-existing right (such as non-discrimination or sustainable development) or explicitly in the context of eliminating discrimination against women. There is also broad acknowledgement by states of the desirability of eliminating energy poverty - for all, but particularly for the rural poor, and women. (author)

  8. Mental health disabilities and human rights protections.

    PubMed

    Szmukler, G; Bach, M

    2015-01-01

    Around the world, reports regularly expose persistent and systemic human rights violations of patients in mental health services and facilities, and of those who are unable to access needed supports. A number of factors contribute - political will; the range and quality of services available; public and professional attitudes to mental health; stigma; health professionals' training and expertise; and available resources. This paper examines one of the main determinants, the legal framework. This sets the parameters for mental health policies and services and for applicable human rights norms and standards that can be realized in practice. We provide an overview of international human rights instruments in relation to mental health disabilities, and of the major human rights violations in this area. Key implications for mental health law reform are drawn with a particular focus on discrimination and coercive interventions. The major challenges posed by the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006) are examined. Current mental health laws, to greater or lesser degrees, fail to meet the newly required standards. We discuss reforms based on 'generic law' and 'legal capacity' principles that seek to meet those standards. We outline some emergent and promising examples of reform. The role of civil society and the importance of the standing of those with mental health disabilities in this process is noted.

  9. Human rights monitoring in virtual community.

    PubMed

    El Morr, Christo

    2012-01-01

    Holistic disability rights monitoring is essential in order to translate rights on paper into rights in reality for people with disabilities. At the same time, evidence-based knowledge produced through holistic monitoring has to be made accessible to a broad range of groups - researchers, representatives of disability community, people with disabilities, the media, policy makers, general public - and also has to contribute to building capacity within disability community around human rights issues. This article focuses on the design process of a complex Virtual Knowledge Network (VKN) as an operational tool to support mobilization and dissemination of evidence-based knowledge produced by the Disability Rights Promotion International Canada (DRPI-Canada) project. This tool is embedded in the more general framework of the project grounded in a human rights approach to disability and that acknowledges the importance of creating knowledgeable communities in order to make the disability rights monitoring efforts sustainable, advancing thus the decision making process in Canada in order to enhance the quality of life of people with disabilities.

  10. Interdependence, Human Rights and Global Health Law.

    PubMed

    Viens, A M

    2015-12-01

    The connection between health and human rights continues to play a prominent role within global health law. In particular, a number of theorists rely on the claim that there is a relation of interdependence between health and human rights. The nature and extent of this relation, however, is rarely defined, developed or defended in a conceptually robust way. This paper seeks to explore the source, scope and strength of this putative relation and what role it might play in developing a global health law framework.

  11. Bioterrorism, public health, and human rights.

    PubMed

    Annas, George J

    2002-01-01

    It is unnecessary and counterproductive to sacrifice basic human rights to respond to bioterrorism. Constructive public health legislation, which must be federal, cannot be carefully drafted under panic conditions. When it is, like the "model act," it will predictably rely on broad, arbitrary state authority exercised without public accountability. Public health should resist reverting to its nineteenth-century practices of forced examination and quarantine, which will simply encourage people to avoid physicians, hospitals, and public health practitioners they now trust and actively seek out in emergencies. Upholding human rights is essential to public trust and is ultimately our best defense against the threat of terrorism in the twenty-first century.

  12. Human Rights and the Rights of Aliens. Working Paper NB-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickel, James W.

    This paper examines the issue of human rights and the rights of aliens. Contemporary ideas of human rights and contractarian alternatives to universal rights are reviewed. The obligations of governments to admit refugees and to honor the rights of aliens within their borders are discussed. The right to political participation and right to welfare…

  13. Human Rights and Education. Comparative & International Education Series, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarrow, Norma Bernstein, Ed.

    This book discusses the relationship between human rights and education. Education is discussed both within the context of human rights, and as the ultimate sanction and guarantee of all human rights. Part 1, "Education as a Human Right," is comprised of the following chapters: (1) "Human Rights and Education: An Overview" (D.…

  14. Human Rights and Education. Comparative & International Education Series, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarrow, Norma Bernstein, Ed.

    This book discusses the relationship between human rights and education. Education is discussed both within the context of human rights, and as the ultimate sanction and guarantee of all human rights. Part 1, "Education as a Human Right," is comprised of the following chapters: (1) "Human Rights and Education: An Overview" (D.…

  15. Teaching Strategy: Human Rights Around the World and at Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manson, Patrick

    1998-01-01

    Presents a lesson on human rights for middle and secondary school students in which they identify human rights, cite examples of human-rights abuses and affirmations, and relate actions to the articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). Explains that students identify human-rights issues globally and at home. (CMK)

  16. Right on Target? Rethinking the Concept of the TL Group in a Canadian Hebrew Language Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feuer, Avital

    2007-01-01

    A qualitative, ethnographic investigation of a Canadian, undergraduate, advanced Hebrew course composed of heritage language learners of diverse backgrounds examined the fluctuating notion of the target language (TL) community in second language teaching. Data collection techniques of participant observation, in-depth, semi-structured focus group…

  17. The Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Federico

    2003-01-01

    Since 1985, UNESCO studies ethical questions arising in genetics. In 1992, I established the International Bioethics Committee at UNESCO with the mission to draft the Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights, which was adopted by UNESCO in 1997 and the United Nations in 1998. The Declaration relates the human genome with human dignity, deals with the rights of the persons concerned by human genome research and provides a reference legal framework for both stimulating the ethical debate and the harmonization of the law worldwide, favouring useful developments that respect human dignity.

  18. A human rights approach to human trafficking for organ removal.

    PubMed

    Budiani-Saberi, Debra; Columb, Seán

    2013-11-01

    Human trafficking for organ removal (HTOR) should not be reduced to a problem of supply and demand of organs for transplantation, a problem of organized crime and criminal justice, or a problem of voiceless, abandoned victims. Rather, HTOR is at once an egregious human rights abuse and a form of human trafficking. As such, it demands a human-rights based approach in analysis and response to this problem, placing the victim at the center of initiatives to combat this phenomenon. Such an approach requires us to consider how various measures impact or disregard victims/potential victims of HTOR and gives us tools to better advocate their interests, rights and freedoms.

  19. Economic and Social Justice: A Human Rights Perspective. Human Rights Education Series, Topic Book 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiman, David A.

    On December 10, 1998, the world celebrated the 50th anniversary of the United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). The U.S. Constitution possesses many of the political and civil rights articulated in the UDHR. The UDHR, however, goes further than the U.S. Constitution, including many social and economic rights as well. This book…

  20. 78 FR 76029 - Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 9069 of December 9, 2013 Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Six and a half decades ago, delegates from around the world convened to adopt the Universal Declaration of...

  1. Translating Human Rights Principles into Classroom Practices: Inequities in Educating about Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Carol

    2017-01-01

    The overarching aim of this paper is to explore how key principles inherent in human rights declarations and conventions are translated into practices associated with human rights education within school contexts. It is argued that this translation from discourse to practice opens up the potential for children and young people to encounter…

  2. Human Rights Here and Now: Celebrating the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Nancy, Ed.

    Although December 10, 1998, marked the 50th anniversary of the United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), most people living in the United States remain unaware of this document, the foundation stone of all human rights. Intended for use by both community groups and teachers in elementary and secondary schools, this educational…

  3. Translating Human Rights Principles into Classroom Practices: Inequities in Educating about Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Carol

    2017-01-01

    The overarching aim of this paper is to explore how key principles inherent in human rights declarations and conventions are translated into practices associated with human rights education within school contexts. It is argued that this translation from discourse to practice opens up the potential for children and young people to encounter…

  4. Human Rights: Respecting Our Differences, Teachers' Manual [And] Human Rights: Respecting Our Differences, Students' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCardle, Elizabeth, Ed.

    This unit on human rights designed for secondary students in Alberta, Canada includes both student and teacher manuals. Eleven chapters in the student manual examine what human rights are, the causes and effects of prejudice and discrimination, relevant laws, and social action. Each chapter includes readings followed by discussion questions and…

  5. Human rights, bioethics, and mental disorder.

    PubMed

    Fennell, Phil

    2008-03-01

    This article considers the international human rights instruments which set minimum standards for the content and use of mental health legislation, and the extent to which they represent 'hard law' (binding and enforceable in domestic or international courts) or 'soft law' which is not strictly binding in the same sense but which may provide persuasive authority or may be used in debate to embarrass a Government into compliance. The article considers the extent to which these various instruments impose both 'negative obligations' on states not to interfere with rights such as physical integrity or protection against arbitrary detention and 'positive' obligations on states to take positive steps to uphold the rights of individuals. The article on the case law under the European Convention on Human Rights showing how 'soft law' sources are increasingly used by the Strasbourg Court as aids to construing the scope of Convention rights. The article concludes by suggesting that whilst mentally disordered people may be afforded different treatment in relation to general bioethics instruments on the international plane, they are also entitled to rights under Disability Conventions which enjoin states to take positive steps to promote equal treatment, social inclusion and protection against discrimination and stigma.

  6. Pharmaceutical knowledge governance: a human rights perspective.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, Trudo

    2013-01-01

    Industry control over the production and distribution of pharmaceutical safety and efficacy data has become a serious public health and health care funding concern. Various recent scandals, several involving the use of flawed representations of scientific data in the most influential medical journals, highlight the urgency of enhancing pharmaceutical knowledge governance. This paper analyzes why this is a human rights concern and what difference a human rights analysis can make. The paper first identifies the challenges associated with the current knowledge deficit. It then discusses, based on an analysis of case law, how various human rights associated interests can be invoked to support the claim that states have an obligation to actively contribute to independent knowledge governance, for example through ensuring clinical trials transparency. The paper further discusses a conceptual use of human rights, as a methodology which requires a comprehensive analysis of the different interwoven historical, economic, cultural, and social factors that contribute to the problem. Such an analysis reveals that historically grown drug regulations have, in fact, contributed directly to industry control over pharmaceutical knowledge production. This type of finding should inform needed reforms of drug regulation. The paper ends with a recommendation for a comprehensive global response to the problem of pharmaceutical knowledge governance. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  7. Human Rights and Cosmopolitan Democratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snauwaert, Dale T.

    2009-01-01

    The foundation upon which this discussion is based is the basic nature of democracy as both a political and moral ideal. Democracy can be understood as a system of rights premised upon the logic of equality. At its core is a fundamental belief in moral equality, a belief that all human beings possess an equal inherent dignity or worth. The ideal…

  8. Academic Freedom 3: Education and Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, John, Ed.; And Others

    This collection of reports gives a picture of educational systems from a human rights perspective, monitoring academic freedom in the context of freedom of thought and freedom of opinion and expression. The World University Service's Lima Declaration on Academic Freedom and Autonomy of Institutions of Higher Education of 1988 is used as the…

  9. The Struggle for Human Rights in Myanmar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefer, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    The non-violent participation of Nobel Peace Prize laureate Aung San Suu Kyi and Buddhist monks in resistance efforts to advocate for the welfare of Myanmar's people has played an important role in educating the world about human rights violations in the country. Faced with international condemnation, Myanmar's junta released Aung San Suu Kyi from…

  10. Academic Freedom 3: Education and Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, John, Ed.; And Others

    This collection of reports gives a picture of educational systems from a human rights perspective, monitoring academic freedom in the context of freedom of thought and freedom of opinion and expression. The World University Service's Lima Declaration on Academic Freedom and Autonomy of Institutions of Higher Education of 1988 is used as the…

  11. Problems in Teaching Human Rights to Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rone, Jemera

    1994-01-01

    Teaching the rules of war to human rights practitioners calls for emphasis on not taking sides; applying existing law rather than inventing standards for the occasion; applying the Geneva Conventions; recognizing that ends do not justify means; determining legitimate military targets; and realizing that "good guys" should be held to the same…

  12. A Human Rights Crisis in Indian Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigil, Chris

    2015-01-01

    There is a human rights crisis in Indian Country. This crisis--one of many--is the result of an almost universal lack of legal representation of Native people when they appear as defendants in tribal courts. The lack of lay advocates and attorneys representing Native defendants creates tremendous problems for tribal members who find themselves in…

  13. The Struggle for Human Rights in Myanmar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefer, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    The non-violent participation of Nobel Peace Prize laureate Aung San Suu Kyi and Buddhist monks in resistance efforts to advocate for the welfare of Myanmar's people has played an important role in educating the world about human rights violations in the country. Faced with international condemnation, Myanmar's junta released Aung San Suu Kyi from…

  14. Human Rights and China. Lesson Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Stanley T.

    This curriculum unit presents lessons based on information and ideas gained from a 1994 Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad Program in the People's Republic of China. This series of three lessons is created as an introduction to Model United Nations types of activities for high school students. Lesson 1, "What are Human Rights?" deals…

  15. School Reform, Human Rights, and Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asano, Makoto

    2000-01-01

    Discusses school reform in Japan, examining issues of school organization and regulation, curriculum development, and parent-teacher-student relationships and participation from two perspectives: human rights and global education. The relevant issues are explored under five dimensions: student self-government, interpersonal relationships, student…

  16. A Human Rights Crisis in Indian Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigil, Chris

    2015-01-01

    There is a human rights crisis in Indian Country. This crisis--one of many--is the result of an almost universal lack of legal representation of Native people when they appear as defendants in tribal courts. The lack of lay advocates and attorneys representing Native defendants creates tremendous problems for tribal members who find themselves in…

  17. Human Rights and People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdekin, Brian

    1995-01-01

    This lecture transcript discusses human rights issues related to people with disabilities in Australia, focusing on concepts of discrimination, legislation, and social justice. Findings from recent federal inquiries into homeless children and mental illness highlight major deficits in services for people with disabilities. (Author/DB)

  18. Advancing palliative care as a human right.

    PubMed

    Gwyther, Liz; Brennan, Frank; Harding, Richard

    2009-11-01

    The international palliative care community has articulated a simple but challenging proposition that palliative care is an international human right. International human rights covenants and the discipline of palliative care have, as common themes, the inherent dignity of the individual and the principles of universality and nondiscrimination. However, when we consider the evidence for the effectiveness of palliative care, the lack of palliative care provision for those who may benefit from it is of grave concern. Three disciplines (palliative care, public health, and human rights) are now interacting with a growing resonance. The maturing of palliative care as a clinical specialty and academic discipline has coincided with the development of a public health approach to global and community-wide health problems. The care of the dying is a public health issue. Given that death is both inevitable and universal, the care of people with life-limiting illness stands equal to all other public health issues. The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) includes the right to health care and General Comment 14 (paragraph 34) CESCR stipulates that "States are under the obligation to respect the right to health by, inter alia, refraining from denying or limiting equal access for all persons, ... to preventive, curative and palliative health services." However, these rights are seen to be aspirational-rights to be achieved progressively over time by each signatory nation to the maximum capacity of their available resources. Although a government may use insufficient resources as a justification for inadequacies of its response to palliative care and pain management, General Comment 14 set out "core obligations" and "obligations of comparable priority" in the provision of health care and placed the burden on governments to justify "that every effort has nevertheless been made to use all available resources at its disposal in order to satisfy, as

  19. Environmental and occupational health and human rights.

    PubMed

    Slatin, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Modern environmental- and occupational-related morbidities and mortality are determined by the power relations inherent in our existing capitalist systems of production and consumption. These systems thwart human public health rights because of the priority to maximize profit for the systems' owners rather than to establish ecologically sound and socially just development for all. The international public health community must return to its primary prevention roots and take action to eliminate the potential for population morbidities that result from hazardous substance exposures in work and community environments. The 1988 Adelaide Recommendations on Healthy Public Policy provide us with guidelines that incorporate a human rights approach and build on several decades of international public health declarations and charters. To succeed, public health must work with the labor movement. A human rights approach to environmental public health can help us make a transition to sustainable modes of production and consumption. The environmental justice movement's strategy for an economic greening that sets as a priority "pathways out of poverty" can help to advance environmental public health rights.

  20. Climate Change, Human Rights, and Social Justice.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Patz, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    The environmental and health consequences of climate change, which disproportionately affect low-income countries and poor people in high-income countries, profoundly affect human rights and social justice. Environmental consequences include increased temperature, excess precipitation in some areas and droughts in others, extreme weather events, and increased sea level. These consequences adversely affect agricultural production, access to safe water, and worker productivity, and, by inundating land or making land uninhabitable and uncultivatable, will force many people to become environmental refugees. Adverse health effects caused by climate change include heat-related disorders, vector-borne diseases, foodborne and waterborne diseases, respiratory and allergic disorders, malnutrition, collective violence, and mental health problems. These environmental and health consequences threaten civil and political rights and economic, social, and cultural rights, including rights to life, access to safe food and water, health, security, shelter, and culture. On a national or local level, those people who are most vulnerable to the adverse environmental and health consequences of climate change include poor people, members of minority groups, women, children, older people, people with chronic diseases and disabilities, those residing in areas with a high prevalence of climate-related diseases, and workers exposed to extreme heat or increased weather variability. On a global level, there is much inequity, with low-income countries, which produce the least greenhouse gases (GHGs), being more adversely affected by climate change than high-income countries, which produce substantially higher amounts of GHGs yet are less immediately affected. In addition, low-income countries have far less capability to adapt to climate change than high-income countries. Adaptation and mitigation measures to address climate change needed to protect human society must also be planned to protect

  1. Human rights dynamics of abortion law reform.

    PubMed

    Cook, Rebecca J; Dickens, Bernard M

    2003-02-01

    The legal approach to abortion is evolving from criminal prohibition towards accommodation as a life-preserving and health-preserving option, particularly in light of data on maternal mortality and morbidity. Modern momentum for liberalization comes from international adoption of the concept of reproductive health, and wider recognition that the resort to safe and dignified healthcare is a major human right. Respect for women's reproductive self-determination legitimizes abortion as a choice when family planning services have failed, been inaccessible, or been denied by rape. Recognition of women's rights of equal citizenship with men requires that their choices for self-determination be legally respected, not criminalized.

  2. Ebola Virus: Sensationalism, Science, and Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Bausch, Daniel G; Clougherty, Marguerite M

    2015-10-01

    Outbreaks of the filoviruses, Ebola and Marburg, usually garner immense public attention, often with a sensationalist bent in the lay press, focused on the apparently mysterious origins of the outbreak and the high mortality rates. The scientific community may present a more objective viewpoint, but usually with a rather technical focus on identifying epidemiological risk factors and experimental therapies and vaccines. Often lost in the discussion are the human rights elements that consistently underlie large outbreaks of these dangerous viruses. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. International human rights and women's reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Cook, R J

    1993-01-01

    Neglect of women's reproductive health, perpetuated by law, is part of a larger, systematic discrimination against women. Laws obstruct women's access to reproductive health services. Laws protective of women's reproductive health are rarely or inadequately implemented. Moreover, few laws or policies facilitate women's reproductive health services. Epidemiological evidence and feminist legal methods provide insight into the law's neglect of women's reproductive health and expose long-held beliefs in the law's neutrality that harm women fundamentally. Empirical evidence can be used to evaluate how effectively laws are implemented and whether alternative legal approaches exist that would provide greater protection of individual rights. International human rights treaties, including those discussed in this article, are being applied increasingly to expose how laws that obstruct women's access to reproductive health services violate their basic rights.

  4. Human rights, ideology and population policies.

    PubMed

    Colombo, B

    1977-01-01

    Only too often ideology means fanaticism, intolerance, even violence, but the term can be used also to denote sets of preconceptions and presuppositions which act as a stimulus and a guide to scientific innovation, particularly in the field of social science. This sort of insight into the realities of life and the world is a contribution to knowledge and the search for truth, also in the field of human rights. These are taken in the paper as those rights whose infringement constitutes a "vulnus" of the essential characteristics of human beings and those which assume the role of a basic safeguard of them. The meaning of the insistence on the human rights theme in the United Nations system is briefly touched upon, but the main effort is spent in trying to find a firm base for both fundamental rights and duties, shown as strictly and simmetrically linked. Various examples of population policies - broadly defined as governmental interventions influencing demographic variables - are then examined in the light of the basic principles laid down in the said effort. The fields taken up in succession for consideration are international and internal migration, mortality, marriage, fertility in countries at different stages of demographic transition, and growth. Rather than trying an extensive coverage of the whole horizon, a line of critical and deep thought about typical problematic themes is preferred. One of the main conclusions which may be quoted is a statement according to which the problem remains wide open of discovering acceptable ways aiming at a modification of fertility patterns which combine a reduction of the average family size with the maintenance of its variability in order to respect free and responsible individual choices. How important and urgent this task is, is underscored by the observations advanced in the final section of the paper including a meditation on the limits that human sexuality appears to have imposed on itself.

  5. Human rights at work: Physical standards for employment and human rights law.

    PubMed

    Adams, Eric M

    2016-06-01

    This review focuses on the human rights dimensions of creating and implementing physical standards for employment for prospective and incumbent employees. The review argues that physical standards for employment engage two fundamental legal concepts of employment law: freedom of contract and workplace human rights. While the former promotes an employer's right to set workplace standards and make decisions of whom to hire and terminate, the latter prevents employers from discriminating against individuals contrary to human rights legislation. With reference to applicable human rights legislative regimes and their judicial interpretation in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia, this review demonstrates the judicial preference for criterion validation in testing mechanisms in the finding of bona fide occupational requirements. With particular attention to the Supreme Court of Canada decision in Meiorin, this review argues that an effective balance between workplace safety and human rights concerns can be found, not in applying different standards to different groups of individuals, but in an approach that holds employers to demonstrating a sufficient connection between a uniform physical standard of employment and the actual minimum requirements to perform the job safety and efficiently. Combined with an employer's duty to accommodate, such an approach to lawful physical standards for employment conceives of worker and public safety and workplace diversity as emanating from a shared concern for human rights.

  6. 3 CFR 8616 - Proclamation 8616 of December 10, 2010. Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human Rights...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Constitution and the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim December 10, 2010, as Human Rights Day... Rights Week, 2010By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In 1948, the United... more united. The United States will always speak for those who are voiceless, defend those who...

  7. Human health risk assessment from exposure to trihalomethanes in Canadian cities.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Hall, Kevin

    2010-07-01

    Lifetime exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) through ingestion, inhalation and dermal contacts may pose risks to human health. Current approaches may under predict THMs exposure by using THMs in cold water during showering and bathing. Warming of chlorinated water during showering may increase THMs formation through reactions between organics and residual chlorine, which can increase human health risks. In this study, THMs concentrations in shower water were estimated using THMs rate increase model. Using cold water THMs, exposure through ingestion was estimated, while THMs exposure during showering was estimated using THMs in warm water. Human health cancer risks and additional expenses for 20 most populated Canadian cities from exposure to THMs were estimated. Inhalation and dermal contact during showering contributed 30% to 50% of total cancer risks, while risks from inhalation and dermal contacts were comparable for all cities. Overall cancer risks were estimated between 7.2 x 10(-6) and 6.4 x 10(-5) for these cities. Cancer incidents were estimated highest for Montreal (94/year) followed by Toronto (53/year), which may require additional medical expenses of 18.8 and 10.7 million dollars/year for Montreal and Toronto respectively. Cancer risks from exposure to THMs can be controlled by reducing THMs in water supply and varying shower stall volume, shower duration and air exchange rate in shower stall. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gender Violence: A Development and Human Rights Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunch, Charlotte; Carrillo, Roxanna

    This document includes two articles describing the failure of the international human rights movement to consider or remedy the situation of women outside of the basic demand for political rights of people in general. The first article, "Women's Rights as Human Rights: Toward a Re-Vision of Human Rights" (Charlotte Bunch), emphasizes the…

  9. Pain management: a fundamental human right.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Frank; Carr, Daniel B; Cousins, Michael

    2007-07-01

    This article surveys worldwide medical, ethical, and legal trends and initiatives related to the concept of pain management as a human right. This concept recently gained momentum with the 2004 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) Chapters-, International Association for the Study of Pain- and World Health Organization-sponsored "Global Day Against Pain," where it was adopted as a central theme. We survey the scope of the problem of unrelieved pain in three areas, acute pain, chronic noncancer pain, and cancer pain, and outline the adverse physical and psychological effects and social and economic costs of untreated pain. Reasons for deficiencies in pain management include cultural, societal, religious, and political attitudes, including acceptance of torture. The biomedical model of disease, focused on pathophysiology rather than quality of life, reinforces entrenched attitudes that marginalize pain management as a priority. Strategies currently applied for improvement include framing pain management as an ethical issue; promoting pain management as a legal right, providing constitutional guarantees and statutory regulations that span negligence law, criminal law, and elder abuse; defining pain management as a fundamental human right, categorizing failure to provide pain management as professional misconduct, and issuing guidelines and standards of practice by professional bodies. The role of the World Health Organization is discussed, particularly with respect to opioid availability for pain management. We conclude that, because pain management is the subject of many initiatives within the disciplines of medicine, ethics and law, we are at an "inflection point" in which unreasonable failure to treat pain is viewed worldwide as poor medicine, unethical practice, and an abrogation of a fundamental human right.

  10. Human rights abuses and concerns about women's health and human rights in southern Iraq.

    PubMed

    Amowitz, Lynn L; Kim, Glen; Reis, Chen; Asher, Jana L; Iacopino, Vincent

    2004-03-24

    Although human rights abuses have been reported in Iraq, the full scope of these abuses has not been well documented. To assess the prevalence of human rights abuses since 1991 in southern Iraq, along with attitudes about women's health and human rights and women's rights and roles in society, to inform reconstruction and humanitarian assistance efforts in Iraq. Cross-sectional, randomized survey of Iraqi men and women conducted in July 2003 using structured questionnaires. Three major cities in 3 of the 9 governorates in southern Iraq. A total of 1991 respondents representing 16 520 household members. Respondent demographics, information on human rights abuses that occurred among household members since 1991, women's health and human rights, opinions regarding women's rights and roles in society, and conditions for community health and development. Respondents were a mean age of 38 years and were mostly of Arab ethnicity (99.7% [1976/1982]) and Muslim Shi'a (96.7% [1906/1971]). Overall, 47% of those interviewed reported 1 or more of the following abuses among themselves and household members since 1991: torture, killings, disappearance, forced conscription, beating, gunshot wounds, kidnappings, being held hostage, and ear amputation, among others. Seventy percent of abuses (408/586) were reputed to have occurred in homes. Baath party regime-affiliated groups were identified most often (95% [449/475]) as the perpetrators of the abuses; 53% of the abuses occurred between 1991 and 1993, following the Shi'a uprising, and another 30% between 2000 and the first 6 months of 2003. While the majority of men and women expressed support for women's equal opportunities for education, freedom of expression, access to health care, equality in deciding marriage and the number and spacing of children, and participation in community development decisions, there was less support among both men and women for women's freedom of movement, association with people of their choosing, and

  11. Human Rights and Foreign Policy. Headline Series 241.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Charles

    A discussion is presented of the meaning of human rights, implications of human rights for foreign policy, and obstacles to its realization on a global scale. Chapter I identifies human rights as a critical issue, commends President Carter's initiative in this area, and points out difficulties of implementing a human rights policy. Chapter II…

  12. Human Rights and Religion in the English Secondary RE Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowie, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between religion and human rights is an ambiguous and complex one, but there are academic, moral and political arguments for the inclusion of human rights in religious education (RE). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights advocates education in human rights and the English school curriculum aims to encourage a commitment to…

  13. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights - Only a Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichert, Elisabeth

    2002-01-01

    Explains provisions contained within the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, tracing historical beginnings of human rights to 1945, detailing events after 1945 up to the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations, and explaining essential terminology used in describing human rights instruments that have been…

  14. Human Rights and Religion in the English Secondary RE Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowie, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between religion and human rights is an ambiguous and complex one, but there are academic, moral and political arguments for the inclusion of human rights in religious education (RE). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights advocates education in human rights and the English school curriculum aims to encourage a commitment to…

  15. Human Rights and Foreign Policy. Headline Series 241.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Charles

    A discussion is presented of the meaning of human rights, implications of human rights for foreign policy, and obstacles to its realization on a global scale. Chapter I identifies human rights as a critical issue, commends President Carter's initiative in this area, and points out difficulties of implementing a human rights policy. Chapter II…

  16. HUMAN RIGHTS AND NIGERIAN PRISONERS--ARE PRISONERS NOT HUMANS?

    PubMed

    Joshua, I A; Dangata, Y Y; Audu, O; Nmadu, A G; Omole, N V

    2014-12-01

    In Nigeria, just like in many other parts of the world, one of the most extensively discussed issues on the public agenda today is the increase in prison population. The aims of imprisonment are protection, retribution, deterrence, reformation and vindication. Investigations revealed that the prison services have been,neglected more than any other criminal justice agency in Nigeria. For example, most of the prisons were built during the colonial era for the purpose of accommodating a small number of inmates. Human Rights are the basic guarantees for human beings to be able to achieve happiness and self-respect; consequently, in most jurisdictions, the Human Rights Act confirms that these Rights do not stop at the prison gates. However, most States fail to meet the Human Rights obligations of their prisoners. As regards to health, for example, every prison should have proper health facilities and medical staff to provide dental and psychiatric care among others. This article discusses the Nigerian Prison System and challenges, trends and the related Human Rights and Ethical issues in Nigerian prisons. Some of the unmet needs of Nigerian prisoners which include, inter alia, living in unwholesome cells, delayed trial of inmates, lack of voting rights, access to information, lack of conjugal facilities for married prisoners, poor and inadequate nutrition, poor medical care, torture, inhumane treatment and the need to protect prisoners in a changing world. The present report has policy implications for reforming prison services in Nigeria, and countries that sing from the same song sheet with Nigeria on prison services, to conform to the Fundamental Human Rights of prisoners in the 21St century.

  17. Mental health. Ethical standards and human rights.

    PubMed

    Tarbuck, P

    In an earlier article in Nursing Standard (1), the author discussed the use of control and restraint techniques when dealing with violent or potentially violent situations. Here, he offers a nurse's perspective on the ethical and human rights issues which confront staff who are trying to cope with the challenging behaviours of their patients and who, as a last resort, may have to use physical restraint to prevent injury occurring. In intervening physically, nurses, he argues, must be aware of the legal and ethical boundaries of their practice.

  18. Human rights begin at birth: international law and the claim of fetal rights.

    PubMed

    Copelon, Rhonda; Zampas, Christina; Brusie, Elizabeth; Devore, Jacqueline

    2005-11-01

    In the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the foundation of human rights, the text and negotiating history of the "right to life" explicitly premises human rights on birth. Likewise, other international and regional human rights treaties, as drafted and/or subsequently interpreted, clearly reject claims that human rights should attach from conception or any time before birth. They also recognise that women's right to life and other human rights are at stake where restrictive abortion laws are in place. This paper reviews the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, the Inter-American Human Rights Agreements and African Charter on Human and People's Rights in this regard. No one has the right to subordinate another in the way that unwanted pregnancy subordinates a woman by requiring her to risk her own health and life to save her own child. Thus, the long-standing insistence of women upon voluntary motherhood is a demand for minimal control over one's destiny as a human being. From a human rights perspective, to depart from voluntary motherhood would impose upon women an extreme form of discrimination and forced labour.

  19. 3 CFR 8765 - Proclamation 8765 of December 8, 2011. Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proclamation 8765 of December 8, 2011. Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2011 8765 Proclamation 8765 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8765 of December 8, 2011 Proc. 8765 Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2011By the President...

  20. 3 CFR 9069 - Proclamation 9069 of December 9, 2013. Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proclamation 9069 of December 9, 2013. Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2013 9069 Proclamation 9069 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 9069 of December 9, 2013 Proc. 9069 Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2013By the President...

  1. 3 CFR 8915 - Proclamation 8915 of December 10, 2012. Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Proclamation 8915 of December 10, 2012. Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2012 8915 Proclamation 8915 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8915 of December 10, 2012 Proc. 8915 Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2012By the President...

  2. Displaced persons' perceptions of human rights in Southern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Pavlish, C; Ho, A

    2009-12-01

    A human rights framework has become more important in advancing equitable health and development opportunities. However, in post-conflict settings, human rights violations persist. Women and girls are especially vulnerable to discrimination and violence. To deepen understanding about the social context that influences human rights experiences and gender relationships in a post conflict setting. Focus groups and key informant interviews were conducted in an ethnographic study among displaced persons, government officials and community-based organizations in Southern Sudan. Participants defined human rights as the right to good governance, self-determination and participation in society's development, security and equality. Human rights violations included discrimination, insecurity and inadequate health and development opportunities. Education, language and geographic location influenced human rights perspectives. Some social groups were at higher risk for human rights violations. Community perspectives on human rights indicated complex connections between obligations, claims, conditions and social relationships. Nurses can create conditions that advance people's human rights and improve their health.

  3. [Human rights and genetics: the fundamental principles of the Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights].

    PubMed

    Bergel, S D

    1998-01-01

    The Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights sets out generally agreed criteria in response to the human rights challenges posed by advances in molecular biology and genetics. The lynchpin of these criteria is respect for human dignity, a premise from which other principles are derived. The author examines and gives the justification for these principles, and refers to another crucial bioethics text, the recent Council of Europe Convention on the protection of human rights and the dignity of the human person in regard to applications of biology and medicine.

  4. Men, HIV/AIDS, and Human Rights

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, Dean; Stemple, Lara; Sawires, Sharif; Coates, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Though still limited in scale, work with men to achieve gender equality is occurring on every continent and in many countries. A rapidly expanding evidence base demonstrates that rigorously implemented initiatives targeting men can change social practices that affect the health of both sexes, particularly in the context of HIV and AIDS. Too often however, messages only address the harm that regressive masculinity norms cause women, while neglecting the damage done to men by these norms. This article calls for a more inclusive approach which recognizes that men, far from being a monolithic group, have unequal access to health and rights depending on other intersecting forms of discrimination based on race, class, sexuality, disability, nationality, and the like. Messages that target men only as holders of privilege miss men who are disempowered or who themselves challenge rigid gender roles. The article makes recommendations which move beyond treating men simply as “the problem”, and instead lays a foundation for engaging men both as agents of change and holders of rights to the ultimate benefit of women and men. Human rights and other policy interventions must avoid regressive stereotyping, and successful local initiatives should be taken to scale nationally and internationally. PMID:19553779

  5. Men, HIV/AIDS, and human rights.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Dean; Stemple, Lara; Sawires, Sharif; Coates, Thomas J

    2009-07-01

    Though still limited in scale, work with men to achieve gender equality is occurring on every continent and in many countries. A rapidly expanding evidence base demonstrates that rigorously implemented initiatives targeting men can change social practices that affect the health of both sexes, particularly in the context of HIV and AIDS. Too often however, messages only address the harm that regressive masculinity norms cause women, while neglecting the damage done to men by these norms. This article calls for a more inclusive approach which recognizes that men, far from being a monolithic group, have unequal access to health and rights depending on other intersecting forms of discrimination based on race, class, sexuality, disability, nationality, and the like. Messages that target men only as holders of privilege miss men who are disempowered or who themselves challenge rigid gender roles. The article makes recommendations which move beyond treating men simply as "the problem", and instead lays a foundation for engaging men both as agents of change and holders of rights to the ultimate benefit of women and men. Human rights and other policy interventions must avoid regressive stereotyping, and successful local initiatives should be taken to scale nationally and internationally.

  6. Pain relief is a human right.

    PubMed

    Daher, Michel

    2010-01-01

    For centuries, medical and surgical treatment has emphasized saving the life of the patient rather than ameliorating the patient's pain, particularly when there were few options for the latter. Today at the dawn of the 21st century, the best available evidence indicates a major gap between an increasingly understanding of the pathophysiology of pain and widespread inadequacy of its treatment. Epidemiologic evidence has proven that chronic pain is a widespread public health issue. Studies of cancer patients' pain control consistently reveal that up to half of patients receive inadequate analgesia and 30% do not receive appropriate drugs for their pain. Equally, for patients suffering HIV/AIDS, 60%-100% will experience pain at some stage in their illness. In the developed world, this gap has prompted a series of declarations and actions by national and international bodies advocating better pain control. One response to the worldwide undertreatment of pain has been to promote the concept that pain relief is a public health issue of such critical importance as to constitute an international imperative and fundamental human right. The importance of pain relief as the core of the medical ethic is clear. Pain clinicians promote the status of pain management beyond that of appropriate clinical practice or even an ethic of good medicine. They advocate a paradigm shift in the medical professions' perspective on pain management, from simply good practice to an imperative founded on patient rights. There is a need to promote policies which create conditions where human beings can bear even incurable illnesses and death in a dignified manner. This must help health professionals or lay groups to initiate a powerful agenda to reform local statutes. The essential components of such legislation are: 1. Reasonable pain management is a right. 2. Doctors have a duty to listen to and reasonably respond to a patient's report of pain. 3. Provision of necessary pain relief is immune from

  7. We "Must" Integrate Human Rights into the Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Ed

    1999-01-01

    Asserts that educators need to teach about human rights issues, such as social and economic rights, in the social studies curriculum because these issues are disregarded throughout the country. Defines human rights, discusses the importance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), and provides two lessons. (CMK)

  8. Grizzly bears as a filter for human use management in Canadian Rocky Mountain national parks

    Treesearch

    Derek Petersen

    2000-01-01

    Canadian National Parks within the Rocky Mountains recognize that human use must be managed if the integrity and health of the ecosystems are to be preserved. Parks Canada is being challenged to ensure that these management actions are based on credible scientific principles and understanding. Grizzly bears provide one of only a few ecological tools that can be used to...

  9. The Right of the Child to Information: The Role of Public Libraries in Human Rights Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koren, Marian

    Information and education are crucial for child development. The child's right to information and education protect human values and the human dignity of the child. Formal and non-formal forms of education by parents, friends, schools, and libraries should be based on human rights. The United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of the Child…

  10. The Human Right to Leisure in Old Age: Reinforcement of the Rights of an Aging Population.

    PubMed

    Karev, Iris; Doron, Israel Issi

    2017-01-01

    The right to leisure is recognized as a human right under the 1948 United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The actual meaning and material content of this human right is subject to debate. The aim of this study is to examine the extent and the context to which this human right is specifically recognized with regard to older persons. Methodologically, this study textually analyzed 17 different international older persons' human rights documents. The findings reveal that in the majority of these documents there is no reference to the right to leisure. In the remaining documents, the right to leisure is mostly referred to indirectly or in a narrow legal construction. These findings support the notion that despite the growing body of knowledge regarding the importance of meaningful leisure in old age-and its empowering and anti-ageist nature-this knowledge has not transformed into a legal human rights discourse.

  11. Human rights in patient care: a theoretical and practical framework.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jonathan; Ezer, Tamar

    2013-12-12

    The concept of "human rights in patient care" refers to the application of human rights principles to the context of patient care. It provides a principled alternative to the growing discourse of "patients' rights" that has evolved in response to widespread and severe human rights violations in health settings. Unlike "patients' rights," which is rooted in a consumer framework, this concept derives from inherent human dignity and neutrally applies universal, legally recognized human rights principles, protecting both patients and providers and admitting of limitations that can be justified by human rights norms. It recognizes the interrelation between patient and provider rights, particularly in contexts where providers face simultaneous obligations to patients and the state ("dual loyalty") and may be pressured to abet human rights violations. The human rights lens provides a means to examine systemic issues and state responsibility. Human rights principles that apply to patient care include both the right to the highest attainable standard of health, which covers both positive and negative guarantees in respect of health, as well as civil and political rights ranging from the patient's right to be free from torture and inhumane treatment to liberty and security of person. They also focus attention on the right of socially excluded groups to be free from discrimination in the delivery of health care. Critical rights relevant to providers include freedom of association and the enjoyment of decent work conditions. Some, but not all, of these human rights correspond to rights that have been articulated in "patients' rights" charters. Complementary to—but distinct from—bioethics, human rights in patient care carry legal force and can be applied through judicial action. They also provide a powerful language to articulate and mobilize around justice concerns, and to engage in advocacy through the media and political negotiation. As "patients' rights" movements and

  12. Missing people, migrants, identification and human rights.

    PubMed

    Nuzzolese, E

    2012-11-30

    The increasing volume and complexities of migratory flow has led to a range of problems such as human rights issues, public health, disease and border control, and also the regulatory processes. As result of war or internal conflicts missing person cases and management have to be regarded as a worldwide issue. On the other hand, even in peace, the issue of a missing person is still relevant. In 2007 the Italian Ministry of Interior nominated an extraordinary commissar in order to analyse and assess the total number of unidentified recovered bodies and verify the extent of the phenomena of missing persons, reported as 24,912 people in Italy (updated 31 December 2011). Of these 15,632 persons are of foreigner nationalities and are still missing. The census of the unidentified bodies revealed a total of 832 cases recovered in Italy since the year 1974. These bodies/human remains received a regular autopsy and were buried as 'corpse without name". In Italy judicial autopsy is performed to establish cause of death and identity, but odontology and dental radiology is rarely employed in identification cases. Nevertheless, odontologists can substantiate the identification through the 'biological profile' providing further information that can narrow the search to a smaller number of missing individuals even when no ante mortem dental data are available. The forensic dental community should put greater emphasis on the role of the forensic odontology as a tool for humanitarian action of unidentified individuals and best practise in human identification.

  13. International Human Rights on the Internet. Internet Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Jack

    2000-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of websites that focus on international human rights. Explains that human rights can be incorporated into curricula whether the focus is on human geography or contemporary global issues. Indicates that the Northern Light search engine produced over 700,000 hits for human rights websites. (CMK)

  14. International Human Rights on the Internet. Internet Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Jack

    2000-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of websites that focus on international human rights. Explains that human rights can be incorporated into curricula whether the focus is on human geography or contemporary global issues. Indicates that the Northern Light search engine produced over 700,000 hits for human rights websites. (CMK)

  15. Human dignity and human rights in bioethics: the Kantian approach.

    PubMed

    Rothhaar, Markus

    2010-08-01

    The concept of human dignity plays an important role in the public discussion about ethical questions concerning modern medicine and biology. At the same time, there is a widespread skepticism about the possibility to determine the content and the claims of human dignity. The article goes back to Kantian Moral Philosophy, in order to show that human dignity has in fact a determinable content not as a norm in itself, but as the principle and ground of human rights and any deontological norms in biomedical ethics. When it comes to defining the scope of human dignity, i.e., the question which entities are protected by human dignity, Kant clearly can be found on the "pro life"-side of the controversy. This, however, is the result of some specific implications of Kant's transcendental approach that may be put into question.

  16. [Health and human rights: perceptions of health professionals and human rights defenders].

    PubMed

    Kabengele Mpinga, E; Chastonay, P

    2005-09-01

    A self-administered questionnaire served as the basis for a study carried out between February and June 2003 covering a panel of 125 experts from 33 countries spread over 5 continents. The objective of this study was to identify the human rights problems perceived as having a very negative health impact from approximately fifty proposals. This study also aimed at identifying the variables which could explain the differences in the perceptions observed. At the global level, the threats to physical integrity and attacks on human life, economic problems of a health or social nature, questions of political or democratic origin, as well as a wide spectrum of other problems are perceived as having very harmful effects on health with an average adhesion rate of severity (TMAG) ranging from 90-75%. For the same categories of problems at the national level, the TMAG varies from 67-40%: The observed consensus around the severity of human rights problems is tempered by the differences in perceptions according to profession, sex, and the level of the country's and continent's development. Other than the fact that these results corroborate the shared international concerns with regard to the state of the world's human rights, they suggest that the experts' opinions constitute a complementary source of information necessary for work on the international mechanisms for the surveillance of the implementation of international treaties; while at the same time, they indicate priorities for action in the field of public health and human rights.

  17. Interpreting the International Right to Health in a Human Rights-Based Approach to Health.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Paul

    2016-12-01

    This article tracks the shifting place of the international right to health, and human rights-based approaches to health, in the scholarly literature and United Nations (UN). From 1993 to 1994, the focus began to move from the right to health toward human rights-based approaches to health, including human rights guidance adopted by UN agencies in relation to specific health issues. There is a compelling case for a human rights-based approach to health, but it runs the risk of playing down the right to health, as evidenced by an examination of some UN human rights guidance. The right to health has important and distinctive qualities that are not provided by other rights-consequently, playing down the right to health can diminish rights-based approaches to health, as well as the right to health itself. Because general comments, the reports of UN Special Rapporteurs, and UN agencies' guidance are exercises in interpretation, I discuss methods of legal interpretation. I suggest that the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights permits distinctive interpretative methods within the boundaries established by the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. I call for the right to health to be placed explicitly at the center of a rights-based approach and interpreted in accordance with public international law and international human rights law.

  18. Education Is a Human Right. EI Barometer on Human and Trade Union Rights in the Education Sector, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Michael A.

    This 2001 edition of Educational International's (EI) "Barometer on Trade Union and Human Rights in the Education Sector" focuses on four fundamental human rights: (1) the right to education; (2) academic freedom; (3) children's right to be protected from exploitation; and (4) workers' rights to form and join trade unions and to organize…

  19. Human Rights and Dignity Behind Bars.

    PubMed

    Maschi, Tina; Richter, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Death and dying in prisons constitute a topic of growing importance across the globe. Based on the contributions made in this special issue, we reflect on current debates and outline recommendations for dialogue and practice. Scientific dialogue across the Atlantic, and across the globe, provides insights into different national carceral systems and their ways of dealing with end of life behind bars. At the same time, the comparison also helps to identify basic needs and practices that can work in various settings. We identify several issues where further efforts need to be taken to deepen the dialogue. A common ground for all advancement of legislation and practice constitute the minimal level of rights to which every human being is entitled.

  20. Reexamining workers' compensation: a human rights perspective.

    PubMed

    Boden, Leslie I

    2012-06-01

    Injured workers, particularly those with more severe injuries, have long experienced workers' compensation systems as stressful and demeaning, have found it difficult to obtain benefits, and, when able to obtain benefits, have found them inadequate. Moreover, the last two decades have seen a substantial erosion of the protections offered by workers' compensation. State after state has erected additional barriers to benefit receipt, making the workers' compensation experience even more difficult and degrading. These changes have been facilitated by a framing of the political debate focused on the free market paradigm, employer costs, and worker fraud and malingering. The articles in this special issue propose an alternate framework and analysis, a human rights approach, that values the dignity and economic security of injured workers and their families.

  1. Interpreting the International Right to Health in a Human Rights-Based Approach to Health

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This article tracks the shifting place of the international right to health, and human rights-based approaches to health, in the scholarly literature and United Nations (UN). From 1993 to 1994, the focus began to move from the right to health toward human rights-based approaches to health, including human rights guidance adopted by UN agencies in relation to specific health issues. There is a compelling case for a human rights-based approach to health, but it runs the risk of playing down the right to health, as evidenced by an examination of some UN human rights guidance. The right to health has important and distinctive qualities that are not provided by other rights—consequently, playing down the right to health can diminish rights-based approaches to health, as well as the right to health itself. Because general comments, the reports of UN Special Rapporteurs, and UN agencies’ guidance are exercises in interpretation, I discuss methods of legal interpretation. I suggest that the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights permits distinctive interpretative methods within the boundaries established by the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. I call for the right to health to be placed explicitly at the center of a rights-based approach and interpreted in accordance with public international law and international human rights law. PMID:28559680

  2. Future human health research directions for the Canadian Northern Contaminants Program

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Shawn G.; Curren, Meredith S.; Adlard, Bryan; Provost, Jonathan; Leech, Tara; Tikhonov, Constantine; Feeley, Mark; Tomlinson, Scott; Shearer, Russel

    2013-01-01

    Studies conducted in the mid-1980s and early 1990s demonstrated that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals were reaching the Arctic ecosystem at unexpectedly high levels, many of which had no Arctic or Canadian sources. Epidemiological and toxicological studies in Canada and in other countries have found that these contaminants may pose a risk to human health. The objective of this paper is to provide the foundation for the discussion on future northern human health research under the Northern Contaminants Program (NCP) in Canada. This short discussion of human health priorities will help guide a path forward for future northern human health research in Canada to address on-going and new health concerns related to contaminants exposure in the Canadian Arctic. PMID:24282784

  3. National Incorporation of Global Human Rights: Worldwide Expansion of National Human Rights Institutions, 1966-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Jeong-Woo; Ramirez, Francisco O.

    2009-01-01

    Using an event history framework we analyze the adoption rate of national human rights institutions. Neo-realist perspective predicts adoption rates to be positively influenced by favorable national profiles that lower the costs and make it more reasonable to establish these institutions. From a world polity perspective adoption rates will be…

  4. Human Rights Education Standards for Teachers and Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Todd

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes a set of human rights education standards for classroom teachers and, by implication, outcomes for teacher preparation programs. The discussion includes a brief description of human rights education and concludes with recommendations for teacher preparation programs.

  5. Human Rights Education Standards for Teachers and Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Todd

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes a set of human rights education standards for classroom teachers and, by implication, outcomes for teacher preparation programs. The discussion includes a brief description of human rights education and concludes with recommendations for teacher preparation programs.

  6. A Global Perspective on Human Rights Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    This ERIC Digest outlines what is meant by the phrase human rights and the origin of the concept. It also traces the delineation of the concept of human rights from the 17th century antecedent of "natural rights" to its eventual incarnation as inherent political or personal rights, such as freedom of speech, press, assembly, and…

  7. Evolution of Human Rights in the Age of Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hron, Benjamin

    1998-01-01

    Considers how biotechnology affects human-rights issues; in particular, the need for reexamining concerns about reproductive technology, the rights of indigenous peoples, and the rights of future generations. Maintains that the new areas for human-rights discussions, such as germ-line manipulation and genetic screening, are unprecedented concerns…

  8. Evolution of Human Rights in the Age of Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hron, Benjamin

    1998-01-01

    Considers how biotechnology affects human-rights issues; in particular, the need for reexamining concerns about reproductive technology, the rights of indigenous peoples, and the rights of future generations. Maintains that the new areas for human-rights discussions, such as germ-line manipulation and genetic screening, are unprecedented concerns…

  9. Time for Municipal Elder Rights Law: An Anglo-Canadian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doron, Israel

    2008-01-01

    In an age of globalization and privatization, local governments and municipalities are searching to define their social role and place. In an aging society such as Canada, arguing that promoting the legal rights of older persons should be part of the legal authority of the municipal government is not simple. It is easier to abide by the position…

  10. Quantitative risk assessment of human salmonellosis in Canadian broiler chicken breast from retail to consumption.

    PubMed

    Smadi, Hanan; Sargeant, Jan M

    2013-02-01

    The current quantitative risk assessment model followed the framework proposed by the Codex Alimentarius to provide an estimate of the risk of human salmonellosis due to consumption of chicken breasts which were bought from Canadian retail stores and prepared in Canadian domestic kitchens. The model simulated the level of Salmonella contamination on chicken breasts throughout the retail-to-table pathway. The model used Canadian input parameter values, where available, to represent risk of salmonellosis. From retail until consumption, changes in the concentration of Salmonella on each chicken breast were modeled using equations for growth and inactivation. The model predicted an average of 318 cases of salmonellosis per 100,000 consumers per year. Potential reasons for this overestimation were discussed. A sensitivity analysis showed that concentration of Salmonella on chicken breasts at retail and food hygienic practices in private kitchens such as cross-contamination due to not washing cutting boards (or utensils) and hands after handling raw meat along with inadequate cooking contributed most significantly to the risk of human salmonellosis. The outcome from this model emphasizes that responsibility for protection from Salmonella hazard on chicken breasts is a shared responsibility. Data needed for a comprehensive Canadian Salmonella risk assessment were identified for future research.

  11. Human Rights: Unfolding of the American Tradition. Report No. 8403.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Public Affairs (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    Excerpts from 100 speeches, essays, and legal documents dating from classical times to the present illustrate the record of human rights discussion over the centuries. The compilation was made in 1968 to mark the 20th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The readings indicate that human rights initially meant freedom from a…

  12. Teaching Human Rights? "All Hell Will Break Loose!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Claire; Brunner, Richard; Webster, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Human rights education is a prominent concern of a number of international organisations and has been dominant on the United Nations' agenda for the past 20 years. The UN Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004) has been followed by the World Programme for Human Rights Education (2005-ongoing) and the recently adopted UN Declaration on Human…

  13. Tensions and Dilemmas about Education in Human Rights in Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magendzo, Abraham

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that incorporating human rights issues into the curriculum causes tensions, especially in nations with histories of military dictatorships. Describes human rights education in Chile and other Latin American nations. Discusses whether human rights should be a separate curriculum subject or integrated into all courses. (CFR)

  14. The Rhetorical Question of Human Rights--A Preface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doxtader, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Does rhetoric have a place in the discourse of human rights? Without certain reply, as the dilemmas of defining, claiming, and promoting human rights appear both to include and exclude the rhetorical gesture, this question invites inquiry into the preface of the contemporary human rights regime, the moment of the aftermath that provokes a struggle…

  15. The World War II Era and Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III

    2012-01-01

    International revulsion at the violation of human rights during World War II helped spark a global movement to define and protect individual human rights. Starting with the creation of war crimes tribunals after the war, this newfound awareness stimulated a concerted international effort to establish human rights for all, both in periods of war…

  16. Perspective: Economic Human Rights: The Time Has Come!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mittal, Anuradha

    1998-01-01

    Maintains that the high poverty levels in the United States implies that the goals of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) have not yet transformed the reality of U.S. citizens. Describes the national campaign called "Economic Human Rights: The Time Has Come!" that combats the violations of basic human rights like poverty.…

  17. Teaching Human Rights? "All Hell Will Break Loose!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Claire; Brunner, Richard; Webster, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Human rights education is a prominent concern of a number of international organisations and has been dominant on the United Nations' agenda for the past 20 years. The UN Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004) has been followed by the World Programme for Human Rights Education (2005-ongoing) and the recently adopted UN Declaration on Human…

  18. The World War II Era and Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III

    2012-01-01

    International revulsion at the violation of human rights during World War II helped spark a global movement to define and protect individual human rights. Starting with the creation of war crimes tribunals after the war, this newfound awareness stimulated a concerted international effort to establish human rights for all, both in periods of war…

  19. The Rhetorical Question of Human Rights--A Preface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doxtader, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Does rhetoric have a place in the discourse of human rights? Without certain reply, as the dilemmas of defining, claiming, and promoting human rights appear both to include and exclude the rhetorical gesture, this question invites inquiry into the preface of the contemporary human rights regime, the moment of the aftermath that provokes a struggle…

  20. Human Rights Education Can Be Integrated throughout the School Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childhood Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Research indicates that few state departments of education have actually mandated human rights education in their schools. Clearly, individual teachers will need to take responsibility for the integration of peace education and human rights education. By integrating human rights education and peace education into the daily fabric of the school…

  1. Human Rights: Unfolding of the American Tradition. Report No. 8403.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Public Affairs (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    Excerpts from 100 speeches, essays, and legal documents dating from classical times to the present illustrate the record of human rights discussion over the centuries. The compilation was made in 1968 to mark the 20th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The readings indicate that human rights initially meant freedom from a…

  2. Human Rights: 1948-1978--Changing Perceptions. A Wingspread Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohn, Louis B.; Roosevelt, Curtis

    Conference participants examined the attitudes toward human rights which led to the drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, as compared to today's perceptions of the meaning of human rights. Using Franklin D. Roosevelt's "Four Freedoms" as a point of departure--freedom of speech and expression, freedom of every…

  3. Perspective: Economic Human Rights: The Time Has Come!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mittal, Anuradha

    1998-01-01

    Maintains that the high poverty levels in the United States implies that the goals of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) have not yet transformed the reality of U.S. citizens. Describes the national campaign called "Economic Human Rights: The Time Has Come!" that combats the violations of basic human rights like poverty.…

  4. Ethnicity and Human Rights: An Organizational and Individual Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, George E.

    Despite the Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the United Nations in 1948, the issue of the human rights of ethnic minority groups is widely ignored in the United States--both in policy and as an issue worthy of examination. In this country and abroad, violations of human rights continue to take place regularly; minority group…

  5. Global health rights: Employing human rights to develop and implement the Framework Convention on Global Health.

    PubMed

    Gable, Lance; Meier, Benjamin Mason

    2013-06-14

    The Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH) represents an important idea for addressing the expanding array of governance challenges in global health. Proponents of the FCGH suggest that it could further the right to health through its incorporation of rights into national laws and policies, using litigation and community empowerment to advance rights claims and prominently establish the right to health as central to global health governance. Building on efforts to expand development and influence of the right to health through the implementation of the FCGH, in this article we find that human rights correspondingly holds promise in justifying the FCGH. By employing human rights as a means to develop and implement the FCGH, the existing and evolving frameworks of human rights can complement efforts to reform global health governance, with the FCGH and human rights serving as mutually reinforcing bases of norms and accountability in global health.

  6. Time for municipal elder rights law: an Anglo-Canadian perspective.

    PubMed

    Doron, Israel

    2008-01-01

    In an age of globalization and privatization, local governments and municipalities are searching to define their social role and place. In an aging society such as Canada, arguing that promoting the legal rights of older persons should be part of the legal authority of the municipal government is not simple. It is easier to abide by the position that, without an efficient centralized machinery, social and environmental problems will remain unsolved or unaddressed. This article presents a different understanding of the place of municipal government in Canada. The goal of this article is to present an original legal-policy argument: It is time for local communities and local governments in Canada to use their legal authorities to enact local bylaws that define and establish the rights of their older citizens. The argument maintains that local municipalities hold the legal power and the social potential to make a significant contribution in the legal sphere for promotion of the rights of older people, and that this power has been neglected. The article supports the argument on three pillars: (1) an empirical analysis of bylaws in different municipalities across Canada; (2) a socio-legal analysis of the advantages of municipal law as a tool for social change; (3) a case analysis of a recent municipal legal reform in British Columbia.

  7. Chikungunya, climate change, and human rights.

    PubMed

    Meason, Braden; Paterson, Ryan

    2014-06-14

    Chikungunya is a re-emerging arbovirus that causes significant morbidity and some mortality. Global climate change leading to warmer temperatures and changes in rainfall patterns allow mosquito vectors to thrive at altitudes and at locations where they previously have not, ultimately leading to a spread of mosquito-borne diseases. While mutations to the chikungunya virus are responsible for some portion of the re-emergence, chikungunya epidemiology is closely tied with weather patterns in Southeast Asia. Extrapolation of this regional pattern, combined with known climate factors impacting the spread of malaria and dengue, summate to a dark picture of climate change and the spread of this disease from south Asia and Africa into Europe and North America. This review describes chikungunya and collates current data regarding its spread in which climate change plays an important part. We also examine human rights obligations of States and others to protect against this disease. Copyright © 2014 Meason, Paterson. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  8. Transsexuals and European human rights law.

    PubMed

    Reed, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Sexual identity is a legal status, and as such it is as much dependent on public policy as on self-identification. However, because this status can be crucial to one's role in society, a conflict between the legal status and an individual's perceptions or aspirations creates a dilemma if society is committed to individual freedom. This difficulty can become particularly acute where it is technically possible for an individual to alter some of the factors used socially or legally to determine sexual identity. This paper analyses these difficulties, both from the situation of endocrine disorder and with respect to gender identity. It argues that this distinction in approach may not be a valid basis for different legal treatment. It considers four major issues: the stage at which a change of gender should be recognised; any preconditions to which a legal change of gender should be made subject; whether legal recognition should be made for all purposes or only for specific areas of the law; and the confidentiality of a person's previous sexual identity. The paper particularly analyses the law in the United Kingdom and then considers other jurisdictions before focusing on the treatment of transsexuals under the European Convention on Human Rights.

  9. Implementing Children's Human Rights Education in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covell, Katherine; Howe, R. Brian; McNeil, Justin K.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluations of a children's rights education initiative in schools in Hampshire, England--consistent with previous research findings--demonstrate the effectiveness of a framework of rights for school policy, practice, and teaching, for promoting rights-respecting attitudes and behaviors among children, and for improving the school ethos. The value…

  10. Implementing Children's Human Rights Education in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covell, Katherine; Howe, R. Brian; McNeil, Justin K.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluations of a children's rights education initiative in schools in Hampshire, England--consistent with previous research findings--demonstrate the effectiveness of a framework of rights for school policy, practice, and teaching, for promoting rights-respecting attitudes and behaviors among children, and for improving the school ethos. The value…

  11. Barriers to the use of toxicogenomics data in human health risk assessment: A survey of Canadian risk assessors.

    PubMed

    Vachon, Julien; Campagna, Céline; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Sirard, Marc-André; Levallois, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Regulatory agencies worldwide need to modernize human health risk assessment (HHRA) to meet challenges of the 21st century. Toxicogenomics is at the core of this improvement. Today, however, the use of toxicogenomics data in HHRA is very limited. The purpose of this survey was to identify barriers to the application of toxicogenomics data in HHRA by human health risk assessors. An online survey targeting Canadian risk assessors gathered information on their knowledge and perception of toxicogenomics, their current and future inclusion of toxicogenomics data in HHRA, and barriers to the use of such data. Twenty-nine (29) participants completed a questionnaire after 2 months of solicitation. The results show that the application of toxicogenomics data in Canada is marginal, with 85% of respondents reporting that they never or rarely used such data. Knowledge of toxicogenomics by Canadian risk assessors is also limited: about two-thirds of respondents (68%) were not at all or only slightly familiar with the concept. Lack of guidelines for toxicogenomics data interpretation, data quality assessment and on their use in HHRA, were found to be major barriers. In conclusion, there is a need for interventions aimed at facilitating the use of toxicogenomics data in HHRA, when available. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sexual and reproductive rights and the human rights agenda: controversial and contested.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, Wanda

    2011-11-01

    In this paper I share some of my experience and observations, as an advocate for women's rights, of the last 20 years of struggles for sexual and reproductive health and rights, carried out in many key places where these issues have been debated and decided. I do not aspire to be comprehensive about the current status of human rights related to sexuality and reproduction. Given that my expertise is of a practical (rather than theoretical) nature, the complexity of the topic and contradictory events with regard to it, which take place almost everyday, I will highlight some selected achievements and setbacks in this area, particularly regarding abortion rights. I will provide examples of how human rights related to sexual and reproductive health have been addressed in UN policy-setting bodies, such as the Commission on the Status of Women and Commission on Population and Development, as well as in the UN human rights system such as Treaty Monitoring Bodies and Human Rights Council. Given my work with European institutions, I provide examples of important decisions by the Council of Europe and the European Court of Human Rights. Lastly, I discuss growing opposition to a progressive human rights agenda and the universality of human rights. Despite significant successes, sexual and reproductive rights will long remain controversial and contested. Hence, it is crucial to try to find new ways to engage and new partners to work with. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Teachers' Pedagogical Perspectives and Teaching Practices on Human Rights in Cyprus: An Empirical Exploration and Implications for Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos; Charalambous, Constadina; Charalambous, Panayiota

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a qualitative study that explored the understandings of human rights, pedagogical perspectives and practices in human rights teaching of three Greek-Cypriot elementary teachers. The study revealed some significant challenges in human rights teaching that seemed to be common for all three participating teachers. First, all of…

  14. Teachers' Pedagogical Perspectives and Teaching Practices on Human Rights in Cyprus: An Empirical Exploration and Implications for Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos; Charalambous, Constadina; Charalambous, Panayiota

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a qualitative study that explored the understandings of human rights, pedagogical perspectives and practices in human rights teaching of three Greek-Cypriot elementary teachers. The study revealed some significant challenges in human rights teaching that seemed to be common for all three participating teachers. First, all of…

  15. The human rights responsibilities of multinational tobacco companies.

    PubMed

    Crow, M E

    2005-08-01

    This article explores various strategies which could be used to hold the tobacco industry accountable for human rights violations precipitated by its conduct. First, a brief overview of the international human rights regime and the tobacco related jurisprudence issued by human rights treaty bodies is provided. The article then explains how tobacco control advocates could promote more systematic consideration of governments' tobacco related human rights violations by reconceptualising the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in the language of rights. The feasibility of using the existing human rights framework to target the tobacco industry directly is analysed with the conclusion that this approach has serious limitations. Emerging human rights norms, which have greater potential to affect the industry's conduct, are presented. Finally, given the questionable authoritativeness of these norms, alternative ways that they could be employed to hold tobacco companies accountable for the rights related consequences of their activities are proposed.

  16. The human rights responsibilities of multinational tobacco companies

    PubMed Central

    Crow, M

    2005-01-01

    This article explores various strategies which could be used to hold the tobacco industry accountable for human rights violations precipitated by its conduct. First, a brief overview of the international human rights regime and the tobacco related jurisprudence issued by human rights treaty bodies is provided. The article then explains how tobacco control advocates could promote more systematic consideration of governments' tobacco related human rights violations by reconceptualising the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in the language of rights. The feasibility of using the existing human rights framework to target the tobacco industry directly is analysed with the conclusion that this approach has serious limitations. Emerging human rights norms, which have greater potential to affect the industry's conduct, are presented. Finally, given the questionable authoritativeness of these norms, alternative ways that they could be employed to hold tobacco companies accountable for the rights related consequences of their activities are proposed. PMID:16046696

  17. International Human Rights and the Mistreatment of Women During Childbirth

    PubMed Central

    Zampas, Christina; Vogel, Joshua P.; Bohren, Meghan A.; Roseman, Mindy; Erdman, Joanna N.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract International human rights bodies have played a critical role in codifying, setting standards, and monitoring human rights violations in the context of sexual and reproductive health and rights. In recent years, these institutions have developed and applied human rights standards in the more particular context of maternal mortality and morbidity, and have increasingly recognized a critical human rights issue in the provision and experience of care during and after pregnancy, including during childbirth. However, the international human rights standards on mistreatment during facility-based childbirth remain, in an early stage of development, focused largely on a discrete subset of experiences, such as forced sterilization and lack of access to emergency obstetric care. As a consequence, the range of mistreatment that women may experience has not been adequately addressed or analyzed under international human rights law. Identifying human rights norms and standards related to the full range of documented mistreatment is thus a first step towards addressing violations of human rights during facility-based childbirth, ensuring respectful and humane treatment, and developing a program of work to improve the overall quality of maternal care. This article reviews international human rights standards related to the mistreatment of women during childbirth in facility settings under regional and international human rights law and lays out an agenda for further research and action. PMID:28559681

  18. International Human Rights and the Mistreatment of Women During Childbirth.

    PubMed

    Khosla, Rajat; Zampas, Christina; Vogel, Joshua P; Bohren, Meghan A; Roseman, Mindy; Erdman, Joanna N

    2016-12-01

    International human rights bodies have played a critical role in codifying, setting standards, and monitoring human rights violations in the context of sexual and reproductive health and rights. In recent years, these institutions have developed and applied human rights standards in the more particular context of maternal mortality and morbidity, and have increasingly recognized a critical human rights issue in the provision and experience of care during and after pregnancy, including during childbirth. However, the international human rights standards on mistreatment during facility-based childbirth remain, in an early stage of development, focused largely on a discrete subset of experiences, such as forced sterilization and lack of access to emergency obstetric care. As a consequence, the range of mistreatment that women may experience has not been adequately addressed or analyzed under international human rights law. Identifying human rights norms and standards related to the full range of documented mistreatment is thus a first step towards addressing violations of human rights during facility-based childbirth, ensuring respectful and humane treatment, and developing a program of work to improve the overall quality of maternal care. This article reviews international human rights standards related to the mistreatment of women during childbirth in facility settings under regional and international human rights law and lays out an agenda for further research and action.

  19. Progress in the international protection of human rights.

    PubMed

    Suter, Keith

    2002-01-01

    Great progress has been made in the international protection of human rights since 10 December 1948 (when the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights). Amidst the doom and gloom of the media's reporting of current affairs, it is easy to overlook this progress. This article provides a definition of 'human rights' and examines early human rights campaigns. It then considers the areas of progress: human rights are now part of the international political vocabulary, there is a recognition that respect for human rights can assist a country's economic and social development, there has been a growth of human rights treaties and techniques and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) see protecting human rights as a major activity. State sovereignty has been eroded as national governments are being held accountable to the international community for their human rights policies. A new challenge is to ensure respect for human rights by non-state entities, such as transnational corporations. The growing culture of international protection of human rights is here to stay. This is not a reason for complacency, but it is a sign of hope.

  20. Health Human Resources Guidelines: Minimum Staffing Standards and Role Descriptions for Canadian Cystic Fibrosis Healthcare Teams

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In cystic fibrosis clinics across Canada, the most common barrier that healthcare workers face when providing care to their patients is having too little time. The Health Human Resources Guidelines were developed to define specifically what amounts of time should be allocated for each discipline of cystic fibrosis clinical care and to provide a description of all the roles involved, reinforcing how these work together to provide comprehensive multidisciplinary care. With involvement from all cystic fibrosis clinics in Canada, through the use of a tailored survey, the Health Human Resources Guidelines are an exclusively Canadian document that has been developed for implementation across the country. The guidelines have been incorporated into a national Accreditation Site Visit program for use in evaluating and improving care across the country and have been distributed to all Canadian cystic fibrosis clinics. The guidelines provide hospital administrators with clear benchmarks for allocating personnel resources to the cystic fibrosis clinics hosted within their institutions. PMID:27445556

  1. Health Human Resources Guidelines: Minimum Staffing Standards and Role Descriptions for Canadian Cystic Fibrosis Healthcare Teams.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    In cystic fibrosis clinics across Canada, the most common barrier that healthcare workers face when providing care to their patients is having too little time. The Health Human Resources Guidelines were developed to define specifically what amounts of time should be allocated for each discipline of cystic fibrosis clinical care and to provide a description of all the roles involved, reinforcing how these work together to provide comprehensive multidisciplinary care. With involvement from all cystic fibrosis clinics in Canada, through the use of a tailored survey, the Health Human Resources Guidelines are an exclusively Canadian document that has been developed for implementation across the country. The guidelines have been incorporated into a national Accreditation Site Visit program for use in evaluating and improving care across the country and have been distributed to all Canadian cystic fibrosis clinics. The guidelines provide hospital administrators with clear benchmarks for allocating personnel resources to the cystic fibrosis clinics hosted within their institutions.

  2. Do cultural diversity and human rights make a good match?

    PubMed

    Donders, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    The link between cultural diversity and human rights was clearly established by the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, adopted by the member states of UNESCO in 2001, which holds that "the defence of cultural diversity is … inseparable from respect for human dignity" and that it "implies a commitment to human rights and fundamental freedoms." The UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, adopted in 2005, states that "cultural diversity can be protected and promoted only if human rights and fundamental freedoms … are guaranteed" (Article 2[1]). The precise relationship between cultural diversity and human rights, however, is not clarified and thus leaves room for further exploration. This contribution analyses the issues surrounding the relationship between cultural diversity and human rights, in particular cultural rights. Firstly, it addresses general human rights issues such as universality and cultural relativism and the principles of equality and non-discrimination. Secondly, it explores the scope of cultural rights, as well as the cultural dimension of human rights. Thirdly, several cases are discussed in which human rights were invoked to protect cultural interests, confirming the value of cultural diversity. Finally, some concluding remarks are presented, indicating which areas require attention in order to further improve the promotion and protection of human rights in relation to cultural diversity.

  3. Barcelona 2002: law, ethics, and human rights. HIV testing for peacekeeping forces: legal and human rights issues.

    PubMed

    Jürgens, Ralf

    2002-12-01

    In 2001, the United Nations Security Council established an Expert Panel to study the issue of whether the UN should institute HIV testing of peacekeeping personnel. This article, based on a 9 July 2002 presentation to the XIV International AIDS Conference (abstract TuOrG1173), reports on the findings of a paper prepared for the Expert Panel by the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network. The paper examined whether it is permissible for the UN to implement mandatory HIV testing of its peacekeeping personnel, and whether HIV-positive UN peacekeeping personnel should be excluded or restricted from service on the basis of their HIV status or HIV disease progression. The article describes some of the court cases in which these issues have been considered; discusses the importance of analyzing such issues in the context of a human rights-based approach to the pandemic; and formulates a series of key principles for guiding UN decision-making. The article concludes that a policy of mandatory HIV testing for all UN peacekeeping personnel cannot be justified on the basis that it is required in order to assess their physical and mental capacity for service; that HIV-positive peacekeeping personnel cannot be excluded from service based on their HIV status alone, but only on their ability to perform their duties; and that the UN cannot resort to mandatory HIV testing for all UN peacekeeping personnel to protect the health and safety of HIV-negative personnel unless it can demonstrate that alternatives to such a policy would not reduce the risk sufficiently. In the end, the Expert Panel unanimously rejected mandatory testing and instead endorsed voluntary HIV counselling and testing for UN peacekeeping personnel.

  4. Human and peoples' rights: social representations among Cameroonian students.

    PubMed

    Pirttilä-Backman, Anna-Maija; Kassea, Raul; Sakki, Inari

    2009-12-01

    Social representations of human and peoples' rights were studied among Cameroonian university students (N = 666) with a questionnaire based on the UN Declaration of Human Rights and the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights and Duties. The respondents were asked how important and how well realized they regarded the 39 human and peoples' rights to be. A 13-factor model provided the best fit with Cameroonian students' perceptions of human and peoples' rights. Taken as a whole, our results are in line with previous quantitative studies on human rights, confirming structural similarity but also country-specific variation in the aggregation of specific rights. Moreover, our data showed that Cameroonian students value human and peoples' rights highly (M = 6.18), whereas their fulfillment is not regarded as highly (M = 5.09). Same law for all, equality and freedom, and right to work and living were highly appreciated but lowly realized rights. Higher than average in importance and realization were right to education and self-fulfillment, right to marriage and property, peoples' social and political basic rights and right to life and safety. Low in importance and realization were peoples' right to their country's natural resources and independence, right to meetings, and right to express opinion. Women appreciated the rights more than men and thought of their rights as better realized compared to men. We suggest that when women say that their rights are better fulfilled than men do, it is in comparison with the older generation, who are still very dependent on men. Nowadays, thanks to education and urbanization, young women have wider choices or opportunities for marriage and jobs. Men may feel frustrated in the context of political liberalization because the freedoms are more theoretical than fulfilled; the economic crises and cultural changes have hindered their economic domination and their prerogatives.

  5. The United States and the universality of human rights.

    PubMed

    Chomsky, N

    1999-01-01

    The United States takes a highly relativistic stance toward the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It regards the socio-economic rights and the right to development as without status; exempts itself from all provisions of the Declaration by failing to sign the conventions designed to implement these provisions; and unilaterally qualifies its support of civil and political rights. Leading recipients of U.S. aid have traditionally included regimes with atrocious human rights records. Those struggling for human rights should have no illusions about the systems of power and their servants.

  6. Convention on the rights of the child: promoting human rights in Islamic day schools in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Rivin, Beth E

    2011-09-01

    In recent years, rights-based approaches to health are changing the perspective and work of actors in the development sector. This article describes an NGO program that translates theory into practice by integrating human rights education and human rights principles into primary school health programs in Jakarta, Indonesia. Uplift International, an NGO affiliated with the University of Washington School of Law, aims to improve the rights of urban, poor children through teacher and parent training, uniquely designed for the madrasah (Islamic religious day schools) community. The school program links child rights and child health through human rights education and human rights-based methodologies. The Uplift International program is in its fourth year and plans to expand in scope. Positive outcomes include significant notice by Indonesian Government Ministries. Moreover, there is support from the new Indonesian Special Envoy to the UN for Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

  7. Does difference matter? Diversity and human rights in a hospital workplace.

    PubMed

    Sulman, Joanne; Kanee, Marylin; Stewart, Paulette; Savage, Diane

    2007-01-01

    The urban hospital workplace is a dynamic environment that mirrors the cultural and social diversity of the modern city. This paper explores the literature relating to diversity in the workplace and then describes an urban Canadian teaching hospital's comprehensive approach to the promotion of an equitable and inclusive diverse environment. With this goal, four years ago the hospital established an office of Diversity and Human Rights staffed by a social worker. The office provides education, training, policy development and complaints management. The administration also convened a hospital-wide committee to advise on the outcomes, and to plan a process for diversity and human rights organizational change. The committee worked with a social work research consultant to design a qualitative focus group study, currently ongoing, to explore the perspectives of hospital staff. The lessons learned from the process have the potential to increase overall cultural competency of staff that can translate into more sensitive work with patients.

  8. Children's Concepts of Human Rights and Social Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torney, Judith V.; Brice, Patrick J.

    Recent literature on children's conceptions of social institutions is reviewed, and the results of a pilot study on children's concepts of human rights are described. A series of interview questions was developed based on rights specified in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Questions in Part I of the interview concerned a presumed…

  9. Faith Schools: Democracy, Human Rights and Social Cohesion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that faith-based schools are a necessary feature of democratic and pluralistic societies and a legitimate expression of human rights as constituted in the European Convention in Human Rights (2000). It further argues that if the rights of parents to have a real choice for faith-based schools (regardless of ability to pay) are…

  10. Human rights barriers for displaced persons in southern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Pavlish, Carol; Ho, Anita

    2009-01-01

    This community-based research explores community perspectives on human rights barriers that women encounter in a postconflict setting of southern Sudan. An ethnographic design was used to guide data collection in five focus groups with community members and during in-depth interviews with nine key informants. A constant comparison method of data analysis was used. Atlas.ti data management software facilitated the inductive coding and sorting of data. Participants identified three formal and one set of informal community structures for human rights. Human rights barriers included shifting legal frameworks, doubt about human rights, weak government infrastructure, and poverty. The evolving government infrastructure cannot currently provide adequate human rights protection, especially for women. The nature of living in poverty without development opportunities includes human rights abuses. Good governance, protection, and human development opportunities were emphasized as priority human rights concerns. Human rights framework could serve as a powerful integrator of health and development work with community-based organizations. Results help nurses understand the intersection between health and human rights as well as approaches to advancing rights in a culturally attuned manner.

  11. Human rights reasoning and medical law: a sceptical essay.

    PubMed

    Wall, Jesse

    2015-03-01

    I am sceptical as to the contribution that human rights can make to our evaluation of medical law. I will argue here that viewing medical law through a human rights framework provides no greater clarity, insight or focus. If anything, human rights reasoning clouds any bioethical or evaluative analysis. In Section 1 of this article, I outline the general structure of human rights reasoning. I will describe human rights reasoning as (a) reasoning from rights that each person has 'by virtue of their humanity', (b) reasoning from rights that provide 'hard to defeat' reasons for action and (c) reasoning from abstract norms to specified duties. I will then argue in Section 2 that, unless we (a) re-conceive of human rights as narrow categories of liberties, it becomes (b) necessary for our human rights reasoning to gauge the normative force of each claim or liberty. When we apply this approach to disputes in medical law, we (in the best case scenario) end up (c) 'looking straight through' the human right to the (disagreement about) values and features that each person has by virtue of their humanity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A tribute to Dorothy Height. Crusader for human rights.

    PubMed

    Halamandaris, Val J

    2002-12-01

    Dorothy Height, is a legendary figure in the American civil rights movement and in the broader worldwide human rights movement. As President of the National Council of Negro Women (NCNW), she worked tirelessly toward the enactment of civil rights and for equal rights in education, housing, and employment.

  13. Wanted! Linguistic Human Rights. ROLIG-papir, No. 44.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove; Phillipson, Robert

    The language rights of speakers of non-dominant languages are examined. It is argued that language rights are one category of human rights, and the protection of all languages requires a universal declaration, which can serve both to promote dominant languages and to avert the death of others. Linguistic rights are discussed in terms of the six…

  14. Family planning and protection of human rights.

    PubMed

    1991-12-01

    The discussion of human rights in China is based on the White Paper issued by the Information Office under the State Council on November 1, 1991. China is the most populous country in the world at 1.14 billion in 1990. Annual increases of 17 million are expected even with family planning (FP). The area of cultivated land/capita has dropped to 1.3 mu (16.5% of an acre)/capita, or 25% of the world average. Fresh water resources have also dropped similarly. The amount of grain.person is 22% of that in the US. 25% of additional income to the national income is consumed by newborns annually. Savings have been cut and reinvestment in economic development has been slowed. There are pressures on all social and economic systems. There is acknowledged success in FP. The birth rate has dropped to 21.06.1000 in 1990, the rate of natural increase to 14.39%/1000, and the fertility rate to 2.31. These figures are lower than the averages for other developing countries. The FP policy is to promote deferred marriage and childbearing, fewer but healthier births, and 1 child/couple. Rural families who are having difficulties may after an interval of several years have a 2nd child. Minority nationalities are being encouraged to adopt FP voluntarily. Han requirements are different. The policy has been understood and supported by the masses and has contributed to the drop in 3rd and higher parity births to 19.32% in 1989 from 62.21% in 1970. The government role is one of guidance and persuasion within the law, and cannot be accomplished by administrative decrees alone. The government has given priority to enlightening the masses through publicity and education that birth control has a direct impact on the nation's prosperity and people's happy family life. The China FP Association has set up 600,000 grass roots branches with 32 million members to assist in aiding the masses in self-education, self-management, and self-service. Ideological education has been combined with helping the

  15. 75 FR 75615 - Helsinki Human Rights Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8608 of November 30, 2010 Helsinki Human Rights Day, 2010 By the President of... Act, a seminal document tying lasting security among states with respect for human rights and... comprehensive security across the European continent. This occasion also spurred courageous human...

  16. Department of Health and Human Services, Office for Civil Rights

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resize A A A Print Share Office for Civil Rights (OCR) I would like info on. . . Contact ... enter your contact information below. Email Office for Civil Rights Headquarters U.S. Department of Health & Human Services ...

  17. Striving to do good things: teaching humanities in Canadian medical schools.

    PubMed

    Kidd, M G; Connor, J T H

    2008-03-01

    We provide the results of a systematic key-informant review of medical humanities curricula at fourteen of Canada's seventeen medical schools. This survey was the first of its kind. We found a wide diversity of views among medical educators as to what constitutes the medical humanities, and a lack of consensus on how best to train medical students in the field. In fact, it is not clear that consensus has been attempted - or is even desirable - given that Canadian medical humanities programs are largely shaped by individual educators' interests, experience and passions. This anarchic approach to teaching the medical humanities contrasts sharply with teaching in the clinical sciences where national accreditation processes attempt to ensure that doctors graduating from different schools have roughly the same knowledge (or at least have passed the same exams). We argue that medical humanities are marginalized in Canadian curricula because they are considered to be at odds philosophically with the current dominant culture of evidence-based medicine (EBM). In such a culture where adhering to a consensual standard is a measure of worth, the medical humanities - which defy easy metrical appraisal - are vulnerable. We close with a plea for medical education to become more comfortable in the borderlands between EBM and humanities approaches.

  18. Corporate Responsibility to Respect Human Rights and Business Schools' Responsibility to Teach It: Incorporating Human Rights into the Sustainability Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhail, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The Preamble to the Universal Declaration on Human Rights (UNDHR) calls on every organ of society to teach and educate for the promotion of the rights it contains. However, few if any business schools have any systematic or critical human rights content in their accounting and business curricula. This oversight is increasingly problematic as…

  19. Corporate Responsibility to Respect Human Rights and Business Schools' Responsibility to Teach It: Incorporating Human Rights into the Sustainability Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhail, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The Preamble to the Universal Declaration on Human Rights (UNDHR) calls on every organ of society to teach and educate for the promotion of the rights it contains. However, few if any business schools have any systematic or critical human rights content in their accounting and business curricula. This oversight is increasingly problematic as…

  20. Rights for All: The Human Rights of Rural Citizens. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sodoti, Chris

    The Australian Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission visited over 50 communities throughout Australia to assess the state of human rights in rural, regional, and remote Australia. Education and health services predominated the discussions. Rural children, especially Aboriginal children, have lower school attendance and completion rates…

  1. Who's right? Human rights, sexual rights and social change in Barbados.

    PubMed

    Murray, David A B

    2006-01-01

    Currently, in a number of public and semi-public forums in Barbados, the idea of 'sexual rights' is being discussed and debated. However, different meanings are attached to 'rights'. This paper examines how these meanings demonstrate that different interpretations of sexuality, society, and morality are circulating through Barbados today. It also addresses whether or not sexual rights discourses are the best way to advocate for social justice or bring about changes to socio-sexual attitudes in the Caribbean. It is argued that framing justice and equality through rights talk may have deleterious effects for its advocates, as there is no 'clear' or transparent universality as to what rights means. It is suggested that it may be more efficacious for groups who are stigmatized based on sexual orientation to develop vernacular strategies with values and/or logics stressing elements of justice, equality, dignity and respect for personhood, which include but also move beyond sexual orientation as a principal identification.

  2. Genetic enhancement, human nature, and rights.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Terrance

    2010-08-01

    Authors such as Francis Fukuyama, the President's Council on Bioethics, and George Annas have argued that biotechnological interventions that aim to promote genetic enhancement pose a threat to human nature. This paper clarifies what conclusions these critics seek to establish, and then shows that there is no plausible account of human nature that will meet the conditions necessary to support this position. Appeals to human nature cannot establish a prohibition against the pursuit of genetic enhancement.

  3. The Society's Involvement in the Defense of Human Rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerjuoy, Edward

    2015-04-01

    The history of the Society's involvement in the defense of human rights, a history of which the Society can be proud, will be summarized; the summary will include illustrative specific APS human rights defense actions in illustrative specific cases. As will be emphasized, the aforesaid involvement has been primarily through the activities of the APS Committee on International Freedom of Scientists (CIFS). It is noteworthy-and one of the reasons the Society can be proud-that CIFS is charged with ``monitoring concerns regarding human rights for scientists,'' not solely for physicists, and that CIFS indeed has sought to protect the human rights of nonphysicists.

  4. Can human rights discourse improve the health of Indigenous Australians?

    PubMed

    Gray, Natalie; Bailie, Ross

    2006-10-01

    Recognition of the poor health outcomes of Indigenous Australians has led to an interest in using human rights discourse as a framework for arguing that the Australian Government has an international obligation to improve Indigenous health. This paper explores two potential directions for human rights discourse in this context. The first is the development and elaboration of an asserted 'human right to health'. The second focuses on developing an understanding of the interactions between health and human rights, particularly the underlying social determinants of health, and thereby creating an advocacy framework that could be used to promote the inclusion of human rights considerations into the policy-making agenda. This paper argues that despite the symbolic force of human rights discourse, its capacity to improve the health of Indigenous Australians through international law is limited. This is so irrespective of whether recourse is made to a legal or moral imperative. The 'human right to health' is limited primarily by several barriers to its implementation, some of which are perpetuated by the current Australian Government itself. Although the potential advocacy capacity of human rights discourse is similarly limited by the hostility of the Government towards the notion of incorporating human rights considerations into its public policy decision making, it does provide a sustainable intellectual framework in which to consider the social and structural determinants of health and maintain these issues on the political agenda.

  5. Health and Human Rights in Karen State, Eastern Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Davis, William W; Mullany, Luke C; Shwe Oo, Eh Kalu; Richards, Adam K; Iacopino, Vincent; Beyrer, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Decades of conflict in eastern Myanmar have resulted in high prevalence of human rights violations and poor health outcomes. While recent ceasefire agreements have reduced conflict in this area, it is unknown whether this has resulted in concomitant reductions in human rights violations. We conducted a two-stage cluster survey of 686 households in eastern Myanmar to assess health status, access to healthcare, food security, exposure to human rights violations and identification of alleged perpetrators over the 12 months prior to January 2012, a period of near-absence of conflict in this region. Household hunger (FANTA-2 scale) was moderate/high in 91 (13.2%) households, while the proportion of households reporting food shortages in each month of 2011 ranged from 19.9% in December to 47.0% in September, with food insecurity peaking just prior to the harvest. Diarrhea prevalence in children was 14.2% and in everyone it was 5.8%. Forced labor was the most common human rights violation (185 households, 24.9%), and 210 households (30.6%) reported experiencing one or more human rights violations in 2011. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified associations between human rights violations and poor health outcomes. Human rights violations and their health consequences persist despite reduced intensity of conflict in eastern Myanmar. Ceasefire agreements should include language that protects human rights, and reconciliation efforts should address the health consequences of decades of human rights violations.

  6. Health and Human Rights in Karen State, Eastern Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Davis, William W.; Mullany, Luke C.; Shwe Oo, Eh Kalu; Richards, Adam K.; Iacopino, Vincent; Beyrer, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background Decades of conflict in eastern Myanmar have resulted in high prevalence of human rights violations and poor health outcomes. While recent ceasefire agreements have reduced conflict in this area, it is unknown whether this has resulted in concomitant reductions in human rights violations. Methods and Findings We conducted a two-stage cluster survey of 686 households in eastern Myanmar to assess health status, access to healthcare, food security, exposure to human rights violations and identification of alleged perpetrators over the 12 months prior to January 2012, a period of near-absence of conflict in this region. Household hunger (FANTA-2 scale) was moderate/high in 91 (13.2%) households, while the proportion of households reporting food shortages in each month of 2011 ranged from 19.9% in December to 47.0% in September, with food insecurity peaking just prior to the harvest. Diarrhea prevalence in children was 14.2% and in everyone it was 5.8%. Forced labor was the most common human rights violation (185 households, 24.9%), and 210 households (30.6%) reported experiencing one or more human rights violations in 2011. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified associations between human rights violations and poor health outcomes. Conclusion Human rights violations and their health consequences persist despite reduced intensity of conflict in eastern Myanmar. Ceasefire agreements should include language that protects human rights, and reconciliation efforts should address the health consequences of decades of human rights violations. PMID:26308850

  7. The Human Rights Education Handbook: Effective Practices for Learning, Action, and Change. Human Rights Education Series, Topic Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Nancy

    Conveying the "common language of humanity" is the whole purpose of human rights education. Concerned citizens need to understand and embrace the fundamental principles of human dignity and equality and accept the personal responsibility to defend the rights of all people. This handbook is intended to help people who care about human…

  8. The evolution of human rights in World Health Organization policy and the future of human rights through global health governance.

    PubMed

    Meier, B M; Onzivu, W

    2014-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) was intended to serve at the forefront of efforts to realize human rights to advance global health, and yet this promise of a rights-based approach to health has long been threatened by political constraints in international relations, organizational resistance to legal discourses, and medical ambivalence toward human rights. Through legal research on international treaty obligations, historical research in the WHO organizational archives, and interview research with global health stakeholders, this research examines WHO's contributions to (and, in many cases, negligence of) the rights-based approach to health. Based upon such research, this article analyzes the evolving role of WHO in the development and implementation of human rights for global health, reviews the current state of human rights leadership in the WHO Secretariat, and looks to future institutions to reclaim the mantle of human rights as a normative framework for global health governance.

  9. Sexuality and human rights: an Asian perspective.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Erick

    2005-01-01

    In Asia, the lesbian and gay rights movements are clearly dominated by activists, who tend to think in terms of a binary opposition (homo- vs hetero-) and clear-cut categories. Based on "Western patterns," the approach is practical, the arguments based on minority rights. "Coming out" is often perceived as a "white model" bringing more problems than real freedom. On the contrary, "Asian values" put the emphasis on family and social harmony, often in contradiction to what is pictured as "lesbian and gay rights." Homophobia follows very subtle ways in Asian countries. Asian gays have to negotiate their freedom, lifestyle and identities in an atmosphere of heterosexism, and not the endemic violent homophobia prevalent in many western countries. In Asia, one's identity relates to one's position in the group and sexuality plays a relatively insignificant role in its cultural construction. That Asian gays often marry and have children shows the elasticity their sexual identity encompasses. Fluidity of sexuality does not really match the Western approach in terms of essentialist categories that have a right to exist. Most Asian societies can be thought of as "tolerant" as long as homosexuality remains invisible. Procreative sexuality can be seen as a social duty, and heterosexual marriage is often not considered incompatible with a "homosexual life." The development of the Internet has even facilitated the encounters while allowing secrecy. Unfortunately, the traditional figures of transgender and transvestites have often been separated from the gay liberation movement.

  10. Coronial law and practice: a human rights perspective.

    PubMed

    Freckelton, Ian; McGregor, Simon

    2014-03-01

    Coronial law and practice inevitably impact upon the human rights of those affected by deaths. It is important that such rights be incorporated in how death investigations, up to and including coronial inquests, take place. This article explores the significant impact of the jurisprudence emanating from the European Court of Human Rights, as well as the application of such law by the courts of the United Kingdom and potentially in other countries. It argues that viewing the work of coroners through the lens of human rights is a constructive approach and that, although in the coronial legislation of Australia and New Zealand, many human rights, especially those of family members, and civil liberties are explicitly protected, there remain real advantages in reflecting upon compliance with human rights by death investigation procedures and decision-making.

  11. Regulating surrogacy--a contravention of human rights?

    PubMed

    Ramsey, J

    2000-01-01

    On the 2nd of October 2000, The Human Rights Act 1998 came into full force, signalling the incorporation of The European Convention on Human Rights into U.K. law. Areas of law believed to be inconsistent with the Convention may now be challenged in both The European Court of Human Rights and domestic courts. This article considers whether existing laws on the regulation of access to infertility services, in particular surrogacy, will be deemed incompatible with the ECHR. Human rights as enshrined within Articles 8 and 12 will be examined in light of recent suggestions that there may arise legal challenges by those who have had access to reproductive services restricted or denied. It will be shown that, although existing and potential future controls may arguably infringe these rights, it is nevertheless unlikely that they will be held to be in contravention of The Human Rights Act 1998.

  12. Department of Health and Human Services, Office for Civil Rights

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Civil Rights Search U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Search Close HHS A-Z Index About ... opportunities to participate in certain health care and human services programs without unlawful discrimination. HIPAA - Health Information ...

  13. Human rights-based approach to tobacco control.

    PubMed

    Dresler, Carolyn; Lando, Harry; Schneider, Nick; Sehgal, Hitakshi

    2012-03-01

    The Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC) is currently the most potent tool for implementation of tobacco control laws across the globe. The FCTC is derivative from previously constructed international human rights conventions. These previous conventions have enforcement mechanisms, unlike the FCTC. However, the FCTC relies on state parties to report periodically on its implementation rather than on a continuous monitoring system. The Human Rights and Tobacco Control Network proposes that abiding by the principles of human rights delineated by international treaties, citizens across the globe can demand effective action for tobacco control. This paper explains the link between fundamental human rights and the right to tobacco control. Mechanisms are described to link the FCTC and its principles with human rights-based monitoring reports, which are provided to oversight committees for the other human rights conventions. The initial work of the Human Rights and Tobacco Control Network is summarised and considers the future directions for the human rights-based approach to tobacco control.

  14. Vulnerability, irregular migrants' health-related rights and the European Court of Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Da Lomba, Sylvie

    2014-09-01

    The protection of irregular migrants' health-related rights brings to the fore the tensions that exist between human rights, citizenship and the sovereign state, and exposes the protection gaps in the international human rights regime. With this in mind, I consider the merits of a vulnerability analysis in international human rights law (IHRL). I posit that, detached from specific groups and reconceptualised as universal, vulnerability can be reclaimed as a foundation and tool of IHRL. I further contend that the deployment of a vulnerability analysis can alleviate the exclusionary dimension of IHRL and extend protections to irregular migrants. On this basis, I investigate the development of a vulnerability analysis in the case law of the European Court of Human Rights. I argue that, in contrast with the Court's vulnerable population approach, a vulnerability analysis can improve protection standards for irregular migrants in the field of health.

  15. The Child's Right to Humane Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suchara, Helen T.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses ACEI's four facets of humane education: assuring children's physical growth, fostering a good self image, creating caring relationships, and valuing a world of diversity and change. Also, expectations for adults involved in education are listed. (JB)

  16. The right to health of prisoners in international human rights law.

    PubMed

    Lines, Rick

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the health rights of prisoners as defined in international law, and the mechanisms that have been used to ensure the rights of persons in detention to realise the highest attainable standard of health. It examines this right as articulated within United Nations and regional human rights treaties, non-binding or so-called soft law instruments from international organisations and the jurisprudence of international human rights bodies. It explores the use of economic, social and cultural rights mechanisms, and those within civil and political rights, as they engage the right to health of prisoners, and identifies the minimum legal obligations of governments in order to remain compliant with human rights norms as defined within the international case law. In addressing these issues, this article adopts a holistic approach to the definition of the highest attainable standard of health. This includes a consideration of adequate standards of general medical care, including preventative health and mental health services. It also examines the question of environmental health, and those poor conditions of detention that may exacerbate health decline, disease transmission, mental illness or death. The paper examines the approach to prison health of the United Nations human rights system and its various monitoring bodies, as well as the regional human rights systems in Europe, Africa and the Americas. Based upon this analysis, the paper draws conclusions on the current fulfilment of the right to health of prisoners on an international scale, and proposes expanded mechanisms under the UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment to monitor and promote the health rights of prisoners at the international and domestic levels.

  17. SALT, Human Rights and Foreign Policy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-30

    achievements. Political, economic and psychological considerations overshadow military ones. Arms control is one approach to managing this potential for...York Times , December 4, 1978, pp. Al, DII; Christoph Bertram, "Arms Control and Technological Change," Adelphi Papers Number 146; Edgar Ulsmer...He concludes that a concern forhuman rights is a vital component of the long-term solution to the problem which SALT seeks to manage in the short term

  18. Globalization, human rights, and the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Audrey R

    2009-02-01

    Globalization, a process characterized by the growing interdependence of the world's people, impacts health systems and the social determinants of health in ways that are detrimental to health equity. In a world in which there are few countervailing normative and policy approaches to the dominant neoliberal regime underpinning globalization, the human rights paradigm constitutes a widely shared foundation for challenging globalization's effects. The substantive rights enumerated in human rights instruments include the right to the highest attainable level of physical and mental health and others that are relevant to the determinants of health. The rights stipulated in these documents impose extensive legal obligations on states that have ratified these documents and confer health entitlements on their residents. Human rights norms have also inspired civil society efforts to improve access to essential medicines and medical services, particularly for HIV/AIDS. Nevertheless, many factors reduce the potential counterweight human rights might exert, including and specifically the nature of the human rights approach, weak political commitments to promoting and protecting health rights on the part of some states and their lack of institutional and economic resources to do so. Global economic markets and the relative power of global economic institutions are also shrinking national policy space. This article reviews the potential contributions and limitations of human rights to achieving greater equity in shaping the social determinants of health.

  19. Towards a Human Rights Culture in Social Work Education

    PubMed Central

    Werkmeister Rozas, Lisa; Garran, Ann Marie

    2016-01-01

    A human rights perspective must be embedded in the institutions, organisations or agencies where social work students find themselves. This paper will focus on one particular strategy that could be helpful to the process of solidifying a commitment to human rights for our students. Using a pedagogical tool from a school of social work in the USA originally developed to combat the social injustice of racism, the example transcends the academic institution and offers a solid link in connecting human rights, social justice and social work. Using the construct of critical realism, we argue that, for social work programmes to take steps towards an explicit commitment to human rights, not only must human rights be infused throughout the curriculum, but educators must provide opportunities for making more overt the links between human rights principles, social justice and social work. By addressing behaviours, tendencies and attitudes, students then acquire not only the skills and deeper understanding, but they internalise the motivation and commitment to broaden their human rights frame. In the process of developing a more firm commitment to human rights, we must not be limited to the walls of the academy, but rather extend beyond to our field agencies, organisations and communities. PMID:27559204

  20. Human rights abuses, transparency, impunity and the Web.

    PubMed

    Miles, Steven H

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews how human rights advocates during the "war-on-terror" have found new ways to use the World Wide Web (Web) to combat human rights abuses. These include posting of human rights reports; creating large, open-access and updated archives of government documents and other data, tracking CIA rendition flights and maintaining blogs, e-zines, list-serves and news services that rapidly distribute information between journalists, scholars and human rights advocates. The Web is a powerful communication tool for human rights advocates. It is international, instantaneous, and accessible for uploading, archiving, locating and downloading information. For its human rights potential to be fully realized, international law must be strengthened to promote the declassification of government documents, as is done by various freedom of information acts. It is too early to assess the final impact of the Web on human rights abuses in the "war-on-terror". Wide dissemination of government documents and human rights advocates' reports has put the United States government on the defensive and some of its policies have changed in response to public pressure. Even so, the essential elements of secret prisons, detention without charges or trials, and illegal rendition remain intact.

  1. 76 FR 7695 - Iranian Human Rights Abuses Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Part 562 Iranian Human Rights Abuses Sanctions Regulations AGENCY.... The Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control is issuing the Iranian Human Rights... Foreign Assets Control adds part 562 to 31 CFR Chapter V to read as follows: PART 562--IRANIAN...

  2. Images of Struggle: Teaching Human Rights with Graphic Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carano, Kenneth T.; Clabough, Jeremiah

    2016-01-01

    The authors explore how graphic novels can be used in the middle and high school social studies classroom to teach human rights. The article begins with a rationale on the benefits of using graphic novels. It next focuses on four graphic novels related to human rights issues: "Maus I: A Survivor's Tale: My Father Bleeds" (Speigelman…

  3. Young Children's Enactments of Human Rights in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quennerstedt, Ann

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which human rights become part of and affect young children's everyday practices in early childhood education and, more particularly, how very young children enact human rights in the preschool setting. The study is conducted in a Swedish preschool through observations of the everyday practices of a group of children…

  4. Professionalizing a Global Social Movement: Universities and Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, David; Bromley, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Research on the human rights movement emphasizes direct changes in nation-states, focusing on the efficacy of treaties and the role of advocacy in mitigating immediate violations. However, more than 140 universities in 59 countries established academic chairs, research centers, and programs for human rights from 1968-2000, a development that…

  5. Bioethics & human rights: access to health-related goods.

    PubMed

    Arras, John D; Fenton, Elizabeth M

    2009-01-01

    There are many good reasons for a merger between bioethics and human rights. First, though, significant philosophical groundwork must be done to clarify what a human right to health would be and--if we accept that it exists--exactly how it might influence the practical decisions we face about who gets what in very different contexts.

  6. Education Professionals and the Construction of Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, David

    2007-01-01

    This article builds on previous comparative education research by analyzing the current discourse surrounding this emerging education model--human rights education. The first section provides a brief history of human rights education in formal education. The second section reviews research on international reforms, emphasizing analyses of…

  7. [Ethics, inequality, poverty and human rights in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Pérez De Nucci, Armando M

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to show the existence of important failures in the field of Human Rights and equal possibilities in health. Human rights are analyzed an developed in the field of public and social health in our country. Ethics is the main field proposed to reach solutions in the context on EPEP (Etica para la erradicación de la pobreza).

  8. Toward a Critical-Sentimental Orientation in Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses one of the challenges in human rights education (HRE) concerning the conceptualization of a pedagogical orientation that avoids both the pitfalls of a purely juridical address and a "cheap sentimental" approach. The paper uses as its point of departure Richard Rorty's key intervention on human rights discourse and…

  9. Education Professionals and the Construction of Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, David

    2007-01-01

    This article builds on previous comparative education research by analyzing the current discourse surrounding this emerging education model--human rights education. The first section provides a brief history of human rights education in formal education. The second section reviews research on international reforms, emphasizing analyses of…

  10. Towards a Human Rights Culture in Social Work Education.

    PubMed

    Werkmeister Rozas, Lisa; Garran, Ann Marie

    2016-06-01

    A human rights perspective must be embedded in the institutions, organisations or agencies where social work students find themselves. This paper will focus on one particular strategy that could be helpful to the process of solidifying a commitment to human rights for our students. Using a pedagogical tool from a school of social work in the USA originally developed to combat the social injustice of racism, the example transcends the academic institution and offers a solid link in connecting human rights, social justice and social work. Using the construct of critical realism, we argue that, for social work programmes to take steps towards an explicit commitment to human rights, not only must human rights be infused throughout the curriculum, but educators must provide opportunities for making more overt the links between human rights principles, social justice and social work. By addressing behaviours, tendencies and attitudes, students then acquire not only the skills and deeper understanding, but they internalise the motivation and commitment to broaden their human rights frame. In the process of developing a more firm commitment to human rights, we must not be limited to the walls of the academy, but rather extend beyond to our field agencies, organisations and communities.

  11. Teacher Perspectives on Civic and Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuran, Kezban

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to obtain teacher perspectives on the civic and human rights education course included in the eighth grade curriculum in Turkish schools. The study group was selected with criterion sampling from among teachers who were teaching the eighth grade civic and human rights education at elementary schools in central Hatay. Using the…

  12. Teaching "Islam and Human Rights" in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muedini, Fait A.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses my approach to teaching a course on Islam and human rights. I begin by examining the attention Islam has received in the media and classroom. Then, I discuss how I structure lectures on Islam and human rights, the various readings associated with the lectures, as well as common themes discussed in class that include but are…

  13. Human Rights and Values Education: Using the International Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Betty A.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that, in teaching about human rights, the international standards should be the fundamental core of the content and values to be communicated. Recommends that teachers should use the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as the standard by which the actions of individuals and governments should be compared. (CFR)

  14. Universal Declaration of Human Rights: 40th Anniversary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Juanita, Ed.

    December 10, 1988, marks the 40th anniversary of the adoption by the United Nations of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The Declaration represents the first comprehensive, global statement on basic human rights, embracing many of the values long held by U.S. citizens; and it urges all peoples and all nations to promote respect for the…

  15. The Birth of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Outlines the history of the ideals and enactment of the United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). Includes a discussion of the origins of the concept of human rights, the impact of World War II, the role of nongovernmental organizations, and the process of drafting and adopting the UDHR. (DSK)

  16. Human Rights Education, Postcolonial Scholarship, and Action for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    In our global age, educational researchers and practitioners need tools that can be applied in a range of contexts and scales: local, national, and international. This article argues that human rights education (HRE) is a site of struggle in which human rights and democracy need to be constantly renewed. It contextualizes HRE within a critical,…

  17. Images of Struggle: Teaching Human Rights with Graphic Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carano, Kenneth T.; Clabough, Jeremiah

    2016-01-01

    The authors explore how graphic novels can be used in the middle and high school social studies classroom to teach human rights. The article begins with a rationale on the benefits of using graphic novels. It next focuses on four graphic novels related to human rights issues: "Maus I: A Survivor's Tale: My Father Bleeds" (Speigelman…

  18. Human Rights and History Education: An Australian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burridge Nina; Buchanan, John; Chodkiewicz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The place of education for and about human rights within the school curriculum remains contested and this paper reports on the first national cross-sectoral investigation of its place in Australian curricula and more specifically in national and state History curriculum documents. Opportunities for the inclusion of human rights based studies were…

  19. Human Rights Education, Postcolonial Scholarship, and Action for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    In our global age, educational researchers and practitioners need tools that can be applied in a range of contexts and scales: local, national, and international. This article argues that human rights education (HRE) is a site of struggle in which human rights and democracy need to be constantly renewed. It contextualizes HRE within a critical,…

  20. A Narratable Self as Addressed by Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adami, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    The paper extends the critique in earlier research of human rights as exclusive of otherness and difference by introducing the work of Adriana Cavarero (2000) on a "narratable self." Hence, the formation of human rights is thus about the relations between different narratable selves, not just Western ones. A narrative learning, drawing…

  1. Teacher Perspectives on Civic and Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuran, Kezban

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to obtain teacher perspectives on the civic and human rights education course included in the eighth grade curriculum in Turkish schools. The study group was selected with criterion sampling from among teachers who were teaching the eighth grade civic and human rights education at elementary schools in central Hatay. Using the…

  2. Interdisciplinary Teaching of Theatre and Human Rights in Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szasz, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Since spring 2012, the author has taught a 300-level Theatre and Human Rights class in the University of New Mexico Honors College. One of the centerpieces of honors education is careful research and thorough analysis of what is taught and why it is taught. In creating the honors class Theatre and Human Rights, the author explored how she would…

  3. Human Rights Education: Imaginative Possibilities for Creating Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2015-01-01

    Background/Context: Human rights education has proliferated in the past four decades and can be found in policy discussions, textbook reforms, and grassroots initiatives across the globe. This article specifically explores the role of creativity and imagination in human rights education (HRE) by focusing on a case study of one non-governmental…

  4. Professionalizing a Global Social Movement: Universities and Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, David; Bromley, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Research on the human rights movement emphasizes direct changes in nation-states, focusing on the efficacy of treaties and the role of advocacy in mitigating immediate violations. However, more than 140 universities in 59 countries established academic chairs, research centers, and programs for human rights from 1968-2000, a development that…

  5. Human Rights Education and the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Nica

    2015-01-01

    In 2003, the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IBDP)--a program implemented in thousands of schools globally--introduced a human rights course (Makivirta, 2003). This curriculum is the first of its kind to hold potential widespread influence on human rights education in the formal education sector. In this study, I analyze the…

  6. Young Children's Enactments of Human Rights in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quennerstedt, Ann

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which human rights become part of and affect young children's everyday practices in early childhood education and, more particularly, how very young children enact human rights in the preschool setting. The study is conducted in a Swedish preschool through observations of the everyday practices of a group of children…

  7. Toward a Critical-Sentimental Orientation in Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses one of the challenges in human rights education (HRE) concerning the conceptualization of a pedagogical orientation that avoids both the pitfalls of a purely juridical address and a "cheap sentimental" approach. The paper uses as its point of departure Richard Rorty's key intervention on human rights discourse and…

  8. Handbook on Human Rights and Citizenship: Perspectives of Five Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Henry, Ed.

    This handbook was designed to help students learn the cultural contexts in which human rights are variously defined. It provides a comparative study of five nations, selected for their geographic and cultural scope, as a unique way to study human rights. Chapter 1 sets the stage for the study by presenting activities for establishing class…

  9. Education as a Human Right in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sharon E.

    2013-01-01

    According to the United Nations, education is a right to which all human beings are entitled. Since 2000, the UN has been promoting the Millennium Development Goal to achieve free universal primary education for all, regardless of gender, by 2015. If the UN is correct to suggest that education is both a human right in itself and an indispensable…

  10. Teaching "Islam and Human Rights" in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muedini, Fait A.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses my approach to teaching a course on Islam and human rights. I begin by examining the attention Islam has received in the media and classroom. Then, I discuss how I structure lectures on Islam and human rights, the various readings associated with the lectures, as well as common themes discussed in class that include but are…

  11. Middle School Guide for Teaching about Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todorov, Karen; And Others

    This is a middle school guide for teaching about human rights prepared for use in the Detroit, Michigan public schools. The guide presents a number of overall goals and specific objectives in the area of human rights. Each objective is paired with corresponding classroom activities and resource materials. Topics of study include equality of race,…

  12. Human Rights-Based Approaches to Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Valerie J.; Sahakian, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The incidence of human rights violations in mental health care across nations has been described as a “global emergency” and an “unresolved global crisis.” The relationship between mental health and human rights is complex and bidirectional. Human rights violations can negatively impact mental health. Conversely, respecting human rights can improve mental health. This article reviews cases where an explicitly human rights-based approach was used in mental health care settings. Although the included studies did not exhibit a high level of methodological rigor, the qualitative information obtained was considered useful and informative for future studies. All studies reviewed suggest that human-rights based approaches can lead to clinical improvements at relatively low costs. Human rights-based approaches should be utilized for legal and moral reasons, since human rights are fundamental pillars of justice and civilization. The fact that such approaches can contribute to positive therapeutic outcomes and, potentially, cost savings, is additional reason for their implementation. However, the small sample size and lack of controlled, quantitative measures limit the strength of conclusions drawn from included studies. More objective, high quality research is needed to ascertain the true extent of benefits to service users and providers. PMID:27781015

  13. Human Rights Education: Imaginative Possibilities for Creating Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2015-01-01

    Background/Context: Human rights education has proliferated in the past four decades and can be found in policy discussions, textbook reforms, and grassroots initiatives across the globe. This article specifically explores the role of creativity and imagination in human rights education (HRE) by focusing on a case study of one non-governmental…

  14. Seeking a stable future: perspectives on population policy. The legal approach: women's rights as human rights.

    PubMed

    Pine, R N

    1994-01-01

    As it has grappled with issues of population policy, the international community has emphasized that women's reproductive rights are human rights. Scholars have also acknowledged that the right to reproductive health care exists within the scope of international human rights treaties and conventions and that gender equality, nondiscrimination, and freedom from government interference in marriage and family life are also guaranteed. Further protections extend to counseling and health information and referral. The Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development continues this trend by emphasizing the importance of human rights for attaining population and development objectives, calling on governments to focus their efforts on improving the quality of life for individuals, and endorsing the notion that reproductive rights are universal human rights. Reproductive health care options are also influenced by sovereign laws that restrict availability of contraception, sterilization, or abortion. However, universal rights and unrestricted access must be complemented by other factors controlled by domestic laws to guarantee reproductive choice. Such laws cover issues like marriage age, divorce, marital property, child support, maternity benefits, day care, sex discrimination, eligibility for insurance, confidentiality, spousal consent, rape, and sexual abuse. Countries must modify restrictive national laws and promote laws protecting women's rights.

  15. Genocide: The Ultimate Human Rights Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charny, Israel W.

    1987-01-01

    Argues for a more humanistic definition of genocide; one that includes the intentional murder of a group of human beings on the basis of any shared identity. Identifies the Holocaust as the world's major genocidal event but urges recognition of the Armenian, Cambodian, and similar tragedies. Proposes an early-warning organization to monitor and…

  16. Genocide: The Ultimate Human Rights Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charny, Israel W.

    1985-01-01

    The ongoing debate about what constitutes a genocidal act is analyzed. Discussed is a humanistic definition of genocide, i.e., the wanton murder of a group of human beings on the basis of any identity whatsoever that they share--national, ethnic, racial, religious, political, geographical, or ideological. Examples of genocide are provided. (RM)

  17. Genocide: The Ultimate Human Rights Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charny, Israel W.

    1987-01-01

    Argues for a more humanistic definition of genocide; one that includes the intentional murder of a group of human beings on the basis of any shared identity. Identifies the Holocaust as the world's major genocidal event but urges recognition of the Armenian, Cambodian, and similar tragedies. Proposes an early-warning organization to monitor and…

  18. [Toward a methodology to popularize human rights for women].

    PubMed

    Suarez, M; Arroyo, R

    1993-01-01

    The popularization of the rights of women refers to the process by which women join the historical struggle for their basic human rights on the individual and social, public and private, national and international levels. In Central America, a methodology was recently developed for reconceptualizing human rights of women and constructing these rights based on systematizing experiences from daily life. The methodology has been used in several workshops and courses in countries of the region. The methodology has four specific objectives: to identify the principal rights that have been denied to women, to identify rights achieved by women in their daily lives through their own efforts, to contribute to a new form of human rights education for women in which human rights instruments are conceived as instruments to satisfy human needs, and to develop strategies for achieving full exercise of rights. Steps in applying the methodology include encouraging participants to recall their first awareness that a human right was denied because of sex, and to recall the first time they ever successfully asserted a right. These remembered incidences then become the objects of a search through international and national human rights instruments to see whether the relevant rights are mentioned. Since most of the recollected experiences will have occurred in the domestic sphere, they will not be recognized in the instruments. The next step is to identify actions and strategies to overcome the limitations resulting from the separation of public and private spheres and to achieve recognition of the actual life experiences of women. The final step requires sharing fears and concerns regarding the implementation of the suggested strategies and actions.

  19. Human rights, public health and medicinal cannabis use

    PubMed Central

    Bone, Melissa; Seddon, Toby

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay between the human rights and drug control frameworks and critiques case law on medicinal cannabis use to demonstrate that a bona fide human rights perspective allows for a broader conception of ‘health’. This broad conception, encompassing both medicalised and social constructionist definitions, can inform public health policies relating to medicinal cannabis use. The paper also demonstrates how a human rights lens can alleviate a core tension between the State and the individual within the drug policy field. The leading medicinal cannabis case in the UK highlights the judiciary’s failure to engage with an individual’s human right to health as they adopt an arbitrary, externalist view, focussing on the legality of cannabis to the exclusion of other concerns. Drawing on some international comparisons, the paper considers how a human rights perspective can lead to an approach to medicinal cannabis use which facilitates a holistic understanding of public health. PMID:26692654

  20. Profiles of four women. Health and human rights activists.

    PubMed

    Reiner, L; Sollom, R

    1997-01-01

    This article briefly profiles four women physicians working for health and human rights around the world. Dr. Ruchama Marton, an Israeli psychiatrist and activist for peace in the Middle East, is a founder of Physicians for Human Rights/Israel. Dr. Jane Green Schaller is a US pediatrician whose 1985 trip to South Africa initiated her human rights involvement, which includes the founding of Physicians for Human Rights. Dr. Judith van Heerden, a primary care physician in South Africa, has worked for reform of prison health care, to establish hospice care, and, most recently, for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) education for medical students. Dr. Ma Thida, the only physician not interviewed for this article, is currently held in a Burmese prison because of her work on behalf of the National League for Democracy. The profiles suggest the breadth of human rights work worldwide and are a testament to what physicians can do.

  1. Human rights, public health and medicinal cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Bone, Melissa; Seddon, Toby

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay between the human rights and drug control frameworks and critiques case law on medicinal cannabis use to demonstrate that a bona fide human rights perspective allows for a broader conception of 'health'. This broad conception, encompassing both medicalised and social constructionist definitions, can inform public health policies relating to medicinal cannabis use. The paper also demonstrates how a human rights lens can alleviate a core tension between the State and the individual within the drug policy field. The leading medicinal cannabis case in the UK highlights the judiciary's failure to engage with an individual's human right to health as they adopt an arbitrary, externalist view, focussing on the legality of cannabis to the exclusion of other concerns. Drawing on some international comparisons, the paper considers how a human rights perspective can lead to an approach to medicinal cannabis use which facilitates a holistic understanding of public health.

  2. Human rights and intellectual disabilities in an era of 'choice'.

    PubMed

    Fyson, R; Cromby, J

    2013-12-01

    Efforts to uphold and promote the human rights of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are being affected by the increasing emphasis on 'choice' in the delivery of social care services. While rights presume subjects or selves to whom they apply, there is a disconnect between the subjects presumed within human rights frameworks and the variable capacities of a heterogeneous ID population. This disconnect is amplified by choice discourses which characterise current service provision based upon neoliberal ideologies. Conceptual assumptions and theoretical positions associated with human rights in relation to people with ID are critically examined. The analysis results in an argument that current conceptualisations of personhood in relation to human rights exclude people with ID. The adverse effects of this exclusion are exacerbated within services which emphasise the permissive rights associated with a neoliberal agenda of 'choice' over protective rights. In order to ensure that the human rights of people with ID are upheld, neoliberal emphases on choice need to be tempered and a more nuanced and inclusive notion of personhood in relation to universal human rights needs to be adopted. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  3. [Human rights, an opportunity for public policies in health].

    PubMed

    Franco-Giraldo, Alvaro; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Human rights outlined a better scenario for public policies in health. For it requires intersectoral and interdisciplinary approach. This article emphasizes the perspective of public health policies based on human rights, clarifies the relationship of public policies with the exercise of human rights, beyond the right to health. It recognizes the need to implement genuinely democratic and participatory mechanisms. It considers the universal declaration of human rights and other institutional expressions about the same as the international covenant on economic, social and cultural rights, discusses the ranking of the same and defend its entirety on the determinants of health through its cohesion and political factor. It defines a framework for public health and human rights that trend by strengthening social rights, as a new area of operation, based on public policies to address the determinants of health, upholding social justice, beyond the health field and the biological and behavioural risk factors to decisions arising from political power, exceeds medical solutions and access to health services. In conclusion, it promoting respect for human rights by greater understanding of them and strengthens the importance of indirect health policies (such as food, environment and health, violence gender) and the role of international policies in the global world.

  4. African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    This Convention contains provisions relating to women's rights, pay equity, health, education, the family, the aged, freedom of movement, and asylum. Algeria ratified the Convention on 20 March 1987, Benin on 25 February 1986, Botswana on 22 July 1986, Burkina Faso on 21 September 1984, Cape Verde on 6 August 1987, Central African Republic on 27 July 1986, Chad on 11 November 1986, Comoros on 18 July 1986, Egypt on 3 April 1984, Equatorial Guinea on 18 August 1986, Gabon on 26 June 1986, Guinea-Bissau on 6 March 1986, Libya on 26 March 1987, Sao Tome and Principe on 28 July 1986, Sierra Leone on 27 January 1984, Somalia on 20 March 1986, Sudan on 11 March 1986, Tanzania on 9 March 1984, Uganda on 27 May 1986, Zaire 28 July 1987, Zambia on 2 February 1984, and Zimbabwe on 12 June 1986. full text

  5. Polynya Formation, Location, Sea Level History and Human Settlement in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schledermann, P.; Murray, M. S.; Hannah, C. G.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we illustrate the relationship between polynya location and archaeological site distribution in the Canadian Arctic archipelago. Polynyas in this region may be tidally driven or latent heat polynyas and Holocene-ere human settlement in some regions appears to be strongly correlated with polynya location and possibly type. Changes in sea level may also have affected the size, location and type of polynya and may explain, in part, why some regions experienced fluctuations in settlement density at various times in the Holocene. Past changes in sea level and climate may serve as predictors of future change in polynya formation with concurrent implications for ecological productivity.

  6. Grassroots Responsiveness to Human Rights Abuse: History of the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigrant Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Laura; Martinez, Ramiro; Harner, Margaret; Harner, Melanie; Horner, Pilar; Delva, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss how a community agency based in Washtenaw County, the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigration Rights (WICIR), emerged in response to increasing punitive immigration practices and human rights abuses toward the Latino community. The article discusses how WICIR is engaged in advocacy, community…

  7. Grassroots Responsiveness to Human Rights Abuse: History of the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigrant Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Laura; Martinez, Ramiro; Harner, Margaret; Harner, Melanie; Horner, Pilar; Delva, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss how a community agency based in Washtenaw County, the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigration Rights (WICIR), emerged in response to increasing punitive immigration practices and human rights abuses toward the Latino community. The article discusses how WICIR is engaged in advocacy, community…

  8. Maternity care and Human Rights: what do women think?

    PubMed

    Solnes Miltenburg, Andrea; Lambermon, Fleur; Hamelink, Cees; Meguid, Tarek

    2016-07-02

    A human rights approach to maternal health is considered as a useful framework in international efforts to reduce maternal mortality. Although fundamental human rights principles are incorporated into legal and medical frameworks, human rights have to be translated into measurable actions and outcomes. So far, their substantive applications remain unclear. The aim of this study is to explore women's perspectives and experiences of maternal health services through a human rights perspective in Magu District, Tanzania. This study is a qualitative exploration of perspectives and experiences of women regarding maternity services in government health facilities. The point of departure is a Human Rights perspective. A total of 36 semi-structured interviews were held with 17 women, between the age of 31 and 63, supplemented with one focus group discussion of a selection of the interviewed women, in three rural villages and the town centre in Magu District. Data analysis was performed using a coding scheme based on four human rights principles: dignity, autonomy, equality and safety. Women's experiences of maternal health services reflect several sub-standard care factors relating to violations of multiple human rights principles. Women were aware that substandard care was present and described a range of ways how the services could be delivered that would venerate human rights principles. Prominent themes included: 'being treated well and equal', 'being respected' and 'being given the appropriate information and medical treatment'. Women in this rural Tanzanian setting are aware that their experiences of maternity care reflect violations of their basic rights and are able to voice what basic human rights principles mean to them as well as their desired applications in maternal health service provision.

  9. Commercial surrogacy and the human right to autonomy.

    PubMed

    Sifris, Ronli

    2015-12-01

    Arguments against commercial surrogacy frequently focus on the rights of the surrogate. For-example, those opposed to commercial surrogacy often argue that surrogacy arrangements amount to the exploitation of women and the commodification of their wombs. Phrased in the language of rights, such arguments draw on the right to be free from degrading treatment and the right to be free from discrimination. In contrast, those who support commercial surrogacy refute the arguments relating to exploitation and commodification and cite the right to work and more commonly the right to privacy/autonomy as the key rights in question. This article focuses on the human right to autonomy and interrogates whether prohibitions on commercial surrogacy violate the right of a woman to choose to be a surrogate.

  10. Human rights advances in women's reproductive health in Africa.

    PubMed

    Ngwena, Charles G; Brookman-Amissah, Eunice; Skuster, Patty

    2015-05-01

    The African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights recently adopted General Comment No 2 to interpret provisions of Article 14 of the Protocol to the African Charter on the Rights Women. The provisions relate to women's rights to fertility control, contraception, family planning, information and education, and abortion. The present article highlights the General Comment's potential to promote women's sexual and reproductive rights in multiple ways. The General Comment's human rights value goes beyond providing states with guidance for framing their domestic laws, practices, and policies to comply with treaty obligations. General Comment No 2 is invaluable in educating all stakeholders-including healthcare providers, lawyers, policymakers, and judicial officers at the domestic level-about pertinent jurisprudence. Civil society and human rights advocates can use the General Comment to render the state accountable for failure to implement its treaty obligations.

  11. Human rights and patients' privacy in UK hospitals.

    PubMed

    Woogara, J

    2001-05-01

    The European Convention on Human Rights has been incorporated into UK domestic law. It gives many rights to patients within the National Health Service (NHS). This article explores the concept of patients' right to privacy. It stresses that privacy is a basic human right, and that its respect by health professionals is vital for a patient's physical, mental, emotional and spiritual well-being. I argue that health professionals can violate patients' privacy in a variety of ways. For example: the right to enjoy their property; the right to protect their medical and personal information as confidential; the right to expect treatment with dignity during intimate care; and the right to control their personal space and territory. Some preliminary evidence indicates that many health care practitioners, including nurses, are presently unaware of the articles of the Convention and the implications of the Human Rights Act 1998. In order to prevent litigation for breaches of patients' privacy, it is advocated that universities and other educational institutions, the Government and NHS trusts should help to produce a clear educational strategy and protocols so that students and practitioners are well informed in this field. Although 41 European countries are presently the signatories of the European Convention on Human Rights, including the UK, it is important to stress that the principles discussed in this article are applicable world-wide.

  12. Human biomonitoring reference values derived for persistent organic pollutants in blood plasma from the Canadian Health Measures Survey 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Haines, Douglas A; Khoury, Cheryl; Saravanabhavan, Gurusankar; Werry, Kate; Walker, Mike; Malowany, Morie

    2017-06-01

    Nationally representative human biomonitoring data on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are available through the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). We have used a systematic approach building on the reference interval concept proposed by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine and the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry to derive human biomonitoring reference values (RV95s) for selected POPs in blood plasma in the general Canadian population. Biomarkers were chosen based on specific selection criteria including their detection in most Canadians (>66% detection rate). Age and sex were evaluated as possible partitioning criteria and separate RV95s were derived for the sub-populations in cases where partitioning was deemed necessary. RV95s for OCs, PCBs, and BFRs were derived both on a whole weight of blood plasma and on a lipid weight adjusted basis whereas they were derived only on a whole weight basis for PFASs. RV95s ranged from 0.018μg/L (PCB 201) to 21μg/L (perfluorooctane sulfonate) and from 3.1μg/kg lipid (PCB 201) to 1400μg/kg lipid (p,p'-DDE). The 22 RV95s reported in this paper represent the first set of reference values for POPs in the Canadian general population against which individual and population human biomonitoring data may be compared. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Human rights and correctional health policy: a view from Europe.

    PubMed

    Rogan, Mary

    2017-03-13

    Purpose Correctional healthcare should promote the protection of human rights. The purpose of this paper is to bring a discussion of human rights into debates on how such policy should be best organized. Design/methodology/approach The paper achieves its aim by providing an analysis of European prison law and policy in the area of prison health, through assessing decisions of the European Court of Human Rights, as well as policies created by the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture. Findings The paper describes the position of the European Court of Human Rights on the topics of access to healthcare, ill health and release from prison, mental illness in prison, and the duty to provide rehabilitative programming for those seeking to reduce their level of "risk." It also argues that human rights law can be a source of practical reform, and that legal frameworks have much to offer healthcare leaders seeking to uphold the dignity of those in their care. Originality/value This paper will provide a rare example of the engagement of human rights law with correctional health policy. It provides practical recommendations arising out of an analysis of European human rights law in the area of prisons.

  14. Democracy and human rights: a paradox for migration policy.

    PubMed

    Hill, L B

    1997-01-01

    This article seeks to 1) stimulate debate on the tension between democracy and human rights that arises from the fact that the organizational unit of modern democracy remains the state, which is incompatible with the quest for transnational human rights based on a transcendent human identity, and 2) explore this tension as it is revealed in migration policy in South Africa. The introduction of the article critiques the criticisms offered by contemporary writers as grounds for an overhaul of current migration policy. Next, the article presents an analysis of modern, state-based democracy and of the rise of international human rights, with a focus on the following trends: 1) development of the notion of citizenship resulting from a view of the state as the guarantor but not the progenitor of rights, 2) the growth of human rights traditions in industrialized democracies as judicial activism countered populist and nationalist inclinations of national legislatures, and 3) the growth of an international human rights juridical tradition. The article then highlights the issues raised within the migration policy debate in South Africa since 1994 and examines the 1997 Draft Green Paper on International Migration. It is concluded that, because South Africa fits the general pattern of a receiving state, an overly ambitious human rights approach to immigration will conflict with the exigencies of the new democracy as it builds institutional capacity.

  15. Health and human rights of adolescent girls in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Heisler, M; Rasekh, Z; Iacopino, V

    1999-01-01

    Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) conducted a study in early 1998 to assess the health and human rights conditions of Afghan women and girls living under the Taliban regime in Kabul. This paper highlights the concerns and experiences of adolescent girls in Kabul, includes a brief overview of the political situation in Afghanistan and Taliban policies toward women and girls, and presents findings from interviews with adolescent girls and women with adolescent daughters. It concludes with a discussion of current international standards for the protection of women's and girls' rights and the crucial role of health professionals in helping defend these rights.

  16. Careful monitoring of human rights needed -- Dr. Wiwat Rojanapithayakorn.

    PubMed

    1999-12-01

    In his talk, Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS team leader Dr. Wiwat Rojanapithayakorn made a plea for the careful monitoring of human rights with respect to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Since the start of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, a total of 47 million people have been infected with HIV, 14 million have died of AIDS, with 33 million afflicted with the virus by the end of 1998. In the wake of this global crisis comes the widespread abuse of human rights and fundamental freedoms worldwide. Many HIV/AIDS patients suffer from discrimination, intolerance, and prejudice. Hence, protection of human rights is crucial to safeguard human dignity in the context of HIV/AIDS, and to warrant an effective public health and social responses to this epidemic. All states, regardless of their political, economic and cultural systems, have the obligation to promote and protect universal human rights standards and fundamental freedoms of all peoples.

  17. THE RIGHT TO SUTURES: SOCIAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, HUMAN RIGHTS, AND SOCIAL JUSTICE

    PubMed Central

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar; Bell, Ruth; Marmot, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The article examines the convergences and contrasts between social epidemiology, social medicine, and human rights approaches toward advancing global health and health equity. The first section describes the goals and work of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health. The second section discusses the role of human rights in the Commission’s work. The third section evaluates, from the perspective of social epidemiology, two rights-based approaches to advancing health and health equity as compared to a view that focuses more broadly on social justice. The concluding section identifies four areas where social epidemiologists, practitioners of social medicine, and health and human rights advocates can and must work together in order to make progress on health and health equity. PMID:21178186

  18. Einstein, social responsibility of physicists and human rights in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Li-Zhi

    2005-03-01

    Since Einstein first visited Shanghai on 1922, he was deeply and constantly concerned about the cases of injustice, suppression, and human rights abuses in China. The strong sense of social responsibility shown by Einstein is an illustrious role model for Chinese intellectual, especially physicists, who advocate the universal principle of human rights. I will briefly review this history. I will also briefly report what have been done and is doing by Chinese physicists in the long and difficult journey toward democracy and human rights of China.

  19. The human right to water: the importance of domestic and productive water rights.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ralph P; Van Koppen, Barbara; Van Houweling, Emily

    2014-12-01

    The United Nations (UN) Universal Declaration of Human Rights engenders important state commitments to respect, fulfill, and protect a broad range of socio-economic rights. In 2010, a milestone was reached when the UN General Assembly recognized the human right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation. However, water plays an important role in realizing other human rights such as the right to food and livelihoods, and in realizing the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. These broader water-related rights have been recognized but have not yet been operationalized. This paper unravels these broader water-related rights in a more holistic interpretation of existing international human rights law. By focusing on an emerging approach to water services provision--known as 'domestic-plus' services--the paper argues how this approach operationalizes a comprehensive range of socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas. Domestic-plus services provide water for domestic and productive uses around homesteads, which challenges the widespread practice in the public sector of planning and designing water infrastructure for a single-use. Evidence is presented to show that people in rural communities are already using their water supplies planned for domestic uses to support a wide range of productive activities. Domestic-plus services recognize and plan for these multiple-uses, while respecting the priority for clean and safe drinking water. The paper concludes that domestic-plus services operationalize the obligation to progressively fulfill a comprehensive range of indivisible socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas.

  20. Older persons' use of the European Court of Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Spanier, Benny; Doron, Israel; Milman-Sivan, Faina

    2013-12-01

    One of the most significant human rights tribunals in Europe is the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR). Up to day, no study has attempted to explore the cases brought before the ECtHR that discuss and rule on issues concerning the rights of older persons. To descriptively analyze the ECtHR cases that deal with older persons and elder rights issues. Quantitative and descriptive analysis of 226 randomly selected publicly-open ECtHR cases dealing with elder-rights between the years 2000-2010. On average, 11.9 % of the ECtHR case load included rulings that concern older persons' rights. In the majority of the cases (91 %, 205 judgments), the ECtHR found a violation of at least one human right concerning older persons. Despite the fact that rights of older persons do not appear as such in the European Convention on Human Rights, older persons do find their way to the ECtHR.

  1. Multinational corporations and infectious disease: Embracing human rights management techniques.

    PubMed

    Salcito, Kendyl; Singer, Burton H; Weiss, Mitchell G; Winkler, Mirko S; Krieger, Gary R; Wielga, Mark; Utzinger, Jürg

    2014-01-01

    Global health institutions have called for governments, international organisations and health practitioners to employ a human rights-based approach to infectious diseases. The motivation for a human rights approach is clear: poverty and inequality create conditions for infectious diseases to thrive, and the diseases, in turn, interact with social-ecological systems to promulgate poverty, inequity and indignity. Governments and intergovernmental organisations should be concerned with the control and elimination of these diseases, as widespread infections delay economic growth and contribute to higher healthcare costs and slower processes for realising universal human rights. These social determinants and economic outcomes associated with infectious diseases should interest multinational companies, partly because they have bearing on corporate productivity and, increasingly, because new global norms impose on companies a responsibility to respect human rights, including the right to health. We reviewed historical and recent developments at the interface of infectious diseases, human rights and multinational corporations. Our investigation was supplemented with field-level insights at corporate capital projects that were developed in areas of high endemicity of infectious diseases, which embraced rights-based disease control strategies. Experience and literature provide a longstanding business case and an emerging social responsibility case for corporations to apply a human rights approach to health programmes at global operations. Indeed, in an increasingly globalised and interconnected world, multinational corporations have an interest, and an important role to play, in advancing rights-based control strategies for infectious diseases. There are new opportunities for governments and international health agencies to enlist corporate business actors in disease control and elimination strategies. Guidance offered by the United Nations in 2011 that is widely embraced

  2. Sexual rights as human rights: a guide to authoritative sources and principles for applying human rights to sexuality and sexual health.

    PubMed

    Miller, Alice M; Kismödi, Eszter; Cottingham, Jane; Gruskin, Sofia

    2015-11-01

    This Guide seeks to provide insight and resources to actors interested in the development of rights claims around sexuality and sexual health. After engaging with the vexed question of the scope of sexual rights, it explores the rules and principles governing the way in which human rights claims are developed and applied to sexuality and sexual health, and how that development is linked to law and made a matter of state obligation. This understanding is critical to policy and programming in sexual health and rights, as it supports calling on the relevant range of human rights, such as privacy, non-discrimination, health or other universally accepted human rights, as well as demanding the action of states under their international and national law obligations to support sexual health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Human Rights Perspective on Immigration, Emigration, and Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Ranjit S.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a general discussion of migration from the perspective of human rights. Focuses on refugees; women, children, and the aged; freedom to migrate; internal migration; and refugees in Canada. (KH)

  4. International human rights for mentally ill persons: the Ontario experience.

    PubMed

    Zuckerberg, Joaquin

    2007-01-01

    This article is part of a working project which assesses Ontario's mental health legislation and practice vis-à-vis international human rights standards. The paper focuses on procedural safeguards provided by the major international human rights instruments in the field of mental health law such as the UN Principles for the Protection of Persons with Mental Illness (MI Principles) and the European Convention on Human Rights as interpreted by the European Human Rights Court. In analysing Ontario's compliance with international standards, the paper will explore some problems arising from the implementation of the legislation with which the author is familiar with from his experience as counsel for the Consent and Capacity Board. The paper aims to generate discussion for potential reforms in domestic legal systems and to provide a methodology to be used as a tool to assess similar mental health legislation in other local contexts.

  5. Reconciling female genital circumcision with universal human rights.

    PubMed

    Gordon, John-Stewart

    2017-09-18

    One of the most challenging issues in cross-cultural bioethics concerns the long-standing socio-cultural practice of female genital circumcision (FGC), which is prevalent in many African countries and the Middle East as well as in some Asian and Western countries. It is commonly assumed that FGC, in all its versions, constitutes a gross violation of the universal human rights of health, physical integrity, and individual autonomy and hence should be abolished. This article, however, suggests a mediating approach according to which one form of FGC, the removal of the clitoris foreskin, can be made compatible with the high demands of universal human rights. The argument presupposes the idea that human rights are not absolutist by nature but can be framed in a meaningful, culturally sensitive way. It proposes important limiting conditions that must be met for the practice of FGC to be considered in accordance with the human rights agenda. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Noncommunicable Diseases and Human Rights: A Promising Synergy

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Laura; Tarantola, Daniel; Beaglehole, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have finally emerged onto the global health and development agenda. Despite the increasingly important role human rights play in other areas of global health, their contribution to NCD prevention and control remains nascent. The recently adopted Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of NCDs 2013–2020 is an important step forward, but the lack of concrete attention to human rights is a missed opportunity. With practical implications for policy development, priority setting, and strategic design, human rights offer a logical, robust set of norms and standards; define the legal obligations of governments; and provide accountability mechanisms that can be used to enhance current approaches to NCD prevention and control. Harnessing the power of human rights can strengthen action for NCDs at the local, national, and global levels. PMID:24625165

  7. Noncommunicable diseases and human rights: a promising synergy.

    PubMed

    Gruskin, Sofia; Ferguson, Laura; Tarantola, Daniel; Beaglehole, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have finally emerged onto the global health and development agenda. Despite the increasingly important role human rights play in other areas of global health, their contribution to NCD prevention and control remains nascent. The recently adopted Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of NCDs 2013-2020 is an important step forward, but the lack of concrete attention to human rights is a missed opportunity. With practical implications for policy development, priority setting, and strategic design, human rights offer a logical, robust set of norms and standards; define the legal obligations of governments; and provide accountability mechanisms that can be used to enhance current approaches to NCD prevention and control. Harnessing the power of human rights can strengthen action for NCDs at the local, national, and global levels.

  8. Human biomonitoring reference values for metals and trace elements in blood and urine derived from the Canadian Health Measures Survey 2007-2013.

    PubMed

    Saravanabhavan, Gurusankar; Werry, Kate; Walker, Mike; Haines, Douglas; Malowany, Morie; Khoury, Cheryl

    2017-03-01

    Human biomonitoring reference values are statistical estimates that indicate the upper margin of background exposure to a given chemical at a given time. Nationally representative human biomonitoring data on 176 chemicals, including several metals and trace elements, are available in Canada from 2007 to 2013 through the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). In this work, we used a systematic approach based on the reference interval concept proposed by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine and the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry to derive reference values (RV95s) for metals and trace elements. These RV95s were derived for blood and urine matrices in the general Canadian population based on the latest biomonitoring data from the CHMS. Biomarkers were chosen based on specific selection criteria, including widespread detection in Canadians (≥66% detection rate). Reference populations were created for each biomarker by applying appropriate exclusion criteria. Age and sex were evaluated as possible partitioning criteria and separate RV95s were derived for the sub-populations in cases where partitioning was deemed necessary. The RV95s for metals and trace elements in blood ranged from 0.18μg/L for cadmium in young children aged 3-5 years to 7900μg/L for zinc in males aged 20-79 years. In the case of urinary biomarkers, the RV95s ranged from 0.17μg/L for antimony in the total population aged 3-79 years to 1400mg/L for fluoride in adults aged 20-79 years. These RV95s represent the first set of reference values for metals and trace elements in the general Canadian population. We compare the RV95s from other countries where available and discuss factors that could influence such comparisons. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  9. From ideals to tools: applying human rights to maternal health.

    PubMed

    Yamin, Alicia Ely

    2013-11-01

    Alicia Yamin argues that applying human rights frameworks and approaches to maternal health offers strategies and tools to address the root causes of maternal morbidity and mortality within and beyond health systems, in addition to addressing other violations of women's sexual and reproductive health and rights. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  10. Human Rights Education in Israel: Four Types of Good Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbaria, Ayman K.; Katz-Pade, Revital

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the involvement of civil society organizations in human rights education (HRE) in Israel. Focussing on the educational programs of the Association for Civil Rights in Israel (ACRI), as a qualitative instrumental case study, this article examines the conceptions of good citizenship embedded in these programs. Specifically, the…

  11. Sex Education and Human Rights--A Lawyer's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumper, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The Human Rights Act 1998 is the most significant British statute to have been passed in the last decade. It has already been the catalyst for a series of high profile cases, ranging from the privacy rights of celebrities ("Douglas v Hello!" [2001] QB 967) to the Home Secretary's sentencing powers in murder cases ("R (Anderson) v…

  12. How Children Learn about Human Rights. Bulletin, 1951, No. 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Wilhelmina; Mackintosh, Helen K.

    1951-01-01

    This particular bulletin is concerned with the concept of human rights, and the interpretation of some of these rights in the classroom, in the school, at home, and in the community. Although the discussion is directed toward the classroom teacher primarily, principals, supervisors, administrators, and parents who want children to succeed in all…

  13. Narratives in Teaching and Research for Justice and Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Audrey; Zhu, Juanjuan

    2011-01-01

    Throughout history individual and collective narratives have been used in struggles for justice. We draw on Sen's theory of justice to examine the potential of narratives in teaching and researching for social justice. Human rights are presented as powerful ethical claims that can be critically examined by learners to consider their rights and…

  14. A Guide to Human Rights Education. Bulletin 43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Paul D.; Wood, Leslie

    Background information and teaching suggestions are offered in this guide for implementing human rights ideas in existing social studies curriculum at the elementary and secondary grade levels in the United States. Emphasis is upon equal universal rights for every person as a concern of education and action. The introduction presents an address by…

  15. Narratives in Teaching and Research for Justice and Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Audrey; Zhu, Juanjuan

    2011-01-01

    Throughout history individual and collective narratives have been used in struggles for justice. We draw on Sen's theory of justice to examine the potential of narratives in teaching and researching for social justice. Human rights are presented as powerful ethical claims that can be critically examined by learners to consider their rights and…

  16. The Emerging Partnership in Human Service Civil Rights Enforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotson, Betty Lou

    1983-01-01

    Describes the objectives and activities of the Department of Health and Human Services' Office of Civil Rights (OCR) within the purview of the Reagan administration's civil rights policy. Describes OCR methodologies designed to ensure enforcement of nondiscrimination requirements in state implementation of programs under federal block grants. (MJL)

  17. Sex Education and Human Rights--A Lawyer's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumper, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The Human Rights Act 1998 is the most significant British statute to have been passed in the last decade. It has already been the catalyst for a series of high profile cases, ranging from the privacy rights of celebrities ("Douglas v Hello!" [2001] QB 967) to the Home Secretary's sentencing powers in murder cases ("R (Anderson) v…

  18. Human-Centered Design Bill of Rights for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugar, William A.

    This paper presents a potential solution to encourage technology adoption and integration within schools by proposing a human-centered technology "bill of rights" for educators. The intention of this bill of rights it to influence educators' beliefs towards technology and to enable educators to confront with confidence the seemingly…

  19. Adult Literacy Education and Human Rights: A View from Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Susan M.; Kooij, Christina S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we argue that adult literacy as part of international development is an issue of both human rights and women's rights. We explore this by presenting a case study of the effects of one innovative adult literacy program in Afghanistan that places men and women, as well as various ethnicities, together in the same classroom as…

  20. Possible Contributions of International Organizations to Safeguarding Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, A. LeRoy

    This paper discusses ways in which international organizations have in the past and can continue in the future to foster social, economic, and cultural rights on a global scale. Involvement of international organizations such as the United Nations in the realm of human rights expanded after the second world war. Examples of contributions to the…

  1. Human Rights Event Detection from Heterogeneous Social Media Graphs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Neill, Daniel B

    2015-03-01

    Human rights organizations are increasingly monitoring social media for identification, verification, and documentation of human rights violations. Since manual extraction of events from the massive amount of online social network data is difficult and time-consuming, we propose an approach for automated, large-scale discovery and analysis of human rights-related events. We apply our recently developed Non-Parametric Heterogeneous Graph Scan (NPHGS), which models social media data such as Twitter as a heterogeneous network (with multiple different node types, features, and relationships) and detects emerging patterns in the network, to identify and characterize human rights events. NPHGS efficiently maximizes a nonparametric scan statistic (an aggregate measure of anomalousness) over connected subgraphs of the heterogeneous network to identify the most anomalous network clusters. It summarizes each event with information such as type of event, geographical locations, time, and participants, and provides documentation such as links to videos and news reports. Building on our previous work that demonstrates the utility of NPHGS for civil unrest prediction and rare disease outbreak detection, we present an analysis of human rights events detected by NPHGS using two years of Twitter data from Mexico. NPHGS was able to accurately detect relevant clusters of human rights-related tweets prior to international news sources, and in some cases, prior to local news reports. Analysis of social media using NPHGS could enhance the information-gathering missions of human rights organizations by pinpointing specific abuses, revealing events and details that may be blocked from traditional media sources, and providing evidence of emerging patterns of human rights violations. This could lead to more timely, targeted, and effective advocacy, as well as other potential interventions.

  2. Data Rights and Responsibilities: A Human Rights Perspective on Data Sharing.

    PubMed

    Harris, Theresa L; Wyndham, Jessica M

    2015-07-01

    A human-rights-based analysis can be a useful tool for the scientific community and policy makers as they develop codes of conduct, harmonized standards, and national policies for data sharing. The human rights framework provides a shared set of values and norms across borders, defines rights and responsibilities of various actors involved in data sharing, addresses the potential harms as well as the benefits of data sharing, and offers a framework for balancing competing values. The right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications offers a particularly helpful lens through which to view data as both a tool of scientific inquiry to which access is vital and as a product of science from which everyone should benefit.

  3. Human rights in childbirth, narratives and restorative justice: a review.

    PubMed

    Lokugamage, A U; Pathberiya, S D C

    2017-02-02

    This review describes the emerging global debate on the role of human rights childbirth. It is also tailored to a UK perspective in view of the Montgomery v. Lanarkshire [2015] legal ruling and it implications to practice. We can never underestimate the power of humane care on health. The compassion and evidence based medicine agenda in healthcare is interconnected with human rights in healthcare, feeding into the principles of decision making and patient centred care. When this has not happened and there is been healthcare conflict, the power of storytelling serves to connect disparate parties to their common humanity. Narratives are an important aspect of restorative justice processes and we suggest that this could be beneficial in the field of human rights in childbirth.

  4. Violations of human rights: health practitioners as witnesses.

    PubMed

    Orbinski, James; Beyrer, Chris; Singh, Sonal

    2007-08-25

    For humanitarian health-care practitioners bearing witness to violations of human dignity has become synonymous with denunciations, human rights advocacy, or lobbying for political change. A strict reliance on legal interpretations of humanitarianism and human rights is inadequate for fully understanding the problems inherent in political change. With examples from the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the USA, the Rwandan genocide, and physician-led political activism in Nepal, we describe three cases in which health practitioners bearing witness to humanitarian and human-rights issues have had imperfect outcomes. However these acts of bearing witness have been central to the promotion of humanitarianism and human rights, to the pursuit of justice that they have inevitably and implicitly endorsed, and thus to the politics that have or might yet address these issues. Despite the imperfections, bearing witness, having first-hand knowledge of humanitarian and human-rights principles and their limitations, and systematically collecting evidence of abuse, can be instrumental in tackling the forces that constrain the realisation of human health and dignity.

  5. Will rights cure malnutrition? Reflections on human rights, nutrition and development.

    PubMed

    Lovelace, J C

    1999-07-01

    This paper examines the role of the World Bank in the development and application of key ideas and approaches to address issues related to malnutrition. The World Bank's commitment to human development can be seen on how its resources have been applied, and the difference it has made on the lives of the people. Their health, nutrition and population activity is comprised of 225 projects in 89 countries that have contributed directly to the fulfillment of the economic and social rights of millions of people. Furthermore, the Bank's project known as Comprehensive Development Framework reflects its understanding of the two-way relationship between development and human rights. Lastly, the Bank's comprehensive approach, which consists of support for governance reform and equitable economic growth, is intended to strengthen human rights culture.

  6. International law, human rights and HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, David; London, Leslie

    2002-01-01

    This article explores the relevance of international human rights law in the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic at national and international levels. Public health advocates can use arguments based on this body of law to promote responses to HIV/AIDS that reflect sound public health principles and documented best practice. Development assistance is increasingly linked to rights-based approaches, such as participatory processes, and strategic alliances between health professionals, organizations of people living with HIV/AIDS, and affected communities. Legal and human rights advocacy strategies are increasingly productive and necessary. PMID:12571725

  7. Human rights, civil rights: prescribing disability discrimination prevention in packaging essential health benefits.

    PubMed

    Silvers, Anita; Francis, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    This article explores rights-based approaches to protecting disabled people against inequities in access to health care services. Understanding health care as a human right, as is found in the UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities (CRPD), fails to provide theoretical machinery for responding to certain pressing challenges. An alternative account, understanding health care as a civil right, proves more promising. This latter approach then is applied to the right to health care under the U.S. Affordable Care Act (ACA), which contains provisions that could be antithetical to, and thus fail to comply with, the nondiscrimination standard of meaningful access to health care benefits. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  8. Recognizing the 65th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the celebration of "Human Rights Day".

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Lowenthal, Alan S. [D-CA-47

    2013-12-10

    01/10/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights and International Organizations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Recognizing the 65th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the celebration of "Human Rights Day".

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Lowenthal, Alan S. [D-CA-47

    2013-12-10

    01/10/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights and International Organizations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Recognizing the 65th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the celebration of "Human Rights Day".

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Lowenthal, Alan S. [D-CA-47

    2013-12-10

    House - 01/10/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights and International Organizations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Carl Cohen's 'kind' arguments for animal rights and against human rights.

    PubMed

    Nobis, Nathan

    2004-01-01

    Carl Cohen's arguments against animal rights are shown to be unsound. His strategy entails that animals have rights, that humans do not, the negations of those conclusions, and other false and inconsistent implications. His main premise seems to imply that one can fail all tests and assignments in a class and yet easily pass if one's peers are passing and that one can become a convicted criminal merely by setting foot in a prison. However, since his moral principles imply that nearly all exploitive uses of animals are wrong anyway, foes of animal rights are advised to seek philosophical consolations elsewhere. I note that some other philosophers' arguments are subject to similar objections.

  12. Health professionals and human rights campaigners: different cultures, shared goals.

    PubMed

    Sheather, J

    2009-03-01

    This article looks at a disagreement that emerged at an international human rights conference between health professionals and human rights activists. The disagreement centred on the scope of the responsibilities of health professionals in relation to potential systemic human rights violations. In this article, the nature of the disagreement that emerged at the conference is explored. It is first situated in relation to a strong shared commitment to the "right of everyone to the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health"--often shortened to "the right to health" as it appears in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR). Some of the tensions that emerged between the participants are then looked at and some of the causes of apparent disagreement identified. The relevance of human rights to health professionals and their impact on medical practice are discussed. Finally, it is argued that, given the common interests shared by these groups, the misunderstandings are not substantive and that there is real scope for mutual learning and collaboration. Although the conference was in southern Asia, the lessons learnt are applicable anywhere in the world--they are equally as relevant to the UK and Europe as to developing countries in the south.

  13. History, principles, and practice of health and human rights.

    PubMed

    Gruskin, Sofia; Mills, Edward J; Tarantola, Daniel

    2007-08-04

    Individuals and populations suffer violations of their rights that affect health and wellbeing. Health professionals have a part to play in reduction and prevention of these violations and ensuring that health-related policies and practices promote rights. This needs efforts in terms of advocacy, application of legal standards, and public-health programming. We discuss the changing views of human rights in the context of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and propose further development of the right to health by increased practice, evidence, and action.

  14. Intellectual property rights and detached human body parts.

    PubMed

    Pila, Justine

    2014-01-01

    This paper responds to an invitation by the editors to consider whether the intellectual property (IP) regime suggests an appropriate model for protecting interests in detached human body parts. It begins by outlining the extent of existing IP protection for body parts in Europe, and the relevant strengths and weaknesses of the patent system in that regard. It then considers two further species of IP right of less obvious relevance. The first are the statutory rights of ownership conferred by domestic UK law in respect of employee inventions, and the second are the economic and moral rights recognised by European and international law in respect of authorial works. In the argument made, both of these species of IP right may suggest more appropriate models of sui generis protection for detached human body parts than patent rights because of their capacity better to accommodate the relevant public and private interests in respect of the same.

  15. Health, human rights and mobilization of resources for health

    PubMed Central

    Lie, Reidar K

    2004-01-01

    Background There has been an increased interest in the role of a human rights framework to mobilize resources for health. Discussion This paper argues that the human rights framework does provide us with an appropriate understanding of what values should guide a nation's health policy, and a potentially powerful means of moving the health agenda forward. It also, however, argues that appeals to human rights may not necessarily be effective at mobilizing resources for specific health problems one might want to do something about. Specifically, it is not possible to argue that a particular allocation of scarce health care resources should be changed to a different allocation, benefiting other groups. Lack of access to health care services by some people only shows that something has to be done, but not what should be done. Summary The somewhat weak claim identified above together with the obligation to realize progressively a right to health can be used to mobilize resources for health. PMID:15473899

  16. Health, human rights and mobilization of resources for health.

    PubMed

    Lie, Reidar K

    2004-10-08

    BACKGROUND: There has been an increased interest in the role of a human rights framework to mobilize resources for health. DISCUSSION: This paper argues that the human rights framework does provide us with an appropriate understanding of what values should guide a nation's health policy, and a potentially powerful means of moving the health agenda forward. It also, however, argues that appeals to human rights may not necessarily be effective at mobilizing resources for specific health problems one might want to do something about. Specifically, it is not possible to argue that a particular allocation of scarce health care resources should be changed to a different allocation, benefiting other groups. Lack of access to health care services by some people only shows that something has to be done, but not what should be done. SUMMARY: The somewhat weak claim identified above together with the obligation to realize progressively a right to health can be used to mobilize resources for health.

  17. Education Is a Human Right. EI Barometer on Human and Trade Union Rights in the Education Sector, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education International, Brussels (Belgium).

    This report focuses on the extent to which the right to education is available to children, young people, and adults and the extent to which educators enjoy fundamental human and trade union rights set out in the major international deliberations and conventions. The report seeks to acknowledge the contributions of teachers and education support…

  18. Human Rights: Lesson Plan for SDAIE (Sheltered) Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husser, Michael D.

    This lesson plan on human rights uses the Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE) methodology used in California to teach academic content to intermediate, threshold level limited-English-proficient (LEP) students. It sets forth three educational goals for students to reach; asks students to examine definitions of human rights…

  19. Human dignity: scenarios with doing the right thing.

    PubMed

    Milton, Constance L

    2011-01-01

    Human dignity is a phenomenon of great importance to all health-related disciplines. For the professional nurse, human dignity is embedded in the ontological beliefs of a philosophical school of thought that guides the priority actions found in nurse practice. The common ethical phrase of doing the right thing is insinuated in the enduring truths of affirming human dignity in nurse practice. The author in this column examines possible meanings for doing the right thing in light of the ethical tenets of humanbecoming including reverence, awe, betrayal, and shame.

  20. The role of the pathologist in human rights abuses

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, J.

    2000-01-01

    The objective and unbiased statement is much valued in international work against human rights abuses. Pathologists play an increasingly important role. In this article, this role is illustrated by examples and the international set of rules is described. It is emphasised that under no circumstances should physicians assist in procedures, such as torture, which can weaken a human being. There is ongoing research into the sequelae of torture, both by gross and microscopic examination and in the living and dead victims. Key Words: torture • human rights • death in custody PMID:11002757

  1. Assessing human rights impacts in corporate development projects

    SciTech Connect

    Salcito, Kendyl; Utzinger, Jürg; Weiss, Mitchell G.; Münch, Anna K.; Singer, Burton H.; Krieger, Gary R.; Wielga, Mark

    2013-09-15

    Human rights impact assessment (HRIA) is a process for systematically identifying, predicting and responding to the potential impact on human rights of a business operation, capital project, government policy or trade agreement. Traditionally, it has been conducted as a desktop exercise to predict the effects of trade agreements and government policies on individuals and communities. In line with a growing call for multinational corporations to ensure they do not violate human rights in their activities, HRIA is increasingly incorporated into the standard suite of corporate development project impact assessments. In this context, the policy world's non-structured, desk-based approaches to HRIA are insufficient. Although a number of corporations have commissioned and conducted HRIA, no broadly accepted and validated assessment tool is currently available. The lack of standardisation has complicated efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of HRIA as a risk mitigation tool, and has caused confusion in the corporate world regarding company duties. Hence, clarification is needed. The objectives of this paper are (i) to describe an HRIA methodology, (ii) to provide a rationale for its components and design, and (iii) to illustrate implementation of HRIA using the methodology in two selected corporate development projects—a uranium mine in Malawi and a tree farm in Tanzania. We found that as a prognostic tool, HRIA could examine potential positive and negative human rights impacts and provide effective recommendations for mitigation. However, longer-term monitoring revealed that recommendations were unevenly implemented, dependent on market conditions and personnel movements. This instability in the approach to human rights suggests a need for on-going monitoring and surveillance. -- Highlights: • We developed a novel methodology for corporate human rights impact assessment. • We piloted the methodology on two corporate projects—a mine and a plantation. • Human

  2. A Primer on Accent Discrimination in the Canadian Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munro, Murray J.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews aspects of the Canadian human rights process as they pertain to language and accent, and identifies three types of accent discrimination arising in human rights cases: discrimination in employment due to inappropriate concern with accent; discrimination due to accent stereotyping, and harassment based on accent. (Author/VWL)

  3. Macro- and Micro-Political Vernaculizations of Rights: Human Rights and Abortion Discourses in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Pierson, Claire; Bloomer, Fiona

    2017-06-01

    How abortion is dealt with in law and policy is shaped through the multiple political and societal discourses on the issue within a particular society. Debate on abortion is constantly in flux, with progressive and regressive movements witnessed globally. This paper examines the translation of human rights norms into discourses on abortion in Northern Ireland, a region where abortion is highly restricted, with extensive contemporary public debate into potential liberalization of abortion law. This paper emanates from research examining political debates on abortion in Northern Ireland and contrasts findings with recent civil society developments, identifying competing narratives of human rights with regard to abortion at the macro- and micro-political level. The paper identifies the complexities of using human rights as a lobbying tool, and questions the utility of rights-based arguments in furthering abortion law reform. The paper concludes that a legalistic rights-based approach may have limited efficacy in creating a more nuanced debate and perspective on abortion in Northern Ireland but that it has particular resonance in arguing for limited reform in extreme cases.

  4. Pathologies of power: rethinking health and human rights.

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, P

    1999-01-01

    The field of health and human rights has grown quickly, but its boundaries have yet to be traced. Fifty-one years after the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, consensus regarding the most promising directions for the future is lacking; however, outcome-oriented assessments lead us to question approaches that rely solely on recourse to formal legal and civil rights. Similarly unpromising are approaches that rely overmuch on appeals to governments: careful study reveals that state power has been responsible for most human rights violations and that most violations are embedded in "structural violence"--social and economic inequities that determine who will be at risk for assaults and who will be shielded. This article advances an agenda for research and action grounded in the struggle for social and economic rights, an agenda suited to public health and medicine, whose central contributions to future progress in human rights will be linked to the equitable distribution of the fruits of scientific advancement. Such an approach is in keeping with the Universal Declaration but runs counter to several of the reigning ideologies of public health, including those favoring efficacy over equity. PMID:10511828

  5. Education on human rights and healthcare: evidence from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Vranes, Aleksandra Jovic; Mikanovic, Vesna Bjegovic; Vukovic, Dejana; Djikanovic, Bosiljka; Babic, Momcilo

    2015-03-01

    Ensuring and enforcing human rights in patient care are important to promote health and to provide quality and appropriate healthcare services. Therefore, continued medical education (CME) is essential for healthcare professionals to utilize their sphere of influence to affect change in healthcare practice. A total of 123 participants attended three CME courses. Course topics covered: (i) the areas of human rights and healthcare, (ii) rights, obligations and responsibilities of healthcare professionals in relation to human rights and the rights of patients, (iii) healthcare of vulnerable groups and (iv) access to essential medical services. Evaluation of the CME courses involved two components: evaluation of participants' performance and the participants' evaluation of the teaching process. The participants were assessed at the beginning and end of each course. Each of the courses was evaluated by the participants through a questionnaire distributed at the end of each course. Descriptive statistics was used for data interpretation. Knowledge of the healthcare professionals improved at the end of all the three courses. The participants assessed several aspects of the courses, including the course topics, educational methods, the course methods, organization, duration and dynamics as well as the physical environment and the technical facilities of the course, and rated each very highly. Our results corroborate the importance and necessity of courses to heighten awareness of the state of current healthcare and human rights issues to increase the involvement of healthcare professionals both locally and globally.

  6. Pathologies of power: rethinking health and human rights.

    PubMed

    Farmer, P

    1999-10-01

    The field of health and human rights has grown quickly, but its boundaries have yet to be traced. Fifty-one years after the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, consensus regarding the most promising directions for the future is lacking; however, outcome-oriented assessments lead us to question approaches that rely solely on recourse to formal legal and civil rights. Similarly unpromising are approaches that rely overmuch on appeals to governments: careful study reveals that state power has been responsible for most human rights violations and that most violations are embedded in "structural violence"--social and economic inequities that determine who will be at risk for assaults and who will be shielded. This article advances an agenda for research and action grounded in the struggle for social and economic rights, an agenda suited to public health and medicine, whose central contributions to future progress in human rights will be linked to the equitable distribution of the fruits of scientific advancement. Such an approach is in keeping with the Universal Declaration but runs counter to several of the reigning ideologies of public health, including those favoring efficacy over equity.

  7. Introducing human rights and health into a nursing curriculum.

    PubMed

    Mayers, P

    2007-12-01

    The introduction of a module in Health and Human Rights into a Postgraduate diploma curriculum for registered nurses is described. An important component of nursing programmes in South Africa has been teaching of the principles of ethical practice and relevant ethical codes. A number of factors have contributed to the need to include human rights as an integral component of nursing curricula in South Africa. These include the Bill of Rights in the Constitution of South Africa and the implications thereof for health care delivery, the primary health care approach in the delivery of health care in South Africa, the development and acceptance of Patients' Rights Charters, and the recognition of the role that health professionals played--whether through lack of knowledge and awareness or direct involvement--in the human rights violations in the health sector exposed during the hearings of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. An outline of themes covered in the course content is described, together with examples of learning activities and teaching materials. Reflections of the course convenor and students are used to highlight the importance of inclusion of health and human rights as foundational to ethical nursing practice, regardless of the health care setting.

  8. Sexual and bodily rights as human rights in the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Ercevik Amado, Liz

    2004-05-01

    A regional workshop on sexual and bodily rights as human rights in the Middle East and North Africa was held in Malta in 2003, attended by 22 NGO representatives from Jordan, Egypt, Lebanon, Palestine, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, Turkey, Pakistan and USA. The meeting aimed to develop strategies for overcoming human rights violations in the region with reference to law and social and political practices. Session topics included sexuality and gender identity; sexuality and sexual health; sexuality and comparative penal law; sexual rights in international documents; advocacy and lobbying. Sexual rights, sexual health and education, sexual violence and adolescent sexuality were explored in depth, including taboos and emerging trends. Specific areas of concern included marital rape, early marriages, temporary marriages, sexual orientation, premarital and extramarital sexuality, honour crimes, female genital mutilation, unmarried mothers, adolescent sexuality, unwanted pregnancies and safe abortion, sexuality in education and health services. An analysis of civil codes, penal codes and personal status codes indicated a clear imperative for legal reform. Participants heard about efforts to promote the right to sexual orientation which have already been initiated in Lebanon, Turkey and Tunisia. Networking within the region and with counterparts in other regions in comparable situations and conditions was deemed essential.

  9. Internationalizing the Right to Know: Conceptualizations of Access to Information in Human Rights Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Cheryl Ann

    2009-01-01

    Currently there exists a global movement promoting institutional transparency and freedom of information legislation. Conceptualizing access to government-held information as a human right is one of the latest developments in this global trend promoting access to information. The purpose of this dissertation is to identify and analyze the various…

  10. Getting Linguistic Human Rights Right: A Trio Respond to Wee (2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove; Kontra, Miklos; Phillipson, Robert

    2006-01-01

    It is unfortunate that Wee's commendable effort (2005) to explore the theoretical underpinning of Linguistic Human Rights (LHRs) so as to explore different variants of English in Singapore empirically is marred by a substantial number of misrepresentations of what is stated in our work. We will exemplify this briefly, and otherwise refer the…

  11. The Human Right to Education as a Right to Literacy in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motakef, Mona

    2007-01-01

    There are no official data, but it is estimated that four million adults in Germany have little or no reading, writing and numeracy skills, so that they are known as "functionally illiterate". This is a fact which was long ignored. In this contribution, literacy activities and research in Germany are analysed through a human rights-based…

  12. Internationalizing the Right to Know: Conceptualizations of Access to Information in Human Rights Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Cheryl Ann

    2009-01-01

    Currently there exists a global movement promoting institutional transparency and freedom of information legislation. Conceptualizing access to government-held information as a human right is one of the latest developments in this global trend promoting access to information. The purpose of this dissertation is to identify and analyze the various…

  13. The Human Right to Education as a Right to Literacy in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motakef, Mona

    2007-01-01

    There are no official data, but it is estimated that four million adults in Germany have little or no reading, writing and numeracy skills, so that they are known as "functionally illiterate". This is a fact which was long ignored. In this contribution, literacy activities and research in Germany are analysed through a human rights-based…

  14. Procedural abortion rights: Ireland and the European Court of Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Erdman, Joanna N

    2014-11-01

    The Irish Protection of Life During Pregnancy Act seeks to clarify the legal ground for abortion in cases of risk to life, and to create procedures to regulate women's access to services under it. This article explores the new law as the outcome of an international human rights litigation strategy premised on state duties to implement abortion laws through clear standards and procedural safeguards. It focuses specifically on the Irish law reform and the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights, including A. B. and C. v. Ireland (2010). The article examines how procedural rights at the international level can engender domestic law reform that limits or expands women's access to lawful abortion services, serving conservative or progressive ends.

  15. Recursive cosmopolitization: Argentina and the global Human Rights Regime.

    PubMed

    Levy, Daniel

    2010-09-01

    This paper illustrates how varieties of cosmopolitanism are shaped through a mutually constitutive set of cultural dispositions and institutional practices that emerge at the interstices of global human right norms and local legal practices. Converging pressures of 'cosmopolitan imperatives' and the multiplicity of particularized manifestations are co-evolving in the context of intercrossings during which distinctive cosmopolitanisms are established. This complex relationship of global normative expectations and their local appropriations is elucidated through the dynamic of recursive cosmopolitization. Suggesting that, local problems are resolved with recourse to global prescriptions while local solutions are inscribed in international institutions consolidating the global Human Rights Regime. The Argentinean case carries conceptual and empirical weight as it underscores the recursivity of cosmopolitization by calibrating the tensions of universalism and particularism at the intersection of global, national and regional scales. Argentina is a paradigmatic instantiation for how cosmopolitanism can emanate in the periphery as local problems are globalized. This, in turn, has resulted in the institutionalization of a global Human Rights Regime which exercises normative and political-legal pressures on how states legitimately deal with human rights abuses. It is this cosmopolitan balance, rather than presuppositions of universalistic exogenous pressures or particularistic national exceptions, which is shaping the cultural and political relevance of human rights norms. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2010.

  16. Sampling criteria for identifying human biomonitoring chemical differences in the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Curren, Meredith S; Davis, Karelyn; Van Oostdam, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Human biomonitoring studies in the Canadian Arctic have measured a wide range of metals and persistent organic pollutants in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal mothers during two time periods in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut. This analysis provides preliminary estimates on sample sizes and sampling frequencies required to measure significant changes in maternal blood concentrations for PCB 153 and total mercury. For example, sample sizes of 35-40 mothers permit the detection of a 40% decrease in these chemical concentrations between two groups (e.g. communities or regions). Improvements in method sensitivity can be achieved by on-going sampling over multiple time periods (e.g. 4 or 5) in these regions, or increasing sample sizes.

  17. International migration: security concerns and human rights standards.

    PubMed

    Crépeau, François; Nakache, Delphine; Atak, Idil

    2007-09-01

    Over the last two decades, the reinforcement of security-related migration policies has resulted in the perception of the foreigner, and especially the irregular migrant, as a category outside the circle of legality. The rights of foreigners in host countries have deteriorated due to the connection made between immigration and criminality. Restrictions imposed upon irregular migrants' basic political and civil rights have been accompanied by major obstacles to their access to economic and social rights, including the right to health. The events of 9/11 further contributed to this trend, which contradicts the basic premises of the human rights paradigm. Recent policy developments and ongoing international cooperation implementing systematic interception and interdiction mechanisms have led to the securitization of migration. The preventive and deterrent measures reinforce the security paradigm. By contrast, various national and international actors have been successful in defending irregular migrants' rights. At the domestic level, the involvement of the judiciary and civil society enhances the rights-based approach to foreigners. The role of judges is vital in holding policy-makers accountable for respecting the high national standards of human rights protection. This article elaborates on the dichotomy between the state's legitimate interest to ensure national security, and its domestic and international obligations to protect human rights for all, including irregular migrants. It focuses on the changing relationship between migration and security, on the one hand, and between state and individual, on the other hand. It affirms the necessity to recognize the pre-eminence of fundamental rights upon security concerns.

  18. Human Rights and Religious Education in the Contentious Context of Conflict-Troubled Societies: Perspectives from Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2014-01-01

    This article explores some of the tensions that are created from the entanglement of religion and human rights and offers a possible response to these tensions in the context of religious education in conflict-troubled societies. It is suggested that a historicised and politicised approach in religious education in conjunction with human rights…

  19. Human Rights and Religious Education in the Contentious Context of Conflict-Troubled Societies: Perspectives from Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2014-01-01

    This article explores some of the tensions that are created from the entanglement of religion and human rights and offers a possible response to these tensions in the context of religious education in conflict-troubled societies. It is suggested that a historicised and politicised approach in religious education in conjunction with human rights…

  20. Exploring historical Canadian foodborne outbreak data sets for human illness attribution.

    PubMed

    Ravel, A; Greig, J; Tinga, C; Todd, E; Campbell, G; Cassidy, M; Marshall, B; Pollari, F

    2009-09-01

    Human illness attribution has been recently recognized as an important tool to better inform food safety decisions. Analysis of outbreak data sets has been used for that purpose. This study was conducted to explore the usefulness of three comprehensive Canadian foodborne outbreak data sets covering 30 years for estimating food attribution in cases of gastrointestinal illness, providing Canadian food attribution estimates from a historical perspective. Information concerning the microbiological etiology and food vehicles recorded for each outbreak was standardized between the data sets. The agent-food vehicle combinations were described and analyzed for changes over time by using multiple correspondence analysis. Overall, 6,908 foodborne outbreaks were available for three decades (1976 through 2005), but the agent and the food vehicle were identified in only 2,107 of these outbreaks. Differences between the data sets were found in the distribution of the cause, the vehicle, and the location or size of the outbreaks. Multiple correspondence analysis revealed an association between Clostridium botulinum and wild meat and between C. botulinum and seafood. This analysis also highlighted changes in food attribution over time and generated the most up-to-date food attribution values for salmonellosis (29% of cases associated with produce, 15% with poultry, and 15% with meat other than poultry, pork, and beef), campylobacteriosis (56% of cases associated with poultry and 22% with dairy products other than fluid milk), and Escherichia coli infection (37% of cases associated with beef, 23% with cooked multi-ingredient dishes, and 11% with meat other than beef, poultry, and pork). Because of the inherent limitations of this approach, only the main findings should be considered for policy making. The use of other human illness attribution approaches may provide further clarification.

  1. Right-lateralized brain oscillations in human spatial navigation.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Joshua; Korolev, Igor O; Caplan, Jeremy B; Ekstrom, Arne D; Litt, Brian; Baltuch, Gordon; Fried, Itzhak; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Madsen, Joseph R; Kahana, Michael J

    2010-05-01

    During spatial navigation, lesion and functional imaging studies suggest that the right hemisphere has a unique functional role. However, studies of direct human brain recordings have not reported interhemisphere differences in navigation-related oscillatory activity. We investigated this apparent discrepancy using intracranial electroencephalographic recordings from 24 neurosurgical patients playing a virtual taxi driver game. When patients were virtually moving in the game, brain oscillations at various frequencies increased in amplitude compared with periods of virtual stillness. Using log-linear analysis, we analyzed the region and frequency specificities of this pattern and found that neocortical movement-related gamma oscillations (34-54 Hz) were significantly lateralized to the right hemisphere, especially in posterior neocortex. We also observed a similar right lateralization of gamma oscillations related to searching for objects at unknown virtual locations. Thus, our results indicate that gamma oscillations in the right neocortex play a special role in human spatial navigation.

  2. Zika virus infection in Brazil and human rights obligations.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora; Gumieri, Sinara; Bevilacqua, Beatriz Galli; Cook, Rebecca J; Dickens, Bernard M

    2017-01-01

    The February 2016 WHO declaration that congenital Zika virus syndrome constitutes a Public Health Emergency of International Concern reacted to the outbreak of the syndrome in Brazil. Public health emergencies can justify a spectrum of human rights responses, but in Brazil, the emergency exposed prevailing inequities in the national healthcare system. The government's urging to contain the syndrome, which is associated with microcephaly among newborns, is confounded by lack of reproductive health services. Women with low incomes in particular have little access to such health services. The emergency also illuminates the harm of restrictive abortion legislation, and the potential violation of human rights regarding women's health and under the UN Conventions on the Rights of the Child and on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Suggestions have been proposed by which the government can remedy the widespread healthcare inequities among the national population that are instructive for other countries where congenital Zika virus syndrome is prevalent.

  3. The impact of European Union law on Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, John

    This article considers the impact of the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHR), both in its own right since the 1950s, and in conjunction with the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA) when this brought these rights home by incorporating them into the domestic law of the UK thus enabling our judiciary to give effect to them directly. The ECHR and the HRA say very little, if anything, expressly about health or health care, but have been relied on by litigants in a wide range of contexts, including but not limited to, assisted reproduction, abortion, access to treatment, management of health records, end of life issues and the investigation of potentially negligent or criminal conduct by professionals.

  4. The treatment of sex offenders: evidence, ethics, and human rights.

    PubMed

    Birgden, Astrid; Cucolo, Heather

    2011-09-01

    Public policy is necessarily a political process with the law and order issue high on the political agenda. Consequently, working with sex offenders is fraught with legal and ethical minefields, including the mandate that community protection automatically outweighs offender rights. In addressing community protection, contemporary sex offender treatment is based on management rather than rehabilitation. We argue that treatment-as-management violates offender rights because it is ineffective and unethical. The suggested alternative is to deliver treatment-as-rehabilitation underpinned by international human rights law and universal professional ethics. An effective and ethical community-offender balance is more likely when sex offenders are treated with respect and dignity that, as human beings, they have a right to claim.

  5. European Convention on Human Rights: effects on psychiatric care.

    PubMed

    Persaud, A; Hewitt, D

    The introduction of the European Convention on Human Rights into UK law will have a direct effect on practice in mental health care. The authors discuss developments associated with the Convention, examine different articles and suggest the changes they could bring. They suggest that, rather than reacting to the development of convention rights, healthcare professionals should take the opportunity to influence new standards for psychiatric care.

  6. Child labor and environmental health: government obligations and human rights.

    PubMed

    Amon, Joseph J; Buchanan, Jane; Cohen, Jane; Kippenberg, Juliane

    2012-01-01

    The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and environmental hazards pose significant risks. Drawing upon recent human rights investigations of child labor in tobacco farming in Kazakhstan and gold mining in Mali, the role of international human rights mechanisms, advocacy with government and private sector officials, and media attention in reducing harmful environmental exposures of child workers is discussed. Human rights-based advocacy in both cases was important to raise attention and help ensure that children are protected from harm.

  7. Nepal's War on Human Rights: A summit higher than Everest

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sonal; Dahal, Khagendra; Mills, Edward

    2005-01-01

    Nepal has witnessed serious human rights violations including arbitrary arrests, detentions, "disappearances", extra judicial executions, abductions and torture carried out by both the Royal Nepalese Army and the Maoist rebels in the 10 years of the "peoples war". Women and children have borne the brunt of the conflict. Massive displacement has led to adverse social and psychological consequences. While the reasons for the conflict are mainly indigenous and rooted in the social and economic in-equities, remedies for health inequities must come not only from the health sector but also from broad social policies and adopting a participatory and conflict-sensitive approach to development. Meanwhile the international community needs to use its leverage to urge both sides to accept a human rights accord and honor international human rights and humanitarian laws, while investigating allegations of abuse and prosecute those responsible. PMID:15985165

  8. Human rights and mass disaster: lessons from the 2004 tsunami.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, H M; Fletcher, L E; Stover, E

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the results of an investigation into how the December, 2004 tsunami and its aftermath affected the human rights of the survivors. Teams of researchers interviewed survivors, government officials, representatives of international and local nongovernmental organisations, UN officials, the military, police, and other key informants in India, Sri Lanka, the Maldives, Indonesia, and Thailand. We also analysed newspaper articles, reports released by governments, UN agencies, NGOs, and private humanitarian aid groups, and we examined the laws and policies related to survivors' welfare in the affected countries. We found worsening of prior human rights violations, inequities in aid distribution, lack of accountability and impunity, poor coordination of aid, lack of community participation in reconstruction, including coastal redevelopment. Corruption and preexisting conflict negatively impact humanitarian interventions. We make recommendations to international agencies, states, and local health service providers. A human rights framework offers significant protection to survivors and should play a critical role in disaster response.

  9. Updated WHO guidance on safe abortion: health and human rights.

    PubMed

    Erdman, Joanna N; DePiñeres, Teresa; Kismödi, Eszter

    2013-02-01

    Since its first publication in 2003, the World Health Organization's "Safe abortion: technical and policy guidance for health systems" has had an influence on abortion policy, law, and practice worldwide. To reflect significant developments in the clinical, service delivery, and human rights aspects of abortion care, the Guidance was updated in 2012. This article reviews select recommendations of the updated Guidance, highlighting 3 key themes that run throughout its chapters: evidence-based practice and assessment, human rights standards, and a pragmatic orientation to safe and accessible abortion care. These themes not only connect the chapters into a coherent whole. They reflect the research and advocacy efforts of a growing field in women's health and human rights.

  10. [Reflections for having bioethics involved in the human rights culture].

    PubMed

    Brussino, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Bioethics can be interpreted as a critical reflection on life and health, a new way to make decisions in these fields, a social reform movement, and an academic discipline. In any case, Bioethics implies an interdisciplinary and intercultural dialogue. At the same time, human rights, as universal moral guidelines, provide a plausible basis for this intercultural dialogue, for they enable the identification of a core of transcultural values that can work as "moral minima" in the dialogue among different cultures and the search for international consensuses. This article sets forth the triple connection (historical-genealogical, conceptual and practical) between bioethics and human rights, and reflects on some of the conditions that should be taken into account for bioethics to be involved in the human rights culture.

  11. Global disparities in health and human rights: a critical commentary.

    PubMed

    Benatar, S R

    1998-02-01

    Widening disparities in health and human rights at a global level represent the dark side of progress associated with escalation of economic and military exploitation and exponential population growth in the 20th century. Even the most basic universal human rights cannot be achieved for all under these circumstances. The goal of improved population health will be similarly elusive while medical care is commodified and exploited for commercial gain in the marketplace. Recognition of the powerful forces that polarize our world and commitment to reversing them are essential for the achievement of human rights for all, for the improvement of public health, and for the peaceful progress required to protect the "rational self-interest" of the most privileged people on earth against the escalation of war, disease, and other destructive forces arising from widespread poverty and ecological degradation.

  12. Child Labor and Environmental Health: Government Obligations and Human Rights

    PubMed Central

    Amon, Joseph J.; Buchanan, Jane; Cohen, Jane; Kippenberg, Juliane

    2012-01-01

    The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and environmental hazards pose significant risks. Drawing upon recent human rights investigations of child labor in tobacco farming in Kazakhstan and gold mining in Mali, the role of international human rights mechanisms, advocacy with government and private sector officials, and media attention in reducing harmful environmental exposures of child workers is discussed. Human rights-based advocacy in both cases was important to raise attention and help ensure that children are protected from harm. PMID:23316246

  13. Global disparities in health and human rights: a critical commentary.

    PubMed Central

    Benatar, S R

    1998-01-01

    Widening disparities in health and human rights at a global level represent the dark side of progress associated with escalation of economic and military exploitation and exponential population growth in the 20th century. Even the most basic universal human rights cannot be achieved for all under these circumstances. The goal of improved population health will be similarly elusive while medical care is commodified and exploited for commercial gain in the marketplace. Recognition of the powerful forces that polarize our world and commitment to reversing them are essential for the achievement of human rights for all, for the improvement of public health, and for the peaceful progress required to protect the "rational self-interest" of the most privileged people on earth against the escalation of war, disease, and other destructive forces arising from widespread poverty and ecological degradation. PMID:9491027

  14. Human Rights and the Political Economy of Universal Health Care

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Health system financing is a critical factor in securing universal health care and achieving equity in access and payment. The human rights framework offers valuable guidance for designing a financing strategy that meets these goals. This article presents a rights-based approach to health care financing developed by the human right to health care movement in the United States. Grounded in a human rights analysis of private, market-based health insurance, advocates make the case for public financing through progressive taxation. Financing mechanisms are measured against the twin goals of guaranteeing access to care and advancing economic equity. The added focus on the redistributive potential of health care financing recasts health reform as an economic policy intervention that can help fulfill broader economic and social rights obligations. Based on a review of recent universal health care reform efforts in the state of Vermont, this article reports on a rights-based public financing plan and model, which includes a new business tax directed against wage disparities. The modeling results suggest that a health system financed through equitable taxation could produce significant redistributive effects, thus increasing economic equity while generating sufficient funds to provide comprehensive health care as a universal public good. PMID:28559677

  15. Noma: neglected, forgotten and a human rights issue.

    PubMed

    Leila Srour, M; Marck, Klaas W; Baratti-Mayer, Denise

    2015-05-01

    Noma, an orofacial gangrene and opportunistic infection, affects primarily malnourished children living in extreme poverty. Neglected, forgotten, unknown by most health workers, noma results in death, disfigurement and disability of some of the world's most vulnerable children. Noma is a biological indicator of multiple human rights violations, including the right to food. International support and national attention in countries with noma are lacking. The end of neglect of noma can lead to the elimination of this horrific childhood disease. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Human rights in health equity: cervical cancer and HPV vaccines.

    PubMed

    Erdman, Joanna N

    2009-01-01

    This article seeks to demonstrate that health equity, as an empirical and normative concept, is reflected in the human rights to health and equality under international law. The obligations on government that flow from health equity as a human right are then examined. These include the obligation to act in pursuit of health equity as a policy objective, and the obligation to enact measures to ensure health equity as a policy outcome. These obligations are considered in relation to a promising remedial measure for social disparities in cervical cancer: HPV vaccines.

  17. RISKS, REASONS AND RIGHTS: THE EUROPEAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS AND ENGLISH ABORTION LAW.

    PubMed

    Scott, Rosamund

    2016-01-01

    Although there is no right to abort in English law but rather abortion is a crime, the lawful grounds for which are instantiated in the Abortion Act 1967 (as amended by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990), the regulation of abortion is sometimes perceived as being fairly 'liberal'. Accordingly, the idea that aspects of English law could be criticised under the European Convention on Human Rights, with which the UK must comply following the Human Rights Act 1998, may seem unlikely. Indeed, English law is compatible with the consensus amongst contracting states that abortion should be available on maternal health grounds. However, analysis of the UK's negative obligations under Article 8 shows that section 1(1)(a) of the Act is problematic as it operates in the first trimester. Further, given the European Court of Human Rights' emphasis on the reduced margin of appreciation once a state has legalised abortion to some degree and its jurisprudence relating to a state's positive obligations, the analysis shows that, while English law may not be problematic in relation to the lack of guidelines relating to the lawful grounds for abortion, it may well be in relation to the lack of a formal system for the review of any two doctors' decision not to grant a termination. Notwithstanding the morally serious nature of the decision to abort, the analysis overall raises questions about the need for at least some degree of abortion law reform, particularly in relation to the first trimester, towards a more autonomy-focused, though time-limited, rights-based approach.

  18. RISKS, REASONS AND RIGHTS: THE EUROPEAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS AND ENGLISH ABORTION LAW

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Rosamund

    2016-01-01

    Although there is no right to abort in English law but rather abortion is a crime, the lawful grounds for which are instantiated in the Abortion Act 1967 (as amended by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990), the regulation of abortion is sometimes perceived as being fairly ‘liberal’. Accordingly, the idea that aspects of English law could be criticised under the European Convention on Human Rights, with which the UK must comply following the Human Rights Act 1998, may seem unlikely. Indeed, English law is compatible with the consensus amongst contracting states that abortion should be available on maternal health grounds. However, analysis of the UK's negative obligations under Article 8 shows that section 1(1)(a) of the Act is problematic as it operates in the first trimester. Further, given the European Court of Human Rights' emphasis on the reduced margin of appreciation once a state has legalised abortion to some degree and its jurisprudence relating to a state's positive obligations, the analysis shows that, while English law may not be problematic in relation to the lack of guidelines relating to the lawful grounds for abortion, it may well be in relation to the lack of a formal system for the review of any two doctors' decision not to grant a termination. Notwithstanding the morally serious nature of the decision to abort, the analysis overall raises questions about the need for at least some degree of abortion law reform, particularly in relation to the first trimester, towards a more autonomy-focused, though time-limited, rights-based approach. PMID:26546800

  19. Lesbian and bisexual women's human rights, sexual rights and sexual citizenship: negotiating sexual health in England.

    PubMed

    Formby, Eleanor

    2011-11-01

    Lesbian and bisexual women's sexual health is neglected in much Government policy and practice in England and Wales. This paper examines lesbian and bisexual women's negotiation of sexual health, drawing on findings from a small research project. Themes explored include invisibility and lack of information, influences on decision-making and sexual activities and experiences of services and barriers to sexual healthcare. Key issues of importance in this respect are homophobic and heterosexist social contexts. Drawing on understandings of lesbian, gay and bisexual human rights, sexual rights and sexual citizenship, it is argued that these are useful lenses through which to examine and address lesbian and bisexual women's sexual health and related inequalities.

  20. A hypothetical neurological association between dehumanization and human rights abuses.

    PubMed

    Murrow, Gail B; Murrow, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Dehumanization is anecdotally and historically associated with reduced empathy for the pain of dehumanized individuals and groups and with psychological and legal denial of their human rights and extreme violence against them. We hypothesize that 'empathy' for the pain and suffering of dehumanized social groups is automatically reduced because, as the research we review suggests, an individual's neural mechanisms of pain empathy best respond to (or produce empathy for) the pain of people whom the individual automatically or implicitly associates with her or his own species. This theory has implications for the philosophical conception of 'human' and of 'legal personhood' in human rights jurisprudence. It further has implications for First Amendment free speech jurisprudence, including the doctrine of 'corporate personhood' and consideration of the potential harm caused by dehumanizing hate speech. We suggest that the new, social neuroscience of empathy provides evidence that both the vagaries of the legal definition or legal fiction of 'personhood' and hate speech that explicitly and implicitly dehumanizes may (in their respective capacities to artificially humanize or dehumanize) manipulate the neural mechanisms of pain empathy in ways that could pose more of a true threat to human rights and rights-based democracy than previously appreciated.

  1. Human rights violations in organ procurement practice in China.

    PubMed

    Paul, Norbert W; Caplan, Arthur; Shapiro, Michael E; Els, Charl; Allison, Kirk C; Li, Huige

    2017-02-08

    Over 90% of the organs transplanted in China before 2010 were procured from prisoners. Although Chinese officials announced in December 2014 that the country would completely cease using organs harvested from prisoners, no regulatory adjustments or changes in China's organ donation laws followed. As a result, the use of prisoner organs remains legal in China if consent is obtained. We have collected and analysed available evidence on human rights violations in the organ procurement practice in China. We demonstrate that the practice not only violates international ethics standards, it is also associated with a large scale neglect of fundamental human rights. This includes organ procurement without consent from prisoners or their families as well as procurement of organs from incompletely executed, still-living prisoners. The human rights critique of these practices will also address the specific situatedness of prisoners, often conditioned and traumatized by a cascade of human rights abuses in judicial structures. To end the unethical practice and the abuse associated with it, we suggest to inextricably bind the use of human organs procured in the Chinese transplant system to enacting Chinese legislation prohibiting the use of organs from executed prisoners and making explicit rules for law enforcement. Other than that, the international community must cease to abet the continuation of the present system by demanding an authoritative ban on the use of organs from executed Chinese prisoners.

  2. Bangkok 2004. Drug control, human rights, and harm reduction in the age of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Richard

    2004-12-01

    In many countries, HIV prevalence among people who use illicit drugs is high. Yet many governments resist implementing effective HIV prevention measures, and drug users often lack access to care, treatment, and support, including for HIV/AIDS. Growing evidence indicates the dominant prohibitionist approach to illicit drugs is ineffective--and even counterproductive, blocking or undermining measures shown to reduce harms to drug users and to communities affected by open drug scenes. The growing debate over global drug control policy could shift us collectively away from the current, failed prescriptions to a more rational, pragmatic, and health-promoting framework of harm reduction. This article by Richard Elliott is an abridged version of a paper prepared for "Human Rights at the Margins: HIV/AIDS, Prisoners, Drug Users and the Law," a satellite meeting held in Bangkok on 9 July 2004, and organized by the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network and the Lawyers Collective HIV/AIDS Unit (India). The article briefly outlines the impact of these two different policy approaches, examines international law on drug control, discusses how harm reduction reflects a human rights-based approach to drugs, and assesses some strategies for reforming global policy on illicit drugs.

  3. Violence against women: an issue of human rights.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    The most pervasive form of human rights abuse is violence against women. This violence includes domestic violence, sexual abuse, rape, forced prostitution, female genital mutilation, and murder. It cuts across socioeconomic lines and is so deeply embedded in tradition that millions of women consider violence their lot in life, yet international efforts to combat violence against women are currently in a fledgling state. Most women experience violence in their homes, and as many as 20% of women worldwide have been raped (most know their attacker). More than half of all sexual assaults target girls aged 15 years and younger, and armies continue to use rape as a weapon of war. The female infanticide and sex selective abortions that are caused by son preference have led to imbalances in sex ratios characterized by millions of females "missing" from populations in Asia, China, and north Africa. India is the site of an estimated 5000 dowry-related deaths each year, and an estimated 130 million women worldwide have undergone female genital mutilation with two million more at risk each year. In response to this problem, more than 160 countries have ratified the UN's Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Violence Against Women, and many countries have included provisions to protect women against violence in their constitutions and criminal codes. Only 44 countries specifically protect women against domestic violence, however, and only 17 countries consider marital rape a crime (12 countries in Latin America excuse a rapist from prosecution if he marries his victim). The US has worked to place women's rights on the human rights agenda by increasing monitoring of women's human rights abuses, supporting national efforts to revise legislation, supporting campaigns to help women reduce their dependency on men and understand their rights, and equating women's rights with human rights.

  4. Iranian PhD student wins human-rights prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Jon

    2013-11-01

    A physicist imprisoned in Iran while on a break from his PhD studies in the US has been awarded a human-rights prize. Omid Kokabee, who had been based at the University of Texas in Austin, has been given the Andrei Sakharov Prize from the American Physical Society (APS) for "his courage in refusing to use his physics knowledge to work on projects that he deemed harmful to humanity, in the face of extreme physical and psychological pressure".

  5. Canadian oncogenic human papillomavirus cervical infection prevalence: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection prevalence is required to determine optimal vaccination strategies. We systematically reviewed the prevalence of oncogenic cervical HPV infection among Canadian females prior to immunization. Methods We included studies reporting DNA-confirmed oncogenic HPV prevalence estimates among Canadian females identified through searching electronic databases (e.g., MEDLINE) and public health websites. Two independent reviewers screened literature results, abstracted data and appraised study quality. Prevalence estimates were meta-analyzed among routine screening populations, HPV-positive, and by cytology/histology results. Results Thirty studies plus 21 companion reports were included after screening 837 citations and 120 full-text articles. Many of the studies did not address non-response bias (74%) or use a representative sampling strategy (53%). Age-specific prevalence was highest among females aged < 20 years and slowly declined with increasing age. Across all populations, the highest prevalence estimates from the meta-analyses were observed for HPV types 16 (routine screening populations, 8 studies: 8.6% [95% confidence interval 6.5-10.7%]; HPV-infected, 9 studies: 43.5% [28.7-58.2%]; confirmed cervical cancer, 3 studies: 48.8% [34.0-63.6%]) and 18 (routine screening populations, 8 studies: 3.3% [1.5-5.1%]; HPV-infected, 9 studies: 13.6% [6.1-21.1%], confirmed cervical cancer, 4 studies: 17.1% [6.4-27.9%]. Conclusion Our results support vaccinating females < 20 years of age, along with targeted vaccination of some groups (e.g., under-screened populations). The highest prevalence occurred among HPV types 16 and 18, contributing a combined cervical cancer prevalence of 65.9%. Further cancer protection is expected from cross-protection of non-vaccine HPV types. Poor study quality and heterogeneity suggests that high-quality studies are needed. PMID:21892939

  6. Issue Definition in Rights-Based Policy Focused on the Experiences of Individuals with Disabilities: An Examination of Canadian Parliamentary Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Dana Lee

    2008-01-01

    In issue definition in rights-based policy Canada stereotypically embraces a more positive, human rights-centered approach as compared with the American stereotype associated with the USA's more presumptively negative, civil rights-based tack. Since exclusionary infrastructures violate the core values of democratic governance, a failure to address…

  7. Issue Definition in Rights-Based Policy Focused on the Experiences of Individuals with Disabilities: An Examination of Canadian Parliamentary Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Dana Lee

    2008-01-01

    In issue definition in rights-based policy Canada stereotypically embraces a more positive, human rights-centered approach as compared with the American stereotype associated with the USA's more presumptively negative, civil rights-based tack. Since exclusionary infrastructures violate the core values of democratic governance, a failure to address…

  8. Public health human resources: a comparative analysis of policy documents in two Canadian provinces

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Amidst concerns regarding the capacity of the public health system to respond rapidly and appropriately to threats such as pandemics and terrorism, along with changing population health needs, governments have focused on strengthening public health systems. A key factor in a robust public health system is its workforce. As part of a nationally funded study of public health renewal in Canada, a policy analysis was conducted to compare public health human resources-relevant documents in two Canadian provinces, British Columbia (BC) and Ontario (ON), as they each implement public health renewal activities. Methods A content analysis of policy and planning documents from government and public health-related organizations was conducted by a research team comprised of academics and government decision-makers. Documents published between 2003 and 2011 were accessed (BC = 27; ON = 20); documents were either publicly available or internal to government and excerpted with permission. Documentary texts were deductively coded using a coding template developed by the researchers based on key health human resources concepts derived from two national policy documents. Results Documents in both provinces highlighted the importance of public health human resources planning and policies; this was particularly evident in early post-SARS documents. Key thematic areas of public health human resources identified were: education, training, and competencies; capacity; supply; intersectoral collaboration; leadership; public health planning context; and priority populations. Policy documents in both provinces discussed the importance of an educated, competent public health workforce with the appropriate skills and competencies for the effective and efficient delivery of public health services. Conclusion This policy analysis identified progressive work on public health human resources policy and planning with early documents providing an inventory of issues to be

  9. Public health human resources: a comparative analysis of policy documents in two Canadian provinces.

    PubMed

    Regan, Sandra; MacDonald, Marjorie; Allan, Diane E; Martin, Cheryl; Peroff-Johnston, Nancy

    2014-02-24

    Amidst concerns regarding the capacity of the public health system to respond rapidly and appropriately to threats such as pandemics and terrorism, along with changing population health needs, governments have focused on strengthening public health systems. A key factor in a robust public health system is its workforce. As part of a nationally funded study of public health renewal in Canada, a policy analysis was conducted to compare public health human resources-relevant documents in two Canadian provinces, British Columbia (BC) and Ontario (ON), as they each implement public health renewal activities. A content analysis of policy and planning documents from government and public health-related organizations was conducted by a research team comprised of academics and government decision-makers. Documents published between 2003 and 2011 were accessed (BC = 27; ON = 20); documents were either publicly available or internal to government and excerpted with permission. Documentary texts were deductively coded using a coding template developed by the researchers based on key health human resources concepts derived from two national policy documents. Documents in both provinces highlighted the importance of public health human resources planning and policies; this was particularly evident in early post-SARS documents. Key thematic areas of public health human resources identified were: education, training, and competencies; capacity; supply; intersectoral collaboration; leadership; public health planning context; and priority populations. Policy documents in both provinces discussed the importance of an educated, competent public health workforce with the appropriate skills and competencies for the effective and efficient delivery of public health services. This policy analysis identified progressive work on public health human resources policy and planning with early documents providing an inventory of issues to be addressed and later documents providing

  10. The intersection between bioethics and human rights in the light of the universal declaration on bioethics and human rights.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Aline Albuquerque S

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to explore the increasing interconnection between bioethics and human rights that can be observed in recent international norms relating to biomedicine. To this end, the analysis has been focused on the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (UDBHR) adopted by UNESCO in 2005. Investigating the meanings of the intersection perceived in the UDBHR has led to the understanding of how bioethics and human rights are in accordance, under the normative perspective. Hence, in normative terms, the intersection between bioethics and human rights is clearly undisputable. However, there is no way to affirm that it is consolidated, as UDBHR's adoption is recent and its consolidation, together with its precepts, depends on state and non-state agents. The efficacy of a norm and its content depends on social, cultural and economic conditions, that is, it depends on a series of factors that influence the normative system. In the case of the UDBHR, its effective application and assimilation of its principles are directly linked to the use that bioethical institutions make of them and to how the community of bioethicists will project them in their thoughts and theory production. If, on the one hand UDBHR symbolizes the intersection confirmation--which is of extreme importance for its consolidation--on the other hand its range and consequent stabilization are submitted to the actions from governments, social institutions and bioethicists. Hence, there is still a lot to do in terms of introducing the human rights precepts into bioethics. The aim of this paper is to contribute to this goal. Thus based on the meanings of the intersection between bioethics and human rights identified in the UDBHR, this article presents five ways to understand the connection between these two fields.

  11. Belief, motivational, and ideological correlates of human rights attitudes.

    PubMed

    Crowson, H Michael; DeBacker, Teresa K

    2008-06-01

    Many people believe that an informed and thoughtful citizenry is essential to the maintenance of democratic ideals within the United States and the spread of those ideals abroad. Since the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, the evidence that Americans consider issues of human dignity and rights when making judgments about the U.S. government's war on terror has been mixed. In our study, we assessed the relative contributions of ideological, belief, and cognitive-motivational factors to the prediction of human rights and civil liberties attitudes. Individuals scoring high on measures of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and the belief that the structure of knowledge is simple were the most likely to support restrictions on human rights and civil liberties as part of the war on terror. In a subsequent regression analysis, individuals scoring higher on personal need for structure or exhibiting lower levels of epistemological belief complexity tended to score higher on RWA. Additionally, men were generally more likely to support restrictions on rights and liberties and to score higher on RWA than were women.

  12. Integrated human rights and poverty eradication strategy: the case of civil registration rights in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Musarandega, Reuben

    2009-01-01

    High poverty levels characterise sub-Saharan Africa, Zimbabwe included. Over 80 per cent of Zimbabwe's population lived below the total consumption poverty line and 70 per cent below the food poverty line in 2003. This plummeting of social indicators resulted from the freefall suffered by the country's economy from the 1990s, after unsuccessful attempts to implement structural adjustment programmes prescribed by international financial institutions. The ensuing socioeconomic decay, political crisis and international isolation of the country from the late 1990s reversed gains made in social indicators during the 1980s. Development theories attribute poverty to unchecked population growth, political, economic and environmental mismanagement, while developing countries' leaders attribute it to historical imbalances and global political and economic injustices. Despite this debate, poverty continues to evolve, expand and deepen and the need to eradicate it has become urgent. The complex question of what causes and what drives poverty is perpetually addressed and new ideas are emerging to answer the question. One recent view is that failure to centre development on people and to declare poverty a violation of human rights has allowed poverty to grow the world over. This study uses a hypothesised cause of poverty - civil registration - to exemplify the human right nature of poverty, and how a human rights' policy can be used as an instrument to eradicate poverty. The study demonstrates that civil registration is a right of instrumental relevance to poverty; and achieving civil registration grants people access to numerous other rights, some of which will lift them out of poverty, while the failure of civil registration deprives people of access to livelihoods, thereby entrenching them in poverty.

  13. Exploring the Relevance of Holocaust Education for Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckmann, Monique

    2010-01-01

    Can Holocaust education be considered a tool for human rights education? If so, to what extent? These questions elicit discussions among a wide range of educators, and interest among politicians, educational planners, and ministries in charge of memorials. At first glance the obvious answer seems to be yes; both educators and students have strong…

  14. A Relational Hermeneutical Approach to Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Daraweesh, Fuad

    2010-01-01

    This research is an effort to transcend the debate of universalism and cultural relativism by offering a new conceptualization of human rights. The conceptualization is presented through the development of a theoretical framework in the form of an epistemology. The research articulates and defends the epistemology, which is grounded on…

  15. Toward a Hermeneutical Theory of International Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Daraweesh, Fuad; Snauwaert, Dale T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to articulate and defend the epistemological foundations of international human rights education from the perspective of a hermeneutical interpretive methodology. Fuad Al-Daraweesh and Dale Snauwaert argue here that this methodology potentially alleviates the challenges that face the cross-cultural implementation of…

  16. Health impact of human rights testimony: harming the most vulnerable?

    PubMed Central

    Shome, Shonali; Neylan, Thomas C; Musalo, Karen; Fineberg, Harvey V; Cooke, Molly M; Volberding, Paul A; Goosby, Eric P

    2016-01-01

    Background Current legal efforts to document human rights violations typically include interviews in which survivors are asked to provide detailed descriptions of their traumatic experiences during a single meeting. Research on similar interview techniques used as part of a mental health treatment (eg, debriefing) has raised concerns that they might worsen mental health—more than doubling the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder in some studies. While controversy over the mental health impact of debriefing continues, debriefing treatments have been discontinued in most clinics nearly 2 decades ago. The purpose of this article is to promote the development and integration of preventative measures to limit potential mental health damage associated with legal endeavours to address human rights violations and international crimes. Methods and findings Given the recent growth of the field of global mental health and its current capacity to provide feasible, acceptable, effective care in low-resource settings, we propose a research agenda to identify the mental health impact of current human rights legal practices and test a model of scalable medicolegal care that minimises risk by integrating mental health monitoring and applying up-to-date models of trauma treatment, including multiple meeting sessions, as indicated. Conclusions As the fields of global health, human rights law, international criminal law and transitional justice increasingly overlap in their efforts to assist communities affected by grave violence, we propose that synchronising efforts may offer important opportunities to improve mental health for survivors. PMID:28588904

  17. Bearing Witness: Citizen Journalism and Human Rights Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Stuart; Sonwalkar, Prasun; Carter, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    This article assesses the potential of online news reporting to create discursive spaces for emphatic engagement--of bearing witness--at a distance, especially where human rights violations are concerned. Taking as its focus the emergent forms and practices of citizen journalism, it examines the spontaneous actions of ordinary people compelled to…

  18. Bearing Witness: Citizen Journalism and Human Rights Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Stuart; Sonwalkar, Prasun; Carter, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    This article assesses the potential of online news reporting to create discursive spaces for emphatic engagement--of bearing witness--at a distance, especially where human rights violations are concerned. Taking as its focus the emergent forms and practices of citizen journalism, it examines the spontaneous actions of ordinary people compelled to…

  19. Using Literature for Young People to Teach about Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Caroline C.; Cruz, Barbara C.

    2012-01-01

    Using literature in the social studies classroom is a useful pedagogy that is particularly well-suited in human rights education. Literature can give voice to people who cannot speak for themselves and gives students an opportunity to consider perspectives that are often foreign to them. When used with delicacy and care, these literary…

  20. Transforming Global Civics: The Need for Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin-Goldberg, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    In today's globally interconnected community, it is imperative that students learn how human rights abuses are not a "thing of the past," but an ongoing exploitation that requires modern day crusaders to defend. Who might these crusaders be? None other than each student. However, if one wants to encourage these noble change agents, one needs to…