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Sample records for canadian nuclear facilities

  1. WTEC monograph on instrumentation, control and safety systems of Canadian nuclear facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhrig, Robert E.; Carter, Richard J.

    1993-01-01

    This report updates a 1989-90 survey of advanced instrumentation and controls (I&C) technologies and associated human factors issues in the U.S. and Canadian nuclear industries carried out by a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Carter and Uhrig 1990). The authors found that the most advanced I&C systems are in the Canadian CANDU plants, where the newest plant (Darlington) has digital systems in almost 100 percent of its control systems and in over 70 percent of its plant protection system. Increased emphasis on human factors and cognitive science in modern control rooms has resulted in a reduced workload for the operators and the elimination of many human errors. Automation implemented through digital instrumentation and control is effectively changing the role of the operator to that of a systems manager. The hypothesis that properly introducing digital systems increases safety is supported by the Canadian experience. The performance of these digital systems has been achieved using appropriate quality assurance programs for both hardware and software development. Recent regulatory authority review of the development of safety-critical software has resulted in the creation of isolated software modules with well defined interfaces and more formal structure in the software generation. The ability of digital systems to detect impending failures and initiate a fail-safe action is a significant safety issue that should be of special interest to nuclear utilities and regulatory authorities around the world.

  2. Status of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, C.J.; Stephens, M.E. )

    1992-01-01

    The Canadian Concept for the permanent disposal of nuclear fuel waste has been developed extensively over the past several years, and is now well-advanced. The Concept, which involves the construction of a waste vault 500 to 1000 metres deep in plutonic rock located in the Canadian Precambrian Shield, is supported by an R D program with the following objectives: (1) to develop and demonstrate technology to site, design, build and operate a disposal facility; (2) to develop and demonstrate a methodology to evaluate the performance of the disposal system; and (3) to demonstrate that sites are likely to exist in the Canadian Precambrian Shield that would meet the regulatory requirements. A combination of engineered and natural barriers will be used to ensure that the vault design will meet rigorous safety standards. Experimental work is being carried out to elucidate all the important phenomena associated with the safety of the vault, including the performance of engineered barriers, natural geological barriers, and the biosphere.

  3. Northern exposure: nuclear cardiology in the Canadian health care system.

    PubMed

    Miller, D D; Kiess, M C; Freeman, M R; Taillefer, R

    1995-01-01

    The Canadian health care system may provide valuable insights into the future practice of nuclear cardiology in the United States. Rationing of medical care is not legislated by the Canadian health care system, although resource allocation is required of Canadian physicians and hospital administrators. Canadian nuclear cardiologists and physicians are not restricted in the ordering of diagnostic studies, despite the decreased availability in imaging systems and the centralization of equipment and personnel in Canada. Canadian imaging equipment is, in general, used more with less average idle time per unit. Delays in the performance of nonemergent imaging studies are more common in Canadian imaging laboratories. The number of out-of-hospital nuclear medicine laboratories is not increasing, because of government constraints on licensing and the general requirement that only radiologists or certified nuclear medicine physicians can operate these laboratories. A survey of 71 nuclear cardiology laboratories in the United States and Canada reveal that 21% of all cardiac imaging studies are performed for post-myocardial infarction risk stratification in Canada, compared with only 11% in United States laboratories. Rest and reinjection thallium imaging studies are performed more than twice as often in the United States laboratories. Canadian laboratories perform a higher average number of myocardial perfusion (2123 vs 1789) and ventricular function (773 vs 554) studies as compared with their United States counterparts. No other significant differences in clinical usage patterns were identified. A total of 130,000 nuclear cardiologies were performed in Canada in 1993, with less than 5% growth in the number of Canadian studies projected for 1994. Forty-five percent of Canadian perfusion studies are performed with 99mTc-labeled sestamibi frequently using a 2-day protocol (60%) with electrocardiogram gating (30%). Positron emission tomography (PET) can be performed in only six

  4. Guidelines for Management Information Systems in Canadian Health Care Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Larry E.

    1987-01-01

    The MIS Guidelines are a comprehensive set of standards for health care facilities for the recording of staffing, financial, workload, patient care and other management information. The Guidelines enable health care facilities to develop management information systems which identify resources, costs and products to more effectively forecast and control costs and utilize resources to their maximum potential as well as provide improved comparability of operations. The MIS Guidelines were produced by the Management Information Systems (MIS) Project, a cooperative effort of the federal and provincial governments, provincial hospital/health associations, under the authority of the Canadian Federal/Provincial Advisory Committee on Institutional and Medical Services. The Guidelines are currently being implemented on a “test” basis in ten health care facilities across Canada and portions integrated in government reporting as finalized.

  5. Canadian macromolecular crystallography facility: a suite of fully automated beamlines.

    PubMed

    Grochulski, Pawel; Fodje, Michel; Labiuk, Shaunivan; Gorin, James; Janzen, Kathryn; Berg, Russ

    2012-06-01

    The Canadian light source is a 2.9 GeV national synchrotron radiation facility located on the University of Saskatchewan campus in Saskatoon. The small-gap in-vacuum undulator illuminated beamline, 08ID-1, together with the bending magnet beamline, 08B1-1, constitute the Canadian Macromolecular Crystallography Facility (CMCF). The CMCF provides service to more than 50 Principal Investigators in Canada and the United States. Up to 25% of the beam time is devoted to commercial users and the general user program is guaranteed up to 55% of the useful beam time through a peer-review process. CMCF staff provides "Mail-In" crystallography service to users with the highest scored proposals. Both beamlines are equipped with very robust end-stations including on-axis visualization systems, Rayonix 300 CCD series detectors and Stanford-type robotic sample auto-mounters. MxDC, an in-house developed beamline control system, is integrated with a data processing module, AutoProcess, allowing full automation of data collection and data processing with minimal human intervention. Sample management and remote monitoring of experiments is enabled through interaction with a Laboratory Information Management System developed at the facility.

  6. Nuclear worries of Canadian youth: Replication and extension

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, C.; Goldberg, S.; Parker, K.R. )

    1989-10-01

    A national survey of Canadian adolescents assessed concern, anxiety, and sources of information about the threat of nuclear war. Results indicated few geographical or gender differences in overall levels of concern, although females were more likely to admit fear and anxiety, and students with activist parents showed more concern. Family ranked below all media as a source of information.

  7. Nuclear worries of Canadian youth: replication and extension.

    PubMed

    Lewis, C; Goldberg, S; Parker, K R

    1989-10-01

    A national survey of Canadian adolescents assessed concern, anxiety, and sources of information about the threat of nuclear war. Results indicated few geographical or gender differences in overall levels of concern, although females were more likely to admit fear and anxiety, and students with activist parents showed more concern. Family ranked below all media as a source of information.

  8. Establishing nuclear facility drill programs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of DOE Handbook, Establishing Nuclear Facility Drill Programs, is to provide DOE contractor organizations with guidance for development or modification of drill programs that both train on and evaluate facility training and procedures dealing with a variety of abnormal and emergency operating situations likely to occur at a facility. The handbook focuses on conducting drills as part of a training and qualification program (typically within a single facility), and is not intended to included responses of personnel beyond the site boundary, e.g. Local or State Emergency Management, Law Enforcement, etc. Each facility is expected to develop its own facility specific scenarios, and should not limit them to equipment failures but should include personnel injuries and other likely events. A well-developed and consistently administered drill program can effectively provide training and evaluation of facility operating personnel in controlling abnormal and emergency operating situations. To ensure the drills are meeting their intended purpose they should have evaluation criteria for evaluating the knowledge and skills of the facility operating personnel. Training and evaluation of staff skills and knowledge such as component and system interrelationship, reasoning and judgment, team interactions, and communications can be accomplished with drills. The appendices to this Handbook contain both models and additional guidance for establishing drill programs at the Department`s nuclear facilities.

  9. PROJECTIZING AN OPERATING NUCLEAR FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, N

    2007-07-08

    This paper will discuss the evolution of an operations-based organization to a project-based organization to facilitate successful deactivation of a major nuclear facility. It will describe the plan used for scope definition, staff reorganization, method estimation, baseline schedule development, project management training, and results of this transformation. It is a story of leadership and teamwork, pride and success. Workers at the Savannah River Site's (SRS) F Canyon Complex (FCC) started with a challenge--take all the hazardous byproducts from nearly 50 years of operations in a major, first-of-its-kind nuclear complex and safely get rid of them, leaving the facility cold, dark, dry and ready for whatever end state is ultimately determined by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). And do it in four years, with a constantly changing workforce and steadily declining funding. The goal was to reduce the overall operating staff by 93% and budget by 94%. The facilities, F Canyon and its adjoined sister, FB Line, are located at SRS, a 310-square-mile nuclear reservation near Aiken, S.C., owned by DOE and managed by Washington Group International subsidiary Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC). These facilities were supported by more than 50 surrounding buildings, whose purpose was to provide support services during operations. The radiological, chemical and industrial hazards inventory in the old buildings was significant. The historical mission at F Canyon was to extract plutonium-239 and uranium-238 from irradiated spent nuclear fuel through chemical processing. FB Line's mission included conversion of plutonium solutions into metal, characterization, stabilization and packaging, and storage of both metal and oxide forms. The plutonium metal was sent to another DOE site for use in weapons. Deactivation in F Canyon began when chemical separations activities were completed in 2002, and a cross-functional project team concept was implemented to successfully

  10. RADIATION FACILITY FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Currier, E.L. Jr.; Nicklas, J.H.

    1961-12-12

    A radiation facility is designed for irradiating samples in close proximity to the core of a nuclear reactor. The facility comprises essentially a tubular member extending through the biological shield of the reactor and containing a manipulatable rod having the sample carrier at its inner end, the carrier being longitudinally movable from a position in close proximity to the reactor core to a position between the inner and outer faces of the shield. Shield plugs are provided within the tubular member to prevent direct radiation from the core emanating therethrough. In this device, samples may be inserted or removed during normal operation of the reactor without exposing personnel to direct radiation from the reactor core. A storage chamber is also provided within the radiation facility to contain an irradiated sample during the period of time required to reduce the radioactivity enough to permit removal of the sample for external handling. (AEC)

  11. WIRELESS FOR A NUCLEAR FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, D; Joe Cordaro, J

    2007-03-28

    The introduction of wireless technology into a government site where nuclear material is processed and stored brings new meaning to the term ''harsh environment''. At SRNL, we are attempting to address not only the harsh RF and harsh physical environment common to industrial facilities, but also the ''harsh'' regulatory environment necessitated by the nature of the business at our site. We will discuss our concepts, processes, and expected outcomes in our attempts to surmount the roadblocks and reap the benefits of wireless in our ''factory''.

  12. Nuclear Facilities and Applied Technologies at Sandia

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, Dave; Kaiser, Krista; Martin, Lonnie; Hanson, Don; Harms, Gary; Quirk, Tom

    2014-11-28

    The Nuclear Facilities and Applied Technologies organization at Sandia National Laboratories’ Technical Area Five (TA-V) is the leader in advancing nuclear technologies through applied radiation science and unique nuclear environments. This video describes the organization’s capabilities, facilities, and culture.

  13. Argumentation in the Canadian House of Commons on the Issue of Nuclear Weapons for Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John Alfred

    The Cuban missile crisis of October 1962 forced the Canadian House of Commons to consider whether Canadian forces in NORAD and NATO were effective without nuclear warheads on special weapons systems. This paper provides an overview of the debates and their milieu, identifies the issues involved, and analyzes the effects of the argumentation. The…

  14. Microbial studies in the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program.

    PubMed

    Stroes-Gascoyne, S; West, J M

    1997-07-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed a concept for permanent geological disposal of used nuclear fuel in Canada. This concept, based on a multibarrier system, would involve disposal of nuclear fuel waste in titanium or copper containers, surrounded by compacted clay-based buffer and backfill materials, in a vault 500-1000 m deep in granitic rock of the Canadian Shield. Subsurface environments will not be sterile and an experimental program was initiated in 1991 by AECL to address and quantify the potential effects of microbial action on the integrity of the disposal vault. This microbial program focuses on answering specific questions in areas such as the survival of bacteria in compacted clay-based buffer materials under relevant radiation, temperature and desiccation conditions; mobility of microbes in compacted buffer materials; the potential for microbially influenced corrosion of containers; microbial gas production in backfill material; introduction of nutrients as a result of vault excavation and operation; the presence and activity of microbes in deep granitic groundwaters; and the effects of biofilms on radionuclide migration in the geosphere. This paper summarizes the results to date from the research activities at AECL. PMID:9299719

  15. Microbial studies in the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program.

    PubMed

    Stroes-Gascoyne, S; West, J M

    1997-07-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed a concept for permanent geological disposal of used nuclear fuel in Canada. This concept, based on a multibarrier system, would involve disposal of nuclear fuel waste in titanium or copper containers, surrounded by compacted clay-based buffer and backfill materials, in a vault 500-1000 m deep in granitic rock of the Canadian Shield. Subsurface environments will not be sterile and an experimental program was initiated in 1991 by AECL to address and quantify the potential effects of microbial action on the integrity of the disposal vault. This microbial program focuses on answering specific questions in areas such as the survival of bacteria in compacted clay-based buffer materials under relevant radiation, temperature and desiccation conditions; mobility of microbes in compacted buffer materials; the potential for microbially influenced corrosion of containers; microbial gas production in backfill material; introduction of nutrients as a result of vault excavation and operation; the presence and activity of microbes in deep granitic groundwaters; and the effects of biofilms on radionuclide migration in the geosphere. This paper summarizes the results to date from the research activities at AECL.

  16. Canadian Schoolhouse in the Red. The First National Study of School Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Shirley J.

    A Canadian national study provides provincial data on the country's publicly funded school facilities including school building age, student achievement and school condition, fiscal condition, maintenance, and energy usage. The study reveals that education ministries and school systems have engaged in an aggressive building program in the past two…

  17. Review of progress in the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, R.B.; Johnson, L.H.

    1986-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is reviewed, illustrating the progress that has been made in assessing the concept of disposal of nuclear fuel waste in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. Research is being conducted into used fuel storage and transportation, fuel waste immobilization, site characterization and selection methods, and performance assessment modelling. Details of achievements in these areas are outlined, and results of the most recent interim assessment are discussed.

  18. Estimating Fire Risks at Industrial Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D.A.

    1999-07-12

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has a wide variety of nuclear production facilities that include chemical processing facilities, machine shops, production reactors, and laboratories. Current safety documentation must be maintained for the nuclear facilities at SRS. Fire Risk Analyses (FRAs) are used to support the safety documentation basis. These FRAs present the frequency that specified radiological and chemical consequences will be exceeded. The consequence values are based on mechanistic models assuming specific fire protection features fail to function as designed.

  19. Nuclear Facilities Fire Accident Model

    1999-09-01

    4. NATURE OF PROBLEM SOLVED FIRAC predicts fire-induced flows, thermal and material transport, and radioactive and nonradioactive source terms in a ventilation system. It is designed to predict the radioactive and nonradioactive source terms that lead to gas dynamic, material transport, and heat transfer transients. FIRAC's capabilities are directed toward nuclear fuel cycle facilities and the primary release pathway, the ventilation system. However, it is applicable to other facilities and can be used to modelmore » other airflow pathways within a structure. The basic material transport capability of FIRAC includes estimates of entrainment, convection, deposition, and filtration of material. The interrelated effects of filter plugging, heat transfer, and gas dynamics are also simulated. A ventilation system model includes elements such as filters, dampers, ducts, and blowers connected at nodal points to form networks. A zone-type compartment fire model is incorporated to simulate fire-induced transients within a facility. 5. METHOD OF SOLUTION FIRAC solves one-dimensional, lumped-parameter, compressible flow equations by an implicit numerical scheme. The lumped-parameter method is the basic formulation that describes the gas dynamics system. No spatial distribution of parameters is considered in this approach, but an effect of spatial distribution can be approximated by noding. Network theory, using the lumped parameter method, includes a number of system elements, called branches, joined at certain points, called nodes. Ventilation system components that exhibit flow resistance and inertia, such as dampers, ducts, valves, and filters, and those that exhibit flow potential, such as blowers, are located within the branches of the system. The connection points of branches are nodes for components that have finite volumes, such as rooms, gloveboxes, and plenums, and for boundaries where the volume is practically infinite. All internal nodes, therefore, possess some

  20. Group therapy of aboriginal offenders in a Canadian forensic psychiatric facility.

    PubMed

    Waldram, J B; Wong, S

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, the use of group therapy approaches with Aboriginal or Native Canadians/American Indians has become widely accepted. However, many advocates of this approach rarely consider the implications of group therapy for culturally heterogeneous groups, such as when non-Aboriginal peoples are involved or when there are Aboriginal peoples from different cultures and/or with different degrees of orientation to Euro-Canadian culture. This article documents the use of one form of group therapy for Aboriginal offenders in a forensic psychiatric facility, where this degree of cultural heterogeneity exists. The article concludes that, at least within a forensic psychiatric setting, group therapies that mirror the social, cultural, racial, and class structures of Euro-Canadian society are problematic in the treatment of traditional Aboriginal offenders but much less so for acculturated Aboriginal offenders.

  1. The health risks of decommissioning nuclear facilities.

    PubMed

    Dodic-Fikfak, M; Clapp, R; Kriebel, D

    1999-01-01

    The health risks facing workers involved in decommissioning nuclear facilities are a critical concern as the nuclear weapons complex and nuclear power plants begin to be dismantled. In addition to risks from exposure to radioactive materials, there are risks from other common industrial materials like crystalline silica dust and asbestos. We discuss these issues in the context of recent research on the risk of low-level ionizing radiation, the classification of crystalline silica as a carcinogen, and early experience with decommissioning nuclear facilities in the United States. Health and safety advocates will need to be vigilant to prevent worker exposure. PMID:17208791

  2. The health risks of decommissioning nuclear facilities.

    PubMed

    Dodic-Fikfak, M; Clapp, R; Kriebel, D

    1999-01-01

    The health risks facing workers involved in decommissioning nuclear facilities are a critical concern as the nuclear weapons complex and nuclear power plants begin to be dismantled. In addition to risks from exposure to radioactive materials, there are risks from other common industrial materials like crystalline silica dust and asbestos. We discuss these issues in the context of recent research on the risk of low-level ionizing radiation, the classification of crystalline silica as a carcinogen, and early experience with decommissioning nuclear facilities in the United States. Health and safety advocates will need to be vigilant to prevent worker exposure.

  3. Regulatory experience in applying a radiological environmental protection framework for existing and planned nuclear facilities.

    PubMed

    Mihok, S; Thompson, P

    2012-01-01

    Frameworks and methods for the radiological protection of non-human biota have been evolving rapidly at the International Commission on Radiological Protection and through various European initiatives. The International Atomic Energy Agency has incorporated a requirement for environmental protection in the latest revision of its Basic Safety Standards. In Canada, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission has been legally obligated to prevent unreasonable risk to the environment since 2000. Licensees have therefore been meeting generic legal requirements to demonstrate adequate control of releases of radioactive substances for the protection of both people and biota for many years. In the USA, in addition to the generic requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Department of Energy facilities have also had to comply with specific dose limits after a standard assessment methodology was finalised in 2002. Canadian regulators developed a similar framework for biota dose assessment through a regulatory assessment under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act in the late 1990s. Since then, this framework has been applied extensively to satisfy legal requirements under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act and the Nuclear Safety and Control Act. After approximately a decade of experience in applying these methods, it is clear that simple methods are fit for purpose, and can be used for making regulatory decisions for existing and planned nuclear facilities.

  4. Perspective on nuclear fuel waste disposal from a Canadian point of view

    SciTech Connect

    Rummery, T.E.; McLean, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Many countries are now engaged in programs to develop the technology for the immobilization and disposal of nuclear fuel wastes. A variety of geologic media are being studied as potential hosts for a waste vault. Most countries are applying the largest part of their resources to the types of formation accessible within their borders. A summary of requirements and plans for the immobilization and disposal of nuclear fuel wastes is given for countries that supplied data to the International Fuel Cycle Evaluation. In Canada, the concept for fuel waste disposal is based on immobilization followed by emplacement in mined rooms at a depth of a thousand metres within a stable igneous rock formation in the Canadian Shield. Emphasis is being placed on immobilization of intact fuel bundles, although development of immobilization technology for separated fuel wastes is also under way. The program involves government departments, universities, consultants, and industry, and is divided into three phases: initial research and development to assess the acceptability of the basic concept, selection of a technically suitable site which also meets with community acceptance, and construction and operation of a demonstration facility. Generic and supporting research and development will continue throughout all phases of the program.

  5. Nuclear electric propulsion development and qualification facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutt, D. S.; Thomassen, K.; Sovey, J.; Fontana, Mario

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings of a Tri-Agency panel consisting of members from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) that were charged with reviewing the status and availability of facilities to test components and subsystems for megawatt-class nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems. The facilities required to support development of NEP are available in NASA centers, DOE laboratories, and industry. However, several key facilities require significant and near-term modification in order to perform the testing required to meet a 2014 launch date. For the higher powered Mars cargo and piloted missions, the priority established for facility preparation is: (1) a thruster developmental testing facility, (2) a thruster lifetime testing facility, (3) a dynamic energy conversion development and demonstration facility, and (4) an advanced reactor testing facility (if required to demonstrate an advanced multiwatt power system). Facilities to support development of the power conditioning and heat rejection subsystems are available in industry, federal laboratories, and universities. In addition to the development facilities, a new preflight qualifications and acceptance testing facility will be required to support the deployment of NEP systems for precursor, cargo, or piloted Mars missions. Because the deployment strategy for NEP involves early demonstration missions, the demonstration of the SP-100 power system is needed by the early 2000's.

  6. Institutionalizing Safeguards By Design for Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, James B; Kovacic, Donald N; Whitaker, J Michael

    2008-01-01

    Safeguards for nuclear facilities can be significantly improved by developing and implementing methodologies for integrating proliferation resistance into the design of new facilities. This paper proposes a method to systematically analyze a facility's processes, systems, equipment, structures and management controls to ensure that all relevant proliferation scenarios that could potentially result in unacceptable consequences have been identified, evaluated and mitigated. This approach could be institutionalized into a country's regulatory structure similar to the way facilities are licensed to operate safely and are monitored through inspections and incident reporting to ensure compliance with domestic and international safeguards. Furthermore, taking credit for existing systems and equipment that have been analyzed and approved to assure a facility's reliable and safe operations will reduce the overall cost of implementing intrinsic and extrinsic proliferation-resistant features. The ultimate goal is to integrate safety, reliability, security and safeguards operations into the design of new facilities to effectively and efficiently prevent diversion, theft and misuse of nuclear material and sensitive technologies at both the facility and state level. To facilitate this approach at the facility level, this paper discusses an integrated proliferation resistance analysis (IPRA) process. If effectively implemented, this integrated approach will also facilitate the application of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards.

  7. Dedicated nuclear facilities for electrolytic hydrogen production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foh, S. E.; Escher, W. J. D.; Donakowski, T. D.

    1979-01-01

    An advanced technology, fully dedicated nuclear-electrolytic hydrogen production facility is presented. This plant will produce hydrogen and oxygen only and no electrical power will be generated for off-plant use. The conceptual design was based on hydrogen production to fill a pipeline at 1000 psi and a 3000 MW nuclear base, and the base-line facility nuclear-to-shaftpower and shaftpower-to-electricity subsystems, the water treatment subsystem, electricity-to-hydrogen subsystem, hydrogen compression, efficiency, and hydrogen production cost are discussed. The final conceptual design integrates a 3000 MWth high-temperature gas-cooled reactor operating at 980 C helium reactor-out temperature, direct dc electricity generation via acyclic generators, and high-current density, high-pressure electrolyzers based on the solid polymer electrolyte approach. All subsystems are close-coupled and optimally interfaced and pipeline hydrogen is produced at 1000 psi. Hydrogen costs were about half of the conventional nuclear electrolysis process.

  8. Improving the Safeguardability of Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    T. Bjornard; R. Bari; D. Hebditch; P. Peterson; M. Schanfein

    2009-07-01

    The application of a Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) process for new nuclear facilities has the potential to reduce security risks and proliferation hazards while improving the synergy of major design features and raising operational efficiency, in a world where significant expansion of nuclear energy use may occur. Correspondingly, the U.S. DOE’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) includes objectives to contribute to international efforts to develop SBD, and to apply SBD in the development of new U.S. nuclear infrastructure. Here, SBD is defined as a structured approach to ensure the timely, efficient and cost effective integration of international safeguards and other nonproliferation barriers with national material control and accountability, physical protection, and safety objectives into the overall design process for a nuclear facility, from initial planning through design, construction and operation. The SBD process, in its simplest form, may be applied usefully today within most national regulatory environments. Development of a mature approach to implementing SBD requires work in the areas of requirements definition, design processes, technology and methodology, and institutionalization. The U.S. efforts described in this paper are supportive of SBD work for international safeguards that has recently been initiated by the IAEA with the participation of many stakeholders including member States, the IAEA, nuclear technology suppliers, nuclear utilities, and the broader international nonproliferation community.

  9. Iraq nuclear facility dismantlement and disposal project

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.R.; Danneels, J.; Kenagy, W.D.; Phillips, C.J.; Chesser, R.K.

    2007-07-01

    The Al Tuwaitha nuclear complex near Baghdad contains a significant number of nuclear facilities from Saddam Hussein's dictatorship. Because of past military operations, lack of upkeep and looting there is now an enormous radioactive waste problem at Al Tuwaitha. Al Tuwaitha contains uncharacterised radioactive wastes, yellow cake, sealed radioactive sources, and contaminated metals. The current security situation in Iraq hampers all aspects of radioactive waste management. Further, Iraq has never had a radioactive waste disposal facility, which means that ever increasing quantities of radioactive waste and material must be held in guarded storage. The Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program (the NDs Program) has been initiated by the U.S. Department of State (DOS) to assist the Government of Iraq (GOI) in eliminating the threats from poorly controlled radioactive materials, while building human capacities so that the GOI can manage other environmental cleanups in their country. The DOS has funded the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to provide technical assistance to the GOI via a Technical Cooperation Project. Program coordination will be provided by the DOS, consistent with U.S. and GOI policies, and Sandia National Laboratories will be responsible for coordination of participants and for providing waste management support. Texas Tech University will continue to provide in-country assistance, including radioactive waste characterization and the stand-up of the Iraq Nuclear Services Company. The GOI owns the problems in Iraq and will be responsible for the vast majority of the implementation of the NDs Program. (authors)

  10. A system approach to nuclear facility monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Argo, P.E.; Doak, J.E.; Howse, J.W.

    1996-09-01

    Sensor technology for use in nuclear facility monitoring has reached and advanced stage of development. Research on where to place these sensors in a facility and how to combine their outputs in a meaningful fashion does not appear to be keeping pace. In this paper, we take a global view of the problem where sensor technology is viewed as only one piece of a large puzzle. Other pieces of this puzzle include the optimal location and type of sensors used in a specific facility, the rate at which sensors record information, and the risk associated with the materials/processes at a facility. If the data are analyzed off-site, how will they be transmitted? Is real-time analysis necessary? Are we monitoring only the facility itself, or might we also monitor the processing that occurs there? How are we going to combine the output from the various sensors to give us an accurate picture of the state of the facility? This paper will not try to answer all these questions, but rather it will attempt to stimulate thought in this area by formulating a systems approach to the problem demonstrated by a prototype system and a systems proposed for an actual facility. Our focus will be on the data analysis aspect of the problem.

  11. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ayer, J E; Clark, A T; Loysen, P; Ballinger, M Y; Mishima, J; Owczarski, P C; Gregory, W S; Nichols, B D

    1988-05-01

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH.

  12. RAON experimental facilities for nuclear science

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Y. K.; Kim, Y. K.; Komatsubara, T.; Moon, J. Y.; Park, J. S.; Shin, T. S.; Kim, Y. J.

    2014-05-02

    The Rare Isotope Science Project (RISP) was established in December 2011 and has put quite an effort to carry out the design and construction of the accelerator complex facility named “RAON”. RAON is a rare isotope (RI) beam facility that aims to provide various RI beams of proton-and neutron-rich nuclei as well as variety of stable ion beams of wide ranges of energies up to a few hundreds MeV/nucleon for the researches in basic science and application. Proposed research programs for nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics at RAON include studies of the properties of exotic nuclei, the equation of state of nuclear matter, the origin of the universe, process of nucleosynthesis, super heavy elements, etc. Various high performance magnetic spectrometers for nuclear science have been designed, which are KOBRA (KOrea Broad acceptance Recoil spectrometer and Apparatus), LAMPS (Large Acceptance Multi-Purpose Spectrometer), and ZDS (Zero Degree Spectrometer). The status of those spectrometers for nuclear science will be presented with a brief report on the RAON.

  13. Test facility for nuclear planetology instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vostrukhin, A. A.; Golovin, D. V.; Dubasov, P. V.; Zontikov, A. O.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Krylov, A. R.; Krylov, V. A.; Litvak, M. L.; Malakhov, A. V.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Mokrousov, M. I.; Ponomarev, I. D.; Repkin, A. N.; Sanin, A. B.; Timoshenko, G. N.; Udovichenko, K. V.; Shvetsov, V. N.

    2016-03-01

    An experimental facility for testing and calibrating nuclear planetology instruments has been constructed in partnership between the Space Research Institute (Moscow) and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. A model of Martian soil with a size of 3.82 × 3.21 m2 and an overall mass of about 30 t is assembled from silicate glass. Glass is chosen in order to imitate absolutely dry soil close in composition to the Martian one. The heterogeneous model allows one to imitate the average elemental composition of Martian soil in the best possible way by adding layers of the necessary materials to it. Near-surface water ice is simulated by polyethylene layers buried at different depths within the glass model. A portable neutron generator is used as the neutron source for testing active neutron and gamma spectrometers. The facility is radiation-hazardous and is thus equipped with interlock and radiation monitoring systems in accordance with the effective regulations.

  14. Tele/Autonomous Robot For Nuclear Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul G.; Tso, Kam S.

    1994-01-01

    Fail-safe tele/autonomous robotic system makes it unnecessary for human technicians to enter nuclear-fuel-reprocessing facilities and other high-radiation or otherwise hazardous industrial environments. Used to carry out experiments as exchanging equipment modules, turning bolts, cleaning surfaces, and grappling turning objects by use of mixture of autonomous actions and teleoperation with either single arm or two cooperating arms. System capable of fully autonomous operation, teleoperation or shared control.

  15. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Ferguson, S.D.; Fielden, J.M.; Schumann, P.L.

    1989-09-01

    The 576 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the tenth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types--technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions--have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title work, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords.

  16. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, N.P.; Webb, J.R.; Ferguson, S.D.; Goins, L.F.; Owen, P.T.

    1990-09-01

    The 394 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the eleventh in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (8) Technical Measurements Center, (9) Remedial Action Program, and (10) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies.

  17. Financing Strategies for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facility

    SciTech Connect

    David Shropshire; Sharon Chandler

    2005-12-01

    To help meet our nation’s energy needs, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is being considered more and more as a necessary step in a future nuclear fuel cycle, but incorporating this step into the fuel cycle will require considerable investment. This report presents an evaluation of financing scenarios for reprocessing facilities integrated into the nuclear fuel cycle. A range of options, from fully government owned to fully private owned, was evaluated using a DPL (Dynamic Programming Language) 6.0 model, which can systematically optimize outcomes based on user-defined criteria (e.g., lowest life-cycle cost, lowest unit cost). Though all business decisions follow similar logic with regard to financing, reprocessing facilities are an exception due to the range of financing options available. The evaluation concludes that lowest unit costs and lifetime costs follow a fully government-owned financing strategy, due to government forgiveness of debt as sunk costs. Other financing arrangements, however, including regulated utility ownership and a hybrid ownership scheme, led to acceptable costs, below the Nuclear Energy Agency published estimates. Overwhelmingly, uncertainty in annual capacity led to the greatest fluctuations in unit costs necessary for recovery of operating and capital expenditures; the ability to determine annual capacity will be a driving factor in setting unit costs. For private ventures, the costs of capital, especially equity interest rates, dominate the balance sheet; the annual operating costs dominate the government case. It is concluded that to finance the construction and operation of such a facility without government ownership could be feasible with measures taken to mitigate risk, and that factors besides unit costs should be considered (e.g., legal issues, social effects, proliferation concerns) before making a decision on financing strategy.

  18. Distribution of Corbicula fluminea at nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Counts, C.L. III

    1985-11-01

    A review of the zoogeographic records for the exotic Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea (Muller, 1774), reveals its presence in 27 states where nuclear powered electric generating plants are either operating or under construction. Nineteen plant sites reported infestation of varying severity in facilities, or source water bodies immediately adjacent to the facility, by C. fluminea. Thirteen plant sites are located within the zoogeographic limits of C. fluminea but have a low risk of infestation due to either salt water cooling systems or locations a great distance from known populations. Eighteen plant sites are located wholly outside of the known zoogeographic range of C. fluminea. Thirty plant sites are located in close proximity to known populations of C. fluminea and therefore should maintain surveillance of the source water body and within plant water systems for possible infestations by these bivalves. 27 figs.

  19. ANI (American Nuclear Insurers) support and research facility nuclear liability insurance inspection program

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, B.

    1988-01-01

    American Nuclear Insurers (ANI), a voluntary association of insurance companies, provides property and nuclear liability insurance protection to the nuclear industry. It generally offers insurance coverage to nuclear facilities, suppliers, and transporters for the following: (1) their liability for damages because of bodily injury and/or property damage caused by the nuclear energy hazard, and (2) all-risk damage to nuclear facilities. Among the range of facilities and suppliers insured by ANI are (a) operators of nuclear power plants that supply electricity for the general public, (b) operators of nuclear testing and research reactors, (c) fuel fabricators that manufacture fuel for use in reactors, (d) operators of facilities that dispose of nuclear waste that cannot be salvaged, (e) facilities that maintain and repair equipment used at nuclear facilities, (f) nuclear laundries, and (g) low-level-waste processors. The fundamental goal of the ANI nuclear engineering inspection program is to provide protection to pool members' assets by reducing insurance risk.

  20. Safety of Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Batandjieva, B.; Warnecke, E.; Coates, R.

    2008-01-15

    Full text of publication follows: ensuring safety during all stages of facility life cycle is a widely recognised responsibility of the operators, implemented under the supervision of the regulatory body and other competent authorities. As the majority of the facilities worldwide are still in operation or shutdown, there is no substantial experience in decommissioning and evaluation of safety during decommissioning in majority of Member States. The need for cooperation and exchange of experience and good practices on ensuring and evaluating safety of decommissioning was one of the outcomes of the Berlin conference in 2002. On this basis during the last three years IAEA initiated a number of international projects that can assist countries, in particular small countries with limited resources. The main IAEA international projects addressing safety during decommissioning are: (i) DeSa Project on Evaluation and Demonstration of Safety during Decommissioning; (ii) R{sup 2}D{sup 2}P project on Research Reactors Decommissioning Demonstration Project; and (iii) Project on Evaluation and Decommissioning of Former Facilities that used Radioactive Material in Iraq. This paper focuses on the DeSa Project activities on (i) development of a harmonised methodology for safety assessment for decommissioning; (ii) development of a procedure for review of safety assessments; (iii) development of recommendations on application of the graded approach to the performance and review of safety assessments; and (iv) application of the methodology and procedure to the selected real facilities with different complexities and hazard potentials (a nuclear power plant, a research reactor and a nuclear laboratory). The paper also outlines the DeSa Project outcomes and planned follow-up activities. It also summarises the main objectives and activities of the Iraq Project and introduces the R{sup 2}D{sup 2} Project, which is a subject of a complementary paper.

  1. Brain tumors at a nuclear facility.

    PubMed

    Reyes, M; Wilkinson, G S; Tietjen, G; Voelz, G L; Acquavella, J F; Bistline, R

    1984-10-01

    In response to an observed excess risk of brain tumor deaths among workers at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Facility (Colorado), a case-control study of all (n = 16) primary brain tumor deaths occurring among white males employed during 1952 through 1977 was conducted to investigate their relationship with occupational radiation/nonradiation exposures. For each case, four controls were individually matched on year of birth and period of employment. Although limited by a small number of cases, our study showed no statistically significant association between brain tumor death and exposure to internally deposited plutonium, external radiation, or other occupational risk factors. PMID:6491777

  2. Environmental and safety assessment for nuclear waste disposal - the canadian approach

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    The Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal involves immobilization and emplacement in a crystalline rock formation in the Canadian Shield. The assessments are divided into two parts: the pre-closure assessment and the post-closure assessment. For the pre-closure phase the total impact of transportation, immobilization, emplacement and decommissioning is considered. The object of the post-closure studies is to predict how radioactive material might escape from a disposal vault and migrate through the geosphere and biosphere to cause radiation dose to man. Detailed computer programs are being developed and applied for hydrogeological and chemical modeling. A ''systems variability analysis'' code integrates the total system and samples data. The resulting output is a histogram of consequence (dose to man) versus probability, indicating the most probable consequence of the project, and other consequence estimates, together with their probability of occurrence.

  3. Nuclear thermal propulsion test facility requirements and development strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, George C.; Warren, John; Clark, J. S.

    1991-01-01

    The Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) subpanel of the Space Nuclear Propulsion Test Facilities Panel evaluated facility requirements and strategies for nuclear thermal propulsion systems development. High pressure, solid core concepts were considered as the baseline for the evaluation, with low pressure concepts an alternative. The work of the NTP subpanel revealed that a wealth of facilities already exists to support NTP development, and that only a few new facilities must be constructed. Some modifications to existing facilities will be required. Present funding emphasis should be on long-lead-time items for the major new ground test facility complex and on facilities supporting nuclear fuel development, hot hydrogen flow test facilities, and low power critical facilities.

  4. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this Handbook is to provide guidance on how to calculate the characteristics of releases of radioactive materials and/or hazardous chemicals from nonreactor nuclear facilities. In addition, the Handbook provides guidance on how to calculate the consequences of those releases. There are four major chapters: Hazard Evaluation and Scenario Development; Source Term Determination; Transport Within Containment/Confinement; and Atmospheric Dispersion and Consequences Modeling. These chapters are supported by Appendices, including: a summary of chemical and nuclear information that contains descriptions of various fuel cycle facilities; details on how to calculate the characteristics of source terms for releases of hazardous chemicals; a comparison of NRC, EPA, and OSHA programs that address chemical safety; a summary of the performance of HEPA and other filters; and a discussion of uncertainties. Several sample problems are presented: a free-fall spill of powder, an explosion with radioactive release; a fire with radioactive release; filter failure; hydrogen fluoride release from a tankcar; a uranium hexafluoride cylinder rupture; a liquid spill in a vitrification plant; and a criticality incident. Finally, this Handbook includes a computer model, LPF No.1B, that is intended for use in calculating Leak Path Factors. A list of contributors to the Handbook is presented in Chapter 6. 39 figs., 35 tabs.

  5. Firefighting training for nuclear facility personnel

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Ken L.; Bates, E.F.

    1980-07-01

    As a result of the Browns Ferry incident of 1975, an increasing amount of attention has been devoted to fire protection at nuclear power plants in the United States. Regulatory Guide 1.120, NUREG-0050, and NRC Branch Technical Position 9.5-1 were developed to specifically address the nature of such programs, including fire suppression training for plant fire brigades. In early 1978, the Texas A and M University Nuclear Science Center (NSC) and the Fire Protection Training Division of the Texas Engineering Extension Service developed a one-week course emphasizing hands-on exercises to meet the need for training nuclear power plant personnel in firefighting skills. During the past two years six NSC staff members have completed the program, and the result has been greatly increased confidence and improved ability to handle fire situations as well as other types of emergencies. As a result of this, we believe that this type of training is very valuable, if not essential for selected research reactor personnel from each facility. Proposed standard ANS 15.17 would require that 'active fire protection elements' such as brigade training of this nature be a part of each research reactor's fire protection program. This paper discusses a special course that is designed for non-utility nuclear personnel needing combined fire and radiological emergency training. Included in the curriculum are classroom lectures on theory and numerous field exercises covering the use of breathing apparatus under fire conditions, application techniques for handheld extinguishers, and flammable liquid fire control. Special sessions cover the control of radioactive contamination in fire emergencies, with live isotopes used to give the student realistic training in this area. (author)

  6. Assessment of the long-term risk of a meteorite impact on a hypothetical Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal vault deep in plutonic rock

    SciTech Connect

    Wuschke, D.M.; Whitaker, S.H.; Goodwin, B.W.; Rasmussen, L.R.

    1995-12-31

    Canada has conducted an extensive research program on the safe disposal of nuclear fuel waste. The program has focused on disposal of used fuel in durable containers in an engineered facility or ``vault``, 500 to 1,000 m deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. This paper describes an assessment of the long-term radiological risk to a critical group, resulting from a meteorite impact on a hypothetical reference disposal vault. The authors assume the critical group is a small rural community which, sometime after the impact, moves to the area contaminated by nuclear fuel waste exposed by the impact. The estimated risk is compared to a risk criterion established by Canada`s nuclear regulatory agency.

  7. MANAGING BERYLLIUM IN NUCLEAR FACILITY APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Rohe; T. N. Tranter

    2011-12-01

    Beryllium plays important roles in nuclear facilities. Its neutron multiplication capability and low atomic weight make it very useful as a reflector in fission reactors. Its low atomic number and high chemical affinity for oxygen have led to its consideration as a plasma-facing material in fusion reactors. In both applications, the beryllium and the impurities in it become activated by neutrons, transmuting them to radionuclides, some of which are long-lived and difficult to dispose of. Also, gas production, notably helium and tritium, results in swelling, embrittlement, and cracking, which means that the beryllium must be replaced periodically, especially in fission reactors where dimensional tolerances must be maintained. It has long been known that neutron activation of inherent iron and cobalt in the beryllium results in significant {sup 60}Co activity. In 2001, it was discovered that activation of naturally occurring contaminants in the beryllium creates sufficient {sup 14}C and {sup 94}Nb to render the irradiated beryllium 'Greater-Than-Class-C' for disposal in U.S. radioactive waste facilities. It was further found that there was sufficient uranium impurity in beryllium that had been used in fission reactors up to that time that the irradiated beryllium had become transuranic in character, making it even more difficult to dispose of. In this paper we review the extent of the disposal issue, processes that have been investigated or considered for improving the disposability of irradiated beryllium, and approaches for recycling.

  8. Potential effects of climatic change on radiological doses from disposal of Canadian nuclear fuel waste.

    PubMed

    Amiro, B D

    1997-05-01

    The environmental assessment of deep geologic disposal of Canadian nuclear fuel waste considers many processes that could affect radionuclide transport to humans over thousands of years. Climatic change is an important feature that will occur over these long times. Glaciation will likely occur within the next 100,000 years over much of Canada, and its impact on radiological doses has been assessed previously. In the present study, we investigate the potential effect of short-term climatic change, usually associated with global warming caused by increases in atmospheric trace gases. We study the main biosphere transport pathways causing a radiological dose to humans from 129I, which is the most important radionuclide in disposal of Canadian used nuclear fuel. Irrigation of a garden with contaminated well water is the main pathway and it can be affected by changes in temperature and precipitation. A cold, wet climate decreases the need for irrigation, and this decreases the radiological dose. A drastic climatic change, such as an increase in temperature from 10 to 20 degrees C and decrease in precipitation from 0.3 to 0.2 m during the growing season, is estimated to increase the dose by a factor of four. This is a relatively small change compared to the range of doses that arise from the variability and uncertainty in many of the parameters used in the environmental assessment models. Therefore, it is likely that the results of probabilistic dose assessment models can include the consequences of short-term climatic change.

  9. Stochastic Optimization for Nuclear Facility Deployment Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, Ross Daniel

    Single-use, low-enriched uranium oxide fuel, consumed through several cycles in a light-water reactor (LWR) before being disposed, has become the dominant source of commercial-scale nuclear electric generation in the United States and throughout the world. However, it is not without its drawbacks and is not the only potential nuclear fuel cycle available. Numerous alternative fuel cycles have been proposed at various times which, through the use of different reactor and recycling technologies, offer to counteract many of the perceived shortcomings with regards to waste management, resource utilization, and proliferation resistance. However, due to the varying maturity levels of these technologies, the complicated material flow feedback interactions their use would require, and the large capital investments in the current technology, one should not deploy these advanced designs without first investigating the potential costs and benefits of so doing. As the interactions among these systems can be complicated, and the ways in which they may be deployed are many, the application of automated numerical optimization to the simulation of the fuel cycle could potentially be of great benefit to researchers and interested policy planners. To investigate the potential of these methods, a computational program has been developed that applies a parallel, multi-objective simulated annealing algorithm to a computational optimization problem defined by a library of relevant objective functions applied to the Ver ifiable Fuel Cycle Simulati on Model (VISION, developed at the Idaho National Laboratory). The VISION model, when given a specified fuel cycle deployment scenario, computes the numbers and types of, and construction, operation, and utilization schedules for, the nuclear facilities required to meet a predetermined electric power demand function. Additionally, it calculates the location and composition of the nuclear fuels within the fuel cycle, from initial mining through

  10. Developing operational safety requirements for non-nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.

    1997-11-01

    Little guidance has been provided by the DOE for developing appropriate Operational Safety Requirements (OSR) for non-nuclear facility safety documents. For a period of time, Chapter 2 of DOE/AL Supplemental Order 5481.lB provided format guidance for non-reactor nuclear facility OSRs when this supplemental order applied to both nuclear and non-nuclear facilities. Thus, DOE Albuquerque Operations Office personnel still want to see non-nuclear facility OSRs in accordance with the supplemental order (i.e., in terms of Safety Limits, Limiting Conditions for Operation, and Administrative Controls). Furthermore, they want to see a clear correlation between the OSRs and the results of a facility safety analysis. This paper demonstrates how OSRs can be rather simply derived from the results of a risk assessment performed using the ``binning`` methodology of SAND95-0320.

  11. Modern tornado design of nuclear and other potentially hazardous facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, J.D.; Zhao, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Tornado wind loads and other tornado phenomena, including tornado missiles and differential pressure effects, have not usually been considered in the design of conventional industrial, commercial, or residential facilities in the United States; however, tornado resistance has often become a design requirement for certain hazardous facilities, such as large nuclear power plants and nuclear materials and waste storage facilities, as well as large liquefied natural gas storage facilities. This article provides a review of current procedures for the design of hazardous industrial facilities to resist tornado effects. 23 refs., 19 figs., 13 tabs.

  12. PRTR/309 building nuclear facility preliminary

    SciTech Connect

    Cornwell, B.C.

    1994-12-08

    The hazard classification of the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR)/309 building as a ``Radiological Facility`` and the office portions as ``Other Industrial Facility`` are documented by this report. This report provides: a synopsis of the history and facility it`s uses; describes major area of the facility; and assesses the radiological conditions for the facility segments. The assessment is conducted using the hazard category threshold values, segmentation methodology, and graded approach guidance of DOE-STD-1027-92.

  13. Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Air Force facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, David F.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program is an initiative within the US Air Force to acquire and validate advanced technologies that could be used to sustain superior capabilities in the area or space nuclear propulsion. The SNTP Program has a specific objective of demonstrating the feasibility of the particle bed reactor (PBR) concept. The term PIPET refers to a project within the SNTP Program responsible for the design, development, construction, and operation of a test reactor facility, including all support systems, that is intended to resolve program technology issues and test goals. A nuclear test facility has been designed that meets SNTP Facility requirements. The design approach taken to meet SNTP requirements has resulted in a nuclear test facility that should encompass a wide range of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) test requirements that may be generated within other programs. The SNTP PIPET project is actively working with DOE and NASA to assess this possibility.

  14. Multicomponent leach tests in Standard Canadian Shield Saline Solution on glasses containing simulated nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Heimann, R.B.; Wood, D.D.; Hamon, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Leaching experiments on borosilicate glass frit and simulated nuclear waste glasses were performed as a preliminary to leaching experiments on glasses incorporating radioactive waste. The experimental design included (1) simulated waste glass, (2) ASTM Grade-2 titanium container material, (3) clay buffer material, (4) Standard Canadian Shield Saline Solution, and (5) granitic rock. Cumulative fractions of release for boron were determined, as well as the solution concentrations of silicon, iron, strontium and cesium. The leach rates for boron after 28 d were approximately 5 x 10/sup -6/ kg x m/sup -2/ x s/sup -1/ in Hastelloy vessels. There is an apparently strong relationship between the clay/groundwater ratio, the concentration of iron in the solution, and the concentrations of silicon, strontium, and cesium.

  15. Space exploration initiative candidate nuclear propulsion test facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Darrell; Clark, John S.

    1993-01-01

    One-page descriptions for approximately 200 existing government, university, and industry facilities which may be available in the future to support SEI nuclear propulsion technology development and test program requirements are provided. To facilitate use of the information, the candidate facilities are listed both by location (Index L) and by Facility Type (Index FT). The included one-page descriptions provide a brief narrative description of facility capability, suggest potential uses for each facility, and designate a point of contact for additional information that may be needed in the future. The Nuclear Propulsion Office at NASA Lewis presently plans to maintain, expand, and update this information periodically for use by NASA, DOE, and DOD personnel involved in planning various phases of the SEI Nuclear Propulsion Project.

  16. INTEGRATION OF FACILITY MODELING CAPABILITIES FOR NUCLEAR NONPROLIFERATION ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Gorensek, M.; Hamm, L.; Garcia, H.; Burr, T.; Coles, G.; Edmunds, T.; Garrett, A.; Krebs, J.; Kress, R.; Lamberti, V.; Schoenwald, D.; Tzanos, C.; Ward, R.

    2011-07-18

    Developing automated methods for data collection and analysis that can facilitate nuclear nonproliferation assessment is an important research area with significant consequences for the effective global deployment of nuclear energy. Facility modeling that can integrate and interpret observations collected from monitored facilities in order to ascertain their functional details will be a critical element of these methods. Although improvements are continually sought, existing facility modeling tools can characterize all aspects of reactor operations and the majority of nuclear fuel cycle processing steps, and include algorithms for data processing and interpretation. Assessing nonproliferation status is challenging because observations can come from many sources, including local and remote sensors that monitor facility operations, as well as open sources that provide specific business information about the monitored facilities, and can be of many different types. Although many current facility models are capable of analyzing large amounts of information, they have not been integrated in an analyst-friendly manner. This paper addresses some of these facility modeling capabilities and illustrates how they could be integrated and utilized for nonproliferation analysis. The inverse problem of inferring facility conditions based on collected observations is described, along with a proposed architecture and computer framework for utilizing facility modeling tools. After considering a representative sampling of key facility modeling capabilities, the proposed integration framework is illustrated with several examples.

  17. Integration of facility modeling capabilities for nuclear nonproliferation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Humberto; Burr, Tom; Coles, Garill A; Edmunds, Thomas A.; Garrett, Alfred; Gorensek, Maximilian; Hamm, Luther; Krebs, John; Kress, Reid L; Lamberti, Vincent; Schoenwald, David; Tzanos, Constantine P; Ward, Richard C

    2012-01-01

    Developing automated methods for data collection and analysis that can facilitate nuclear nonproliferation assessment is an important research area with significant consequences for the effective global deployment of nuclear energy. Facility modeling that can integrate and interpret observations collected from monitored facilities in order to ascertain their functional details will be a critical element of these methods. Although improvements are continually sought, existing facility modeling tools can characterize all aspects of reactor operations and the majority of nuclear fuel cycle processing steps, and include algorithms for data processing and interpretation. Assessing nonproliferation status is challenging because observations can come from many sources, including local and remote sensors that monitor facility operations, as well as open sources that provide specific business information about the monitored facilities, and can be of many different types. Although many current facility models are capable of analyzing large amounts of information, they have not been integrated in an analyst-friendly manner. This paper addresses some of these facility modeling capabilities and illustrates how they could be integrated and utilized for nonproliferation analysis. The inverse problem of inferring facility conditions based on collected observations is described, along with a proposed architecture and computer framework for utilizing facility modeling tools. After considering a representative sampling of key facility modeling capabilities, the proposed integration framework is illustrated with several examples.

  18. HYDROGEN IGNITION MECHANISM FOR EXPLOSIONS IN NUCLEAR FACILITY PIPE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, R

    2010-05-02

    Hydrogen and oxygen generation due to the radiolysis of water is a recognized hazard in pipe systems used in the nuclear industry, where the accumulation of hydrogen and oxygen at high points in the pipe system is expected, and explosive conditions exist. Pipe ruptures at nuclear facilities were attributed to hydrogen explosions inside pipelines, in nuclear facilities, i.e., Hamaoka, Nuclear Power Station in Japan, and Brunsbuettel in Germany. Prior to these accidents an ignition source for hydrogen was questionable, but these accidents, demonstrated that a mechanism was, in fact, available to initiate combustion and explosion. Hydrogen explosions may occur simultaneously with water hammer accidents in nuclear facilities, and a theoretical mechanism to relate water hammer to hydrogen deflagrations and explosions is presented herein.

  19. Stochastic sensitivity analysis of the biosphere model for Canadian nuclear fuel waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, J.A.K.; Corbett, B.J. . Whiteshell Labs.)

    1993-01-01

    The biosphere model, BIOTRAC, was constructed to assess Canada's concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal in a vault deep in crystalline rock at some as yet undetermined location in the Canadian Shield. The model is therefore very general and based on the shield as a whole. BIOTRAC is made up of four linked submodels for surface water, soil, atmosphere, and food chain and dose. The model simulates physical conditions and radionuclide flows from the discharge of a hypothetical nuclear fuel waste disposal vault through groundwater, a well, a lake, air, soil, and plants to a critical group of individuals, i.e., those who are most exposed and therefore receive the highest dose. This critical group is totally self-sufficient and is represented by the International Commission for Radiological Protection reference man for dose prediction. BIOTRAC is a dynamic model that assumes steady-state physical conditions for each simulation, and deals with variation and uncertainty through Monte Carlo simulation techniques. This paper describes SENSYV, a technique for analyzing pathway and parameter sensitivities for the BIOTRAC code run in stochastic mode. Results are presented for [sup 129]I from the disposal of used fuel, and they confirm the importance of doses via the soil/plant/man and the air/plant/man ingestion pathways. The results also indicate that the lake/well water use switch, the aquatic iodine mass loading parameter, the iodine soil evasion rate, and the iodine plant/soil concentration ratio are important parameters.

  20. Method and means of monitoring the effluent from nuclear facilities

    DOEpatents

    Lattin, Kenneth R.; Erickson, Gerald L.

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive iodine is detected in the effluent cooling gas from a nuclear reactor or nuclear facility by passing the effluent gas through a continuously moving adsorbent filter material which is then purged of noble gases and conveyed continuously to a detector of radioactivity. The purging operation has little or no effect upon the concentration of radioactive iodine which is adsorbed on the filter material.

  1. Test facilities for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.F.; Allen, G.C.; Shipers, L.R.; Dobranich, D.; Ottinger, C.A.; Harmon, C.D.; Fan, W.C. ); Todosow, M. )

    1992-09-22

    Interagency panels evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) development options have consistently recognized the need for constructing a major new ground test facility to support fuel element and engine testing. This paper summarizes the requirements, configuration, and baseline performance of some of the major subsystems designed to support a proposed ground test complex for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion fuel elements and engines being developed for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. Some preliminary results of evaluating this facility for use in testing other NTP concepts are also summarized.

  2. Construction Cost Growth for New Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kubic, Jr., William L.

    2014-05-25

    Cost growth and construction delays are problems that plague many large construction projects including the construction of new Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities. A study was conducted to evaluate cost growth of large DOE construction projects. The purpose of the study was to compile relevant data, consider the possible causes of cost growth, and recommend measures that could be used to avoid extreme cost growth in the future. Both large DOE and non-DOE construction projects were considered in this study. With the exception of Chemical and Metallurgical Research Building Replacement Project (CMRR) and the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF), cost growth for DOE Nuclear facilities is comparable to the growth experienced in other mega construction projects. The largest increase in estimated cost was found to occur between early cost estimates and establishing the project baseline during detailed design. Once the project baseline was established, cost growth for DOE nuclear facilities was modest compared to non-DOE mega projects.

  3. Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Test Facilities Subpanel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, George C.; Warren, John W.; Martinell, John; Clark, John S.; Perkins, David

    1993-01-01

    On 20 Jul. 1989, in commemoration of the 20th anniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing, President George Bush proclaimed his vision for manned space exploration. He stated, 'First for the coming decade, for the 1990's, Space Station Freedom, the next critical step in our space endeavors. And next, for the new century, back to the Moon. Back to the future. And this time, back to stay. And then, a journey into tomorrow, a journey to another planet, a manned mission to Mars.' On 2 Nov. 1989, the President approved a national space policy reaffirming the long range goal of the civil space program: to 'expand human presence and activity beyond Earth orbit into the solar system.' And on 11 May 1990, he specified the goal of landing Astronauts on Mars by 2019, the 50th anniversary of man's first steps on the Moon. To safely and ever permanently venture beyond near Earth environment as charged by the President, mankind must bring to bear extensive new technologies. These include heavy lift launch capability from Earth to low-Earth orbit, automated space rendezvous and docking of large masses, zero gravity countermeasures, and closed loop life support systems. One technology enhancing, and perhaps enabling, the piloted Mars missions is nuclear propulsion, with great benefits over chemical propulsion. Asserting the potential benefits of nuclear propulsion, NASA has sponsored workshops in Nuclear Electric Propulsion and Nuclear Thermal Propulsion and has initiated a tri-agency planning process to ensure that appropriate resources are engaged to meet this exciting technical challenge. At the core of this planning process, NASA, DOE, and DOD established six Nuclear Propulsion Technical Panels in 1991 to provide groundwork for a possible tri-agency Nuclear Propulsion Program and to address the President's vision by advocating an aggressive program in nuclear propulsion. To this end the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Technology Panel has focused it energies; this final report

  4. Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics at the ISAC Radioactive Beams Facility

    SciTech Connect

    D'Auria, John M.

    2004-02-27

    The ISAC (Isotope Separator and Accelerator) Radioactive Beams laboratory has been in operation for about 4 years. An upgrade in the RB upper energy and mass range will be operational in 2 years and funding for a further upgrade in available number of RB will be submitted this year. There are a number of major experimental facilities now available with physics results produced. A key new facility in the area of nuclear astrophysics, the DRAGON (Detector of Recoils And Gammas Of Nuclear reactions) facility, has finished its first major study, namely a direct measurement for the first time of the 21Na(p,{gamma})22Mg reaction, a reaction believed to play a key role in the production of 22Na during novae explosions. This report will provide a review of the experimental facilities now available at ISAC, along with details of this first published result from the DRAGON facility.

  5. Fuel Conditioning Facility electrorefiner special nuclear mass estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Orechwa, Y.; Bucher, R.G.

    1996-05-01

    Material control and accountancy of special nuclear material (SNM) in a nuclear facility, with process steps involving liquids, requires an accurate measurement of the liquid content of the process tanks, and of the density of the fluid. In one of the electrometallurgical process steps of the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF), the in-process nuclear material is dissolved in the electrorefiner tank in an upper layer of a mixture of liquid LiCl-KCl salt and a lower layer of liquid cadmium. To determine the mass of special nuclear material in the electrorefiner requires the estimation of the volume of fluid in the tank and the concentration of the special nuclear material together with the uncertainties in these estimates. Procedures are presented to compute these estimates under the unique conditions posed by the electrorefiner.

  6. MYRRHA: A multipurpose nuclear research facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeten, P.; Schyns, M.; Fernandez, Rafaël; De Bruyn, Didier; Van den Eynde, Gert

    2014-12-01

    MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications) is a multipurpose research facility currently being developed at SCK•CEN. MYRRHA is based on the ADS (Accelerator Driven System) concept where a proton accelerator, a spallation target and a subcritical reactor are coupled. MYRRHA will demonstrate the ADS full concept by coupling these three components at a reasonable power level to allow operation feedback. As a flexible irradiation facility, the MYRRHA research facility will be able to work in both critical as subcritical modes. In this way, MYRRHA will allow fuel developments for innovative reactor systems, material developments for GEN IV and fusion reactors, and radioisotope production for medical and industrial applications. MYRRHA will be cooled by lead-bismuth eutectic and will play an important role in the development of the Pb-alloys technology needed for the LFR (Lead Fast Reactor) GEN IV concept. MYRRHA will also contribute to the study of partitioning and transmutation of high-level waste. Transmutation of minor actinides (MA) can be completed in an efficient way in fast neutron spectrum facilities, so both critical reactors and subcritical ADS are potential candidates as dedicated transmutation systems. However critical reactors heavily loaded with fuel containing large amounts of MA pose reactivity control problems, and thus safety problems. A subcritical ADS operates in a flexible and safe manner, even with a core loading containing a high amount of MA leading to a high transmutation rate. In this paper, the most recent developments in the design of the MYRRHA facility are presented.

  7. A reanalysis of cancer mortality in Canadian nuclear workers (1956–1994) based on revised exposure and cohort data

    PubMed Central

    Zablotska, L B; Lane, R S D; Thompson, P A

    2014-01-01

    Background: A 15-country study of nuclear workers reported significantly increased radiation-related risks of all cancers excluding leukaemia, with Canadian data a major factor behind the pooled results. We analysed mortality (1956–1994) in the updated Canadian cohort and provided revised risk estimates. Methods: Employment records were searched to verify and revise exposure data and to restore missing socioeconomic status. Excess relative risks per sievert (ERR/Sv) of recorded radiation dose and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Poisson regression. Results: A significant heterogeneity of the dose–response for solid cancer was identified (P=0.02), with 3088 early (1956–1964) Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) workers having a significant increase (ERR/Sv=7.87, 95% CI: 1.88, 19.5), and no evidence of radiation risk for 42 228 workers employed by three nuclear power plant companies and post-1964 AECL (ERR/Sv=−1.20, 95% CI: <−1.47, 2.39). Radiation risks of leukaemia were negative in early AECL workers and non-significantly increased in other workers. In analyses with separate terms for tritium and gamma doses, there was no evidence of increased risk from tritium exposure. All workers had mortality lower than the general population. Conclusion: Significantly increased risks for early AECL workers are most likely due to incomplete transfer of AECL dose records to the National Dose Registry. Analyses of the remainder of the Canadian nuclear workers (93.2%) provided no evidence of increased risk, but the risk estimate was compatible with estimates that form the basis of radiation protection standards. Study findings suggest that the revised Canadian cohort, with the exclusion of early AECL workers, would likely have an important effect on the 15-country pooled risk estimate of radiation-related risks of all cancer excluding leukaemia by substantially reducing the size of the point estimate and its significance. PMID:24231946

  8. Nuclear Science User Facilities (NSUF) Monthly Report March 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, Renae

    2015-03-01

    Nuclear Science User Facilities (NSUF) Formerly: Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report February 2015 Highlights; Jim Cole attended the OECD NEA Expert Group on Innovative Structural Materials meeting in Paris, France; Jim Lane and Doug Copsey of Writers Ink visited PNNL to prepare an article for the NSUF annual report; Brenden Heidrich briefed the Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee-Facilities Subcommittee on the Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Database project and provided them with custom reports for their upcoming visits to Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; and University of California-Berkeley Principal Investigator Mehdi Balooch visited PNNL to observe measurements and help finalize plans for completing the desired suite of analyses. His visit was coordinated to coincide with the visit of Jim Lane and Doug Copsey.

  9. Assessment of Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Facility and Capability Needs

    SciTech Connect

    James Werner

    2014-07-01

    The development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) system rests heavily upon being able to fabricate and demonstrate the performance of a high temperature nuclear fuel as well as demonstrating an integrated system prior to launch. A number of studies have been performed in the past which identified the facilities needed and the capabilities available to meet the needs and requirements identified at that time. Since that time, many facilities and capabilities within the Department of Energy have been removed or decommissioned. This paper provides a brief overview of the anticipated facility needs and identifies some promising concepts to be considered which could support the development of a nuclear thermal propulsion system. Detailed trade studies will need to be performed to support the decision making process.

  10. LANSCE nuclear science facilities and activities

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Ronald O

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear science activities at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) encompass measurements spanning the neutron energy range from thermal to 600 MeV. The neutron sources use spallation of the LANSCE 800 MeV pulsed proton beam with the time-of-flight technique to measure properties of neutron-induced reactions as a function of energy over this large energy range. Current experiments are conducted at the Lujan Center moderated neutron source, the unmoderated WNR target, and with a lead-slowing-down spectrometer. Instruments in use include the DANCE array of BaF{sub 2} scintillators for neutron capture studies, the FIGARO array of liquid scintillator neutron detectors, the GEANIE array of high-resolution HPGe x-ray and gamma-ray detectors, and a number of fission chambers, and other detectors. The LANL capabilities for production and handling of radioactive materials coupled with the neutron sources and detectors at LANSCE are enabling new and challenging measurements for a variety of applications including nuclear energy and nuclear astrophysics. An overview of recent research and examples of results is presented.

  11. Ground test facility for SEI nuclear rocket engines

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, C.D.; Ottinger, C.A.; Sanchez, L.C.; Shipers, L.R.

    1992-08-01

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) has been identified as a critical technology in support of the NASA Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). In order to safely develop a reliable, reusable, long-lived flight engine, facilities are required that will support ground tests to qualify the nuclear rocket engine design. Initial nuclear fuel element testing will need to be performed in a facility that supports a realistic thermal and neutronic environment in which the fuel elements will operate at a fraction of the power of a flight weight reactor/engine. Ground testing of nuclear rocket engines is not new. New restrictions mandated by the National Environmental Protection Act of 1970, however, now require major changes to be made in the manner in which reactor engines are now tested. These new restrictions now preclude the types of nuclear rocket engine tests that were performed in the past from being done today. A major attribute of a safely operating ground test facility is its ability to prevent fission products from being released in appreciable amounts to the environment. Details of the intricacies and complications involved with the design of a fuel element ground test facility are presented in this report with a strong emphasis on safety and economy.

  12. SRTC criticality technical review: Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-18 Uranium Solidification Facility`s Waste Handling Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbun, R.

    1993-10-01

    Separate review of NMP-NCS-930058, {open_quotes}Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-18 Uranium Solidification Facility`s Waste Handling Facility (U), August 17, 1993,{close_quotes} was requested of SRTC Applied Physics Group. The NCSE is a criticality assessment to determine waste container uranium limits in the Uranium Solidification Facility`s Waste Handling Facility. The NCSE under review concludes that the NDA room remains in a critically safe configuration for all normal and single credible abnormal conditions. The ability to make this conclusion is highly dependent on array limitation and inclusion of physical barriers between 2{times}2{times}1 arrays of boxes containing materials contaminated with uranium. After a thorough review of the NCSE and independent calculations, this reviewer agrees with that conclusion.

  13. Cooling water facilities at a nuclear station

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, W.L.; Ghadiali, B.M.; Kanovich, J.S.

    1983-03-01

    The use of ponds for holding a reserve of cooling water obtained as sewage effluent and also for collection of waste water for disposal by evaporation, was made at a nuclear power plant site in southern Arizona. The power output of the plant will be 3,900 MW. Two single cell ponds are 80 acres (30 ha) and 250 acres (100 ha) in size. Excavated materials from the 80-acre (30ha) pond were used for structural backfill as planned, and the 250-acre (100ha) pond was designed for limited dike height with balanced cut and fill and some excess materials used as side berms for additional safety. Both ponds are being lined with a unique combination of linings to provide environmental safeguards and at the same time cost-effectiveness is compared to alternative schemes.

  14. 10. Photocopy of drawing, February 1958, NUCLEAR REACTOR FACILITY, STRUCTURAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of drawing, February 1958, NUCLEAR REACTOR FACILITY, STRUCTURAL CROSS SECTION. Giffals & Vallet, Inc., L. Rosetti, Associated Architects and Engineers, Detroit, Michigan; and U.S. Army Engineer Division, New England Corps of Engineers, Boston, Massachusetts. Drawing Number 35-84-04. (Original: AMTL Engineering Division, Watertown). - Watertown Arsenal, Building No. 100, Wooley Avenue, Watertown, Middlesex County, MA

  15. Iraq nuclear facility dismantlement and disposal project (NDs Project).

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, John Russell

    2010-06-01

    The Al Tuwaitha nuclear complex near Baghdad contains a number of facilities from Saddam Hussan's nuclear weapons program. Past military operations, lack of upkeep and looting have created an enormous radioactive waste problem at the Al Tuwaitha complex, which contains various, uncharacterized radioactive wastes, yellow cake, sealed radioactive sources, and contaminated metals that must be constantly guarded. Iraq has never had a radioactive waste disposal facility and the lack of a disposal facility means that ever increasing quantities of radioactive material must be held in guarded storage. The Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program (the NDs Program) has been initiated by the U.S. Department of State (DOS) to assist the Government of Iraq (GOI) in eliminating the threats from poorly controlled radioactive materials, while building human capacities so that the GOI can manage other environmental cleanups in their country. The DOS is funding the IAEA to provide technical assistance via Technical Cooperation projects. Program coordination will be provided by the DOS, consistent with GOI policies, and Sandia National Laboratories will be responsible for coordination of participants and waste management support. Texas Tech University will continue to provide in-country assistance, including radioactive waste characterization and the stand-up of the Iraq Nuclear Services Company. The GOI owns the problems in Iraq and will be responsible for implementation of the NDs Program.

  16. Support of the Iraq nuclear facility dismantlement and disposal program

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, Roger; Cochran, John; Danneels, Jeff; Chesser, Ronald; Phillips, Carlton; Rogers, Brenda

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Iraq's former nuclear facilities contain large quantities of radioactive materials and radioactive waste. The Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program (the Iraq NDs Program) is a new program to decontaminate and permanently dispose of radioactive wastes in Iraq. The NDs Program is led by the Government of Iraq, under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) auspices, with guidance and assistance from a number of countries. The U.S. participants include Texas Tech University and Sandia National Laboratories. A number of activities are ongoing under the broad umbrella of the Iraq NDs Program: drafting a new nuclear law that will provide the legal basis for the cleanup and disposal activities; assembly and analysis of existing data; characterization of soil contamination; bringing Iraqi scientists to the world's largest symposium on radioactive waste management; touring U.S. government and private sector operating radwaste disposal facilities in the U.S., and hosting a planning workshop on the characterization and cleanup of the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Facility. (authors)

  17. Long Term Storage with Surveillance of Canadian Prototype Nuclear Power Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Janzen, Rick

    2008-01-15

    Atomic Energy of Canada (AECL) was originally formed by the government of Canada in 1952 to perform research in radiation and nuclear areas. In the mid 1950's Canada decided to limit itself to peaceful uses of nuclear energy and AECL embarked on several research and development programs, one of them being the development of nuclear power plants. This led to the development of the CANDU{sup TM} design of heavy water power reactors, of which there are now 29 operating around the world. This presentation discusses the present state of the first two CANDU{sup TM} prototype reactors and a prototype boiling light water reactor and lessons learnt after being in a long-term storage with surveillance state for more than 20 years. AECL facilities undergo decommissioning by either a prompt or a deferred removal approach. Both approaches are initiated after an operating facility has been declared redundant and gone through final operational shutdown. For the deferred approach, initial decommissioning activities are performed to put the facility into a sustainable, safe, shutdown state to minimize the hazards and costs of the ensuing extended storage with surveillance (SWS) or Safestor phase. At the appropriate time, the facility is dismantled and removed, or put into a suitable condition for re-use. AECL has a number of facilities that were built during its history, and some of these are now redundant or will become redundant in the near future. The deferred removal approach is part of AECL's decommissioning strategy for several reasons: 1. Reduction in radiation doses to workers during the final dismantling, 2. No facilities are available yet in Canada for the management of quantity of wastes arising from decommissioning, 3. Financial constraints presented by the number of facilities that will undergo decommissioning, compared to the availability of funds to carry out the work. This has led to the development of a comprehensive decommissioning plan that includes all of AECL

  18. Inventory extension at the Nuclear Materials Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Stanbro, W.D.; Longmire, V.; Olinger, C.T.; Argo, P.E.

    1996-09-01

    The planned renovation of the Nuclear Material Storage Facility (NMSF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory will be a significant addition to the plutonium storage capacity of the nuclear weapons complex. However, the utility of the facility may be impaired by an overly conservative approach to performing inventories of material in storage. This report examines options for taking advantage of provisions in Department of Energy orders to extend the time between inventories. These extensions are based on a combination of modern surveillance technology, facility design features, and revised operational procedures. The report also addresses the possibility that NMSF could be the site of some form of international inspection as part of the US arms control and nonproliferation policy.

  19. Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) Nuclear Science Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Ronald Owen; Wender, Steve

    2015-06-19

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) facilities for Nuclear Science consist of a high-energy "white" neutron source (Target 4) with 6 flight paths, three low-energy nuclear science flight paths at the Lujan Center, and a proton reaction area. The neutron beams produced at the Target 4 complement those produced at the Lujan Center because they are of much higher energy and have shorter pulse widths. The neutron sources are driven by the 800-MeV proton beam of the LANSCE linear accelerator. With these facilities, LANSCE is able to deliver neutrons with energies ranging from a milli-electron volt to several hundreds of MeV, as well as proton beams with a wide range of energy, time and intensity characteristics. The facilities, instruments and research programs are described briefly.

  20. Los Alamos studies of the Nevada test site facilities for the testing of nuclear rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hynes, Michael V.

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: Nevada test site geographic location; location of NRDA facilities, area 25; assessment program plan; program goal, scope, and process -- the New Nuclear Rocket Program; nuclear rocket engine test facilities; EMAD Facility; summary of final assessment results; ETS-1 Facility; and facilities cost summary.

  1. Los Alamos studies of the Nevada test site facilities for the testing of nuclear rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynes, Michael V.

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: Nevada test site geographic location; location of NRDA facilities, area 25; assessment program plan; program goal, scope, and process -- the New Nuclear Rocket Program; nuclear rocket engine test facilities; EMAD Facility; summary of final assessment results; ETS-1 Facility; and facilities cost summary.

  2. DIANA - An Underground Accelerator Facility for Nuclear Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champagne, Arthur

    2011-10-01

    Measuring nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest at stellar energies is usually a daunting task because the cross sections are very small and background rates can be comparatively large. Often, cosmic-ray interactions set the limit on experimental sensitivity, but can be reduced to an insignificant level by placing an accelerator underground -- as has been demonstrated by the LUNA accelerators in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory. The Dual Ion Accelerator facility for Nuclear Astrophysics (DIANA) is a proposed next-generation underground accelerator facility, which would be constructed at the 4850 ft level of the Homestake Mine in Lead, SD. This talk will describe DIANA and the questions in nuclear astrophysics that can be explored at such a laboratory.

  3. Nuclear Science in the Undergraduate Curriculum: The New Nuclear Science Facility at San Jose State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, A. Campbell

    1979-01-01

    The following aspects of the radiochemistry program at San Jose State University in California are described: the undergraduate program in radiation chemistry, the new nuclear science facility, and academic programs in nuclear science for students not attending San Jose State University. (BT)

  4. EARTHQUAKE CAUSED RELEASES FROM A NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Charles W. Solbrig; Chad Pope; Jason Andrus

    2014-08-01

    The fuel cycle facility (FCF) at the Idaho National Laboratory is a nuclear facility which must be licensed in order to operate. A safety analysis is required for a license. This paper describes the analysis of the Design Basis Accident for this facility. This analysis involves a model of the transient behavior of the FCF inert atmosphere hot cell following an earthquake initiated breach of pipes passing through the cell boundary. The hot cell is used to process spent metallic nuclear fuel. Such breaches allow the introduction of air and subsequent burning of pyrophoric metals. The model predicts the pressure, temperature, volumetric releases, cell heat transfer, metal fuel combustion, heat generation rates, radiological releases and other quantities. The results show that releases from the cell are minimal and satisfactory for safety. This analysis method should be useful in other facilities that have potential for damage from an earthquake and could eliminate the need to back fit facilities with earthquake proof boundaries or lessen the cost of new facilities.

  5. Dismantlement and Radioactive Waste Management of DPRK Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Jooho, W.; Baldwin, G. T.

    2005-04-01

    One critical aspect of any denuclearization of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) involves dismantlement of its nuclear facilities and management of their associated radioactive wastes. The decommissioning problem for its two principal operational plutonium facilities at Yongbyun, the 5MWe nuclear reactor and the Radiochemical Laboratory reprocessing facility, alone present a formidable challenge. Dismantling those facilities will create radioactive waste in addition to existing inventories of spent fuel and reprocessing wastes. Negotiations with the DPRK, such as the Six Party Talks, need to appreciate the enormous scale of the radioactive waste management problem resulting from dismantlement. The two operating plutonium facilities, along with their legacy wastes, will result in anywhere from 50 to 100 metric tons of uranium spent fuel, as much as 500,000 liters of liquid high-level waste, as well as miscellaneous high-level waste sources from the Radiochemical Laboratory. A substantial quantity of intermediate-level waste will result from disposing 600 metric tons of graphite from the reactor, an undetermined quantity of chemical decladding liquid waste from reprocessing, and hundreds of tons of contaminated concrete and metal from facility dismantlement. Various facilities for dismantlement, decontamination, waste treatment and packaging, and storage will be needed. The shipment of spent fuel and liquid high level waste out of the DPRK is also likely to be required. Nuclear facility dismantlement and radioactive waste management in the DPRK are all the more difficult because of nuclear nonproliferation constraints, including the call by the United States for “complete, verifiable and irreversible dismantlement,” or “CVID.” It is desirable to accomplish dismantlement quickly, but many aspects of the radioactive waste management cannot be achieved without careful assessment, planning and preparation, sustained commitment, and long

  6. Nuclear space power safety and facility guidelines study

    SciTech Connect

    Mehlman, W.F.

    1995-09-11

    This report addresses safety guidelines for space nuclear reactor power missions and was prepared by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) under a Department of Energy grant, DE-FG01-94NE32180 dated 27 September 1994. This grant was based on a proposal submitted by the JHU/APL in response to an {open_quotes}Invitation for Proposals Designed to Support Federal Agencies and Commercial Interests in Meeting Special Power and Propulsion Needs for Future Space Missions{close_quotes}. The United States has not launched a nuclear reactor since SNAP 10A in April 1965 although many Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) have been launched. An RTG powered system is planned for launch as part of the Cassini mission to Saturn in 1997. Recently the Ballistic Missile Defense Office (BMDO) sponsored the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) which was to demonstrate and evaluate the Russian-built TOPAZ II nuclear reactor as a power source in space. As of late 1993 the flight portion of this program was canceled but work to investigate the attributes of the reactor were continued but at a reduced level. While the future of space nuclear power systems is uncertain there are potential space missions which would require space nuclear power systems. The differences between space nuclear power systems and RTG devices are sufficient that safety and facility requirements warrant a review in the context of the unique features of a space nuclear reactor power system.

  7. Deactivating a major nuclear fuels reprocessing facility cost effectively

    SciTech Connect

    LeBaron, G.J.

    1997-08-15

    This paper describes three key processes used in deactivating the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility, a large, complex nuclear reprocessing facility, 15 months ahead of schedule and $77 million under budget. The organization was reengineered to refine its business processes and more effectively organize around the deactivation work scope. Multi-disciplined work teams were formed to be self-sufficient and empowered to make decisions and perform work. A number of benefits were realized by reengineering. A comprehensive process to develop end points which clearly identified specific results and the post-project facility configuration was developed so all areas of a facility were addressed. Clear and specific end points allowed teams to focus on completing deactivation activities and helped ensure there were no unfulfilled end-of-project expectations. The RCRA regulations require closure of permitted facilities within 180 days after cessation of operations which may essentially necessitate decommissioning. A more cost effective approach was adopted which significantly reduced risk to human health and the environment by taking the facility to a passive, safe, inexpensive-to-maintain surveillance and maintenance condition (deactivation) prior to disposition. PUREX thus became the first large reprocessing facility with active TSD [treatment, storage, and disposal] units to be deactivated under the RCRA regulations.

  8. Integration of facility modeling capabilities for nuclear nonproliferation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, Tom; Gorensek, M. B.; Krebs, John; Kress, Reid L; Lamberti, Vincent; Schoenwald, David; Ward, Richard C

    2012-01-01

    Developing automated methods for data collection and analysis that can facilitate nuclearnonproliferation assessment is an important research area with significant consequences for the effective global deployment of nuclear energy. Facilitymodeling that can integrate and interpret observations collected from monitored facilities in order to ascertain their functional details will be a critical element of these methods. Although improvements are continually sought, existing facilitymodeling tools can characterize all aspects of reactor operations and the majority of nuclear fuel cycle processing steps, and include algorithms for data processing and interpretation. Assessing nonproliferation status is challenging because observations can come from many sources, including local and remote sensors that monitor facility operations, as well as open sources that provide specific business information about the monitored facilities, and can be of many different types. Although many current facility models are capable of analyzing large amounts of information, they have not been integrated in an analyst-friendly manner. This paper addresses some of these facilitymodelingcapabilities and illustrates how they could be integrated and utilized for nonproliferationanalysis. The inverse problem of inferring facility conditions based on collected observations is described, along with a proposed architecture and computer framework for utilizing facilitymodeling tools. After considering a representative sampling of key facilitymodelingcapabilities, the proposed integration framework is illustrated with several examples.

  9. Tools for decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hermetz, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities requires many different tools. These can vary from small hand tools to the heavy equipment used to remove concrete and soil. Tools for D and D should be reliable, versatile, economical, and easily disposed of in case they become contaminated. The experiences and information used as background for this paper where gained at the Mound Facility of the Monsanto Research Corporation in Miamisburg, Ohio. In the search to find tools to do the work proficiently, many tools were considered. The scheduled D and D tasks and the tools and equipment required for them are described.

  10. A nuclear pumped laser for the Laboratory Microfusion Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, G. H.

    1989-08-01

    The Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF) has been proposed to study Inertial Confinement Fusion targets with reactor-grade gains. An advanced solid-state laser is the prime candidate as the driver for the LMF. However, here, a conceptual design is presented here for an alternate approach using a Nuclear Pumped Laser (NPL). A pulsed fission reactor is used to excite an oxygen-iodine laser in this design, based on preliminary data on nuclear pumping of O2(1-Delta). Although a working NPL of this specific type has not yet been assembled, it is believed that this concept holds great potential, both as a test facility driver and as a future power reactor.

  11. Pyroprocessing of fast flux test facility nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Westphal, B.R.; Wurth, L.A.; Fredrickson, G.L.; Galbreth, G.G.; Vaden, D.; Elliott, M.D.; Price, J.C.; Honeyfield, E.M.; Patterson, M.N.

    2013-07-01

    Used nuclear fuel from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was recently transferred to the Idaho National Laboratory and processed by pyroprocessing in the Fuel Conditioning Facility. Approximately 213 kg of uranium from sodium-bonded metallic FFTF fuel was processed over a one year period with the equipment previously used for the processing of EBR-II used fuel. The peak burnup of the FFTF fuel ranged from 10 to 15 atom% for the 900+ chopped elements processed. Fifteen low-enriched uranium ingots were cast following the electrorefining and distillation operations to recover approximately 192 kg of uranium. A material balance on the primary fuel constituents, uranium and zirconium, during the FFTF campaign will be presented along with a brief description of operating parameters. Recoverable uranium during the pyroprocessing of FFTF nuclear fuel was greater than 95% while the purity of the final electro-refined uranium products exceeded 99%. (authors)

  12. Pyroprocessing of Fast Flux Test Facility Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    B.R. Westphal; G.L. Fredrickson; G.G. Galbreth; D. Vaden; M.D. Elliott; J.C. Price; E.M. Honeyfield; M.N. Patterson; L. A. Wurth

    2013-10-01

    Used nuclear fuel from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was recently transferred to the Idaho National Laboratory and processed by pyroprocessing in the Fuel Conditioning Facility. Approximately 213 kg of uranium from sodium-bonded metallic FFTF fuel was processed over a one year period with the equipment previously used for the processing of EBR-II used fuel. The peak burnup of the FFTF fuel ranged from 10 to 15 atom% for the 900+ chopped elements processed. Fifteen low-enriched uranium ingots were cast following the electrorefining and distillation operations to recover approximately 192 kg of uranium. A material balance on the primary fuel constituents, uranium and zirconium, during the FFTF campaign will be presented along with a brief description of operating parameters. Recoverable uranium during the pyroprocessing of FFTF nuclear fuel was greater than 95% while the purity of the final electrorefined uranium products exceeded 99%.

  13. The development of the Canadian Mobile Servicing System Kinematic Simulation Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyer, G.; Diebold, B.; Brimley, W.; Kleinberg, H.

    1989-01-01

    Canada will develop a Mobile Servicing System (MSS) as its contribution to the U.S./International Space Station Freedom. Components of the MSS will include a remote manipulator (SSRMS), a Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM), and a mobile base (MRS). In order to support requirements analysis and the evaluation of operational concepts related to the use of the MSS, a graphics based kinematic simulation/human-computer interface facility has been created. The facility consists of the following elements: (1) A two-dimensional graphics editor allowing the rapid development of virtual control stations; (2) Kinematic simulations of the space station remote manipulators (SSRMS and SPDM), and mobile base; and (3) A three-dimensional graphics model of the space station, MSS, orbiter, and payloads. These software elements combined with state of the art computer graphics hardware provide the capability to prototype MSS workstations, evaluate MSS operational capabilities, and investigate the human-computer interface in an interactive simulation environment. The graphics technology involved in the development and use of this facility is described.

  14. The development of seasonal emission factors from a Canadian commercial laying hen facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Robert J.; Wood, David J.; Van Heyst, Bill J.

    2014-04-01

    Pollutants emitted from poultry housing facilities are a concern from a human health, bird welfare, and environmental perspective. Development of emission factors for these aerial pollutants is difficult due to variable climatic conditions, the number and type of poultry, and the wide range of management practices used. To address these concerns, a study was conducted to develop emission factors for ammonia and particulate matter over a period of one year from a commercial poultry laying hen facility in Wellington County, Ontario, Canada. Instruments housed inside an on-site mobile trailer were used to monitor in-house concentrations of ammonia and size fractionated particulate matter via a heated sample line. Along with a ventilation profile, emission factors were developed for the facility. Average emissions of 19.53 ± 19.97, 2.55 ± 2.10, and 1.10 ± 1.52 g day-1 AU-1 (where AU is defined as an animal unit equivalent to 500 kg live mass) for ammonia, PM10, PM2.5, respectively, were observed. All emissions peaked during the winter months, with the exception of PM2.5 which increased in the summer.

  15. 78 FR 12042 - Public Availability of Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board FY 2011 Service Contract Inventory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD Public Availability of Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board FY 2011 Service Contract Inventory Analysis/FY 2012 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board...

  16. Environmental fate of hexabromocyclododecane from a new Canadian electronic recycling facility.

    PubMed

    Tomko, Geoffrey; McDonald, Karen M

    2013-01-15

    An electronics recycling facility began operation at the municipal landfill site for the City of Edmonton, Canada in March 2008 with the goal of processing 30,000 tonnes of electronic wastes per year. Of the many by-products from the process, brominated fire retardants such as hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) can evolve off of e-wastes and be released into the environmental media. HBCD has been identified by many countries and international bodies as a chemical of concern because of its ability to bioaccumulate in the ecosystem. An evaluation of the potential emission of HBCD indicates that up to 500 kg per year may be released from a landfill and recycling facility such as that operating in Edmonton. A multimedia fugacity model was used to evaluate the dispersion and fate of atmospherically emitted HBCD traveling into surrounding agricultural land and forested parkland. The model indicates that the three isomers of HBCD partitioned into environmental media similarly. Much of the HBCD is lost through atmospheric advection, but it is also found in soil and sediment. Modeled air concentrations are similar to those measured at locations with a history of e-waste recycling. Since HBCD has been shown to bioaccumulate, the HBCD released from this source has the long-term potential to affect agricultural food crops and the park ecosystem.

  17. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects: summary report. Plum Brook Reactor Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Doerge, D.H.; Miller, R.L.

    1984-02-01

    This document summarizes information concerning the decommissioning of the Plum Brook Reactor Facility, which was placed in a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approved safe storage configuration. The data were placed in a computerized information retrieval/manipulation system which permits future utilization of this information in decommissioning of similar facilities. The information is presented both in computer output form and a manually assembled summarization. Complete cost data were not readily available and decommissioning activities did not in all cases conform with current criteria for the SAFSTOR decommissioning mode, therefore no cost comparisons were made.

  18. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: a selected bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Fielden, J.M.; Johnson, C.A.

    1982-09-01

    This bibliography contains 693 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. Foreign, as well as domestic, literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included in this publication. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Program. Major chapters are Surplus Facilities Management Program, Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, and Uranium Mill Tailings Management. Chapter sections for chapters 1 and 2 include: Design, Planning, and Regulations; Site Surveys; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Land Decontamination and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; and General Studies. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate author or by title. Indexes are provided for (1) author; (2) corporate affiliation; (3) title; (4) publication description; (5) geographic location; and (6) keywords. An appendix of 202 bibliographic references without abstracts or indexes has been included in this bibliography. This appendix represents literature identified but not abstracted due to time constraints.

  19. Integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective biosolids management at a large Canadian wastewater treatment facility.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, R J; Allain, C J; Laughton, P J; Henry, J G

    2004-01-01

    The Greater Moncton Sewerage Commission's 115,000 m3/d advanced, chemically assisted primary wastewater treatment facility located in New Brunswick, Canada, has developed an integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective programme for the management and beneficial utilization of biosolids from lime stabilized raw sludge. The paper overviews biosolids production, lime stabilization, conveyance, and odour control followed by an indepth discussion of the wastewater sludge as a resource programme, namely: composting, mine site reclamation, landfill cover, land application for agricultural use, tree farming, sod farm base as a soil enrichment, topsoil manufacturing. The paper also addresses the issues of metals, pathogens, organic compounds, the quality control program along with the regulatory requirements. Biosolids capital and operating costs are presented. Research results on removal of metals from primary sludge using a unique biological process known as BIOSOL as developed by the University of Toronto, Canada to remove metals and destroy pathogens are presented. The paper also discusses an ongoing cooperative research project with the Université de Moncton where various mixtures of plant biosolids are composted with low quality soil. Integration, approach to sustainability and "cumulative effects" as part of the overall biosolids management strategy are also discussed.

  20. Integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective biosolids management at a large Canadian wastewater treatment facility.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, R J; Allain, C J; Laughton, P J; Henry, J G

    2004-01-01

    The Greater Moncton Sewerage Commission's 115,000 m3/d advanced, chemically assisted primary wastewater treatment facility located in New Brunswick, Canada, has developed an integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective programme for the management and beneficial utilization of biosolids from lime stabilized raw sludge. The paper overviews biosolids production, lime stabilization, conveyance, and odour control followed by an indepth discussion of the wastewater sludge as a resource programme, namely: composting, mine site reclamation, landfill cover, land application for agricultural use, tree farming, sod farm base as a soil enrichment, topsoil manufacturing. The paper also addresses the issues of metals, pathogens, organic compounds, the quality control program along with the regulatory requirements. Biosolids capital and operating costs are presented. Research results on removal of metals from primary sludge using a unique biological process known as BIOSOL as developed by the University of Toronto, Canada to remove metals and destroy pathogens are presented. The paper also discusses an ongoing cooperative research project with the Université de Moncton where various mixtures of plant biosolids are composted with low quality soil. Integration, approach to sustainability and "cumulative effects" as part of the overall biosolids management strategy are also discussed. PMID:15259950

  1. The ELI-NP facility for nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ur, C. A.; Balabanski, D.; Cata-Danil, G.; Gales, S.; Morjan, I.; Tesileanu, O.; Ursescu, D.; Ursu, I.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2015-07-01

    Extreme Light Infrastructure-Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) is aiming to use extreme electromagnetic fields for nuclear physics research. The facility, currently under construction at Magurele-Bucharest, will comprise a high power laser system and a very brilliant gamma beam system. The technology involved in the construction of both systems is at the limits of the present-day's technological capabilities. The high power laser system will consist of two 10 PW lasers and it will produce intensities of up to 1023-1024 W/cm2. The gamma beam, produced via Compton backscattering of a laser beam on a relativistic electron beam, will be characterized by a narrow bandwidth (<0.5%) and tunable energy of up to almost 20 MeV. The research program of the facility covers a broad range of key topics in frontier fundamental physics and new nuclear physics. A particular attention is given to the development of innovative applications. In the present paper an overview of the project status and the overall performance characteristics of the main research equipment will be given. The main fundamental physics and applied research topics proposed to be studied at ELI-NP will also be briefly reviewed.

  2. Financing Strategies For A Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facility

    SciTech Connect

    David Shropshire; Sharon Chandler

    2006-07-01

    To help meet the nation’s energy needs, recycling of partially used nuclear fuel is required to close the nuclear fuel cycle, but implementing this step will require considerable investment. This report evaluates financing scenarios for integrating recycling facilities into the nuclear fuel cycle. A range of options from fully government owned to fully private owned were evaluated using DPL (Decision Programming Language 6.0), which can systematically optimize outcomes based on user-defined criteria (e.g., lowest lifecycle cost, lowest unit cost). This evaluation concludes that the lowest unit costs and lifetime costs are found for a fully government-owned financing strategy, due to government forgiveness of debt as sunk costs. However, this does not mean that the facilities should necessarily be constructed and operated by the government. The costs for hybrid combinations of public and private (commercial) financed options can compete under some circumstances with the costs of the government option. This analysis shows that commercial operations have potential to be economical, but there is presently no incentive for private industry involvement. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) currently establishes government ownership of partially used commercial nuclear fuel. In addition, the recently announced Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) suggests fuels from several countries will be recycled in the United States as part of an international governmental agreement; this also assumes government ownership. Overwhelmingly, uncertainty in annual facility capacity led to the greatest variations in unit costs necessary for recovery of operating and capital expenditures; the ability to determine annual capacity will be a driving factor in setting unit costs. For private ventures, the costs of capital, especially equity interest rates, dominate the balance sheet; and the annual operating costs, forgiveness of debt, and overnight costs dominate the costs computed for

  3. The Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar II: A new Facility for Measurement of the Dust Environment in near-Earth space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Peter G.; Weryk, R. J.; Wong, D. K.; Campbell-Brown, M. D.

    2012-10-01

    The Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR) is a backscatter, multi-station meteor radar operating at 29.85 MHz. CMOR has been in operation as a three station system since 2001, but a major upgrade in 2009 has expanded the system to six stations and doubled the transmit power to 15 kW; the new facility is termed CMOR II. CMOR II measures 5000 individual orbits per day of meteoroids with masses 10-8 kg. These large number statistics permit near real-time identification of as many as a dozen significant daily meteor showers, through application of a 3D wavelet transform. As individual meteor echoes are detected at up to six stations, CMOR II is able to measure electron line density profiles and decelerations for select events. This permits estimation of meteoroid bulk density through comparison with entry models for particles as small 100 μm. For events with more than four station detections, errors in radiant and speed are comparable to similar measurements made with video systems. Making use of multiple, independent techniques for speed measurements, including time-of-flight, Fresnel amplitude and Fresnel phase fitting, it is possible to estimate speed accuracy for individual events. Monte Carlo modeling of individual echoes allow a separate estimate for uncertainty in both speed and radiant measurement. Here we present initial results from CMOR II measurements of major meteor showers including the 2012 Daytime Arietids and South Delta Aquariid streams. Detections of several unusual meteor shower outbursts with CMOR II and verification of previously reported weak showers will also be shown. We will demonstrate the capacity of CMOR II for individual meteoroid physical characterization by using measured trajectory, speed, deceleration and electron line density measurements combined with entry model fits to estimate meteoroid parameters. Funding from the NASA Meteoroid Environment Office through cooperative agreement NNX11AB76A is gratefully acknowledged.

  4. UNISOR on-line nuclear orientation facility (UNISOR/NOF)

    SciTech Connect

    Girit, I.C.; Alton, G.D.; Bingham, C.R.; Carter, H.K.; Simpson, M.L.; Cole, J.D.; Croft, W.L.; Hamilton, J.H.; Jones, E.F.; Gore, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    The UNISOR on-line nuclear orientation facility (UNISOR/NOF) consists of a /sup 3/He--/sup 4/He dilution refrigerator on line to the isotope separator. Nuclei are implanted directly into a target foil which is soldered to the bottom accessed cold finger of the refrigerator. A 1.5 T superconducting magnet polarizes the ferromagnetic target foils and determines the axis of symmetry. Up to eight gamma detectors can be positioned around the refrigerator, each 9 cm from the target. A unique feature of this system is that the k = 4 term in the directional distribution function can be directly and unambiguously deduced so that a single solution for the mixing ratio can be found. The first on-line experiment at this facility reported here was a study of the decay of the /sup 191/Hg and /sup 193/Hg isotopes. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Beamlines of the biomedical imaging and therapy facility at the Canadian light source - part 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysokinski, Tomasz W.; Chapman, Dean; Adams, Gregg; Renier, Michel; Suortti, Pekka; Thomlinson, William

    2015-03-01

    The BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) facility provides synchrotron-specific imaging and radiation therapy capabilities [1-4]. We describe here the Insertion Device (ID) beamline 05ID-2 with the beam terminated in the SOE-1 (Secondary Optical Enclosure) experimental hutch. This endstation is designed for imaging and therapy research primarily in animals ranging in size from mice to humans to horses, as well as tissue specimens including plants. Core research programs include human and animal reproduction, cancer imaging and therapy, spinal cord injury and repair, cardiovascular and lung imaging and disease, bone and cartilage growth and deterioration, mammography, developmental biology, gene expression research as well as the introduction of new imaging methods. The source for the ID beamline is a multi-pole superconducting 4.3 T wiggler [5]. The high field gives a critical energy over 20 keV. The high critical energy presents shielding challenges and great care must be taken to assess shielding requirements [6-9]. The optics in the POE-1 and POE-3 hutches [4,10] prepare a monochromatic beam that is 22 cm wide in the last experimental hutch SOE-1. The double crystal bent-Laue or Bragg monochromator, or the single-crystal K-edge subtraction (KES) monochromator provide an energy range appropriate for imaging studies in animals (20-100+ keV). SOE-1 (excluding the basement structure 4 m below the experimental floor) is 6 m wide, 5 m tall and 10 m long with a removable back wall to accommodate installation and removal of the Large Animal Positioning System (LAPS) capable of positioning and manipulating animals as large as a horse [11]. This end-station also includes a unique detector positioner with a vertical travel range of 4.9 m which is required for the KES imaging angle range of +12.3° to -7.3°. The detector positioner also includes moveable shielding integrated with the safety shutters. An update on the status of the other two end-stations at BMIT, described

  6. Remote machine engineering applications for nuclear facilities decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Toto, G.; Wyle, H.R.

    1983-01-01

    Decontamination and decommissioning of a nuclear facility require the application of techniques that protect the worker and the enviroment from radiological contamination and radiation. Remotely operated portable robotic arms, machines, and devices can be applied. The use of advanced systems should enhance the productivity, safety, and cost facets of the efforts; remote automatic tooling and systems may be used on any job where job hazard and other factors justify application. Many problems based on costs, enviromental impact, health, waste generation, and political issues may be mitigated by use of remotely operated machines. The work that man can not do or should not do will have to be done by machines.

  7. Development of nuclear diagnostics for the National Ignition Facility (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Glebov, V. Yu.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.; Roberts, S.; Barrera, C. A.; Celeste, J. R.; Cerjan, C. J.; Dauffy, L. S.; Eder, D. C.; Griffith, R. L.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hatchett, S. P.; Izumi, N.; Kimbrough, J. R.; Koch, J. A.; Landen, O. L.; Lerche, R. A.; MacGowan, B. J.

    2006-10-15

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will provide up to 1.8 MJ of laser energy for imploding inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. Ignited NIF targets are expected to produce up to 10{sup 19} DT neutrons. This will provide unprecedented opportunities and challenges for the use of nuclear diagnostics in ICF experiments. In 2005, the suite of nuclear-ignition diagnostics for the NIF was defined and they are under development through collaborative efforts at several institutions. This suite includes PROTEX and copper activation for primary yield measurements, a magnetic recoil spectrometer and carbon activation for fuel areal density, neutron time-of-flight detectors for yield and ion temperature, a gamma bang time detector, and neutron imaging systems for primary and downscattered neutrons. An overview of the conceptual design, the developmental status, and recent results of prototype tests on the OMEGA laser will be presented.

  8. Atmospheric discharges from nuclear facilities during decommissioning: German experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, H.; Goertz, R.; Weil, L.

    1997-08-01

    In Germany, a substantial amount of experience is available with planning, licensing and realization of decommissioning projects. In total, a number of 18 nuclear power plants including prototype facilities as well as 6 research reactors and 3 fuel cycle facilities have been shut down finally and are at different stages of decommissioning. Only recently the final {open_quotes}green field{close_quotes} stage of the Niederaichbach Nuclear Power Plant total dismantlement project has been achieved. From the regulatory point of view, a survey of the decommissioning experience in Germany is presented highlighting the aspects of production and retention of airborne radioactivity. Nuclear air cleaning technology, discharge limits prescribed in licences and actual discharges are presented. As compared to operation, the composition of the discharged radioactivity is different as well as the off-gas discharge rate. In practically all cases, there is no significant amount of short-lived radionuclides. The discussion further includes lessons learned, for example inadvertent discharges of radionuclides expected not to be in the plants inventory. It is demonstrated that, as for operation of nuclear power plants, the limits prescribed in the Ordinance on Radiological Protection can be met using existing air cleaning technology, Optimization of protection results in public exposures substantially below the limits. In the frame of the regulatory investigation programme a study has been conducted to assess the airborne radioactivity created during certain decommissioning activities like decontamination, segmentation and handling of contaminated or activated parts. The essential results of this study are presented, which are supposed to support planning for decommissioning, for LWRs, Co-60 and Cs-137 are expected to be the dominant radionuclides in airborne discharges. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. DIANA: nuclear astrophysics with a deep underground accelerator facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemut, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    Current stellar model simulations are at a level of precision such that nuclear reaction rates represent a major source of uncertainty for theoretical predictions and for the analysis of observational signatures. To address several open questions in cosmology, astrophysics, and non-Standard-Model neutrino physics, new high precision measurements of direct-capture nuclear fusion cross sections are essential. Experimental studies of nuclear reaction of astrophysical interest are hampered by the exponential drop of the cross-section. The extremely low value of σ (E) within the Gamow peak prevents measurement in a laboratory at the earth surface. The signal to noise ratio would be too small, even with the highest beam intensities presently available from industrial accelerators, because of the cosmic ray interactions with the detectors and surrounding materials. An excellent solution is to install an accelerator facility deep underground where the cosmic rays background into detectors is reduced by several order of magnitude, allowing the measurements to be pushed to far lower energies than presently possible. This has been clearly demonstrated at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA) by the successful studies of critical reactions in the pp-chains and first reaction studies in the CNO cycles. However many critical reactions still need high precision measurements, and next generation facilities, capable of very high beam currents over a wide energy range and state of the art target and detection technology, are highly desirable. The DIANA accelerator facility is being designed to achieve large laboratory reaction rates by delivering high ion beam currents (up to 100 mA) to a high density (up to 1018 atoms/cm2), super-sonic jet-gas target as well as to a solid target. DIANA will consist of two accelerators, 50-400 kV and 0.4-3 MV, that will cover a wide range of ion beam intensities, with sufficient energy overlap to consistently connect the

  10. Human factors design guidelines for maintainability of Department of Energy nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bongarra, J.P. Jr.; VanCott, H.P.; Pain, R.F.; Peterson, L.R.; Wallace, R.I.

    1985-06-18

    Intent of these guidelines is to provide design and design review teams of DOE nuclear facilities with human factors principles to enhance the design and aid in the inspection of DOE nuclear facilities, systems, and equipment. These guidelines are concerned with design features of DOE nuclear facilities which can potentially affect preventive and corrective maintenance of systems within DOE nuclear facilities. Maintenance includes inspecting, checking, troubleshooting, adjusting, replacing, repairing, and servicing activities. Other factors which influence maintainability such as repair and maintenance suport facilities, maintenance information, and various aspects of the environment are also addressed.

  11. Reversing nuclear opposition: evolving public acceptance of a permanent nuclear waste disposal facility.

    PubMed

    Jenkins-Smith, Hank C; Silva, Carol L; Nowlin, Matthew C; deLozier, Grant

    2011-04-01

    Nuclear facilities have long been seen as the top of the list of locally unwanted land uses (LULUs), with nuclear waste repositories generating the greatest opposition. Focusing on the case of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southern New Mexico, we test competing hypotheses concerning the sources of opposition and support for siting the facility, including demographics, proximity, political ideology, and partisanship, and the unfolding policy process over time. This study tracks the changes of risk perception and acceptance of WIPP over a decade, using measures taken from 35 statewide surveys of New Mexico citizens spanning an 11-year period from fall 1990 to summer 2001. This time span includes periods before and after WIPP became operational. We find that acceptance of WIPP is greater among those whose residences are closest to the WIPP facility. Surprisingly, and contrary to expectations drawn from the broader literature, acceptance is also greater among those who live closest to the nuclear waste transportation route. We also find that ideology, partisanship, government approval, and broader environmental concerns influence support for WIPP acceptance. Finally, the sequence of procedural steps taken toward formal approval of WIPP by government agencies proved to be important to gaining public acceptance, the most significant being the opening of the WIPP facility itself.

  12. Development of Safety Assessment Code for Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Taro; Ohshima, Soichiro; Sukegawa, Takenori

    A safety assessment code, DecDose, for decommissioning of nuclear facilities has been developed, based on the experiences of the decommissioning project of Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR) at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (currently JAEA). DecDose evaluates the annual exposure dose of the public and workers according to the progress of decommissioning, and also evaluates the public dose at accidental situations including fire and explosion. As for the public, both the internal and the external doses are calculated by considering inhalation, ingestion, direct radiation from radioactive aerosols and radioactive depositions, and skyshine radiation from waste containers. For external dose for workers, the dose rate from contaminated components and structures to be dismantled is calculated. Internal dose for workers is calculated by considering dismantling conditions, e.g. cutting speed, cutting length of the components and exhaust velocity. Estimation models for dose rate and staying time were verified by comparison with the actual external dose of workers which were acquired during JPDR decommissioning project. DecDose code is expected to contribute the safety assessment for decommissioning of nuclear facilities.

  13. Nuclear Families and Nuclear Risks: The Effects of Gender, Geography, and Progeny on Attitudes toward a Nuclear Waste Facility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenburg, William R.; Davidson, Debra J.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of reactions to nuclear facilities have found consistent male/female differences, but the underlying reasons have never been well-clarified. The most common expectations involve traditional roles--with men focusing more on economic concerns and with women (especially mothers) being more concerned about family safety/health. Still, with…

  14. Magnet design considerations for Fusion Nuclear Science Facility

    DOE PAGES

    Zhai, Yuhu; Kessel, Chuck; El-guebaly, Laila; Titus, Peter

    2016-02-25

    The Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) is a nuclear confinement facility to provide a fusion environment with components of the reactor integrated together to bridge the technical gaps of burning plasma and nuclear science between ITER and the demonstration power plant (DEMO). Compared to ITER, the FNSF is smaller in size but generates much higher magnetic field, 30 times higher neutron fluence with 3 orders of magnitude longer plasma operation at higher operating temperatures for structures surrounding the plasma. Input parameters to the magnet design from system code analysis include magnetic field of 7.5 T at the plasma center withmore » plasma major radius of 4.8 m and minor radius of 1.2 m, and a peak field of 15.5 T on the TF coils for FNSF. Both low temperature superconductor (LTS) and high temperature superconductor (HTS) are considered for the FNSF magnet design based on the state-of-the-art fusion magnet technology. The higher magnetic field can be achieved by using the high performance ternary Restack Rod Process (RRP) Nb3Sn strands for toroidal field (TF) magnets. The circular cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) design similar to ITER magnets and a high aspect ratio rectangular CICC design are evaluated for FNSF magnets but low activation jacket materials may need to be selected. The conductor design concept and TF coil winding pack composition and dimension based on the horizontal maintenance schemes are discussed. Neutron radiation limits for the LTS and HTS superconductors and electrical insulation materials are also reviewed based on the available materials previously tested. As a result, the material radiation limits for FNSF magnets are defined as part of the conceptual design studies for FNSF magnets.« less

  15. Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) before Upgrade to Component Test Facility (CTF)

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Yueng Kay Martin

    2010-01-01

    The compact (R0~1.2-1.3m) Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) is aimed at providing a fully integrated, continuously driven fusion nuclear environment of copious fusion neutrons. This facility would be used to test, discover, understand, and innovate scientific and technical solutions for the challenges facing DEMO, by addressing the multi-scale synergistic interactions involving fusion plasma material interactions, tritium fuel cycle, power extraction, and the nuclear effects on materials. Such a facility properly designed would provide, initially at the JET-level plasma pressure (~30%T2) and conditions (e.g., Hot-Ion H-Mode), an outboard fusion neutron flux of 0.25 MW/m2 while requiring a fusion power of 19 MW. If and when this research operation is successful, its performance can be extended to 1 MW/m2 and 76 MW by reaching for twice the JET plasma pressure and Q. High-safety factor q and moderate- plasmas would minimize plasma-induced disruptions, helping to deliver reliably a neutron fluence of 1 MW-yr/m2 and a duty factor of 10% presently anticipated for the FNS research. Success of this research will depend on achieving time-efficient installation and replacement of all components using extensive remote handling (RH). This in turn requires modular designs for all internal components, including the single-turn toroidal field coil center-post with RH-compatible bi-directional sliding joints. Such device goals would further dictate placement of support structures and vacuum seal welds behind the internal and shielding components. If these further goals could be achieved, the FNSF would provide a ready upgrade path to the Component Test Facility (CTF), which would aim to test, at higher neutron fluence and duty cycle, the demanding fusion nuclear engineering and technologies for DEMO. This FNSF-CTF strategy would be complementary to the ITER and the Broader Approach programs, and thereby help mitigate the risks of an aggressive world fusion DEMO R&D Program

  16. Realistic development and testing of fission systems at a non-nuclear testing facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfroy, Tom; van Dyke, Melissa; Dickens, Ricky; Pedersen, Kevin; Lenard, Roger; Houts, Mike

    2000-01-01

    The use of resistance heaters to simulate heat from fission allows extensive development of fission systems to be performed in non-nuclear test facilities, saving time and money. Resistance heated tests on a module has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center in the Propellant Energy Source Testbed (PEST). This paper discusses the experimental facilities and equipment used for performing resistance heated tests. Recommendations are made for improving non-nuclear test facilities and equipment for simulated testing of nuclear systems. .

  17. Nuclear astrophysics at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.S.

    1994-12-31

    The potential for understanding spectacular stellar explosions such as novae, supernovae, and X-ray bursts will be greatly enhanced by the availability of the low-energy, high-intensity, accelerated beams of proton-rich radioactive nuclei currently being developed at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These beams will be utilized in absolute cross section measurements of crucial (p, {gamma}) capture reactions in efforts to resolve the substantial qualitative uncertainties in current models of explosive stellar hydrogen burning outbursts. Details of the nuclear astrophysics research program with the unique HRIBF radioactive beams and a dedicated experimental endstation--centered on the Daresbury Recoil Separator--will be presented.

  18. 77 FR 26321 - Reed College, Reed Research Nuclear Reactor, Renewed Facility Operating License No. R-112

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... COMMISSION Reed College, Reed Research Nuclear Reactor, Renewed Facility Operating License No. R-112 AGENCY..., Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Rockville, MD 20852. Telephone..., Research and Test Reactors Licensing Branch, Division of Policy and Rulemaking, Office of Nuclear...

  19. Nuclear Structure Studies at the Future FAIR facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rubio, Berta

    2010-04-26

    This article is intended to be an introduction to studies of nuclear structure at the future FAIR facility. It addresses interested readers not necessarily expert in the field. It outlines the physics aims and experiments to be carried out at FAIR in the field of nuclear structure and astrophysics. Starting with a brief description of what can be achieved in experiments with intense, high quality stable beams the article leads the reader to how beams of unstable radioactive nuclei will be produced and exploited at FAIR. The characteristics of the beams from the main separation device, the Super-FRS, are outlined and the limitations they impose on experiment are discussed. The various setups at the three experimental branches associated with the Super-FRS are described. The aims of the various experimental setups, how they complement each other and the physics they will address are all explained. The concept of the r-process of nucleosynthesis is outlined at the beginning and used as a running example of how useful it will be to be able to carry out experiments with beams of short-lived, exotic ions.

  20. Mission and Readiness Assessment for Fusion Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    G.H. Neilson, et. al.

    2012-12-12

    Magnetic fusion development toward DEMO will most likely require a number of fusion nuclear facilities (FNF), intermediate between ITER and DEMO, to test and validate plasma and nuclear technologies and to advance the level of system integration. The FNF mission space is wide, ranging from basic materials research to net electricity demonstration, so there is correspondingly a choice among machine options, scope, and risk in planning such a step. Readiness requirements to proceed with a DEMO are examined, and two FNF options are assessed in terms of the contributions they would make to closing DEMO readiness gaps, and their readiness to themselves proceed with engineering design about ten years from now. An advanced tokamak (AT) pilot plant with superconducting coils and a mission to demonstrate net electricity generation would go a long way toward DEMO. As a next step, however, a pilot plant would entail greater risk than a copper-coil FNSF-AT with its more focussed mission and technology requirements. The stellarator path to DEMO is briefly discussed. Regardless of the choice of FNF option, an accompanying science and technology development program, also aimed at DEMO readiness, is absolutely essential.

  1. Nuclear astrophysics at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Blackmon, J.C.

    1996-10-01

    Reactions involving radioactive nuclei play an important role in explosive stellar events such as novae, supernovae, and X-ray bursts. The development of accelerated, proton-rich radioactive ion beams provides a tool for directly studying many of the reactions that fuel explosive hydrogen burning. The experimental nuclear astrophysics program at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is centered on absolute cross section measurements of these reactions with radioactive ion beams. Beams of {sup 17}F and {sup 18}F, important nuclei in the hot-CNO cycle, are currently under development at HRIBF. Progress in the production of intense radioactive fluorine beams is reported. The Daresbury Recoil Separator (DRS) has been installed at HRIBF as the primary experimental station for nuclear astrophysics experiments. The DRS will be used to measure reactions in inverse kinematics with the techniques of direct recoil detection, delayed-activity recoil detection, and recoil-gamma coincidence measurements. The first astrophysics experiments to be performed at HRIBF, mA the application of the recoil separator in these measurements, are discussed.

  2. Development of Modeling Approaches for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Test Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Daniel R.; Allgood, Daniel C.; Nguyen, Ke

    2014-01-01

    High efficiency of rocket propul-sion systems is essential for humanity to venture be-yond the moon. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is a promising alternative to conventional chemical rock-ets with relatively high thrust and twice the efficiency of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. NASA is in the pro-cess of developing a new NTP engine, and is evaluat-ing ground test facility concepts that allow for the thor-ough testing of NTP devices. NTP engine exhaust, hot gaseous hydrogen, is nominally expected to be free of radioactive byproducts from the nuclear reactor; how-ever, it has the potential to be contaminated due to off-nominal engine reactor performance. Several options are being investigated to mitigate this hazard potential with one option in particular that completely contains the engine exhaust during engine test operations. The exhaust products are subsequently disposed of between engine tests. For this concept (see Figure 1), oxygen is injected into the high-temperature hydrogen exhaust that reacts to produce steam, excess oxygen and any trace amounts of radioactive noble gases released by off-nominal NTP engine reactor performance. Water is injected to condense the potentially contaminated steam into water. This water and the gaseous oxygen (GO2) are subsequently passed to a containment area where the water and GO2 are separated into separate containment tanks.

  3. Assessment of the facilities on Jackass Flats and other Nevada Test Site facilities for the new nuclear rocket program

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, G.; Collins, D.; Dye, K.; Eberhart, C.; Hynes, M.; Kovach, R.; Ortiz, R.; Perea, J.; Sherman, D.

    1992-12-01

    Recent NASA/DOE studies for the Space Exploration Initiative have demonstrated a critical need for the ground-based testing of nuclear rocket engines. Experience in the ROVER/NERVA Program, experience in the Nuclear Weapons Testing Program, and involvement in the new nuclear rocket program has motivated our detailed assessment of the facilities used for the ROVER/NERVA Program and other facilities located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The ROVER/NERVA facilities are located in the Nevada Research L, Development Area (NRDA) on Jackass Flats at NTS, approximately 85 miles northwest of Las Vegas. To guide our assessment of facilities for an engine testing program we have defined a program goal, scope, and process. To execute this program scope and process will require ten facilities. We considered the use of all relevant facilities at NTS including existing and new tunnels as well as the facilities at NRDA. Aside from the facilities located at remote sites and the inter-site transportation system, all of the required facilities are available at NRDA. In particular we have studied the refurbishment of E-MAD, ETS-1, R-MAD, and the interconnecting railroad. The total cost for such a refurbishment we estimate to be about $253M which includes additional contractor fees related to indirect, construction management, profit, contingency, and management reserves. This figure also includes the cost of the required NEPA, safety, and security documentation.

  4. Nuclear Diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, 2013-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeamans, C. B.; Cassata, W. S.; Church, J. A.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Gharibyan, N.; Határik, R.; Sayre, D. B.; Sio, H. W.; Bionta, R. M.; Bleuel, D. L.; Caggiano, J. A.; Cerjan, C. J.; Cooper, G. W.; Eckart, M. J.; Edwards, E. R.; Faye, S. A.; Forrest, C. J.; Frenje, J. A.; Glebov, V. Yu; Grant, P. M.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Herrmann, H. W.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Knauer, J. P.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Merrill, F. E.; Moody, K. J.; Moran, M. J.; Petrasso, R. D.; Phillips, T. W.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Schneider, D. H. G.; Sepke, S. M.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Stoeffl, W.; Velsko, C. A.; Volegov, P.

    2016-05-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) relies on a suite of nuclear diagnostics to measure the neutronic output of experiments. Neutron time-of-flight (NTOF) and neutron activation diagnostics (NAD) provide performance metrics of absolute neutron yield and neutron spectral content: spectral width and non-thermal content, from which implosion physical quantities of temperature and scattering mass are inferred. Spatially-distributed flange- mounted NADs (FNAD) measure, with nearly identical systematic uncertainties, primary DT neutron emission to infer a whole-sky neutron field. An automated FNAD system is being developed. A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) shares few systematics with comparable NTOF and NAD devices, and as such is deployed for independent measurement of the primary neutronic quantities. The gas-Cherenkov Gamma Reaction History (GRH) instrument records four energy channels of time-resolved gamma emission to measure nuclear bang time and burn width, as well as to infer carbon areal density in experiments utilizing plastic or diamond capsules. A neutron imaging system (NIS) takes two images of the neutron source, typically gated to create coregistered 13-15 MeV primary and 6-12 MeV downscattered images. The radiochemical analysis of gaseous samples (RAGS) instrument pumps target chamber gas to a chemical reaction and fractionation system configured with gamma counters, allowing measurement of radionuclides with half-lives as short as 8 seconds. Solid radiochemistry collectors (SRC) with backing NAD foils collect target debris, where activated materials from the target assembly are used as indicators of neutron spectrum content, and also serve as the primary diagnostic for nuclear forensic science experiments. Particle time-of-flight (PTOF) measures compression-bang time using DT- or DD-neutrons, as well as shock bang-time using D3He-protons for implosions with lower x-ray background. In concert, these diagnostics serve to measure the basic and advanced

  5. 49 CFR 1580.111 - Harmonization of federal regulation of nuclear facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Harmonization of federal regulation of nuclear facilities. 1580.111 Section 1580.111 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... regulation of nuclear facilities. TSA will coordinate activities under this subpart with the...

  6. 49 CFR 1580.111 - Harmonization of federal regulation of nuclear facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Harmonization of federal regulation of nuclear facilities. 1580.111 Section 1580.111 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... regulation of nuclear facilities. TSA will coordinate activities under this subpart with the...

  7. 49 CFR 1580.111 - Harmonization of federal regulation of nuclear facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Harmonization of federal regulation of nuclear facilities. 1580.111 Section 1580.111 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... regulation of nuclear facilities. TSA will coordinate activities under this subpart with the...

  8. 49 CFR 1580.111 - Harmonization of federal regulation of nuclear facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Harmonization of federal regulation of nuclear facilities. 1580.111 Section 1580.111 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... regulation of nuclear facilities. TSA will coordinate activities under this subpart with the...

  9. 49 CFR 1580.111 - Harmonization of federal regulation of nuclear facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Harmonization of federal regulation of nuclear facilities. 1580.111 Section 1580.111 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... regulation of nuclear facilities. TSA will coordinate activities under this subpart with the...

  10. Analysis of the formation, expression, and economic impacts of risk perceptions associated with nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, T.; Hunter, S.; Calzonetti, F.J.

    1992-10-01

    This report investigates how communities hosting nuclear facilities form and express perceptions of risk and how these risk perceptions affect local economic development. Information was collected from site visits and interviews with plant personnel, officials of local and state agencies, and community activists in the hosting communities. Six commercial nuclear fuel production facilities and five nuclear facilities operated for the US Department of Energy by private contractors were chosen for analysis. The results presented in the report indicate that the nature of risk perceptions depends on a number of factors. These factors are (1) level of communication by plant officials within the local community, (2) track record of the facility. operator, (3) process through which community and state officials receive information and form opinions, (4) level of economic links each plant has with the local community, and (15) physical characteristics of the facility itself. This report finds that in the communities studied, adverse ask perceptions have not affected business location decisions, employment levels in the local community, tourism, or agricultural development. On the basis of case-study findings, this report recommends that nuclear facility siting programs take the following observations into account when addressing perceptions of risk. First, the quality of a facility`s participation with community activists, interest groups, and state agencies helps to determine the level of perceived risk within a community. Second, the development of strong economic links between nuclear facilities and their host communities will produce a higher level of acceptance of the nuclear facilities.

  11. Reflection and Diffraction Phenomena of Blast Wave Propagation in Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Akihiko; Matsuo, Akiko; Mizukaki, Toshiharu; Shiraishi, Takuya; Utsunomiya, Go; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Nojiri, Ichiro

    This paper presents the results of an optical experiment which is carried out to measure the pressure and to observe the wave propagations when an explosion occurs in a model of a nuclear facility for preventing and mitigating the serious damage of nuclear facility. Numerical simulation is also performed to compare the phenomena in a model of nuclear facility. Nuclear facility is simulated as the several closed rooms in these experiments and simulations, because the nuclear facility is composed of many closed rooms. As a result, typical tendencies of pressure history are obtained, and it is confirmed that the explosion which occurs in a closed space is reflected in the complexity at the walls and interfered mutually with progressing waves. Finally, experimental results are compared with a numerical simulation. It is confirmed that the results of a numerical simulation show a good agreement with experimental results.

  12. Ground Test Facility for Propulsion and Power Modes of Nuclear Engine Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, WILLIAMS

    2004-11-22

    Existing DOE Ground Test Facilities have not been used to support nuclear propulsion testing since the Rover/NERVA programs of the 1960's. Unlike the Rover/NERVA programs, DOE Ground Test facilities for space exploration enabling nuclear technologies can no longer be vented to the open atmosphere. The optimal selection of DOE facilities and accompanying modifications for confinement and treatment of exhaust gases will permit the safe testing of NASA Nuclear Propulsion and Power devices involving variable size and source nuclear engines for NASA Jupiter Icy Moon Orbiter (JIMO) and Commercial Space Exploration Missions with minimal cost, schedule and environmental impact. NASA site selection criteria and testing requirements are presented.

  13. Characterization of nuclear transmutations in materials irradiated test facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.

    1994-05-01

    This study presents a comparison of nuclear transmutation rates for candidate fusion first wall/blanket structural materials in available, fission test reactors with those produced in a typical fusion spectrum. The materials analyzed in this study include a vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti), a reduced activation martensitic steel (Fe-9Cr-2WVTa), a high conductivity copper alloy (Cu-Cr-Zr), and the SiC compound. The fission irradiation facilities considered include the EBR-II fast reactor, and two high flux mixed spectrum reactors, HFIR (High Flux Irradiation Reactor) and SM-3 (Russian reactor). The transmutation and dpa rates that occur in these test reactors are compared with the calculated transmutation and dpa rates characteristic of a D-T fusion first wall spectrum. In general, past work has shown that the displacement damage produced in these fission reactors can be correlated to displacement damage in a fusion spectrum; however, the generation of helium and hydrogen through threshold reactions [(n,x,{alpha}) and (n,xp)] are much higher in a fusion spectrum. As shown in this study, the compositional changes for several candidate structural materials exposed to a fast fission reactor spectrum are very low, similar to those for a characteristic fusion spectrum. However, the relatively high thermalized spectrum of a mixed spectrum reactor produces transmutation rates quite different from the ones predicted for a fusion reactor, resulting in substantial differences in the final composition of several candidate alloys after relatively short irradiation time.

  14. Heat barrier for use in a nuclear reactor facility

    DOEpatents

    Keegan, Charles P.

    1988-01-01

    A thermal barrier for use in a nuclear reactor facility is disclosed herein. Generally, the thermal barrier comprises a flexible, heat-resistant web mounted over the annular space between the reactor vessel and the guard vessel in order to prevent convection currents generated in the nitrogen atmosphere in this space from entering the relatively cooler atmosphere of the reactor cavity which surrounds these vessels. Preferably, the flexible web includes a blanket of heat-insulating material formed from fibers of a refractory material, such as alumina and silica, sandwiched between a heat-resistant, metallic cloth made from stainless steel wire. In use, the web is mounted between the upper edges of the guard vessel and the flange of a sealing ring which surrounds the reactor vessel with a sufficient enough slack to avoid being pulled taut as a result of thermal differential expansion between the two vessels. The flexible web replaces the rigid and relatively complicated structures employed in the prior art for insulating the reactor cavity from the convection currents generated between the reactor vessel and the guard vessel.

  15. Radioactive Iodine and Krypton Control for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    N. R. Soelberg; J. D. Law; T. G. Garn; M. Greenhalgh; R. T. Jubin; P. Thallapally; D. M. Strachan

    2013-08-01

    The removal of volatile radionuclides generated during used nuclear fuel reprocessing in the US is almost certain to be necessary for the licensing of a reprocessing facility in the US. Various control technologies have been developed, tested, or used over the past 50 years for control of volatile radionuclide emissions from used fuel reprocessing plants. The US DOE has sponsored, since 2009, an Off-gas Sigma Team to perform research and development focused on the most pressing volatile radionuclide control and immobilization problems. In this paper, we focus on the control requirements and methodologies for 85Kr and 129I. Numerous candidate technologies have been studied and developed at laboratory and pilot-plant scales in an effort to meet the need for high iodine control efficiency and to advance alternatives to cryogenic separations for krypton control. Several of these show promising results. Iodine decontamination factors as high as 105, iodine loading capacities, and other adsorption parameters including adsorption rates have been demonstrated under some conditions for both silver zeolite (AgZ) and Ag-functionalized aerogel. Sorbents, including an engineered form of AgZ and selected metal organic framework materials (MOFs), have been successfully demonstrated to capture Kr and Xe without the need for separations at cryogenic temperatures.

  16. Epidemiologic studies of cancer in populations near nuclear facilities.

    PubMed

    Shleien, B; Ruttenber, A J; Sage, M

    1991-12-01

    We reviewed over 40 epidemiologic studies around nuclear power stations, fuel reprocessing plants, and weapons production facilities and testing sites in the United Kingdom, the United States, France, and Canada. We examined these studies for their potential to support a cause and effect relationship between cancer risk and radiation exposure. The extent to which an epidemiologic study supports a causal relation between radiation exposure and increased cancer risk can be evaluated using a set of criteria that have become known as Hill's postulates. In our review, epidemiologic studies yielded results that were biologically plausible and were supported by experimental data, but in almost all of the studies the methodologies were not adequate for evaluating causality. In the majority of cases, the methodologies did not permit examination of dose-response associations, making it impossible to support or refute causal relations. We suggest that investigators consider these issues when designing studies and employ dose reconstruction methodology to estimate radiation doses for specific individuals and population groups.

  17. A survey of decontamination processes applicable to DOE nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1997-05-01

    The objective of this survey was to select an appropriate technology for in situ decontamination of equipment interiors as part of the decommissioning of U.S. Department of Energy nuclear facilities. This selection depends on knowledge of existing chemical decontamination methods. This report provides an up-to-date review of chemical decontamination methods. According to available information, aqueous systems are probably the most universally used method for decontaminating and cleaning metal surfaces. We have subdivided the technologies, on the basis of the types of chemical solvents, into acid, alkaline permanganate, highly oxidizing, peroxide, and miscellaneous systems. Two miscellaneous chemical decontamination methods (electrochemical processes and foam and gel systems) are also described. A concise technical description of various processes is given, and the report also outlines technical considerations in the choice of technologies, including decontamination effectiveness, waste handing, fields of application, and the advantages and limitations in application. On the basis of this survey, six processes were identified for further evaluation. 144 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. Mortality among workers at a nuclear fuels production facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cragle, D.L.; McLain, R.W.; Qualters, J.R.; Hickey, J.L.; Wilkinson, G.S.; Tankersley, W.G.; Lushbaugh, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted in a population of workers employed at a facility with the primary task of production of nuclear fuels and other materials. Data for hourly and salaried employees were analyzed separately by time period of first employment and length of employment. The hourly (N = 6687 with 728 deaths) and salaried (N = 2745 with 294 deaths) employees had a mortality experience comparable to that of the United States and, in fact, exhibited significant fewer deaths in many categories of diseases that are traditionally associated with the healthy worker effect. Specifically, fewer deaths were noted in the categories of all causes, all cancers, cancer of the digestive organs, lung cancer, brain cancer (hourly workers only), diabetes, all diseases of the circulatory system, all respiratory diseases, all digestive system diseases, all diseases of the genitourinary system (hourly only), and all external causes of death. A statistically significant, and as yet unexplained increase in leukemia mortality (6 observed vs. 2.18 expected) appeared among a subset of the hourly employees, first hired before 1955, and employed between 5-15 years.

  19. Ground test facilities for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion engines and fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, G.C.; Beck, D.F.; Harmon, C.D.; Shipers, L.R.

    1992-08-01

    Interagency panels evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion development options have consistently recognized the need for constructing a major new ground test facility to support fuel element and engine testing. This paper summarizes the requirements, configuration, and design issues of a proposed ground test complex for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion engines and fuel elements being developed for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. 2 refs.

  20. Developing International Guidelines on Volcanic Hazard Assessments for Nuclear Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, Charles

    2014-05-01

    Worldwide, tremendous progress has been made in recent decades in forecasting volcanic events, such as episodes of volcanic unrest, eruptions, and the potential impacts of eruptions. Generally these forecasts are divided into two categories. Short-term forecasts are prepared in response to unrest at volcanoes, rely on geophysical monitoring and related observations, and have the goal of forecasting events on timescales of hours to weeks to provide time for evacuation of people, shutdown of facilities, and implementation of related safety measures. Long-term forecasts are prepared to better understand the potential impacts of volcanism in the future and to plan for potential volcanic activity. Long-term forecasts are particularly useful to better understand and communicate the potential consequences of volcanic events for populated areas around volcanoes and for siting critical infrastructure, such as nuclear facilities. Recent work by an international team, through the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency, has focused on developing guidelines for long-term volcanic hazard assessments. These guidelines have now been implemented for hazard assessment for nuclear facilities in nations including Indonesia, the Philippines, Armenia, Chile, and the United States. One any time scale, all volcanic hazard assessments rely on a geologically reasonable conceptual model of volcanism. Such conceptual models are usually built upon years or decades of geological studies of specific volcanic systems, analogous systems, and development of a process-level understanding of volcanic activity. Conceptual models are used to bound potential rates of volcanic activity, potential magnitudes of eruptions, and to understand temporal and spatial trends in volcanic activity. It is these conceptual models that provide essential justification for assumptions made in statistical model development and the application of numerical models to generate quantitative forecasts. It is a

  1. Framework for Integrating Safety, Operations, Security, and Safeguards in the Design and Operation of Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, John L.; Horak, Karl Emanuel; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Tolk, Keith Michael; Whitehead, Donnie Wayne

    2007-10-01

    The US is currently on the brink of a nuclear renaissance that will result in near-term construction of new nuclear power plants. In addition, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) ambitious new Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program includes facilities for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel and reactors for transmuting safeguards material. The use of nuclear power and material has inherent safety, security, and safeguards (SSS) concerns that can impact the operation of the facilities. Recent concern over terrorist attacks and nuclear proliferation led to an increased emphasis on security and safeguard issues as well as the more traditional safety emphasis. To meet both domestic and international requirements, nuclear facilities include specific SSS measures that are identified and evaluated through the use of detailed analysis techniques. In the past, these individual assessments have not been integrated, which led to inefficient and costly design and operational requirements. This report provides a framework for a new paradigm where safety, operations, security, and safeguards (SOSS) are integrated into the design and operation of a new facility to decrease cost and increase effectiveness. Although the focus of this framework is on new nuclear facilities, most of the concepts could be applied to any new, high-risk facility.

  2. 78 FR 4404 - DOE Response to Recommendation 2012-2 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Hanford...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Response to Recommendation 2012-2 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Hanford Tank Farms... the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board submitted Recommendation 2012-2, concerning Hanford Tank... Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (Board) Recommendation 2012-2, Hanford Tank Farms Flammable Gas...

  3. Cancer mortality in small areas around nuclear facilities in England and Wales.

    PubMed Central

    Baron, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Cancer mortality trends were examined for the small areas around fourteen nuclear and five non-nuclear facilities in England and Wales. Using routine OPCS mortality data, standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for these areas were computed for selected causes of death. Changes in the SMRs were then sought by comparing the SMRs for the five years before the facility opened with the period 10 (in some cases 15) years after start-up, and by computing the weighted regression of the SMRs on calendar year. These analyses indicate no overall pattern of increasing cancer SMRs around nuclear facilities. PMID:6498079

  4. Criticality safety aspects of decontamination and decommissioning at defense nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Croucher, D.W.

    1994-02-01

    Defense nuclear facilities have operated for forty years with a well-defined mission to produce weapons components for the nation. With the end of the cold war, the facilities` missions have changed to one of decontamination and decommissioning. Off-normal operations and use of new procedures, such as will exist during these activities, have often been among the causal factors in previous criticality accidents at process facilities. This paper explores the similarities in causal factors in previous criticality accidents to the conditions existing in current defense nuclear facilities undergoing the transition to decontamination and decommissioning. Practices to reduce the risk to workers, the public, and the environment are recommended.

  5. Assessment of the facilities on Jackass Flats and other Nevada test site facilities for the new nuclear rocket program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, George; Collins, Donald; Dye, Ken; Eberhart, Craig; Hynes, Michael; Kovach, Richard; Ortiz, Robert; Perea, Jake; Sherman, Donald

    1993-01-01

    Recent NASA/DOE studies for the Space Exploration Initiative have demonstrated a critical need for the ground-based testing of nuclear rocket engines. Experience in the ROVER/NERVA Program, experience in the Nuclear Weapons Testing Program, and involvement in the new nuclear rocket program has motivated our detailed assessment of the facilities used for the ROVER/NERVA Program and other facilities located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The ROVER/NERVA facilities are located in the Nevada Research & Development Area (NRDA) on Jackass Flats at NTS, approximately 85 miles northwest of Las Vegas. To guide our assessment of facilities for an engine testing program we have defined a program goal, scope, and process. In particular we have assumed that the program goal will be to certify a full engine system design as flight test ready. All nuclear and non-nuclear components will be individually certified as ready for such a test at sites remote from the NRDA facilities, the components transported to NRDA, and the engine assembled. We also assume that engines of 25,000-100,000 lb thrust levels will be tested with burn times of 1 hour or longer. After a test, the engine will be disassembled, time critical inspections will be executed, and a selection of components will be transported to remote inspection sites. The majority of the components will be stored for future inspection at Jackass Flats. To execute this program scope and process will require ten facilities. We considered the use of all relevant facilities at NTS including existing and new tunnels as well as the facilities at NRDA. Aside from the facilities located at remote sites and the inter-site transportation system, all of the required facilities are available at NRDA. In particular we have studied the refurbishment of E-MAD, ETS-1, R-MAD, and the interconnecting railroad. The total cost for such a refurbishment we estimate to be about 253M which includes additional contractor fees related to indirect

  6. Safeguards-by-Design: Early Integration of Physical Protection and Safeguardability into Design of Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    T. Bjornard; R. Bean; S. DeMuth; P. Durst; M. Ehinger; M. Golay; D. Hebditch; J. Hockert; J. Morgan

    2009-09-01

    The application of a Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) process for new nuclear facilities has the potential to minimize proliferation and security risks as the use of nuclear energy expands worldwide. This paper defines a generic SBD process and its incorporation from early design phases into existing design / construction processes and develops a framework that can guide its institutionalization. SBD could be a basis for a new international norm and standard process for nuclear facility design. This work is part of the U.S. DOE’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), and is jointly sponsored by the Offices of Non-proliferation and Nuclear Energy.

  7. 10 CFR 8.4 - Interpretation by the General Counsel: AEC jurisdiction over nuclear facilities and materials...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... over nuclear facilities and materials under the Atomic Energy Act. 8.4 Section 8.4 Energy NUCLEAR... nuclear facilities and materials under the Atomic Energy Act. (a) By virtue of the Atomic Energy Act of... Atomic Energy Act of 1954 sets out a pattern for licensing and regulation of certain nuclear...

  8. 10 CFR 8.4 - Interpretation by the General Counsel: AEC jurisdiction over nuclear facilities and materials...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... over nuclear facilities and materials under the Atomic Energy Act. 8.4 Section 8.4 Energy NUCLEAR... nuclear facilities and materials under the Atomic Energy Act. (a) By virtue of the Atomic Energy Act of... Atomic Energy Act of 1954 sets out a pattern for licensing and regulation of certain nuclear...

  9. 10 CFR 8.4 - Interpretation by the General Counsel: AEC jurisdiction over nuclear facilities and materials...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... over nuclear facilities and materials under the Atomic Energy Act. 8.4 Section 8.4 Energy NUCLEAR... nuclear facilities and materials under the Atomic Energy Act. (a) By virtue of the Atomic Energy Act of... Atomic Energy Act of 1954 sets out a pattern for licensing and regulation of certain nuclear...

  10. The LLNL Heavy Element Facility -- Facility Management, Authorization Basis, and Readiness Assessment Lessons Learned in the Heavy Element Facility (B251) Transition from Category II Nuclear Facility to Radiological Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, M; Anderson, B; Brown, E; Gray, L

    2006-04-10

    This paper presents Facility Management, Readiness Assessment, and Authorization Basis experience gained and lessons learned during the Heavy Element Facility Risk Reduction Program (RRP). The RRP was tasked with removing contaminated glove boxes, radioactive inventory, and contaminated ventilation systems from the Heavy Element Facility (B251) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The RRP was successful in its goal in April 2005 with the successful downgrade of B251 from a Category II Nuclear Facility to a Radiological Facility. The expertise gained and the lessons learned during the planning and conduct of the RRP included development of unique approaches in work planning/work control (''Expect the unexpected and confirm the expected'') and facility management. These approaches minimized worker dose and resulted in significant safety improvements and operational efficiencies. These lessons learned can help similar operational and management activities at other sites, including facilities restarting operations or new facility startup. B251 was constructed at LLNL to provide research areas for conducting experiments in radiochemistry using transuranic elements. Activities at B251 once included the preparation of tracer sets associated with the underground testing of nuclear devices and basic research devoted to a better understanding of the chemical and nuclear behavior of the transuranic elements. Due to the age of the facility, even with preventative maintenance, facility safety and experimental systems were deteriorating. A variety of seismic standards were used in the facility design and construction, which encompassed eight building increments constructed over a period of 26 years. The cost to bring the facility into compliance with the current seismic and other requirements was prohibitive, and simply maintaining B251 as a Category II nuclear facility posed serious cost considerations under a changing regulatory environment. Considering the high

  11. 75 FR 33365 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to Facility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... the Federal Register on November 4, 2008 (73 FR 65691). However, by letter dated May 6, 2010, the... amendment to Facility Operating License No. DPR-20 for the Palisades Nuclear Plant, located in Van...

  12. Preoperational Environmental Survey for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    MITCHELL, R.M.

    2000-09-28

    This document represents the report for environmental sampling of soil, vegetation, litter, cryptograms, and small mammals at the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project facilities located in 100 K and 200 East Areas in support of the preoperational environmental survey.

  13. Preoperational Environmental Survey for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    MITCHELL, R.M.

    2000-10-12

    This document represents the report for environmental sampling of soil, vegetation, litter, cryptograms, and small mammals at the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project facilities located in 100 K and 200 East Areas in support of the preoperational environmental survey.

  14. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 13: Part 2, Indexes

    SciTech Connect

    Goins, L.F.; Webb, J.R.; Cravens, C.D.; Mallory, P.K.

    1992-09-01

    This is part 2 of a bibliography on nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial action. This report contains indexes on the following: authors, corporate affiliation, title words, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word.

  15. Safeguards Guidance Document for Designers of Commercial Nuclear Facilities: International Nuclear Safeguards Requirements and Practices For Uranium Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Bean; Casey Durst

    2009-10-01

    This report is the second in a series of guidelines on international safeguards requirements and practices, prepared expressly for the designers of nuclear facilities. The first document in this series is the description of generic international nuclear safeguards requirements pertaining to all types of facilities. These requirements should be understood and considered at the earliest stages of facility design as part of a new process called “Safeguards-by-Design.” This will help eliminate the costly retrofit of facilities that has occurred in the past to accommodate nuclear safeguards verification activities. The following summarizes the requirements for international nuclear safeguards implementation at enrichment plants, prepared under the Safeguards by Design project, and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Office of NA-243. The purpose of this is to provide designers of nuclear facilities around the world with a simplified set of design requirements and the most common practices for meeting them. The foundation for these requirements is the international safeguards agreement between the country and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Relevant safeguards requirements are also cited from the Safeguards Criteria for inspecting enrichment plants, found in the IAEA Safeguards Manual, Part SMC-8. IAEA definitions and terms are based on the IAEA Safeguards Glossary, published in 2002. The most current specification for safeguards measurement accuracy is found in the IAEA document STR-327, “International Target Values 2000 for Measurement Uncertainties in Safeguarding Nuclear Materials,” published in 2001. For this guide to be easier for the designer to use, the requirements have been restated in plainer language per expert interpretation using the source documents noted. The safeguards agreement is fundamentally a

  16. Radioactive contamination at nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhardt, D.E.; Grant, M.W.; Rich, D.C.; Jensen, C.M.; Macbeth, P.J.

    1982-01-01

    This report presents information to characterize uranium fuel cycle facilities (excluding reactors), levels of contamination at those facilities, and volumes and activity of wastes associated with their decontamination and decommissioning (DandD). It is one of a series of reports providing information to assist the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in setting standards and guidelines for permissible residual levels of radioactivity from DandD. The categories of facilities covered by this report are: Uranium mines, Uranium mills, Uranium hexafluoride conversion plants, Fuel fabrication plants, including both low and high enriched uranium and mixed oxide facilities. Both active and inactive facilities are identified. The highest volumes of DandD waste (hundreds of millions of cubic meters) are associated with uranium mines, while the highest amounts of radioactivity are a result of DandD at fuel reprocessing plants.

  17. Educational Programs and Facilities in Nuclear Science and Engineering. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    This publication contains detailed descriptions of nuclear programs and facilities of 182 four-year educational institutions. Instead of chapters, the contents are presented in five tables. Table I presents the degrees, graduate appointments, special facilities and programs of the institutions. The institutions are arranged in alphabetical order…

  18. Frequency Estimates for Aircraft Crashes into Nuclear Facilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

    SciTech Connect

    George D. Heindel

    1998-09-01

    In October 1996, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a new standard for evaluating accidental aircraft crashes into hazardous facilities. This document uses the method prescribed in the new standard to evaluate the likelihood of this type of accident occurring at Los Alamos National Laboratory's nuclear facilities.

  19. Safety-related issues associated with implementing wireless systems in nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kaldenbach, B. J.; Ewing, P. D.; Moore, M. R.; Korsah, K.; Antonescu, C. E.; Govan, T. V.

    2006-07-01

    Currently, wireless technology is not used as an integral element of safety-related systems in nuclear facilities. The most prevalent introductory uses of wireless technology are for in-facility communications among personnel and for supplemental information transmission. However, further system upgrades and implementations at new facilities might introduce wireless communications into safety-significant applications. This paper documents the deployment issues and implementation considerations that can contribute to the technical basis for guidance on wireless systems. (authors)

  20. 10 CFR 140.91 - Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for facilities. 140.91 Section 140.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION... other matter not within the Commission's statutory jurisdiction under the Atomic Energy Act....

  1. 10 CFR 140.91 - Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for facilities. 140.91 Section 140.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION... other matter not within the Commission's statutory jurisdiction under the Atomic Energy Act....

  2. 10 CFR 140.91 - Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for facilities. 140.91 Section 140.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION... other matter not within the Commission's statutory jurisdiction under the Atomic Energy Act....

  3. 10 CFR 140.91 - Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for facilities. 140.91 Section 140.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION... other matter not within the Commission's statutory jurisdiction under the Atomic Energy Act....

  4. 10 CFR 140.91 - Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for facilities. 140.91 Section 140.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION... other matter not within the Commission's statutory jurisdiction under the Atomic Energy Act....

  5. Project Title: Nuclear Astrophysics Data from Radioactive Beam Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Alan A. Chen

    2008-03-27

    The scientific aims of this project have been the evaluation and dissemination of key nuclear reactions in nuclear astrophysics, with a focus on ones to be studied at new radioactive beam facilities worldwide. These aims were maintained during the entire funding period from 2003 - 2006. In the following, a summary of the reactions evaluated during this period is provided. Year 1 (2003-04): {sup 21}Na(p,{gamma}){sup 22}Mg and {sup 18}Ne({alpha},p){sup 21}Na - The importance of the {sup 21}Na(p,{gamma}){sup 22}Mg and the {sup 18}Ne({alpha},p){sup 21}Na reactions in models of exploding stars has been well documented: the first is connected to the production of the radioisotope {sup 22}Na in nova nucleosynthesis, while the second is a key bridge between the Hot-CNO cycles and the rp-process in X-ray bursts. By the end of Summer 2004, our group had updated these reaction rates to include all published data up to September 2004, and cast the reaction rates into standard analytical and tabular formats with the assistance of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's computational infrastructure for reaction rates. Since September 2004, ongoing experiments on these two reactions have been completed, with our group's participation in both: {sup 21}Na(p,{gamma}){sup 22}Mg at the TRIUMF-ISAC laboratory (DRAGON collaboration), and 18Ne({alpha},p){sup 21}Na at Argonne National Laboratory (collaboration with Ernst Rehm, Argonne). The data from the former was subsequently published and included in our evaluation. Publication from the latter still awaits independent confirmation of the experimental results. Year 2 (2004-05): The 25Al(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Si and {sup 13}N(p,{gamma})14O reactions - For Year 2, we worked on evaluations of the {sup 25}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Si and {sup 13}N(p,{gamma}){sup 14}O reactions, in accordance with our proposed deliverables and following similar standard procedures to those used in Year 1. The {sup 25}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Si reaction is a key uncertainty in

  6. Canadian History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Libraries in Canada, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Includes 22 articles that address Canadian history and the importance of having students honor Canada's past by providing articles relating to the areas of History and Social Studies covering: historical fiction as instructional material; Canadian scientists; agricultural fairs; the Historical Foundation; social science books on Canada; student…

  7. Guideline to good practices for types of maintenance activities at DOE nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of the Guideline to Good Practices for Types of Maintenance at DOE Nuclear Facilities is to provide contractor maintenance organizations with information that may be used for the development and implementation of a properly balanced corrective, preventive and predictive maintenance program at DOE nuclear facilities. This document is intended to be an example guideline for the implementation of DOE Order 4330.4A, Maintenance Management Program, Chapter II, Element 4. DOE contractors should not feel obligated to adopt all parts of this guide. Rather, they should use the information contained herein as a guide for developing maintenance programs that are applicable to their facility.

  8. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility operations manual

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-05-12

    This document provides the Operations Manual for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The Manual was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998) and, the HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-002, 1997, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, Rev. 3a. The Operations Manual contains general descriptions of all the process, safety and facility systems in the CVDF, a general CVD operations sequence, and has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  9. Mock Nuclear Processing Facility-Safeguards Training Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Philip; Hasty, Tim; Johns, Rissell; Baum, Gregory

    2014-08-31

    This document outlines specific training requirements in the topical areas of Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) and Physical Protection(PP) which are to be used as technical input for designing a mock Integrated Security Facility (ISF) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The overall project objective for these requirements is to enhance the ability to deliver training on Material Protection Control and Accounting (MC&A) concepts regarding hazardous material such as irradiated materials with respect to bulk processing facilities.

  10. Space Nuclear Facility test capability at the Baikal-1 and IGR sites Semipalatinsk-21, Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, T. J.; Stanley, M. L.; Martinell, J. S.

    1993-01-01

    The International Space Technology Assessment Program was established 1/19/92 to take advantage of the availability of Russian space technology and hardware. DOE had two delegations visit CIS and assess its space nuclear power and propulsion technologies. The visit coincided with the Conference on Nuclear Power Engineering in Space Nuclear Rocket Engines at Semipalatinsk-21 (Kurchatov, Kazakhstan) on Sept. 22-25, 1992. Reactor facilities assessed in Semipalatinski-21 included the IVG-1 reactor (a nuclear furnace, which has been modified and now called IVG-1M), the RA reactor, and the Impulse Graphite Reactor (IGR), the CIS version of TREAT. Although the reactor facilities are being maintained satisfactorily, the support infrastructure appears to be degrading. The group assessment is based on two half-day tours of the Baikals-1 test facility and a brief (2 hr) tour of IGR; because of limited time and the large size of the tour group, it was impossible to obtain answers to all prepared questions. Potential benefit is that CIS fuels and facilities may permit USA to conduct a lower priced space nuclear propulsion program while achieving higher performance capability faster, and immediate access to test facilities that cannot be available in this country for 5 years. Information needs to be obtained about available data acquisition capability, accuracy, frequency response, and number of channels. Potential areas of interest with broad application in the U.S. nuclear industry are listed.

  11. Global nuclear material monitoring with NDA and C/S data through integrated facility monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.A.; Menlove, H.O.; Argo, P.; Goulding, C.; Klosterbuer, S.; Halbig, J.

    1996-09-01

    This paper focuses on a flexible, integrated demonstration of a monitoring approach for nuclear material monitoring. This includes aspects of item signature identification, perimeter portal monitoring, advanced data analysis, and communication as a part of an unattended continuous monitoring system in an operating nuclear facility. Advanced analysis is applied to the integrated nondestructive assay and containment and surveillance data that are synchronized in time. End result will be the foundation for a cost-effective monitoring system that could provide the necessary transparency even in areas that are denied to foreign nationals of both US and Russia should these processes and materials come under full-scope safeguards or bilateral agreements. Monitoring systems of this kind have the potential to provide additional benefits including improved nuclear facility security and safeguards and lower personnel radiation exposures. Demonstration facilities in this paper include VTRAP-prototype, Los Alamos Critical Assemblies Facility, Kazakhstan BM-350 Reactor monitor, DUPIC radiation monitoring, and JOYO and MONJU radiation monitoring.

  12. An assessment of testing requirement impacts on nuclear thermal propulsion ground test facility design

    SciTech Connect

    Shipers, L.R.; Ottinger, C.A.; Sanchez, L.C.

    1993-10-25

    Programs to develop solid core nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems have been under way at the Department of Defense (DoD), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the Department of Energy (DOE). These programs have recognized the need for a new ground test facility to support development of NTP systems. However, the different military and civilian applications have led to different ground test facility requirements. The Department of Energy (DOE) in its role as landlord and operator of the proposed research reactor test facilities has initiated an effort to explore opportunities for a common ground test facility to meet both DoD and NASA needs. The baseline design and operating limits of the proposed DoD NTP ground test facility are described. The NASA ground test facility requirements are reviewed and their potential impact on the DoD facility baseline is discussed.

  13. Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Test Facilities Subpanel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, G.C.; Warren, J.W.; Martinell, J.; Clark, J.S.; Perkins, D.

    1993-04-01

    On 20 Jul. 1989, in commemoration of the 20th anniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing, President George Bush proclaimed his vision for manned space exploration. He stated, 'First for the coming decade, for the 1990's, Space Station Freedom, the next critical step in our space endeavors. And next, for the new century, back to the Moon. Back to the future. And this time, back to stay. And then, a journey into tomorrow, a journey to another planet, a manned mission to Mars.' On 2 Nov. 1989, the President approved a national space policy reaffirming the long range goal of the civil space program: to 'expand human presence and activity beyond Earth orbit into the solar system.' And on 11 May 1990, he specified the goal of landing Astronauts on Mars by 2019, the 50th anniversary of man's first steps on the Moon. To safely and ever permanently venture beyond near Earth environment as charged by the President, mankind must bring to bear extensive new technologies. These include heavy lift launch capability from Earth to low-Earth orbit, automated space rendezvous and docking of large masses, zero gravity countermeasures, and closed loop life support systems. One technology enhancing, and perhaps enabling, the piloted Mars missions is nuclear propulsion, with great benefits over chemical propulsion. Asserting the potential benefits of nuclear propulsion, NASA has sponsored workshops in Nuclear Electric Propulsion and Nuclear Thermal Propulsion and has initiated a tri-agency planning process to ensure that appropriate resources are engaged to meet this exciting technical challenge. At the core of this planning process, NASA, DOE, and DOD established six Nuclear Propulsion Technical Panels in 1991 to provide groundwork for a possible tri-agency Nuclear Propulsion Program and to address the President's vision by advocating an aggressive program in nuclear propulsion. To this end the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Technology Panel has focused it energies.

  14. Safety Software Guide Perspectives for the Design of New Nuclear Facilities (U)

    SciTech Connect

    VINCENT, Andrew

    2005-07-14

    In June of this year, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued directives DOE O 414.1C and DOE G 414.1-4 to improve quality assurance programs, processes, and procedures among its safety contractors. Specifically, guidance entitled, ''Safety Software Guide for use with 10 CFR 830 Subpart A, Quality Assurance Requirements, and DOE O 414.1C, Quality Assurance, DOE G 414.1-4'', provides information and acceptable methods to comply with safety software quality assurance (SQA) requirements. The guidance provides a roadmap for meeting DOE O 414.1C, ''Quality Assurance'', and the quality assurance program (QAP) requirements of Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 830, Subpart A, Quality Assurance, for DOE nuclear facilities and software application activities. [1, 2] The order and guide are part of a comprehensive implementation plan that addresses issues and concerns documented in Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2002-1. [3] Safety SQA requirements for DOE as well as National Nuclear Security Administration contractors are necessary to implement effective quality assurance (QA) processes and achieve safe nuclear facility operations. DOE G 414.1-4 was developed to provide guidance on establishing and implementing effective QA processes tied specifically to nuclear facility safety software applications. The Guide includes software application practices covered by appropriate national and international consensus standards and various processes currently in use at DOE facilities. While the safety software guidance is considered to be of sufficient rigor and depth to ensure acceptable reliability of safety software at all DOE nuclear facilities, new nuclear facilities are well suited to take advantage of the guide to ensure compliant programs and processes are implemented. Attributes such as the facility life-cycle stage and the hazardous nature of each facility operations are considered, along with the category and level of importance of the

  15. Realistic retrospective dose assessments to members of the public around Spanish nuclear facilities.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, M A; Martín-Valdepeñas, J M; García-Talavera, M; Martín-Matarranz, J L; Salas, M R; Serrano, J I; Ramos, L M

    2011-11-01

    In the frame of an epidemiological study carried out in the influence areas around the Spanish nuclear facilities (ISCIII-CSN, 2009. Epidemiological Study of The Possible Effect of Ionizing Radiations Deriving from The Operation of Spanish Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities on The Health of The Population Living in Their Vicinity. Final report December 2009. Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear. Madrid. Available from: http://www.csn.es/images/stories/actualidad_datos/especiales/epidemiologico/epidemiological_study.pdf), annual effective doses to public have been assessed by the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) for over 45 years using a retrospective realistic-dose methodology. These values are compared with data from natural radiation exposure. For the affected population, natural radiation effective doses are in average 2300 times higher than effective doses due to the operation of nuclear installations (nuclear power stations and fuel cycle facilities). When considering the impact on the whole Spanish population, effective doses attributable to nuclear facilities represent in average 3.5×10(-5)mSv/y, in contrast to 1.6mSv/y from natural radiation or 1.3mSv/y from medical exposures.

  16. Public concerns and the public role in siting nuclear and chemical waste facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Branden B.

    1987-09-01

    Nuclear and chemical waste facilities can be successfully sited, despite nimby responses, if siting programs account for the sources of public concern. Irrational fear is not the main source; instead, waste managers must deal with perceived inequities in the distribution of benefits and costs, and concern about facility safety. Benefit-cost inequities may be dealt with in part by keeping wastes where they are generated, through political restrictions, or by providing economic compensation and political incentives (for example, a local veto). Assuring people of facility safety includes allowing local control (monitoring, health assessment, regulation), and enhancing trust of facility managers through such means as rectifying past mistakes, individual-oriented education campaigns, and negotiation of compensation packages with local residents. These means should reduce —without eliminating—public opposition to local siting of nuclear and chemical waste facilities.

  17. The environmental impact assessment process for nuclear facilities: An examination of the Indian experience

    SciTech Connect

    Ramana, M.V.; Rao, Divya Badami

    2010-07-15

    India plans to construct numerous nuclear plants and uranium mines across the country, which could have significant environmental, health, and social impacts. The national Environmental Impact Assessment process is supposed to regulate these impacts. This paper examines how effective this process has been, and the extent to which public inputs have been taken into account. In addition to generic problems associated with the EIA process for all kinds of projects in India, there are concerns that are specific to nuclear facilities. One is that some nuclear facilities are exempt from the environmental clearance process. The second is that data regarding radiation baseline levels and future releases, which is the principle environmental concern with respect to nuclear facilities, is controlled entirely by the nuclear establishment. The third is that members of the nuclear establishment take part in almost every level of the environmental clearance procedure. For these reasons and others, the EIA process with regard to nuclear projects in India is of dubious quality. We make a number of recommendations that could address these lacunae, and more generally the imbalance of power between the nuclear establishment on the one hand, and civil society and the regulatory agencies on the other.

  18. Canadian inter-laboratory organically bound tritium (OBT) analysis exercise.

    PubMed

    Kim, S B; Olfert, J; Baglan, N; St-Amant, N; Carter, B; Clark, I; Bucur, C

    2015-12-01

    Tritium emissions are one of the main concerns with regard to CANDU reactors and Canadian nuclear facilities. After the Fukushima accident, the Canadian Nuclear Regulatory Commission suggested that models used in risk assessment of Canadian nuclear facilities be firmly based on measured data. Procedures for measurement of tritium as HTO (tritiated water) are well established, but there are no standard methods and certified reference materials for measurement of organically bound tritium (OBT) in environmental samples. This paper describes and discusses an inter-laboratory comparison study in which OBT in three different dried environmental samples (fish, Swiss chard and potato) was measured to evaluate OBT analysis methods currently used by CANDU Owners Group (COG) members. The variations in the measured OBT activity concentrations between all laboratories were less than approximately 20%, with a total uncertainty between 11 and 17%. Based on the results using the dried samples, the current OBT analysis methods for combustion, distillation and counting are generally acceptable. However, a complete consensus OBT analysis methodology with respect to freeze-drying, rinsing, combustion, distillation and counting is required. Also, an exercise using low-level tritium samples (less than 100 Bq/L or 20 Bq/kg-fresh) would be useful in the near future to more fully evaluate the current OBT analysis methods. PMID:26372740

  19. The effects of the Brazilian regulatory inspection programme on nuclear medicine facilities.

    PubMed

    Alves, C E G R; Azevedo, E M; de Sá, L V; da Rosa, L A R; Mendes, L C G; França, W F L; Gutterres, R F; Gonçalves, M

    2009-12-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate the importance of the regulatory inspections carried out by the Brazilian regulatory body in the area of nuclear medicine. The main aspects observed during the inspections are presented as well as the time evolution of the non-compliances, according to their occurrence by type. We also evaluate factors concerning the working of the nuclear medicine facility responsible for solving the non-compliances. The results suggest a decrease of occurrence of non-compliances with time that can be related to the strictness of the inspections and the awareness of the personnel in the nuclear medicine facilities. An analysis of radiation dose exposure levels for the professionals involved in nuclear medicine was carried out; although dose values are below regulatory dose limits, their occurrence is not decreasing satisfactorily. Results indicate the need for staff training and commitment of the responsible nuclear medicine facility staff to the radiological protection procedures. Our results also emphasise the importance of continuous coercive actions to improve the level of radiological protection in nuclear medicine facilities in compliance with the standards established by the national regulatory authority and international recommendations.

  20. NNS computing facility manual P-17 Neutron and Nuclear Science

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeberling, M.; Nelson, R.O.

    1993-11-01

    This document describes basic policies and provides information and examples on using the computing resources provided by P-17, the Neutron and Nuclear Science (NNS) group. Information on user accounts, getting help, network access, electronic mail, disk drives, tape drives, printers, batch processing software, XSYS hints, PC networking hints, and Mac networking hints is given.

  1. Prioritization methodology for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities: a study case on the Iraq former nuclear complex.

    PubMed

    Jarjies, Adnan; Abbas, Mohammed; Monken Fernandes, Horst; Wong, Melanie; Coates, Roger

    2013-05-01

    There are a number of sites in Iraq which have been used for nuclear activities and which contain potentially significant amounts of radioactive waste. The principal nuclear site being Al-Tuwaitha. Many of these sites suffered substantial physical damage during the Gulf Wars and have been subjected to subsequent looting. All require decommissioning in order to ensure both radiological and non-radiological safety. However, it is not possible to undertake the decommissioning of all sites and facilities at the same time. Therefore, a prioritization methodology has been developed in order to aid the decision-making process. The methodology comprises three principal stages of assessment: i) a quantitative surrogate risk assessment ii) a range of sensitivity analyses and iii) the inclusion of qualitative modifying factors. A group of Tuwaitha facilities presented the highest risk among the evaluated ones, followed by a middle ranking grouping of Tuwaitha facilities and some other sites, and a relatively large group of lower risk facilities and sites. The initial order of priority is changed when modifying factors are taken into account. It has to be considered the Iraq's isolation from the international nuclear community over the last two decades and the lack of experienced personnel. Therefore it is appropriate to initiate decommissioning operations on selected low risk facilities at Tuwaitha in order to build capacity and prepare for work to be carried out in more complex and potentially high hazard facilities. In addition it is appropriate to initiate some prudent precautionary actions relating to some of the higher risk facilities. PMID:22321251

  2. Guide to radiological accident considerations for siting and design of DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, J.C.; Graf, J.M.; Dewart, J.M.; Buhl, T.E.; Wenzel, W.J.; Walker, L.J.; Stoker, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    This guide was prepared to provide the experienced safety analyst with accident analysis guidance in greater detail than is possible in Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. The guide addresses analysis of postulated serious accidents considered in the siting and selection of major design features of DOE nuclear facilities. Its scope has been limited to radiological accidents at nonreactor nuclear facilities. The analysis steps addressed in the guide lead to evaluation of radiological dose to exposed persons for comparison with siting guideline doses. Other possible consequences considered are environmental contamination, population dose, and public health effects. Choices of models and parameters leading to estimation of source terms, release fractions, reduction and removal factors, dispersion and dose factors are discussed. Although requirements for risk analysis have not been established, risk estimates are finding increased use in siting of major nuclear facilities, and are discussed in the guide. 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Radioactivity in air around nuclear facilities in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, S.; Alvarez, C.; Silva, H.A.; Dorantes, C. ); Gaso, M.I.; Segovia, N. ); Perez, I. )

    1994-01-01

    Radioactivity in air sampled around the Nucleoelectric Power Plant at Laguna Verde and the Nuclear Center of Mexico research laboratories was analyzed. The gross beta activity in air filters during the preoperational (1986-1989) and operational (1989-1992) periods of the plant showed stability except in May 1986 when a contribution from the Chernobyl accident was observed. The radionuclides in air were below the accepted operational limit in the whole period. The average gross beta concentration in air during the same period (1986-1992) at the Nuclear Center showed also the higher values in 1986 and the concentration values of [sup 132]Cs determined in composite samples of edible wild mushrooms collected at this site, exhibited an increase in the same year. An analysis of the synoptical meteorological large-scale pattern occurring in the Northern Hemisphere after the Chernobyl accident is presented in order to estimate how the radioactive plume arrived to Mexico. 25 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Improving the regulation of safety at DOE nuclear facilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The report strongly recommends that, with the end of the Cold War, safety and health at DOE facilities should be regulated by outside agencies rather than by DOE itself. The three major recommendations are: under any regulatory scheme, DOE must maintain a strong internal safety management system; essentially all aspects of safety at DOE`s nuclear facilities should be externally regulated; and existing agencies rather than a new one should be responsible for external regulation.

  5. Improving the regulation of safety at DOE nuclear facilities. Final report: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The report strongly recommends that, with the end of the Cold War, safety and health at DOE facilities should be regulated by outside agencies rather than by any regulatory scheme, DOE must maintain a strong internal safety management system; essentially all aspects of safety at DOE`s nuclear facilities should be externally regulated; and existing agencies rather than a new one should be responsible for external regulation.

  6. Feasibility study of a gamma camera for monitoring nuclear materials in the PRIDE facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Woo Jin; Kim, Hyun-Il; An, Su Jung; Lee, Chae Young; Song, Han-Kyeol; Chung, Yong Hyun; Shin, Hee-Sung; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Park, Se-Hwan

    2014-05-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing pyroprocessing technology, in which actinides are recovered together with plutonium. There is no pure plutonium stream in the process, so it has an advantage of proliferation resistance. Tracking and monitoring of nuclear materials through the pyroprocess can significantly improve the transparency of the operation and safeguards. An inactive engineering-scale integrated pyroprocess facility, which is the PyRoprocess Integrated inactive DEmonstration (PRIDE) facility, was constructed to demonstrate engineering-scale processes and the integration of each unit process. the PRIDE facility may be a good test bed to investigate the feasibility of a nuclear material monitoring system. In this study, we designed a gamma camera system for nuclear material monitoring in the PRIDE facility by using a Monte Carlo simulation, and we validated the feasibility of this system. Two scenarios, according to locations of the gamma camera, were simulated using GATE (GEANT4 Application for Tomographic Emission) version 6. A prototype gamma camera with a diverging-slat collimator was developed, and the simulated and experimented results agreed well with each other. These results indicate that a gamma camera to monitor the nuclear material in the PRIDE facility can be developed.

  7. A pilot workshop of nuclear material accounting and control of facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Li, T. K.; Wilkey, D. D.

    2004-01-01

    With collaboration among the US Department of Energy, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the China Atomic Energy Authority (CAEA), we have developed a Pilot Workshop of Nuclear Material Accounting and Control at Facilities and offered on May 19-June 1, 2004 in Beijing, China. The purpose of the workshop is to provide instruction in facility-level safeguards and security to participants from China and other invited countries a variation on the traditional State System of Accounting and Control (SSAC) by focusing on the nuclear material control and accounting (MC&A) measures as applied at the facility level. Moreover, the shift in emphasis from the state system of accounting and control to the facility level offers an opportunity to address insider and terrorist threats. In this manner, the traditional SSAC course would be merged with issues more closely associated with nuclear security and terrorism prevention. All instruction and practical exercises were in English with sequential interpretation into Chinese. The workshop materials were in both English and Chinese. In addition to course lectures and invited guest lectures, all participants visited to a nuclear fuel fabrication plant used as a model for an exercise in designing the safeguards system for a bulk facility. This paper reports the result and experience of the workshop and discusses the course evaluation from participants.

  8. Quality assurance in nuclear medicine facilities; availability of final recommendations--FDA. Notice.

    PubMed

    1985-05-13

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of final recommendations prepared by its Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) on quality assurance programs in nuclear medicine facilities. The final recommendations include the agency's rationale for the recommendations as well as references that can be used as well as references that can be used as guides in conducting quality control monitoring. These final recommendations are available as a technical report in CDRH's radiation recommendations series. They are intended to encourage and promote the development of voluntary quality assurance programs in nuclear medicine facilities. PMID:10271280

  9. Human sex ratio at birth and residential proximity to nuclear facilities in France.

    PubMed

    Scherb, Hagen; Kusmierz, Ralf; Voigt, Kristina

    2016-04-01

    The possible detrimental genetic impact on humans living in the vicinity of nuclear facilities has been previously studied. We found evidence for an increase in the human secondary sex ratio (sex odds) within distances of up to 35km from nuclear facilities in Germany and Switzerland. Here, we extend our pilot investigations using new comprehensive data from France. The French data (1968-2011) account for 36,565 municipalities with 16,968,701 male and 16,145,925 female births. The overall sex ratio was 1.0510. Using linear and nonlinear logistic regression models with dummy variables coding for appropriately grouped municipalities, operation time periods, and corresponding spatiotemporal interactions, we consider the association between annual municipality-level birth sex ratios and minimum distances of municipalities from nuclear facilities. Within 35km from 28 nuclear sites in France, the sex ratio is increased relative to the rest of France with a sex odds ratio (SOR) of 1.0028, (95% CI: 1.0007, 1.0049). The detected association between municipalities' minimum distances from nuclear facilities and the sex ratio in France corroborates our findings for Germany and Switzerland. PMID:26880420

  10. Human sex ratio at birth and residential proximity to nuclear facilities in France.

    PubMed

    Scherb, Hagen; Kusmierz, Ralf; Voigt, Kristina

    2016-04-01

    The possible detrimental genetic impact on humans living in the vicinity of nuclear facilities has been previously studied. We found evidence for an increase in the human secondary sex ratio (sex odds) within distances of up to 35km from nuclear facilities in Germany and Switzerland. Here, we extend our pilot investigations using new comprehensive data from France. The French data (1968-2011) account for 36,565 municipalities with 16,968,701 male and 16,145,925 female births. The overall sex ratio was 1.0510. Using linear and nonlinear logistic regression models with dummy variables coding for appropriately grouped municipalities, operation time periods, and corresponding spatiotemporal interactions, we consider the association between annual municipality-level birth sex ratios and minimum distances of municipalities from nuclear facilities. Within 35km from 28 nuclear sites in France, the sex ratio is increased relative to the rest of France with a sex odds ratio (SOR) of 1.0028, (95% CI: 1.0007, 1.0049). The detected association between municipalities' minimum distances from nuclear facilities and the sex ratio in France corroborates our findings for Germany and Switzerland.

  11. 76 FR 16758 - DOE Response to Recommendation 2010-1 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... our nuclear safety requirements to assure they were clear, concise, complete, and current. In March... progress in revising key nuclear safety Directives and the DOE Nuclear Safety Policy. We have not changed... have made significant nuclear safety improvements by upgrading facility safety bases and designs and...

  12. 10 CFR 2.103 - Action on applications for byproduct, source, special nuclear material, facility and operator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... nuclear material, facility and operator licenses. (a) If the Director, Office of Nuclear Reactor... repository operations area under parts 60 or 63 of this chapter, the Director, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Director, Office of New Reactors, Director, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards,...

  13. 10 CFR 2.103 - Action on applications for byproduct, source, special nuclear material, facility and operator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... nuclear material, facility and operator licenses. (a) If the Director, Office of Nuclear Reactor... repository operations area under parts 60 or 63 of this chapter, the Director, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Director, Office of New Reactors, Director, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards,...

  14. Understanding and Managing Aging of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Facility Components in Wet Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A. Burton

    2007-07-01

    Storage of nuclear fuel after it has been discharged from reactors has become the leading spent fuel management option. Many storage facilities are being required to operate longer than originally anticipated. Aging is a term that has emerged to focus attention on the consequences of extended operation on systems, structures, and components that comprise the storage facilities. The key to mitigation of age-related degradation in storage facilities is to implement effective strategies to understand and manage aging of the facility materials. A systematic approach to preclude serious effects of age-related degradation is addressed in this paper, directed principally to smaller facilities (test and research reactors). The first need is to assess the materials that comprise the facility and the environments that they are subject to. Access to historical data on facility design, fabrication, and operation can facilitate assessment of expected materials performance. Methods to assess the current condition of facility materials are summarized in the paper. Each facility needs an aging management plan to define the scope of the management program, involving identification of the materials that need specific actions to manage age-related degradation. For each material identified, one or more aging management programs are developed and become part of the plan Several national and international organizations have invested in development of comprehensive and systematic approaches to aging management. A method developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is recommended as a concise template to organize measures to effectively manage age-related degradation of storage facility materials, including the scope of inspection, surveillance, and maintenance that is needed to assure successful operation of the facility over its required life. Important to effective aging management is a staff that is alert for evidence of materials degradation and committed to carry out the aging

  15. Study of nuclear reactions in laser plasmas at future ELI-NP facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzalone, G.; Altana, C.; Anzalone, A.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cavallaro, M.; Gizzi, L. A.; Labate, L.; Lamia, L.; Mascali, D.; Muoio, A.; Negoita, F.; Odorici, F.; Petrascu, H.; Trifirò, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Tudisco, S.

    2016-05-01

    In this contribution we will present the future activities that our collaboration will carry out at ELI-NP (Extreme Light Infrastructure Nuclear Physics), the new multi peta-watt Laser facility, currently under construction at Bucharest (Romania). The activities concerns the study of nuclear reactions in laser plasmas. In this framework we proposed the construction of a new, general-purpose experimental set-up able to detect and identify neutrons and charged particles.

  16. REPORT OF THE WORKSHOP ON NUCLEAR FACILITY DESIGN INFORMATION EXAMINATION AND VERIFICATION FOR SAFEGUARDS

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Metcalf; Robert Bean

    2009-10-01

    Executive Summary The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) implements nuclear safeguards and verifies countries are compliant with their international nuclear safeguards agreements. One of the key provisions in the safeguards agreement is the requirement that the country provide nuclear facility design and operating information to the IAEA relevant to safeguarding the facility, and at a very early stage. , This provides the opportunity for the IAEA to verify the safeguards-relevant features of the facility and to periodically ensure that those features have not changed. The national authorities (State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material - SSAC) provide the design information for all facilities within a country to the IAEA. The design information is conveyed using the IAEA’s Design Information Questionnaire (DIQ) and specifies: (1) Identification of the facility’s general character, purpose, capacity, and location; (2) Description of the facility’s layout and nuclear material form, location, and flow; (3) Description of the features relating to nuclear material accounting, containment, and surveillance; and (4) Description of existing and proposed procedures for nuclear material accounting and control, with identification of nuclear material balance areas. The DIQ is updated as required by written addendum. IAEA safeguards inspectors examine and verify this information in design information examination (DIE) and design information verification (DIV) activities to confirm that the facility has been constructed or is being operated as declared by the facility operator and national authorities, and to develop a suitable safeguards approach. Under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), the National Nuclear Security Administrations (NNSA) Office of Non-Proliferation and International Security identified the need for more effective and efficient verification of design information by the IAEA for improving international safeguards

  17. Description of the Canadian particulate-fill waste-package (WP) system for spent-nuclear fuel (SNF) and its applicability to light-water reactor SNF WPs with depleted uranium-dioxide fill

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1997-10-20

    The US is beginning work on an advanced, light-water reactor (LWR), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), waste package (WP) that uses depleted uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) fill. The Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program has completed a 15-year development program of its repository concept for CANadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactor SNF. As one option, Canada has developed a WP that uses a glass-bead or silica-sand fill. The Canadian development work on fill materials inside WPs can provide a guide for the development of LWR SNF WPs using depleted uranium (DU) fill materials. This report summarizes the Canadian work, identifies similarities and differences between the Canadian design and the design being investigated in the US to use DU fill, and identifies what information is applicable to the development of a DU fill for LWR SNF WPs. In both concepts, empty WPs are loaded with SNF, the void space between the fuel pins and the outer void space between SNF assemblies and the inner WP wall would be filled with small particles, the WPs are then sealed, and the WPs are placed into the repository.

  18. An Overview of Facilities and Capabilities to Support the Development of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    James Werner; Sam Bhattacharyya; Mike Houts

    2011-02-01

    Abstract. The future of American space exploration depends on the ability to rapidly and economically access locations of interest throughout the solar system. There is a large body of work (both in the US and the Former Soviet Union) that show that Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is the most technically mature, advanced propulsion system that can enable this rapid and economical access by its ability to provide a step increase above what is a feasible using a traditional chemical rocket system. For an NTP system to be deployed, the earlier measurements and recent predictions of the performance of the fuel and the reactor system need to be confirmed experimentally prior to launch. Major fuel and reactor system issues to be addressed include fuel performance at temperature, hydrogen compatibility, fission product retention, and restart capability. The prime issue to be addressed for reactor system performance testing involves finding an affordable and environmentally acceptable method to test a range of engine sizes using a combination of nuclear and non-nuclear test facilities. This paper provides an assessment of some of the capabilities and facilities that are available or will be needed to develop and test the nuclear fuel, and reactor components. It will also address briefly options to take advantage of the greatly improvement in computation/simulation and materials processing capabilities that would contribute to making the development of an NTP system more affordable. Keywords: Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP), Fuel fabrication, nuclear testing, test facilities.

  19. The concept of electro-nuclear facility for useful power generation and minor actinides transmutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergelson, B. R.; Balyuk, S. A.

    1995-09-01

    The possibility is shown to design in principle the double-purpose liquid fuel electro nuclear facility for useful power generation and minor actinides transmutation in U-Pu fuel cycle conditions. D2O and a melt of fluorine salts are considered as a working media for liquid fuel. Such facility replenished with depicted or natural uranium only makes it possible to generate power of 900 MW (c) for external consumers and serve 20 WWER-1000 reactors for transmutation of MA. The facility could be thought as an alternative to fast reactors since appr. 30% of the total power confined in uranium is utilized in it.

  20. Organizing for nuclear power facility development. Final draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Centralized power development concepts have been of interest for some years and have been given considerable study in the past, e.g., the Congressionally-directed 1975 NRC studies. In general, while all such studies have concluded that such Centers did offer potential benefits and were feasible, in the mid-1970's, when most of these studies were done, the advantages did not appear to make use of Energy Centers on balance, preferable to continued conventional or dispersed siting. The DOE recognized that more recent circumstances, particularly the TMI accident, and the new imperatives which have been defined since that event for the proper conduct of the nuclear power ''enterprise'' may well have changed that balance. Centralized siting may today offer important benefits, but clearly those benefits can only be realized if the Center is effectively organized and if the institutional problems of organization (i.e., financial, political and jurisdictional) can be dealt with. Thus the Department of Energy asked the S.M. Stoller Corporation (SMSC) to outline the institutional factors and the organizational considerations to be taken into account in the establishment of nuclear power energy centers in the United States.

  1. Evaluation of natural phenomena hazards as part of safety assessments for nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kot, C.A.; Hsieh, B.J.; Srinivasan, M.G.; Shin, Y.W.

    1995-02-01

    The continued operation of existing US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and laboratories requires a safety reassessment based on current criteria and guidelines. This also includes evaluations for the effects of Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH), for which these facilities may not have been designed. The NPH evaluations follow the requirements of DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation (1993) which establishes NPH Performance Categories (PCs) for DOE facilities and associated target probabilistic performance goals. These goals are expressed as the mean annual probability of exceedance of acceptable behavior for structures, systems and components (SSCs) subjected to NPH effects. The assignment of an NPH Performance Category is based on the overall hazard categorization (low, moderate, high) of a facility and on the function of an SSC under evaluation (DOE-STD-1021, 1992). Detailed guidance for the NPH analysis and evaluation criteria are also provided (DOE-STD-1020, 1994). These analyses can be very resource intensive, and may not be necessary for the evaluation of all SSCs in existing facilities, in particular for low hazard category facilities. An approach relying heavily on screening inspections, engineering judgment and use of NPH experience data (S. J. Eder et al., 1993), can minimize the analytical effort, give reasonable estimates of the NPH susceptibilities, and yield adequate information for an overall safety evaluation of the facility. In the following sections this approach is described in more detail and is illustrated by an application to a nuclear laboratory complex.

  2. Site-wide seismic risk model for Savannah River Site nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Eide, S.A.; Shay, R.S.; Durant, W.S.

    1993-09-01

    The 200,000 acre Savannah River Site (SRS) has nearly 30 nuclear facilities spread throughout the site. The safety of each facility has been established in facility-specific safety analysis reports (SARs). Each SAR contains an analysis of risk from seismic events to both on-site workers and the off-site population. Both radiological and chemical releases are considered, and air and water pathways are modeled. Risks to the general public are generally characterized by evaluating exposure to the maximally exposed individual located at the SRS boundary and to the off-site population located within 50 miles. Although the SARs are appropriate methods for studying individual facility risks, there is a class of accident initiators that can simultaneously affect several of all of the facilities, Examples include seismic events, strong winds or tornados, floods, and loss of off-site electrical power. Overall risk to the off-site population from such initiators is not covered by the individual SARs. In such cases multiple facility radionuclide or chemical releases could occur, and off-site exposure would be greater than that indicated in a single facility SAR. As a step towards an overall site-wide risk model that adequately addresses multiple facility releases, a site-wide seismic model for determining off-site risk has been developed for nuclear facilities at the SRS. Risk from seismic events up to the design basis earthquake (DBE) of 0.2 g (frequency of 2.0E-4/yr) is covered by the model. Present plans include expanding the scope of the model to include other types of initiators that can simultaneously affect multiple facilities.

  3. Assessing risks to fish populations near a proposed disposal facility for used nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, D.; Miesenheimer, P.; Hull, R.

    1995-12-31

    The concept of used nuclear fuel disposal in the Canadian Shield is currently undergoing a federal environmental assessment review process. As part of this review, potential risks to brook trout populations in the vicinity of such an underground repository were considered. Chemical fate, transport and exposure models have been utilized to estimate the dose rates from released radionuclides and other fuel constituents, and these likely will not be sufficient to harm fish in nearby streams. However, other stressors such as habitat alteration (e.g., loss of upwelling) and/or fishing pressure associated with increased public access could have significant population impacts if the site is located in a pristine northern region. Population models are utilized to explore the risks of local population reduction for different combinations of fishing pressure and habitat degradation.

  4. Extreme Storm Event Assessments for Nuclear Facilities and Dam Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, J. F.; Nicholson, T. J.; Prasad, R.

    2008-12-01

    Extreme storm events over the last 35 years are being assessed to evaluate flood estimates for safety assessments of dams, nuclear power plants, and other high-hazard structures in the U.S. The current storm rainfall design standard for evaluating the flood potential at dams and non-coastal nuclear power plants is the Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP). PMP methods and estimates are published in the National Weather Service generalized hydrometeorological reports (HMRs). A new Federal Interagency cooperative effort is reviewing hydrometeorologic data from large storms which have occurred in the last 20 to 40 years and were not included in the database used in the development of many of the HMRs. Extreme storm data, such as the January 1996 storm in Pennsylvania, June 2008 Iowa storms, and Hurricanes Andrew (1992), Floyd (1999), Isabel (2003), Katrina (2005), need to be systematically assembled and analyzed for use in these regional extreme storm studies. Storm maximization, transposition, envelopment, and depth-area duration procedures will incorporate recent advances in hydrometeorology, including radar precipitation data and stochastic storm techniques. We describe new cooperative efforts to develop a database of extreme storms and to examine the potential impacts of recent extreme storms on PMP estimates. These efforts will be coordinated with Federal agencies, universities, and the private sector through an Extreme Storm Events Work Group under the Federal Subcommittee on Hydrology. This work group is chartered to coordinate studies and develop databases for reviewing and improving methodologies and data collection techniques used to estimate design precipitation up to and including the PMP. The initial effort focuses on collecting and reviewing extreme storm event data in the Southeastern U.S. that have occurred since Tropical Storm Agnes (1972). Uncertainties and exceedance probability estimates of PMP are being explored. Potential effects of climate

  5. 76 FR 5354 - Public Availability of Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board FY 2010 Service Contract Inventory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... Inventory AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (Board). ACTION: Notice of public availability of FY 2010 Service Contract Inventories. SUMMARY: In accordance with Section 743 of Division C of the... public of the availability of the FY 2010 Service Contract inventory. This inventory provides...

  6. Proceedings of the 1984 DOE nuclear reactor and facility safety conference. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This report is a collection of papers on reactor safety. The report takes the form of proceedings from the 1984 DOE Nuclear Reactor and Facility Safety Conference, Volume II of two. These proceedings cover Safety, Accidents, Training, Task/Job Analysis, Robotics and the Engineering Aspects of Man/Safety interfaces.

  7. Analysis of impact of noncompliance with physical-security requirements at nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.N.

    1982-03-01

    Inspectors are required to analyze the impact of instances of noncompliance with physical security requirements at licensed nuclear facilities. A scoring procedure for components and a method for evaluating the effectiveness of the subsystems involved are proposed to reinforce an inspector's judgment about the remaining level of safeguards.

  8. Guidelines for preparing criticality safety evaluations at Department of Energy non-reactor nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document contains guidelines that should be followed when preparing Criticality Safety Evaluations that will be used to demonstrate the safety of operations performed at DOE non-reactor nuclear facilities. Adherence to these guidelines will provide consistency and uniformity in criticality safety evaluations (CSEs) across the complex and will document compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.24.

  9. Test Facilities and Experience on Space Nuclear System Developments at the Kurchatov Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev-Stepnoi, Nikolai N.; Garin, Vladimir P.; Glushkov, Evgeny S.; Kompaniets, George V.; Kukharkin, Nikolai E.; Madeev, Vicktor G.; Papin, Vladimir K.; Polyakov, Dmitry N.; Stepennov, Boris S.; Tchuniyaev, Yevgeny I.; Tikhonov, Lev Ya.; Uksusov, Yevgeny I.

    2004-02-01

    The complexity of space fission systems and rigidity of requirement on minimization of weight and dimension characteristics along with the wish to decrease expenditures on their development demand implementation of experimental works which results shall be used in designing, safety substantiation, and licensing procedures. Experimental facilities are intended to solve the following tasks: obtainment of benchmark data for computer code validations, substantiation of design solutions when computational efforts are too expensive, quality control in a production process, and ``iron'' substantiation of criticality safety design solutions for licensing and public relations. The NARCISS and ISKRA critical facilities and unique ORM facility on shielding investigations at the operating OR nuclear research reactor were created in the Kurchatov Institute to solve the mentioned tasks. The range of activities performed at these facilities within the implementation of the previous Russian nuclear power system programs is briefly described in the paper. This experience shall be analyzed in terms of methodological approach to development of future space nuclear systems (this analysis is beyond this paper). Because of the availability of these facilities for experiments, the brief description of their critical assemblies and characteristics is given in this paper.

  10. Investigation of injury/illness data at a nuclear facility. Part II

    DOE PAGES

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Garcia, Vincent E.; Sandoval, Arnold N.; George, Gerald L.; Gubernatis, David C.; Schreiber, Stephen B.

    2015-07-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), there are several nuclear facilities, accelerator facilities, radiological facilities, explosives sites, moderate- and high-hazard non-nuclear facilities, biosciences laboratory, etc. The Plutonium Science and Manufacturing Directorate (ADPSM) provides special nuclear material research, process development, technology demonstration, and manufacturing capabilities. ADPSM manages the LANL Plutonium Facility. Within the Radiological Control Area at TA-55 (PF-4), chemical and metallurgical operations with plutonium and other hazardous materials are performed. LANL Health and Safety Programs investigate injury and illness data. In this study, statistically significant trends have been identified and compared for LANL, ADPSM, and PF-4 injury/illness cases. A previouslymore » described output metric is used to measures LANL management progress towards meeting its operational safety objectives and goals. Timelines are used to determine trends in Injury/Illness types. Pareto Charts are used to prioritize causal factors. The data generated from analysis of Injury/Illness data have helped identify and reduce the number of corresponding causal factors.« less

  11. Test Facilities and Experience on Space Nuclear System Developments at the Kurchatov Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Ponomarev-Stepnoi, Nikolai N.; Garin, Vladimir P.; Glushkov, Evgeny S.; Kompaniets, George V.; Kukharkin, Nikolai E.; Madeev, Vicktor G.; Papin, Vladimir K.; Polyakov, Dmitry N.; Stepennov, Boris S.; Tchuniyaev, Yevgeny I.; Tikhonov, Lev Ya.; Uksusov, Yevgeny I.

    2004-02-04

    The complexity of space fission systems and rigidity of requirement on minimization of weight and dimension characteristics along with the wish to decrease expenditures on their development demand implementation of experimental works which results shall be used in designing, safety substantiation, and licensing procedures. Experimental facilities are intended to solve the following tasks: obtainment of benchmark data for computer code validations, substantiation of design solutions when computational efforts are too expensive, quality control in a production process, and 'iron' substantiation of criticality safety design solutions for licensing and public relations. The NARCISS and ISKRA critical facilities and unique ORM facility on shielding investigations at the operating OR nuclear research reactor were created in the Kurchatov Institute to solve the mentioned tasks. The range of activities performed at these facilities within the implementation of the previous Russian nuclear power system programs is briefly described in the paper. This experience shall be analyzed in terms of methodological approach to development of future space nuclear systems (this analysis is beyond this paper). Because of the availability of these facilities for experiments, the brief description of their critical assemblies and characteristics is given in this paper.

  12. Investigation of injury/illness data at a nuclear facility. Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Garcia, Vincent E.; Sandoval, Arnold N.; George, Gerald L.; Gubernatis, David C.; Schreiber, Stephen B.

    2015-07-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), there are several nuclear facilities, accelerator facilities, radiological facilities, explosives sites, moderate- and high-hazard non-nuclear facilities, biosciences laboratory, etc. The Plutonium Science and Manufacturing Directorate (ADPSM) provides special nuclear material research, process development, technology demonstration, and manufacturing capabilities. ADPSM manages the LANL Plutonium Facility. Within the Radiological Control Area at TA-55 (PF-4), chemical and metallurgical operations with plutonium and other hazardous materials are performed. LANL Health and Safety Programs investigate injury and illness data. In this study, statistically significant trends have been identified and compared for LANL, ADPSM, and PF-4 injury/illness cases. A previously described output metric is used to measures LANL management progress towards meeting its operational safety objectives and goals. Timelines are used to determine trends in Injury/Illness types. Pareto Charts are used to prioritize causal factors. The data generated from analysis of Injury/Illness data have helped identify and reduce the number of corresponding causal factors.

  13. Management concepts and safety applications for nuclear fuel facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Eisner, H.; Scotti, R.S.; Delicate, W.S.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents an overview of effectiveness of management control of safety. It reviews several modern management control theories as well as the general functions of management and relates them to safety issues at the corporate and at the process safety management (PSM) program level. Following these discussions, structured technique for assessing management of the safety function is suggested. Seven modern management control theories are summarized, including business process reengineering, the learning organization, capability maturity, total quality management, quality assurance and control, reliability centered maintenance, and industrial process safety. Each of these theories is examined for-its principal characteristics and implications for safety management. The five general management functions of planning, organizing, directing, monitoring, and integrating, which together provide control over all company operations, are discussed. Under the broad categories of Safety Culture, Leadership and Commitment, and Operating Excellence, key corporate safety elements and their subelements are examined. The three categories under which PSM program-level safety issues are described are Technology, Personnel, and Facilities.

  14. Nuclear Rocket Test Facility Decommissioning Including Controlled Explosive Demolition of a Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Kruzic

    2007-09-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, the Test Cell A Facility was used in the 1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program. The facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) in 2005 using the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Utilities and process piping were verified void of contents, hazardous materials were removed, concrete with removable contamination decontaminated, large sections mechanically demolished, and the remaining five-foot, five-inch thick radiologically-activated reinforced concrete shield wall demolished using open-air controlled explosive demolition (CED). CED of the shield wall was closely monitored and resulted in no radiological exposure or atmospheric release.

  15. Effluent Containment System for space thermal nuclear propulsion ground test facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the research and development study work performed for the Space Reactor Power System Division of the U.S. Department of Energy on an innovative ECS that would be used during ground testing of a space nuclear thermal rocket engine. A significant portion of the ground test facilities for a space nuclear thermal propulsion engine are the effluent treatment and containment systems. The proposed ECS configuration developed recycles all engine coolant media and does not impact the environment by venting radioactive material. All coolant media, hydrogen and water, are collected, treated for removal of radioactive particulates, and recycled for use in subsequent tests until the end of the facility life. Radioactive materials removed by the treatment systems are recovered, stored for decay of short-lived isotopes, or packaged for disposal as waste. At the end of the useful life, the facility will be decontaminated and dismantled for disposal.

  16. Spare parts management for nuclear power generation facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scala, Natalie Michele

    With deregulation, utilities in the power sector face a much more urgent imperative to emphasize cost efficiencies as compared to the days of regulation. One major opportunity for cost savings is through reductions in spare parts inventories. Most utilities are accustomed to carrying large volumes of expensive, relatively slow-moving parts because of a high degree of risk-averseness. This attitude towards risk is rooted in the days of regulation. Under regulation, companies recovered capital inventory costs by incorporating them into the base rate charged to their customers. In a deregulated environment, cost recovery is no longer guaranteed. Companies must therefore reexamine their risk profile and develop policies for spare parts inventory that are appropriate for a competitive business environment. This research studies the spare parts inventory management problem in the context of electric utilities, with a focus on nuclear power. It addresses three issues related to this problem: criticality, risk, and policy. With respect to criticality and risk, a methodology is presented that incorporates the use of influence diagrams and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). A new method is developed for group aggregation in the AHP when Saaty and Vargas' (2007) dispersion test fails and decision makers are unwilling or unable to revise their judgments. With respect to policy, a quantitative model that ranks the importance of keeping a part in inventory and recommends a corresponding stocking policy through the use of numerical simulation is developed. This methodology and its corresponding models will enable utilities that have transitioned from a regulated to a deregulated environment become more competitive in their operations while maintaining safety and reliability standards. Furthermore, the methodology developed is general enough so that other utility plants, especially those in the nuclear sector, will be able to use this approach. In addition to regulated

  17. 10 CFR 770.7 - What procedures are to be used to transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What procedures are to be used to transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development? 770.7 Section 770.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT § 770.7...

  18. 10 CFR 770.6 - May interested persons and entities request that real property at defense nuclear facilities be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false May interested persons and entities request that real property at defense nuclear facilities be transferred for economic development? 770.6 Section 770.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT §...

  19. 10 CFR 770.7 - What procedures are to be used to transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What procedures are to be used to transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development? 770.7 Section 770.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT § 770.7...

  20. 10 CFR 770.8 - May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less than fair market value? 770.8 Section 770.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT § 770.8 May...

  1. 10 CFR 770.8 - May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less than fair market value? 770.8 Section 770.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT § 770.8 May...

  2. 10 CFR 770.6 - May interested persons and entities request that real property at defense nuclear facilities be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false May interested persons and entities request that real property at defense nuclear facilities be transferred for economic development? 770.6 Section 770.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT §...

  3. 10 CFR 770.5 - How does DOE notify persons and entities that defense nuclear facility real property is available...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How does DOE notify persons and entities that defense nuclear facility real property is available for transfer for economic development? 770.5 Section 770.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR...

  4. 10 CFR 770.5 - How does DOE notify persons and entities that defense nuclear facility real property is available...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How does DOE notify persons and entities that defense nuclear facility real property is available for transfer for economic development? 770.5 Section 770.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR...

  5. 10 CFR 770.5 - How does DOE notify persons and entities that defense nuclear facility real property is available...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does DOE notify persons and entities that defense nuclear facility real property is available for transfer for economic development? 770.5 Section 770.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR...

  6. 10 CFR 770.5 - How does DOE notify persons and entities that defense nuclear facility real property is available...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How does DOE notify persons and entities that defense nuclear facility real property is available for transfer for economic development? 770.5 Section 770.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR...

  7. 10 CFR 770.7 - What procedures are to be used to transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What procedures are to be used to transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development? 770.7 Section 770.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT § 770.7...

  8. 10 CFR 770.8 - May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less than fair market value? 770.8 Section 770.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT § 770.8 May...

  9. 10 CFR 770.8 - May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less than fair market value? 770.8 Section 770.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT § 770.8 May...

  10. 10 CFR 770.8 - May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less than fair market value? 770.8 Section 770.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT § 770.8 May...

  11. 10 CFR 770.5 - How does DOE notify persons and entities that defense nuclear facility real property is available...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How does DOE notify persons and entities that defense nuclear facility real property is available for transfer for economic development? 770.5 Section 770.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR...

  12. 10 CFR 770.6 - May interested persons and entities request that real property at defense nuclear facilities be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May interested persons and entities request that real property at defense nuclear facilities be transferred for economic development? 770.6 Section 770.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT §...

  13. 10 CFR 770.6 - May interested persons and entities request that real property at defense nuclear facilities be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false May interested persons and entities request that real property at defense nuclear facilities be transferred for economic development? 770.6 Section 770.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT §...

  14. 10 CFR 770.6 - May interested persons and entities request that real property at defense nuclear facilities be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false May interested persons and entities request that real property at defense nuclear facilities be transferred for economic development? 770.6 Section 770.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT §...

  15. 76 FR 37798 - DOE Response to Recommendation 2010-2 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Pulse Jet...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Response to Recommendation 2010-2 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Pulse Jet Mixing at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: On May 20, 2011, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board reaffirmed their Recommendation...

  16. 76 FR 42686 - DOE Response to Recommendation 2011-1 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... Response to Recommendation 2011-1 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Safety Culture at the..., concerning Safety Culture at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, to the Department of Energy. In...) acknowledges receipt of Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (Board) Recommendation 2011-1, Safety...

  17. 77 FR 43583 - DOE Response to Recommendation 2012-1 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Savannah...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... Response to Recommendation 2012-1 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Savannah River Site... Nuclear Facilities Safety Board submitted Recommendation 2012-1, concerning Savannah River Site Building... Safety Board (Board) Recommendation 2012-1, Savannah River ] Site Building 235-F Safety, issued on May...

  18. FINESSE: study of the issues, experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology research and development. Interim report. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, M.

    1984-10-01

    The following chapters are included in this study: (1) fusion nuclear issues, (2) survey of experimental needs, (3) requirements of the experiments, (4) non-fusion facilities, (5) fusion facilities for nuclear experiments, and (6) fusion research and development scenarios. (MOW)

  19. 10 CFR 74.33 - Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium... and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce special nuclear material of low... to possess equipment capable of enriching uranium or operate an enrichment facility, and...

  20. 10 CFR 74.33 - Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium... and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce special nuclear material of low... to possess equipment capable of enriching uranium or operate an enrichment facility, and...

  1. 10 CFR 74.33 - Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium... and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce special nuclear material of low... to possess equipment capable of enriching uranium or operate an enrichment facility, and...

  2. 10 CFR 74.33 - Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium... and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce special nuclear material of low... to possess equipment capable of enriching uranium or operate an enrichment facility, and...

  3. 10 CFR 74.33 - Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium... and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce special nuclear material of low... to possess equipment capable of enriching uranium or operate an enrichment facility, and...

  4. Analysis and consequences of fire inside the ventilation ducts of a nuclear facility

    SciTech Connect

    Briand, A.R.; Laborde, J.C. ); Savornin, J.H.; Tessier, J.L. )

    1989-01-01

    Accident events involving fire are rather frequent and could have a severe effect on the safety of nuclear facilities. Among the fires that have broken out in nuclear plants, several have resulted from ignition of dust deposited inside the ventilation ducts and on the high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The BEATRICE test facility has been designed and built at a French nuclear studies center to enable the analysis and consequences of these types of fires to be evaluated. The associated experimental program is aimed at characterizing the fire (fire spread, aerosols formed), determining and simulating the temperature profiles along the duct (thermal losses evaluation by the pipette code), and evaluating the challenge and behavior of the associated HEPA filters (efficiency, contamination release, etc.). The tests performed in this study contributed to improvements in the basic knowledge about fires inside ventilation ducts and define the associated strategies (ventilation control, filters protection, etc.).

  5. Comparison of airborne and surface particulate size distributions in specific Hanford Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ottley, D.B.

    1995-05-01

    Settled dust from nuclear operations may be contaminated with radionuclides and become resuspended and subsequently breathed. This is the predominate radionuclide inhalation hazard scenario in nuclear facilities that have been deactivated and no longer have liquid in their process systems that may become directly airborne in accident situations. Comparisons were made between indoor ambient airborne particulate size distribution and that of resuspended dust that could become contaminated and subsequently airborne during decommissioning operations at selected nuclear facilities on the Hanford Site. Results indicate that only 5% of the particles, by count, above the breathing zone are greater than ten (10) {mu}m in size and that the particulates that could be resuspended into the breathing zone had a mean aerodynamic equivalent diameter of four (4) {mu}m or less.

  6. Monitoring nuclear facilities using Landsat-4 thermatic mapper data

    SciTech Connect

    Wukelic, G.W.; Foote, H.P.; Pendergast, M.M.

    1983-08-01

    This paper discusses the initial results of evaluating the potential use of TM Thermal data as a means to improve modeling and monitoring of temperature conditions in a typical closed loop water cooling system for a nuclear reactor. The thermal data and other TM multispectral data from Landsat offer the possibility to provide periodic surveys of surface water cooling systems with the purpose of updating thermal calibration on a seasonal basis, monitoring system efficiency for suspected or unknown changes within the confined waters, and planning expansion or experiments of the system in response to reactor operational needs. The Landsat TM should be considered as a complement rather than a substitute for the more detailed surveys afforded by aircraft borne sensors. By judiciously combining both aerial and satellite surveys, resulting data can be more economical and effective than using the products of only one of the two sensing systems. Moreover, the Landsat TM is one of a family of new generation satellite remote sensing systems which feature improved spatial resolution, wider spectral coverage, and expanded radiometric range. As these advanced systems become operational in the near future, significant implications exist for assisting environmental monitoring and ecological studies that would be of interest to organizations responsible for these activities at major DOE installations.

  7. Review of nuclear data improvement needs for nuclear radiation measurement techniques used at the CEA experimental reactor facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destouches, Christophe

    2016-03-01

    The constant improvement of the neutron and gamma calculation codes used in experimental nuclear reactors goes hand in hand with that of the associated nuclear data libraries. The validation of these calculation schemes always requires the confrontation with integral experiments performed in experimental reactors to be completed. Nuclear data of interest, straight as cross sections, or elaborated ones such as reactivity, are always derived from a reaction rate measurement which is the only measurable parameter in a nuclear sensor. So, in order to derive physical parameters from the electric signal of the sensor, one needs specific nuclear data libraries. This paper presents successively the main features of the measurement techniques used in the CEA experimental reactor facilities for the on-line and offline neutron/gamma flux characterizations: reactor dosimetry, neutron flux measurements with miniature fission chambers and Self Power Neutron Detector (SPND) and gamma flux measurements with chamber ionization and TLD. For each technique, the nuclear data necessary for their interpretation will be presented, the main identified needs for improvement identified and an analysis of their impact on the quality of the measurement. Finally, a synthesis of the study will be done.

  8. Nuclear Solid Waste Processing Design at the Idaho Spent Fuels Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dippre, M. A.

    2003-02-25

    A spent nuclear fuels (SNF) repackaging and storage facility was designed for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), with nuclear solid waste processing capability. Nuclear solid waste included contaminated or potentially contaminated spent fuel containers, associated hardware, machinery parts, light bulbs, tools, PPE, rags, swabs, tarps, weld rod, and HEPA filters. Design of the nuclear solid waste processing facilities included consideration of contractual, regulatory, ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) exposure, economic, logistical, and space availability requirements. The design also included non-attended transfer methods between the fuel packaging area (FPA) (hot cell) and the waste processing area. A monitoring system was designed for use within the FPA of the facility, to pre-screen the most potentially contaminated fuel canister waste materials, according to contact- or non-contact-handled capability. Fuel canister waste materials which are not able to be contact-handled after attempted decontamination will be processed remotely and packaged within the FPA. Noncontact- handled materials processing includes size-reduction, as required to fit into INEEL permitted containers which will provide sufficient additional shielding to allow contact handling within the waste areas of the facility. The current design, which satisfied all of the requirements, employs mostly simple equipment and requires minimal use of customized components. The waste processing operation also minimizes operator exposure and operator attendance for equipment maintenance. Recently, discussions with the INEEL indicate that large canister waste materials can possibly be shipped to the burial facility without size-reduction. New waste containers would have to be designed to meet the drop tests required for transportation packages. The SNF waste processing facilities could then be highly simplified, resulting in capital equipment cost savings, operational

  9. Project Hanford management contract quality assurance program implementation plan for nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bibb, E.K.

    1997-10-15

    During transition from the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Management and Operations (M and O) contract to the Fluor Daniel Hanford (FDH) Management and Integration (M and I) contract, existing WHC policies, procedures, and manuals were reviewed to determine which to adopt on an interim basis. Both WHC-SP-1131,Hanford Quality Assurance Program and Implementation Plan, and WHC-CM-4-2, Quality Assurance Manual, were adopted; however, it was recognized that revisions were required to address the functions and responsibilities of the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC). This Quality Assurance Program Implementation Plan for Nuclear Facilities (HNF-SP-1228) supersedes the implementation portion of WHC-SP-1 13 1, Rev. 1. The revised Quality Assurance (QA) Program is documented in the Project Hanford Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD), HNF-MP-599. That document replaces the QA Program in WHC-SP-1131, Rev. 1. The scope of this document is limited to documenting the nuclear facilities managed by FDH and its Major Subcontractors (MSCS) and the status of the implementation of 10 CFR 830.120, Quality Assurance Requirements, at those facilities. Since the QA Program for the nuclear facilities is now documented in the QAPD, future updates of the information provided in this plan will be by letter. The layout of this plan is similar to that of WHC-SP-1 13 1, Rev. 1. Sections 2.0 and 3.0 provide an overview of the Project Hanford QA Program. A list of Project Hanford nuclear facilities is provided in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides the status of facility compliance to 10 CFR 830.120. Sections 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0 provide requested exemptions, status of open items, and references, respectively. The four appendices correspond to the four projects that comprise Project Hanford.

  10. Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Progress in Iraq - 13216

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Musawi, Fouad; Shamsaldin, Emad S.; Jasim, Hadi; Cochran, John R.

    2013-07-01

    Management of Iraq's radioactive wastes and decommissioning of Iraq's former nuclear facilities are the responsibility of Iraq's Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST). The majority of Iraq's former nuclear facilities are in the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center located a few kilometers from the edge of Baghdad. These facilities include bombed and partially destroyed research reactors, a fuel fabrication facility and radioisotope production facilities. Within these facilities are large numbers of silos, approximately 30 process or waste storage tanks and thousands of drums of uncharacterised radioactive waste. There are also former nuclear facilities/sites that are outside of Al-Tuwaitha and these include the former uranium processing and waste storage facility at Jesira, the dump site near Adaya, the former centrifuge facility at Rashdiya and the former enrichment plant at Tarmiya. In 2005, Iraq lacked the infrastructure needed to decommission its nuclear facilities and manage its radioactive wastes. The lack of infrastructure included: (1) the lack of an organization responsible for decommissioning and radioactive waste management, (2) the lack of a storage facility for radioactive wastes, (3) the lack of professionals with experience in decommissioning and modern waste management practices, (4) the lack of laws and regulations governing decommissioning or radioactive waste management, (5) ongoing security concerns, and (6) limited availability of electricity and internet. Since its creation eight years ago, the MoST has worked with the international community and developed an organizational structure, trained staff, and made great progress in managing radioactive wastes and decommissioning Iraq's former nuclear facilities. This progress has been made, despite the very difficult implementing conditions in Iraq. Within MoST, the Radioactive Waste Treatment and Management Directorate (RWTMD) is responsible for waste management and the Iraqi Decommissioning

  11. Technical Aspects Regarding the Management of Radioactive Waste from Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dragolici, F.; Turcanu, C. N.; Rotarescu, G.; Paunica, I.

    2003-02-25

    The proper application of the nuclear techniques and technologies in Romania started in 1957, once with the commissioning of the Research Reactor VVR-S from IFIN-HH-Magurele. During the last 45 years, appear thousands of nuclear application units with extremely diverse profiles (research, biology, medicine, education, agriculture, transport, all types of industry) which used different nuclear facilities containing radioactive sources and generating a great variety of radioactive waste during the decommissioning after the operation lifetime is accomplished. A new aspect appears by the planning of VVR-S Research Reactor decommissioning which will be a new source of radioactive waste generated by decontamination, disassembling and demolition activities. By construction and exploitation of the Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant (STDR)--Magurele and the National Repository for Low and Intermediate Radioactive Waste (DNDR)--Baita, Bihor county, in Romania was solved the management of radioactive wastes arising from operation and decommissioning of small nuclear facilities, being assured the protection of the people and environment. The present paper makes a review of the present technical status of the Romanian waste management facilities, especially raising on treatment capabilities of ''problem'' wastes such as Ra-266, Pu-238, Am-241 Co-60, Co-57, Sr-90, Cs-137 sealed sources from industrial, research and medical applications. Also, contain a preliminary estimation of quantities and types of wastes, which would result during the decommissioning project of the VVR-S Research Reactor from IFIN-HH giving attention to some special category of wastes like aluminum, graphite and equipment, components and structures that became radioactive through neutron activation. After analyzing the technical and scientific potential of STDR and DNDR to handle big amounts of wastes resulting from the decommissioning of VVR-S Research Reactor and small nuclear facilities, the necessity of

  12. INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY: QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS RELEVANT TO NUCLEAR FACILITIES, SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

    2011-07-01

    Typical questions surrounding industrial control system (ICS) cyber security always lead back to: What could a cyber attack do to my system(s) and; how much should I worry about it? These two leading questions represent only a fraction of questions asked when discussing cyber security as it applies to any program, company, business, or organization. The intent of this paper is to open a dialog of important pertinent questions and answers that managers of nuclear facilities engaged in nuclear facility security and safeguards should examine, i.e., what questions should be asked; and how do the answers affect an organization's ability to effectively safeguard and secure nuclear material. When a cyber intrusion is reported, what does that mean? Can an intrusion be detected or go un-noticed? Are nuclear security or safeguards systems potentially vulnerable? What about the digital systems employed in process monitoring, and international safeguards? Organizations expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against physical threats. However, cyber threats particularly on ICSs may not be well known or understood, and often do not receive adequate attention. With the disclosure of the Stuxnet virus that has recently attacked nuclear infrastructure, many organizations have recognized the need for an urgent interest in cyber attacks and defenses against them. Several questions arise including discussions about the insider threat, adequate cyber protections, program readiness, encryption, and many more. These questions, among others, are discussed so as to raise the awareness and shed light on ways to protect nuclear facilities and materials against such attacks.

  13. ADDRESSING POLLUTION PREVENTION ISSUES IN THE DESIGN OF A NEW NUCLEAR RESEARCH FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Corpion, Juan; Nelson, Timothy O.

    2003-02-27

    The Chemistry and Metallurgical Research (CMR) Facility was designed in 1949 and built in 1952 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to support analytical chemistry, metallurgical studies, and actinide research and development on samples of plutonium and other nuclear materials for the Atomic Energy Commission's nuclear weapons program. These primary programmatic uses of the CMR Facility have not changed significantly since it was constructed. In 1998, a seismic fault was found to the west of the CMR Facility and projected to extend beneath two wings of the building. As part of the overall Risk Management Strategy for the CMR Facility, the Department of Energy (DOE) proposed to replace it by 2010 with what is called the CMR Facility Replacement (CMRR). In an effort to make this proposed new nuclear research facility environmentally sustainable, several pollution prevention/waste minimization initiatives are being reviewed for potential incorporation during the design phase. A two-phase approach is being adopted; the facility is being designed in a manner that integrates pollution prevention efforts, and programmatic activities are being tailored to minimize waste. Processes and procedures that reduce waste generation compared to current, prevalent processes and procedures are identified. Some of these ''best practices'' include the following: (1) recycling opportunities for spent materials; (2) replacing lithium batteries with alternate current adaptors; (3) using launderable contamination barriers in Radiological Control Areas (RCAs); (4) substituting mercury thermometers and manometers in RCAs with mercury-free devices; (5) puncturing and recycling aerosol cans; (6) using non-hazardous low-mercury fluorescent bulbs where available; (7) characterizing low-level waste as it is being generated; and (8) utilizing lead alternatives for radiological shielding. Each of these pollution prevention initiatives are being assessed for their technical validity, relevancy

  14. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-07-02

    This document provides the Operations Manual for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The Manual was developed in conjunction with HNF-553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report Annex B--Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-002, 1999, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, Rev. 4, and the CVDF Final Design Report. The Operations Manual contains general descriptions of all the process, safety and facility systems in the CVDF, a general CVD operations sequence and references to the CVDF System Design Descriptions (SDDs). This manual has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  15. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    2000-02-03

    This document provides the Operations Manual for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The Manual was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of the Processing Systems (Garvin 1998) and, the HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-002, 1997, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, Rev. 3a. The Operations Manual contains general descriptions of all the process, safety and facility systems in the CVDF, a general CVD operations sequence, and has been developed for the spent nuclear fuel project (SNFP) Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  16. Global nuclear energy partnership fuels transient testing at the Sandia National Laboratories nuclear facilities : planning and facility infrastructure options.

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, John E.; Wright, Steven Alan; Tikare, Veena; MacLean, Heather J.; Parma, Edward J., Jr.; Peters, Curtis D.; Vernon, Milton E.; Pickard, Paul S.

    2007-10-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership fuels development program is currently developing metallic, oxide, and nitride fuel forms as candidate fuels for an Advanced Burner Reactor. The Advance Burner Reactor is being designed to fission actinides efficiently, thereby reducing the long-term storage requirements for spent fuel repositories. Small fuel samples are being fabricated and evaluated with different transuranic loadings and with extensive burnup using the Advanced Test Reactor. During the next several years, numerous fuel samples will be fabricated, evaluated, and tested, with the eventual goal of developing a transmuter fuel database that supports the down selection to the most suitable fuel type. To provide a comparative database of safety margins for the range of potential transmuter fuels, this report describes a plan to conduct a set of early transient tests in the Annular Core Research Reactor at Sandia National Laboratories. The Annular Core Research Reactor is uniquely qualified to perform these types of tests because of its wide range of operating capabilities and large dry central cavity which extents through the center of the core. The goal of the fuels testing program is to demonstrate that the design and fabrication processes are of sufficient quality that the fuel will not fail at its design limit--up to a specified burnup, power density, and operating temperature. Transient testing is required to determine the fuel pin failure thresholds and to demonstrate that adequate fuel failure margins exist during the postulated design basis accidents.

  17. COMPLETION OF THE FIRST INTEGRATED SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL TRANSSHIPMENT/INTERIM STORAGE FACILITY IN NW RUSSIA

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, R.S.; Barnes, E.; Snipes, R.L.; Hoeibraaten, S.; Gran, H.C.; Foshaug, E.; Godunov, V.

    2003-02-27

    Northwest and Far East Russia contain large quantities of unsecured spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from decommissioned submarines that potentially threaten the fragile environments of the surrounding Arctic and North Pacific regions. The majority of the SNF from the Russian Navy, including that from decommissioned nuclear submarines, is currently stored in on-shore and floating storage facilities. Some of the SNF is damaged and stored in an unstable condition. Existing Russian transport infrastructure and reprocessing facilities cannot meet the requirements for moving and reprocessing this amount of fuel. Additional interim storage capacity is required. Most of the existing storage facilities being used in Northwest Russia do not meet health and safety, and physical security requirements. The United States and Norway are currently providing assistance to the Russian Federation (RF) in developing systems for managing these wastes. If these wastes are not properly managed, they could release significant concentrations of radioactivity to these sensitive environments and could become serious global environmental and physical security issues. There are currently three closely-linked trilateral cooperative projects: development of a prototype dual-purpose transport and storage cask for SNF, a cask transshipment interim storage facility, and a fuel drying and cask de-watering system. The prototype cask has been fabricated, successfully tested, and certified. Serial production is now underway in Russia. In addition, the U.S. and Russia are working together to improve the management strategy for nuclear submarine reactor compartments after SNF removal.

  18. Efficiency and cost advantages of an advanced-technology nuclear electrolytic hydrogen-energy production facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donakowski, T. D.; Escher, W. J. D.; Gregory, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of an advanced-technology (viz., 1985 technology) nuclear-electrolytic water electrolysis facility was assessed for hydrogen production cost and efficiency expectations. The facility integrates (1) a high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (HTGR) operating a binary work cycle, (2) direct-current (d-c) electricity generation via acyclic generators, and (3) high-current-density, high-pressure electrolyzers using a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE). All subsystems are close-coupled and optimally interfaced for hydrogen production alone (i.e., without separate production of electrical power). Pipeline-pressure hydrogen and oxygen are produced at 6900 kPa (1000 psi). We found that this advanced facility would produce hydrogen at costs that were approximately half those associated with contemporary-technology nuclear electrolysis: $5.36 versus $10.86/million Btu, respectively. The nuclear-heat-to-hydrogen-energy conversion efficiency for the advanced system was estimated as 43%, versus 25% for the contemporary system.

  19. The unit cost factors and calculation methods for decommissioning - Cost estimation of nuclear research facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan-Seong Jeong; Dong-Gyu Lee; Chong-Hun Jung; Kune-Woo Lee

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The uncertainties of decommissioning costs increase high due to several conditions. Decommissioning cost estimation depends on the complexity of nuclear installations, its site-specific physical and radiological inventories. Therefore, the decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities must be estimated in accordance with the detailed sub-tasks and resources by the tasks of decommissioning activities. By selecting the classified activities and resources, costs are calculated by the items and then the total costs of all decommissioning activities are reshuffled to match with its usage and objectives. And the decommissioning cost of nuclear research facilities is calculated by applying a unit cost factor method on which classification of decommissioning works fitted with the features and specifications of decommissioning objects and establishment of composition factors are based. Decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities are composed of labor cost, equipment and materials cost. Of these three categorical costs, the calculation of labor costs are very important because decommissioning activities mainly depend on labor force. Labor costs in decommissioning activities are calculated on the basis of working time consumed in decommissioning objects and works. The working times are figured out of unit cost factors and work difficulty factors. Finally, labor costs are figured out by using these factors as parameters of calculation. The accuracy of decommissioning cost estimation results is much higher compared to the real decommissioning works. (authors)

  20. A Hydrogen Ignition Mechanism for Explosions in Nuclear Facility Piping Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, Robert A.

    2013-09-18

    Hydrogen explosions may occur simultaneously with water hammer accidents in nuclear facilities, and a theoretical mechanism to relate water hammer to hydrogen deflagrations and explosions is presented herein. Hydrogen and oxygen generation due to the radiolysis of water is a recognized hazard in pipe systems used in the nuclear industry, where the accumulation of hydrogen and oxygen at high points in the pipe system is expected, and explosive conditions may occur. Pipe ruptures in nuclear reactor cooling systems were attributed to hydrogen explosions inside pipelines, i.e., Hamaoka, Nuclear Power Station in Japan, and Brunsbuettel in Germany. Prior to these accidents, an ignition source for hydrogen was not clearly demonstrated, but these accidents demonstrated that a mechanism was, in fact, available to initiate combustion and explosion. A new theory to identify an ignition source and explosion cause is presented here, and further research is recommended to fully understand this explosion mechanism.

  1. Nuclear Rocket Facility Decommissioning Project: Controlled Explosive Demolition of Neutron Activated Shield Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Michael R. Kruzic

    2007-09-16

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Test Cell A (TCA) Facility was used in the early to mid-1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program, to further space travel. Nuclear rocket testing resulted in the activation of materials around the reactors and the release of fission products and fuel particles in the immediate area. Identified as Corrective Action Unit 115, the TCA facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) from December 2004 to July 2005 using the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order''. The SAFER process allows environmental remediation and facility closure activities (i.e., decommissioning) to occur simultaneously provided technical decisions are made by an experienced decision maker within the site conceptual site model, identified in the Data Quality Objective process. Facility closure involved a seven-step decommissioning strategy. Key lessons learned from the project included: (1) Targeted preliminary investigation activities provided a more solid technical approach, reduced surprises and scope creep, and made the working environment safer for the D&D worker. (2) Early identification of risks and uncertainties provided opportunities for risk management and mitigation planning to address challenges and unanticipated conditions. (3) Team reviews provided an excellent mechanism to consider all aspects of the task, integrated safety into activity performance, increase team unity and ''buy-in'' and promoted innovative and time saving ideas. (4) Development of CED protocols ensured safety and control. (5) The same proven D&D strategy is now being employed on the larger ''sister'' facility, Test Cell C.

  2. Arc-Heater Facility for Hot Hydrogen Exposure of Nuclear Thermal Rocket Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Foote, John P.; Wang,Ten-See; Hickman, Robert; Panda, Binayak; Dobson, Chris; Osborne, Robin; Clifton, Scooter

    2006-01-01

    A hyper-thermal environment simulator is described for hot hydrogen exposure of nuclear thermal rocket material specimens and component development. This newly established testing capability uses a high-power, multi-gas, segmented arc-heater to produce high-temperature pressurized hydrogen flows representative of practical reactor core environments and is intended to serve. as a low cost test facility for the purpose of investigating and characterizing candidate fueUstructura1 materials and improving associated processing/fabrication techniques. Design and development efforts are thoroughly summarized, including thermal hydraulics analysis and simulation results, and facility operating characteristics are reported, as determined from a series of baseline performance mapping tests.

  3. A systematic method for identifying vital areas at complex nuclear facilities.

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, David Franklin; Hockert, John

    2005-05-01

    Identifying the areas to be protected is an important part of the development of measures for physical protection against sabotage at complex nuclear facilities. In June 1999, the International Atomic Energy Agency published INFCIRC/225/Rev.4, 'The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities.' This guidance recommends that 'Safety specialists, in close cooperation with physical protection specialists, should evaluate the consequences of malevolent acts, considered in the context of the State's design basis threat, to identify nuclear material, or the minimum complement of equipment, systems or devices to be protected against sabotage.' This report presents a structured, transparent approach for identifying the areas that contain this minimum complement of equipment, systems, and devices to be protected against sabotage that is applicable to complex nuclear facilities. The method builds upon safety analyses to develop sabotage fault trees that reflect sabotage scenarios that could cause unacceptable radiological consequences. The sabotage actions represented in the fault trees are linked to the areas from which they can be accomplished. The fault tree is then transformed (by negation) into its dual, the protection location tree, which reflects the sabotage actions that must be prevented in order to prevent unacceptable radiological consequences. The minimum path sets of this fault tree dual yield, through the area linkage, sets of areas, each of which contains nuclear material, or a minimum complement of equipment, systems or devices that, if protected, will prevent sabotage. This method also provides guidance for the selection of the minimum path set that permits optimization of the trade-offs among physical protection effectiveness, safety impact, cost and operational impact.

  4. Safeguards Guidance for Designers of Commercial Nuclear Facilities – International Safeguards Requirements for Uranium Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Philip Casey Durst; Scott DeMuth; Brent McGinnis; Michael Whitaker; James Morgan

    2010-04-01

    For the past two years, the United States National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of International Regimes and Agreements (NA-243), has sponsored the Safeguards-by-Design Project, through which it is hoped new nuclear facilities will be designed and constructed worldwide more amenable to nuclear safeguards. In the course of this project it was recognized that commercial designer/builders of nuclear facilities are not always aware of, or understand, the relevant domestic and international safeguards requirements, especially the latter as implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). To help commercial designer/builders better understand these requirements, a report was prepared by the Safeguards-by-Design Project Team that articulated and interpreted the international nuclear safeguards requirements for the initial case of uranium enrichment plants. The following paper summarizes the subject report, the specific requirements, where they originate, and the implications for design and construction. It also briefly summarizes the established best design and operating practices that designer/builder/operators have implemented for currently meeting these requirements. In preparing the subject report, it is recognized that the best practices are continually evolving as the designer/builder/operators and IAEA consider even more effective and efficient means for meeting the safeguards requirements and objectives.

  5. Nuclear facility licensing, doucumentation and reviews, and the SP-100 test site experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornwell, Bruce C.; Deobald, Ted L.; Bitten, Ernest J.

    1992-01-01

    The required approvals and permits to test a nuclear facility are extensive. Numerous regulatory requirements result in the preparation of documentation to support the approval process. The principal regulations for the SP-100 Ground Engineering System (GES) include the National Environmental Policy Act, Clean Air Act, and Atomic Energy Act. The documentation prepared for the SP-100 Nuclear Assembly Test (NAT) included an Environmental Assessment, state permit applications, and Safety Analysis Reports. This paper discusses the regulation documentation requirements and SP-100 NAT Test Site experience.

  6. Nuclear theory and science of the facility for rare isotope beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balantekin, A. B.; Carlson, J.; Dean, D. J.; Fuller, G. M.; Furnstahl, R. J.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Li, Bao-An; Nazarewicz, W.; Nunes, F. M.; Ormand, W. E.; Reddy, S.; Sherrill, B. M.

    2014-03-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) will be a world-leading laboratory for the study of nuclear structure, reactions and astrophysics. Experiments with intense beams of rare isotopes produced at FRIB will guide us toward a comprehensive description of nuclei, elucidate the origin of the elements in the cosmos, help provide an understanding of matter in neutron stars and establish the scientific foundation for innovative applications of nuclear science to society. FRIB will be essential for gaining access to key regions of the nuclear chart, where the measured nuclear properties will challenge established concepts, and highlight shortcomings and needed modifications to current theory. Conversely, nuclear theory will play a critical role in providing the intellectual framework for the science at FRIB, and will provide invaluable guidance to FRIB's experimental programs. This review overviews the broad scope of the FRIB theory effort, which reaches beyond the traditional fields of nuclear structure and reactions, and nuclear astrophysics, to explore exciting interdisciplinary boundaries with other areas.

  7. Measurement of Atmospheric Sea Salt Concentration in the Dry Storage Facility of the Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Masumi Wataru; Hisashi Kato; Satoshi Kudo; Naoko Oshima; Koji Wada; Hirofumi Narutaki

    2006-07-01

    Spent nuclear fuel coming from a Japanese nuclear power plant is stored in the interim storage facility before reprocessing. There are two types of the storage methods which are wet and dry type. In Japan, it is anticipated that the dry storage facility will increase compared with the wet type facility. The dry interim storage facility using the metal cask has been operated in Japan. In another dry storage technology, there is a concrete overpack. Especially in USA, a lot of concrete overpacks are used for the dry interim storage. In Japan, for the concrete cask, the codes of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers and the governmental technical guidelines are prepared for the realization of the interim storage as well as the code for the metal cask. But the interim storage using the concrete overpack has not been in progress because the evaluation on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the canister is not sufficient. Japanese interim storage facilities would be constructed near the seashore. The metal casks and concrete overpacks are stored in the storage building in Japan. On the other hand, in USA they are stored outside. It is necessary to remove the decay heat of the spent nuclear fuel in the cask from the storage building. Generally, the heat is removed by natural cooling in the dry storage facility. Air including the sea salt particles goes into the dry storage facility. Concerning the concrete overpack, air goes into the cask body and cools the canister. Air goes along the canister surface and is in contact with the surface directly. In this case, the sea salt in the air attaches to the surface and then there is the concern about the occurrence of the SCC. For the concrete overpack, the canister including the spent fuel is sealed by the welding. The loss of sealability caused by the SCC has to be avoided. To evaluate the SCC for the canister, it is necessary to make clear the amount of the sea salt particles coming into the storage building and the

  8. In Situ Decommissioning (ISD) Concepts and Approaches for Excess Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning End State - 13367

    SciTech Connect

    Serrato, Michael G.; Musall, John C.; Bergren, Christopher L.

    2013-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) currently has numerous radiologically contaminated excess nuclear facilities waiting decommissioning throughout the Complex. The traditional decommissioning end state is complete removal. This commonly involves demolishing the facility, often segregating various components and building materials and disposing of the highly contaminated, massive structures containing tons of highly contaminated equipment and piping in a (controlled and approved) landfill, at times hundreds of miles from the facility location. Traditional demolition is costly, and results in significant risks to workers, as well as risks and costs associated with transporting the materials to a disposal site. In situ decommissioning (ISD or entombment) is a viable alternative to demolition, offering comparable and potentially more protective protection of human health and the environment, but at a significantly reduced cost and worker risk. The Savannah River Site (SRS) has completed the initial ISD deployment for radiologically contaminated facilities. Two reactor (P and R Reactors) facilities were decommissioned in 2011 using the ISD approach through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The SRS ISD approach resolved programmatic, regulatory and technical/engineering issues associated with avoiding the potential hazards and cost associated with generating and disposing of an estimated 124,300 metric tons (153,000 m{sup 3}) of contaminated debris per reactor. The DOE Environmental Management Office of Deactivation and Decommissioning and Facility Engineering, through the Savannah River National Laboratory, is currently investigating potential monitoring techniques and strategies to assess ISD effectiveness. As part of SRS's strategic planning, the site is seeking to leverage in situ decommissioning concepts, approaches and facilities to conduct research, design end states, and assist in regulatory interactions in broad national and international

  9. Summary engineering description of underwater fuel storage facility for foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlke, H.J.; Johnson, D.A.; Rawlins, J.K.; Searle, D.K.; Wachs, G.W.

    1994-10-01

    This document is a summary description for an Underwater Fuel Storage Facility (UFSF) for foreign research reactor (FRR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF). A FRR SNF environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is being prepared and will include both wet and dry storage facilities as storage alternatives. For the UFSF presented in this document, a specific site is not chosen. This facility can be sited at any one of the five locations under consideration in the EIS. These locations are the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Hanford, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Nevada Test Site. Generic facility environmental impacts and emissions are provided in this report. A baseline fuel element is defined in Section 2.2, and the results of a fission product analysis are presented. Requirements for a storage facility have been researched and are summarized in Section 3. Section 4 describes three facility options: (1) the Centralized-UFSF, which would store the entire fuel element quantity in a single facility at a single location, (2) the Regionalized Large-UFSF, which would store 75% of the fuel element quantity in some region of the country, and (3) the Regionalized Small-UFSF, which would store 25% of the fuel element quantity, with the possibility of a number of these facilities in various regions throughout the country. The operational philosophy is presented in Section 5, and Section 6 contains a description of the equipment. Section 7 defines the utilities required for the facility. Cost estimates are discussed in Section 8, and detailed cost estimates are included. Impacts to worker safety, public safety, and the environment are discussed in Section 9. Accidental releases are presented in Section 10. Standard Environmental Impact Forms are included in Section 11.

  10. Automatic Estimation of the Radiological Inventory for the Dismantling of Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Bermejo, R.; Felipe, A.; Gutierrez, S.; Salas, E.; Martin, N.

    2008-01-15

    The estimation of the radiological inventory of Nuclear Facilities to be dismantled is a process that included information related with the physical inventory of all the plant and radiological survey. Estimation of the radiological inventory for all the components and civil structure of the plant could be obtained with mathematical models with statistical approach. A computer application has been developed in order to obtain the radiological inventory in an automatic way. Results: A computer application that is able to estimate the radiological inventory from the radiological measurements or the characterization program has been developed. In this computer applications has been included the statistical functions needed for the estimation of the central tendency and variability, e.g. mean, median, variance, confidence intervals, variance coefficients, etc. This computer application is a necessary tool in order to be able to estimate the radiological inventory of a nuclear facility and it is a powerful tool for decision taken in future sampling surveys.

  11. Reliable Wireless Data Acquisition and Control Techniques within Nuclear Hot Cell Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, J.L.; Tulenko, J.

    2000-09-20

    On this NEER project the University of Florida has investigated and applied advanced communications techniques to address data acquisition and control problems within the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) of Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) in Idaho Falls. The goals of this project have been to investigate and apply wireless communications techniques to solve the problem of communicating with and controlling equipment and systems within a nuclear hot cell facility with its attendant high radiation levels. Different wireless techniques, including radio frequency, infrared and power line communications were reviewed. For each technique, the challenges of radiation-hardened implementation were addressed. In addition, it has been a project goal to achieve the highest level of system reliability to ensure safe nuclear operations. Achievement of these goals would allow the eventual elimination of through-the-wall, hardwired cabling that is currently employed in the hot cell, along wit h all of the attendant problems that limit measurement mobility and flexibility.

  12. Risk-Informing Safety Reviews for Non-Reactor Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mubayi, V.; Azarm, A.; Yue, M.; Mukaddam, W.; Good, G.; Gonzalez, F.; Bari, R.A.

    2011-03-13

    This paper describes a methodology used to model potential accidents in fuel cycle facilities that employ chemical processes to separate and purify nuclear materials. The methodology is illustrated with an example that uses event and fault trees to estimate the frequency of a specific energetic reaction that can occur in nuclear material processing facilities. The methodology used probabilistic risk assessment (PRA)-related tools as well as information about the chemical reaction characteristics, information on plant design and operational features, and generic data about component failure rates and human error rates. The accident frequency estimates for the specific reaction help to risk-inform the safety review process and assess compliance with regulatory requirements.

  13. Estimates for production of radioisotopes of medical interest at Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wen; Bobeica, Mariana; Gheorghe, Ioana; Filipescu, Dan M.; Niculae, Dana; Balabanski, Dimiter L.

    2016-01-01

    We report Monte Carlo simulations of the production of radioisotopes of medical interest through photoneutron reactions using the high-brilliance γ-beam of the Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility. The specific activity for three benchmark radioisotopes, 99Mo/99Tc, 225Ra/225Ac and 186Re, was obtained as a function of target geometry, irradiation time and γ-beam energy. Optimized conditions for the generation of these radioisotopes of medical interest with the ELI-NP γ-beams were discussed. We estimated that a saturation specific activity of the order of 1-2 mCi/g can be achieved for thin targets with about one gram of mass considering a γ-beam flux of 10^{11} photons/s. Based on these results, we suggest that the ELI-NP facility can provide a unique possibility for the production of radioisotopes in sufficient quantities for nuclear medicine research.

  14. Application of a laser to decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities at JAERI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirabayashi, Takakuni; Kameo, Yutaka; Myodo, Masato

    2000-01-01

    In the research and development of various advanced technologies needed for decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities, laser was applied to decontamination of metal and concrete surfaces and to cutting of large metal of low level radioactive waste. (a) Laser decontamination for metal waste: Metal waste was irradiated by laser in the atmosphere of chloride gas, and contaminant was changed from oxide to chloride which is sublimable or soluble in water and could be easily removed; and also metal waste coated with gel-decontamination reagent was irradiated by laser, and contaminant could be removed through the laser-induced chemical reaction. (b) Laser decontamination for concrete surface: Concrete surface was bursted or vitrified by laser irradiation and easily removed. (c) Laser cutting: Laser cutter was applied to cutting of large metal wastes such as tanks arising from dismantling of nuclear facilities.

  15. The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility Advancing Nuclear Technology

    SciTech Connect

    T. R. Allen; J. B. Benson; J. A. Foster; F. M. Marshall; M. K. Meyer; M. C. Thelen

    2009-05-01

    To help ensure the long-term viability of nuclear energy through a robust and sustained research and development effort, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor and associated post-irradiation examination facilities a National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), allowing broader access to nuclear energy researchers. The mission of the ATR NSUF is to provide access to world-class nuclear research facilities, thereby facilitating the advancement of nuclear science and technology. The ATR NSUF seeks to create an engaged academic and industrial user community that routinely conducts reactor-based research. Cost free access to the ATR and PIE facilities is granted based on technical merit to U.S. university-led experiment teams conducting non-proprietary research. Proposals are selected via independent technical peer review and relevance to DOE mission. Extensive publication of research results is expected as a condition for access. During FY 2008, the first full year of ATR NSUF operation, five university-led experiments were awarded access to the ATR and associated post-irradiation examination facilities. The ATR NSUF has awarded four new experiments in early FY 2009, and anticipates awarding additional experiments in the fall of 2009 as the results of the second 2009 proposal call. As the ATR NSUF program mature over the next two years, the capability to perform irradiation research of increasing complexity will become available. These capabilities include instrumented irradiation experiments and post-irradiation examinations on materials previously irradiated in U.S. reactor material test programs. The ATR critical facility will also be made available to researchers. An important component of the ATR NSUF an education program focused on the reactor-based tools available for resolving nuclear science and technology issues. The ATR NSUF provides education programs including a summer short course, internships, faculty-student team

  16. Nuclear-nuclear collision centrality determination by the spectators calorimeter for the MPD setup at the NICA facility

    SciTech Connect

    Golubeva, M. B.; Guber, F. F.; Ivashkin, A. P.; Isupov, A. Yu.; Kurepin, A. B.; Litvinenko, A. G. Litvinenko, E. I.; Migulina, I. I.; Peresedov, V. F.

    2013-01-15

    The work conditions of the hadron calorimeter for spectators registration (Zero Degree Calorimeter, ZDC) were studied for the heavy nuclei collisions with the several GeV invariant energy. The ZDC simulations were performed for the MPD (Multi-Purpose Detector) at the NICA (Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility) collider, which are under developement at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Dubna). Taking into account the spectator nuclear fragments leads to a nonmonotonic dependence of the ZDC response on the impact parameter. The reason for this dependence studied with several event generators is the primary beam hole in the ZDC center. It is shown, that the ZDC signal should be combined with a data from other MPD-NICA detector subsystems to determine centrality.

  17. The universe in the laboratory - Nuclear astrophysics opportunity at the facility for antiproton and ion research

    SciTech Connect

    Langanke, K.

    2014-05-09

    In the next years the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research FAIR will be constructed at the GSI Helmholtzze-ntrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Germany. This new accelerator complex will allow for unprecedented and pathbreaking research in hadronic, nuclear, and atomic physics as well as in applied sciences. This manuscript will discuss some of these research opportunities, with a focus on supernova dynamics and nucleosynthesis.

  18. Nuclear criticality safety assessment of the Consolidated Edison Uranium-Solidification Program Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.T.

    1984-01-01

    A nuclear criticality assessment of the Consolidated Edison Uranium-Solidification Program facility confirms that all operations involved in the process may be conducted with an acceptable margin of subcriticality. Normal operation presents no concern since subcriticality is maintained by design. Several recommendations are presented to prevent, or mitigate the consequences of, any abnormal events that might occur in the various portions of the process. These measures would also serve to reduce to a minimum the administrative controls required to prevent criticality.

  19. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 7, Estimate data

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-14

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. This report is organized according to the sections and subsections outlined by Attachment III-2 of DOE Document AL 4700.1, Project Management System. It is organized into seven parts. This document, Part VII - Estimate Data, contains the project cost estimate information.

  20. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 1, Design concept. Part 2, Project management

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-14

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. This document provides Part I - Design Concept which describes the selected solution, and Part II - Project Management which describes the management system organization, the elements that make up the system, and the control and reporting system.

  1. Recent advances and results from the solid radiochemistry nuclear diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGES

    Gharibyan, N.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Moody, K. J.; Grant, P. M.; Despotopulos, J. D.; Faye, S. A.; Jedlovec, D. R.; Yeamans, C. B.

    2016-08-05

    The solid debris collection capability at the National Ignition Facility has been expanded to include a third line-of-sight assembly. The solid radiochemistry nuclear diagnostic measurement of the ratio of gold isotopes is dependent on the efficient collection of neutron-activated hohlraum debris by passive metal disks. As a result, the collection of target debris at this new location is more reliable in comparison to the historic locations, and it appears to be independent of collector surface ablation.

  2. Recent advances and results from the solid radiochemistry nuclear diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharibyan, N.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Moody, K. J.; Grant, P. M.; Despotopulos, J. D.; Faye, S. A.; Jedlovec, D. R.; Yeamans, C. B.

    2016-11-01

    The solid debris collection capability at the National Ignition Facility has been expanded to include a third line-of-sight assembly. The solid radiochemistry nuclear diagnostic measurement of the ratio of gold isotopes is dependent on the efficient collection of neutron-activated hohlraum debris by passive metal disks. The collection of target debris at this new location is more reliable in comparison to the historic locations, and it appears to be independent of collector surface ablation.

  3. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 3, Supplemental information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-14

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. It is organized into seven parts. Part I - Design Concept describes the selected solution. Part III - Supplemental Information contains calculations for the various disciplines as well as other supporting information and analyses.

  4. Guidelines for preparing criticality safety evaluations at Department of Energy non-reactor nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) is approved for use by all components of DOE. It contains guidelines that should be followed when preparing Criticality Safety Evaluations that will be used to demonstrate the safety of operations performed at DOE Non-Reactor Nuclear Facilities. Adherence with these guidelines will provide consistency and uniformity in Criticality Safety Evaluations (CSEs) across the complex and will document compliance with DOE Order 5480.24 requirements as they pertain to CSEs.

  5. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 6, Alternatives study

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-14

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for material and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. This report is organized according to the sections and subsections outlined by Attachment 111-2 of DOE Document AL 4700.1, Project Management System. It is organized into seven parts. This document, Part VI - Alternatives Study, presents a study of the different storage/containment options considered for NMSF.

  6. Adapting Dismantling and Decommissioning Strategies to a Variety of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities - 12237

    SciTech Connect

    Chambon, Frederic; Clement, Gilles

    2012-07-01

    AREVA has accumulated over 20 years of experience in managing and operating fuel cycle facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) projects of many different types and a variety of scales, both as facility owner (at La Hague for example) and as prime contractor to external customers such as the French Atomic Energy Commission (at Marcoule). A specific Business Unit was created in 2008 to capitalize on this experience and to concentrate - in one division - the specific skills required to be successful and cost effective in decommissioning projects. Indeed one of the key lessons learned in the past decades is that decommissioning is a significantly different business as compared to normal operations of a nuclear facility. Almost all the functions of a project need to be viewed from a different angle, challenged and adapted consequently in order to optimize costs and schedule. Three examples follow to illustrate the point: Safety management needs to take into account the ever changing configuration of a plant under D and D (a quite new situation for the authorities). Production of waste is significantly different in term of volume, activities, conditioning and disposal path. Technology is important but technical issues are often less critical than good management and planning. Further examples and lessons learned are developed through reviewing the projects experience basis. AREVA has a long and vast experience in the cleanup and dismantling of a number of very large and complex nuclear facilities. This effort focused initially on AREVA's own plants and is expanding now to other customers. The setup of a specific Business Unit in 2008 to takeover this business allowed concentration of the skills and the lessons learned in a dedicated division so as to provide the best means to optimize safety, performance, costs and schedules. Indeed transitioning from operations to D and D of a nuclear facility is a quantum leap. The assistance from specialized teams can

  7. Re-suspension of Cesium-134/137 into the Canadian Environment and the Contribution Stemming from the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Incident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, Jean-Francois; Zhang, Weihua; Loignon-Houle, Francis; Cooke, Michael W.; Ungar, Kurt R.; Pellerin, Eric R.

    2013-04-01

    Cesium-137 (t1/2 = 30 yr) and cesium-134 (t1/2 = 2yr) constitute major fission by-products observed as the result of a nuclear incident. Such radioisotopes become integrated into the soil and biomass, and can therefore undergo re-suspension into the environment via activities such as forest fires. The Canadian Radiological Monitoring Network (CRMN), which consists of 26 environmental monitoring stations spread across the country, commonly observes cesium-137 in air filters due to re-suspension of material originating from long-past weapons testing. Cesium-134 is not observed owing to its relatively short half-life. The Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant incident of March 2011 caused a major release of radioactive materials into the environment. In Canada, small quantities of both cesium-137 and cesium-134 fallout were detected with great frequency in the weeks which followed, falling off rapidly beginning in July 2011. Since September 2011, the CRMN has detected both cesium-137 and cesium-134 from air filters collected at Yellowknife, Resolute, and Quebec City locations. Using the known initial cesium-134/cesium-137 ratio stemming from this incident, along with a statistical assessment of the normality of the data distribution, we herein present evidence that strongly suggests that these activity spikes are due to re-suspended hot particles originating from the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant incident. Moreover, we have evidence to suggest that this re-suspension is localized in nature. This study provided empirical insight into the transport and uptake of radionuclides over vast distances, and it demonstrates that the CRMN was able to detect evidence of a re-suspension of Fukushima-Daiichi related isotopes.

  8. The CERN n_TOF facility: a unique tool for nuclear data measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingrone, F.; Aberle, O.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Bécares, V.; Bacak, M.; Balibrea-Correa, J.; Barbagallo, M.; Barros, S.; Bečvář, F.; Beinrucker, C.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Caamaño, M.; Calviño, F.; Calviani, M.; Cano-Ott, D.; Cardella, R.; Casanovas, A.; Castelluccio, D. M.; Cerutti, F.; Chen, Y.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Cortés, G.; Cosentino, L.; Damone, L.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Dupont, E.; Durán, I.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira, P.; Finocchiaro, P.; Furman, V.; Ganesan, S.; Garcia-Rios, A. A.; Gawlik, A.; Gheorghe, I.; Glodariu, T.; Gonçalves, I. F.; Gonzàlez, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Göbel, K.; Harada, H.; Heftrich, T.; Heinitz, S.; Heyse, J.; Jenkins, G.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Katabuchi, T.; Kavrigin, P.; Ketlerov, V.; Khryachkov, V.; Kimura, A.; Kivel, N.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Lerendegui, J.; Lo Meo, S.; Lonsdale, S.; Losito, R.; Macina, D.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mastromarco, M.; Matteucci, F.; Maugeri, E. A.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mirea, M.; Montesano, S.; Musumarra, A.; Nolte, R.; Oprea, A.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Rajeev, K.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego-Perez, A.; Rout, P.; Rubbia, C.; Ryan, J. A.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Sedyshev, P.; Smith, A. G.; Stamatopoulos, A.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Warren, S.; Weigand, M.; Weiss, C.; Wolf, C.; Woods, P. J.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.

    2016-06-01

    The study of the resonant structures in neutron-nucleus cross-sections, and therefore of the compound-nucleus reaction mechanism, requires spectroscopic measurements to determine with high accuracy the energy of the neutron interacting with the material under study. To this purpose, the neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF has been operating since 2001 at CERN. Its characteristics, such as the high intensity instantaneous neutron flux, the wide energy range from thermal to few GeV, and the very good energy resolution, are perfectly suited to perform high-quality measurements of neutron-induced reaction cross sections. The precise and accurate knowledge of these cross sections plays a fundamental role in nuclear technologies, nuclear astrophysics and nuclear physics. Two different measuring stations are available at the n_TOF facility, called EAR1 and EAR2, with different characteristics of intensity of the neutron flux and energy resolution. These experimental areas, combined with advanced detection systems lead to a great flexibility in performing challenging measurement of high precision and accuracy, and allow the investigation isotopes with very low cross sections, or available only in small quantities, or with very high specific activity. The characteristics and performances of the two experimental areas of the n_TOF facility will be presented, together with the most important measurements performed to date and their physics case. In addition, the significant upcoming measurements will be introduced.

  9. A conceptual subsurface facility design for a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, D.G., III; Bhattacharyya, K.K.; Segrest, A.M.

    1996-09-01

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for the design, construction, operation and closure of a repository in which to permanently dispose of the nation`s high level nuclear waste. In addition to the objective of safely isolating the waste inventory, the repository must provide a safe working environment for its workforce, and protect the public. The conceptual design for this facility is currently being developed. Tunnel Boring Machine will be used to excavate 228 kilometers of tunneling to construct the facility over a 30 year period. The excavation operations will be physically separated from the waste emplacement operations, and each operation will have its own dedicated ventilation system. The facility is being designed to remain open for 150 years.

  10. Chemical oxygen-iodine laser for decommissioning and dismantlement of nuclear facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tei, Kazuyoku; Sugimoto, Daichi; Endo, Masamori; Takeda, Shuzaburo; Fujioka, Tomoo

    2000-01-01

    Conceptual designs of a chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) facility for decommissioning and dismantlement (DD) of nuclear facility is proposed. The requisite output power and beam quality was determined base don our preliminary experiments of nonmetal material processing. Assuming the laser power of 30kW, it is derived that the beam quality of M2 equals 36 required to cut a biological shield wall of a nuclear power plant at a cutting speed of 10mm/min. Then the requisite specification of an optical fiber to deliver the laser is calculated. It turned to be quite extreme, core diameter of 1.7mm and NA equals 0.018. The mass flow and heat balance of proposed facility is calculated based on our recent COIL studies. With the high-pressure subsonic mode, the vacuum pump size is minimized compared to the supersonic operation. Finally, the size of the facility is estimated assuming tow-hour continuous operation. It is revealed that such a system can be packed in five railway containers.

  11. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions. Volume 6. A selected bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, P.T.; Michelson, D.C.; Knox, N.P.

    1985-09-01

    This bibliography of 683 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions is the sixth in a series of annual reports prepared for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Foreign as well as domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's remedial action program. Major chapters are: (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) Facilities Contaminated with Natural Radioactivity; (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program; (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program; (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (8) Technical Measurements Center; and (9) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Chapter sections for chapters 1, 2, 5, and 7 include Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Health, Safety, and Biomedical Studies; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. The references within each chapter or section are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate affiliation or by publication description.

  12. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions. Volume 1. A selected bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, R.A.; Fore, C.S.; Knox, N.P.

    1980-09-01

    This bibliography of 633 references represents the first in a series to be produced by the Remedial Actions Program Information Center (RAPIC) containing scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information concerning the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Major chapters selected for this bibliography are Facility Decommissioning, Uranium Mill Tailings Cleanup, Contaminated Site Restoration, and Criteria and Standards. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. When the author is not given, the corporate affiliation appears first. If these two levels of authorship are not given, the title of the document is used as the identifying level. Indexes are provided for (1) author(s), (2) keywords, (3) title, (4) technology development, and (5) publication description. An appendix of 123 entries lists recently acquired references relevant to decommissioning of nuclear facilities. These references are also arranged according to one of the four subject categories and followed by author, title, and publication description indexes. The bibliography was compiled from a specialized data base established and maintained by RAPIC to provide information support for the Department of Energy's Remedial Actions Program, under the cosponsorship of its three major components: Surplus Facilities Management Program, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Actions Program, and Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Actions Program. RAPIC is part of the Ecological Sciences Information Center within the Information Center Complex at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  13. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography: Volume 8

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, P.T.; Michelson, D.C.; Knox, N.P.

    1987-09-01

    The 553 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the eighth in a series of reports. Foreign and domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of energy's remedial action program. Major chapters are Surplus Facilities Management Program, Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, Uranium Mill Tailings Management, Technical Measurements Center, and General Remedial Action Program Studies. Chapter sections for chapters 1, 2, 5, and 6 include Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Health, Safety, and Biomedical Studies; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. The appendix contains a list of frequently used acronyms and abbreviations.

  14. Applicability of base-isolation R D in non-reactor facilities to a nuclear reactor plant

    SciTech Connect

    Seidensticker, R.W.; Chang, Y.W.

    1990-01-01

    Seismic isolation is gaining increased attention worldwide for use in a wide spectrum of critical facilities, ranging from hospitals and computing centers to nuclear power plants. While the fundamental principles and technology are applicable to all of these facilities, the degree of assurance that the actual behavior of the isolation systems is as specified varies with the nature of the facility involved. Obviously, the level of effort to provide such assurance for a nuclear power plant will be much greater than that required for, say, a critical computer facility. The question, therefore, is to what extent can research and development (R D) for non-nuclear use be used to provide technological data needed for seismic isolation of a nuclear power plant. This question, of course is not unique to seismic isolation. Virtually every structural component, system, or piece of equipment used in nuclear power plants is also used in non- nuclear facilities. Experience shows that considerable effort is needed to adapt conventional technology into a nuclear power plant. Usually, more thorough analysis is required, material and fabrication quality-control requirements are more stringent as are controls on field installation. In addition, increased emphasis on maintainability and inservice inspection throughout the life of the plant is generally required to gain acceptance in nuclear power plant application. This paper reviews the R D programs ongoing for seismic isolation in non-nuclear facilities and related experience and makes a preliminary assessment of the extent to which such R D and experience can be used for nuclear power plant application. Ways are suggested to improve the usefulness of such non-nuclear R D in providing the high level of confidence required for the use of seismic isolation in a nuclear reactor plant. 2 refs.

  15. Advanced Non-Destructive Assay Systems and Special Instrumentation Requirements for Spent Nuclear Fuel Recycling Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, A.P.; Clapham, M.J.; Swinson, B.

    2008-07-01

    The safe and efficient operation of the next generation of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) recycling / reprocessing facilities is dependent upon the availability of high performance real time Non- Destructive Assay (NDA) systems at key in-line points. A diverse variety of such special instrument systems have been developed and commissioned at reprocessing plants worldwide over the past fifty years.. The measurement purpose, technique and plant performance for selected key systems have been reviewed. Obsolescence issues and areas for development are identified in the context of the measurements needs of future recycling facilities and their associated waste treatment plants. Areas of concern include (i) Materials Accountancy and Safeguards, (ii) Head End process control and feed envelope verification, (iii) Real-time monitoring at the Product Finishing Stages, (iv) Criticality safety and (v) Radioactive waste characterization. Common characteristics of the traditional NDA systems in historical recycling facilities are (i) In-house development of bespoke instruments resulting in equipment that if often unique to a given facility and generally not commercially available, (ii) Use of 'novel' techniques - not widely deployed in other applications, (iii) Design features that are tailored to the specific plant requirements of the facility operator, (iv) Systems and software implementation that was not always carried out to modern industry standards and (v) A tendency to be overly complex - refined by on-plant operational usage and experience. Although these systems were 'validated in use' and are generally fit for purpose, there are a number of potential problems in transferring technology that was developed ten or more years ago to the new build SNF recycling facilities of the future. These issues include (i) Obsolescence of components - particularly with respect to computer hardware and data acquisition electronics, (ii) Availability of Intellectual Property and design

  16. A nuclear physics program at the Rare Isotope Beams Accelerator Facility in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Chang-Bum

    2014-04-15

    This paper outlines the new physics possibilities that fall within the field of nuclear structure and astrophysics based on experiments with radioactive ion beams at the future Rare Isotope Beams Accelerator facility in Korea. This ambitious multi-beam facility has both an Isotope Separation On Line (ISOL) and fragmentation capability to produce rare isotopes beams (RIBs) and will be capable of producing and accelerating beams of wide range mass of nuclides with energies of a few to hundreds MeV per nucleon. The large dynamic range of reaccelerated RIBs will allow the optimization in each nuclear reaction case with respect to cross section and channel opening. The low energy RIBs around Coulomb barrier offer nuclear reactions such as elastic resonance scatterings, one or two particle transfers, Coulomb multiple-excitations, fusion-evaporations, and direct capture reactions for the study of the very neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclides. In contrast, the high energy RIBs produced by in-flight fragmentation with reaccelerated ions from the ISOL enable to explore the study of neutron drip lines in intermediate mass regions. The proposed studies aim at investigating the exotic nuclei near and beyond the nucleon drip lines, and to explore how nuclear many-body systems change in such extreme regions by addressing the following topics: the evolution of shell structure in areas of extreme proton to neutron imbalance; the study of the weak interaction in exotic decay schemes such as beta-delayed two-neutron or two-proton emission; the change of isospin symmetry in isobaric mirror nuclei at the drip lines; two protons or two neutrons radioactivity beyond the drip lines; the role of the continuum states including resonant states above the particle-decay threshold in exotic nuclei; and the effects of nuclear reaction rates triggered by the unbound proton-rich nuclei on nuclear astrophysical processes.

  17. A Canadian Solution for Management of Mixed Liquid Waste - 13384

    SciTech Connect

    Suryanarayan, Sriram; Husain, Aamir

    2013-07-01

    Mixed liquid wastes (MLW) from Canadian nuclear facilities consist of solvents, PCB (Poly Chlorinated Biphenyls) and non-PCB contaminated oils and aqueous wastes. Historically, MLW drums were shipped to a licensed US facility for destruction via incineration. This option is relatively expensive considering the significant logistics and destruction costs involved. In addition, commercial waste destruction facilities in US cannot accept PCB wastes from non-US jurisdictions. Because of this, Kinectrics has recently developed a novel and flexible process for disposing both PCB as well as non-PCB contaminated MLW within Canada. This avoids the need for cross-border shipments which significantly reduces the complexity and cost for waste disposal. This paper presents an overview of the various approaches and activities undertaken to date by Kinectrics for successfully processing and disposing the MLW drums. A summary of the results, challenges and how they were overcome are also presented. (authors)

  18. Nuclear Rocket Facility Decommissioning Project: Controlled Explosive Demolition of Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Michael R. Kruzic

    2008-06-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Test Cell A (TCA) Facility (Figure 1) was used in the early to mid-1960s for testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program, to further space travel. Nuclear rocket testing resulted in the activation of materials around the reactors and the release of fission products and fuel particles. The TCA facility, known as Corrective Action Unit 115, was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) from December 2004 to July 2005 using the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The SAFER process allows environmental remediation and facility closure activities (i.e., decommissioning) to occur simultaneously, provided technical decisions are made by an experienced decision maker within the site conceptual site model. Facility closure involved a seven-step decommissioning strategy. First, preliminary investigation activities were performed, including review of process knowledge documentation, targeted facility radiological and hazardous material surveys, concrete core drilling and analysis, shield wall radiological characterization, and discrete sampling, which proved to be very useful and cost-effective in subsequent decommissioning planning and execution and worker safety. Second, site setup and mobilization of equipment and personnel were completed. Third, early removal of hazardous materials, including asbestos, lead, cadmium, and oil, was performed ensuring worker safety during more invasive demolition activities. Process piping was to be verified void of contents. Electrical systems were de-energized and other systems were rendered free of residual energy. Fourth, areas of high radiological contamination were decontaminated using multiple methods. Contamination levels varied across the facility. Fixed beta/gamma contamination levels ranged up to 2 million disintegrations per minute (dpm)/100

  19. 75 FR 45167 - Notice of Public Workshop on a Potential Rulemaking for Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste and Materials (ACNW&M) titled ``Background, Status and Issues Related... Register on August 31, 1984 (49 FR 34658) discusses waste from reprocessing facilities in the first...

  20. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 13: Part 2, Indexes. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Goins, L.F.; Webb, J.R.; Cravens, C.D.; Mallory, P.K.

    1992-09-01

    This is part 2 of a bibliography on nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial action. This report contains indexes on the following: authors, corporate affiliation, title words, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word.

  1. The Legnaro National Laboratories and the SPES facility: nuclear structure and reactions today and tomorrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, Giacomo; Fiorentini, Gianni

    2016-11-01

    There is a very long tradition of studying nuclear structure and reactions at the Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL) of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (Italian Institute of Nuclear Physics). The wide expertise acquired in building and running large germanium arrays has made the laboratories one of the most advanced research centers in γ-ray spectroscopy. The ’gamma group’ has been deeply involved in all the national and international developments of the last 20 years and is currently one of the major contributors to the AGATA project, the first (together with its American counterpart GRETINA) γ-detector array based on γ-ray tracking. This line of research is expected to be strongly boosted by the coming into operation of the SPES radioactive ion beam project, currently under construction at LNL. In this report, written on the occasion of the 40th anniversary of the Nobel prize awarded to Aage Bohr, Ben R Mottelson and Leo Rainwater and particularly focused on the physics of nuclear structure, we intend to summarize the different lines of research that have guided nuclear structure and reaction research at LNL in the last decades. The results achieved have paved the way for the present SPES facility, a new laboratories infrastructure producing and accelerating radioactive ion beams of fission fragments and other isotopes.

  2. Design and Integrate Improved Systems for Nuclear Facility Ventilation and Exhaust Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Murray E.

    2014-04-15

    Objective: The objective of this R&D project would complete the development of three new systems and integrate them into a single experimental effort. However, each of the three systems has stand-alone applicability across the DOE complex. At US DOE nuclear facilities, indoor air is filtered and ventilated for human occupancy, and exhaust air to the outdoor environment must be regulated and monitored. At least three technical standards address these functions, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory would complete an experimental facility to answer at least three questions: (1) Can the drag coefficient of a new Los Alamos air mixer be reduced for better operation in nuclear facility exhaust stacks? (2) Is it possible to verify the accuracy of a new dilution method for HEPA filter test facilities? (3) Is there a performance-based air flow metric (volumetric flow or mass flow) for operating HEPA filters? In summary, the three new systems are: a mixer, a diluter and a performance-based metric, respectively. The results of this project would be applicable to at least four technical standards: ANSI N13.1 Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities; ASTM F1471 Standard Test Method for Air Cleaning Performance of a High-Efficiency Particulate Air Filter System, ASME N511: In-Service Testing of Nuclear Air Treatment, Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems, and ASME AG-1: Code On Nuclear Air And Gas Treatment. All of the three proposed new systems must be combined into a single experimental device (i.e. to develop a new function of the Los Alamos aerosol wind tunnel). Technical Approach: The Radiation Protection RP-SVS group at Los Alamos has an aerosol wind tunnel that was originally (2006) designed to evaluate small air samplers (cf. US EPA 40 CFR 53.42). In 2009, the tunnel was modified for exhaust stack verifications per the ANSI N13.1 standard. In 2010, modifications were started on the

  3. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume III. Resources and fuel cycle facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The ability of uranium supply and the rest of the nuclear fuel cycle to meet the demand for nuclear power is an important consideration in future domestic and international planning. Accordingly, the purpose of this assessment is to evaluate the adequacy of potential supply for various nuclear resources and fuel cycle facilities in the United States and in the world outside centrally planned economy areas (WOCA). Although major emphasis was placed on uranium supply and demand, material resources (thorium and heavy water) and facility resources (separative work, spent fuel storage, and reprocessing) were also considered.

  4. Cost calculations at early stages of nuclear research facilities in the nordic countries

    SciTech Connect

    Iversen, Klaus; Salmenhaara, Seppo; Backe, Steinar; Cato, Anna; Lindskog, Staffan; Callander, Clas; Efraimsson, Henrik; Andersson, Inga; Sjoeblom, Rolf

    2007-07-01

    The Nordic countries Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and to some extent also Finland, had very large nuclear research and development programs for a few decades starting in the nineteen fifties. Today, only some of the facilities are in use. Some have been decommissioned and dismantled while others are at various stages of planning for shutdown. The perspective ranges from imminent to several decades. It eventually became realized that considerable planning for the future decommissioning is warranted and that an integral part of this planning is financial, including how financial funds should be acquired, used and allocated over time. This necessitates that accurate and reliable cost estimates be obtained at all stages. However, this is associated with fundamental difficulties and treacherous complexities, especially for the early ones. Eventually, Denmark and Norway decided not to build any nuclear power plants while Finland and Sweden did. This is reflected in the financing where the latter countries have established systems with special funds in which money is being collected now to cover the future costs for the decommissioning of the research facilities. Nonetheless, the needs for planning for the decommissioning of nuclear research facilities are very similar. However, they differ considerably from those of nuclear power reactors, especially with regard to cost calculations. It has become apparent in the course of work that summation types of cost estimation methodologies give rise to large systematic errors if applied at early stages, in which case comparison based assessments are less biased and may be more reliable. Therefore, in order to achieve the required quality of the cost calculations, it is necessary that data and experience from authentic cases be utilized in models for cost calculations. It also implies that this calculation process should include a well adopted learning process. Thus, a Nordic co-operation has been established for the exchange and

  5. The International Remote Monitoring Project: Results of the Swedish Nuclear Power Facility field trial

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.S.; af Ekenstam, G.; Sallstrom, M.

    1995-07-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored work on a Remote Monitoring System (RMS) that was installed in August 1994 at the Barseback Works north of Malmo, Sweden. The RMS was designed to test the front end detection concept that would be used for unattended remote monitoring activities. Front end detection reduces the number of video images recorded and provides additional sensor verification of facility operations. The function of any safeguards Containment and Surveillance (C/S) system is to collect information which primarily is images that verify the operations at a nuclear facility. Barseback is ideal to test the concept of front end detection since most activities of safeguards interest is movement of spent fuel which occurs once a year. The RMS at Barseback uses a network of nodes to collect data from microwave motion detectors placed to detect the entrance and exit of spent fuel casks through a hatch. A video system using digital compression collects digital images and stores them on a hard drive and a digital optical disk. Data and images from the storage area are remotely monitored via telephone from Stockholm, Sweden and Albuquerque, NM, USA. These remote monitoring stations operated by SKI and SNL respectively, can retrieve data and images from the RMS computer at the Barseback Facility. The data and images are encrypted before transmission. This paper presents details of the RMS and test results of this approach to front end detection of safeguard activities.

  6. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 12

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, P. T.; Webb, J. R.; Knox, N. P.; Goins, L. F.; Harrell, R. E.; Mallory, P. K.; Cravens, C. D.

    1991-09-01

    The 664 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the twelfth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects, analyzes, and disseminates information on environmental restoration and remedial actions. RAPIC staff and resources are available to meet a variety of information needs. Contact the center at FTS 624-7764 or (615) 574-7764.

  7. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 12. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The 664 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the twelfth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects, analyzes, and disseminates information on environmental restoration and remedial actions. RAPIC staff and resources are available to meet a variety of information needs. Contact the center at FTS 624-7764 or (615) 574-7764.

  8. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: a selected bibliography. Volume 5

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Chilton, B.D.; Baldauf, M.F.

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography of 756 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions is the fifth in a series of annual reports prepared for the US Department of Energy, Division of Remedial Action Projects. Foreign as well as domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included in this publication. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Program. Major chapters are: (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program; (5) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program; (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; and (7) Technical Measurements Center. Chapter sections for chapters 1, 2, 4, and 6 include Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. The references within each chapter or section are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate author or by title. Indexes are provided for the categories of author, corporate affiliation, title, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. The Appendix contains a list of frequently used acronyms.

  9. Maximum reasonable radioxenon releases from medical isotope production facilities and their effect on monitoring nuclear explosions.

    PubMed

    Bowyer, Theodore W; Kephart, Rosara; Eslinger, Paul W; Friese, Judah I; Miley, Harry S; Saey, Paul R J

    2013-01-01

    Fission gases such as (133)Xe are used extensively for monitoring the world for signs of nuclear testing in systems such as the International Monitoring System (IMS). These gases are also produced by nuclear reactors and by fission production of (99)Mo for medical use. Recently, medical isotope production facilities have been identified as the major contributor to the background of radioactive xenon isotopes (radioxenon) in the atmosphere (Stocki et al., 2005; Saey, 2009). These releases pose a potential future problem for monitoring nuclear explosions if not addressed. As a starting point, a maximum acceptable daily xenon emission rate was calculated, that is both scientifically defendable as not adversely affecting the IMS, but also consistent with what is possible to achieve in an operational environment. This study concludes that an emission of 5 × 10(9) Bq/day from a medical isotope production facility would be both an acceptable upper limit from the perspective of minimal impact to monitoring stations, but also appears to be an achievable limit for large isotope producers. PMID:22995862

  10. Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations: Exploratory Shaft Facility fluids and materials evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    West, K.A.

    1988-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if any fluids or materials used in the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) of Yucca Mountain will make the mountain unsuitable for future construction of a nuclear waste repository. Yucca Mountain, an area on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada, USA, is a candidate site for permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear power and defense nuclear activities. To properly characterize Yucca Mountain, it will be necessary to construct an underground test facility, in which in situ site characterization tests can be conducted. The candidate repository horizon at Yucca Mountain, however, could potentially be compromised by fluids and materials used in the site characterization tests. To minimize this possibility, Los Alamos National Laboratory was directed to evaluate the kinds of fluids and materials that will be used and their potential impacts on the site. A secondary objective was to identify fluids and materials, if any, that should be prohibited from, or controlled in, the underground. 56 refs., 19 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Identifying Potential Areas for Siting Interim Nuclear Waste Facilities Using Map Algebra and Optimization Approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Liu, Cheng; Cetiner, Sacit M; Belles, Randy; Mays, Gary T; Tuttle, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    The renewed interest in siting new nuclear power plants in the United States has brought to the center stage, the need to site interim facilities for long-term management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). In this paper, a two-stage approach for identifying potential areas for siting interim SNF facilities is presented. In the first stage, the land area is discretized into grids of uniform size (e.g., 100m x 100m grids). For the continental United States, this process resulted in a data matrix of about 700 million cells. Each cell of the matrix is then characterized as a binary decision variable to indicate whether an exclusion criterion is satisfied or not. A binary data matrix is created for each of the 25 siting criteria considered in this study. Using map algebra approach, cells that satisfy all criteria are clustered and regarded as potential siting areas. In the second stage, an optimization problem is formulated as a p-median problem on a rail network such that the sum of the shortest distance between nuclear power plants with SNF and the potential storage sites from the first stage is minimized. The implications of obtained results for energy policies are presented and discussed.

  12. Environmental assessment report: Nuclear Test Technology Complex. [Construction and operation of proposed facility

    SciTech Connect

    Tonnessen, K.; Tewes, H.A.

    1982-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (USDOE) is planning to construct and operate a structure, designated the Nuclear Test Technology Complex (NTTC), on a site located west of and adjacent to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The NTTC is designed to house 350 nuclear test program personnel, and will accommodate the needs of the entire staff of the continuing Nuclear Test Program (NTP). The project has three phases: land acquisition, facility construction and facility operation. The purpose of this environmental assessment report is to describe the activities associated with the three phases of the NTTC project and to evaluate potential environmental disruptions. The project site is located in a rural area of southeastern Alameda County, California, where the primary land use is agriculture; however, the County has zoned the area for industrial development. The environmental impacts of the project include surface disturbance, high noise levels, possible increases in site erosion, and decreased air quality. These impacts will occur primarily during the construction phase of the NTTC project and can be mitigated in part by measures proposed in this report.

  13. Maximum reasonable radioxenon releases from medical isotope production facilities and their effect on monitoring nuclear explosions.

    PubMed

    Bowyer, Theodore W; Kephart, Rosara; Eslinger, Paul W; Friese, Judah I; Miley, Harry S; Saey, Paul R J

    2013-01-01

    Fission gases such as (133)Xe are used extensively for monitoring the world for signs of nuclear testing in systems such as the International Monitoring System (IMS). These gases are also produced by nuclear reactors and by fission production of (99)Mo for medical use. Recently, medical isotope production facilities have been identified as the major contributor to the background of radioactive xenon isotopes (radioxenon) in the atmosphere (Stocki et al., 2005; Saey, 2009). These releases pose a potential future problem for monitoring nuclear explosions if not addressed. As a starting point, a maximum acceptable daily xenon emission rate was calculated, that is both scientifically defendable as not adversely affecting the IMS, but also consistent with what is possible to achieve in an operational environment. This study concludes that an emission of 5 × 10(9) Bq/day from a medical isotope production facility would be both an acceptable upper limit from the perspective of minimal impact to monitoring stations, but also appears to be an achievable limit for large isotope producers.

  14. Structural Integrity Program for the Calcined Solids Storage Facilities at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, J.W.; Nenni, J.A.

    2003-05-22

    This report documents the activities of the structural integrity program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center relevant to the high-level waste Calcined Solids Storage Facilities and associated equipment, as required by DOE M 435.1-1, ''Radioactive Waste Management Manual.'' Based on the evaluation documented in this report, the Calcined Solids Storage Facilities are not leaking and are structurally sound for continued service. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Calcined Solids Storage Facilities.

  15. Feasibility study for Zaporozhye Nuclear Power Plant spent fuel dry storage facility in Ukraine. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This document reports the results of a Feasibility Study sponsored by a TDA grant to Zaporozhye Nuclear Power Plant (ZNPP) in Ukraine to study the construction of storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel. It provides pertinent information to U.S. companies interested in marketing spent fuel storage technology and related business to countries of the former Soviet Union or Eastern Europe.

  16. Experimental facility for reactor experiments on study of spectral-luminescent characteristics of nuclear-excited plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordienko, Yu N.; Batyrbekov, E. G.; Skakov, M. K.; Ponkratov, Yu V.; Khasenov, M. U.; Zaurbekova, Zh A.; Barsukov, N. I.; Kulsartov, T. V.; Tulubayev, Ye Yu

    2016-09-01

    The description of experimental facility and reactor ampoule device for carrying out the experiments on study of spectral-luminescent characteristics of nuclear-excited plasma formed by products of 6Li(n,α)T nuclear reaction under conditions of neutron irradiation is given in paper.

  17. Proceedings of the Symposium on Training of Nuclear Facility Personnel (7th, Orlando, Florida, April 27-30, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge National Lab., TN.

    These proceedings contain program highlights as well as 45 papers given during six sessions of the Symposium on Training of Nuclear Facility Personnel. The six sessions are entitled: (1) the training challenge; (2) influences on nuclear training; (3) the human factors--training partnership and factors affecting job performance; (4) current…

  18. 78 FR 14842 - Crystal River Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit 3; Application for Renewal of License to Facility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... COMMISSION Crystal River Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit 3; Application for Renewal of License to Facility... examine and purchase copies of public documents at the NRC's PDR, Room O1-F21, One White Flint North... operate the Crystal River Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit 3 (CR3), at 2609 megawatts thermal. The...

  19. Impacts of a proposed nuclear waste facility on the night sky in Canyonlands National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Yocke, M.A.; Hogo, H.; Henderson, D.

    1985-01-01

    Systems Applications Inc. was retained by the National Park Service to study the potential impact of light pollution from the proposed repository sites in Davis Canyon and Lavender Canyon. In this study night sky glow resulting from nightime operation of the proposed nuclear waste repository was calculated, and the potential for human perception of these effects was estimated. The study involved the following steps: development of a mathematical model of atmospheric optics to predict the nighttime sky-glow impacts of the proposed facility; verification of the model's prediction performance to the extent possible with existing data; Application of the model to the area surrounding the proposed facility, calculating results from several viewpoints within the park; (only the Upper Davis Canyon viewpoint is discussed in this paper). Estimation of the potential for human perception of the calculated night sky glow and the potential of the night sky glow to obscure starlight.

  20. Inventory extension considerations for long-term storage at the nuclear materials storage facility

    SciTech Connect

    Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D.; Longmire, V.; Argo, P.E.; Nielson, S.M.

    1996-09-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is in the process of modifying its nuclear materials storage facility to a long-term storage configuration. In support of this effort, we examined technical and administrative means to extend periods between physical inventories. Both the frequency and sample size during a physical inventory could significantly impact required sizing of the non-destructive assay (NDA) laboratory as well as material handling capabilities. Several options are being considered, including (1) treating each storage location as a separate vault, (2) minimizing the number of items returned for quantitative analysis by optimizing the use of in situ confirmatory measurements, and (3) utilizing advanced monitoring technologies. Careful consideration of these parameters should allow us to achieve and demonstrate safe and secure storage while minimizing the impact on facility operations and without having to increase the size of the NDA laboratory beyond that required for anticipated shipping and receiving activities.

  1. Low Prevalence of Chronic Beryllium Disease Among Workers at aNuclearWeaponsResearchandDevelopmentFacility

    PubMed Central

    Arjomandi, Mehrdad; Seward, James; Gotway, Michael B.; Nishimura, Stephen; Fulton, George P.; Thundiyil, Josef; King, Talmadge E.; Harber, Philip; Balmes, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the prevalence of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in a cohort of workers from a nuclear weapons research and development facility. Methods We evaluated 50 workers with BeS with medical and occupational histories, physical examination, chest imaging with high-resolution computed tomography (N = 49), and pulmonary function testing. Forty of these workers also underwent bronchoscopy for bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsies. Results The mean duration of employment at the facility was 18 years and the mean latency (from first possible exposure) to time of evaluation was 32 years. Five of the workers had CBD at the time of evaluation (based on histology or high-resolution computed tomography); three others had evidence of probable CBD. Conclusions These workers with BeS, characterized by a long duration of potential Be exposure and a long latency, had a low prevalence of CBD. PMID:20523233

  2. Low Prevalence of Chronic Beryllium Disease among Workers at a Nuclear Weapons Research and Development Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Arjomandi, M; Seward, J P; Gotway, M B; Nishimura, S; Fulton, G P; Thundiyil, J; King, T E; Harber, P; Balmes, J R

    2010-01-11

    To study the prevalence of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in a cohort of workers from a nuclear weapons research and development facility. We evaluated 50 workers with BeS with medical and occupational histories, physical examination, chest imaging with HRCT (N=49), and pulmonary function testing. Forty of these workers also underwent bronchoscopy for bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial biopsies. The mean duration of employment at the facility was 18 yrs and the mean latency (from first possible exposure) to time of evaluation was 32 yrs. Five of the workers had CBD at the time of evaluation (based on histology or HRCT); three others had evidence of probable CBD. These workers with BeS, characterized by a long duration of potential Be exposure and a long latency, had a low prevalence of CBD.

  3. A possible biomedical facility at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN).

    PubMed

    Dosanjh, M; Jones, B; Myers, S

    2013-05-01

    A well-attended meeting, called "Brainstorming discussion for a possible biomedical facility at CERN", was held by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics on 25 June 2012. This was concerned with adapting an existing, but little used, 78-m circumference CERN synchrotron to deliver a wide range of ion species, preferably from protons to at least neon ions, with beam specifications that match existing clinical facilities. The potential extensive research portfolio discussed included beam ballistics in humanoid phantoms, advanced dosimetry, remote imaging techniques and technical developments in beam delivery, including gantry design. In addition, a modern laboratory for biomedical characterisation of these beams would allow important radiobiological studies, such as relative biological effectiveness, in a dedicated facility with standardisation of experimental conditions and biological end points. A control photon and electron beam would be required nearby for relative biological effectiveness comparisons. Research beam time availability would far exceed that at other facilities throughout the world. This would allow more rapid progress in several biomedical areas, such as in charged hadron therapy of cancer, radioisotope production and radioprotection. The ethos of CERN, in terms of open access, peer-reviewed projects and governance has been so successful for High Energy Physics that application of the same to biomedicine would attract high-quality research, with possible contributions from Europe and beyond, along with potential new funding streams.

  4. A possible biomedical facility at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN).

    PubMed

    Dosanjh, M; Jones, B; Myers, S

    2013-05-01

    A well-attended meeting, called "Brainstorming discussion for a possible biomedical facility at CERN", was held by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics on 25 June 2012. This was concerned with adapting an existing, but little used, 78-m circumference CERN synchrotron to deliver a wide range of ion species, preferably from protons to at least neon ions, with beam specifications that match existing clinical facilities. The potential extensive research portfolio discussed included beam ballistics in humanoid phantoms, advanced dosimetry, remote imaging techniques and technical developments in beam delivery, including gantry design. In addition, a modern laboratory for biomedical characterisation of these beams would allow important radiobiological studies, such as relative biological effectiveness, in a dedicated facility with standardisation of experimental conditions and biological end points. A control photon and electron beam would be required nearby for relative biological effectiveness comparisons. Research beam time availability would far exceed that at other facilities throughout the world. This would allow more rapid progress in several biomedical areas, such as in charged hadron therapy of cancer, radioisotope production and radioprotection. The ethos of CERN, in terms of open access, peer-reviewed projects and governance has been so successful for High Energy Physics that application of the same to biomedicine would attract high-quality research, with possible contributions from Europe and beyond, along with potential new funding streams. PMID:23549990

  5. Seismic design of low-level nuclear waste repositories and toxic waste management facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, D.H.; Bernreuter, D.L.

    1984-05-08

    Identification of the elements of typical hazardous waste facilities (HFWs) that are the major contributors to the risk are focussed on as the elements which require additional considerations in the design and construction of low-level nuclear waste management repositories and HWFs. From a recent study of six typical HWFs it was determined that the factors that contribute most to the human and environmental risk fall into four basic categories: geologic and seismological conditions at each HWF; engineered structures at each HWF; environmental conditions at each HWF; and nature of the material being released. In selecting and carrying out the six case studies, three groups of hazardous waste facilities were examined: generator industries which treat or temporarily store their own wastes; generator facilities which dispose of their own hazardous wastes on site; and industries in the waste treatment and disposal business. The case studies have a diversity of geologic setting, nearby settlement patterns, and environments. Two sites are above a regional aquifer, two are near a bay important to regional fishing, one is in rural hills, and one is in a desert, although not isolated from nearby towns and a groundwater/surface-water system. From the results developed in the study, it was concluded that the effect of seismic activity on hazardous facilities poses a significant risk to the population. Fifteen reasons are given for this conclusion.

  6. A possible biomedical facility at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)

    PubMed Central

    Dosanjh, M; Myers, S

    2013-01-01

    A well-attended meeting, called “Brainstorming discussion for a possible biomedical facility at CERN”, was held by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics on 25 June 2012. This was concerned with adapting an existing, but little used, 78-m circumference CERN synchrotron to deliver a wide range of ion species, preferably from protons to at least neon ions, with beam specifications that match existing clinical facilities. The potential extensive research portfolio discussed included beam ballistics in humanoid phantoms, advanced dosimetry, remote imaging techniques and technical developments in beam delivery, including gantry design. In addition, a modern laboratory for biomedical characterisation of these beams would allow important radiobiological studies, such as relative biological effectiveness, in a dedicated facility with standardisation of experimental conditions and biological end points. A control photon and electron beam would be required nearby for relative biological effectiveness comparisons. Research beam time availability would far exceed that at other facilities throughout the world. This would allow more rapid progress in several biomedical areas, such as in charged hadron therapy of cancer, radioisotope production and radioprotection. The ethos of CERN, in terms of open access, peer-reviewed projects and governance has been so successful for High Energy Physics that application of the same to biomedicine would attract high-quality research, with possible contributions from Europe and beyond, along with potential new funding streams. PMID:23549990

  7. A DOE-STD-3009 hazard and accident analysis methodology for non-reactor nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    MAHN,JEFFREY A.; WALKER,SHARON ANN

    2000-03-23

    This paper demonstrates the use of appropriate consequence evaluation criteria in conjunction with generic likelihood of occurrence data to produce consistent hazard analysis results for nonreactor nuclear facility Safety Analysis Reports (SAR). An additional objective is to demonstrate the use of generic likelihood of occurrence data as a means for deriving defendable accident sequence frequencies, thereby enabling the screening of potentially incredible events (<10{sup {minus}6} per year) from the design basis accident envelope. Generic likelihood of occurrence data has been used successfully in performing SAR hazard and accident analyses for two nonreactor nuclear facilities at Sandia National Laboratories. DOE-STD-3009-94 addresses and even encourages use of a qualitative binning technique for deriving and ranking nonreactor nuclear facility risks. However, qualitative techniques invariably lead to reviewer requests for more details associated with consequence or likelihood of occurrence bin assignments in the test of the SAR. Hazard analysis data displayed in simple worksheet format generally elicits questions about not only the assumptions behind the data, but also the quantitative bases for the assumptions themselves (engineering judgment may not be considered sufficient by some reviewers). This is especially true where the criteria for qualitative binning of likelihood of occurrence involves numerical ranges. Oftentimes reviewers want to see calculations or at least a discussion of event frequencies or failure probabilities to support likelihood of occurrence bin assignments. This may become a significant point of contention for events that have been binned as incredible. This paper will show how the use of readily available generic data can avoid many of the reviewer questions that will inevitably arise from strictly qualitative analyses, while not significantly increasing the overall burden on the analyst.

  8. Evaluation of Subsurface Radionuclide Transport at Commercial Nuclear Power Production Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, T. C.; Bollinger, J. S.

    2006-05-01

    An American Nuclear Society (ANS) working group was recently established to revise ANSI/ANS-2.17, a standard for evaluating radionuclide transport in ground water at commercial nuclear power production (NPP) facilities. The working group consists of technical experts from the nuclear industry, Federal and State regulatory agencies, universities, DOE National Laboratories, and hydrogeologic consulting firms. ANS 2.17 was originally adopted in 1980, reaffirmed in 1990, but subsequently withdrawn in 2000 due to a lapse in the decadal concurrence process. The working group charge is to re-visit the lapsed standard, review the state-of-the-science and -practice, and develop a performance-based standard that provides guidelines for demonstrating the ability to detect, characterize, diagnose, quantify, and effectively mitigate accidental and routine subsurface releases of radionuclides from NPP facilities. The resulting consensus standard focuses on subsurface site characterization, monitoring, and modeling issues at NPP sites that will guide the siting and evaluation of radionuclide transport at both existing and proposed new NPP facilities. This presentation provides the technical background for developing the standard along with a description of its current status. Performance Assessment is the proposed framework for designing characterization, monitoring, and modeling programs that quantitatively evaluate release scenarios. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are proposed for the archival and retrieval of spatially-explicit data, and will include real-time designators. New monitoring technologies are identified that may aid in the detection and characterization of releases. Remediation activities in response to detected releases should reflect, in part, the expected risk as defined using response thresholds. The presenters are actively soliciting technical documents and field application experiences which may contribute to the standard's technical bases and

  9. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, volume 9

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Michelson, D.C.; Turmer, G.S.

    1988-09-01

    The 604 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the ninth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Foreign and domestic literature of all types--technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions--has been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's remedial action programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Subsections for sections 1, 2, 5, and 6 include: Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Health, Safety, and Biomedical Studies; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies. RAPIC staff and resources are available to meet a variety of information needs. Contact the center at (615) 576-0568 or FTS 626-0568.

  10. Utilization of the Philippine Research Reactor as a training facility for nuclear power plant operators

    SciTech Connect

    Palabrica, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Philippines has a 1-MW swimming-pool reactor facility operated by the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). The reactor is light-water moderated and cooled, graphite reflected, and fueled with 90% enriched uranium. Since it became critical in 1963 it has been utilized for research, radioisotope production, and training. It was used initially in the training of PAEC personnel and other research institutions and universities. During the last few years, however, it has played a key role in training personnel for the Philippine Nuclear Power Project (PNPP).

  11. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, H.K.

    1986-05-01

    The radioactive wastes expected to result from decommissioning nuclear fuel cycle facilities are reviewed and classified in accordance with 10 CFR 61. Most of the wastes from the MOX plant (exclusive of the lagoon wastes) will require interim storage (11% Class A 49 m/sup 3/; 89% interim storage, 383 m/sup 3/). The MOX plant lagoon wastes are Class A waste (2930 m/sup 3/). All of the wastes from the U-Fab and UF/sub 6/ plants are designated as Class A waste (U-Fab 1090 m/sup 3/, UF/sub 6/ 1259 m/sup 3/).

  12. NGNP Nuclear-Industrial Facility and Design Certification Boundaries White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas E. Hicks

    2011-07-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project was initiated at Idaho National Laboratory by the U.S. Department of Energy pursuant to the 2005 Energy Policy Act and based on research and development activities supported by the Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative. The principal objective of the NGNP Project is to support commercialization of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technology. The HTGR is helium cooled and graphite moderated and can operate at reactor outlet temperatures much higher than those of conventional light water reactor (LWR) technologies. Accordingly, it can be applied in many industrial applications as a substitute for burning fossil fuels, such as natural gas, in addition to producing electricity, which is the principal application of current LWRs. These varied industrial applications may involve a standard HTGR modular design using different Energy Conversion Systems. Additionally, some of these process heat applications will require process heat delivery systems to lie partially outside the HTGR operator’s facility.

  13. Neutron scattering facility for the calibration of the response to nuclear recoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochum, J.; Chambon, B.; Drain, D.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Gascon, J.; Huber, M.; Jagemann, T.; de Jésus, M.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lanfranchi, J.-C.; Martineau, O.; Potzel, W.; Rüdig, A.; Schnagl, J.; Simon, E.; Stark, M.; Stern, M.; Wulandari, H.

    2002-02-01

    A possibility to search for elementary particles as dark matter candidates is to detect elastic scattering with cryogenic detectors. For the interpretation of the data one has to determine the detector response to nuclear recoils, the so-called quenching factors. They can differ for the heat-, for the scintillation- and for the ionization-signal and can be measured by scattering of neutrons. The CRESST- and the EDELWEISS-collaborations have set up a neutron scattering facility for cryogenic detectors at the tandem-accelerator of the Munich `Maier-Leibniz-Labor.' The scattering angle and the time-of-flight of the neutrons are measured by an array of liquid scintillator cells. The pulsed high energy (11 MeV) neutron beam is created by nuclear reaction of a 11B on a H2-gas target. The set-up and the results of first tests are presented. .

  14. Some issues in the seismic design of nuclear power-plant facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjian, A.H.; Iwan, W.D.

    1980-09-01

    This paper summarizes the major issues discussed by an international panel of experts during the post-SMIRT (Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology) Seminar on Extreme Load Design of Nuclear Power-Plant Facilities, which was held in Berlin, Aug. 20-21, 1979. The emphasis of the deliberations was on the state of the art of seismic-response calculations to predict the expected performance of structures and equipment during earthquakes. Four separate panels discussed issues on (1) soil-structure interaction and structural response, (2) modeling, materials, and boundary conditions, (3) damping in structures and equipment, and (4) fragility levels of equipment. The international character of the seminar was particularly helpful in the cross-pollination of ideas regarding the issues and the steps required to enhance the cause of safety of nuclear plants.

  15. Calculational framework for safety analyses of non-reactor nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.R.

    1994-06-01

    A calculational framework for the consequences analysis of non-reactor nuclear facilities is presented. The analysis framework starts with accident scenarios which are developed through a traditional hazard analysis and continues with a probabilistic framework for the consequences analysis. The framework encourages the use of response continua derived from engineering judgment and traditional deterministic engineering analyses. The general approach consists of dividing the overall problem into a series of interrelated analysis cells and then devising Markov chain like probability transition matrices for each of the cells. An advantage of this division of the problem is that intermediate output (as probability state vectors) are generated at each calculational interface. The series of analyses when combined yield risk analysis output. The analysis approach is illustrated through application to two non-reactor nuclear analyses: the Ulysses Space Mission, and a hydrogen burn in the Hanford waste storage tanks.

  16. U.S. Workforce and Educational Facilities' Readiness to Meet the Future Challenges of Nuclear Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mtingwa, Sekazi

    2008-04-01

    Using nuclear energy to generate electricity continues to be a topic of considerable debate. Currently, 20% of the electricity in the U.S. comes from its fleet of 104 commercial nuclear reactors, and they annually displace on the order of one hundred million metric tons of carbon emissions. These reactors currently account for 70% of the non-carbon emitting electricity production in the United States. Due to the recent interest by the Federal government and others in expanding the nuclear energy option, the American Physical Society's Panel on Public Affairs sponsored a study of the U.S. workforce and educational facilities' readiness for three scenarios out to the year 2050. They range from maintaining the current number of nuclear reactors, although some may be retired and replaced by new ones; significantly increasing the number of reactors, to perhaps as high as 200 or more; up to significantly increasing the number of reactors while closing the fuel cycle by reprocessing and recycling spent fuel. This talk reports on the results of that study.

  17. Annual Report To Congress. Department of Energy Activities Relating to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Calendar Year 2003

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2004-02-28

    The Department of Energy (Department) submits an Annual Report to Congress each year detailing the Department’s activities relating to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (Board), which provides advice and recommendations to the Secretary of Energy (Secretary) regarding public health and safety issues at the Department’s defense nuclear facilities. In 2003, the Department continued ongoing activities to resolve issues identified by the Board in formal recommendations and correspondence, staff issue reports pertaining to Department facilities, and public meetings and briefings. Additionally, the Department is implementing several key safety initiatives to address and prevent safety issues: safety culture and review of the Columbia accident investigation; risk reduction through stabilization of excess nuclear materials; the Facility Representative Program; independent oversight and performance assurance; the Federal Technical Capability Program (FTCP); executive safety initiatives; and quality assurance activities. The following summarizes the key activities addressed in this Annual Report.

  18. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility: Addressing advanced nuclear materials research

    SciTech Connect

    John Jackson; Todd Allen; Frances Marshall; Jim Cole

    2013-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), based at the Idaho National Laboratory in the United States, is supporting Department of Energy and industry research efforts to ensure the properties of materials in light water reactors are well understood. The ATR NSUF is providing this support through three main efforts: establishing unique infrastructure necessary to conduct research on highly radioactive materials, conducting research in conjunction with industry partners on life extension relevant topics, and providing training courses to encourage more U.S. researchers to understand and address LWR materials issues. In 2010 and 2011, several advanced instruments with capability focused on resolving nuclear material performance issues through analysis on the micro (10-6 m) to atomic (10-10 m) scales were installed primarily at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. These instruments included a local electrode atom probe (LEAP), a field-emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope (FEG-STEM), a focused ion beam (FIB) system, a Raman spectrometer, and an nanoindentor/atomic force microscope. Ongoing capability enhancements intended to support industry efforts include completion of two shielded, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) test loops, the first of which will come online in early calendar year 2013, a pressurized and controlled chemistry water loop for the ATR center flux trap, and a dedicated facility intended to house post irradiation examination equipment. In addition to capability enhancements at the main site in Idaho, the ATR NSUF also welcomed two new partner facilities in 2011 and two new partner facilities in 2012; the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and associated hot cells and the University California Berkeley capabilities in irradiated materials analysis were added in 2011. In 2012, Purdue University’s Interaction of Materials

  19. Leak-Path Factor Analysis for the Nuclear Materials Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, C.; Leonard, M.

    1999-06-13

    Leak-path factors (LPFs) were calculated for the Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) located in the Plutonium Facility, Building 41 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 55. In the unlikely event of an accidental fire powerful enough to fail a container holding actinides, the subsequent release of oxides, modeled as PuO{sub 2} aerosols, from the facility and into the surrounding environment was predicted. A 1-h nondestructive assay (NDA) laboratory fire accident was simulated with the MELCOR severe accident analysis code. Fire-driven air movement along with wind-driven air infiltration transported a portion of these actinides from the building. This fraction is referred to as the leak-path factor. The potential effect of smoke aerosol on the transport of the actinides was investigated to verify the validity of neglecting the smoke as conservative. The input model for the NMSF consisted of a system of control volumes, flow pathways, and surfaces sufficient to model the thermal-hydraulic conditions within the facility and the aerosol transport data necessary to simulate the transport of PuO{sub 2} particles. The thermal-hydraulic, heat-transfer, and aerosol-transport models are solved simultaneously with data being exchanged between models. A MELCOR input model was designed such that it would reproduce the salient features of the fire per the corresponding CFAST calculation. Air infiltration into and out of the facility would be affected strongly by wind-driven differential pressures across the building. Therefore, differential pressures were applied to each side of the building according to guidance found in the ASHRAE handbook using a standard-velocity head equation with a leading multiplier to account for the orientation of the wind with the building. The model for the transport of aerosols considered all applicable transport processes, but the deposition within the building clearly was dominated by gravitational settling.

  20. Spent nuclear fuel project, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility human factors engineering (HFE) analysis: Results and findings

    SciTech Connect

    Garvin, L.J.

    1998-07-17

    This report presents the background, methodology, and findings of a human factors engineering (HFE) analysis performed in May, 1998, of the Spent Nuclear Fuels (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF), to support its Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR), in responding to the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23 (DOE 1992a) and drafted to DOE-STD-3009-94 format. This HFE analysis focused on general environment, physical and computer workstations, and handling devices involved in or directly supporting the technical operations of the facility. This report makes no attempt to interpret or evaluate the safety significance of the HFE analysis findings. The HFE findings presented in this report, along with the results of the CVDF PSAR Chapter 3, Hazards and Accident Analyses, provide the technical basis for preparing the CVDF PSAR Chapter 13, Human Factors Engineering, including interpretation and disposition of findings. The findings presented in this report allow the PSAR Chapter 13 to fully respond to HFE requirements established in DOE Order 5480.23. DOE 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, Section 8b(3)(n) and Attachment 1, Section-M, require that HFE be analyzed in the PSAR for the adequacy of the current design and planned construction for internal and external communications, operational aids, instrumentation and controls, environmental factors such as heat, light, and noise and that an assessment of human performance under abnormal and emergency conditions be performed (DOE 1992a).

  1. Citizen perceptions of information flow around a nuclear facility: A study in risk communication

    SciTech Connect

    Price, M.O.

    1997-08-01

    Responses of focus group members from the region around a Nuclear Facility provide the data for this qualitative study concerning citizen perceptions of available site information. Analyses of three of the focus group discussion questions and the answers they elicited showed a dominant perception among participants of insufficient easily available information about the site. These respondents also indicated that most of them obtain site information through mass media and hearsay, that many lack trust in the information they have and would trust only an independent entity to provide accurate information. A new area in communication studies, variously called environmental risk communication, risk communication and health risk communication, continues to evolve among those working in various allied disciplines, some far removed from communication. As science attempts to solve environmental problems caused by technological advances, this field acquires numerous practitioners. Some of these risk communication experts may however, be overlooking basic and necessary components of effective communication, because their expertise is in another discipline. One result of this can be communication breakdown in which those involved, assume that meaning is shared, when in fact the opposite is true. This paper seeks to clarify a necessary ingredient of effective interpersonal risk communication, using data obtained from citizens living around one of the nation`s nuclear facilities as an example.

  2. Thermal analysis of the drywell for the Nuclear Material Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Steinke, R.G.

    1997-02-01

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility Renovation Project has a conceptual design for the facility to store nuclear materials in containers inside drywells with passive cooling for long-term storage. The CFX thermal-hydraulic computer program was used to analyze internal heat-transfer processes by conduction, convection, and radiation with natural circulation of air by hydraulic buoyancy with turbulence and thermal stratification (TS) evaluated. A vertical drywell was modeled with 14 containers on support plates at 12-in. intervals. The TS of bay air outside the drywell increased the container maximum temperature by 0.728 F for each 1.0 F of bay-air TS from the bottom to the top of the drywell. The drywell outer-surface peak heat flux was shifted downward because of the effect of bay-air TS. An equivalent model was evaluated by the nodal-network conduction, convection, and radiation heat-transfer computer program (Thermal System Analysis Program) TSAP. The TSAP results are in good agreement with the CFX-model results, with the difference in results understood based on the approximations of each model.

  3. A preliminary systems-engineering study of an advanced nuclear-electrolytic hydrogen-production facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, W. J. D.; Donakowski, T. D.; Tison, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    An advanced nuclear-electrolytic hydrogen-production facility concept was synthesized at a conceptual level with the objective of minimizing estimated hydrogen-production costs. The concept is a closely-integrated, fully-dedicated (only hydrogen energy is produced) system whose components and subsystems are predicted on ''1985 technology.'' The principal components are: (1) a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) operating a helium-Brayton/ammonia-Rankine binary cycle with a helium reactor-core exit temperature of 980 C, (2) acyclic d-c generators, (3) high-pressure, high-current-density electrolyzers based on solid-polymer electrolyte technology. Based on an assumed 3,000 MWt HTGR the facility is capable of producing 8.7 million std cu m/day of hydrogen at pipeline conditions, 6,900 kPa. Coproduct oxygen is also available at pipeline conditions at one-half this volume. It has further been shown that the incorporation of advanced technology provides an overall efficiency of about 43 percent, as compared with 25 percent for a contemporary nuclear-electric plant powering close-coupled contemporary industrial electrolyzers.

  4. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 13: Part 1, Main text

    SciTech Connect

    Goins, L.F.; Webb, J.R.; Cravens, C.D.; Mallory, P.K.

    1992-09-01

    This publication contains 1035 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. These citations constitute the thirteenth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types. There are 13 major sections of the publication, including: (1) DOE Decontamination and Decommissioning Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project; (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (6) DOE Environmental Restoration Program; (7) DOE Site-Specific Remedial Actions; (8) Contaminated Site Restoration; (9) Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater; (10) Environmental Data Measurements, Management, and Evaluation; (11) Remedial Action Assessment and Decision-Making; (12) Technology Development and Evaluation; and (13) Environmental and Waste Management Issues. Bibliographic references are arranged in nine subject categories by geographic location and then alphabetically by first author, corporate affiliation, or publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word.

  5. Material handling for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Nuclear Material Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pittman, P.; Roybal, J.; Durrer, R.; Gordon, D.

    1999-04-01

    This paper will present the design and application of material handling and automation systems currently being developed for the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Nuclear Material Storage Facility (NMSF) renovation project. The NMSF is a long-term storage facility for nuclear material in various forms. The material is stored within tubes in a rack called a basket. The material handling equipment range from simple lift assist devices to more sophisticated fully automated robots, and are split into three basic systems: a Vault Automation System, an NDA automation System, and a Drum handling System. The Vault Automation system provides a mechanism to handle a basket of material cans and to load/unload storage tubes within the material vault. In addition, another robot is provided to load/unload material cans within the baskets. The NDA Automation System provides a mechanism to move material within the small canister NDA laboratory and to load/unload the NDA instruments. The Drum Handling System consists of a series of off the shelf components used to assist in lifting heavy objects such as pallets of material or drums and barrels.

  6. YALINA facility a sub-critical Accelerator- Driven System (ADS) for nuclear energy research facility description and an overview of the research program (1997-2008).

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Smith, D. L.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-04-28

    The YALINA facility is a zero-power, sub-critical assembly driven by a conventional neutron generator. It was conceived, constructed, and put into operation at the Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus located in Minsk-Sosny, Belarus. This facility was conceived for the purpose of investigating the static and dynamic neutronics properties of accelerator driven sub-critical systems, and to serve as a neutron source for investigating the properties of nuclear reactions, in particular transmutation reactions involving minor-actinide nuclei. This report provides a detailed description of this facility and documents the progress of research carried out there during a period of approximately a decade since the facility was conceived and built until the end of 2008. During its history of development and operation to date (1997-2008), the YALINA facility has hosted several foreign groups that worked with the resident staff as collaborators. The participation of Argonne National Laboratory in the YALINA research programs commenced in 2005. For obvious reasons, special emphasis is placed in this report on the work at YALINA facility that has involved Argonne's participation. Attention is given here to the experimental program at YALINA facility as well as to analytical investigations aimed at validating codes and computational procedures and at providing a better understanding of the physics and operational behavior of the YALINA facility in particular, and ADS systems in general, during the period 1997-2008.

  7. Cancer mortality in counties near two former nuclear materials processing facilities in Pennsylvania, 1950-1995.

    PubMed

    Boice, John D; Bigbee, William L; Mumma, Michael T; Blot, William J

    2003-12-01

    There has been concern that living near nuclear installations might increase the risk of cancer, including childhood leukemia, in surrounding communities. Such concern has been voiced by residents in Armstrong and Westmoreland Counties in Western Pennsylvania in conjunction with the operation of two former nuclear materials processing facilities located in the Apollo borough and the Parks township, just three miles apart. These facilities began operating in 1957 and 1960 and processed uranium and plutonium for commercial and naval applications. To evaluate the possibility of increased cancer rates in communities around the Apollo-Parks nuclear facilities, a cancer incidence and a cancer mortality survey were conducted. The county mortality findings are reported here. Nearly 40,000 cancer deaths occurred in the population residing in Armstrong and Westmoreland Counties from 1950 through 1995. Each of these two study counties was matched for comparison to three control counties in the same region on the basis of age, race, urbanization, and socioeconomic factors available from the 1990 U.S. Census. There were over 77,000 cancer deaths in the 6 control counties during the 45 y studied. Following similar methods used by the National Cancer Institute, Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) were computed as the ratio of observed numbers of cancers in the study and control counties compared to the expected number derived from general population rates of the United States. Relative risks (RR) were computed as the ratios of the SMRs for the study and the control counties. There were no significant increases in the study counties for any cancer when comparisons were made with either the U.S. population or the control counties. In particular, deaths due to cancers of the lung, bone, liver, and kidney were not more frequent in the study counties than in the control counties. These are the cancers of a priori interest given that uranium and/or plutonium might be expected to

  8. ASTM STANDARD GUIDE FOR EVALUATING DISPOSAL OPTIONS FOR REUSE OF CONCRETE FROM NUCLEAR FACILITY DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Ann Marie; Meservey, Richard H.

    2003-02-27

    Within the nuclear industry, many contaminated facilities that require decommissioning contain huge volumes of concrete. This concrete is generally disposed of as low-level waste at a high cost. Much of the concrete is lightly contaminated and could be reused as roadbed, fill material, or aggregate for new concrete, thus saving millions of dollars. However, because of the possibility of volumetric contamination and the lack of a method to evaluate the risks and costs of reusing concrete, reuse is rarely considered. To address this problem, Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory teamed to write a ''concrete protocol'' to help evaluate the ramifications of reusing concrete within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document, titled the Protocol for Development of Authorized Release Limits for Concrete at U.S. Department of Energy Site (1) is based on ANL-E's previously developed scrap metal recycle protocols; on the 10-step method outlined in DOE's draft handbook, Controlling Release for Reuse or Recycle of Property Containing Residual Radioactive Material (2); and on DOE Order 4500.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (3). The DOE concrete protocol was the basis for the ASTM Standard Guide for Evaluating Disposal Options for Concrete from Nuclear Facility Decommissioning, which was written to make the information available to a wider audience outside DOE. The resulting ASTM Standard Guide is a more concise version that can be used by the nuclear industry worldwide to evaluate the risks and costs of reusing concrete from nuclear facility decommissioning. The bulk of the ASTM Standard Guide focuses on evaluating the dose and cost for each disposal option. The user calculates these from the detailed formulas and tabulated data provided, then compares the dose and cost for each disposal option to select the best option that meets regulatory requirements. With this information

  9. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: a selected bibliography. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Fielden, J.M.; Faust, R.A.

    1983-09-01

    This bibliography of 657 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions is the fourth in a series of annual reports prepared for the US Department of Energy, Division of Remedial Action Projects. Foreign as well as domestic documents of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - have been references in this publication. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Program. Major chapters are: (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program; (5) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program; and (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management. Chapter sections for chapters 1 and 2 include: Design, Planning, and Regulations; Site Surveys; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Land Decontamination and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; and General studies. The references within each chapter or section are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate author, or by title. Indexes are provided for the categories of author, corporate affiliation, title, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. Appendix A lists 264 bibliographic references to literature identified during this reporting period but not abstracted due to time constraints. Title and publication description indexes are given for this appendix. Appendix B defines frequently used acronyms, and Appendix C lists the recipients of this report according to their corporate affiliation.

  10. Sandia National Laboratories support of the Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, John Russell; Danneels, Jeffrey John

    2009-03-01

    Because of past military operations, lack of upkeep and looting there are now enormous radioactive waste problems in Iraq. These waste problems include destroyed nuclear facilities, uncharacterized radioactive wastes, liquid radioactive waste in underground tanks, wastes related to the production of yellow cake, sealed radioactive sources, activated metals and contaminated metals that must be constantly guarded. Iraq currently lacks the trained personnel, regulatory and physical infrastructure to safely and securely manage these facilities and wastes. In 2005 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) agreed to organize an international cooperative program to assist Iraq with these issues. Soon after, the Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program (the NDs Program) was initiated by the U.S. Department of State (DOS) to support the IAEA and assist the Government of Iraq (GOI) in eliminating the threats from poorly controlled radioactive materials. The Iraq NDs Program is providing support for the IAEA plus training, consultation and limited equipment to the GOI. The GOI owns the problems and will be responsible for implementation of the Iraq NDs Program. Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) is a part of the DOS's team implementing the Iraq NDs Program. This report documents Sandia's support of the Iraq NDs Program, which has developed into three principal work streams: (1) training and technical consultation; (2) introducing Iraqis to modern decommissioning and waste management practices; and (3) supporting the IAEA, as they assist the GOI. Examples of each of these work streams include: (1) presentation of a three-day training workshop on 'Practical Concepts for Safe Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste in Arid Settings;' (2) leading GOI representatives on a tour of two operating low level radioactive waste disposal facilities in the U.S.; and (3) supporting the IAEA's Technical Meeting with the GOI from April 21-25, 2008. As noted in the

  11. Accelerator-Based Biological Irradiation Facility Simulating Neutron Exposure from an Improvised Nuclear Device

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yanping; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Turner, Helen C.; Marino, Stephen A.; Geard, Charles R.; Brenner, David J.; Garty, Guy

    2015-01-01

    We describe here an accelerator-based neutron irradiation facility, intended to expose blood or small animals to neutron fields mimicking those from an improvised nuclear device at relevant distances from the epicenter. Neutrons are generated by a mixed proton/deuteron beam on a thick beryllium target, generating a broad spectrum of neutron energies that match those estimated for the Hiroshima bomb at 1.5 km from ground zero. This spectrum, dominated by neutron energies between 0.2 and 9 MeV, is significantly different from the standard reactor fission spectrum, as the initial bomb spectrum changes when the neutrons are transported through air. The neutron and gamma dose rates were measured using a custom tissue-equivalent gas ionization chamber and a compensated Geiger-Mueller dosimeter, respectively. Neutron spectra were evaluated by unfolding measurements using a proton-recoil proportional counter and a liquid scintillator detector. As an illustration of the potential use of this facility we present micronucleus yields in single divided, cytokinesis-blocked human peripheral lymphocytes up to 1.5 Gy demonstrating 3- to 5-fold enhancement over equivalent X-ray doses. This facility is currently in routine use, irradiating both mice and human blood samples for evaluation of neutron-specific biodosimetry assays. Future studies will focus on dose reconstruction in realistic mixed neutron/photon fields. PMID:26414507

  12. Accelerator-Based Biological Irradiation Facility Simulating Neutron Exposure from an Improvised Nuclear Device.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanping; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Turner, Helen C; Marino, Stephen A; Geard, Charles R; Brenner, David J; Garty, Guy

    2015-10-01

    We describe here an accelerator-based neutron irradiation facility, intended to expose blood or small animals to neutron fields mimicking those from an improvised nuclear device at relevant distances from the epicenter. Neutrons are generated by a mixed proton/deuteron beam on a thick beryllium target, generating a broad spectrum of neutron energies that match those estimated for the Hiroshima bomb at 1.5 km from ground zero. This spectrum, dominated by neutron energies between 0.2 and 9 MeV, is significantly different from the standard reactor fission spectrum, as the initial bomb spectrum changes when the neutrons are transported through air. The neutron and gamma dose rates were measured using a custom tissue-equivalent gas ionization chamber and a compensated Geiger-Mueller dosimeter, respectively. Neutron spectra were evaluated by unfolding measurements using a proton-recoil proportional counter and a liquid scintillator detector. As an illustration of the potential use of this facility we present micronucleus yields in single divided, cytokinesis-blocked human peripheral lymphocytes up to 1.5 Gy demonstrating 3- to 5-fold enhancement over equivalent X-ray doses. This facility is currently in routine use, irradiating both mice and human blood samples for evaluation of neutron-specific biodosimetry assays. Future studies will focus on dose reconstruction in realistic mixed neutron/photon fields. PMID:26414507

  13. Accelerator-Based Biological Irradiation Facility Simulating Neutron Exposure from an Improvised Nuclear Device.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanping; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Turner, Helen C; Marino, Stephen A; Geard, Charles R; Brenner, David J; Garty, Guy

    2015-10-01

    We describe here an accelerator-based neutron irradiation facility, intended to expose blood or small animals to neutron fields mimicking those from an improvised nuclear device at relevant distances from the epicenter. Neutrons are generated by a mixed proton/deuteron beam on a thick beryllium target, generating a broad spectrum of neutron energies that match those estimated for the Hiroshima bomb at 1.5 km from ground zero. This spectrum, dominated by neutron energies between 0.2 and 9 MeV, is significantly different from the standard reactor fission spectrum, as the initial bomb spectrum changes when the neutrons are transported through air. The neutron and gamma dose rates were measured using a custom tissue-equivalent gas ionization chamber and a compensated Geiger-Mueller dosimeter, respectively. Neutron spectra were evaluated by unfolding measurements using a proton-recoil proportional counter and a liquid scintillator detector. As an illustration of the potential use of this facility we present micronucleus yields in single divided, cytokinesis-blocked human peripheral lymphocytes up to 1.5 Gy demonstrating 3- to 5-fold enhancement over equivalent X-ray doses. This facility is currently in routine use, irradiating both mice and human blood samples for evaluation of neutron-specific biodosimetry assays. Future studies will focus on dose reconstruction in realistic mixed neutron/photon fields.

  14. Decommissioning of Active Ventilation Systems in a Nuclear R and D Facility to Prepare for Building Demolition (Whiteshell Laboratories Decommissioning Project, Canada) - 13073

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, Brian; May, Doug; Howlett, Don; Bilinsky, Dennis

    2013-07-01

    Whiteshell Laboratories (WL) is a nuclear research establishment owned by the Canadian government and operated by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) since the early 1960's. WL is currently under a decommissioning license and the mandate is to remediate the nuclear legacy liabilities in a safe and cost effective manner. The WL Project is the first major nuclear decommissioning project in Canada. A major initiative underway is to decommission and demolish the main R and D Laboratory complex. The Building 300 R and D complex was constructed to accommodate laboratories and offices which were mainly used for research and development associated with organic-cooled reactors, nuclear fuel waste management, reactor safety, advanced fuel cycles and other applications of nuclear energy. Building 300 is a three storey structure of approximately 16,000 m{sup 2}. In order to proceed with building demolition, the contaminated systems inside the building have to be characterized, removed, and the waste managed. There is a significant focus on volume reduction of radioactive waste for the WL project. The active ventilation system is one of the significant contaminated systems in Building 300 that requires decommissioning and removal. The active ventilation system was designed to manage hazardous fumes and radioactivity from ventilation devices (e.g., fume hoods, snorkels and glove boxes) and to prevent the escape of airborne hazardous material outside of the laboratory boundary in the event of an upset condition. The system includes over 200 ventilation devices and 32 active exhaust fan units and high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The strategy to remove the ventilation system was to work from the laboratory end back to the fan/filter system. Each ventilation duct was radiologically characterized. Fogging was used to minimize loose contamination. Sections of the duct were removed by various cutting methods and bagged for temporary storage prior to disposition

  15. Preoperational Subsurface Conditions at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Service Wastewater Discharge Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ansley, Shannon L.

    2002-02-20

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Service Wastewater Discharge Facility replaces the existing percolation ponds as a disposal facility for the INTEC Service Waste Stream. A preferred alternative for helping decrease water content in the subsurface near INTEC, closure of the existing ponds is required by the INTEC Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Record of Decision (ROD) for Waste Area Group 3 Operable Unit 3-13 (DOE-ID 1999a). By August 2002, the replacement facility was constructed approximately 2 miles southwest of INTEC, near the Big Lost River channel. Because groundwater beneath the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is protected under Federal and State of Idaho regulations from degradation due to INEEL activities, preoperational data required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 were collected. These data include preexisting physical, chemical, and biological conditions that could be affected by the discharge; background levels of radioactive and chemical components; pertinent environmental and ecological parameters; and potential pathways for human exposure or environmental impact. This document presents specific data collected in support of DOE Order 5400.1, including: four quarters of groundwater sampling and analysis of chemical and radiological parameters; general facility description; site specific geology, stratigraphy, soils, and hydrology; perched water discussions; and general regulatory requirements. However, in order to avoid duplication of previous information, the reader is directed to other referenced publications for more detailed information. Documents that are not readily available are compiled in this publication as appendices. These documents include well and borehole completion reports, a perched water evaluation letter report, the draft INEEL Wellhead Protection Program Plan, and the Environmental Checklist.

  16. Preoperational Subsurface Conditions at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Service Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ansley, Shannon Leigh

    2002-02-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Service Wastewater Discharge Facility replaces the existing percolation ponds as a disposal facility for the INTEC Service Waste Stream. A preferred alternative for helping decrease water content in the subsurface near INTEC, closure of the existing ponds is required by the INTEC Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Record of Decision (ROD) for Waste Area Group 3 Operable Unit 3-13 (DOE-ID 1999a). By August 2002, the replacement facility was constructed approximately 2 miles southwest of INTEC, near the Big Lost River channel. Because groundwater beneath the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is protected under Federal and State of Idaho regulations from degradation due to INEEL activities, preoperational data required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 were collected. These data include preexisting physical, chemical, and biological conditions that could be affected by the discharge; background levels of radioactive and chemical components; pertinent environmental and ecological parameters; and potential pathways for human exposure or environmental impact. This document presents specific data collected in support of DOE Order 5400.1, including: four quarters of groundwater sampling and analysis of chemical and radiological parameters; general facility description; site specific geology, stratigraphy, soils, and hydrology; perched water discussions; and general regulatory requirements. However, in order to avoid duplication of previous information, the reader is directed to other referenced publications for more detailed information. Documents that are not readily available are compiled in this publication as appendices. These documents include well and borehole completion reports, a perched water evaluation letter report, the draft INEEL Wellhead Protection Program Plan, and the Environmental Checklist.

  17. SOFTWARE TOOLS THAT ADDRESS HAZARDOUS MATERIAL ISSUES DURING NUCLEAR FACILITY D and D

    SciTech Connect

    M. COURNOYER; R. GRUNDEMANN

    2001-03-01

    The 49-year-old Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Facility is where analytical chemistry and metallurgical studies on samples of plutonium and nuclear materials are conduct in support of the Department of Energy's nuclear weapons program. The CMR Facility is expected to be decontaminated and decommissioned (D and D) over the next ten to twenty years. Over the decades, several hazardous material issues have developed that need to be address. Unstable chemicals must be properly reassigned or disposed of from the workspace during D and D operation. Materials that have critical effects that are primarily chronic in nature, carcinogens, reproductive toxin, and materials that exhibit high chronic toxicity, have unique decontamination requirements, including the decontrolling of areas where these chemicals were used. Certain types of equipment and materials that contain mercury, asbestos, lead, and polychlorinated biphenyls have special provisions that must be addressed. Utilization of commercially available software programs for addressing hazardous material issues during D and D operations such as legacy chemicals and documentation are presented. These user-friendly programs eliminate part of the tediousness associated with the complex requirements of legacy hazardous materials. A key element of this approach is having a program that inventories and tracks all hazardous materials. Without an inventory of chemicals stored in a particular location, many important questions pertinent to D and D operations can be difficult to answer. On the other hand, a well-managed inventory system can address unstable and highly toxic chemicals and hazardous material records concerns before they become an issue. Tapping into the institutional database provides a way to take advantage of the combined expertise of the institution in managing a cost effective D and D program as well as adding a quality assurance element to the program. Using laboratory requirements as a logic flow

  18. Financial Planning as a Tool for Efficient and Timely Decommissioning of Nuclear Research Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Cato, Anna; Lindskog, Staffan; Sjoeblom, Rolf

    2008-01-15

    It is generally recognized in the technical and economical literature that reliable cost evaluations with adequate estimates also of the errors and uncertainties involved are necessary in order for rational and appropriate management decisions to be made on any major plant investment. Such estimates are required for the selection of technologies to be applied and for selection to be made between alternative technologies and designs as well as for the overall financing issues including the one of whether to go ahead with the project. Inadequacies in the cost calculations typically lead to suboptimal decisions and ultimately substantial overruns and/or needs for retrofits. Actually, a very strict discipline has to be applied with adaptation of the approach used with regard to the stage of the planning. Deviations from the expected tend to raise the estimated cost much more frequently than they lower it. The same rationale applies to planning and cost calculations for decommissioning of nuclear research facilities. There are, however, many reasons why such estimations may be very treacherous to carry out. This will be dealt with in the following. The knowledge base underlying the present paper has been developed and accumulated as a result of the research that the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) has carried out in support of its regulatory oversight over the Swedish system of finance. The findings are, however, equally applicable and appropriate for implementers in their planning, decision, monitoring and evaluation activities. In the nineteen fifties and sixties, Sweden had a comprehensive program for utilization of nuclear power including uranium mining, fuel fabrication, reprocessing and domestically developed heavy water reactors. Examples of facilities are presented in Figures 1-5. Eventually, the development work lead to the present nuclear program with ten modern light water reactors in operation at present. According to Swedish law, those who benefit

  19. Occupational Radiation Exposure at Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors and Other Facilities 2008

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). The bulk of the information contained in the report was compiled from the 2008 annual reports submitted by five of the seven categories1 of NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.2206. The annual reports submitted by these licensees consist of radiation exposure records for each monitored individual. These records are analyzed for trends and presented in this report in terms of collective dose and the distribution of dose among the monitored individuals. Because there are no geologic repositories for high-level waste currently licensed and no low-level waste disposal facilities in operation, only five categories will be considered in this report.

  20. Performance based seismic qualification of reinforced concrete nuclear materials processing facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mertz, G.E.; Loceff, F.; Houston, T.; Rauls, G.; Mulliken, J.

    1997-09-01

    A seismic qualification of a reinforced concrete nuclear materials processing facility using performance based acceptance criteria is presented. Performance goals are defined in terms of a minimum annual seismic failure frequency. Pushover analyses are used to determine the building`s ultimate capacity and relate the capacity to roof drift and joint rotation. Nonlinear dynamic analyses are used to quantify the building`s drift using a suite of ground motion intensities representing varying soil conditions and levels of seismic hazard. A correlation between joint rotation and building drift to damage state is developed from experimental data. The damage state and seismic hazard are convolved to determine annual seismic failure frequency. The results of this rigorous approach is compared to those using equivalent force methods and pushover techniques recommended by ATC-19 and FEMA-273.

  1. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of stainless steel in a nuclear waste facility

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, C.F.; Doman, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Corrosion in stainless steel cooling water piping in a nuclear waste processing facility occurred during an extended system lay-up. The failure characteristics indicated microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). The corrosion occurred at welds as pinhole penetrations in the surfaces, which opened into large subsurface void formations. Corrosive attack started in the heat-affected zones of the assembly welds, usually adjacent to fusion lines. Stepwise grinding, polishing, and etching in the affected areas revealed that voids generally grew in the wrought material as uniform, general corrosion. Tunneling (wormholing) erosion was also present. Selective attack occurred within the two-phase weld filler zone. The result was a void wall that was rough and porous-appearing, a consequence of preferential attack on the austenite. The three-dimensional spongy surface was studied optically and with the scanning electron microscope.

  2. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of stainless steel in a nuclear waste facility

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, C.F.; Doman, D.L.

    1992-12-31

    Corrosion in stainless steel cooling water piping in a nuclear waste processing facility occurred during an extended system lay-up. The failure characteristics indicated microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). The corrosion occurred at welds as pinhole penetrations in the surfaces, which opened into large subsurface void formations. Corrosive attack started in the heat-affected zones of the assembly welds, usually adjacent to fusion lines. Stepwise grinding, polishing, and etching in the affected areas revealed that voids generally grew in the wrought material as uniform, general corrosion. Tunneling (wormholing) erosion was also present. Selective attack occurred within the two-phase weld filler zone. The result was a void wall that was rough and porous-appearing, a consequence of preferential attack on the austenite. The three-dimensional spongy surface was studied optically and with the scanning electron microscope.

  3. CARTOGAM - a portable gamma camera for remote localisation of radioactive sources in nuclear facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal, O.; Izac, C.; Jean, F.; Lainé, F.; Lévêque, C.; Nguyen, A.

    2001-03-01

    We have developed a compact gamma-imaging system, CARTOGAM, for remote localisation of radioactive sources in nuclear facilities. This system is under industrial development and commercialisation by the firm EURISYS Mesures. The most specific characteristics of CARTOGAM lie in its size (8 cm in diameter) and mass (15 kg for the detection head, including the shield), which make it portable by a person. As an example, CARTOGAM detects a 660 keV source producing a 0.4 μGy/h dose rate at the camera location in 10 min. The angular resolution at that energy ranges from 1° to 3°, depending on the field of view (30° or 50°) and scintillator thickness (2 or 4 mm). We present here a review of the specifications of the camera and show a few images illustrating its performance.

  4. Search for rare nuclear decays with HPGe detectors at the STELLA facility of the LNGS

    SciTech Connect

    Belli, P.; Di Marco, A.; Bernabei, R.; D'Angelo, S.; Cappella, F.; D'Angelo, A.; Incicchitti, A.; Cerulli, R.; Di Vacri, M. L.; Laubenstein, M.; Nisi, S.; Danevich, F. A.; Kobychev, V. V.; Poda, D. V.; Tretyak, V. I.; Kovtun, G. P.; Kovtun, N. G.; Shcherban, A. P.; Solopikhin, D. A.; Polischuk, O. G.; and others

    2013-12-30

    Results on the search for rare nuclear decays with the ultra low background facility STELLA at the LNGS using gamma ray spectrometry are presented. In particular, the best T{sub 1/2} limits were obtained for double beta processes in {sup 96}Ru and {sup 104}Ru. Several isotopes, which potentially decay through different 2β channels, including also possible resonant double electron captures, were investigated for the first time ({sup 156}Dy, {sup 158}Dy, {sup 184}Os, {sup 192}Os, {sup 190}Pt, {sup 198}Pt). Search for resonant absorption of solar {sup 7}Li axions in a LiF crystal gave the best limit for the mass of {sup 7}Li axions (< 8.6 keV). Rare alpha decay of {sup 190}Pt to the first excited level of {sup 186}Os(E{sub exc} = 137.2keV) was observed for the first time.

  5. Nuclear Facility Accident (NFAC) Unit Test Report For HPAC Version 6.3

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ronald W.; Morris, Robert W.; Sulfredge, Charles David

    2015-12-01

    This is a unit test report for the Nuclear Facility Accident (NFAC) model for the Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) version 6.3. NFAC’s responsibility as an HPAC component is three-fold. First, it must present an interactive graphical user interface (GUI) by which users can view and edit the definition of an NFAC incident. Second, for each incident defined, NFAC must interact with RTH to create activity table inputs and associate them with pseudo materials to be transported via SCIPUFF. Third, NFAC must create SCIPUFF releases with the associated pseudo materials for transport and dispersion. The goal of NFAC unit testing is to verify that the inputs it produces are correct for the source term or model definition as specified by the user via the GUI.

  6. Integration of distributed plant process computer systems to nuclear power generation facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bogard, T.; Finlay, K.

    1996-11-01

    Many operating nuclear power generation facilities are replacing their plant process computer. Such replacement projects are driven by equipment obsolescence issues and associated objectives to improve plant operability, increase plant information access, improve man machine interface characteristics, and reduce operation and maintenance costs. This paper describes a few recently completed and on-going replacement projects with emphasis upon the application integrated distributed plant process computer systems. By presenting a few recent projects, the variations of distributed systems design show how various configurations can address needs for flexibility, open architecture, and integration of technological advancements in instrumentation and control technology. Architectural considerations for optimal integration of the plant process computer and plant process instrumentation & control are evident from variations of design features.

  7. Beryllium medical surveillance at a former nuclear weapons facility during cleanup operations.

    PubMed

    Sackett, Holly M; Maier, Lisa A; Silveira, Lori J; Mroz, Margaret M; Ogden, Lorraine G; Murphy, James R; Newman, Lee S

    2004-09-01

    Despite increasing need to remediate beryllium-contaminated buildings in industry, little is known about the magnitude of risk associated with beryllium abatement or the merits of beryllium medical surveillance for cleanup workers. We examined beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests and reviewed medical evaluations on workers at a nuclear weapons facility during the process of decontamination and decommissioning. Of 2,221 workers, 19 (0.8%) were beryllium sensitized based on two or more abnormal beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests. Eight of 19 sensitized individuals underwent full clinical evaluation, of whom two were diagnosed with chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Notably, seven beryllium sensitized and CBD cases were hired after the start of cleanup operations. Beryllium medical surveillance detects sensitization and CBD in cleanup workers. Exposure controls and medical surveillance need to be 'broad-based' to include all cleanup workers involved in beryllium-contaminated building remediation.

  8. Seismic fragility of reinforced concrete structures and components for application to nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Gergely, P.

    1984-09-01

    The failure and fragility analyses of reinforced concrete structures and elements in nuclear reactor facilities within the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are evaluated. Uncertainties in material modeling, behavior of low shear walls, and seismic risk assessment for nonlinear response receive special attention. Problems with ductility-based spectral deamplification and prediction of the stiffness of reinforced concrete walls at low stress levels are examined. It is recommended to use relatively low damping values in connection with ductility-based response reductions. The study of static nonlinear force-deflection curves is advocated for better nonlinear dynamic response predictions. Several details of the seismic risk analysis of the Zion plant are also evaluated. 73 references.

  9. Emergency preparedness source term development for the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards-Licensed Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, S.L.; Mishima, J.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Lindsey, C.G.

    1984-08-01

    In order to establish requirements for emergency preparedness plans at facilities licensed by the Office of Nuclear Materials Safety and Safeguards, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) needs to develop source terms (the amount of material made airborne) in accidents. These source terms are used to estimate the potential public doses from the events, which, in turn, will be used to judge whether emergency preparedness plans are needed for a particular type of facility. Pacific Northwest Laboratory is providing the NRC with source terms by developing several accident scenarios for eleven types of fuel cycle and by-product operations. Several scenarios are developed for each operation, leading to the identification of the maximum release considered for emergency preparedness planning (MREPP) scenario. The MREPP scenarios postulated were of three types: fire, tornado, and criticality. Fire was significant at oxide fuel fabrication, UF/sub 6/ production, radiopharmaceutical manufacturing, radiopharmacy, sealed source manufacturing, waste warehousing, and university research and development facilities. Tornadoes were MREPP events for uranium mills and plutonium contaminated facilities, and criticalities were significant at nonoxide fuel fabrication and nuclear research and development facilities. Techniques for adjusting the MREPP release to different facilities are also described.

  10. Development of an Integrated Ground-Water Monitoring Strategy for Supporting Performance Assessments of Nuclear Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, T. J.; Price, V.

    2003-12-01

    The U.S. NRC is funding research to develop an integrated ground-water monitoring strategy to support performance assessments (PA) of nuclear waste and decommissioning sites. These PAs provide the scientific and regulatory bases for a risk-informed decision as to the long-term safety of waste disposal and decommissioning sites. The strategy will assist in NRC staff reviews of predicted consequences related to potential radionuclide releases from licensed nuclear facilities. The strategy couples site characterization and PA through identification and monitoring of hydrogeologic system performance indicators such as distributions of water content in the unsaturated zone and ground-water potential in the saturated zone, as well as radionuclide concentrations. The strategy considers the need to monitor for a range of alternative conceptual ground-water models, and to quantify parameter and model uncertainties. The strategy will be tested using real-time monitoring datasets. Recognizing that each site has its unique set of features, events and processes, the strategy will focus on methods for designing monitoring systems to detect both current conditions and changes in the system's behavior relevant to radionuclide leaching and transport. Beyond identifying and mapping contaminant plumes, the monitoring goals are to: identify the presence or potential for preferential transport pathways; assess the effectiveness of contaminant isolation systems; identify and support alternative conceptual flow and transport models; and communicate the monitored performance indicators through effective data management, analysis and visualization techniques for decision makers and stakeholders. Progress to date involves the review and harmonization of monitoring programs, strategies and guidance presently used to evaluate both radioactive and toxic waste facilities.

  11. High-Flux Neutron Generator Facility for Geochronology and Nuclear Physics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waltz, Cory; HFNG Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    A facility based on a next-generation, high-flux D-D neutron generator (HFNG) is being commissioned at UC Berkeley. The generator is designed to produce monoenergetic 2.45 MeV neutrons at outputs exceeding 1011 n/s. The HFNG is designed around two RF-driven multi-cusp ion sources that straddle a titanium-coated copper target. D + ions, accelerated up to 150 keV from the ion sources, self-load the target and drive neutron generation through the d(d,n)3 He fusion reaction. A well-integrated cooling system is capable of handling beam power reaching 120 kW impinging on the target. The unique design of the HFNG target permits experimental samples to be placed inside the target volume, allowing the samples to receive the highest neutron flux (1011 cm-2 s-1) possible from the generator. In addition, external beams of neutrons will be available simultaneously, ranging from thermal to 2.45 MeV. Achieving the highest neutron yields required carefully designed schemes to mitigate back-streaming of high energy electrons liberated from the cathode target by deuteron bombardment. The proposed science program is focused on pioneering advances in the 40 Ar/39 Ar dating technique for geochronology, new nuclear data measurements, basic nuclear science, and education. An end goal is to become a user facility for researchers. This work is supported by NSF Grant No. EAR-0960138, U.S. DOE LBNL Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, U.S. DOE LLNL Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344, and UC Office of the President Award 12-LR-238745.

  12. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Vol. 18. Part 2. Indexes

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This bibliography contains 3638 citations with abstracts of documents relevant to environmental restoration, nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. This report is the eighteenth in a series of bibliographies prepared annually for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - have been included in Part 1 of the report. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, financial, and regulatory information that pertains to DOE environmental restoration programs. The citations are separated by topic into 16 sections, including (1) DOE Environmental Restoration Program; (2) DOE D&D Program; (3) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (4) DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs; (5) NORM-Contaminated Site Restoration; (6) DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project; (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (8) DOE Site-Wide Remedial Actions; (9) DOE Onsite Remedial Action Projects; (10) Contaminated Site Remedial Actions; (11) DOE Underground Storage Tank Remediation; (12) DOE Technology Development, Demonstration, and Evaluations; (13) Soil Remediation; (14) Groundwater Remediation; (15) Environmental Measurements, Analysis, and Decision-Making; and (16) Environmental Management Issues. Within the 16 sections, the citations are sorted by geographic location. If a geographic location is not specified, the citations are sorted according to the document title. In Part 2 of the report, indexes are provided for author, author affiliation, selected title phrase, selected title word, publication description, geographic location, and keyword.

  13. Savannah River Site human error data base development for nonreactor nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Benhardt, H.C.; Held, J.E.; Olsen, L.M.; Vail, R.E.; Eide, S.A.

    1994-02-28

    As part of an overall effort to upgrade and streamline methodologies for safety analyses of nonreactor nuclear facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a human error data base has been developed and is presented in this report. The data base fulfills several needs of risk analysts supporting safety analysis report (SAR) development. First, it provides a single source for probabilities or rates for a wide variety of human errors associated with the SRS nonreactor nuclear facilities. Second, it provides a documented basis for human error probabilities or rates. And finally, it provides actual SRS-specific human error data to support many of the error probabilities or rates. Use of a single, documented reference source for human errors, supported by SRS-specific human error data, will improve the consistency and accuracy of human error modeling by SRS risk analysts. It is envisioned that SRS risk analysts will use this report as both a guide to identifying the types of human errors that may need to be included in risk models such as fault and event trees, and as a source for human error probabilities or rates. For each human error in this report, ffime different mean probabilities or rates are presented to cover a wide range of conditions and influencing factors. The ask analysts must decide which mean value is most appropriate for each particular application. If other types of human errors are needed for the risk models, the analyst must use other sources. Finally, if human enors are dominant in the quantified risk models (based on the values obtained fmm this report), then it may be appropriate to perform detailed human reliability analyses (HRAS) for the dominant events. This document does not provide guidance for such refined HRAS; in such cases experienced human reliability analysts should be involved.

  14. Damaged Spent Nuclear Fuel at U.S. DOE Facilities Experience and Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Brett W. Carlsen; Eric Woolstenhulme; Roger McCormack

    2005-11-01

    From a handling perspective, any spent nuclear fuel (SNF) that has lost its original technical and functional design capabilities with regard to handling and confinement can be considered as damaged. Some SNF was damaged as a result of experimental activities and destructive examinations; incidents during packaging, handling, and transportation; or degradation that has occurred during storage. Some SNF was mechanically destroyed to protect proprietary SNF designs. Examples of damage to the SNF include failed cladding, failed fuel meat, sectioned test specimens, partially reprocessed SNFs, over-heated elements, dismantled assemblies, and assemblies with lifting fixtures removed. In spite of the challenges involved with handling and storage of damaged SNF, the SNF has been safely handled and stored for many years at DOE storage facilities. This report summarizes a variety of challenges encountered at DOE facilities during interim storage and handling operations along with strategies and solutions that are planned or were implemented to ameliorate those challenges. A discussion of proposed paths forward for moving damaged and nondamaged SNF from interim storage to final disposition in the geologic repository is also presented.

  15. Mobile Pit verification system design based on passive special nuclear material verification in weapons storage facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, J. N.; Chin, M. R.; Sjoden, G. E.

    2013-07-01

    A mobile 'drive by' passive radiation detection system to be applied in special nuclear materials (SNM) storage facilities for validation and compliance purposes has been designed through the use of computational modeling and new radiation detection methods. This project was the result of work over a 1 year period to create optimal design specifications to include creation of 3D models using both Monte Carlo and deterministic codes to characterize the gamma and neutron leakage out each surface of SNM-bearing canisters. Results were compared and agreement was demonstrated between both models. Container leakages were then used to determine the expected reaction rates using transport theory in the detectors when placed at varying distances from the can. A 'typical' background signature was incorporated to determine the minimum signatures versus the probability of detection to evaluate moving source protocols with collimation. This established the criteria for verification of source presence and time gating at a given vehicle speed. New methods for the passive detection of SNM were employed and shown to give reliable identification of age and material for highly enriched uranium (HEU) and weapons grade plutonium (WGPu). The finalized 'Mobile Pit Verification System' (MPVS) design demonstrated that a 'drive-by' detection system, collimated and operating at nominally 2 mph, is capable of rapidly verifying each and every weapon pit stored in regularly spaced, shelved storage containers, using completely passive gamma and neutron signatures for HEU and WGPu. This system is ready for real evaluation to demonstrate passive total material accountability in storage facilities. (authors)

  16. Thermal and flow analyses of the Nuclear Materials Storage Facility Renovation Title I 60% design

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, T.D.; Steinke, R.G.; Mueller, C.

    1998-08-01

    The authors are continuing to use the computational fluid dynamics code CFX-4.2 to evaluate the steady-state thermal-hydraulic conditions in the Nuclear Material Storage Facility Renovation Title 1 60% Design. The analyses build on those performed for the 30% design. They have run an additional 9 cases to investigate both the performance of the passive vault and of an individual drywell. These cases investigated the effect of wind on the inlet tower, the importance of resolving boundary layers in the analyses, and modifications to the porous-medium approach used in the earlier analyses to represent better the temperature fields resulting from the detailed modeling of the boundary layers. The difference between maximum temperatures of the bulk air inside the vault for the two approaches is small. They continued the analyses of the wind effects around the inflector fixture, a canopy and cruciform device, on the inlet tower by running a case with the wind blowing diagonally across the inflector. The earlier analyses had investigated a wind that was blowing parallel to one set of vanes on the inflector. Several subcases for these analyses investigated coupling the analysis to the facility analysis and design changes for the inflector.

  17. Investigation of criticality safety control infraction data at a nuclear facility

    DOE PAGES

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Merhege, James F.; Costa, David A.; Art, Blair M.; Gubernatis, David C.

    2014-10-27

    Chemical and metallurgical operations involving plutonium and other nuclear materials account for most activities performed at the LANL's Plutonium Facility (PF-4). The presence of large quantities of fissile materials in numerous forms at PF-4 makes it necessary to maintain an active criticality safety program. The LANL Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) Program provides guidance to enable efficient operations while ensuring prevention of criticality accidents in the handling, storing, processing and transportation of fissionable material at PF-4. In order to achieve and sustain lower criticality safety control infraction (CSCI) rates, PF-4 operations are continuously improved, through the use of Lean Manufacturing andmore » Six Sigma (LSS) business practices. Employing LSS, statistically significant variations (trends) can be identified in PF-4 CSCI reports. In this study, trends have been identified in the NCS Program using the NCS Database. An output metric has been developed that measures ADPSM Management progress toward meeting its NCS objectives and goals. Using a Pareto Chart, the primary CSCI attributes have been determined in order of those requiring the most management support. Data generated from analysis of CSCI data help identify and reduce number of corresponding attributes. In-field monitoring of CSCI's contribute to an organization's scientific and technological excellence by providing information that can be used to improve criticality safety operation safety. This increases technical knowledge and augments operational safety.« less

  18. Investigation of criticality safety control infraction data at a nuclear facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Merhege, James F.; Costa, David A.; Art, Blair M.; Gubernatis, David C.

    2014-10-27

    Chemical and metallurgical operations involving plutonium and other nuclear materials account for most activities performed at the LANL's Plutonium Facility (PF-4). The presence of large quantities of fissile materials in numerous forms at PF-4 makes it necessary to maintain an active criticality safety program. The LANL Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) Program provides guidance to enable efficient operations while ensuring prevention of criticality accidents in the handling, storing, processing and transportation of fissionable material at PF-4. In order to achieve and sustain lower criticality safety control infraction (CSCI) rates, PF-4 operations are continuously improved, through the use of Lean Manufacturing and Six Sigma (LSS) business practices. Employing LSS, statistically significant variations (trends) can be identified in PF-4 CSCI reports. In this study, trends have been identified in the NCS Program using the NCS Database. An output metric has been developed that measures ADPSM Management progress toward meeting its NCS objectives and goals. Using a Pareto Chart, the primary CSCI attributes have been determined in order of those requiring the most management support. Data generated from analysis of CSCI data help identify and reduce number of corresponding attributes. In-field monitoring of CSCI's contribute to an organization's scientific and technological excellence by providing information that can be used to improve criticality safety operation safety. This increases technical knowledge and augments operational safety.

  19. Calculation code evaluating the confinement of a nuclear facility in case of fires

    SciTech Connect

    Laborde, J.C.; Prevost, C.; Vendel, J.

    1995-02-01

    Accident events involving fire are quite frequent and could have a severe effect on the safety of nuclear facilities. As confinement must be maintained, the ventilation and filtration systems have to be designed to limit radioactive release to the environment. To determine and analyse the consequences of a fire on the contamination confinement, IPSN, COGEMA and SGN are participating in development of a calculation code based on introduction, in the SIMEVENT ventilation code, of various models associated to fire risk and mass transfer in the ventilation networks. This calculation code results from the coupling of the SIMEVENT code with several models describing the temperature in a room resulting of a fire, the temperatures along the ventilation ducts, the contamination transfers through out the ventilation equipments (ducts, dampers, valves, air cleaning systems) and the High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters clogging. The paper proposed presents the current level of progress in development of this calculation code. It describes, in particular, the empirical model used for the clogging of HEPA filters by the aerosols derived from the combustion of standard materials used in the nuclear industry. It describes, also, the specific models used to take into account the mass transfers and resulting from the basic mechanisms of aerosols physics. In addition, an assessment of this code is given using the example of a simple laboratory installation.

  20. Sampling and analysis plan for the preoperational environmental survey of the spent nuclear fuel project facilities

    SciTech Connect

    MITCHELL, R.M.

    1999-04-01

    This sampling and analysis plan will support the preoperational environmental monitoring for construction, development, and operation of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project facilities, which have been designed for the conditioning and storage of spent nuclear fuels; particularly the fuel elements associated with the operation of N-Reactor. The SNF consists principally of irradiated metallic uranium, and therefore includes plutonium and mixed fission products. The primary effort will consist of removing the SNF from the storage basins in K East and K West Areas, placing in multicanister overpacks, vacuum drying, conditioning, and subsequent dry vault storage in the 200 East Area. The primary purpose and need for this action is to reduce the risks to public health and safety and to the environment. Specifically these include prevention of the release of radioactive materials into the air or to the soil surrounding the K Basins, prevention of the potential migration of radionuclides through the soil column to the nearby Columbia River, reduction of occupational radiation exposure, and elimination of the risks to the public and to workers from the deterioration of SNF in the K Basins.

  1. Evaluation of 38 years of radiological environmental data for the nuclear research facility in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Cawood, Louise; Friend, Francois

    2005-01-01

    Environmental monitoring has been conducted at the South African National Nuclear Research Facility (Necsa site) for the past 38 years. Included in this monitoring programme was the assessment of water, fish and sediment samples. The objective of this project was to review the data of these assessments to establish if the Necsa activities had any impact on the environment. An assessment of the management of discharge limits was included in the review. Fluctuations in the data reviewed can partly be ascribed to errors in sampling techniques and analysis methods, but mostly to external factors. Two main external factors identified during the review were: dilution effects based on the flowrate in the Crocodile River and the percentage of full capacity of the Hartbeespoort Dam, and the atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons testing. In this project, the impact of these factors were investigated with the help of correlation coefficient calculations and graphs. It was concluded that the flowrate of the Crocodile River and percentage full capacity of the Hartbeespoort Dam did have an impact on the beta activity measured in water and fish samples, and the (nat)U activities measured in water samples. The measured fallout from nuclear weapons testing in the southern hemisphere also had an impact on the beta activity in water. The assessment of the environmental monitoring data also showed that accidental releases were measurable in the environment. The added routine impact to a member of the public downstream from Necsa was on average an annual dose of 0.54 microSv more than that to a person living upstream from Necsa, which is considered insignificant in international radiation protection norms. The conclusion can be made that the monitoring programme is successful in satisfying its main objective, which is to determine the effects of the discharges on the environment and the immediate population.

  2. Application of Framework for Integrating Safety, Security and Safeguards (3Ss) into the Design Of Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Badwan, Faris M.; Demuth, Scott F

    2015-01-06

    Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Research and Development develops options to the current commercial fuel cycle management strategy to enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy while minimizing proliferation risks by conducting research and development focused on used nuclear fuel recycling and waste management to meet U.S. needs. Used nuclear fuel is currently stored onsite in either wet pools or in dry storage systems, with disposal envisioned in interim storage facility and, ultimately, in a deep-mined geologic repository. The safe management and disposition of used nuclear fuel and/or nuclear waste is a fundamental aspect of any nuclear fuel cycle. Integrating safety, security, and safeguards (3Ss) fully in the early stages of the design process for a new nuclear facility has the potential to effectively minimize safety, proliferation, and security risks. The 3Ss integration framework could become the new national and international norm and the standard process for designing future nuclear facilities. The purpose of this report is to develop a framework for integrating the safety, security and safeguards concept into the design of Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility (UNFSF). The primary focus is on integration of safeguards and security into the UNFSF based on the existing Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approach to addressing the safety/security interface (10 CFR 73.58 and Regulatory Guide 5.73) for nuclear power plants. The methodology used for adaptation of the NRC safety/security interface will be used as the basis for development of the safeguards /security interface and later will be used as the basis for development of safety and safeguards interface. Then this will complete the integration cycle of safety, security, and safeguards. The overall methodology for integration of 3Ss will be proposed, but only the integration of safeguards and security will be applied to the design of the

  3. H. R. 1836: A Bill to amend the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, with regard to Department of Energy nuclear facilities, and for other purposes. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, April 12, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    H.R. 1836: A Bill to amend the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, with regard to Department of Energy nuclear facilities, and for other purposes. The amendments change the title Defense Nuclear facilities to Department of Energy Nuclear facilities used for defense purposes and the related facilities Safety Board.

  4. Quarterly report on Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 90-7 for the period ending December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Cash, R.J.; Dukelow, G.T.; Forbes, C.J.

    1993-03-01

    This is the seventh quarterly report on the progress of activities addressing safety issues associated with Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks that contain ferrocyanide compounds. In the presence of oxidizing materials, such as nitrates or nitrites, ferrocyanide can be made to explode in the laboratory by heating it to high temperatures [above 285{degrees}C (545{degrees}F)]. In the mid 1950s approximately 140 metric tons of ferrocyanide were added to 24 underground high-level radioactive waste tanks. An implementation plan (Cash 1991) responding to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 90-7 (FR 1990) was issued in March 1991 describing the activities that were planned and underway to address each of the six parts of Recommendation 90-7. A revision to the original plan was transmitted to US Department of Energy by Westinghouse Hanford Company in December 1992. Milestones completed this quarter are described in this report. Contents of this report include: Introduction; Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Implementation Plan Task Activities (Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation for enhanced temperature measurement, Recommendation for continuous temperature monitoring, Recommendation for cover gas monitoring, Recommendation for ferrocyanide waste characterization, Recommendation for chemical reaction studies, and Recommendation for emergency response planning); Schedules; and References. All actions recommended by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board for emergency planning by Hanford Site emergency preparedness organizations have been completed.

  5. 10 CFR 770.7 - What procedures are to be used to transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What procedures are to be used to transfer real property... ENERGY TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT § 770.7 What... congressional defense committees through the Secretary of Energy. (d) Transfer. After the...

  6. 10 CFR 770.7 - What procedures are to be used to transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What procedures are to be used to transfer real property... ENERGY TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT § 770.7 What... congressional defense committees through the Secretary of Energy. (d) Transfer. After the...

  7. Decommissioning and Dismantling of Liquid Waste Storage and Liquid Waste Treatment Facility from Paldiski Nuclear Site, Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Varvas, M.; Putnik, H.; Johnsson, B.

    2006-07-01

    The Paldiski Nuclear Facility in Estonia, with two nuclear reactors was owned by the Soviet Navy and was used for training the navy personnel to operate submarine nuclear reactors. After collapse of Soviet Union the Facility was shut down and handed over to the Estonian government in 1995. In co-operation with the Paldiski International Expert Reference Group (PIERG) decommission strategy was worked out and started to implement. Conditioning of solid and liquid operational waste and dismantling of contaminated installations and buildings were among the key issues of the Strategy. Most of the liquid waste volume, remained at the Facility, was processed in the frames of an Estonian-Finnish co-operation project using a mobile wastewater purification unit NURES (IVO International OY) and water was discharged prior to the site take-over. In 1999-2002 ca 120 m{sup 3} of semi-liquid tank sediments (a mixture of ion exchange resins, sand filters, evaporator and flocculation slurry), remained after treatment of liquid waste were solidified in steel containers and stored into interim storage. The project was carried out under the Swedish - Estonian co-operation program on radiation protection and nuclear safety. Contaminated installations in buildings, used for treatment and storage of liquid waste (Liquid Waste Treatment Facility and Liquid Waste Storage) were then dismantled and the buildings demolished in 2001-2004. (authors)

  8. Annual report to Congress: Department of Energy activities relating to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, calendar year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    This is the ninth Annual Report to the Congress describing Department of Energy (Department) activities in response to formal recommendations and other interactions with the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (Board). The Board, an independent executive-branch agency established in 1988, provides advice and recommendations to the Secretary of energy regarding public health and safety issues at the Department`s defense nuclear facilities. The Board also reviews and evaluates the content and implementation of health and safety standards, as well as other requirements, relating to the design, construction, operation, and decommissioning of the Department`s defense nuclear facilities. The locations of the major Department facilities are provided. During 1998, Departmental activities resulted in the proposed closure of one Board recommendation. In addition, the Department has completed all implementation plan milestones associated with four other Board recommendations. Two new Board recommendations were received and accepted by the Department in 1998, and two new implementation plans are being developed to address these recommendations. The Department has also made significant progress with a number of broad-based initiatives to improve safety. These include expanded implementation of integrated safety management at field sites, a renewed effort to increase the technical capabilities of the federal workforce, and a revised plan for stabilizing excess nuclear materials to achieve significant risk reduction.

  9. 78 FR 9902 - DOE Response to Recommendation 2012-2 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Hanford...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... the Federal Register of January 22, 2013, in FR Doc. 2013-01132, 78 FR 4404, please make the following... Response to Recommendation 2012-2 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Hanford Tank Farms..., Hanford Tank Farms Flammable Gas Safety Strategy. This document corrects an error in that notice....

  10. Phantoms in the snow: Canadians' use of health care services in the United States.

    PubMed

    Katz, Steven J; Cardiff, Karen; Pascali, Marina; Barer, Morris L; Evans, Robert G

    2002-01-01

    To examine the extent to which Canadian residents seek medical care across the border, we collected data about Canadians' use of services from ambulatory care facilities and hospitals located in Michigan, New York State, and Washington State during 1994-1998. We also collected information from several Canadian sources, including the 1996 National Population Health Survey, the provincial Ministries of Health, and the Canadian Life and Health Insurance Association. Results from these sources do not support the widespread perception that Canadian residents seek care extensively in the United States. Indeed, the numbers found are so small as to be barely detectible relative to the use of care by Canadians at home. PMID:12025983

  11. Solid-tumor mortality in the vicinity of uranium cycle facilities and nuclear power plants in Spain.

    PubMed Central

    López-Abente, G; Aragonés, N; Pollán, M

    2001-01-01

    To ascertain solid tumor mortality in towns near Spain's four nuclear power plants and four nuclear fuel facilities from 1975 to 1993, we conducted a mortality study based on 12,245 cancer deaths in 283 towns situated within a 30-km radius of the above installations. As nonexposed areas, we used 275 towns lying within a 50- to 100-km radius of each installation, matched by population size and sociodemographic characteristics (income level, proportion of active population engaged in farming, proportion of unemployed, percentage of illiteracy, and province). Using log-linear models, we examined relative risk for each area and trends in risk with increasing proximity to an installation. The results reveal a pattern of solid-tumor mortality in the vicinity of uranium cycle facilities, basically characterized by excess lung [relative risk (RR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.25] and renal cancer mortality (RR 1.37, 95% CI, 1.07-1.76). Besides the effects of natural radiation, these results could well be evincing the influence on public health exerted by the environmental impact of mining. No such well-defined pattern appeared in the vicinity of nuclear power plants. Monitoring of cancer incidence and mortality is recommended in areas surrounding nuclear fuel facilities and nuclear power plants, and more specific studies are called for in areas adjacent to installations that have been fully operational for longer periods. In this regard, it is important to use dosimetric information in all future studies. PMID:11485872

  12. An Advanced Reverse Osmosis Technology For Application in Nuclear Desalination Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Humphries, J.R.; Davies, K.; Ackert, J.A.

    2002-07-01

    The lack of adequate supplies of clean, safe water is a growing global problem that has reached crisis proportions in many parts of the world. It is estimated that 1.5 billion people do not have access to adequate supplies of safe water, and that as a result nearly 10,000 people die every day and thousands more suffer from a range of debilitating illnesses due to water related diseases. Included in this total is an estimated 2.2 million child deaths annually. As the world's need for additional sources of fresh water continues to grow, seawater and brackish water desalination are providing an increasingly important contribution to the solution of this problem. Because desalination is an energy intensive process, nuclear desalination provides an economically attractive and environmentally sound alternative to the burning of fossil fuels for desalination. Nevertheless, the enormity of the problem dictates that additional steps must be taken to improve the efficiency of energy utilization and reduce the cost of water production in order to reduce the financial and environmental burden to communities in need. An advanced reverse osmosis (RO) desalination technology has been developed that emphasizes a nontraditional approach to system design and operation, and makes use of a sophisticated design optimization process that can lead to highly optimized design configurations and operating regimes. The technology can be coupled with a nuclear generating station (NGS) to provide an integrated facility for the co-generation of both water and electricity. Waste heat from the NGS allows the use of 'preheated' feedwater into the RO system, improving the efficiency of the RO process and reducing the cost of water production. Because waste heat, rather than process heat, is used the desalination system can be readily coupled to any existing or advanced reactor technology with little or no impact on reactor design and operation and without introducing additional reactor safety

  13. A historical application of social amplification of risk model: Economic impacts of risk events at nuclear weapons facilities?

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, W.C.

    1996-12-31

    Public perceptions of risk have proven to be a critical barrier to the federal government`s extensive, decade-long, technical and scientific effort to site facilities for the interim storage and permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The negative imagery, fear, and anxiety that are linked to ``nuclear`` and ``radioactive`` technologies, activities, and facilities by the public originate from the personal realities and experiences of individuals and the information they receive. These perceptions continue to be a perplexing problem for those responsible for making decisions about federal nuclear waste management policies and programs. The problem of understanding and addressing public perceptions is made even more difficult because there are decidedly different opinions about HLW held by the public and nuclear industry and radiation health experts.

  14. Dose equivalent rate constants and barrier transmission data for nuclear medicine facility dose calculations and shielding design.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Maggie; Caldwell, Curtis B

    2014-07-01

    A primary goal of nuclear medicine facility design is to keep public and worker radiation doses As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). To estimate dose and shielding requirements, one needs to know both the dose equivalent rate constants for soft tissue and barrier transmission factors (TFs) for all radionuclides of interest. Dose equivalent rate constants are most commonly calculated using published air kerma or exposure rate constants, while transmission factors are most commonly calculated using published tenth-value layers (TVLs). Values can be calculated more accurately using the radionuclide's photon emission spectrum and the physical properties of lead, concrete, and/or tissue at these energies. These calculations may be non-trivial due to the polyenergetic nature of the radionuclides used in nuclear medicine. In this paper, the effects of dose equivalent rate constant and transmission factor on nuclear medicine dose and shielding calculations are investigated, and new values based on up-to-date nuclear data and thresholds specific to nuclear medicine are proposed. To facilitate practical use, transmission curves were fitted to the three-parameter Archer equation. Finally, the results of this work were applied to the design of a sample nuclear medicine facility and compared to doses calculated using common methods to investigate the effects of these values on dose estimates and shielding decisions. Dose equivalent rate constants generally agreed well with those derived from the literature with the exception of those from NCRP 124. Depending on the situation, Archer fit TFs could be significantly more accurate than TVL-based TFs. These results were reflected in the sample shielding problem, with unshielded dose estimates agreeing well, with the exception of those based on NCRP 124, and Archer fit TFs providing a more accurate alternative to TVL TFs and a simpler alternative to full spectral-based calculations. The data provided by this paper should assist

  15. Dose equivalent rate constants and barrier transmission data for nuclear medicine facility dose calculations and shielding design.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Maggie; Caldwell, Curtis B

    2014-07-01

    A primary goal of nuclear medicine facility design is to keep public and worker radiation doses As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). To estimate dose and shielding requirements, one needs to know both the dose equivalent rate constants for soft tissue and barrier transmission factors (TFs) for all radionuclides of interest. Dose equivalent rate constants are most commonly calculated using published air kerma or exposure rate constants, while transmission factors are most commonly calculated using published tenth-value layers (TVLs). Values can be calculated more accurately using the radionuclide's photon emission spectrum and the physical properties of lead, concrete, and/or tissue at these energies. These calculations may be non-trivial due to the polyenergetic nature of the radionuclides used in nuclear medicine. In this paper, the effects of dose equivalent rate constant and transmission factor on nuclear medicine dose and shielding calculations are investigated, and new values based on up-to-date nuclear data and thresholds specific to nuclear medicine are proposed. To facilitate practical use, transmission curves were fitted to the three-parameter Archer equation. Finally, the results of this work were applied to the design of a sample nuclear medicine facility and compared to doses calculated using common methods to investigate the effects of these values on dose estimates and shielding decisions. Dose equivalent rate constants generally agreed well with those derived from the literature with the exception of those from NCRP 124. Depending on the situation, Archer fit TFs could be significantly more accurate than TVL-based TFs. These results were reflected in the sample shielding problem, with unshielded dose estimates agreeing well, with the exception of those based on NCRP 124, and Archer fit TFs providing a more accurate alternative to TVL TFs and a simpler alternative to full spectral-based calculations. The data provided by this paper should assist

  16. Proceedings of the 21st DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference; Sessions 1--8

    SciTech Connect

    First, M.W.

    1991-02-01

    Separate abstracts have been prepared for the papers presented at the meeting on nuclear facility air cleaning technology in the following specific areas of interest: air cleaning technologies for the management and disposal of radioactive wastes; Canadian waste management program; radiological health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis; filter testing; US standard codes on nuclear air and gas treatment; European community nuclear codes and standards; chemical processing off-gas cleaning; incineration and vitrification; adsorbents; nuclear codes and standards; mathematical modeling techniques; filter technology; safety; containment system venting; and nuclear air cleaning programs around the world. (MB)

  17. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    2000-11-18

    The mission of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) is to achieve the earliest possible removal of free water from Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs). The MCOs contain metallic uranium SNF that have been removed from the 100K Area fuel storage water basins (i.e., the K East and K West Basins) at the US. Department of Energy Hanford Site in Southeastern Washington state. Removal of free water is necessary to halt water-induced corrosion of exposed uranium surfaces and to allow the MCOs and their SNF payloads to be safely transported to the Hanford Site 200 East Area and stored within the SNF Project Canister Storage Building (CSB). The CVDF is located within a few hundred yards of the basins, southwest of the 165KW Power Control Building and the 105KW Reactor Building. The site area required for the facility and vehicle circulation is approximately 2 acres. Access and egress is provided by the main entrance to the 100K inner area using existing roadways. The CVDF will remove free. water from the MCOs to reduce the potential for continued fuel-water corrosion reactions. The cold vacuum drying process involves the draining of bulk water from the MCO and subsequent vacuum drying. The MCO will be evacuated to a pressure of 8 torr or less and backfilled with an inert gas (helium). The MCO will be sealed, leak tested, and then transported to the CSB within a sealed shipping cask. (The MCO remains within the same shipping Cask from the time it enters the basin to receive its SNF payload until it is removed from the Cask by the CSB MCO handling machine.) The CVDF subproject acquired the required process systems, supporting equipment, and facilities. The cold vacuum drying operations result in an MCO containing dried fuel that is prepared for shipment to the CSB by the Cask transportation system. The CVDF subproject also provides equipment to dispose of solid wastes generated by the cold vacuum drying process and transfer process water removed

  18. Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors and other facilities 1992; Twenty-fifth annual report, Volume 14

    SciTech Connect

    Raddatz, C.T.; Hagemeyer, D.

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the occupational radiation exposure information that has been reported to the NRC`s Radiation Exposure Information Reporting System (REIRS) by nuclear power facilities and certain other categories of NRC licensees during the years 1969 through 1992. The bulk of the data presented in the report was obtained from annual radiation exposure reports submitted in accordance with the requirements of 10CFR20.407 and the technical specifications of nuclear power plants. Data on workers terminating their employment at certain NRC licensed facilities were obtained from reports submitted pursuant to 10CFR20.408. The 1992 annual reports submitted by about 364 licensees indicated that approximately 204,365 individuals were monitored, 183,927 of whom were monitored by nuclear power facilities. They incurred an average individual dose of 0.16 rem (cSv) and an average measurable dose of about 0.30 (cSv). Termination radiation exposure reports were analyzed to reveal that about 74,566 individuals completed their employment with one or more of the 364 covered licensees during 1992. Some 71,846 of these individuals terminated from power reactor facilities, and about 9,724 of them were considered to be transient workers who received an average dose of 0.50 rem (cSv).

  19. Test Operation of Oxygen-Enriched Incinerator for Wastes From Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.-G.; Yang, H.cC.; Park, G.-I.; Kim, I.-T.; Kim, J.-K.

    2002-02-26

    The oxygen-enriched combustion concept, which can minimize off-gas production, has been applied to the incineration of combustible uranium-containing wastes from a nuclear fuel fabrication facility. A simulation for oxygen combustion shows the off-gas production can be reduced by a factor of 6.7 theoretically, compared with conventional air combustion. The laboratory-scale oxygen enriched incineration (OEI) process with a thermal capacity of 350 MJ/h is composed of an oxygen feeding and control system, a combustion chamber, a quencher, a ceramic filter, an induced draft fan, a condenser, a stack, an off-gas recycle path, and a measurement and control system. Test burning with cleaning paper and office paper in this OEI process shows that the thermal capacity is about 320 MJ/h, 90 % of design value and the off-gas reduces by a factor of 3.5, compared with air combustion. The CO concentration for oxygen combustion is lower than that of air combustion, while the O2 concentration in off-gas is kept above 25 vol % for a simple incineration process without any grate. The NOx concentration in an off-gas stream does not reduce significantly due to air incoming by leakage, and the volume and weight reduction factors are not changed significantly, which suggests a need for an improvement in sealing.

  20. Germline minisatellite mutations in workers occupationally exposed to radiation at the Sellafield nuclear facility.

    PubMed

    Tawn, E Janet; Curwen, Gillian B; Rees, Gwen S; Jonas, Patricia

    2015-03-01

    Germline minisatellite mutation rates were investigated in male workers occupationally exposed to radiation at the Sellafield nuclear facility. DNA samples from 160 families with 255 offspring were analysed for mutations at eight hypervariable minisatellite loci (B6.7, CEB1, CEB15, CEB25, CEB36, MS1, MS31, MS32) by Southern hybridisation. No significant difference was observed between the paternal mutation rate of 5.0% (37 mutations in 736 alleles) for control fathers with a mean preconceptional testicular dose of 9 mSv and that of 5.8% (66 in 1137 alleles) for exposed fathers with a mean preconceptional testicular dose of 194 mSv. Subgrouping the exposed fathers into two dose groups with means of 111 mSv and 274 mSv revealed paternal mutation rates of 6.0% (32 mutations in 536 alleles) and 5.7% (34 mutations in 601 alleles), respectively, neither of which was significantly different in comparisons with the rate for the control fathers. Maternal mutation rates of 1.6% (12 mutations in 742 alleles) for the partners of control fathers and 1.7% (19 mutations in 1133 alleles) for partners of exposed fathers were not significantly different. This study provides evidence that paternal preconceptional occupational radiation exposure does not increase the germline minisatellite mutation rate and therefore refutes suggestions that such exposure could result in a destabilisation of the germline that can be passed on to future generations.

  1. Low and medium level radwaste processing treatment in Serpong nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Salimin, Z.

    1994-12-31

    Low and medium level radioactive processing treatment in Serpong Nuclear Facilities is described. The low and medium level liquid wastes are treated by evaporation process using thermo- siphon circulating evaporator with a 750 l/h evaporation capacity at volume reduction ratio 50 : 1 and decontamination factor of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6}. The concentrates are then solidified with portland cement in a concrete shell of 950 l. The spent resins from reactor are also solidified with cement slurry in a concrete shell of 950 l. The compactable wastes collected in 100 l drums are compacted in a 200 l drum by a 600 kN hydraulic press and then solidified with cement slurry. Non-compactable wastes are such as spent radiation sources are solidified with cement slurry in a concrete shell of 350 l. Burnable solid wastes and organic solvent are treated by incineration using a incinerator with 50 kg/h burning capacity, ashes generated are then solidified with cement slurry in a 100 l drum. Finally, all of the package wastes (embedded wastes) are stored in the interim storage building.

  2. Development of an external beam nuclear microprobe on the Aglae facility of the Louvre museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calligaro, T.; Dran, J.-C.; Ioannidou, E.; Moignard, B.; Pichon, L.; Salomon, J.

    2000-03-01

    The external beam line of our facility has been recently equipped with the focusing system previously mounted on a classical nuclear microprobe. When using a 0.1 μm thick Si 3N 4 foil for the exit window and flowing helium on the sample under analysis, a beam spot as small as 10 μm is attainable at a distance of 3 mm from the window. Elemental micromapping is performed by mechanical scanning. An electronic device has been designed which allows XY scanning by moving the sample under the beam by steps down to 0.1 μm. Beam monitoring is carried out by means of the weak X-ray signal emitted by the exit foil and detected by a specially designed Si(Li) detector cooled by Peltier effect. The characteristics of external beams of protons and alpha particles are evaluated by means of resonance scanning and elemental mapping of a grid. An example of application is presented, dealing with elemental micro-mapping of inclusions in gemstones.

  3. Considerations of torsional effects on the seismic response of nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, J.; Miller, C.A.

    1992-04-01

    This paper studies the effects of torsion in models developed for performing soil-structure interaction analyses of nonsymmetric structure such as the process structures in many Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Because of the unsymmetrical nature of these structures, the introduction of the torsional effects could significantly amplify their structural response to seismic motions. In this study, a typical nuclear process building was employed and seismic analyses were performed with the objectives of (a) generating a simplified stick model representation of the structure including and reflecting torsional effects; (b) introducing certain simplifications commonly employed in the industry to investigate the torsional effects on the seismic response of the structure and (c) comparing the results from the above models with a large scale detailed finite element analysis of the same structure. The study results of this paper indicated the pronounced effects of the consideration of torsion on the seismic response when nonsymmetric structures are modeled with simplified stick representations. With torsional effects considered, the study showed that the simple models indeed provide structural responses closely matching the detailed finite element solution but at much reduced cost.

  4. Considerations of torsional effects on the seismic response of nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, J. ); Miller, C.A. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of torsion in models developed for performing soil-structure interaction analyses of nonsymmetric structure such as the process structures in many Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Because of the unsymmetrical nature of these structures, the introduction of the torsional effects could significantly amplify their structural response to seismic motions. In this study, a typical nuclear process building was employed and seismic analyses were performed with the objectives of (a) generating a simplified stick model representation of the structure including and reflecting torsional effects; (b) introducing certain simplifications commonly employed in the industry to investigate the torsional effects on the seismic response of the structure and (c) comparing the results from the above models with a large scale detailed finite element analysis of the same structure. The study results of this paper indicated the pronounced effects of the consideration of torsion on the seismic response when nonsymmetric structures are modeled with simplified stick representations. With torsional effects considered, the study showed that the simple models indeed provide structural responses closely matching the detailed finite element solution but at much reduced cost.

  5. Design of sample carrier for neutron irradiation facility at TRIGA MARK II nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Y.; Hamid, N. A.; Mansor, M. A.; Ahmad, M. H. A. R. M.; Yusof, M. R.; Yazid, H.; Mohamed, A. A.

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this work is to design a sample carrier for neutron irradiation experiment at beam ports of research nuclear reactor, the Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP). The sample carrier was designed so that irradiation experiment can be performed safely by researchers. This development will resolve the transferring of sample issues faced by the researchers at the facility when performing neutron irradiation studies. The function of sample carrier is to ensure the sample for the irradiation process can be transferred into and out from the beam port of the reactor safely and effectively. The design model used was House of Quality Method (HOQ) which is usually used for developing specifications for product and develop numerical target to work towards and determining how well we can meet up to the needs. The chosen sample carrier (product) consists of cylindrical casing shape with hydraulic cylinders transportation method. The sample placing can be done manually, locomotion was by wheel while shielding used was made of boron materials. The sample carrier design can shield thermal neutron during irradiation of sample so that only low fluencies fast neutron irradiates the sample.

  6. Fault detection and analysis in nuclear research facility using artificial intelligence methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Abu Bakar; Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd

    2016-01-01

    In this article, an online detection of transducer and actuator condition is discussed. A case study is on the reading of area radiation monitor (ARM) installed at the chimney of PUSPATI TRIGA nuclear reactor building, located at Bangi, Malaysia. There are at least five categories of abnormal ARM reading that could happen during the transducer failure, namely either the reading becomes very high, or very low/ zero, or with high fluctuation and noise. Moreover, the reading may be significantly higher or significantly lower as compared to the normal reading. An artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) are good methods for modeling this plant dynamics. The failure of equipment is based on ARM reading so it is then to compare with the estimated ARM data from ANN/ ANFIS function. The failure categories in either `yes' or `no' state are obtained from a comparison between the actual online data and the estimated output from ANN/ ANFIS function. It is found that this system design can correctly report the condition of ARM equipment in a simulated environment and later be implemented for online monitoring. This approach can also be extended to other transducers, such as the temperature profile of reactor core and also to include other critical actuator conditions such as the valves and pumps in the reactor facility provided that the failure symptoms are clearly defined.

  7. TRIGA Mark II nuclear reactor facility. Final report, 1 July 1980--30 June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, B.C.

    1997-05-01

    This report is a final culmination of activities funded through the Department of Energy`s (DOE) University Reactor Sharing Program, Grant DE-FG02-80ER10273, during the period 1 July 1980 through 30 June 1995. Progress reports have been periodically issued to the DOE, namely the Reactor Facility Annual Reports C00-2082/2219-7 through C00-2082/10723-21, which are contained as an appendix to this report. Due to the extent of time covered by this grant, summary tables are presented. Table 1 lists the fiscal year financial obligations of the grant. As listed in the original grant proposals, the DOE grant financed 70% of project costs, namely the total amount spent of these projects minus materials costs and technical support. Thus the bulk of funds was spent directly on reactor operations. With the exception of a few years, spending was in excess of the grant amount. As shown in Tables 2 and 3, the Reactor Sharing grant funded a immense number of research projects in nuclear engineering, geology, animal science, chemistry, anthropology, veterinary medicine, and many other fields. A list of these users is provided. Out of the average 3000 visitors per year, some groups participated in classes involving the reactor such as Boy Scout Merit Badge classes, teacher`s workshops, and summer internships. A large number of these projects met the requirements for the Reactor Sharing grant, but were funded by the University instead.

  8. Noneconomic factors influencing scrap metal disposition decisions at DOE and NRC-licensed nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ewen, M.D.; Robinson, L.A.

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently developing radiation protection standards for scrap metal, which will establish criteria for the unconditional clearance of scrap from nuclear facilities. In support of this effort, Industrial Economics, Incorporated is assessing the costs and benefits attributable to the rulemaking. The first step in this analysis is to develop an in-depth understanding of the factors influencing scrap disposition decisions, so that one can predict current and future practices under existing requirements and compare them to the potential effects of EPA`s rulemaking. These baseline practices are difficult to predict due to a variety of factors. First, because decommissioning activities are just beginning at many sites, current practices do not necessarily provide an accurate indicator of how these practices may evolve as site managers gain experience with related decisions. Second, a number of different regulations and policies apply to these decisions, and the interactive effects of these requirements can be difficult to predict. Third, factors other than regulatory constraints and costs may have a significant effect on related decisions, such as concerns about public perceptions. In general, research suggests that these factors tend to discourage the unconditional clearance of scrap metal.

  9. ARC: A compact, high-field, disassemblable fusion nuclear science facility and demonstration power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorbom, Brandon; Ball, Justin; Palmer, Timothy; Mangiarotti, Franco; Sierchio, Jennifer; Bonoli, Paul; Kasten, Cale; Sutherland, Derek; Barnard, Harold; Haakonsen, Christian; Goh, Jon; Sung, Choongki; Whyte, Dennis

    2014-10-01

    The Affordable, Robust, Compact (ARC) reactor conceptual design aims to reduce the size, cost, and complexity of a combined Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) and demonstration fusion pilot power plant. ARC is a 270 MWe tokamak reactor with a major radius of 3.3 m, a minor radius of 1.1 m, and an on-axis magnetic field of 9.2 T. ARC has Rare Earth Barium Copper Oxide (REBCO) superconducting toroidal field coils with joints to allow disassembly, allowing for removal and replacement of the vacuum vessel as a single component. Inboard-launched current drive of 25 MW LHRF power and 13.6 MW ICRF power is used to provide a robust, steady state core plasma far from disruptive limits. ARC uses an all-liquid blanket, consisting of low pressure, slowly flowing Fluorine Lithium Beryllium (FLiBe) molten salt. The liquid blanket acts as a working fluid, coolant, and tritium breeder, and minimizes the solid material that can become activated. The large temperature range over which FLiBe is liquid permits blanket operation at 800-900 K with single phase fluid cooling and allows use of a high-efficiency Brayton cycle for electricity production in the secondary coolant loop.

  10. Investigation of public exposure resulted from the radioiodine delay tank facility of nuclear medicine department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, Mohd Fahmi Mohd; Ali, Abdul Muhaimin Mat; Abdullah, Reduan; Idris, Abdullah Waidi

    2016-01-01

    The study is carried out to assess the exposure rate that could contribute to public exposure in a radioiodine ward delay tank facility of Radiotherapy, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, Department, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). The exposure rate at several locations including the delay tank room, doorway and at the public walking route was measured using Victoreen 415P-RYR survey meter. The radioactive level of the 131I waste was measured using Captus 3000 well counting system. The results showed that exposure rate and total count of the delay tank sample increased when the radioiodine ward was fully occupied with patient and reduced when the ward was vacant. Occupancy of radioiodine ward for two consecutive weeks had dramatically increased the exposure rate around the delay tank and radioactive level of 131I waste. The highest exposure rate and radioactive level was recorded when the ward was occupied for two consecutive weeks with 177.00 µR/h and 58.36 kcpm respectively. The exposure rate decreased 15.76 % when the door of the delay tank room was closed. The exposure rate at public walking route decreased between 15.58 % and 36.92 % as the distance increased between 1 and 3 m.

  11. An intrinsically safe facility for forefront research and training on nuclear technologies — Burnup and transmutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomonaco, G.; Frasciello, O.; Osipenko, M.; Ricco, G.; Ripani, M.

    2014-04-01

    The currently dominant open fuel cycles have resulted in the gradual accumulation of (relatively) large quantities of highly radioactive or fertile materials in the form of depleted uranium, plutonium, minor actinides (MA) and long-lived fission products (LLFP). For low-activity wastes a heavily shielded surface repository is required. Spent fuel can be instead directly buried in deep geological repositories or reprocessed in order to separate U and Pu and eventually also MA and LLFP from other materials. These elements can be further burnt by modern reactors but not yet in sufficient quantities to slow down the steady accumulation of these materials in storage. Using ADS, the residual long-lifetime isotopes can be transmuted by nuclear reactions into shorter-lifetime isotopes again storable in surface repositories. However, in order to perform transmutations at a practical level, high-power reactors (and consequently high-power accelerators) are required; particularly, a significant transmutation can be reached not only by increasing the beam current to something of the order of a few tens of mA, but also by increasing the beam energy above 500MeV in order to reach the spallation regime. Such high-power infrastructures require intermediate test facilities with lower power and higher safety level for the investigation of their dynamics and transmutation capabilities: the ADS proposed in this study could accomplish many of these constraints.

  12. Benchmarking of MCNP for calculating dose rates at an interim storage facility for nuclear waste.

    PubMed

    Heuel-Fabianek, Burkhard; Hille, Ralf

    2005-01-01

    During the operation of research facilities at Research Centre Jülich, Germany, nuclear waste is stored in drums and other vessels in an interim storage building on-site, which has a concrete shielding at the side walls. Owing to the lack of a well-defined source, measured gamma spectra were unfolded to determine the photon flux on the surface of the containers. The dose rate simulation, including the effects of skyshine, using the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP is compared with the measured dosimetric data at some locations in the vicinity of the interim storage building. The MCNP data for direct radiation confirm the data calculated using a point-kernel method. However, a comparison of the modelled dose rates for direct radiation and skyshine with the measured data demonstrate the need for a more precise definition of the source. Both the measured and the modelled dose rates verified the fact that the legal limits (<1 mSv a(-1)) are met in the area outside the perimeter fence of the storage building to which members of the public have access. Using container surface data (gamma spectra) to define the source may be a useful tool for practical calculations and additionally for benchmarking of computer codes if the discussed critical aspects with respect to the source can be addressed adequately. PMID:16381760

  13. Evaluation of Near Field Atmospheric Dispersion Around Nuclear Facilities Using a Lorentzian Distribution Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkley, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric dispersion modeling within the near field of a nuclear facility typically applies a building wake correction to the Gaussian plume model, whereby a point source is modeled as a plane source. The plane source results in greater near field dilution and reduces the far field effluent concentration. However, the correction does not account for the concentration profile within the near field. Receptors of interest, such as the maximally exposed individual, may exist within the near field and thus the realm of building wake effects. Furthermore, release parameters and displacement characteristics may be unknown, particularly during upset conditions. Therefore, emphasis is placed upon the need to analyze and estimate an enveloping concentration profile within the near field of a release. This investigation included the analysis of 64 air samples collected over 128 wk. Variables of importance were then derived from the measurement data, and a methodology was developed that allowed for the estimation of Lorentzian-based dispersion coefficients along the lateral axis of the near field recirculation cavity; the development of recirculation cavity boundaries; and conservative evaluation of the associated concentration profile. The results evaluated the effectiveness of the Lorentzian distribution methodology for estimating near field releases and emphasized the need to place air-monitoring stations appropriately for complete concentration characterization. Additionally, the importance of the sampling period and operational conditions were discussed to balance operational feedback and the reporting of public dose.

  14. 76 FR 34007 - Draft Regulatory Basis for a Potential Rulemaking on Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... sought to expand the use of civilian nuclear power globally and close the nuclear fuel cycle through... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 50 Draft Regulatory Basis for a Potential Rulemaking on Spent Nuclear Fuel... development of a draft regulatory basis document for a potential rulemaking on spent nuclear fuel...

  15. An intrinsically safe facility for forefront research and training on nuclear technologies — An example of accelerator: the SPES cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggiore, M.; Lombardi, A.; Piazza, L. A. C.; Prete, G.

    2014-04-01

    The SPES project, under construction at INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, is a research facility for nuclear and applied physics, based on a high-current H- cyclotron with two exits. One exit will be devoted to supply an ISOL facility for the production of radioactive beams, the second one can be used as driver for the ADS system. The main characteristics of the cyclotron are described together with the main building designed to operate high-current proton beams according to radioprotection rules.

  16. Exploratory shaft facility: It`s role in the characterization of the Yucca Mountain site for a potential nuclear repository

    SciTech Connect

    Kalia, H.N.; Merson, T.J.

    1990-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is characterizing Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to assess its suitability as a potential site for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste from nuclear power plants and defense related activities. The assessment activities include surface investigations, drill holes from the surface, and an underground facility for in situ characterization tests. This underground exploratory shaft facility is being designed to meet the criteria for characterizing the mountain as described in the Site Characterization Plan. 9 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Information needs for siting new, and evaluating current, nuclear facilities: ecology, fate and transport, and human health.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Clarke, James; Gochfeld, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The USA is entering an era of energy diversity, and increasing nuclear capacity and concerns focus on accidents, security, waste, and pollution. Physical buffers that separate outsiders from nuclear facilities often support important natural ecosystems but may contain contaminants. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licenses nuclear reactors; the applicant provides environmental assessments that serve as the basis for Environmental Impact Statements developed by NRC. We provide a template for the types of information needed for safe siting of nuclear facilities with buffers in three categories: ecological, fate and transport, and human health information that can be used for risk evaluations. Each item on the lists is an indicator for evaluation, and individual indicators can be selected for specific region. Ecological information needs include biodiversity (species, populations, communities) and structure and functioning of ecosystems, habitats, and landscapes, in addition to common, abundant, and unique species and endangered and rare ones. The key variables of fate and transport are sources of release for radionuclides and other chemicals, nature of releases (atmospheric vapors, subsurface liquids), features, and properties of environmental media (wind speed, direction and atmospheric stability, hydraulic gradient, hydraulic conductivity, groundwater chemistry). Human health aspects include receptor populations (demography, density, dispersion, and distance), potential pathways (drinking water sources, gardening, fishing), and exposure opportunities (lifestyle activities). For each of the three types of information needs, we expect that only a few of the indicators will be applicable to a particular site and that stakeholders should agree on a site-specific suite. PMID:20140506

  18. Information needs for siting new, and evaluating current, nuclear facilities: ecology, fate and transport, and human health.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Clarke, James; Gochfeld, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The USA is entering an era of energy diversity, and increasing nuclear capacity and concerns focus on accidents, security, waste, and pollution. Physical buffers that separate outsiders from nuclear facilities often support important natural ecosystems but may contain contaminants. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licenses nuclear reactors; the applicant provides environmental assessments that serve as the basis for Environmental Impact Statements developed by NRC. We provide a template for the types of information needed for safe siting of nuclear facilities with buffers in three categories: ecological, fate and transport, and human health information that can be used for risk evaluations. Each item on the lists is an indicator for evaluation, and individual indicators can be selected for specific region. Ecological information needs include biodiversity (species, populations, communities) and structure and functioning of ecosystems, habitats, and landscapes, in addition to common, abundant, and unique species and endangered and rare ones. The key variables of fate and transport are sources of release for radionuclides and other chemicals, nature of releases (atmospheric vapors, subsurface liquids), features, and properties of environmental media (wind speed, direction and atmospheric stability, hydraulic gradient, hydraulic conductivity, groundwater chemistry). Human health aspects include receptor populations (demography, density, dispersion, and distance), potential pathways (drinking water sources, gardening, fishing), and exposure opportunities (lifestyle activities). For each of the three types of information needs, we expect that only a few of the indicators will be applicable to a particular site and that stakeholders should agree on a site-specific suite.

  19. US-Russian Cooperation in Upgrading MC&A System at Rosatom Facilities: Measurement of Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Jensen, Bruce A

    2011-01-01

    Improve protection of weapons-usable nuclear material from theft or diversion through the development and support of a nationwide sustainable and effective Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) program based on material measurement. The material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) cooperation has yielded significant results in implementing MC&A measurements at Russian nuclear facilities: (1) Establishment of MEM WG and MEMS SP; (2) Infrastructure for development, certification, and distribution of RMs; and (3) Coordination on development and implementation of MMs.

  20. Long-term storage facility for reactor compartments in Sayda Bay - German support for utilization of nuclear submarines in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, Dietmar; Voelzke, Holger; Weber, Wolfgang; Noack, Volker; Baeuerle, Guenther

    2007-07-01

    The German-Russian project that is part of the G8 initiative on Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction focuses on the speedy construction of a land-based interim storage facility for nuclear submarine reactor compartments at Sayda Bay near Murmansk. This project includes the required infrastructure facilities for long-term storage of about 150 reactor compartments for a period of about 70 years. The interim storage facility is a precondition for effective activities of decommissioning and dismantlement of almost all nuclear-powered submarines of the Russian Northern Fleet. The project also includes the establishment of a computer-assisted waste monitoring system. In addition, the project involves clearing Sayda Bay of other shipwrecks of the Russian navy. On the German side the project is carried out by the Energiewerke Nord GmbH (EWN) on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour (BMWi). On the Russian side the Kurchatov Institute holds the project management of the long-term interim storage facility in Sayda Bay, whilst the Nerpa Shipyard, which is about 25 km away from the storage facility, is dismantling the submarines and preparing the reactor compartments for long-term interim storage. The technical monitoring of the German part of this project, being implemented by BMWi, is the responsibility of the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM). This paper gives an overview of the German-Russian project and a brief description of solutions for nuclear submarine disposal in other countries. At Nerpa shipyard, being refurbished with logistic and technical support from Germany, the reactor compartments are sealed by welding, provided with biological shielding, subjected to surface treatment and conservation measures. Using floating docks, a tugboat tows the reactor compartments from Nerpa shipyard to the interim storage facility at Sayda Bay where they will be left on the on-shore concrete

  1. Creating stars, supernovae, and the big bang in the laboratory: Nuclear Astrophysics with the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, G.J.

    1994-02-01

    This talk has been prepared for the Symposium on Novel Approaches to Nuclear Astrophysics hosted by the ACS Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology for the San Diego ACS meeting. This talk indeed describes a truly novel approach. It discusses a proposal for the construction of the National Ignition Facility which could provide the most powerful concentration of laser energy yet attempted. The energy from such a facility could be concentrated in such a way as to reproduce, for the first time in a terrestrial laboratory, an environment which nearly duplicates that which occurs within stars and during the first few moments of cosmic creation during the big bang. These miniature versions of cosmic explosions may allow us to understand better the tumultuous astrophysical environments which have profoundly influenced the origin and evolution of the universe.

  2. Preparation guide for US Department of Energy nonreactor nuclear facility safety analysis reports

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This standard describes a SAR preparation method, acceptable to DOE, which was developed to assist Hazard Category 2 and 3 facilities in preparing SARs that will satisfy requirements of DOE 5480.23. (Hazard Category 1 facilities are typically Category A reactors for which extensive precedents for SARs already exist.) The methodology in this standard focuses more on facility safety (back-end approach) with or without design information than on facility design (front-end approach).

  3. Hazard Evaluation for Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Sludge at the Solid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    SCHULTZ, M.V.

    2000-08-22

    As part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) storage basin clean-up project, sludge that has accumulated in the K Basins due to corrosion of damaged irradiated N Reactor will be loaded into containers and placed in interim storage. The Hanford Site Treatment Complex (T Plant) has been identified as the location where the sludge will be stored until final disposition of the material occurs. Long term storage of sludge from the K Basin fuel storage facilities requires identification and analysis of potential accidents involving sludge storage in T Plant. This report is prepared as the initial step in the safety assurance process described in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports and HNF-PRO-704, Hazards and Accident Analysis Process. This report documents the evaluation of potential hazards and off-normal events associated with sludge storage activities. This information will be used in subsequent safety analyses, design, and operations procedure development to ensure safe storage. The hazards evaluation for the storage of SNF sludge in T-Plant used the Hazards and Operability Analysis (HazOp) method. The hazard evaluation identified 42 potential hazardous conditions. No hazardous conditions involving hazardous/toxic chemical concerns were identified. Of the 42 items identified in the HazOp study, eight were determined to have potential for onsite worker consequences. No items with potential offsite consequences were identified in the HazOp study. Hazardous conditions with potential onsite worker or offsite consequences are candidates for quantitative consequence analysis. The hazardous conditions with potential onsite worker consequences were grouped into two event categories, Container failure due to overpressure - internal to T Plant, and Spill of multiple containers. The two event categories will be developed into accident scenarios that will be quantitatively analyzed to determine release consequences. A third category, Container failure due to

  4. Fusion nuclear science facilities and pilot plants based on the spherical tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menard, J. E.; Brown, T.; El-Guebaly, L.; Boyer, M.; Canik, J.; Colling, B.; Raman, R.; Wang, Z.; Zhai, Y.; Buxton, P.; Covele, B.; D'Angelo, C.; Davis, A.; Gerhardt, S.; Gryaznevich, M.; Harb, M.; Hender, T. C.; Kaye, S.; Kingham, D.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Mahajan, S.; Maingi, R.; Marriott, E.; Meier, E. T.; Mynsberge, L.; Neumeyer, C.; Ono, M.; Park, J.-K.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Valanju, P.; Woolley, R.

    2016-10-01

    A fusion nuclear science facility (FNSF) could play an important role in the development of fusion energy by providing the nuclear environment needed to develop fusion materials and components. The spherical torus/tokamak (ST) is a leading candidate for an FNSF due to its potentially high neutron wall loading and modular configuration. A key consideration for the choice of FNSF configuration is the range of achievable missions as a function of device size. Possible missions include: providing high neutron wall loading and fluence, demonstrating tritium self-sufficiency, and demonstrating electrical self-sufficiency. All of these missions must also be compatible with a viable divertor, first-wall, and blanket solution. ST-FNSF configurations have been developed simultaneously incorporating for the first time: (1) a blanket system capable of tritium breeding ratio TBR  ≈  1, (2) a poloidal field coil set supporting high elongation and triangularity for a range of internal inductance and normalized beta values consistent with NSTX/NSTX-U previous/planned operation, (3) a long-legged divertor analogous to the MAST-U divertor which substantially reduces projected peak divertor heat-flux and has all outboard poloidal field coils outside the vacuum chamber and superconducting to reduce power consumption, and (4) a vertical maintenance scheme in which blanket structures and the centerstack can be removed independently. Progress in these ST-FNSF missions versus configuration studies including dependence on plasma major radius R 0 for a range 1 m-2.2 m are described. In particular, it is found the threshold major radius for TBR  =  1 is {{R}0}≥slant 1.7 m, and a smaller R 0  =  1 m ST device has TBR  ≈  0.9 which is below unity but substantially reduces T consumption relative to not breeding. Calculations of neutral beam heating and current drive for non-inductive ramp-up and sustainment are described. An A  =  2, R 0

  5. Occupational Radiation Exposure at Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors and Other Facilities 2010, Prepared for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, May 2012

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Lewis D. A. Hagemeyer Y. U. McCormick

    2012-07-07

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). The bulk of the information contained in the report was compiled from the 2010 annual reports submitted by five of the seven categories of NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.2206. Because there are no geologic repositories for high-level waste currently licensed and no NRC-licensed low-level waste disposal facilities currently in operation, only five categories will be considered in this report. The annual reports submitted by these licensees consist of radiation exposure records for each monitored individual. These records are analyzed for trends and presented in this report in terms of collective dose and the distribution of dose among the monitored individuals. Annual reports for 2010 were received from a total of 190 NRC licensees. The summation of reports submitted by the 190 licensees indicated that 192,424 individuals were monitored, 81,961 of whom received a measurable dose. When adjusted for transient workers who worked at more than one licensee during the year, there were actually 142,471 monitored individuals and 62,782 who received a measurable dose. The collective dose incurred by these individuals was 10,617 person-rem, which represents a 12% decrease from the 2009 value. This decrease was primarily due to the decrease in collective dose at commercial nuclear power reactors, as well as a decrease in the collective dose for most of the other categories of NRC licensees. The number of individuals receiving a measurable dose also decreased, resulting in an average measurable dose of 0.13 rem for 2010. The average measurable dose is defined as the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) divided by the number of individuals receiving a measurable dose. In calendar year 2010, the average annual collective dose per reactor for light water reactor

  6. 75 FR 9196 - Letter From Secretary of Energy Accepting Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (Board...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... regarding seismic safety at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility. ADDRESSES: U.S... Laboratory Plutonium Facility Seismic Safety, issued on October 26, 2009, and I accept the recommendation. In... new Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) for the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National...

  7. 20th International Training Course (ITC-20) on the physical protection of nuclear facilities and materials evaluation report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, Amanda Ann

    2008-09-01

    The goal of this evaluation report is to provide the information necessary to improve the effectiveness of the ITC provided to the International Atomic Energy Agency Member States. This report examines ITC-20 training content, delivery methods, scheduling, and logistics. Ultimately, this report evaluates whether the course provides the knowledge and skills necessary to meet the participants needs in the protection of nuclear materials and facilities.

  8. Technical Approach and Plan for Transitioning Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1999-10-06

    This document describes the approach and process in which the 100-K Area Facilities are to be deactivated and transitioned over to the Environmental Restoration Program after spent nuclear fuel has been removed from the K Basins. It describes the Transition Project's scope and objectives, work breakdown structure, activity planning, estimated cost, and schedule. This report will be utilized as a planning document for project management and control and to communicate details of project content and integration.

  9. State Regulatory Authority (SRA) Coordination of Safety, Security, and Safeguards of Nuclear Facilities: A Framework for Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mladineo, Stephen V.; Frazar, Sarah L.; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Martikka, Elina; Hack, Tapani; Wiander, Timo

    2013-05-30

    This paper will explore the development of a framework for conducting an assessment of safety-security-safeguards integration within a State. The goal is to examine State regulatory structures to identify conflicts and gaps that hinder management of the three disciplines at nuclear facilities. Such an analysis could be performed by a State Regulatory Authority (SRA) to provide a self-assessment or as part of technical cooperation with either a newcomer State, or to a State with a fully developed SRA.

  10. Evaluation of CFETR as a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility using multiple system codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, V. S.; Costley, A. E.; Wan, B. N.; Garofalo, A. M.; Leuer, J. A.

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents the results of a multi-system codes benchmarking study of the recently published China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) pre-conceptual design (Wan et al 2014 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 42 495). Two system codes, General Atomics System Code (GASC) and Tokamak Energy System Code (TESC), using different methodologies to arrive at CFETR performance parameters under the same CFETR constraints show that the correlation between the physics performance and the fusion performance is consistent, and the computed parameters are in good agreement. Optimization of the first wall surface for tritium breeding and the minimization of the machine size are highly compatible. Variations of the plasma currents and profiles lead to changes in the required normalized physics performance, however, they do not significantly affect the optimized size of the machine. GASC and TESC have also been used to explore a lower aspect ratio, larger volume plasma taking advantage of the engineering flexibility in the CFETR design. Assuming the ITER steady-state scenario physics, the larger plasma together with a moderately higher BT and Ip can result in a high gain Qfus ˜ 12, Pfus ˜ 1 GW machine approaching DEMO-like performance. It is concluded that the CFETR baseline mode can meet the minimum goal of the Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) mission and advanced physics will enable it to address comprehensively the outstanding critical technology gaps on the path to a demonstration reactor (DEMO). Before proceeding with CFETR construction steady-state operation has to be demonstrated, further development is needed to solve the divertor heat load issue, and blankets have to be designed with tritium breeding ratio (TBR) >1 as a target.

  11. A method for rapid radiochemical analysis of transuranium elements in nuclear facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Fumio; Yuasa, Yoshiyuki; Tani, Akira; Naito, Makoto; Miyamaru, Kunio

    1984-06-01

    A promising procedure for the separation and determination of transuranium elements using co-precipitation with lanthanum trifluoride is describes for the rapid analysis of environmental samples in nuclear facilities. This procedure includes the following operations. (1) Samples are dissolved by pyrosulfate fusion. (2) Plutonium is adjusted to Pu(IV) with ferrous sulfate and sodium nitrite. (3) The transuranium elements are co-precipitated as fluorides with 70 μg of lathanum carrier with 2M hydrofluoric acid. If discrimination between 238Pu and 241Am is required, or the sample contains an excess of these elements such as calcium, magnesium, aluminium which form insoluble fluorides, an additional solvent extraction step can be included. Pu(IV) is extracted into 0.3M tri-n-octylamine, Am(III) and Cm(III) into 33 vol.% DBDECMP (dibutyl-N, N-diethlcarbamylmethylene phosphonate) from 5N nitic acid, and then stripped into 2M perchloric acid and neutral water respectively. (4) The lanthanum fluoride precipitate is mounted on a 47 mm diam. membrane film with 0.1 μm pore size by filtration for alpha spectrometry. Transuranium elements were added to samples of air dusts, smears and concentrated liquid wastes and analysed through the entire procedure. Recoveries of neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium were about 90% and an energy resolution of about 33 keV (fwhm) was achieved using a 450 mm 2 surface barrier detector. The time required for the present method was between 1.5 and 3 h.

  12. Development of a Pilot-Scale Facility for Melt-Dilute Treatment of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, H.

    2002-09-17

    Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) developed the melt-dilute process for treating spent fuel. Using laboratory concepts, SRTC designed and constructed a pilot-scale facility for processing radioactive fuel. Start-up testing of the facility confirmed cell operations and remote handling of fuel assemblies. In early 2002, the DOE decided to shut down the L-Area facility at SRS prior to melting any irradiated fuel. The modular facility is now in cold stand-by. This paper discusses the design and testing of the pilot-scale facility.

  13. The Development of Biomedical Applications of Nuclear Physics Detector Technology at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisenberger, Andrew

    2003-10-01

    The Southeastern Universities Research Association (SURA) operates the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) for the United States Department of Energy. As a user facility for physicists worldwide, its primary mission is to conduct basic nuclear physics research of the atom's nucleus at the quark level. Within the Jefferson Lab Physics Division is the Jefferson Lab Detector Group which was formed to support the design and construction of new detector systems during the construction phase of the major detector systems at Jefferson Lab and to act as technical consultants for the lab scientists and users. The Jefferson Lab Detector Group, headed by Dr. Stan Majewski, has technical capabilities in the development and use of radiation detection systems. These capabilities include expertise in nuclear particle detection through the use of gas detectors, scintillation and light guide techniques, standard and position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMTs), fast analog readout electronics and data acquisition, and on-line image formation and analysis. In addition to providing nuclear particle detector support to the lab, the group has for several years (starting in 1996) applied these technologies to the development of novel high resolution gamma-ray imaging systems for biomedical applications and x-ray imaging techniques. The Detector Group has developed detector systems for breast cancer detection, brain cancer therapy and small animal imaging to support biomedical research. An overview will be presented of how this small nuclear physics detector research group by teaming with universities, medical facilities, industry and other national laboratories applies technology originating from basic nuclear physics research to biomedical applications.

  14. Neutron flux characterization of californium-252 Neutron Research Facility at the University of Texas - Pan American by nuclear analytical technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahid, Kareem; Sanchez, Patrick; Hannan, Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    In the field of nuclear science, neutron flux is an intrinsic property of nuclear reaction facilities that is the basis for experimental irradiation calculations and analysis. In the Rio Grande Valley (Texas), the UTPA Neutron Research Facility (NRF) is currently the only neutron facility available for experimental research purposes. The facility is comprised of a 20-microgram californium-252 neutron source surrounded by a shielding cascade containing different irradiation cavities. Thermal and fast neutron flux values for the UTPA NRF have yet to be fully investigated and may be of particular interest to biomedical studies in low neutron dose applications. Though a variety of techniques exist for the characterization of neutron flux, neutron activation analysis (NAA) of metal and nonmetal foils is a commonly utilized experimental method because of its detection sensitivity and availability. The aim of our current investigation is to employ foil activation in the determination of neutron flux values for the UTPA NSRF for further research purposes. Neutron spectrum unfolding of the acquired experimental data via specialized software and subsequent comparison for consistency with computational models lends confidence to the results.

  15. Future directions in particle and nuclear physics at multi-GeV hadron beam facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Geesaman, D.F.

    1993-11-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics in particle and nuclear physics: hadron dynamics; lepton physics; spin physics; hadron and nuclear spectroscopy; hadronic weak interactions; and Eta physics. These papers have been indexed separately elsewhere.

  16. Nuclear-fuel-cycle risk assessment: descriptions of representative non-reactor facilities. Sections 1-14

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, K.J.

    1982-09-01

    The Fuel Cycle Risk Assessment Program was initiated to provide risk assessment methods for assistance in the regulatory process for nuclear fuel cycle facilities other than reactors. This report, the first from the program, defines and describes fuel cycle elements that are being considered in the program. One type of facility (and in some cases two) is described that is representative of each element of the fuel cycle. The descriptions are based on real industrial-scale facilities that are current state-of-the-art, or on conceptual facilities where none now exist. Each representative fuel cycle facility is assumed to be located on the appropriate one of four hypothetical but representative sites described. The fuel cycles considered are for Light Water Reactors with once-through flow of spent fuel, and with plutonium and uranium recycle. Representative facilities for the following fuel cycle elements are described for uranium (or uranium plus plutonium where appropriate): mining, milling, conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication, mixed-oxide fuel refabrication, fuel reprocessing, spent fuel storage, high-level waste storage, transuranic waste storage, spent fuel and high-level and transuranic waste disposal, low-level and intermediate-level waste disposal, and transportation. For each representative facility the description includes: mainline process, effluent processing and waste management, facility and hardware description, safety-related information and potential alternative concepts for that fuel cycle element. The emphasis of the descriptive material is on safety-related information. This includes: operating and maintenance requirements, input/output of major materials, identification and inventories of hazardous materials (particularly radioactive materials), unit operations involved, potential accident driving forces, containment and shielding, and degree of hands-on operation.

  17. Canadian Materials 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wintrob, Ralph, Ed.

    A variety of media is encompassed in this annotated awareness list of Canadian produced or Canadian oriented materials. Its purpose is to include all materials published or reprinted in 1972 which are suitable for use in school resource centers from kindergarten to twelfth grade. Main entries are arranged alphabetically by title with some subject…

  18. Nuclear power-related facilities and neighboring land price: a case study on the Mutsu-Ogawara region, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Fumihiro; Ohgaki, Hideaki; Asano, Kota

    2011-12-01

    From the perspective of risk, nuclear-power-related facilities (NPRFs) are often regarded as locally undesirable land use. However, construction of NPRFs contributes to social infrastructural improvement and job creation in the host communities. This raises a question: How large are these positive and negative effects? To approach this question from an economic viewpoint, we estimated the hedonic land price function for the Mutsu-Ogawara region of Japan from 1976 to 2004 and analyzed year-by-year fluctuations in land prices around the NPRFs located there. Land prices increased gradually in the neighborhood of the nuclear fuel cycle facilities (NFCFs) in Rokkasho Village, except for some falling (i) from 1982 to 1983 (the first official announcement of the project of construction came in 1983), (ii) from 1987 to 1988 (in 1988, the construction began and opposition movements against the project reached their peak), and (iii) from 1998 to 1999 (the pilot carry-in of spent fuels into the reprocessing plant began in 1998). Land prices around the Higashidori Nuclear Power Plant decreased during the period 1981-1982, when the Tohoku Electric Power Corp. and Tokyo Electric Power Corp. announced their joint construction plan. On the other hand, we obtained some results, even though not significant, indicating that land prices around Ohminato and Sekinehama harbors changed with the arrival and departure of the nuclear ship Mutsu, which suffered a radiation leak in 1974. PMID:21488926

  19. 75 FR 76055 - Nebraska Public Power District Cooper Nuclear Station; Notice of Issuance of Renewed Facility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ..., Deputy Director, Division of License Renewal, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. BILLING CODE 7590-01... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Docket No. 50-298; NRC-2008-0617] Nebraska Public Power District Cooper Nuclear Station; Notice...

  20. Annual report to Congress. Department of Energy activities relating to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, calendar year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2001-03-01

    This Annual Report to the Congress describes the Department of Energy's activities in response to formal recommendations and other interactions with the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. During 2000, the Department completed its implementation and proposed closure of one Board recommendation and completed all implementation plan milestones associated with two additional Board recommendations. Also in 2000, the Department formally accepted two new Board recommendations and developed implementation plans in response to those recommendations. The Department also made significant progress with a number of broad-based safety initiatives. These include initial implementation of integrated safety management at field sites and within headquarters program offices, issuance of a nuclear safety rule, and continued progress on stabilizing excess nuclear materials to achieve significant risk reduction.

  1. Style, content and format guide for writing safety analysis documents: Volume 2, Safety assessment reports for DOE non-nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.; Silver, R.C.; Balas, Y.; Gilmore, W.

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of Volume 2 of this 4-volume style guide is to furnish guidelines on writing and publishing Safety Assessment Reports (SAs) for DOE non-nuclear facilities at Sandia National Laboratories. The scope of Volume 2 encompasses not only the general guidelines for writing and publishing, but also the prescribed topics/appendices contents along with examples from typical SAs for DOE non-nuclear facilities.

  2. Overview on backfill materials and permeable reactive barriers for nuclear waste disposal facilities.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Robert Charles; Hasan, Ahmed Ali Mohamed; Holt, Kathleen Caroline; Hasan, Mahmoud A. (Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt)

    2003-10-01

    A great deal of money and effort has been spent on environmental restoration during the past several decades. Significant progress has been made on improving air quality, cleaning up and preventing leaching from dumps and landfills, and improving surface water quality. However, significant challenges still exist in all of these areas. Among the more difficult and expensive environmental problems, and often the primary factor limiting closure of contaminated sites following surface restoration, is contamination of ground water. The most common technology used for remediating ground water is surface treatment where the water is pumped to the surface, treated and pumped back into the ground or released at a nearby river or lake. Although still useful for certain remediation scenarios, the limitations of pump-and-treat technologies have recently been recognized, along with the need for innovative solutions to ground-water contamination. Even with the current challenges we face there is a strong need to create geological repository systems for dispose of radioactive wastes containing long-lived radionuclides. The potential contamination of groundwater is a major factor in selection of a radioactive waste disposal site, design of the facility, future scenarios such as human intrusion into the repository and possible need for retrieving the radioactive material, and the use of backfills designed to keep the radionuclides immobile. One of the most promising technologies for remediation of contaminated sites and design of radioactive waste repositories is the use of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). PRBs are constructed of reactive material(s) to intercept and remove the radionuclides from the water and decontaminate the plumes in situ. The concept of PRBs is relatively simple. The reactive material(s) is placed in the subsurface between the waste or contaminated area and the groundwater. Reactive materials used thus far in practice and research include zero valent iron

  3. Geohydrologic conditions at the nuclear-fuels reprocessing plant and waste-management facilities at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, Cattaraugus County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergeron, M.P.; Kappel, W.M.; Yager, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    A nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant, a high-level radioactive liquid-waste tank complex, and related waste facilities occupy 100 hectares (ha) within the Western New York Nuclear Service Center near West Valley, N.Y. The facilities are underlain by glacial and postglacial deposits that fill an ancestrial bedrock valley. The main plant facilities are on an elevated plateau referred to as the north plateau. Groundwater on the north plateau moves laterally within a surficial sand and gravel from the main plant building to areas northeast, east, and southeast of the facilities. The sand and gravel ranges from 1 to 10 m thick and has a hydraulic conductivity ranging from 0.1 to 7.9 m/day. Two separate burial grounds, a 4-ha area for low-level radioactive waste disposal and a 2.9-ha area for disposal of higher-level waste are excavated into a clay-rich till that ranges from 22 to 28 m thick. Migration of an organic solvent from the area of higher level waste at shallow depth in the till suggests that a shallow, fractured, oxidized, and weathered till is a significant pathway for lateral movement of groundwater. Below this zone, groundwater moves vertically downward through the till to recharge a lacustrine silt and fine sand. Within the saturated parts of the lacustrine unit, groundwater moves laterally to the northeast toward Buttermilk Creek. Hydraulic conductivity of the till, based on field and laboratory analyses , ranges from 0.000018 to 0.000086 m/day. (USGS)

  4. Non-nuclear Testing of Reactor Systems in the Early Flight Fission Test Facilities (EFF-TF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDyke, Melissa; Martin, James

    2004-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission-Test Facility (EFF-TF) can assist in the &sign and development of systems through highly effective non-nuclear testing of nuclear systems when technical issues associated with near-term space fission systems are "non-nuclear" in nature (e.g. system s nuclear operations are understood). For many systems. thermal simulators can he used to closely mimic fission heat deposition. Axial power profile, radial power profile. and fuel pin thermal conductivity can be matched. In addition to component and subsystem testing, operational and lifetime issues associated with the steady state and transient performance of the integrated reactor module can be investigated. Instrumentation at the EFF-TF allows accurate measurement of temperature, pressure, strain, and bulk core deformation (useful for accurately simulating nuclear behavior). Ongoing research at the EFF-TF is geared towards facilitating research, development, system integration, and system utilization via cooperative efforts with DOE laboratories, industry, universities, and other NASA centers. This paper describes the current efforts for the latter portion of 2003 and beginning of 2004.

  5. Proceedings of the eighth symposium on training of nuclear facility personnel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    This conference brought together those persons in the nuclear industry who have a vital interest in the training and licensing of nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel processing plant operators, senior operators, and support personnel for the purpose of an exchange of ideas and information related to the various aspects of training, retraining, examination, and licensing. The document contains 64 papers; each paper was abstracted for the data.

  6. Studies on Nuclear Astrophysics and Exotic Structure at the Low-Energy RI Beam Facility CRIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D.; Hayakawa, S.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Nakao, T.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Hashimoto, T.; Teranishi, T.; Kubono, S.; Cherubini, S.; Mazzocco, M.; Signorini, C.; Gulino, M.; Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; La Cognata, M.; Lattuada, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Torresi, D.; Lee, P. S.; Lee, C. S.; Komatsubara, T.; Iwasa, N.; Okoda, Y.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Parascandolo, C.; La Commara, M.; Strano, E.; Boiano, C.; Boiano, A.; Manea, C.; Sánchez-Benítez, A. M.; Miyatake, H.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Ishiyama, H.; Jeong, S. C.; Imai, N.; Hirayama, Y.; Kimura, S.; Mukai, M.; Kim, Y. H.; Lin, C. J.; Jia, H. M.; Yan, L.; Yang, Y. Y.; Kawabata, T.; Kwon, Y. K.; Binh, D. N.; Khiem, L. H.; Duy, N. N.

    Studies on nuclear astrophysics, resonant structure, and nuclear reaction are going on at CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator), a low-energy RI beam separator operated by Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), the University of Tokyo. Two major methods used at CRIB to study nuclear reactions of astrophysical relevance are the resonant scattering, and direct measurements of (α,p) reactions using a thick-gas target. Several experiments for decay measurements and reaction mechanism are also performed using low-energy RI beams at CRIB. Some of the results from recent experiments at CRIB are discussed.

  7. The Japanese tsunami and resulting nuclear emergency at the Fukushima Daiichi power facility: technical, radiologic, and response perspectives.

    PubMed

    Dauer, Lawrence T; Zanzonico, Pat; Tuttle, R Michael; Quinn, Dennis M; Strauss, H William

    2011-09-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power facility, in the Futaba District of the Fukushima Prefecture in Japan, was severely damaged by the earthquake and ensuing tsunami that struck off the northern coast of the island of Honshu on March 11, 2011. The resulting structural damage to the plant disabled the reactor's cooling systems and led to significant, ongoing environmental releases of radioactivity, triggering a mandatory evacuation of a large area surrounding the plant. The status of the facility continues to change, and permanent control of its radioactive inventory has not yet been achieved. The purpose of this educational article is to summarize the short-term chronology, radiologic consequences, emergency responses, and long-term challenges associated with this event. Although there is ongoing debate on preparedness before the event and the candor of responsible entities in recognizing and disclosing its severity, it largely appears that appropriate key actions were taken by the Japanese authorities during the event that should mitigate any radiologic health impact. These actions include an organized evacuation of over 200,000 inhabitants from the vicinity of the site and areas early in the emergency; monitoring of food and water and placement of radiation limits on such foodstuffs; distribution of stable potassium iodide; and systematic scanning of evacuees. However, the risk of additional fuel damage and of further, perhaps substantial, releases persists. The situation at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear facility remains fluid, and the long-term environmental and health impact will likely take years to fully delineate.

  8. Implementation of neutron counting techniques at US facilities for IAEA verification of excess materials from nuclear weapons production

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.E.; Krick, M.S.; Langner, D.G.; Reilly, T.D.; Theis, W.; Lemaire, R.J.; Xiao, J.

    1995-08-01

    The U.S. Nonproliferation and Export Control Policy, announced by President Clinton before the United Nations General Assembly on September 27, 1993, commits the U.S. to placing under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards excess nuclear materials no longer needed for the U.S. nuclear deterrent. As of July 1, 1995, the IAEA had completed Initial Physical Inventory Verification (IPIV) at two facilities: a storage vault in the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant containing highly enriched uranium (HOW) metal and another storage vault in the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) containing plutonium oxide and plutonium-bearing residues. Another plutonium- storage vault, located at Rocky Flats, is scheduled for the IPIV in the fall of 1995. Conventional neutron coincidence counting is one of the routinely applied IAEA nondestructive assay (ND) methods for verification of uranium and plutonium. However, at all three facilities mentioned above, neutron ND equipment had to be modified or developed for specific facility needs such as the type and configuration of material placed under safeguards. This document describes those modifications and developments.

  9. A Multidisciplinary Paradigm and Approach to Protecting Human Health and the Environment, Society, and Stakeholders at Nuclear Facilities - 12244

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Clarke, James; Powers, Charles W.; Kosson, David

    2012-07-01

    As the Department of Energy (DOE) continues to remediate its lands, and to consider moving toward long-term stewardship and the development of energy parks on its industrial, remediated land, it is essential to adequately characterize the environment around such facilities to protect society, human health, and the environment. While DOE sites re considering several different land-use scenarios, all of them require adequate protection of the environment. Even if DOE lands are developed for energy parks that are mainly for industrializes sections of DOE lands that will not be remediated to residential standards, there is still the need to consider the protection of human health and the environment. We present an approach to characterization and establishment of teams that will gather the information, and integrate that information for a full range of stakeholders from technical personnel, to public policy makers, and that public. Such information is needed to establish baselines, site new energy facilities in energy parks, protect existing nuclear facilities and nuclear wastes, improve the basis for emergency planning, devise suitable monitoring schemes to ensure continued protection, provide data to track local and regional response changes, and for mitigation, remediation and decommissioning planning. We suggest that there are five categories of information or data needs, including 1) geophysical, sources, fate and transport, 2) biological systems, 3) human health, 4) stakeholder and environmental justice, and 5) societal, economic, and political. These informational needs are more expansive than the traditional site characterization, but encompass a suite of physical, biological, and societal needs to protect all aspects of human health and the environment, not just physical health. We suggest a Site Committee be established that oversees technical teams for each of the major informational categories, with appropriate representation among teams and with a broad

  10. Central and Eastern United States (CEUS) Seismic Source Characterization (SSC) for Nuclear Facilities Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin J. Coppersmith; Lawrence A. Salomone; Chris W. Fuller; Laura L. Glaser; Kathryn L. Hanson; Ross D. Hartleb; William R. Lettis; Scott C. Lindvall; Stephen M. McDuffie; Robin K. McGuire; Gerry L. Stirewalt; Gabriel R. Toro; Robert R. Youngs; David L. Slayter; Serkan B. Bozkurt; Randolph J. Cumbest; Valentina Montaldo Falero; Roseanne C. Perman' Allison M. Shumway; Frank H. Syms; Martitia P. Tuttle

    2012-01-31

    Seismic Hazard Analysis: Guidance on Uncertainty and Use of Experts. The model will be used to assess the present-day composite distribution for seismic sources along with their characterization in the CEUS and uncertainty. In addition, this model is in a form suitable for use in PSHA evaluations for regulatory activities, such as Early Site Permit (ESPs) and Combined Operating License Applications (COLAs). Applications, Values, and Use Development of a regional CEUS seismic source model will provide value to those who (1) have submitted an ESP or COLA for Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) review before 2011; (2) will submit an ESP or COLA for NRC review after 2011; (3) must respond to safety issues resulting from NRC Generic Issue 199 (GI-199) for existing plants and (4) will prepare PSHAs to meet design and periodic review requirements for current and future nuclear facilities. This work replaces a previous study performed approximately 25 years ago. Since that study was completed, substantial work has been done to improve the understanding of seismic sources and their characterization in the CEUS. Thus, a new regional SSC model provides a consistent, stable basis for computing PSHA for a future time span. Use of a new SSC model reduces the risk of delays in new plant licensing due to more conservative interpretations in the existing and future literature. Perspective The purpose of this study, jointly sponsored by EPRI, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the NRC was to develop a new CEUS SSC model. The team assembled to accomplish this purpose was composed of distinguished subject matter experts from industry, government, and academia. The resulting model is unique, and because this project has solicited input from the present-day larger technical community, it is not likely that there will be a need for significant revision for a number of years. See also Sponsors Perspective for more details. The goal of this project was to implement the CEUS SSC work plan

  11. Performance of the electronic personal dosemeter for neutron 'Saphydose-N' at different workplaces of nuclear facilities.

    PubMed

    Lahaye, T; Chau, Q; Ménard, S; Lacoste, V; Muller, H; Luszik-Bhadra, M; Reginatto, M; Bruguier, P

    2006-01-01

    This paper mainly aims at presenting the measurements and the results obtained with the electronic personal neutron dosemeter Saphydose-N at different facilities. Three campaigns were led in the frame of the European contract EVIDOS ('Evaluation of Individual Dosimetry in Mixed Neutron and Photon Radiation Fields'). The first one consisted in the measurements at the IRSN French research laboratory in reference neutron fields generated by a thermal facility (SIGMA), radionuclide ISO sources ((241)AmBe; (252)Cf; (252)Cf(D(2)O)\\Cd) and a realistic spectrum (CANEL/T400). The second one was performed at the Krümmel Nuclear Power Plant (Germany) close to the boiling water reactor and to a spent fuel transport cask. The third one was realised at Mol (Belgium), at the VENUS Research Reactor and at Belgonucléaire, a fuel processing factory.

  12. 105-K Basin material design basis feed description for spent nuclear fuel project facilities. Volume 2: Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, K.L.

    1998-08-30

    Volume 2 provides the design feed compositions for the baseline K East and K West Basin sludge process streams expected to be generated during Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project activities. Four types of feeds are required to support evaluation of specific facility and process considerations during the development of new facilities and processes. These four design feeds provide nominal and bounding conditions for design evaluations. Volume 2 includes definition of inventories for: (1) KE and KW Basins sludge locations (pit sludges, floor sludge, canister.sludge, and wash sludge components), (2) nominal feed for each of five process feed streams, (3) shielding design feed, (4) safety/regulatory assessment feed, and (5) criticality assessment feed.

  13. Are Canadians Cultural Cuckoos?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickleburgh, Brita

    1977-01-01

    The author believes that teachers have been remiss in transmitting Canadian culture to their students. They have also neglected the development of self-realization and identity in the majority of students. (Author)

  14. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility supporting data and calculation database

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-02-26

    This document provides a database of supporting calculations for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The database was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, ''Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility'', Phase 2, ''Supporting Installation of Processing Systems'' (Garvin 1998). The HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-002, 1997, ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements'', Rev. 2, and the CVDF Summary Design Report. The database contains calculation report entries for all process, safety and facility systems in the CVDF, a general CVD operations sequence and the CVDF System Design Descriptions (SDDs). This database has been developed for the SNFP CVDF Engineering Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  15. REVIEW OF INDUSTRIES AND GOVERNMENT AGENCIES FOR TECHNOLOGIES APPLICABLE TO DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Reilkoff, T. E.; Hetland, M. D.; O'Leary, E. M.

    2002-02-25

    The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area's (DDFA's) mission is to develop, demonstrate, and deploy improved deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) technologies. This mission requires that emphasis be continually placed on identifying technologies currently employed or under development in other nuclear as well as nonnuclear industries and government agencies. In support of DDFA efforts to clean up the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) radiologically contaminated surplus facilities using technologies that improve worker safety, reduce costs, and accelerate cleanup schedules, a study was conducted to identify innovative technologies developed for use in nonnuclear arenas that are appropriate for D&D applications.

  16. Accelerated Clean-up of the United States Department of Energy, Mound Nuclear Weapons Facility in Miamisburg, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Lehew, J.G.; Bradford, J.D.; Cabbil, C.C.

    2006-07-01

    CH2M HILL is executing a performance-based contract with the United States Department of Energy to accelerate the safe closure of the nuclear facilities at the former Mound plant in Miamisburg, Ohio. The contract started in January 2003 with a target completion date of March 31, 2006. Our accelerated baseline targets completion of the project 2 years ahead of the previous baseline schedule, by spring 2006, and for $200 million less than previous estimates. This unique decommissioning and remediation project is located within the City of Miamisburg proper and is designed for transfer of the property to the Miamisburg Mound Community Improvement Corporation for industrial reuse. The project is being performed with the Miamisburg Mound Community Improvement Corporation and their tenants co-located on the site creating significant logistical, safety and stakeholder challenges. The project is also being performed in conjunction with the United States Department of Energy, United States Environmental Protection Agency, and the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency under the Mound 2000 regulatory cleanup process. The project is currently over 95% complete. To achieve cleanup and closure of the Mound site, CH2M HILL's scope includes: - Demolition of 64 nuclear, radiological and commercial facilities - Preparation for Transfer of 9 facilities (including a Category 2 nuclear facility) to the Miamisburg Mound Community Improvement Corporation for industrial reuse - Removal of all above ground utility structures and components, and preparation for transfer of 9 utility systems to Miamisburg Mound Community Improvement Corporation - Investigation, remediation, closure, and documentation of all known Potential Release Sites contaminated with radiological and chemical contamination (73 identified in original contract) - Storage, characterization, processing, packaging and shipment of all waste and excess nuclear materials - Preparation for Transfer of the 306 acre site to the

  17. SRTC criticality safety technical review: Nuclear criticality safety evaluation 94-02, uranium solidification facility pencil tank module spacing

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbun, R.

    1994-04-26

    Review of NMP-NCS-94-0087, ``Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 94-02: Uranium Solidification Facility Pencil Tank Module Spacing (U), April 18, 1994,`` was requested of the SRTC Applied Physics Group. The NCSE is a criticality assessment to show that the USF process module spacing, as given in Non-Conformance Report SHM-0045, remains safe for operation. The NCSE under review concludes that the module spacing as given in Non-Conformance Report SHM-0045 remains in a critically safe configuration for all normal and single credible abnormal conditions. After a thorough review of the NCSE, this reviewer agrees with that conclusion.

  18. Preparation and mechanism insight of nuclear envelope-like polymer vesicles for facile loading of biomacromolecules and enhanced biocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yunqing; Wang, Fangyingkai; Zhang, Cong; Du, Jianzhong

    2014-07-22

    The facile loading of sensitive and fragile biomacromolecules, such as glucose oxidase, hemoglobin, and ribonucleic acid (RNA), via synthetic vehicles directly in pure aqueous media is an important technical challenge. Inspired by the nucleus pore complex that connects the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm across the nuclear envelope, here we describe the development of a kind of polymeric nuclear envelope-like vesicle (NEV) to address this problem. The NEV is tailored to form the polymer pore complex (70 nm, similar to a nucleus pore complex) within the vesicle membrane based on nanophase segregation, which is confirmed via fluorescence spectrometry and dynamic light scattering (DLS) during self-assembly. This pH-triggered polymer pore complex can mediate the transportation of biomacromolecules across the vesicle membrane. Moreover, the NEVs facilitate the natural consecutive enzyme-catalyzed reactions via the H(+) sponge effect. This simple strategy might also be extended for mimicking other synthetic cell organelles.

  19. How carbon-friendly is nuclear energy? A hybrid MRIO-LCA model of a Spanish facility.

    PubMed

    Zafrilla, Jorge E; Cadarso, María-Ángeles; Monsalve, Fabio; de la Rúa, Cristina

    2014-12-16

    Spain faces the challenge of 80-95% greenhouse gas emissions reduction by 2050 (European Energy Roadmap). As a possible first step to fulfill this objective, this paper presents a two-level analysis. First, we estimate the carbon footprint of a hypothetical nuclear facility in Spain. Using a hybrid multiregional input-output model, to avoid truncation while diminishing sector aggregation problems and to improve environmental leakages estimations, we calculate the CO2 equivalent emissions associated with the different phases of the nuclear life-cycle--construction, fuel processing and operation and maintenance--taking into account the countries or regions where the emissions have been generated. Our results estimate a nuclear carbon footprint of 21.30 gCO2e/kWh, of which 89% comes from regions outside Spain. In some regions, the highest impacts are mostly direct (92%, 95%, and 92% of total carbon emissions in the U.S., France, and UK, respectively), meaning that these emissions are linked to the inputs directly required for nuclear energy production; in other regions, indirect emissions are higher (83% in China), which becomes relevant for policy measures. Second, through the analyses of different scenarios, we unravel and quantify how different assumptions that are often taken in the literature result in different carbon emissions.

  20. DOE/DHS INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY PROGRAMS: A MODEL FOR USE IN NUCLEAR FACILITY SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

    2011-07-01

    Many critical infrastructure sectors have been investigating cyber security issues for several years especially with the help of two primary government programs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National SCADA Test Bed and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Control Systems Security Program have both implemented activities aimed at securing the industrial control systems that operate the North American electric grid along with several other critical infrastructure sectors (ICS). These programs have spent the last seven years working with industry including asset owners, educational institutions, standards and regulating bodies, and control system vendors. The programs common mission is to provide outreach, identification of cyber vulnerabilities to ICS and mitigation strategies to enhance security postures. The success of these programs indicates that a similar approach can be successfully translated into other sectors including nuclear operations, safeguards, and security. The industry regulating bodies have included cyber security requirements and in some cases, have incorporated sets of standards with penalties for non-compliance such as the North American Electric Reliability Corporation Critical Infrastructure Protection standards. These DOE and DHS programs that address security improvements by both suppliers and end users provide an excellent model for nuclear facility personnel concerned with safeguards and security cyber vulnerabilities and countermeasures. It is not a stretch to imagine complete surreptitious collapse of protection against the removal of nuclear material or even initiation of a criticality event as witnessed at Three Mile Island or Chernobyl in a nuclear ICS inadequately protected against the cyber threat.

  1. How carbon-friendly is nuclear energy? A hybrid MRIO-LCA model of a Spanish facility.

    PubMed

    Zafrilla, Jorge E; Cadarso, María-Ángeles; Monsalve, Fabio; de la Rúa, Cristina

    2014-12-16

    Spain faces the challenge of 80-95% greenhouse gas emissions reduction by 2050 (European Energy Roadmap). As a possible first step to fulfill this objective, this paper presents a two-level analysis. First, we estimate the carbon footprint of a hypothetical nuclear facility in Spain. Using a hybrid multiregional input-output model, to avoid truncation while diminishing sector aggregation problems and to improve environmental leakages estimations, we calculate the CO2 equivalent emissions associated with the different phases of the nuclear life-cycle--construction, fuel processing and operation and maintenance--taking into account the countries or regions where the emissions have been generated. Our results estimate a nuclear carbon footprint of 21.30 gCO2e/kWh, of which 89% comes from regions outside Spain. In some regions, the highest impacts are mostly direct (92%, 95%, and 92% of total carbon emissions in the U.S., France, and UK, respectively), meaning that these emissions are linked to the inputs directly required for nuclear energy production; in other regions, indirect emissions are higher (83% in China), which becomes relevant for policy measures. Second, through the analyses of different scenarios, we unravel and quantify how different assumptions that are often taken in the literature result in different carbon emissions. PMID:25386802

  2. Operational comparison of TLD albedo dosemeters and solid state nuclear tracks detectors in fuel fabrication facilities.

    PubMed

    Tsujimura, N; Takada, C; Yoshida, T; Momose, T

    2007-01-01

    The authors carried out an operational study that compared the use of TLD albedo dosemeters and solid state nuclear tracks detector in plutonium environments of Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Tokai Works. A selected group of workers engaged in the fabrication process of MOX (Plutonium-Uranium mixed oxide) fuel wore both TLD albedo dosemeters and solid state nuclear tracks detectors. The TL readings were generally proportional to the counted etch-pits, and thus the dose equivalent results obtained from TLD albedo dosemeter agreed with those from solid state nuclear tracks detector within a factor of 1.5. This result indicates that, in the workplaces of the MOX fuel plants, the neutron spectrum remained almost constant in terms of time and space, and the appropriate range of field-specific correction with spectrum variations was small in albedo dosimetry. PMID:17337735

  3. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility process water conditioning system design description

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1998-11-30

    This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Process Water Conditioning (PWC) System. The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), the HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-O02, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the PWC equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SDD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  4. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility vacuum and purge system design description

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1998-11-30

    This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Vacuum and Purge System (VPS) . The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-O02, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), The HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-002, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the VPS equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SDD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  5. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 13: Part 1, Main text. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Goins, L.F.; Webb, J.R.; Cravens, C.D.; Mallory, P.K.

    1992-09-01

    This publication contains 1035 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. These citations constitute the thirteenth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types. There are 13 major sections of the publication, including: (1) DOE Decontamination and Decommissioning Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project; (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (6) DOE Environmental Restoration Program; (7) DOE Site-Specific Remedial Actions; (8) Contaminated Site Restoration; (9) Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater; (10) Environmental Data Measurements, Management, and Evaluation; (11) Remedial Action Assessment and Decision-Making; (12) Technology Development and Evaluation; and (13) Environmental and Waste Management Issues. Bibliographic references are arranged in nine subject categories by geographic location and then alphabetically by first author, corporate affiliation, or publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word.

  6. Clothing burns in Canadian children

    PubMed Central

    Stanwick, Richard S.

    1985-01-01

    A Canadian survey of 11 tertiary care pediatric centres with specialized burn facilities revealed that an estimated 37 children up to 9 years of age are admitted annually to such hospitals because of clothing burns. Sleepwear accounts for an estimated 21 such burns per year. Girls were found to suffer the most severe burns and represented eight of the nine children in the series who died. Loose and flowing garments dominated the girls' styles. The results of multiple-regression analysis confirmed that style of clothing (loose and flowing as opposed to snug) was the most significant predictor of burn severity, length of hospital stay, the need for skin grafting and survival. The ignition situation (avoidance of parental supervision at the time of injury) was the only other important predictor. The success of regulatory actions in other countries in reducing the incidence of severe clothing burns is reviewed, and preventive strategies for Canada are explored. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:3995433

  7. Decommissioning of German Nuclear Research Facilities under the Governance of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research

    SciTech Connect

    Weigl, M.

    2008-07-01

    Since the announcement of the first nuclear program in 1956, nuclear R and D in Germany has been supported by the Federal Government under four nuclear programs and later on under more general energy R and D programs. The original goal was to help German industry to achieve safe, low-cost generation of energy and self-sufficiency in the various branches of nuclear technology, including the fast breeder reactor and the fuel cycle. Several national research centers were established to host or operate experimental and demonstration plants. These are mainly located at the sites of the national research centers at Juelich and Karlsruhe. In the meantime, all these facilities were shut down and most of them are now in a state of decommissioning and dismantling (D and D). Meanwhile, Germany is one of the leading countries in the world in the field of D and D. Two big demonstration plants, the Niederaichbach Nuclear Power Plant (KKN) a heavy-water cooled pressure tube reactor with carbon-dioxide cooling and the Karlstein Superheated Steam Reactor (HDR) a boiling light water reactor with a thermal power of 100 MW, are totally dismantled and 'green field' is reached. For two other projects the return to 'green field' sites will be reached by the end of this decade. These are the dismantling of the Multi-Purpose Research Reactor (MZFR) and the Compact Sodium Cooled Reactor (KNK) both located at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. Within these projects a lot of new solutions und innovative techniques were tested, which were developed at German universities and in small and medium sized companies mostly funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). For example, high performance underwater cutting technologies like plasma arc cutting and contact arc metal cutting. (authors)

  8. Historic preservation requirements and the evaluation of cold war era nuclear facilities at Argonne National Laboratory-East.

    SciTech Connect

    Wescott, K. L.

    1999-04-08

    Project design for the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of federal facilities must address the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act which includes compliance with the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA). Section 106 of the NHPA requires that Federal agencies consider any effect their activities may have on historic properties. While a cultural property is not usually considered historic until it has reached an age of 50 years or older, special consideration is given to younger properties if they are of exceptional importance in demonstrating unique development in American history, architecture, archaeology, engineering, or culture. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) D&D program at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E), site properties are evaluated within the context of the Cold War Era and within themes associated with nuclear technology. Under this program, ANL-E staff have conducted archival research on three nuclear reactor facilities, one accelerator, and one laboratory building. DOE and ANL-E have been working closely with the Illinois Historic Preservation Agency (IHPA) to determine the eligibility of these properties for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1998, in consultation with the IHPA, the DOE determined that the reactor facilities were eligible. Memoranda of Agreement were signed between the DOE and the IHPA stipulating mitigation requirements for the recordation of two of these properties. The laboratory building was recently determined eligible and will likely undergo similar documentation procedures. The accelerator was determined not eligible. Similar studies and determinations will be required for all future D&D projects.

  9. Fresh and Spent Nuclear Fuel Repatriation from the IRT-2000 Research Reactor Facility, Sofia, Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    K. J. Allen; T. G. Apostolov; I. S. Dimitrov

    2009-03-01

    The IRT 2000 research reactor, operated by the Bulgarian Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), safely shipped all of their Russian-origin nuclear fuel from the Republic of Bulgaria to the Russian Federation beginning in 2003 and completing in 2008. These fresh and spent fuel shipments removed all highly enriched uranium (HEU) from Bulgaria. The fresh fuel was shipped by air in December 2003 using trucks and a commercial cargo aircraft. One combined spent fuel shipment of HEU and low enriched uranium (LEU) was completed in July 2008 using high capacity VPVR/M casks transported by truck, barge, and rail. The HEU shipments were assisted by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) and the LEU spent fuel shipment was funded by Bulgaria. This report describes the work, approvals, organizations, equipment, and agreements required to complete these shipments and concludes with several major lessons learned.

  10. Data collection, validation, and description for the Oak Ridge nuclear facilities mortality study

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, J.P.; Reagan, J.L.; Cragle, D.L.; West, C.M.; Tankersley, W.G.; Frome, E.L.; Crawford-Brown, D.J.

    1995-06-01

    To investigate the long-term health effects of protracted occupational exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation, a mortality study was initiated by pooling data for 118,588 workers hired between 1943 and 1982, at three Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, with follow-up through 1984. Topics for this discussion will include issues involving the collection and validation of data for individuals in the study cohort, and characteristics of their demographic and radiation exposure data. Since the data were compiled between the late 1960s and the present under the direction of several principal investigators, it was essential to verify data precision and to understand how exposure data were generated prior to beginning any analysis. A stratified random sample of workers in the cohort was chosen for verification of their computerized data as it appeared in the database. Original source documents were reviewed to verify demographic data, as well as internal and external radiation exposure data. Extensive effort was expended to document the personal radiation monitoring policies and types of dosimeters used at each facility over the 42 years included in the study. Characteristics of internal and external exposure data by facility and year were examined by graphical methods with the intent of combining these monitoring data over time and across facilities.

  11. 77 FR 1743 - Facility Operating License Amendment From Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires participants to submit...\\ Requestors should note that the filing requirements of the NRC's E-Filing Rule (72 FR 49139; August 28, 2007... COMMISSION Facility Operating License Amendment From Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River...

  12. 78 FR 33995 - Nuclear Proliferation Assessment in Licensing Process for Enrichment or Reprocessing Facilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... public comment in the Federal Register (FR) on December 23, 2010 (75 FR 246). The petition requests that...: Procedures for Reports on Research'' (37 FR 15393; August 1, 1972), upon receipt of the report, the DOE will... facilities it regulates that manufacture or use enriched uranium and plutonium do so safely and securely....

  13. 78 FR 16302 - Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant, Application for Amendment to Facility Operating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... Consideration of Issuance of Amendment published in the Federal Register on January 11, 2012 (77 FR 1743), and a... published in the Federal Register on January 16, 2013 (78 FR 3458). However, by letter dated February 7... Florida, Citrus County. The proposed amendment would have revised the facility operating license and...

  14. U.S. Department of Energy facilities needed to advance nuclear power.

    PubMed

    Ahearne, John F

    2011-01-01

    This talk is based upon a November 2008 report by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee (NEAC). The report has two parts, a policy section and a technology section. Here extensive material from the Technical Subcommittee section of the NEAC report is used.

  15. 75 FR 11202 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendment to Facility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires participants to submit and serve all..., the licensee), for operation of the Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant, Unit 2 (FNP, Unit 2), located in... the reactor coolant pump breaker position reactor trip function for FNP Unit 2. Elimination of...

  16. 78 FR 77606 - Security Requirements for Facilities Storing Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... SECY-07- 0148, to strengthen security requirements at ISFSIs. On December 16, 2009 (74 FR 66589), the... requirements for storing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in an independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI), and for storing SNF and/or high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in a monitored retrievable...

  17. U.S. Department of Energy facilities needed to advance nuclear power.

    PubMed

    Ahearne, John F

    2011-01-01

    This talk is based upon a November 2008 report by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee (NEAC). The report has two parts, a policy section and a technology section. Here extensive material from the Technical Subcommittee section of the NEAC report is used. PMID:21399417

  18. Use of urethane foam in the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hermetz, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Urethane foam is being used in decontamination and decommissioning work in radioactively contaminated areas at Monsanto Research Corporation's Mound facility. Used in a two-step method, the foam is first sprayed onto the interior surfaces of contaminated gloveboxes, fixing residual contamination beneath the urethane. The foam is then used to package and stabilize gloveboxes inside standard transuranic shipping containers. The procedure reduces health and safety risks, and has proven cost effective.

  19. Canadian Penning Trap Mass Measurements using a Position Sensitive MCP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuta, Trenton; Aprahamian, Ani; Marley, Scott; Nystrom, Andrew; Clark, Jason; Perez Galvan, Adrian; Hirsh, Tsviki; Savard, Guy; Orford, Rodney; Morgan, Graeme

    2015-10-01

    The primary focus of the Canadian Penning Trap (CPT) located at Argonne National Lab is to determine the masses of various isotopes produced in the spontaneous fission of Californium. Currently, the CPT is operating in conjunction with CARIBU at the ATLAS facility in an attempt to measure neutron-rich nuclei produced by a 1.5 Curie source of Californium 252. The masses of nuclei produced in fission is accomplished by measuring the cyclotron frequency of the isotopes circling within the trap. This frequency is determined by a position sensitive MCP, which records the relative position of the isotope in the trap at different times. Using these position changes over time in connection with a center spot, angles between these positions are calculated and used to determine the frequency. Most of the work currently being conducted on the CPT is focused on the precision of these frequency measurements. The use of traps has revolutionized the measurements of nuclear masses to very high precision. The optimization methods employed here include focusing the beam in order to reduce the spread on the position of the isotope as well as the tuning of the MR-ToF, a mass separator that is intended on removing contaminants in the beam. This work was supported by the nuclear Grant PHY-1419765 for the University of Notre Dame.

  20. Canadian global village reality

    PubMed Central

    He, Meizi; Li, E.T.S.; Harris, Stewart; Huff, Murray W.; Yau, Chun Y.; Anderson, G. Harvey

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To test the appropriateness of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) cutoff points derived in largely white populations (ie, those of European descent) for detecting obesity-related metabolic abnormalities among East Asian and South Asian Canadians. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. SETTING Primary care and community settings in Ontario. PARTICIPANTS Canadians of East Asian (n = 130), South Asian (n = 113), and European (n = 111) descent. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Variables for metabolic syndromes, including BMI, WC, body fat percentage, blood pressure, lipid profile, and fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, were measured. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis was used to generate BMI and WC cutoff points based on various criteria for metabolic syndromes. RESULTS Adjusting for sex and age, East Asian Canadians had a significantly lower mean BMI (23.2 kg/m2) and mean WC (79.6 cm) than did those of South Asian (26.1 kg/m2 and 90.3 cm) and European (26.5 kg/m2 and 89.3 cm) descent (P < .05). The BMI cutoffs for an increased risk of metabolic abnormalities ranged from 23.1 to 24.4 kg/m2 in East Asian Canadians; 26.6 to 26.8 kg/m2 in South Asian Canadians; and 26.3 to 28.2 kg/m2 in European Canadians. Waist circumference cutoffs for increased risk of metabolic abnormalities were relatively low in East Asian men (83.3 to 85.2 cm) and women (74.1 to 76.7 cm), compared with South Asian men (98.8 cm) and women (90.1 to 93.5 cm), as well as European men (91.6 to 95.2 cm) and women (82.8 to 88.3 cm). CONCLUSION The BMI and WC cutoffs used for defining risk of metabolic abnormalities should be lowered for East Asian Canadians but not for South Asian Canadians. The World Health Organization ethnic-specific BMI and WC cutoffs should be used with caution, particularly with Asian migrants who have resided in Canada for a long period of time. PMID:20463258

  1. Risk of chronic myeloid and acute leukemia mortality after exposure to ionizing radiation among workers at four U.S. nuclear weapons facilities and a nuclear naval shipyard.

    PubMed

    Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K; Daniels, Robert D; Fleming, Donald A; Markey, Andrea M; Couch, James R; Ahrenholz, Steven H; Burphy, Jenneh S; Anderson, Jeri L; Tseng, Chih-Yu

    2007-02-01

    A nested case-control study was conducted among workers at five U.S. nuclear facilities to evaluate leukemia mortality risk (excluding chronic lymphocytic) from ionizing radiation using worksite doses and adjusting for potential confounding. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of exposed workers and the excess relative risk (ERR) per unit of radiation among 206 cases and 823 age-matched controls. Adjusting for sex and benzene, the RR of leukemia for workers receiving more than 10 mSv was higher compared to those receiving lower or no dose; however, the risk increase was attenuated in the highest dose group. The ERR per 10 mSv was 1.44% (95% CI: < -1.03%, 7.59%) but was higher for workers born after 1921 compared to workers born earlier or when excluding leukemias of uncertain type. Excluding the 7% who were high-dose workers (> 100 mSv), the sex- and benzene-adjusted ERR per 10 mSv was 6.82% (95% CI: -2.87%, 24.1%). The results suggest that risks among these nuclear workers are comparable to those observed in high-dose populations, although no evidence was observed of a positive quadratic dose-response term in this study. This large study is among the first to jointly evaluate benzene and ionizing radiation risk.

  2. The economic and community impacts of closing Hanford's N Reactor and nuclear materials production facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M.J.; Belzer, D.B.; Nesse, R.J.; Schultz, R.W.; Stokowski, P.A.; Clark, D.C.

    1987-08-01

    This study discusses the negative economic impact on local cities and counties and the State of Washington of a permanent closure of nuclear materials production at the Hanford Site, located in the southeastern part of the state. The loss of nuclear materials production, the largest and most important of the five Department of Energy (DOE) missions at Hanford, could occur if Hanford's N Reactor is permanently closed and not replaced. The study provides estimates of statewide and local losses in jobs, income, and purchases from the private sector caused by such an event; it forecasts impacts on state and local government finances; and it describes certain local community and social impacts in the Tri-Cities (Richland, Kennewick, and Pasco) and surrounding communities. 33 refs., 8 figs., 22 tabs.

  3. The use of chemical gel for decontamination during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurau, Daniela; Deju, Radu

    2015-01-01

    A technical research study was developed for testing the decontamination using chemical gels. The study was realized for different type of samples, systems often encountered in the VVR-S nuclear research reactor from Magurele-Romania. The results obtained in the study have demonstrated that the decontamination gels could be an efficient way to reduce or to eliminate the surface contamination of buildings or equipment's, minimizing the potential for spreading contamination during decommissioning activities.

  4. NASA's Nuclear Frontier: The Plum Brook Reactor Facility, 1941-2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Mark D.; Arrighi, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    In 1953, President Eisenhower delivered a speech called "Atoms for Peace" to the United Nations General Assembly. He described the emergence of the atomic age and the weapons of mass destruction that were piling up in the storehouses of the American and Soviet nations. Although neither side was aiming for global destruction, Eisenhower wanted to "move out of the dark chambers of horrors into the light, to find a way by which the minds of men, the hopes of men, the souls of men everywhere, can move towards peace and happiness and well-being." One way Eisenhower hoped this could happen was by transforming the atom from a weapon of war into a useful tool for civilization. Many people believed that there were unprecedented opportunities for peaceful nuclear applications. These included hopeful visions of atomic-powered cities, cars, airplanes, and rockets. Nuclear power might also serve as an efficient way to generate electricity in space to support life and machines. Eisenhower wanted to provide scientists and engineers with "adequate amounts of fission- able material with which to test and develop their ideas." But, in attempting to devise ways to use atomic power for peaceful purposes, scientists realized how little they knew about the nature and effects of radiation. As a result, the United States began constructing nuclear test reactors to enable scientists to conduct research by producing neutrons.

  5. [Estimation of cost-saving for reducing radioactive waste from nuclear medicine facilities by implementing decay in storage (DIS) in Japan].

    PubMed

    Kida, Tetsuo; Hiraki, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Ichirou; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    DIS has not yet been implemented in Japan as of 2011. Therefore, even if risk was negligible, medical institutions have to entrust radioactive temporal waste disposal to Japan Radio Isotopes Association (JRIA) in the current situation. To decide whether DIS should be implemented in Japan or not, cost-saving effect of DIS was estimated by comparing the cost that nuclear medical facilities pay. By implementing DIS, the total annual cost for all nuclear medical facilities in Japan is estimated to be decreased to 30 million yen or less from 710 million yen. DIS would save 680 million yen (96%) per year.

  6. [Estimation of cost-saving for reducing radioactive waste from nuclear medicine facilities by implementing decay in storage (DIS) in Japan].

    PubMed

    Kida, Tetsuo; Hiraki, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Ichirou; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    DIS has not yet been implemented in Japan as of 2011. Therefore, even if risk was negligible, medical institutions have to entrust radioactive temporal waste disposal to Japan Radio Isotopes Association (JRIA) in the current situation. To decide whether DIS should be implemented in Japan or not, cost-saving effect of DIS was estimated by comparing the cost that nuclear medical facilities pay. By implementing DIS, the total annual cost for all nuclear medical facilities in Japan is estimated to be decreased to 30 million yen or less from 710 million yen. DIS would save 680 million yen (96%) per year. PMID:22516599

  7. Guidance for the design and management of a maintenance plan to assure safety and improve the predictability of a DOE nuclear irradiation facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, R.S.; Kryter, R.C.; Shepard, R.L.; Smith, O.L.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Rowan, W.J.

    1994-10-01

    A program is recommended for planning the maintenance of DOE nuclear facilities that will help safety and enhance availability throughout a facility`s life cycle. While investigating the requirements for maintenance activities, a major difference was identified between the strategy suitable for a conventional power reactor and one for a research reactor facility: the latter should provide a high degree of predicted availability (referred to hereafter as ``predictability``) to its users, whereas the former should maximize total energy production. These differing operating goals necessitate different maintenance strategies. A strategy for scheduling research reactor facility operation and shutdown for maintenance must balance safety, reliability,and predicted availability. The approach developed here is based on three major elements: (1) a probabilistic risk analysis of the balance between assured reliability and predictability (presented in Appendix C), (2) an assessment of the safety and operational impact of maintenance activities applied to various components of the facility, and (3) a data base of historical and operational information on the performance and requirements for maintenance of various components. These factors are integrated into a set of guidelines for designing a new highly maintainable facility, for preparing flexible schedules for improved maintenance of existing facilities, and for anticipating the maintenance required to extend the life of an aging facility. Although tailored to research reactor facilities, the methodology has broader applicability and may therefore be used to improved the maintenance of power reactors, particularly in anticipation of peak load demands.

  8. Nuclear data for r-process models from ion trap measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Jason

    2016-06-01

    To truly understand how elements are created in the universe via the astrophysical r process, accurate nuclear data are required. Historically, the isotopes involved in the r process have been difficult to access for study, but the development of new facilities and measurement techniques have put many of the r-process isotopes within reach. This paper will discuss the new CARIBU facility at Argonne National Laboratory and two pieces of experimental equipment, the Beta-decay Paul Trap and the Canadian Penning Trap, that will dramatically increase the nuclear data available for models of the astrophysical r process.

  9. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects: Summary status report: Three Mile Island Unit 2. Radioactive waste and laundry shipments

    SciTech Connect

    Doerge, D. H.; Haffner, D. R.

    1988-06-01

    This document summarizes information concerning radioactive waste and laundry shipments from the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station Unit 2 to radioactive waste disposal sites and to protective clothing decontamination facilities (laundries) since the loss of coolant accident experienced on March 28, 1979. Data were collected from radioactive shipment records, summarized, and placed in a computerized data information retrieval/manipulation system which permits extraction of specific information. This report covers the period of April 9, 1979 through April 19, 1987. Included in this report are: waste disposal site locations, dose rates, curie content, waste description, container type and number, volumes and weights. This information is presented in two major categories: protective clothing (laundry) and radioactive waste. Each of the waste shipment reports is in chronological order.

  10. The association betweeen cancers and low level radiation: An evaluation of the epidemiological evidence at the Hanford Nuclear Weapons Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, J. |

    1993-05-01

    Cancer has traditionally been linked to exposure to high doses of radiation, but there is considerable controversy regarding the carcinogenicity of low doses of ionizing radiation in humans. Over the past 30 years there have been 14 studies conducted on employees at the Hanford nuclear weapons facility to investigate the relationship between exposure to low doses of radiation and mortality due to cancer (1-14). Interest in this issue was originally stimulated by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) which was trying to determine whether the linear extrapolation of health effects from high to low dose exposure was accurate. If the risk has been underestimated, then the maximum permissible occupational radiation exposure in the United States had been set too high. Because the health risk associated with low level radiation are unclear and controversial it seems appropriate to review the studies relating to Hanford at this time.

  11. Quarterly report on Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 90-7 for the period ending March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Cash, R.J.; Dukelow, G.T.; Forbes, C.J.; Meacham, J.E.

    1993-06-01

    This is the eighth quarterly report on the progress of activities addressing safety issues associated with Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks that contain ferrocyanide compounds. In the presence of oxidizing materials, such as nitrates or nitrites, ferrocyanide can be made to explode in the laboratory by heating it to high temperatures [above 285{degree}C (545{degree}F)]. In the mid 1950s, approximately 140 metric tons of ferrocyanide were added to 24 underground high-level radioactive waste tanks. An implementation plan (Cash 1991) responding to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 90-7 (FR 1990) was issued in March 1991 describing the activities that were planned and underway to address each of the six parts of Recommendation 90-7. A revision to the original plan was transmitted to the US Department of Energy by Westinghouse Hanford Company in December 1992.

  12. Instrumentation report 1: specification, design, calibration, and installation of instrumentation for an experimental, high-level, nuclear waste storage facility

    SciTech Connect

    Brough, W.G.; Patrick, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) is being conducted 420 m underground at the Nevada Test Site under the auspices of the US Department of Energy. The test facility houses 11 spent fuel assemblies from an operating commercial nuclear reactor and numerous other thermal sources used to simulate the near-field effects of a large repository. We developed a large-scale instrumentation plan to ensure that a sufficient quality and quantity of data were acquired during the three- to five-year test. These data help satisfy scientific, operational, and radiation safety objectives. Over 800 data channels are being scanned to measure temperature, electrical power, radiation, air flow, dew point, stress, displacement, and equipment operation status (on/off). This document details the criteria, design, specifications, installation, calibration, and current performance of the entire instrumentation package.

  13. Radioactive Carbon Isotope Monitoring System Based on Cavity Ring-down Laser Spectroscopy for Decommissioning Process of Nuclear Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Hideki; Watanabe, Kenichi; Takiguchi, Yu; Kawarabayashi, Jun; Iguchi, Tetsuo

    In decommissioning process of nuclear facilities, large amount of radioactive isotopes are discharged as waste. Radioactive carbon isotope (14C) is one of the key nuclides to determine the upper limit of concentration in the waste disposal. In particular, 14C on the graphite reactor decommissioning should be separated from stable carbon isotopes (12C and 13C) and monitored for the public health and safety. We propose an isotope analysis system based on cavity ring-down laser spectroscopy (CRDS) to monitor the carbon isotopes (12C, 13C and 14C) in the isotope separation process for the graphite reactor decommissioning. This system is compact and suitable for a continuous monitoring, because the concentration of molecules including the carbon isotope is derived from its photo absorbance with ultra high sensitive laser absorption spectroscopy. Here are presented the necessary conditions of CRDS system for 14C isotope analysis through the preliminary experimental results of 13C isotope analysis with a prototype system.

  14. NSR&D Program Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 Call for Proposals Mitigation of Seismic Risk at Nuclear Facilities using Seismic Isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Justin

    2015-02-01

    Seismic isolation (SI) has the potential to drastically reduce seismic response of structures, systems, or components (SSCs) and therefore the risk associated with large seismic events (large seismic event could be defined as the design basis earthquake (DBE) and/or the beyond design basis earthquake (BDBE) depending on the site location). This would correspond to a potential increase in nuclear safety by minimizing the structural response and thus minimizing the risk of material release during large seismic events that have uncertainty associated with their magnitude and frequency. The national consensus standard America Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Standard 4, Seismic Analysis of Safety Related Nuclear Structures recently incorporated language and commentary for seismically isolating a large light water reactor or similar large nuclear structure. Some potential benefits of SI are: 1) substantially decoupling the SSC from the earthquake hazard thus decreasing risk of material release during large earthquakes, 2) cost savings for the facility and/or equipment, and 3) applicability to both nuclear (current and next generation) and high hazard non-nuclear facilities. Issue: To date no one has evaluated how the benefit of seismic risk reduction reduces cost to construct a nuclear facility. Objective: Use seismic probabilistic risk assessment (SPRA) to evaluate the reduction in seismic risk and estimate potential cost savings of seismic isolation of a generic nuclear facility. This project would leverage ongoing Idaho National Laboratory (INL) activities that are developing advanced (SPRA) methods using Nonlinear Soil-Structure Interaction (NLSSI) analysis. Technical Approach: The proposed study is intended to obtain an estimate on the reduction in seismic risk and construction cost that might be achieved by seismically isolating a nuclear facility. The nuclear facility is a representative pressurized water reactor building nuclear power plant (NPP) structure

  15. Twitter and Canadian Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Max

    2012-01-01

    An emerging group of leaders in Canadian education has attracted thousands of followers. They've made Twitter an extension of their lives, delivering twenty or more tweets a day that can include, for example, links to media articles, research, new ideas from education bloggers, or to their own, or simply a personal thought. At their best,…

  16. Canadian Experience with MARC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapple, Sharon E.

    Canadian libraries have used Machine-readable Cataloging (MARC) since its beginnings in 1966, mainly for speeding up the cataloging of American imprints. The lack of bilingualism in Library of Congress MARC records was a major deficiency in Canada where bilingual access points are provided for all publications in the national bibliography,…

  17. Canadian Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooke, W. Michael, Comp.

    "Trends," a publication of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, is a collection of abstracts on selected subjects affecting adult education; this issue is on adult basic education (ABE). It covers teachers and teacher training, psychological factors relating to the ABE teacher and students, manuals for teachers, instructional materials,…

  18. Magsat investigation. [Canadian shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    A computer program was prepared for modeling segments of the Earth's crust allowing for heterogeneity in magnetization in calculating the Earth's field at Magsat heights. This permits investigation of a large number of possible models in assessing the magnetic signatures of subprovinces of the Canadian shield. The fit between the model field and observed fields is optimized in a semi-automatic procedure.

  19. Studies in Canadian Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Gertrude Joch, Ed.; Theall, Donald F., Ed.

    Canada provides a unique example of the way in which practical communication problems have produced an awareness of communication theory, policy, and practice. This book brings together a collection of essays which aim to philosophically, analytically, and historically explore the lessons to be gained from Canadian communications activity and…

  20. Nuclear Diagnostics of Implosion and Fusion Burn at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Cris W.

    2005-04-01

    The National Ignition Facility will be the most revolutionary scientific facility of the early 21st century. The ability to drive inertial confinement fusion implosions with over 1 MegaJoule of laser energy will lead to tremendous advances in the study of fusion burn, hydrodynamic mix, and other research areas. Diagnostics of the fusion burn will be central to these studies. Los Alamos is leading efforts to develop three main fusion product diagnostic systems for the NIF: a Neutron Imaging System using pinhole-apertures; a burn or reaction history diagnostic that measures the DT fusion gammas using a Gas Cerenkov Detector; and a set of Neutron Scintillators to measure relative fusion yield and ion temperature, possibly with time dependence. All these systems are presently under development using implosions at the OMEGA Laser at the University of Rochester. An overview of the requirements and systems proposed for NIF will be presented. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. W- 7405-ENG-36.