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Sample records for cancer bc risk

  1. Evaluation of the pri-miR-34b/c rs4938723 polymorphism and its association with breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    SANAEI, SARA; HASHEMI, MOHAMMAD; REZAEI, MARYAM; HASHEMI, SEYED MEHDI; BAHARI, GHOLAMREZA; GHAVAMI, SAEID

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are a family of small non-coding RNAs that function as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. Recent evidence suggests that the pri-miR-34b/c rs4938723 variant is associated with the development of cancer. At present, there is an inconsistent association between the single-nucleotide polymorphism in pri-miR-34b/c and cancer in the limited studies. The present study is a case-control investigation, with 263 breast cancer (BC) patients and 221 control women, which examined the potential association of the pri-miR-34b/c rs4938723 polymorphisms with BC susceptibility. The polymorphisms were genotyped by the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method. No significant association between the pri-miR-34b/c rs4938723 variant and BC was identified [TC vs. TT: Odds ratio (OR), 0.87; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.60–1.26; P=0.506; CC vs. TT: OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.61–2.47; P=0.600; TC+CC vs. TT: OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.64–1.31; P=0.648; CC vs. TT+TC: OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 0.67–2.59; P=0.498; C vs. T: OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.75–1.31; P=0.986]. However, a significant association was observed between the pri-miR-34b/c rs4938723 genotypes and clinicopathological characteristics, such a grade, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status were observed (P<0.05). These findings suggest that the pri-miR-34b/c rs4938723 variant may not be a risk factor for the development of BC. PMID:27347415

  2. The Value of Serum Biomarkers (Bc1, Bc2, Bc3) in the Diagnosis of Early Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Atahan, Kemal; Küpeli, Hakan; Gür, Serhat; Yiğitbaşı, Türkan; Baskın, Yasemin; Yiğit, Seyran; Deniz, Mehmet; Çökmez, Atilla; Tarcan, Ercüment

    2011-01-01

    Background: Surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF) is an approach to biomarker discovery that combines chromatography and mass spectrometry. We aimed to consider the efficacy of Bc1, Bc2, and Bc3 serum biomarkers on early detection of breast cancer (BC) in this study. Study Design: In this prospective study, 91 patients who were admitted to our hospital between January 2007 and July 2008 were included. Serum samples from 91 women were stored at -80 °C until use. The cancer group included 27 cases of BC. The benign breast disease group included 24 women with benign breast diseases and control group 37 age-matched apparently healthy women. The data obtained for these three groups of patients was worked out for each serum biomarker (Bc1, Bc2, and Bc3) by using SELDI-TOF individually and compared with each other separately and evaluated statistically. Results: Bc2 possesses the highest individual diagnostic power. Bc2 was statistically significant in comparison between the malignant disease group, control group and benign disease group. Bc1 was statistically significant in the malignant disease group compared to control group as well as in the benign disease group compared to control group. Thus Bc1, rather than showing malignant progression, it shows tumoral progression or inflammatory process. Bc3 was found upregulated in all malignant cases; however, it was not statistically significant compared to the benign disease group or the control group. Conclusions: It has been shown that Bc2 profiles might be useful in clinical practice to improve BC diagnosis. However none of the proteomics reach reasonable AUC values for the discrimination of the BC. Additional confirmation in larger and similarly-designed prospective studies is needed to consider of the efficacy of Bc1 and Bc2 in early diagnosis of the BC. PMID:21326957

  3. Influence of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on telomerase activity in women with breast cancer (BC).

    PubMed

    Lengacher, Cecile A; Reich, Richard R; Kip, Kevin E; Barta, Michelle; Ramesar, Sophia; Paterson, Carly L; Moscoso, Manolete S; Carranza, Irina; Budhrani, Pinky H; Kim, Seung Joon; Park, Hyun Y; Jacobsen, Paul B; Schell, Michael J; Jim, Heather S L; Post-White, Janice; Farias, Jerrica R; Park, Jong Y

    2014-10-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) reduces symptoms of depression, anxiety, and fear of recurrence among breast cancer (BC) survivors. However, the effects of MBSR (BC) on telomere length (TL) and telomerase activity (TA), known markers of cellular aging, psychological stress, and disease risk, are not known. This randomized, wait-listed, controlled study, nested within a larger trial, investigated the effects of MBSR (BC) on TL and TA. BC patients (142) with Stages 0-III cancer who had completed adjuvant treatment with radiation and/or chemotherapy at least 2 weeks prior to enrollment and within 2 years of completion of treatment with lumpectomy and/or mastectomy were randomly assigned to either a 6-week MBSR for BC program or a usual care. Assessments of TA and TL were obtained along with psychological measurements at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks after completing the MBSR(BC) program. The mean age of 142 participants was 55.3 years; 72% were non-Hispanic White; 78% had Stage I or II cancer; and 36% received both chemotherapy and radiation. In analyses adjusted for baseline TA and psychological status, TA increased steadily over 12 weeks in the MBSR(BC) group (approximately 17%) compared to essentially no increase in the control group (approximately 3%, p < .01). In contrast, no between-group difference was observed for TL (p = .92). These results provide preliminary evidence that MBSR(BC) increases TA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from BC patients and have implications for understanding how MBSR(BC) may extend cell longevity at the cellular level. PMID:24486564

  4. BcCluster: A Bladder Cancer Database at the Molecular Level

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Akshay; Mokou, Marika; Zoidakis, Jerome; Jankowski, Vera; Vlahou, Antonia; Mischak, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bladder Cancer (BC) has two clearly distinct phenotypes. Non-muscle invasive BC has good prognosis and is treated with tumor resection and intravesical therapy whereas muscle invasive BC has poor prognosis and requires usually systemic cisplatin based chemotherapy either prior to or after radical cystectomy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is not often used for patients undergoing cystectomy. High-throughput analytical omics techniques are now available that allow the identification of individual molecular signatures to characterize the invasive phenotype. However, a large amount of data produced by omics experiments is not easily accessible since it is often scattered over many publications or stored in supplementary files. Objective: To develop a novel open-source database, BcCluster (http://www.bccluster.org/), dedicated to the comprehensive molecular characterization of muscle invasive bladder carcinoma. Materials: A database was created containing all reported molecular features significant in invasive BC. The query interface was developed in Ruby programming language (version 1.9.3) using the web-framework Rails (version 4.1.5) (http://rubyonrails.org/). Results: BcCluster contains the data from 112 published references, providing 1,559 statistically significant features relative to BC invasion. The database also holds 435 protein-protein interaction data and 92 molecular pathways significant in BC invasion. The database can be used to retrieve binding partners and pathways for any protein of interest. We illustrate this possibility using survivin, a known BC biomarker. Conclusions: BcCluster is an online database for retrieving molecular signatures relative to BC invasion. This application offers a comprehensive view of BC invasiveness at the molecular level and allows formulation of research hypotheses relevant to this phenotype. PMID:27376128

  5. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  6. Breast Density in Mammography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in High Risk Women and Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Marissa; Schnabel, Freya; Chun, Jennifer; Schwartz, Shira; Lee, Jiyon; Leite, Ana Paula Klautau; Moy, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Structured Abstract Purpose To evaluate the relationship between mammographic breast density (MBD), background parenchymal enhancement (BPE), and fibroglandular tissue (FGT) in women with breast cancer (BC) and at high risk for developing BC. Methods Our institutional database was queried for patients who underwent mammography and MRI. Results 403 (85%) had BC and 72 (15%) were at high risk. MBD (p=0.0005), BPE (p<0.0001), and FGT (p=0.02) were all higher in high risk women compared to the BC group. Conclusions Higher levels of MBD, BPE and FGT are seen in women at higher risk for developing BC when compared to women with BC. PMID:26351036

  7. Racial and ethnic differences in risk of second primary cancers among breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Calip, Gregory S.; Law, Ernest H.; Ko, Naomi Y.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Disparities exist in breast cancer (BC) outcomes between racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Reasons for these disparities are multifactorial including differences in genetics, stage at presentation, access to care and socioeconomic factors. Less is documented on racial/ethnic differences in subsequent risk of second primary cancers (SPC). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the risk of SPC among different racial/ethnic groups of women with BC. Methods Retrospective cohort of 134,868 Non-Hispanic White (NHW), 17,484 Black, 18,034 Hispanic and 19,802 Asian/Pacific Islander (API) women with stages I-III BC in twelve Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program registries between 2001–2010. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR), 95% confidence intervals (CI) and absolute excess risks were calculated by comparing incidence of SPC in the cohort to incidence in the general population for specific cancer sites by race/ethnicity and stratified by index BC characteristics. Results All women were at increased risks of second primary BC and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), with higher risk among more advanced stage index BC. Black and API women had higher SIRs for AML [4.86 (95% CI 3.05–7.36) and 5.00 (95% CI 3.26–7.32) respectively] which remained elevated among early-stage (I) BC cases. Conclusions Women with a history of invasive BC have increased risk of SPC, most notable for second primary BC and AML. These risks for secondary cancers differ by race/ethnicity. Studies evaluating possible genetic and biobehavioral mechanisms underlying these differences are warranted. Strategies for BC adjuvant treatment and survivorship care may require further individualization with consideration given to race/ethnicity. PMID:26012645

  8. Understanding your colon cancer risk

    MedlinePlus

    Colon cancer risk factors are things that increase the chance that you could get cancer. Some risk factors ... risk factors never get cancer. Other people get colon cancer but do not have any known risk factors. ...

  9. Raman Spectroscopic Measurements of Dermal Carotenoids in Breast Cancer Operated Patients Provide Evidence for the Positive Impact of a Dietary Regimen Rich in Fruit and Vegetables on Body Oxidative Stress and BC Prognostic Anthropometric Parameters: A Five-Year Study.

    PubMed

    Perrone, A; Pintaudi, A M; Traina, A; Carruba, G; Attanzio, A; Gentile, C; Tesoriere, L; Livrea, M A

    2016-01-01

    Dermal carotenoids are a feasible marker of the body antioxidative network and may reveal a moderate to severe imbalance of the redox status, thereby providing indication of individual oxidative stress. In this work noninvasive Resonance Raman Spectroscopy (RRS) measurements of skin carotenoids (skin carotenoid score (SCS)) were used to provide indications of individual oxidative stress, each year for five years, in 71 breast cancer (BC) patients at high risk of recurrence. Patients' SCS has been correlated with parameters relevant to BC risk, waist circumference (WC), and body mass index (BMI), in the aim of monitoring the effect of a dietary regimen intended to positively affect BC risk factors. The RRS methodological approach in BC patients appeared from positive correlation between patients' SCS and blood level of lycopene. The level of skin carotenoids was inversely correlated with the patients' WC and BMI. At the end of the 5 y observation BC patients exhibited a significant reduction of WC and BMI and increase of SCS, when strictly adhering to the dietary regimen. In conclusion, noninvasive measurements of skin carotenoids can (i) reveal an oxidative stress condition correlated with parameters of BC risk and (ii) monitor dietary-related variations in BC patients.

  10. Raman Spectroscopic Measurements of Dermal Carotenoids in Breast Cancer Operated Patients Provide Evidence for the Positive Impact of a Dietary Regimen Rich in Fruit and Vegetables on Body Oxidative Stress and BC Prognostic Anthropometric Parameters: A Five-Year Study.

    PubMed

    Perrone, A; Pintaudi, A M; Traina, A; Carruba, G; Attanzio, A; Gentile, C; Tesoriere, L; Livrea, M A

    2016-01-01

    Dermal carotenoids are a feasible marker of the body antioxidative network and may reveal a moderate to severe imbalance of the redox status, thereby providing indication of individual oxidative stress. In this work noninvasive Resonance Raman Spectroscopy (RRS) measurements of skin carotenoids (skin carotenoid score (SCS)) were used to provide indications of individual oxidative stress, each year for five years, in 71 breast cancer (BC) patients at high risk of recurrence. Patients' SCS has been correlated with parameters relevant to BC risk, waist circumference (WC), and body mass index (BMI), in the aim of monitoring the effect of a dietary regimen intended to positively affect BC risk factors. The RRS methodological approach in BC patients appeared from positive correlation between patients' SCS and blood level of lycopene. The level of skin carotenoids was inversely correlated with the patients' WC and BMI. At the end of the 5 y observation BC patients exhibited a significant reduction of WC and BMI and increase of SCS, when strictly adhering to the dietary regimen. In conclusion, noninvasive measurements of skin carotenoids can (i) reveal an oxidative stress condition correlated with parameters of BC risk and (ii) monitor dietary-related variations in BC patients. PMID:27213029

  11. Raman Spectroscopic Measurements of Dermal Carotenoids in Breast Cancer Operated Patients Provide Evidence for the Positive Impact of a Dietary Regimen Rich in Fruit and Vegetables on Body Oxidative Stress and BC Prognostic Anthropometric Parameters: A Five-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Perrone, A.; Pintaudi, A. M.; Traina, A.; Carruba, G.; Attanzio, A.; Gentile, C.; Tesoriere, L.; Livrea, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Dermal carotenoids are a feasible marker of the body antioxidative network and may reveal a moderate to severe imbalance of the redox status, thereby providing indication of individual oxidative stress. In this work noninvasive Resonance Raman Spectroscopy (RRS) measurements of skin carotenoids (skin carotenoid score (SCS)) were used to provide indications of individual oxidative stress, each year for five years, in 71 breast cancer (BC) patients at high risk of recurrence. Patients' SCS has been correlated with parameters relevant to BC risk, waist circumference (WC), and body mass index (BMI), in the aim of monitoring the effect of a dietary regimen intended to positively affect BC risk factors. The RRS methodological approach in BC patients appeared from positive correlation between patients' SCS and blood level of lycopene. The level of skin carotenoids was inversely correlated with the patients' WC and BMI. At the end of the 5 y observation BC patients exhibited a significant reduction of WC and BMI and increase of SCS, when strictly adhering to the dietary regimen. In conclusion, noninvasive measurements of skin carotenoids can (i) reveal an oxidative stress condition correlated with parameters of BC risk and (ii) monitor dietary-related variations in BC patients. PMID:27213029

  12. Stomach Cancer Risk Questionnaire

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine Stomach cancer is fairly rare in the US, but ... the early stages. To estimate your risk of stomach cancer and learn about ways to lower that ...

  13. Vegetarian dietary patterns and the risk of breast cancer in a low-risk population.

    PubMed

    Penniecook-Sawyers, Jason A; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fan, Jing; Beeson, Larry; Knutsen, Synnove; Herring, Patti; Fraser, Gary E

    2016-05-28

    Among cancers in American women, breast cancer (BC) has the second highest incidence and mortality. The association of BC with diet has been inconsistent. Studies that evaluate associations with dietary patterns are less common and reflect an individual's whole diet. We associated dietary patterns with the risk of BC in American women of the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2), a prospective cohort of 96 001 subjects recruited between 2002 and 2007. Answers to a previously validated FFQ were used to classify subjects to vegan, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian and non-vegetarian dietary patterns. Incident BC were identified by matching AHS-2 subjects to data from forty-eight state cancer registries. Statistical analyses used proportional hazard regression analyses with covariates that were chosen a priori. From 50 404 female participants (26 193 vegetarians), we identified 892 incident BC cases, with 478 cases among vegetarians. As compared with non-vegetarians, all vegetarians combined did not have a significantly lower risk (hazard ratio (HR) 0·97; CI 0·84, 1·11; P=0·64). However, vegans showed consistently lower (but non-significant) point estimates when compared with non-vegetarians (all cases: HR 0·78; CI 0·58, 1·05; P=0·09). In summary, participants in this cohort who follow a vegetarian dietary pattern did not experience a lower risk of BC as compared with non-vegetarians, although lower risk in vegans is possible. These findings add to the very limited literature associating vegetarian diets with BC risk and can assist nutritionists when evaluating the impact of these diets. The findings will also motivate further evaluation of vegan diets and their special characteristics.

  14. Vegetarian dietary patterns and the risk of breast cancer in a low-risk population.

    PubMed

    Penniecook-Sawyers, Jason A; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fan, Jing; Beeson, Larry; Knutsen, Synnove; Herring, Patti; Fraser, Gary E

    2016-05-28

    Among cancers in American women, breast cancer (BC) has the second highest incidence and mortality. The association of BC with diet has been inconsistent. Studies that evaluate associations with dietary patterns are less common and reflect an individual's whole diet. We associated dietary patterns with the risk of BC in American women of the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2), a prospective cohort of 96 001 subjects recruited between 2002 and 2007. Answers to a previously validated FFQ were used to classify subjects to vegan, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian and non-vegetarian dietary patterns. Incident BC were identified by matching AHS-2 subjects to data from forty-eight state cancer registries. Statistical analyses used proportional hazard regression analyses with covariates that were chosen a priori. From 50 404 female participants (26 193 vegetarians), we identified 892 incident BC cases, with 478 cases among vegetarians. As compared with non-vegetarians, all vegetarians combined did not have a significantly lower risk (hazard ratio (HR) 0·97; CI 0·84, 1·11; P=0·64). However, vegans showed consistently lower (but non-significant) point estimates when compared with non-vegetarians (all cases: HR 0·78; CI 0·58, 1·05; P=0·09). In summary, participants in this cohort who follow a vegetarian dietary pattern did not experience a lower risk of BC as compared with non-vegetarians, although lower risk in vegans is possible. These findings add to the very limited literature associating vegetarian diets with BC risk and can assist nutritionists when evaluating the impact of these diets. The findings will also motivate further evaluation of vegan diets and their special characteristics. PMID:26987270

  15. Vegetarian dietary patterns and the risk of breast cancer in a low-risk population

    PubMed Central

    Penniecook-Sawyers, Jason A.; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fan, Jing; Beeson, Larry; Knutsen, Synnove; Herring, Patti; Fraser, Gary E.

    2016-01-01

    Among cancers in American women, breast cancer (BC) has the second highest incidence and mortality. The association of BC with diet has been inconsistent. Studies that evaluate associations with dietary patterns are less common and reflect an individual's whole diet. We associated dietary patterns with the risk of BC in American women of the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2), a prospective cohort of 96 001 subjects recruited between 2002 and 2007. Answers to a previously validated FFQ were used to classify subjects to vegan, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian and non-vegetarian dietary patterns. Incident BC were identified by matching AHS-2 subjects to data from forty-eight state cancer registries. Statistical analyses used proportional hazard regression analyses with covariates that were chosen a priori. From 50 404 female participants (26 193 vegetarians), we identified 892 incident BC cases, with 478 cases among vegetarians. As compared with non-vegetarians, all vegetarians combined did not have a significantly lower risk (hazard ratio (HR) 0·97; CI 0·84, 1·11; P = 0·64). However, vegans showed consistently lower (but non-significant) point estimates when compared with non-vegetarians (all cases: HR 0·78; CI 0·58, 1·05; P = 0·09). In summary, participants in this cohort who follow a vegetarian dietary pattern did not experience a lower risk of BC as compared with non-vegetarians, although lower risk in vegans is possible. These findings add to the very limited literature associating vegetarian diets with BC risk and can assist nutritionists when evaluating the impact of these diets. The findings will also motivate further evaluation of vegan diets and their special characteristics. PMID:26987270

  16. Cancer Risk Assessment Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aidala, Jim

    1985-01-01

    Describes the scientific basis of cancer risk assessment, outlining the dominant controversies surrounding the use of different methods for identifying carcinogens (short-term tests, animal bioassays, and epidemiological studies). Points out that risk assessment is as much an art as it is a science. (DH)

  17. Role of Obesity in the Risk of Breast Cancer: Lessons from Anthropometry

    PubMed Central

    Amadou, Amina; Hainaut, Pierre; Romieu, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    An estimated 1.38 million new cases of breast cancer (BC) are diagnosed each year in women worldwide. Of these, the majority are categorized as invasive ductal cell carcinoma. Subgroups of BC are frequently distinguished into five “intrinsic” subtypes, namely, luminal A, luminal B, normal-like, HER2-positive, and basal-like subtypes. Epidemiological evidence has shown that anthropometric factors are implicated in BC development. Overall consistent positive associations have been observed between high body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and the risk of BC among postmenopausal women, while conflicting results persist for premenopausal BC, both for BMI and for other anthropometric parameters as well as across ethnic groups. Furthermore, some evidence suggests that body size, body shape, and weight gain during childhood or adolescence may play a role in the risk of BC. In this paper, we describe the evidence linking anthropometric indices at different ages and BC risk, in order to improve our understanding of the role of body fat distribution in the risk of BC, investigate differences in these associations according to menopausal status and ethnic groups, and discuss the potential biological mechanisms linking body size and BC risk. PMID:23431300

  18. [The Dutch Cancer Society Cancer Risk Test].

    PubMed

    Elias, Sjoerd G; Grooters, Hilda G; Bausch-Goldbohm, R A Sandra; van den Brandt, Piet A; Kampman, Ellen; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Peeters, Petra H M; de Vries, Esther; Wigger, Stefan; Kiemeney, L A L M Bart

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch Cancer Society developed the 'KWF Kanker Risico Test' (Cancer Risk Test) to improve the information available to the Dutch population regarding cancer risk factors. This Internet test, based under licence on the American 'Your Disease Risk' test, informs users about risk factors for 12 common types of cancer. The test provides an estimate of individual risk of a specific type of cancer and gives specific lifestyle advice that could lower that risk. This paper describes the development of the test, how it works, and its strengths and limitations.

  19. Cancer risk from inorganics

    SciTech Connect

    Swierenga, S.H.; Gilman, J.P.; McLean, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Inorganic metals and minerals for which there is evidence of carcinogenicity are identified. The risk of cancer from contact with them in the work place, the general environment, and under conditions of clinical (medical) exposure is discussed. The evidence indicates that minerals and metals most often influence cancer development through their action as cocarcinogens. The relationship between the physical form of mineral fibers, smoking and carcinogenic risk is emphasized. Metals are categorized as established (As, Be, Cr, Ni), suspected (Cd, Pb) and possible carcinogens, based on the existing in vitro, animal experimental and human epidemiological data. Cancer risk and possible modes of action of elements in each class are discussed. Views on mechanisms that may be responsible for the carcinogenicity of metals are updated and analysed. Some specific examples of cancer risks associated with the clinical use of potentially carcinogenic metals and from radioactive pharmaceuticals used in therapy and diagnosis are presented. Questions are raised as to the effectiveness of conventional dosimetry in accurately measuring risk from radiopharmaceuticals. 302 references.

  20. Cancer Risk Prediction and Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer prediction models provide an important approach to assessing risk and prognosis by identifying individuals at high risk, facilitating the design and planning of clinical cancer trials, fostering the development of benefit-risk indices, and enabling estimates of the population burden and cost of cancer.

  1. Space Radiation Cancer Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    Space radiation presents major challenges to astronauts on the International Space Station and for future missions to the Earth s moon or Mars. Methods used to project risks on Earth need to be modified because of the large uncertainties in projecting cancer risks from space radiation, and thus impact safety factors. We describe NASA s unique approach to radiation safety that applies uncertainty based criteria within the occupational health program for astronauts: The two terrestrial criteria of a point estimate of maximum acceptable level of risk and application of the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) are supplemented by a third requirement that protects against risk projection uncertainties using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) in the radiation cancer projection model. NASA s acceptable level of risk for ISS and their new lunar program have been set at the point-estimate of a 3-percent risk of exposure induced death (REID). Tissue-averaged organ dose-equivalents are combined with age at exposure and gender-dependent risk coefficients to project the cumulative occupational radiation risks incurred by astronauts. The 95% CL criteria in practice is a stronger criterion than ALARA, but not an absolute cut-off as is applied to a point projection of a 3% REID. We describe the most recent astronaut dose limits, and present a historical review of astronaut organ doses estimates from the Mercury through the current ISS program, and future projections for lunar and Mars missions. NASA s 95% CL criteria is linked to a vibrant ground based radiobiology program investigating the radiobiology of high-energy protons and heavy ions. The near-term goal of research is new knowledge leading to the reduction of uncertainties in projection models. Risk projections involve a product of many biological and physical factors, each of which has a differential range of uncertainty due to lack of data and knowledge. The current model for projecting space radiation

  2. Estrogen withdrawal, increased breast cancer risk and the KRAS-variant

    PubMed Central

    McVeigh, Terri P; Jung, Song-Yi; Kerin, Michael J; Salzman, David W; Nallur, Sunitha; Nemec, Antonio A; Dookwah, Michelle; Sadofsky, Jackie; Paranjape, Trupti; Kelly, Olivia; Chan, Elcie; Miller, Nicola; Sweeney, Karl J; Zelterman, Daniel; Sweasy, Joann; Pilarski, Robert; Telesca, Donatello; Slack, Frank J; Weidhaas, Joanne B

    2015-01-01

    The KRAS-variant is a biologically functional, microRNA binding site variant, which predicts increased cancer risk especially for women. Because external exposures, such as chemotherapy, differentially impact the effect of this mutation, we evaluated the association of estrogen exposures, breast cancer (BC) risk and tumor biology in women with the KRAS-variant. Women with BC (n = 1712), the subset with the KRAS-variant (n = 286) and KRAS-variant unaffected controls (n = 80) were evaluated, and hormonal exposures, KRAS-variant status, and pathology were compared. The impact of estrogen withdrawal on transformation of isogenic normal breast cell lines with or without the KRAS-variant was studied. Finally, the association and presentation characteristics of the KRAS-variant and multiple primary breast cancer (MPBC) were evaluated. KRAS-variant BC patients were more likely to have ovarian removal pre-BC diagnosis than non-variant BC patients (p = 0.033). In addition, KRAS-variant BC patients also appeared to have a lower estrogen state than KRAS-variant unaffected controls, with a lower BMI (P < 0.001). Finally, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) discontinuation in KRAS-variant patients was associated with a diagnosis of triple negative BC (P < 0.001). Biologically confirming our clinical findings, acute estrogen withdrawal led to oncogenic transformation in KRAS-variant positive isogenic cell lines. Finally, KRAS-variant BC patients had greater than an 11-fold increased risk of presenting with MPBC compared to non-variant patients (45.39% vs 6.78%, OR 11.44 [3.42–37.87], P < 0.001). Thus, estrogen withdrawal and a low estrogen state appear to increase BC risk and to predict aggressive tumor biology in women with the KRAS-variant, who are also significantly more likely to present with multiple primary breast cancer. PMID:25961464

  3. Hormonal Therapy and Risk of Breast Cancer in Mexican Women

    PubMed Central

    Amadou, Amina; Fabre, Alban; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; Ortega-Olvera, Carolina; Angeles-Llerenas, Angélica; McKenzie, Fiona; Biessy, Carine; Hainaut, Pierre; Romieu, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    The use of hormonal therapies, including hormonal contraceptives (HC) and postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have been shown to influence breast cancer (BC) risk. However, the variations of these effects among populations and ethnic groups are not completely documented, especially among Hispanic women. We evaluated the association between HC and premenopausal BC risk, and between HRT and postmenopausal BC risk in Mexican women. Data from a Mexican multi-center population-based case–control study ofwomen aged 35 to 69 years were analysed. A total of 1000 cases and 1074 matched controls were recruited between 2004 and 2007. Information on hormonal therapy was collected through a structured questionnaire. Results were analysed using conditional logistic regression models. Overall, HC were used by 422/891 (47.3%) premenopausal women and HRT was used by 220/1117 (19.7%) postmenopausal women. For HC, odds ratios (ORs) for BC were 1.11 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82, 1.49) for current users and 1.68 (95% CI: 0.67, 4.21) for ever-users. No clear effect of duration of use was observed. For HRT, the OR for BC was significantly increased in ever users (OR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.08). A non-significant increased risk was observed for combined estrogen/progestin, (OR =  1.85; 95% CI: 0.84, 4.07) whereas no effect was observed for the use of estrogen alone (OR = 1.14; 95% CI: 0.68, 1.91). Our results indicate that, HC had a non-significant effect on the risk of pre-menopausal BC, but suggested that injected contraceptives may slightly increase the risk, whereas HRT had a significant effect on post-menopausal BC in this population. This study provides new information about the effects of HC and HRT on BC risk in a Mexican population, which may be of relevance for the population of Latin America as a whole. PMID:24260282

  4. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk A woman’s hormone levels normally change throughout ... the development of breast cancer. Important Information about Breast Cancer Risk Factors At present, the factors known to ...

  5. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  6. HIV Infection and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... Engels EA, Pfeiffer RM, Goedert JJ, et al. Trends in cancer risk among people with AIDS in ...

  7. Imaging surveillance programs for women at high breast cancer risk in Europe: Are women from ethnic minority groups adequately included? (Review).

    PubMed

    Belkić, Karen; Cohen, Miri; Wilczek, Brigitte; Andersson, Sonia; Berman, Anne H; Márquez, Marcela; Vukojević, Vladana; Mints, Miriam

    2015-09-01

    Women from ethnic minority groups, including immigrants and refugees are reported to have low breast cancer (BC) screening rates. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is vital for increasing participation of these women in BC screening programs. Women at high BC risk and who belong to an ethnic minority group are of special concern. Such women could benefit from ongoing trials aimed at optimizing screening strategies for early BC detection among those at increased BC risk. Considering the marked disparities in BC survival in Europe and its enormous and dynamic ethnic diversity, these issues are extremely timely for Europe. We systematically reviewed the literature concerning European surveillance studies that had imaging in the protocol and that targeted women at high BC risk. The aim of the present review was thereby to assess the likelihood that women at high BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. Twenty-seven research groups in Europe reported on their imaging surveillance programs for women at increased BC risk. The benefit of strategies such as inclusion of magnetic resonance imaging and/or more intensive screening was clearly documented for the participating women at increased BC risk. However, none of the reports indicated that sufficient outreach was performed to ensure that women at increased BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. On the basis of this systematic review, we conclude that the specific screening needs of ethnic minority women at increased BC risk have not yet been met in Europe. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is needed to identify minority women at increased BC risk and to facilitate their inclusion in on-going surveillance programs. It is anticipated that these efforts would be most effective if coordinated with the development of European-wide, population-based approaches to BC screening. PMID:26134040

  8. Imaging surveillance programs for women at high breast cancer risk in Europe: Are women from ethnic minority groups adequately included? (Review).

    PubMed

    Belkić, Karen; Cohen, Miri; Wilczek, Brigitte; Andersson, Sonia; Berman, Anne H; Márquez, Marcela; Vukojević, Vladana; Mints, Miriam

    2015-09-01

    Women from ethnic minority groups, including immigrants and refugees are reported to have low breast cancer (BC) screening rates. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is vital for increasing participation of these women in BC screening programs. Women at high BC risk and who belong to an ethnic minority group are of special concern. Such women could benefit from ongoing trials aimed at optimizing screening strategies for early BC detection among those at increased BC risk. Considering the marked disparities in BC survival in Europe and its enormous and dynamic ethnic diversity, these issues are extremely timely for Europe. We systematically reviewed the literature concerning European surveillance studies that had imaging in the protocol and that targeted women at high BC risk. The aim of the present review was thereby to assess the likelihood that women at high BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. Twenty-seven research groups in Europe reported on their imaging surveillance programs for women at increased BC risk. The benefit of strategies such as inclusion of magnetic resonance imaging and/or more intensive screening was clearly documented for the participating women at increased BC risk. However, none of the reports indicated that sufficient outreach was performed to ensure that women at increased BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. On the basis of this systematic review, we conclude that the specific screening needs of ethnic minority women at increased BC risk have not yet been met in Europe. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is needed to identify minority women at increased BC risk and to facilitate their inclusion in on-going surveillance programs. It is anticipated that these efforts would be most effective if coordinated with the development of European-wide, population-based approaches to BC screening.

  9. Cancer risks: Strategies for elimination

    SciTech Connect

    Bannasch, P.

    1987-01-01

    This book deals with the possibilities for identifying and eliminating cancer risk factors. The current state of knowledge on the detection, assessment and elimination of chemical, physical (radiation), and biological (viruses) risk factors are comprehensively presented in 15 contributions. Chemical risk factors resulting from smoking and environmental contamination are given special attention. The coverage of cancer risks by radiation includes some of the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster. Finally, the discussion of the possible risks that certain viruses hold for cancer in man is intended to further the development of vaccinations against these viral infections. The information is directed not only at specialists, but also at a wider interested audience. Its primary aim is to convey established findings that are already being used for cancer prevention. Furthermore, the book aims to promote more intense research in the field of primary cancer prevention. Contents: General aspects; chemical carcinogens: Risk assessment; chemical carcinogens: Primary prevention; physical carcinogens - Oncogenic viruses and subject index.

  10. Estimates of radiogenic cancer risks

    SciTech Connect

    Puskin, J.S.; Nelson, C.B.

    1995-07-01

    A methodology recently developed by the U.S. EPA for estimating the carcingenic risks from ionizing radiation is described. For most cancer sites, the risk model is one in which age-specific, relative risk coefficients are obtained by taking a geometric mean of the coefficients derived from the atomic bomb survivor data using two different methods for transporting risks from the Japanese to the U.S. population. The risk models are applied to estimate organ-specific risks per unit dose for a stationary population with mortality rates governed by 1980 U.S. vital statistics. With the exception of breast cancer, low-LET radiogenic cancer risk estimates are reduced by a factor of 2 at low doses and dose rates compared to acute high dose exposure conditions. For low dose (or dose rate) conditions, the risk of inducing a premature cancer death from uniform, whole body, low-LET irradiation is calculated to be 5.1 x 10{sup -2} Gy{sup -1}. Neglecting nonfatal skin cancers, the corresponding incidence risk is 7.6 x 10{sup -2} Gy{sup -1}. High-LET (alpha particle) risks are presumed to increase linearly with dose and to be independent of dose rate. High-LET risks are estimated to be 20 times the low-LET risks estimated under low dose rate conditions, except for leukemia and breast cancer where RBEs of 1 and 10 are adopted, respectively. 29 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Pancreatic Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing pancreatic cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  12. Colorectal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing colorectal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  13. Bladder Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing bladder cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  14. Testicular Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of testicular cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  15. Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing lung cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  16. Ovarian Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing ovarian cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  17. Liver Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing liver cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  18. Prostate Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing prostate cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  19. Esophageal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing esophageal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  20. Cervical Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  1. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  2. Baseline immune biomarkers as predictors of MBSR(BC) treatment success in off-treatment breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Reich, Richard R; Lengacher, Cecile A; Kip, Kevin E; Shivers, Steven C; Schell, Michael J; Shelton, Melissa M; Widen, Raymond H; Newton, Catherine; Barta, Michelle K; Paterson, Carly L; Farias, Jerrica R; Cox, Charles E; Klein, Thomas W

    2014-10-01

    Researchers focused on patient-centered medicine are increasingly trying to identify baseline factors that predict treatment success. Because the quantity and function of lymphocyte subsets change during stress, we hypothesized that these subsets would serve as stress markers and therefore predict which breast cancer patients would benefit most from mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR)-facilitated stress relief. The purpose of this study was to assess whether baseline biomarker levels predicted symptom improvement following an MBSR intervention for breast cancer survivors (MBSR[BC]). This randomized controlled trial involved 41 patients assigned to either an MBSR(BC) intervention group or a no-treatment control group. Biomarkers were assessed at baseline, and symptom change was assessed 6 weeks later. Biomarkers included common lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood as well as the ability of T cells to become activated and secrete cytokines in response to stimulation with mitogens. Spearman correlations were used to identify univariate relationships between baseline biomarkers and 6-week improvement of symptoms. Next, backward elimination regression models were used to identify the strongest predictors from the univariate analyses. Multiple baseline biomarkers were significantly positively related to 6-week symptom improvement. The regression models identified B-lymphocytes and interferon-γ as the strongest predictors of gastrointestinal improvement (p < .01), +CD4+CD8 as the strongest predictor of cognitive/psychological (CP) improvement (p = .02), and lymphocytes and interleukin (IL)-4 as the strongest predictors of fatigue improvement (p < .01). These results provide preliminary evidence of the potential to use baseline biomarkers as predictors to identify the patients likely to benefit from this intervention. PMID:24477514

  3. Is breast cancer risk the same for all progestogens?

    PubMed

    Stute, Petra

    2014-08-01

    The population-based case–control study CECILE investigated the impact of various menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) products on breast cancer (BC) risk in 1,555 postmenopausal women [1]. The case group (n = 739) included incident cases of in situ (!) or invasive BC in postmenopausal women. The control group (n = 816) included women from the general population within predefined quotas by age and socio-economic status (SES). While quotas by age were applied to obtain similar distributions by age among controls and among cases, quotas by SES in control women were applied to reflect the distribution by SES of women in the general population in the study area. Data of participants were obtained by a structured questionnaire during in-person interviews, and from pathology reports if applicable, respectively. Women were divided into current and past MHT user. MHTs were classified in estrogen-only therapy (ET), estrogen combined with progestin therapy (EPT) and tibolone. EPT was subdivided in three subtypes according to the progestogen constituent: natural micronized progesterone, progesterone derivatives, and testosterone derivatives. In comparison to never MHT users, any current or past MHT use (ET, EPT, tibolone) was not associated with an increased BC risk. However, in subanalysis BC risk was significantly increased for current use of EPT for 4 or more years (n = 73 cases and n = 56 controls, adjusted OR 1.55; 95 % CI 1.02–2.36). Within the group of current EPT users for 4 or more years, 14 cases had used estrogens combined with micronized progesterone (n = 17 controls), and 55 a combination with a synthetic progestogen (n = 34 controls), respectively. Compared to never MHT use, current use of EPT containing a synthetic progestogen for 4 or more years was associated with a significantly increased BC risk (adjusted OR 2.07; 95 % CI 1.26–3.39), but EPT containing micronized progesterone was not (adjusted OR 0.79; 95 % CI 0.37–1.71). 73 % of current MHT users

  4. On the Antiquity of Cancer: Evidence for Metastatic Carcinoma in a Young Man from Ancient Nubia (c. 1200BC)

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Michaela; Roberts, Charlotte; Spencer, Neal; Antoine, Daniel; Cartwright, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Cancer, one of the world’s leading causes of death today, remains almost absent relative to other pathological conditions, in the archaeological record, giving rise to the conclusion that the disease is mainly a product of modern living and increased longevity. This paper presents a male, young-adult individual from the archaeological site of Amara West in northern Sudan (c. 1200BC) displaying multiple, mainly osteolytic, lesions on the vertebrae, ribs, sternum, clavicles, scapulae, pelvis, and humeral and femoral heads. Following radiographic, microscopic and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) imaging of the lesions, and a consideration of differential diagnoses, a diagnosis of metastatic carcinoma secondary to an unknown soft tissue cancer is suggested. This represents the earliest complete example in the world of a human who suffered metastatic cancer to date. The study further draws its strength from modern analytical techniques applied to differential diagnoses and the fact that it is firmly rooted within a well-documented archaeological and historical context, thus providing new insights into the history and antiquity of the disease as well as its underlying causes and progression. PMID:24637948

  5. Infective Endocarditis and Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li-Min; Wu, Jung-Nan; Lin, Cheng-Li; Day, Jen-Der; Liang, Ji-An; Liou, Li-Ren; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated the possible relationship between endocarditis and overall and individual cancer risk among study participants in Taiwan. We used data from the National Health Insurance program of Taiwan to conduct a population-based, observational, and retrospective cohort study. The case group consisted of 14,534 patients who were diagnosed with endocarditis between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010. For the control group, 4 patients without endocarditis were frequency matched to each endocarditis patient according to age, sex, and index year. Competing risks regression analysis was conducted to determine the effect of endocarditis on cancer risk. A large difference was noted in Charlson comorbidity index between endocarditis and nonendocarditis patients. In patients with endocarditis, the risk for developing overall cancer was significant and 119% higher than in patients without endocarditis (adjusted subhazard ratio = 2.19, 95% confidence interval = 1.98–2.42). Regarding individual cancers, in addition to head and neck, uterus, female breast and hematological malignancies, the risks of developing colorectal cancer, and some digestive tract cancers were significantly higher. Additional analyses determined that the association of cancer with endocarditis is stronger within the 1st 5 years after endocarditis diagnosis. This population-based cohort study found that patients with endocarditis are at a higher risk for colorectal cancer and other cancers in Taiwan. The risk was even higher within the 1st 5 years after endocarditis diagnosis. It suggested that endocarditis is an early marker of colorectal cancer and other cancers. The underlying mechanisms must still be explored and may account for a shared risk factor of infection in both endocarditis and malignancy. PMID:27015220

  6. Cancer risk in DES daughters

    PubMed Central

    Verloop, Janneke; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Helmerhorst, Theo J. M.; van Boven, Hester H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We examined long-term risk of cancer in women exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES) in utero. Methods A total of 12,091 DES-exposed women in the Netherlands were followed prospectively from December 1992 till June 2008. Cancer incidence was assessed through linkage with the Dutch pathology database (PALGA) and the Netherlands Cancer Registry and compared with the Dutch female population. Results A total of 348 medically verified cancers occurred; median age at end of follow-up was 44.0 years. No overall increased risk of cancer was found (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] = 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.91, 1.13). The risk of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina and cervix (CCA) was statistically significantly increased (SIR = 24.23; 95% CI = 8.89, 52.74); the elevated risk persisted above 40 years of age. The risk of melanoma diagnosed before age 40 was increased (SIR = 1.59; 95% CI = 1.08, 2.26). No excess risks were found for other sites, including breast cancer. Conclusions Except for an elevated risk of CCA, persisting at older ages, and an increased risk of melanoma at young ages, we found no increased risk of cancer. Longer follow-up is warranted to examine cancer risk at ages when cancer occurs more frequently. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10552-010-9526-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20204493

  7. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, tumor subtypes, and causes of death after non-metastatic invasive breast cancer diagnosis: a multilevel competing-risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Lian, Min; Pérez, Maria; Liu, Ying; Schootman, Mario; Frisse, Ann; Foldes, Ellen; Jeffe, Donna B

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the associations of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype with causes of death [breast cancer (BC)-specific and non-BC-specific] among non-metastatic invasive BC patients. We identified 3,312 patients younger than 75 years (mean age 53.5 years; 621 [18.8 %] TNBC) with first primary BC treated at an academic medical center from 1999 to 2010. We constructed a census-tract-level socioeconomic deprivation index using the 2000 U.S. Census data and performed a multilevel competing-risk analysis to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) of BC-specific and non-BC-specific mortality associated with neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and TNBC subtype. The adjusted models controlled for patient sociodemographics, health behaviors, tumor characteristics, comorbidity, and cancer treatment. With a median 62-month follow-up, 349 (10.5 %) patients died; 233 died from BC. In the multivariate models, neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was independently associated with non-BC-specific mortality (the most- vs. the least-deprived quartile: HR = 2.98, 95 % CI = 1.33-6.66); in contrast, its association with BC-specific mortality was explained by the aforementioned patient-level covariates, particularly sociodemographic factors (HR = 1.15, 95 % CI = 0.71-1.87). TNBC subtype was independently associated with non-BC-specific mortality (HR = 2.15; 95 % CI = 1.20-3.84), while the association between TNBC and BC-specific mortality approached significance (HR = 1.42; 95 % CI = 0.99-2.03, P = 0.057). Non-metastatic invasive BC patients who lived in more socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods were more likely to die as a result of causes other than BC compared with those living in the least socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods. TNBC was associated with non-BC-specific mortality but not BC-specific mortality.

  8. Prostate stem cell antigen variation rs2294008 associated with the risk of bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Maomao; Yu, Xi; Cheng, Liangliang; Huang, Yi; Weng, Guobin

    2015-01-01

    Several studies reported Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) rs2294008 was susceptibly associated with bladder cancer (BC) risk. However, the results were not entirely consistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between rs2294008 and BC risk. Comprehensive meta-analysis was preformed to provide a more precise assessment of the association between rs2294008 and BC risk. Twenty five studies involving 14,244 BC patients and 53,963 controls were included in our meta-analysis. The crude odds ratios (ORs) and the 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to evaluate the strength of the association. Pooled results indicated that the PSCA variant rs2294008-T was significantly connected with an increased risk of BC (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.12-1.18, P(z) < 0.0001). Moreover, stratified analyses showed that rs2294008 significantly increased BC risk in European (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.05-1.15, P(z) < 0.0001), North American (OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.12-1.24, P(z) < 0.0001), and Asian (OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.13-1.22, P(z) < 0.0001). In conclusion, our meta-analysis demonstrated that the PSCA rs2294008 is a risk factor for BC in European, Asian and North American. Further large case-control studies are needed to assess the relationship in other populations. Biologically functional studies are needed to verify the molecular mechanisms in the pathogenesis of BC. PMID:26550251

  9. Can Avoiding Light at Night Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer?

    PubMed

    Keshet-Sitton, Atalya; Or-Chen, Keren; Yitzhak, Sara; Tzabary, Ilana; Haim, Abraham

    2016-06-01

    Excessive exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) suppresses nocturnal melatonin (MLT) production in the pineal gland and is, therefore, associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (BC). We examined indoor and outdoor light habits of 278 women, BC patients (n = 93), and controls (n = 185; 2010-2014). Cases and controls were age and residential area matched. Data regarding behavior in the sleeping habitat in a 5-year period, 10 to 15 years prior to disease diagnosis, were collected using a questionnaire. Sleep quality, bedtime, sleep duration, TV watching habits, presleeping reading habits, subjective illumination intensity, and type of illumination were collected. Binary logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (ORs with 95% CIs) for BC patients in relation to those habits. OR results revealed that women who had slept longer (controls), 10 to 15 years before the time of the study, in a period of 5 years, had a significant (OR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.57-0.97; P < .03) reduced BC risk. Likewise, women who had been moderately exposed to ALAN as a result of reading using bed light (reading lamp) illumination and women who had slept with closed shutters reduced their BC risk: OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.67-0.97, P < .02, and OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.68-0.99, P < .04, respectively. However, women who had been exposed to ALAN as a result of living near strong illumination sources were at a significantly higher BC risk (OR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.10-2.12; P < .01). These data support the hypothesis that diminishing nighttime light exposure will diminish BC risk and incidence. This hypothesis needs to be tested directly using available testing strategies and technologies that continuously measure an individual's light exposure, its timing, and sleep length longitudinally and feed this information back to the individual, so that BC risk can be distinguished prospectively. PMID:26631258

  10. bc-GenExMiner 3.0: new mining module computes breast cancer gene expression correlation analyses.

    PubMed

    Jézéquel, Pascal; Frénel, Jean-Sébastien; Campion, Loïc; Guérin-Charbonnel, Catherine; Gouraud, Wilfried; Ricolleau, Gabriel; Campone, Mario

    2013-01-01

    We recently developed a user-friendly web-based application called bc-GenExMiner (http://bcgenex.centregauducheau.fr), which offered the possibility to evaluate prognostic informativity of genes in breast cancer by means of a 'prognostic module'. In this study, we develop a new module called 'correlation module', which includes three kinds of gene expression correlation analyses. The first one computes correlation coefficient between 2 or more (up to 10) chosen genes. The second one produces two lists of genes that are most correlated (positively and negatively) to a 'tested' gene. A gene ontology (GO) mining function is also proposed to explore GO 'biological process', 'molecular function' and 'cellular component' terms enrichment for the output lists of most correlated genes. The third one explores gene expression correlation between the 15 telomeric and 15 centromeric genes surrounding a 'tested' gene. These correlation analyses can be performed in different groups of patients: all patients (without any subtyping), in molecular subtypes (basal-like, HER2+, luminal A and luminal B) and according to oestrogen receptor status. Validation tests based on published data showed that these automatized analyses lead to results consistent with studies' conclusions. In brief, this new module has been developed to help basic researchers explore molecular mechanisms of breast cancer. DATABASE URL: http://bcgenex.centregauducheau.fr

  11. Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... oral contraceptives are available in the United States today? How could oral contraceptives influence cancer risk? How ... oral contraceptives are available in the United States today? Two types of oral contraceptives (birth control pills) ...

  12. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body's largest organ . It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection . Skin also helps control body ... cancer risk factors include: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  13. Cancer risks after radiation exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Voelz, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    A general overview of the effects of ionizing radiation on cancer induction is presented. The relationship between the degree of risk and absorbed dose is examined. Mortality from radiation-induced cancer in the US is estimated and percentages attributable to various sources are given. (ACR)

  14. Nutrition and primary prevention of breast cancer: foods, nutrients and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Hanf, Volker; Gonder, Ulrike

    2005-12-01

    Worldwide, each year approximately one million women are newly diagnosed with breast cancer (BC), in Germany 65 new cases per 100,000 inhabitants are registered, yearly. The fact that incidence has been rising in parallel with economic development indicates that environmental factors might play a role in the causation of BC. Migrational data have pointed to nutrition as one of the more relevant external factors involved. Preventive dietary advice often includes a reduction of alcohol, red meat and animal fat and increasing the intake of vegetables, fruit and fibre and lately, phyto-estrogens from various sources. Clearly, the scientific basis for these recommendations appears sparse. The available prospective data from epidemiological studies and interventional trials do not support the overall hypothesis that higher fat-intakes are a relevant risk factor for BC development, more important seems the relative distribution of various fatty acids. A non-vegetarian eating habit (consumption of animal products) per se does not elevate BC risk, while consumption of broiled or deep fried meats cannot be ruled out as a risk factor in genetically susceptible individuals. It appears prudent to abstain from regular and increased alcohol consumption. This should be particularly true for pubescent girls, in whom glandular breast tissue is particularly vulnerable. In general, if alcohol is consumed on a regular basis, a sufficient supply of fresh vegetables and fruit is essential. While there is no overall protective effect of a high fruit and vegetable consumption speculation remains over possible beneficial effects of certain subcategories, especially brassica vegetables like broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage. In essence, regional differences in BC incidence are probably partially attributable to life long dietary habits. There is no need to adopt a foreign dietary plan in order to protect oneself against BC. Traditional western diets also have their beneficial ingredients

  15. Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk Too

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159652.html Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk Too Women with BRCA1 may want to ... increased risk for a deadly form of uterine cancer, a new study finds. The BRCA1 gene mutation ...

  16. Investigation on XRCC1 genetic polymorphism and its relationship with breast cancer risk factors in Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Luming; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Xukui; Zhu, Jian; Zhou, Pen; Yu, Fang; Hou, Lei; Zhao, Guowei; He, Qingqing; Wang, Baocheng

    2013-12-01

    Breast cancer (BC) remains one of the most common cancers among women. The human X-ray repair cross-complementing 1 (XRCC1) gene plays key roles in base excision repair, and genetic polymorphisms of XRCC1 may be associated with the susceptibility to BC. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the XRCC1 genetic polymorphisms and BC susceptibility. A total of 354 BC patients and 366 cancer-free controls were enrolled in this study. Data about the risk factors of BC were collected using questionnaires. The XRCC1 genetic polymorphism was determined using created restriction site-polymerase chain reaction (CRS-PCR) and DNA sequencing methods. No significant differences in the allelic and genotypic frequencies of c.1804C>A genetic polymorphism were detected between cases and controls. The distributions of BC patients' risk factors were not significantly different between CC, CA, and AA genotypes. These findings indicate that the c.1804C>A genetic polymorphism of XRCC1 gene is not significantly associated with BC susceptibility in the Chinese women.

  17. Common breast cancer susceptibility alleles and the risk of breast cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: implications for risk prediction

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Beesley, Jonathan; McGuffog, Lesley; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Healey, Sue; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Lynch, Henry T.; Isaacs, Claudine; Ganz, Patricia A.; Tomlinson, Gail; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Lindor, Noralane M.; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Radice, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Barile, Monica; Viel, Alessandra; Allavena, Anna; Dall’Olio, Valentina; Peterlongo, Paolo; Szabo, Csilla I.; Zikan, Michal; Claes, Kathleen; Poppe, Bruce; Foretova, Lenka; Mai, Phuong L.; Greene, Mark H.; Rennert, Gad; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Andrulis, Irene L.; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Sunde, Lone; Cruger, Dorthe; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Caligo, Maria; Friedman, Eitan; Kaufman, Bella; Laitman, Yael; Milgrom, Roni; Dubrovsky, Maya; Cohen, Shimrit; Borg, Ake; Jernström, Helena; Lindblom, Annika; Rantala, Johanna; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Melin, Beatrice; Nathanson, Kate; Domchek, Susan; Jakubowska, Ania; Lubinski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Osorio, Ana; Lasa, Adriana; Durán, Mercedes; Tejada, Maria-Isabel; Godino, Javier; Benitez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Kriege, Mieke; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; van der Luijt, Rob B; van Asperen, Christi J; Devilee, Peter; Meijers-Heijboer, E.J.; Blok, Marinus J; Aalfs, Cora M.; Hogervorst, Frans; Rookus, Matti; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare; Frost, Debra; Conroy, Don; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Pichert, Gabriella; Davidson, Rosemarie; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Paterson, Joan; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J.; Porteous, Mary E.; Walker, Lisa; Kennedy, M. John; Dorkins, Huw; Peock, Susan; Godwin, Andrew K.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; de Pauw, Antoine; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Bonadona, Valérie; Lasset, Christine; Dreyfus, Hélène; Leroux, Dominique; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Faivre, Laurence; Loustalot, Catherine; Noguchi, Tetsuro; Sobol, Hagay; Rouleau, Etienne; Nogues, Catherine; Frénay, Marc; Vénat-Bouvet, Laurence; Hopper, John L.; Daly, Mary B.; Terry, Mary B.; John, Esther M.; Buys, Saundra S.; Yassin, Yosuf; Miron, Alex; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F.; Dressler, Anne Catharina; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Pfeiler, Georg; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Jønson, Lars; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Offit, Kenneth; Devlin, Vincent; Dutra-Clarke, Ana; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Wakeley, Katie; Boggess, John F.; Basil, Jack; Schwartz, Peter E.; Blank, Stephanie V.; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Montagna, Marco; Casella, Cinzia; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Tihomirova, Laima; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Ramus, Susan J.; Sucheston, Lara; Karlan, Beth Y.; Gross, Jenny; Schmutzler, Rita; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Lochmann, Magdalena; Arnold, Norbert; Heidemann, Simone; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Deissler, Helmut; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Kast, Karin; Schönbuchner, Ines; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli; Simard, Jacques; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Holland, Helene; Chen, Xiaoqing; Platte, Radka; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.

    2010-01-01

    The known breast cancer (BC) susceptibility polymorphisms in FGFR2, TNRC9/TOX3, MAP3K1,LSP1 and 2q35 confer increased risks of BC for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. We evaluated the associations of three additional SNPs, rs4973768 in SLC4A7/NEK10, rs6504950 in STXBP4/COX11 and rs10941679 at 5p12 and reanalyzed the previous associations using additional carriers in a sample of 12,525 BRCA1 and 7,409 BRCA2 carriers. Additionally, we investigated potential interactions between SNPs and assessed the implications for risk prediction. The minor alleles of rs4973768 and rs10941679 were associated with increased BC risk for BRCA2 carriers (per-allele Hazard Ratio (HR)=1.10, 95%CI:1.03-1.18, p=0.006 and HR=1.09, 95%CI:1.01-1.19, p=0.03, respectively). Neither SNP was associated with BC risk for BRCA1 carriers and rs6504950 was not associated with BC for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers. Of the nine polymorphisms investigated, seven were associated with BC for BRCA2 carriers (FGFR2, TOX3, MAP3K1, LSP1, 2q35, SLC4A7, 5p12, p-values:7×10−11-0.03), but only TOX3 and 2q35 were associated with the risk for BRCA1 carriers (p=0.0049, 0.03 respectively). All risk associated polymorphisms appear to interact multiplicatively on BC risk for mutation carriers. Based on the joint genotype distribution of the seven risk associated SNPs in BRCA2 mutation carriers, the 5% of BRCA2 carriers at highest risk (i.e. between 95th and 100th percentiles) were predicted to have a probability between 80% and 96% of developing BC by age 80, compared with 42-50% for the 5% of carriers at lowest risk. Our findings indicated that these risk differences may be sufficient to influence the clinical management of mutation carriers. PMID:21118973

  18. Genetic polymorphisms and haplotype of hormone-related genes are associated with the risk of breast cancer in Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Pan, Z; Fu, Z; Song, Q; Cao, W; Cheng, W; Xu, X

    2016-01-01

    Sex hormones play important roles in breast cancer (BC) development. This study investigated associations between BC risk and hormone-related gene variants in Chinese women. In a cohort of 336 patients with histopathologically confirmed BC and 390 age-matched controls, we genotyped seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in five hormone-related genes: estrogen receptor-α (ESR1), aromatase (CYP19), catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and glutathione S-transferase (GSTP1). Among these seven SNPs, the SNPs in GSTP1 rs1695 [A/G; odds ratio (OR): 1.68; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23-2.30] and ESR1 rs2046210 (C/T; OR: 1.39; 95%CI = 1.02-1.91) were associated with an increased risk among heterozygote carriers. Homozygotes of minor alleles of CYP19 rs10046 (CC) were associated with a reduced risk of BC with OR: 0.61 (95%CI = 0.39-0.95). In addition, a stratified analysis by menopausal status indicated that the association of the CYP19 polymorphisms (rs10046 and rs700519) with BC risk was mainly evident in premenopausal women, and the association of CYP19 rs700519 with BC risk was significant in women less than 50 years old. Haplotype analysis identified 15 common haplotypes (>1%). The haplotype TGGGGTC was significantly associated with BC risk compared with the reference haplotype CGAGGTC (OR > 1000, P < 0.0001). Our data demonstrate that these ESR1, GSTP1, and CYP19 polymorphisms are associated with risk of BC, and the risk haplotype TGGGGTC could help to identify populations with high susceptibility to BC in Chinese women. PMID:27323034

  19. A Meta-Analysis of the Association between ESR1 Genetic Variants and the Risk of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiaying; Ma, Xu; Dai, Qiaoyun; Huang, Hao; Wang, Lina; Liu, Pei

    2016-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the estrogen receptor gene (ESR1) play critical roles in breast cancer (BC) susceptibility. Genome-wide association studies have reported that SNPs in ESR1 are associated with BC susceptibility; however, the results of recent studies have been inconsistent. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to obtain more accurate and credible results. Methods We pooled published literature from PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science and calculated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the strength of associations using fixed effects models and random effects models. Twenty relevant case-control and cohort studies of the 3 related SNPs were identified. Results Three SNPs of the ESR1 gene, rs2077647:T>C, rs2228480:G>A and rs3798577:T>C, were not associated with increased BC risk in our overall meta-analysis. Stratified analysis by ethnicity showed that in Caucasians, the rs2228480 AA genotype was associated with a 26% decreased risk of BC compared with the GG genotype (OR = 0.740, 95% CI: 0.555–0.987). The C allele of the rs3798577:T>C variant was associated with decreased BC risk in Asians (OR = 0.828, 95% CI: 0.730–0.939), while Caucasians with this allele were found to experience significantly increased BC risk (OR = 1.551, 95% CI: 1.037–2.321). A non-significant association between rs2077647 and BC risk was identified in all of the evaluated ethnic populations. Conclusion Rs3798577 was associated with an increased risk of BC in Caucasian populations but a decreased risk in Asians. Rs2228480 had a large protective effect in Caucasians, while rs2077647 was not associated with BC risk. PMID:27070141

  20. Obesity and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer screening among obese adults. National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) NCCOR brings together four of the nation’s leading funders of childhood obesity research: the CDC, NIH, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, ...

  1. Endometrial Cancer Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Women with a condition called polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have abnormal hormone levels, such as higher androgen ( ... increase a woman's chance of getting endometrial cancer. PCOS is also a leading cause of infertility in ...

  2. [INFLUENCE OF REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS, BREASTFEEDING AND OBESITY ON THE RISK OF BREAST CANCER IN MEXICAN WOMEN].

    PubMed

    Navarro-Ibarra, María Jossé; Caire-Juvera, Graciela; Ortega-Vélez, María Isabel; Bolaños-Villar, Adriana Verónica; Saucedo-Tamayo, María Del Socorro

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is considered a global public health problem, and is the most frequently type diagnosed in Mexican women. Therefore, it is important to study the risk factors associated to this neoplasia in order to establish prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hormonal contraceptives and hormone therapy (HT) use and period of use, breastfeeding practice, abdominal obesity and weight gain in adulthood, on the risk of BC in adult women from Northwest Mexico. This was a case-control study that included 162 women (81 cases and 81 controls). A sociodemographic and health questionnaire, and a survey history of body weight were applied to participants. Measurements of body weight, height and waist circumference were performed. To assess the association between BC risk and exposing factors, a multivariate logistic regression model was used. Average age of cases and controls were 51.8 ± 11.7 and 51.4 ± 11.3 years, respectively. No significant association was found between the use and period of use of hormonal contraceptives and HT with the risk of BC. The practice of breastfeeding (OR=0.34, 95%CI: 0.12- 0.92) and the time of exclusive breastfeeding (OR=0.64, 95%CI: 0.42-0.97; crude) were protective against the risk of BC. Abdominal obesity (OR=0.93, 95%CI: 0.90-0.97) and weight gain in early adulthood (OR=0.90, 95%CI: 0.85-0.95) were inversely associated to the risk of BC. In conclusion, the practice of breastfeeding may help prevent BC in Mexican women.

  3. [INFLUENCE OF REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS, BREASTFEEDING AND OBESITY ON THE RISK OF BREAST CANCER IN MEXICAN WOMEN].

    PubMed

    Navarro-Ibarra, María Jossé; Caire-Juvera, Graciela; Ortega-Vélez, María Isabel; Bolaños-Villar, Adriana Verónica; Saucedo-Tamayo, María Del Socorro

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is considered a global public health problem, and is the most frequently type diagnosed in Mexican women. Therefore, it is important to study the risk factors associated to this neoplasia in order to establish prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hormonal contraceptives and hormone therapy (HT) use and period of use, breastfeeding practice, abdominal obesity and weight gain in adulthood, on the risk of BC in adult women from Northwest Mexico. This was a case-control study that included 162 women (81 cases and 81 controls). A sociodemographic and health questionnaire, and a survey history of body weight were applied to participants. Measurements of body weight, height and waist circumference were performed. To assess the association between BC risk and exposing factors, a multivariate logistic regression model was used. Average age of cases and controls were 51.8 ± 11.7 and 51.4 ± 11.3 years, respectively. No significant association was found between the use and period of use of hormonal contraceptives and HT with the risk of BC. The practice of breastfeeding (OR=0.34, 95%CI: 0.12- 0.92) and the time of exclusive breastfeeding (OR=0.64, 95%CI: 0.42-0.97; crude) were protective against the risk of BC. Abdominal obesity (OR=0.93, 95%CI: 0.90-0.97) and weight gain in early adulthood (OR=0.90, 95%CI: 0.85-0.95) were inversely associated to the risk of BC. In conclusion, the practice of breastfeeding may help prevent BC in Mexican women. PMID:26262729

  4. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) gene polymorphism with bladder cancer risk in North Indian population.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Praveen Kumar; Singh, Vibha; Mittal, Rama Devi

    2014-02-01

    Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) is a potent immunoregulatory molecule that suppresses antitumor response by down-regulating T cell activation. We examined candidate disease-susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) of CTLA4 at +49A/G, CT60A/G and -318C/T genes in bladder cancer (BC) patients of North Indian population. Histopathologically confirmed 200 patients of BC and 200 unrelated, healthy controls of similar ethnicity were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and amplification refractory mutation specific (PCR-ARMS) methods. In present study SNP CTLA4 +49A/G, variant genotype showed 3.74-fold risks for BC. While looking at G allele carrier level, risk for BC was high (OR = 1.54). The risk for BC was also evident in case G allele (OR = 1.58). CTLA4 CT60A/G gene polymorphism variant genotype showed 1.36-fold risks for BC. While at G allele carrier and with variant G allele it showed significantly reduced risk for BC. CTLA4 +49A/G genotype exhibited 1.57-fold risks with smoking in BC patients in homozygous mutant condition. In silico analysis further supports the results of SNP at CTLA4 +49A/G and CTLA4 CT60A/G. None of the above SNPs of CTLA4 demonstrated association with tumor stage/grade for BC severity and progression. BCG immunotherapy had no impact on CTLA4 gene polymorphism revealing no significant association. Haplotype GAC showed high risk for BC while other haplotype AGT showed reduced risk for BC. Our results indicated that genetic variations in CTLA4 gene (+49A/G, CT60A/G) play role in susceptibility to BC. Haplotype GAC showed high risk for BC. An association study utilizing a larger sample size and different ethnicity warrant further investigation through replication and advance techniques.

  5. Screening for Chemical Contributions to Breast Cancer Risk: A Case Study for Chemical Safety Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Janet M.; Dairkee, Shanaz H.; Fenton, Suzanne E.; Johnson, Dale; Navarro, Kathleen M.; Osborne, Gwendolyn; Rudel, Ruthann A.; Solomon, Gina M.; Zeise, Lauren; Janssen, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background Current approaches to chemical screening, prioritization, and assessment are being reenvisioned, driven by innovations in chemical safety testing, new chemical regulations, and demand for information on human and environmental impacts of chemicals. To conceptualize these changes through the lens of a prevalent disease, the Breast Cancer and Chemicals Policy project convened an interdisciplinary expert panel to investigate methods for identifying chemicals that may increase breast cancer risk. Methods Based on a review of current evidence, the panel identified key biological processes whose perturbation may alter breast cancer risk. We identified corresponding assays to develop the Hazard Identification Approach for Breast Carcinogens (HIA-BC), a method for detecting chemicals that may raise breast cancer risk. Finally, we conducted a literature-based pilot test of the HIA-BC. Results The HIA-BC identifies assays capable of detecting alterations to biological processes relevant to breast cancer, including cellular and molecular events, tissue changes, and factors that alter susceptibility. In the pilot test of the HIA-BC, chemicals associated with breast cancer all demonstrated genotoxic or endocrine activity, but not necessarily both. Significant data gaps persist. Conclusions This approach could inform the development of toxicity testing that targets mechanisms relevant to breast cancer, providing a basis for identifying safer chemicals. The study identified important end points not currently evaluated by federal testing programs, including altered mammary gland development, Her2 activation, progesterone receptor activity, prolactin effects, and aspects of estrogen receptor β activity. This approach could be extended to identify the biological processes and screening methods relevant for other common diseases. Citation Schwarzman MR, Ackerman JM, Dairkee SH, Fenton SE, Johnson D, Navarro KM, Osborne G, Rudel RA, Solomon GM, Zeise L, Janssen S. 2015

  6. Outcomes of Proton Radiation Therapy for Peripapillary Choroidal Melanoma at the BC Cancer Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, Eric; Ma, Roy; Paton, Katherine; Blackmore, Ewart; Pickles, Tom

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To report toxicity, local control, enucleation, and survival rates for patients with peripapillary choroidal melanoma treated with proton therapy in Canada. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with peripapillary choroidal melanoma ({<=}2 mm from optic disc) treated between 1995 and 2007 at the only Canadian proton therapy facility. A prospective database was updated for follow-up information from a chart review. Descriptive and actuarial data are presented. Results: In total, 59 patients were treated. The median age was 59 years. According to the 2010 American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM classification, there were 20 T1 tumors (34%), 28 T2 tumors (48%), and 11 T3 tumors (19%). The median tumor diameter was 11.4 mm, and the median thickness was 3.5 mm. Median follow-up was 63 months. Nineteen patients received 54 cobalt gray equivalents (CGE) and forty patients received 60 CGE, each in 4 fractions. The 5-year actuarial local control rate was 91% (T1, 100%; T2, 93%; and T3, 59%) (p = 0.038). There was a suggestive relationship between local control and dose. The local control rate was 97% with 60 CGE and 83% with 54 CGE (p = 0.106). The metastasis-free survival rate was 82% and related to T stage (T1, 94%; T2, 84%; and T3, 47%) (p < 0.001). Twelve patients died, including eleven with metastases. The 5-year actuarial rate of neovascular glaucoma was 31% (23% for T1-T2 and 68% for T3, p < 0.001), and that of enucleation was 0% for T1, 14% for T2, and 72% for T3 (p < 0.001). Radiation retinopathy (74%) and optic neuropathy (64%) were common within-field effects. Conclusions: Proton therapy provides excellent local control with acceptable toxicity while conserving the globe in 80% of cases. These results are consistent with other single-institution series using proton radiotherapy, and toxicity rates were acceptable. T3 tumors carry a higher rate of both local recurrence and metastasis.

  7. Wait Times Experienced by Lung Cancer Patients in the BC Southern Interior to Obtain Oncologic Care: Exploration of the Intervals from First Abnormal Imaging to Oncologic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Rezwan; Boyce, Andrew; Halperin, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is associated with rapid disease progression, which can significantly progress over a duration of four to eight weeks. This study examines the time interval lung cancer patients from the interior of British Columbia (BC) experience while undergoing diagnostic evaluation, biopsy, staging, and preparation for treatment. Methods: A chart review of lung cancer patients (n=231) referred to the BC Cancer Agency Centre for the Southern Interior between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011 was performed. Time zero was defined as the date of the first abnormal chest imaging. Time intervals, expressed as median averages, to specialist consult, biopsy, oncologic referral, initial oncology consultation, and commencement of oncologic treatment were obtained. Results: The median time interval from first abnormal chest imaging to a specialist consultation was 18 days (interquartile range, IQR, 7-36). An additional nine days elapsed prior to biopsy in the form of bronchoscopy, CT-guided biopsy, or sputum cytology (median; IQR, 3-21); if lobectomy was required, 18 days elapsed (median; IQR, 9-28). Eight days were required for pathologic diagnosis and subsequent referral to the cancer centre (median; IQR, 3-16.5). Once referral was received, 10 days elapsed prior to consultation with either a medical or radiation oncologist (median, IQR 5-18). Finally, eight days was required for initiation of radiation and/or chemotherapy (median; IQR, 1-15). The median wait time from detection of lung cancer on imaging to oncologic treatment in the form of radiation and/or chemotherapy was 65.5 days (IQR, 41.5-104.3).  Interpretation: Patients in the BC Southern Interior experience considerable delays in accessing lung cancer care. During this time, the disease has the potential to significantly progress and it is possible that a subset of patients may lose their opportunity for curative intent treatment. PMID:26543688

  8. Association Between Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene Polymorphisms with Breast Cancer Risk in an Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Maryam; Hashemi, Mohammad; Sanaei, Sara; Mashhadi, Mohammad Ali; Taheri, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most causes of death in women worldwide. It affects Iranian female population approximately a decade earlier than those in other parts of the world. Previous studies have shown that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene variants were associated with BC risk. The current study aimed to evaluate the impact of VEGF rs3025039 (+936C>T), rs2010963 (+405C>G), rs833061 (-460T>C), rs699947 (-2578C>A), and rs35569394 (18-bp I/D) polymorphisms on BC risk in an Iranian population in southeast of Iran. This case–control study was done on 250 BC patients and 215 healthy women. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) or PCR was used to genotype the polymorphisms. Our findings showed that VEGF rs699947 variant increased the risk of BC (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.15–2.54, P = 0.009, CA vs CC; OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.14–3.93, P = 0.021, AA vs CC; OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.22–2.60, P = 0.004, CA+AA vs CC; OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.12–1.92, P = 0.005, A vs C). The VEGF rs3025039, rs2010963, rs833061, and rs35569394 variants were not associated with risk/protection of BC. In conclusion, our results proposed that VEGF rs699947 polymorphism may increase the risk of BC development. Furthers studies with larger sample sizes and different ethnicities are necessary to confirm our findings. PMID:27398026

  9. Association Between Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene Polymorphisms with Breast Cancer Risk in an Iranian Population.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Maryam; Hashemi, Mohammad; Sanaei, Sara; Mashhadi, Mohammad Ali; Taheri, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most causes of death in women worldwide. It affects Iranian female population approximately a decade earlier than those in other parts of the world. Previous studies have shown that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene variants were associated with BC risk. The current study aimed to evaluate the impact of VEGF rs3025039 (+936C>T), rs2010963 (+405C>G), rs833061 (-460T>C), rs699947 (-2578C>A), and rs35569394 (18-bp I/D) polymorphisms on BC risk in an Iranian population in southeast of Iran. This case-control study was done on 250 BC patients and 215 healthy women. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) or PCR was used to genotype the polymorphisms. Our findings showed that VEGF rs699947 variant increased the risk of BC (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.15-2.54, P = 0.009, CA vs CC; OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.14-3.93, P = 0.021, AA vs CC; OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.22-2.60, P = 0.004, CA+AA vs CC; OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.12-1.92, P = 0.005, A vs C). The VEGF rs3025039, rs2010963, rs833061, and rs35569394 variants were not associated with risk/protection of BC. In conclusion, our results proposed that VEGF rs699947 polymorphism may increase the risk of BC development. Furthers studies with larger sample sizes and different ethnicities are necessary to confirm our findings. PMID:27398026

  10. Exposure to Phthalates and Breast Cancer Risk in Northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Hernández-Ramírez, Raúl U.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; Galván-Portillo, Marcia; Needham, Larry L.; Ruiz-Ramos, Rubén; Cebrián, Mariano E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Phthalates, ubiquitous environmental pollutants that may disturb the endocrine system, are used primarily as plasticizers of polyvinyl chloride and as additives in consumer and personal care products. Objectives In this study, we examined the association between urinary concentrations of nine phthalate metabolites and breast cancer (BC) in Mexican women. Methods We age-matched 233 BC cases to 221 women residing in northern Mexico. Sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics were obtained by direct interviews. Phthalates were determined in urine samples (collected pretreatment from the cases) by isotope dilution/high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Results Phthalate metabolites were detected in at least 82% of women. The geometric mean concentrations of monoethyl phthalate (MEP) were higher in cases than in controls (169.58 vs. 106.78 μg/g creatinine). Controls showed significantly higher concentrations of mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate, and mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP) than did the cases. After adjusting for risk factors and other phthalates, MEP urinary concentrations were positively associated with BC [odds ratio (OR), highest vs. lowest tertile = 2.20; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.33–3.63; p for trend < 0.01]. This association became stronger when estimated for premenopausal women (OR, highest vs. lowest tertile = 4.13; 95% CI, 1.60–10.70; p for trend < 0.01). In contrast, we observed significant negative associations for monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) and MCPP. Conclusions We show for the first time that exposure to diethyl phthalate, the parent compound of MEP, may be associated with increased risk of BC, whereas exposure to the parent phthalates of MBzP and MCPP might be negatively associated. These findings require confirmation. PMID:20368132

  11. Long-Term Outcomes of Fractionated Stereotactic Radiation Therapy for Pituitary Adenomas at the BC Cancer Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Julian O.; Ma, Roy; Akagami, Ryojo; McKenzie, Michael; Johnson, Michelle; Gete, Ermias; Nichol, Alan

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To assess the long-term disease control and toxicity outcomes of fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (FSRT) in patients with pituitary adenomas treated at the BC Cancer Agency. Methods and Materials: To ensure a minimum of 5 years of clinical follow-up, this study identified a cohort of 76 patients treated consecutively with FSRT between 1998 and 2007 for pituitary adenomas: 71% (54/76) had nonfunctioning and 29% (22/76) had functioning adenomas (15 adrenocorticotrophic hormone-secreting, 5 growth hormone-secreting, and 2 prolactin-secreting). Surgery was used before FSRT in 96% (73/76) of patients. A median isocenter dose of 50.4 Gy was delivered in 28 fractions, with 100% of the planning target volume covered by the 90% isodose. Patients were followed up clinically by endocrinologists, ophthalmologists, and radiation oncologists. Serial magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess tumor response. Results: With a median follow-up time of 6.8 years (range, 0.6 - 13.1 years), the 7-year progression-free survival was 97.1% and disease-specific survival was 100%. Of the 2 patients with tumor progression, both had disease control after salvage surgery. Of the 22 patients with functioning adenomas, 50% (11/22) had complete and 9% (2/22) had partial responses after FSRT. Of the patients with normal pituitary function at baseline, 48% (14/29) experienced 1 or more hormone deficiencies after FSRT. Although 79% (60/76) of optic chiasms were at least partially within the planning target volumes, no patient experienced radiation-induced optic neuropathy. No patient experienced radionecrosis. No secondary malignancy occurred during follow-up. Conclusion: In this study of long-term follow-up of patients treated for pituitary adenomas, FSRT was safe and effective.

  12. CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR CHLOROFORM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chloroform is a common chlorination by-product in drinking water. EPA has regulated chloroform as a probable human carcinogen under the Safe Drinking Water Act. The cancer risk estimate via ingestion was based on the 1985 Jorgenson study identifying kidney tumors in male Osborne ...

  13. Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... and radiation fallout from power plant accidents or nuclear weapons. Having had head or neck radiation treatments in childhood is a risk factor for ... should be done using the lowest dose of radiation that still provides a clear ... from nuclear weapons or power plant accidents. For instance, thyroid ...

  14. Colon Cancer Risk Assessment - Gauss Program

    Cancer.gov

    An executable file (in GAUSS) that projects absolute colon cancer risk (with confidence intervals) according to NCI’s Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (CCRAT) algorithm. GAUSS is not needed to run the program.

  15. Reproductive History and Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview–for health professionals Research Reproductive History and Breast Cancer Risk On This Page Is there a relationship between pregnancy and breast cancer risk? Are any pregnancy-related factors associated with ...

  16. Functional mechanisms underlying pleiotropic risk alleles at the 19p13.1 breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility locus.

    PubMed

    Lawrenson, Kate; Kar, Siddhartha; McCue, Karen; Kuchenbaeker, Karoline; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Tyrer, Jonathan; Beesley, Jonathan; Ramus, Susan J; Li, Qiyuan; Delgado, Melissa K; Lee, Janet M; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Arndt, Volker; Arun, Banu K; Arver, Brita; Bandera, Elisa V; Barile, Monica; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Barrowdale, Daniel; Beckmann, Matthias W; Benitez, Javier; Berchuck, Andrew; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Blomqvist, Carl; Blot, William; Bogdanova, Natalia; Bojesen, Anders; Bojesen, Stig E; Bolla, Manjeet K; Bonanni, Bernardo; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brennan, Paul; Brenner, Hermann; Bruinsma, Fiona; Brunet, Joan; Buhari, Shaik Ahmad; Burwinkel, Barbara; Butzow, Ralf; Buys, Saundra S; Cai, Qiuyin; Caldes, Trinidad; Campbell, Ian; Canniotto, Rikki; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Claes, Kathleen B M; Cook, Linda S; Cox, Angela; Cramer, Daniel W; Cross, Simon S; Cybulski, Cezary; Czene, Kamila; Daly, Mary B; Damiola, Francesca; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Darabi, Hatef; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Diez, Orland; Doherty, Jennifer A; Domchek, Susan M; Dorfling, Cecilia M; Dörk, Thilo; Dumont, Martine; Ehrencrona, Hans; Ejlertsen, Bent; Ellis, Steve; Engel, Christoph; Lee, Eunjung; Evans, D Gareth; Fasching, Peter A; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Flyger, Henrik; Foretova, Lenka; Fostira, Florentia; Foulkes, William D; Fridley, Brooke L; Friedman, Eitan; Frost, Debra; Gambino, Gaetana; Ganz, Patricia A; Garber, Judy; García-Closas, Montserrat; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Ghoussaini, Maya; Giles, Graham G; Glasspool, Rosalind; Godwin, Andrew K; Goldberg, Mark S; Goldgar, David E; González-Neira, Anna; Goode, Ellen L; Goodman, Marc T; Greene, Mark H; Gronwald, Jacek; Guénel, Pascal; Haiman, Christopher A; Hall, Per; Hallberg, Emily; Hamann, Ute; Hansen, Thomas V O; Harrington, Patricia A; Hartman, Mikael; Hassan, Norhashimah; Healey, Sue; Heitz, Florian; Herzog, Josef; Høgdall, Estrid; Høgdall, Claus K; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Hopper, John L; Hulick, Peter J; Huzarski, Tomasz; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Isaacs, Claudine; Ito, Hidemi; Jakubowska, Anna; Janavicius, Ramunas; Jensen, Allan; John, Esther M; Johnson, Nichola; Kabisch, Maria; Kang, Daehee; Kapuscinski, Miroslav; Karlan, Beth Y; Khan, Sofia; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Knight, Julia A; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kristensen, Vessela; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Kwong, Ava; de la Hoya, Miguel; Laitman, Yael; Lambrechts, Diether; Le, Nhu; De Leeneer, Kim; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A; Li, Jingmei; Lindblom, Annika; Long, Jirong; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Loud, Jennifer T; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Mannermaa, Arto; Manoukian, Siranoush; Le Marchand, Loic; Margolin, Sara; Marme, Frederik; Massuger, Leon F A G; Matsuo, Keitaro; Mazoyer, Sylvie; McGuffog, Lesley; McLean, Catriona; McNeish, Iain; Meindl, Alfons; Menon, Usha; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; Milne, Roger L; Montagna, Marco; Moysich, Kirsten B; Muir, Kenneth; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Nathanson, Katherine L; Ness, Roberta B; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nord, Silje; Nussbaum, Robert L; Odunsi, Kunle; Offit, Kenneth; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Olson, Janet E; Olswold, Curtis; O'Malley, David; Orlow, Irene; Orr, Nick; Osorio, Ana; Park, Sue Kyung; Pearce, Celeste L; Pejovic, Tanja; Peterlongo, Paolo; Pfeiler, Georg; Phelan, Catherine M; Poole, Elizabeth M; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Rantala, Johanna; Rashid, Muhammad Usman; Rennert, Gad; Rhenius, Valerie; Rhiem, Kerstin; Risch, Harvey A; Rodriguez, Gus; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rudolph, Anja; Salvesen, Helga B; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Sawyer, Elinor J; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Schmutzler, Rita K; Sellers, Thomas A; Seynaeve, Caroline; Shah, Mitul; Shen, Chen-Yang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Sieh, Weiva; Singer, Christian F; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Slager, Susan; Song, Honglin; Soucy, Penny; Southey, Melissa C; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sutter, Christian; Swerdlow, Anthony; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Teixeira, Manuel R; Teo, Soo H; Terry, Kathryn L; Terry, Mary Beth; Thomassen, Mads; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Tihomirova, Laima; Tognazzo, Silvia; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Tomlinson, Ian; Torres, Diana; Truong, Thérèse; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Tung, Nadine; Tworoger, Shelley S; Vachon, Celine; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; van Doorn, Helena C; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Van't Veer, Laura J; Vanderstichele, Adriaan; Vergote, Ignace; Vijai, Joseph; Wang, Qin; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S; Wildiers, Hans; Winqvist, Robert; Wu, Anna H; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Yoon, Sook-Yee; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Khanna, Kum Kum; Simard, Jacques; Monteiro, Alvaro N; French, Juliet D; Couch, Fergus J; Freedman, Matthew L; Easton, Douglas F; Dunning, Alison M; Pharoah, Paul D; Edwards, Stacey L; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C; Gayther, Simon A

    2016-09-07

    A locus at 19p13 is associated with breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC) risk. Here we analyse 438 SNPs in this region in 46,451 BC and 15,438 OC cases, 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 73,444 controls and identify 13 candidate causal SNPs associated with serous OC (P=9.2 × 10(-20)), ER-negative BC (P=1.1 × 10(-13)), BRCA1-associated BC (P=7.7 × 10(-16)) and triple negative BC (P-diff=2 × 10(-5)). Genotype-gene expression associations are identified for candidate target genes ANKLE1 (P=2 × 10(-3)) and ABHD8 (P<2 × 10(-3)). Chromosome conformation capture identifies interactions between four candidate SNPs and ABHD8, and luciferase assays indicate six risk alleles increased transactivation of the ADHD8 promoter. Targeted deletion of a region containing risk SNP rs56069439 in a putative enhancer induces ANKLE1 downregulation; and mRNA stability assays indicate functional effects for an ANKLE1 3'-UTR SNP. Altogether, these data suggest that multiple SNPs at 19p13 regulate ABHD8 and perhaps ANKLE1 expression, and indicate common mechanisms underlying breast and ovarian cancer risk.

  17. Functional mechanisms underlying pleiotropic risk alleles at the 19p13.1 breast–ovarian cancer susceptibility locus

    PubMed Central

    Lawrenson, Kate; Kar, Siddhartha; McCue, Karen; Kuchenbaeker, Karoline; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Tyrer, Jonathan; Beesley, Jonathan; Ramus, Susan J.; Li, Qiyuan; Delgado, Melissa K.; Lee, Janet M.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Andrulis, Irene L.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Arndt, Volker; Arun, Banu K.; Arver, Brita; Bandera, Elisa V.; Barile, Monica; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Barrowdale, Daniel; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Benitez, Javier; Berchuck, Andrew; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Blomqvist, Carl; Blot, William; Bogdanova, Natalia; Bojesen, Anders; Bojesen, Stig E.; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Bonanni, Bernardo; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brennan, Paul; Brenner, Hermann; Bruinsma, Fiona; Brunet, Joan; Buhari, Shaik Ahmad; Burwinkel, Barbara; Butzow, Ralf; Buys, Saundra S.; Cai, Qiuyin; Caldes, Trinidad; Campbell, Ian; Canniotto, Rikki; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Claes, Kathleen B. M.; Collonge-Rame, Marie- Agnès; Damette, Alexandre; Barouk-Simonet, Emmanuelle; Bonnet, Françoise; Bubien, Virginie; Sevenet, Nicolas; Longy, Michel; Berthet, Pascaline; Vaur, Dominique; Castera, Laurent; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Coron, Fanny; Faivre, Laurence; Baurand, Amandine; Jacquot, Caroline; Bertolone, Geoffrey; Lizard, Sarab; Leroux, Dominique; Dreyfus, Hélène; Rebischung, Christine; Peysselon, Magalie; Peyrat, Jean-Philippe; Fournier, Joëlle; Révillion, Françoise; Adenis, Claude; Vénat-Bouvet, Laurence; Léone, Mélanie; Boutry-Kryza, Nadia; Calender, Alain; Giraud, Sophie; Verny-Pierre, Carole; Lasset, Christine; Bonadona, Valérie; Barjhoux, Laure; Sobol, Hagay; Bourdon, Violaine; Noguchi, Tetsuro; Remenieras, Audrey; Coupier, Isabelle; Pujol, Pascal; Sokolowska, Johanna; Bronner, Myriam; Delnatte, Capucine; Bézieau, Stéphane; Mari, Véronique; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Buecher, Bruno; Rouleau, Etienne; Golmard, Lisa; Moncoutier, Virginie; Belotti, Muriel; de Pauw, Antoine; Elan, Camille; Fourme, Emmanuelle; Birot, Anne-Marie; Saule, Claire; Laurent, Maïté; Houdayer, Claude; Lesueur, Fabienne; Mebirouk, Noura; Coulet, Florence; Colas, Chrystelle; Soubrier, Florent; Warcoin, Mathilde; Prieur, Fabienne; Lebrun, Marine; Kientz, Caroline; Muller, Danièle; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Toulas, Christine; Guimbaud, Rosine; Gladieff, Laurence; Feillel, Viviane; Mortemousque, Isabelle; Bressac-de-Paillerets, Brigitte; Caron, Olivier; Guillaud-Bataille, Marine; Cook, Linda S.; Cox, Angela; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cross, Simon S.; Cybulski, Cezary; Czene, Kamila; Daly, Mary B.; Damiola, Francesca; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Darabi, Hatef; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Diez, Orland; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Domchek, Susan M.; Dorfling, Cecilia M.; Dörk, Thilo; Dumont, Martine; Ehrencrona, Hans; Ejlertsen, Bent; Ellis, Steve; Gregory, Helen; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Morrison, Patrick J.; Donaldson, Alan; Rogers, Mark T.; Kennedy, M. John; Porteous, Mary E.; Brady, Angela; Barwell, Julian; Foo, Claire; Lalloo, Fiona; Side, Lucy E.; Eason, Jacqueline; Henderson, Alex; Walker, Lisa; Cook, Jackie; Snape, Katie; Murray, Alex; McCann, Emma; Engel, Christoph; Lee, Eunjung; Evans, D. Gareth; Fasching, Peter A.; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Flyger, Henrik; Foretova, Lenka; Fostira, Florentia; Foulkes, William D.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Friedman, Eitan; Frost, Debra; Gambino, Gaetana; Ganz, Patricia A.; Garber, Judy; García-Closas, Montserrat; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Ghoussaini, Maya; Giles, Graham G.; Glasspool, Rosalind; Godwin, Andrew K.; Goldberg, Mark S.; Goldgar, David E.; González-Neira, Anna; Goode, Ellen L.; Goodman, Marc T.; Greene, Mark H.; Gronwald, Jacek; Guénel, Pascal; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hall, Per; Hallberg, Emily; Hamann, Ute; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Harrington, Patricia A.; Hartman, Mikael; Hassan, Norhashimah; Healey, Sue; Rookus, M. A.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; van der Kolk, L. E.; Schmidt, M. K.; Russell, N. S.; de Lange, J. L.; Wijnands, R.; Collée, J. M.; Hooning, M. J.; Seynaeve, C.; van Deurzen, C. H. M.; Obdeijn, I. M.; van Asperen, C. J.; Tollenaar, R. A. E. M.; van Cronenburg, T. C. T. E. F.; Kets, C. M.; Ausems, M. G. E. M.; van der Pol, C. C.; van Os, T. A. M.; Waisfisz, Q.; Meijers-Heijboer, H. E. J.; Gómez-Garcia, E. B.; Oosterwijk, J. C.; Mourits, M. J.; de Bock, G. H.; Vasen, H. F.; Siesling, S.; Verloop, J.; Overbeek, L. I. H.; Heitz, Florian; Herzog, Josef; Høgdall, Estrid; Høgdall, Claus K.; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Hopper, John L.; Hulick, Peter J.; Huzarski, Tomasz; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Fox, Stephen; Kirk, Judy; Lindeman, Geoff; Price, Melanie; Bowtell, David; deFazio, Anna; Webb, Penny; Isaacs, Claudine; Ito, Hidemi; Jakubowska, Anna; Janavicius, Ramunas; Jensen, Allan; John, Esther M.; Johnson, Nichola; Kabisch, Maria; Kang, Daehee; Kapuscinski, Miroslav; Karlan, Beth Y.; Khan, Sofia; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Knight, Julia A.; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kristensen, Vessela; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Kwong, Ava; de la Hoya, Miguel; Laitman, Yael; Lambrechts, Diether; Le, Nhu; De Leeneer, Kim; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A.; Li, Jingmei; Lindblom, Annika; Long, Jirong; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Loud, Jennifer T.; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Mannermaa, Arto; Manoukian, Siranoush; Le Marchand, Loic; Margolin, Sara; Marme, Frederik; Massuger, Leon F. A. G.; Matsuo, Keitaro; Mazoyer, Sylvie; McGuffog, Lesley; McLean, Catriona; McNeish, Iain; Meindl, Alfons; Menon, Usha; Mensenkamp, Arjen R.; Milne, Roger L.; Montagna, Marco; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Muir, Kenneth; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Ness, Roberta B.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nord, Silje; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Odunsi, Kunle; Offit, Kenneth; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Olson, Janet E.; Olswold, Curtis; O'Malley, David; Orlow, Irene; Orr, Nick; Osorio, Ana; Park, Sue Kyung; Pearce, Celeste L.; Pejovic, Tanja; Peterlongo, Paolo; Pfeiler, Georg; Phelan, Catherine M.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Rantala, Johanna; Rashid, Muhammad Usman; Rennert, Gad; Rhenius, Valerie; Rhiem, Kerstin; Risch, Harvey A.; Rodriguez, Gus; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rudolph, Anja; Salvesen, Helga B.; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Shah, Mitul; Shen, Chen-Yang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Sieh, Weiva; Singer, Christian F.; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Slager, Susan; Song, Honglin; Soucy, Penny; Southey, Melissa C.; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sutter, Christian; Swerdlow, Anthony; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Teo, Soo H.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Terry, Mary Beth; Thomassen, Mads; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Tihomirova, Laima; Tognazzo, Silvia; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Tomlinson, Ian; Torres, Diana; Truong, Thérèse; Tseng, Chiu-chen; Tung, Nadine; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Vachon, Celine; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; van Doorn, Helena C.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Van't Veer, Laura J.; Vanderstichele, Adriaan; Vergote, Ignace; Vijai, Joseph; Wang, Qin; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wildiers, Hans; Winqvist, Robert; Wu, Anna H.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Yoon, Sook-Yee; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Khanna, Kum Kum; Simard, Jacques; Monteiro, Alvaro N.; French, Juliet D.; Couch, Fergus J.; Freedman, Matthew L.; Easton, Douglas F.; Dunning, Alison M.; Pharoah, Paul D.; Edwards, Stacey L.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Gayther, Simon A.

    2016-01-01

    A locus at 19p13 is associated with breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC) risk. Here we analyse 438 SNPs in this region in 46,451 BC and 15,438 OC cases, 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 73,444 controls and identify 13 candidate causal SNPs associated with serous OC (P=9.2 × 10−20), ER-negative BC (P=1.1 × 10−13), BRCA1-associated BC (P=7.7 × 10−16) and triple negative BC (P-diff=2 × 10−5). Genotype-gene expression associations are identified for candidate target genes ANKLE1 (P=2 × 10−3) and ABHD8 (P<2 × 10−3). Chromosome conformation capture identifies interactions between four candidate SNPs and ABHD8, and luciferase assays indicate six risk alleles increased transactivation of the ADHD8 promoter. Targeted deletion of a region containing risk SNP rs56069439 in a putative enhancer induces ANKLE1 downregulation; and mRNA stability assays indicate functional effects for an ANKLE1 3′-UTR SNP. Altogether, these data suggest that multiple SNPs at 19p13 regulate ABHD8 and perhaps ANKLE1 expression, and indicate common mechanisms underlying breast and ovarian cancer risk. PMID:27601076

  18. Functional mechanisms underlying pleiotropic risk alleles at the 19p13.1 breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility locus.

    PubMed

    Lawrenson, Kate; Kar, Siddhartha; McCue, Karen; Kuchenbaeker, Karoline; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Tyrer, Jonathan; Beesley, Jonathan; Ramus, Susan J; Li, Qiyuan; Delgado, Melissa K; Lee, Janet M; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Arndt, Volker; Arun, Banu K; Arver, Brita; Bandera, Elisa V; Barile, Monica; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Barrowdale, Daniel; Beckmann, Matthias W; Benitez, Javier; Berchuck, Andrew; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Blomqvist, Carl; Blot, William; Bogdanova, Natalia; Bojesen, Anders; Bojesen, Stig E; Bolla, Manjeet K; Bonanni, Bernardo; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brennan, Paul; Brenner, Hermann; Bruinsma, Fiona; Brunet, Joan; Buhari, Shaik Ahmad; Burwinkel, Barbara; Butzow, Ralf; Buys, Saundra S; Cai, Qiuyin; Caldes, Trinidad; Campbell, Ian; Canniotto, Rikki; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Claes, Kathleen B M; Cook, Linda S; Cox, Angela; Cramer, Daniel W; Cross, Simon S; Cybulski, Cezary; Czene, Kamila; Daly, Mary B; Damiola, Francesca; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Darabi, Hatef; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Diez, Orland; Doherty, Jennifer A; Domchek, Susan M; Dorfling, Cecilia M; Dörk, Thilo; Dumont, Martine; Ehrencrona, Hans; Ejlertsen, Bent; Ellis, Steve; Engel, Christoph; Lee, Eunjung; Evans, D Gareth; Fasching, Peter A; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Flyger, Henrik; Foretova, Lenka; Fostira, Florentia; Foulkes, William D; Fridley, Brooke L; Friedman, Eitan; Frost, Debra; Gambino, Gaetana; Ganz, Patricia A; Garber, Judy; García-Closas, Montserrat; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Ghoussaini, Maya; Giles, Graham G; Glasspool, Rosalind; Godwin, Andrew K; Goldberg, Mark S; Goldgar, David E; González-Neira, Anna; Goode, Ellen L; Goodman, Marc T; Greene, Mark H; Gronwald, Jacek; Guénel, Pascal; Haiman, Christopher A; Hall, Per; Hallberg, Emily; Hamann, Ute; Hansen, Thomas V O; Harrington, Patricia A; Hartman, Mikael; Hassan, Norhashimah; Healey, Sue; Heitz, Florian; Herzog, Josef; Høgdall, Estrid; Høgdall, Claus K; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Hopper, John L; Hulick, Peter J; Huzarski, Tomasz; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Isaacs, Claudine; Ito, Hidemi; Jakubowska, Anna; Janavicius, Ramunas; Jensen, Allan; John, Esther M; Johnson, Nichola; Kabisch, Maria; Kang, Daehee; Kapuscinski, Miroslav; Karlan, Beth Y; Khan, Sofia; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Knight, Julia A; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kristensen, Vessela; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Kwong, Ava; de la Hoya, Miguel; Laitman, Yael; Lambrechts, Diether; Le, Nhu; De Leeneer, Kim; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A; Li, Jingmei; Lindblom, Annika; Long, Jirong; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Loud, Jennifer T; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Mannermaa, Arto; Manoukian, Siranoush; Le Marchand, Loic; Margolin, Sara; Marme, Frederik; Massuger, Leon F A G; Matsuo, Keitaro; Mazoyer, Sylvie; McGuffog, Lesley; McLean, Catriona; McNeish, Iain; Meindl, Alfons; Menon, Usha; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; Milne, Roger L; Montagna, Marco; Moysich, Kirsten B; Muir, Kenneth; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Nathanson, Katherine L; Ness, Roberta B; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nord, Silje; Nussbaum, Robert L; Odunsi, Kunle; Offit, Kenneth; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Olson, Janet E; Olswold, Curtis; O'Malley, David; Orlow, Irene; Orr, Nick; Osorio, Ana; Park, Sue Kyung; Pearce, Celeste L; Pejovic, Tanja; Peterlongo, Paolo; Pfeiler, Georg; Phelan, Catherine M; Poole, Elizabeth M; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Rantala, Johanna; Rashid, Muhammad Usman; Rennert, Gad; Rhenius, Valerie; Rhiem, Kerstin; Risch, Harvey A; Rodriguez, Gus; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rudolph, Anja; Salvesen, Helga B; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Sawyer, Elinor J; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Schmutzler, Rita K; Sellers, Thomas A; Seynaeve, Caroline; Shah, Mitul; Shen, Chen-Yang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Sieh, Weiva; Singer, Christian F; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Slager, Susan; Song, Honglin; Soucy, Penny; Southey, Melissa C; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sutter, Christian; Swerdlow, Anthony; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Teixeira, Manuel R; Teo, Soo H; Terry, Kathryn L; Terry, Mary Beth; Thomassen, Mads; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Tihomirova, Laima; Tognazzo, Silvia; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Tomlinson, Ian; Torres, Diana; Truong, Thérèse; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Tung, Nadine; Tworoger, Shelley S; Vachon, Celine; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; van Doorn, Helena C; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Van't Veer, Laura J; Vanderstichele, Adriaan; Vergote, Ignace; Vijai, Joseph; Wang, Qin; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S; Wildiers, Hans; Winqvist, Robert; Wu, Anna H; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Yoon, Sook-Yee; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Khanna, Kum Kum; Simard, Jacques; Monteiro, Alvaro N; French, Juliet D; Couch, Fergus J; Freedman, Matthew L; Easton, Douglas F; Dunning, Alison M; Pharoah, Paul D; Edwards, Stacey L; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C; Gayther, Simon A

    2016-01-01

    A locus at 19p13 is associated with breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC) risk. Here we analyse 438 SNPs in this region in 46,451 BC and 15,438 OC cases, 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 73,444 controls and identify 13 candidate causal SNPs associated with serous OC (P=9.2 × 10(-20)), ER-negative BC (P=1.1 × 10(-13)), BRCA1-associated BC (P=7.7 × 10(-16)) and triple negative BC (P-diff=2 × 10(-5)). Genotype-gene expression associations are identified for candidate target genes ANKLE1 (P=2 × 10(-3)) and ABHD8 (P<2 × 10(-3)). Chromosome conformation capture identifies interactions between four candidate SNPs and ABHD8, and luciferase assays indicate six risk alleles increased transactivation of the ADHD8 promoter. Targeted deletion of a region containing risk SNP rs56069439 in a putative enhancer induces ANKLE1 downregulation; and mRNA stability assays indicate functional effects for an ANKLE1 3'-UTR SNP. Altogether, these data suggest that multiple SNPs at 19p13 regulate ABHD8 and perhaps ANKLE1 expression, and indicate common mechanisms underlying breast and ovarian cancer risk. PMID:27601076

  19. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  20. Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ... Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ...

  1. Risks of Prostate Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ... Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ...

  2. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ... Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ...

  3. Topics in cancer risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Olin, S S; Neumann, D A; Foran, J A; Scarano, G J

    1997-01-01

    The estimation of carcinogenic risks from exposure to chemicals has become an integral part of the regulatory process in the United States within the past decade. With it have come considerable controversy and debate over the scientific merits and shortcomings of the methods and their impact on risk management decisions. In this paper we highlight selected topics of current interest in the debate. As an indication of the level of public concern, we note the major recent reports on risk assessment from the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S Environmental Protection Agency's proposed substantial revisions to its Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. We identify and briefly frame several key scientific issues in cancer risk assessment, including the growing recognition of the importance of understanding the mode of action of carcinogenesis in experimental animals and in humans, the methodologies and challenges in quantitative extrapolation of cancer risks, and the question of how to assess and account for human variability in susceptibility to carcinogens. In addition, we discuss initiatives in progress that may fundamentally alter the carcinogenesis testing paradigm. PMID:9114281

  4. Association Between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in DNA Polymerase Kappa Gene and Breast Cancer Risk in Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhi-Jun; Liu, Xing-Han; Ma, Yun-Feng; Kang, Hua-Feng; Jin, Tian-Bo; Dai, Zhi-Ming; Guan, Hai-Tao; Wang, Meng; Liu, Kang; Dai, Cong; Yang, Xue-Wen; Wang, Xi-Jing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract DNA polymerases are responsible for ensuring stability of the genome and avoiding genotoxicity caused by a variety of factors during DNA replication. Consequently, these proteins have been associated with an increased cancer risk. DNA polymerase kappa (POLK) is a specialized DNA polymerase involved in translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) that allows DNA synthesis over the damaged DNA. Recently, some studies investigated relationships between POLK polymorphisms and cancer risk, but the role of POLK genetic variants in breast cancer (BC) remains to be defined. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of POLK polymorphisms on BC risk. We used the Sequenom MassARRAY method to genotype 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in POLK (rs3213801, rs10077427, and rs5744533), in order to determine the genotypes of 560 BC patients and 583 controls. The association of genotypes and BC was assessed by computing the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) from logistic regression analyses. We found a statistically significant difference between patient and control groups in the POLK rs10077427 genotypic groups, excluding the recessive model. A positive correlation was also found between positive progesterone receptor (PR) status, higher Ki67 index, and rs10077427 polymorphism. For rs5744533 polymorphism, the codominant, dominant, and allele models frequencies were significantly higher in BC patients compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, our results indicated that rs5744533 SNP has a protective role in the postmenopausal women. However, we failed to find any associations between rs3213801 polymorphism and susceptibility to BC. Our results indicate that POLK polymorphisms may influence the risk of developing BC, and, because of this, may serve as a prognostic biomarker among Chinese women. PMID:26765445

  5. Prospective cohort study of febrile neutropenia in breast cancer patients with neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy: CSPOR-BC FN study.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Takashi; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Narui, Kazutaka; Kaise, Hiroshi; Tsugawa, Koichiro; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Mukai, Hirofumi

    2016-07-01

    With the increasing use of adjuvant chemotherapy for treating early breast cancer, febrile neutropenia management has become crucial. Guidelines for febrile neutropenia management are mostly based on a Caucasian population survey although ethnic differences are reported in terms of adverse events. We survey the current status of febrile neutropenia and risk factors in Japanese female breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy regimens potential for febrile neutropenia. Subsequently, we plan to conduct a multicenter prospective cohort study involving 1000 patients with operable breast cancer. With the current state of oral antibiotics being routinely prescribed without hematology tests, we survey febrile neutropenia based on two different definitions, namely, true febrile neutropenia: ≥37.5°C and Grade 4 neutropenia, and surrogate febrile neutropenia: ≥37.5°C and oral antibiotic and antipyretic intake. The comparison of true febrile neutropenia and surrogate febrile neutropenia incidences is anticipated to provide information on the safety and feasibility of chemotherapy management without performing blood tests.

  6. Cancer: a family at risk

    PubMed Central

    Iżycki, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of cancer is a family experience that changes the lives of all its members, bringing an immense amount of stress and many challenging situations. The daily routine, common activities and distribution of duties all have to change. Family members follow the phases of the disease, very often suffering comparable or greater distress than the patient. They use various coping methods which aim at helping both the sick relative and themselves. These methods, together with emotional responses, change over time according to the phase of the disease. Cancer puts the family at risk since it imposes an alternation in the relations among family members. It affects the couple's relationship, their sex life, and it can also be a cause of major trauma among their children and adolescents. The diagnosis of cancer brings also individual risks for the family members in terms of psychological and physical health impairment. Family caregivers often feel overloaded with the additional obligations and roles they have to pick up. They find it increasingly burdening to care full-time for the household and provide emotional support for the patient. The family's problems and the way family members regard the disease may be also a result of the family system they are in. This article describes the nature of caregiving to a patient with cancer and the biggest concerns for the family. PMID:26327863

  7. The double-edged sword of long non-coding RNA: The role of human brain-specific BC200 RNA in translational control, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Sosińska, Patrycja; Mikuła-Pietrasik, Justyna; Książek, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of eukaryotic organisms involves the regulation of gene expression through DNA-protein, RNA-DNA, RNA-RNA, and RNA-protein interactions. The role of RNA molecules in the regulation of genes in higher species has become even more evident with the discovery that about 97% of transcription products are represented by non-protein coding RNAs (ncRNAs) including short ncRNAs and long ncRNAs (lncRNAs). In addition to the well-characterized role of ncRNAs in different physiological cellular processes, numerous studies have also indicated the crucial roles of ncRNAs in neurological diseases and cancer. Although involvement of short ncRNA in those pathologies has already been well documented, there is only scarce evidence to show the participation of lncRNAs. One of the examples of lncRNAs is BC200 RNA, which plays an important role in the regulation of dendritic protein expression. Mislocalization and overexpression of BC200 RNA leads to inadequate RNA delivery to the synapses and results in neurodegenerative processes of Alzheimer's disease and neoplastic changes in various groups of tissues. In this review, we summarize the current state of art in the field of the biological significance of lncRNAs, with particular attention paid to the physiological and pathophysiological role of BC200 RNA.

  8. Interaction between obesity-related genes, FTO and MC4R, associated to an increase of breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Patrícia Amorim; de Carlos Back, Lia Kubelka; Sereia, Aline Fernanda Rodrigues; Kubelka, Clara; Ribeiro, Maria Cecíia Menks; Fernandes, Bráulio Leal; de Souza, Ilíada Rainha

    2013-12-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is a complex disease and obesity is a well-known risk factor for its development, especially after menopause. Several studies have shown Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) linked to overweight and obesity, such as: rs1121980 (T/C) and rs9939609 (A/T) in Fat Mass and Obesity Associated gene (FTO) and rs17782313 (T/C) in Melanocortin 4 Receptor gene (MC4R). Thus, we aimed to investigate the association between these obesity-related SNPs and BC risk. One hundred BC patients and 148 healthy women from Santa Catarina, Brazil entered the study. SNPs were genotyped using Taqman assays. For statistical analyses SNPStats and SPSS softwares were used. Association analyses were performed by logistic regression and were adjusted for age and Body mass index (BMI). Multiple SNPs inheritance models (log-additive, dominant, recessive, codominant) were performed to determine odds ratios (ORs), assuming 95 % confidence interval (CI) and P value = 0.05 as the significance limit. When analyzed alone, FTO rs1121980 and rs9939609 did not show significant associations with BC development, however MC4R rs17782313 showed increased risk for BC even after adjustments (P-value = 0.032). Interestingly, the interaction of FTO and MC4R polymorphisms showed a powerful association with BC. We observed a 4.59-fold increased risk for woman who have the allele combination C/T/C (FTO rs1121980/FTO rs9939609/MC4R rs17782313) (P-value = 0.0011, adjusted for age and BMI). We found important and unpublished associations between these obesity-related genes and BC risk. These associations seem to be independent of their effect on BMI, indicating a direct role of the interaction between FTO and MC4R polymorphisms in BC development.

  9. Bladder cancer risk associated with genotypic polymorphism of the matrix metalloproteinase-1 and 7 in North Indian population.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Priyanka; Gangwar, Ruchika; Kapoor, Rakesh; Mittal, Rama D

    2010-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contribute to tumor invasion and microenvironment, hence are associated with bladder cancer risk. We therefore, tested whether polymorphisms in MMP genes modify the risk of bladder cancer (BC) and whether smoke exposure modifies this risk. Genotyping was performed in 200 BC patients and 200 controls by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). MMP1-1607 2G/2G and MMP7-181 GG genotype were associated with increased risk of BC (p < 0.001; OR, 3.04; 95% CI- 1.71-5.39 and p, 0.005; OR, 2.38; 95% CI- 1.30-4.34) respectively. Smokers in BC patients showed significant increased risk for the same SNPs (p, 0.006; OR, 3.20; 95% CI- 1.40-7.31 and p, 0.009; OR, 2.85; 95% CI- 1.30-6.23 respectively). Haplotype analysis too revealed significant association with G/2G of MMP1-519-1607 (p< 0.001; OR, 2.62; 95% CI- 1.68-4.09). The 2G allele carrier (1G/2G + 2G/2G) of MMP1-1607 showed a protective effect and high recurrence free survival in Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) treated non muscle invasive BC (NMIBC) patients (log rank p, 0.030). Our data suggested that MMP1-1607 2G and MMP7-181 G allele were associated with high risk of BC, which was quite evident amongst smokers too. BCG treated NMIBC patients reflected protective effect for 2G allele carrier (1G/2G + 2G/2G) of MMP1-1607. This study provided new support for the association of MMP1-1607 and MMP7-181 in bladder cancer development, the tumorigenic effect of which was observed to be more enhanced in case of tobacco exposure.

  10. Imaging Radiation Doses and Associated Risks and Benefits in Subjects Participating in Breast Cancer Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Spera, Gonzalo; Meyer, Carlos; Cabral, Pablo; Mackey, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Medical imaging is commonly required in breast cancer (BC) clinical trials to assess the efficacy and/or safety of study interventions. Despite the lack of definitive epidemiological data linking imaging radiation with cancer development in adults, concerns exist about the risks of imaging radiation-induced malignancies (IRIMs) in subjects exposed to repetitive imaging. We estimated the imaging radiation dose and IRIM risk in subjects participating in BC trials. Materials and Methods. The imaging protocol requirements in 10 phase III trials in the adjuvant and advanced settings were assessed to estimate the effective radiation dose received by a typical and fully compliant subject in each trial. For each study, the excess lifetime attributable cancer risk (LAR) was calculated using the National Cancer Institute’s Radiation Risk Assessment Tool, version 3.7.1. Dose and risk calculations were performed for both imaging intensive and nonintensive approaches to reflect the variability in imaging performed within the studies. Results. The total effective imaging radiation dose was 0.4–262.2 mSv in adjuvant trials and 26–241.3 mSv in metastatic studies. The dose variability resulted from differing protocol requirements and imaging intensity approaches, with computed tomography, multigated acquisition scans, and bone scans as the major contributors. The mean LAR was 1.87–2,410/100,000 in adjuvant trials (IRIM: 0.0002%–2.41% of randomized subjects) and 6.9–67.3/100,000 in metastatic studies (IRIM: 0.007%–0.067% of subjects). Conclusion. IRIMs are infrequent events. In adjuvant trials, aligning the protocol requirements with the clinical guidelines’ surveillance recommendations and substituting radiating procedures with equivalent nonradiating ones would reduce IRIM risk. No significant risk has been observed in metastatic trials, and potential concerns on IRIMs are not justified. Implications for Practice: Medical imaging is key in breast cancer

  11. Assessing the breast cancer risk distribution for women undergoing screening in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Weisstock, Christina R; Rajapakshe, Rasika; Bitgood, Christabelle; McAvoy, Steven; Gordon, Paula B; Coldman, Andrew J; Parker, Brent A; Wilson, Christine

    2013-10-01

    Breast cancer risk estimations are both informative and useful at the population level, with many screening programs relying on these assessments to allocate resources such as breast MRI. This cross-sectional multicenter study attempts to quantify the breast cancer risk distribution for women between the ages of 40 to 79 years undergoing screening mammography in British Columbia (BC), Canada. The proportion of women at high breast cancer risk was estimated by surveying women enrolled in the Screening Mammography Program of British Columbia (SMPBC) for known breast cancer risk factors. Each respondent's 10-year risk was computed with both the Tyrer-Cuzick and Gail risk assessment models. The resulting risk distributions were evaluated using the guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (United Kingdom). Of the 4,266 women surveyed, 3.5% of women between the ages of 40 to 79 years were found to have a high 10-year risk of developing breast cancer using the Tyrer-Cuzick model (1.1% using the Gail model). When extrapolated to the screening population, it was estimated that 19,414 women in the SMPBC are considered to be at high breast cancer risk. These women may benefit from additional MRI screening; preliminary analysis suggests that 4 to 5 additional MRI machines would be required to screen these high-risk women. However, the use of different models and guidelines will modify the number of women qualifying for additional screening interventions, thus impacting the MRI resources required. The results of this project can now be used to inform decision-making groups about resource allocation for breast cancer screening in BC. PMID:23963801

  12. Fuzzy sets applications for cancer risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Molchanov, P A; Dudatiev, A V; Podobna, Y Y; Molchanova, O P

    2002-09-01

    The method of cancer risk assessment on the basis of the Fuzzy Set Theory is presented. The method is based on a multifactor risk assessment of cancer diseases. The individual risk of cancer disease is evaluated as the probability of disease multiplied by the value of an individual dose. An acupuncture method of cancer risk assessments was developed. The method is based on the analysis of changes of an electromagnetic field (biofield) of a person. The method allows to determine both cancer probability and probable location of the process.

  13. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Treatment Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Lung cancer is ... non- skin cancer in the United States. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men and in women. ...

  14. What Are the Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... kidney cancer? What are the risk factors for kidney cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects ... not cancer). Other risk factors Family history of kidney cancer People with a strong family history of ...

  15. Lung cancer risk associated with cancer in relatives.

    PubMed

    Shaw, G L; Falk, R T; Pickle, L W; Mason, T J; Buffler, P A

    1991-01-01

    Family history data from an incident case-control study of lung cancer conducted in the Texas Gulf Coast region between 1976 and 1980 were analyzed to evaluate the contribution of cancer in first-degree relatives to lung cancer risk. Odds ratios (OR) increased slightly as the number of relatives with any cancer increased (reaching 1.5 with 4 or more relatives with cancer). Risks were higher for tobacco-related cancers (OR = 1.5 for 2 or more relatives with these tumors) and greatest for first-degree relatives with lung cancer (OR = 2.8 for lung cancer in 2 or more relatives). For cases of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the lung, risks with 3 or more relatives with any cancer were increased 2-fold (OR = 1.8 and 1.9 respectively), and a significantly elevated risk was found for having a first-degree relative with lung cancer for each histologic type (ORs from 1.7-2.1). Having a spouse with lung cancer increased lung cancer risk (OR = 2.5), and cases with lung cancer reported in a first-degree relative were diagnosed at an earlier age, as were case siblings with lung cancer.

  16. Risk Profiling May Improve Lung Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    A new modeling study suggests that individualized, risk-based selection of ever-smokers for lung cancer screening may prevent more lung cancer deaths and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening compared with current screening recommendations

  17. Alcohol, Obesity Could Raise Esophageal Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160133.html Alcohol, Obesity Could Raise Esophageal Cancer Risk A third ... now linked to 11 types of cancer and alcohol links to six," she said in an institute ...

  18. The genetics of cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Pomerantz, Mark M; Freedman, Matthew L

    2011-01-01

    One hundred years ago, decades before the discovery of the structure of DNA, debate raged regarding how human traits were passed from one generation to the next. Phenotypes, including risk of disease, had long been recognized as having a familial component. Yet it was difficult to reconcile genetic segregation as described by Mendel with observations exhaustively documented by Karl Pearson and others regarding the normal distribution of human characteristics. In 1918, R. A. Fisher published his landmark article, "The Correlation Between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian Inheritance," bridging this divide and demonstrating that multiple alleles, all individually obeying Mendel's laws, account for the phenotypic variation observed in nature.Since that time, geneticists have sought to identify the link between genotype and phenotype. Trait-associated alleles vary in their frequency and degree of penetrance. Some minor alleles may approach a frequency of 50% in the human population, whereas others are present within only a few individuals. The spectrum for penetrance is similarly wide. These characteristics jointly determine the segregation pattern of a given trait, which, in turn, determine the method used to map the trait. Until recently, identification of rare, highly penetrant alleles was most practical. Revolutionary studies in genomics reported over the past decade have made interrogation of most of the spectrum of genetic variation feasible.The following article reviews recent discoveries in the genetic basis of inherited cancer risk and how these discoveries inform cancer biology and patient management. Although this article focuses on prostate cancer, the principles are generic for any cancer and, indeed, for any trait. PMID:22157285

  19. Maternal lung cancer and testicular cancer risk in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Kaijser, Magnus; Akre, Olof; Cnattingius, Sven; Ekbom, Anders

    2003-07-01

    It has been hypothesized that smoking during pregnancy could increase the offspring's risk for testicular cancer. This hypothesis is indirectly supported by both ecological studies and studies of cancer aggregations within families. However, results from analytical epidemiological studies are not consistent, possibly due to methodological difficulties. To further study the association between smoking during pregnancy and testicular cancer, we did a population-based cohort study on cancer risk among offspring of women diagnosed with lung cancer. Through the use of the Swedish Cancer Register and the Swedish Second-Generation Register, we identified 8,430 women who developed lung cancer between 1958 and 1997 and delivered sons between 1941 and 1979. Cancer cases among the male offspring were then identified through the Swedish Cancer Register. Standardized incidence ratios were computed, using 95% confidence intervals. We identified 12,592 male offspring of mothers with a subsequent diagnosis of lung cancer, and there were 40 cases of testicular cancer (standardized incidence ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.58). The association was independent of maternal lung cancer subtype, and the risk of testicular cancer increased stepwise with decreasing time interval between birth and maternal lung cancer diagnosis. Our results support the hypothesis that exposure to cigarette smoking in utero increases the risk of testicular cancer.

  20. Influence of Lifestyle Factors on Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Dieterich, Max; Stubert, Johannes; Reimer, Toralf; Erickson, Nicole; Berling, Anika

    2014-01-01

    Summary Breast Cancer (BC) is a life-changing event. Compared to other malignancies in women, BC has received considerably more public attention. Despite improved neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and palliative treatment strategies for each characteristic molecular BC subtype, recommendations for evidence-based preventive strategies for BC treatment are not given equivalent attention. This may be partly due to the fact that high-quality long-term prevention studies are still difficult to carry out and are thus underrepresented in international studies. The aim of this review is to discuss the most relevant lifestyle factors associated with BC and to identify and discuss the evidence supporting practical prevention strategies that can be used in everyday clinical practice. PMID:25759623

  1. Diet and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Diet may play a role in both promoting and inhibiting human breast cancer development. In this review, nutritional risk factors such as consumption of dietary fat, meat, fiber, and alcohol, and intake of phytoestrogen, vitamin D, iron, and folate associated with breast cancer are reviewed. These nutritional factors have a variety of associations with breast cancer risk. Type of fat consumed has different effects on risk of breast cancer: consumption of meat is associated with heterocyclic amine (HCA) exposure; different types of plant fiber have various effects on breast cancer risk; alcohol consumption may increase the risk of breast cancer by producing acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen species (ROS); intake of phytoestrogen may reduce risk of breast cancer through genomic and non-genomic action; vitamin D can reduce the risk of breast cancer by inhibiting the process of cancer invasion and metastasis; intake of dietary iron may lead to oxidative stress, DNA damage, and lipid peroxidation; and lower intake of folate may be linked to a higher risk of breast cancer. PMID:27095934

  2. Diet and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kotepui, Manas

    2016-01-01

    Diet may play a role in both promoting and inhibiting human breast cancer development. In this review, nutritional risk factors such as consumption of dietary fat, meat, fiber, and alcohol, and intake of phytoestrogen, vitamin D, iron, and folate associated with breast cancer are reviewed. These nutritional factors have a variety of associations with breast cancer risk. Type of fat consumed has different effects on risk of breast cancer: consumption of meat is associated with heterocyclic amine (HCA) exposure; different types of plant fiber have various effects on breast cancer risk; alcohol consumption may increase the risk of breast cancer by producing acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen species (ROS); intake of phytoestrogen may reduce risk of breast cancer through genomic and non-genomic action; vitamin D can reduce the risk of breast cancer by inhibiting the process of cancer invasion and metastasis; intake of dietary iron may lead to oxidative stress, DNA damage, and lipid peroxidation; and lower intake of folate may be linked to a higher risk of breast cancer. PMID:27095934

  3. FEN1 −69G>A and +4150G>T polymorphisms and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Maryam; Hashemi, Mohammad; Sanaei, Sara; Mashhadi, Mohammad Ali; Hashemi, Seyed Mehdi; Bahari, Gholamreza; Taheri, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), a DNA repair protein, is important in preventing carcinogenesis. Two functional germ line variants −69G>A (rs174538) and +4150G>T (rs4246215) in the FEN1 gene have been associated with risk of various types of cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible impact of FEN1 polymorphisms on risk of breast cancer (BC) in a sample of Iranian subjects. The FEN1 −69G>A and +4150G>T polymorphisms were analyzed in a case-control study that included 266 BC patients and 225 healthy females. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to genotype the variants. The findings demonstrated that the FEN1 −69G>A and +4150G>T polymorphisms were not associated with BC risk in co-dominant, dominant and recessive inheritance models. The findings indicated that GG/GT, GA/GG and GA/TT genotypes significantly decreased the risk of BC when compared with −69GG/+4150GG. Furthermore, haplotype analysis indicated that −69G/+4150T as well as −69A/+4150G significantly decreased the risk of BC compared with −69G/+4150G. Thus, these findings demonstrated that haplotypes of FEN1 −69G>A and +4150G>T polymorphisms decreased the risk of BC in an Iranian population. Further studies with larger sample sizes and different ethnicities are required to validate the present findings. PMID:27699013

  4. FEN1 −69G>A and +4150G>T polymorphisms and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Maryam; Hashemi, Mohammad; Sanaei, Sara; Mashhadi, Mohammad Ali; Hashemi, Seyed Mehdi; Bahari, Gholamreza; Taheri, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), a DNA repair protein, is important in preventing carcinogenesis. Two functional germ line variants −69G>A (rs174538) and +4150G>T (rs4246215) in the FEN1 gene have been associated with risk of various types of cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible impact of FEN1 polymorphisms on risk of breast cancer (BC) in a sample of Iranian subjects. The FEN1 −69G>A and +4150G>T polymorphisms were analyzed in a case-control study that included 266 BC patients and 225 healthy females. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to genotype the variants. The findings demonstrated that the FEN1 −69G>A and +4150G>T polymorphisms were not associated with BC risk in co-dominant, dominant and recessive inheritance models. The findings indicated that GG/GT, GA/GG and GA/TT genotypes significantly decreased the risk of BC when compared with −69GG/+4150GG. Furthermore, haplotype analysis indicated that −69G/+4150T as well as −69A/+4150G significantly decreased the risk of BC compared with −69G/+4150G. Thus, these findings demonstrated that haplotypes of FEN1 −69G>A and +4150G>T polymorphisms decreased the risk of BC in an Iranian population. Further studies with larger sample sizes and different ethnicities are required to validate the present findings.

  5. Northeast Regional Cancer Institute's Cancer Surveillance and Risk Factor Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lesko, Samuel M.

    2007-07-31

    OBJECTIVES The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute is conducting a program of ongoing epidemiologic research to address cancer disparities in northeast Pennsylvania. Of particular concern are disparities in the incidence of, stage at diagnosis, and mortality from colorectal cancer. In northeast Pennsylvania, age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer are higher, and a significantly smaller proportion of new colorectal cancer cases are diagnosed with local stage disease than is observed in comparable national data. Further, estimates of the prevalence of colorectal cancer screening in northeast Pennsylvania are lower than the US average. The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s research program supports surveillance of common cancers, investigations of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors, and the development of resources to further cancer research in this community. This project has the following specific objectives: I. To conduct cancer surveillance in northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor incidence and mortality for all common cancers, and colorectal cancer, in particular, and b. To document changes in the stage at diagnosis of colorectal cancer in this high-risk, underserved community. II. To conduct a population-based study of cancer risk factors and screening behavior in a six county region of northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor and document changes in colorectal cancer screening rates, and b. To document the prevalence of cancer risk factors (especially factors that increase the risk of colorectal cancer) and to identify those risk factors that are unusually common in this community. APPROACH Cancer surveillance was conducted using data from the Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s population-based Regional Cancer Registry, the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, and NCI’s SEER program. For common cancers, incidence and mortality were examined by county within the region and compared to data for similar populations in the US

  6. Spanish Mediterranean diet and other dietary patterns and breast cancer risk: case–control EpiGEICAM study

    PubMed Central

    Castelló, A; Pollán, M; Buijsse, B; Ruiz, A; Casas, A M; Baena-Cañada, J M; Lope, V; Antolín, S; Ramos, M; Muñoz, M; Lluch, A; de Juan-Ferré, A; Jara, C; Jimeno, M A; Rosado, P; Díaz, E; Guillem, V; Carrasco, E; Pérez-Gómez, B; Vioque, J; Boeing, H; Martín, M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although there are solid findings regarding the detrimental effect of alcohol consumption, the existing evidence on the effect of other dietary factors on breast cancer (BC) risk is inconclusive. This study aimed to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and risk of BC in Spanish women, stratifying by menopausal status and tumour subtype, and to compare the results with those of Alternate Healthy Index (AHEI) and Alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMED). Methods: We recruited 1017 incident BC cases and 1017 matched healthy controls of similar age (±5 years) without a history of BC. The association between ‘a priori' and ‘a posteriori' developed dietary patterns and BC in general and according to menopausal status and intrinsic tumour subtypes (ER+/PR+ and HER2− HER2+ and ER−/PR− and HER2−) was evaluated using logistic and multinomial regression models. Results: Adherence to the Western dietary pattern was related to higher risk of BC (OR for the top vs the bottom quartile 1.46 (95% CI 1.06–2.01)), especially in premenopausal women (OR=1.75; 95% CI 1.14–2.67). In contrast, the Mediterranean pattern was related to a lower risk (OR for the top quartile vs the bottom quartile 0.56 (95% CI 0.40–0.79)). Although the deleterious effect of the Western pattern was similarly observed in all tumour subtypes, the protective effect of our Mediterranean pattern was stronger for triple-negative tumours (OR=0.32; 95% CI 0.15–0.66 and Pheterogeneity=0.04). No association was found between adherence to the Prudent pattern and BC risk. The associations between ‘a priori' indices and BC risk were less marked (OR for the top vs the bottom quartile of AHEI=0.69; 95% CI 0.51–0.94 and aMED=0.74; 95% CI 0.46–1.18)). Conclusions: Our results confirm the harmful effect of a Western diet on BC risk, and add new evidence on the benefits of a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, legumes, oily fish and vegetable oils for preventing all BC subtypes

  7. Different patterns of nuclear and mitochondrial penetration by the G3 PAMAM dendrimer and its biotin–pyridoxal bioconjugate BC-PAMAM in normal and cancer cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Uram, Łukasz; Szuster, Magdalena; Filipowicz, Aleksandra; Gargasz, Krzysztof; Wołowiec, Stanisław; Wałajtys-Rode, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    The intracellular localization and colocalization of a fluorescently labeled G3 amine-terminated cationic polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer and its biotin–pyridoxal (BC-PAMAM) bioconjugate were investigated in a concentration-dependent manner in normal human fibroblast (BJ) and squamous epithelial carcinoma (SCC-15) cell lines. After 24 hours treatment, both cell lines revealed different patterns of intracellular dendrimer accumulation depending on their cytotoxic effects. Cancer cells exhibited much higher (20-fold) tolerance for native PAMAM treatment than fibroblasts, whereas BC-PAMAM was significantly toxic only for fibroblasts at 50 µM concentration. Fibroblasts accumulated the native and bioconjugated dendrimers in a concentration-dependent manner at nontoxic range of concentration, with significantly lower bioconjugate loading. After reaching the cytotoxicity level, fluorescein isothiocyanate-PAMAM accumulation remains at high, comparable level. In cancer cells, native PAMAM loading at higher, but not cytotoxic concentrations, was kept at constant level with a sharp increase at toxic concentration. Mander’s coefficient calculated for fibroblasts and cancer cells confirmed more efficient native PAMAM penetration as compared to BC-PAMAM. Significant differences in nuclear dendrimer penetration were observed for both cell lines. In cancer cells, PAMAM signals amounted to ~25%–35% of the total nuclei area at all investigated concentrations, with lower level (15%–25%) observed for BC-PAMAM. In fibroblasts, the dendrimer nuclear signal amounted to 15% at nontoxic and up to 70% at toxic concentrations, whereas BC-PAMAM remained at a lower concentration-dependent level (0.3%–20%). Mitochondrial localization of PAMAM and BC-PAMAM revealed similar patterns in both cell lines, depending on the extracellular dendrimer concentration, and presented significantly lower signals from BC-PAMAM, which correlated well with the cytotoxicity. PMID:26379435

  8. Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Among Low-Income Women of Color in Primary Care: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Emily E.; Tejeda, Silvia; Childers, Kimberly; Stolley, Melinda R.; Warnecke, Richard B.; Hoskins, Kent F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends identifying candidates for breast cancer (BC) chemoprevention and referring them for genetic counseling as part of routine care. Little is known about the feasibility of implementing these recommendations or how low-income women of color might respond to individualized risk assessment (IRA) performed by primary care providers (PCPs). Methods: Women recruited from a federally qualified health center were given the option to discuss BC risk status with their PCP. Comprehensive IRA was performed using a software tool designed for the primary care environment combining three assessment instruments and providing risk-adapted recommendations for screening, prevention, and genetic referral. Logistic regression models assessed factors associated with wanting to learn and discuss BC risk with PCP. Results: Of 237 participants, only 12.7% (n = 30) did not want to discuss IRA results with their PCP. Factors associated with lower odds of wanting to learn results included having private insurance and reporting ever having had a mammogram. Factors associated with higher odds of wanting to learn results included older age (50 to 69 years) and increased BC worry. For all women wishing to learn results, IRA was successfully completed and delivered to the PCP immediately before the encounter for incorporation into the well-visit evaluation. Conclusion: Incorporation of US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations as part of routine primary care is feasible. Interest in IRA seems high among underserved women. This approach warrants further investigation as a strategy for addressing disparities in BC mortality. PMID:26036266

  9. Cancer associated thrombosis: risk factors and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Eichinger, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    Deep vein thrombosis of the leg and pulmonary embolism are frequent diseases and cancer is one of their most important risk factors. Patients with cancer also have a higher prevalence of venous thrombosis located in other parts than in the legs and/or in unusual sites including upper extremity, splanchnic or cerebral veins. Cancer also affects the risk of arterial thrombotic events particularly in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms and in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor recipients. Several risk factors need to interact to trigger thrombosis. In addition to common risk factors such as surgery, hospitalisation, infection and genetic coagulation disorders, the thrombotic risk is also driven and modified by cancer-specific factors including type, histology, and stage of the malignancy, cancer treatment and certain biomarkers. A venous thrombotic event in a cancer patient has serious consequences as the risk of recurrent thrombosis, the risk of bleeding during anticoagulation and hospitalisation rates are all increased. Survival of cancer patients with thrombosis is worse compared to that of cancer patients without thrombosis, and thrombosis is a leading direct cause of death in cancer patients. PMID:27067965

  10. Cancer risk-reduction behaviors of breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Ada M; Waltman, Nancy; Gross, Gloria; Ott, Carol D; Twiss, Jan

    2004-12-01

    Using secondary data analysis, the aim was to determine if postmenopausal women, who have survived breast cancer, have adopted healthy nutritional and physical activity behaviors recommended in the American Cancer Society guidelines as cancer risk-reduction strategies, and in guidelines for prevention of other chronic diseases or for improving general health. From their personal health history, women who have survived breast cancer would be likely candidates to adopt healthy behaviors recommended as cancer risk-reduction strategies or for prevention of other chronic diseases. A secondary aim was to determine the perceived general health and affective state of these women. These breast cancer survivors had a high perception of their general health, a positive affective state, and have adopted some healthy lifestyle behaviors, but they are not fully adhering to the ACS nutrition and physical activity guidelines or other health related guidelines for cancer risk reduction or prevention of other chronic diseases. PMID:15539533

  11. Cancer risk-reduction behaviors of breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Ada M; Waltman, Nancy; Gross, Gloria; Ott, Carol D; Twiss, Jan

    2004-12-01

    Using secondary data analysis, the aim was to determine if postmenopausal women, who have survived breast cancer, have adopted healthy nutritional and physical activity behaviors recommended in the American Cancer Society guidelines as cancer risk-reduction strategies, and in guidelines for prevention of other chronic diseases or for improving general health. From their personal health history, women who have survived breast cancer would be likely candidates to adopt healthy behaviors recommended as cancer risk-reduction strategies or for prevention of other chronic diseases. A secondary aim was to determine the perceived general health and affective state of these women. These breast cancer survivors had a high perception of their general health, a positive affective state, and have adopted some healthy lifestyle behaviors, but they are not fully adhering to the ACS nutrition and physical activity guidelines or other health related guidelines for cancer risk reduction or prevention of other chronic diseases.

  12. Mate and Tea Intake, Dietary Antioxidants and Risk of Breast Cancer: a Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Alvaro L; Stefani, Eduardo De; Mendoza, Beatriz; Vazquez, Alvaro; Abbona, Estela; Sanchez, Gustavo; Rosa, Alejandro De

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we reported an inverse association between high 'mate' intake (infusion of Ilex paraguariensis herb, a staple beverage in temperate South America) and breast cancer (BC) risk. Stronger inverse associations were found in high strata of tea, vegetable, fruit and energy intakes, and in overweight/obese women, suggesting possible roles for 'mate' mainly from its antioxidant contribution. The present study attempted to thoroughly explore possible associations among 'mate' and tea intake, dietary antioxidants and BC risk. Combining two databases of previous studies, 572 BC incident cases and 889 controls were interviewed with a specific questionnaire featuring socio-demographic, reproductive and lifestyle variables, and a food frequency questionnaire (64 items), focusing on 'mate' intake (consumer status, daily intake, age at start, age at quit, duration of habit). Food-derived nutrients were calculated from available databases. Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated through unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for relevant potential confounders. The highest 'mate' intake was significantly inversely associated with BC risk for both low and high carotenoids (OR=0.40 vs. 0.41), vitamin C (OR=0.33 vs. 0.50), vitamin E (OR=0.37 vs. 0.45), flavonols (OR=0.38 vs. 0.48) and reduced glutathione (OR=0.48 vs. 0.46) strata. High tea intake showed significant inverse risk associations only with high carotenoids (OR=0.41), vitamin E (OR=0.48) and reduced glutathione (OR=0.43) strata. In conclusion, a strong and inverse association for 'mate' intake and BC was found, independent of dietary antioxidant levels. Also strong inverse associations with tea intake were more evident only at high levels of certain dietary antioxidants. PMID:27356713

  13. Genetic polymorphisms in the 9p21 region associated with risk of multiple cancers.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Qing; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Hyland, Paula L; Shi, Jianxin; Gu, Fangyi; Wang, Zhaoming; Bhattacharjee, Samsiddhi; Luo, Jun; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Yeager, Meredith; Deng, Xiang; Hu, Nan; Taylor, Philip R; Albanes, Demetrius; Caporaso, Neil E; Gapstur, Susan M; Amundadottir, Laufey; Chanock, Stephen J; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Landi, Maria Teresa; Tucker, Margaret A; Goldstein, Alisa M; Yang, Xiaohong R

    2014-12-01

    The chromosome 9p21 region has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple cancers. We analyzed 9p21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from eight genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with data deposited in dbGaP, including studies of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), gastric cancer (GC), pancreatic cancer, renal cell carcinoma (RCC), lung cancer (LC), breast cancer (BrC), bladder cancer (BC) and prostate cancer (PrC). The number of subjects ranged from 2252 (PrC) to 7619 (LC). SNP-level analyses for each cancer were conducted by logistic regression or random-effects meta-analysis. A subset-based statistical approach (ASSET) was performed to combine SNP-level P values across multiple cancers. We calculated gene-level P values using the adaptive rank truncated product method. We identified that rs1063192 and rs2157719 in the CDKN2A/2B region were significantly associated with ESCC and rs2764736 (3' of TUSC1) was associated with BC (P ≤ 2.59 × 10(-6)). ASSET analyses identified four SNPs significantly associated with multiple cancers: rs3731239 (CDKN2A intronic) with ESCC, GC and BC (P = 3.96 × 10(-) (4)); rs10811474 (3' of IFNW1) with RCC and BrC (P = 0.001); rs12683422 (LINGO2 intronic) with RCC and BC (P = 5.93 × 10(-) (4)) and rs10511729 (3' of ELAVL2) with LC and BrC (P = 8.63 × 10(-) (4)). At gene level, CDKN2B, CDKN2A and CDKN2B-AS1 were significantly associated with ESCC (P ≤ 4.70 × 10(-) (5)). Rs10511729 and rs10811474 were associated with cis-expression of 9p21 genes in corresponding cancer tissues in the expression quantitative trait loci analysis. In conclusion, we identified several genetic variants in the 9p21 region associated with the risk of multiple cancers, suggesting that this region may contribute to a shared susceptibility across different cancer types. PMID:25239644

  14. Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in the ... professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to- ...

  15. Resistin, Visfatin, Adiponectin, and Leptin: Risk of Breast Cancer in Pre- and Postmenopausal Saudi Females and Their Possible Diagnostic and Predictive Implications as Novel Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Assiri, Adel M. A.; Kamel, Hala F. M.; Hassanien, Mohamed F. R.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms of obesity-induced breast carcinogenesis are not clear. One hypothesis is that high levels of adipokines could promote breast cancer (BC) development. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of resistin, visfatin, adiponectin, and leptin with BC risk in pre- and postmenopausal females. A total of 82 BC newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed patients and 68 age and BMI matched healthy controls were enrolled. Both groups were subdivided into post- and premenopausal subgroups. Resistin, visfatin, adiponectin, and leptin were measured by ELISA. There were significantly higher levels of leptin, resistin, and visfatin in postmenopausal BC patients than their respective controls. Only in postmenopausal subgroups, leptin, resistin, and visfatin levels were positively correlated with TNM staging, tumor size, lymph node (LN) metastasis, and histological grading. In postmenopausal females, multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that adiponectin, leptin, visfatin, and resistin were risk factors for BC. Our results suggested that serum resistin, leptin, adiponectin, and visfatin levels as risk factors for postmenopausal BC may provide a potential link with clinicopathological features and are promising to be novel biomarkers for postmenopausal BC. PMID:25838618

  16. Genetic Variation in Metastasis-Associated in Colon Cancer-1 and the Risk of Breast Cancer Among the Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhi-Jun; Liu, Xing-Han; Kang, Hua-Feng; Wang, Xi-Jing; Jin, Tian-Bo; Zhang, Shu-Qun; Feng, Tian; Ma, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Meng; Feng, Yan-Jing; Liu, Kang; Xu, Peng; Guan, Hai-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Metastasis-associated in colon cancer-1 (MACC1), a newly identified oncogene, is involved in angiogenesis, invasiveness, and metastasis in many cancers. Epidemiological studies have indicated the associations between MACC1 polymorphisms and cancer risk. However, the association between genetic polymorphisms in MACC1 and breast cancer (BC) was not clear. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between MACC1 polymorphisms and BC risk. We genotyped 4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MACC1 (rs975263, rs1990172, rs3735615, rs4721888) to determine the haplotypes in 560 BC patients and 583 age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched healthy individuals. Genotypes were determined using the Sequenom MassARRAY method. We estimated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) using the chi-square test. There were significant differences between patients and controls in the MACC1 rs975263 allelic (T vs C: OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.61–0.95, P = 0.014) and genotypic groups (TC vs TT: OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.54–0.92, P = 0.009; TC+CC vs TT: OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.55–0.92, P = 0.008). Analysis of clinical features demonstrated significant associations between rs975263 and Scarff–Bloom–Richardson (SBR) grade 3 cancer (P = 0.006) and postmenopausal women (P = 0.018). Compared with the rs4721888 CC genotype, the frequency of rs4721888 GC and GC+CC variants was higher in patients. Further analysis revealed that the variant genotypes were positively associated with lymph node metastasis. However, we failed to find any relationships between rs1990172 or rs3735615 polymorphism and BC risk. In addition, haplotype analysis indicated that the CTGG and CTCG haplotypes (rs975263, rs1990172, rs3735615, rs4721888) were significantly associated with decreased susceptibility to BC (P = 0.029 and 0.019 respectively). Our results suggest that rs975263 and rs4721888 polymorphisms in MACC1 are associated with the risk of

  17. Investigation of gene-environment interactions between 47 newly identified breast cancer susceptibility loci and environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Anja; Milne, Roger L; Truong, Thérèse; Knight, Julia A; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dunning, Alison M; Shah, Mitul; Munday, Hannah R; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Brand, Judith S; Olson, Janet; Vachon, Celine M; Hallberg, Emily; Castelao, J Esteban; Carracedo, Angel; Torres, Maria; Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Yesilyurt, Betul T; Floris, Giuseppe; Leunen, Karin; Engelhardt, Ellen G; Broeks, Annegien; Rutgers, Emiel J; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Cross, Simon; Reed, Malcolm; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Arias Perez, José Ignacio; Provenzano, Elena; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C; Spurdle, Amanda; Häberle, Lothar; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif B; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; McLean, Catriona; Baglietto, Laura; Chanock, Stephen J; Lissowska, Jolanta; Sherman, Mark E; Brüning, Thomas; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ashworth, Alan; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Mannermaa, Arto; Swerdlow, Anthony; Giles, Graham G; Brenner, Hermann; Fasching, Peter A; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Hopper, John; Benítez, Javier; Cox, Angela; Andrulis, Irene L; Lambrechts, Diether; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Couch, Fergus; Czene, Kamila; Bojesen, Stig E; Easton, Doug F; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Guénel, Pascal; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul D P; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2015-03-15

    A large genotyping project within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) recently identified 41 associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and overall breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated whether the effects of these 41 SNPs, as well as six SNPs associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negative BC risk are modified by 13 environmental risk factors for BC. Data from 22 studies participating in BCAC were pooled, comprising up to 26,633 cases and 30,119 controls. Interactions between SNPs and environmental factors were evaluated using an empirical Bayes-type shrinkage estimator. Six SNPs showed interactions with associated p-values (pint ) <1.1 × 10(-3) . None of the observed interactions was significant after accounting for multiple testing. The Bayesian False Discovery Probability was used to rank the findings, which indicated three interactions as being noteworthy at 1% prior probability of interaction. SNP rs6828523 was associated with increased ER-negative BC risk in women ≥170 cm (OR = 1.22, p = 0.017), but inversely associated with ER-negative BC risk in women <160 cm (OR = 0.83, p = 0.039, pint = 1.9 × 10(-4) ). The inverse association between rs4808801 and overall BC risk was stronger for women who had had four or more pregnancies (OR = 0.85, p = 2.0 × 10(-4) ), and absent in women who had had just one (OR = 0.96, p = 0.19, pint = 6.1 × 10(-4) ). SNP rs11242675 was inversely associated with overall BC risk in never/former smokers (OR = 0.93, p = 2.8 × 10(-5) ), but no association was observed in current smokers (OR = 1.07, p = 0.14, pint = 3.4 × 10(-4) ). In conclusion, recently identified BC susceptibility loci are not strongly modified by established risk factors and the observed potential interactions require confirmation in independent studies.

  18. Breast cancer susceptibility polymorphisms and endometrial cancer risk: a Collaborative Endometrial Cancer Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Shahana; O’Mara, Tracy A.; Ferguson, Kaltin; Lambrechts, Diether; Garcia-Dios, Diego A.; Vergote, Ignace; Amant, Frederic; Howarth, Kimberley; Gorman, Maggie; Hodgson, Shirley; Tomlinson, Ian; Yang, Hannah P.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise A.; Chanock, Stephen; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Hall, Per; Liu, Jianjun; Shah, Mitul; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Thompson, Deborah J.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Strom, Brian L.; Dunning, Alison M.; Easton, Douglas F.; Spurdle, Amanda B.

    2011-01-01

    Recent large--scale association studies, both of genome-wide and candidate gene design, have revealed several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which are significantly associated with risk of developing breast cancer. As both breast and endometrial cancers are considered to be hormonally driven and share multiple risk factors, we investigated whether breast cancer risk alleles are also associated with endometrial cancer risk. We genotyped nine breast cancer risk SNPs in up to 4188 endometrial cases and 11 928 controls, from between three and seven Caucasian populations. None of the tested SNPs showed significant evidence of association with risk of endometrial cancer. PMID:21965274

  19. What Are the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... in men? What are the risk factors for breast cancer in men? A risk factor is anything that ... old when they are diagnosed. Family history of breast cancer Breast cancer risk is increased if other members ...

  20. Increased thyroid cancer risk in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Dagdelen, Selcuk; Cinar, Nese; Erbas, Tomris

    2014-08-01

    Acromegaly increases cancer risk. We aimed to determine the prevalence and the predictors of tumors in acromegalic patients treated at our department. We retrospectively evaluated 160 acromegalic patients [79 female (mean age 52.0 ± 10.4 years) and 81 male (mean age 49.1 ± 12.4 years)] between 1990 and 2012, with a mean follow up period of 7.1 ± 5.7 years. The patients were screened with colonoscopy, mammography, thyroid and prostate ultrasonography. Malignancy was found in 34 (21.3%) patients. No significant difference was observed in the distribution of malignancy among sexes (20.3% in F vs. 22.2% in M). Thyroid cancer was the most frequent (n = 17, 10.6%) followed by the breast cancer (n = 4, 2.5%) and colorectal cancer (n = 3, 1.8%). Renal cell cancer in two patients, bladder cancer in two patients, periampullary tumor, rectal carcinoid tumor, malignant melanoma, prostate cancer, lung cancer, parotid mucoepidermoid carcinoma and malignant mesenchymal tumor in brain in one patient were detected. One patient had both thyroid and renal cell cancer. Age of patients at diagnosis of acromegaly was significantly higher in patients with cancer (45.8 ± 9.9 vs. 40.9 ± 11.3 years, p < 0.05). No significant difference was found in duration of the disease, initial GH levels and IGF-1% upper limit of normal values, the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, hyperlipidemia and treatment modalities between the patients with/without cancer. In logistic regression analysis, older age at diagnosis was associated with malignancy risk. The risk of cancer in acromegaly especially the thyroid cancer risk seems to be more increased than known in the literature. Therefore, acromegaly patients should be screened routinely for cancer, especially for thyroid cancer due to it being up to four times higher prevalence than breast and colorectal cancer.

  1. Lifetime grain consumption and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Eliassen, A Heather; Chen, Wendy Y; Willett, Walter C

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated individual grain-containing foods and whole and refined grain intake during adolescence, early adulthood, and premenopausal years in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II. Grain-containing food intakes were reported on a baseline dietary questionnaire (1991) and every 4 years thereafter. Among 90,516 premenopausal women aged 27-44 years, we prospectively identified 3235 invasive breast cancer cases during follow-up to 2013. 44,263 women reported their diet during high school, and from 1998 to 2013, 1347 breast cancer cases were identified among these women. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) of breast cancer for individual, whole and refined grain foods. After adjusting for known breast cancer risk factors, adult intake of whole grain foods was associated with lower premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quintile: RR 0.82; 95 % CI 0.70-0.97; P trend = 0.03), but not postmenopausal breast cancer. This association was no longer significant after further adjustment for fiber intake. The average of adolescent and early adulthood whole grain food intake was suggestively associated with lower premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs lowest quintile: RR 0.74; 95 % CI 0.56-0.99; P trend = 0.09). Total refined grain food intake was not associated with risk of breast cancer. Most individual grain-containing foods were not associated with breast cancer risk. The exceptions were adult brown rice which was associated with lower risk of overall and premenopausal breast cancer (for each 2 servings/week: RR 0.94; 95 % CI 0.89-0.99 and RR 0.91; 95 % CI 0.85-0.99, respectively) and adult white bread intake which was associated with increased overall breast cancer risk (for each 2 servings/week: RR 1.02; 95 % CI 1.01-1.04), as well as breast cancer before and after menopause. Further, pasta intake was inversely associated with

  2. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    FENGA, CONCETTINA

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals are defined environmental factors for breast cancer, particularly at young ages. However, the mechanisms by which occupational factors can promote breast cancer initiation and progression remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, the evaluation of occupational factors for breast cancer, particularly in the workplace, also remains to be explained. The present review summarizes the occupational risk factors and the associated mechanisms involved in breast cancer development, in order to highlight new environmental exposures that could be correlated to breast cancer and to provide new insights for breast cancer prevention in the occupational settings. Furthermore, this review suggests that there is a requirement to include, through multidisciplinary approaches, different occupational exposure risks among those associated with breast cancer development. Finally, the design of new epigenetic biomarkers may be useful to identify the workers that are more susceptible to develop breast cancer. PMID:26998264

  3. Ovarian cancer: etiology, risk factors, and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Hunn, Jessica; Rodriguez, Gustavo C

    2012-03-01

    Little is known regarding the early aspects of ovarian carcinogenesis. As a consequence, the identification of women at risk for the disease is based primarily on clinical grounds, with family history being the most important risk factor. In this review, we will discuss the various hypotheses regarding ovarian etiology and pathogenesis. In addition, we will discuss the epidemiology of ovarian cancer, including hereditary, reproductive, hormonal, inflammatory, dietary, surgical, and geographic factors that influence ovarian cancer risk.

  4. An investigation of gene-environment interactions between 47 newly identified breast cancer susceptibility loci and environmental risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Anja; Milne, Roger L.; Truong, Thérèse; Knight, Julia A.; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Munday, Hannah R.; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Brand, Judith S.; Olson, Janet; Vachon, Celine M.; Hallberg, Emily; Castelao, J. Esteban; Carracedo, Angel; Torres, Maria; Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Yesilyurt, Betul T.; Floris, Giuseppe; Leunen, Karin; Engelhardt, Ellen G.; Broeks, Annegien; Rutgers, Emiel J.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Cross, Simon; Reed, Malcolm; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Perez, José Ignacio Arias; Provenzano, Elena; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C.; Spurdle, Amanda; Investigators, kConFab; Group, AOCS; Häberle, Lothar; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; McLean, Catriona; Baglietto, Laura; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Sherman, Mark E.; Brüning, Thomas; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ashworth, Alan; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Mannermaa, Arto; Swerdlow, Anthony; Giles, Graham G.; Brenner, Hermann; Fasching, Peter A.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Hopper, John; Benítez, Javier; Cox, Angela; Andrulis, Irene L.; Lambrechts, Diether; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Couch, Fergus; Czene, Kamila; Bojesen, Stig E.; Easton, Doug F.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Guénel, Pascal; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    A large genotyping project within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) recently identified 41 associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and overall breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated whether the effects of these 41 SNPs, as well as six SNPs associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negative BC risk are modified by 13 environmental risk factors for BC. Data from 22 studies participating in BCAC were pooled, comprising up to 26,633 cases and 30,119 controls. Interactions between SNPs and environmental factors were evaluated using an empirical Bayes-type shrinkage estimator. Six SNPs showed interactions with associated p-values (pint) <1.1×10−3. None of the observed interactions was significant after accounting for multiple testing. The Bayesian False Discovery Probability was used to rank the findings, which indicated three interactions as being noteworthy at 1% prior probability of interaction. SNP rs6828523 was associated with increased ER-negative BC risk in women ≥170cm (OR=1.22, p=0.017), but inversely associated with ER-negative BC risk in women <160cm (OR=0.83, p=0.039, pint=1.9×10−4). The inverse association between rs4808801 and overall BC risk was stronger for women who had had four or more pregnancies (OR=0.85, p=2.0×10−4), and absent in women who had had just one (OR=0.96, p=0.19, pint = 6.1×10−4). SNP rs11242675 was inversely associated with overall BC risk in never/former smokers (OR=0.93, p=2.8×10−5), but no association was observed in current smokers (OR=1.07, p=0.14, pint = 3.4×10−4). In conclusion, recently identified breast cancer susceptibility loci are not strongly modified by established risk factors and the observed potential interactions require confirmation in independent studies. PMID:25227710

  5. A risk management model for familial breast cancer: A new application using Fuzzy Cognitive Map method.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Elpiniki I; Jayashree Subramanian; Karmegam, Akila; Papandrianos, Nikolaos

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most deadly disease affecting women and thus it is natural for women aged 40-49 years (who have a family history of breast cancer or other related cancers) to assess their personal risk for developing familial breast cancer (FBC). Besides, as each individual woman possesses different levels of risk of developing breast cancer depending on their family history, genetic predispositions and personal medical history, individualized care setting mechanism needs to be identified so that appropriate risk assessment, counseling, screening, and prevention options can be determined by the health care professionals. The presented work aims at developing a soft computing based medical decision support system using Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM) that assists health care professionals in deciding the individualized care setting mechanisms based on the FBC risk level of the given women. The FCM based FBC risk management system uses NHL to learn causal weights from 40 patient records and achieves a 95% diagnostic accuracy. The results obtained from the proposed model are in concurrence with the comprehensive risk evaluation tool based on Tyrer-Cuzick model for 38/40 patient cases (95%). Besides, the proposed model identifies high risk women by calculating higher accuracy of prediction than the standard Gail and NSAPB models. The testing accuracy of the proposed model using 10-fold cross validation technique outperforms other standard machine learning based inference engines as well as previous FCM-based risk prediction methods for BC.

  6. A risk management model for familial breast cancer: A new application using Fuzzy Cognitive Map method.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Elpiniki I; Jayashree Subramanian; Karmegam, Akila; Papandrianos, Nikolaos

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most deadly disease affecting women and thus it is natural for women aged 40-49 years (who have a family history of breast cancer or other related cancers) to assess their personal risk for developing familial breast cancer (FBC). Besides, as each individual woman possesses different levels of risk of developing breast cancer depending on their family history, genetic predispositions and personal medical history, individualized care setting mechanism needs to be identified so that appropriate risk assessment, counseling, screening, and prevention options can be determined by the health care professionals. The presented work aims at developing a soft computing based medical decision support system using Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM) that assists health care professionals in deciding the individualized care setting mechanisms based on the FBC risk level of the given women. The FCM based FBC risk management system uses NHL to learn causal weights from 40 patient records and achieves a 95% diagnostic accuracy. The results obtained from the proposed model are in concurrence with the comprehensive risk evaluation tool based on Tyrer-Cuzick model for 38/40 patient cases (95%). Besides, the proposed model identifies high risk women by calculating higher accuracy of prediction than the standard Gail and NSAPB models. The testing accuracy of the proposed model using 10-fold cross validation technique outperforms other standard machine learning based inference engines as well as previous FCM-based risk prediction methods for BC. PMID:26220142

  7. Radon exposure and oropharyngeal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Espinosa, Tania; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Oropharyngeal cancer is a multifactorial disease. Alcohol and tobacco are the main risk factors. Radon is a human carcinogen linked to lung cancer risk, but its influence in other cancers is not well known. We aim to assess the effect of radon exposure on the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer through a systematic review of the scientific literature. This review performs a qualitative analysis of the available studies. 13 cohort studies were included, most of them mortality studies, which analysed the relationship between occupational or residential radon exposure with oropharyngeal cancer mortality or incidence. Most of the included studies found no association between radon exposure and oral and pharyngeal cancer. This lack of effect was observed in miners studies and in general population studies. Further research is necessary to quantify if this association really exists and its magnitude, specially performing studies in general population, preferably living in areas with high radon levels.

  8. Review of radon and lung cancer risk

    SciTech Connect

    Samet, J.M.; Hornung, R.W. )

    1990-03-01

    Radon, a long-established cause of lung cancer in uranium and other underground miners, has recently emerged as a potentially important cause of lung cancer in the general population. The evidence for widespread exposure of the population to radon and the well-documented excess of lung cancer among underground miners exposed to radon decay products have raised concern that exposure to radon progeny might also be a cause of lung cancer in the general population. To date, epidemiological data on the lung cancer risk associated with environmental exposure to radon have been limited. Consequently, the lung cancer hazard posed by radon exposure in indoor air has been addressed primarily through risk estimation procedures. The quantitative risks of lung cancer have been estimated using exposure-response relations derived from the epidemiological investigations of uranium and other underground miners. We review five of the more informative studies of miners and recent risk projection models for excess lung cancer associated with radon. The principal models differ substantially in their underlying assumptions and consequently in the resulting risk projections. The resulting diversity illustrates the substantial uncertainty that remains concerning the most appropriate model of the temporal pattern of radon-related lung cancer. Animal experiments, further follow-up of the miner cohorts, and well-designed epidemiological studies of indoor exposure should reduce this uncertainty. 18 references.

  9. Helicobacter pylori Diversity and Gastric Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Helicobacter pylori infection is the strongest known risk factor for this malignancy. An important goal is to identify H. pylori-infected persons at high risk for gastric cancer, so that these individuals can be targeted for therapeutic intervention. H. pylori exhibits a high level of intraspecies genetic diversity, and over the past two decades, many studies have endeavored to identify strain-specific features of H. pylori that are linked to development of gastric cancer. One of the most prominent differences among H. pylori strains is the presence or absence of a 40-kb chromosomal region known as the cag pathogenicity island (PAI). Current evidence suggests that the risk of gastric cancer is very low among persons harboring H. pylori strains that lack the cag PAI. Among persons harboring strains that contain the cag PAI, the risk of gastric cancer is shaped by a complex interplay among multiple strain-specific bacterial factors as well as host factors. This review discusses the strain-specific properties of H. pylori that correlate with increased gastric cancer risk, focusing in particular on secreted proteins and surface-exposed proteins, and describes evidence from cell culture and animal models linking these factors to gastric cancer pathogenesis. Strain-specific features of H. pylori that may account for geographic variation in gastric cancer incidence are also discussed. PMID:26814181

  10. Body Mass Index Genetic Risk Score and Endometrial Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Jennifer; Setiawan, Veronica W.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Schumacher, Fredrick; Yu, Herbert; Delahanty, Ryan; Bernstein, Leslie; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Chu; Cook, Linda S.; Friedenreich, Christine; Garcia-Closas, Monserrat; Haiman, Christopher A.; Le Marchand, Loic; Liang, Xiaolin; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Olson, Sara H.; Risch, Harvey A.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ursin, Giske; Yang, Hannah P.; Kraft, Peter; De Vivo, Immaculata

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common variants that predispose individuals to a higher body mass index (BMI), an independent risk factor for endometrial cancer. Composite genotype risk scores (GRS) based on the joint effect of published BMI risk loci were used to explore whether endometrial cancer shares a genetic background with obesity. Genotype and risk factor data were available on 3,376 endometrial cancer case and 3,867 control participants of European ancestry from the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium GWAS. A BMI GRS was calculated by summing the number of BMI risk alleles at 97 independent loci. For exploratory analyses, additional GRSs were based on subsets of risk loci within putative etiologic BMI pathways. The BMI GRS was statistically significantly associated with endometrial cancer risk (P = 0.002). For every 10 BMI risk alleles a woman had a 13% increased endometrial cancer risk (95% CI: 4%, 22%). However, after adjusting for BMI, the BMI GRS was no longer associated with risk (per 10 BMI risk alleles OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.91, 1.07; P = 0.78). Heterogeneity by BMI did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.06), and no effect modification was noted by age, GWAS Stage, study design or between studies (P≥0.58). In exploratory analyses, the GRS defined by variants at loci containing monogenic obesity syndrome genes was associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk independent of BMI (per BMI risk allele OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.96; P = 2.1 x 10−5). Possessing a large number of BMI risk alleles does not increase endometrial cancer risk above that conferred by excess body weight among women of European descent. Thus, the GRS based on all current established BMI loci does not provide added value independent of BMI. Future studies are required to validate the unexpected observed relation between monogenic obesity syndrome genetic variants and endometrial cancer risk. PMID:26606540

  11. Risk and revisionism in arsenic cancer risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Mushak, P; Crocetti, A F

    1995-01-01

    Oral exposures of nonoccupational populations to environmental inorganic arsenic are associated with skin and internal cancers as well as various noncarcinogenic effects. Cancer risk assessments have been based largely on epidemiological studies of a large population exposed to inorganic arsenic in well water in Taiwan. Criticisms and skepticism of the use of the Taiwanese data for estimating arsenic cancer risks outside of Taiwan, including potential use by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for regulatory purposes, have been expressed on various grounds. The nature and extent of such criticisms have sharpened with recent findings in the exposed Taiwanese of increased incidence of internal cancers (bladder, kidney, liver, and lung), in addition to already-observed skin cancer, coupled with a good likelihood that these findings will produce more stringent arsenic regulation in the United States and elsewhere. These criticisms collectively posit a revisionist view that: 1) cancer incidence among the Taiwanese was amplified by a number of host and environmental factors not applicable elsewhere, 2) the cancer dose-response curve may not be linear at the lower exposures elsewhere, and 3) there is a toxicokinetic and metabolic threshold to cancer risk that was exceeded by the Taiwanese. However, a number of the arguments against wide use of the Taiwanese data are flawed and subject to challenge. We explore some of these arguments and their critical evaluation, particularly as they concern certain exposure, metabolic, and nutritional determinants of the cancer risk of inorganic arsenic in the Taiwanese. PMID:7588479

  12. Tea drinking and cancer risk: epidemiologic evidence

    PubMed

    Chow; Blot; McLaughlin

    1999-04-01

    Tea and tea compounds have been shown to inhibit carcinogenic processes in experimental animals, raising the possibility that tea drinking may lower cancer risk in humans. However, epidemiologic studies have produced inconsistent evidence on the relation between tea drinking and cancer risk. Ecological data show considerable international variation in tea consumption but relatively small differences in cancer rates. Results from case-control and cohort studies also are inconclusive. Nevertheless, high consumption of tea has been linked to a reduced risk of digestive tract cancers in a number of epidemiologic studies. A lack of detailed information on duration and amount of tea drinking, a narrow range of tea intake in some study populations, inadequate control for confounding, and potential biases in recall and reporting of tea drinking patterns in case-control studies may have contributed to the diverse findings. Further research is needed before definitive conclusions on tea's impact upon cancer risk in humans can be reached. PMID:10202387

  13. Occupation and prostate cancer risk in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Sharma-Wagner, S; Chokkalingam, A P; Malker, H S; Stone, B J; McLaughlin, J K; Hsing, A W

    2000-05-01

    To provide new leads regarding occupational prostate cancer risk factors, we linked 36,269 prostate cancer cases reported to the Swedish National Cancer Registry during 1961 to 1979 with employment information from the 1960 National Census. Standardized incidence ratios for prostate cancer, within major (1-digit), general (2-digit), and specific (3-digit) industries and occupations, were calculated. Significant excess risks were seen for agriculture-related industries, soap and perfume manufacture, and leather processing industries. Significantly elevated standardized incidence ratios were also seen for the following occupations: farmers, leather workers, and white-collar occupations. Our results suggest that farmers; certain occupations and industries with exposures to cadmium, herbicides, and fertilizers; and men with low occupational physical activity levels have elevated prostate cancer risks. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and identify specific exposures related to excess risk in these occupations and industries.

  14. Does Metformin Reduce Cancer Risks? Methodologic Considerations.

    PubMed

    Golozar, Asieh; Liu, Shuiqing; Lin, Joeseph A; Peairs, Kimberly; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    The substantial burden of cancer and diabetes and the association between the two conditions has been a motivation for researchers to look for targeted strategies that can simultaneously affect both diseases and reduce their overlapping burden. In the absence of randomized clinical trials, researchers have taken advantage of the availability and richness of administrative databases and electronic medical records to investigate the effects of drugs on cancer risk among diabetic individuals. The majority of these studies suggest that metformin could potentially reduce cancer risk. However, the validity of this purported reduction in cancer risk is limited by several methodological flaws either in the study design or in the analysis. Whether metformin use decreases cancer risk relies heavily on the availability of valid data sources with complete information on confounders, accurate assessment of drug use, appropriate study design, and robust analytical techniques. The majority of the observational studies assessing the association between metformin and cancer risk suffer from methodological shortcomings and efforts to address these issues have been incomplete. Future investigations on the association between metformin and cancer risk should clearly address the methodological issues due to confounding by indication, prevalent user bias, and time-related biases. Although the proposed strategies do not guarantee a bias-free estimate for the association between metformin and cancer, they will reduce synthesis of and reporting of erroneous results.

  15. Adherence to cancer prevention guidelines and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Catsburg, Chelsea; Miller, Anthony B; Rohan, Thomas E

    2014-11-15

    Healthy eating patterns and keeping physically active are potentially more important for chronic disease prevention than intake or exclusion of specific food items or nutrients. To this end, many health organizations routinely publish dietary and lifestyle recommendations aimed at preventing chronic disease. Using data from the Canadian National Breast Screening Study, we investigated the association between breast cancer risk and adherence to two sets of guidelines specific for cancer prevention, namely the American Cancer Society (ACS) Guidelines and the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) Recommendations. At baseline, 49,613 women completed dietary and lifestyle questionnaires and height and weight measurements were taken. During a mean follow-up of 16.6 years, 2,503 incident cases of breast cancer were ascertained. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of meeting each guideline, and number of guidelines met, with breast cancer risk. The two sets of guidelines yielded similar results. Specifically, adherence to all six ACS guidelines was associated with a 31% reduction in breast cancer risk when compared to subjects adhering to at most one guideline (HR=0.69; 95% CI=0.49-0.97); similarly, adherence to six or seven of the WCRF/AICR guidelines was also associated with a 31% reduction in breast cancer risk (HR=0.69; 95% CI=0.47-1.00). Under either classification, meeting each additional guideline was associated with a 4-6% reduction in breast cancer risk. These results suggest that adherence to cancer prevention guidelines is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer.

  16. Familial skin cancer syndromes: Increased melanoma risk.

    PubMed

    Ransohoff, Katherine J; Jaju, Prajakta D; Jaju, Prajaka D; Tang, Jean Y; Carbone, Michele; Leachman, Sancy; Sarin, Kavita Y

    2016-03-01

    Phenotypic traits, such as red hair and freckling, increase melanoma risk by 2- to 3-fold. In addition, approximately 10% of melanomas are caused by inherited germline mutations that increase melanoma risk from 4- to >1000-fold. This review highlights the key genes responsible for inherited melanoma, with an emphasis on when a patient should undergo genetic testing. Many genetic syndromes associated with increased melanoma risk are also associated with an increased risk of other cancers. Identification of these high-risk patients is essential for preventive behavior reinforcement, genetic counseling, and ensuring other required cancer screenings.

  17. Dietary microbes modulate transgenerational cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Poutahidis, Theofilos; Varian, Bernard J; Levkovich, Tatiana; Lakritz, Jessica R; Mirabal, Sheyla; Kwok, Caitlin; Ibrahim, Yassin M; Kearney, Sean M; Chatzigiagkos, Antonis; Alm, Eric J; Erdman, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors are suspected in the rise of obesity and cancer in industrialized countries but poorly understood. Here we used animal models to test how future generations may be affected by Westernized diets. We discover long-term consequences of grandmothers’ in-utero dietary exposures leading to high rates of obesity and frequent cancers of lung and liver in two subsequent generations of mice. Transgenerational effects were transplantable using diet-associated bacteria communities alone. Consequently, feeding of beneficial microbes was sufficient to lower transgenerational risk for cancer and obesity regardless of diet history. Targeting microbes may be a highly effective population-based approach to lower risk for cancer. PMID:25716681

  18. Breast cancer susceptibility variants alter risk in familial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Latif, A; McBurney, H J; Roberts, S A; Lalloo, F; Howell, A; Evans, D G; Newman, W G

    2010-12-01

    Recent candidate gene and genome wide association studies have revealed novel loci associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. We evaluated the effect of these breast cancer associated variants on ovarian cancer risk in individuals with familial ovarian cancer both with and without BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. A total of 158 unrelated white British women (54 BRCA1/2 mutation positive and 104 BRCA1/2 mutation negative) with familial ovarian cancer were genotyped for FGFR2, TNRC9/TOX3 and CASP8 variants. The p.Asp302His CASP8 variant was associated with reduced ovarian cancer risk in the familial BRCA1/2 mutation negative ovarian cancer cases (P = 0.016). The synonymous TNRC9/TOX3 (Ser51) variant was present at a significantly lower frequency than in patients with familial BRCA1/2 positive breast cancer (P = 0.0002). Our results indicate that variants in CASP8 and TNRC9/TOX3 alter the risk of disease in individuals affected with familial ovarian cancer.

  19. Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rectal Cancer Home Page Colon and Rectal Cancer: Prevention, Genetics, Causes Tests to ... corresponding to answers “medications that do not contain aspirin unknown" (page 4 of 7). Things to know ...

  20. Healthy Living Slashes Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Cancer Healthy Living Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Cancer Healthy Living About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ...

  1. Lactation and the risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Purwanto, H; Sadjimin, T; Dwiprahasto, I

    2000-05-01

    Some factors are suggested to have an association with an increased risk of breast cancer, which are called risk factors. Lactation is one of the risk factors that still needs to be studied because of conflicting findings in epidemiological studies and also uncertainty regarding biologic plausibility. Our objective was to study the relationship between lactation and the risk of breast cancer. A pair of unmatched case control studies was held among parous women at Dr. Soetomo Hospital (general hospital) and some private hospitals in the Surabaya municipality. There are 219 (51.9%) cases and 203 (48.1%) controls analyzed in this study. Age, age at menarche, regular menstruation and number of parity between both groups are not statistical different. When we divided the age at menarche (below 13), it was statistically different. The cases consisted of more women with menarche below 13 (p = 0.00038). Other factors showing statistical differences in the risk of breast cancer between case and control are age at first delivery, family history of breast cancer and age at menopause. Women who have lactated (more than 4-month duration of breast feeding) show a "protective effect" against breast cancer, OR 0.57 (95% CI 0.33-0.99). However, there was no clear duration of lactation and the risk of breast cancer. Logistic regression analysis showed that lactation was not any independent factor. Lactation exerts a "protective effect" against breast cancer. However, the duration of lactation did not show an influence in reducing the risk of breast cancer, and logistic regression analysis did not show that lactation was an independent factor in the risk of breast cancer.

  2. Association Between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in DNA Polymerase Kappa Gene and Breast Cancer Risk in Chinese Han Population: A STROBE-Compliant Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhi-Jun; Liu, Xing-Han; Ma, Yun-Feng; Kang, Hua-Feng; Jin, Tian-Bo; Dai, Zhi-Ming; Guan, Hai-Tao; Wang, Meng; Liu, Kang; Dai, Cong; Yang, Xue-Wen; Wang, Xi-Jing

    2016-01-01

    DNA polymerases are responsible for ensuring stability of the genome and avoiding genotoxicity caused by a variety of factors during DNA replication. Consequently, these proteins have been associated with an increased cancer risk. DNA polymerase kappa (POLK) is a specialized DNA polymerase involved in translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) that allows DNA synthesis over the damaged DNA. Recently, some studies investigated relationships between POLK polymorphisms and cancer risk, but the role of POLK genetic variants in breast cancer (BC) remains to be defined. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of POLK polymorphisms on BC risk.We used the Sequenom MassARRAY method to genotype 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in POLK (rs3213801, rs10077427, and rs5744533), in order to determine the genotypes of 560 BC patients and 583 controls. The association of genotypes and BC was assessed by computing the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) from logistic regression analyses.We found a statistically significant difference between patient and control groups in the POLK rs10077427 genotypic groups, excluding the recessive model. A positive correlation was also found between positive progesterone receptor (PR) status, higher Ki67 index, and rs10077427 polymorphism. For rs5744533 polymorphism, the codominant, dominant, and allele models frequencies were significantly higher in BC patients compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, our results indicated that rs5744533 SNP has a protective role in the postmenopausal women. However, we failed to find any associations between rs3213801 polymorphism and susceptibility to BC.Our results indicate that POLK polymorphisms may influence the risk of developing BC, and, because of this, may serve as a prognostic biomarker among Chinese women. PMID:26765445

  3. Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent women's cancer, with an age-adjusted incidence of 122.9 per 100,000 US women. Cadmium, a ubiquitous carcinogenic pollutant with multiple biological effects, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer in one US regional case-control study. We examined the association of breast cancer with urinary cadmium (UCd), in a case-control sample of women living on Long Island (LI), NY (100 with breast cancer and 98 without), a region with an especially high rate of breast cancer (142.7 per 100,000 in Suffolk County) and in a representative sample of US women (NHANES 1999-2008, 92 with breast cancer and 2,884 without). In a multivariable logistic model, both samples showed a significant trend for increased odds of breast cancer across increasing UCd quartiles (NHANES, p=0.039 and LI, p=0.023). Compared to those in the lowest quartile, LI women in the highest quartile had increased risk for breast cancer (OR=2.69; 95% CI=1.07, 6.78) and US women in the two highest quartiles had increased risk (OR=2.50; 95% CI=1.11, 5.63 and OR=2.22; 95% CI=.89, 5.52, respectively). Further research is warranted on the impact of environmental cadmium on breast cancer risk in specific populations and on identifying the underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:21071816

  4. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Broeders, M J; Verbeek, A L

    1997-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in our summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point in time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women. PMID:9274126

  5. Use of mobile phones and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Ayanda, Olushola S; Baba, Alafara A; Ayanda, Omolola T

    2012-01-01

    Mobile phones work by transmitting and receiving radio frequency microwave radiation. The radio frequency (RF) emitted by mobile phones is stronger than FM radio signal which are known to cause cancer. Though research and evidence available on the risk of cancer by mobile phones does not provide a clear and direct support that mobile phones cause cancers. Evidence does not also support an association between exposure to radio frequency and microwave radiation from mobile phones and direct effects on health. It is however clear that lack of available evidence of cancer as regards the use of mobile phone should not be interpreted as proof of absence of cancer risk, so that excessive use of mobile phones should be taken very seriously and with caution to prevent cancer.

  6. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polonium, formaldehyde, cadmium, lead, and benzo[a]pyrene, which are carcinogenic agents. Although there is presence of some compounds, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, that have cancer inhibiting properties, they are in low concentrations. Dry snuff use is linked with higher relative risks, while the use of other smokeless tobacco is of intermediate risk. Moist snuff and chewing tobacco have a very low risk for oral cancer. Therefore, from this review article, it was concluded that smokeless tobacco has risk for oral cancer – either low, medium or high depending on the balance between cancer causing agents and cancer inhibiting agents. PMID:25520574

  7. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco.

    PubMed

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Qadir, M Imran; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polonium, formaldehyde, cadmium, lead, and benzo[a]pyrene, which are carcinogenic agents. Although there is presence of some compounds, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, that have cancer inhibiting properties, they are in low concentrations. Dry snuff use is linked with higher relative risks, while the use of other smokeless tobacco is of intermediate risk. Moist snuff and chewing tobacco have a very low risk for oral cancer. Therefore, from this review article, it was concluded that smokeless tobacco has risk for oral cancer - either low, medium or high depending on the balance between cancer causing agents and cancer inhibiting agents.

  8. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco.

    PubMed

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Qadir, M Imran; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polonium, formaldehyde, cadmium, lead, and benzo[a]pyrene, which are carcinogenic agents. Although there is presence of some compounds, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, that have cancer inhibiting properties, they are in low concentrations. Dry snuff use is linked with higher relative risks, while the use of other smokeless tobacco is of intermediate risk. Moist snuff and chewing tobacco have a very low risk for oral cancer. Therefore, from this review article, it was concluded that smokeless tobacco has risk for oral cancer - either low, medium or high depending on the balance between cancer causing agents and cancer inhibiting agents. PMID:25520574

  9. Industrial risk factors for colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lashner, B.A.; Epstein, S.S. )

    1990-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignancy in the United States, and its incidence rates have sharply increased recently, especially in males. Industrial exposures, both occupational and environmental, are important colorectal cancer risk factors that are generally unrecognized by clinicians. Migration studies have documented that colorectal cancer is strongly associated with environmental risk factors. The causal role of occupational exposures is evidenced by a substantial literature associating specific work practices with increased colorectal cancer risks. Industrially related environmental exposures, including polluted drinking water and ionizing radiation, have also been associated with excess risks. Currently, there is a tendency to attribute colorectal cancer, largely or exclusively, to dietary and other lifestyle factors, thus neglecting these industrially related effects. Concerted efforts are needed to recognize the causal role of industrial risk factors and to encourage government and industry to reduce carcinogenic exposures. Furthermore, cost-effective screening programs for high-risk population groups are critically needed to further reduce deaths from colorectal cancer. 143 references.

  10. Cancer Risk in Patients With Empyema

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Chung-Jen; Hu, Yu-Wen; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Liu, Chia-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate cancer risk and possible risk factors in patients diagnosed with empyema. A total of 31,636 patients with newly diagnosed empyema between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2010 were included in this study. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated to compare the cancer incidence in these empyema patients to that in the general population. Adjusted hazard ratios were also calculated to investigate whether characteristics increased cancer risk. During the 12-year study period, 2,654 cancers occurred in 31,636 patients with empyema, yielding an SIR of 2.67 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.57–2.78). We excluded cancer that occurred within 1 year to avoid surveillance bias. The cancer risk remained significantly increased (SIR 1.50, 95% CI 1.41–1.58). Specifically, patients with empyema had higher SIR of cancers of the head and neck (1.50, 95% CI 1.41–1.58), esophagus (2.56, 95% CI 1.92–3.33), stomach (1.49, 95% CI 1.16–1.89), liver and biliary tract (2.18, 95% CI 1.93–2.45), and lung and mediastinum (1.62, 95% CI 1.39–1.86). Age ≥ 60, male sex, diabetes mellitus, and liver cirrhosis were independent risk factors for cancer development. Our study demonstrates an increased incidence of cancer development in patients with empyema, and patients’ age ≥ 60, men, and those with diabetes mellitus and liver cirrhosis showed a higher incidence of developing cancer compared to the general population. The association between such kind of infection and secondary malignancy may be elucidated by further study. PMID:26945399

  11. Genetic variants in lncRNA SRA and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Rui; Wang, Kaijuan; Peng, Rui; Wang, Shuaibing; Cao, Jingjing; Wang, Peng; Song, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) steroid receptor RNA activator (SRA) has been identified to activate steroid receptor transcriptional activity and participate in tumor pathogenesis. This case-control study evaluated the association between two haplotype tagging SNPs (htSNPs) (rs10463297, rs801460) of the whole SRA sequence and breast cancer risk. We found that rs10463297 TC genotype significantly increased BC risk compared with CC genotype in both the codominant (TC vs. TT: OR=1.43, 95 % CI=1.02–2.00) and recessive (TC+CC vs. TT: OR=1.39, 95 % CI=1.01–1.92) genetic models. Both TC, TC + CC genotypes of rs10463297 and GA, AA, GA+AA genotypes of rs801460 were significantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER) positivity status. rs10463297 TC (2.09 ± 0.41), CC (2.42 ± 0.51) and TC + CC (2.20 ± 0.47) genotypes were associated with higher blood plasma SRA mRNA levels compared with the TT genotype(1.45 ± 0.34). Gene–reproductive interaction analysis presented a best model consisted of four factors (rs10463297, age, post-menopausal, No. of pregnancy), which could increase the BC risk with 1.58-fold (OR=1.58, 95 % CI=1.23–2.03). These findings suggest that SRA genetic variants may contribute to BC risk and have apparent interaction with reproductive factors in BC progression. PMID:26967566

  12. Reducing Your Risk of Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the following areas: •Lung • Breast (see FAQ178 “Mammography and Screening for Breast Problems” ) • Colon and rectum • ... Tests Type of Cancer Test or Exam Breast Mammography Cancer of the cervix* Pap test Co-testing ( ...

  13. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  14. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... including aromatic amines that were found to cause cancer in animals. In the mid- to late 1970s, however, manufacturers changed the components in dye products to eliminate some of these chemicals ... in hair dyes can cause cancer. Given the widespread use of hair dye products, ...

  15. Toxicogenetic profile and cancer risk in Lebanese.

    PubMed

    Dhaini, Hassan R; Kobeissi, Loulou

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of genetic polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing enzymes (DME) were identified among different ethnic groups. Some of these polymorphisms are associated with an increased cancer risk, while others remain equivocal. However, there is sufficient evidence that these associations become significant in populations overexposed to environmental carcinogens. Hence, genetic differences in expression activity of both Phase I and Phase II enzymes may affect cancer risk in exposed populations. In Lebanon, there has been a marked rise in reported cancer incidence since the 1990s. There are also indicators of exposure to unusually high levels of environmental pollutants and carcinogens in the country. This review considers this high cancer incidence by exploring a potential gene-environment model based on available DME polymorphism prevalence, and their impact on bladder, colorectal, prostate, breast, and lung cancer in the Lebanese population. The examined DME include glutathione S-transferases (GST), N-acetyltransferases (NAT), and cytochromes P-450 (CYP). Data suggest that these DME influence bladder cancer risk in the Lebanese population. Evidence indicates that identification of a gene-environment interaction model may help in defining future research priorities and preventive cancer control strategies in this country, particularly for breast and lung cancer.

  16. Genetic Testing for Lung Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Marcy, Theodore W; Stefanek, Michael; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2002-01-01

    Advances in genetics have increased our ability to assess an individual's genetic risk for disease. There is a hypothesis that genetic test results will motivate high-risk individuals to reduce harmful exposures, to increase their surveillance for disease, or to seek preventive treatments. However, genetic testing for genes associated with an increased risk of lung cancer would not change physicians' recommendations regarding smoking cessation. Limited studies suggest that test results that demonstrate an increased risk of lung cancer do not improve smoking cessation success. These test results may even distort an individual's risk perceptions. Before recommending genetic testing to assess risk for disease, physicians need to consider whether knowledge about genetic susceptibility will alter patient management. PMID:12472931

  17. What Are the Risk Factors for Ovarian Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Different cancers have different risk factors. For example, unprotected exposure to strong sunlight is a risk factor ... in the stomach and intestine while they are teenagers. They also have a high risk of cancer, ...

  18. DNA repair variants and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Grundy, Anne; Richardson, Harriet; Schuetz, Johanna M; Burstyn, Igor; Spinelli, John J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Aronson, Kristan J

    2016-05-01

    A functional DNA repair system has been identified as important in the prevention of tumour development. Previous studies have hypothesized that common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes could play a role in breast cancer risk and also identified the potential for interactions between these polymorphisms and established breast cancer risk factors such as physical activity. Associations with breast cancer risk for 99 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genes in ten DNA repair pathways were examined in a case-control study including both Europeans (644 cases, 809 controls) and East Asians (299 cases, 160 controls). Odds ratios in both additive and dominant genetic models were calculated separately for participants of European and East Asian ancestry using multivariate logistic regression. The impact of multiple comparisons was assessed by correcting for the false discovery rate within each DNA repair pathway. Interactions between several breast cancer risk factors and DNA repair SNPs were also evaluated. One SNP (rs3213282) in the gene XRCC1 was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in the dominant model of inheritance following adjustment for the false discovery rate (P < 0.05), although no associations were observed for other DNA repair SNPs. Interactions of six SNPs in multiple DNA repair pathways with physical activity were evident prior to correction for FDR, following which there was support for only one of the interaction terms (P < 0.05). No consistent associations between variants in DNA repair genes and breast cancer risk or their modification by breast cancer risk factors were observed. PMID:27060854

  19. DNA repair variants and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Grundy, Anne; Richardson, Harriet; Schuetz, Johanna M; Burstyn, Igor; Spinelli, John J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Aronson, Kristan J

    2016-05-01

    A functional DNA repair system has been identified as important in the prevention of tumour development. Previous studies have hypothesized that common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes could play a role in breast cancer risk and also identified the potential for interactions between these polymorphisms and established breast cancer risk factors such as physical activity. Associations with breast cancer risk for 99 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genes in ten DNA repair pathways were examined in a case-control study including both Europeans (644 cases, 809 controls) and East Asians (299 cases, 160 controls). Odds ratios in both additive and dominant genetic models were calculated separately for participants of European and East Asian ancestry using multivariate logistic regression. The impact of multiple comparisons was assessed by correcting for the false discovery rate within each DNA repair pathway. Interactions between several breast cancer risk factors and DNA repair SNPs were also evaluated. One SNP (rs3213282) in the gene XRCC1 was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in the dominant model of inheritance following adjustment for the false discovery rate (P < 0.05), although no associations were observed for other DNA repair SNPs. Interactions of six SNPs in multiple DNA repair pathways with physical activity were evident prior to correction for FDR, following which there was support for only one of the interaction terms (P < 0.05). No consistent associations between variants in DNA repair genes and breast cancer risk or their modification by breast cancer risk factors were observed.

  20. [Diagnostic radiation and the risk of cancer].

    PubMed

    Kai, Michiaki

    2005-09-01

    The risk of radiation-related cancer following exposure to diagnostic radiation is of much concern. Diagnostic exposure is a repeated one to low dose radiation, while acute exposure occurred among atomic bomb survivors where the epidemiological survey contributes to the current cancer risk estimates of low doses. In several cohort studies on medical exposure at low doses, there is no statistical power of detection due to population size and no dose information. Even in cohort studies on occupational exposure there is no clear conclusion, however, a pooled analysis of nuclear workers in several countries is expected to produce a better basis for risk estimate at low doses. The risk estimate based on the linear non-threshold (LNT) dose response derived from the atomic bomb survivor data remains unresolved scientifically, and thus it has much uncertainty. Recent radiation biology suggests that a bystander effect and adaptive response might modify the estimated cancer risk based on the LNT model at low doses. However, there is no clear evidence in human data. The most effective way to clarify low-dose risk is to focus on the mechanism of radiation carcinogenesis. The risk from almost all diagnostic X-rays may be so small that no excess cancer incidence can be statistically detected.

  1. Cell Phones and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at NCI (Intramural) ... is heating. The ability of microwave ovens to heat food is one example of this effect of ...

  2. Understanding your breast cancer risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... proven. Studies look at things like smoking, diet, chemicals, and types of birth control pills. Talk to your provider if you are interested in joining a clinical trial for breast cancer prevention.

  3. Cancer risk and social inequalities in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Faggiano, F; Zanetti, R; Costa, G

    1994-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To investigate social differences in cancer incidence in Turin, Italy in 1985-87. DESIGN--A cancer incidence follow up study of the turin population in relation to socioeconomic characteristics was performed through record linkage between the 1981 census and the cancer registry. A case-control study nested in the cohort was analysed, where cases were subjects with a new diagnosis of cancer in 1985-87 and controls were a sample of the Turin population, frequency matched by sex and age group. Incidence odd ratios (ORs) were calculated for social classes (defined by education, housing tenure, and socioeconomic group) using a logistic regression model. SETTING--The study population comprised subjects included in the 1981 Turin census (n approximately equal to 1,100,000) who were still alive, 20-69 years old, and were resident in Turin in the middle of study period. PARTICIPANTS--The analyses were based on 4215 male and 3451 female cases, and on 16,913 male and 13,838 female controls. MAIN RESULTS--Compared with the highest educational level, the men in the lowest one showed an OR > 2 for respiratory cancers; OR = 1.48 for stomach cancer; and ORs < 0.7 for skin, colorectal, and prostate cancers. Women with a primary school education were protected against colorectal (OR = 0.71), skin (OR = 0.59), and breast cancer (OR = 0.66) compared with university degree women, but were at risk for cancer of the cervix (OR = 2.33) and stomach cancer (OR = 2.84). The association between educational level (primary school v university) and lung cancer risk is negative for men (OR = 2.47) and positive for women (OR = 0.62), while the association with housing tenure is negative for both sexes (OR = 1.44). CONCLUSIONS--The socioeconomic distribution of some risk factors (for example smoking, alcohol, and diet) in Italy can partially explain the differences in respiratory and digestive cancers. "Unbalanced" health promotion interventions, targeted at social groups with the

  4. Glucocorticoid therapy and risk of bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, K; Schned, A; Fortuny, J; Heaney, J; Marsit, C; Kelsey, K T; Karagas, M R

    2009-01-01

    Background: Use of immunosuppressive drugs post organ transplantation, and prolonged use of glucorticoids for other conditions have been associated with subsequent risk of certain malignancies, that is, skin cancers and lymphoma. There is evidence that the incidence of bladder cancer is also elevated among organ transplant recipients, however, it is unknown whether other groups of patients, that is, those taking oral glucocorticoids, likewise are at an increased risk. Methods: In a population-based case–control study in New Hampshire, USA, we compared the use of glucocorticoids in 786 bladder cancer cases and in 1083 controls. We used unconditional logistic regression analysis to compute adjusted odds ratios (ORs) associated with oral glucocorticoid use. Results: In our analysis, the risk of bladder cancer was related to a history of prolonged oral glucocorticoid use (OR=1.85, 95% CI=1.24–2.76, adjusted for age, gender and smoking). Associations with oral glucocorticoid use were stronger for invasive tumours (OR=2.12, 95% CI=1.17–3.85) and tumours with high (3+) p53 staining intensity (OR=2.35, 95% CI=1.26–4.36). Conclusion: Our results raise the possibility of an increased risk of bladder cancer from systemic use of glucocorticoids, and a potential role of immune surveillance in bladder cancer aetiology. PMID:19773763

  5. Risk factors for laryngeal cancer in Montenegro.

    PubMed

    Zvrko, Elvir; Gledović, Zorana; Ljaljević, Agima

    2008-03-01

    Laryngeal cancer is the most common head and neck cancer. There might be many risk factors for laryngeal cancer. Smoking, especially cigarette smoking and alcohol are indisputable risk factors. The authors of this paper assessed the presumed risk factors in order to identify possible aetiological agents of the disease.A hospital-based case-control study was conducted. The study group consisted of 108 histologically verified laryngeal cancer patients and 108 hospital controls matched by sex, age (+/-3 years) and place of residence. Laryngeal cancer patients and controls were interviewed during their hospital stay using a structured questionnaire. According to multiple logistic regression analysis six variables were independently related to laryngeal cancer: hard liquor consumption (Odd Ratio/OR/=2.93, Confidence Interval/CI/95% = 1.17 to 7.31), consumption more than 2 alcoholic drinks per day (OR=4.96, CI 95% = 2.04 to 12.04), cigarette smoking for more than 40 years (OR=4.32, CI 95% = 1.69 to 11.06), smoking more than 30 cigarettes per day (OR=4.24, CI 95% = 1.75 to 10.27), coffee consumption more than 5 cups per day (OR=4.52, CI 95% = 1.01 to 20.12) and carbonated beverage consumption (OR=0.38, CI 95%=0.16 to 0.92). The great majority of laryngeal cancers could be prevented by eliminating tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption.

  6. Fruit and vegetables and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Key, T J

    2011-01-01

    The possibility that fruit and vegetables may help to reduce the risk of cancer has been studied for over 30 years, but no protective effects have been firmly established. For cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract, epidemiological studies have generally observed that people with a relatively high intake of fruit and vegetables have a moderately reduced risk, but these observations must be interpreted cautiously because of potential confounding by smoking and alcohol. For lung cancer, recent large prospective analyses with detailed adjustment for smoking have not shown a convincing association between fruit and vegetable intake and reduced risk. For other common cancers, including colorectal, breast and prostate cancer, epidemiological studies suggest little or no association between total fruit and vegetable consumption and risk. It is still possible that there are benefits to be identified: there could be benefits in populations with low average intakes of fruit and vegetables, such that those eating moderate amounts have a lower cancer risk than those eating very low amounts, and there could also be effects of particular nutrients in certain fruits and vegetables, as fruit and vegetables have very varied composition. Nutritional principles indicate that healthy diets should include at least moderate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but the available data suggest that general increases in fruit and vegetable intake would not have much effect on cancer rates, at least in well-nourished populations. Current advice in relation to diet and cancer should include the recommendation to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but should put most emphasis on the well-established adverse effects of obesity and high alcohol intakes.

  7. Fruit and vegetables and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Key, T J

    2011-01-01

    The possibility that fruit and vegetables may help to reduce the risk of cancer has been studied for over 30 years, but no protective effects have been firmly established. For cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract, epidemiological studies have generally observed that people with a relatively high intake of fruit and vegetables have a moderately reduced risk, but these observations must be interpreted cautiously because of potential confounding by smoking and alcohol. For lung cancer, recent large prospective analyses with detailed adjustment for smoking have not shown a convincing association between fruit and vegetable intake and reduced risk. For other common cancers, including colorectal, breast and prostate cancer, epidemiological studies suggest little or no association between total fruit and vegetable consumption and risk. It is still possible that there are benefits to be identified: there could be benefits in populations with low average intakes of fruit and vegetables, such that those eating moderate amounts have a lower cancer risk than those eating very low amounts, and there could also be effects of particular nutrients in certain fruits and vegetables, as fruit and vegetables have very varied composition. Nutritional principles indicate that healthy diets should include at least moderate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but the available data suggest that general increases in fruit and vegetable intake would not have much effect on cancer rates, at least in well-nourished populations. Current advice in relation to diet and cancer should include the recommendation to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but should put most emphasis on the well-established adverse effects of obesity and high alcohol intakes. PMID:21119663

  8. Pancreatic cancer: epidemiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Krejs, Guenter J

    2010-01-01

    Ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas has an incidence of approximately 10 per 100,000 population per year. This number pertains to Europe, North America and parts of South America (Argentina). Men are more often afflicted than women (female:male ratio of about 1:1.5, though reports vary). There has been a very small but steady increase in the incidence over the last 50 years. Unfortunately, numbers for incidence and mortality are still practically identical for this cancer. The peak of incidence is between 60 and 80 years of age. In absolute numbers, there are 8,000 cases diagnosed annually in Germany, and 33,000 in the US. Pancreatic cancer at <40 years of age is extremely rare (2 cases per million per year), but among 80-year-olds, the incidence is about 200 new cases per 100,000 population per year. In men, carcinoma of the pancreas is the fourth most common cause of cancer death after lung, prostate and colorectal cancer. In women, it is the fifth most common cause of cancer death. Risk factors for pancreatic cancer include high-fat diet, smoking, chronic pancreatitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, hereditary pancreatitis, family history of pancreatic cancer and diabetes mellitus. In chronic pancreatitis, the risk for pancreatic cancer is increased 20-fold, in hereditary pancreatitis it is 60-fold higher than in the general population. In a kindred with 2 first-degree relatives with pancreatic cancer, the risk for pancreatic cancer for other members of that kindred is 7-fold higher.

  9. Korean Risk Assessment Model for Breast Cancer Risk Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Park, Boyoung; Ma, Seung Hyun; Shin, Aesun; Chang, Myung-Chul; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Kim, Sungwan; Han, Wonshik; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Park, Sue K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the performance of the Gail model for a Korean population and developed a Korean breast cancer risk assessment tool (KoBCRAT) based upon equations developed for the Gail model for predicting breast cancer risk. Methods Using 3,789 sets of cases and controls, risk factors for breast cancer among Koreans were identified. Individual probabilities were projected using Gail's equations and Korean hazard data. We compared the 5-year and lifetime risk produced using the modified Gail model which applied Korean incidence and mortality data and the parameter estimators from the original Gail model with those produced using the KoBCRAT. We validated the KoBCRAT based on the expected/observed breast cancer incidence and area under the curve (AUC) using two Korean cohorts: the Korean Multicenter Cancer Cohort (KMCC) and National Cancer Center (NCC) cohort. Results The major risk factors under the age of 50 were family history, age at menarche, age at first full-term pregnancy, menopausal status, breastfeeding duration, oral contraceptive usage, and exercise, while those at and over the age of 50 were family history, age at menarche, age at menopause, pregnancy experience, body mass index, oral contraceptive usage, and exercise. The modified Gail model produced lower 5-year risk for the cases than for the controls (p = 0.017), while the KoBCRAT produced higher 5-year and lifetime risk for the cases than for the controls (p<0.001 and <0.001, respectively). The observed incidence of breast cancer in the two cohorts was similar to the expected incidence from the KoBCRAT (KMCC, p = 0.880; NCC, p = 0.878). The AUC using the KoBCRAT was 0.61 for the KMCC and 0.89 for the NCC cohort. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the KoBCRAT is a better tool for predicting the risk of breast cancer in Korean women, especially urban women. PMID:24204664

  10. Geocost-Bc

    1981-03-24

    GEOCOST calculates the cost of generating electricity from geothermal energy. The version of GEOCOST in this release, GEOCOST-BC, simulates the production of electricity using a binary fluid cycle based upon a hydrothermal resource.

  11. Occupation-related risks for colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegelman, D.; Wegman, D.H.

    1985-11-01

    Several population data bases were used to generate hypotheses about associations between colorectal cancer and workplace exposures. The Third National Cancer Survey interview sample was used to select 343 male and 208 female cases and 626 male and 1,235 female cancer controls. Potential work exposures were assigned with the use of data from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health National Occupational Hazard Survey. Dietary factors were modeled from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. Work-related stress was considered with the use of a model based on the U.S. Department of Labor's Quality of Employment Survey. Other risk factors included age, race, ponderosity, and menopausal status. Logistic analysis yielded hypotheses for colon cancer risk in males with potentially high exposure to solvents, abrasives, and fuel oil and in those in jobs with high demand and low control (high stress). Hypotheses emerged for females with potentially high exposure to dyes, solvents, and grinding wheel dust.

  12. Epigenetic drift, epigenetic clocks and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shijie C; Widschwendter, Martin; Teschendorff, Andrew E

    2016-05-01

    It is well-established that the DNA methylation landscape of normal cells undergoes a gradual modification with age, termed as 'epigenetic drift'. Here, we review the current state of knowledge of epigenetic drift and its potential role in cancer etiology. We propose a new terminology to help distinguish the different components of epigenetic drift, with the aim of clarifying the role of the epigenetic clock, mitotic clocks and active changes, which accumulate in response to environmental disease risk factors. We further highlight the growing evidence that epigenetic changes associated with cancer risk factors may play an important causal role in cancer development, and that monitoring these molecular changes in normal cells may offer novel risk prediction and disease prevention strategies.

  13. Epigenetic drift, epigenetic clocks and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shijie C; Widschwendter, Martin; Teschendorff, Andrew E

    2016-05-01

    It is well-established that the DNA methylation landscape of normal cells undergoes a gradual modification with age, termed as 'epigenetic drift'. Here, we review the current state of knowledge of epigenetic drift and its potential role in cancer etiology. We propose a new terminology to help distinguish the different components of epigenetic drift, with the aim of clarifying the role of the epigenetic clock, mitotic clocks and active changes, which accumulate in response to environmental disease risk factors. We further highlight the growing evidence that epigenetic changes associated with cancer risk factors may play an important causal role in cancer development, and that monitoring these molecular changes in normal cells may offer novel risk prediction and disease prevention strategies. PMID:27104983

  14. Breast cancer risk and environmental exposures.

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, M S; Weston, A

    1997-01-01

    Although environmental contaminants have potential to affect breast cancer risk, explicit environmental links to this disease are limited. The most well-defined environmental risk factors are radiation exposure and alcohol ingestion. Diet is clearly related to the increased incidence of breast cancer in developed countries, but its precise role is not yet established. Recent studies have implicated exposure to organochlorines including DDT as a risk factor for breast cancer in the United States, Finland, Mexico, and Canada. Other investigations have discovered associations between breast cancer risk and exposures to chemical emissions and some occupational exposures. Several points must be considered in evaluating the relationship of environmental exposure to breast cancer. Among these considerations are the mechanism of tumorigenesis, timing of environmental exposure, and genetic modulation of exposure. Epidemiologic and ecologic investigations must take into account the very complex etiology of breast cancer and the knowledge that tumorigenesis can arise from different mechanisms. Thus crucial exposures as well as reproductive events related to breast cancer may occur years before a tumor is evident. Moreover, environmental contaminants may alter reproductive development, directly or indirectly, and thereby effect the course of tumorigenesis. Such alterations include change in gender, change in onset of puberty, and inhibition or promotion of tumor formation. Timing of exposure is therefore important with respect to mechanism and susceptibility. Finally, genetic polymorphisms exist in genes that govern capacity to metabolize environmental contaminants. Higher risk may occur among persons whose enzymes either are more active in the production of procarcinogens or fail to detoxify carcinogenic intermediates formed from chemicals in the environment. PMID:9255576

  15. Sexually Transmissible Infections and Prostate Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-Yi; Hayes, Richard; Pfeiffer, Ruth; Viscidi, Raphael P.; Lee, Francis K.; Wang, Yun F.; Reding, Douglas; Whitby, Denise; Papp, John R.; Rabkin, Charles S.

    2008-01-01

    Background Sexually transmissible infections (STIs) have been variably associated with increased risks of prostate cancer, largely in case-control studies. Methods In the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial, we examined risk of prostate cancer in relation to serum antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18, herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) in 868 cases (765 whites and 103 blacks) and 1,283 controls matched by race, age, time since initial screening, and year of blood draw; all blood samples were collected at least one year prior to prostate cancer diagnosis, except for 43 black cases. We also assessed risk associated with self-reported history of syphilis and gonorrhea. Results Prevalences of the 7 STIs among controls were weakly correlated, and all were more frequent among blacks than whites, except for HHV-8. Among whites, prostate cancer risk was not significantly associated with the individual infections nor with their number (Ptrend = 0.1); however, men with one or more STI had slightly higher risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-1.6). Among blacks, excess risk was associated with IgA antibody to C. trachomatis (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.2-3.6). Conclusion This large prospective study of prostate cancer shows no consistent association with specific STIs and a borderline association with any vs. none. Whether a shared response or correlated infection not directly measured underlies the weak association requires further study. PMID:18768506

  16. Multi-organ Mapping of Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liqin; Finkelstein, David; Gao, Culian; Shi, Lei; Wang, Yongdong; López-Terrada, Dolores; Wang, Kasper; Utley, Sarah; Pounds, Stanley; Neale, Geoffrey; Ellison, David; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Gilbertson, Richard James

    2016-08-25

    Cancers are distributed unevenly across the body, but the importance of cell intrinsic factors such as stem cell function in determining organ cancer risk is unknown. Therefore, we used Cre-recombination of conditional lineage tracing, oncogene, and tumor suppressor alleles to define populations of stem and non-stem cells in mouse organs and test their life-long susceptibility to tumorigenesis. We show that tumor incidence is determined by the life-long generative capacity of mutated cells. This relationship held true in the presence of multiple genotypes and regardless of developmental stage, strongly supporting the notion that stem cells dictate organ cancer risk. Using the liver as a model system, we further show that damage-induced activation of stem cell function markedly increases cancer risk. Therefore, we propose that a combination of stem cell mutagenesis and extrinsic factors that enhance the proliferation of these cell populations, creates a "perfect storm" that ultimately determines organ cancer risk. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:27565343

  17. Risk stratification of prostate cancer 2016.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignancy in men, but its management is fraught with controversy owing to its variable biologic and clinical behavior. Despite evidence that PSA screening reduces prostate cancer specific metastasis and death, it has not gained acceptance by various health authorities. Nevertheless, recent advances in biomarker development potentially address many of the shortcomings of routine PSA testing alone, including improved specificity for the detection of clinically significant cancer, optimized risk stratification to aid clinical management decisions, and discovery of genetic variants that may guide optimized therapy of advanced disease. PMID:27533326

  18. Trends in quantitative cancer risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, S C

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative cancer risk assessment is a dynamic field, more closely coupled to rapidly advancing biomedical research than ever before. Six areas of change and growth are identified: expansion from models of cancer initiation to a more complete picture of the total carcinogenic process; trend from curve-fitting to biologically based models; movement from upperbound estimates to best estimates, with a more complete treatment of uncertainty; increased consideration of the role of susceptibility; growing development of expert systems and decision support systems; and emerging importance of risk communication. PMID:2050076

  19. Treatment and Outcomes in Patients With Primary Cutaneous B-Cell Lymphoma: The BC Cancer Agency Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Sarah N.; Wai, Elaine S.; Tan, King; Alexander, Cheryl; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Connors, Joseph M.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To review the treatment and outcomes of patients with primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma (CBCL). Methods and Materials: Clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcomes were analyzed for all patients referred to our institution from 1981 through 2011 with primary CBCL without extracutaneous or distant nodal spread at diagnosis (n=136). Hematopathologists classified 99% of cases using the World Health Organization-European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (WHO-EORTC) guidelines. Results: Median age at diagnosis was 62 years. Classification was 18% diffuse large B-cell leg-type (DLBCL-leg), 32% follicle center (FCCL), 45% marginal zone (MZL), and 6% nonclassifiable (OTHER). Of the 111 subjects with indolent lymphoma (FCCL, MZL, OTHER), 79% received radiation alone (RT), 11% surgery alone, 3% chemotherapy alone, 4% chemotherapy followed by RT, and 3% observation. Following treatment, 29% of subjects relapsed. In-field recurrence occurred in 2% treated with RT and in 33% treated with surgery alone. Of the 25 subjects with DLBCL-leg, 52% received chemotherapy followed by RT, 24% chemotherapy, 20% RT, and 4% surgery alone. Seventy-nine percent received CHOP-type chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin or epirubicin, vincristine, prednisone), 47% with rituximab added. Overall and disease-specific survival and time to progression at 5 years were 81%, 92%, and 69% for indolent and 26%, 61%, and 54% for DLBCL-leg, respectively. On Cox regression analysis of indolent subjects, RT was associated with better time to progression (P=.05). RT dose, chemo, age >60 y, and >1 lesion were not significantly associated with time to progression. For DLBCL-leg, disease-specific survival at 5 years was 100% for those receiving rituximab versus 67% for no rituximab (P=.13). Conclusions: This review demonstrates better outcomes for indolent histology compared with DLBCL-leg, validating the prognostic utility of the WHO-EORTC classification. In the indolent group

  20. Epidemiology and risk factors for kidney cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Wong-Ho; Dong, Linda M.; Devesa, Susan S.

    2010-01-01

    After over two decades of increasing rates, kidney cancer incidence trends worldwide show signs of plateauing or decreases in recent years. In the United States, rates for renal cell cancer, the predominant form of kidney cancer in adults, continue to rise but mainly for early stage tumors. Incidence rates for renal pelvis cancer have declined, while kidney cancer mortality rates overall have leveled. These patterns are consistent with reports of incidental diagnosis and downward shift of tumor stage and size in clinical series. The changing prevalence of known risk factors for renal cell cancer, including cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension, may also be influencing the incidence trends, although their relative impact may differ in various populations,. Evidence is accumulating to suggest an etiologic role for physical activity, alcohol consumption, occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, and high parity among women, but causal conclusions are not yet supported. Genetic susceptibility and its interaction with environmental exposures are believed to influence renal cell cancer risk, but limited studies based on candidate gene approaches have not produced conclusive results. Large consortium efforts employing genome-wide scanning technology are underway, which hold promise for novel discoveries in renal carcinogenesis. PMID:20448658

  1. Academic-Community Partnership to Develop a Patient-Centered Breast Cancer Risk Reduction Program for Latina Primary Care Patients.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Sheila F; Giacinto, Rebeca E; Medeiros, Elizabeth A; Brongiel, Ilana; Cardona, Olga; Perez, Patricia; Talavera, Gregory A

    2016-06-01

    This collaborative study sought to address Latina breast cancer (BC) disparities by increasing health literacy (HL) in a community health center situated on the US-Mexico border region of San Diego County. An academic-community partnership conducted formative research to develop a culturally tailored promotora-based intervention with 109 individuals. The Spanish language program, entitled Nuestra Cocina: Mesa Buena, Vida Sana (Our Kitchen: Good Table, Healthy Life), included six sessions targeting HL, women's health, BC risk reduction, and patient-provider communication; sessions include cooking demonstrations of recipes with cancer-risk-reducing ingredients. A pilot study with 47 community health center Latina patients was conducted to examine the program's acceptability, feasibility, and ability to impact knowledge and skills. Pre- and post-analyses demonstrated that participants improved their self-reported cancer screening, BC knowledge, daily fruit and vegetable intake, and ability to read a nutrition label (p < 0.05). Results of the pilot study demonstrate the importance of utilizing patient-centered culturally appropriate noninvasive means to educate and empower Latina patients.

  2. Academic-Community Partnership to Develop a Patient-Centered Breast Cancer Risk Reduction Program for Latina Primary Care Patients.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Sheila F; Giacinto, Rebeca E; Medeiros, Elizabeth A; Brongiel, Ilana; Cardona, Olga; Perez, Patricia; Talavera, Gregory A

    2016-06-01

    This collaborative study sought to address Latina breast cancer (BC) disparities by increasing health literacy (HL) in a community health center situated on the US-Mexico border region of San Diego County. An academic-community partnership conducted formative research to develop a culturally tailored promotora-based intervention with 109 individuals. The Spanish language program, entitled Nuestra Cocina: Mesa Buena, Vida Sana (Our Kitchen: Good Table, Healthy Life), included six sessions targeting HL, women's health, BC risk reduction, and patient-provider communication; sessions include cooking demonstrations of recipes with cancer-risk-reducing ingredients. A pilot study with 47 community health center Latina patients was conducted to examine the program's acceptability, feasibility, and ability to impact knowledge and skills. Pre- and post-analyses demonstrated that participants improved their self-reported cancer screening, BC knowledge, daily fruit and vegetable intake, and ability to read a nutrition label (p < 0.05). Results of the pilot study demonstrate the importance of utilizing patient-centered culturally appropriate noninvasive means to educate and empower Latina patients. PMID:27271058

  3. Academic-Community Partnership to Develop a Patient-Centered Breast Cancer Risk Reduction Program for Latina Primary Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Castañeda, Sheila F.; Giacinto, Rebeca E.; Medeiros, Elizabeth A.; Brongiel, Ilana; Cardona, Olga; Perez, Patricia; Talavera, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    This collaborative study sought to address Latina breast cancer (BC) disparities by increasing health literacy (HL) in a community health center situated on the US-Mexico border region of San Diego County. An academic-community partnership conducted formative research to develop a culturally tailored promotora-based intervention with 109 individuals. The Spanish language program, entitled Nuestra Cocina: Mesa Buena, Vida Sana (Our Kitchen: Good Table, Healthy Life), included six sessions targeting HL, women’s health, BC risk reduction, and patient-provider communication; sessions include cooking demonstrations of recipes with cancer-risk-reducing ingredients. A pilot study with 47 community health center Latina patients was conducted to examine the program’s acceptability, feasibility, and ability to impact knowledge and skills. Pre- and post-analyses demonstrated that participants improved their self-reported cancer screening, BC knowledge, daily fruit and vegetable intake, and ability to read a nutrition label (p<0.05). Results of the pilot study demonstrate the importance of utilizing patient-centered culturally appropriate noninvasive means to educate and empower Latina patients. PMID:27271058

  4. Polymorphisms in Phase I and Phase II genes and breast cancer risk and relations to persistent organic pollutant exposure: a case–control study in Inuit women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We have previously reported that chemicals belonging to the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as perfluorinated compounds (PFAS) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are risk factors in Breast Cancer (BC) development in Greenlandic Inuit women. The present case–control study aimed to investigate the main effect of polymorphisms in genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and estrogen biosynthesis, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, COMT and CYP17, CYP19 and the BRCA1 founder mutation in relation to BC risk and to explore possible interactions between the gene polymorphisms and serum POP levels on BC risk in Greenlandic Inuit women. Methods The study population consisted of 31 BC cases and 115 matched controls, with information on serum levels of POPs. Genotyping was conducted for CYP1A1 (Ile462Val; rs1048943), CYP1B1 (Leu432Val; rs1056836), COMT (Val158Met; rs4680), CYP17A1 (A1> A2; rs743572); CYP19A1 (C> T; rs10046) and CYP19A1 ((TTTA)n repeats) polymorphisms and BRCA1 founder mutation using TaqMan allelic discrimination method and polymerase chain reaction based restriction fragment length polymorphism. The χ2 –test was used to compare categorical variables between cases and controls and the odds ratios were estimated by unconditional logistic regression models. Results We found an independent association of CYP1A1 (Val) and CYP17 (A1) with BC risk. Furthermore, an increased BC risk was observed for women with high serum levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and carriers of at least: one CYP1A1 variant Val allele; one variant COMT Met allele; or the common CYP17 A1 allele. No combined effects were seen between PFAS exposure and CYP1B1 and CYP19 polymorphisms. The risk of BC was not found significantly associated with exposure to PCBs and OCPs, regardless of genotype for all investigated SNPs. The frequency of the Greenlandic founder mutation in BRCA1 was as expected higher in cases than in controls. Conclusions The

  5. DNA damage phenotype and prostate cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Kosti, O.; Goldman, L.; Saha, D.T.; Orden, R.A.; Pollock, A.J.; Madej, H.L.; Hsing, A.W.; Chu, L.W.; Lynch, J.H.; Goldman, R.

    2010-01-01

    The capacity of an individual to process DNA damage is considered a crucial factor in carcinogenesis. The comet assay is a phenotypic measure of the combined effects of sensitivity to a mutagen exposure and repair capacity. In this paper, we evaluate the association of the DNA repair kinetics, as measured by the comet assay, with prostate cancer risk. In a pilot study of 55 men with prostate cancer, 53 men without the disease, and 71 men free of cancer at biopsy, we investigated the association of DNA damage with prostate cancer risk at early (0-15 min) and later (15-45 min) stages following gamma-radiation exposure. Although residual damage within 45 min was the same for all groups (65% of DNA in comet tail disappeared), prostate cancer cases had a slower first phase (38% vs 41%) and faster second phase (27% vs 22%) of the repair response compared to controls. When subjects were categorized into quartiles, according to efficiency of repairing DNA damage, high repair-efficiency within the first 15 min after exposure was not associated with prostate cancer risk while higher at the 15-45 min period was associated with increased risk (OR for highest-to-lowest quartiles = 3.24, 95% CI=0.98-10.66, p-trend =0.04). Despite limited sample size, our data suggest that DNA repair kinetics marginally differ between prostate cancer cases and controls. This small difference could be associated with differential responses to DNA damage among susceptible individuals. PMID:21095241

  6. Health-related quality of life, psychological distress, and adverse events in postmenopausal women with breast cancer who receive tamoxifen, exemestane, or anastrozole as adjuvant endocrine therapy: National Surgical Adjuvant Study of Breast Cancer 04 (N-SAS BC 04).

    PubMed

    Takei, Hiroyuki; Ohsumi, Shozo; Shimozuma, Kojiro; Takehara, Megumi; Suemasu, Kimito; Ohashi, Yasuo; Hozumi, Yasuo

    2012-05-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL), symptoms of depression, and adverse events (AEs) were compared between Japanese postmenopausal patients with hormone-sensitive breast cancer (BC) who received adjuvant tamoxifen, exemestane, or anastrozole in an open-labeled, randomized, multicenter trial designated as the National Surgical Adjuvant Study of Breast Cancer (N-SAS BC) 04 substudy of the Tamoxifen Exemestane Adjuvant Multinational (TEAM) trial. During the first year of treatment, HRQOL and symptoms of depression were analyzed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B) and its Endocrine Symptom Subscale (ES), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), respectively. In addition, predefined AEs were analyzed. A total of 166 eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive adjuvant tamoxifen, exemestane, or anastrozole. FACT-B scores increased after treatment began and remained significantly higher in the tamoxifen group than in the exemestane group or anastrozole group during the first year (P = 0.045). FACT-B scores were similar in the exemestane group and anastrozole group. ES scores and CES-D scores were similar in all treatment groups. Arthralgia and fatigue were less frequent, but vaginal discharge was more frequent in the tamoxifen group than in the exemestane group or anastrozole group. HRQOL was better in Japanese postmenopausal women treated with tamoxifen than those treated with exemestane or anastrozole. HRQOL and AEs were similar with exemestane and anastrozole. Given the results of the TEAM trial, upfront use of tamoxifen followed by an aromatase inhibitor (AI) may be an important option for adjuvant endocrine therapy in Japanese postmenopausal women.

  7. Occupational risks of sinonasal cancer in Denmark.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, J H

    1988-01-01

    A new comprehensive data linkage system for the detailed investigation of occupational cancer has been established in the Danish Cancer Registry, providing employment histories back to 1964. All 382 cases of cancers of the sinonasal cavities diagnosed between 1970 and 1984 and kept on file in this data linkage system were analysed using standardised proportional incidence ratios (SPIR) to screen for industrial high risk areas for these malignancies in Denmark. Excess risks were confirmed among men and women employed in the manufacture of footwear and other leather products and of wooden furniture. No risk significantly above expectancy was observed among wood workers outside the furniture making industry. Excess risks were also seen among men in all areas of basic metal industries (SPIR = 184-562) and in a subset of workers in industries producing metal containers (SPIR = 329-600). Most unexpected were raised risks among employees of both sexes in making cocoa, chocolate, and sugar confectionery (SPIR = 535 for men and 860 for women); these, in combination with the observed risks among female employees in canning and preserving fruits and vegetables (SPIR = 778) and in farming (SPIR = 735) may point to a common aetiology. The obscuring effect of mass significance may, however, be another explanation. The new associations discovered in this large scale linkage study must therefore await further confirmation. PMID:3378013

  8. Occupational risks of sinonasal cancer in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Olsen, J H

    1988-05-01

    A new comprehensive data linkage system for the detailed investigation of occupational cancer has been established in the Danish Cancer Registry, providing employment histories back to 1964. All 382 cases of cancers of the sinonasal cavities diagnosed between 1970 and 1984 and kept on file in this data linkage system were analysed using standardised proportional incidence ratios (SPIR) to screen for industrial high risk areas for these malignancies in Denmark. Excess risks were confirmed among men and women employed in the manufacture of footwear and other leather products and of wooden furniture. No risk significantly above expectancy was observed among wood workers outside the furniture making industry. Excess risks were also seen among men in all areas of basic metal industries (SPIR = 184-562) and in a subset of workers in industries producing metal containers (SPIR = 329-600). Most unexpected were raised risks among employees of both sexes in making cocoa, chocolate, and sugar confectionery (SPIR = 535 for men and 860 for women); these, in combination with the observed risks among female employees in canning and preserving fruits and vegetables (SPIR = 778) and in farming (SPIR = 735) may point to a common aetiology. The obscuring effect of mass significance may, however, be another explanation. The new associations discovered in this large scale linkage study must therefore await further confirmation.

  9. Genetic modifiers of menopausal hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer risk: a genome-wide interaction study.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Anja; Hein, Rebecca; Lindström, Sara; Beckmann, Lars; Behrens, Sabine; Liu, Jianjun; Aschard, Hugues; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Jean; Truong, Thérèse; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Brüning, Thomas; Harth, Volker; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Southey, Melissa; Chanock, Stephen J; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D; Eriksson, Mikael; Humpreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Olson, Janet E; Stevens, Kristen N; Vachon, Celine M; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nicholas; Schoemaker, Minouk; Webb, Penny M; Guénel, Pascal; Brauch, Hiltrud; Giles, Graham; García-Closas, Montserrat; Czene, Kamila; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Couch, Fergus J; Andrulis, Irene L; Swerdlow, Anthony; Hunter, David J; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Easton, Douglas F; Hall, Per; Nevanlinna, Heli; Kraft, Peter; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2013-12-01

    Women using menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) are at increased risk of developing breast cancer (BC). To detect genetic modifiers of the association between current use of MHT and BC risk, we conducted a meta-analysis of four genome-wide case-only studies followed by replication in 11 case-control studies. We used a case-only design to assess interactions between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and current MHT use on risk of overall and lobular BC. The discovery stage included 2920 cases (541 lobular) from four genome-wide association studies. The top 1391 SNPs showing P values for interaction (Pint) <3.0 × 10(-3) were selected for replication using pooled case-control data from 11 studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, including 7689 cases (676 lobular) and 9266 controls. Fixed-effects meta-analysis was used to derive combined Pint. No SNP reached genome-wide significance in either the discovery or combined stage. We observed effect modification of current MHT use on overall BC risk by two SNPs on chr13 near POMP (combined Pint≤8.9 × 10(-6)), two SNPs in SLC25A21 (combined Pint≤4.8 × 10(-5)), and three SNPs in PLCG2 (combined Pint≤4.5 × 10(-5)). The association between lobular BC risk was potentially modified by one SNP in TMEFF2 (combined Pint≤2.7 × 10(-5)), one SNP in CD80 (combined Pint≤8.2 × 10(-6)), three SNPs on chr17 near TMEM132E (combined Pint≤2.2×10(-6)), and two SNPs on chr18 near SLC25A52 (combined Pint≤4.6 × 10(-5)). In conclusion, polymorphisms in genes related to solute transportation in mitochondria, transmembrane signaling, and immune cell activation are potentially modifying BC risk associated with current use of MHT. These findings warrant replication in independent studies.

  10. Reassessment of risk factors for oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Gangane, Nitin; Chawla, Shweta; Anshu; Subodh, Anshu; Gupta, Subodh Sharan; Sharma, Satish M

    2007-01-01

    A total of 140 cases of histologically confirmed oral cancer were evaluated for their demographic details, dietary habits and addiction to tobacco and alcohol using a pre-designed structured questionnaire at the Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram in Central India. These cases were matched with three sets of age and sex matched controls. Oral cancer was predominant in the age group of 50-59 years. Individuals on a non-vegetarian diet appeared to be at greater risk of developing oral cancer. Cases were habituated to consuming hot beverages more frequently and milk less frequently than controls. Consumption of ghutka, a granular form of chewable tobacco and areca nut, was significantly associated with oral cancer cases. Cases had been using oral tobacco for longer duration than controls, and were habituated to sleeping with tobacco quid in their mouth. Most cases were also addicted to smoking tobacco and alcohol consumption. Bidi (a crude cigarette) smoking was most commonly associated with oral cancer. On stratified analysis, a combination of regular smoking and oral tobacco use, as well as a combination of regular alcohol intake and oral tobacco use were significantly associated with oral cancer cases. Synergistic effects of all three or even two of the risk factors - oral tobacco use, smoking and alcohol consumption- was more commonly seen in cases when compared to controls.

  11. Chemical Mixtures: Cancer Risk Assessment Approaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will describe how EPA uses linear and nonlinear methods to derive cancer slope factors and reference doses,respectively, for single carcinogens, as described in EPA's 2005 Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. Then, the presentation will show how these toxicity ...

  12. Defining chromosomal translocation risks in cancer.

    PubMed

    Hogenbirk, Marc A; Heideman, Marinus R; de Rink, Iris; Velds, Arno; Kerkhoven, Ron M; Wessels, Lodewyk F A; Jacobs, Heinz

    2016-06-28

    Chromosomal translocations are a hallmark of cancer. Unraveling the molecular mechanism of these rare genetic events requires a clear distinction between correlative and causative risk-determinants, where technical and analytical issues can be excluded. To meet this goal, we performed in-depth analyses of publicly available genome-wide datasets. In contrast to several recent reports, we demonstrate that chromosomal translocation risk is causally unrelated to promoter stalling (Spt5), transcriptional activity, or off-targeting activity of the activation-induced cytidine deaminase. Rather, an open chromatin configuration, which is not promoter-specific, explained the elevated translocation risk of promoter regions. Furthermore, the fact that gene size directly correlates with the translocation risk in mice and human cancers further demonstrated the general irrelevance of promoter-specific activities. Interestingly, a subset of translocations observed in cancer patients likely initiates from double-strand breaks induced by an access-independent process. Together, these unexpected and novel insights are fundamental in understanding the origin of chromosome translocations and, consequently, cancer. PMID:27303044

  13. Defining chromosomal translocation risks in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hogenbirk, Marc A.; Heideman, Marinus R.; de Rink, Iris; Velds, Arno; Kerkhoven, Ron M.; Wessels, Lodewyk F. A.; Jacobs, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations are a hallmark of cancer. Unraveling the molecular mechanism of these rare genetic events requires a clear distinction between correlative and causative risk-determinants, where technical and analytical issues can be excluded. To meet this goal, we performed in-depth analyses of publicly available genome-wide datasets. In contrast to several recent reports, we demonstrate that chromosomal translocation risk is causally unrelated to promoter stalling (Spt5), transcriptional activity, or off-targeting activity of the activation-induced cytidine deaminase. Rather, an open chromatin configuration, which is not promoter-specific, explained the elevated translocation risk of promoter regions. Furthermore, the fact that gene size directly correlates with the translocation risk in mice and human cancers further demonstrated the general irrelevance of promoter-specific activities. Interestingly, a subset of translocations observed in cancer patients likely initiates from double-strand breaks induced by an access-independent process. Together, these unexpected and novel insights are fundamental in understanding the origin of chromosome translocations and, consequently, cancer. PMID:27303044

  14. Gene variant linked to lung cancer risk

    Cancer.gov

    A variation of the gene NFKB1, called rs4648127, is associated with an estimated 44 percent reduction in lung cancer risk. When this information, derived from samples obtained as part of a large NCI-sponsored prevention clinical trial, was compared with d

  15. Endocrine disruptors and prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Prins, Gail S

    2008-09-01

    There is increasing evidence both from epidemiology studies and animal models that specific endocrine-disrupting compounds may influence the development or progression of prostate cancer. In large part, these effects appear to be linked to interference with estrogen signaling, either through interacting with ERs or by influencing steroid metabolism and altering estrogen levels within the body. In humans, epidemiologic evidence links specific pesticides, PCBs and inorganic arsenic exposures to elevated prostate cancer risk. Studies in animal models also show augmentation of prostate carcinogenesis with several other environmental estrogenic compounds including cadmium, UV filters and BPA. Importantly, there appears to be heightened sensitivity of the prostate to these endocrine disruptors during the critical developmental windows including in utero and neonatal time points as well as during puberty. Thus infants and children may be considered a highly susceptible population for ED exposures and increased risk of prostate cancers with aging.

  16. Endocrine disruptors and prostate cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Gail S

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence both from epidemiology studies and animal models that specific endocrine-disrupting compounds may influence the development or progression of prostate cancer. In large part, these effects appear to be linked to interference with estrogen signaling, either through interacting with ERs or by influencing steroid metabolism and altering estrogen levels within the body. In humans, epidemiologic evidence links specific pesticides, PCBs and inorganic arsenic exposures to elevated prostate cancer risk. Studies in animal models also show augmentation of prostate carcinogenesis with several other environmental estrogenic compounds including cadmium, UV filters and BPA. Importantly, there appears to be heightened sensitivity of the prostate to these endocrine disruptors during the critical developmental windows including in utero and neonatal time points as well as during puberty. Thus infants and children may be considered a highly susceptible population for ED exposures and increased risk of prostate cancers with aging. PMID:18524946

  17. GERD, Barrett's Esophagus and the Risk for Esophageal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facts About Common Colon Cancer Screening Tests PATIENTS GERD, Barrett's Esophagus and the Risk for Esophageal Cancer ... commonly in Caucasians as well as people with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This cancer is increasing in frequency. ...

  18. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  19. Breast and Ovarian Cancer and Family History Risk Categories

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases Genomic Resources Breast and Ovarian Cancer and Family History Risk Categories Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Screening. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. February 2016. Family Health History, Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk, and ...

  20. Aromatase Inhibitors and Other Compounds for Lowering Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... References Aromatase inhibitors and other compounds for lowering breast cancer risk Aromatase inhibitors (drugs that lower estrogen levels) ... day. Can aromatase inhibitors lower the risk of breast cancer? Aromatase inhibitors are used mainly to treat hormone ...

  1. Breast Cancer Risk Assessment SAS Macro (Gail Model)

    Cancer.gov

    A SAS macro (commonly referred to as the Gail Model) that projects absolute risk of invasive breast cancer according to NCI’s Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT) algorithm for specified race/ethnic groups and age intervals.

  2. IVF Won't Raise Risk for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159959.html IVF Won't Raise Risk for Breast Cancer New findings should reassure the many women who ... a baby aren't at increased risk of breast cancer, according to Dutch researchers. Their study of more ...

  3. Knowing Their Breast Cancer Risk May Empower Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161233.html Knowing Their Breast Cancer Risk May Empower Teens Greater self-esteem noted ... News) -- Knowing they have a family history of breast cancer or a high-risk gene mutation doesn't ...

  4. Software Speeds Up Analysis of Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_161117.html Software Speeds Up Analysis of Breast Cancer Risk: Study Doctors were 30 times slower reading ... quickly analyzes mammograms and patient history to determine breast cancer risk could save time and reduce unnecessary biopsies, ...

  5. What Are the Risk Factors for Bone Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... bone cancer? What are the risk factors for bone cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects your ... are caused by defects (mutations) in certain genes. Osteosarcomas Children with certain rare inherited syndromes have an ...

  6. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene C677T polymorphism and breast cancer risk: Evidence for genetic susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pradeep; Yadav, Upendra; Rai, Vandana

    2015-01-01

    There are several evidences supporting the role of 5–10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms in breast cancer (BC). Case control association studies on breast cancer have been repeatedly performed over the last two decades, but results are inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis to confirm the association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and BC risk. The articles were retrieved by searching the PubMed, Google Scholar, and Springer Link databases. Crude odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was used to assess the strength of association between C677T polymorphism and BC. Publication bias was assessed by Egger's and Begg-Mazumdar tests. Meta-analysis was performed with Open Meta Analyst. Total 75 studies with 31,315 cases and 35, 608 controls were found suitable for the inclusion in the present meta-analysis. The results of meta-analysis suggested that there were moderate significant association between C677T polymorphism and BC risk using overall comparisons in five genetic models (T vs. C: OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.03–1.13, p = < 0.001; TT + CT vs. CC: OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.02–1.09, p = < 0.001; TT vs. CC: OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.06–1.28, p = 0.001; CT vs. CC OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.01–1.08, p = 0.005; TT vs. CT + CC: OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.03–1.22, p = 0.005). In conclusion, results of present meta-analysis showed modest association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism with breast cancer in total studies. However, sub-group analysis results based on ethnicity showed strong significant association between TT genotype and breast cancer (TT vs. CC; OR°=°1.26; 95% CI: 1.06–1.51; p = 0.009) in Asian population but in Caucasian population such association was not observed (TT vs. CC; OR°=°1.08; 95% CI: 0.99–1.14; p = 0.05). PMID:26629412

  7. Char BC amendments for soil and sediment amelioration: BC quantification and field pilot trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelissen, G.; Braendli, R. C.; Eek, E.; Henriksen, T.; Hartnik, T.; Breedveld, G. D.

    2008-12-01

    Background Activated char BC binds organic contaminants and possibly mercury so strongly that their bioaccumulation and transport to other environmental compartments are reduced. The advantages of black carbon amendment over many other remediation methods include i) it can be used as an in situ risk reduction method, ii) the price is low, and iii) it overcomes significant controversies associated with disposal of dredged and excavated materials. In this study BC amendment is used in pilot trials in the field for soil and sediment amelioration. Quantification of amended char BC Two methods for char BC quantification were tested: i) chemothermal oxidation (CTO) at a range of temperatures and ii) wet chemical oxidation with a potassium dichromate/sulfuric acid solution. The amount of BC amended to three soils was accurately determined by CTO at 375°C. For two sediments, much of the BC disappeared during combustion at 375°C, which could probably be explained by catalytic effects caused by sediment constituents such as metals, mineral oxides and salts. Attempts to avoid these effects through rinsing with acid before combustion did not result in higher char BC recoveries. CTO at lower temperatures (325-350°C) was a feasible alternative for one of the sediments. Wet oxidation with potassium dichromate/sulfuric acid proved to effectively function for BC quantification in sediments, since almost complete BC recovery (81-92 %) was observed for both sediments, while the amount of organic carbon remaining was low (5-16 %). Field pilots Earlier, we showed the effectiveness of BC amendment in the laboratory. In the laboratory it was shown that BC amendments (2 %) reduced freely dissolved porewater concentrations (factor of 10-50) and bioaccumulation (factor of 5). This presentation will describe 50 × 50 m pilot field trials in Norway (2007-2008): Trondheim Harbor (sediment) and Drammen (soil). The presentation will focus on physical monitoring (distribution of BC in the

  8. Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers and Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yun-Tao; Li, Peng-Yang; Zhang, Jian-Qiang; Wang, Lei; Yi, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) are widely used drugs that are proven to reduce cardiovascular disease events; however, several recent meta-analyses yielded conflicting conclusions regarding the relationship between ARB and cancer incidence, especially when ARB are combined with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI). We investigated the risk of cancer associated with ARB at different background ACEI levels. Search of PubMed and EMBASE (1966 to December 17, 2015) without language restriction. Randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) had at least 12 months of follow-up data and reported cancer incidence was included. Study characteristics, quality, and risk of bias were assessed by 2 reviewers independently. Nineteen RCTs including 148,334 patients were included in this study. Random-effects model meta-analyses were used to estimate the risk ratio (RR) of cancer risk. No excessive cancer risk was observed in our analyses of ARB alone versus placebo alone without background ACEI use (risk ratio [RR] 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00–1.18, P = 0.05); ARB alone versus ACEI alone (RR 1.03, 95%CI 0.94–1.14, P = 0.50); ARB plus partial use of ACEI versus placebo plus partial use of ACEI (RR 0.97, 95%CI 0.90–1.04, P = 0.33); and ARB plus ACEI versus ACEI (RR 0.99, 95%CI 0.79–1.24, P = 0.95). Lack of long-term data, inadequate reporting of safety data, significant heterogeneity in underlying study populations, and treatment regimens. ARB have a neutral effect on cancer incidence in randomized trials. We observed no significant differences in cancer incidence when we compared ARB alone with placebo alone, ARB alone with ACEI alone, ARB plus partial use of ACEI with placebo plus partial use of ACEI, or ARB plus ACEI combination with ACEI. PMID:27149494

  9. Plasma and urinary alkylresorcinol metabolites as potential biomarkers of breast cancer risk in Finnish women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Koskela, Anja; Samaletdin, Adile; Adlercreutz, Herman

    2010-01-01

    Alkylresorcinols (ARs) are shown to be good biomarkers of consumption of rye and whole-grain wheat products in man. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate AR metabolites as potential biomarkers of breast cancer (BC) risk in Finnish women since intake of cereal fiber and its components has been proposed to reduce this risk through an effect on the enterohepatic circulation of estrogens. This was a cross-sectional and observational pilot study. A total of 20 omnivores, 20 vegetarians, and 16 BC women (6-12 mo after operation) were investigated on 2 occasions 6 mo apart. Dietary intake (5-days record), plasma/urinary AR metabolites [3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) and 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-propanoic acid (DHPPA)] and plasma/urinary enterolactone were measured. The groups were compared using nonparametric tests. We observed that plasma DHBA (P = 0.007; P = 0.03), plasma DHPPA (P = 0.02; P = 0.01), urinary DHBA (P = 0.001; P = 0.003), urinary DHPPA (P = 0.001; P = 0.001), and cereal fiber intake (P = 0.007; P = 0.003) were significantly lower in the BC group compared to the vegetarian and omnivore groups, respectively. Based on measurements of AR metabolites in urine and in plasma, whole-grain rye and wheat cereal fiber intake is low in BC subjects. Thus, urinary and plasma AR metabolites may be used as potential biomarkers of BC risk in women. This novel approach will likely also facilitate studies of associations between rye and whole-grain wheat cereal fiber intake and other diseases. Our findings should, however, be confirmed with larger subject populations.

  10. Cancer Risk Awareness and Concern among Women with a Family History of Breast or Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Andersen, M Robyn; Thorpe, Jason; Buist, Diana S M; Beatty, J David; Watabayashi, Kate; Hanson, Nancy; Resta, Robert; Chubak, Jessica; Urban, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Women with a documented deleterious mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are at substantially elevated risk for ovarian cancer. To understand what percentage of women with high-risk family histories know their risk is elevated we surveyed 1,885 women with a high- or moderate-risk family history and no personal history of breast or ovarian cancer, and asked about their perceived risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Among high-risk women, fewer than 20% reported use of genetic counseling, and knowledge of elevated risk of ovarian cancer was low. Prior genetic counseling was associated with greater perceived risk for ovarian cancer. Results suggest that most high-risk women (>75%) do not know their risk for ovarian cancer. Identification of potentially high-risk women for referral to genetic counseling may improve informed ovarian cancer risk management.

  11. Risk factors for male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mabuchi, K; Bross, D S; Kessler, I I

    1985-02-01

    To investigate risk factors in male breast cancer, a case-control study of 52 histologically diagnosed cases and 52 controls--matched for age, race, marital status, and hospital--was conducted in 5 U.S. metropolitan areas. Cases were significantly more likely to be Jewish than were the controls, supporting earlier suggestions of an increased risk in Jewish males. A significant association of male breast cancer with mumps infections at age 20 years or older, along with the possible association with antecedent testicular injury and the excess frequency of mumps orchitis among cases, suggests that testicular factors may be important in the development of breast cancer among males. An increased frequency of breast cancer among persons who have worked in blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling mills is of interest because of the possible testicular effect of high environmental temperatures. The observed association between breast cancer and a prior history of swollen breast is difficult to interpret because of potential recall bias, and a possible relationship with military service needs further confirmation. PMID:3856050

  12. Risk factors for male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mabuchi, K; Bross, D S; Kessler, I I

    1985-02-01

    To investigate risk factors in male breast cancer, a case-control study of 52 histologically diagnosed cases and 52 controls--matched for age, race, marital status, and hospital--was conducted in 5 U.S. metropolitan areas. Cases were significantly more likely to be Jewish than were the controls, supporting earlier suggestions of an increased risk in Jewish males. A significant association of male breast cancer with mumps infections at age 20 years or older, along with the possible association with antecedent testicular injury and the excess frequency of mumps orchitis among cases, suggests that testicular factors may be important in the development of breast cancer among males. An increased frequency of breast cancer among persons who have worked in blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling mills is of interest because of the possible testicular effect of high environmental temperatures. The observed association between breast cancer and a prior history of swollen breast is difficult to interpret because of potential recall bias, and a possible relationship with military service needs further confirmation.

  13. Fibre intake and prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Pelucchi, Claudio; Talamini, Renato; Galeone, Carlotta; Negri, Eva; Franceschi, Silvia; Dal Maso, Luigino; Montella, Maurizio; Conti, Ettore; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2004-03-20

    Dietary fibre has been reported to protect from several neoplasms, but the issue remains controversial. No previous study considered in depth the topic of fibres and prostate cancer. A multicentre case-control study was conducted in Italy from 1991 to 2002, including 1,294 men with incident, histologically confirmed prostate cancer and 1,451 controls admitted to the same network of hospitals as cases with acute nonmalignant conditions. Multivariate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained after allowance for major identified confounding factors, including total energy intake. Compared to the lowest quintile, the OR of prostate cancer for the highest quintile of total fibre intake was 0.93 (95% CI 0.71-1.22). The risk was inversely related with soluble fibre (OR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.78-1.02, for a difference between 80th and 20th percentile), cellulose (OR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.78-1.01) and vegetable fibre (OR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.73-0.93). These relationships were consistent across strata of age, family history of prostate cancer, body mass index and education. Vegetable fibres appear, therefore, to have a favourable association with prostate cancer risk. PMID:14750181

  14. Hereditary cancer risk assessment: essential tools for a better approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary cancer risk assessment (HCRA) is a multidisciplinary process of estimating probabilities of germline mutations in cancer susceptibility genes and assessing empiric risks of cancer, based on personal and family history. It includes genetic counseling, testing and management of at-risk individuals so that they can make well-informed choices about cancer surveillance, surgical treatment and chemopreventive measures, including biomolecular cancer therapies. Providing patients and family members with an appropriate HCRA will contribute to a better process of making decisions about their personal and family risks of cancer. Following individuals at high risk through screening protocols, reassuring those at low risk, and referring those at increased risk of hereditary cancer to a cancer genetics center may be the best suitable approach of HCRA. PMID:24165150

  15. Differences in lung cancer mortality trends from 1986-2012 by radon risk areas in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Sarah B; Rauch, Stephen A; Hystad, Perry; Kosatsky, Tom

    2014-05-01

    Residential exposure to radon gas is associated with increased risk of lung cancer, especially in smokers. Most evidence about the health effects of radon has been derived from meta-analyses on global epidemiologic studies, but administrative data can help public health authorities to explore the local impacts. Eighty health units in British Columbia (BC), Canada, were classified as having low, moderate, or high radon risk using more than 3,800 residential measurements. Vital statistics records were used to identify deaths due to lung cancer and to all natural causes. The annual ratio of lung cancer mortality to all natural mortality was plotted for the 1986-2012 study period for each radon classification. Visualizations were stratified by gender and by smoking prevalence. The overall ratio increased throughout the study period in high radon areas and remained stable in low and moderate radon areas. The increase was most pronounced for females, especially when plots were stratified by smoking prevalence. These limited but interesting findings confirm that radon is one risk factor for lung cancer mortality in BC and that its effects differ across gender and smoking strata. The results would be strengthened by replication, and more rigorous methods are required to assess other contributing factors.

  16. BC Jurisdictional Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report was submitted by the BC Council on Admissions (BCCAT) to the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (CMEC). This report is a summary of projects and activities completed by BCCAT during the period from April 1, 2009, to March 31, 2010. The purpose of this report is to inform the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (CMEC) of…

  17. The Italian multi-centre project on evaluation of MRI and other imaging modalities in early detection of breast cancer in subjects at high genetic risk.

    PubMed

    Podo, F; Sardanelli, F; Canese, R; D'Agnolo, G; Natali, P G; Crecco, M; Grandinetti, M L; Musumeci, R; Trecate, G; Bergonzi, S; De Simone, T; Costa, C; Pasini, B; Manuokian, S; Spatti, G B; Vergnaghi, D; Morassut, S; Boiocchi, M; Dolcetti, R; Viel, A; De Giacomi, C; Veronesi, A; Coran, F; Silingardi, V; Turchett, D; Cortesi, L; De Santis, M; Federico, M; Romagnoli, R; Ferrari, S; Bevilacqua, G; Bartolozzi, C; Caligo, M A; Cilotti, A; Marini, C; Cirillo, S; Marra, V; Martincich, L; Contegiacomo, A; Pensabene, M; Capuano, I; Burgazzi, G B; Petrillo, A; Bonomo, L; Carriero, A; Mariani-Costantini, R; Battista, P; Cama, A; Palca, G; Di Maggio, C; D'Andrea, E; Bazzocchi, M; Francescutti, G E; Zuiani, C; Londero, V; Zunnui, I; Gustavino, C; Centurioni, M G; Iozzelli, A; Panizza, P; Del Maschio, A

    2002-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary results of the first phase (21 months) of a multi-centre, non-randomised, prospective study, aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), X-ray mammography (XM) and ultrasound (US) in early diagnosis of breast cancer (BC) in subjects at high genetic risk. This Italian national trial (coordinated by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome) so far recruited 105 women (mean age 46.0 years; median age 51.0; age range 25-77 years), who were either proven BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers or had a 1 in 2 probability of being carriers (40/105 with a previous personal history of BC). Eight cases of breast carcinomas were detected in the trial (mean age 55.3 years, median age 52.5; age range 35-70 years; five with previous personal history of BC). All trial-detected BC cases (8/8) were identified by MRI, while XM and US correctly classified only one. MRI had one false positive case, XM and US none. Seven "MRI-only" detected cancers (4 invasive, 3 in situ) occurred in both pre- (n = 2) and post-menopausal (n = 5) women. With respect to the current XM screening programmes addressed to women in the age range 50-69 years, the global incidence of BC in the trial (7.6%) was over ten-fold higher. The cost per "MRI-only" detected cancer in this particular category of subjects at high genetic risk was substantially lower than that of an XM-detected cancer in the general women population. These preliminary results confirmed that MRI is a very useful tool to screen subjects at high genetic risk for breast carcinoma, not only in pre-, but also in post-menopausal age, with a low probability of false positive cases.

  18. Higher cancer risk continues after Chernobyl

    Cancer.gov

    Nearly 25 years after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine, exposure to radioactive iodine-131(I-131, a radioactive isotope) from fallout may be responsible for thyroid cancers that are still occurring among people who lived in the Chernobyl area and were children or adolescents at the time of the accident, researchers say. An international team of researchers led by the NCI found a clear dose-response relationship, in which higher absorption of radiation from I-131 led to an increased risk for thyroid cancer that has not seemed to diminish over time.

  19. Substantial contribution of extrinsic risk factors to cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Song; Powers, Scott; Zhu, Wei; Hannun, Yusuf A

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent research has highlighted a strong correlation between tissue-specific cancer risk and the lifetime number of tissue-specific stem cell divisions. Whether such correlation implies a high unavoidable intrinsic cancer risk has become a key public health debate with dissemination of the ‘bad luck’ hypothesis. Here we provide evidence that intrinsic risk factors contribute only modestly (<10~30%) to cancer development. First, we demonstrate that the correlation between stem-cell division and cancer risk does not distinguish between the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Next, we show that intrinsic risk is better estimated by the lower bound risk controlling for total stem cell divisions. Finally, we show that the rates of endogenous mutation accumulation by intrinsic processes are not sufficient to account for the observed cancer risks. Collectively, we conclude that cancer risk is heavily influenced by extrinsic factors. These results carry immense consequences for strategizing cancer prevention, research, and public health. PMID:26675728

  20. Risk of Recurrence in Laryngeal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sørum Falk, Ragnhild; Folkvard Evensen, Jan; Boysen, Morten; Brøndbo, Kjell

    2016-01-01

    A cohort study was undertaken to analyze the risk of recurrence among 1616 patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx from 1983 to 2010 at a single, tertiary academic center in Oslo, Norway. The cohort was followed from the date of diagnosis to September 2011. Competing risk regression analysis assessed the association between various risk factors and the risk of recurrence, where death was considered a competing event. Recurrence was observed in 368 patients (23%) during the study period. The majority (71%) of recurrences involved the location of the primary tumor. The overall risk of recurrence during the first three years after initiating treatment was 20.5%. Increased risk of recurrence was observed in patients with supraglottic cancer, younger patients, those with T2–T3 tumors and in patients treated in the earlier part of the study period. Significant factors for recurrence in glottic carcinomas were age, treatment in the earlier part of the study and T-status, whereas age was a significant factor in supraglottic cancer. N-status appeared less significant. In conclusion, follow-up of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma should place particular emphasis on the site of the primary tumor, younger patients, cases of supraglottic cancer and T2-T4 primary tumors, especially during the first three years after treatment. More studies are needed to assess the impact of surgical versus non-surgical treatment, and eventually the significance of recurrence, for disease-specific and overall survival in cases of advanced laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:27716797

  1. Expression of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase ζ is a risk factor for triple negative breast cancer relapse

    PubMed Central

    FU, FENFEN; XIAO, XI; ZHANG, TAO; ZOU, QIONGYAN; CHEN, ZONGLIN; PEI, LEI; SU, JUAN; YI, WENJUN

    2016-01-01

    Patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) have a higher rate of distant recurrence and a poorer prognosis than those with other breast cancer subtypes. Therefore, it is important to study the mechanism of TNBC relapse. A retrospective immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase ζ (PTPRZ1) and pleiotrophin (PTN) was performed for 325 cases of breast cancer. These samples included 66 cases of luminal A breast cancer, 67 cases of luminal B breast cancer, 78 cases of Her-2-enriched breast cancer, 78 cases of TNBC and 36 cases of relapsed TNBC (RTNBC). In addition, 30 control specimens and 30 cases of metastasized lymph nodes were examined. PTPRZ1 and PTN were highly expressed in the RTNBC group. Compared with the RTNBC group, significant differences in the expression of PTPRZ1 were observed between the TNBC, BC and control groups. A significant difference was observed in the expression of PTN in the BC group (P<0.05) compared to RTNBC, and there were no significant differences in the expression of PTPRZ1 and PTN among the molecular subtypes. No significant correlation was observed between the expression of PTPRZ1, PTN, ER, PR, Her-2 and ALN and the tumor size or menopause status. No significant correlation was identified between the expression of PTPRZ1 and PTN and the expression of CD24 and CD44. In summary, high expression of PTPRZ1 may be an independent risk indicator for TNBC recurrence and metastasis. PMID:26893832

  2. Poor periodontal health: A cancer risk?

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, K. S.; Thomas, Deepak; Hegde, Shashikanth; Kumar, M. S. Arun

    2013-01-01

    Evidence indicates that chronic infections and inflammation are associated with increased risk of cancer development. There has also been considerable evidence that proves the interrelationship between bacterial and viral infections and carcinogenesis. Periodontitis is a chronic oral infection thought to be caused by gram-negative anaerobic bacteria in the dental biofilm. Periodontal bacteria and viruses may act synergistically to cause periodontitis. Many studies have shown that periodontal pockets may act as reservoirs for human papilloma virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein Barr virus, and suspected agents associated with oral cancer. Periodontitis, characterized by epithelial proliferation and migration, results in a chronic release of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, prostaglandins, and enzymes, all of which are associated with cancer development. This review article intends to shed light on the association between periodontal health and carcinogenesis. PMID:24554877

  3. Occupational exposure and lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Kvåle, G; Bjelke, E; Heuch, I

    1986-02-15

    The importance of occupation held longest as a risk factor for lung cancer was examined in a prospective study in Norway of 11,995 men, among whom 125 cases occurred in a follow-up from 1966 through 1978. Based on information about occupation held longest, the respondents were classified into 3 groups according to suspected exposure to respiratory carcinogens at the workplace. After stratification for age, place of residence and cigarette smoking, we found a highly significant relative risk of 2.6 for those judged to have experienced definite exposure versus the group with no workplace exposure. The apparent risk-enhancing effect of occupational exposure was observed for all histologic subtypes. Stratification including a socioeconomic factor score led to a moderate reduction in the relative risk estimate. High risk estimates still obtained, however, for a limited number of occupations, the highest for workers in the mining and quarrying industries. Although the interpretation of the observed effect associated with a crude index of occupational exposure may be difficult, our results suggest that between 13 and 27% of the lung cancer cases observed among Norwegian men in the relevant time period can be attributed to harmful work-place exposure. PMID:3943919

  4. Occupational exposure and lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Kvåle, G; Bjelke, E; Heuch, I

    1986-02-15

    The importance of occupation held longest as a risk factor for lung cancer was examined in a prospective study in Norway of 11,995 men, among whom 125 cases occurred in a follow-up from 1966 through 1978. Based on information about occupation held longest, the respondents were classified into 3 groups according to suspected exposure to respiratory carcinogens at the workplace. After stratification for age, place of residence and cigarette smoking, we found a highly significant relative risk of 2.6 for those judged to have experienced definite exposure versus the group with no workplace exposure. The apparent risk-enhancing effect of occupational exposure was observed for all histologic subtypes. Stratification including a socioeconomic factor score led to a moderate reduction in the relative risk estimate. High risk estimates still obtained, however, for a limited number of occupations, the highest for workers in the mining and quarrying industries. Although the interpretation of the observed effect associated with a crude index of occupational exposure may be difficult, our results suggest that between 13 and 27% of the lung cancer cases observed among Norwegian men in the relevant time period can be attributed to harmful work-place exposure.

  5. Perceived risk for cancer in an urban sexual minority

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Jennifer L.; Coups, Elliot; Warren, Barbara; Li, Yuelin; Ostroff, Jamie S.

    2013-01-01

    Lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals are a sexual minority experiencing elevated cancer risk factors and health disaparites, e.g., elevated tobacco use, disproportionate rates of infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Little attention has been paid to cancer prevention, education, and control in sexual minorities. This study describes cancer risk perceptions and their correlates so as to generate testable hypotheses and provide a foundation for targeting cancer prevention and risk reduction efforts in this high risk population. A cross-sectional survey of affiliates of a large urban community center serving sexual minority persons yielded a study sample of 247 anonymous persons. The survey assessed demographics, absolute perceived cancer risk, cancer risk behaviors, desired lifestyle changes to reduce cancer risk, and psychosocial variables including stress, depression, and stigma. Univariate and multivariate nonparametric statistics were used for analyses. The sample was primarily white non-Hispanic, middle-aged, and > 80% had at least a high school education. Mean values for absolute perceived cancer risk (range 0–100% risk), were 43.0 (SD = 25.4) for females, and for males, 49.3 (SD = 24.3). For females, although the multivariate regression model for absolute perceived cancer risk was statistically significant (P < .05), no single model variable was significant. For men, the multivariate regression model was significant (P < .001), with endorsement of “don't smoke/quit smoking” to reduce personal cancer risk (P < .001), and greater number of sexual partners (P = .054), positively associated with absolute perceived risk for cancer. This study provides novel data on cancer risk perceptions in sexual minorities, identifying correlates of absolute perceived cancer risk for each gender and several potential foci for cancer prevention interventions with this at-risk group. PMID:20872174

  6. Blood Type Influences Pancreatic Cancer Risk | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    A variation in the gene that determines ABO blood type influences the risk of pancreatic cancer, according to the results of the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) for this highly lethal disease. The genetic variation, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), was discovered in a region of chromosome 9 that harbors the gene that determines blood type, the researchers reported August 2 online in Nature Genetics. |

  7. Cancer Risks in Aluminum Reduction Plant Workers

    PubMed Central

    Labrèche, France

    2014-01-01

    Objective and Methods: This review examines epidemiological evidence relating to cancers in the primary aluminum industry where most of what is known relates to Söderberg operations or to mixed Söderberg/prebake operations. Results and Conclusions: Increased lung and bladder cancer risks have been reported in Söderberg workers from several countries, but not in all. After adjustment for smoking, these cancer risks still increase with cumulative exposure to benzo(a)pyrene, used as an index of coal tar pitch volatiles exposure. Limited evidence has been gathered in several cohorts for an increased risk of tumors at other sites, including stomach, pancreas, rectum/rectosigmoid junction, larynx, buccal cavity/pharynx, kidney, brain/nervous system, prostate, and lymphatic/hematopoietic tissues (in particular non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin disease, and leukemia). Nevertheless, for most of these tumor sites, the relationship with specific exposures has not been demonstrated clearly and further follow-up of workers is warranted. PMID:24806725

  8. Dietary factors associated with bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    It is biologically plausible for dietary factors to influence bladder cancer risk considering that beneficial as well as harmful components of a diet are excreted through the urinary tract and in direct contact with the epithelium of the bladder. However, studies that investigated the association between dietary factors and bladder cancer (BC) risk have largely reported inconsistent results. The macronutrient intake and risk of BC could have yield inconsistent results across studies because of lack of details on the type, source and the quantities of different dietary fatty acids consumed. There is evidence to suggest that consumption of processed meat may increase BC risk. Dietary carbohydrate intake does not appear to be directly associated with BC risk. Even though a large number of studies have investigated the association between fruit/vegetable consumption/micronutrients in those and BC risk, they have yielded inconsistent results. Gender-specific subgroup analysis, details of how fruits and vegetables are consumed (raw vs. cooked), adequate control for smoking status/aggressiveness of the cancer and consideration of genetic make-up may clarify these inconsistent results. There is no strong evidence to suggest that supplementation with any common micronutrient is effective in reducing BC risk. These limitations in published research however do not totally eclipse the observation that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables and low in processed meat along with especially smoking cessation may convey some protective effects against BC risk. PMID:27326403

  9. Residential Radon: The Neglected Risk Factor in Lung Cancer Risk Scores.

    PubMed

    Torres-Duran, María; Fernandez-Villar, Alberto; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    There are some published scores to estimate lung cancer risk of mortality or incidence. Nevertheless, no score has included residential radon as a variable to be considered when estimating lung cancer risk. In this commentary we discuss the importance of including residential radon as a factor to be taken into account when calculating lung cancer risk. PMID:27565403

  10. Residential Radon: The Neglected Risk Factor in Lung Cancer Risk Scores.

    PubMed

    Torres-Duran, María; Fernandez-Villar, Alberto; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    There are some published scores to estimate lung cancer risk of mortality or incidence. Nevertheless, no score has included residential radon as a variable to be considered when estimating lung cancer risk. In this commentary we discuss the importance of including residential radon as a factor to be taken into account when calculating lung cancer risk.

  11. Functional annotation of colon cancer risk SNPs

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Lijing; Tak, Yu Gyoung; Berman, Benjamin P.; Farnham, Peggy J.

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with increased risk for CRC. A molecular understanding of the functional consequences of this genetic variation has been complicated because each GWAS SNP is a surrogate for hundreds of other SNPs, most of which are located in non-coding regions. Here we use genomic and epigenomic information to test the hypothesis that the GWAS SNPs and/or correlated SNPs are in elements that regulate gene expression, and identify 23 promoters and 28 enhancers. Using gene expression data from normal and tumour cells, we identify 66 putative target genes of the risk-associated enhancers (10 of which were also identified by promoter SNPs). Employing CRISPR nucleases, we delete one risk-associated enhancer and identify genes showing altered expression. We suggest that similar studies be performed to characterize all CRC risk-associated enhancers. PMID:25268989

  12. Effect of hypertension on outcomes of high-risk patients after BCG-treated bladder cancer: a single-institution long follow-up cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dal Moro, Fabrizio; Bovo, Alberto; Crestani, Alessandro; Vettor, Roberto; Gardiman, Marina P; Zattoni, Filiberto

    2015-03-01

    Immunotherapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the most efficacious treatment for high-risk bladder cancer (BC) (Ta/T1 or carcinoma in situ) to reduce the risk of recurrence. Our aim was to evaluate whether hypertension and diabetes influence the outcome of patients with noninvasive BC treated with BCG instillations.In order to collect homogeneous data, we considered as "hypertensive" only those patients who had previous diagnosed hypertension and a history of taking medical therapy with antihypertensive drugs (AHT), and as "diabetic" only those prescribed oral antidiabetics or insulin (ADT).We analyzed 343 high-risk BC patients undergoing BCG (1995-2010) with a median follow-up of 116 months (range 48-238). The distribution of various kinds of AHT and antidiabetic drugs was homogeneous, with no significant differences (p > 0.05).In both univariate and multivariate analyses, the only statistically significant parameter prognostic for recurrence after BCG treatment was AHT. Recurrence-free survival curves showed a significant correlation with AHT (p = 0.0168, hazards ratio [HR] 1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0692-1.9619); there was no correlation (p = 0.9040) with ADT (HR 0.9750, 95% CI 0.6457-1.4721). After stratification of AHT and ADT according to drug(s) prescribed, there were no significant differences in the BC recurrence rate (p > 0.05).In this study with a very long-term follow-up, hypertension alone (evaluated by AHT) revealed the increased risk of BC recurrence after BCG treatment.Several hypotheses have been formulated to support these findings, but further prospective studies are needed to both evaluate the real influence of hypertension and identify a possible prognostic factor to be used in selecting poor-prognosis BC patients as early candidates for surgical treatment.

  13. Epidemiology, risk and outcomes of venous thromboembolism in cancer.

    PubMed

    Falanga, A; Russo, L

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is associated with a fourfold increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The risk of VTE varies according to the type of malignancy (i. e. pancreatic cancer, brain cancer, lymphoma) and its disease stage and individual factors (i. e. sex, race, age, previous VTE history, immobilization, obesity). Preventing cancer-associated VTE is important because it represents a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. In order to identify cancer patient at particularly high risk, who need thromboprophylaxis, risk prediction models have become available and are under validation. These models include clinical risk factors, but also begin to incorporate biological markers. The major American and European scientific societies have issued their recommendations to guide the management of VTE in patients with cancer. In this review the principal aspects of epidemiology, risk factors and outcome of cancer-associated VTE are summarized.

  14. Opportunities and strategies for breast cancer prevention through risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Martin C; Bevers, Therese; Linos, Eleni; Willett, Walter C

    2008-01-01

    Due to the high incidence of breast cancer among US females, risk-reduction strategies are essential. Before considering approaches to breast cancer risk reduction, it is important for clinicians to complete individualized qualitative and quantitative assessments of risk for their patients in order to inform physicians' clinical decision making and management and to engage patients collaboratively in a thorough discussion of risks and benefits. This review will summarize information on potential pharmacologic, nutritional, surgical, and behavioral approaches to reducing breast cancer risk. While there is no clear evidence that specific dietary components can effectively reduce breast cancer risk, weight gain and obesity in adulthood are risk factors for the development of postmenopausal breast cancer. Alcohol consumption, even at moderate levels, increases breast cancer risk, although some of the detrimental effects may be reduced by sufficient folate intake. Women at increased risk of breast cancer can opt to reduce their breast cancer risk through the use of tamoxifen or raloxifene; other chemopreventive agents remain under investigation. Surgical approaches to risk reductions are restricted to those patients with a substantially increased risk of developing breast cancer. Patients should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle for their overall well-being and to remain up to date with recommendations for screening and surveillance. PMID:18981297

  15. Genetic cancer risk assessment. Putting it all together.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, J N

    1999-12-01

    Dramatic advances in our understanding of the genetic basis for cancer have led to the development of new technologies and tools for genetic cancer risk assessment. Yet, cancer is a complex disorder, and risk assessment, counseling, and management strategies need to consider several important domains: state of cancer genetics knowledge, state of mind (previous cancer experience within the family), state of technology, and state of the art in terms of management. There are several barriers to the efficient identification and counseling of patients and families at high risk for cancer because of inherited susceptibility mutations. Chief among these concerns is the lack of access to competent counseling and education services that are equipped to handle the complex and rapidly evolving medical, technological, and ethical issues. Cancer risk assessment is developing into a distinct discipline in which established empiric risk models are recast along with rapidly evolving genetic technologies for estimation of individual cancer risk. Cancer genetics consultants are an important resource for primary care physicians, gynecologists, surgeons, and oncologists. However, no formal qualification criteria exist for either physicians or allied health care professionals who subspecialize in this new field. This article covers the unique domains of cancer genetics in health care and surveys models for delivery of cancer genetics services and tools for risk assessment. Coupled with innovative cancer diagnostic and preventive services and research, we have the potential to make great strides in cancer prevention and control.

  16. Urologic cancer risks for veterans exposed to Agent Orange.

    PubMed

    Hoenemeyer, Lori A

    2013-01-01

    Agent Orange, an herbicide widely used during the Vietnam War, has been linked to various health risks, including urologic malignancy. Exposed veterans are at risk for prostate cancer and may be entitled to compensation if diagnosed with prostate cancer. Current research studies are aimed at mitigating prostate dysplasia and prostate cancer PMID:23734554

  17. Cancer Risk Assessment for Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, Robert C.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Predicting the occurrence of human cancer following exposure to any agent causing genetic damage is a difficult task. This is because the uncertainty of uniform exposure to the damaging agent, and the uncertainty of uniform processing of that damage within a complex set of biological variables, degrade the confidence of predicting the delayed expression of cancer as a relatively rare event within any given clinically normal individual. The radiation health research priorities for enabling long-duration human exploration of space were established in the 1996 NRC Report entitled "Radiation Hazards to Crews of Interplanetary Missions: Biological Issues and Research Strategies". This report emphasized that a 15-fold uncertainty in predicting radiation-induced cancer incidence must be reduced before NASA can commit humans to extended interplanetary missions. That report concluded that the great majority of this uncertainty is biologically based, while a minority is physically based due to uncertainties in radiation dosimetry and radiation transport codes. Since that report, the biologically based uncertainty has remained large, and the relatively small uncertainty associated with radiation dosimetry has increased due to the considerations raised by concepts of microdosimetry. In a practical sense, however, the additional uncertainties introduced by microdosimetry are encouraging since they are in a direction of lowered effective dose absorbed through infrequent interactions of any given cell with the high energy particle component of space radiation. The biological uncertainty in predicting cancer risk for space radiation derives from two primary facts. 1) One animal tumor study has been reported that includes a relevant spectrum of particle radiation energies, and that is the Harderian gland model in mice. Fact #1: Extension of cancer risk from animal models, and especially from a single study in an animal model, to humans is inherently uncertain. 2) One human database

  18. Perceived Versus Objective Breast Cancer, Breast Cancer Risk in Diverse Women

    PubMed Central

    Fehniger, Julia; Livaudais-Toman, Jennifer; Karliner, Leah; Kerlikowske, Karla; Tice, Jeffrey A.; Quinn, Jessica; Ozanne, Elissa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Prior research suggests that women do not accurately estimate their risk for breast cancer. Estimating and informing women of their risk is essential for tailoring appropriate screening and risk reduction strategies. Methods: Data were collected for BreastCARE, a randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate a PC-tablet based intervention providing multiethnic women and their primary care physicians with tailored information about breast cancer risk. We included women ages 40–74 visiting general internal medicine primary care clinics at one academic practice and one safety net practice who spoke English, Spanish, or Cantonese, and had no personal history of breast cancer. We collected baseline information regarding risk perception and concern. Women were categorized as high risk (vs. average risk) if their family history met criteria for referral to genetic counseling or if they were in the top 5% of risk for their age based on the Gail or Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium Model (BCSC) breast cancer risk model. Results: Of 1,261 participants, 25% (N=314) were classified as high risk. More average risk than high risk women had correct risk perception (72% vs. 18%); 25% of both average and high risk women reported being very concerned about breast cancer. Average risk women with correct risk perception were less likely to be concerned about breast cancer (odds ratio [OR]=0.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.2–0.4) while high risk women with correct risk perception were more likely to be concerned about breast cancer (OR=5.1; 95%CI=2.7–9.6). Conclusions: Many women did not accurately perceive their risk for breast cancer. Women with accurate risk perception had an appropriate level of concern about breast cancer. Improved methods of assessing and informing women of their breast cancer risk could motivate high risk women to apply appropriate prevention strategies and allay unnecessary concern among average risk women. PMID:24372085

  19. Asphalt and risk of cancer in man.

    PubMed Central

    Chiazze, L; Watkins, D K; Amsel, J

    1991-01-01

    Epidemiological publications regarding the carcinogenic potential of asphalt (bitumen) are reviewed. In 1984 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) stated that there is "inadequate evidence that bitumens alone are carcinogenic to humans." They did, however, conclude that animal data provided sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of certain extracts of steam refined and air refined bitumens. In the absence of data on man, IARC considered it reasonable to regard chemicals with sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals as if they presented a carcinogenic risk to man. Epidemiological data for man accumulated since the IARC report do not fulfil the criteria for showing a causal association between exposure to asphalt and development of cancer. The studies cited all suffer from a lack of data on exposure or potential confounders, which are necessary to establish whether or not such an association may or may not exist. In view of the evidence (or lack thereof) regarding asphalt today, an appropriate public health attitude suggests at least that action be taken to protect those working with asphalt by monitoring the workplace, taking whatever steps are possible to minimise exposures and to inform workers of potential hazards. At the same time, a need exists for well designed analytical epidemiological studies to determine whether a risk of cancer in man exists from exposure to asphalt. PMID:1878310

  20. Risks of Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a ...

  1. Breast cancer risk prediction using a clinical risk model and polygenic risk score.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Yiwey; Hu, Donglei; Ma, Lin; Huntsman, Scott; Gard, Charlotte C; Leung, Jessica W T; Tice, Jeffrey A; Vachon, Celine M; Cummings, Steven R; Kerlikowske, Karla; Ziv, Elad

    2016-10-01

    Breast cancer risk assessment can inform the use of screening and prevention modalities. We investigated the performance of the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) risk model in combination with a polygenic risk score (PRS) comprised of 83 single nucleotide polymorphisms identified from genome-wide association studies. We conducted a nested case-control study of 486 cases and 495 matched controls within a screening cohort. The PRS was calculated using a Bayesian approach. The contributions of the PRS and variables in the BCSC model to breast cancer risk were tested using conditional logistic regression. Discriminatory accuracy of the models was compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Increasing quartiles of the PRS were positively associated with breast cancer risk, with OR 2.54 (95 % CI 1.69-3.82) for breast cancer in the highest versus lowest quartile. In a multivariable model, the PRS, family history, and breast density remained strong risk factors. The AUROC of the PRS was 0.60 (95 % CI 0.57-0.64), and an Asian-specific PRS had AUROC 0.64 (95 % CI 0.53-0.74). A combined model including the BCSC risk factors and PRS had better discrimination than the BCSC model (AUROC 0.65 versus 0.62, p = 0.01). The BCSC-PRS model classified 18 % of cases as high-risk (5-year risk ≥3 %), compared with 7 % using the BCSC model. The PRS improved discrimination of the BCSC risk model and classified more cases as high-risk. Further consideration of the PRS's role in decision-making around screening and prevention strategies is merited. PMID:27565998

  2. Colorectal cancer risk in hamartomatous polyposis syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Fábio Guilherme; Figueiredo, Marleny Novaes; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality around the world, and approximately 5% of them develop in a context of inherited mutations leading to some form of familial colon cancer syndromes. Recognition and characterization of these patients have contributed to elucidate the genetic basis of CRC. Polyposis Syndromes may be categorized by the predominant histological structure found within the polyps. The aim of the present paper is to review the most important clinical features of the Hamartomatous Polyposis Syndromes, a rare group of genetic disorders formed by the peutz-Jeghers syndrome, juvenil polyposis syndrome and PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome (Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalacaba and Cowden Syndromes). A literature search was performed in order to retrieve the most recent and important papers (articles, reviews, clinical cases and clinical guidelines) regarding the studied subject. We searched for terms such as “hamartomatous polyposis syndromes”, “Peutz-Jeghers syndrome”, “juvenile polyposis syndrome”, “juvenile polyp”, and “PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome” (Cowden syndrome, Bananyan-Riley-Ruvalcaba). The present article reports the wide spectrum of disease severity and extraintestinal manifestations, with a special focus on their potential to develop colorectal and other neoplasia. In the literature, the reported colorectal cancer risk for Juvenile Polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers and PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndromes are 39%-68%, 39%-57% and 18%, respectively. A review regarding cancer surveillance recommendations is also presented. PMID:25848489

  3. Colorectal cancer risk in hamartomatous polyposis syndromes.

    PubMed

    Campos, Fábio Guilherme; Figueiredo, Marleny Novaes; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

    2015-03-27

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality around the world, and approximately 5% of them develop in a context of inherited mutations leading to some form of familial colon cancer syndromes. Recognition and characterization of these patients have contributed to elucidate the genetic basis of CRC. Polyposis Syndromes may be categorized by the predominant histological structure found within the polyps. The aim of the present paper is to review the most important clinical features of the Hamartomatous Polyposis Syndromes, a rare group of genetic disorders formed by the peutz-Jeghers syndrome, juvenil polyposis syndrome and PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome (Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalacaba and Cowden Syndromes). A literature search was performed in order to retrieve the most recent and important papers (articles, reviews, clinical cases and clinical guidelines) regarding the studied subject. We searched for terms such as "hamartomatous polyposis syndromes", "Peutz-Jeghers syndrome", "juvenile polyposis syndrome", "juvenile polyp", and "PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome" (Cowden syndrome, Bananyan-Riley-Ruvalcaba). The present article reports the wide spectrum of disease severity and extraintestinal manifestations, with a special focus on their potential to develop colorectal and other neoplasia. In the literature, the reported colorectal cancer risk for Juvenile Polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers and PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndromes are 39%-68%, 39%-57% and 18%, respectively. A review regarding cancer surveillance recommendations is also presented.

  4. Occupational exposures and risk of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Santibañez, Miguel; Vioque, Jesús; Alguacil, Juan; de la Hera, Manuela García; Moreno-Osset, Eduardo; Carrato, Alfredo; Porta, Miquel; Kauppinen, Timo

    2010-10-01

    The objective was to analyze the relationship between occupation (and specific occupational exposures) and risk of exocrine pancreatic cancer (EPC). We conducted a multicenter hospital-based case-control study in Eastern Spain. We included 161 incident cases of EPC (59.6% men, 94 with histological confirmation, of whom 80% had ductal adenocarcinoma). Cases were frequency-matched with 455 controls by sex, age and province of residence. Information was elicited using structured questionnaires. Occupations were coded according to the Spanish version of the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988. Occupational exposure to a selection of carcinogenic substances was assessed with the Finnish Job-Exposure Matrix (FINJEM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multiple logistic regression, adjusting for sex, age, province, education, alcohol and smoking. A higher risk of EPC was associated with having worked as 'Miners, shotfirers, stone cutters and carvers', 'Machinery mechanics and fitters', 'Building trades workers' and 'Motor vehicle drivers' in men, 'Office Clerks' in women, and 'Waiters' in both sexes. Cases with ductal adenocarcinomas were more likely to have been exposed to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents (OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 1.1-15.2, p-trend = 0.04). We also observed significant associations with exposure to 'synthetic polymer dust exposure' and 'ionizing radiation'. Suggestive increases in risk were observed for 'pesticides', 'diesel and gasoline engine exhaust', and 'hydrocarbon solvents'. Results support the hypothesis that occupational exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents is associated with exocrine pancreatic cancer.

  5. Know Your Risk for Ovarian Cancer -- and The Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160881.html Know Your Risk for Ovarian Cancer -- and the Symptoms Because early signs are often ... is needed in the prevention and treatment of ovarian cancer, according to a doctor who specializes in the ...

  6. Fertility drugs, reproductive strategies and ovarian cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Tomao, Federica; Lo Russo, Giuseppe; Spinelli, Gian Paolo; Stati, Valeria; Prete, Alessandra Anna; Prinzi, Natalie; Sinjari, Marsela; Vici, Patrizia; Papa, Anselmo; Chiotti, Maria Stefania; Benedetti Panici, Pierluigi; Tomao, Silverio

    2014-01-01

    Several adverse effects have been related to infertility treatments, such as cancer development. In particular, the relationship between infertility, reproductive strategies, and risk of gynecological cancers has aroused much interest in recent years. The evaluation of cancer risk among women treated for infertility is very complex, mainly because of many factors that can contribute to occurrence of cancer in these patients (including parity status). This article addresses the possible association between the use of fertility treatments and the risk of ovarian cancer, through a scrupulous search of the literature published thus far in this field. Our principal objective was to give more conclusive answers on the question whether the use of fertility drug significantly increases ovarian cancer risk. Our analysis focused on the different types of drugs and different treatment schedules used. This study provides additional insights regarding the long-term relationships between fertility drugs and risk of ovarian cancer.

  7. Cancer Risk Assessment for the Primary Care Physician

    PubMed Central

    Korde, Larissa A.; Gadalla, Shahinaz M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Cancer risk assessment can be divided into two major categories: assessment of familial or genetic risk and assessment of environmental factors that may be causally related to cancer. Identification of individuals with a suspected heritable cancer syndrome can lead to additional evaluation and to interventions that can substantially decrease cancer risk. Special attention should also be paid to potentially modifiable cancer risk factors in the course of advising primary care patients regarding a healthy lifestyle. Clinical guidelines targeting both genetic and modifiable cancer risk factors are available, and can facilitate applying these health care principles in the primary care setting. PMID:19616151

  8. BRM polymorphisms, pancreatic cancer risk and survival.

    PubMed

    Segedi, Maja; Anderson, Laura N; Espin-Garcia, Osvaldo; Borgida, Ayelet; Bianco, Teresa; Cheng, Dangxiao; Chen, Zhuo; Patel, Devalben; Brown, M Catherine; Xu, Wei; Reisman, David; Gallinger, Steven; Cotterchio, Michelle; Hung, Rayjean; Liu, Geoffrey; Cleary, Sean P

    2016-12-01

    Variant alleles of two promoter polymorphisms in the BRM gene (BRM-741, BRM-1321), create MEF2D transcription binding sites that lead to epigenetic silencing of BRM, the key catalytic component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. BRM suppression can be reversed pharmacologically.(1) Our group and others have reported associations with lung, head and neck, hepatocellular cancer risk,(1-3) and with lung and esophageal cancer prognosis (ASCO 2013; abstract 11057 & 4077). Herein, we assessed risk and survival associations with pancreatic cancer. A provincial population-based case-control study was conducted with 623 histologically confirmed pancreatic adenocarcinoma cases and 1,192 age/gender distribution-matched controls.(4) Survival of cases was obtained through the Ontario Cancer Registry. Logistic and Cox proportional hazard regression models were fitted, adjusting for relevant covariates. Median age was 65 y; 52% were male; Stage I (8%), II (55%), III (14%), IV (23%); 53% after curative resection, 79% after chemotherapy; and 83% had died. In the risk analysis, adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were 1.01 (95% CI: 0.1-2.0) and 0.96 (95% CI: 0.7-1.3) for the homozygotes of BRM-741 and BRM-1321, respectively; aOR of double-homozygotes was 1.11 (95% CI: 0.80-1.53), compared to the double-wildtype. For the survival analysis, adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) were 2.19 (95% CI: 1.9-2.5) for BRM-741 and 1.94 (95% CI: 1.7-2.2) for BRM-1321, per unit increase in variant alleles. Compared with the double-wildtype, aHR for carrying no, one, and two double-homozygotes were 2.14 (95% CI: 1.6-2.8), 4.17 (95% CI: 3.0-5.7), 8.03 (95% CI: 5.7-11.4), respectively. In conclusion, two functional promoter BRM polymorphisms were not associated with pancreatic adenocarcinoma risk, but are strongly associated with survival. PMID:27487558

  9. Lycopene and Risk of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ping; Zhang, Wenhao; Wang, Xiao; Zhao, Keke; Negi, Devendra Singh; Zhuo, Li; Qi, Mao; Wang, Xinghuan; Zhang, Xinhua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Prostate cancer (PCa) is a common illness for aging males. Lycopene has been identified as an antioxidant agent with potential anticancer properties. Studies investigating the relation between lycopene and PCa risk have produced inconsistent results. This study aims to determine dietary lycopene consumption/circulating concentration and any potential dose–response associations with the risk of PCa. Eligible studies published in English up to April 10, 2014, were searched and identified from Pubmed, Sciencedirect Online, Wiley online library databases and hand searching. The STATA (version 12.0) was applied to process the dose–response meta-analysis. Random effects models were used to calculate pooled relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and to incorporate variation between studies. The linear and nonlinear dose–response relations were evaluated with data from categories of lycopene consumption/circulating concentrations. Twenty-six studies were included with 17,517 cases of PCa reported from 563,299 participants. Although inverse association between lycopene consumption and PCa risk was not found in all studies, there was a trend that with higher lycopene intake, there was reduced incidence of PCa (P = 0.078). Removal of one Chinese study in sensitivity analysis, or recalculation using data from only high-quality studies for subgroup analysis, indicated that higher lycopene consumption significantly lowered PCa risk. Furthermore, our dose–response meta-analysis demonstrated that higher lycopene consumption was linearly associated with a reduced risk of PCa with a threshold between 9 and 21 mg/day. Consistently, higher circulating lycopene levels significantly reduced the risk of PCa. Interestingly, the concentration of circulating lycopene between 2.17 and 85 μg/dL was linearly inversed with PCa risk whereas there was no linear association >85 μg/dL. In addition, greater efficacy for the circulating lycopene

  10. Food groups and colorectal cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Levi, F; Pasche, C; La Vecchia, C; Lucchini, F; Franceschi, S

    1999-01-01

    Most studies of diet and colorectal cancer have considered nutrients and micronutrients, but the role of foods or food groups remains open to debate. To elucidate the issue, we examined data from a case–control study conducted between 1992 and 1997 in the Swiss canton of Vaud. Cases were 223 patients (142 men, 81 women) with incident, histologically confirmed colon (n = 119) or rectal (n = 104) cancer (median age 63 years), linked with the Cancer Registry of the Swiss Canton of Vaud, and controls were 491 subjects (211 men, 280 women, median age 58 years) admitted to the same university hospital for a wide spectrum of acute non-neoplastic conditions unrelated to long-term modifications of diet. Odds ratios (OR) were obtained after allowance for age, sex, education, smoking, alcohol, body mass index, physical activity and total energy intake. Significant associations were observed for refined grain (OR = 1.32 for an increase of one serving per day), and red meat (OR = 1.54), pork and processed meat (OR = 1.27), alcohol (OR = 1.28), and significant protections for whole grain (OR = 0.85), raw (OR = 0.85) and cooked vegetables (OR = 0.69), citrus (OR = 0.86) and other fruits (OR = 0.85), and for coffee (OR = 0.73). Garlic was also protective (OR = 0.32 for the highest tertile of intake). These findings in a central European population support the hypothesis that a diet rich in refined grains and red meat increases the risk of colorectal cancer; they, therefore, support the recommendation to substitute whole grains for refined grain, to limit meat intake, and to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10098773

  11. Spatiotemporal Co-existence of Female Thyroid and Breast Cancers in Hangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Xufeng; Christakos, George; Lou, Zhaohan; Ren, Yanjun; Liu, Qingmin; Wu, Jiaping

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid and breast cancers (TC, BC) are common female malignant tumors worldwide. Studies suggest that TC patients have a higher BC risk, and vice versa. However, it has not been investigated quantitatively if there is an association between the space-time TC and BC incidence distributions at the population level. This work aims to answer this question. 5358 TC and 8784 BC (female) cases were diagnosed in Hangzhou (China, 2008–2012). Pearson and Spearman rank correlation coefficients of the TC and BC incidences were high, and their patterns were geographically similar. The spatiotemporal co-existence of TC and BC distributions was investigated using the integrative disease predictability (IDP) criterion: if TC-BC association is part of the disease mapping knowledge bases, it should yield improved space-time incidence predictions. Improved TC (BC) incidence predictions were generated when integrating both TC and BC data than when using only TC (BC) data. IDP consistently demonstrated the spatiotemporal co-existence of TC and BC distributions throughout Hangzhou (2008–2012), which means that when the population experiences high incidences of one kind of cancer attention should be paid to the other kind of cancer too. The strength of TC-BC association was measured by the IDP coefficients and incidence prediction accuracy. PMID:27341638

  12. Spatiotemporal Co-existence of Female Thyroid and Breast Cancers in Hangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Xufeng; Christakos, George; Lou, Zhaohan; Ren, Yanjun; Liu, Qingmin; Wu, Jiaping

    2016-06-01

    Thyroid and breast cancers (TC, BC) are common female malignant tumors worldwide. Studies suggest that TC patients have a higher BC risk, and vice versa. However, it has not been investigated quantitatively if there is an association between the space-time TC and BC incidence distributions at the population level. This work aims to answer this question. 5358 TC and 8784 BC (female) cases were diagnosed in Hangzhou (China, 2008–2012). Pearson and Spearman rank correlation coefficients of the TC and BC incidences were high, and their patterns were geographically similar. The spatiotemporal co-existence of TC and BC distributions was investigated using the integrative disease predictability (IDP) criterion: if TC-BC association is part of the disease mapping knowledge bases, it should yield improved space-time incidence predictions. Improved TC (BC) incidence predictions were generated when integrating both TC and BC data than when using only TC (BC) data. IDP consistently demonstrated the spatiotemporal co-existence of TC and BC distributions throughout Hangzhou (2008–2012), which means that when the population experiences high incidences of one kind of cancer attention should be paid to the other kind of cancer too. The strength of TC-BC association was measured by the IDP coefficients and incidence prediction accuracy.

  13. Risk of Salivary Gland Cancer After Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    SciTech Connect

    Boukheris, Houda; Stovall, Marilyn; Gilbert, Ethel S.; Stratton, Kayla L.; Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita; Hammond, Sue; Mertens, Ann C.; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L.; Neglia, Joseph P.; Inskip, Peter D.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate effects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on the risk of second primary salivary gland cancer (SGC) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Methods and Materials: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of SGC in the CCSS were calculated using incidence rates from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based cancer registries. Radiation dose to the salivary glands was estimated based on medical records. Poisson regression was used to assess risks with respect to radiation dose, chemotherapy, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results: During the time period of the study, 23 cases of SGC were diagnosed among 14,135 childhood cancer survivors. The mean age at diagnosis of the first primary cancer was 8.3 years, and the mean age at SGC diagnosis was 24.8 years. The incidence of SGC was 39-fold higher in the cohort than in the general population (SIR = 39.4; 95% CI = 25.4-57.8). The EAR was 9.8 per 100,000 person-years. Risk increased linearly with radiation dose (excess relative risk = 0.36/Gy; 95% CI = 0.06-2.5) and remained elevated after 20 years. There was no significant trend of increasing risk with increasing dose of chemotherapeutic agents, pack-years of cigarette smoking, or alcohol intake. Conclusion: Although the cumulative incidence of SGC was low, childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation experienced significantly increased risk for at least 2 decades after exposure, and risk was positively associated with radiation dose. Results underscore the importance of long-term follow up of childhood cancer survivors for the development of new malignancies.

  14. Diabetes and cancer I: risk, survival, and implications for screening

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Jessica M.; Glurich, Ingrid; Stankowski, Rachel V.; Williams, Gail M.; Doi, Suhail A.

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and cancer are common diseases that are frequently diagnosed in the same individual. An association between the two conditions has long been postulated. Here, we review the epidemiological evidence for increased risk of cancer, decreased cancer survival, and decreased rates of cancer screening in diabetic patients. The risk for several cancers, including cancers of the pancreas, liver, colorectum, breast, urinary tract, and endometrium, is increased in patients with DM. In a pooled risk analysis weighting published meta-analytic relative risk (RR) for individual cancer by differences in their incidence rates, we found a population RR of 0.97 (95 % CI, 0.75–1.25) in men and 1.29 (95 % CI, 1.16–1.44) in women. All meta-analyses showed an increased relative risk for cancer in diabetic men, except studies of prostate cancer, in which a protective effect was observed. The relationship between diabetes and cancer appears to be complex, and at present, a clear temporal relationship between the two conditions cannot be defined. DM also impacts negatively on cancer-related survival outcomes and cancer screening rates. The overwhelming evidence for lower cancer screening rates, increased incidence of certain cancers, and poorer prognosis after cancer diagnosis in diabetic patients dictates a need for improved cancer care in diabetic individuals through improved screening measures, development of risk assessment tools, and consideration of cancer prevention strategies in diabetic patients. Part two of this review focuses on the biological and pharmacological mechanisms that may account for the association between DM and cancer. PMID:22552844

  15. Radiation induced cancer: risk assessment and prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Shore, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A number of factors have to be considered in defining the cancer risk from ionizing radiation. These include the radiation sensitivity of the target tissue(s), the temporal pattern of risk, the shape of the dose-incidence curve, the effects of low dose rates, host susceptibility factors, and synergism with other environmental exposures. For the population as a whole the largest sources of radiation exposure are natural background radiation and medical/dental radiation. Radiation exposures in the medical field make up the largest volume of occupational exposures as well. Although new technologies offer opportunities to lower exposures, worker training, careful exposure monitoring with remedial feedback, and monitoring to prevent unnecessary radiodiagnostic procedures may be even more important means of reducing radiation exposure. Screening of irradiated populations can serve a useful preventive function, but only for those who have received very high doses.

  16. NBS1 Heterozygosity and Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    di Masi, Alessandra; Antoccia, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Biallelic mutations in the NBS1 gene are responsible for the Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS), a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by chromosome instability and hypersensitivity to ionising radiation (IR). Epidemiological data evidence that the NBS1 gene can be considered a susceptibility factor for cancer development, as demonstrated by the fact that almost 40% of NBS patients have developed a malignancy before the age of 21. Interestingly, also NBS1 heterozygotes, which are clinically asymptomatic, display an elevated risk to develop some types of malignant tumours, especially breast, prostate and colorectal cancers, lymphoblastic leukaemia, and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). So far, nine mutations in the NBS1 gene have been found, at the heterozygous state, in cancer patients. Among them, the 657del5, the I171V and the R215W mutations are the most frequently described. The pathogenicity of these mutations is presumably connected with their occurrence in the highly conserved BRCT tandem domains of the NBS1 protein, which are present in a large superfamily of proteins, and are recognized as major mediators of processes related to cell-cycle checkpoint and DNA repair. This review will focus on the current state-of-knowledge regarding the correlation between carriers of NBS1 gene mutations and the proneness to the development of malignant tumours. PMID:19452044

  17. Lower Breast Cancer Risk among Women following the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research Lifestyle Recommendations: EpiGEICAM Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Castelló, Adela; Martín, Miguel; Ruiz, Amparo; Casas, Ana M.; Baena-Cañada, Jose M; Lope, Virginia; Antolín, Silvia; Sánchez, Pedro; Ramos, Manuel; Antón, Antonio; Muñoz, Montserrat; Bermejo, Begoña; De Juan-Ferré, Ana; Jara, Carlos; Chacón, José I; Jimeno, María A.; Rosado, Petra; Díaz, Elena; Guillem, Vicente; Lluch, Ana; Carrasco, Eva; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Vioque, Jesús; Pollán, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Background According to the “World Cancer Research Fund” and the “American Institute of Cancer Research” (WCRF/AICR) one in four cancer cases could be prevented through a healthy diet, weight control and physical activity. Objective To explore the association between the WCRF/AICR recommendations and risk of breast cancer. Methods During the period 2006 to 2011 we recruited 973 incident cases of breast cancer and 973 controls from 17 Spanish Regions. We constructed a score based on 9 of the WCRF/AICR recommendations for cancer prevention:: 1)Maintain adequate body weight; 2)Be physically active; 3)Limit the intake of high density foods; 4)Eat mostly plant foods; 5)Limit the intake of animal foods; 6)Limit alcohol intake; 7)Limit salt and salt preserved food intake; 8)Meet nutritional needs through diet; S1)Breastfeed infants exclusively up to 6 months. We explored its association with BC by menopausal status and by intrinsic tumor subtypes (ER+/PR+ & HER2-; HER2+; ER&PR-&HER2-) using conditional and multinomial logistic models respectively. Results Our results point to a linear association between the degree of noncompliance and breast cancer risk. Taking women who met 6 or more recommendations as reference, those meeting less than 3 showed a three-fold excess risk (OR=2.98(CI95%:1.59-5.59)), especially for postmenopausal women (OR=3.60(CI95%:1.24;10.47)) and ER+/PR+&HER2- (OR=3.60(CI95%:1.84;7.05)) and HER2+ (OR=4.23(CI95%:1.66;10.78)) tumors. Noncompliance of recommendations regarding the consumption of foods and drinks that promote weight gain in premenopausal women (OR=2.24(CI95%:1.18;4.28); p for interaction=0.014) and triple negative tumors (OR=2.93(CI95%:1.12-7.63)); the intake of plant foods in postmenopausal women (OR=2.35(CI95%:1.24;4.44)) and triple negative tumors (OR=3.48(CI95%:1.46-8.31)); and the alcohol consumption in ER+/PR+&HER2- tumors (OR=1.52 (CI95%:1.06-2.19)) showed the strongest associations. Conclusion Breast cancer prevention might

  18. Cancer risk management decision making for BRCA+ women.

    PubMed

    Leonarczyk, Terri Jabaley; Mawn, Barbara E

    2015-01-01

    Women with pathogenic BRCA genetic mutations face high risks for cancer development. Estimates vary among mutation carriers, with lifetime risks ranging from 41% to 90% for breast cancer and 8% to 62% for ovarian cancer. Cancer risk management options for BRCA mutation positive (BRCA+) women have life-altering implications. This qualitative, phenomenological study explored the experience of cancer risk management decision making for women who are unaffected carriers of a BRCA mutation (previvors). Fifteen previvors recruited from Facing Our Risk of Cancer Empowered (FORCE), an online informational and support group, were interviewed. Findings consisted of four major themes: the early previvor experience, intense emotional upheaval; the decisional journey, navigating a personal plan for survival; lack of knowledge and experience among health care providers; and support is essential. Findings highlight the different decisional perspectives of previvors based on age and individual factors and the need for increased competence among health care providers. PMID:24470135

  19. Treatment for childhood cancer -- long-term risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000849.htm Treatment for childhood cancer - long-term risks To use the sharing features on ... has. Being aware of your child's risk of long-term health problems can help you follow-up ...

  20. Energy balance, physical activity, and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Fair, Alecia Malin; Montgomery, Kara

    2009-01-01

    This chapter posits that cancer is a complex and multifactorial process as demonstrated by the expression and production of key endocrine and steroid hormones that intermesh with lifestyle factors (physical activity, body size, and diet) in combination to heighten cancer risk. Excess weight has been associated with increased mortality from all cancers combined and for cancers of several specific sites. The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic levels in many parts of the world; more than 1 billion adults are overweight with a body mass index (BMI) exceeding 25. Overweight and obesity are clinically defined indicators of a disease process characterized by the accumulation of body fat due to an excess of energy intake (nutritional intake) relative to energy expenditure (physical activity). When energy intake exceeds energy expenditure over a prolonged period of time, the result is a positive energy balance (PEB), which leads to the development of obesity. This physical state is ideal for intervention and can be modulated by changes in energy intake, expenditure, or both. Nutritional intake is a modifiable factor in the energy balance-cancer linkage primarily tested by caloric restriction studies in animals and the effect of energy availability. Restriction of calories by 10 to 40% has been shown to decrease cell proliferation, increasing apoptosis through anti-angiogenic processes. The potent anticancer effect of caloric restriction is clear, but caloric restriction alone is not generally considered to be a feasible strategy for cancer prevention in humans. Identification and development of preventive strategies that "mimic" the anticancer effects of low energy intake are desirable. The independent effect of energy intake on cancer risk has been difficult to estimate because body size and physical activity are strong determinants of total energy expenditure. The mechanisms that account for the inhibitory effects of physical activity on the carcinogenic process

  1. Substantial contribution of extrinsic risk factors to cancer development | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Recent research has highlighted a strong correlation between tissue-specific cancer risk and the lifetime number of tissue-specific stem-cell divisions. Whether such correlation implies a high unavoidable intrinsic cancer risk has become a key public health debate with the dissemination of the 'bad luck' hypothesis. Here we provide evidence that intrinsic risk factors contribute only modestly (less than ~10-30% of lifetime risk) to cancer development.

  2. Tea, Coffee, and Milk Consumption and Colorectal Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Green, Chadwick John; de Dauwe, Palina; Boyle, Terry; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Fritschi, Lin; Heyworth, Jane Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Background Data regarding the effects of tea, coffee, and milk on the risk of colorectal cancer are inconsistent. We investigated associations of tea, coffee, and milk consumption with colorectal cancer risk and attempted to determine if these exposures were differentially associated with the risks of proximal colon, distal colon, and rectal cancers. Methods Data from 854 incident cases and 948 controls were analyzed in a case-control study of colorectal cancer in Western Australia during 2005–07. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the associations of black tea (with and without milk), green tea, herbal tea, hot coffee, iced coffee, and milk with colorectal cancer. Results Consumption of 1 or more cups of herbal tea per week was associated with a significantly decreased risk of distal colon cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.16–0.82; PTrend = 0.044), and consumption of 1 or more cups of iced coffee per week was associated with increased risk of rectal cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.91–2.54; PTrend = 0.004). Neither herbal tea nor iced coffee was associated with the risk of proximal colon cancer. Hot coffee was associated with a possible increased risk of distal colon cancer. Black tea (with or without milk), green tea, decaffeinated coffee, and milk were not significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk. Conclusions Consumption of herbal tea was associated with reduced risk of distal colon cancer, and consumption of iced coffee was associated with increased rectal cancer risk. PMID:24531002

  3. Breast cancer risk calculator updated for Asian-Americans

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have developed a more accurate method for estimating breast cancer risk for Asian and Pacific Islander American (APA) women. Most current risk estimates rely on data from non-Hispanic white women, but researchers have now come up with a statistical model that more specifically assesses risk for American women who identify themselves as Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Hawaiian, other Pacific Islander, or other Asian. NCI’s Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT) has now been updated to include the new model.

  4. Nutrition and Physical Activity Cancer Prevention Guidelines, Cancer Risk, and Mortality in the Women's Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Cynthia A.; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Wertheim, Betsy C.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Martinez, Maria Elena; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Rohan, Thomas E.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Ockene, Judith; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Sarto, Gloria E.; Lane, Dorothy S.; Neuhouser, Marian L.

    2014-01-01

    Healthy lifestyle behaviors are recommended to reduce cancer risk and overall mortality. Adherence to cancer-preventive health behaviors and subsequent cancer risk has not been evaluated in a diverse sample of postmenopausal women. We examined the association between the American Cancer Society (ACS) Nutrition and Physical Activity Cancer Prevention Guidelines score and risk of incident cancer, cancer-specific mortality, and all-cause mortality in 65,838 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. ACS guidelines scores (0–8 points) were determined from a combined measure of diet, physical activity, body mass index (current and at age 18 years), and alcohol consumption. After a mean follow-up of 12.6 years, 8,632 incident cancers and 2,356 cancer deaths were identified. The highest ACS guidelines scores compared with the lowest were associated with a 17% lower risk of any cancer [HR, 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75–0.92], 22% lower risk of breast cancer (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.67–0.92), 52% lower risk of colorectal cancer (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.32–0.73), 27% lower risk of all-cause mortality, and 20% lower risk of cancer-specific mortality (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.71–0.90). Associations with lower cancer incidence and mortality were generally strongest among Asian, black, and Hispanic women and weakest among non-Hispanic whites. Behaviors concordant with Nutrition and Physical Activity Cancer Prevention Guidelines were associated with lower risk of total, breast, and colorectal cancers and lower cancer-specific mortality in postmenopausal women. PMID:24403289

  5. Cancer recurrence worry, risk perception, and informational-coping styles among Appalachian cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kimberly M; Shedlosky-Shoemaker, Randi; Porter, Kyle; Desimone, Philip; Andrykowski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing literature on the psychosocial impact of the threat of cancer recurrence, underserved populations, such as those from the Appalachian region, have been understudied. To examine worry and perceived risk in cancer survivors, Appalachian and non-Appalachian cancer patients at an ambulatory oncology clinic in a university hospital were surveyed. Appalachians had significantly higher worry than non-Appalachians. Cancer type and lower need for cognition were associated with greater worry. Those with missing perceived risk data were generally older, less educated, and lower in monitoring, blunting, and health literacy. Additional resources are needed to assist Appalachians and those with cancers with poor prognoses (e.g., liver cancer, pancreatic cancer) to cope with worry associated with developing cancer again. More attention for cancer prevention is critical to improve quality of life in underserved populations where risk of cancer is greater.

  6. TLR2∆22 (-196-174) significantly increases the risk of breast cancer in females carrying proline allele at codon 72 of TP53 gene: a case-control study from four ethnic groups of North Eastern region of India.

    PubMed

    Devi, K Rekha; Chenkual, Saia; Majumdar, Gautam; Ahmed, Jishan; Kaur, Tanvir; Zonunmawia, Jason C; Mukherjee, Kaustab; Phukan, Rup Kumar; Mahanta, Jagdish; Rajguru, S K; Mukherjee, Debdutta; Narain, Kanwar

    2015-12-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the second most common cancer in women. In the North Eastern Region (NER) of India, BC is emerging as an important concern as evidenced by the data available from population and hospital-based cancer registries. Studies on genetic susceptibility to BC are important to understand the increase in the incidence of BC in NER. The present case control study was conducted to investigate the association between tumour suppressor gene TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and innate immune pathway gene TLR2∆22 (-196-174) polymorphism with BC in females of NER of India for the identification of novel biomarker of BC. Four hundred sixty-two histopathologically confirmed BC cases from four states of NER of India, and 770 healthy controls were included by organizing community surveys from the neighbourhood of cases. In our study, no significant association between TP53 codon 72 polymorphisms and the risk of BC was found. However, our study has shown that TP53 codon 72 polymorphism is an important effect modifier. In the present study it was found that females carrying 22 base-pair deletion in the promoter region of their TLR2 gene had two times (AOR= 2.18, 95 % CI 1.13-4.21, p=0.019 in dominant model; AOR= 2.17, 95 % CI 1.09-4.34, p=0.027 in co-dominant model) increased risk of BC whwn they also carry proline allele at codon 72 of their TP53 gene. PMID:26188904

  7. Obesity and familial obesity and risk of cancer.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, Kari; Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2011-09-01

    Obesity is associated with a risk of at least 20 different cancers. We aimed at defining cancer risks in prospectively recruited patients with a novel subgroup, those with a family history of obesity. We defined a cohort of 30 020 patients who had been hospitalized since 1964. Cancer risks in these patients were followed through 2006. Standardized incidence ratios were calculated for cancer using those not hospitalized for obesity as a reference population. We could also identify persons who had been hospitalized for type 2 diabetes. A total of 1721 patients were diagnosed with cancer after hospitalization for obesity, showing an increased risk for 12 cancers and a decrease for breast cancer. The largest increases were found for nervous system hemangioma (13.64, 95% confidence interval 2.57-40.37) and other male genital (3.94, 1.24-9.26), bone (3.41, 1.23-7.47), small intestinal (2.93, 1.60-4.93), kidney (2.46, 1.97-3.02), and endometrial (2.32, 2.01-2.66) cancers. Among endocrine cancers, adrenal tumors showed the highest risk, of 3.74 (1.86-6.72). The overall risk was 1.19 (1.13-1.25). Family history of obesity was associated with formerly unrecognized increased risks of gallbladder and colon cancers and ocular melanoma. Cancer risks in this relatively young obese population differed quantitatively from those found after type 2 diabetes. The novel findings included rare and relatively benign tumors, probably found in endocrinological and other medical examinations for obesity and related conditions. Similarly, male genital cancer may be related to sexual behavior, and bone cancers, found in old individuals, could be related to propensity for fractures.

  8. Skin cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Gumaste, P V; Penn, L A; Cymerman, R M; Kirchhoff, T; Polsky, D; McLellan, B

    2015-06-01

    Women with BRCA1/2 mutations have an elevated risk of breast and ovarian cancer. These patients and their clinicians are often concerned about their risk for other cancers, including skin cancer. Research evaluating the association between BRCA1/2 mutations and skin cancer is limited and has produced inconsistent results. Herein, we review the current literature on the risk of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. No studies have shown a statistically significant risk of melanoma in BRCA1 families. BRCA2 mutations have been linked to melanoma in large breast and ovarian cancer families, though a statistically significant elevated risk was reported in only one study. Five additional studies have shown some association between BRCA2 mutations and melanoma, while four studies did not find any association. With respect to nonmelanoma skin cancers, studies have produced conflicting results. Given the current state of medical knowledge, there is insufficient evidence to warrant increased skin cancer surveillance of patients with a confirmed BRCA1/2 mutation or a family history of a BRCA1/2 mutation, in the absence of standard risk factors. Nonetheless, suspected BRCA1/2 mutation carriers should be counselled about skin cancer risks and may benefit from yearly full skin examinations.

  9. What Are the Risk Factors for Stomach Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... compounds that have been shown to cause stomach cancer in lab animals. On the other hand, eating lots of fresh fruits and vegetables appears to lower the risk of stomach cancer. (See “ Can stomach cancer be prevented ?”) Tobacco use ...

  10. Colorectal (Colon) Cancer: What Are the Risk Factors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Are the Risk Factors for Colorectal Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Cancer Institute) Learning About Colon Cancer Stay Informed Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

  11. Women's Cancer Risk Rises with Years Spent Overweight

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160451.html Women's Cancer Risk Rises With Years Spent Overweight Study found odds for 4 types rose 10 percent for every decade of obesity To use the ... her risk of several cancers, researchers report. The study, which followed nearly 74, ...

  12. Communicating Cancer Risk Information: The Challenges of Uncertainty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottorff, Joan L.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Johnson, Joy L.; Lovato, Chris Y.; Joab, S. Amanda

    1998-01-01

    Accurate and sensitive communication of cancer-risk information is important. Based on a literature review of 75 research reports, expert opinion papers, and clinical protocols, a synthesis of what is known about the communication of cancer-risk information is presented. Relevance of information to those not tested is discussed. (Author/EMK)

  13. Risk Prediction Models for Other Cancers or Multiple Sites

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing other multiple cancers over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  14. Breast cancer risk in flight attendants: an update.

    PubMed

    Salhab, M; Mokbel, K

    2006-01-01

    Although further research is required, epidemiological evidence indicates that breast cancer risk is increased by 40% among flight attendants. Female flight attendants and women who fly frequently should be informed of this potential increase in risk and be encouraged to participate in appropriate breast cancer screening programs. PMID:17269586

  15. Risk factors for ovarian cancer: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Booth, M; Beral, V; Smith, P

    1989-10-01

    A hospital-based case-control study of ovarian cancer was conducted in London and Oxford between October 1978 and February 1983. Menstrual characteristics, reproductive and contraceptive history and history of exposure to various environmental factors were compared between 235 women with histologically diagnosed epithelial ovarian cancer and 451 controls. High gravidity, hysterectomy, female sterilisation and oral contraceptive use were associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer. Infertility and late age at menopause were associated with an increase in risk. While these factors were related, they were each found to be independently associated with ovarian cancer risk after adjusting for the effect of the other factors.

  16. Lifestyle as risk factor for cancer: Evidence from human studies.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naghma; Afaq, Farrukh; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2010-07-28

    It is increasingly appreciated that the chances of developing cancer are significantly affected by the choice of our lifestyle. There are several uncontrollable risk factors which account for the majority of cancers, but we can modify our lifestyle to reduce enhanced threat of cancer. Healthy lifestyle behaviors for cancer risk reduction include a healthy diet, weight management, regular exercise, reduction in alcohol consumption and smoking cessation. In this article, we present evidences on the association between certain lifestyle characteristics and their contribution for developing breast, prostate, lung and colon cancers, using information derived from human studies.

  17. Breast cancer messaging for younger women: gender, femininity, and risk.

    PubMed

    Haines, Rebecca J; Bottorff, Joan L; Barclay McKeown, Stephanie; Ptolemy, Erin; Carey, Joanne; Sullivan, Kelli

    2010-06-01

    Evidence linking both active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure to premenopausal breast cancer makes the development of health messages specific to younger women a pressing priority. To determine how to communicate information about this modifiable breast cancer risk to young women, we analyzed a selection of 32 recent English-language breast cancer messages and campaigns that targeted young women. In addition, we obtained young women's responses to three breast cancer campaign images during focus group discussions. A visual analysis of messages points to an explicitly gendered discourse within contemporary campaigns, one that entails conflicting messages regarding breast cancer, health, feminine beauty, and risk. Although the intent might be to educate and empower young women to "fight" against breast cancer, paradoxically, the messages employ imagery that sexually objectifies young women's breasts and bodies. Recommendations are made for messaging about tobacco and breast cancer risk to avoid reproducing one-dimensional or stereotypical presentations of gender and femininity.

  18. Breast cancer messaging for younger women: gender, femininity, and risk.

    PubMed

    Haines, Rebecca J; Bottorff, Joan L; Barclay McKeown, Stephanie; Ptolemy, Erin; Carey, Joanne; Sullivan, Kelli

    2010-06-01

    Evidence linking both active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure to premenopausal breast cancer makes the development of health messages specific to younger women a pressing priority. To determine how to communicate information about this modifiable breast cancer risk to young women, we analyzed a selection of 32 recent English-language breast cancer messages and campaigns that targeted young women. In addition, we obtained young women's responses to three breast cancer campaign images during focus group discussions. A visual analysis of messages points to an explicitly gendered discourse within contemporary campaigns, one that entails conflicting messages regarding breast cancer, health, feminine beauty, and risk. Although the intent might be to educate and empower young women to "fight" against breast cancer, paradoxically, the messages employ imagery that sexually objectifies young women's breasts and bodies. Recommendations are made for messaging about tobacco and breast cancer risk to avoid reproducing one-dimensional or stereotypical presentations of gender and femininity. PMID:20354237

  19. Lung cancer risk of airborne particles for Italian population.

    PubMed

    Buonanno, G; Giovinco, G; Morawska, L; Stabile, L

    2015-10-01

    Airborne particles, including both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles, contain various carcinogens. Exposure and risk-assessment studies regularly use particle mass concentration as dosimetry parameter, therefore neglecting the potential impact of ultrafine particles due to their negligible mass compared to supermicrometric particles. The main purpose of this study was the characterization of lung cancer risk due to exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some heavy metals associated with particle inhalation by Italian non-smoking people. A risk-assessment scheme, modified from an existing risk model, was applied to estimate the cancer risk contribution from both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles. Exposure assessment was carried out on the basis of particle number distributions measured in 25 smoke-free microenvironments in Italy. The predicted lung cancer risk was then compared to the cancer incidence rate in Italy to assess the number of lung cancer cases attributed to airborne particle inhalation, which represents one of the main causes of lung cancer, apart from smoking. Ultrafine particles are associated with a much higher risk than supermicrometric particles, and the modified risk-assessment scheme provided a more accurate estimate than the conventional scheme. Great attention has to be paid to indoor microenvironments and, in particular, to cooking and eating times, which represent the major contributors to lung cancer incidence in the Italian population. The modified risk assessment scheme can serve as a tool for assessing environmental quality, as well as setting up exposure standards for particulate matter.

  20. Depot medroxyprogesterone (Depo-Provera) and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Paul, C.; Skegg, D. C.; Spears, G. F.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether use of the injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera) affects the risk of breast cancer in women. DESIGN--A population based case-control study. SETTING--Nationwide community study. SUBJECTS--891 Women aged 25-54 with newly diagnosed breast cancer were compared with 1864 women selected at random from the electoral rolls. INTERVENTION--Women were interviewed by telephone about past use of contraceptives and about possible risk factors for breast cancer. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Relative risk of breast cancer in women who had used medroxyprogesterone. RESULTS--Medroxyprogesterone had been used by 110 patients and 252 controls. Overall, the relative risk of breast cancer associated with any duration of use was 1.0 (95% confidence interval 0.80 to 1.3). In women aged 25-34 the relative risk was 2.0 (1.0 to 3.8). The relative risk was highest in women aged 25-34 who had used the drug for six years or longer, although there were few women in this category. Women who had used it for two years or longer before age 25 had an increased risk of breast cancer (relative risk 4.6; 1.4 to 15.1). CONCLUSION--Despite the lack of an overall association these findings suggest that medroxyprogesterone may increase the risk of breast cancer in young women. PMID:2529939

  1. Reducing cancer risk in rural communities through supermarket interventions.

    PubMed

    McCool, Barent N; Lyford, Conrad P; Hensarling, Natalie; Pence, Barbara; McCool, Audrey C; Thapa, Janani; Belasco, Eric; Carter, Tyra M

    2013-09-01

    Cancer risk is high, and prevention efforts are often minimal in rural communities. Feasible means of encouraging lifestyles that will reduce cancer risk for residents of rural communities are needed. This project developed and tested a model that could be feasibly adopted by rural communities to reduce cancer risk. This model focuses on incorporating multi-faceted cancer risk education in the local supermarket. As the supermarket functions both as the primary food source and an information source in small rural communities, the supermarket focus encourages the development of a community environment supportive of lifestyles that should reduce residents' risk for cancer. The actions taken to implement the model and the challenges that communities would have in implementing the model are identified. PMID:23677516

  2. Reducing cancer risk in rural communities through supermarket interventions.

    PubMed

    McCool, Barent N; Lyford, Conrad P; Hensarling, Natalie; Pence, Barbara; McCool, Audrey C; Thapa, Janani; Belasco, Eric; Carter, Tyra M

    2013-09-01

    Cancer risk is high, and prevention efforts are often minimal in rural communities. Feasible means of encouraging lifestyles that will reduce cancer risk for residents of rural communities are needed. This project developed and tested a model that could be feasibly adopted by rural communities to reduce cancer risk. This model focuses on incorporating multi-faceted cancer risk education in the local supermarket. As the supermarket functions both as the primary food source and an information source in small rural communities, the supermarket focus encourages the development of a community environment supportive of lifestyles that should reduce residents' risk for cancer. The actions taken to implement the model and the challenges that communities would have in implementing the model are identified.

  3. Weight Loss Might Reduce Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... said. SOURCES: Catherine Duggan, Ph.D., principal staff scientist, Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle; Victoria Stevens, Ph.D., strategic director, laboratory services, American Cancer Society; July 15, 2016, Cancer Research HealthDay ...

  4. Racial/ethnic differences in cancer risk after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hall, E C; Segev, D L; Engels, E A

    2013-03-01

    Transplant recipients have elevated cancer risk, but it is unknown if cancer risk differs across race and ethnicity as in the general population. US kidney recipients (N = 87,895) in the Transplant Cancer Match Study between 1992 and 2008 were evaluated for racial/ethnic differences in risk for six common cancers after transplantation. Compared to white recipients, black recipients had lower incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] 0.60, p<0.001) and higher incidence of kidney (aIRR 2.09, p<0.001) and prostate cancer (aIRR 2.14, p<0.001); Hispanic recipients had lower incidence of NHL (aIRR 0.64, p = 0.001), lung (aIRR 0.41, p < 0.001), breast (aIRR 0.53, p = 0.003) and prostate cancer (aIRR 0.72, p = 0.05). Colorectal cancer incidence was similar across groups. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) measured the effect of transplantation on cancer risk and were similar for most cancers (p≥0.1). However, black and Hispanic recipients had larger increases in kidney cancer risk with transplantation (SIRs: 8.96 in blacks, 5.95 in Hispanics vs. 4.44 in whites), and only blacks had elevated prostate cancer risk following transplantation (SIR: 1.21). Racial/ethnic differences in cancer risk after transplantation mirror general population patterns, except for kidney and prostate cancers where differences reflect the effects of end-stage renal disease or transplantation. PMID:23331953

  5. Dietary flavonoid intake and risk of stomach and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hae Dong; Kim, Jeongseon

    2013-02-21

    Stomach and colorectal cancers are common cancers and leading causes of cancer deaths. Because the alimentary tract can interact directly with dietary components, stomach and colorectal cancer may be closely related to dietary intake. We systematically searched published literature written in English via PubMed by searching for terms related to stomach and colorectal cancer risk and dietary flavonoids up to June 30, 2012. Twenty-three studies out of 209 identified articles were finally selected for the analysis. Log point effect estimates and the corresponding standard errors were calculated using covariate-adjusted point effect estimates and 95%CIs from the selected studies. Total dietary flavonoid intake was not associated with a reduced risk of colorectal or stomach cancer [odds ratio (OR) (95%CI) = 1.00 (0.90-1.11) and 1.07 (0.70-1.61), respectively]. Among flavonoid subclasses, the intake of flavonols, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanidins, and proanthocyanidins showed a significant inverse association with colorectal cancer risk [OR (95%CI) = 0.71 (0.63-0.81), 0.88 (0.79-0.97), 0.68 (0.56-0.82), and 0.72 (0.61-0.85), respectively]. A significant association was found only between flavonols and stomach cancer risk based on a limited number of selected studies [OR (95%CI) = 0.68 (0.46-0.99)]. In the summary estimates from case-control studies, all flavonoid subclasses except flavones and flavanones were inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk, whereas neither total flavonoids nor any subclasses of flavonoids were associated with colorectal cancer risk in the summary estimates based on the cohort studies. The significant association between flavonoid subclasses and cancer risk might be closely related to bias derived from the case-control design. There was no clear evidence that dietary flavonoids are associated with reduced risk of stomach and colorectal cancer.

  6. Targeted Cancer Screening in Average-Risk Individuals.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Pamela M; Freedman, Andrew N; Khoury, Muin J

    2015-11-01

    Targeted cancer screening refers to use of disease risk information to identify those most likely to benefit from screening. Researchers have begun to explore the possibility of refining screening regimens for average-risk individuals using genetic and non-genetic risk factors and previous screening experience. Average-risk individuals are those not known to be at substantially elevated risk, including those without known inherited predisposition, without comorbidities known to increase cancer risk, and without previous diagnosis of cancer or pre-cancer. In this paper, we describe the goals of targeted cancer screening in average-risk individuals, present factors on which cancer screening has been targeted, discuss inclusion of targeting in screening guidelines issued by major U.S. professional organizations, and present evidence to support or question such inclusion. Screening guidelines for average-risk individuals currently target age; smoking (lung cancer only); and, in some instances, race; family history of cancer; and previous negative screening history (cervical cancer only). No guidelines include common genomic polymorphisms. RCTs suggest that targeting certain ages and smoking histories reduces disease-specific cancer mortality, although some guidelines extend ages and smoking histories based on statistical modeling. Guidelines that are based on modestly elevated disease risk typically have either no or little evidence of an ability to affect a mortality benefit. In time, targeted cancer screening is likely to include genetic factors and past screening experience as well as non-genetic factors other than age, smoking, and race, but it is of utmost importance that clinical implementation be evidence-based.

  7. Metabolic Risk Profile and Cancer in Korean Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, A-Rim; Kim, Eun-Jung; Seo, Hye-Young

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Associations between metabolic syndrome and several types of cancer have recently been documented. Methods: We analyzed the sample cohort data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service from 2002, with a follow-up period extending to 2013. The cohort data included 99 565 individuals who participated in the health examination program and whose data were therefore present in the cohort database. The metabolic risk profile of each participant was assessed based on obesity, high serum glucose and total cholesterol levels, and high blood pressure. The occurrence of cancer was identified using Korean National Health Insurance claims data. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for age group, smoking status, alcohol intake, and regular exercise. Results: A total of 5937 cases of cancer occurred during a mean follow-up period of 10.4 years. In men with a high-risk metabolic profile, the risk of colon cancer was elevated (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.71). In women, a high-risk metabolic profile was associated with a significantly increased risk of gallbladder and biliary tract cancer (HR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.24 to 3.42). Non-significantly increased risks were observed in men for pharynx, larynx, rectum, and kidney cancer, and in women for colon, liver, breast, and ovarian cancer. Conclusions: The findings of this study support the previously suggested association between metabolic syndrome and the risk of several cancers. A high-risk metabolic profile may be an important risk factor for colon cancer in Korean men and gallbladder and biliary tract cancer in Korean women. PMID:27255073

  8. Young women's responses to smoking and breast cancer risk information.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

    2010-08-01

    Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer and obtain their advice about messaging approaches. Data were collected in focus groups with 46 women, divided in three age cohorts: 15-17, 18-19 and 20-24 and organized according to smoking status (smoking, non-smoking and mixed smoking status groups). The discussion questions were preceded by information about passive and active smoking and its associated breast cancer risk. The study findings show young women's interest in this risk factor for breast cancer. Three themes were drawn from the analysis: making sense of the information on smoking and breast cancer, personal susceptibility and tobacco exposure and suggestions for increasing awareness about tobacco exposure and breast cancer. There was general consensus on framing public awareness messages about this risk factor on 'protecting others' from breast cancer to catch smokers' attention, providing young women with the facts and personal stories of breast cancer to help establish a personal connection with this information and overcome desensitization related to tobacco messages, and targeting all smokers who may place young women at risk. Cautions were also raised about the potential for stigmatization. Implications for raising awareness about this modifiable risk factor for breast cancer are discussed.

  9. Diagnosis and Management of High Risk Group for Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hyuk; Kim, Nayoung

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is associated with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. To reduce the socioeconomic burden related to gastric cancer, it is very important to identify and manage high risk group for gastric cancer. In this review, we describe the general risk factors for gastric cancer and define high risk group for gastric cancer. We discuss strategies for the effective management of patients for the prevention and early detection of gastric cancer. Atrophic gastritis (AG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) are the most significant risk factors for gastric cancer. Therefore, the accurate selection of individuals with AG and IM may be a key strategy for the prevention and/or early detection of gastric cancer. Although endoscopic evaluation using enhanced technologies such as narrow band imaging-magnification, the serum pepsinogen test, Helicobacter pylori serology, and trefoil factor 3 have been evaluated, a gold standard method to accurately select individuals with AG and IM has not emerged. In terms of managing patients at high risk of gastric cancer, it remains uncertain whether H. pylori eradication reverses and/or prevents the progression of AG and IM. Although endoscopic surveillance in high risk patients is expected to be beneficial, further prospective studies in large populations are needed to determine the optimal surveillance interval. PMID:25547086

  10. Young women's responses to smoking and breast cancer risk information.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

    2010-08-01

    Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer and obtain their advice about messaging approaches. Data were collected in focus groups with 46 women, divided in three age cohorts: 15-17, 18-19 and 20-24 and organized according to smoking status (smoking, non-smoking and mixed smoking status groups). The discussion questions were preceded by information about passive and active smoking and its associated breast cancer risk. The study findings show young women's interest in this risk factor for breast cancer. Three themes were drawn from the analysis: making sense of the information on smoking and breast cancer, personal susceptibility and tobacco exposure and suggestions for increasing awareness about tobacco exposure and breast cancer. There was general consensus on framing public awareness messages about this risk factor on 'protecting others' from breast cancer to catch smokers' attention, providing young women with the facts and personal stories of breast cancer to help establish a personal connection with this information and overcome desensitization related to tobacco messages, and targeting all smokers who may place young women at risk. Cautions were also raised about the potential for stigmatization. Implications for raising awareness about this modifiable risk factor for breast cancer are discussed. PMID:20080807

  11. Diagnosis and management of high risk group for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyuk; Kim, Nayoung

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is associated with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. To reduce the socioeconomic burden related to gastric cancer, it is very important to identify and manage high risk group for gastric cancer. In this review, we describe the general risk factors for gastric cancer and define high risk group for gastric cancer. We discuss strategies for the effective management of patients for the prevention and early detection of gastric cancer. Atrophic gastritis (AG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) are the most significant risk factors for gastric cancer. Therefore, the accurate selection of individuals with AG and IM may be a key strategy for the prevention and/or early detection of gastric cancer. Although endoscopic evaluation using enhanced technologies such as narrow band imaging-magnification, the serum pepsinogen test, Helicobacter pylori serology, and trefoil factor 3 have been evaluated, a gold standard method to accurately select individuals with AG and IM has not emerged. In terms of managing patients at high risk of gastric cancer, it remains uncertain whether H. pylori eradication reverses and/or prevents the progression of AG and IM. Although endoscopic surveillance in high risk patients is expected to be beneficial, further prospective studies in large populations are needed to determine the optimal surveillance interval.

  12. Polygenic risk score is associated with increased disease risk in 52 Finnish breast cancer families.

    PubMed

    Muranen, Taru A; Mavaddat, Nasim; Khan, Sofia; Fagerholm, Rainer; Pelttari, Liisa; Lee, Andrew; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Easton, Douglas F; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2016-08-01

    The risk of developing breast cancer is increased in women with family history of breast cancer and particularly in families with multiple cases of breast or ovarian cancer. Nevertheless, many women with a positive family history never develop the disease. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) based on the risk effects of multiple common genetic variants have been proposed for individual risk assessment on a population level. We investigate the applicability of the PRS for risk prediction within breast cancer families. We studied the association between breast cancer risk and a PRS based on 75 common genetic variants in 52 Finnish breast cancer families including 427 genotyped women and pedigree information on ~4000 additional individuals by comparing the affected to healthy family members, as well as in a case-control dataset comprising 1272 healthy population controls and 1681 breast cancer cases with information on family history. Family structure was summarized using the BOADICEA risk prediction model. The PRS was associated with increased disease risk in women with family history of breast cancer as well as in women within the breast cancer families. The odds ratio (OR) for breast cancer within the family dataset was 1.55 [95 % CI 1.26-1.91] per unit increase in the PRS, similar to OR in unselected breast cancer cases of the case-control dataset (1.49 [1.38-1.62]). High PRS-values were informative for risk prediction in breast cancer families, whereas for the low PRS-categories the results were inconclusive. The PRS is informative in women with family history of breast cancer and should be incorporated within pedigree-based clinical risk assessment. PMID:27438779

  13. Examining intuitive risk perceptions for cancer in diverse populations

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Jennifer L.; Baser, Raymond; Weinstein, Neil D.; Li, Yuelin; Primavera, Louis; Kemeny, M. Margaret

    2014-01-01

    In this article we examine intuitive dimensions of personal cancer risk likelihood, which theory and empirical evidence indicate may be important elements in the risk perception process. We draw on data from a study of risk perceptions in three social groups, university students, men living in the community, and primary care patients living in urban area. The study took place in 2007-2011, in New York State (Garden City and New York City) and Boston, Massachusetts. This study used items developed from categories identified in prior qualitative research specifying emotions and attitudes activated in cancer risk determination to examine perception of cancer risks. Across three samples - university students (N=568), community men (N=182), and diverse, urban primary care patients (N=127) - we conducted exploratory factor and construct analyses. We found that the most reliable two factors within the five-factor solution were Cognitive Causation, tapping beliefs that risk thoughts may encourage cancer development, and Negative Affect in Risk, assessing negative feelings generated during the risk perception process. For these factors, there were high levels of item endorsement, especially in minority groups, and only modest associations with established cancer risk perception and worry assessments, indicating novel content. These items may prove useful in measuring and comparing intuitive cancer risk perceptions across diverse population subgroups. PMID:24999304

  14. Evaluation of skin cancer risk for lunar and Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M. Y.; George, K. A.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    Methods for estimating the probability of excess incidence of skin cancer from space radiation exposure, must consider the variability of skin doses at specific anatomical areas, and the individual factors that may contribute to risk projection models, including skin pigment, and synergistic effects from combined ionizing radiation and UV exposure. Using the multiplicative risk model for transferring the Japanese survivor data to the US population, epidemiological data for the increased risk for skin locations exposed to combined UV and ionizing radiation, and models of space radiation environments, transport, and anatomical shielding, we estimate the skin cancer risk for future lunar and Mars missions. Our model projects that individual variations in the probability for increased skin cancer risk varies more than 10-fold and that an excess cancer risk greater than 1% could occur for astronauts with light skin and hair color exposed to medium class solar particle events during future lunar base operations, or from galactic cosmic rays on Mars missions.

  15. Helping women to good health: breast cancer, omega-3/omega-6 lipids, and related lifestyle factors.

    PubMed

    de Lorgeril, Michel; Salen, Patricia

    2014-03-27

    In addition to genetic predisposition and sex hormone exposure, physical activity and a healthy diet play important roles in breast cancer (BC). Increased intake of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) associated with decreased omega-6 (n-6), resulting in a higher n-3/n-6 ratio compared with the western diet, are inversely associated with BC risk, as shown by Yang et al. in their meta-analysis in BMC Cancer. High consumption of polyphenols and organic foods increase the n-3/n-6 ratio, and in turn may decrease BC risk. Intake of high fiber foods and foods with low glycemic index decreases insulin resistance and diabetes risk, and in turn may decrease BC risk. The modernized Mediterranean diet is an effective strategy for combining these recommendations, and this dietary pattern reduces overall cancer risk and specifically BC risk. High-risk women should also eliminate environmental endocrine disruptors, including those from foods. Drugs that decrease the n-3/n-6 ratio or that are suspected of increasing BC or diabetes risk should be used with great caution by high-risk women and women wishing to decrease their BC risk.Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/14/105/abstract.

  16. Lifestyle risk factors for oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Petti, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    The "style of life is the unique way in which individuals try to realize their fictional final goal and meet or avoid the three main tasks of life: work, community, love" (Alfred Adler, founder of the Individual Psychology). Lifestyle refers to the way individuals live their lives and how they handle problems and interpersonal relations. The lifestyle behaviours associated to oral cancer with convincing evidence are tobacco use, betel quid chewing, alcohol drinking, low fruit and vegetable consumption (the detrimental lifestyle is high fat and/or sugar intake, resulting in low fruit and/or vegetable intake). Worldwide, 25% of oral cancers are attributable to tobacco usage (smoking and/or chewing), 7-19% to alcohol drinking, 10-15% to micronutrient deficiency, more than 50% to betel quid chewing in areas of high chewing prevalence. Carcinogenicity is dose-dependent and magnified by multiple exposures. Conversely, low and single exposures do not significantly increase oral cancer risk. These behaviours have common characteristics: (i) they are widespread: one billion men, 250 million women smoke cigarettes, 600-1200 million people chew betel quid, two billion consume alcohol, unbalanced diet is common amongst developed and developing countries; (ii) they were already used by animals and human forerunners millions of years ago because they were essential to overcome conditions such as cold, hunger, famine; their use was seasonal and limited by low availability, in contrast with the pattern of consumption of the modern era, characterized by routine, heavy usage, for recreational activities and with multiple exposures; (iii) their consumption in small doses is not recognized as detrimental by the human body and activates the dopaminergic reward system of the brain, thus giving instant pleasure, "liking" (overconsumption) and "wanting" (craving). For these reasons, effective Public Health measures aimed at preventing oral cancer and other lifestyle-related conditions

  17. Physiologically based pharmacokinetics and cancer risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, M E; Krishnan, K

    1994-01-01

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling involves mathematically describing the complex interplay of the critical physicochemical and biological determinants involved in the disposition of chemicals. In this approach, the body is divided into a number of biologically relevant tissue compartments, arranged in an anatomically accurate manner, and defined with appropriate physiological characteristics. The extrapolation of pharmacokinetic behavior of chemicals from high dose to low dose for various exposure routes and species is possible with this approach because these models are developed by integrating quantitative information on the critical determinants of chemical disposition under a biological modeling framework. The principal application of PBPK models is in the prediction of tissue dosimetry of toxic moiety (e.g., parent chemical, reactive metabolite, macromolecular adduct) of a chemical. Such an application has been demonstrated with dichloromethane, a liver and lung carcinogen in the B6C3F1 mouse. The PBPK model-based risk assessment approach estimated a cancer risk to people of 3.7 x 10(-8) for a lifetime inhalation exposure of 1 micrograms/m3, which is lower by more than two orders of magnitude than that calculated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency using the linearized multistage model (for low-dose extrapolation) and body surface correction factor (for interspecies scaling). The capability of predicting the target tissue exposure to toxic moiety in people with PBPK models should help reduce the uncertainty associated with the extrapolation procedures adopted in conventional dose-response assessment. PMID:8187697

  18. Fruits and vegetables intake and risk of bladder cancer: a PRISMA-compliant systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chang; Zeng, Xian-Tao; Liu, Tong-Zu; Zhang, Chao; Yang, Zhong-Hua; Li, Sheng; Chen, Xiao-Yan

    2015-05-01

    Clinical practice recommends eating ≥2.5 cups of fruits and vegetables (FVs) each day for cancer prevention, in which the evidence from epidemiological studies for the association between FVs intake and bladder cancer (BC) prevention is inconsistent.We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Willy online Library for relevant studies published up to September 27, 2014. Prospective cohort studies investigated FVs intake, and the risk of BC with ≥3 categories of exposure was included. A dose-response meta-analysis was carried out to evaluate the association between FVs intake and risk of BC.Fourteen cohorts with 17 studies including 9447 cases were identified. No evidence of nonlinear association was examined between FVs intake and risk of BC. The summarized relevant risk (RR) of every 0.2 serving increment a day was 1.00 (95%CI: 0.99, 1.00; P = 0.17; I = 41.7%; n = 14) for total fruits; 0.99 (95%CI: 0.96, 1.01; P = 0.28; I = 37.0%; n = 13) for total vegetables; and 0.99 (95%CI: 0.97, 1.01; P = 0.24; I = 57.5%; n = 8) for both FVs. In further analysis, we observed inverse association between every 0.2 serving increment of green leafy vegetables intake a day and risk of BC (RR = 0.98, 95%CI: 0.96, 0.99; I = 0.0%; P < 0.01; Power = 0.76; n = 6), but neither for cruciferous vegetables (RR = 0.97, 95%CI: 0.93, 1.01; P = 0.19; I = 55.8%; n = 8) nor for citrus (RR = 1.00, 95%CI: 1.00, 1.00; P = 0.83; I = 0.0%; n = 7). Subgroup analysis showed consistent results.Little evidence supports a beneficial effect for total fruits, vegetables, both FVs, and citrus intake against bladder cancer. Green leafy vegetables may help prevent bladder cancer.

  19. Increased risk of cancer among relatives of patients with lung cancer in China

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yongtang; Xu, Yingchun; Xu, Ming; Xue, Saoli

    2005-01-01

    Background Genetic factors were considered as one of the risk factors for lung cancer or other cancers. The aim of this work was to determine whether a genetic predisposition accounts for such familial aggregation of cancer among relatives of lung cancer probands. Methods A case-control study was conducted in 800 case families identified by lung cancer patients (probands), and in 800 control families identified by the probands'spouses. The data were analysed with logistic regression analysis model. Results The data revealed a significantly greater overall risk of cancer (OR = 1.82, P < 0.01) in the proband group. The relatives of lung cancer probands maintained an increased risk of non-lung cancer (P < 0.05) after adjusting for confounder factors. The crude odds ratio of a proband family having one family member with cancer was 1.67 compared with control families. Proband families were 2.56 times more likely to have two other family members with cancer. For three cancers and four or more cancers, the risk increased to 3.50 and 5.91, respectively. The most striking differences in cancer prevalence between proband and control families were noted for cancer risk among female relatives. The strongest effects were for not only lung cancer in any female relatives (OR 2.17, 95%CI 1.60–3.64) and mothers (OR 2.78, 95%CI 1.23–5.12) and sisters (OR 2.03, 95%CI 1.26–3.97), but also non-lung cancer in females and mothers (OR 2.00, 95%CI 1.26–3.01, and OR 2.34, 95%CI 1.28–4.40, respectively). Conclusion These data support the hypothesis of a genetic susceptibility to cancer in families with lung cancer, and the female genetic susceptibility to cancer might be greater than male. PMID:16281985

  20. Risk-reducing Surgery in Women at Risk for Familial Breast or Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rhiem, K.; Pfeifer, K.; Schmutzler, R. K.; Kiechle, M.

    2012-01-01

    An estimated 5 % of breast cancers and 10 % of ovarian cancers may be due to inherited autosomal dominant breast and ovarian cancer alleles BRCA1 und BRCA2. According to population-based studies 1 or 2 women per 1000 carry such a risk allele. The cumulative cancer risk for healthy women with a BRCA-mutation is between 60 and 85 % for breast cancer and between 20 and 60 % for ovarian cancer. Recent studies have reported an increased risk for contralateral breast cancer in women after unilateral breast cancer. Since 1997 the German Cancer Aid has supported an interdisciplinary approach for high-risk women consisting of genetic testing, counselling and prevention in 12 specialised centres. Since 2005 this concept has received additional support from health insurance companies, and results have been assessed with regard to outcomes (e.g. reduced mortality due to more intensive early diagnosis). The number of centres has increased to 15 at various university hospitals. These interdisciplinary centres offer women the opportunity to participate in a structured screening programme for the early diagnosis of breast cancer and provide non-directive counselling on the options for risk-reducing surgery, e.g., prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, prophylactic bilateral mastectomy or contralateral prophylactic mastectomy after unilateral breast cancer. Such surgical interventions can significantly reduce the risk of disease, the respective disease-specific mortality and – particularly prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy – total mortality in BRCA-mutation carriers. PMID:26640291

  1. Exemestane Reduces Breast Cancer Risk in High-Risk Postmenopausal Women

    Cancer.gov

    Clinical trial results presented at the 2011 ASCO annual meeting showed that the aromatase inhibitor exemestane—used to treat early and advanced breast cancer—substantially reduced the risk of invasive breast cancer in high-risk postmenopausal women.

  2. Evaluating Shielding Effectiveness for Reducing Space Radiation Cancer Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Ren, Lei

    2007-01-01

    We discuss calculations of probability distribution functions (PDF) representing uncertainties in projecting fatal cancer risk from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE). The PDF s are used in significance tests of the effectiveness of potential radiation shielding approaches. Uncertainties in risk coefficients determined from epidemiology data, dose and dose-rate reduction factors, quality factors, and physics models of radiation environments are considered in models of cancer risk PDF s. Competing mortality risks and functional correlations in radiation quality factor uncertainties are treated in the calculations. We show that the cancer risk uncertainty, defined as the ratio of the 95% confidence level (CL) to the point estimate is about 4-fold for lunar and Mars mission risk projections. For short-stay lunar missions (<180 d), SPE s present the most significant risk, however one that is mitigated effectively by shielding, especially for carbon composites structures with high hydrogen content. In contrast, for long duration lunar (>180 d) or Mars missions, GCR risks may exceed radiation risk limits, with 95% CL s exceeding 10% fatal risk for males and females on a Mars mission. For reducing GCR cancer risks, shielding materials are marginally effective because of the penetrating nature of GCR and secondary radiation produced in tissue by relativistic particles. At the present time, polyethylene or carbon composite shielding can not be shown to significantly reduce risk compared to aluminum shielding based on a significance test that accounts for radiobiology uncertainties in GCR risk projection.

  3. Associations between vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; He, Qi; Shao, Yu-Guo; Ji, Min; Bao, Wei

    2013-12-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have investigated the association between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk, but the results were inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis of 31 studies on VDR polymorphisms, including FokI, BsmI, TaqI, and ApaI, and breast cancer risk published before May 2013. For FokI, the allele of f was found to be associated with increased risk of breast cancer compared with F (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.03-1.36). Patients with ff genotype were at significantly higher risk of breast cancer compared with those with FF genotype (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.66-2.29). In subgroup analysis by race, Fok1 polymorphism was significantly associated with breast cancer risk for Caucasian population (f vs. F: OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.14-1.59; ff vs. FF: OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.86-2.54; ff vs. FF + Ff: OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03-1.30). For ApaI, aa genotype was associated with increased breast cancer risk in Asian population based on four studies (aa vs. Aa + AA, OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.12-1.98). No significant association was found between breast cancer risk and ApaI and TaqI polymorphism in different models and populations. Our updated meta-analysis showed that Fok1 polymorphism is associated with breast cancer risk both in general population and in Caucasian population. ApaI polymorphism might be associated with breast cancer risk in Asian population. Large well-designed epidemiological studies are necessary to clarify the risk identified in the current meta-analysis. PMID:23900677

  4. LOW RISK PROSTATE CANCER: ACTIVE TREATMENT OR ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE?

    PubMed

    Tomašković, Igor

    2015-09-01

    The widely used screening for prostate cancer with prostate specific antigen has resulted in identification of potentially lethal prostate cancers at a much more curable stage and has been associated with significant falls in prostate cancer mortality. In spite of the fact that prostate cancer is one of the deadliest malignancies in men, the advent of sensitive diagnostic testing has also resulted in detection of low risk cancers due to the high incidence of latent prostate cancer in aging men and prolonged natural history of the disease. This, in turn, has entailed the problem of cancer overdiagnosis and subsequent overtreatment. Approximately 6 times as many men will be diagnosed with the disease as will die from it. Active surveillance appeared as a response to the clearly documented risks of overdiagnosis and overtreatment of low risk prostate cancer for localized prostate cancer. It entails initial expectant management rather than immediate therapy, with 'curative-intent' treatment deferred until there is evidence that the patient is at an increased risk of disease progression. This approach attempts to balance the risks and side effects of overtreatment against the possibility of disease progression and lost opportunity for cure. A systematic literature review brings current knowledge on the subject.

  5. Risk of Cancer in Diabetes: The Effect of Metformin

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Mojtaba; Emami, Zahra; Khamseh, Mohammad E.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is the second cause of death. Association of diabetes as a growing and costly disease with cancer is a major health concern. Meanwhile, preexisting diabetes is associated with an increased risk of all-cause and cancer-specific mortalities. Presence of diabetes related comorbidities, poorer response to cancer treatment, and excess mortality related to diabetes are among the most important explanations. Although diabetes appear to be a risk factor for cancer and is associated with the mortality risk in cancer patients, several factors such as diabetes duration, multiple drug therapy, and the presence of diabetes comorbidities make the assessment of the effect of diabetes treatment on cancer risk and mortality difficult. Metformin is the drug of choice for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The available evidence from basic science, clinical, and population-based research supports the anticancer effect of metformin. However, randomized controlled clinical trials do not provide enough evidence for a strong protective effect of metformin on cancer incidence or mortality. One of the most important limitations of these trials is the short duration of the followup. Further long-term randomized controlled clinical trials specifically designed to determine metformin effect on cancer risk are needed to provide the best answer to this challenge. PMID:24224094

  6. Shared Risk Factors in Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Koene, Ryan J; Prizment, Anna E; Blaes, Anne; Konety, Suma H

    2016-03-15

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer are the 2 leading causes of death worldwide. Although commonly thought of as 2 separate disease entities, CVD and cancer possess various similarities and possible interactions, including a number of similar risk factors (eg, obesity, diabetes mellitus), suggesting a shared biology for which there is emerging evidence. Although chronic inflammation is an indispensable feature of the pathogenesis and progression of both CVD and cancer, additional mechanisms can be found at their intersection. Therapeutic advances, despite improving longevity, have increased the overlap between these diseases, with millions of cancer survivors now at risk of developing CVD. Cardiac risk factors have a major impact on subsequent treatment-related cardiotoxicity. In this review, we explore the risk factors common to both CVD and cancer, highlighting the major epidemiological studies and potential biological mechanisms that account for them. PMID:26976915

  7. Do fatty breasts increase or decrease breast cancer risk?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the association of non-dense area or fatty breasts in conjunction with breast density and breast cancer risk. Two articles in a recent issue of Breast Cancer Research investigate the role of absolute non-dense breast area measured on mammograms and find conflicting results: one article finds that non-dense breast area has a modest positive association with breast cancer risk, whereas the other finds that non-dense breast area has a strong protective effect to reduce breast cancer risk. Understanding the interplay of body mass index, menopause status, and measurement of non-dense breast area would help to clarify the contribution of non-dense breast area to breast cancer risk. PMID:22277587

  8. A woman's build and the risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cold, S; Hansen, S; Overvad, K; Rose, C

    1998-07-01

    A woman's build and the risk of breast cancer seem to be related. While relative overweight, as described by the body mass index, seems to be associated with increased breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women, overweight in premenopausal women seems slightly protective. Papers from a MEDLINE search are reviewed regarding the association between build and the development of breast cancer. Different aspects of build, such as height, weight, body mass index and body shape, are discussed. The more prominent associations found through this search are a positive association between height and breast cancer risk both in pre- and postmenopausal women. Regarding body mass index, the association is negative in premenopausal women and positive in postmenopausal women. Body shape described as masculine versus feminine seems to have no impact on breast cancer risk in premenopausal women, but seems to be positively associated with breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Possible biological mechanisms responsible for the associations with breast cancer risk are discussed, including endogenous oestrogens, androgens and glucose metabolic substances. Avoiding or reducing postmenopausal overweight may modify breast cancer risk indicators in a more favourable direction.

  9. Risk Factors and Epidemiology of Gastric Cancer in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Daniyal, Muhammad; Ahmad, Saeed; Ahmad, Mukhtiar; Asif, Hafiz Muhammad; Akram, Muhammad; Ur Rehman, Saif; Sultana, Sabira

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the 2nd most common cause of death among all cancers and is the 4th most common cancer in the world. The number of deaths due to gastric cancer is about 800,000 annually. Gastric cancer is more common in men as compared to women and is 3rd most common cancer after colorectal and breast cancers in women. A progressive rise in the incidence rate has been observed in females over the last 5 years. The highest incidence of stomach cancer is in China, South America and Eastern Europe. The incidence of gastric cancer has 20 fold variation worldwide. Global variation is linked by two factors which play important role in developing gastric cancer. One is infection with Helicobacter pylori and the 2nd is diet. South Asia is a region with low risk, despite a high prevalence of H.pylori. Gastric carcinoma is common in southern region of India. Gastric cancer is more readily treated if diagnosed early. This study aims to provide awareness about gastric cancer as well as an updated knowledge about risk factors and epidemiology of gastric cancer in Pakistan.

  10. The impact of treatment compliance on fracture risk in women with breast cancer treated with aromatase inhibitors in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Schimdt, Nina; Jacob, Louis; Coleman, Robert; Kostev, Karel; Hadji, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    No study has yet analyzed the impact of compliance with aromatase inhibitor(AI) treatments on fracture risk in a real-world setting in women with breast cancer. In this study, 8732 women with BC treated with AI, 8732 treated with tamoxifen (TAM), and 8732 age-matched women without BC selected from the Disease Analyzer database (IMS Health) were included. The main outcome measure was the impact of compliance with AI treatment on fracture risk. Demographic data included age, body mass index (BMI), and smoking status. Alcohol dependency, dementia, bone density, visual disturbances, diabetes, and use of corticosteroids were also assessed. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to analyze the proportion of patients with fracture over time, and multivariate Cox regression models were performed to assess the adjusted fracture risk. Mean age was 67.3 years. 17.6, 8.7, and 8.8 % of AI, TAM, and non-cancer patients, respectively, were diagnosed with fracture within 5 years after the index date (p < 0.001). The proportion of women receiving AI with fracture increased with treatment compliance, rising from 8.6 % when treatment persisted for less than a year to 18.0 % when it persisted for between 4 and 5 years (p < 0.001). By contrast, the proportion of fractures in women with BC receiving TAM for the same time periods decreased from 13.0 to 7.9 % (p < 0.001). The risk of fracture was higher in women with BC using AI than in the non-cancer group (HR = 3.00; p < 0.0001). Finally, current smoking status, BMI, dementia, and prescription of corticosteroids had significant impacts on fracture risk. Compliance with AI treatment in women with BC is associated with a clear increase in the risk of fracture, which is much higher than previously reported.

  11. Circulating Adipokines and Inflammatory Markers and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Cushman, Mary; Xue, Xiaonan; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Strickler, Howard D.; Rohan, Thomas E.; Manson, JoAnn E.; McTiernan, Anne; Kaplan, Robert C.; Scherer, Philipp E.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Snetselaar, Linda; Wang, Dan; Ho, Gloria Y. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adipokines and inflammation may provide a mechanistic link between obesity and postmenopausal breast cancer, yet epidemiologic data on their associations with breast cancer risk are limited. Methods: In a case-cohort analysis nested within the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study, a prospective cohort of postmenopausal women, baseline plasma samples from 875 incident breast cancer case patients and 839 subcohort participants were tested for levels of seven adipokines, namely leptin, adiponectin, resistin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, hepatocyte growth factor, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and for C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker. Data were analyzed by multivariable Cox modeling that included established breast cancer risk factors and previously measured estradiol and insulin levels. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: The association between plasma CRP levels and breast cancer risk was dependent on hormone therapy (HT) use at baseline (P interaction = .003). In a model that controlled for multiple breast cancer risk factors including body mass index (BMI), estradiol, and insulin, CRP level was positively associated with breast cancer risk among HT nonusers (hazard ratio for high vs low CRP levels = 1.67, 95% confidence interval = 1.04 to 2.68, P trend = .029). None of the other adipokines were statistically significantly associated with breast cancer risk. Following inclusion of CRP, insulin, and estradiol in a multivariable model, the association of BMI with breast cancer was attenuated by 115%. Conclusion: These data indicate that CRP is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer among HT nonusers. Inflammatory mediators, together with insulin and estrogen, may play a role in the obesity–breast cancer relation. PMID:26185195

  12. Characteristics and Risk Factors of Cancer Associated Venous Thromboembolism☆

    PubMed Central

    Faiz, Ambarina S.; Khan, Imran; Beckman, Michele G.; Bockenstedt, Paula; Heit, John A.; Kulkarni, Roshni; Manco-Johnson, Marilyn; Moll, Stephan; Ortel, Thomas L.; Philipp, Claire S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to examine the differences in commonly associated characteristics and risk factors of venous thromboembolism (VTE) between patients with and without cancer in a VTE population. Materials and Methods Uniform data were collected for patients with a diagnosis of VTE obtaining care at CDC funded Thrombosis Network Centers. Patient characteristics and risk factors were compared in VTE patients with and without cancer. Logistic regression was used to calculate the unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess patient characteristics and thrombotic risk factors more frequently identified among VTE patients with cancer compared to those without cancer. Results Between August 2003 and April 2011, 3,115 adult patients with a diagnosis of VTE including 189 (6.1%) patients with active cancer participated in the multi-site thrombosis registry. VTE patients with cancer had a higher prevalence of PE and DVT in unusual sites compared to those without cancer. Thrombophilia was more common among VTE patients without cancer than those with cancer (25.1% vs 10.6%, p < 0.001). In adjusted analysis, age group ≥ 45 years (OR =5.20, 95% CI, 3.30, 8.18), surgery (OR =1.86, 95% CI, 1.19, 2.91), and hypertension (OR =1.66, 95% CI, 1.15, 2.40) were the VTE risk factors more commonly found among VTE patients with cancer. Conclusion The study identified several thrombotic risk factors more likely to be found with cancer associated VTE, which may help to characterize at risk cancer patients and to develop prevention and management strategies in this population. PMID:26168693

  13. Obesity and Diabetes: The Increased Risk of Cancer and Cancer-Related Mortality

    PubMed Central

    LeRoith, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide, and both are associated with an increased incidence and mortality from many cancers. The metabolic abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes develop many years before the onset of diabetes and, therefore, may be contributing to cancer risk before individuals are aware that they are at risk. Multiple factors potentially contribute to the progression of cancer in obesity and type 2 diabetes, including hyperinsulinemia and insulin-like growth factor I, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, adipokines and cytokines, and the gut microbiome. These metabolic changes may contribute directly or indirectly to cancer progression. Intentional weight loss may protect against cancer development, and therapies for diabetes may prove to be effective adjuvant agents in reducing cancer progression. In this review we discuss the current epidemiology, basic science, and clinical data that link obesity, diabetes, and cancer and how treating obesity and type 2 diabetes could also reduce cancer risk and improve outcomes. PMID:26084689

  14. Obesity and Diabetes: The Increased Risk of Cancer and Cancer-Related Mortality.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Emily Jane; LeRoith, Derek

    2015-07-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide, and both are associated with an increased incidence and mortality from many cancers. The metabolic abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes develop many years before the onset of diabetes and, therefore, may be contributing to cancer risk before individuals are aware that they are at risk. Multiple factors potentially contribute to the progression of cancer in obesity and type 2 diabetes, including hyperinsulinemia and insulin-like growth factor I, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, adipokines and cytokines, and the gut microbiome. These metabolic changes may contribute directly or indirectly to cancer progression. Intentional weight loss may protect against cancer development, and therapies for diabetes may prove to be effective adjuvant agents in reducing cancer progression. In this review we discuss the current epidemiology, basic science, and clinical data that link obesity, diabetes, and cancer and how treating obesity and type 2 diabetes could also reduce cancer risk and improve outcomes. PMID:26084689

  15. Trajectory of body shape across the lifespan and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Song, Mingyang; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B; Spiegelman, Donna; Must, Aviva; Wu, Kana; Chan, Andrew T; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-05-15

    The influence of adiposity over life course on cancer risk remains poorly understood. We assessed trajectories of body shape from age 5 up to 60 using a group-based modeling approach among 73,581 women from the Nurses' Health Study and 32,632 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. After a median of approximately 10 years of follow-up, we compared incidence of total and obesity-related cancers (cancers of the esophagus [adenocarcinoma only], colorectum, pancreas, breast [after menopause], endometrium, ovaries, prostate [advanced only], kidney, liver and gallbladder) between these trajectories. We identified five distinct trajectories of body shape: lean-stable, lean-moderate increase, lean-marked increase, medium-stable, and heavy-stable/increase. Compared with women in the lean-stable trajectory, those in the lean-marked increase and heavy-stable/increase trajectories had a higher cancer risk in the colorectum, esophagus, pancreas, kidney, and endometrium (relative risk [RR] ranged from 1.22 to 2.56). Early life adiposity was inversely while late life adiposity was positively associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk. In men, increased body fatness at any life period was associated with a higher risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma and colorectal cancer (RR ranged from 1.23 to 3.01), and the heavy-stable/increase trajectory was associated with a higher risk of pancreatic cancer, but lower risk of advanced prostate cancer. The trajectory-cancer associations were generally stronger for non-smokers and women who did not use menopausal hormone therapy. In conclusion, trajectories of body shape throughout life were related to cancer risk with varied patterns by sex and organ, indicating a role for lifetime adiposity in carcinogenesis. PMID:26704725

  16. Trajectory of body shape across the lifespan and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Song, Mingyang; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B; Spiegelman, Donna; Must, Aviva; Wu, Kana; Chan, Andrew T; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-05-15

    The influence of adiposity over life course on cancer risk remains poorly understood. We assessed trajectories of body shape from age 5 up to 60 using a group-based modeling approach among 73,581 women from the Nurses' Health Study and 32,632 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. After a median of approximately 10 years of follow-up, we compared incidence of total and obesity-related cancers (cancers of the esophagus [adenocarcinoma only], colorectum, pancreas, breast [after menopause], endometrium, ovaries, prostate [advanced only], kidney, liver and gallbladder) between these trajectories. We identified five distinct trajectories of body shape: lean-stable, lean-moderate increase, lean-marked increase, medium-stable, and heavy-stable/increase. Compared with women in the lean-stable trajectory, those in the lean-marked increase and heavy-stable/increase trajectories had a higher cancer risk in the colorectum, esophagus, pancreas, kidney, and endometrium (relative risk [RR] ranged from 1.22 to 2.56). Early life adiposity was inversely while late life adiposity was positively associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk. In men, increased body fatness at any life period was associated with a higher risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma and colorectal cancer (RR ranged from 1.23 to 3.01), and the heavy-stable/increase trajectory was associated with a higher risk of pancreatic cancer, but lower risk of advanced prostate cancer. The trajectory-cancer associations were generally stronger for non-smokers and women who did not use menopausal hormone therapy. In conclusion, trajectories of body shape throughout life were related to cancer risk with varied patterns by sex and organ, indicating a role for lifetime adiposity in carcinogenesis.

  17. Do Environmental Factors Modify the Genetic Risk of Prostate Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Stacy; Peskoe, Sarah B.; Joshu, Corinne E.; Huang, Wen-Yi; Hayes, Richard B.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Isaacs, William B.; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many SNPs influence prostate cancer risk. To what extent genetic risk can be reduced by environmental factors is unknown. Methods We evaluated effect modification by environmental factors of the association between susceptibility SNPs and prostate cancer in 1,230 incident prostate cancer cases and 1,361 controls, all white and similar ages, nested in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Trial. Genetic risk scores were calculated as number of risk alleles for 20 validated SNPs. We estimated the association between higher genetic risk (≥ 12 SNPs) and prostate cancer within environmental factor strata and tested for interaction. Results Men with ≥12 risk alleles had 1.98, 2.04, and 1.91 times the odds of total, advanced, and nonadvanced prostate cancer, respectively. These associations were attenuated with the use of selenium supplements, aspirin, ibuprofen, and higher vegetable intake. For selenium, the attenuation was most striking for advanced prostate cancer: compared with <12 alleles and no selenium, the OR for ≥12 alleles was 2.06 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.67–2.55] in nonusers and 0.99 (0.38–2.58) in users (Pinteraction = 0.031). Aspirin had the most marked attenuation for nonadvanced prostate cancer: compared with <12 alleles and nonusers, the OR for ≥12 alleles was 2.25 (1.69–3.00) in nonusers and 1.70 (1.25–2.32) in users (Pinteraction = 0.009). This pattern was similar for ibuprofen (Pinteraction = 0.023) and vegetables (Pinteraction = 0.010). Conclusions This study suggests that selenium supplements may reduce genetic risk of advanced prostate cancer, whereas aspirin, ibuprofen, and vegetables may reduce genetic risk of nonadvanced prostate cancer. PMID:25342390

  18. Knowledge of risk management strategies, and information and risk management preferences of women at increased risk for ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Tiller, K; Meiser, B; Gould, L; Tucker, K; Dudding, T; Franklin, J; Friedlander, M; Andrews, L

    2005-04-01

    Little research is available on the level of knowledge about ovarian cancer risk management options in women at increased risk for this disease. The study objectives were to evaluate this together with the information and ovarian cancer risk management preferences of high-risk women. One hundred and twenty-nine women were assessed after their attendance at one of six familial cancer clinics in relation to knowledge of surveillance and/or preventative strategies for reduction of ovarian cancer risk, preferences for particular strategies, and information preferences. Screening was selected by 57 (44%) women as the preferred risk management option. One hundred and five women (82%) indicated a wish for as much information as possible about ovarian cancer, including both good and bad outcomes and 114 (89%) reported a preference for sharing treatment decisions with their health professional. Participants' knowledge about ovarian cancer risk management options was significantly associated with educational levels (Z = -3.2, p=0.001) and whether or not ovarian cancer was included in the family history (Z = -2.3, p = 0.018). Findings from this present study indicate that women at increased risk of ovarian cancer who attend familial cancer clinics want as much information as possible about this disease and they want to be involved in the decision-making process. Women who reported a lower level of education (no post-school qualifications) may be most likely to benefit from additional educational strategies designed to supplement genetic counseling to improve their knowledge levels.

  19. Pleiotropic effects of genetic risk variants for other cancers on colorectal cancer risk: PAGE, GECCO, and CCFR Consortia

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Iona; Kocarnik, Jonathan M; Dumitrescu, Logan; Lindor, Noralane M; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Avery, Christy L.; Caberto, Christian P; Love, Shelly-Ann; Slattery, Martha L; Chan, Andrew T; Baron, John A; Hindorff, Lucia A; Park, Sungshim Lani; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Hoffmeister, Michael; Kraft, Peter; Butler, Anne; Duggan, David; Hou, Lifang; Carlson, Chris S; Monroe, Kristine R; Lin, Yi; Carty, Cara L; Mann, Sue; Ma, Jing; Giovannucci, Edward L; Fuchs, Charles S; Newcomb, Polly A; Jenkins, Mark A; Hopper, John L; Haile, Robert W; Conti, David V; Campbell, Peter T; Potter, John D; Caan, Bette J; Schoen, Robert E; Hayes, Richard B; Chanock, Stephen J; Berndt, Sonja I; Kury, Sebastien; Bezieau, Stephane; Ambite, Jose Luis; Kumaraguruparan, Gowri; Richardson, Danielle; Goodloe, Robert J; Dilks, Holli H; Baker, Paxton; Zanke, Brent W; Lemire, Mathieu; Gallinger, Steven; Hsu, Li; Jiao, Shuo; Harrison, Tabitha; Seminara, Daniela; Haiman, Christopher A; Kooperberg, Charles; Wilkens, Lynne R; Hutter, Carolyn M; White, Emily; Crawford, Dana C; Heiss, Gerardo; Hudson, Thomas J; Brenner, Hermann; Bush, William S; Casey, Graham; Marchand, Loic Le; Peters, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Objective Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with a wide array of cancer sites. Several of these variants demonstrate associations with multiple cancers, suggesting pleiotropic effects and shared biological mechanisms across some cancers. We hypothesized that SNPs previously associated with other cancers may additionally be associated with colorectal cancer. In a large-scale study, we examined 171 SNPs previously associated with 18 different cancers for their associations with colorectal cancer. Design We examined 13,338 colorectal cancer cases and 40,967 controls from three consortia: Population Architecture using Genetics and Epidemiology (PAGE), Genetic Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (GECCO), and the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR). Study-specific logistic regression results, adjusted for age, sex, principal components of genetic ancestry, and/or study specific factors (as relevant) were combined using fixed-effect meta-analyses to evaluate the association between each SNP and colorectal cancer risk. A Bonferroni-corrected p-value of 2.92×10−4 was used to determine statistical significance of the associations. Results Two correlated SNPs— rs10090154 and rs4242382—in Region 1 of chromosome 8q24, a prostate cancer susceptibility region, demonstrated statistically significant associations with colorectal cancer risk. The most significant association was observed with rs4242382 (meta-analysis OR=1.12; 95% CI: 1.07–1.18; P=1.74×10−5), which also demonstrated similar associations across racial/ethnic populations and anatomical sub-sites. Conclusion This is the first study to clearly demonstrate Region 1 of chromosome 8q24 as a susceptibility locus for colorectal cancer, thus adding colorectal cancer to the list of cancer sites linked to this particular multi-cancer risk region at 8q24. PMID:23935004

  20. Cancer trends and risk factors in Cyprus

    PubMed Central

    Farazi, Paraskevi A.

    2014-01-01

    Cyprus, a European Union member state, is a small island in the Mediterranean with a population approaching 900,000 people. Cancer is the second leading cause of death; more therapeutic options for any patient with the disease are available in a central oncology centre in the capital of the island (Nicosia) and fewer therapeutic options (e.g. chemotherapy and hormone therapy only) in a few other public hospitals. Palliative care is offered in several hospices and hospitals, although the field needs improvement. With regards to screening, a national breast cancer screening programme has been in place countrywide since 2007 and is offered free of charge to women between the ages of 50 and 69 years, while colorectal and prostate cancer screening is performed on an individual basis (a pilot programme for colorectal cancer screening was recently initiated). Genetic testing is available for breast and colon cancer. To improve understanding of the causes of cancer in the country, a cancer research centre was established in 2010 (Mediterranean Centre for Cancer Research). Recent epidemiologic work has revealed increasing cancer trends in Cyprus; prostate cancer is the most common in men and breast cancer is the most common in women. Interestingly, thyroid cancer incidence in women has been rising from 1998 to 2008. Cancer of the colon and rectum is also on the rise affecting both sexes. Overall, cancer incidence in Cyprus is lower than other EuroMed countries with similar lifestyle and geography. PMID:24678344

  1. Periodontal bone loss and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Babic, Ana; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Teles, Ricardo P.; Tworoger, Shelley S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Periodontitis, a chronic inflammatory response to pathogenic bacteria in the oral microbiome, is common among adults. It is associated with several medical conditions, including cardiovascular diseases, and potentially with esophageal, lung, oral and pancreatic cancer. One of the proposed mechanisms behind these associations is systemic inflammation, which has also been implicated in ovarian cancer etiology. The aim of this study was to evaluate association between ovarian cancer and periodontal bone loss. Methods The association between periodontal bone loss, a marker of periodontitis, and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer was estimated among 60,560 participants of the prospective Nurses’ Health Study using Cox proportional hazards analysis. Competing risks analysis was used to estimate association by histological subtype. Results We did not observe an increased risk of ovarian cancer among participants with periodontal bone loss (HR=0.86, 95% CI: 0.64–1.15). Among women younger than 69 years, periodontal bone loss was associated with a 40% (HR=0.60, 95% CI: 0.36–0.98) decreased ovarian cancer risk, while there was no association in women older than 69 (HR=1.09, 95% CI: 0.75–1.58), although this difference did not reach statistical significance (p-heterogeneity=0.06). We observed a suggestive decreased risk for serous tumors (HR=0.76, 95% CI: 0.53–1.09). The number of natural teeth and root canals, other metrics of oral health, were not associated with ovarian cancer risk. Conclusion Our results do not support an increased ovarian cancer risk in women with periodontal bone loss, however there was a significant decrease in risk in women younger than 69. Given the unexpected association between periodontal bone loss and ovarian cancer risk in younger women, further research is warranted. PMID:25837263

  2. Established and Suspected Risk Factors in Breast Cancer Aetiology

    PubMed Central

    Kluttig, Alexander; Schmidt-Pokrzywniak, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Summary Although a current decline in breast cancer incidence and mortality is being observed, the disease continues to be the most common malignancy among women. Breast cancer is a worldwide public health problem that causes substantial personal and social burdens. While we do not yet know exactly what causes the disease, we know a large number of risk factors that are linked to breast cancer. In particular, hormonal factors seem to play a key role in the causation of the disease. The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge of established and suspected risk factors of breast cancer from an epidemiologic point of view. PMID:20847884

  3. Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Using Framingham Risk Score in Korean Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    So, Ji-Hyun; Shin, Jin-Young; Park, Wan

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to investigate the modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors and 10-year probability of the disease based on the Framingham risk score in cancer survivors, compared with the general population. Methods A total of 1,225 cancer survivors and 5,196 non-cancer controls who participated in the 2007–2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were enrolled. We assessed modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors including smoking, body mass index, physical inactivity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and elevated blood glucose level. The 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease was determined by applying the Framingham cardiovascular disease risk equation among cancer survivors and non-cancer controls, ranging from 30 to 74 years old who had no overt cardiovascular diseases. Results The proportion of subjects who had higher fasting glucose levels, hemoglobin A1c levels, systolic blood pressure, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and those who had lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels was significantly higher in the cancer survivors than in the non-cancer controls. The average 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease among the cancer survivors was higher than that in the non-cancer controls in both men and women. The average 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease in relation to the cancer type was significantly higher in patients with hepatic, colon, lung, breast, and gastric cancer. Conclusion Cancer survivors have a higher cardiovascular disease risk and 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease than non-cancer controls. Control of cardiovascular disease risk factors and implementation of a well-defined cardiovascular disease prevention program are needed for treating cancer survivors. PMID:27468342

  4. Environmental and lifestyle risk factors of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeong Yeh; Derakhshan, Mohammad H

    2013-06-01

    Effective prevention and early diagnostic strategies are the most important public health interventions in gastric cancer, which remains a common malignancy worldwide. Preventive strategies require identification and understanding of environmental risk factors that lead to carcinogenesis. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the primary carcinogen as this ancient bacterium has a complex ability to interact with its human host. Smoking and salt are strong independent risk factors for gastric cancer whereas alcohol is only a risk when it is heavily consumed. Red meat and high fat increase the risk of gastric cancer however fresh fruits, vegetables (allium family) and certain micronutrients (selenium, vitamin C) reduce the risk, with evidence lacking for fish, coffee and tea. Foods that inhibit H. pylori viability, colonization and infection may reduce cancer risk. Obesity is increasingly recognized as a contributory factor in gastric cardia carcinogenesis. Therefore, modest daily physical activities can be protective against cancer. Foundry workers are at risk for developing gastric cancer with dust iron being an important cause. Other risk factors include Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), possibly JC virus and radiation but the effects of these are likely to remain small. PMID:23725070

  5. eNOS Genetic Polymorphisms and Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xueren; Wang, Jie; Wang, Wenjun; Wang, Mingxi; Zhang, Jianqiong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The association between endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) polymorphisms (intron 4a/b, -786T>C and 894G>T) and cancer risk remains elusive. In addition, no studies focused on their associations with the risk of breast cancer in Chinese Han population. Thus, a meta-analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between eNOS polymorphisms and cancer risk, and then a case–control study in Chinese Han population was performed to assess their associations with breast cancer susceptibility. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of association. The pooled analysis indicated that eNOS intron 4a/b and -786T>C polymorphisms were significantly associated with an increased risk of overall cancer. In subgroup analyses based on cancer type, the significant association was found between eNOS intron 4a/b polymorphism and prostate cancer risk, eNOS -786T>C polymorphism and risk of prostate, bladder and breast cancers, and eNOS 894G>T polymorphism and breast cancer risk. In subgroup analyses based on ethnicity, eNOS intron 4a/b and -786T>C polymorphisms were associated with an increased risk of cancer in Caucasians. In consistent with our meta-analysis results, a case–control study in Chinese Han population showed significant associations of eNOS -786T>C and 894G>T polymorphisms with the increased risk of breast cancer. In addition, stratified analyses based on pathological type showed that eNOS 894G>T polymorphism was only associated with the risk of infiltrative ductal carcinoma. Stratified analyses by tumor stage showed that eNOS -786T>C polymorphism was only associated with the risk of tumor stage III and IV. In conclusion, our meta-analysis and case–control study suggest that eNOS -786T>C and 894G>T polymorphisms are associated with the increased risk of breast cancer. PMID:26131841

  6. Nottingham prognostic index plus (NPI+) predicts risk of distant metastases in primary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Green, Andrew R; Soria, D; Powe, D G; Nolan, C C; Aleskandarany, M; Szász, M A; Tőkés, A M; Ball, G R; Garibaldi, J M; Rakha, E A; Kulka, J; Ellis, I O

    2016-05-01

    The Nottingham prognostic index plus (NPI+) is based on the assessment of biological class combined with established clinicopathologic prognostic variables providing improved patient outcome stratification for breast cancer superior to the traditional NPI. This study aimed to determine prognostic capability of the NPI+ in predicting risk of development of distant disease. A well-characterised series of 1073 primary early-stage BC cases treated in Nottingham and 251 cases from Budapest were immunohistochemically assessed for cytokeratin (Ck)5/6, Ck18, EGFR, oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor, HER2, HER3, HER4, Mucin 1 and p53 expression. NPI+ biological class and prognostic scores were assigned using individual algorithms for each biological class incorporating clinicopathologic parameters and investigated in terms of prediction of distant metastases-free survival (MFS). The NPI+ identified distinct prognostic groups (PG) within each molecular class which were predictive of MFS providing improved patient outcome stratification superior to the traditional NPI. NPI+ PGs, between series, were comparable in predicting patient outcome between series in luminal A, basal p53 altered and HER2+/ER+ (p > 0.01) tumours. The low-risk groups were similarly validated in luminal B, luminal N, basal p53 normal tumours (p > 0.01). Due to small patient numbers the remaining PGs could not be validated. NPI+ was additionally able to predict a higher risk of metastases at certain distant sites. This study may indicate the NPI+ as a useful tool in predicting the risk of metastases. The NPI+ provides accurate risk stratification allowing improved individualised clinical decision making for breast cancer. PMID:27116185

  7. Epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors for renal cell cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lipworth, Loren; Tarone, Robert E; Lund, Lars; McLaughlin, Joseph K

    2009-01-01

    Incidence rates of renal cell cancer, which accounts for 85% of kidney cancers, have been rising in the United States and in most European countries for several decades. Family history is associated with a two- to four-fold increase in risk, but the major forms of inherited predisposition together account for less than 4% of renal cell cancers. Cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension are the most consistently established risk factors. Analgesics have not been convincingly linked with renal cell cancer risk. A reduced risk of renal cell cancer among statin users has been hypothesized but has not been adequately studied. A possible protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption is the only moderately consistently reported dietary finding, and, with the exception of a positive association with parity, evidence for a role of hormonal or reproductive factors in the etiology of renal cell cancer in humans is limited. A recent hypothesis that moderate levels of alcohol consumption may be protective for renal cell cancer is not strongly supported by epidemiologic results, which are inconsistent with respect to the categories of alcohol consumption and the amount of alcohol intake reportedly associated with decreased risk. For occupational factors, the weight of the evidence does not provide consistent support for the hypotheses that renal cell cancer may be caused by asbestos, gasoline, or trichloroethylene exposure. The established determinants of renal cell cancer, cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension, account for less than half of these cancers. Novel epidemiologic approaches, including evaluation of gene–environment interactions and epigenetic mechanisms of inherited and acquired increased risk, are needed to explain the increasing incidence of renal cell cancer. PMID:20865085

  8. Epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors for renal cell cancer.

    PubMed

    Lipworth, Loren; Tarone, Robert E; Lund, Lars; McLaughlin, Joseph K

    2009-08-09

    Incidence rates of renal cell cancer, which accounts for 85% of kidney cancers, have been rising in the United States and in most European countries for several decades. Family history is associated with a two- to four-fold increase in risk, but the major forms of inherited predisposition together account for less than 4% of renal cell cancers. Cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension are the most consistently established risk factors. Analgesics have not been convincingly linked with renal cell cancer risk. A reduced risk of renal cell cancer among statin users has been hypothesized but has not been adequately studied. A possible protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption is the only moderately consistently reported dietary finding, and, with the exception of a positive association with parity, evidence for a role of hormonal or reproductive factors in the etiology of renal cell cancer in humans is limited. A recent hypothesis that moderate levels of alcohol consumption may be protective for renal cell cancer is not strongly supported by epidemiologic results, which are inconsistent with respect to the categories of alcohol consumption and the amount of alcohol intake reportedly associated with decreased risk. For occupational factors, the weight of the evidence does not provide consistent support for the hypotheses that renal cell cancer may be caused by asbestos, gasoline, or trichloroethylene exposure. The established determinants of renal cell cancer, cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension, account for less than half of these cancers. Novel epidemiologic approaches, including evaluation of gene-environment interactions and epigenetic mechanisms of inherited and acquired increased risk, are needed to explain the increasing incidence of renal cell cancer.

  9. Factors affecting recognition of cancer risks of nuclear workers.

    PubMed Central

    Kneale, G W; Stewart, A M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To discover whether direct estimates of the risks of cancer for nuclear workers agree with indirect estimates based on survivors of the atomic bomb; whether relations between age at exposure and risk of cancer are the same for workers and survivors, and whether dosimetry standards are sufficiently uniform to allow pooling of data from different nuclear industrial sites. METHOD--Data from five nuclear sites in the United States were included in a cohort analysis that as well as controlling for all the usual factors also allowed for possible effects of three cancer modulating factors (exposure age, cancer latency, and year of exposure). This analysis was first applied to three distinct cohorts, and then to two sets of pooled data. RESULTS--From each study cohort there was evidence of a risk of cancer related to dose, and evidence that the extra radiogenic cancers had the same overall histological manifestations as naturally occurring cancers and were largely the result of exposures after 50 years of age causing deaths after 70 years. There were, however, significant differences between the five sets of risk estimates. CONCLUSIONS--Although the risks of cancer in nuclear workers were appreciably higher than estimates based on the cancer experiences of survivors of the atomic bomb, some uncertainties remained as there were non-uniform standards of dosimetry in the nuclear sites. The differences between nuclear workers and survivors of the atomic bomb were largely the result of relations between age at exposure and risk of cancer being totally different for workers and survivors and, in the occupational data, there were no signs of the special risks of leukaemia found in atomic bomb data and other studies of effects of high doses. PMID:7663636

  10. Vigorous physical activity and risk of breast cancer in the African American breast cancer epidemiology and risk consortium.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhihong; Hong, Chi-Chen; Bandera, Elisa V; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Troester, Melissa A; Park, Song-Yi; McInerney, Kathryn A; Zirpoli, Gary; Olshan, Andrew F; Palmer, Julie R; Ambrosone, Christine B; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between physical activity and breast cancer risk has been extensively studied among women of European descent, with most studies reporting inverse associations. However, data on American women of African ancestry (AA) and by tumor subtypes are sparse. Thus, we examined associations of vigorous exercise and breast cancer risk overall, and by estrogen receptor (ER) status, in the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk Consortium. We pooled data from four large studies on 2482 ER+ cases, 1374 ER- cases, and 16,959 controls. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the risk of breast cancer overall, and polytomous logistic regression was used to model the risk of ER+ and ER- cancer. Recent vigorous exercise was associated with a statistically significant, modestly decreased risk for breast cancer overall (OR 0.88, 95 % CI 0.81-0.96) and for ER+ cancer (OR 0.88, 95 % CI 0.80-0.98), but not for ER- cancer (OR 0.93, 95 % CI 0.82-1.06). Overall, there was no strong evidence of effect modification by age, menopausal status, body mass index, and parity. However, our data were suggestive of modification by family history, such that an inverse association was present among women without a family history but not among those with a relative affected by breast cancer. Results from this large pooled analysis provide evidence that vigorous physical activity is associated with a modestly reduced risk of breast cancer in AA women, specifically ER+ cancer. PMID:27514396

  11. Risks of Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States than in other parts of the world. Liver cancer is uncommon in the United States, ... is the fourth most common cancer in the world. In the United States, men, especially Chinese American ...

  12. Dietary Acrylamide Intake and Risk of Premenopausal Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mucci, Lorelei A.; Cho, Eunyoung; Hunter, David J.; Chen, Wendy Y.; Willett, Walter C.

    2009-01-01

    Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, is formed during high-temperature cooking of many commonly consumed foods. It is widespread; approximately 30% of calories consumed in the United States are from foods containing acrylamide. In animal studies, acrylamide causes mammary tumors, but it is unknown whether the level of acrylamide in foods affects human breast cancer risk. The authors studied the association between acrylamide intake and breast cancer risk among 90,628 premenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study II. They calculated acrylamide intake from food frequency questionnaires in 1991, 1995, 1999, and 2003. From 1991 through 2005, they documented 1,179 cases of invasive breast cancer. They used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between acrylamide and breast cancer risk. The multivariable-adjusted relative risk of premenopausal breast cancer was 0.92 (95% confidence interval: 0.76, 1.11) for the highest versus the lowest quintile of acrylamide intake (Ptrend = 0.61). Results were similar regardless of smoking status or estrogen and progesterone receptor status of the tumors. The authors found no associations between intakes of foods high in acrylamide, including French fries, coffee, cereal, potato chips, potatoes, and baked goods, and breast cancer risk. They found no evidence that acrylamide intake, within the range of US diets, is associated with increased risk of premenopausal breast cancer. PMID:19224978

  13. Dietary Factors and the Risk of Thyroid Cancer: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Wook Jin

    2014-01-01

    In the past few decades, the incidence of thyroid cancer has rapidly increased worldwide. Thyroid cancer incidence is relatively high in regions where the population's daily iodine intake is insufficient. While low dietary iodine has been considered as a risk factor for thyroid cancer development, previous studies found controversial results across different food types. Among different ethnic groups, dietary factors are influenced by various dietary patterns, eating habits, life-styles, nutrition, and other environmental factors. This review reports the association between dietary factors and thyroid cancer risk among ethnic groups living in different geologic regions. Iodine-rich food such as fish and shellfish may provide a protective role in populations with insufficient daily iodine intake. The consumption of goitrogenic food, such as cruciferous vegetables, showed a positive association with risk. While considered to be a risk factor for other cancers, alcohol intake showed a protective role against thyroid cancer. High consumption of meat such as chicken, pork, and poultry showed a positive association with the risk, but dairy products showed no significant association. Regular use of multivitamins and dietary nitrate and nitrite also showed a positive association with thyroid cancer risk. However, the study results are inconsistent and investigations into the mechanism for how dietary factors change thyroid hormone levels and influence thyroid function are required. PMID:25136535

  14. Drinking green tea modestly reduces breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Shrubsole, Martha J; Lu, Wei; Chen, Zhi; Shu, Xiao Ou; Zheng, Ying; Dai, Qi; Cai, Qiuyin; Gu, Kai; Ruan, Zhi Xian; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2009-02-01

    Green tea is a commonly consumed beverage in China. Epidemiological and animal data suggest tea and tea polyphenols may be preventive against various cancers, including breast cancer. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyzes catechol estrogens and tea polyphenols. The COMT rs4680 AA genotype leads to lower COMT activity, which may affect the relationship between green tea consumption and breast cancer risk. We evaluated whether regular green tea consumption was associated with breast cancer risk among 3454 incident cases and 3474 controls aged 20-74 y in a population-based case-control study conducted in Shanghai, China during 1996-2005. All participants were interviewed in person about green tea consumption habits, including age of initiation, duration of use, brew strength, and quantity of tea. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI were calculated for green tea consumption measures and adjusted for age and other confounding factors. Compared with nondrinkers, regular drinking of green tea was associated with a slightly decreased risk for breast cancer (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.79-0.98). Among premenopausal women, reduced risk was observed for years of green tea drinking (P-trend = 0.02) and a dose-response relationship with the amount of tea consumed per month was also observed (P-trend = 0.046). COMT rs4680 genotypes did not have a modifying effect on the association of green tea intake with breast cancer risk. Drinking green tea may be weakly associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer.

  15. Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer: Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Manal M.; Bondy, Melissa L.; Wolff, Robert A.; Abbruzzese, James L.; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Pisters, Peter W.; Evans, Douglas B.; Khan, Rabia; Chou, Ta-Hsu; Lenzi, Renato; Jiao, Li; Li, Donghui

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Although cigarette smoking is the most well-established environmental risk factor for pancreatic cancer, the interaction between smoking and other risk factors has not been assessed. We evaluated the independent effects of multiple risk factors for pancreatic cancer and determined whether the magnitude of cigarette smoking was modified by other risk factors in men and women. METHODS We conducted a hospital-based case-control study involving 808 patients with pathologically diagnosed pancreatic cancer and 808 healthy frequency-matched controls. Information on risk factors was collected by personal interview, and unconditional logistic regression was used to determine adjusted odds ratios (AORs) by the maximum-likelihood method. RESULTS Cigarette smoking, family history of pancreatic cancer, heavy alcohol consumption (>60 mL ethanol/day), diabetes mellitus, and history of pancreatitis were significant risk factors for pancreatic cancer. We found synergistic interactions between cigarette smoking and family history of pancreatic cancer (AOR 12.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6–108.9) and diabetes mellitus (AOR 9.3, 95% CI 2.0–44.1) in women, according to an additive model. Approximately 23%, 9%, 3%, and 5% of pancreatic cancer cases in this study were related to cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, heavy alcohol consumption, and family history of pancreatic cancer, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The significant synergy between these risk factors suggests a common pathway for carcinogenesis of the pancreas. Determining the underlying mechanisms for such synergies may lead to the development of pancreatic cancer prevention strategies for high-risk individuals. PMID:17764494

  16. Disparities in Cancer Genetic Risk Assessment and Testing.

    PubMed

    Underhill, Meghan L; Jones, Tarsha; Habin, Karleen

    2016-07-01

    Scientific and technologic advances in genomics have revolutionized genetic counseling and testing, targeted therapy, and cancer screening and prevention. Among younger women, African American and Hispanic women have a higher rate of cancers that are associated with hereditary cancer risk, such as triple-negative breast cancer, which is linked to poorer outcomes. Therefore, genetic testing is particularly important in diverse populations. Unfortunately, all races and ethnic groups are not well represented in current genetic testing practices, leading to disparities in cancer prevention and early detection.

  17. Risk factors for subsequent endocrine-related cancer in childhood cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Wijnen, M; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M M; Medici, M; Peeters, R P; van der Lely, A J; Neggers, S J C M M

    2016-06-01

    Long-term adverse health conditions, including secondary malignant neoplasms, are common in childhood cancer survivors. Although mortality attributable to secondary malignancies declined over the past decades, the risk for developing a solid secondary malignant neoplasm did not. Endocrine-related malignancies are among the most common secondary malignant neoplasms observed in childhood cancer survivors. In this systematic review, we describe risk factors for secondary malignant neoplasms of the breast and thyroid, since these are the most common secondary endocrine-related malignancies in childhood cancer survivors. Radiotherapy is the most important risk factor for secondary breast and thyroid cancer in childhood cancer survivors. Breast cancer risk is especially increased in survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma who received moderate- to high-dosed mantle field irradiation. Recent studies also demonstrated an increased risk after lower-dose irradiation in other radiation fields for other childhood cancer subtypes. Premature ovarian insufficiency may protect against radiation-induced breast cancer. Although evidence is weak, estrogen-progestin replacement therapy does not seem to be associated with an increased breast cancer risk in premature ovarian-insufficient childhood cancer survivors. Radiotherapy involving the thyroid gland increases the risk for secondary differentiated thyroid carcinoma, as well as benign thyroid nodules. Currently available studies on secondary malignant neoplasms in childhood cancer survivors are limited by short follow-up durations and assessed before treatment regimens. In addition, studies on risk-modifying effects of environmental and lifestyle factors are lacking. Risk-modifying effects of premature ovarian insufficiency and estrogen-progestin replacement therapy on radiation-induced breast cancer require further study. PMID:27229933

  18. Insights from Epidemiology into Dichloromethane and Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Glinda S.; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Bale, Ambuja S.

    2011-01-01

    Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) is a widely used chlorinated solvent. We review the available epidemiology studies (five cohort studies, 13 case-control studies, including seven of hematopoietic cancers), focusing on specific cancer sites. There was little indication of an increased risk of lung cancer in the cohort studies (standardized mortality ratios ranging from 0.46 to 1.21). These cohorts are relatively small, and variable effects (e.g., point estimates ranging from 0.5 to 2.0) were seen for the rarer forms of cancers such as brain cancer and specific hematopoietic cancers. Three large population-based case-control studies of incident non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Europe and the United States observed odds ratios between 1.5 and 2.2 with dichloromethane exposure (ever exposed or highest category of exposure), with higher risk seen in specific subsets of disease. More limited indications of associations with brain cancer, breast cancer, and liver and biliary cancer were also seen in this collection of studies. Existing cohort studies, given their size and uneven exposure information, are unlikely to resolve questions of cancer risks and dichloromethane exposure. More promising approaches are population-based case-control studies of incident disease, and the combination of data from such studies, with robust exposure assessments that include detailed occupational information and exposure assignment based on industry-wide surveys or direct exposure measurements. PMID:21909313

  19. Breast Cancer Risk Assessment: Moving Beyond BRCA 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Scalia-Wilbur, Jennifer; Colins, Bradley L; Penson, Richard T; Dizon, Don S

    2016-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute estimates that 12.3% of all women (about 1 in 8) would be diagnosed with breast cancer throughout their lifetime. In 2015, a projected 231,840 new cases are expected in the United States, accompanied by 40,290 deaths. Presently, breast cancer is responsible for 6.8% of all cancer deaths, and roughly 30% of all cancers in women. Since the discovery of the BRCA gene in 1994, efforts have been made to develop effective screening methods for breast cancer detection. Although the BRCA gene certainly opened the door to breast cancer genetics, a wide variety of new genes have recently been linked to breast cancer risk, and the tools to screen for genes beyond just BRCA1 and BRCA2 are available. However, the indications for both screening and prevention of inherited predispositions beyond BRCA1 and BRCA2 are not entirely clear, and as a result, much of the ongoing work is aimed at determining the role of broader genetic screening in women deemed at sufficiently high risk for breast cancer based on family history. On this topic, we provide a brief overview of the genes associated with breast cancer risk as well as the technological platforms available to patients. We conclude by discussing recommendations of expert groups and what they practically mean for patients.

  20. Native Women at Risk: Addressing Cancer Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiemann, Kay M. B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses outcomes of a conference that brought together representatives from Indian tribes, state health departments, the Indian Health Service, the Mayo Clinic, and the American Cancer Society, to address the high rate of cervical cancer among American Indian women. Describes barriers to health care and plans to promote cancer screening among…

  1. Risk assessment models for cancer-associated venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Dutia, Mrinal; White, Richard H; Wun, Ted

    2012-07-15

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is common in cancer patients, and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Several factors, including procoagulant agents secreted by tumor cells, immobilization, surgery, indwelling catheters, and systemic treatment (including chemotherapy), contribute to an increased risk of VTE in cancer patients. There is growing interest in instituting primary prophylaxis in high-risk patients to prevent incident (first-time) VTE events. The identification of patients at sufficiently high risk of VTE to warrant primary thromboprophylaxis is essential, as anticoagulation may be associated with a higher risk of bleeding. Current guidelines recommend the use of pharmacological thromboprophylaxis in postoperative and hospitalized cancer patients, as well as ambulatory cancer patients receiving thalidomide or lenalidomide in combination with high-dose dexamethasone or chemotherapy, in the absence of contraindications to anticoagulation. However, the majority of cancer patients are ambulatory, and currently primary thromboprophylaxis is not recommended for these patients, even those considered at very high risk. In this concise review, the authors discuss risk stratification models that have been specifically developed to identify cancer patients at high risk for VTE, and thus might be useful in future studies designed to determine the potential benefit of primary thromboprophylaxis.

  2. [European Code against Cancer: 12 ways to reduce your cancer risk].

    PubMed

    Döbrőssy, Lajos; Cornides, Ágnes

    2016-03-20

    Recently, the Word Health Organization/International Agency for Research on Cancer published the 4th edition of European Code against Cancer with 12 personal advices on how to diminish the risk of development of cancer. A proportion of advices refers to risk factors which are connected to our everyday lifestyle; another admonishes to comply with the services offered by the health care system. In Hungary, the European Code has not received adequate publicity so far. As common risk factors play a major role in the development of chronic non-communicable diseases, the advice may contribute to the prevention of both cardiovascular diseases and cancer. PMID:26971645

  3. Gene-environment interaction and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Anja; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Schmidt, Marjanka K

    2016-01-19

    Hereditary, genetic factors as well as lifestyle and environmental factors, for example, parity and body mass index, predict breast cancer development. Gene-environment interaction studies may help to identify subgroups of women at high-risk of breast cancer and can be leveraged to discover new genetic risk factors. A few interesting results in studies including over 30,000 breast cancer cases and healthy controls indicate that such interactions exist. Explorative gene-environment interaction studies aiming to identify new genetic or environmental factors are scarce and still underpowered. Gene-environment interactions might be stronger for rare genetic variants, but data are lacking. Ongoing initiatives to genotype larger sample sets in combination with comprehensive epidemiologic databases will provide further opportunities to study gene-environment interactions in breast cancer. However, based on the available evidence, we conclude that associations between the common genetic variants known today and breast cancer risk are only weakly modified by environmental factors, if at all.

  4. Cancer Research Repository for Individuals With Cancer Diagnosis and High Risk Individuals.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-12

    Pancreatic Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Lung Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Thymus Cancer; Colon Cancer; Rectal Cancer; GIST; Anal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Liver Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer; Peritoneal Surface Malignancies; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Lynch Syndrome; Bladder Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Penile Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Cancer; Ureter Cancer; Urethral Cancer; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Laryngeal Cancer; Lip Cancer; Oral Cavity Cancer; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Nasal Cavity Cancer; Salivary Gland Cancer; Skin Cancer; CNS Tumor; CNS Cancer; Mesothelioma

  5. Exploring the uncertainties in cancer risk assessment using the integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) approach.

    PubMed

    Slob, Wout; Bakker, Martine I; Biesebeek, Jan Dirk Te; Bokkers, Bas G H

    2014-08-01

    Current methods for cancer risk assessment result in single values, without any quantitative information on the uncertainties in these values. Therefore, single risk values could easily be overinterpreted. In this study, we discuss a full probabilistic cancer risk assessment approach in which all the generally recognized uncertainties in both exposure and hazard assessment are quantitatively characterized and probabilistically evaluated, resulting in a confidence interval for the final risk estimate. The methodology is applied to three example chemicals (aflatoxin, N-nitrosodimethylamine, and methyleugenol). These examples illustrate that the uncertainty in a cancer risk estimate may be huge, making single value estimates of cancer risk meaningless. Further, a risk based on linear extrapolation tends to be lower than the upper 95% confidence limit of a probabilistic risk estimate, and in that sense it is not conservative. Our conceptual analysis showed that there are two possible basic approaches for cancer risk assessment, depending on the interpretation of the dose-incidence data measured in animals. However, it remains unclear which of the two interpretations is the more adequate one, adding an additional uncertainty to the already huge confidence intervals for cancer risk estimates.

  6. Cancer risk assessment of selected hazardous air pollutants in Seattle.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chang-Fu; Wu, Szu-Ying; Wu, Yi-Hua; Cullen, Alison C; Larson, Timothy V; Williamson, John; Liu, L-J Sally

    2009-04-01

    The risk estimates calculated from the conventional risk assessment method usually are compound specific and provide limited information for source-specific air quality control. We used a risk apportionment approach, which is a combination of receptor modeling and risk assessment, to estimate source-specific lifetime excess cancer risks of selected hazardous air pollutants. We analyzed the speciated PM(2.5) and VOCs data collected at the Beacon Hill in Seattle, WA between 2000 and 2004 with the Multilinear Engine to first quantify source contributions to the mixture of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in terms of mass concentrations. The cancer risk from exposure to each source was then calculated as the sum of all available species' cancer risks in the source feature. We also adopted the bootstrapping technique for the uncertainty analysis. The results showed that the overall cancer risk was 6.09 x 10(-5), with the background (1.61 x 10(-5)), diesel (9.82 x 10(-6)) and wood burning (9.45 x 10(-6)) sources being the primary risk sources. The PM(2.5) mass concentration contributed 20% of the total risk. The 5th percentile of the risk estimates of all sources other than marine and soil were higher than 110(-6). It was also found that the diesel and wood burning sources presented similar cancer risks although the diesel exhaust contributed less to the PM(2.5) mass concentration than the wood burning. This highlights the additional value from such a risk apportionment approach that could be utilized for prioritizing control strategies to reduce the highest population health risks from exposure to HAPs.

  7. The readability of online breast cancer risk assessment tools.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Sarah; Milbrandt, Melissa; Kaphingst, Kimberly; James, Aimee; Colditz, Graham

    2015-11-01

    Numerous breast cancer risk assessment tools that allow users to input personal risk information and obtain a personalized breast cancer risk estimate are available on the Internet. The goal of these tools is to increase screening awareness and identify modifiable health behaviors; however, the utility of this risk information is limited by the readability of the material. We undertook this study to assess the overall readability of breast cancer risk assessment tools and accompanying information, as well as to identify areas of suggested improvement. We searched for breast cancer risk assessment tools, using five search terms, on three search engines. All searches were performed on June 12, 2014. Sites that met inclusion criteria were then assessed for readability using the suitability assessment of materials (SAM) and the SMOG readability formula (July 1, 2014–January 31, 2015). The primary outcomes are the frequency distribution of overall SAM readability category (superior, adequate, or not suitable) and mean SMOG reading grade level. The search returned 42 sites were eligible for assessment, only 9 (21.4 %) of which achieved an overall SAM superior rating, and 27 (64.3 %) were deemed adequate. The average SMOG reading grade level was grade 12.1 (SD 1.6, range 9–15). The readability of breast cancer risk assessment tools and the sites that host them is an important barrier to risk communication. This study demonstrates that most breast cancer risk assessment tools are not accessible to individuals with limited health literacy skills. More importantly, this study identifies potential areas of improvement and has the potential to heighten a physician’s awareness of the Internet resources a patient might navigate in their quest for breast cancer risk information. PMID:26475705

  8. Vasectomy May Not Raise Prostate Cancer Risk After All

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vasectomy May Not Raise Prostate Cancer Risk After All Large study challenges previous research linking the procedure ... the results of the two studies are not all that different. Sometimes study results differ by chance." ...

  9. Panel Endorses Active Monitoring for Low-Risk Prostate Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    An independent panel convened this week by NIH has concluded that many men with localized, low-risk prostate cancer should be closely monitored, permitting treatment to be delayed until warranted by disease progression. However, monitoring strategies—such

  10. Cancer risks in Swedish Lapps who breed reindeer

    SciTech Connect

    Wiklund, K.; Holm, L.E.; Eklund, G. )

    1990-12-01

    Cancer risks during the period 1961-1984 were studied in a cohort of 2,034 Swedish reindeer-breeding Lapps, a unique group whose culture and life-style differ considerably from those in the rest of the Swedish population. A total of 100 cases of cancer were observed versus 163 expected. Statistically significantly decreased risks were found for cancers of the colon, respiratory organs, female breast, male genital organs, and kidneys, and for malignant lymphomas. The stomach was the only site with a significantly increased risk. Reindeer-breeding Lapps have ingested fallout products via the lichen-reindeer-man food chain since the 1950s. However, no increased risk was found for the cancer sites considered to be most sensitive to radiation.

  11. What Are the Risk Factors for Anal Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... have few or no known risk factors. Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection Most squamous cell anal cancers ... to be linked to infection by the human papilloma virus (HPV), the same virus that causes cervical ...

  12. Submission Form for Peer-Reviewed Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    If you have information about a peer-reviewd cancer risk prediction model that you would like to be considered for inclusion on this list, submit as much information as possible through the form on this page.

  13. Risk of Skin Cancer from Space Radiation. Chapter 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; George, Kerry A.; Wu, Hong-Lu

    2003-01-01

    We review the methods for estimating the probability of increased incidence of skin cancers from space radiation exposure, and describe some of the individual factors that may contribute to risk projection models, including skin pigment, and synergistic effects of combined ionizing and UV exposure. The steep dose gradients from trapped electrons, protons, and heavy ions radiation during EVA and limitations in EVA dosimetry are important factors for projecting skin cancer risk of astronauts. We estimate that the probability of increased skin cancer risk varies more than 10-fold for individual astronauts and that the risk of skin cancer could exceed 1 % for future lunar base operations for astronauts with light skin color and hair. Limitations in physical dosimetry in estimating the distribution of dose at the skin suggest that new biodosimetry methods be developed for responding to accidental overexposure of the skin during future space missions.

  14. Dietary flavonoids and cancer risk in the Zutphen Elderly Study.

    PubMed

    Hertog, M G; Feskens, E J; Hollman, P C; Katan, M B; Kromhout, D

    1994-01-01

    Flavonoids are polyphenolic antioxidants naturally present in vegetable foods. Some flavonoids, such as quercetin, inhibit carcinogenesis in rodents, but their effect in humans is unknown. We measured the flavonoids quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, apigenin, and luteolin in foods and assessed flavonoid intake in 1985 by dietary history in 738 men aged 65-84 years without a history of cancer, who were then followed for five years. Mean flavonoid intake was 25.9 mg/day. The major sources of flavonoid intake were tea at 61% and vegetables and fruits (mainly onions, kale, endive, and apples) at 38%. Between 1985 and 1990, 75 men developed cancer (all sites) and 34 men died from cancer. Flavonoid intake in 1985 was not associated with incidence of all-cause cancer (p for trend = 0.54) or with mortality from all-cause cancer (p for trend = 0.51). Flavonoid intake was also not associated with risk of cancers of the alimentary and respiratory tract (p for trend = 0.92). Adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, and vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and dietary fiber intake did not change the relative risks. A high intake of flavonoids from vegetables and fruits only was inversely associated with risk of cancer of the alimentary and respiratory tract (relative risk of highest vs. lowest tertile = 0.51, 95% confidence interval 0.25-1.05); these results suggest the presence of other nonvitamin components with anticarcinogenic potential in these foods. We conclude that intake of flavonoids, mainly from tea, apples, and onions, does not predict a reduced risk of all-cause cancer or of cancer of the alimentary and respiratory tract in elderly men. The effect of flavonoids on risk of cancer at specific sites needs further investigation in prospective cohort studies. PMID:14502846

  15. Risk-optimized proton therapy to minimize radiogenic second cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechner, Laura A.; Eley, John G.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Zhang, Rui; Mirkovic, Dragan; Newhauser, Wayne D.

    2015-05-01

    Proton therapy confers substantially lower predicted risk of second cancer compared with photon therapy. However, no previous studies have used an algorithmic approach to optimize beam angle or fluence-modulation for proton therapy to minimize those risks. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate the feasibility of risk-optimized proton therapy and to determine the combination of beam angles and fluence weights that minimizes the risk of second cancer in the bladder and rectum for a prostate cancer patient. We used 6 risk models to predict excess relative risk of second cancer. Treatment planning utilized a combination of a commercial treatment planning system and an in-house risk-optimization algorithm. When normal-tissue dose constraints were incorporated in treatment planning, the risk model that incorporated the effects of fractionation, initiation, inactivation, repopulation and promotion selected a combination of anterior and lateral beams, which lowered the relative risk by 21% for the bladder and 30% for the rectum compared to the lateral-opposed beam arrangement. Other results were found for other risk models.

  16. Risk-optimized proton therapy to minimize radiogenic second cancers

    PubMed Central

    Rechner, Laura A.; Eley, John G.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Zhang, Rui; Mirkovic, Dragan; Newhauser, Wayne D.

    2015-01-01

    Proton therapy confers substantially lower predicted risk of second cancer compared with photon therapy. However, no previous studies have used an algorithmic approach to optimize beam angle or fluence-modulation for proton therapy to minimize those risks. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate the feasibility of risk-optimized proton therapy and to determine the combination of beam angles and fluence weights that minimize the risk of second cancer in the bladder and rectum for a prostate cancer patient. We used 6 risk models to predict excess relative risk of second cancer. Treatment planning utilized a combination of a commercial treatment planning system and an in-house risk-optimization algorithm. When normal-tissue dose constraints were incorporated in treatment planning, the risk model that incorporated the effects of fractionation, initiation, inactivation, and repopulation selected a combination of anterior and lateral beams, which lowered the relative risk by 21% for the bladder and 30% for the rectum compared to the lateral-opposed beam arrangement. Other results were found for other risk models. PMID:25919133

  17. Indoor radon and lung cancer. Estimating the risks

    SciTech Connect

    Samet, J.M. )

    1992-01-01

    Radon is ubiquitous in indoor environments. Epidemiologic studies of underground miners with exposure to radon and experimental evidence have established that radon causes lung cancer. The finding that this naturally occurring carcinogen is present in the air of homes and other buildings has raised concern about the lung cancer risk to the general population from radon. I review current approaches for assessing the risk of indoor radon, emphasizing the extrapolation of the risks for miners to the general population. Although uncertainties are inherent in this risk assessment, the present evidence warrants identifying homes that have unacceptably high concentrations.23 references.

  18. Indoor radon and lung cancer. Estimating the risks.

    PubMed Central

    Samet, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Radon is ubiquitous in indoor environments. Epidemiologic studies of underground miners with exposure to radon and experimental evidence have established that radon causes lung cancer. The finding that this naturally occurring carcinogen is present in the air of homes and other buildings has raised concern about the lung cancer risk to the general population from radon. I review current approaches for assessing the risk of indoor radon, emphasizing the extrapolation of the risks for miners to the general population. Although uncertainties are inherent in this risk assessment, the present evidence warrants identifying homes that have unacceptably high concentrations. PMID:1734594

  19. Bladder cancer: epidemiology and risk factors in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Vizcaino, A P; Parkin, D M; Boffetta, P; Skinner, M E

    1994-11-01

    The incidence of bladder cancer, and the importance of some selected risk factors in its etiology, were estimated from the data collected in the cancer registry of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, during the period 1963-77. Cancer cases were interviewed with a standard questionnaire, and more than 70 percent of these were complete. Incidence rates in the urban population of Bulawayo in the first 10-year period were relatively high, with age standardized rates of 17.9 per 100,000 in men and 9.5 in women. Risk-factor distribution was compared in 680 bladder cancer cases (494 males, 186 females) and a control group comprising other cases with non-tobacco-related cancers (8,201). Seventy-one percent of bladder cancer cases were squamous cell carcinomas. The presence of schistosomiasis, evaluated from past history of bilharzia or hematuria, was associated with a significantly increased risk of bladder cancer in both genders (odds ratio [OR] = 3.9 for men, 5.7 for women), a result reflected in the differing risk by province of residence, which correlated with the prevalence of infection among cancer cases. The proportion of bladder cancer attributable to schistosomiasis was estimated to be 28 percent. Social status, as reflected by education level, also influenced risk (ORs for literate cf illiterate males = 0.6), but tobacco smoking in men had no effect on the risk of squamous cell tumors. For transitional cell carcinomas or adenocarcinomas, there was a nonsignificant increased risk of 2.0 in the highest smoking categories (15 g of tobacco per day), compared with non smokers.

  20. Uneven Magnitude of Disparities in Cancer Risks from Air Toxics

    PubMed Central

    James, Wesley; Jia, Chunrong; Kedia, Satish

    2012-01-01

    This study examines race- and income-based disparities in cancer risks from air toxics in Cancer Alley, LA, USA. Risk estimates were obtained from the 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment and socioeconomic and race data from the 2005 American Community Survey, both at the census tract level. Disparities were assessed using spatially weighted ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and quantile regression (QR) for five major air toxics, each with cancer risk greater than 10−6. Spatial OLS results showed that disparities in cancer risks were significant: People in low-income tracts bore a cumulative risk 12% more than those in high-income tracts (p < 0.05), and those in black-dominant areas 16% more than in white-dominant areas (p < 0.01). Formaldehyde and benzene were the two largest contributors to the disparities. Contributions from emission sources to disparities varied by compound. Spatial QR analyses showed that magnitude of disparity became larger at the high end of exposure range, indicating worsened disparity in the poorest and most highly concentrated black areas. Cancer risk of air toxics not only disproportionately affects socioeconomically disadvantaged and racial minority communities, but there is a gradient effect within these groups with poorer and higher minority concentrated segments being more affected than their counterparts. Risk reduction strategies should target emission sources, risk driver chemicals, and especially the disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:23208297

  1. Cancer risk among parous women following assisted reproductive technology

    PubMed Central

    Reigstad, M.M.; Larsen, I.K.; Myklebust, T.Å.; Robsahm, T.E.; Oldereid, N.B.; Omland, A.K.; Vangen, S.; Brinton, L.A.; Storeng, R.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Do women who give birth after assisted reproductive technology (ART) have an increased risk of cancer compared with women who give birth without ART? SUMMARY ANSWER Without correction, the results indicate an increase in overall cancer risk, as well as a 50% increase in risk of CNS cancer for women giving birth after ART, however the results were not significant after correcting for multiple analyses. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Studies regarding the effects of hormonal treatments involved with ART on subsequent cancer risk have provided inconsistent results, and it has also been suggested that infertility itself could be a contributory factor. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A population-based cohort consisting of all women registered in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway as having given birth between 1 January 1984 and 31 December 2010 was assembled (n = 812 986). Cancers were identified by linkage to the Cancer Registry of Norway. Study subjects were followed from start of first pregnancy during the observational period until the first cancer, death, emigration, or 31 December 2010. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Of the total study population (n = 806 248), 16 525 gave birth to a child following ART. Cox regression analysis computed hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing cancer risk between ART women and non-ART women; for overall cancer, and for cervical, ovarian, uterine, central nervous system (CNS), colorectal and thyroid cancers, and for malignant melanoma. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE A total of 22 282 cohort members were diagnosed with cancer, of which 338 were ART women and 21 944 non-ART women. The results showed an elevated risk in one out of seven sites for ART women. The HR for cancer of the CNS was 1.50 (95% CI 1.03– 2.18), and among those specifically subjected to IVF (without ICSI) the HR was 1.83 (95% CI 1.22–2.73). Analysis of risk of overall cancer gave an HR of 1.16 (95% CI 1.04–1

  2. Breast cancer risk in metabolically healthy but overweight postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Gunter, Marc J; Xie, Xianhong; Xue, Xiaonan; Kabat, Geoffrey C; Rohan, Thomas E; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Ho, Gloria Y F; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Greco, Theresa; Yu, Herbert; Beasley, Jeannette; Strickler, Howard D

    2015-01-15

    Adiposity is an established risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer. Recent data suggest that high insulin levels in overweight women may play a major role in this relationship, due to insulin's mitogenic/antiapoptotic activity. However, whether overweight women who are metabolically healthy (i.e., normal insulin sensitivity) have elevated risk of breast cancer is unknown. We investigated whether overweight women with normal insulin sensitivity [i.e., homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, or fasting insulin level, within the lowest quartile (q1)] have increased breast cancer risk. Subjects were incident breast cancer cases (N = 497) and a subcohort (N = 2,830) of Women's Health Initiative (WHI) participants with available fasting insulin and glucose levels. In multivariate Cox models, metabolically healthy overweight women, defined using HOMA-IR, were not at elevated risk of breast cancer compared with metabolically healthy normal weight women [HRHOMA-IR, 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.64-1.42]. In contrast, the risk among women with high (q3-4) HOMA-IRs was elevated whether they were overweight (HRHOMA-IR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.19-2.60) or normal weight (HRHOMA-IR, 1.80; 95% CI, 0.88-3.70). Similarly, using fasting insulin to define metabolic health, metabolically unhealthy women (insulin q3-4) were at higher risk of breast cancer regardless of whether they were normal weight (HRinsulin, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.01-4.22) or overweight (HRinsulin, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.35-2.99), whereas metabolically healthy overweight women did not have significantly increased risk of breast cancer (HRinsulin, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.64-1.42) relative to metabolically healthy normal weight women. Metabolic health (e.g., HOMA-IR or fasting insulin) may be more biologically relevant and more useful for breast cancer risk stratification than adiposity per se. PMID:25593034

  3. Breast cancer risk in metabolically healthy but overweight postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Gunter, Marc J; Xie, Xianhong; Xue, Xiaonan; Kabat, Geoffrey C; Rohan, Thomas E; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Ho, Gloria Y F; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Greco, Theresa; Yu, Herbert; Beasley, Jeannette; Strickler, Howard D

    2015-01-15

    Adiposity is an established risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer. Recent data suggest that high insulin levels in overweight women may play a major role in this relationship, due to insulin's mitogenic/antiapoptotic activity. However, whether overweight women who are metabolically healthy (i.e., normal insulin sensitivity) have elevated risk of breast cancer is unknown. We investigated whether overweight women with normal insulin sensitivity [i.e., homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, or fasting insulin level, within the lowest quartile (q1)] have increased breast cancer risk. Subjects were incident breast cancer cases (N = 497) and a subcohort (N = 2,830) of Women's Health Initiative (WHI) participants with available fasting insulin and glucose levels. In multivariate Cox models, metabolically healthy overweight women, defined using HOMA-IR, were not at elevated risk of breast cancer compared with metabolically healthy normal weight women [HRHOMA-IR, 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.64-1.42]. In contrast, the risk among women with high (q3-4) HOMA-IRs was elevated whether they were overweight (HRHOMA-IR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.19-2.60) or normal weight (HRHOMA-IR, 1.80; 95% CI, 0.88-3.70). Similarly, using fasting insulin to define metabolic health, metabolically unhealthy women (insulin q3-4) were at higher risk of breast cancer regardless of whether they were normal weight (HRinsulin, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.01-4.22) or overweight (HRinsulin, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.35-2.99), whereas metabolically healthy overweight women did not have significantly increased risk of breast cancer (HRinsulin, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.64-1.42) relative to metabolically healthy normal weight women. Metabolic health (e.g., HOMA-IR or fasting insulin) may be more biologically relevant and more useful for breast cancer risk stratification than adiposity per se.

  4. Cancer Risk Map for the Surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss calculations of the median and 95th percentile cancer risks on the surface of Mars for different solar conditions. The NASA Space Radiation Cancer Risk 2010 model is used to estimate gender and age specific cancer incidence and mortality risks for astronauts exploring Mars. Organ specific fluence spectra and doses for large solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) at various levels of solar activity are simulated using the HZETRN/QMSFRG computer code, and the 2010 version of the Badhwar and O Neill GCR model. The NASA JSC propensity model of SPE fluence and occurrence is used to consider upper bounds on SPE fluence for increasing mission lengths. In the transport of particles through the Mars atmosphere, a vertical distribution of Mars atmospheric thickness is calculated from the temperature and pressure data of Mars Global Surveyor, and the directional cosine distribution is implemented to describe the spherically distributed atmospheric distance along the slant path at each elevation on Mars. The resultant directional shielding by Mars atmosphere at each elevation is coupled with vehicle and body shielding for organ dose estimates. Astronaut cancer risks are mapped on the global topography of Mars, which was measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter. Variation of cancer risk on the surface of Mars is due to a 16-km elevation range, and the large difference is obtained between the Tharsis Montes (Ascraeus, Pavonis, and Arsia) and the Hellas impact basin. Cancer incidence risks are found to be about 2-fold higher than mortality risks with a disproportionate increase in skin and thyroid cancers for all astronauts and breast cancer risk for female astronauts. The number of safe days on Mars to be below radiation limits at the 95th percent confidence level is reported for several Mission design scenarios.

  5. Cancer risk after iodine-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, L.E.; Hall, P.; Wiklund, K.; Lundell, G.; Berg, G.; Bjelkengren, G.; Cederquist, E.; Ericsson, U.B.; Hallquist, A.; Larsson, L.G. )

    1991-08-07

    Cancer incidence was studied in 10,552 patients (mean age, 57 years) who received 131I therapy (mean dose, 506 MBq) for hyperthyroidism between 1950 and 1975. Follow-up on these patients was continued for an average of 15 years. Record linkage with the Swedish Cancer Register for the period 1958-1985 identified 1543 cancers occurring 1 year or more after 131I treatment, and the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was 1.06 (95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.11). Significantly increased SIRs were observed for cancers of the lung (SIR = 1.32; n = 105) and kidney (SIR = 1.39; n = 66). Among 10-year survivors, significantly elevated risks were seen for cancers of the stomach (SIR = 1.33; n = 58), kidney (SIR = 1.51; n = 37), and brain (SIR = 1.63; n = 30). Only the risk for stomach cancer, however, increased over time (P less than .05) and with increasing activity administered (P = not significant). The risk for malignant lymphoma was significantly below expectation (SIR = 0.53; n = 11). Overall cancer risk did not increase with administered 131I dose or with time since exposure. The absence of any increase in leukemia adds further support to the view that a radiation dose delivered gradually over time is less carcinogenic than the same total dose received over a short time. Only for stomach cancer was a possible radiogenic excess suggested.

  6. Progestin and breast cancer risk: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Samson, Marsha; Porter, Nancy; Orekoya, Olubunmi; Hebert, James R; Adams, Swann Arp; Bennett, Charles L; Steck, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review summarizes research on the use of progestin and breast cancer risk. Although mainly used for contraception, progestin can help treat menstrual disorders, and benign breast, uterine, and ovarian diseases. Breast cancer is the leading site of new, non-skin, cancers in females in the United States, and possible factors that may modulate breast cancer risk need to be identified. ProQuest (Ann Arbor, MI) and PubMed-Medline (US National Library of Medicine, Bethesda MD, USA) databases were used to search for epidemiologic studies from 2000 to 2015 that examined the association between progestin and breast cancer. Search terms included epidemiologic studies + progesterone or progestin or progestogen or contraceptive or contraceptive agents + breast cancer or breast neoplasms. A total of six studies were included in the review. Five of the six studies reported no association between progestin-only formulations (including norethindrone oral contraceptives, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, injectable, levonorgestrel system users, implantable and intrauterine devices) and breast cancer risk. Duration of use was examined in a few studies with heterogeneous results. Unlike studies of other oral contraceptives, studies indicate that progestin-only formulations do not increase the risk of breast cancer, although the literature is hampered by small sample sizes. Future research is needed to corroborate these findings, as further understanding of synthetic progesterone may initiate new prescription practices or guidelines for women's health.

  7. Radiation and cancer risk in atomic-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kodama, K; Ozasa, K; Okubo, T

    2012-03-01

    With the aim of accurately assessing the effects of radiation exposure in the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation has, over several decades, conducted studies of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, comprising 93 000 atomic-bomb survivors and 27 000 controls. Solid cancer: the recent report on solid cancer incidence found that at age 70 years following exposure at age 30 years, solid cancer rates increase by about 35%  Gy(-1) for men and 58% Gy(-1) for women. Age-at-exposure is an important risk modifier. In the case of lung cancer, cigarette smoking has been found to be an important risk modifier. Radiation has similar effects on first-primary and second-primary cancer risks. Finally, radiation-associated increases in cancer rates appear to persist throughout life. Leukaemia: the recent report on leukaemia mortality suggests that radiation effects on leukaemia mortality persisted for more than 50 years. Moreover, significant dose-response for myelodysplastic syndrome was observed in Nagasaki LSS members even 40-60 years after radiation exposure. Future perspective: given the continuing solid cancer increase in the survivor population, the LSS will likely continue to provide important new information on radiation exposure and solid cancer risks for another 15-20 years, especially for those exposed at a young age.

  8. Alcohol and risk of breast cancer in Mexican women

    PubMed Central

    Beasley, Jeannette M.; Coronado, Gloria D.; Livaudais, Jennifer; Angeles-Llerenas, Angélica; Ortega-Olvera, Carolina; Romieu, Isabelle; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Little is known about the relationship between alcohol intake and breast cancer risk among Mexican women. This association may be modified by folate and Vitamin B12. METHODS A population-based case control study conducted in Mexico recruited 1000 incident breast cancer cases aged 35–69 and 1074 controls matched on age, region, and health care system. In-person interviews were conducted to assess breast cancer risk factors and recent diet using a food frequency questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression models estimated adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS Over one-half (57%) of cases and less than one-half of controls (45%) reported any lifetime alcohol consumption. Compared with never drinkers, women reporting ever drinking (Adjusted OR=1.25, 95% CI=0.99–1.58) had a greater odds of breast cancer. There was evidence for interaction in the association between ever consuming any alcohol and breast cancer by folate (p for interaction=0.04) suggesting women with lower folate intake had a higher odds of breast cancer (Adjusted OR=1.99, 95% CI= 1.26–3.16) compared to women with higher folate intake (OR=1.12, 95% CI = 0.69–1.83). CONCLUSIONS Our findings support emerging evidence that any alcohol intake increases risk of breast cancer. Insufficient intake of folate may further elevate risk for developing breast cancer among women who consume alcohol. PMID:20155314

  9. Starting Hormone Therapy at Menopause Increases Breast Cancer Risk

    Cancer.gov

    According to a January 28, 2011 article in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, women who start taking menopausal hormone therapy around the time of menopause have a higher risk of breast cancer than women who begin taking hormones a few years later.

  10. Radiation and cancer risk in atomic-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kodama, K; Ozasa, K; Okubo, T

    2012-03-01

    With the aim of accurately assessing the effects of radiation exposure in the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation has, over several decades, conducted studies of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, comprising 93 000 atomic-bomb survivors and 27 000 controls. Solid cancer: the recent report on solid cancer incidence found that at age 70 years following exposure at age 30 years, solid cancer rates increase by about 35%  Gy(-1) for men and 58% Gy(-1) for women. Age-at-exposure is an important risk modifier. In the case of lung cancer, cigarette smoking has been found to be an important risk modifier. Radiation has similar effects on first-primary and second-primary cancer risks. Finally, radiation-associated increases in cancer rates appear to persist throughout life. Leukaemia: the recent report on leukaemia mortality suggests that radiation effects on leukaemia mortality persisted for more than 50 years. Moreover, significant dose-response for myelodysplastic syndrome was observed in Nagasaki LSS members even 40-60 years after radiation exposure. Future perspective: given the continuing solid cancer increase in the survivor population, the LSS will likely continue to provide important new information on radiation exposure and solid cancer risks for another 15-20 years, especially for those exposed at a young age. PMID:22394591

  11. Oral Bisphosphonate Use and Risk of Postmenopausal Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Newcomb, Polly A.; Passarelli, Michael N.; Phipps, Amanda I.; Anderson, Garnet L.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Ho, Gloria Y.F.; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo; Chlebowski, Rowan T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Bisphosphonates are common medications used for the treatment of osteoporosis and are also used to reduce metastases to bone in patients with cancer. Several studies, including the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), have found that use of bisphosphonates is associated with reduced risk of developing breast cancer, but less is known about associations with other common malignancies. This study was aimed at examining the effects of bisphosphonates on the risk of endometrial cancer. Methods We evaluated the relationship between use of oral bisphosphonates and endometrial cancer risk in a cohort of 89,918 postmenopausal women participating in the WHI. A detailed health interview was conducted at baseline, and bisphosphonate use was ascertained from an inventory of regularly used medications at baseline and over follow-up. All women had an intact uterus at the time of study entry. Results During a median follow-up of 12.5 years, 1,123 women were diagnosed with incident invasive endometrial cancer. Ever use of bisphosphonates was associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.64 to 1.00; P = .05), with no interactions observed with age, body mass index, or indication for use. Conclusion In this large prospective cohort of postmenopausal women, bisphosphonate use was associated with a statistically significant reduction in endometrial cancer risk. PMID:25713431

  12. Plasma prolactin and breast cancer risk: a meta- analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Minghao; Wu, Xiujuan; Chai, Fan; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, and its incidence is on a constant rise. Previous studies suggest that higher levels of plasma prolactin are associated with escalated risk of breast cancer, however, these results are contradictory and inconclusive. PubMed and Medline were used to search and identify published observational studies that assessed the relationship between plasma prolactin levels and the risk of breast cancer. The pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a fixed-effects or random-effects model. A total of 7 studies were included in our analysis. For the highest versus lowest levels of plasma prolactin, the pooled RR (95% CI) of breast cancer were 1.16 (1.04, 1.29). In subgroup analyses, we found a positive association between plasma prolactin levels and the risk of breast cancer among the patients who were postmenopausal, ER+/PR+ or in situ and invasive carcinoma. However, this positive association was not detected in the premenopausal and ER-/PR- patients. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence supporting a significantly positive association between plasma prolactin levels and the risk of breast cancer. PMID:27184120

  13. Childbearing Recency and Modifiers of Premenopausal Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Neeraja B.; Huang, Yifan; Newcomb, Polly A.; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Anic, Gabriella; Egan, Kathleen M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the risk of premenopausal breast cancer for women in relation to childbearing recency, and whether this association differs by breastfeeding history and/or the amount of weight gained during pregnancy. This analysis was based on data from a population-based case-control study comprised of 1,706 incident cases of invasive breast cancer and 1,756 population controls from Wisconsin, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts. In a telephone interview conducted from 1996 to 2001, information was gathered on established breast cancer risk factors, as well as reproductive history, including amount of weight gained during the last full-term pregnancy, and whether or not the child was breast-fed. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and Wald 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of breast cancer. When compared to nulliparous women, women that had given birth within the past 5 years prior to breast cancer diagnosis in the cases or a comparable period in controls had a non-significant 35% increased risk of invasive breast cancer (OR=1.35; 95% CI: 0.90–2.04) adjusting for age and known breast cancer risk factors (p trend = 0.14). We did not find a significant interaction with breast-feeding (p for interaction = 0.30) or pregnancy weight gain (p for interaction = 0.09). PMID:18990773

  14. Arsenic cancer risk confounder in southwest Taiwan data set.

    PubMed

    Lamm, Steven H; Engel, Arnold; Penn, Cecilia A; Chen, Rusan; Feinleib, Manning

    2006-07-01

    Quantitative analysis for the risk of human cancer from the ingestion of inorganic arsenic has been based on the reported cancer mortality experience in the blackfoot disease (BFD) -endemic area of southwest Taiwan. Linear regression analysis shows that arsenic as the sole etiologic factor accounts for only 21% of the variance in the village standardized mortality ratios for bladder and lung cancer. A previous study had reported the influence of confounders (township, BFD prevalence, and artesian well dependency) qualitatively, but they have not been introduced into a quantitative assessment. In this six-township study, only three townships (2, 4, and 6) showed a significant positive dose-response relationship with arsenic exposure. The other three townships (0, 3, and 5) demonstrated significant bladder and lung cancer risks that were independent of arsenic exposure. The data for bladder and lung cancer mortality for townships 2, 4, and 6 fit an inverse linear regression model (p < 0.001) with an estimated threshold at 151 microg/L (95% confidence interval, 42 to 229 microg/L) . Such a model is consistent with epidemiologic and toxicologic literature for bladder cancer. Exploration of the southwest Taiwan cancer mortality data set has clarified the dose-response relationship with arsenic exposure by separating out township as a confounding factor. Key words: arsenic, blackfoot disease, bladder cancer, cancer risk, confounder, dose-response relationship, southwest Taiwan, threshold model.

  15. Age and cancer risk: a potentially modifiable relationship.

    PubMed

    White, Mary C; Holman, Dawn M; Boehm, Jennifer E; Peipins, Lucy A; Grossman, Melissa; Henley, S Jane

    2014-03-01

    This article challenges the idea that cancer cannot be prevented among older adults by examining different aspects of the relationship between age and cancer. Although the sequential patterns of aging cannot be changed, several age-related factors that contribute to disease risk can be. For most adults, age is coincidentally associated with preventable chronic conditions, avoidable exposures, and modifiable risk behaviors that are causally associated with cancer. Midlife is a period of life when the prevalence of multiple cancer risk factors is high and incidence rates begin to increase for many types of cancer. However, current evidence suggests that for most adults, cancer does not have to be an inevitable consequence of growing older. Interventions that support healthy environments, help people manage chronic conditions, and promote healthy behaviors may help people make a healthier transition from midlife to older age and reduce the likelihood of developing cancer. Because the number of adults reaching older ages is increasing rapidly, the number of new cancer cases will also increase if current incidence rates remain unchanged. Thus, the need to translate the available research into practice to promote cancer prevention, especially for adults at midlife, has never been greater. PMID:24512933

  16. Folate and alcohol consumption and the risk of lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bandera, E.V.; Graham, S.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Marshall, J.R.; Haughey, B.P.; Swanson, M.; Brasure, J.; Wilkinson, G. )

    1991-03-11

    Because both folate deficiency and alcohol intake have been hypothesized to be lung cancer risk factors, the authors examined the effect of folate and alcohol consumption on risk of lung cancer in a case-control study conducted 1980-1984. Usual dietary intake of 450 histologically confirmed lung cancer cases and 902 controls, all Western New York residents, was ascertained using a modified food frequency questionnaire. Folate intake was not associated with lung cancer risk. After adjusting for age, cigarette smoking, education, and carotene intake, the odds ratio (OR) for the highest category of folate intake was 1.59 in males and 1.34 in females. There was some indication of a protective effect of folate only among women who never smoked. There was a suggestion of a positive association of alcohol intake with lung cancer risk in males, independent of age, education, cigarette smoking, and carotene. Consumers of more than 9 beers per month had an OR of 1.51 compared to non-drinkers. In both sexes, there was an indication of an interaction between beer ingestion and cigarette smoking. While folate intake did not appear to affect risk of lung cancer, the association of alcohol intake with risk independent of cigarette smoking deserves further inquiry.

  17. Does ovulation induction increase the risk of gynecological cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, H.N.; Abdel-Bak, M.; Sallam, N.H.

    2013-01-01

    The risk of developing gynaecological cancer following ovulation induction therapy in infertile patients is not easy to determine due to many confounding factors. These include the fact that infertility in itself is a known risk factor for some of these cancers, that these patients are subjected to increased surveillance compared to the general population and that the drugs used for ovulation induction are sometimes used in combination. Notwithstanding these limitations, most of the studies have not confirmed a link between these drugs and invasive ovarian cancers, although some studies have suggested that the risk of borderline ovarian tumors may be increased. Investigations regarding breast cancer risk have produced inconsistent results and more information on the subject is warranted. On the contrary, many studies suggest that drugs used for ovulation induction may increase the risk of uterine cancers. More large well-designed studies are still needed to further clarify the effects on cancer risk of these drugs and will allow more in-depth subgroup analysis based on both patient and disease characteristics. PMID:24753954

  18. Association Between COX-2 Polymorphisms and Lung Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiwei; Fan, Xinyun; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Yi; Yang, Siyuan; Li, Gaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple relevant risk factors for lung cancer have been reported in different populations, but results of previous studies were not consistent. Therefore, a meta-analysis is necessary to summarize these outcomes and reach a relatively comprehensive conclusion. Material/Methods STATA 12.0 software was used for all statistical of the relationship between COX-2 polymorphisms and lung cancer risk. Inter-study heterogeneity was examined with the Q statistic (significance level at P<0.1). The publication bias among studies in the meta-analysis was analyzed with Begg’s funnel plot and Egger’s test. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was tested in all controls of the studies. Results COX-2 rs20417 polymorphism had a significant association with reduced risk of lung cancer under homozygous and recessive models, and similar results were observed in white and population-based subgroups under 2 and 3 contrasts, respectively. Additionally, rs2066826 polymorphism manifested a strong correlation with increased risk of lung cancer under 5 genetic models. Conclusions In COX-2 gene, rs20417 may have a certain relationship with reduced risk of lung cancer, while rs2066826 may increase the risk of lung cancer. PMID:26624903

  19. Cancer Risks Associated with External Radiation From Diagnostic Imaging Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Linet, Martha S.; Slovis, Thomas L.; Miller, Donald L.; Kleinerman, Ruth; Lee, Choonsik; Rajaraman, Preetha; de Gonzalez, Amy Berrington

    2012-01-01

    The 600% increase in medical radiation exposure to the US population since 1980 has provided immense benefit, but potential future cancer risks to patients. Most of the increase is from diagnostic radiologic procedures. The objectives of this review are to summarize epidemiologic data on cancer risks associated with diagnostic procedures, describe how exposures from recent diagnostic procedures relate to radiation levels linked with cancer occurrence, and propose a framework of strategies to reduce radiation from diagnostic imaging in patients. We briefly review radiation dose definitions, mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis, key epidemiologic studies of medical and other radiation sources and cancer risks, and dose trends from diagnostic procedures. We describe cancer risks from experimental studies, future projected risks from current imaging procedures, and the potential for higher risks in genetically susceptible populations. To reduce future projected cancers from diagnostic procedures, we advocate widespread use of evidence-based appropriateness criteria for decisions about imaging procedures, oversight of equipment to deliver reliably the minimum radiation required to attain clinical objectives, development of electronic lifetime records of imaging procedures for patients and their physicians, and commitment by medical training programs, professional societies, and radiation protection organizations to educate all stakeholders in reducing radiation from diagnostic procedures. PMID:22307864

  20. Metformin use and lung cancer risk in patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sakoda, Lori C.; Ferrara, Assiamira; Achacoso, Ninah S.; Peng, Tiffany; Ehrlich, Samantha F.; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Habel, Laurel A.

    2015-01-01

    Methodologic biases may explain why observational studies examining metformin use in relation to lung cancer risk have produced inconsistent results. We conducted a cohort study to further investigate this relationship, accounting for potential biases. For 47,351 patients with diabetes aged ≥40 years, who completed a health-related survey administered between 1994 and 1996, data on prescribed diabetes medications were obtained from electronic pharmacy records. Follow-up for incident lung cancer occurred from January 1, 1997, until June 30, 2012. Using Cox regression, we estimated lung cancer risk associated with new use of metformin, along with total duration, recency, and cumulative dose (all modeled as time-dependent covariates), adjusting for potential confounding factors. During 428,557 person-years of follow-up, 747 patients were diagnosed with lung cancer. No association was found with duration, dose, or recency of metformin use and overall lung cancer risk. Among never smokers, however, ever use was inversely associated with lung cancer risk (hazard ratio (HR) 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.33-0.99), and risk appeared to decrease monotonically with longer use (≥5 years: HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.21-1.09). Among current smokers, corresponding risk estimates were >1.0, although not statistically significant. Consistent with this variation in effect by smoking history, longer use was suggestively associated with lower adenocarcinoma risk (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.40-1.17), but higher small cell carcinoma risk (HR, 1.82; 95% CI, 0.85-3.91). In this population, we found no evidence that metformin use affects overall lung cancer risk. The observed variation in association by smoking history and histology requires further confirmation. PMID:25644512

  1. Diabetes mellitus, other medical conditions and familial history of cancer as risk factors for pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, D T; Schiffman, M; Everhart, J; Goldstein, A; Lillemoe, K D; Swanson, G M; Schwartz, A G; Brown, L M; Greenberg, R S; Schoenberg, J B; Pottern, L M; Hoover, R N; Fraumeni, J F

    1999-01-01

    In a population-based case-control study of pancreatic cancer conducted in three areas of the USA, 484 cases and 2099 controls were interviewed to evaluate the aetiologic role of several medical conditions/interventions, including diabetes mellitus, cholecystectomy, ulcer/gastrectomy and allergic states. We also evaluated risk associated with family history of cancer. Our findings support previous studies indicating that diabetes is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer, as well as a possible complication of the tumour. A significant positive trend in risk with increasing years prior to diagnosis of pancreatic cancer was apparent (P-value for test of trend = 0.016), with diabetics diagnosed at least 10 years prior to diagnosis having a significant 50% increased risk. Those treated with insulin had risks similar to those not treated with insulin (odds ratio (OR) = 1.6 and 1.5 respectively), and no trend in risk was associated with increasing duration of insulin treatment. Cholecystectomy also appeared to be a risk factor, as well as a consequence of the malignancy. Subjects with a cholecystectomy at least 20 years prior to the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer experienced a 70% increased risk, which was marginally significant. In contrast, subjects with a history of duodenal or gastric ulcer had little or no elevated risk (OR = 1.2; confidence interval = 0.9–1.6). Those treated by gastrectomy had the same risk as those not receiving surgery, providing little support for the hypothesis that gastrectomy is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. A significant 40% reduced risk was associated with hay fever, a non-significant 50% decreased risk with allergies to animals, and a non-significant 40% reduced risk with allergies to dust/moulds. These associations, however, may be due to chance since no risk reductions were apparent for asthma or several other types of allergies. In addition, we observed significantly increased risks for subjects reporting a first-degree relative

  2. Dietary consumption patterns and laryngeal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Vlastarakos, Petros V; Vassileiou, Andrianna; Delicha, Evie; Kikidis, Dimitrios; Protopapas, Dimosthenis; Nikolopoulos, Thomas P

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a case-control study to investigate the effect of diet on laryngeal carcinogenesis. Our study population was made up of 140 participants-70 patients with laryngeal cancer (LC) and 70 controls with a non-neoplastic condition that was unrelated to diet, smoking, or alcohol. A food-frequency questionnaire determined the mean consumption of 113 different items during the 3 years prior to symptom onset. Total energy intake and cooking mode were also noted. The relative risk, odds ratio (OR), and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by multiple logistic regression analysis. We found that the total energy intake was significantly higher in the LC group (p < 0.001), and that the difference remained statistically significant after logistic regression analysis (p < 0.001; OR: 118.70). Notably, meat consumption was higher in the LC group (p < 0.001), and the difference remained significant after logistic regression analysis (p = 0.029; OR: 1.16). LC patients also consumed significantly more fried food (p = 0.036); this difference also remained significant in the logistic regression model (p = 0.026; OR: 5.45). The LC group also consumed significantly more seafood (p = 0.012); the difference persisted after logistic regression analysis (p = 0.009; OR: 2.48), with the consumption of shrimp proving detrimental (p = 0.049; OR: 2.18). Finally, the intake of zinc was significantly higher in the LC group before and after logistic regression analysis (p = 0.034 and p = 0.011; OR: 30.15, respectively). Cereal consumption (including pastas) was also higher among the LC patients (p = 0.043), with logistic regression analysis showing that their negative effect was possibly associated with the sauces and dressings that traditionally accompany pasta dishes (p = 0.006; OR: 4.78). Conversely, a higher consumption of dairy products was found in controls (p < 0.05); logistic regression analysis showed that calcium appeared to be protective at the micronutrient level (p < 0

  3. Dietary consumption patterns and laryngeal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Vlastarakos, Petros V; Vassileiou, Andrianna; Delicha, Evie; Kikidis, Dimitrios; Protopapas, Dimosthenis; Nikolopoulos, Thomas P

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a case-control study to investigate the effect of diet on laryngeal carcinogenesis. Our study population was made up of 140 participants-70 patients with laryngeal cancer (LC) and 70 controls with a non-neoplastic condition that was unrelated to diet, smoking, or alcohol. A food-frequency questionnaire determined the mean consumption of 113 different items during the 3 years prior to symptom onset. Total energy intake and cooking mode were also noted. The relative risk, odds ratio (OR), and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by multiple logistic regression analysis. We found that the total energy intake was significantly higher in the LC group (p < 0.001), and that the difference remained statistically significant after logistic regression analysis (p < 0.001; OR: 118.70). Notably, meat consumption was higher in the LC group (p < 0.001), and the difference remained significant after logistic regression analysis (p = 0.029; OR: 1.16). LC patients also consumed significantly more fried food (p = 0.036); this difference also remained significant in the logistic regression model (p = 0.026; OR: 5.45). The LC group also consumed significantly more seafood (p = 0.012); the difference persisted after logistic regression analysis (p = 0.009; OR: 2.48), with the consumption of shrimp proving detrimental (p = 0.049; OR: 2.18). Finally, the intake of zinc was significantly higher in the LC group before and after logistic regression analysis (p = 0.034 and p = 0.011; OR: 30.15, respectively). Cereal consumption (including pastas) was also higher among the LC patients (p = 0.043), with logistic regression analysis showing that their negative effect was possibly associated with the sauces and dressings that traditionally accompany pasta dishes (p = 0.006; OR: 4.78). Conversely, a higher consumption of dairy products was found in controls (p < 0.05); logistic regression analysis showed that calcium appeared to be protective at the micronutrient level (p < 0

  4. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: 12 ways to reduce your cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Schüz, Joachim; Espina, Carolina; Villain, Patricia; Herrero, Rolando; Leon, Maria E; Minozzi, Silvia; Romieu, Isabelle; Segnan, Nereo; Wardle, Jane; Wiseman, Martin; Belardelli, Filippo; Bettcher, Douglas; Cavalli, Franco; Galea, Gauden; Lenoir, Gilbert; Martin-Moreno, Jose M; Nicula, Florian Alexandru; Olsen, Jørgen H; Patnick, Julietta; Primic-Zakelj, Maja; Puska, Pekka; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Wiestler, Otmar; Zatonski, Witold

    2015-12-01

    This overview describes the principles of the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer and provides an introduction to the 12 recommendations to reduce cancer risk. Among the 504.6 million inhabitants of the member states of the European Union (EU28), there are annually 2.64 million new cancer cases and 1.28 million deaths from cancer. It is estimated that this cancer burden could be reduced by up to one half if scientific knowledge on causes of cancer could be translated into successful prevention. The Code is a preventive tool aimed to reduce the cancer burden by informing people how to avoid or reduce carcinogenic exposures, adopt behaviours to reduce the cancer risk, or to participate in organised intervention programmes. The Code should also form a base to guide national health policies in cancer prevention. The 12 recommendations are: not smoking or using other tobacco products; avoiding second-hand smoke; being a healthy body weight; encouraging physical activity; having a healthy diet; limiting alcohol consumption, with not drinking alcohol being better for cancer prevention; avoiding too much exposure to ultraviolet radiation; avoiding cancer-causing agents at the workplace; reducing exposure to high levels of radon; encouraging breastfeeding; limiting the use of hormone replacement therapy; participating in organised vaccination programmes against hepatitis B for newborns and human papillomavirus for girls; and participating in organised screening programmes for bowel cancer, breast cancer, and cervical cancer. PMID:26164654

  5. Cancer risks posed by aflatoxin M1.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, D P; Cullen, J M; Hsieh, L S; Shao, Y; Ruebner, B H

    1985-01-01

    The suspect milk-borne carcinogen, aflatoxin M1 (AFM), was produced and isolated from the rice culture of the fungus Aspergillus flavus NRRL3251 for confirmation and determination of the potency of its carcinogenicity in the male adult Fischer rat. The carcinogen was mixed into an agar-based, semisynthetic diet at 0, 0.5, 5, and 50 ppb (microgram/kg) and was fed to groups of animals continuously for 19-21 months. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB), of which AFM is a metabolite, at 50 ppb was used as a positive control. Hepatocarcinogenicity of AFM was detected at 50 ppb, but not at 5 or 0.5 ppb, with a potency of 2-10% that of AFB. A low incidence of intestinal adenocarcinomas was found in the AFM 50 ppb group, but not in any other groups. At 0.5 ppb, the action level enforced by the U.S.A. Food and Drug Administration, AFM induced no liver lesions in the rats but stimulated the animals' growth. On the average, the rats in the 0.5 ppb group weighed 11% (p less than 0.001) more than those in the control group. This increased growth was associated with increased feed intake. Based on the biological activity of AFM at the relevant low doses and the estimated level of human exposure to AFM through consumption of milk, the cancer risk posed by this contaminant for human adults is assessed to be very low. For infants, further studies are warranted because milk constitutes the major ingredient of the infant diet and because infant animals have been shown to be more sensitive to the carcinogenicity of AFB than adult animals.

  6. Wine and tobacco: risk factors for gastric cancer in France.

    PubMed

    Hoey, J; Montvernay, C; Lambert, R

    1981-06-01

    Cross-sectional studies in France have shown strong regional correlations between death rates from alcohol related diseases and death rates from gastric cancer. The present study involved 40 cases of newly diagnosed adenocarcinoma of the stomach and 168 control subjects with one of four other gastrointestinal diagnoses selected from the same hospital service during the same time period, 1978-1980. On the basis of a standard nutritional interview alcohol and particularly red wine were seen to be significant risk factors for this cancer (relative risks of 6.9 with 95% confidence limits (CL) of 3.3-14.3 for alcohol and 6.3 with CL 3.1-12.7 for wine). Smoking of one or more cigarettes per day was associated with a relative risk for gastric cancer of 4.8 with CL of 1.6-14.8. The presence of both risk factors was associated with a relative risk of 9.3 with 95% CL of 4.6-19.0. Possible confounding by age, smoking, and eating lettuce (a reported protective factor for gastric cancer in other studies) did not explain these results. The relative risks were consistently found and remained significant when each diagnostic group of control subjects was analyzed separately. These results suggest that alcohol, and particularly red wine, may be important risk factors for adenocarcinoma of the stomach in France. In addition, cigarette smoking, a risk factor in itself, when coupled with alcohol appears markedly to increase the risk.

  7. Relative cancer risks of chemical contaminants in the great lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bro, Kenneth M.; Sonzogni, William C.; Hanson, Mark E.

    1987-08-01

    Anyone who drinks water or eats fish from the Great Lakes consumes potentially carcinogenic chemicals. In choosing how to respond to such pollution, it is important to put the risks these contaminants pose in perspective. Based on recent measurements of carcinogens in Great Lakes fish and water, calculations of lifetime risks of cancer indicate that consumers of sport fish face cancer risks from Great Lakes contaminants that are several orders of magnitude higher than the risks posed by drinking Great Lakes water. But drinking urban groundwater and breathing urban air may be as hazardous as frequent consumption of sport fish from the Great Lakes. Making such comparisons is difficult because of variation in types and quality of information available and in the methods for estimating risk. Much uncertainty pervades the risk assessment process in such areas as estimating carcinogenic potency and human exposure to contaminants. If risk assessment is to be made more useful, it is important to quantify this uncertainty.

  8. Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk and Risk Reduction in Jewish BRCA1/2 Mutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Finkelman, Brian S.; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Friedman, Sue; Friebel, Tara M.; Dubitsky, Shera; Schonberger, Niecee Singer; Shoretz, Rochelle; Singer, Christian F.; Blum, Joanne L.; Tung, Nadine; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Lynch, Henry T.; Snyder, Carrie; Garber, Judy E.; Schildkraut, Joellen; Daly, Mary B.; Isaacs, Claudine; Pichert, Gabrielle; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Couch, Fergus J.; van't Veer, Laura; Eeles, Rosalind; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Evans, D. Gareth; Ganz, Patricia A.; Tomlinson, Gail E.; Narod, Steven A.; Matloff, Ellen; Domchek, Susan; Rebbeck, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Mutations in BRCA1/2 dramatically increase the risk of both breast and ovarian cancers. Three mutations in these genes (185delAG, 5382insC, and 6174delT) occur at high frequency in Ashkenazi Jews. We evaluated how these common Jewish mutations (CJMs) affect cancer risks and risk reduction. Methods Our cohort comprised 4,649 women with disease-associated BRCA1/2 mutations from 22 centers in the Prevention and Observation of Surgical End Points Consortium. Of these women, 969 were self-identified Jewish women. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate breast and ovarian cancer risks, as well as risk reduction from risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO), by CJM and self-identified Jewish status. Results Ninety-one percent of Jewish BRCA1/2-positive women carried a CJM. Jewish women were significantly more likely to undergo RRSO than non-Jewish women (54% v 41%, respectively; odds ratio, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.44 to 2.42). Relative risks of cancer varied by CJM, with the relative risk of breast cancer being significantly lower in 6174delT mutation carriers than in non-CJM BRCA2 carriers (hazard ratio, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.69). No significant difference was seen in cancer risk reduction after RRSO among subgroups. Conclusion Consistent with previous results, risks for breast and ovarian cancer varied by CJM in BRCA1/2 carriers. In particular, 6174delT carriers had a lower risk of breast cancer. This finding requires additional confirmation in larger prospective and population-based cohort studies before being integrated into clinical care. PMID:22430266

  9. Active Smoking, Passive Smoking, and Breast Cancer Risk: Findings from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yingsong; Kikuchi, Shogo; Tamakoshi, Koji; Wakai, Kenji; Kondo, Takaaki; Niwa, Yoshimitsu; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Nishio, Kazuko; Suzuki, Sadao; Tokudome, Shinkan; Yamamoto, Akio; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Mori, Mitsuru; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2008-01-01

    Background Evidence is lacking regarding the relationship between cigarette smoking and breast cancer in Japanese women. We examined the association between breast cancer incidence and active and passive smoking in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk. Methods Our study comprised 34,401 women aged 40-79 years who had not been diagnosed previously with breast cancer and who provided information on smoking status at baseline (1988-1990). The subjects were followed from enrollment until December 31, 2001. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between breast cancer incidence and tobacco smoke. Results During 271,412 person-years of follow-up, we identified 208 incident cases of breast cancer. Active smoking did not increase the risk of breast cancer, with a HR for current smokers of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.32-1.38). Furthermore, an increased risk of breast cancer was not observed in current smokers who smoked a greater number of cigarettes each day. Overall, passive smoking at home or in public spaces was also not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer among nonsmokers. Women who reported passive smoking during childhood had a statistically insignificant increase in risk (HR: 1.24; 95% CI: 0.84-1.85), compared with those who had not been exposed during this time. Conclusion Smoking may not be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in this cohort of Japanese women. PMID:18403857

  10. Tobacco and lung cancer: risks, trends, and outcomes in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Warren, Graham W; Cummings, K Michael

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use, primarily associated with cigarette smoking, is the largest preventable cause of cancer mortality, responsible for approximately one-third of all cancer deaths. Approximately 85% of lung cancers result from smoking, with an additional fraction caused by secondhand smoke exposure in nonsmokers. The risk of lung cancer is dose dependent, but can be dramatically reduced with tobacco cessation, especially if the person discontinues smoking early in life. The increase in lung cancer incidence in different countries around in the world parallels changes in cigarette consumption. Lung cancer risks are not reduced by switching to filters or low-tar/low-nicotine cigarettes. In patients with cancer, continued tobacco use after diagnosis is associated with poor therapeutic outcomes including increased treatment-related toxicity, increased risk of second primary cancer, decreased quality of life, and decreased survival. Tobacco cessation in patients with cancer may improve cancer treatment outcomes, but cessation support is often not provided by oncologists. Reducing the health related effects of tobacco requires coordinated efforts to reduce exposure to tobacco, accurately assess tobacco use in clinical settings, and increase access to tobacco cessation support. Lung cancer screening and coordinated international tobacco control efforts offer the promise to dramatically reduce lung cancer mortality in the coming decades.

  11. Risk factors for skin cancer among Finnish airline cabin crew.

    PubMed

    Kojo, Katja; Helminen, Mika; Pukkala, Eero; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-07-01

    Increased incidence of skin cancers among airline cabin crew has been reported in several studies. We evaluated whether the difference in risk factor prevalence between Finnish airline cabin crew and the general population could explain the increased incidence of skin cancers among cabin crew, and the possible contribution of estimated occupational cosmic radiation exposure. A self-administered questionnaire survey on occupational, host, and ultraviolet radiation exposure factors was conducted among female cabin crew members and females presenting the general population. The impact of occupational cosmic radiation dose was estimated in a separate nested case-control analysis among the participating cabin crew (with 9 melanoma and 35 basal cell carcinoma cases). No considerable difference in the prevalence of risk factors of skin cancer was found between the cabin crew (N = 702) and the general population subjects (N = 1007) participating the study. The mean risk score based on all the conventional skin cancer risk factors was 1.43 for cabin crew and 1.44 for general population (P = 0.24). Among the cabin crew, the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose was not related to the increased skin cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.00]. The highest plausible risk of skin cancer for estimated cosmic radiation dose was estimated as 9% per 10 mSv. The skin cancer cases had higher host characteristics scores than the non-cases among cabin crew (adjusted OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.04). Our results indicate no difference between the female cabin crew and the general female population in the prevalence of factors generally associated with incidence of skin cancer. Exposure to cosmic radiation did not explain the excess of skin cancer among the studied cabin crew in this study. PMID:23316078

  12. Perineal Powder Use and Risk of Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, Serena C.; Reeves, Katherine W.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Crawford, Lori; Lane, Dorothy; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Ockene, Judith K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Case-control studies have reported an increased risk of ovarian cancer among talc users; however, the only cohort study to date found no association except for an increase in serous invasive ovarian cancers. The purpose of this analysis was to assess perineal powder use and risk of ovarian cancer prospectively in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study cohort. Methods Perineal powder use was assessed at baseline by self-report regarding application to genitals, sanitary napkins, or diaphragms and duration of use. The primary outcome was self-reported ovarian cancer centrally adjudicated by physicians. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate risk, adjusting for covariates, including person-time until diagnosis of ovarian cancer (n = 429), death, loss to follow-up, or September 17, 2012. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Among 61576 postmenopausal women, followed for a mean of 12.4 years without a history of cancer or bilateral oophorectomy, 52.6% reported ever using perineal powder. Ever use of perineal powder (hazard ratio [HR]adj = 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.87 to 1.28) was not associated with risk of ovarian cancer compared with never use. Individually, ever use of powder on the genitals (HRadj = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.92 to 1.36), sanitary napkins (HRadj = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.76 to 1.20), or diaphragms (HRadj = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.68 to 1.23) was not associated with risk of ovarian cancer compared with never use, nor were there associations with increasing durations of use. Estimates did not differ when stratified by age or tubal ligation status. Conclusion Based on our results, perineal powder use does not appear to influence ovarian cancer risk. PMID:25214560

  13. Risk factors for skin cancer among Finnish airline cabin crew.

    PubMed

    Kojo, Katja; Helminen, Mika; Pukkala, Eero; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-07-01

    Increased incidence of skin cancers among airline cabin crew has been reported in several studies. We evaluated whether the difference in risk factor prevalence between Finnish airline cabin crew and the general population could explain the increased incidence of skin cancers among cabin crew, and the possible contribution of estimated occupational cosmic radiation exposure. A self-administered questionnaire survey on occupational, host, and ultraviolet radiation exposure factors was conducted among female cabin crew members and females presenting the general population. The impact of occupational cosmic radiation dose was estimated in a separate nested case-control analysis among the participating cabin crew (with 9 melanoma and 35 basal cell carcinoma cases). No considerable difference in the prevalence of risk factors of skin cancer was found between the cabin crew (N = 702) and the general population subjects (N = 1007) participating the study. The mean risk score based on all the conventional skin cancer risk factors was 1.43 for cabin crew and 1.44 for general population (P = 0.24). Among the cabin crew, the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose was not related to the increased skin cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.00]. The highest plausible risk of skin cancer for estimated cosmic radiation dose was estimated as 9% per 10 mSv. The skin cancer cases had higher host characteristics scores than the non-cases among cabin crew (adjusted OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.04). Our results indicate no difference between the female cabin crew and the general female population in the prevalence of factors generally associated with incidence of skin cancer. Exposure to cosmic radiation did not explain the excess of skin cancer among the studied cabin crew in this study.

  14. Young women's responses to smoking and breast cancer risk information

    PubMed Central

    Bottorff, Joan L.; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C.; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer and obtain their advice about messaging approaches. Data were collected in focus groups with 46 women, divided in three age cohorts: 15–17, 18–19 and 20–24 and organized according to smoking status (smoking, non-smoking and mixed smoking status groups). The discussion questions were preceded by information about passive and active smoking and its associated breast cancer risk. The study findings show young women's interest in this risk factor for breast cancer. Three themes were drawn from the analysis: making sense of the information on smoking and breast cancer, personal susceptibility and tobacco exposure and suggestions for increasing awareness about tobacco exposure and breast cancer. There was general consensus on framing public awareness messages about this risk factor on ‘protecting others’ from breast cancer to catch smokers’ attention, providing young women with the facts and personal stories of breast cancer to help establish a personal connection with this information and overcome desensitization related to tobacco messages, and targeting all smokers who may place young women at risk. Cautions were also raised about the potential for stigmatization. Implications for raising awareness about this modifiable risk factor for breast cancer are discussed. PMID:20080807

  15. Insulin-Sensitizers, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Gynaecological Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Lauretta, Rosa; Lanzolla, Giulia; Vici, Patrizia; Mariani, Luciano; Moretti, Costanzo

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical, early phase clinical trials and epidemiological evidence support the potential role of insulin-sensitizers in cancer prevention and treatment. Insulin-sensitizers improve the metabolic and hormonal profile in PCOS patients and may also act as anticancer agents, especially in cancers associated with hyperinsulinemia and oestrogen dependent cancers. Several lines of evidence support the protection against cancer exerted by dietary inositol, in particular inositol hexaphosphate. Metformin, thiazolidinediones, and myoinositol postreceptor signaling may exhibit direct inhibitory effects on cancer cell growth. AMPK, the main molecular target of metformin, is emerging as a target for cancer prevention and treatment. PCOS may be correlated to an increased risk for developing ovarian and endometrial cancer (up to threefold). Several studies have demonstrated an increase in mortality rate from ovarian cancer among overweight/obese PCOS women compared with normal weight women. Long-term use of metformin has been associated with lower rates of ovarian cancer. Considering the evidence supporting a higher risk of gynaecological cancer in PCOS women, we discuss the potential use of insulin-sensitizers as a potential tool for chemoprevention, hypothesizing a possible rationale through which insulin-sensitizers may inhibit tumourigenesis. PMID:27725832

  16. Risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Wu, P C; Lang, J H; Ge, W J; Hartge, P; Brinton, L A

    1992-02-01

    A study in Beijing, China of 112 pathologically confirmed epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 224 age-matched community controls enabled evaluation of risk in relation to reproductive, medical, familial, and selected lifestyle factors. An inverse relationship was observed between the number of full-term pregnancies and ovarian cancer risk. Compared to nulliparous women, subjects with one, two, or three full-term pregnancies were at 50%, 70%, or 90% reduced risks, respectively (P for trend less than 0.01). A positive correlation was found between the number of ovulatory years and risk, with a 2.6-fold increased risk for women with 30 or more compared to less than 10 ovulatory years (P for trend less than 0.01). Infertility, as estimated in various ways, was also found to be an important risk factor. When parity was taken into account, age at first pregnancy was not related to ovarian cancer risk. No protective effect was associated with mumps virus infection. In contrast, risk increased significantly as serum mumps virus antibody titres increased (P for trend less than 0.01). An elevated risk was found in women with a history of long-term (greater than 3 months) application of talc-containing dusting powder to the lower abdomen and perineum (Relative risk 3.9, 95% confidence interval: 0.9-10.63). These findings suggest that Chinese women have risk factors similar to those of occidental women.

  17. Myeloperoxidase genotype, fruit and vegetable consumption, and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jiyoung; Gammon, Marilie D; Santella, Regina M; Gaudet, Mia M; Britton, Julie A; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Terry, Mary Beth; Neugut, Alfred I; Josephy, P David; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2004-10-15

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO), an antimicrobial enzyme in the breast, generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) endogenously. An MPO G463A polymorphism exists in the promoter region, with the variant A allele conferring lower transcription activity than the common G allele. Because oxidative stress may play a role in breast carcinogenesis, we evaluated MPO genotypes in relation to breast cancer risk among 1,011 cases and 1,067 controls from the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (1996-1997). We also assessed the potential modifying effects of dietary antioxidants and hormonally related risk factors on these relationships. Women over 20 years with incident breast cancer who were residents of Nassau and Suffolk Counties, NY, were identified as potential cases. Population-based controls were frequency matched by 5-year age groups. Genotyping was performed with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) technology, and suspected breast cancer risk factors and usual dietary intake were assessed during an in-person interview. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Having at least one A allele was associated with an overall 13% reduction in breast cancer risk. When consumption of fruits and vegetables and specific dietary antioxidants were dichotomized at the median, inverse associations with either GA or AA genotypes were most pronounced among women who consumed higher amounts of total fruits and vegetables (odds ratio, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-0.97); this association was not noted among the low-consumption group (P for interaction = 0.04). Relationships were strongest among premenopausal women. Results from this first study of MPO genotypes and breast cancer risk indicate that MPO variants, related to reduced generation of ROS, are associated with decreased breast cancer risk, and emphasize the importance of fruit and vegetable consumption in reduction of breast

  18. Prospective Association between Dietary Fiber Intake and Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Deschasaux, Mélanie; Zelek, Laurent; Pouchieu, Camille; His, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Latino-Martel, Paule; Touvier, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    Background Mechanistic hypotheses suggest a potential effect of dietary fiber on breast carcinogenesis through the modulation of insulin-like growth factor bioactivity, estrogen metabolism and inflammation. An association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk has been suggested in epidemiological studies but remains inconclusive. In particular, data is lacking regarding the different types of dietary fibers. Objective The objective was to investigate the prospective relationship between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk, taking into account different types of dietary fiber (overall, insoluble, soluble and from different food sources: cereals, vegetables, fruits and legumes). Design 4684 women from the SU.VI.MAX cohort were included in this analysis as they completed at least three 24h-dietary records within the first two years of follow-up. Among them, 167 incident invasive breast cancers were diagnosed during a median follow-up of 12.6 years (between 1994 and 2007). The associations between quartiles of dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk were characterized using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Results Total fiber intake was not associated with breast cancer risk (HRQuartile4vs.Quartile1 = 1.29 (95%CI 0.66–2.50), P-trend = 0.5), nor was fiber intake from cereals (P-trend = 0.1), fruits (P-trend = 0.9) and legumes (P-trend = 0.3). In contrast, vegetable fiber intake was related to a decreased risk of breast cancer (HRQ4vs.Q1 = 0.50 (0.29-0.88), P-trend = 0.03). Overall vegetable intake (in g/day) was not associated with breast cancer risk (P-trend = 0.2). Conclusion This prospective study suggests that vegetable fiber intake may contribute to reduce breast cancer risk, in line with experimental mechanistic data. PMID:24244548

  19. Cancer risks from exposure to radon in homes.

    PubMed Central

    Axelson, O

    1995-01-01

    Exposure to radon and its decay products in mines is a well recognized risk of lung cancer in miners. A large number of epidemiologic studies from various countries are quite consistent in this respect even it the magnitude of the risk differs according to exposure levels. Indoor radon became a concern in the 1970s and about a dozen studies have been conducted since 1979, mainly of the case-control design. From first being of a simple pilot character, the designs have become increasingly sophisticated, especially with regard to exposure assessment. Crude exposure estimates based on type of house, building material and geological features have been supplemented or replaced by quite extensive measurements. Still, exposure assessment remains a difficult and uncertain issue in these studies, most of which indicate a lung cancer risk from indoor radon. Also a recent large scale study has confirmed a lung cancer risk from indoor radon. More recently there are also some studies, mainly of the correlation type, suggesting other cancers also to be related to indoor radon, especially leukemia, kidney cancer, and malignant melanoma, and some other cancers as well. The data are less consistent and much more uncertain than for indoor radon and lung cancer, however; and there is no clear support from studies of miners in this respect. PMID:7614945

  20. Silicosis, radon, and lung cancer risk in Ontario miners

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, M.M.

    1995-09-01

    The presence of radiographic silicosis was assessed as a risk factor for lung cancer in a cohort and case-control study of miners in the Ontario Silicosis Surveillance Database. Subjects were 328 miners with silicosis matched on age to 970 miners with normal radiographs. In a cancer incidence follow-up, there was a significant excess of lung cancer among miners with silicosis (Standardized Incidence Ration 2.55; 95% Confidence Interval 1.43-8.28). Miners with normal radiographs had lung cancer incidence about the same as the Ontario average (Standardized Incidence Ratio 0.90; 95% Confidence Interval 0.51-1.47). In a matched case-control analysis of lung cancer, cumulative radon exposure was associated with lung cancer risk (increase in odds ratio 0.4% per WLM; 95% Confidence Interval -0.3% to 1.1%). When the pressure of silicosis was added to the model, silicosis was a highly significant risk factor for lung cancer (Odds Ratio 6.99 95% confidence Interval -1.4% to 0.4%). This finding suggests that additional study is warranted before concluding that radon risk factors derived from mining populations do not need to be modified for application to the general population. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  1. Cancer risks from exposure to radon in homes

    SciTech Connect

    Axelson, O.

    1995-03-01

    Exposure to radon and its decay products in mines is a well recognized risk of lung cancer in miners. A large number of epidemiologic studies from various countries are quite consistent in this respect even it the magnitude of the risk differs according to exposure levels. Indoor radon became a concern in the 1970s and about a dozen studies have been conducted since 1979, mainly of the case-control design. From first being of a simple pilot character, the designs have become increasingly sophisticated, especially with regard to exposure assessment. Crude exposure estimates based on type of house, building material and geological features have been supplemented or replaced by quite extensive measurements. Still, exposure assessment remains a difficult and uncertain issue in these studies, most of which indicate a lung cancer risk from indoor radon. Also a recent large scale study has confirmed a lung cancer risk from indoor radon. More recently there are also some studies, mainly of the correlation type, suggesting other cancers also to be related to indoor radon, especially leukemia, kidney cancer, and malignant melanoma, and some other cancers as well. The data are less consistent and much more uncertain than for indoor radon and lung cancer, however; and there is no clear support from studies of miners in this respect. 97 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. Risk of Cancer Among Firefighters in California, 1988–2007

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Rebecca J.; Luckhaupt, Sara E.; Schumacher, Pam; Cress, Rosemary D.; Deapen, Dennis M.; Calvert, Geoffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Most studies of firefighter cancer risks were conducted prior to 1990 and do not reflect risk from advances in building materials. Methods A case–control study using California Cancer Registry data (1988–2007) was conducted to evaluate the risk of cancer among firefighters, stratified by race. Results This study identified 3,996 male firefighters with cancer. Firefighters were found to have a significantly elevated risk for melanoma (odds ratio [OR]=1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4–2.1), multiple myeloma (OR 1.4; 95%CI 1.0–1.8), acute myeloid leukemia (OR 1.4; 95%CI 1.0–2.0), and cancers of the esophagus (OR 1.6;95%CI 1.2–2.1), prostate (OR 1.5; 95%CI 1.3–1.7), brain (OR 1.5; 95%CI 1.2–2.0), and kidney (OR 1.3; 95%CI 1.0–1.6). Conclusions In addition to observing cancer findings consistent with previous research, this study generated novel findings for firefighters with race/ethnicity other than white. It provides additional evidence to support the association between firefighting and several specific cancers. PMID:25943908

  3. Cancer-related fatigue: Mechanisms, risk factors, and treatments

    PubMed Central

    Bower, Julienne E.

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most common and distressing side effects of cancer and its treatment, and may persist for years after treatment completion in otherwise healthy survivors. Cancer-related fatigue causes disruption in all aspects of quality of life and may be a risk factor for reduced survival. The prevalence and course of fatigue in cancer patients has been well characterized, and there is growing understanding of underlying biological mechanisms. Inflammation has emerged as a key biological pathway for cancer-related fatigue, with studies documenting links between markers of inflammation and fatigue before, during, and particularly after treatment. There is considerable variability in the experience of cancer-related fatigue that is not explained by disease- or treatment-related characteristics, suggesting that host factors may play an important role in the development and persistence of this symptom. Indeed, longitudinal studies have begun to identify genetic, biological, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors for cancer-related fatigue. Given the multi-factorial nature of cancer-related fatigue, a variety of intervention approaches have been examined in randomized controlled trials, including physical activity, psychosocial, mind-body, and pharmacological treatments. Although there is currently no gold standard for treating fatigue, several of these approaches have shown beneficial effects and can be recommended to patients. This report provides a state of the science review of mechanisms, risk factors, and interventions for cancer-related fatigue, with a focus on recent longitudinal studies and randomized trials that have targeted fatigued patients. PMID:25113839

  4. Shift work, circadian gene variants and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Grundy, Anne; Schuetz, Johanna M; Lai, Agnes S; Janoo-Gilani, Rozmin; Leach, Stephen; Burstyn, Igor; Richardson, Harriet; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Spinelli, John J; Aronson, Kristan J

    2013-10-01

    Circadian (clock) genes have been linked with several functions relevant to cancer, and epidemiologic research has suggested relationships with breast cancer risk for variants in NPAS2, CLOCK, CRY2 and TIMELESS. Increased breast cancer risk has also been observed among shift workers, suggesting potential interactions in relationships of circadian genes with breast cancer. Relationships with breast cancer of 100 SNPs in 14 clock-related genes, as well as potential interactions with shift work history, were investigated in a case-control study (1042 cases, 1051 controls). Odds ratios in an additive genetic model for European-ancestry participants (645 cases, 806 controls) were calculated, using a two-step correction for multiple testing: within each gene through permutation testing (10,000 permutations), and correcting for the false discovery rate across genes. Interactions of genotypes with ethnicity and shift work (<2 years vs ≥2 years) were evaluated individually. Following permutation analysis, two SNPs (rs3816360 in ARNTL and rs11113179 in CRY1) displayed significant associations with breast cancer and one SNP (rs3027188 in PER1) was marginally significant; however, none were significant following adjustment for the false discovery rate. No significant interaction with shift work history was detected. If shift work causes circadian disruption, this was not reflected in associations between clock gene variants and breast cancer risk in this study. Larger studies are needed to assess interactions with longer durations (>30 years) of shift work that have been associated with breast cancer.

  5. Risk factors and biomarkers of life-threatening cancers

    PubMed Central

    Autier, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that risk factors for cancer occurrence and for cancer death are not necessarily the same. Knowledge of cancer aggressiveness risk factors (CARF) may help in identifying subjects at high risk of developing a potentially deadly cancer (and not just any cancer). The availability of CARFs may have positive consequences for health policies, medical practice, and the search for biomarkers. For instance, cancer chemoprevention and cancer screening of subjects with CARFs would probably be more ethical and cost-effective than recommending chemoprevention and screening to entire segments of the population. Also, the harmful consequences of chemoprevention and of screening would be reduced while effectiveness would be optimised. We present examples of CARF already in use (e.g. mutations of the breast cancer (BRCA) gene), of promising avenues for the discovery of biomarkers thanks to the investigation of CARFs (e.g. breast radiological density and systemic inflammation), and of biomarkers commonly used that are not real CARFs (e.g. certain mammography images, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration, nevus number). PMID:26635900

  6. Determinants of risk of invasive cervical cancer in young women.

    PubMed Central

    Parazzini, F.; Chatenoud, L.; La Vecchia, C.; Negri, E.; Franceschi, S.; Bolis, G.

    1998-01-01

    We analysed determinants of risk of cervical cancer in women aged less than 45 years using data from a case-control study conducted in Italy. Cases were 261 women aged < 45 years with histologically confirmed invasive cervical cancer. Controls were 257 women aged < 45 years, with acute, non-neoplastic conditions, judged to be unrelated to any of the known or suspected risk factors for cervical cancer. In comparison with women reporting one or no sexual partner, the multivariate odds ratio (OR) of cervical cancer was 2.4 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.3-4.6), for women reporting two or more sexual partners, and, in comparison with women reporting their first intercourse at 17 years of age or before, the multivariate OR was 0.5 (95% CI 0.3-0.9) in women aged > or =23 years at first intercourse. The risk of cervical cancer was higher in parous women and increased with number of births (OR = 8.1 for three or more births). Among parous women the risk tended to increase with later age at last birth; in comparison with parous women reporting their last birth before age 25, the OR was 1.9 in those reporting their last birth at > or =35 years. No clear association emerged between oral contraceptive use, smoking, education, social class and risk of cervical cancer. PMID:9514067

  7. MINI REVIEW - EPIGENETIC PROCESSES AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment encourages the use of mechanistic data in the assessment of human cancer risk at low (environmental) exposure levels. The key events that define a particular mode of action for tumor fo...

  8. Sun Protection Motivational Stages and Behavior: Skin Cancer Risk Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagoto, Sherry L.; McChargue, Dennis E.; Schneider, Kristin; Cook, Jessica Werth

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To create skin cancer risk profiles that could be used to predict sun protection among Midwest beachgoers. Method: Cluster analysis was used with study participants (N=239), who provided information about sun protection motivation and behavior, perceived risk, burn potential, and tan importance. Participants were clustered according to…

  9. Occurrence of Breast Cancer After Chest Wall Irradiation for Pediatric Cancer, as Detected by a Multimodal Screening Program

    SciTech Connect

    Terenziani, Monica; Casalini, Patrizia; Scaperrotta, Gianfranco; Gandola, Lorenza; Trecate, Giovanna; Catania, Serena; Cefalo, Graziella; Conti, Alberto; Massimino, Maura; Meazza, Cristina; Podda, Marta; Spreafico, Filippo; Suman, Laura; Gennaro, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the occurrence of breast cancer (BC) after exposure to ionizing radiation for pediatric cancer, by means of a multimodal screening program. Patients and Methods: We identified 86 patients who had received chest wall radiation therapy for pediatric cancer. Clinical breast examination (CBE), ultrasound (US), and mammography (MX) were performed yearly. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was added as of October 2007. We calculated the risk of developing BC by radiation therapy dose, patient age, and menarche before or after primary treatment. Results: Eleven women developed a BC from July 2002-February 2010. The sensitivity of the screening methods was 36% for CBE, 73% for MX, 55% for US, and 100% for MRI; the specificity was 91%, 99%, 95%, and 80% for CBE, MX, US, and MRI, respectively. The annual BC detection rate was 2.9%. The median age at BC diagnosis was 33 years. Although age had no influence, menarche before as opposed to after radiation therapy correlated significantly with BC (P=.027): the annual BC detection rate in the former subgroup was 5.3%. Conclusions: Mammography proved more sensitive and specific in our cohort of young women than CBE or US. Magnetic resonance imaging proved 100% sensitive (but this preliminary finding needs to be confirmed). Our cohort of patients carries a 10-fold BC risk at an age more than 20 years younger than in the general population.

  10. [Cancer morbidity risks among workers of asbestos-cement productions].

    PubMed

    Nagornaia, A M; Varivonchik, D V; Kundiev, Iu I; Fedorenko, Z P; Gorokh, E L; Gulak, L O; Vitte, P N; Karakashian, A N; Lepeshkina, T R; Martynovskaia, T Iu

    2008-01-01

    The retrospective assessment of morbidity rates and cancer pathology risks in workers of asbestosis-cement enterprises of Ukraine has been made. It was established that annual cancer morbidity among workers makes 88,1 per 100 000 of workers (RR = 0.26, CI 95 % 0.06-1.01). The most often cancer pathology was located in digestive organs (48.1%), respiratory organs (18.5%) (lung cancer--11.1%). The mesothelioma of pleura, peritoneum and pericardium were not found. The risks (odds ratio--OR) of cancer morbidity were increased for such organs as: respiratory organs (OR = 2.37), skin (OR = 1.78), digestive organs (OR = 1.34).

  11. Finasteride Concentrations and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Till, Cathee; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Chen, Xiaohong; Leach, Robin J.; Johnson-Pais, Teresa L.; Hsing, Ann W.; Hoque, Ashraful; Tangen, Catherine M.; Chu, Lisa; Parnes, Howard L.; Schenk, Jeannette M.; Reichardt, Juergen K. V.; Thompson, Ian M.; Figg, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), finasteride reduced the risk of prostate cancer by 25%, even though high-grade prostate cancer was more common in the finasteride group. However, it remains to be determined whether finasteride concentrations may affect prostate cancer risk. In this study, we examined the association between serum finasteride concentrations and the risk of prostate cancer in the treatment arm of the PCPT and determined factors involved in modifying drug concentrations. Methods Data for this nested case-control study are from the PCPT. Cases were drawn from men with biopsy-proven prostate cancer and matched controls. Finasteride concentrations were measured using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry validated assay. The association of serum finasteride concentrations with prostate cancer risk was determined by logistic regression. We also examine whether polymorphisms in the enzyme target and metabolism genes of finasteride are related to drug concentrations using linear regression. Results and Conclusions Among men with detectable finasteride concentrations, there was no association between finasteride concentrations and prostate cancer risk, low-grade or high-grade, when finasteride concentration was analyzed as a continuous variable or categorized by cutoff points. Since there was no concentration-dependent effect on prostate cancer, any exposure to finasteride intake may reduce prostate cancer risk. Of the twenty-seven SNPs assessed in the enzyme target and metabolism pathway, five SNPs in two genes, CYP3A4 (rs2242480; rs4646437; rs4986910), and CYP3A5 (rs15524; rs776746) were significantly associated with modifying finasteride concentrations. These results suggest that finasteride exposure may reduce prostate cancer risk and finasteride concentrations are affected by genetic variations in genes responsible for altering its metabolism pathway. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00288106 PMID:25955319

  12. Telomere length and the risk of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jin Sung; Choi, Yi Young; Lee, Won Kee; Choi, Jin Eun; Cha, Sung Ick; Kim, Yeon Jae; Kim, Chang Ho; Kam, Sin; Jung, Tae Hoon; Park, Jae Yong

    2008-07-01

    Telomeres play a key role in the maintenance of chromosome integrity and stability. There is growing evidence that short telomeres induce chromosome instability and thereby promote the development of cancer. We investigated the association of telomere length and the risk of lung cancer. Relative telomere length in peripheral blood lymphocytes was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 243 lung cancer patients and 243 healthy controls that were frequency-matched for age, sex and smoking status. Telomere length was significantly shorter in lung cancer patients than in controls (mean +/- standard deviation: 1.59 +/- 0.75 versus 2.16 +/- 1.10, P < 0.0001). When the subjects were categorized into quartiles based on telomere length, the risk of lung cancer was found to increase as telomere length shortened (P(trend) < 0.0001). In addition, when the median of telomere length was used as the cutoff between long and short telomeres, individuals with short telomeres were at a significantly higher risk of lung cancer than those with long telomeres (adjusted odds ratio = 3.15, 95% confidence interval = 2.12-4.67, P < 0.0001). When the cases were categorized by tumor histology, the effect of short telomere length on the risk of lung cancer was more pronounced in patients with small cell carcinoma than in those with squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma (P = 0.001, test for homogeneity). These findings suggest that shortening of the telomeres may be a risk factor for lung cancer, and therefore, the presence of shortened telomeres may be used as a marker for susceptibility to lung cancer.

  13. Vitamin D Metabolic Pathway Genes and Pancreatic Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Arem, Hannah; Yu, Kai; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Moy, Kristin; Freedman, Neal D.; Mayne, Susan T.; Albanes, Demetrius; Arslan, Alan A.; Austin, Melissa; Bamlet, William R.; Beane-Freeman, Laura; Bracci, Paige; Canzian, Federico; Cotterchio, Michelle; Duell, Eric J.; Gallinger, Steve; Giles, Graham G.; Goggins, Michael; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Hartge, Patricia; Hassan, Manal; Helzlsouer, Kathy; Henderson, Brian; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Hoover, Robert; Jacobs, Eric J.; Kamineni, Aruna; Klein, Alison; Klein, Eric; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Li, Donghui; Malats, Núria; Männistö, Satu; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Peters, Ulrike; Petersen, Gloria M.; Porta, Miquel; Severi, Gianluca; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Visvanathan, Kala; White, Emily; Yu, Herbert; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Maeder, Dennis; Brotzman, Michelle; Risch, Harvey; Sampson, Joshua N.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence on the association between vitamin D status and pancreatic cancer risk is inconsistent. This inconsistency may be partially attributable to variation in vitamin D regulating genes. We selected 11 vitamin D-related genes (GC, DHCR7, CYP2R1, VDR, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP27A1, RXRA, CRP2, CASR and CUBN) totaling 213 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and examined associations with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Our study included 3,583 pancreatic cancer cases and 7,053 controls from the genome-wide association studies of pancreatic cancer PanScans-I-III. We used the Adaptive Joint Test and the Adaptive Rank Truncated Product statistic for pathway and gene analyses, and unconditional logistic regression for SNP analyses, adjusting for age, sex, study and population stratification. We examined effect modification by circulating vitamin D concentration (≤50, >50 nmol/L) for the most significant SNPs using a subset of cohort cases (n = 713) and controls (n = 878). The vitamin D metabolic pathway was not associated with pancreatic cancer risk (p = 0.830). Of the individual genes, none were associated with pancreatic cancer risk at a significance level of p<0.05. SNPs near the VDR (rs2239186), LRP2 (rs4668123), CYP24A1 (rs2762932), GC (rs2282679), and CUBN (rs1810205) genes were the top SNPs associated with pancreatic cancer (p-values 0.008–0.037), but none were statistically significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Associations between these SNPs and pancreatic cancer were not modified by circulating concentrations of vitamin D. These findings do not support an association between vitamin D-related genes and pancreatic cancer risk. Future research should explore other pathways through which vitamin D status might be associated with pancreatic cancer risk. PMID:25799011

  14. Breast cancer risk, nightwork, and circadian clock gene polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Truong, Thérèse; Liquet, Benoît; Menegaux, Florence; Plancoulaine, Sabine; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Mulot, Claire; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Sanchez, Marie; Arveux, Patrick; Kerbrat, Pierre; Richardson, Sylvia; Guénel, Pascal

    2014-08-01

    Night shift work has been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer pointing to a role of circadian disruption. We investigated the role of circadian clock gene polymorphisms and their interaction with nightwork in breast cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in France including 1126 breast cancer cases and 1174 controls. We estimated breast cancer risk associated with each of the 577 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 23 circadian clock genes. We also used a gene- and pathway-based approach to investigate the overall effect on breast cancer of circadian clock gene variants that might not be detected in analyses based on individual SNPs. Interactions with nightwork were tested at the SNP, gene, and pathway levels. We found that two SNPs in RORA (rs1482057 and rs12914272) were associated with breast cancer in the whole sample and among postmenopausal women. In this subpopulation, we also reported an association with rs11932595 in CLOCK, and with CLOCK, RORA, and NPAS2 in the analyses at the gene level. Breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women was also associated with overall genetic variation in the circadian gene pathway (P=0.04), but this association was not detected in premenopausal women. There was some evidence of an interaction between PER1 and nightwork in breast cancer in the whole sample (P=0.024), although the effect was not statistically significant after correcting for multiple testing (P=0.452). Our results support the hypothesis that circadian clock gene variants modulate breast cancer risk.

  15. Wood Dust Exposure and Risk of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bhatti, Parveen; Newcomer, Laura; Onstad, Lynn; Teschke, Kay; Camp, Janice; Morgan, Michael; Vaughan, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Despite the compelling association between wood dust and sinonasal cancer, there has been little systematic and rigorous study of the relationship between wood dust and lung cancer. We investigated whether a history of exposure to wood dust through occupational and hobby-related activities was associated with increased lung cancer risk. Methods We conducted a population-based case-control study, with 440 cases, identified from 1993 to 1996 through the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center Cancer Surveillance System for western Washington State, and 845 age-matched controls, identified by random-digit dialing. Using detailed work and personal histories, quantitative estimates of cumulative exposure to wood dust (thought to be primarily from softwood) were calculated for each participant. Using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age and smoking status, risk of lung cancer was examined in relation to employment in wood-related occupations, working with wood as a hobby, as well as cumulative wood dust exposure that took into account both occupational and hobby-related sources. Results While we observed an increased risk of lung cancer associated with working in a sawmill (OR=1.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.1), we found no evidence of increased risks with other occupations, working with wood as a hobby or with estimated cumulative exposure to wood dust (OR = 0.9; 95% CI: 0.6, 1.3, for highest compared to lowest quartile of exposure). Contrary to our hypothesis, we observed modest non-significant decreased risks with exposure to wood dust, although no dose-response relationship was apparent. Conclusions This study provided somewhat reassuring evidence that softwood dust does not increase the risk of lung cancer, but future studies should closely evaluate exposure to hardwood dusts. Suggestive evidence for an inverse association may be attributable to the presence of endotoxin in the wood dust, but the lack of a dose-response relationship suggests a non

  16. Is cancer risk of radiation workers larger than expected?

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, P; Rühm, W; Walsh, L; Blettner, M; Hammer, G; Zeeb, H

    2009-01-01

    Occupational exposures to ionising radiation mainly occur at low-dose rates and may accumulate effective doses of up to several hundred milligray. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the evidence of cancer risks from such low-dose-rate, moderate-dose (LDRMD) exposures. Our literature search for primary epidemiological studies on cancer incidence and mortality risks from LDRMD exposures included publications from 2002 to 2007, and an update of the UK National Registry for Radiation Workers study. For each (LDRMD) study we calculated the risk for the same types of cancer among the atomic bomb survivors with the same gender proportion and matched quantities for dose, mean age attained and mean age at exposure. A combined estimator of the ratio of the excess relative risk per dose from the LDRMD study to the corresponding value for the atomic bomb survivors was 1.21 (90% CI 0.51 to 1.90). The present analysis does not confirm that the cancer risk per dose for LDRMD exposures is lower than for the atomic bomb survivors. This result challenges the cancer risk values currently assumed for occupational exposures. PMID:19570756

  17. Is cancer risk of radiation workers larger than expected?

    PubMed

    Jacob, P; Rühm, W; Walsh, L; Blettner, M; Hammer, G; Zeeb, H

    2009-12-01

    Occupational exposures to ionising radiation mainly occur at low-dose rates and may accumulate effective doses of up to several hundred milligray. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the evidence of cancer risks from such low-dose-rate, moderate-dose (LDRMD) exposures. Our literature search for primary epidemiological studies on cancer incidence and mortality risks from LDRMD exposures included publications from 2002 to 2007, and an update of the UK National Registry for Radiation Workers study. For each (LDRMD) study we calculated the risk for the same types of cancer among the atomic bomb survivors with the same gender proportion and matched quantities for dose, mean age attained and mean age at exposure. A combined estimator of the ratio of the excess relative risk per dose from the LDRMD study to the corresponding value for the atomic bomb survivors was 1.21 (90% CI 0.51 to 1.90). The present analysis does not confirm that the cancer risk per dose for LDRMD exposures is lower than for the atomic bomb survivors. This result challenges the cancer risk values currently assumed for occupational exposures. PMID:19570756

  18. Tool Weighs Benefits, Risks of Raloxifene or Tamoxifen to Prevent Breast Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have developed a benefit-risk index to help guide decisions on whether postmenopausal women at increased risk of developing breast cancer should take raloxifene or tamoxifen to reduce that risk. |

  19. Sugarcane exposure and the risk of lung cancer and mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Brooks, S M; Stockwell, H G; Pinkham, P A; Armstrong, A W; Witter, D A

    1992-08-01

    A case-control study was conducted of the risk of lung cancer and mesothelioma from environmental and occupational exposures associated with sugarcane production. A slight, not statistically significant, excess risk of lung cancer was observed among participants who reported working in the sugarcane industry (odds ratio 1.8, 95% confidence interval 0.5-7.5). No increased risk was observed among our population, associated with living near sugarcane growing areas. Little difference was observed between cases and controls in years employed in the industry or jobs performed. Only one mesothelioma case and no controls reported working in the sugarcane industry.

  20. Breast cancer disparities: high-risk breast cancer and African ancestry.

    PubMed

    Newman, Lisa A

    2014-07-01

    African American women have a lower lifetime incidence of breast cancer than white/Caucasian Americans yet have a higher risk of breast cancer mortality. African American women are also more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer at young ages, and they have higher risk for the biologically more aggressive triple-negative breast cancers. These features are also more common among women from western, sub-Saharan Africa who share ancestry with African Americans, and this prompts questions regarding an association between African ancestry and inherited susceptibility for certain patterns of mammary carcinogenesis.

  1. Mammographic signs as risk factors for breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, N. F.; O'Sullivan, B.; Campbell, J. E.; Fishell, E.; Simor, I.; Cooke, G.; Germanson, T.

    1982-01-01

    We have carried out a case-control study to examine the relationship between mammographic signs and breast cancer. The mammographic signs assessed were prominent ducts and dysplasia. The cases were a group of 183 women with histologically verified unilateral breast cancer. The controls were a group of women attending a screening centre. Cases and controls were individually age-matched. Mammograms from the non-cancerous breast of the cases were randomly assembled with those of the controls and classified by 3 radiologists without knowledge of which films were from cases and which from controls. Mammographic dysplasia was found to be strongly associated with breast cancer, particularly in women aged less than 50. Prominent ducts were only weakly associated with breast cancer. Multivariate analysis showed that the association between dysplasia and breast cancer could not be explained on the basis of other risk factors for breast cancer, and that classification of dysplasia discriminated more strongly between cases and controls than did classification of Wolfe's mammographic patterns. These results show that mammograms contain information about risk of breast cancer. Mammographic dysplasia is strongly associated with breast cancer, is present in a substantial proportion of patients with the disease, and may offer opportunities for prevention. PMID:7059469

  2. Cancer Genetics Risk Assessment and Counseling (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary in which cancer risk perception, risk communication, and risk counseling are discussed. The summary also contains information about recording and analyzing a family history of cancer and factors to consider when offering genetic testing.

  3. Progesterone receptor gene variants and risk of endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    O'Mara, Tracy A.; Fahey, Paul; Ferguson, Kaltin; Marquart, Louise; Lambrechts, Diether; Despierre, Evelyn; Vergote, Ignace; Amant, Frederic; Hall, Per; Liu, Jianjun; Czene, Kamila; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Ahmed, Shahana; Dunning, Alison M.; Gregory, Catherine S.; Shah, Mitul; Webb, Penelope M.; Spurdle, Amanda B.

    2011-01-01

    Prolonged excessive estrogen exposure unopposed by progesterone is widely accepted to be a risk factor for endometrial cancer development. The physiological function of progesterone is dependent upon the presence of its receptor [progesterone receptor (PGR)] and several studies have reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PGR gene to be associated with endometrial cancer risk. We sought to confirm the associations with endometrial cancer risk previously reported for four different PGR polymorphisms. A maximum of 2888 endometrial cancer cases and 4483 female control subjects from up to three studies were genotyped for four PGR polymorphisms (rs1042838, rs10895068, rs11224561 and rs471767). Logistic regression with adjustment for age, study, ethnicity and body mass index was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and P-values. Of the four SNPs investigated, only rs11224561 in the 3′ region of the PGR gene was found to be significantly associated with endometrial cancer risk. The A allele of the rs11224561 SNP was associated with increased risk of endometrial cancer (OR per allele 1.31; 95% CI 1.12–1.53, P = 0.001, adjusted for age and study), an effect of the same magnitude and direction as reported previously. We have validated the endometrial cancer risk association with a tagSNP in the 3′ untranslated region of PGR previously reported in an Asian population. Replication studies will be required to refine the risk estimate and to establish if this, or a correlated SNP, is the underlying causative variant. PMID:21148628

  4. Inorganic arsenic in Chinese food and its cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Sun, Guo-Xin; Williams, Paul N; Nunes, Luis; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2011-10-01

    Even moderate arsenic exposure may lead to health problems, and thus quantifying inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure from food for different population groups in China is essential. By analyzing the data from the China National Nutrition and Health Survey (CNNHS) and collecting reported values of iAs in major food groups, we developed a framework of calculating average iAs daily intake for different regions of China. Based on this framework, cancer risks from iAs in food was deterministically and probabilistically quantified. The article presents estimates for health risk due to the ingestion of food products contaminated with arsenic. Both per individual and for total population estimates were obtained. For the total population, daily iAs intake is around 42 μg day(-1), and rice is the largest contributor of total iAs intake accounting for about 60%. Incremental lifetime cancer risk from food iAs intake is 106 per 100,000 for adult individuals and the median population cancer risk is 177 per 100,000 varying between regions. Population in the Southern region has a higher cancer risk than that in the Northern region and the total population. Sensitive analysis indicated that cancer slope factor, ingestion rates of rice, aquatic products and iAs concentration in rice were the most relevant variables in the model, as indicated by their higher contribution to variance of the incremental lifetime cancer risk. We conclude that rice may be the largest contributor of iAs through food route for the Chinese people. The population from the South has greater cancer risk than that from the North and the whole population.

  5. Air pollution: a potentially modifiable risk factor for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Fajersztajn, Laís; Veras, Mariana; Barrozo, Ligia Vizeu; Saldiva, Paulo

    2013-09-01

    Economic growth and increased urbanization pose a new risk for cancer development: the exposure of high numbers of people to ambient air pollution. Epidemiological evidence that links air pollution to mortality from lung cancer is robust. An ability to produce high-quality scientific research that addresses these risks and the ability of local health authorities to understand and respond to these risks are basic requirements to solve the conflict between economic development and the preservation of human health. However, this is currently far from being achieved. Thus, this Science and Society article addresses the possibilities of expanding scientific networking to increase awareness of the risk of lung cancer that is promoted by air pollution.

  6. Gallstones, cholecystectomy, and risk of digestive system cancers.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Leticia; Freedman, Neal D; Engels, Eric A; Warren, Joan L; Castro, Felipe; Koshiol, Jill

    2014-03-15

    Gallstones and cholecystectomy may be related to digestive system cancer through inflammation, altered bile flux, and changes in metabolic hormone levels. Although gallstones are recognized causes of gallbladder cancer, associations with other cancers of the digestive system are poorly established. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database (1992-2005), which includes 17 cancer registries that cover approximately 26% of the US population, to identify first primary cancers (n = 236,850) occurring in persons aged ≥66 years and 100,000 cancer-free population-based controls frequency-matched by calendar year, age, and gender. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression analysis, adjusting for the matching factors. Gallstones and cholecystectomy were associated with increased risk of noncardia gastric cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 1.21 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11, 1.32) and OR = 1.26 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.40), respectively), small-intestine carcinoid (OR = 1.27 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.60) and OR = 1.78 (95% CI: 1.41, 2.25)), liver cancer (OR = 2.35 (95% CI: 2.18, 2.54) and OR = 1.26 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.41)), and pancreatic cancer (OR = 1.24 (95% CI: 1.16, 1.31) and OR = 1.23 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.33)). Colorectal cancer risk associated with gallstones and cholecystectomy decreased with increasing distance from the common bile duct (P-trend < 0.001). Hence, gallstones and cholecystectomy are associated with the risk of cancers occurring throughout the digestive tract.

  7. Risk Factors for Ovarian Cancers with and without Microsatellite Instability

    PubMed Central

    Segev, Yakir; Pal, Tuya; Rosen, Barry; McLaughlin, John R.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Risch, Harvey A.; Zhang, Shiyu; Ping, Sun; Narod, Steven A.; Schildkraut, Joellen

    2013-01-01

    Objective In a population-based sample of epithelial ovarian cancers, to evaluate the association between microsatellite instability status and: 1) Ovarian cancer risk factors and 2) The distribution of the specific histologic subtypes. Patients and methods Participants were drawn from three population-based studies of primary epithelial ovarian cancer: Tumor DNA was analyzed using five standardized microsatellite markers to assess microsatellite instability (MSI) status. Patients were divided into three groups (MSI-high, MSI-low and MSI-stable) according to NCI criteria. We compared the prevalence of specific known risk and protective factors among the three subgroups, including BMI, smoking history, parity, BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status, past oral contraceptive use, and tubal ligation. Similarly, we compared the distribution of the histologic subtypes among the three subgroups. Results A total of 917 ovarian cancer patients were included. One hundred twenty seven (13.8%) cancers were MSI-high. Subgroup analyses according to smoking, BMI, parity, past oral contraceptive use and past tubal ligation did not reveal any statistically significance differences among the groups. Among the 29 patients with BRCA1 mutations, 20.7% had MSI-high cancers compared with 5.9% among 17 BRCA2-mutation patients. The proportions of different ovarian cancer histologies among the various microsatellite instability subgroups were similar. Conclusions The prevalence of risk and protective factors among ovarian cancer patients is similar for cancers with and without microsatellite instability. The distributions of microsatellite instability do not differ significantly among ovarian cancers with different histologies. Ovarian cancer patients with BRCA1 mutations had a 21% rate of MSI-high tumors, compared to 6% among patients with BRCA2 mutations, but this difference was not statistically significant. PMID:23748177

  8. [Does bariatric surgery reduce cancer risk?].

    PubMed

    Czernichow, Sébastien; Carette, Claire

    2013-05-01

    Obesity affects about 15 % of the French population, and is associated with numerous morbidities, including some cancers. In this context the diagnosis of cancer is a frequently more delayed, and with higher mortality. Methods of restrictive or malabsorptive bariatric surgery were largely developed for the treatment of severe or morbid obesity, and have significant benefits not only in terms of weight, but also on the cardiometabolic profile. Moreover, it seems that bariatric surgery, in a weight-dependent or - independent manner, exerts a favorable effect on the incidence and mortality of cancer.

  9. Green tea and the risk of gastric cancer: Epidemiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Hou, I-Chun; Amarnani, Saral; Chong, Mok T; Bishayee, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death in the world. Numerous efforts are being made to find chemoprotective agents able to reduce its risk. Amongst these, green tea has been reported to have a protective effect against stomach cancer. This article aims to critically evaluate all epidemiological studies reporting an association between green tea consumption and GC risk. MEDLINE, EBSCOHOST and Google Scholar were used to search for clinical trials of green tea and its correlation to stomach cancer. Studies include cohort and case-control studies. Outcome of interests are inverse association, no association, and positive association. Seventeen epidemiologic studies were reviewed. Eleven studies were conducted in Japan, five in China, and one with Japanese descendent in Hawaii. Ten case-control studies and seven cohort studies were included. The relative risks or odds ratio of GC for the highest level of green tea consumption was compared. Seven studies suggested no association, eight an inverse association, and one a positive association. One study had shown a significantly lowered GC risk when tea was served warm to cold. Another study also showed a significantly risk with lukewarm tea. All studies that analyzed men and women separately have suggested a reduced risk in women than in men, albeit no significant difference. This review demonstrates that there is insufficient information to support green tea consumption reduces the risk of GC. More studies on the subject matter are warranted. PMID:23840110

  10. Genetic testing and your cancer risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells begin to act abnormally. Changes in genes (mutations) tell the cells to divide rapidly and stay ... This leads to cancer growth and tumors. Gene mutations may be the result of damage to the ...

  11. Cancer Risk among Patients with Myotonic Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Gadalla, Shahinaz M; Lund, Marie; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Gørtz, Sanne; Mueller, Christine M; Moxley, Richard T; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y; Björkholm, Magnus; Shebl, Fatma M; Hilbert, James E; Landgren, Ola; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads; Greene, Mark H

    2012-01-01

    Context Myotonic muscular dystrophy (MMD) is an autosomal dominant multisystem neuromuscular disorder characterized by unstable nucleotide repeat expansions. Case reports have suggested that MMD patients may be at increased risk of malignancy, putative risks which have never been quantified. Objective To quantitatively evaluate cancer risk in patients with MMD, overall, and by sex and age. Design, Setting, and Participants We identified 1,658 patients with an MMD discharge diagnosis in the Swedish Inpatient Hospital or Danish Patient Discharge Registries between 1977 and 2008. We linked these patients to their corresponding cancer registry. Patients were followed from date of first MMD-related inpatient or outpatient contact, to first cancer diagnosis, death, emigration, or completion of cancer registration. Main Outcome Measures Risks of all cancers combined, and by anatomic site, stratified by sex and age. Results 104 patients with an inpatient or outpatient discharge diagnosis of MMD developed cancer during post-discharge follow-up. This corresponds to an observed cancer rate of 73.4/10,000 person-years in MMD versus an expected rate of 36.9/10,000 in the general Swedish and Danish populations combined (SIR =2.0, 95% CI =1.6–2.4). Specifically, we observed significant excess risks of cancers of the endometrium (observed rate=16.1/10,000 person-years: SIR=7.6, 95%CI=4.0–13.2), brain (observed rate=4.9/10,000 person-years: SIR=5.3, 95%CI=2.3–10.4), ovary (observed rate=10.3/10,000 person-years: SIR=5.2, 95% CI=2.3–10.2), and colon (observed rate=7.1/10,000 person-years: SIR=2.9, 95%CI=1.5–5.1). Cancer risks were similar in females and males after excluding genital organ tumors (SIR=1.9, 95% CI=1.4–2.5 vs. 1.8, 95% CI=1.3–2.5, respectively, p-heterogeneity=0.81; observed rates=64.5 and 47.7/10,000 person-years in women and men, respectively), The same pattern of cancer excess was observed first in the Swedish, and then in the Danish cohorts, which

  12. Epidemiologic review of marijuana use and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Hashibe, Mia; Straif, Kurt; Tashkin, Donald P; Morgenstern, Hal; Greenland, Sander; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2005-04-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal drug in the United States and is considered by young adults to be the illicit drug with the least risk. On the other hand, marijuana smoke contains several of the same carcinogens and co-carcinogens as the tar from tobacco, raising concerns that smoking of marijuana may be a risk factor for tobacco-related cancers. We reviewed two cohort studies and 14 case-control studies with assessment of the association of marijuana use and cancer risk. In the cohort studies, increased risks of lung or colorectal cancer due to marijuana smoking were not observed, but increased risks of prostate and cervical cancers among non-tobacco smokers, as well as adult-onset glioma among tobacco and non-tobacco smokers, were observed. The 14 case-control studies included four studies on head and neck cancers, two studies on lung cancer, two studies on non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, one study on anal cancer, one study on penile cancer, and four studies on childhood cancers with assessment of parental exposures. Zhang and colleagues reported that marijuana use may increase risk of head and neck cancers in a hospital-based case-control study in the United States, with dose-response relations for both frequency and duration of use. However, Rosenblatt and co-workers reported no association between oral cancer and marijuana use in a population-based case-control study. An eightfold increase in risk among marijuana users was observed in a lung cancer study in Tunisia. However, there was no assessment of the dose response, and marijuana may have been mixed with tobacco. Parental marijuana use during gestation was associated with increased risks of childhood leukemia, astrocytoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma, but dose-response relations were not assessed. In summary, sufficient studies are not available to adequately evaluate marijuana impact on cancer risk. Several limitations of previous studies include possible underreporting where marijuana use is illegal, small

  13. Colonoscopy Reduces Risk of Death from Colorectal Cancer in High-Risk Patients

    Cancer.gov

    Long-term results from the National Polyp Study confirm that removing precancerous adenomas not only reduces the risk of colorectal cancer but also reduces the number of deaths from the disease by more than half.

  14. Building risk-on-a-chip models to improve breast cancer risk assessment and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Vidi, Pierre-Alexandre; Leary, James; Lelièvre, Sophie A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Preventive actions for chronic diseases hold the promise of improving lives and reducing healthcare costs. For several diseases, including breast cancer, multiple risk and protective factors have been identified by epidemiologists. The impact of most of these factors has yet to be fully understood at the organism, tissue, cellular and molecular levels. Importantly, combinations of external and internal risk and protective factors involve cooperativity thus, synergizing or antagonizing disease onset. Models are needed to mechanistically decipher cancer risks under defined cellular and microenvironmental conditions. Here, we briefly review breast cancer risk models based on 3D cell culture and propose to improve risk modeling with lab-on-a-chip approaches. We suggest epithelial tissue polarity, DNA repair and epigenetic profiles as endpoints in risk assessment models and discuss the development of ‘risks-on-chips’ integrating biosensors of these endpoints and of general tissue homeostasis. Risks-on-chips will help identify biomarkers of risk, serve as screening platforms for cancer preventive agents, and provide a better understanding of risk mechanisms, hence resulting in novel developments in disease prevention. PMID:23681255

  15. Risk adjusting survival outcomes of hospitals that treat cancer patients without information on cancer stage

    PubMed Central

    Pfister, David G.; Rubin, David M.; Elkin, Elena B.; Neill, Ushma S.; Duck, Elaine; Radzyner, Mark; Bach, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Instituting widespread measurement of outcomes for cancer hospitals using administrative data is difficult due to the lack of cancer specific information such as disease stage. Objective To evaluate the performance of hospitals that treat cancer patients using Medicare data for outcome ascertainment and risk adjustment, and to assess whether hospital rankings based on these measures are influenced by the addition of cancer-specific information. Design Risk adjusted cumulative mortality of patients with cancer captured in Medicare claims from 2005–2009 nationally were assessed at the hospital level. Similar analyses were conducted in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Result (SEER)-Medicare data for the subset of the US covered by the SEER program to determine whether the exclusion of cancer specific information (only available in cancer registries) from risk adjustment altered measured hospital performance. Setting Administrative claims data and SEER cancer registry data Participants Sample of 729,279 fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries treated for cancer in 2006 at hospitals treating 10+ patients with each of the following cancers, according to Medicare claims: lung, prostate, breast, colon. An additional sample of 18,677 similar patients in SEER-Medicare administrative data. Main Outcomes and Measures Risk-adjusted mortality overall and by cancer type, stratified by type of hospital; measures of correlation and agreement between hospital-level outcomes risk adjusted using Medicare data alone and Medicare data with SEER data. Results There were large outcome differences between different types of hospitals that treat Medicare patients with cancer. At one year, cumulative mortality for Medicare-prospective-payment-system exempt hospitals was 10% lower than at community hospitals (18% versus 28%) across all cancers, the pattern persisted through five years of follow-up and within specific cancer types. Performance ranking of hospitals was

  16. Citrus Fruit Intake Substantially Reduces the Risk of Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Anqiang; Zhu, Chengpei; Fu, Lilan; Wan, Xueshuai; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Haohai; Miao, Ruoyu; He, Lian; Sang, Xinting; Zhao, Haitao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many epidemiologic studies indicate a potential association between fruit and vegetable intake and various cancers. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to investigate the association between citrus fruit intake and esophageal cancer risk. The authors conducted a comprehensive search on PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from inception until July 2014. Studies presenting information about citrus intake and esophageal cancer were analyzed. The authors extracted the categories of citrus intake, study-specific odds ratio or relative risk, and the P value and associated 95% confidence intervals for the highest versus lowest dietary intake of citrus fruit level. The association was quantified using meta-analysis of standard errors with a random-effects model. Thirteen case–control studies and 6 cohort studies were eligible for inclusion. Citrus intake may significantly reduce risk of esophageal cancer (summary odds ratio = 0.63; 95% confidence interval = 0.52–0.75; P = 0), without notable publication bias (intercept = −0.79, P = 0.288) and with significant heterogeneity across studies (I2 = 52%). The results from epidemiologic studies suggest an inverse association between citrus fruit intake and esophageal cancer risk. The significant effect is consistent between case–control and cohort studies. Larger prospective studies with rigorous methodology should be considered to validate the association between citrus fruits and esophageal cancer. PMID:26426606

  17. Cancer risk and residential proximity to cranberry cultivation in Massachusetts.

    PubMed Central

    Aschengrau, A; Ozonoff, D; Coogan, P; Vezina, R; Heeren, T; Zhang, Y

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the relationship between cancer risk and residential proximity to cranberry cultivation. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was conducted. Cases, diagnosed during 1983 through 1986 among residents of the Upper Cape Cod area of Massachusetts, involved incident cancers of the lung (n = 252), breast (n = 265), colon-rectum (n = 326), bladder (n = 63), kidney (n = 35), pancreas (n = 37), and brain (n = 37), along with leukemia (n = 35). Control subjects were randomly selected from among telephone subscribers (n = 184), Medicare beneficiaries (n = 464), and deceased individuals (n = 723). RESULTS: No meaningful increases in risk were seen for any of the cancer sites except for the brain. When latency was considered, subjects who had ever lived within 2600 ft (780 m) of a cranberry bog had a twofold increased risk of brain cancer overall (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.8, 4.9) and a 6.7-fold increased risk of astrocytoma (95% CI = 1.6, 27.8). CONCLUSIONS: Residential proximity to cranberry bog cultivation was not associated with seven of the eight cancers investigated; however, an association was observed with brain cancer, particularly astrocytoma. Larger, more detailed studies are necessary to elucidate this relationship. PMID:8806382

  18. Cancer risk in relation to serum copper levels.

    PubMed

    Coates, R J; Weiss, N S; Daling, J R; Rettmer, R L; Warnick, G R

    1989-08-01

    A nested, matched case-control study was conducted to assess the relationship between serum levels of copper and the subsequent risk of cancer. One hundred thirty-three cases of cancer were identified during 1974-1984 among 5000 members of a northwest Washington State employee cohort from whom serum specimens had been previously obtained and stored. Two hundred forty-one controls were selected at random from the cohort and were matched to the cases on the basis of age, sex, race, and date of blood draw. Serum copper levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Risk of a subsequent diagnosis of cancer was positively associated with serum copper levels, but only among those cases diagnosed within 4 years of the time the serum specimens were collected. Among cases diagnosed more than 4 years after specimen collection, there was no consistent association between serum copper levels and risk. Adjustment for age, sex, race, occupational status, cigarette smoking, family history of cancer, alcohol consumption, and, among females, use of exogenous hormones had no appreciable effect on these relationships. The findings suggest that the presence of cancer may increase serum copper levels several years prior to its diagnosis. They are less supportive of the hypothesis that serum copper levels affect cancer risk.

  19. Symposium overview: genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Hu, J J; Mohrenweiser, H W; Bell, D A; Leadon, S A; Miller, M S

    2002-11-15

    A symposium, Genetic Polymorphisms in DNA Repair and Cancer Risk, was presented at the 40th Annual Meeting of the Society of Toxicology, held in San Francisco, California, in March 2001. A brief report of the symposium was published (Kaiser, Science 292, 837-838, 2001). Molecular epidemiological studies have shown that polymorphic variants of genes involved in the metabolism and repair of carcinogens can act as cancer susceptibility genes. These variants of drug metabolic and DNA-repair enzymes either increase the activation of chemical carcinogens or decrease the cells' ability to detoxify/repair mutagenic damages. Although on an individual basis these variant alleles may only slightly change catalytic activity and increase cancer risk, their polymorphic frequency in the human population may contribute to a high proportion of cancer cases. Studies conducted over the past few years have identified variant alleles for a number of DNA-repair genes, some of which have been shown to change DNA-repair capacity. Identifying these genotypic alterations in DNA-repair enzymes and their association with cancer may help to elucidate the mechanisms of cancer etiology and to predict both disease risk and response to cancer therapy, since most antineoplastic treatments mediate their effects through DNA damage.

  20. Mediterranean Diet and cancer risk: an open issue.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Annunziata; De Pergola, Giovanni; Silvestris, Franco

    2016-09-01

    The traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s meets the characteristics of an anticancer diet defined by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AIRC). A diet rich of whole grains, pulses, vegetables and fruits, limited in high-calorie foods (foods high in sugar or fat), red meat and foods high in salt, without sugary drinks and processed meat is recommended by the WCRF/AIRC experts to reduce the risk of cancer. The aim of this review was to examine whether Mediterranean Diet is protective or not against cancer risk. Three meta-analyses of cohort studies reported that a high adherence to the Mediterranean Diet significantly reduces the risk of cancer incidence and/or mortality. Nevertheless, the Mediterranean dietary pattern defined in the studies' part of the meta-analyses has qualitative and/or quantitative differences compared to the Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s. Therefore, the protective role of the Mediterranean Diet against cancer has not definitely been established. In epidemiological studies, a universal definition of the Mediterranean Diet, possibly the traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s, could be useful to understand the role of this dietary pattern in cancer prevention. PMID:27251477

  1. Mediterranean Diet and cancer risk: an open issue.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Annunziata; De Pergola, Giovanni; Silvestris, Franco

    2016-09-01

    The traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s meets the characteristics of an anticancer diet defined by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AIRC). A diet rich of whole grains, pulses, vegetables and fruits, limited in high-calorie foods (foods high in sugar or fat), red meat and foods high in salt, without sugary drinks and processed meat is recommended by the WCRF/AIRC experts to reduce the risk of cancer. The aim of this review was to examine whether Mediterranean Diet is protective or not against cancer risk. Three meta-analyses of cohort studies reported that a high adherence to the Mediterranean Diet significantly reduces the risk of cancer incidence and/or mortality. Nevertheless, the Mediterranean dietary pattern defined in the studies' part of the meta-analyses has qualitative and/or quantitative differences compared to the Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s. Therefore, the protective role of the Mediterranean Diet against cancer has not definitely been established. In epidemiological studies, a universal definition of the Mediterranean Diet, possibly the traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s, could be useful to understand the role of this dietary pattern in cancer prevention.

  2. Childhood and adolescent pesticide exposure and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Niehoff, Nicole M.; Nichols, Hazel B; White, Alexandra J.; Parks, Christine G.; D’Aloisio, Aimee A; Sandler, Dale P.

    2016-01-01

    Background To date, epidemiological studies have not strongly supported an association between pesticide exposure and breast cancer. However, few previous studies had the ability to assess specific time periods of exposure. Studies that relied on adult serum levels of metabolites of organochlorine pesticides may not accurately reflect exposure during developmental periods. Further, exposure assessment often occurred after diagnosis and key tumor characteristics, such as hormone receptor status, have rarely been available to evaluate tumor-subtype specific associations. We examine the association between pesticide exposure during childhood and adolescence and breast cancer risk in the prospective Sister Study cohort (N=50,844 women) to assess this relation by tumor subtype. Methods During an average 5-year follow-up, 2,134 incident invasive and in situ breast cancer diagnoses were identified. Residential and farm exposure to pesticides were self-reported at study enrollment during standardized interviews. Multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for breast cancer risk were calculated with Cox proportional hazards regression. Results HRs were near null for the association between childhood/adolescent pesticide exposure and breast cancer risk overall or among ER+/PR+ invasive tumors. However, among women who were ages 0–18 before the ban of DDT in the U.S., exposure to fogger trucks or planes was associated with a HR=1.3 for premenopausal breast cancer (95% CI: 0.92, 1.7). Conclusion These findings do not support an overall association between childhood and adolescent pesticide exposure and breast cancer risk. However, modest increases in breast cancer risk were associated with acute events in a subgroup of young women. PMID:26808595

  3. Physical exercise reduces risk of breast cancer in Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Kaoru; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Takezaki, Toshiro; Miura, Shigeto; Tajima, Kazuo

    2003-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of physical exercise on breast cancer risk, a large-scale case-referent study of 2376 incident breast cancer cases and 18,977 non-cancer referents was conducted using data from the hospital-based epidemiologic research program at Aichi Cancer Center (HERPACC). To adjust appropriately for possible confounders, we examined the effects within subgroups of the study population. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) was 0.81 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69-0.94) for twice a week or more regular exercise. We observed a decreased risk of breast cancer for women who regularly exercised for health twice a week or more, irrespective of menopausal status, and were able to detect greater risk reductions within particular subgroups, including women who were parous, without a family history or non-drinkers. Among premenopausal women, a particularly strong protective effect of physical exercise was observed (OR=0.57, 95%CI: 0.28-1.15) for those women whose body mass index (BMI) was high (BM > or = 25). In contrast, risk reduction was found (OR=0.71, 95%CI: 0.50-1.01) among postmenopausal women whose BMI was medium (BMI: 22-25). Stratification of history of stomach cancer screening to adjust modifying effects of healthy consciousness allows a more precise assessment of the protective effect of exercise twice a week or more, independent of stomach cancer screening history. This study provides evidence that physical exercise, especially exercise twice a week or more, reduces the risk of breast cancer among Japanese women.

  4. Fetal growth and subsequent maternal risk of thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Crump, Casey; Sundquist, Jan; Sieh, Weiva; Winkleby, Marilyn A; Sundquist, Kristina

    2016-03-01

    Thyroid cancer has peak incidence among women of reproductive age, and growth factors, which have procarcinogenic properties, may play an important etiologic role. However, the association between fetal growth rate during a woman's pregnancy and her subsequent risk of thyroid cancer has not been previously examined. We conducted a national cohort study of 1,837,634 mothers who had a total of 3,588,497 live-births in Sweden in 1973-2008, followed up for thyroid cancer incidence through 2009. There were 2,202 mothers subsequently diagnosed with thyroid cancer in 36.8 million person-years of follow-up. After adjusting for maternal age, height, weight, smoking, and sociodemographic factors, high fetal growth (birth weight standardized for gestational age and sex) was associated with a subsequent increased risk of thyroid cancer in the mother (incidence rate ratio [IRR] per additional 1 standard deviation, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.09; p = 0.02). Each 1,000 g increase in the infant's birth weight was associated with a 13% increase in the mother's subsequent risk of thyroid cancer (IRR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.05-1.22; p = 0.001). These findings appeared to involve both papillary and follicular subtypes, and did not vary significantly by the mother's height, weight or smoking status. In this large national cohort study, high fetal growth during a woman's pregnancy was independently associated with a subsequent increased risk of her developing thyroid cancer. If confirmed, these findings suggest an important role of maternal growth factors in the development of thyroid cancer, and potentially may help facilitate the identification of high-risk subgroups of women.

  5. [Could Helicobacter pylori treatment reduce stomach cancer risk?].

    PubMed

    Bretagne, Jean-François

    2003-03-01

    Despite its dramatic decline in incidence in developed countries, gastric cancer is a major public health issue in the world. Accumulating evidence for considering H. pylori as a causal factor for gastric cancer comes from recent epidemiologic studies, the advent of an animal model of gastric cancer and from new insights into the biological mechanisms for gastric carcinogenesis. The stomach cancer risk for people infected with H. pylori is rather low, inferior to 1%. It depends on genotypic polymorphisms of both the bacterium and the host. Environmental risk factors such as smoking habits, salt intake, and the amount of antioxidants in diet may interfere with H. pylori and modify the cancer risk. There is no definite clinical evidence of the benefit of eradication on cancer risk in humans due to the lack of randomized controlled studies in large populations. The occurrence of gastric adenocarcinomas in patients after complete remission of gastric MALT lymphoma induced by H. pylori eradication suggests also the limits of the preventive strategy against gastric cancer. Furthermore, the effectiveness of eradication to reverse precancerous gastric lesions such as severe atrophy and intestinal metaplasia is questionable. For many reasons discussed in our review, population-based screening and routine eradication of H. pylori infection seem to be an unrealistic goal and cannot be recommended in France. By waiting for effective anti-H. pylori vaccine, public health measures such as dietary modification should be promoted to further decrease the gastric cancer incidence. On the individual basis the specialist has a role in the diagnosis of gastric precancerous lesions by endoscopy and also in the prevention of gastric cancer by selecting indications for H. pylori therapy.

  6. Risk of second primary cancers after testicular cancer in East and West Germany: A focus on contralateral testicular cancers

    PubMed Central

    Rusner, Carsten; Streller, Brigitte; Stegmaier, Christa; Trocchi, Pietro; Kuss, Oliver; McGlynn, Katherine A; Trabert, Britton; Stang, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Testicular cancer survival rates improved dramatically after cisplatin-based therapy was introduced in the 1970s. However, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are potentially carcinogenic. The purpose of this study was to estimate the risk of developing second primary cancers including the risk associated with primary histologic type (seminoma and non-seminoma) among testicular cancer survivors in Germany. We identified 16 990 and 1401 cases of testicular cancer in population-based cancer registries of East Germany (1961–1989 and 1996–2008) and Saarland (a federal state in West Germany; 1970–2008), respectively. We estimated the risk of a second primary cancer using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). To determine trends, we plotted model-based estimated annual SIRs. In East Germany, a total of 301 second primary cancers of any location were observed between 1961 and 1989 (SIR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.7–2.1), and 159 cancers (any location) were observed between 1996 and 2008 (SIR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.4–2.0). The SIRs for contralateral testicular cancer were increased in the registries with a range from 6.0 in Saarland to 13.9 in East Germany. The SIR for seminoma, in particular, was higher in East Germany compared to the other registries. We observed constant trends in the model-based SIRs for contralateral testicular cancers. The majority of reported SIRs of other cancer sites including histology-specific risks showed low precisions of estimated effects, likely due to small sample sizes. Testicular cancer patients are at increased risk especially for cancers of the contralateral testis and should receive intensive follow-ups. PMID:24407180

  7. Risk Stratification in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: An Ongoing Process.

    PubMed

    Omry-Orbach, Gal

    2016-01-28

    Thyroid cancer is an increasingly common malignancy, with a rapidly rising prevalence worldwide. The social and economic ramifications of the increase in thyroid cancer are multiple. Though mortality from thyroid cancer is low, and most patients will do well, the risk of recurrence is not insignificant, up to 30%. Therefore, it is important to accurately identify those patients who are more or less likely to be burdened by their disease over years and tailor their treatment plan accordingly. The goal of risk stratification is to do just that. The risk stratification process generally starts postoperatively with histopathologic staging, based on the AJCC/UICC staging system as well as others designed to predict mortality. These do not, however, accurately assess the risk of recurrence/persistence. Patients initially considered to be at high risk may ultimately do very well yet be burdened by frequent unnecessary monitoring. Conversely, patients initially thought to be low risk, may not respond to their initial treatment as expected and, if left unmonitored, may have higher morbidity. The concept of risk-adaptive management has been adopted, with an understanding that risk stratification for differentiated thyroid cancer is dynamic and ongoing. A multitude of variables not included in AJCC/UICC staging are used initially to classify patients as low, intermediate, or high risk for recurrence. Over the course of time, a response-to-therapy variable is incorporated, and patients essentially undergo continuous risk stratification. Additional tools such as biochemical markers, genetic mutations, and molecular markers have been added to this complex risk stratification process such that this is essentially a continuum of risk. In recent years, additional considerations have been discussed with a suggestion of pre-operative risk stratification based on certain clinical and/or biologic characteristics. With the increasing prevalence of thyroid cancer but stable mortality

  8. Risk Stratification in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: An Ongoing Process.

    PubMed

    Omry-Orbach, Gal

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is an increasingly common malignancy, with a rapidly rising prevalence worldwide. The social and economic ramifications of the increase in thyroid cancer are multiple. Though mortality from thyroid cancer is low, and most patients will do well, the risk of recurrence is not insignificant, up to 30%. Therefore, it is important to accurately identify those patients who are more or less likely to be burdened by their disease over years and tailor their treatment plan accordingly. The goal of risk stratification is to do just that. The risk stratification process generally starts postoperatively with histopathologic staging, based on the AJCC/UICC staging system as well as others designed to predict mortality. These do not, however, accurately assess the risk of recurrence/persistence. Patients initially considered to be at high risk may ultimately do very well yet be burdened by frequent unnecessary monitoring. Conversely, patients initially thought to be low risk, may not respond to their initial treatment as expected and, if left unmonitored, may have higher morbidity. The concept of risk-adaptive management has been adopted, with an understanding that risk stratification for differentiated thyroid cancer is dynamic and ongoing. A multitude of variables not included in AJCC/UICC staging are used initially to classify patients as low, intermediate, or high risk for recurrence. Over the course of time, a response-to-therapy variable is incorporated, and patients essentially undergo continuous risk stratification. Additional tools such as biochemical markers, genetic mutations, and molecular markers have been added to this complex risk stratification process such that this is essentially a continuum of risk. In recent years, additional considerations have been discussed with a suggestion of pre-operative risk stratification based on certain clinical and/or biologic characteristics. With the increasing prevalence of thyroid cancer but stable mortality

  9. Population Cancer Risks Associated with Coal Mining: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Wiley D.; Christian, W. Jay; Mueller, Georgia; Robbins, K. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Coal is produced across 25 states and provides 42% of US energy. With production expected to increase 7.6% by 2035, proximate populations remain at risk of exposure to carcinogenic coal products such as silica dust and organic compounds. It is unclear if population exposure is associated with increased risk, or even which cancers have been studied in this regard. Methods We performed a systematic review of English-language manuscripts published since 1980 to determine if coal mining exposure was associated with increased cancer risk (incidence and mortality). Results Of 34 studies identified, 27 studied coal mining as an occupational exposure (coal miner cohort or as a retrospective risk factor) but only seven explored health effects in surrounding populations. Overall, risk assessments were reported for 20 cancer site categories, but their results and frequency varied considerably. Incidence and mortality risk assessments were: negative (no increase) for 12 sites; positive for 1 site; and discordant for 7 sites (e.g. lung, gastric). However, 10 sites had only a single study reporting incidence risk (4 sites had none), and 11 sites had only a single study reporting mortality risk (2 sites had none). The ecological study data were particularly meager, reporting assessments for only 9 sites. While mortality assessments were reported for each, 6 had only a single report and only 2 sites had reported incidence assessments. Conclusions The reported assessments are too meager, and at times contradictory, to make definitive conclusions about population cancer risk due to coal mining. However, the preponderance of this and other data support many of Hill’s criteria for causation. The paucity of data regarding population exposure and risk, the widespread geographical extent of coal mining activity, and the continuing importance of coal for US energy, warrant further studies of population exposure and risk. PMID:23977014

  10. Adjuvant high-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem cell support for high-risk primary breast cancer: results from the Italian national registry.

    PubMed

    Pedrazzoli, Paolo; Martinelli, Giovanni; Gianni, Alessandro Massimo; Da Prada, Gian Antonio; Ballestrero, Alberto; Rosti, Giovanni; Frassineti, Giovanni Luca; Aieta, Michele; Secondino, Simona; Cinieri, Saverio; Fedele, Roberta; Bengala, Carmelo; Bregni, Marco; Grasso, Donatella; De Giorgi, Ugo; Lanza, Francesco; Castagna, Luca; Bruno, Barbara; Martino, Massimo

    2014-04-01

    The efficacy of high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) and autologous hemopoietic progenitor cell transplantation (AHPCT) for breast cancer (BC) patients has been an area of intense controversy among the medical oncology community. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity and efficacy of this procedure in a large cohort of high-risk primary BC patients who underwent AHPCT in Italy. A total of 1183 patients receiving HDC for high-risk BC (HRBC) (>3 positive nodes) were identified in the Italian registry. The median age was 46 years, 62% of patients were premenopausal at treatment, 60.1% had endocrine-responsive tumors, and 20.7% had a human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive tumor. The median number of positive lymph nodes (LN) at surgery was 15, with 71.5% of patients having ≥ 10 positive nodes. Seventy-three percent received an alkylating agent-based HDC as a single procedure, whereas 27% received epirubicin or mitoxantrone-containing HDC, usually within a multitransplantation program. The source of stem cells was peripheral blood in the vast majority of patients. Transplantation-related mortality was .8%, whereas late cardiac and secondary tumor-related mortality were around 1%, overall. With a median follow-up of 79 months, median disease-free and overall survival (OS) in the entire population were 101 and 134 months, respectively. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that OS was significantly better in patients with endocrine-responsive tumors and in patients receiving multiple transplantation procedures. HER2 status did not affect survival probability. The size of the primary tumor and number of involved LN negatively affected OS. Adjuvant HDC with AHPCT has a low mortality rate and provides impressive long-term survival rates in patients with high-risk primary BC. Our results suggest that this treatment modality should be proposed in selected HRBC patients and further investigated in clinical trials.

  11. Tuberculosis, smoking and risk for lung cancer incidence and mortality.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seri; Mok, Yejin; Jeon, Christina; Jee, Sun Ha; Samet, Jonathan M

    2016-12-01

    Among the exposures associated with risk for lung cancer, a history of tuberculosis (TB) is one potentially important factor, given the high prevalence of TB worldwide. A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the associations of preexisting pulmonary TB with lung cancer incidence and mortality. The cohort consisted of 1,607,710 Korean adults covered by the National Health Insurance System who had a biennial national medical examination during 1997-2000. During up to 16 years of follow-up, there were 12,819 incident cases of lung cancer and 9,562 lung cancer deaths. Using Cox proportional hazards models and controlling for age, cigarette smoking and other covariates, the presence of underlying TB was significantly associated with increased risk for lung cancer incidence (HR 1.37 in men with 95% CI 1.29-1.45; HR 1.49 in women with 95% CI 1.28-1.74) and mortality (HR 1.43 in men with 95% CI 1.34-1.52; HR 1.53 in women with 95% CI 1.28-1.83). We also observed a dose-response relationship between number of cigarettes smoked daily and lung cancer risk. There was no evidence for synergism between a history of TB and smoking. The elevation in risk is relatively modest, particularly in comparison to that from smoking, and a prior history of TB is not likely to be useful risk indicator for clinical purposes. In populations with high prevalence of TB, it can be considered for incorporation into models for lung cancer risk prediction. PMID:27521774

  12. Estimating Skin Cancer Risk: Evaluating Mobile Computer-Adaptive Testing

    PubMed Central

    Djaja, Ngadiman; Janda, Monika; Olsen, Catherine M; Whiteman, David C

    2016-01-01

    Background Response burden is a major detriment to questionnaire completion rates. Computer adaptive testing may offer advantages over non-adaptive testing, including reduction of numbers of items required for precise measurement. Objective Our aim was to compare the efficiency of non-adaptive (NAT) and computer adaptive testing (CAT) facilitated by Partial Credit Model (PCM)-derived calibration to estimate skin cancer risk. Methods We used a random sample from a population-based Australian cohort study of skin cancer risk (N=43,794). All 30 items of the skin cancer risk scale were calibrated with the Rasch PCM. A total of 1000 cases generated following a normal distribution (mean [SD] 0 [1]) were simulated using three Rasch models with three fixed-item (dichotomous, rating scale, and partial credit) scenarios, respectively. We calculated the comparative efficiency and precision of CAT and NAT (shortening of questionnaire length and the count difference number ratio less than 5% using independent t tests). Results We found that use of CAT led to smaller person standard error of the estimated measure than NAT, with substantially higher efficiency but no loss of precision, reducing response burden by 48%, 66%, and 66% for dichotomous, Rating Scale Model, and PCM models, respectively. Conclusions CAT-based administrations of the skin cancer risk scale could substantially reduce participant burden without compromising measurement precision. A mobile computer adaptive test was developed to help people efficiently assess their skin cancer risk. PMID:26800642

  13. Body fat and risk of colorectal cancer among postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Heo, Moonseong; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Messina, Catherine; Thomson, Cynthia A; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Rohan, Thomas E

    2013-06-01

    Studies of the relationship between anthropometric indices of obesity and colorectal cancer risk in women have shown only weak and inconsistent associations. Given the limitations of such indices, we used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived measures of body fat obtained in the Women's Health Initiative to examine the association between body fat and risk of incident colorectal cancer. We compared these risk estimates with those obtained using conventional anthropometric measurements (body mass index and waist circumference). After exclusions, the study population consisted of 11,124 postmenopausal women with DXA measurements at baseline and no history of colorectal cancer. After a median follow-up period of 12.9 years, 169 incident colorectal cancer cases were ascertained. Cox's proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95 % confidence intervals for the exposures of interest. Neither DXA-derived body fat measures nor anthropometric measures showed significant associations with risk. In view of the limited number of cases, we cannot rule out the existence of weak associations of these measures with risk of colorectal cancer. PMID:23546610

  14. Risk of Second Cancers According to Radiation Therapy Technique and Modality in Prostate Cancer Survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy; Wong, Jeannette; Kleinerman, Ruth; Kim, Clara; Morton, Lindsay; Bekelman, Justin E.

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) techniques for prostate cancer are evolving rapidly, but the impact of these changes on risk of second cancers, which are an uncommon but serious consequence of RT, are uncertain. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of risks of second cancer according to RT technique (>10 MV vs ≤10 MV and 3-dimensional [3D] vs 2D RT) and modality (external beam RT, brachytherapy, and combined modes) in a large cohort of prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: The cohort was constructed using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database. We included cases of prostate cancer diagnosed in patients 66 to 84 years of age from 1992 to 2004 and followed through 2009. We used Poisson regression analysis to compare rates of second cancer across RT groups with adjustment for age, follow-up, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and comorbidities. Analyses of second solid cancers were based on the number of 5-year survivors (n=38,733), and analyses of leukemia were based on number of 2-year survivors (n=52,515) to account for the minimum latency period for radiation-related cancer. Results: During an average of 4.4 years' follow-up among 5-year prostate cancer survivors (2DRT = 5.5 years; 3DRT = 3.9 years; and brachytherapy = 2.7 years), 2933 second solid cancers were diagnosed. There were no significant differences in second solid cancer rates overall between 3DRT and 2DRT patients (relative risk [RR] = 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.91-1.09), but second rectal cancer rates were significantly lower after 3DRT (RR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.40-0.88). Rates of second solid cancers for higher- and lower-energy RT were similar overall (RR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89-1.06), as were rates for site-specific cancers. There were significant reductions in colon cancer and leukemia rates in the first decade after brachytherapy compared to those after external beam RT. Conclusions: Advanced treatment planning may have reduced rectal

  15. Ongoing data from the breast cancer prevention trials: opportunity for breast cancer risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Victor G

    2015-03-26

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) reduce the risk of recurrence of invasive breast cancer and the incidence of first breast cancers in women who are at increased risk. Multiple, randomized clinical trials have shown both the efficacy and safety of SERMs in reducing the risk of breast cancer. Long-term follow-up as long as 20 years in the randomized trials shows persistent efficacy with acceptable safety. Hormone replacement therapy given concurrently with tamoxifen abrogates its preventive effect, but women with atypical hyperplasia derive particular benefit from SERM therapy. Aromatase inhibitors also reduce the risk of developing invasive breast cancer, but the experience with them for risk reduction is limited to few trials. National organizations have made recommendations to use SERMs and aromatase inhibitors to reduce the risk of breast cancer in high-risk women and additional efforts should be made to increase their use in clinical practice, where the number of women needed to treat to prevent one case of breast cancer conforms to accepted standards of preventive medicine.

  16. Obesity in breast cancer--what is the risk factor?

    PubMed

    James, F R; Wootton, S; Jackson, A; Wiseman, M; Copson, E R; Cutress, R I

    2015-04-01

    Environmental factors influence breast cancer incidence and progression. High body mass index (BMI) is associated with increased risk of post-menopausal breast cancer and with poorer outcome in those with a history of breast cancer. High BMI is generally interpreted as excess adiposity (overweight or obesity) and the World Cancer Research Fund judged that the associations between BMI and incidence of breast cancer were due to body fatness. Although BMI is the most common measure used to characterise body composition, it cannot distinguish lean mass from fat mass, or characterise body fat distribution, and so individuals with the same BMI can have different body composition. In particular, the relation between BMI and lean or fat mass may differ between people with or without disease. The question therefore arises as to what aspect or aspects of body composition are causally linked to the poorer outcome of breast cancer patients with high BMI. This question is not addressed in the literature. Most studies have used BMI, without discussion of its shortcomings as a marker of body composition, leading to potentially important misinterpretation. In this article we review the different measurements used to characterise body composition in the literature, and how they relate to breast cancer risk and prognosis. Further research is required to better characterise the relation of body composition to breast cancer.

  17. Updating Risk Prediction Tools: A Case Study in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ankerst, Donna P.; Koniarski, Tim; Liang, Yuanyuan; Leach, Robin J.; Feng, Ziding; Sanda, Martin G.; Partin, Alan W.; Chan, Daniel W; Kagan, Jacob; Sokoll, Lori; Wei, John T; Thompson, Ian M.

    2013-01-01

    Online risk prediction tools for common cancers are now easily accessible and widely used by patients and doctors for informed decision-making concerning screening and diagnosis. A practical problem is as cancer research moves forward and new biomarkers and risk factors are discovered, there is a need to update the risk algorithms to include them. Typically the new markers and risk factors cannot be retrospectively measured on the same study participants used to develop the original prediction tool, necessitating the merging of a separate study of different participants, which may be much smaller in sample size and of a different design. Validation of the updated tool on a third independent data set is warranted before the updated tool can go online. This article reports on the application of Bayes rule for updating risk prediction tools to include a set