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Sample records for cancer brain metastases

  1. Lung Cancer Brain Metastases.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Sarah B; Contessa, Joseph N; Omay, Sacit B; Chiang, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Brain metastases are common among patients with lung cancer and have been associated with significant morbidity and limited survival. However, the treatment of brain metastases has evolved as the field has advanced in terms of central nervous system imaging, surgical technique, and radiotherapy technology. This has allowed patients to receive improved treatment with less toxicity and more durable benefit. In addition, there have been significant advances in systemic therapy for lung cancer in recent years, and several treatments including chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy exhibit activity in the central nervous system. Utilizing systemic therapy for treating brain metastases can avoid or delay local therapy and often allows patients to receive effective treatment for both intracranial and extracranial disease. Determining the appropriate treatment for patients with lung cancer brain metastases therefore requires a clear understanding of intracranial disease burden, tumor histology, molecular characteristics, and overall cancer prognosis. This review provides updates on the current state of surgery and radiotherapy for the treatment of brain metastases, as well as an overview of systemic therapy options that may be effective in select patients with intracranial metastases from lung cancer.

  2. Brain metastasization of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Custódio-Santos, Tânia; Videira, Mafalda; Brito, Maria Alexandra

    2017-08-01

    Central nervous system metastases have been reported in 15-25% of breast cancer patients, and the incidence is increasing. Moreover, the survival of these patients is generally poor, with reports of a 1-year survival rate of 20%. Therefore, a better knowledge about the determinants of brain metastasization is essential for the improvement of the clinical outcomes. Here, we summarize the current data about the metastatic cascade, ranging from the output of cancer cells from the primary tumour to their colonization in the brain, which involves the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion of mammary tissue, intravasation into circulation, and homing into and extravasation towards the brain. The phenotypic change in malignant cells, and the importance of the microenvironment in the formation of brain metastases are also inspected. Finally, the importance of genetic and epigenetic changes, and the recently disclosed effects of microRNAs in brain metastasization of breast cancer are highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Treatment of breast cancer brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Silvia; Pestalozzi, Bernhard C

    2013-10-05

    Breast cancer represents the second most frequent cause of brain metastases. Treatment planning should consider several tumor and patient factors to estimate prognosis based on the Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS), age, extent of extra-cerebral disease as well as genetic subtype. When systemic disease is under control patients with up to three metastases qualify for local therapy, such as surgical excision or stereotactic radiotherapy. After the local treatment the addition of whole brain radiation therapy may be postponed until disease progression in the brain is observed and overall survival will not be compromised. Asymptomatic brain metastases may be first approached with a systemic treatment to which the primary tumor is considered to be sensitive.

  4. Brain metastases from breast cancer during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ashish; Nguyen, Ha Son; Lozen, Andrew; Sharma, Abhishiek; Mueller, Wade

    2016-01-01

    Background: Brain metastasis during pregnancy is a rare occurrence. In particular, there have only been three prior cases regarding breast cancer metastasis. We report a patient with breast cancer metastasis to the brain during pregnancy and review the literature. Case Description: The patient was a 35-year-old female with a history of breast cancer (estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor negative, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu positive, status post-neoadjuvant docetaxel/carboplatin/trastuzumab/pertuzumab therapy, status post-bilateral mastectomies), and prior right frontal brain metastases (status post-resection, capecitabine/lapatinib/temozolomide therapy, and cyberknife treatment). Patient was found to be pregnant at 9 weeks’ gestation while on chemotherapy; the patient elected to continue with the pregnancy and chemotherapy was discontinued. At 14 weeks’ gestation, she returned with recurrent right frontal disease. She was taken for a craniotomy at 16 weeks’ gestation, which confirmed metastases. Six weeks later, patient returned with worsening headaches and fatigue, with more recurrent right frontal disease. She was started on decadron and chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil, adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide). Serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated enlarging right frontal lesions. She underwent a craniotomy at 27 weeks’ gestation, and chemotherapy was discontinued promptly. Starting at 30 weeks’ gestation, she received whole brain radiation for 2 weeks. Subsequently, she delivered a baby girl via cesarean section at 32 weeks’ gestation. At 6 weeks follow-up, an MRI brain demonstrated no new intracranial disease, with stable postoperative findings. Conclusion: There is a lack of guidelines and clinical consensus on medical and surgical treatment for breast cancer metastases in pregnant patients. Treatment usually varies based upon underlying tumor burden, location, gestational age of the fetus, and patient's preference and

  5. Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases From Primary Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kased, Norbert; Binder, Devin K.; McDermott, Michael W.; Nakamura, Jean L.; Huang, Kim; Berger, Mitchel S.; Wara, William M.; Sneed, Penny K.

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: The relative roles of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) vs. whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) in the treatment of patients with brain metastases from breast cancer remain undefined. In this study, we reviewed our experience with these patients. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all patients treated between 1991 and 2005 with Gamma Knife SRS for brain metastases from breast cancer. The actuarial survival and freedom from progression endpoints were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Between 1991 and 2005, 176 patients underwent SRS for brain metastases from breast cancer. The median survival time was 16.0 months for 95 newly diagnosed patients and 11.7 months for 81 patients with recurrent brain metastases. In the newly diagnosed patients, omission of upfront WBRT did not significantly affect the MST (p = .20), brain freedom from progression (p = .75), or freedom from new brain metastases (p = .83). Longer survival was associated with age <50 years, Karnofsky performance score >=70, primary tumor control, estrogen receptor positivity, and Her2/neu overexpression. No association was found between the number of treated brain metastases and the survival time. Conclusion: We have described prognostic factors for breast cancer patients treated with SRS for newly diagnosed or recurrent brain metastases. Most patient subsets had a median survival time of >=11 months. Unexpectedly, upfront WBRT did not appear to improve brain freedom from progression, and a larger number of brain metastases was not associated with a shorter survival time. Breast cancer might be distinct from other primary sites in terms of prognostic factors and the roles of WBRT and SRS for brain metastases.

  6. [Systemic treatment of brain metastases from breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Taillibert, S; Conforti, R; Bonneterre, J; Bachelot, T; Le Rhun, E; Bernard-Marty, C

    2015-02-01

    An increase in the incidence of breast cancer patients with brain metastases has been observed over the last years, mainly because the recent development of new drugs including therapies targeting HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) resulted in an increased survival of these patients. With HER2+ patients living longer and the well-known neurotropism of HER2+ tumour cells, the resulting high incidence of brain metastases is not really surprising. Moreover, brain metastases more often occur within a context of existing extracranial metastases. These need to be treated at the same time in order to favourably impact patients' survival. Consequently, the management of breast cancer patients with brain metastases clearly relies on a multidisciplinary approach, including systemic treatment. A working group including neuro-oncologists, neurosurgeons, radiation oncologists and oncologists was created in order to provide French national guidelines for the management of brain metastases within the "Association des neuro-oncologues d'expression française" (ANOCEF). The recommendations regarding the systemic treatment in breast cancer patients are reported here including key features of their management.

  7. Ganging Up on Brain Metastases | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    When primary tumors metastasize to the brain, the prognosis for patients is poor. The currently accepted treatment is whole-brain radiation therapy, and the median survival time is several months. Since these types of tumors form in 10 to 30 percent of adult cancer patients, improvements in treatment methods are a necessity.  

  8. Breast Cancer Brain Metastases: Clonal Evolution in Clinical Context

    PubMed Central

    Saunus, Jodi M.; McCart Reed, Amy E.; Lim, Zhun Leong; Lakhani, Sunil R.

    2017-01-01

    Brain metastases are highly-evolved manifestations of breast cancer arising in a unique microenvironment, giving them exceptional adaptability in the face of new extrinsic pressures. The incidence is rising in line with population ageing, and use of newer therapies that stabilise metastatic disease burden with variable efficacy throughout the body. Historically, there has been a widely-held view that brain metastases do not respond to circulating therapeutics because the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) restricts their uptake. However, emerging data are beginning to paint a more complex picture where the brain acts as a sanctuary for dormant, subclinical proliferations that are initially protected by the BBB, but then exposed to dynamic selection pressures as tumours mature and vascular permeability increases. Here, we review key experimental approaches and landmark studies that have charted the genomic landscape of breast cancer brain metastases. These findings are contextualised with the factors impacting on clonal outgrowth in the brain: intrinsic breast tumour cell capabilities required for brain metastatic fitness, and the neural niche, which is initially hostile to invading cells but then engineered into a tumour-support vehicle by the successful minority. We also discuss how late detection, abnormal vascular perfusion and interstitial fluid dynamics underpin the recalcitrant clinical behaviour of brain metastases, and outline active clinical trials in the context of precision management. PMID:28098771

  9. Targeted Therapies for Brain Metastases from Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Venur, Vyshak Alva; Leone, José Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of various driver pathways and targeted small molecule agents/antibodies have revolutionized the management of metastatic breast cancer. Currently, the major targets of clinical utility in breast cancer include the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, and the cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK-4/6) pathway. Brain metastasis, however, remains a thorn in the flesh, leading to morbidity, neuro-cognitive decline, and interruptions in the management of systemic disease. Approximately 20%–30% of patients with metastatic breast cancer develop brain metastases. Surgery, whole brain radiation therapy, and stereotactic radiosurgery are the traditional treatment options for patients with brain metastases. The therapeutic paradigm is changing due to better understanding of the blood brain barrier and the advent of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies. Several of these agents are in clinical practice and several others are in early stage clinical trials. In this article, we will review the common targetable pathways in the management of breast cancer patients with brain metastases, and the current state of the clinical development of drugs against these pathways. PMID:27649142

  10. Targeted Therapies for Brain Metastases from Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Venur, Vyshak Alva; Leone, José Pablo

    2016-09-13

    The discovery of various driver pathways and targeted small molecule agents/antibodies have revolutionized the management of metastatic breast cancer. Currently, the major targets of clinical utility in breast cancer include the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, and the cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK-4/6) pathway. Brain metastasis, however, remains a thorn in the flesh, leading to morbidity, neuro-cognitive decline, and interruptions in the management of systemic disease. Approximately 20%-30% of patients with metastatic breast cancer develop brain metastases. Surgery, whole brain radiation therapy, and stereotactic radiosurgery are the traditional treatment options for patients with brain metastases. The therapeutic paradigm is changing due to better understanding of the blood brain barrier and the advent of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies. Several of these agents are in clinical practice and several others are in early stage clinical trials. In this article, we will review the common targetable pathways in the management of breast cancer patients with brain metastases, and the current state of the clinical development of drugs against these pathways.

  11. Breast cancer brain metastases: biology and new clinical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Witzel, Isabell; Oliveira-Ferrer, Leticia; Pantel, Klaus; Müller, Volkmar; Wikman, Harriet

    2016-01-19

    Because of improvements in the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer, the development of brain metastases (BM) has become a major limitation of life expectancy and quality of life for many breast cancer patients. The improvement of management strategies for BM is thus an important clinical challenge, especially among high-risk patients such as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive and triple-negative patients. However, the formation of BM as a multistep process is thus far poorly understood. To grow in the brain, single tumor cells must pass through the tight blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB represents an obstacle for circulating tumor cells entering the brain, but it also plays a protective role against immune cell and toxic agents once metastatic cells have colonized the cerebral compartment. Furthermore, animal studies have shown that, after passing the BBB, the tumor cells not only require close contact with endothelial cells but also interact closely with many different brain residential cells. Thus, in addition to a genetic predisposition of the tumor cells, cellular adaptation processes within the new microenvironment may also determine the ability of a tumor cell to metastasize. In this review, we summarize the biology of breast cancer that has spread into the brain and discuss the implications for current and potential future treatment strategies.

  12. Temporal and gender-related trends in brain metastases from lung and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yawn, Barbara P; Wollan, Peter C; Schroeder, Clayton; Gazzuola, Lilianna; Mehta, Minesh

    2003-12-01

    Increased duration of cancer survival may allow a longer window for detection of metastases, including brain metastases. Using the entire population of Olmsted County, Minnesota, we looked at trends in the rate of brain metastases in people diagnosed with primary lung or breast cancers between January 1, 1988, and December 31, 2001. Yearly rates of brain metastases detection following the primary tumors were calculated from a combination of medical record and SEER database information. Trends in rates and gender differences were assessed. There was no discernible increase in the rates of brain metastases secondary to lung or breast cancer during the period of observation. However, women were twice as likely as men to have brain metastases detected following a primary lung cancer. This difference was constant over the time period. This twofold difference in brain metastases detected in women versus men with lung cancer deserves further evaluation and confirmation.

  13. Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases From Unknown Primary Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Niranjan, Ajay; Kano, Hideyuki; Khan, Aftab; Kim, In-Young; Kondziolka, Douglas; Flickinger, John C.; Lunsford, L. Dade

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: We evaluated the role of Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery in the multidisciplinary management of brain metastases from an undiagnosed primary cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty-nine patients who had solitary or multiple brain metastases without a detectable primary site underwent stereotactic radiosurgery between January 1990 and March 2007 at the University of Pittsburgh. The median patient age was 61.7 years (range, 37.9-78.7 years). The median target volume was 1.0 cc (range, 0.02-23.6 cc), and the median margin radiosurgical dose was 16 Gy (range, 20-70 Gy). Results: After radiosurgery, the local tumor control rate was 88.5%. Twenty four patients died and 5 patients were living at the time of this analysis. The overall median survival was 12 months. Actuarial survival rates from stereotactic radiosurgery at 1 and 2 years were 57.2% and 36.8%, respectively. Factors associated with poor progression-free survival included large tumor volume (3 cc or more) and brainstem tumor location. Conclusions: Radiosurgery is an effective and safe minimally invasive option for patients with brain metastases from an unknown primary site.

  14. Breast cancer brain metastases: Molecular subtype, treatment and survival.

    PubMed

    Crozier, Jennifer A; Cornell, Lauren F; Rawal, Bhupendra; Perez, Edith A

    2016-01-01

    No clear guidelines exist for management of breast cancer brain metastases (BCBM). We assessed the relationship between patient and tumor characteristics, treatment, and overall survival (OS). We conducted a retrospective review of 196 patients who received brain radiation for BCBM between 2009-2013 at Mayo Clinic. Primary tumor characteristics were collected, including simplified molecular subtype. Other characteristics included patient's ECOG, number of brain lesions at BCBM diagnosis, and treatment received, including neurosurgery, whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT), and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). The primary endpoint was OS from time of BCBM diagnosis. Single-variable analysis revealed patients with HER2+ breast cancer had improved OS (HR = 0.6, p = 0.008). Compared to patients with 1-3 brain lesions, the risk of death in patients with leptomeningeal disease was 2.5-fold higher (p = 0.003). Worsening ECOG status was associated with worsening OS. Patients who received SRS and WBRT had improved OS (HR = 0.37, p < 0.001) compared to patients receiving WBRT alone. Patients with the best OS had an ECOG of 0, HER2+ disease, and 1-3 brain lesions. The best OS was associated with the combination of neurosurgery and radiation therapy. A comprehensive treatment plan including neurosurgical evaluation and radiation therapy should be considered for patients with BCBM.

  15. [Research progress of targeted therapy in non-small cell lung cancer brain metastases].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Caicun

    2014-11-01

    Lung cancer is characterized by the highest incidence of solid tumor-related brain metastases, which are reported the incidence ranged 20% to 65%. This is also one of the reasons why it can cause significant mortality. Molecular targeted therapy plays a major role in the management of brain metastases in lung cancer. Targeted agents have become the novel methods for the treatment of lung cancer with brain metastases beyond the whole brain radiation therapy, stereotactic radiosurgery and chemotherapy. Recently, more and more studies and trials laid emphasis on the targeted agents for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) brain metastases treatment. The key point is the efficacy and safety. In this paper, the targeted treatments of NSCLC brain metastases were summarized.

  16. HER3 and downstream pathways are involved in colonization of brain metastases from breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Metastases to the brain from breast cancer have a high mortality, and basal-like breast cancers have a propensity for brain metastases. However, the mechanisms that allow cells to colonize the brain are unclear. Methods We used morphology, immunohistochemistry, gene expression and somatic mutation profiling to analyze 39 matched pairs of primary breast cancers and brain metastases, 22 unmatched brain metastases of breast cancer, 11 non-breast brain metastases and 6 autopsy cases of patients with breast cancer metastases to multiple sites, including the brain. Results Most brain metastases were triple negative and basal-like. The brain metastases over-expressed one or more members of the HER family and in particular HER3 was significantly over-expressed relative to matched primary tumors. Brain metastases from breast and other primary sites, and metastases to multiple organs in the autopsied cases, also contained somatic mutations in EGFR, HRAS, KRAS, NRAS or PIK3CA. This paralleled the frequent activation of AKT and MAPK pathways. In particular, activation of the MAPK pathway was increased in the brain metastases compared to the primary tumors. Conclusions Deregulated HER family receptors, particularly HER3, and their downstream pathways are implicated in colonization of brain metastasis. The need for HER family receptors to dimerize for activation suggests that tumors may be susceptible to combinations of anti-HER family inhibitors, and may even be effective in the absence of HER2 amplification (that is, in triple negative/basal cancers). However, the presence of activating mutations in PIK3CA, HRAS, KRAS and NRAS suggests the necessity for also specifically targeting downstream molecules. PMID:20604919

  17. A cancer stem cell model for studying brain metastases from primary lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Sara M; Venugopal, Chitra; McFarlane, Nicole; Morozova, Olena; Hallett, Robin M; O'Farrell, Erin; Manoranjan, Branavan; Murty, Naresh K; Klurfan, Paula; Kachur, Edward; Provias, John P; Farrokhyar, Forough; Hassell, John A; Marra, Marco; Singh, Sheila K

    2013-04-17

    Brain metastases are most common in adults with lung cancer, predicting uniformly poor patient outcome, with a median survival of only months. Despite their frequency and severity, very little is known about tumorigenesis in brain metastases. We applied previously developed primary solid tumor-initiating cell models to the study of brain metastases from the lung to evaluate the presence of a cancer stem cell population. Patient-derived brain metastases (n = 20) and the NCI-H1915 cell line were cultured as stem-enriching tumorspheres. We used in vitro limiting-dilution and sphere-forming assays, as well as intracranial human-mouse xenograft models. To determine genes overexpressed in brain metastasis tumorspheres, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis. All statistical analyses were two-sided. Patient-derived brain metastasis tumorspheres had a mean sphere-forming capacity of 33 spheres/2000 cells (SD = 33.40) and median stem-cell frequency of 1/60 (range = 0-1/141), comparable to that of primary brain tumorspheres (P = .53 and P = .20, respectively). Brain metastases also expressed CD15 and CD133, markers suggestive of a stemlike population. Through intracranial xenotransplantation, brain metastasis tumorspheres were found to recapitulate the original patient tumor heterogeneity. We also identified several genes overexpressed in brain metastasis tumorspheres as statistically significant predictors of poor survival in primary lung cancer. For the first time, we demonstrate the presence of a stemlike population in brain metastases from the lung. We also show that NCI-H1915 tumorspheres could be useful in studying self-renewal and tumor initiation in brain metastases. Our candidate genes may be essential to metastatic stem cell populations, where pathway interference may be able to transform a uniformly fatal disease into a more localized and treatable one.

  18. Brain metastases from colorectal cancer: characteristics and management.

    PubMed

    Mege, Diane; Sans, Arnaud; Ouaissi, Mehdi; Iannelli, Antonio; Sielezneff, Igor

    2017-07-07

    Brain metastases (BMs) are the most common intracranial neoplasms in adults, but they rarely arise from colorectal cancer (CRC). The objective of this study was to report an overview of the characteristics and current management of CRC BMs. A systematic review on CRC BMs was performed using Medline database from 1983 to 2015. The search was limited to studies published in English. Review articles, not relevant case report or studies or studies relating to animal and in vitro experiments were excluded. BMs occurred in 0.06-4% of patients with CRC. Most BMs were metachronous and were associated with lung (27-92%) and liver (12-80%) metastases. Treatment options depended on the number of BMs, the general conditions of the patient and the presence of other metastases. Most frequent treatment was whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) alone (36%), with median overall survival comprised between 2 and 9 months. Median overall survival was better after surgery alone (from 3 to 16.2 months), or combined with WBRT (from 7.6 to 14 months). After stereotactic radiosurgery alone, overall survival could reach 9.5 months. Many favourable prognostic factors were identified, such as high Karnofsky performance status, low recursive partitioning analysis classes, lack of extracranial disease, low number of BMs and possibility to perform surgical treatment. BMs from CRC are rare. In the presence of favourable prognostic factors, an aggressive management including surgical resection with or without WBRT or stereotactic radiosurgery can improve the overall survival. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  19. Brain Metastases from Colorectal Cancer: Risk Factors, Incidence, and the Possible Role of Chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Mongan, John P.; Fadul, Camilo E.; Cole, Bernard F.; Zaki, Bassem I.; Suriawinata, Arief A.; Ripple, Gregory H.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Pipas, J. Marc

    2014-01-01

    Background Brain metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC) are uncommon. There has been relatively little published on the host and tumor factors that might lead to this clinical scenario. We reviewed all cases of brain metastases from CRC at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center over a more than 20-year period to establish incidence and to identify patient and cancer characteristics which were associated with their development. Patients and Methods We present a retrospective review of 39 confirmed cases of brain metastases from CRC diagnosed between 1984 and 2006. Immunohistochemical staining for CXCR4 was performed on all available brain metastasis biopsy specimens. Results The incidence of brain metastases from CRC was 2.3%. Left-sided primary colon tumors predominated. The majority of patients had pulmonary metastases at the time brain metastases were identified, and those with preexisting pulmonary metastases had progression of that disease. All patients were symptomatic from brain metastases, and the cerebellum was the most common area of brain involvement. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed strong expression of CXCR4 in all brain metastases sampled. Conclusion The incidence of brain metastases from CRC is low. Primary tumor in the left colon, long-standing pulmonary metastases, especially those with recent progression, and CXCR4 expression by tumor cells are all associated with increased risk of brain metastases. Increased survival among patients with metastatic CRC will likely result in an increased incidence of brain metastases. Further characterization of the role of tumor and host factors might yield better insight into the development, and potentially the prevention, of this devastating situation. PMID:19739271

  20. Radiological Patterns of Brain Metastases in Breast Cancer Patients: A Subproject of the German Brain Metastases in Breast Cancer (BMBC) Registry.

    PubMed

    Laakmann, Elena; Witzel, Isabell; Scriba, Verena; Grzyska, Ulrich; Zu Eulenburg, Christine; Burchardi, Nicole; Hesse, Tobias; Würschmidt, Florian; Fehm, Tanja; Möbus, Volker; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Loibl, Sibylle; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Mueller, Volkmar

    2016-09-23

    Evidence about distribution patterns of brain metastases with regard to breast cancer subtypes and its influence on the prognosis of patients is insufficient. Clinical data, cranial computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 300 breast cancer patients with brain metastases (BMs) were collected retrospectively in four centers participating in the Brain Metastases in Breast Cancer Registry (BMBC) in Germany. Patients with positive estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) statuses, had a significantly lower number of BMs at diagnosis. Concerning the treatment mode, HER2-positive patients treated with trastuzumab before the diagnosis of BMs showed a lower number of intracranial metastases (p < 0.001). Patients with a HER2-positive tumor-subtype developed cerebellar metastases more often compared with HER2-negative patients (59.8% vs. 44.5%, p = 0.021), whereas patients with triple-negative primary tumors had leptomeningeal disease more often (31.4% vs. 18.3%, p = 0.038). The localization of Brain metastases (BMs) was associated with prognosis: patients with leptomeningeal disease had shorter survival compared with patients without signs of leptomeningeal disease (median survival 3 vs. 5 months, p = 0.025). A shorter survival could also be observed in the patients with metastases in the occipital lobe (median survival 3 vs. 5 months, p = 0.012). Our findings suggest a different tumor cell homing to different brain regions depending on subtype and treatment.

  1. Brain Metastases in Gastrointestinal Cancers: Is there a Role for Surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Lemke, Johannes; Scheele, Jan; Kapapa, Thomas; von Karstedt, Silvia; Wirtz, Christian Rainer; Henne-Bruns, Doris; Kornmann, Marko

    2014-01-01

    About 10% of all cancer patients will develop brain metastases during advanced disease progression. Interestingly, the vast majority of brain metastases occur in only three types of cancer: Melanoma, lung and breast cancer. In this review, we focus on summarizing the prognosis and impact of surgical resection of brain metastases originating from gastrointestinal cancers such as esophageal, gastric, pancreatic and colorectal cancer. The incidence of brain metastases is <1% in pancreatic and gastric cancer and <4% in esophageal and colorectal cancer. Overall, prognosis of these patients is very poor with a median survival in the range of only months. Interestingly, a substantial number of patients who had received surgical resection of brain metastases showed prolonged survival. However, it should be taken into account that all these studies were not randomized and it is likely that patients selected for surgical treatment presented with other important prognostic factors such as solitary brain metastases and exclusion of extra-cranial disease. Nevertheless, other reports have demonstrated long-term survival of patients upon resection of brain metastases originating from gastrointestinal cancers. Thus, it appears to be justified to consider aggressive surgical approaches for these patients. PMID:25247579

  2. Brain metastases in gastrointestinal cancers: is there a role for surgery?

    PubMed

    Lemke, Johannes; Scheele, Jan; Kapapa, Thomas; von Karstedt, Silvia; Wirtz, Christian Rainer; Henne-Bruns, Doris; Kornmann, Marko

    2014-09-22

    About 10% of all cancer patients will develop brain metastases during advanced disease progression. Interestingly, the vast majority of brain metastases occur in only three types of cancer: Melanoma, lung and breast cancer. In this review, we focus on summarizing the prognosis and impact of surgical resection of brain metastases originating from gastrointestinal cancers such as esophageal, gastric, pancreatic and colorectal cancer. The incidence of brain metastases is <1% in pancreatic and gastric cancer and <4% in esophageal and colorectal cancer. Overall, prognosis of these patients is very poor with a median survival in the range of only months. Interestingly, a substantial number of patients who had received surgical resection of brain metastases showed prolonged survival. However, it should be taken into account that all these studies were not randomized and it is likely that patients selected for surgical treatment presented with other important prognostic factors such as solitary brain metastases and exclusion of extra-cranial disease. Nevertheless, other reports have demonstrated long-term survival of patients upon resection of brain metastases originating from gastrointestinal cancers. Thus, it appears to be justified to consider aggressive surgical approaches for these patients.

  3. Rationale for the use of upfront whole brain irradiation in patients with brain metastases from breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tallet, Agnes V; Azria, David; Le Rhun, Emilie; Barlesi, Fabrice; Carpentier, Antoine F; Gonçalves, Antony; Taillibert, Sophie; Dhermain, Frédéric; Spano, Jean-Philippe; Metellus, Philippe

    2014-05-08

    Breast cancer is the second most common cause of brain metastases and deserves particular attention in relation to current prolonged survival of patients with metastatic disease. Advances in both systemic therapies and brain local treatments (surgery and stereotactic radiosurgery) have led to a reappraisal of brain metastases management. With respect to this, the literature review presented here was conducted in an attempt to collect medical evidence-based data on the use of whole-brain radiotherapy for the treatment of brain metastases from breast cancer. In addition, this study discusses here the potential differences in outcomes between patients with brain metastases from breast cancer and those with brain metastases from other primary malignancies and the potential implications within a treatment strategy.

  4. Rationale for the Use of Upfront Whole Brain Irradiation in Patients with Brain Metastases from Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tallet, Agnes V.; Azria, David; Le Rhun, Emilie; Barlesi, Fabrice; Carpentier, Antoine F.; Gonçalves, Antony; Taillibert, Sophie; Dhermain, Frédéric; Spano, Jean-Philippe; Metellus, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cause of brain metastases and deserves particular attention in relation to current prolonged survival of patients with metastatic disease. Advances in both systemic therapies and brain local treatments (surgery and stereotactic radiosurgery) have led to a reappraisal of brain metastases management. With respect to this, the literature review presented here was conducted in an attempt to collect medical evidence-based data on the use of whole-brain radiotherapy for the treatment of brain metastases from breast cancer. In addition, this study discusses here the potential differences in outcomes between patients with brain metastases from breast cancer and those with brain metastases from other primary malignancies and the potential implications within a treatment strategy. PMID:24815073

  5. Helix pomatia lectin binding pattern of brain metastases originating from breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, U; Kretzschmar, H; Brooks, S; Leathem, A

    1992-04-01

    The glycosylation pattern of brain metastases originating from primary breast carcinomas was investigated using Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA), a lectin which recognises N-acetyl-galactosamine (GalNac) residues of glycoconjugates. In a previous retrospective study this lectin was shown to label only those primary breast cancers that metastasised. To explore this as a clinical marker of metastatic breast cancer behaviour it is necessary to analyse the HPA binding pattern of metastases to see if this differs from primary cancers. To test the question if brain metastases commitently retain this trait of metastatic primary tumors, we studied Helix pomatia binding pattern of brain metastases removed by surgical excision and immediately fixed and processed. Brain metastases from 16 patients with breast cancer were obtained, 13/16 metastases showed binding to the cytoplasm in the majority of cancer cells, 3/16 did not show binding to cancer cells. Normal adjacent brain showed binding to red blood cells, to capillary endothelium of several biopsies and to rare neurones; this binding did not relate to cancer cell binding. Therefore we conclude that HPA is a relatively stable marker for metastasizing breast cancer cells.

  6. Gamma-knife radiosurgery as an optimal treatment modality for brain metastases from epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoo-Kyung; Park, Noh-Hyun; Kim, Jae Weon; Song, Yong-Sang; Kang, Soon-Beom; Lee, Hyo-Pyo

    2008-03-01

    The objectives of this study are to analyze the clinical feature and overall survival rate of patients with brain metastases from epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and to compare the treatment outcomes of gamma-knife radiosurgery (GKS) and whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT). A retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with brain metastases from EOC in a single institution between 1983 and 2005 was performed. Of 1413 patients with EOC, 18 (1.3%) developed brain metastases. Fifteen patients who were treated with GKS or WBRT were enrolled for this study. Seven patients were treated with GKS, and the remaining patients were treated with WBRT as a primary treatment modality. The median age at the time of diagnosis of the primary cancer and brain metastases was 55 and 56 years, respectively. The median interval between the diagnosis of the primary cancer and brain metastases was 28 months. It was significantly associated with the overall survival rate after the diagnosis of ovarian cancer (p=0.017). There were 5 patients (33.3%) with extracranial metastases. Five patients (33.3%) had a solitary brain lesion. The median survival time after the diagnosis of brain metastases was 14 months (range, 1-59 months). Patients who were treated with GKS after brain metastasis had a longer survival time (median, 29 months) than those treated with WBRT (median, 6 months) (p=0.0061). For the control of brain metastases, GKS seems to be an effective modality. GKS improves the overall survival of the patients with brain metastases from EOC.

  7. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI perfusion for differentiating between melanoma and lung cancer brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Hatzoglou, Vaios; Tisnado, Jamie; Mehta, Alpesh; Peck, Kyung K; Daras, Mariza; Omuro, Antonio M; Beal, Kathryn; Holodny, Andrei I

    2017-04-01

    Brain metastases originating from different primary sites overlap in appearance and are difficult to differentiate with conventional MRI. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI can assess tumor microvasculature and has demonstrated utility in characterizing primary brain tumors. Our aim was to evaluate the performance of plasma volume (Vp) and volume transfer coefficient (K(trans) ) derived from DCE-MRI in distinguishing between melanoma and nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) brain metastases. Forty-seven NSCLC and 23 melanoma brain metastases were retrospectively assessed with DCE-MRI. Regions of interest were manually drawn around the metastases to calculate Vpmean and Kmeantrans. The Mann-Whitney U test and receiver operating characteristic analysis (ROC) were performed to compare perfusion parameters between the two groups. The Vpmean of melanoma brain metastases (4.35, standard deviation [SD] = 1.31) was significantly higher (P = 0.03) than Vpmean of NSCLC brain metastases (2.27, SD = 0.96). The Kmeantrans values were higher in melanoma brain metastases, but the difference between the two groups was not significant (P = 0.12). Based on ROC analysis, a cut-off value of 3.02 for Vpmean (area under curve = 0.659 with SD = 0.074) distinguished between melanoma brain metastases and NSCLC brain metastases (P < 0.01) with 72% specificity. Our data show the DCE-MRI parameter Vpmean can differentiate between melanoma and NSCLC brain metastases. The ability to noninvasively predict tumor histology of brain metastases in patients with multiple malignancies can have important clinical implications.

  8. Management of brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Soffietti, Riccardo; Rudā, Roberta; Mutani, Roberto

    2002-10-01

    Brain metastases occur in 20-40% of patients with cancer and their frequency has increased over time. Lung, breast and skin (melanoma) are the commonest sources of brain metastases, and in up to 15% of patients the primary site remains unknown. After the introduction of MRI, multiple lesions have outnumbered single lesions. Contrast-enhanced MRI is the gold standard for the diagnosis. There are no pathognomonic features on CT or MRI that distinguish brain metastases from primary malignant brain tumors or nonneoplastic conditions: therefore a tissue diagnosis by biopsy should be always obtained in patients with unknown primary tumor before undergoing radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Some factors are prognostically important: a high Performance Status, a solitary brain metastasis, an absence of systemic metastases, a controlled primary tumor and a younger age. Based on these factors, subgroups of patients with different prognosis have been identified (RPA class I, II, III). Symptomatic therapy includes corticosteroids to reduce vasogenic cerebral edema and anticonvulsants to control seizures. In patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases prophylactic anticonvulsants should not be used routinely. The combination of surgery and whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is superior to WBRT alone for the treatment of single brain metastasis in patients with limited or absent systemic disease and good neurological condition. Complete surgical resection allows a relief of intracranial hypertension, seizures and focal neurological deficits. Radiosurgery, alone or in conjunction with WBRT, yields results which are comparable to those reported after surgery followed by WBRT, provided that lesion's diameter does not exceed 3-3.5 cm. Radiosurgery offers the potential of treating patients with surgically inaccessible metastases. Still controversial is the need for WBRT after surgery or radiosurgery: local control seems better with the combined approach, but overall survival does not

  9. Survival among women with triple receptor-negative breast cancer and brain metastases

    PubMed Central

    Dawood, S.; Broglio, K.; Esteva, F. J.; Yang, W.; Kau, S.-W.; Islam, R.; Albarracin, C.; Yu, T. K.; Green, M.; Hortobagyi, G. N.; Gonzalez-Angulo, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of and survival following brain metastases among women with triple receptor-negative breast cancer. Patients and methods: In all, 679 patients with nonmetastatic triple receptor-negative breast cancer diagnosed from 1980 to 2006 were identified. Cumulative incidence of brain metastases was computed. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to explore factors that predict for development of brain metastases. Survival was computed using the Kaplan–Meier product limit method. Results: Median follow-up was 26.9 months. In all, 42 (6.2%) patients developed brain metastases with a cumulative incidence at 2 and 5 years of 5.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.8% to 7.9%] and 9.6% (95% CI 6.8% to 13%), respectively. A total of 24 (3.5%) patients developed brain metastases as the first site of recurrence with cumulative incidence at 2 and 5 years of 2.0% (95% CI 2.6% to 6.0%) and 4.9% (95% CI 3.2% to 7.0%), respectively. In the multivariable model, no specific factor was observed to be significantly associated with time to brain metastases. Median survival for all patients who developed brain metastases and those who developed brain metastases as the first site of recurrence was 2.9 months (95% CI 2.0–7.6 months) and 5.8 months (95% CI 1.7–11.0 months), respectively. Conclusion: In this single-institutional study, patients with nonmetastatic triple receptor-negative breast tumors have a high early incidence of brain metastases associated with poor survival and maybe an ideal cohort to target brain metastases preventive strategies. PMID:19150943

  10. SRC family kinases as novel therapeutic targets to treat breast cancer brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siyuan; Huang, Wen-Chien; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Chenyu; Lowery, Frank J; Ding, Zhaoxi; Guo, Hua; Wang, Hai; Huang, Suyun; Sahin, Aysegul A; Aldape, Kenneth D; Steeg, Patricia S; Yu, Dihua

    2013-09-15

    Despite better control of early-stage disease and improved overall survival of patients with breast cancer, the incidence of life-threatening brain metastases continues to increase in some of these patients. Unfortunately, other than palliative treatments there is no effective therapy for this condition. In this study, we reveal a critical role for Src activation in promoting brain metastasis in a preclinical model of breast cancer and we show how Src-targeting combinatorial regimens can treat HER2(+) brain metastases in this model. We found that Src was hyperactivated in brain-seeking breast cancer cells derived from human cell lines or from patients' brain metastases. Mechanistically, Src activation promoted tumor cell extravasation into the brain parenchyma via permeabilization of the blood-brain barrier. When combined with the EGFR/HER2 dual-targeting drug lapatinib, an Src-targeting combinatorial regimen prevented outgrowth of disseminated breast cancer cells through the induction of cell-cycle arrest. More importantly, this combinatorial regimen inhibited the outgrowth of established experimental brain metastases, prolonging the survival of metastases-bearing mice. Our results provide a rationale for clinical evaluation of Src-targeting regimens to treat patients with breast cancer suffering from brain metastasis. ©2013 AACR.

  11. Brain metastases from breast cancer: lessons from experimental magnetic resonance imaging studies and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Murrell, Donna H; Foster, Paula J; Chambers, Ann F

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer that has metastasized to the brain presents difficult clinical challenges. This diagnosis comes with high mortality rates, largely due to complexities in early detection and ineffective therapies associated with both dormancy and impermeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the current gold standard for diagnosis and assessment of brain tumors. It has been used clinically to investigate metastatic development as well as monitor response to therapy. Here, we describe preclinical imaging strategies that we have used to study the development of brain metastases due to breast cancer. Using this approach, we have identified three subsets of metastatic disease: permeable metastases, nonpermeable metastases, and solitary, dormant cancer cells, which likely have very different biology and responses to therapy. The ability to simultaneously monitor the spatial and temporal distribution of dormant cancer cells, metastatic growth, and associated tumor permeability can provide great insight into factors that contribute to malignant proliferation. Our preclinical findings suggest that standard clinical detection strategies may underestimate the true metastatic burden of breast cancer that has metastasized to the brain. A better understanding of true metastatic burden in brains will be important to assist in the development of more effective chemotherapeutics-particularly those targeted to cross the BBB-as well as detection of small nonpermeable metastases.

  12. Patients with brain metastases derived from gastrointestinal cancer: clinical characteristics and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Lin, L; Zhao, C-H; Ge, F-J; Wang, Y; Chen, Y-L; Liu, R-R; Jia, R; Liu, L-J; Liu, J-Z; Xu, J-M

    2016-01-01

    This study seeks to evaluate the natural history, outcome, and possible prognostic factors in patients with brain metastases derived from gastrointestinal cancers. The clinical features, prognostic factors, and the effects of different treatment modalities on survival were retrospectively investigated in 103 patients with brain metastases derived from gastrointestinal cancers. The median time from diagnosis of primary tumor to brain metastasis was 22.00 months. The interval between diagnosis of primary tumor relapse and brain metastasis was 8.00 months. The median follow-up time was 7.80 months. The median survival time after diagnosis of brain metastases was 4.10 months for all patients and 1.17 months for patients who received only steroids (36.9 %), 3.97 months for patients who only received whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT 31.1 %), 11.07 months for patients who received gamma-knife surgery alone or/and WBRT (20.4 %), and 13.70 months for patients who underwent surgery and radiotherapy (12 patients, 11.6 %) (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class, extracranial metastasis, and chemotherapy were independent prognostic factors. Brain metastasis derived from gastrointestinal tract cancer is rare, and overall patient survival is poor. RPA class, chemotherapy after brain metastases, and treatment regimens were independent prognostic factors for the survival of patients with brain metastases derived from gastrointestinal cancers.

  13. Heterogeneous Blood-Tumor Barrier Permeability Determines Drug Efficacy in Experimental Brain Metastases of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lockman, Paul R.; Mittapalli, Rajendar K.; Taskar, Kunal S.; Rudraraju, Vinay; Gril, Brunilde; Bohn, Kaci A.; Adkins, Chris E.; Roberts, Amanda; Thorsheim, Helen R.; Gaasch, Julie A.; Huang, Suyun; Palmieri, Diane; Steeg, Patricia S.; Smith, Quentin R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Brain metastases of breast cancer appear to be increasing in incidence, confer significant morbidity, and threaten to compromise gains made in systemic chemotherapy. The blood-tumor barrier (BTB) is compromised in many brain metastases, however, the extent to which this influences chemotherapeutic delivery and efficacy is unknown. Herein, we answer this question by measuring BTB passive integrity, chemotherapeutic drug uptake, and anticancer efficacy in vivo in two breast cancer models that metastasize preferentially to brain. Experimental Design Experimental brain metastasis drug uptake and BTB permeability were simultaneously measured using novel fluorescent and phosphorescent imaging techniques in immune compromised mice. Drug-induced apoptosis and vascular characteristics were assessed using immunofluorescent microscopy. Results Analysis of >2000 brain metastases from two models (human 231-BR-Her2 and murine 4T1-BR5) demonstrated partial BTB permeability compromise in >89% lesions, varying in magnitude within and between metastases. Brain metastasis uptake of 14C- paclitaxel and 14C- doxorubicin was generally greater than normal brain but <15% of that of other tissues or peripheral metastases, and only reached cytotoxic concentrations in a small subset (~10%) of the most permeable metastases. Neither drug significantly decreased the experimental brain metastatic ability of 231-BR-Her2 tumor cells. BTB permeability was associated with vascular remodeling and correlated with over expression of the pericyte protein, desmin. Conclusions This work demonstrates that the BTB remains a significant impediment to standard chemotherapeutic delivery and efficacy in experimental brain metastases of breast cancer. New brain permeable drugs will be needed. Evidence is presented for vascular remodeling in BTB permeability alterations. PMID:20829328

  14. Brain Metastases in Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Allison M; Cagney, Daniel N; Catalano, Paul J; Warren, Laura E; Bellon, Jennifer R; Punglia, Rinaa S; Claus, Elizabeth B; Lee, Eudocia Q; Wen, Patrick Y; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A; Alexander, Brian M; Lin, Nancy U; Aizer, Ayal A

    2017-08-01

    Population-based estimates of the incidence and prognosis of brain metastases at diagnosis of breast cancer are lacking. To characterize the incidence proportions and median survivals of patients with breast cancer and brain metastases at the time of cancer diagnosis. Patients with breast cancer and brain metastases at the time of diagnosis were identified using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database of the National Cancer Institute. Data were stratified by subtype, age, sex, and race. Multivariable logistic and Cox regression were performed to identify predictors of the presence of brain metastases at diagnosis and factors associated with all-cause mortality, respectively. For incidence, we identified a population-based sample of 238 726 adult patients diagnosed as having invasive breast cancer between 2010 and 2013 for whom the presence or absence of brain metastases at diagnosis was known. Patients diagnosed at autopsy or with an unknown follow-up were excluded from the survival analysis, leaving 231 684 patients in this cohort. Incidence proportion and median survival of patients with brain metastases and newly diagnosed breast cancer. We identified 968 patients with brain metastases at the time of diagnosis of breast cancer, representing 0.41% of the entire cohort and 7.56% of the subset with metastatic disease to any site. A total of 57 were 18 to 40 years old, 423 were 41 to 60 years old, 425 were 61-80 years old, and 63 were older than 80 years. Ten were male and 958 were female. Incidence proportions were highest among patients with hormone receptor (HR)-negative human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive (1.1% among entire cohort, 11.5% among patients with metastatic disease to any distant site) and triple-negative (0.7% among entire cohort, 11.4% among patients with metastatic disease to any distant site) subtypes. Median survival among the entire cohort with brain metastases was 10.0 months. Patients with HR

  15. Predicting brain metastases of breast cancer based on serum S100B and serum HER2.

    PubMed

    Bechmann, Troels; Madsen, Jonna Skov; Brandslund, Ivan; Lund, Erik Dalsgaard; Ormstrup, Tina; Jakobsen, Erik Hugger; Jylling, Anne Marie Bak; Steffensen, Karina Dahl; Jakobsen, Anders

    2013-11-01

    Brain metastases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in breast cancer. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the prediction of brain metastases based on serum S100B and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). A total of 107 breast cancer patients were included in the current study from two prospective cohort studies with either elevated serum HER2 levels >15 ng/ml or brain metastases verified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computer tomography (CT). Following the exclusion of six patients, the remaining 101 patients were divided into two groups: Group 0 (n=55), patients with normal MRI results; and group 1 (n=46), patients with brain metastases. The levels of serum S100B and HER2 in the two groups were analyzed prior to MRI or CT of the brain, and no significant differences were identified in the serum HER2 (P=0.060) or S100B levels (P=0.623) between the groups. The univariate analysis of prognostic factors for brain metastases showed a significant correlation with systemic disease (P<0.001), axillary lymph node metastases (P=0.001) and serum HER2 >30 ng/ml (P=0.002). Only systemic disease (P<0.001) remained statistically significant in the multivariate analysis. In conclusion, serum levels of S100B and HER2 did not predict the risk of brain metastases. In the multivariate analysis, brain metastases were only found to correlate with systemic disease. However, in the univariate analysis, serum HER2 levels >30 ng/ml were identified to correlate with increased risk of brain metastases, which calls for further investigation.

  16. MicroRNAs Linked to Trastuzumab Resistance, Brain Metastases | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have tied increased levels of a microRNA (miRNA) to resistance to the targeted therapy trastuzumab (Herceptin) in women with HER2-positive breast cancer. Another research team has discovered a “signature” of miRNAs in brain metastases in patients with melanoma—a signature that is also present in the primary tumor and could identify melanoma patients at increased risk of brain metastases. |

  17. Treatment and prognosis of breast cancer patients with brain metastases according to intrinsic subtype.

    PubMed

    Kuba, Sayaka; Ishida, Mayumi; Nakamura, Yoshiaki; Yamanouchi, Kosho; Minami, Shigeki; Taguchi, Kenichi; Eguchi, Susumu; Ohno, Shinji

    2014-11-01

    How breast cancer subtypes should affect treatment decisions for breast cancer patients with brain metastases is unclear. We analyzed local brain metastases treatments and their outcomes according to subtype in patients with breast cancer and brain metastases. We reviewed records and database information for women treated at the National Kyushu Cancer Center between 2001 and 2010. Patients were divided into three breast cancer subtype groups: Luminal (estrogen receptor positive and/or progesterone receptor positive, but human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative); human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive and triple negative (estrogen receptor negative, progesterone receptor negative and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative). Of 524 advanced breast cancer patients, we reviewed 65 (12%) with brain metastases and records showing estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status, as well as outcome data; there were 26 (40%) Luminal, 26 (40%) had human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and 13 (20%) had triple negative subtypes. There was no statistical difference in the number of brain metastases among subtypes; however, rates of stereotactic radiosurgery or surgery for brain metastases differed significantly by subtype (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2: 81%, Luminal: 42% and triple negative: 47%; P = 0.03). Patients having the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 subtype, a performance status of ≤1 and ≤4 brain metastases, who underwent systemic therapy after brain metastases and underwent stereotactic radiosurgery or surgery, were predicted to have longer overall survival after brain metastases. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that not having systemic therapy and not having the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 subtype were independent factors associated with an increased risk of death (hazard ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.01-5.6; P = 0.05 and hazard ratio 2.9, 95

  18. βIII-Tubulin Regulates Breast Cancer Metastases to the Brain.

    PubMed

    Kanojia, Deepak; Morshed, Ramin A; Zhang, Lingjiao; Miska, Jason M; Qiao, Jian; Kim, Julius W; Pytel, Peter; Balyasnikova, Irina V; Lesniak, Maciej S; Ahmed, Atique U

    2015-05-01

    Brain metastases occur in about 10% to 30% of breast cancer patients, which culminates in a poor prognosis. It is, therefore, critical to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying brain metastatic processes to identify relevant targets. We hypothesized that breast cancer cells must express brain-associated markers that would enable their invasion and survival in the brain microenvironment. We assessed a panel of brain-predominant markers and found an elevation of several neuronal markers (βIII-tubulin, Nestin, and AchE) in brain metastatic breast cancer cells. Among these neuronal predominant markers, in silico analysis revealed overexpression of βIII-tubulin (TUBB3) in breast cancer brain metastases (BCBM) and its expression was significantly associated with distant metastases. TUBB3 knockdown studies were conducted in breast cancer models (MDA-Br, GLIM2, and MDA-MB-468), which revealed significant reduction in their invasive capabilities. MDA-Br cells with suppressed TUBB3 also demonstrated loss of key signaling molecules such as β3 integrin, pFAK, and pSrc in vitro. Furthermore, TUBB3 knockdown in a brain metastatic breast cancer cell line compromised its metastatic ability in vivo, and significantly improved survival in a brain metastasis model. These results implicate a critical role of TUBB3 in conferring brain metastatic potential to breast cancer cells. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Pretreatment clinical prognostic factors for brain metastases from breast cancer treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Roehrig, Andrew T.; Ferrel, Ethan A.; Benincosa, Devon A.; MacKay, Alexander R.; Ling, Benjamin C.; Carlson, Jonathan D.; Demakas, John J.; Wagner, Aaron; Lamoreaux, Wayne T.; Fairbanks, Robert K.; Call, Jason A.; Cooke, Barton S.; Peressini, Ben; Lee, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Brain metastases significantly affect morbidity and mortality rates for patients with metastatic breast cancer. Treatment for brain metastases lengthens survival, and options such as stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) can increase survival to 12 months or longer. This study retrospectively analyzes the prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) for patients with one or multiple brain metastases from breast cancer treated with SRS. Methods: Between December 2001 and May 2015, 111 patients with brain metastases from breast cancer were grouped by potential prognostic factors including age at diagnosis, Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score, number of brain metastases, and whether or not they received adjuvant treatments such as whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) or surgical resection. Survival rates were determined for all groups, and hazard ratios were calculated using univariate and multivariate analyses to compare differences in OS. Results: Median OS was 16.8 ± 4.22 months. Univariate analysis of patients with a KPS ≤60 and multivariate analysis of KPS 70–80 showed significantly shorter survival than those with KPS 90–100 (5.9 ± 1.22 months, 21.3 ± 11.69 months, and 22.00 ± 12.56 months, P = 0.024 and < 0.001). Other results such as age ≥65 years and higher number of brain metastases trended toward shorter survival but were not statistically significant. No difference in survival was found for patients who had received WBRT in addition to SRS (P = 0.779). Conclusion: SRS has been shown to be safe and effective in treating brain metastases from breast cancer. We found our median survival to be 16.8 ± 4.22 months, an increase from other clinical reports. In addition, 38.4% of our population was alive at 2 years and 15.6% survived 5 years. Significant prognostic factors can help inform clinical treatment decisions. This study found that KPS was a significant prognostic indicator of OS in these patients. PMID:27990315

  20. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutational Status and Brain Metastases in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Vijaya Raj; D'Souza, Sanyo P; Smith, Lynette M; Cushman-Vokoun, Allison M; Noronha, Vanita; Verma, Vivek; Joshi, Amit; Chougule, Anuradha; Jambhekar, Nirmala; Kessinger, Anne; Marr, Alissa; Patil, Vijay; Banavali, Sripad D; Ganti, Apar Kishor; Prabhash, Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC) may be more common in patients with brain metastases. Previous studies, however, did not adjust for effects of confounding variables. This retrospective study included 1,522 consecutive patients with NSCLC, whose tumors were diagnosed and tested for EGFR mutations at the University of Nebraska Medical Center (Omaha, NE) and Tata Memorial Hospital (Mumbai, India). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify any association between EGFR status and clinical factors. EGFR mutations were more common in females than males (38.7% v 24.8%), Asians than whites (31.3% v 13.4%), nonsmokers than smokers (40.2% v 14.6%), alcohol nonconsumers than users (32.4% v 15.8%), adenocarcinoma than other histology types (32.7% v 10.3%), and patients with brain metastases than extracranial or no metastases (39.4% v 29.8% v 15.1%; P < .001 for all comparisons). There was a higher likelihood of an EGFR mutation among patients with brain metastases (odds ratio, 1.8; P < .001). The median overall survival (OS) was 19.8 months. Patients with brain metastases had a shorter median OS (15 v 20.6 months; P = .02). However, in the cohort of EGFR mutation-positive patients, there was no difference in median OS between patients with and without brain metastases (20.8 v 25.1 months; P = .11). There is a nearly two-fold higher incidence of EGFR mutations in NSCLC among patients with brain metastases at diagnosis. EGFR mutations did not predict for outcomes from brain metastases.

  1. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutational Status and Brain Metastases in Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Vijaya Raj; D’Souza, Sanyo P.; Smith, Lynette M.; Cushman-Vokoun, Allison M.; Noronha, Vanita; Verma, Vivek; Joshi, Amit; Chougule, Anuradha; Jambhekar, Nirmala; Kessinger, Anne; Marr, Alissa; Patil, Vijay; Banavali, Sripad D.; Prabhash, Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in non–small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC) may be more common in patients with brain metastases. Previous studies, however, did not adjust for effects of confounding variables. Methods This retrospective study included 1,522 consecutive patients with NSCLC, whose tumors were diagnosed and tested for EGFR mutations at the University of Nebraska Medical Center (Omaha, NE) and Tata Memorial Hospital (Mumbai, India). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify any association between EGFR status and clinical factors. Results EGFR mutations were more common in females than males (38.7% v 24.8%), Asians than whites (31.3% v 13.4%), nonsmokers than smokers (40.2% v 14.6%), alcohol nonconsumers than users (32.4% v 15.8%), adenocarcinoma than other histology types (32.7% v 10.3%), and patients with brain metastases than extracranial or no metastases (39.4% v 29.8% v 15.1%; P < .001 for all comparisons). There was a higher likelihood of an EGFR mutation among patients with brain metastases (odds ratio, 1.8; P < .001). The median overall survival (OS) was 19.8 months. Patients with brain metastases had a shorter median OS (15 v 20.6 months; P = .02). However, in the cohort of EGFR mutation–positive patients, there was no difference in median OS between patients with and without brain metastases (20.8 v 25.1 months; P = .11). Conclusion There is a nearly two-fold higher incidence of EGFR mutations in NSCLC among patients with brain metastases at diagnosis. EGFR mutations did not predict for outcomes from brain metastases. PMID:28717762

  2. Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expression in primary gliomas and breast cancer brain metastases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary and secondary brain cancers are highly treatment resistant, and their marked angiogenesis attracts interest as a potential therapeutic target. Recent observations reveal that the microvascular endothelium of primary high-grade gliomas expresses prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA). Breast cancers express PSMA and they frequently form secondary brain tumors. Hence we report here our pilot study addressing the feasibility of PSMA targeting in brain and metastatic breast tumors, by examining PSMA levels in all glioma grades (19 patients) and in breast cancer brain metastases (5 patients). Methods Tumor specimens were acquired from archival material and normal brain tissues from autopsies. Tissue were stained and probed for PSMA, and the expression levels imaged and quantified using automated hardware and software. PSMA staining intensities of glioma subtypes, breast tumors, and breast tumor brain metastases were compared statistically versus normals. Results Normal brain microvessels (4 autopsies) did not stain for PSMA, while a small proportion (<5%) of healthy neurons stained, and were surrounded by an intact blood brain barrier. Tumor microvessels of the highly angiogenic grade IV gliomas showed intense PSMA staining which varied between patients and was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than normal brain. Grade I gliomas showed moderate vessel staining, while grade II and III gliomas had no vessel staining, but a few (<2%) of the tumor cells stained. Both primary breast cancer tissues and the associated brain metastases exhibited vascular PSMA staining, although the intensity of staining was generally less for the metastatic lesions. Conclusions Our results align with and extend previous data showing PSMA expression in blood vessels of gliomas and breast cancer brain metastases. These results provide a rationale for more comprehensive studies to explore PSMA targeted agents for treating secondary brain tumors with PSMA expressing

  3. [Brain metastases in breast cancer. Epidemiology and natural history. The Institut Curie experience].

    PubMed

    Gachet, Julie; Giroux, Julie; Girre, Véronique; Brain, Étienne; Kirova, Youlia; Mignot, Laurent; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Dutertre, Guillaume; Pouit, Bernard; Mosseri, Véronique; Falcou, Marie-Christine; Cottu, Paul H

    2011-04-01

    Breast cancer is the second cause for brain metastases. Their incidence is rising, partly due to the therapeutic improvements which alter the natural history of breast cancer. Predictive factors for brain metastases have been identified: HER2 oncogene overexpression, lack of expression of hormone receptors, young age and triple negative status. Brain metastases prognosis remains poor with a median survival shorter than 1 year, except for solitary lesions treated by surgery or radiosurgery. We have analysed two series of data from Institut Curie (Paris and Saint-Cloud). In women younger than 65 years, with HER2 negative breast carcinoma, median survival was 7.1 months. In women older than 65 years, median survival was 4 months.

  4. Predictive biochemical-markers for the development of brain metastases from lung cancer: clinical evidence and future directions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qian; Ouyang, Xuenong

    2013-10-01

    Brain metastases are a common complication of patients with lung cancer and lung cancer is one of the most common causes of brain metastases. The occurrence of brain metastases is associated with poor prognosis and high morbidity, even after intensive multimodal therapy. Therefore, identifying lung cancer patients with who are at high risk of developing brain metastases and applying effect intervention is important to reduce or delay the incidence of brain metastases. Biochemical-markers may meet an unmet need for following patients' mechanisms of brain metastases. Data for this review were identified by searches of Pubmed and Cochrane databases, and references from relevant articles using the search terms "lung cancer" and "brain metastasis". Meeting abstracts, unpublished reports and review articles were not considered. Clinical results for pathological and circulating markers including cancer molecular subtypes, miRNA, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and other markers are presented. However, these biochemical-markers are not yet established surrogate assessments for prediction of brain metastases. Biochemical-markers reported allowed physicians to identify which patients with lung cancer are at high risk for brain metastases. Prospective randomized clinical studies are needed to further assess the utility of these biochemical-markers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. New Breast Cancer Recursive Partitioning Analysis Prognostic Index in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Brain Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Niwinska, Anna; Murawska, Magdalena

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to present a new breast cancer recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) prognostic index for patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases as a guide in clinical decision making. Methods and Materials: A prospectively collected group of 441 consecutive patients with breast cancer and brain metastases treated between the years 2003 and 2009 was assessed. Prognostic factors significant for univariate analysis were included into RPA. Results: Three prognostic classes of a new breast cancer RPA prognostic index were selected. The median survival of patients within prognostic Classes I, II, and III was 29, 9, and 2.4 months, respectively (p < 0.0001). Class I included patients with one or two brain metastases, without extracranial disease or with controlled extracranial disease, and with Karnofsky performance status (KPS) of 100. Class III included patients with multiple brain metastases with KPS of {<=}60. Class II included all other cases. Conclusions: The breast cancer RPA prognostic index is an easy and valuable tool for use in clinical practice. It can select patients who require aggressive treatment and those in whom whole-brain radiotherapy or symptomatic therapy is the most reasonable option. An individual approach is required for patients from prognostic Class II.

  6. Stereotactic radiation therapy of brain metastases from colorectal cancer: A single institution cohort.

    PubMed

    Paix, A; Antoni, D; Adeduntan, R; Noël, G

    2017-05-01

    The brain remains an uncommon site of colorectal cancer metastases. Due to the improvement of overall colorectal cancer patient survival, the incidence of brain metastases will likely rise. We report the efficacy and safety of hypofractionnated stereotactic radiation therapy and stereotactic radiosurgery, and its role in colorectal cancer brain metastasis management. Between June 2010 and December 2014, fifteen consecutive patients received hypofractionnated stereotactic radiation therapy or stereotactic radiosurgery as first local therapy or following surgical removal for colorectal cancer brain metastases. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Secondary endpoints were brain progression free survival, in field control rates and safety. Median follow-up was 41 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: [8.9-73.1 months]), median overall survival was 8 months (95% CI [4.7-11.3 months]), and median brain progression-free survival was 5 months (95% CI [3.9-6.1 months]). Five in field recurrences were observed, which makes a control rate per metastases at 6 and 12 months of 77.8% (95% CI [74.34%-81.26%]), 51.9% (95% CI [44.21%-59.59%]) respectively. Over the 19 treatment sequences, five in field recurences were observed: 6, 12 and 18 months control rate per treatment sequence were 93.3% (95% CI [90.42%-96.18%]), 68.1% (95% CI [62.03%-74.17%]) and 45.4% (95% CI [36.14%-54.66%]) respectively. Immediate tolerance was good with no toxicity grade III or more. Long-term toxicity included two radionecrosis among which, one was symptomatic. The results of this retrospective analysis suggest that hypofractionnated stereotactic radiation therapy and stereotactic radiosurgery are effective and safe treatment modalities for single and multiple small brain metastases from colorectal cancer. However, results need to be confirmed by multicenter, collected data. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  7. NKTR-102 Efficacy versus irinotecan in a mouse model of brain metastases of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Adkins, Chris E; Nounou, Mohamed I; Hye, Tanvirul; Mohammad, Afroz S; Terrell-Hall, Tori; Mohan, Neel K; Eldon, Michael A; Hoch, Ute; Lockman, Paul R

    2015-10-13

    Brain metastases are an increasing problem in women with invasive breast cancer. Strategies designed to treat brain metastases of breast cancer, particularly chemotherapeutics such as irinotecan, demonstrate limited efficacy. Conventional irinotecan distributes poorly to brain metastases; therefore, NKTR-102, a PEGylated irinotecan conjugate should enhance irinotecan and its active metabolite SN38 exposure in brain metastases leading to brain tumor cytotoxicity. Female nude mice were intracranially or intracardially implanted with human brain seeking breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231Br) and dosed with irinotecan or NKTR-102 to determine plasma and tumor pharmacokinetics of irinotecan and SN38. Tumor burden and survival were evaluated in mice treated with vehicle, irinotecan (50 mg/kg), or NKTR-102 low and high doses (10 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg respectively). NKTR-102 penetrates the blood-tumor barrier and distributes to brain metastases. NKTR-102 increased and prolonged SN38 exposure (>20 ng/g for 168 h) versus conventional irinotecan (>1 ng/g for 4 h). Treatment with NKTR-102 extended survival time (from 35 days to 74 days) and increased overall survival for NKTR-102 low dose (30 % mice) and NKTR-102 high dose (50 % mice). Tumor burden decreased (37 % with 10 mg/kg NKTR-102 and 96 % with 50 mg/kg) and lesion sizes decreased (33 % with 10 mg/kg NKTR-102 and 83 % with 50 mg/kg NKTR-102) compared to conventional irinotecan treated animals. Elevated and prolonged tumor SN38 exposure after NKTR-102 administration appears responsible for increased survival in this model of breast cancer brain metastasis. Further, SN38 concentrations observed in this study are clinically achieved with 145 mg/m(2) NKTR-102, such as those used in the BEACON trial, underlining translational relevance of these results.

  8. Dramatic regression of multiple brain metastases from breast cancer with Capecitabine: another arrow at the bow?

    PubMed

    Fabi, A; Vidiri, A; Ferretti, G; Felici, A; Papaldo, P; Carlini, P; Mirri, A; Nuzzo, C; Cognetti, F

    2006-01-01

    Several chemotherapic agents, which are active against breast cancer, penetrate poorly into the central nervous system. Despite its limited brain penetration, 5-fluorouracil has been a component of effective regimens for brain metastases. Capecitabine is a recently developed oral prodrug that is converted into 5-fluorouracil by sequential enzymatic steps. Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is the final enzyme responsible for Capecitabine activation. Studies have demonstrated that high intratumoral levels of TP and low levels of its catabolite dihydropyrimidine-dehydrogenase are correlated with the capecitabine response. The penetration of Capecitabine across the brain-blood barrier remains unknown; we report the case of and discuss a breast cancer patient who had an interesting response of brain metastases with Capecitabine in monochemotherapy before brain irradiation.

  9. Novel Treatment Strategies for Brain Metastases in Non-small-cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bui, Nam; Woodward, Brian; Johnson, Anna; Husain, Hatim

    2016-05-01

    Brain metastases are common in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and due to associated poor prognosis, this field is an important area of need for the development of innovative medical therapies. Therapies including local approaches through surgical intervention and/or radiation and evolving systemic therapies have led to improvements in the treatment of brain metastases in patients with lung cancer. Strategies that consider applying advanced radiation techniques to minimize toxicity, intervening early with effective systemic therapies to spare radiation/surgery, testing radiosensitization combinations, and developing drug penetrant molecules have and will continue to define new practice patterns. We believe that in carefully considered asymptomatic patients, first-line systemic therapy may be considered before radiation therapy and small-molecule targeted therapy may provide an opportunity to defer radiation therapy for recurrence or progression of disease. The next several years in oncology drug development will see the reporting on of brain penetrant molecules in oncogene-defined non-small cell lung cancer. Ongoing studies will evaluate immunotherapies in patients with brain metastases with associated endpoints. We hope that continued drug development and carefully designed clinical trials may afford an opportunity to improve the lives of patients with brain metastases.

  10. Keratin 13 expression reprograms bone and brain metastases of human prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Lawrence W.; Chu, Gina C-Y; Wu, Jason B-Y.; Huang, Jen-Ming; Li, Quanlin; You, Sungyong; Kim, Jayoung; Lu, Yi-Tsung; Mrdenovic, Stefan; Wang, Ruoxiang; Freeman, Michael R.; Garraway, Isla; Lewis, Michael S.; Chung, Leland W. K.; Zhau, Haiyen E.

    2016-01-01

    Lethal progression of prostate cancer metastasis can be improved by developing animal models that recapitulate the clinical conditions. We report here that cytokeratin 13 (KRT13), an intermediate filament protein, plays a directive role in prostate cancer bone, brain, and soft tissue metastases. KRT13 expression was elevated in bone, brain, and soft tissue metastatic prostate cancer cell lines and in primary and metastatic clinical prostate, lung, and breast cancer specimens. When KRT13 expression was determined at a single cell level in primary tumor tissues of 44 prostate cancer cases, KRT13 level predicted bone metastasis and the overall survival of prostate cancer patients. Genetically enforced KRT13 expression in human prostate cancer cell lines drove metastases toward mouse bone, brain and soft tissues through a RANKL-independent mechanism, as KRT13 altered the expression of genes associated with EMT, stemness, neuroendocrine/neuromimicry, osteomimicry, development, and extracellular matrices, but not receptor activator NF-κB ligand (RANKL) signaling networks in prostate cancer cells. Our results suggest new inhibitors targeting RANKL-independent pathways should be developed for the treatment of prostate cancer bone and soft tissue metastases. PMID:27835867

  11. Role of Gamma Knife® Radiosurgery for the Treatment of Brain Metastases from Gynecological Cancers.

    PubMed

    Keller, Andrew; Ismail, Rahim; Potrebko, Peter S; Pepe, Julie; Wu, Meiling; Saigal, Kunal; Biagioli, Matthew; Shridhar, Ravi; Holloway, Robert; Field, Melvin; Rao, Nikhil G

    2016-12-31

    Gamma Knife(®) (GK) (Elekta Instruments, Stockholm, Sweden) radiosurgery is well established for treatment of brain metastases. There are limited data on patients treated with GK from gynecological cancers. The authors sought to determine the effectiveness of the GK in patients with brain metastases from gynecological cancers. An IRB-approved database was queried for patients with gynecologic cancers treated with GK between June 1996 and May 2016. Imaging studies were reviewed post-SRS (stereotactic radiosurgery) to evaluate local control (LC) and distant brain control (DC). Overall survival (OS), local control, and distant brain control were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier (KM) method and log-rank test.  Results: Thirty-three patients underwent SRS for 73 separate cranial lesions. The median age was -58.5 years, and 17 (52%) also had extracranial metastases. Ten (30%) patients had previously received whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT), and 11 (33%) underwent concurrent WBRT. The median tumor volume was 0.96 cm(3). Median radiographic follow-up was 11 months. At the time of treatment, 39% of patients were categorized as recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) Class I, 55% as RPA Class II, and 6% as RPA Class III. The local failure rate was 8%. Five patients (15%) developed new brain lesions outside the radiation field with a median progression-free survival (PFS) of seven (range: 3-9) months. Median OS was 15 months from GK treatment. One-year OS was 72.9% from GK treatment. Primary cancer histology was a significant predictor of OS, favoring ovarian and endometrial cancer (p = 0.03). Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery for gynecologic brain metastases leads to excellent control rates of treated lesions. Primary histology may have a significant impact on OS following GK, with improved survival seen with ovarian and cervical cancer following Gamma Knife radiosurgery (p = 0.03).

  12. Role of Gamma Knife® Radiosurgery for the Treatment of Brain Metastases from Gynecological Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Rahim; Potrebko, Peter S; Pepe, Julie; Wu, Meiling; Saigal, Kunal; Biagioli, Matthew; Shridhar, Ravi; Holloway, Robert; Field, Melvin; Rao, Nikhil G

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Gamma Knife® (GK) (Elekta Instruments, Stockholm, Sweden) radiosurgery is well established for treatment of brain metastases. There are limited data on patients treated with GK from gynecological cancers. The authors sought to determine the effectiveness of the GK in patients with brain metastases from gynecological cancers. Methods: An IRB-approved database was queried for patients with gynecologic cancers treated with GK between June 1996 and May 2016. Imaging studies were reviewed post-SRS (stereotactic radiosurgery) to evaluate local control (LC) and distant brain control (DC). Overall survival (OS), local control, and distant brain control were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier (KM) method and log-rank test.  Results: Thirty-three patients underwent SRS for 73 separate cranial lesions. The median age was ­58.5 years, and 17 (52%) also had extracranial metastases. Ten (30%) patients had previously received whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT), and 11 (33%) underwent concurrent WBRT. The median tumor volume was 0.96 cm3. Median radiographic follow-up was 11 months. At the time of treatment, 39% of patients were categorized as recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) Class I, 55% as RPA Class II, and 6% as RPA Class III. The local failure rate was 8%. Five patients (15%) developed new brain lesions outside the radiation field with a median progression-free survival (PFS) of seven (range: 3-9) months. Median OS was 15 months from GK treatment. One-year OS was 72.9% from GK treatment. Primary cancer histology was a significant predictor of OS, favoring ovarian and endometrial cancer (p = 0.03). Conclusions: Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery for gynecologic brain metastases leads to excellent control rates of treated lesions. Primary histology may have a significant impact on OS following GK, with improved survival seen with ovarian and cervical cancer following Gamma Knife radiosurgery (p = 0.03). PMID:28168125

  13. Surgical management of lung, liver and brain metastases from gynecological cancers: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Neville F; Rao, Archana

    2016-01-01

    The management of patients with recurrent gynecological malignancy is complex, and often contentious. While historically, patients with metastases in the lungs, liver or brain have been treated with palliative intent, surgery is proving to have an increasing role in the management of such patients. In this review article, the surgical management of lung, liver and brain metastases from gynecological cancers is examined. A search of the English language literature over the last 25 years was conducted using the Medline and PubMed databases. The results for management of metastases from the endometrium, ovary and cervix to the lung, brain and liver show that surprisingly good long-term survival results can be achieved for resection of metastases from all three organs. Patient selection is critical, and surgery is often used in conjunction with other treatment modalities. From this review, it is apparent that surgery should play an increasing role in the management of patients with parenchymal metastases from gynecological cancers. The surgery should ideally be performed in high volume, tertiary centers where there is a committed multi-disciplinary team with the necessary infrastructure to achieve the best possible outcomes in terms of both survival and morbidity.

  14. Systemic therapy of brain metastases: non-small cell lung cancer, breast cancer, and melanoma.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Marc C; Baik, Christina S; Gadi, Vijayakrishna K; Bhatia, Shailender; Chow, Laura Q M

    2017-01-01

    Brain metastases (BM) occur frequently in many cancers, particularly non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), breast cancer, and melanoma. The development of BM is associated with poor prognosis and has an adverse impact on survival and quality of life. Commonly used therapies for BM such as surgery or radiotherapy are associated with only modest benefits. However, recent advances in systemic therapy of many cancers have generated considerable interest in exploration of those therapies for treatment of intracranial metastases.This review discusses the epidemiology of BM from the aforementioned primary tumors and the challenges of using systemic therapies for metastatic disease located within the central nervous system. Cumulative data from several retrospective and small prospective studies suggest that molecularly targeted systemic therapies may be an effective option for the treatment of BM from NSCLC, breast cancer, and melanoma, either as monotherapy or in conjunction with other therapies. Larger prospective studies are warranted to further characterize the efficacy and safety profiles of these targeted agents for the treatment of BM. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The Effects of smoking status and smoking history on patients with brain metastases from lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Shenker, Rachel F; McTyre, Emory R; Ruiz, Jimmy; Weaver, Kathryn E; Cramer, Christina; Alphonse-Sullivan, Natalie K; Farris, Michael; Petty, William J; Bonomi, Marcelo R; Watabe, Kounosuke; Laxton, Adrian W; Tatter, Stephen B; Warren, Graham W; Chan, Michael D

    2017-04-12

    There is limited data on the effects of smoking on lung cancer patients with brain metastases. This single institution retrospective study of patients with brain metastases from lung cancer who received stereotactic radiosurgery assessed whether smoking history is associated with overall survival, local control, rate of new brain metastases (brain metastasis velocity), and likelihood of neurologic death after brain metastases. Patients were stratified by adenocarcinoma versus nonadenocarcinoma histologies. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed for survival endpoints. Competing risk analysis was performed for neurologic death analysis to account for risk of nonneurologic death. Separate linear regression and multivariate analyses were performed to estimate the brain metastasis velocity. Of 366 patients included in the analysis, the median age was 63, 54% were male and, 60% were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma. Current smoking was reported by 37% and 91% had a smoking history. Current smoking status and pack-year history of smoking had no effect on overall survival. There was a trend for an increased risk of neurologic death in nonadenocarcinoma patients who continued to smoke (14%, 35%, and 46% at 6/12/24 months) compared with patients who did not smoke (12%, 23%, and 30%, P = 0.053). Cumulative pack years smoking was associated with an increase in neurologic death for nonadenocarcinoma patients (HR = 1.01, CI: 1.00-1.02, P = 0.046). Increased pack-year history increased brain metastasis velocity in multivariate analysis for overall patients (P = 0.026). Current smokers with nonadenocarcinoma lung cancers had a trend toward greater neurologic death than nonsmokers. Cumulative pack years smoking is associated with a greater brain metastasis velocity.

  16. Surgical treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with isolated synchronous brain metastases.

    PubMed

    I, Hoseok; Lee, Jung Il; Nam, Do Hyun; Ahn, Yong Chan; Shim, Young Mog; Kim, Kwhanmien; Choi, Yong Soo; Kim, Jhingook

    2006-04-01

    This study is a retrospective examination of our experiences with patients who underwent treatment of isolated synchronous brain metastases coupled with primary non-small cell lung cancer. From January 1995 to June 2004, 12 patients presented with isolated synchronous brain metastases coupled with primary non-small cell lung cancer. The patient was comprised of 8 men and 4 women. The median age was 52 yr, in a range of 32 to 75 yr. Median follow-up duration was 10.6 months, in a range of 2 to 55.8 months. Recurrence developed in 7 patients, and the median interval from 1st treatment to recurrence was 4.5 months (2.8-6.5 months). The overall 1-yr survival rate was 61.7%. The 1-yr survival rates for pathologic N0 and N1 cases were 75% and 66.7%, respectively. The median survival duration for pathologic N2 was 6.2 months (95% CI, 4.8-7.5 months). The 1-yr survival rate for cases of single brain metastasis was 75%. Based on our current observations, we could speculate that aggressive management of primary non-small cell lung cancer and isolated synchronous brain metastases was beneficial in a selected group of patients, as long as the brain lesions and pulmonary lesions were limited or resectable.

  17. Surgical Treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer with Isolated Synchronous Brain Metastases

    PubMed Central

    I, Hoseok; Lee, Jung Il; Nam, Do Hyun; Ahn, Yong Chan; Shim, Young Mog; Kim, Kwhanmien; Choi, Yong Soo

    2006-01-01

    This study is a retrospective examination of our experiences with patients who underwent treatment of isolated synchronous brain metastases coupled with primary non-small cell lung cancer. From January 1995 to June 2004, 12 patients presented with isolated synchronous brain metastases coupled with primary non-small cell lung cancer. The patient was comprised of 8 men and 4 women. The median age was 52 yr, in a range of 32 to 75 yr. Median follow-up duration was 10.6 months, in a range of 2 to 55.8 months. Recurrence developed in 7 patients, and the median interval from 1st treatment to recurrence was 4.5 months (2.8-6.5 months). The overall 1-yr survival rate was 61.7%. The 1-yr survival rates for pathologic N0 and N1 cases were 75% and 66.7%, respectively. The median survival duration for pathologic N2 was 6.2 months (95% CI, 4.8-7.5 months). The 1-yr survival rate for cases of single brain metastasis was 75%. Based on our current observations, we could speculate that aggressive management of primary non-small cell lung cancer and isolated synchronous brain metastases was beneficial in a selected group of patients, as long as the brain lesions and pulmonary lesions were limited or resectable. PMID:16614507

  18. Clinical outcome and molecular characterization of brain metastases from esophageal and gastric cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ghidini, Michele; Petrelli, Fausto; Hahne, Jens Claus; De Giorgi, Annamaria; Toppo, Laura; Pizzo, Claudio; Ratti, Margherita; Barni, Sandro; Passalacqua, Rodolfo; Tomasello, Gianluca

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to collect the available data on central nervous system (CNS) metastases from esophageal and gastric cancer. A PubMed, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Web of Science, LILACS, Ovid and Cochrane Library search was performed. Thirty-seven studies including 779 patients were considered. Among the data extracted, treatment of tumor and brain metastases (BMs), time to BMs development, number and subsite, extracerebral metastases rate, median overall survival (OS) and prognostic factors were included. For esophageal cancer, the median OS from diagnosis of BMs was 4.2 months. Prognostic factors for OS included: performance status, multimodal therapy, adjuvant chemotherapy, single BM, brain only disease and surgery. For gastric cancer, median OS was 2.4 months. Prognostic factors for OS included: recursive partitioning analysis class 2, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRT) and use of intrathecal therapy. HER2-positive gastric cancer was shown to be associated with a higher risk and shorter time to CNS relapse. Patients harboring BMs from gastric and esophageal tumors, except cases with single lesions that are treated aggressively, have a poor prognosis. SRT (plus or minus surgery and whole brain radiotherapy) seems to give better results in terms of longer OS after brain relapse.

  19. Prognostic factors affecting survival after whole brain radiotherapy in patients with brain metastasized lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Tsakonas, Georgios; Hellman, Fatou; Gubanski, Michael; Friesland, Signe; Tendler, Salomon; Lewensohn, Rolf; Ekman, Simon; de Petris, Luigi

    2017-10-06

    Whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) has been the standard of care for multiple NSCLC brain metastases but due to its toxicity and lack of survival benefit, its use in the palliative setting is being questioned. This was a single institution cohort study including brain metastasized lung cancer patients who received WBRT at Karolinska University Hospital. Information about Recursive Partitioning Analysis (RPA) and Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA) scores, demographics, histopathological results and received oncological therapy were collected. Predictors of overall survival (OS) from the time of received WBRT were identified by Cox regression analyses. OS between GPA and RPA classes were compared by pairwise log rank test. A subgroup OS analysis was performed stratified by RPA class. The cohort consisted of 280 patients. RPA 1 and 2 classes had better OS compared to class 3, patients with GPA <1.5 points had better OS compared to GPA≥ 1.5 points and age >70 years was associated with worse OS (p< .0001 for all comparisons). In RPA class 2 subgroup analysis GPA ≥1.5 points, age ≤70 years and CNS surgery before salvage WBRT were independent positive prognostic factors. RPA class 3 patients should not receive WBRT, whereas RPA class 1 patients should receive WBRT if clinically indicated. RPA class 2 patients with age ≤70 years and GPA ≥1.5 points should be treated as RPA 1. WBRT should be omitted in RPA 2 patients with age >70. In RPA 2 patients with age ≤70 years and GPA <1.5 points WBRT could be a reasonable option.

  20. Radiotherapy for cranial and brain metastases from prostate cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sita, Timothy L; Petras, Katarina G; Wafford, Q Eileen; Berendsen, Mark A; Kruser, Tim J

    2017-07-01

    Intracranial metastasis from prostate cancer is rare. As treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer improves, the incidence of men with intracranial metastasis from prostate cancer is increasing. Radiation therapy for treatment of intracranial metastasis from prostate cancer is systematically reviewed. A comprehensive review examining peer-reviewed, English language articles from 1990 to 2015 was performed on multiple databases, yielding 1274 articles. These articles were reviewed and selected for studies that met the following inclusion criteria: (1) patients with intracranial metastases from prostate cancer; (2) patients underwent radiation therapy as primary or adjuvant therapy; (3) the sample size of patients was larger than 2. All studies that met inclusion criteria utilized whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) in at least one patient. Other treatment regimens included stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), surgical resection followed by WBRT, as well as concurrent cabazitaxel and WBRT. The range of average time from initial diagnosis of prostate cancer to diagnosis of brain metastasis was 29-45 months. The range of reported median survival time after WBRT was 4-9 months, whereas median survivals after SRS ranged from 9 to 13 months. Intracranial metastases from prostate cancer occur late in the disease process, and are increasing as novel therapies for metastatic disease prolong survival. The reviewed literature suggests that outcomes of patients with prostate cancer intracranial metastases appear similar to those of intracranial metastases from other histologies. Prospective examinations of systemic therapies that cross the blood-brain barrier in conjunction with targeted radiotherapy appear warranted for this increasingly common clinical problem.

  1. Brain metastases in patients diagnosed with a solid primary cancer during childhood: experience from a single referral cancer center.

    PubMed

    Suki, Dima; Khoury Abdulla, Rami; Ding, Minming; Khatua, Soumen; Sawaya, Raymond

    2014-10-01

    Metastasis to the brain is frequent in adult cancer patients but rare among children. Advances in primary tumor treatment and the associated prolonged survival are said to have increased the frequency of brain metastasis in children. The authors present a series of cases of brain metastases in children diagnosed with a solid primary cancer, evaluate brain metastasis trends, and describe tumor type, patterns of occurrence, and prognosis. Patients with brain metastases whose primary cancer was diagnosed during childhood were identified in the 1990-2012 Tumor Registry at The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. A review of their hospital records provided demographic data, history, and clinical data, including primary cancer sites, number and location of brain metastases, sites of extracranial metastases, treatments, and outcomes. Fifty-four pediatric patients (1.4%) had a brain metastasis from a solid primary tumor. Sarcomas were the most common (54%), followed by melanoma (15%). The patients' median ages at diagnosis of the primary cancer and the brain metastasis were 11.37 years and 15.03 years, respectively. The primary cancer was localized at diagnosis in 48% of patients and disseminated regionally in only 14%. The primary tumor and brain metastasis presented synchronously in 15% of patients, and other extracranial metastases were present when the primary cancer was diagnosed. The remaining patients were diagnosed with brain metastasis after initiation of primary cancer treatment, with a median presentation interval of 17 months after primary cancer diagnosis (range 2-77 months). At the time of diagnosis, the brain metastasis was the first site of systemic metastasis in only 4 (8%) of the 51 patients for whom data were available. Up to 70% of patients had lung metastases when brain metastases were found. Symptoms led to the brain metastasis diagnosis in 65% of cases. Brain metastases were single in 60% of cases and multiple in 35%; 6% had only

  2. Brain metastases following radical surgical treatment of non-small cell lung cancer: is preoperative brain imaging important?

    PubMed

    O'Dowd, Emma L; Kumaran, Maruti; Anwar, Sadia; Palomo, Begoña; Baldwin, David R

    2014-11-01

    There is a lack of good quality evidence or a clear consensus of opinion internationally regarding who should receive preoperative imaging of the brain prior to radical treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aimed to establish the proportion of patients who developed brain metastases following curative surgery and to estimate how many could have been detected by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MR). We performed a retrospective analysis of 646 patients who underwent surgery for lung cancer with curative intent at a regional thoracic surgical centre in the United Kingdom. We identified those who developed brain metastases in the postoperative period and, by using volume doubling times, estimated the size of the metastasis at the time of surgery. We then determined the proportion of metastases that would have been seen on preoperative MR brain at detection thresholds of 2 and 5mm diameter. There was a 6.3% incidence of postoperative brain metastases, with the majority occurring within 12 months of surgery. Those who developed metastases were more likely to have adenocarcinoma and the majority had early stage malignancy (73% stage I or stage II). We estimate that 71% of those who developed cerebral metastases might have been detected had they undergone MR brain as part of their staging (4.4% of all patients). Based on our findings we suggest that, in addition to standard staging investigations, patients have brain imaging (MR or equivalent) prior to curative surgery in NSCLC regardless of preoperative stage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Brain Metastases of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Prognostic Factors in Patients with Surgical Resection.

    PubMed

    Antuña, Aida Ramos; Vega, Marco Alvarez; Sanchez, Carmen Rodriguez; Fernandez, Vanesa Martin

    2017-06-06

    Background and Study Aims Bronchogenic carcinoma is the cancer that most commonly metastasizes to the brain. The standard treatment schedule for these patients is still unclear, although recommendation level 1 class I advocates for surgical resection together with postoperative whole-brain radiotherapy for patients with good Karnofsky performance status (KPS). We performed a study to identify prognostic factors for the long-term survival of patients with brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients This retrospective single-center study included 71 patients with brain metastases from NSCLC having undergone surgical metastasectomy between January 2002 and January 2015. Results The average age was 58.8 years. A total of 85.9% of the lesions were located in the supratentorial region, 61.9% of the lesions were < 3 cm, and 80.3% of cases were solitary brain metastases. Complete resection was achieved in 90.1% of patients. Clinical debut with motor involvement was associated with higher rates of incomplete surgical resection. Patients with motor deficits had a worse preoperative KPS. The preoperative KPS was > 70 in 74.6% of patients, and the postoperative KPS was > 70 in 85.9% of patients. Overall, 84.5% of the brain surgeries had no complications. Brain metastases were diagnosed as a synchronous presentation in 64.7% of patients.The average survival after brain surgery was 20.38 months. The survival rate was 66.2% at 6 months, 45.1% at 12 months, 22.5% at 24 months, 14.1% at 36 months, and 8.5% at 48 months. Patients < 55 years of age showed a higher survival rate at 12 months and 48 months. Patients > 70 years of age showed a higher mortality rate at 6 months. Complete surgical brain metastasis resection was associated with an increased survival at 6 months, and patients undergoing primary lung surgery had better survival rates at 48 months. A preoperative KPS > 70% improved the prognosis of patients at 6 and 24

  4. Human neural stem cells can target and deliver therapeutic genes to breast cancer brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Joo, Kyeung Min; Park, In H; Shin, Ji Y; Jin, Juyoun; Kang, Bong Gu; Kim, Mi Hyun; Lee, Se Jeong; Jo, Mi-young; Kim, Seung U; Nam, Do-Hyun

    2009-03-01

    The tumor-tropic properties of neural stem cells (NSCs) led to the development of a novel strategy for delivering therapeutic genes to tumors in the brain. To apply this strategy to the treatment of brain metastases, we made a human NSC line expressing cytosine deaminase (F3.CD), which converts 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) into 5-fluorouracil, an anticancer agent. In vitro, the F3.CD cells significantly inhibited the growth of tumor cell lines in the presence of the prodrug 5-FC. In vivo, MDA-MB-435 human breast cancer cells were implanted into the brain of immune-deficient mouse stereotactically, and F3.CD cells were injected into the contralateral hemisphere followed by systemic 5-FC administration. The F3.CD cells migrated selectively into the brain metastases located in the opposite hemisphere and resulted in significantly reduced volumes. The F3.CD and 5-FC treatment also decreased both tumor volume and number of tumor mass significantly, when immune-deficient mouse had MDA-MB-435 cells injected into the internal carotid artery and F3.CD cells were transplanted into the contralateral brain hemisphere stereotactically. Taken together, brain transplantation of human NSCs, encoding the suicide enzyme CD, combined with systemic administration of the prodrug 5-FC, is an effective treatment regimen for brain metastases of tumors.

  5. Molecular insights into melanoma brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Dana; Glitza Oliva, Isabella C; Niessner, Heike

    2017-06-01

    Substantial proportions of patients with metastatic melanoma develop brain metastases during the course of their disease, often resulting in significant morbidity and death. Despite recent advances with BRAF/MEK and immune-checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of patients who have melanoma with extracerebral metastases, patients who have melanoma brain metastases still have poor overall survival, highlighting the need for further therapy options. A deeper understanding of the molecular pathways involved in the development of melanoma brain metastases is required to develop more brain-specific therapies. Here, the authors summarize the currently known preclinical data and describe steps involved in the development of melanoma brain metastases. Only by knowing the molecular background is it possible to design new therapeutic agents that can be used to improve the outcome of patients with melanoma brain metastases. Cancer 2017;123:2163-75. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  6. Profound prevention of experimental brain metastases of breast cancer by temozolomide in an MGMT-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Diane; Duchnowska, Renata; Woditschka, Stephan; Hua, Emily; Qian, Yongzhen; Biernat, Wojciech; Sosińska-Mielcarek, Katarzyna; Gril, Brunilde; Stark, Andreas M; Hewitt, Stephen M; Liewehr, David J; Steinberg, Seth M; Jassem, Jacek; Steeg, Patricia S

    2014-05-15

    Brain metastases of breast cancer cause neurocognitive damage and are incurable. We evaluated a role for temozolomide in the prevention of brain metastases of breast cancer in experimental brain metastasis models. Temozolomide was administered in mice following earlier injection of brain-tropic HER2-positive JIMT-1-BR3 and triple-negative 231-BR-EGFP sublines, the latter with and without expression of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). In addition, the percentage of MGMT-positive tumor cells in 62 patient-matched sets of breast cancer primary tumors and resected brain metastases was determined immunohistochemically. Temozolomide, when dosed at 50, 25, 10, or 5 mg/kg, 5 days per week, beginning 3 days after inoculation, completely prevented the formation of experimental brain metastases from MGMT-negative 231-BR-EGFP cells. At a 1 mg/kg dose, temozolomide prevented 68% of large brain metastases, and was ineffective at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg. When the 50 mg/kg dose was administered beginning on days 18 or 24, temozolomide efficacy was reduced or absent. Temozolomide was ineffective at preventing brain metastases in MGMT-transduced 231-BR-EGFP and MGMT-expressing JIMT-1-BR3 sublines. In 62 patient-matched sets of primary breast tumors and resected brain metastases, 43.5% of the specimens had concordant low MGMT expression, whereas in another 14.5% of sets high MGMT staining in the primary tumor corresponded with low staining in the brain metastasis. Temozolomide profoundly prevented the outgrowth of experimental brain metastases of breast cancer in an MGMT-dependent manner. These data provide compelling rationale for investigating the preventive efficacy of temozolomide in a clinical setting. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Targeted Therapy as an Alternative to Whole-Brain Radiotherapy in EGFR-Mutant or ALK-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer With Brain Metastases.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Pablo; Mak, Raymond H; Oxnard, Geoffrey R

    2017-09-01

    Is up-front whole-brain radiotherapy required to treat multiple brain metastases from non-small-cell lung cancer when highly active targeted therapies are available? Patients with EGFR-mutant or ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer with brain metastases now have the potential to achieve a prolonged survival. Through use of highly active targeted therapies, whole-brain radiotherapy can be safely postponed, diminishing toxic effects that could impair quality of life.

  8. Astrocytes promote progression of breast cancer metastases to the brain via a KISS1-mediated autophagy.

    PubMed

    Kaverina, Natalya; Borovjagin, Anton V; Kadagidze, Zaira; Baryshnikov, Anatoly; Baryshnikova, Maria; Malin, Dmitry; Ghosh, Dhimankrishhna; Shah, Nameeta; Welch, Danny R; Gabikian, Patrik; Karseladze, Apollon; Cobbs, Charles; Ulasov, Ilya V

    2017-10-05

    Formation of metastases, also known as cancer dissemination, is an important stage of breast cancer (BrCa) development. KISS1 expression is associated with inhibition of metastases development. Recently we have demonstrated that BrCa metastases to the brain exhibit low levels of KISS1 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. By using multicolor immunofluorescence and coculture techniques here we show that normal adult astrocytes in the brain are capable of promoting metastatic transformation of circulating breast cancer cells localized to the brain through secretion of chemokine CXCL12. The latter was found in this study to downregulate KISS1 expression at the post-transcriptional level via induction of microRNA-345 (MIR345). Furthermore, we demonstrated that ectopic expression of KISS1 downregulates ATG5 and ATG7, 2 key modulators of autophagy, and works concurrently with autophagy inhibitors, thereby implicating autophagy in the mechanism of KISS1-mediated BrCa metastatic transformation. We also found that expression of KISS1 in human breast tumor specimens inversely correlates with that of MMP9 and IL8, implicated in the mechanism of metastatic invasion, thereby supporting the role of KISS1 as a potential regulator of BrCa metastatic invasion in the brain. This conclusion is further supported by the ability of KISS1, ectopically overexpressed from an adenoviral vector in MDA-MB-231Br cells with silenced expression of the endogenous gene, to revert invasive phenotype of those cells. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that human adult astrocytes can promote brain invasion of the brain-localized circulating breast cancer cells by upregulating autophagy signaling pathways via the CXCL12-MIR345- KISS1 axis.

  9. CyberKnife therapy of 24 multiple brain metastases from lung cancer: A case report.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guiqing; Wang, Yishan; Wang, Yuanyuan; Lin, Sixiang; Sun, Dongning

    2013-08-01

    Brain metastasis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and a critical complication of non-central nervous system primary carcinoma. The present study describes the clinical case of a 46-year-old male with lung cancer and life-threatening brain metastases. The patient was diagnosed with lung cancer with a clinical stage of T2N0M1 (stage IV). Six months after the initial diagnosis and administration of conformal radiotherapy combined with three cycles of chemotherapy, an enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain revealed abnormalities with double-dosing of intravenous contrast. The CT scan identified >24 lesions scattered in the whole brain. The patient was treated with three-fraction Cyberknife radiotherapy at 22 Gy, delivered to the brain metastases at the Center for Tumor Treatment of People's Liberation Army 107th Hospital. Following CyberKnife therapy, a CT scan of the brain revealed that most of the tumors had disappeared with almost no residual traces. The stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) conducted using CyberKnife, an image-guided frameless robotic technology for whole-body radiosurgery, had produced a marked response. The present case report demonstrates that CyberKnife therapy plays a significant role in the management of multiple meta-static brain tumors.

  10. Impact of Triple-Negative Phenotype on Prognosis of Patients With Breast Cancer Brain Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Zhiyuan; Schlesinger, David; Toulmin, Sushila; Rich, Tyvin; Sheehan, Jason

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To elucidate survival times and identify potential prognostic factors in patients with triple-negative (TN) phenotype who harbored brain metastases arising from breast cancer and who underwent stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: A total of 103 breast cancer patients with brain metastases were treated with SRS and then studied retrospectively. Twenty-four patients (23.3%) were TN. Survival times were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, with a log-rank test computing the survival time difference between groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses to predict potential prognostic factors were performed using a Cox proportional hazard regression model. Results: The presence of TN phenotype was associated with worse survival times, including overall survival after the diagnosis of primary breast cancer (43 months vs. 82 months), neurologic survival after the diagnosis of intracranial metastases, and radiosurgical survival after SRS, with median survival times being 13 months vs. 25 months and 6 months vs. 16 months, respectively (p < 0.002 in all three comparisons). On multivariate analysis, radiosurgical survival benefit was associated with non-TN status and lower recursive partitioning analysis class at the initial SRS. Conclusion: The TN phenotype represents a significant adverse prognostic factor with respect to overall survival, neurologic survival, and radiosurgical survival in breast cancer patients with intracranial metastasis. Recursive partitioning analysis class also served as an important and independent prognostic factor.

  11. Cytogenomic profiling of breast cancer brain metastases reveals potential for repurposing targeted therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Bollig-Fischer, Aliccia; Michelhaugh, Sharon K; Wijesinghe, Priyanga; Dyson, Greg; Kruger, Adele; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Choi, Lydia; Alosh, Baraa; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Mittal, Sandeep

    2015-06-10

    Breast cancer brain metastases remain a significant clinical problem. Chemotherapy is ineffective and a lack of treatment options result in poor patient outcomes. Targeted therapeutics have proven to be highly effective in primary breast cancer, but lack of molecular genomic characterization of metastatic brain tumors is hindering the development of new treatment regimens. Here we contribute to fill this void by reporting on gene copy number variation (CNV) in 10 breast cancer metastatic brain tumors, assayed by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Results were compared to a list of cancer genes verified by others to influence cancer. Cancer gene aberrations were identified in all specimens and pathway-level analysis was applied to aggregate data, which identified stem cell pluripotency pathway enrichment and highlighted recurring, significant amplification of SOX2, PIK3CA, NTRK1, GNAS, CTNNB1, and FGFR1. For a subset of the metastatic brain tumor samples (n = 4) we compared patient-matched primary breast cancer specimens. The results of our CGH analysis and validation by alternative methods indicate that oncogenic signals driving growth of metastatic tumors exist in the original cancer. This report contributes support for more rapid development of new treatments of metastatic brain tumors, the use of genomic-based diagnostic tools and repurposed drug treatments.

  12. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging investigating the development of experimental brain metastases due to triple negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Amanda M; Foster, Paula J

    2017-02-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), when associated with poor outcome, is aggressive in nature with a high incidence of brain metastasis and the shortest median overall patient survival after brain metastasis development compared to all other breast cancer subtypes. As therapies that control primary cancer and extracranial metastatic sites improve, the incidence of brain metastases is increasing and the management of patients with breast cancer brain metastases continues to be a significant clinical challenge. Mouse models have been developed to permit in depth evaluation of breast cancer metastasis to the brain. In this study, we compare the efficiency and metastatic potential of two experimental mouse models of TNBC. Longitudinal MRI analysis and end point histology were used to quantify initial cell arrest as well as the number and volume of metastases that developed in mouse brain over time. We showed significant differences in MRI appearance, tumor progression and model efficiency between the syngeneic 4T1-BR5 model and the xenogeneic 231-BR model. Since TNBC does not respond to many standard breast cancer treatments and TNBC brain metastases lack effective targeted therapies, these preclinical TNBC models represent invaluable tools for the assessment of novel systemic therapeutic approaches. Further pursuits of therapeutics designed to bypass the blood tumor barrier and permit access to the brain parenchyma and metastatic cells within the brain will be paramount in the fight to control and treat lethal metastatic cancer.

  13. Increased risk of brain metastases in women with breast cancer and p16 expression in metastatic lymph-nodes.

    PubMed

    Furet, Elise; El Bouchtaoui, Morad; Feugeas, Jean-Paul; Miquel, Catherine; Leboeuf, Christophe; Beytout, Clémentine; Bertheau, Philippe; Le Rhun, Emilie; Bonneterre, Jacques; Janin, Anne; Bousquet, Guilhem

    2017-06-06

    Metastatic breast cancer is a leading cause of mortality in women, partly on account of brain metastases. However, the mechanisms by which cancer cells cross the blood-brain barrier remain undeciphered. Most molecular studies predicting metastatic risk have been performed on primary breast cancer samples. Here we studied metastatic lymph-nodes from patients with breast cancers to identify markers associated with the occurrence of brain metastases. Transcriptomic analyses identified CDKN2A/p16 as a gene potentially associated with brain metastases. Fifty-two patients with HER2-overexpressing or triple-negative breast carcinoma with lymph nodes and distant metastases were included in this study. Transcriptomic analyses were performed on laser-microdissected tumor cells from 28 metastatic lymph-nodes. Supervised analyses compared the transcriptomic profiles of women who developed brain metastases and those who did not. As a validation series, we studied metastatic lymph-nodes from 24 other patients.Immunohistochemistry investigations showed that p16 mean scores were significantly higher in patients with brain metastases than in patients without (7.4 vs. 1.7 respectively, p < 0.01). This result was confirmed on the validation series. Multivariate analyses showed that the p16 score was the only variable positively associated with the risk of brain metastases (p = 0.01).With the same threshold of 5 for p16 scores using a Cox model, overall survival was shorter in women with a p16 score over 5 in both series. The risk of brain metastases in women with HER2-overexpressing or triple-negative breast cancer could be better assessed by studying p16 protein expression on surgically removed axillary lymph-nodes.

  14. Increased risk of brain metastases in women with breast cancer and p16 expression in metastatic lymph-nodes

    PubMed Central

    Feugeas, Jean-Paul; Miquel, Catherine; Leboeuf, Christophe; Beytout, Clémentine; Bertheau, Philippe; Le Rhun, Emilie; Bonneterre, Jacques; Janin, Anne; Bousquet, Guilhem

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Metastatic breast cancer is a leading cause of mortality in women, partly on account of brain metastases. However, the mechanisms by which cancer cells cross the blood-brain barrier remain undeciphered. Most molecular studies predicting metastatic risk have been performed on primary breast cancer samples. Here we studied metastatic lymph-nodes from patients with breast cancers to identify markers associated with the occurrence of brain metastases. Results Transcriptomic analyses identified CDKN2A/p16 as a gene potentially associated with brain metastases. Materials and Methods Fifty-two patients with HER2-overexpressing or triple-negative breast carcinoma with lymph nodes and distant metastases were included in this study. Transcriptomic analyses were performed on laser-microdissected tumor cells from 28 metastatic lymph-nodes. Supervised analyses compared the transcriptomic profiles of women who developed brain metastases and those who did not. As a validation series, we studied metastatic lymph-nodes from 24 other patients. Immunohistochemistry investigations showed that p16 mean scores were significantly higher in patients with brain metastases than in patients without (7.4 vs. 1.7 respectively, p < 0.01). This result was confirmed on the validation series. Multivariate analyses showed that the p16 score was the only variable positively associated with the risk of brain metastases (p = 0.01). With the same threshold of 5 for p16 scores using a Cox model, overall survival was shorter in women with a p16 score over 5 in both series. Conclusions The risk of brain metastases in women with HER2-overexpressing or triple-negative breast cancer could be better assessed by studying p16 protein expression on surgically removed axillary lymph-nodes. PMID:28445153

  15. Predicting the Risk of New Cerebral Lesions After Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) for Brain Metastases from Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dziggel, Liesa; Dahlke, Markus; Janssen, Stefan; Hornung, Dagmar; Blanck, Oliver; Khoa, Mai Trong; Schild, Steven E; Rades, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    To generate a tool that estimates the probability of developing new cerebral metastases after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in breast cancer patients. SRS dose plus seven characteristics (age, performance score, number of cerebral metastases, maximum diameter of all metastases, location of metastases, extra-cerebral spread and time from breast cancer diagnosis until SRS) were analyzed regarding their ability to predict the probability of new cerebral metastases development following SRS. For those characteristics deemed significant, points of 0 (higher risk of new lesions) or 1 (lower risk) were given. Scores were generated by adding the points of significant characteristics. Performance score (p=0.013) and maximum diameter of all metastases (p=0.022) were associated with development of subsequent brain metastases. Two groups were created, 0-1 and 2 points. Freedom from new cerebral metastases rates were 27% and 92%, respectively, at 15 months (p=0.003). This tool helps select breast cancer with few cerebral metastases receiving SRS who may benefit from additional whole-brain irradiation. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  16. Epidural Brain Metastases in a Patient with Early Onset Pancreatic Cancer: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Mirrakhimov, Aibek E.; Khan, Farah N.

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of early onset pancreatic cancer related extra-axial brain metastases. A 46-year-old Caucasian non-Jewish nonobese male with a history of PC diagnosed 3 months ago with metastases to the liver, omentum, malignant ascites, and a history of a pulmonary embolism was admitted to the hospital because of a new onset headache, nausea, and vomiting which started 2 days prior to the encounter. Brain MRI was ordered, which showed acute bihemispheric subdural hematomas and left hemispheric extra-axial heterogeneously enhancing lesions consisting with metastatic disease. The patient was started on ondansentron, metoclopramide, and dexamethasone. The cranial irradiation was started, and the patient's headache and nausea significantly improved. There are only 9 published reports of extra-axial brain metastases related to the pancreatic cancer, whereas our paper is the first such case reported on a patient with epidural metastases and early onset pancreatic cancer. PMID:23119207

  17. Brain metastases as site of first and isolated recurrence of breast cancer: the role of systemic therapy after local treatment.

    PubMed

    Niwińska, Anna

    2016-10-01

    The role of systemic treatment was assessed after local therapy for breast cancer patients who developed central nervous system (CNS) metastases as a first and isolated recurrence. Subjects were 128 breast cancer patients with brain metastases as the first and isolated site of recurrence that were selected from 673 consecutive breast cancer patients with brain metastases treated at the same institution. Median survival from brain metastases in patients with and without systemic treatment after local therapy was respectively 15 and 4 months (p < 0.001). In patients with a Karnofsky Performance Status ≥70 and those <70, survival was respectively 16 and 5.5 months (p < 0.001). The median survival from brain metastasis in patients with solitary brain metastasis, with and without systemic treatment after local therapy, was respectively 22 and 7 months (p = 0.003). Cox multivariate analysis demonstrated that good performance status, solitary brain metastasis and systemic therapy undertaken after local treatment were factors which prolonged survival. However patient survival was adversely affected by those having leptomeningeal metastasis associated with brain parenchymal lesions. Systemic therapy, undertaken after local treatment improved survival in those patients with breast cancer and brain metastases as the site of first and isolated recurrence. Further study is required in order to fully establish the role of systemic treatment for this patient group.

  18. Systematic review: brain metastases from colorectal cancer--Incidence and patient characteristics.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Troels Dreier; Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm; Palshof, Jesper Andreas; Nielsen, Dorte Lisbet

    2016-04-01

    Brain metastases (BM) from colorectal cancer (CRC) are a rare event. However, the implications for affected patients are severe, and the incidence has been reported to be increasing. For clinicians, knowledge about the characteristics associated with BM is important and could lead to earlier diagnosis and improved survival. In this paper, we describe the incidence as well as characteristics associated with BM based on a systematic review of the current literature, following the PRISMA guidelines. We show that the incidence of BM in CRC patients ranges from 0.6 to 3.2%. BM are a late stage phenomenon, and young age, rectal primary and lung metastases are associated with increased risk of developing BM. Molecular markers such as KRAS, BRAF, NRAS mutation as well as an increase in CEA and CA19.9 levels are suggested predictors of brain involvement. However, only KRAS mutations are reasonably well investigated and associated with an increased risk of BM. The incidence of BM from CRC is 0.6 to 3.2% and did not seem to increase over time. Development of BM is associated with young age, lung metastases, rectal primary and KRAS mutation. Increased awareness of brain involvement in patients with these characteristics is necessary.

  19. Challenges in the treatment of hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer with brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Minetta C; Cortés, Javier; O'Shaughnessy, Joyce

    2016-06-01

    Brain metastases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality for women with hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer, yet little is known about the optimal treatment of brain disease in this group of patients. Although these patients are at lower risk for brain metastases relative to those with HER2-positive and triple-negative disease, they comprise the majority of women diagnosed with breast cancer. Surgery and radiation continue to have a role in the treatment of brain metastases, but there is a dearth of effective systemic therapies due to the poor penetrability of many systemic drugs across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Additionally, patients with brain metastases have long been excluded from clinical trials, and few studies have been conducted to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of systemic therapies specifically for the treatment of HER2-negative breast cancer brain metastases. New approaches are on the horizon, such as nanoparticle-based cytotoxic drugs that have the potential to cross the BBB and provide clinically meaningful benefits to patients with this life-threatening consequence of HR-positive breast cancer.

  20. Breast cancer subtype affects patterns of failure of brain metastases after treatment with stereotactic radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Vern-Gross, Tamara Z; Lawrence, Julia A; Case, L Douglas; McMullen, Kevin P; Bourland, J Daniel; Metheny-Barlow, Linda J; Ellis, Thomas L; Tatter, Stephen B; Shaw, Edward G; Urbanic, James J; Chan, Michael D

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the variance in patterns of failure after Gamma Knife™ radiosurgery (GKRS) for patients with brain metastases based on the subtype of the primary breast cancer. Between 2000 and 2010, 154 breast cancer patients were treated with GKRS for brain metastases. Tumor subtypes were approximated based on hormone receptor (HR) and HER2 status of the primary cancer: Luminal A/B (HR+/HER2(-)); HER2 (HER2+/HR(-)); Luminal HER2 (HR+/HER2+), Basal (HR(-)/HER2(-)), and then based on HER2 status alone. The median follow-up period was 54 months. Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival times. Multivariable analysis was performed using Cox regression models. Median number of lesions treated was two (range 1-15) with a median dose of 20 Gy (range 9-24 Gy). Median overall survival (OS) was 7, 9, 11 and 22 months for Basal, Luminal A/B, HER2, and Luminal HER2, respectively (p = 0.001), and was 17 and 8 months for HER2+ and HER(-) patients, respectively (p < 0.001). Breast cancer subtype did not predict time to local failure (p = 0.554), but did predict distant brain failure rate (76, 47, 47, 36 % at 1 year for Basal, Luminal A/B, HER2, and Luminal HER2 respectively, p < 0.001). An increased proportion of HER2+ patients experienced neurologic death (46 vs 31 %, p = 0.066). Multivariate analysis revealed that HER2+ patients (p = 0.007) independently predicted for improved survival. Women with basal subtype have high rates of distant brain failure and worsened survival. Our data suggest that differences in biologic behavior of brain metastasis occur across breast cancer subtypes.

  1. ADAM9 promotes lung cancer metastases to brain by a plasminogen activator-based pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chen-Yuan; Chen, Hung-Jen; Huang, Cheng-Chung; Lai, Liang-Chuan; Lu, Tzu-Pin; Tseng, Guan-Chin; Kuo, Ting-Ting; Kuok, Qian-Yu; Hsu, Jennifer L; Sung, Shian-Ying; Hung, Mien-Chie; Sher, Yuh-Pyng

    2014-09-15

    The transmembrane cell adhesion protein ADAM9 has been implicated in cancer cell migration and lung cancer metastasis to the brain, but the underpinning mechanisms are unclear and clinical support has been lacking. Here, we demonstrate that ADAM9 enhances the ability of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) to cleave and stimulate the function of the promigratory protein CDCP1 to promote lung metastasis. Blocking this mechanism of cancer cell migration prolonged survival in tumor-bearing mice and cooperated with dexamethasone and dasatinib (a dual Src/Abl kinase inhibitor) treatment to enhance cytotoxic treatment. In clinical specimens, high levels of ADAM9 and CDCP1 correlated with poor prognosis and high risk of mortality in patients with lung cancer. Moreover, ADAM9 levels in brain metastases derived from lung tumors were relatively higher than the levels observed in primary lung tumors. Our results show how ADAM9 regulates lung cancer metastasis to the brain by facilitating the tPA-mediated cleavage of CDCP1, with potential implications to target this network as a strategy to prevent or treat brain metastatic disease. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. A Multidisciplinary Breast Cancer Brain Metastases Clinic: The University of North Carolina Experience.

    PubMed

    McKee, Megan J; Keith, Kevin; Deal, Allison M; Garrett, Amy L; Wheless, Amy A; Green, Rebecca L; Benbow, Julie M; Dees, E Claire; Carey, Lisa A; Ewend, Matthew G; Anders, Carey K; Zagar, Timothy M

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer brain metastasis (BCBM) confers a poor prognosis and is unusual in requiring multidisciplinary care in the metastatic setting. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) has created a BCBM clinic to provide medical and radiation oncology, neurosurgical, and supportive services to this complex patient population. We describe organization and design of the clinic as well as characteristics, treatments, and outcomes of the patients seen in its first 3 years. Clinical and demographic data were collected from patients in a prospectively maintained database. Descriptive statistics are reported as percentages and means. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate time-to-event outcomes. Sixty-five patients were seen between January 2012 and January 2015. At the time of presentation to the BCBM clinic, most patients (74%) had multiple (≥2) brain metastases and had received prior systemic (77%) and whole-brain radiation therapy and/or central nervous system stereotactic radiosurgery (65%) in the metastatic setting. Seventy-eight percent returned for a follow-up visit; 32% were enrolled in a clinical trial. Median time from diagnosis of brain metastasis to death was 2.11 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31-2.47) for all patients, 1.15 years (95% CI 0.4-2.43) for triple-negative breast cancer, 1.31 years (95% CI 0.51-2.52) for hormone receptor-positive/HER2- breast cancer, and 3.03 years (95% CI lower limit 1.94, upper limit not estimable) for HER2+ breast cancer (p = .0037). Patients with BCBM have unique and complex needs that require input from several oncologic disciplines. The development of the UNC-CH multidisciplinary BCBM clinic is a model that can be adapted at other centers to provide coordinated care for patients with a challenging and complex disease. Patients with breast cancer brain metastases often require unique multidisciplinary care to meet the numerous and uncommon challenges associated with their conditions. Here, the

  3. A Multidisciplinary Breast Cancer Brain Metastases Clinic: The University of North Carolina Experience

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Megan J.; Keith, Kevin; Deal, Allison M.; Garrett, Amy L.; Wheless, Amy A.; Green, Rebecca L.; Benbow, Julie M.; Dees, E. Claire; Carey, Lisa A.; Ewend, Matthew G.; Zagar, Timothy M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Breast cancer brain metastasis (BCBM) confers a poor prognosis and is unusual in requiring multidisciplinary care in the metastatic setting. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) has created a BCBM clinic to provide medical and radiation oncology, neurosurgical, and supportive services to this complex patient population. We describe organization and design of the clinic as well as characteristics, treatments, and outcomes of the patients seen in its first 3 years. Methods. Clinical and demographic data were collected from patients in a prospectively maintained database. Descriptive statistics are reported as percentages and means. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate time-to-event outcomes. Results. Sixty-five patients were seen between January 2012 and January 2015. At the time of presentation to the BCBM clinic, most patients (74%) had multiple (≥2) brain metastases and had received prior systemic (77%) and whole-brain radiation therapy and/or central nervous system stereotactic radiosurgery (65%) in the metastatic setting. Seventy-eight percent returned for a follow-up visit; 32% were enrolled in a clinical trial. Median time from diagnosis of brain metastasis to death was 2.11 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31–2.47) for all patients, 1.15 years (95% CI 0.4–2.43) for triple-negative breast cancer, 1.31 years (95% CI 0.51–2.52) for hormone receptor-positive/HER2− breast cancer, and 3.03 years (95% CI lower limit 1.94, upper limit not estimable) for HER2+ breast cancer (p = .0037). Conclusion. Patients with BCBM have unique and complex needs that require input from several oncologic disciplines. The development of the UNC-CH multidisciplinary BCBM clinic is a model that can be adapted at other centers to provide coordinated care for patients with a challenging and complex disease. Implications for Practice: Patients with breast cancer brain metastases often require unique multidisciplinary care to meet the

  4. Bilateral sphenoid wing metastases of prostate cancer presenting with extensive brain edema.

    PubMed

    Lindsberg, P J; Tatlisumak, T; Tienari, J; Brander, A

    1999-05-01

    A 76-year-old man insidiously developed diffuse neurological symptoms: cognitive decline, dysphagia, dysphasia and mental disturbance. Computed tomography of the cranium revealed widespread bilateral brain edema and symmetrical bilateral sphenoid wing hyperostosis. Adjacent to the hyperostosis that resembled skull base meningiomas, two separate parenchymatous temporal lobe lesions enhancing with contrast medium were observed. The patient had earlier been diagnosed to have prostatic carcinoma. Dexamethasone therapy resulted in discontinuation of the neurological symptoms. The diagnosis of metastasized adenocarcinoma of the prostate was confirmed histologically on autopsy after a sudden death from pneumonia. Intracranial metastases of prostate cancer may have a predilection site at the sphenoid wing, and can mimic a skull base meningioma. Intracranial spread of prostatic adenocarcinoma should be considered in elderly men as a treatable cause of gradual neurological deterioration, especially if cranial malignancy or hyperostosis is found.

  5. Treatment outcomes and prognostic factors for patients with brain metastases from breast cancer of each subtype: a multicenter retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Niikura, Naoki; Hayashi, Naoki; Masuda, Norikazu; Takashima, Seiki; Nakamura, Rikiya; Watanabe, Ken-ichi; Kanbayashi, Chizuko; Ishida, Mayumi; Hozumi, Yasuo; Tsuneizumi, Michiko; Kondo, Naoto; Naito, Yoichi; Honda, Yayoi; Matsui, Akira; Fujisawa, Tomomi; Oshitanai, Risa; Yasojima, Hiroyuki; Tokuda, Yutaka; Saji, Shigehira; Iwata, Hiroji

    2014-08-01

    To define prognostic factors for breast cancer patients with brain metastases, compare their clinical courses and prognoses according to breast cancer subtypes, and analyze the causes of death in such patients. We retrospectively analyzed 1,466 patients diagnosed with brain metastases between April 1, 2001 and December 31, 2012, from 24 institutions of the Japan Clinical Oncology Group. Overall, 1,256 patients with brain metastases were included. The median overall survival (OS) was 8.7 months (95 % confidence interval [CI] 7.8-9.6 months). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that patients diagnosed with brain metastasis within 6 months of metastatic breast cancer diagnoses, asymptomatic brain disease, or HER2-positive/estrogen receptor-positive tumors had increased OS. Median OS after the development of brain metastases was 9.3 months (95 % CI 7.2-11.3) for the luminal type, 16.5 months (95 % CI 11.9-21.1) for the luminal-HER2 type, 11.5 months (95 % CI 9.1-13.8) for the HER2 type, and 4.9 months (95 % CI 3.9-5.9) for the triple-negative type. Luminal-HER2 type patients had significantly longer OS than patients with the luminal type (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.50, P < 0.0001) and triple-negative type (HR = 1.97, P < 0.0001); no significant differences were noted compared to HER2-type patients (HR = 1.19, P = 0.117). The prognosis and clinical course of patients with brain metastasis from breast cancer before and after developing brain metastases vary according to subtype. Focusing on the subtypes of breast cancer can optimize the prevention, early detection, and improved treatment of brain metastases.

  6. Presentation and course of brain metastases from breast cancer in a paranoid-schizophrenic patient: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Dalhaug, Astrid; Pawinski, Adam; Norum, Jan; Nieder, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    Case presentation This is an unusual case where a 49-year old female patient with known schizophrenia, paranoid type and a history of early-stage breast cancer, which was treated more than 6 years earlier, attempted suicide. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging after this incident revealed the presence of multiple brain metastases as the first symptomatic site of recurrent cancer. Further staging lead to the diagnosis of lung, hilar and mediastinal lymph node metastases and histology confirmed estrogen receptor-positive metastatic cancer. Treatment consisted of whole-brain radiotherapy and letrozole. Twenty-one months later, the patient is in continued partial remission. PMID:18826630

  7. Longitudinal MRI Evaluation of Intracranial Development and Vascular Characteristics of Breast Cancer Brain Metastases in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Heling; Chen, Min; Zhao, Dawen

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal MRI was applied to monitor intracranial initiation and development of brain metastases and assess tumor vascular volume and permeability in a mouse model of breast cancer brain metastases. Using a 9.4T system, high resolution anatomic MRI and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion MRI were acquired at different time points after an intracardiac injection of brain-tropic breast cancer MDA-MB231BR-EGFP cells. Three weeks post injection, multifocal brain metastases were first observed with hyperintensity on T2-weighted images, but isointensity on T1-weighted post contrast images, indicating that blood-tumor-barrier (BTB) at early stage of brain metastases was impermeable. Follow-up MRI revealed intracranial tumor growth and increased number of metastases that distributed throughout the whole brain. At the last scan on week 5, T1-weighted post contrast images detected BTB disruption in 160 (34%) of a total of 464 brain metastases. Enhancement in some of the metastases was only seen in partial regions of the tumor, suggesting intratumoral heterogeneity of BTB disruption. DSC MRI measurements of relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) showed that rCBV of brain metastases was significantly lower (mean  = 0.89±0.03) than that of contralateral normal brain (mean  = 1.00±0.03; p<0.005). Intriguingly, longitudinal measurements revealed that rCBV of individual metastases at early stage was similar to, but became significantly lower than that of contralateral normal brain with tumor growth (p<0.05). The rCBV data were concordant with histological analysis of microvascular density (MVD). Moreover, comprehensive analysis suggested no significant correlation among tumor size, rCBV and BTB permeability. In conclusion, longitudinal MRI provides non-invasive in vivo assessments of spatial and temporal development of brain metastases and their vascular volume and permeability. The characteristic rCBV of brain metastases may have a diagnostic value. PMID

  8. Comparative effectiveness of stereotactic radiosurgery versus whole-brain radiation therapy for patients with brain metastases from breast or non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Halasz, Lia M; Uno, Hajime; Hughes, Melissa; D'Amico, Thomas; Dexter, Elisabeth U; Edge, Stephen B; Hayman, James A; Niland, Joyce C; Otterson, Gregory A; Pisters, Katherine M W; Theriault, Richard; Weeks, Jane C; Punglia, Rinaa S

    2016-07-01

    The optimal treatment for patients with brain metastases remains controversial as the use of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone, replacing whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT), has increased. This study determined the patterns of care at multiple institutions before 2010 and examined whether or not survival was different between patients treated with SRS and patients treated with WBRT. This study examined the overall survival of patients treated with radiation therapy for brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC; initially diagnosed in 2007-2009) or breast cancer (initially diagnosed in 1997-2009) at 5 centers. Propensity score analyses were performed to adjust for confounding factors such as the number of metastases, the extent of extracranial metastases, and the treatment center. Overall, 27.8% of 400 NSCLC patients and 13.4% of 387 breast cancer patients underwent SRS alone for the treatment of brain metastases. Few patients with more than 3 brain metastases or lesions ≥ 4 cm in size underwent SRS. Patients with fewer than 4 brain metastases less than 4 cm in size (n = 189 for NSCLC and n = 117 for breast cancer) who were treated with SRS had longer survival (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] for NSCLC, 0.58; 95% confidence Interval [CI], 0.38-0.87; P = .01; adjusted HR for breast cancer, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.33-0.91; P = .02) than those treated with WBRT. Patients treated for fewer than 4 brain metastases from NSCLC or breast cancer with SRS alone had longer survival than those treated with WBRT in this multi-institutional, retrospective study, even after adjustments for the propensity to undergo SRS. Cancer 2016;122:2091-100. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  9. Preliminary Results of Whole Brain Radiotherapy With Concurrent Trastuzumab for Treatment of Brain Metastases in Breast Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Chargari, Cyrus; Idrissi, Hind Riahi; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Bollet, Marc A.; Dieras, Veronique; Campana, Francois; Cottu, Paul; Fourquet, Alain; Kirova, Youlia M.

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To assess the use of trastuzumab concurrently with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) for patients with brain metastases from human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-positive breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Between April 2001 and April 2007, 31 patients with brain metastases from human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-positive breast cancer were referred for WBRT with concurrent trastuzumab. At brain progression, the median age was 55 years (range, 38-73), and all patients had a performance status of 0-2. The patients received trastuzumab 2 mg/kg weekly (n = 17) or 6 mg/kg repeated every 21 days (n = 14). In 26 patients, concurrent WBRT delivered 30 Gy in 10 daily fractions. In 6 patients, other fractionations were chosen because of either poor performance status or patient convenience. Results: After WBRT, radiologic responses were observed in 23 patients (74.2%), including 6 (19.4%) with a complete radiologic response and 17 (54.8%) with a partial radiologic response. Clinical responses were observed in 27 patients (87.1%). The median survival time from the start of WBRT was 18 months (range, 2-65). The median interval to brain progression was 10.5 months (range, 2-27). No Grade 2 or greater acute toxicity was observed. Conclusion: The low toxicity of trastuzumab concurrently with WBRT should probably not justify delays. Although promising, these preliminary data warrant additional validation of trastuzumab as a potential radiosensitizer for WBRT in brain metastases from breast cancer in the setting of a clinical trial.

  10. Methods and results of local treatment of brain metastases in patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pluta, Elżbieta; Walasek, Tomasz; Blecharz, Paweł; Jakubowicz, Jerzy; Mituś, Jerzy W.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents methods and results of surgical treatment and radiation therapy of brain metastases in breast cancer patients (brain metastases from breast cancer BMF-BC). Based on the literature data, it was shown that patients with single BMF-BC, aged less than 65 years, with Karnofsky score (KPS) of 70 or more and with cured or controlled extracranial disease are the best candidates to surgical treatment. Irrespective of the extracranial disease control status, there are indications for surgery in patients with symptomatic mass effect (tumour diameter larger than 3 cm) and patients with obstructive hydrocephalus from their BMF-BC. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has some advantages over surgery, with similar effectiveness: it may be used in the treatment of lesions inaccessible to surgery, the number of lesion is not a limiting factor if each lesion is small (< 3) and adequate doses can be delivered, it is not contraindicated in patients with active extracranial disease, it does not interfere with ongoing systemic treatment, and it does not require general anaesthesia or hospitalisation. A disadvantage of SRS, as compared to whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT), in patients with BMF-BC is the possibility of subsequent development of new lesion in the non-irradiated field. Thus the majority of the BMF-BC patients are not good candidates to surgery or SRS; WBRT alone or combined with a systemic treatment still plays a major role in the treatment of these patients. PMID:28239278

  11. Targeting brain metastases in ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Isabella; Zaorsky, Nicholas G; Palmer, Joshua D; Mehra, Ranee; Lu, Bo

    2015-10-01

    The incidence of brain metastases has increased as a result of improved systemic control and advances in imaging. However, development of novel therapeutics with CNS activity has not advanced at the same rate. Research on molecular markers has revealed many potential targets for antineoplastic agents, and a particularly important aberration is translocation in the ALK gene, identified in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). ALK inhibitors have shown systemic efficacy against ALK-rearranged NSCLC in many clinical trials, but the effectiveness of crizotinib in CNS disease is limited by poor blood-brain barrier penetration and acquired drug resistance. In this Review, we discuss potential pathways to target ALK-rearranged brain metastases, including next generation ALK inhibitors with greater CNS penetration and mechanisms to overcome resistance. Other important mechanisms to control CNS disease include targeting pathways downstream of ALK phosphorylation, increasing the permeability of the blood-brain barrier, modifying the tumour microenvironment, and adding concurrent radiotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Brain Metastases from Breast Cancer and Response to Treatment with Eribulin: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Alex Y; Ying, Xu Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Brain metastases are common in patients with advanced breast cancer (BC), causing considerable morbidity and mortality. Eribulin is a microtubule dynamics inhibitor approved for treating certain patients with metastatic BC, previously treated with an anthracycline and a taxane. In the 301 phase 3 study in 1102 women with advanced BC, eribulin and capecitabine treatments did not differ for co-primary endpoints (overall survival [OS]: 15.9 vs 14.5 months, P = 0.056; progression-free survival [PFS]: 4.1 vs 4.2 months, P = 0.30). Here, we report outcomes for six patients (eribulin, n = 3; capecitabine, n = 3) who had received treatment for brain metastases from BC (BCBM) at baseline. All eribulin-treated patients experienced brain lesion shrinkage at some point during treatment, compared with one capecitabine-treated patient. Fewer patients in study 301 developed new BCBM with eribulin (13/544, 2.4%) compared with capecitabine (25/546, 4.6%). Eribulin does not cross the healthy blood–brain barrier (BBB), but could have the potential to do so after cranial radiation therapy. Capecitabine may cross the BBB and has demonstrated activity in BCBM. Data from these patients and previous cases suggest that further investigation of eribulin for BCBM may be warranted. PMID:26052228

  13. Clinical features of brain metastases in breast cancer: an implication for hippocampal-sparing whole-brain radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, San-Gang; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Tong, Qin; Li, Feng-Yan; He, Zhen-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objectives of this study were to describe the distribution of brain metastases (BM) in breast cancer patients and investigate the risk factors for perihippocampal metastases (PHM). Patients and methods Retrospective analysis of the clinicopathological characteristics and patterns of BM was performed. Associations between clinicopathological characteristics and PHM (the hippocampus plus 5 mm margin) were evaluated using logistic regression analyses. Results A total of 1,356 brain metastatic lesions were identified in 192 patients. Patients with 1–3 BM, 4–9 BM, and ≥10 BM accounted for 63.0%, 18.8%, and 18.2%, respectively. There were only 7 (3.6%) patients with hippocampal metastases (HM) and 14 (7.3%) patients with PHM. On logistic regression, the number of BM was an independent risk factor for PHM. Patients with ≥10 BM had a significantly higher risk of PHM compared with those with <10 BM. Breast cancer subtype (BCS) was not associated with PHM. The number of BM was significantly correlated with various BCSs. Patients with hormone receptor (HR)+/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)+, HR−/HER2+, and HR−/HER2− subtypes had a higher probability of ≥10 BM, relative to patients with an HR+/HER2− subtype. Conclusion Our study suggests that a low incidence of PHM may be acceptable to perform hippocampal-sparing whole-brain radiation therapy for breast cancer patients. Patients with extensive diffuse metastases (≥10 BM) were associated with higher odds of PHM. PMID:28008263

  14. Ten-Year Survival of a Patient Treated with Stereotactic Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases from Colon Cancer with Ovarian and Lymph Node Metastases: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Morinaga, Nobuhiro; Tanaka, Naritaka; Shitara, Yoshinori; Ishizaki, Masatoshi; Yoshida, Takatomo; Kouga, Hideaki; Wakabayashi, Kazuki; Fukuchi, Minoru; Tsunoda, Yoshiyuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Brain metastasis from colorectal cancer is infrequent and carries a poor prognosis. Herein, we present a patient alive 10 years after the identification of a first brain metastasis from sigmoid colon cancer. A 39-year-old woman underwent sigmoidectomy for sigmoid colon cancer during an emergency operation for pelvic peritonitis. The pathological finding was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Eleven months after the sigmoidectomy, a metastatic lesion was identified in the left ovary. Despite local radiotherapy followed by chemotherapy, the left ovarian lesion grew, so resection of the uterus and bilateral ovaries was performed. Adjuvant chemotherapy with tegafur-uracil (UFT)/calcium folinate (leucovorin, LV) was initiated. Seven months after resection of the ovarian lesion, brain metastases appeared in the bilateral frontal lobes and were treated with stereotactic Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Cervical and mediastinal lymph node metastases were also diagnosed, and irradiation of these lesions was performed. After radiotherapy, 10 courses of oxaliplatin and infused fluorouracil plus leucovorin (FOLFOX) were administered. During FOLFOX administration, recurrent left frontal lobe brain metastasis was diagnosed and treated with stereotactic Gamma Knife radiosurgery. In this case, the brain metastases were well treated with stereotactic Gamma Knife radiosurgery, and the systemic disease arising from sigmoid colon cancer has been kept under control with chemotherapies, surgical resection, and radiotherapy.

  15. Characterization of passive permeability at the blood-tumor barrier in five preclinical models of brain metastases of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Adkins, Chris E.; Mohammad, Afroz S.; Terrell-Hall, Tori; Dolan, Emma L.; Shah, Neal; Sechrest, Emily; Griffith, Jessica; Lockman, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    The blood brain barrier (BBB) is compromised in brain metastases, allowing for enhanced drug permeation into brain. The extent and heterogeneity of BBB permeability in metastatic lesions is important when considering the administration of chemotherapeutics. Since permeability characteristics have been described in limited experimental models of brain metastases, we sought to define these changes in five brain-tropic breast cancer cell lines: MDA-MB-231BR (triple negative), MDA-MB-231BR-HER2, JIMT-1-BR3, 4T1-BR5 (murine), and SUM190 (inflammatory HER2 expressing). Permeability was assessed using quantitative autoradiography and fluorescence microscopy by co-administration of the tracers 14C-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) and Texas Red conjugated dextran (TRD) prior to euthanasia. Each experimental brain metastases model produced variably increased permeability to both tracers; additionally, the magnitude of heterogeneity was different among each model with the highest ranges observed in the SUM190 (up to 45-fold increase in AIB) and MDA-MB-231BR-HER2 (up to 33-fold in AIB) models while the lowest range was observed in the JIMT-1-BR3 (up to 5.5-fold in AIB) model. There was no strong correlation observed between lesion size and permeability in any of these preclinical models of brain metastases. Interestingly, the experimental models resulting in smaller mean metastases size resulted in shorter median survival while models producing larger lesions had longer median survival. These findings strengthen the evidence of heterogeneity in brain metastases of breast cancer by utilizing five unique experimental models and simultaneously emphasize the challenges of chemotherapeutic approaches to treat brain metastases. PMID:26944053

  16. Characterization of passive permeability at the blood-tumor barrier in five preclinical models of brain metastases of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Adkins, Chris E; Mohammad, Afroz S; Terrell-Hall, Tori B; Dolan, Emma L; Shah, Neal; Sechrest, Emily; Griffith, Jessica; Lockman, Paul R

    2016-04-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is compromised in brain metastases, allowing for enhanced drug permeation into brain. The extent and heterogeneity of BBB permeability in metastatic lesions is important when considering the administration of chemotherapeutics. Since permeability characteristics have been described in limited experimental models of brain metastases, we sought to define these changes in five brain-tropic breast cancer cell lines: MDA-MB-231BR (triple negative), MDA-MB-231BR-HER2, JIMT-1-BR3, 4T1-BR5 (murine), and SUM190 (inflammatory HER2 expressing). Permeability was assessed using quantitative autoradiography and fluorescence microscopy by co-administration of the tracers (14)C-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) and Texas red conjugated dextran prior to euthanasia. Each experimental brain metastases model produced variably increased permeability to both tracers; additionally, the magnitude of heterogeneity was different among each model with the highest ranges observed in the SUM190 (up to 45-fold increase in AIB) and MDA-MB-231BR-HER2 (up to 33-fold in AIB) models while the lowest range was observed in the JIMT-1-BR3 (up to 5.5-fold in AIB) model. There was no strong correlation observed between lesion size and permeability in any of these preclinical models of brain metastases. Interestingly, the experimental models resulting in smaller mean metastases size resulted in shorter median survival while models producing larger lesions had longer median survival. These findings strengthen the evidence of heterogeneity in brain metastases of breast cancer by utilizing five unique experimental models and simultaneously emphasize the challenges of chemotherapeutic approaches to treat brain metastases.

  17. Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Patients With Brain Metastases From Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wegner, Rodney E.; Olson, Adam C.; Kondziolka, Douglas; Niranjan, Ajay; Lundsford, L. Dade; Flickinger, John C.

    2011-11-01

    Background: Patients with small-cell lung cancer have a high likelihood of developing brain metastases. Many of these patients will have prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) or eventually undergo whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT). Despite these treatments, a large number of these patients will have progression of their intracranial disease and require additional local therapy. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an important treatment option for such patients. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 44 patients with brain metastases from small-cell lung cancer treated with gamma knife SRS. Multivariate analysis was used to determine significant prognostic factors influencing survival. Results: The median follow-up from SRS in this patient population was 9 months (1-49 months). The median overall survival (OS) was 9 months after SRS. Karnofsky performance status (KPS) and combined treatment involving WBRT and SRS within 4 weeks were the two factors identified as being significant predictors of increased OS (p = 0.033 and 0.040, respectively). When comparing all patients, patients treated with a combined approach had a median OS of 14 months compared to 6 months if SRS was delivered alone. We also compared the OS times from the first definitive radiation: WBRT, WBRT and SRS if combined therapy was used, and SRS if the patient never received WBRT. The median survival for those groups was 12, 14, and 13 months, respectively, p = 0.19. Seventy percent of patients had follow-up magnetic resonance imaging available for review. Actuarial local control at 6 months and 12 months was 90% and 86%, respectively. Only 1 patient (2.2%) had symptomatic intracranial swelling related to treatment, which responded to a short course of steroids. New brain metastases outside of the treated area developed in 61% of patients at a median time of 7 months; 81% of these patients had received previous WBRT. Conclusions: Stereotactic radiosurgery for small-cell lung carcinoma

  18. Germ cell cancer presenting as gastrointestinal bleeding and developing brain metastases: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shuang; Avezbakiyev, Boris; Zhi, Wanqing; Kodali, Sreenath; Rizvon, Kaleem; Alaverdian, Artur; Freedman, Lester; Mejia, Jose; Shahzad, Ghulamullah; Gotlieb, Vladimir

    2012-11-01

    This paper describes a rare case of germ cell cancer with duodenum, brain and lung metastases. The patient presented with melena and left testicle enlargement. Orchiectomy revealed mixed germ cell cancer, enteroscopy revealed duodenal choriocarcinoma, and chest x-ray and computed tomography (CT) showed bilateral lung metastases. The patient received and tolerated cisplatinum-based chemotherapy, and responded well. However, he developed seizures 3 months later. MRI showed brain metastases and he was treated with whole-brain radiation. One month later, he developed progressive dyspnea. Chest CT showed worsening lung metastases. He received second-line chemotherapy, but died due to multiorgan failure. Germ cell cancer with nonpulmonary metastases has poor prognosis and the management of these patients requires a multimodal approach. Head CT should be considered as routine screening for all germ cell cancer patients on initial diagnosis and brain MRI should be considered for high-risk patients (with an embryo- or choriocarcinoma histology, dramatically elevated β-human chorionic gonadotropin and lung involvement).

  19. Survival and level of care among breast cancer patients with brain metastases treated with whole brain radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Frisk, Gabriella; Tinge, Beatrice; Ekberg, Sara; Eloranta, Sandra; Bäcklund, L Magnus; Lidbrink, Elisabet; Smedby, Karin E

    2017-08-22

    The benefit of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) for late stage breast cancer patients with brain metastases has been questioned. In this study we evaluated survival and level of care (hospital or home) following WBRT in a population-based cohort by personal and tumor characteristics. We identified 241 consecutive patients with breast cancer and brain metastases receiving WBRT in Stockholm, Sweden, 1999-2012. Through review of medical records, we collected data on prognostic determinants including level of care before and after WBRT. Survival was estimated using Cox regression, and odds ratios (OR) of not coming home using logistic regression. Median age at WBRT was 58 years (range 30---88 years). Most patients (n = 212, 88%) were treated with 4 Gray × 5. Median survival following WBRT was 2.9 months (interquartile range 1.1-6.6 months), and 57 patients (24%) were never discharged from hospital. Poor performance status and triple-negative tumors were associated with short survival (WHO 3-4 median survival 0.9 months, HR = 5.96 (3.88-9.17) versus WHO 0-1; triple-negative tumors median survival 2.0 months, HR = 1.87 (1.23-2.84) versus Luminal A). Poor performance status and being hospitalized before WBRT were associated with increased ORs of not coming home whereas cohabitation with children at home was protective. Survival was short following WBRT, and one in four breast cancer patients with brain metastases could never be discharged from hospital. When deciding about WBRT, WHO score, level of care before WBRT, and the patient's choice of level of care in the end-of-life period should be considered.

  20. Prognostic factors and long-term survival in surgically treated brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Enders, Frederik; Geisenberger, Christoph; Jungk, Christine; Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo; Warta, Rolf; von Deimling, Andreas; Herold-Mende, Christel; Unterberg, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Brain metastases (BMs) are the most common malignant brain tumors in adults. Despite multimodal treatment options such as microsurgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, prognosis still remains very poor. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) constitutes the most common source of brain metastases. In this study, prognostic factors in this patient population were identified through an in-depth analysis of clinical parameters of patients with BMs from NSCLC. Clinical data of 114 NSCLC cancer patients who underwent surgery for BMs at the University Hospital Heidelberg were retrospectively reviewed for age, gender, type of treatment, time course of the disease, presence of neurologic symptoms, Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS), smoking history, presence of extracranial metastases at initial diagnosis of NSCLC, number, location and size of brain metastases. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were performed using the Log-rank test and Cox' proportional hazard model, respectively. Median survival time from surgery for BMs was 11.2 months. 18.4% (21 of 114) patients were long-term survivors (>24 months; range 26.3-75.1 months). Age, gender, size and number of intracranial metastases were not significantly associated with patient survival. Univariate analysis identified complete resection, postoperative whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and a preoperative KPS of >80% as positive prognostic factors. Infratentorial location and presence of extracranial metastases were shown to be negative prognostic factors. Surgery for the primary tumor was associated with a superior patient outcome both in univariate and multivariate analyses. Our data strongly suggest that surgical treatment of the primary tumor and complete resection of brain metastases in NSCLC patients followed by WBRT improve survival. Moreover, long-term survivors (>2 years) were more frequent than previously reported. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Breast cancer with brain metastases: clinicopathologic features, survival, and paired biomarker analysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qi; Sahin, Aysegul A; Hess, Kenneth R; Suki, Dima; Aldape, Kenneth D; Sawaya, Raymond; Ibrahim, Nuhad K

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe clinicopathologic features of patients with breast cancer brain metastasis (BCBM); to evaluate survival after diagnosis of BCBM; and to compare estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2 expression in the paired primary and brain tumors. We identified 140 consecutive patients who underwent craniotomy for BCBM (either for diagnostic purpose or with therapeutic intent) at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center between 2002 and 2009. Most patients had invasive ductal histology (91%), grade 3 tumors (67%), and positive axillary lymph node (64%). Of the tumors, 56% were ER-negative, 62% were PR-negative, 44% were HER2-positive, and 28% were triple negative (TN). Brain metastasis (BM) was solitary in 51% of patients. Median interval from breast cancer diagnosis to BM was 46 months; median survival after BM was 14.1 months. In the univariate analysis, younger age, solitary brain metastasis, and ER or PR positivity in the breast tumors were associated with longer survival. There was a statistical trend toward increased survival in HER2-positive patients compared with HER2-negative patients (18 vs. 11 months). In the multivariate analysis, predictors for longer survival included younger age, solitary brain lesion, and HER2 positivity in the breast cancer. Biomarkers were evaluated in paired primary and brain tumors in 35 patients for ER status, 34 for PR status, and 36 for HER2 status. Discordant rates were 28% for ER, 20% for PR, and 3% for HER2. Compared with unselected breast cancer patients at the same institution, patients with breast cancer who had brain metastases had a higher proportion of hormone receptor-negative, HER2-positive, and TN tumors. Younger age, solitary brain lesion, and HER2 expression were independent predictors of better survival in patients with BCBM. HER2 status was highly concordant between the paired primary and brain tumors, whereas changes of ER and PR status occurred in a

  2. Breast Cancer With Brain Metastases: Clinicopathologic Features, Survival, and Paired Biomarker Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qi; Hess, Kenneth R.; Suki, Dima; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Sawaya, Raymond; Ibrahim, Nuhad K.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to describe clinicopathologic features of patients with breast cancer brain metastasis (BCBM); to evaluate survival after diagnosis of BCBM; and to compare estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2 expression in the paired primary and brain tumors. Materials and Methods. We identified 140 consecutive patients who underwent craniotomy for BCBM (either for diagnostic purpose or with therapeutic intent) at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center between 2002 and 2009. Results. Most patients had invasive ductal histology (91%), grade 3 tumors (67%), and positive axillary lymph node (64%). Of the tumors, 56% were ER-negative, 62% were PR-negative, 44% were HER2-positive, and 28% were triple negative (TN). Brain metastasis (BM) was solitary in 51% of patients. Median interval from breast cancer diagnosis to BM was 46 months; median survival after BM was 14.1 months. In the univariate analysis, younger age, solitary brain metastasis, and ER or PR positivity in the breast tumors were associated with longer survival. There was a statistical trend toward increased survival in HER2-positive patients compared with HER2-negative patients (18 vs. 11 months). In the multivariate analysis, predictors for longer survival included younger age, solitary brain lesion, and HER2 positivity in the breast cancer. Biomarkers were evaluated in paired primary and brain tumors in 35 patients for ER status, 34 for PR status, and 36 for HER2 status. Discordant rates were 28% for ER, 20% for PR, and 3% for HER2. Conclusion. Compared with unselected breast cancer patients at the same institution, patients with breast cancer who had brain metastases had a higher proportion of hormone receptor-negative, HER2-positive, and TN tumors. Younger age, solitary brain lesion, and HER2 expression were independent predictors of better survival in patients with BCBM. HER2 status was highly concordant between the paired primary and brain tumors

  3. Outcome and prognostic factors in patients with brain metastases from small-cell lung cancer treated with whole brain radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Denise; Adeberg, Sebastian; Bozorgmehr, Farastuk; Opfermann, Nils; Hoerner-Rieber, Juliane; König, Laila; Kappes, Jutta; Thomas, Michael; Herth, Felix; Heußel, Claus Peter; Warth, Arne; Debus, Jürgen; Steins, Martin; Rieken, Stefan

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate prognostic factors associated with overall survival (OS) and neurological progression free survival (nPFS) in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients with brain metastases who received whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT). From 2003 to 2015, 229 SCLC patients diagnosed with brain metastases who received WBRT were analyzed retrospectively. In this cohort 219 patients (95%) received a total photon dose of 30 Gy in 10 fractions. The prognostic factors evaluated for OS and nPFS were: age, Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS), number of brain metastases, synchronous versus metachronous disease, initial response to chemotherapy, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class and thoracic radiation. Median OS after WBRT was 6 months and the median nPFS after WBRT was 11 months. Patients with synchronous cerebral metastases had a significantly better median OS with 8 months compared to patients with metachronous metastases with a median survival of 3 months (p < 0.0001; HR 0.46; 95% CI 0.31-0.67). Based on RPA classification median survival after WBRT was 17 months in RPA class I, 7 months in class II and 3 months in class III (p < 0.0001). Karnofsky performance status scale (KPS < 70%) was significantly associated with OS in both univariate (HR 2.84; p < 0.001) and multivariate analyses (HR 2.56; p = 0.011). Further, metachronous brain metastases (HR 1.8; p < 0.001), initial response to first-line chemotherapy (HR 0.51, p < 0.001) and RPA class III (HR 2.74; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with OS in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis metachronous disease (HR 1.89; p < 0.001) and initial response to chemotherapy (HR 0.61; p < 0.001) were further identified as significant prognostic factors. NPFS was negatively significantly influenced by poor KPS (HR 2.56; p = 0.011), higher number of brain metastases (HR 1.97; p = 0.02), and

  4. Incidence of brain metastases as a first site of recurrence among women with triple receptor-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dawood, Shaheenah; Lei, Xiudong; Litton, Jennifer K.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this retrospective study was to define the incidence of brain metastases as a first site of recurrence among women with triple receptor-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Methods 2448 patients with stage I–III TNBC diagnosed between 1990 and 2010 were identified. We computed the cumulative incidence of developing brain metastases as a first site of recurrence at 2 and 5 years. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to determine factors that could predict for the development of brain metastases as a first site of recurrence. Kaplan-Meier product limit method was used to compute survival following a diagnosis of brain metastases. Results At a median follow up of 39 months 115 (4.7%) patients had developed brain metastases as a first site of recurrence. The cumulative incidence at 2 and 5 years was 3.7% (95% CI 2.9%–4.5%) and 5.4% (95% CI 4.4%–6.5%), respectively. Among patients with stage I, II and III disease, the 2-year cumulative incidence of brain metastases was 0.8%, 3.1% and 8%, respectively (p<0.0001). 5-year cumulative incidence was 2.8%, 4.6% and 9.6% among patients with stage I, II and III disease, respectively (p<0.0001). In the multivariable model, patients with stage III disease had a significant increase in the risk of developing brain metastases as a first site of recurrence (HR = 3.51; 95% CI 1.85 – 6.67; p = .0001) compared to patients with stage I disease. Those with stage II disease had a non significant increased risk of developing brain metastases as a first site of recurrence (HR = 1.61; 95% CI 0.92 – 2.81; p = .10) compared to patients with stage I disease. Median survival following a diagnosis of brain metastases was 7.2 months (range 5.7 to 9.4 months). Conclusion Patients with non metastatic TNBC have a high early incidence of developing brain metastases as a first site of recurrence, which is associated with subsequent poor survival. Patients with stage III TNBC in particular would be an ideal cohort to

  5. Delayed leukoencephalopathy of non-small cell lung cancer patients with brain metastases underwent whole brain radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xiaoling; Huang, Biao; Feng, Jieying; Yang, Wanqun; Liu, Hongjun

    2015-10-01

    To explore the incidence, MR imaging findings, dynamic developing process of delayed leukoencephalopathy (DLE) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with brain metastases patients who undergone whole brain radiation (WBRT) therapy, we retrospectively reviewed 48 NSCLC patients who underwent WBRT for brain metastases from January 2010 through June 2015 and had evaluable magnetic resonance imaging after treatment. The DLE were graded using a scale to evaluate T2-FLAIR (fluid attenuated image recovery) images: grade 1 = little or no white matter hyperintensity, grade 2 = limited periventricular hyperintensity and grade 3 = diffuse white matter hyperintensity. 48 NSCLC patients with brain metastases were enrolled. The median age of these patients was 55.7 years (range 33-75 years). The median follow-up was 12 months. The characteristic MR imaging of DLE in those patients was bilaterally diffuse white matter T2 hyperintensity around the periventricular areas without enhancement, sparing from U-fiber, callosum and gray matter structure. The incidence of DLE developed 6.25% (3/48), 30.00% (12/40), 48.39% (15/31), 61.90% (13/21), 85.71% (6/7), 100% (3/3) in those patients who were followed up for 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36 months, respectively. Through increased understanding of it, it may be possible to help clinicians develop further therapeutic strategies to maximize benefit while limiting potential long term toxicities. These data supplement existing reports regarding the late effects of WBRT in NSCLC patients with brain metastasis.

  6. Comparison of nine prognostic scores in patients with brain metastases of breast cancer receiving radiotherapy of the brain.

    PubMed

    Laakmann, Elena; Riecke, Kerstin; Goy, Yvonne; Kersten, Jan F; Krüll, Andreas; Müller, Volkmar; Petersen, Cordula; Witzel, Isabell

    2016-01-01

    Several prognostic indices (PI) have been developed to stratify patients with brain metastases in groups with good or bad prognosis. The aim of our study was to compare nine prognostic scores for patients with brain metastases (BM) of breast cancer receiving radiotherapy. The clinical data of 139 breast cancer patients with BM were collected retrospectively. All patients were treated with cerebral radiotherapy or surgery followed by radiotherapy between January 2007 and December 2012. The prognostic value and accuracy of recursive partitioning analysis (RPA), RPA II, graded prognostic assessment (GPA), basic score for BM, Breast-RPA, Breast-GPA, Rades Score 2011, Germany Score and Breast Rades Score were assessed. The median survival after BM diagnosis in our cohort was 14 months. The overall 6-month, 1-, 2- and 3-year survival rates were 49.6, 37.4, 20.9 and 13.7 %, respectively. Most of the PI were associated with OS, but univariate analysis favored GPA regarding OS. GPA was the most accurate score to identify patients with long (longer than 12 months) and Breast-GPA patients with short (<3 months) life expectancy. GPA and Breast-GPA seem to be the most useful scores and perform better than other PI for breast cancer patients with BM receiving radiotherapy.

  7. Bevacizumab Plus Radiosurgery for Nonsquamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients with Brain Metastases: Safe Combination?

    PubMed

    Guinde, Julien; Carron, Romain; Tomasini, Pascale; Greillier, Laurent; Régis, Jean; Barlesi, Fabrice

    2017-08-09

    In the context of bronchial cancers, the brain is one of the most frequent sites for metastases. Local treatments of these metastases have evolved and are often combined to obtain greater efficiency, while the main objective remains to reduce the symptoms. Radiosurgery is currently used as a primary option for patients harboring few numbers of small to middle-sized brain metastases. In nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), chemotherapy is often associated with bevacizumab. Our goal was to assess the safety of this early combination. Six patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC were treated with radiosurgery for the management of their brain metastases (n = 40), followed within <4 weeks by a treatment with bevacizumab. No systemic or cerebral adverse event of grade 3 (intratumoral or parenchymal hemorrhage) or unexpected toxicity secondary to bevacizumab has been indexed. Radiosurgery may be safely combined with bevacizumab quite early on for patients with nonsquamous NSCLC with brain metastases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Immunohistochemical hormonal mismatch and human epidermal growth factor type 2 [HER2] phenotype of brain metastases in breast cancer carcinoma compared to primary tumors].

    PubMed

    Joubert, C; Boissonneau, S; Fina, F; Figarella-Branger, D; Ouafik, L; Fuentes, S; Dufour, H; Gonçalves, A; Charaffe-Jauffret, E; Metellus, P

    2016-06-01

    Phenotype changes between primary tumor and the corresponding brain metastases are recent reported data. Breast cancer, with biological markers predicting prognosis and guiding therapeutic strategy remains an interesting model to observe and evaluate theses changes. The objective of our study was to compare molecular features (estrogen receptor [ER], progesterone receptor [PR], and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2, [HER2]) between brain metastases and its primary tumor in patients presenting with pathologically confirmed breast cancer. This retrospective study was based on the immunohistochemical analysis of the brain metastases paraffin embedded samples stored in our institutional tumor bank, after surgical resection. The level of expression of hormonal receptors and HER2 on brain metastases were centrally reviewed and compared to the expression status in primary breast cancer from medical records. Forty-four samples of brain metastases were available for analysis. Hormonal receptor modification status was observed in 11/44 brain metastases (25%) for ER and 6/44 (13.6%) for PR. A modification of HER2 overexpression was observed in brain metastases in 6/44 (13.6%). Molecular subtype modification was shown in 17 cases (38.6%). A significant difference was demonstrated between time to develop brain metastases in cases without status modification (HER2, ER and PR) (med=49.5months [7.8-236.4]) and in cases in which brain metastases status differs from primary tumor (med=27.5months [0-197.3]), (P=0.0244, IC95=3.09-51.62, Mann and Whitney test). the main interest of this study was to focus on the molecular feature changes between primary tumor and their brain metastases. Time to develop brain metastases was correlated to phenotypic changes in brain metastases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Conversion of epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and hormone receptor expression in breast cancer metastases to the brain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction We investigated the status of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), progesterone receptor (PR), and epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in primary tumor and in the corresponding brain metastases in a consecutive series of breast cancer patients. Additionally, we studied factors potentially influencing conversion and evaluated its association with survival. Methods The study group included 120 breast cancer patients. ERα, PR, and HER2 status in primary tumors and in matched brain metastases was determined centrally by immunohistochemistry and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization. Results Using the Allred score of ≥ 3 as a threshold, conversion of ERα and PR in brain metastases occurred in 29% of cases for both receptors, mostly from positive to negative. Conversion of HER2 occurred in 14% of patients and was more balanced either way. Time to brain relapse and the use of chemotherapy or trastuzumab did not influence conversion, whereas endocrine therapy induced conversion of ERα (P = 0.021) and PR (P = 0.001), mainly towards their loss. Receptor conversion had no significant impact on survival. Conclusions Receptor conversion, particularly loss of hormone receptors, is a common event in brain metastases from breast cancer, and endocrine therapy may increase its incidence. Receptor conversion does not significantly affect survival. PMID:22898337

  10. Multicenter phase 2 study of patupilone for recurrent or progressive brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Lakshmi; DeAngelis, Lisa M; Robins, H Ian; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Gadgeel, Shirish; Kelly, Karen; Rigas, James R; Peereboom, David M; Rosenfeld, Steven S; Muzikansky, Alona; Zheng, Ming; Urban, Patrick; Abrey, Lauren E; Omuro, Antonio; Wen, Patrick Y

    2015-12-01

    Treatment options for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with brain metastases are limited. Patupilone (EPO906), a blood-brain barrier-penetrating, microtubule-targeting, cytotoxic agent, has shown clinical activity in phase 1/2 studies in patients with NSCLC. This study evaluates the efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and safety of patupilone in NSCLC brain metastases. Adult patients with NSCLC and confirmed progressive brain metastases received patupilone intravenously at 10 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint of this multinomial 2-stage study combined early progression (EP; death or progression within 3 weeks) and progression-free survival at 9 weeks (PFS9w) to determine drug activity. Fifty patients with a median age of 60 years (range, 33-74 years) were enrolled; the majority were men (58%), and most had received prior therapy for brain metastases (98%). The PFS9w rate was 36%, and the EP rate was 26%. Patupilone blood pharmacokinetic analyses showed mean areas under the concentration-time curve from time zero to 504 hours for cycles 1 and 3 of 1544 and 1978 ng h/mL, respectively, and a mean steady state distribution volume of 755 L/m(2) . Grade 3/4 adverse events (AEs), regardless of their relation with the study drug, included diarrhea (24%), pulmonary embolisms (8%), convulsions (4%), and peripheral neuropathy (4%). All patients discontinued the study drug: 31 (62%) for disease progression and 13 (26%) for AEs. Twenty-five of 32 deaths were due to brain metastases. The median time to progression and the overall survival were 3.2 and 8.8 months, respectively. This is the first prospective study of chemotherapy for recurrent brain metastases from NSCLC. In this population, patupilone demonstrated activity in heavily treated patients. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  11. Diagnosis of Brain Metastases from Lung Cancer Using a Modified Electromagnetism like Mechanism Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kun-Huang; Wang, Kung-Jeng; Adrian, Angelia Melani; Wang, Kung-Min; Teng, Nai-Chia

    2016-01-01

    Brain metastases are commonly found in patients that are diagnosed with primary malignancy on their lung. Lung cancer patients with brain metastasis tend to have a poor survivability, which is less than 6 months in median. Therefore, an early and effective detection system for such disease is needed to help prolong the patients' survivability and improved their quality of life. A modified electromagnetism-like mechanism (EM) algorithm, MEM-SVM, is proposed by combining EM algorithm with support vector machine (SVM) as the classifier and opposite sign test (OST) as the local search technique. The proposed method is applied to 44 UCI and IDA datasets, and 5 cancers microarray datasets as preliminary experiment. In addition, this method is tested on 4 lung cancer microarray public dataset. Further, we tested our method on a nationwide dataset of brain metastasis from lung cancer (BMLC) in Taiwan. Since the nature of real medical dataset to be highly imbalanced, the synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE) is utilized to handle this problem. The proposed method is compared against another 8 popular benchmark classifiers and feature selection methods. The performance evaluation is based on the accuracy and Kappa index. For the 44 UCI and IDA datasets and 5 cancer microarray datasets, a non-parametric statistical test confirmed that MEM-SVM outperformed the other methods. For the 4 lung cancer public microarray datasets, MEM-SVM still achieved the highest mean value for accuracy and Kappa index. Due to the imbalanced property on the real case of BMLC dataset, all methods achieve good accuracy without significance difference among the methods. However, on the balanced BMLC dataset, MEM-SVM appears to be the best method with higher accuracy and Kappa index. We successfully developed MEM-SVM to predict the occurrence of brain metastasis from lung cancer with the combination of SMOTE technique to handle the class imbalance properties. The results confirmed that MEM

  12. Prognostic factors of brain metastases from breast cancer: impact of targeted therapies.

    PubMed

    Braccini, Antoine Laurent; Azria, David; Thezenas, Simon; Romieu, Gilles; Ferrero, Jean Marc; Jacot, William

    2013-10-01

    Brain metastases (BM) from breast cancer are associated with poor prognosis. This study was made to determine the prognostic influence of breast cancer biological subtypes, and to define the best therapeutic options in this setting, with a special focus on the HER2-positive population. Breast cancer patients with known hormone receptors (HR) and HER2 status presenting with BM treated between 1995 and 2010 in our two institutions were considered for this retrospective study. 250 patients were included. The study population consisted of 25.6% patients categorized as triple-negative (HR-/HER2-), 30.8% as HR+/HER2- and 43.6% as HER2+ breast cancer. Median overall survival (OS) was 8.9 months (95% CI, 6.9-10.3 months). Cerebral progression remained the most frequent cause of death (57.1%). On multivariate analysis, HER2 positivity and the RPA score were the two most important prognostic factors. Local treatment (surgery or stereotactic radiotherapy) and chemotherapy were significantly associated with an increased survival. On multivariate analysis of the RPA1-2 population, local treatment and chemotherapy were independent prognostic factors in addition to biological subtypes, RPA class, liver metastases and clinical signs of intra-cranial hypertension. Anti-HER2 therapies administered after BM diagnosis significantly and independently increased OS. Median OS in patients receiving both trastuzumab and lapatinib after BM diagnosis was significantly better than that the one of patients receiving only one of the 2 targeted therapies (25.7 vs. 9.6 months, p < 0.001). Biological subtypes are independent prognostic determinants. Chemotherapy and targeted therapies positively affect the prognosis after first BM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nested Cohort Study to Identify Characteristics That Predict Near-Term Disablement From Lung Cancer Brain Metastases.

    PubMed

    Cheville, Andrea L; Basford, Jeffrey R; Parney, Ian; Yang, Ping; Diehn, Felix E

    2017-02-01

    To test whether the presence of patient- and imaging-level characteristics (1) are associated with clinically meaningful changes in mobility among patients with late-stage cancer with metastatic brain involvement, and (2) can predict their risk of near-term functional decline. Prospective nested cohort study. Quaternary academic medical center. The study population consisted of a nested cohort of the patients with imaging-confirmed brain metastases (n=66) among a larger cohort of patients with late-stage lung cancer (N=311). Not applicable. Functional evaluations with the Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care Computer Adaptive Test (AM-PAC-CAT) and symptom intensity ratings were collected at monthly intervals for up to 2 years. In exploratory univariate models, whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) and imaging findings of cerebellar or brainstem involvement were associated with large AM-PAC-CAT score declines reflecting worsening mobility (-4.55, SE 1.12; -2.87, SE, 1.0; and -3.14, SE 1.47, respectively). Also in univariate models, participants with new neurologic signs or symptoms at imaging (-2.48; SE .99), new brain metastases (-2.14, SE .99), or new and expanding metastases (-2.64, SE 1.14) declined significantly. Multivariate exploratory mixed logistic models, including WBRT, cerebellar/brainstem location, presence of new and expanding metastases, and worst pain intensity, had excellent predictive capabilities for AM-PAC-CAT score declines of 7.5 and 10 points (C statistics ≥0.8). Among patients with lung cancer and brain metastases, cerebellar/brainstem location, new and expanding metastases, and treatment with WBRT may predict severe, near-term mobility losses and indicate a need to consider rehabilitation services. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Brain metastases in cancer patients attending a Gamma Knife Center: A study from a single institute in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Azimi, Parisa; Shahzadi, Sohrab; Bitaraf, Mohammad Ali; Azar, Maziar; Alikhani, Mazdak; Zali, Alireza; Sadeghi, Sohrab; Montazeri, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study was aimed to explore data on brain metastases in cancer patients attending the Iranian Gamma Knife Center. Meterials and Methods: This was a retrospective study. In all 5216 case records of patients who referred to the Iranian Gamma Knife Center for treatment of brain tumors during year 2003-2011 were reviewed. Data were explored to identify patients who developed brain metastases due to cancer and assessed the information as applied to cancer patients including survival analysis. Results: Two hundred and twenty patients were identified as having brain metastases due to cancer. The mean age of patients was 54.0 (standard deviation [SD] =12.7) years. Patients were followed for an average of 7 months after treatment with gamma-knife. The median survival time for different the Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA) was: GPA: 0-1, 4.0 ± 0.4 months; GPA: 1.5-2.5, 6.0 ± 0.7 months; GPA: 3, 9.0 ± 0.9 months; and GPA: 3.5-4.0, 12.0 ± 1.8 months and the overall median survival was 7.0 (SD = 0.6) months. Conclusion: The findings suggest that many cancer patients in Iran might develop brain metastasis. Although, this is not a very high incidence compared with the existing statistics from other countries, there is an urgent need to explore the issue further. PMID:28761536

  15. Brain metastases in cancer patients attending a Gamma Knife Center: A study from a single institute in Iran.

    PubMed

    Azimi, Parisa; Shahzadi, Sohrab; Bitaraf, Mohammad Ali; Azar, Maziar; Alikhani, Mazdak; Zali, Alireza; Sadeghi, Sohrab; Montazeri, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed to explore data on brain metastases in cancer patients attending the Iranian Gamma Knife Center. This was a retrospective study. In all 5216 case records of patients who referred to the Iranian Gamma Knife Center for treatment of brain tumors during year 2003-2011 were reviewed. Data were explored to identify patients who developed brain metastases due to cancer and assessed the information as applied to cancer patients including survival analysis. Two hundred and twenty patients were identified as having brain metastases due to cancer. The mean age of patients was 54.0 (standard deviation [SD] =12.7) years. Patients were followed for an average of 7 months after treatment with gamma-knife. The median survival time for different the Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA) was: GPA: 0-1, 4.0 ± 0.4 months; GPA: 1.5-2.5, 6.0 ± 0.7 months; GPA: 3, 9.0 ± 0.9 months; and GPA: 3.5-4.0, 12.0 ± 1.8 months and the overall median survival was 7.0 (SD = 0.6) months. The findings suggest that many cancer patients in Iran might develop brain metastasis. Although, this is not a very high incidence compared with the existing statistics from other countries, there is an urgent need to explore the issue further.

  16. Quantitative MRI study of the permeability of peritumoral brain edema in lung cancer patients with brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Ming-Liang; Li, Yue-Hua

    2017-08-15

    To use Ktrans to evaluate the aggressiveness and vascular permeability of peritumoral edema in cases of lung cancer brain metastases. A total of 68 lung cancer patients with 92 metastatic brain lesions were enrolled (20 metastatic lesions only in the gray matter - group 1; and 72 metastatic lesions located in the gray and white matter junction - group 2). All patients underwent MRI examination, which involved a dual angle (2° and 15°) enhanced T1W-VIBE (volume interpolated breath-hold examination) sequence to calculate the T1 parameter map. We used the enhanced T1-3D sequence to measure the tumor volume. The vascular permeability coefficient (Ktrans) was calculated using the single-compartment Tofts model, motion registration, and quick input mode. We examined the correlations of Ktrans with the edema index (EI), Ktrans with the tumor volume, and Ktrans with the histological expression of MMP-9 or VEGF in the original lung tumor using Pearson's' correlation analysis. Ktrans and EI were highly correlated in group 2 (r=0.66687; P<0.001) and not correlated in group 1 (r=0.33096; P=0.15405). Ktrans was also moderately related to the positive expression of MMP-9 (r=0.50912; P<0.001) and VEGF (r=0.36995; P=0.00138) There is statistical correlation between Ktrans and EI for group 2, and no statistical correlation between Ktrans and EI for group 1. The Ktrans of the peritumoral brain edema may be used to indicate the aggressiveness and vascular permeability of brain metastases in patients with lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Long Survival in a Patient with Brain Metastases from Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    G, Sanna; G, Petralia; M, Cossu Rocca; C, Marenghi; F, Nolè

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of brain metastases (BMs) is apparently rising in patients with advanced breast cancer, possibly due to better therapeutic approaches for control of metastatic growth in other organs. Occurrence of BMs severely affects quality of life and is associated with dire prognosis. In this short report we describe the clinical case of a 47 year old woman, with BMs from breast cancer diagnosed in May 2001. The patient was treated with whole brain irradiation and radiosurgery, with initial control of BMs. Due to previous radiotherapy fields and doses, further local treatments are not feasible anymore. Since September 2006, the patient has been receiving systemic therapy with Lapatinib at the dose of 1500 mg/die continuously, with a good control of cerebral, liver and nodal metastasis after one year of treatment (September 2007). Her quality of life is acceptable, her Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) is more than 70%, and she takes care of her family, and has not experienced neuro-cognitive dysfunction. PMID:21892271

  18. Neurosurgical management of brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sherise D; Wagner, Kathryn M; Prabhu, Sujit S; McAleer, Mary F; McCutcheon, Ian E; Sawaya, Raymond

    2017-09-30

    Brain metastases present a significant public health issue, affecting more than 100,000 patients per year in the U.S. and result in significant morbidity. Brain metastases can occur in a variety of clinical situations ranging from multiple brain metastases with uncontrolled systemic disease to a solitary metastasis in the setting of controlled systemic disease. Additionally, advances in genomics have broadened the opportunities for targeted treatment options and potentially more durable systemic responses. As such, the treatment of brain metastases is now more tailored and multimodal, involving systemic, radiation, and surgical therapies, often in combination. This review discusses the historical and current role of neurosurgical techniques in the treatment of brain metastases.

  19. Systemic treatment of non-small cell lung cancer brain metastases

    PubMed Central

    Cedrych, Ida; Walasek, Tomasz; Jakubowicz, Jerzy; Blecharz, Paweł; Reinfuss, Marian

    2016-01-01

    In the systemic treatment of brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (BMF-NSCLC) chemo- and targeted therapy are used. Response rates after platinum-based chemotherapy, range from 23% to 45%. Development of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs): gefitinib or erlotinib, was an improvement in treatment of advanced NSCLC patients. EGFR mutations are present in 10–25% of NSCLC (mostly adenocarcinoma), and up to 55% in never-smoking women of East Asian descent. In the non-selected group of patients with BMF-NSCLC, the overall response rates after gefitinib or erlotinib treatment range from 10% to 38%, and the duration of response ranges from 9 to 13.5 months. In the case of present activating EGFR mutation, the response rate after EGRF-TKIs is greater than 50%, and in selected groups (adenocarcinoma, patients of Asian descent, never-smokers, asymptomatic BMF-NSCLC) even 70%. Gefitinib or erlotinib treatment improves survival of BMF-NSCLC patients with EGFR mutation in comparison to cases without the presence of this mutation. There is no data on the activity of the anti-EML4-ALK agent crizotinib. Bevacizumab, recombinant humanised monoclonal antibody anti-VEGF, in the treatment of advanced non-squamous NSCLC patients is a subject of intense research. Data from a clinical trial enrolling patients with pretreated or occult BMF-NSCLC proved that the addition of bevacizumab to various chemotherapy agents or erlotinib is a safe and efficient treatment, associated with a low incidence of CSN haemorrhages. However, the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab used for therapeutic intent, regarding active brain metastases is unknown. PMID:28373815

  20. Treatment of experimental human breast cancer and lung cancer brain metastases in mice by macitentan, a dual antagonist of endothelin receptors, combined with paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho Jeong; Hanibuchi, Masaki; Kim, Sun-Jin; Yu, Hyunkyung; Kim, Mark Seungwook; He, Junqin; Langley, Robert R.; Lehembre, François; Regenass, Urs; Fidler, Isaiah J.

    2016-01-01

    Background We recently demonstrated that brain endothelial cells and astrocytes protect cancer cells from chemotherapy through an endothelin-dependent signaling mechanism. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of macitentan, a dual endothelin receptor (ETAR and ETBR) antagonist, in the treatment of experimental breast and lung cancer brain metastases. Methods The effect of macitentan on astrocyte- and brain endothelial cell-mediated chemoprotective properties was measured in cytotoxic assays. We compared survival of mice bearing established MDA-MB-231 breast cancer or PC-14 non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) brain metastases that were treated with vehicle, macitentan, paclitaxel, or macitentan plus paclitaxel. Cell division, apoptosis, tumor vasculature, and expression of survival-related proteins were assessed by immunofluorescent microscopy. Results Cancer cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells expressed activated forms of AKT and MAPK in vehicle- and paclitaxel-treated groups in both metastasis models, but these proteins were downregulated in metastases of mice that received macitentan. The survival-related proteins Bcl2L1, Gsta5, and Twist1 that localized to cancer cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells in vehicle- and paclitaxel-treated tumors were suppressed by macitentan. Macitentan or paclitaxel alone had no effect on survival. However, when macitentan was combined with paclitaxel, we noted a significant reduction in cancer cell division and marked apoptosis of both cancer cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells. Moreover, macitentan plus paclitaxel therapy significantly increased overall survival by producing complete responses in 35 of 35 mice harboring brain metastases. Conclusions Dual antagonism of ETAR and ETBR signaling sensitizes experimental brain metastases to paclitaxel and may represent a new therapeutic option for patients with brain metastases. PMID:26995790

  1. Treatment of experimental human breast cancer and lung cancer brain metastases in mice by macitentan, a dual antagonist of endothelin receptors, combined with paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho Jeong; Hanibuchi, Masaki; Kim, Sun-Jin; Yu, Hyunkyung; Kim, Mark Seungwook; He, Junqin; Langley, Robert R; Lehembre, François; Regenass, Urs; Fidler, Isaiah J

    2016-04-01

    We recently demonstrated that brain endothelial cells and astrocytes protect cancer cells from chemotherapy through an endothelin-dependent signaling mechanism. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of macitentan, a dual endothelin receptor (ETAR and ETBR) antagonist, in the treatment of experimental breast and lung cancer brain metastases. The effect of macitentan on astrocyte- and brain endothelial cell-mediated chemoprotective properties was measured in cytotoxic assays. We compared survival of mice bearing established MDA-MB-231 breast cancer or PC-14 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) brain metastases that were treated with vehicle, macitentan, paclitaxel, or macitentan plus paclitaxel. Cell division, apoptosis, tumor vasculature, and expression of survival-related proteins were assessed by immunofluorescent microscopy. Cancer cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells expressed activated forms of AKT and MAPK in vehicle- and paclitaxel-treated groups in both metastasis models, but these proteins were downregulated in metastases of mice that received macitentan. The survival-related proteins Bcl2L1, Gsta5, and Twist1 that localized to cancer cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells in vehicle- and paclitaxel-treated tumors were suppressed by macitentan. Macitentan or paclitaxel alone had no effect on survival. However, when macitentan was combined with paclitaxel, we noted a significant reduction in cancer cell division and marked apoptosis of both cancer cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells. Moreover, macitentan plus paclitaxel therapy significantly increased overall survival by producing complete responses in 35 of 35 mice harboring brain metastases. Dual antagonism of ETAR and ETBR signaling sensitizes experimental brain metastases to paclitaxel and may represent a new therapeutic option for patients with brain metastases. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved

  2. Overall Survival After Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy for Intracerebral Metastases from Testicular Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rades, Dirk; Dziggel, Liesa; Veninga, Theo; Bajrovic, Amira; Schild, Steven E

    2016-09-01

    To identify predictors and develop a score for overall survival of patients with intracerebral metastasis from testicular cancer. Whole-brain radiation therapy program, age, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), number of intracerebral metastases, number of other metastatic sites and time between testicular cancer diagnosis and radiation therapy were analyzed for their association with overall survival in eight patients. KPS of 80-90% was significantly associated with better overall survival (p=0.006), one or no other metastatic sites showed a trend for a better outcome (p=0.10). The following scores were assigned: KPS 60-70%=0 points, KPS 80-90%=1 point, ≥2 other metastatic sites=0 points, 0-1 other metastatic sites=1 point. Two groups, with 0 and with 1-2 points, were formed. Overall survival rates were 33% vs. 100% at 6 months and 0% vs. 100% at 12 months (p=0.006), respectively. A simple instrument enabling physicians to judge the overall survival of patients with intracerebral metastasis from testicular cancer is provided. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  3. Systemic treatments for brain metastases from breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, melanoma and renal cell carcinoma: an overview of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Giuseppe; Di Stefano, Anna Luisa; Farina, Patrizia; Zagonel, Vittorina; Tabouret, Emeline

    2014-09-01

    The frequency of metastatic brain tumors has increased over recent years; the primary tumors most involved are breast cancer, lung cancer, melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. While radiation therapy and surgery remain the mainstay treatment in selected patients, new molecular drugs have been developed for brain metastases. Studies so far report interesting results. This review focuses on systemic cytotoxic drugs and, in particular, on new targeted therapies and their clinically relevant activities in brain metastases from solid tumors in adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression profiling of angiogenesis-related genes in brain metastases of lung cancer and melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ilhan-Mutlu, Aysegül; Siehs, Christian; Berghoff, Anna Sophie; Ricken, Gerda; Widhalm, Georg; Wagner, Ludwig; Preusser, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Brain metastases (BM) are the most common brain tumors of adults and are associated with fatal prognosis. Formation of new blood vessels, named angiogenesis, was proposed to be the main hallmark of the growth of BM. Previous preclinical evidence revealed that angiogenic blockage might be considered for treatment; however, there were varying responses. In this study, we aimed to characterize the expression pattern of angiogenesis-related genes in BM of lung cancer and melanoma, which might be of importance for the different responses against anti-angiogenic treatment. Fifteen snap-frozen tissues obtained from BM of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), and melanoma patients were analyzed for angiogenesis-related genes using a commercially available gene expression kit. Epilepsy tissue was used as control. Expression values were analyzed using hierarchical clustering investigating relative fold changes and mapping to Omicsnet protein interaction network. CXCL10, CEACAM1, PECAM1, KIT, COL4A2, COL1A1, and HSPG2 genes were more than 50-fold up-regulated in all diagnosis groups when compared to control, whereas genes such as ANGPT4, PDGFRB, and SERPINF1 were down-regulated only in SCLC and melanoma groups, respectively. Using hierarchical clustering, 12 out of 15 cases were allocated to the correct histological primary tumor type. We identified genes with consistent up-regulation in BM of lung cancer and melanoma and other genes with differential expression across BM of these tumor types. Our data may be of relevance for targeted therapy or prophylaxis of BM using anti-angiogenic agents.

  5. Neuropathology of brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Pekmezci, Melike; Perry, Arie

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic tumors are the most common neoplasms encountered in the central nervous system (CNS), and continue to be major cause for mortality and morbidity. Macroscopic features and corresponding radiological findings can be diagnostic in majority of the cases, however, microscopic evaluation would be necessary when the differential diagnosis includes a primary CNS tumor, unknown primary tumor site, and when the resection of the tumor is either considered therapeutic or palliative. The first step in the diagnosis of a metastatic brain lesion is to exclude a primary CNS tumor, followed by verification or identification of the primary tumor and the site. Although general approach to a metastatic lesion from an unknown primary tumor is the same everywhere else, there are slight variations for the metastatic lesions in the CNS versus other regions. When morphological features are not enough to establish a definitive diagnosis, additional studies including immunohistochemical stains are applied. With the expending immunohistochemical armamentarium for pathologists, more accurate assessments are possible even in cases of unknown primary tumor. This review summarizes the diagnostic approach to CNS metastases, immunohistochemical assessment of neoplasm of unknown primary, and primary CNS lesions entering in the differential diagnosis of metastases.

  6. Baseline neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio is associated with baseline and subsequent presence of brain metastases in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Young Wha; Choi, Jin-Hyuk; Ahn, Mi Sun; Choi, Yong Won; Lee, Hyun Woo

    2016-01-01

    We examined the predictive value of neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR) by examining their association with the baseline presence and subsequent development of brain metastases in patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We examined the predictive value of NLR for brain metastasis in 260 stage IV NSCLC. Logistic regression models and competing risk analysis were used to determine the association of NLR with baseline and subsequent presence of brain metastases. Multivariate analysis reveals that patients with high NLR (≥4.95) had significantly more brain metastases at diagnosis than those with low NLR (Odds Ratio = 2.59, P = 0.01). In patients who had no baseline brain metastasis, competing risks analysis revealed that patients with high NLR showed higher cumulative incidence of subsequent brain metastases, compared to those with low NLR (P = 0.017). A high NLR was associated with the baseline presence or the subsequent development of brain metastases, particularly in the group with adenocarcinoma (P = 0.013 and P = 0.044, respectively). Furthermore, an increase in NLR during treatment was associated with subsequent brain metastases (P = 0.004). The NLR is an independent predictive factor for the baseline presence of brain metastases and subsequent brain metastases in stage IV NSCLC. PMID:27924837

  7. Prediction of Clinical Outcomes by Chemokine and Cytokine Profiling In CSF from Radiation Treated Breast Cancer Primary with Brain Metastases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lok, Edwin

    Whole brain radiation is the standard treatment for patients with brain metastasis but unfortunately tumors can recover from radiation-induced damage with the help of the immune system. The hypothesis that differences in immunokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pre- and post-irradiation could reveal tumor biology and correlate with outcome of patients with metastatic breast cancer to the brain is tested. Collected CSF samples were analyzed using Luminex's multiplexing assays to survey global immunokine levels while Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays were used to quantify each individual immunokines. Cluster analysis was performed to segregate patients based on their common immunokine profile and each cluster was correlated with survival and other clinical parameters. Breast cancer brain metastasis was found to have altered immunokine profiles in the CSF, and that Interleukin-1α expression was elevated after irradiation. Therefore, immunokine profiling in the CSF could enable cancer physicians to monitor the status of brain metastases.

  8. Symptoms and Quality of Life in Cancer Patients With Brain Metastases Following Palliative Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Jennifer; Hird, Amanda; Zhang Liying; Tsao, May; Sinclair, Emily; Barnes, Elizabeth; Danjoux, Cyril; Chow, Edward

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To examine prospectively patient self-rated symptoms and quality of life (QOL) indicators in patients with brain metastases following whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients with brain metastases referred for WBRT were approached for this study. Patients were asked to rate their symptoms and QOL using the Spitzer Quality of Life Index questionnaire. Follow-up was at 1, 2, and 3 months following WBRT. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the change in symptom severity over time. Results: Between August 2005 to October 2007, 129 patients with brain metastases were enrolled. The majority of patients (88%) received 20 Gy in five fractions. Median age was 64 years, and median Karnofsky Performance Status at baseline was 70. The most commonly experienced symptoms at baseline were headaches, weakness, balance problems, and fatigue. Thirty-five percent of patients rated neurological functional (NF) status as 1, indicating moderate neurological symptoms and need for assistance. Forty-three percent of patients had stable or decreased fatigue, and 47% had a stable or improved NF status over time (p = 0.0040). Although certain QOL domains improved over time, all other QOL domains and symptom items did not change significantly following WBRT. Conclusion: WBRT may have contributed to symptom stabilization in our study. An alternative goal of WBRT may be the prevention of symptom progression and QOL deterioration. Further research is required to select the most appropriate group of patients with brain metastases who would benefit most from WBRT.

  9. Negative impact of leukoaraiosis on the incidence of brain metastases in patients with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Nakamasa; Mitsuya, Koichi; Nakasu, Yoko; Naito, Tateaki; Ohka, Fumiharu; Takahashi, Toshiaki

    2017-07-27

    The embolization of cancer cells to cerebral vessels occurs early in the multi-step metastatic process. We aimed to determine whether the presence of leukoaraiosis (LA) before treatment would predict the development of brain metastases (BM) in patients with lung cancer. Between January 2014 and June 2015, 1007 patients underwent initial (i.e., prior to any chemotherapy) or routine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain and exhibited no evidence of BM. Of these, 189 underwent repeat MR imaging; 34 of 189 patients (18%) developed new BM, whereas 155 patients did not. LA was retrospectively evaluated according to Fazekas scale on the initial screening MR images of these 189 patients. The frequency of grade 0 periventricular hyperintensity (PVH) was greater among patients with BM, compared to those without BM (p = 0.001). In a multivariate analysis, patients with adenocarcinoma (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8-171.8) and small cell carcinoma (95% CI 1.4-172.4) respectively developed BM at 9.3- and 8.8-fold higher rates than those with squamous cell carcinoma. Patients with grade 0 PVH developed BM at a rate 3.5-, 8.6-, and 3.6-fold higher rates than those with grade 1 (95% CI 1.4-9.0), 2 (95% CI 2.4-41.9), and 3 (95% CI 1.02-15.0), respectively. Lung cancer patients with grade 0 PVH on initial MR images have a high subsequent incidence of BM. PVH is a useful method for evaluating risk of BM.

  10. Predicting brain metastases for non-small cell lung cancer based on magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Yin, Gang; Li, Churong; Chen, Heng; Luo, Yangkun; Orlandini, Lucia Clara; Wang, Pei; Lang, Jinyi

    2017-02-01

    In this study the relationship between brain structure and brain metastases (BM) occurrence was analyzed. A model for predicting the time of BM onset in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was proposed. Twenty patients were used to develop the model, whereas the remaining 69 were used for independent validation and verification of the model. Magnetic resonance images were segmented into cerebrospinal fluid, gray matter (GM), and white matter using voxel-based morphometry. Automatic anatomic labeling template was used to extract 116 brain regions from the GM volume. The elapsed time between the MRI acquisitions and BM diagnosed was analyzed using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator method. The model was validated using the leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV) and permutation test. The GM volume of the extracted 11 regions of interest increased with the progression of BM from NSCLC. LOOCV test on the model indicated that the measured and predicted BM onset were highly correlated (r = 0.834, P = 0.0000). For the 69 independent validating patients, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the model for predicting BM occurrence were 70, 75, and 66%, respectively, in 6 months and 74, 82, and 60%, respectively, in 1 year. The extracted brain GM volumes and interval times for BM occurrence were correlated. The established model based on MRI data may reliably predict BM in 6 months or 1 year. Further studies with larger sample size are needed to validate the findings in a clinical setting.

  11. Importance of Extracranial Disease Status and Tumor Subtype for Patients Undergoing Radiosurgery for Breast Cancer Brain Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, Michael A.; Kelly, Paul J.; Chen, Yu-Hui; Pinnell, Nancy E.; Lee, Eudocia Q.; Arvold, Nils D.; Lin, Nancy U.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: In this retrospective study, we report on outcomes and prognostic factors for patients treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for breast cancer brain metastases. Methods and Materials: We identified 132 consecutive patients with breast cancer who were treated with SRS for brain metastases from January 2000 through June 2010. We retrospectively reviewed records of the 51 patients with adequate follow-up data who received SRS as part of the initial management of their brain metastases. Overall survival (OS) and time to central nervous system (CNS) progression from the date of SRS were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Prognostic factors were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results: Triple negative subtype was associated with CNS progression on univariate analysis (hazard ratio [HR] = 5.0, p = 0.008). On multivariate analysis, triple negative subtype (HR = 8.6, p = 0.001), Luminal B subtype (HR = 4.3, p = 0.03), and omission of whole-brain radiation therapy (HR = 3.7, p = 0.02) were associated with CNS progression. With respect to OS, Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) {<=} 80% (HR = 2.0, p = 0.04) and progressive extracranial disease (HR = 3.1, p = 0.002) were significant on univariate analysis; KPS {<=} 80% (HR = 4.1, p = 0.0004), progressive extracranial disease (HR = 6.4, p < 0.0001), and triple negative subtype (HR = 2.9, p = 0.04) were significant on multivariate analysis. Although median survival times were consistent with those predicted by the breast cancer-specific Graded Prognostic Assessment (Breast-GPA) score, the addition of extracranial disease status further separated patient outcomes. Conclusions: Tumor subtype is associated with risk of CNS progression after SRS for breast cancer brain metastases. In addition to tumor subtype and KPS, which are incorporated into the Breast-GPA, progressive extracranial disease may be an important prognostic factor for OS.

  12. Estimating Survival in Patients With Lung Cancer and Brain Metastases: An Update of the Graded Prognostic Assessment for Lung Cancer Using Molecular Markers (Lung-molGPA).

    PubMed

    Sperduto, Paul W; Yang, T Jonathan; Beal, Kathryn; Pan, Hubert; Brown, Paul D; Bangdiwala, Ananta; Shanley, Ryan; Yeh, Norman; Gaspar, Laurie E; Braunstein, Steve; Sneed, Penny; Boyle, John; Kirkpatrick, John P; Mak, Kimberley S; Shih, Helen A; Engelman, Alex; Roberge, David; Arvold, Nils D; Alexander, Brian; Awad, Mark M; Contessa, Joseph; Chiang, Veronica; Hardie, John; Ma, Daniel; Lou, Emil; Sperduto, William; Mehta, Minesh P

    2017-06-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States and worldwide. As systemic therapies improve, patients with lung cancer live longer and thus are at increased risk for brain metastases. Understanding how prognosis varies across this heterogeneous patient population is essential to individualize care and design future clinical trials. To update the current Diagnosis-Specific Graded Prognostic Assessment (DS-GPA) for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and brain metastases. The DS-GPA is based on data from patients diagnosed between 1985 and 2005, and we set out to update it by incorporating more recently reported gene and molecular alteration data for patients with NSCLC and brain metastases. This new index is called the Lung-molGPA. This is a multi-institutional retrospective database analysis of 2186 patients diagnosed between 2006 and 2014 with NSCLC and newly diagnosed brain metastases. The multivariable analyses took place between December 2015 and May 2016, and all prognostic factors were weighted for significance by hazard ratios. Significant factors were included in the updated Lung-molGPA prognostic index. The main outcome was survival. Multiple Cox regression was used to select and weight prognostic factors in proportion to their hazard ratios. Log rank tests were used to compare adjacent classes and to compare overall survival for adenocarcinoma vs nonadenocarcinoma groups. The original DS-GPA was based on 4 factors found in 1833 patients with NSCLC and brain metastases diagnosed between 1985 and 2005: patient age, Karnofsky Performance Status, extracranial metastases, and number of brain metastases. The patients studied for the creation of the DS-GPA had a median survival of 7 months from the time of initial treatment of brain metastases. To design the updated Lung-molGPA, we analyzed data from 2186 patients from 2006 through 2014 with NSCLC and newly diagnosed brain metastases (1521 adenocarcinoma and 665

  13. The Effect of Early Detection of Occult Brain Metastases in HER2-Positive Breast Cancer Patients on Survival and Cause of Death

    SciTech Connect

    Niwinska, Anna; Tacikowska, Malgorzata; Murawska, Magdalena

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to evaluate disease-free survival, survival from the detection of brain metastases, overall survival, and cause of death in patients with occult brain metastases (Group I) vs. patients with symptomatic brain metastases (Group II). Methods and Materials: In 80 HER2-positive breast cancer patients, treated with trastuzumab and cytostatic agents for metastatic disease, magnetic resonance imaging screening of the brain was performed, and in 29 patients (36%) occult brain metastasis was detected (Group I). Whole-brain radiotherapy was delivered to Group I. This first group was compared with 52 patients who had symptomatic brain metastases (Group II) and was treated the same way, at the same clinic, during the same time period. Results: Median disease-free survival was 17 months in Group I and 19.9 months in Group II (p = 0.58). The median time interval between the dissemination of the disease and the detection of occult or symptomatic brain metastases was 9 and 15 months, respectively (p = 0.11). When the brain metastases were detected, the median survival was 9 and 8.78 months, respectively (p = 0.80). The median overall survival was 53 and 51 months, respectively (p = 0.94). In the group with occult brain metastases (Group I) 16% of patients died because of progression within the brain. In the group with symptomatic brain metastases (Group II) the rate of cerebral death was 48% (p = 0.009). Conclusions: Whole-brain radiotherapy of occult brain metastases in HER2-positive breast cancer patients with visceral dissemination produces a three-fold decrease in cerebral deaths but does not prolong survival.

  14. Examination of the predictive factors of the response to whole brain radiotherapy for brain metastases from lung cancer using MRI.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Shuri; Kanda, Tomonori; Matsutani, Noriyuki; Seki, Nobuhiko; Kawamura, Masafumi; Furui, Shigeru; Yamashita, Hideomi

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies have been conducted on the prognostic factors for overall survival in patients with brain metastases (BMs) following whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). However, there have been a small number of studies regarding the prognostic factors for the response of tumor to WBRT. The aim of the present study was to identify the predictive factors for the response to WBRT from the point of view of reduction of tumor using magnetic resonance imaging. A retrospective analysis of 62 patients with BMs from primary lung cancer treated with WBRT was undertaken. The effects of the following factors on the response to WBRT were evaluated: Age; sex; performance status; lactate dehydrogenase; pathology; existence of extracranial metastases; activity of extracranial disease; chemo-history; chest radiotherapy history; treatment term; γ-knife radiotherapy; diffusion weighted image signal intensity; tumor diameter; extent of edema and the edema/tumor (E/T) ratio. The association between the reduction of tumors and clinical factors was evaluated using logistic regression analysis. P<0.05 was considered to indicate a statistically significant difference. The overall response ratio of this cohort was 54.8%. In the univariate analysis, the response of tumors was associated with the presence of small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC; P=0.0007), an E/T ratio of ≥1.5 (P=0.048), and a median tumor diameter of <20 mm (P=0.014). In the multivariate analysis, the presence of SCLC [P=0.001; odds ratio (OR), 17.152), an E/T ratio of ≥1.5 (P=0.019; OR, 9.526), and the presence of extracranial metastases (P=0.031; OR, 4.875) were revealed to be independent predictive factors for the reduction of tumor. The following 3 factors were significantly associated with the response of tumors to WBRT: The presence of SCLC; an E/T ratio of ≥1.5; and the presence of extracranial metastases. The E/T ratio is a novel index that provides a simple and easy predictive method for use in a clinical setting.

  15. Discrepancies between biomarkers of primary breast cancer and subsequent brain metastases: an international multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Kaidar-Person, O; Meattini, I; Jain, P; Bult, P; Simone, N; Kindts, I; Steffens, R; Weltens, C; Navarria, P; Belkacemi, Y; Lopez-Guerra, J; Livi, L; Baumert, B G; Vieites, B; Limon, D; Kurman, N; Ko, K; Yu, J B; Chiang, V; Poortmans, P; Zagar, T

    2017-10-03

    Discordances between the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), expression between primary breast tumors and their subsequent brain metastases (BM) were investigated in breast cancer patients. We collected retrospective data from 11 institutions in 8 countries in a predefined-standardized format. Receptor status (positive or negative) was determined according to institutional guidelines (immunohistochemically and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization). The study was subject to each institution's ethical research committee. A total of 167 breast cancer patients with BM were included. 25 patients out of 129 with a complete receptor information from both primary tumor and BM (ER, PR, HER2) available, had a change in receptor status: 7 of 26 (27%) ER/PR-positive/HER2-negative primaries (3 gained HER2; 4 lost expression of ER/PR); 10 of 31 (32%) ER/PR-positive/HER2-positive primaries (4 lost ER/PR only; 3 lost HER2 only; 3 lost both ER/PR and HER2); one of 33 (3%) ER/PR-negative receptor/HER2-positive primaries (gained ER); and 7 of 39 (18%) triple-negative primaries (5 gained ER/PR and 2 gained HER2). The majority of breast cancer patients with BM in this series had primary HER2-enriched tumors, followed by those with a triple-negative profile. One out of 5 patients had a receptor discrepancy between the primary tumor and subsequent BM. Therefore, we advise receptor status assessment of BM in all breast cancer patients with available histology as it may have significant implications for therapy.

  16. Relationship Between HER2 Status and Prognosis in Women With Brain Metastases From Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Zhiyuan; Marko, Nicholas F.; Chao, Sam T.; Angelov, Lilyana; Vogelbaum, Michael A.; Suh, John H.; Barnett, Gene H.; Weil, Robert J.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To analyze factors affecting outcomes in breast cancer patients with brain metastases (BM) and characterize the role of HER2 status. Methods and Materials: We identified 264 breast cancer patients treated between 1999 and 2008 for BM. HER2 status was known definitively for 172 patients and was used to define cohorts in which survival and risk factors were analyzed. Results: Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated improved mean overall survival (105.7 vs. 74.3 months, p < 0.02), survival after diagnosis of BM (neurologic survival, NS) (32.2 vs. 18.9 months, p < 0.01), and survival after treatment with stereotactic radiosurgery (RS) (31.3 vs. 14.1, p < 0.01) in HER2+ patients relative to those with HER2- breast cancer. HER2+ status was an independent, positive prognostic factor for survival on univariate and multivariate hazard analysis (hazard ratio: overall survival = 0.66, 0.18; NS = 0.50, 0.34). Additionally, subgroup analysis suggests that stereotactic radiosurgery may be of particular benefit in patients with HER2+ tumors. Conclusions: Overall survival, NS, and RS are improved in patients with HER2+ tumors, relative to those with HER2- lesions, and HER2 amplification is independently associated with increased survival in patients with BM from breast cancer. Our findings suggest that the prognosis of HER2+ patients may be better than that of otherwise similar patients who are HER2- and that stereotactic radiosurgery may be beneficial for some patients with HER2+ lesions.

  17. Patient-derived xenografts from non-small cell lung cancer brain metastases are valuable translational platforms for the development of personalized targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Won; Lee, Jung-Il; Lee, Se Jeong; Cho, Hyun Jung; Song, Hye Jin; Jeong, Da Eun; Seo, Yun Jee; Shin, Sang; Joung, Je-Gun; Kwon, Yong-Jun; Choi, Yoon-La; Park, Woong-Yang; Lee, Hyun Moo; Seol, Ho Jun; Shim, Young Mog; Joo, Kyeung Min; Nam, Do-Hyun

    2015-03-01

    The increasing prevalence of distant metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) indicates an urgent need for novel therapeutic modalities. Brain metastasis is particularly common in NSCLC, with severe adverse effects on clinical prognosis. Although the molecular heterogeneity of NSCLC and availability of various targeted agents suggest personalized therapeutic approaches for such brain metastases, further development of appropriate preclinical models is needed to validate the strategies. We established patient-derived xenografts (PDX) using NSCLC brain metastasis surgical samples and elucidated their possible preclinical and clinical implications for personalized treatment. NSCLC brain metastases (n = 34) showed a significantly higher successful PDX establishment rate than primary specimens (n = 64; 74% vs. 23%). PDXs derived from NSCLC brain metastases recapitulated the pathologic, genetic, and functional properties of corresponding parental tumors. Furthermore, tumor spheres established in vitro from the xenografts under serum-free conditions maintained their in vivo brain metastatic potential. Differential phenotypic and molecular responses to 20 targeted agents could subsequently be screened in vitro using these NSCLC PDXs derived from brain metastases. Although PDX establishment from primary NSCLCs was significantly influenced by histologic subtype, clinical aggressiveness, and genetic alteration status, the brain metastases exhibited consistently adequate in vivo tumor take rate and in vitro tumor sphere formation capacity, regardless of clinical and molecular conditions. Therefore, PDXs from NSCLC brain metastases may better represent the heterogeneous advanced NSCLC population and could be utilized as preclinical models to meet unmet clinical needs such as drug screening for personalized treatments. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Stereotactic radiosurgery for multiple brain metastases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Anna; (Josh Yamada, Yoshiya

    2017-01-01

    Whole brain radiation therapy has been the traditional treatment of choice for patients with multiple brain metastases. Although stereotactic radiosurgery is widely accepted for the management to up to 4 brain metastases, its use is still controversial in cases of 5 or more brain metastases. Randomized trials have suggested that stereotactic radiosurgery alone is appropriate in up to 4 metastases without concomitant whole brain radiation. Level 1 evidence also suggests that withholding whole brain radiation may also reduce the impact of radiation on neurocognitive function and also may even offer a survival advantage. A recent analysis of a large multicentre prospective database has suggested that there are no differences in outcomes such as the likelihood of new metastasis or leptomeningeal disease in cases of 2-10 brain metastases, nor in overall survival. Hence in the era of prolonged survival with stage IV cancer, stereotactic radiosurgery is a reasonable alternative to whole brain radiation in order to minimize the impact of treatment upon quality of life without sacrificing overall survival.

  19. Activity of T-DM1 in Her2-positive breast cancer brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Rupert; Berghoff, Anna S; Vogl, Ursula; Rudas, Margaretha; Bergen, Elisabeth; Dubsky, Peter; Dieckmann, Karin; Pinker, Katja; Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Galid, Arik; Oehler, Leopold; Zielinski, Christoph C; Gnant, Michael; Steger, Guenther G; Preusser, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    Brain metastases (BM) are frequently diagnosed in metastatic Her2-positive breast cancer. Local treatment remains the standard of care but lapatinib plus capecitabine was recently established as systemic therapy option. Due to a disruption of the blood-brain/tumour-barrier at metastatic sites, even large molecules may penetrate into the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we report on the activity of T-DM1 in Her2-positive breast cancer BM. T-DM1 was administered at a dose of 3.6 mg once every 3 weeks as primary systemic therapy for BM or upon documented CNS progression after initial local treatment. Thus, this study allowed for the appraisal of T-DM1 activity in BM. Restaging was conducted every 12 weeks with MRI or whenever symptoms of disease progression occurred. Ten patients were included; in two asymptomatic subjects, T-DM1 was administered as primary therapy, while eight had progressive BM. All patients had received prior treatment with trastuzumab, six had already received lapatinib, and three pertuzumab as well. Three patients had partial remission of BM, and two patient had stable disease lasting for ≥6 months; two further patients had stable disease for <6 months while three progressed despite treatment. At 8.5 months median follow-up, intracranial PFS was 5 months, and median OS from initiation of T-DM1 was not reached. Local treatment of BM remains the standard of care; lapatinib plus capecitabine is currently the best established systemic therapy option. Still, T-DM1 apparently offers relevant clinical activity in BM and further investigation is warranted.

  20. Correlates of objectively measured sedentary behavior in cancer patients with brain metastases: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Sonya S; Danielson, Brita; Beaumont, Crystal; Watanabe, Sharon M; Baracos, Vickie E; Courneya, Kerry S

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the demographic, medical, and social-cognitive correlates of objectively measured sedentary behavior in advanced cancer patients with brain metastases. Advanced cancer patients diagnosed with brain metastases, aged 18 years or older, cognitively intact, and with palliative performance scale greater than 30%, were recruited from a Rapid Access Palliative Radiotherapy Program multidisciplinary brain metastases clinic. A cross-sectional survey interview assessed the theory of planned behavior variables and medical and demographic information. Participants wore activPAL™ (PAL Technologies Ltd, Glasgow, United Kingdom) accelerometers recording time spent supine, sitting, standing, and stepping during 7 days encompassing palliative whole brain radiotherapy treatments. Thirty-one patients were recruited. Correlates of median time spent supine or sitting in hours per day were instrumental attitude (i.e., perceived benefits) of physical activity (r = -0.42; p = 0.030) and affective attitude (i.e., perceived enjoyment) of physical activity (r = -0.43; p = 0.024). Moreover, participants who sat or were supine for greater than 20.7 h per day reported significantly lower instrumental attitude (M = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.0-1.4; p = 0.051) and affective attitude (M = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.0-1.4; p = 0.041). Finally, participants who were older than 60 years of age spent more time sitting or being supine. Instrumental attitude and affective attitude were the strongest correlates of objectively measured sedentary behavior. This information could inform intervention studies to increase physical activity in advanced cancer patients with brain metastases. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Clinical interrogation and application of super-selective intracranial artery infusion chemotherapy for lung cancer patients with brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Rong, J; Chunhua, M; Yuan, L; Ning, M; Jinduo, L; Bin, W; Liwei, S

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of super-selective intracranial artery infusion chemotherapy and to determine correlated prognostic parameters for advanced lung cancer patients with brain metastases. Fifty-four lung cancer patients with brain metastasis who had no previous treatment were enrolled for the study. These patients received super-selective intracranial artery infusion chemotherapy, as well as arterial infusion chemotherapy for primary and metastatic lesions. The procedure was performed once every 4 weeks. Patients were monitored to evaluate short-term clinical outcomes 4 weeks after the first 2 treatments, and follow-up visits performed every 4 weeks after the first 4 treatments until the appearance of disease progression or intolerable toxicity. All 54 cases were treated at least 4 times. The overall response rate was 55.56% (30/54), and the disease control rate was 85.19% (46/54). The median overall survival was 7 months, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 5.87-8.13 months, and the median progression-free survival was 4 months, with a 95% CI of 3.20-4.80 months. The 6-month survival rate and 1-year survival rate were 81.48% (44/54) and 18.52% (10/54), respectively. Super-selective intracranial artery infusion chemotherapy provides a clinically efficacious avenue of treatment for lung cancer patients with brain metastases. Pathological classification, Karnofsky performance status, and extracranial metastases may serve as reliable prognostic parameters in determining the clinical outcomes for lung cancer patients with brain metastases.

  2. Risk factors for brain metastases after prophylactic cranial irradiation in small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Haiyan; Xie, Peng; Meng, Xue; Yuan, Shuanghu; Sun, Xindong; Li, Wanlong; Fan, Bingjie; Li, Xiaolin; Yu, Jinming

    2017-01-01

    Despite administration of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI), some small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients still suffer from brain metastases (BM) with unknown risk factors. We conducted this study to identify patients with higher BM risk after PCI and improve their outcome. The characteristics and survival of all the SCLC patients underwent PCI in our institute from 2003 to 2014 were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier method was applied to estimate BM free survival (BMFS) and overall survival (OS). Cox regression analyses were performed to explore risk factors for BM. A total of 175 patients with the median age of 55 years (range, 29–76) were eligible, among whom 36 (20.6%) developed BM with median follow-up of 42 months. Both univariate and multivariate analyses showed HART and TNM classification (p < 0.05) were associated with BM. Two-stage system was not related with BMFS or OS (p > 0.05). Stage IIIB-IV and HART were independent risk factors for BM after PCI in SCLC. TNM classification was more valuable on prognosis than two-stage system. Further large-scale studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:28202905

  3. Avoiding misdiagnosis: cystic calcified brain metastases of uterine cervical cancer mimicking neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Fantini, Jacopo; Sartori, Arianna; Manganotti, Paolo

    2017-02-07

    The radiological finding of multiple calcified brain lesions is atypical for brain metastases and in absence of a clear evidence of disseminated neoplastic disease the differential diagnosis may be difficult. Calcified brain metastases (CBM) are rarely encountered in clinical practice and they mostly arise from lung, breast and gastrointestinal primitive tumours. Only one case of uterine cervical carcinoma (UCC) with CBM has been reported so far. We describe the case of a 41-year-old Caucasian woman with a history of hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for UCC 3 years prior to observation and no evidence of neoplastic recurrence that developed cystic CBM. Owing to their peculiar radiological appearance, lesions were initially misidentified as neurocysticercosis, the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system. We offer the reader some important teaching points for the differential diagnosis and discuss the rarity of our case. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  4. Changing molecular profile of brain metastases compared with matched breast primary cancers and impact on clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, A H; McGrane, J; Mathew, J; Palmer, J; Hilton, D A; Purvis, G; Jenkins, R

    2016-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer commonly metastasises to the brain, but little is known about changes in the molecular profile of the brain secondaries and impact on clinical outcomes. Methods: Patients with samples from brain metastases and matched breast cancers were included. Immunohistochemical analysis for oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, p27kip1, cyclin D1, epidermal growth factor receptor, insulin like growth factor 1, insulin like growth factor 1 receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor A, transforming growth factor-β and HER2 receptor was performed. Borderline HER2 results were analysed by fluorescent in situ hybridisation. Levels of expression were compared, with review of effect on clinical outcomes. Results: A total of 41 patients were included. Of the patients, 20% had a change in oestrogen receptor or HER2 in their brain metastasis that could affect therapeutic decisions. There were statistically significant rises in brain metastases for p27kip1 (P=0.023) and cyclin D1 (P=0.030) and a fall in vascular endothelial growth factor A (P=0.012). Overall survival from the time of metastasis increased significantly with oestrogen receptor-positive (P=0.005) and progesterone receptor-positive (P=0.013) brain lesions and with a longer duration from diagnosis of the breast primary (P<0.001). Conclusions: In this cohort there were phenotypic differences in metastatic brain tumours compared with matched primary breast tumours. These could be relevant for aetiology, and have an impact on prognostication, current and future therapies. PMID:26908328

  5. Radiation therapy for epithelial ovarian cancer brain metastases: clinical outcomes and predictors of survival

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Brain metastases (BM) and leptomeningeal disease (LMD) are uncommon in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We investigate the outcomes of modern radiation therapy (RT) as a primary treatment modality in patients with EOC BM and LMD. Methods We evaluated 60 patients with EOC treated at our institution from 1996 to 2010 who developed BM. All information was obtained from chart review. Results At EOC diagnosis, median age was 56.1 years and 88% of patients were stage III-IV. At time of BM diagnosis, 46.7% of patients had 1 BM, 16.7% had two to three, 26.7% had four or more, and 10% had LMD. Median follow-up after BM was 9.3 months (range, 0.3-82.3). All patients received RT, and 37% had surgical resection. LMD occurred in the primary or recurrent setting in 12 patients (20%), 9 of whom received RT. Median overall survival (OS) after BM was 9.7 months for all patients (95% CI 5.9–13.5), and 16.1 months (95% CI 3.8-28.3) in patients with one BM. On multivariate analysis, Karnofsky performance status less than 70 (hazard ratio [HR] 2.86, p = 0.018), four or more BM (HR 3.18, p = 0.05), LMD (HR 8.22, p = 0.013), and uncontrolled primary tumor (HR 2.84, p = 0.008) were significantly associated with inferior OS. Use of surgery was not significant (p = 0.31). Median central nervous system freedom from progression (CNS-FFP) in 47 patients with follow-up was 18.5 months (95% CI, 9.3–27.9). Only four or more BM (HR 2.56, p = 0.04) was significantly associated with poorer CNS-FFP. Conclusions Based on our results, RT appears to be an effective treatment modality for brain metastases from EOC and should be routinely offered. Karnofsky performance status less than 70, four or more BM, LMD, and uncontrolled primary tumor predict for worse survival after RT for EOC BM. Whether RT is superior to surgery or chemotherapy for EOC BM remains to be seen in a larger cohort. PMID:23414446

  6. Efficacy and limitations of salvage gamma knife radiosurgery for brain metastases of small-cell lung cancer after whole-brain radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Nakazaki, Kiyoshi; Higuchi, Yoshinori; Nagano, Osamu; Serizawa, Toru

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy and limitations of salvage gamma knife surgery (GKS) have not been thoroughly described. This study evaluated the efficacy of GKS for treating brain metastases associated with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) after whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) as the first-line radiation therapy. Forty-four patients with recurrent or new SCLC-associated brain metastases underwent GKS after receiving WBRT (median age, 62 years; median duration between WBRT and first GKS, 8.8 months). The median Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score was 100 (range, 40-100), and the median number of brain metastases at the first GKS was five. Ten patients who partially or completely responded to chemotherapy received prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) for limited disease. The median prescribed dose and number of lesions treated with the initial GKS were 20.0 Gy and 3.5, respectively, and the tumor control rate was 95.8 % (median follow-up period, 4.0 months). The 6-month new lesion-free survival, functional preservation rates, and overall survival were 50.0 %, 94.7 %, and 5.8 months, respectively. Neurological death occurred in 17.9 % of cases. The poor prognostic factors for new lesion-free survival time and functional preservation were >5 brain metastases and carcinomatous meningitis, respectively. Poor prognostic factors for survival time were KPS <70, >10 brain metastases, diameter of the largest tumor >20 mm, and carcinomatous meningitis. Median overall survival time from brain metastasis diagnosis was 16.9 months. GKS may be an effective option for controlling SCLC-associated brain metastases after WBRT and for preventing neurological death in patients without carcinomatous meningitis.

  7. Serum NSE, MMP-9 and HER2 extracellular domain are associated with brain metastases in metastatic breast cancer patients: predictive biomarkers for brain metastases?

    PubMed

    Darlix, Amélie; Lamy, Pierre-Jean; Lopez-Crapez, Evelyne; Braccini, Antoine Laurent; Firmin, Nelly; Romieu, Gilles; Thézenas, Simon; Jacot, William

    2016-11-15

    Breast cancer (BC) is the second most common cause of brain metastases (BM). Predictive factors for BM have been widely studied in metastatic BC; however, there is no known serum tumor marker to accurately predict BM. Elevated serum S100ß protein and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) could reflect the brain damages induced by BM. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) is involved in tumor invasion and metastatic dissemination, including BM. Also, HER2-amplified BC were shown to have a particular tropism for central nervous system (CNS). This study evaluated the correlation of these biomarkers with the presence of BM in metastatic BC patients. In this case-control study, 88 consecutive metastatic BC patients with BM (BM group) treated in our institution (2008-2015) were retrospectively selected, based on the availability of frozen serum samples for tumor marker determination. Patients were matched by age, tumor biology and number of previous metastatic chemotherapy lines to 162 metastatic BC patients without CNS involvement (control group). Serum NSE, MMP-9 and HER2 extracellular domain (ECD) levels were significantly higher in the BM group (p = 0.0051, p = 0.0062 and p = 0.0057, respectively). In multivariate analysis, serum HER2 and MMP-9 levels accurately discriminated patients with BM: odds ratios 4.4 (p < 0.001; 95%CI: 1.9-9.6) for HER2 ECD and 3.5 (p = 0.005; 95%CI: 1.5-8.4) for MMP-9. In multivariate analysis, HER2 ECD and NSE serum levels were independent prognostic factors in patients with BM. Serum HER2 ECD and MMP-9 appear to be associated with BM in metastatic BC patients. Their predictive value for BM still needs to be evaluated in further prospective studies. © 2016 UICC.

  8. Use of Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases From Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Halasz, Lia M.; Weeks, Jane C.; Neville, Bridget A.; Taback, Nathan; Punglia, Rinaa S.

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: The indications for treatment of brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) remain controversial. We studied patterns, predictors, and cost of SRS use in elderly patients with NSCLC. Methods and Materials: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare (SEER-Medicare) database, we identified patients with NSCLC who were diagnosed with brain metastases between 2000 and 2007. Our cohort included patients treated with radiation therapy and not surgical resection as initial treatment for brain metastases. Results: We identified 7684 patients treated with radiation therapy within 2 months after brain metastases diagnosis, of whom 469 (6.1%) cases had billing codes for SRS. Annual SRS use increased from 3.0% in 2000 to 8.2% in 2005 and varied from 3.4% to 12.5% by specific SEER registry site. After controlling for clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, we found SRS use was significantly associated with increasing year of diagnosis, specific SEER registry, higher socioeconomic status, admission to a teaching hospital, no history of participation in low-income state buy-in programs (a proxy for Medicaid eligibility), no extracranial metastases, and longer intervals from NSCLC diagnosis. The average cost per patient associated with radiation therapy was 2.19 times greater for those who received SRS than for those who did not. Conclusions: The use of SRS in patients with metastatic NSCLC increased almost 3-fold from 2000 to 2005. In addition, we found significant variations in SRS use across SEER registries and socioeconomic quartiles. National practice patterns in this study suggested both a lack of consensus and an overall limited use of the approach among elderly patients before 2008.

  9. Breast cancer brain metastases - A 12 year review of treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    De Ieso, P B; Schick, U; Rosenfelder, N; Mohammed, K; Ross, G M

    2015-08-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the 2nd commonest cause of brain metastases (BM). This retrospective review investigates the applicability of prognostic scores and highlights different outcomes for patients with HER2 positive compared to triple negative (TN) subtypes. Two hundred and seventy four patients received whole brain radiotherapy for BC BM (01/2000-12/2011). The primary objective was to determine factors influencing overall survival (OS). All information relevant to primary BC, disease recurrence, treatment, outcome and cause of death (either neurological (NP) or systemic progression (SP)) were collected. Univariate (UV) and multivariate (MV) Cox regression analysis were used. One hundred and forty four patients (53%) were ER positive, 104 (38%) HER2 positive and 57 (21%) TN. Median age at BM was 53 (27-81) years and median OS from BM diagnosis 7.3 (5.7-8.9) months. On MV analysis, Her2 status, RPA score, surgery, stereotactic radiotherapy, and absence of TN disease were independent prognostic factor for OS. NP was the cause of death in 69.2% of HER2 positive patients and 17.3% had SP. Of the TN patients, 29.8% had NP and 54.4% SP (p < 0.001). A consistent OS advantage is noted for HER2 positive BM cases and inclusion of BC subtype in the breast GPA score should improve the prognostic factors' sensitivity. The unique presentations, response to treatment and causes of death for HER2 positive patients means more aggressive focal therapy should be considered and studied in the context of clinical trials. For TN BM patients with poor performance status, best supportive care may be appropriate. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Radiation therapy in simultaneous choroidal and brain metastases].

    PubMed

    Conill, C; Jorcano, S; Planas, I; Marruecos, J; Casas, F; Fontenla, J R

    2005-09-01

    Choroidal metastases from lung cancer can be the initial clinical manifestation of metastasic disease, although they generally coexist with at least two more metastasic sites. The most common symptom is decreased vision, however 20% of brain metastases can present with visual alterations. A differential diagnosis within brain metastases and/or choroidal is necessary. We present the case of a patient with lung cancer and decreased vision who was diagnosed as simultaneous choroidal and brain metastases. Radiation therapy (20Gy/5fractions) significantly improves decreased vision. This case shows that, although life expectancy of patients with metastasic lung cancer is short, an adequate diagnosis and treatment, can improve the quality of life of those patients.

  11. National trends in radiotherapy for brain metastases at time of diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Trifiletti, Daniel M; Sheehan, Jason P; Grover, Surbhi; Dutta, Sunil W; Rusthoven, Chad G; Kavanagh, Brian D; Sahgal, Arjun; Showalter, Timothy N

    2017-08-31

    To analyze the national trends of patients treated radiotherapy for brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that were found at diagnosis. The National Cancer Database was queried for patients with NSCLC diagnosed from 2004 to 2013 that received brain irradiation for metastases and patients grouped into having had received fractionated brain radiotherapy (5-15 fractions with or without radiosurgery) or intracranial radiosurgery alone (1-5 fractions). Univariable and multivariable (MVA) analyses were performed to investigate factors associated with the receipt of SRS alone, and temporal/regional trends. 47,746 patients met inclusion criteria, of which 42,148 received fractionated brain irradiation (88%) and 5,598 received radiosurgery (12%). 345 patients received fractioned brain irradiation with a radiosurgical boost (0.8%). The utilization of radiosurgery-alone increased over time owing to increases in each radiosurgery modality. On MVA, several factors were associated with increased odds of receiving intracranial radiosurgery-alone over fractionated brain radiotherapy including more recent year of diagnosis, increased median income, eastern U.S. regions, further distance to the hospital, and the receipt of chemotherapy (each p<0.001). Patients of Asian descent were less likely to receive radiosurgery alone (p=0.044). In the management of brain metastases from NSCLC, overall utilization of an intracranial radiosurgery alone treatment strategy has increased over the past decade. Despite this, there appear to be significant geographic variations and disparities remain based on patient income level and race. Further study is needed to define the reasons for these disparities and appropriate actions to mitigate them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cediranib Maleate and Whole Brain Radiation Therapy in Patients With Brain Metastases From Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-03-07

    Male Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Melanoma; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer; Tumors Metastatic to Brain

  13. Aspirin for Reducing Cancer Metastases?

    PubMed Central

    Henschke, Ulrich K.; Luande, G. Jeff; Choppala, Johnson D.

    1977-01-01

    Distant metastases are the principal cause of death from cancer. Many animal experiments in the last 25 years have shown consistently that distant metastases can be significantly reduced by anticoagulants and fibrinolytic agents. Since aspirin inhibits platelet function and increases fibrinolytic activity in humans, it may be effective in preventing metastases in cancer patients. It is suggested that aspirin be offered as an option to cancer patients who are at risk for distant metastases. PMID:904011

  14. [Breast cancer brain metastases: clinical and prognostic characteristics of different biological subtypes].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tongtong; Li, Qing; Xu, Binghe; Zhang, Pin; Yuan, Peng; Ma, Fei; Wang, Jiayu; Fan, Ying

    2014-09-01

    To analyze the clinical characteristics and survival depending on biological subtypes in breast cancer patients with brain metastases (BM). A retrospective analysis was performed on 152 breast cancer patients with BM admitted to the Cancer Institute & Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from January 2003 to December 2012. Depending on the biological characteristics, these patients were divided into three subtypes: Luminal, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2)-overexpressing, and triple-negative subtypes. The clinicopathological characteristics, recurrence status, and prognostic factors were analyzed at the initial diagnosis. The systemic therapy after BM was further studied. Among the 152 patients, the number of Luminal, HER-2-overexpressing, and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtypes were 60, 53, and 39 cases, respectively. The median time from first recurrence to BM of all patients was 7.3 months, the median time of Luminal, HER-2-overexpressing, and TNBC subtypes was 11.0 months, 9.6 months, and 5.5 months, respectively (P < 0.001). Compared with the TNBC subtype, BM occurred later in the HER-2-overexpressing subtype (P < 0.001). In the HER-2-overexpressing subtype, trastuzumab could delay the occurrence of BM in advanced breast cancer patients (17.1 vs. 1.7 months, P < 0.001, 95%CI 5.21-13.98). The median time of overall survival (OS) in the whole group was 56.5 months (7.5-240.2 months, 95%CI 52.6-60.4). The median survival time of Luminal, HER-2-overexpressing and TNBC subtypes was 70.9 months, 53.9 months, and 40.9 months, respectively (P = 0.013). The median survival time of after BM was 11.5 months in the whole group, and the median survival time of Luminal, HER-2-overexpressing and TNBC subtypes was 11.2 months, 12.7 months, and 11.6 months, respectively, with a difference of no statistical significance. Compared with non-BM as the first site, the patients with BM as the first site had a longer survival (14.8 months vs. 8

  15. Predictive factors of early distant brain failure after gamma knife radiosurgery alone in patients with brain metastases of non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Na, Young Cheol; Jung, Hyun Ho; Kim, Hye Ryun; Cho, Byoung Chul; Chang, Jin Woo; Park, Yong Gou; Chang, Won Seok

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the predictive factors for early distant brain failure in patients with brain metastases of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who were treated with gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) without previous whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) or surgery. We retrospectively reviewed clinical and imaging data of 459 patients with brain metastases of NSCLC who underwent GKRS from June 2008 to December 2013. The primary end-point was early distant brain failure, defined as the detection of newly developed metastatic lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 3 months after GKRS. Factors such as tumor pathology subtype, concurrent systemic chemotherapy, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status, use of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), systemic disease status, presence of a metastatic lesion only in delayed MRI, and volume and number of metastases were analyzed. There were no statistically significant differences with respect to pathologic subtype, concurrent systemic chemotherapy, EGFR mutation, and early distant brain failure. Patients treated with EGFR-TKIs (p = 0.004), with a stable systemic disease status (p = 0.028) and 3 or fewer brain lesions (p = 0.000) experienced a significantly lower incidence of early distant brain failure. This study suggests that GKRS alone could be considered for patients treated with EGFR-TKIs who have a stable systemic disease status and 3 or fewer brain lesions. WBRT should be considered for other patients.

  16. Exploration of symptoms clusters within cancer patients with brain metastases using the Spitzer Quality of Life Index.

    PubMed

    Hird, Amanda; Wong, Jennifer; Zhang, Liying; Tsao, May; Barnes, Elizabeth; Danjoux, Cyril; Chow, Edward

    2010-03-01

    Advanced cancer patients can experience many concurrent symptoms. It has been suggested that certain symptoms can cluster together and have a synergistic effect on patient morbidity. The objective of this study was to explore the presence of symptom clusters in patients with brain metastases treated with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). Patients with brain metastases were asked to rate their symptoms and quality of life (QOL) using the Spitzer Quality of Life Index (SQLI) and a study-designed 17-item symptom questionnaire. Utilizing a principal component analysis, the SQLI and symptoms were analyzed for the presence of symptom clusters. The Cronbach's alpha statistic was used to estimate the internal consistency and reliability of the derived clusters. Follow-up was carried out at baseline and 1, 2 and 3 months following WBRT. Between August 2005 to October 2007, 129 patients with brain metastases were enrolled. Analysis of the SQLI items revealed two clusters. Cluster 1 consisted of activity, daily living and health, while cluster 2 consisted of support and outlook. Cronbach's alpha was 0.69 and 0.40, respectively, for the two clusters, which accounted for 64% of the total variance. Analysis of the 17 additional symptoms revealed three clusters at baseline. These clusters changed slightly over time, but certain symptoms appeared to remain together: (1) trouble concentrating and confusion, (2) memory loss and decreased alertness, (3) nausea and vomiting, (4) numbness and weakness, and (5) dizziness and headache. These clusters persisted despite WBRT. Symptom clusters exist in patients with brain metastases. Although the clusters varied over time, they did not weaken or disintegrate following WBRT, suggesting the latter one may not significantly improve the QOL and symptom distress in this group.

  17. High dose etoposide for brain metastases of small cell lung cancer. A phase II study. The EORTC Lung Cancer Cooperative Group.

    PubMed Central

    Postmus, P. E.; Haaxma-Reiche, H.; Sleijfer, D. T.; Kirkpatrick, A.; McVie, J. G.; Kleisbauer, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    Symptomatic brain metastases are found in about 40% of patients with small cell lung cancer. Cranial irradiation is the first line treatment for this form of metastatic disease. Frequently brain metastases recur after this treatment or develop after prophylactic cranial irradiation. For these patients no effective antitumour therapy is available. In this study the efficacy of high dose etoposide 1.5 g m-2 was evaluated. In 10 (43%) out of 23 evaluable patients a response was seen. Toxicity was severe with five aplasia-related deaths. For palliative purposes this regimen is too toxic in heavily pretreated patients. PMID:2539174

  18. [A Case of Brain Metastasis from Rectal Cancer with Synchronous Liver and Lung Metastases after Multimodality Treatment--A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Udagawa, Masaru; Tominaga, Ben; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Ishikawa, Yuuya; Watanabe, Shuuichi; Adikrisna, Rama; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Yabata, Eiichi

    2015-11-01

    We report a case of brain metastasis from rectal cancer a long time after the initial resection. A 62-year-old woman, diagnosed with lower rectal cancer with multiple synchronous liver and lung metastases, underwent abdominoperineal resection after preoperative radiochemotherapy (40 Gy at the pelvis, using the de Gramont regimen FL therapy: 1 kur). The histological diagnosis was a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Various regimens of chemotherapy for unresectable and metastatic colorectal cancer were administered, and a partial response was obtained; thereby, the metastatic lesions became resectable. The patient underwent partial resection of the liver and lung metastases. Pathological findings confirmed that both the liver and lung lesions were metastases from the rectal cancer. A disease-free period occurred for several months; however, there were recurrences of the lung metastases, so we started another round of chemotherapy. After 8 months, she complained of vertigo and dizziness. A left cerebellar tumor about 3 cm in diameter was revealed by MRI and neurosurgical excision was performed. Pathological findings confirmed a cerebellar metastasis from the rectal cancer. Twenty months after resection of the brain tumor, the patient complained of a severe headache. A brain MRI showed hydrocephalia, and carcinomatous meningitis from rectal cancer was diagnosed by a spinal fluid cytology test. A ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was inserted, but the cerebrospinal pressure did not decreased and she died 20 months after the first surgery. Although brain metastasis from colorectal cancer is rare, the number of patients with brain metastasis is thought to increase in the near future. Chemotherapy for colorectal cancer is effective enough to prolong the survival period even if multiple metastases have occurred. However, after a long survival period with lung metastases such as in our case, there is a high probability of developing brain metastases.

  19. RO4929097 and Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy or Stereotactic Radiosurgery in Treating Patients With Brain Metastases From Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-01-22

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Melanoma; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Melanoma; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Tumors Metastatic to Brain; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  20. ACTIVITY OF TRASTUZUMAB-EMTANSINE (TDM1) IN HER2-POSITIVE BREAST CANCER BRAIN METASTASES: A CASE SERIES

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Kevin C.; Lee, Yueh; Ewend, Matthew G.; Zagar, Timothy M.; Anders, Carey K.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer brain metastasis (BCBM) is increasing due in part to improved management of systemic disease and prolonged survival. Despite this growing population of patients, there exists little consensus for the treatment of HER2-positive BCBM. Lapatinib, the only brain permeable targeted agent for HER2-positive cancer, has demonstrated limited intracranial response rates and little improvement in progression free survival (PFS) for HER-2 positive patients. Size constraints are believed to prevent larger monoclonal antibodies, such as pertuzumab and trastuzumab, from crossing the blood brain barrier (BBB). However, emerging evidence reveals that the BBB is perturbed in the setting of metastases, allowing for improved penetrance of these larger targeted agents. The disrupted BBB may allow for passage of ado-trastuzumab emtansine (TDM1), though little clinical information about its activity in BCBM patients is currently known. PMID:27114895

  1. Prognosis of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer with Synchronous Brain Metastases Treated with Gamma Knife Radiosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Doo-Sik; Nam, Do Hyun; Park, Kwan; Kim, Jong Hyun; Kim, Jhin Gook; Park, Jun-O; Park, Keunchil

    2006-01-01

    The clinical outcome and prognostic factors of patients with synchronous brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who were treated with gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) were analyzed. A total of 35 patients with NSCLC underwent GKS as an initial treatment for metastatic brain lesions of synchronous onset. The period of survival and various prognostic factors such as age, gender, performance status, multiplicity of the brain lesions, intracranial tumor volume, and extent of the primary tumor were analyzed. The overall median survival time for this series was 12 months (range 0.75 to 43 months) from the diagnosis. Of the 21 patients who were no longer alive at the conclusion of this study, only 7 (33.3%) died of neurological causes. Multivariate analysis of these data revealed that N stage, whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT), and chemotherapy were significant predictors for survival (p<0.05). Survival of patients with NSCLC and synchronous brain metastases is mainly dependent upon the progression of the systemic disease, provided that the cerebral lesions are treated adequately with local treatment modalities including radiosurgery. Application of radiosurgery as an initial treatment option and aggressive local and systemic modalities to control extracranial disease may improve survival. PMID:16778400

  2. Radiosurgery for brain metastases and cerebral edema.

    PubMed

    Gazit, Inbal; Har-Nof, Sagi; Cohen, Zvi R; Zibly, Zion; Nissim, Uzi; Spiegelmann, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess reduction in cerebral edema following linear accelerator radiosurgery (LINAC) as first line therapy for brain metastasis. We reviewed the medical records of all patients who underwent LINAC radiosurgery for brain metastasis at our institution during 2010-2012, and who had not previously undergone either surgery or whole brain radiotherapy. Data were analyzed for 55 brain metastases from 46 patients (24 males), mean age 59.9 years. During the 2 months following LINAC radiosurgery, the mean steroid dose decreased from 4.8 to 2.6 mg/day, the mean metastasis volume decreased from 3.79±4.12 cc to 2.8±4.48 cc (p=0.001), and the mean edema volume decreased from 16.91±30.15 cc to 12.85±24.47 cc (p=0.23). The 17 patients with reductions of more than 50% in brain edema volume had single metastases. Edema volume in the nine patients with two brain metastases remained stable in five patients (volume change <10%, 0-2 cc) and increased in four patients (by >10%, 2-14 cc). In a subanalysis of eight metastases with baseline edema volume greater than 40 cc, edema volume decreased from 77.27±37.21 cc to 24.84±35.6 cc (p=0.034). Reductions in brain edema were greater in metastases for which non-small-cell lung carcinoma and breast cancers were the primary diseases. Overall, symptoms improved in most patients. No patients who were without symptoms or who had no signs of increased intracranial pressure at baseline developed signs of intracranial pressure following LINAC radiosurgery. In this series, LINAC stereotactic radiosurgery for metastatic brain lesions resulted in early reduction in brain edema volume in single metastasis patients and those with large edema volumes, and reduced the need for steroids.

  3. Recommendations on disease management for patients with advanced human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer and brain metastases: American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Naren; Temin, Sarah; Chandarlapaty, Sarat; Crews, Jennie R; Davidson, Nancy E; Esteva, Francisco J; Giordano, Sharon H; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana M; Kirshner, Jeffrey J; Krop, Ian; Levinson, Jennifer; Modi, Shanu; Patt, Debra A; Perez, Edith A; Perlmutter, Jane; Winer, Eric P; Lin, Nancy U

    2014-07-01

    To provide formal expert consensus-based recommendations to practicing oncologists and others on the management of brain metastases for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -positive advanced breast cancer. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) convened a panel of medical oncology, radiation oncology, guideline implementation, and advocacy experts and conducted a systematic review of the literature. When that failed to yield sufficiently strong quality evidence, the Expert Panel undertook a formal expert consensus-based process to produce these recommendations. ASCO used a modified Delphi process. The panel members drafted recommendations, and a group of other experts joined them for two rounds of formal ratings of the recommendations. No studies or existing guidelines met the systematic review criteria; therefore, ASCO conducted a formal expert consensus-based process. Patients with brain metastases should receive appropriate local therapy and systemic therapy, if indicated. Local therapies include surgery, whole-brain radiotherapy, and stereotactic radiosurgery. Treatments depend on factors such as patient prognosis, presence of symptoms, resectability, number and size of metastases, prior therapy, and whether metastases are diffuse. Other options include systemic therapy, best supportive care, enrollment onto a clinical trial, and/or palliative care. Clinicians should not perform routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to screen for brain metastases, but rather should have a low threshold for MRI of the brain because of the high incidence of brain metastases among patients with HER2-positive advanced breast cancer. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  4. A systematic review of trastuzumab and lapatinib in the treatment of women with brain metastases from HER2-positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Pia Bükmann; Kümler, Iben; Nielsen, Dorte Lisbet

    2013-11-01

    Patients with HER2-positive breast cancer are living still longer and increasingly experiencing brain metastases. Current HER2-targeted therapies have limited potential to cross the blood-brain-barrier. We performed a systematic review to investigate data on HER2-targeting therapies in the treatment of brain metastases in breast cancer. We searched PUBMED for all human studies published 1998-2012 using the following search terms: breast neoplasm/cancer, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/HER2, ErbB2, trastuzumab, lapatinib, brain/cerebral neoplasm/metastases and blood-brain barrier. We identified few and mostly small clinical studies. Study designs were very heterogeneous making comparisons on endpoints difficult. Overall survival for patients treated with trastuzumab varied from 8 to 25 months and 5.5 to 11 months for patients receiving lapatinib. The majority of studies were retrospective thus possibly biasing data. Only three studies were identified comparing trastuzumab to lapatinib. Conclusively, no solid data exist on how to treat patients with HER2-positive disease and brain metastases. Although continuous HER2-blockade is recommended by international consensus guidelines, it is still not evident which HER2-targeting agent should be preferred when brain metastases occur. The choice of chemotherapy to accompany the blockade is not obvious and we do not know if dual is better than single blockade. Further clinical trials are urgently needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Histological and molecular analysis of brain metastases].

    PubMed

    Lechapt Zalcman, E; Bazille, C; Rousseau, A; Burel-Vandenbos, F; Pierga, J-Y

    2015-02-01

    The first step in the diagnosis of a metastatic brain lesion is to exclude a primary central nervous sytem tumour, followed by verification or identification of the primary tumor site, in order to guide the clinician to specific therapy. In addition to morphological features, ancillary immunohistochemical study is most effective for the evaluation of a metastatic neoplasm of unknown primary. Although the main principles are same, there are slight variations in the approach to the secondary lesion in the central nervous system versus other regions. Indeed, immunohistochemical approach focuses on the most common tumor types associated with secondary brain colonization: lung cancer, breast cancer and melanoma. Several studies have reported that targeted therapies are capable of reducing brain metastases in melanoma or non-small cell lung cancer, sometimes with a high dramatic response. These results have clearly impacted routine neuropathological practice. It is likely that molecular subtyping of central nervous system metastases will play an increasing role in the future. In accordance with the recommendations of Inca (French national cancer institute), the pathologist develops appropriate strategies for molecular and immunohistochemical analysis, in order to provide results as soon as possible. This article summarizes the diagnosic approach to brain metastases, with a focus on the recent emergence of targeted therapies. Copyright © 2015 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Chiropractic management of a patient with breast cancer metastases to the brain and spine: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kanga, Ismat; Steiman, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Cancers of the breast, kidney, lungs, prostate and thyroid metastasize to the musculoskeletal system in the majority of patients with malignancy. This report chronicles the case of a 65-year-old female with a known history of breast cancer who presented to a chiropractic clinic. Once metastasis was ruled out as the cause of her complaint, the patient was treated with manual therapies and exercises. As the patient’s treatments progressed and her pain improved, she presented with a new complaint of ‘pressure’ in her head. Advanced imaging revealed metastasis to the brain and subsequently to the spine. The aim of this case is to heighten awareness of the presentation of metastasis to the brain and the spine in a chiropractic patient, and to demonstrate the benefit of chiropractic care in the management of such patients. PMID:26500361

  7. Mechanisms of AEG-1 and CXCR4 gene expression regulating the epithelial-mesenchymal transition pathway involved in brain metastases of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanjun; Wang, Xinjun

    2017-01-01

    To study the astrocyte elevated gene (AEG)-1 in breast cancer and the mechanism of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 regulating the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) involved in brain metastases of breast cancer. A total of 20 breast cancer patients with and 40 without brain metastases were recruited. The expressions of AEG-1, CXCR4, E-cadherin, N-cadherin and α-SMA were detected by immunohistochemical staining, real-time (RT) quantitative (q) PCR and Western blot respectively in cancer and adjacent normal tissues. The expressions detected in the adjacent normal tissues from both groups showed no significant difference (p>0.05). In the group with brain metastases, AEG-1, CXCR4, N-cadherin, α-SMA, mRNA and the relative expression level of protein were higher than those of patients without brain metastases, while E-cadherin showed the opposite trend. AEG-1 and CXCR4 activate and regulate the EMT pathway to participate in brain metastases.

  8. Prognostic factors and survival according to tumour subtype in women presenting with breast cancer brain metastases at initial diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Leone, José Pablo; Leone, Julieta; Zwenger, Ariel Osvaldo; Iturbe, Julián; Leone, Bernardo Amadeo; Vallejo, Carlos Teodoro

    2017-03-01

    The presence of brain metastases at the time of initial breast cancer diagnosis (BMIBCD) is uncommon. Hence, the prognostic assessment and management of these patients is very challenging. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of tumour subtype compared with other prognostic factors in the survival of patients with BMIBCD. We evaluated women with BMIBCD, reported to Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program from 2010 to 2013. Patients with other primary malignancy were excluded. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the effects of each variable on overall survival (OS). We included 740 patients. Median OS for the whole population was 10 months, and 20.7% of patients were alive at 36 months. Tumour subtype distribution was: 46.6% hormone receptor (HR)+/HER2-, 17% HR+/HER2+, 14.1% HR-/HER2+ and 22.3% triple-negative. Univariate analysis showed that the presence of liver metastases, lung metastases and triple-negative patients (median OS 6 months) had worse prognosis. The HR+/HER2+ subtype had the longest OS with a median of 22 months. In multivariate analysis, older age (hazard ratio 1.8), lobular histology (hazard ratio 2.08), triple-negative subtype (hazard ratio 2.25), liver metastases (hazard ratio 1.6) and unmarried patients (hazard ratio 1.39) had significantly shorter OS. Although the prognosis of patients with BMIBCD is generally poor, 20.7% were still alive 3 years after the diagnosis. There were substantial differences in OS according to tumour subtype. In addition to tumour subtype, other independent predictors of OS are age at diagnosis, marital status, histology and liver metastases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Methods and results of locoregional treatment of brain metastases in patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Walasek, Tomasz; Jakubowicz, Jerzy; Blecharz, Paweł; Mituś, Jerzy Władysław; Mucha-Małecka, Anna; Reinfuss, Marian

    2016-01-01

    This article presents methods and results of surgery and radiotherapy of brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (BMF-NSCLC). Patients with single BMF-NSCLC, with Karnofsky score ≥ 70 and controlled extracranial disease are the best candidates for surgery. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is recommended in patients with 1–3 BMF-NSCLC below 3–3.5 cm, with minor neurological symptoms, located in parts of the brain not accessible to surgery, with controlled extracranial disease. Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) following SRS reduces the risk of local relapse; in selected patients median survival reaches more than 10 months. Whole brain radiotherapy alone is a treatment in patients with multiple metastases, poor performance status, uncontrolled extracranial disease, disqualified from surgery or SRS with median survival 3 to 6 months. There is no doubt that there are patients with BMF-NSCLC who should receive only the best supportive care. There is a debate in the literature on how to select these patients. PMID:28373816

  10. Effect of Tumor Subtype on Survival and the Graded Prognostic Assessment for Patients With Breast Cancer and Brain Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Sperduto, Paul W.; Kased, Norbert; Roberge, David; Xu Zhiyuan; Shanley, Ryan; Luo, Xianghua; Sneed, Penny K.; Chao, Samuel T.; Weil, Robert J.; Suh, John; Bhatt, Amit; Jensen, Ashley W.; Brown, Paul D.; Shih, Helen A.; Kirkpatrick, John; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Fiveash, John B.; and others

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: The diagnosis-specific Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA) was published to clarify prognosis for patients with brain metastases. This study refines the existing Breast-GPA by analyzing a larger cohort and tumor subtype. Methods and Materials: A multi-institutional retrospective database of 400 breast cancer patients treated for newly diagnosed brain metastases was generated. Prognostic factors significant for survival were analyzed by multivariate Cox regression and recursive partitioning analysis (RPA). Factors were weighted by the magnitude of their regression coefficients to define the GPA index. Results: Significant prognostic factors by multivariate Cox regression and RPA were Karnofsky performance status (KPS), HER2, ER/PR status, and the interaction between ER/PR and HER2. RPA showed age was significant for patients with KPS 60 to 80. The median survival time (MST) overall was 13.8 months, and for GPA scores of 0 to 1.0, 1.5 to 2.0, 2.5 to 3.0, and 3.5 to 4.0 were 3.4 (n = 23), 7.7 (n = 104), 15.1 (n = 140), and 25.3 (n = 133) months, respectively (p < 0.0001). Among HER2-negative patients, being ER/PR positive improved MST from 6.4 to 9.7 months, whereas in HER2-positive patients, being ER/PR positive improved MST from 17.9 to 20.7 months. The log-rank statistic (predictive power) was 110 for the Breast-GPA vs. 55 for tumor subtype. Conclusions: The Breast-GPA documents wide variation in prognosis and shows clear separation between subgroups of patients with breast cancer and brain metastases. This tool will aid clinical decision making and stratification in clinical trials. These data confirm the effect of tumor subtype on survival and show the Breast-GPA offers significantly more predictive power than the tumor subtype alone.

  11. Prognostic Factors of Survival in the Trastuzumab Era Among Women With Breast Cancer and Brain Metastases Who Receive Whole Brain Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Dawood, Shaheenah; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana M.; Albarracin, Constance; Yu, Tse Kuan; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Woodward, Wendy A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to review the outcome of women with breast cancer with known receptor status who were treated with whole brain radiotherapy for brain metastases and to determine factors that impact survival. METHODS A total of 223 women with breast cancer and brain metastases, who received whole brain radiotherapy, were identified. All women with HER-2–positive disease had received trastuzumab. Kaplan-Meier prodct limit method was used to determine overall survival (OS) estimates. Cox proportional hazards models were then fitted to explore the association of OS with various patient and tumor characteristics. RESULTS Median age at brain metastases diagnosis was 50 years. Sixty-seven (30.2%) patients had hormone receptor-positive/HER-2–negative disease, 101 (45.50%) had HER-2–positive disease, and 54 (24.3%) had triple receptor-negative disease. Median OS from brain metastases was 6 months, with 1-year survival of 30% (95% confidence interval [CI], 23%-36%). Women with hormone receptor-positive/HER-2–negative, HER-2–positive, and triple-negative tumors had median survivals of 5, 9, and 5 months, respectively (P =.0069). In the multivariate model, women with HER-2–positive disease had a significantly decreased risk of death compared with women with hormone receptor-positive/HER-2–negative disease (hazard ratio, 0.63; 95%CI, 0.42-0.94; P =.02). The risk of death among women with triple-negative disease compared with hormone receptor-positive/HER-2–negative disease was not significantly different (P =.54). Lower recursive partitioning analysis class and ≥30-gray brain radiation dose were also significantly associated with a decreased risk of death. CONCLUSIONS Breast tumor subtype has a significant prognostic role among women with breast cancer and brain metastases. In addition, in the trastuzumab era factors such as recursive partitioning analysis and adequate radiation dose continue to be important prognostic factors. PMID

  12. Overall survival and the response to radiotherapy among molecular subtypes of breast cancer brain metastases treated with targeted therapies.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jacob A; Kotecha, Rupesh; Ahluwalia, Manmeet S; Mohammadi, Alireza M; Chao, Samuel T; Barnett, Gene H; Murphy, Erin S; Vogelbaum, Michael A; Angelov, Lilyana; Peereboom, David M; Suh, John H

    2017-06-15

    The current study was conducted to investigate survival and the response to radiotherapy among patients with molecular subtypes of breast cancer brain metastases treated with or without targeted therapies. Patients diagnosed with breast cancer brain metastases at a single tertiary care institution were included. The primary outcome was overall survival, whereas secondary outcomes included the cumulative incidences of distant intracranial failure, local failure, and radiation necrosis. Competing risks regression was used to model secondary outcomes. Within the study period, 547 patients presented with 3224 brain metastases and met inclusion criteria. Among patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-amplified disease, 80% received HER2 antibodies and 38% received HER2/epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). The median survival was significantly shorter in the basal cohort (8.4 months), and progressively increased in the luminal A (12.3 months), HER2-positive (15.4 months), and luminal B (18.8 months) cohorts (P<.001). Among patients with HER2-amplified disease, the median survival was extended with the use of both HER2 antibodies (17.9 months vs 15.1 months; P = .04) and TKIs (21.1 months vs 15.4 months; P = .03). The 12-month cumulative incidences of local failure among molecular subtypes were 6.0% in the luminal A cohort, 10.3% in the luminal B cohort, 15.4% in the HER2-positive cohort, and 9.9% in the basal cohort (P = .01). Concurrent HER2/epidermal growth factor receptor TKIs with stereotactic radiosurgery significantly decreased the 12-month cumulative incidence of local failure from 15.1% to 5.7% (P<.001). Molecular subtypes appear to be prognostic for survival and predictive of the response to radiotherapy. TKIs were found to improve survival and local control, and may decrease the rate of distant failure. To preserve neurocognition, these results support a paradigm of upfront radiosurgery and HER2

  13. Inhibition of β2-adrenergic receptor reduces triple-negative breast cancer brain metastases: The potential benefit of perioperative β-blockade.

    PubMed

    Choy, Cecilia; Raytis, John L; Smith, David D; Duenas, Matthew; Neman, Josh; Jandial, Rahul; Lew, Michael W

    2016-06-01

    In response to recent studies, we investigated an association between perioperative β-blockade and breast cancer metastases. First, a retrospective study examining perioperative β-blocker use and cancer recurrence and metastases was conducted on 1,029 patients who underwent breast cancer surgery at the City of Hope Cancer Center between 2000 and 2010. We followed the clinical study and examined proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro of primary and brain-metastatic breast cancer cells in response to β2-activation and inhibition. We also investigated in vivo the metastatic potential of propranolol-treated metastatic cells. For stage II breast cancer patients, perioperative β-blockade was associated with decreased cancer recurrence using Cox regression analysis (hazard's ratio =0.51; 95% CI: 0.23-0.97; p=0.041). Triple-negative (TN) brain-metastatic cells were found to have increased β2-adrenergic receptor mRNA and protein expression relative to TN primary cells. In response to β2-adrenergic receptor activation, TN brain-metastatic cells also exhibited increased cell proliferation and migration relative to the control. These effects were abrogated by propranolol. Propranolol decreased β2-adrenergic receptor-activated invasion. In vivo, propranolol treatment of TN brain-metastatic cells decreased establishment of brain metastases. Our results suggest that stress and corresponding β2-activation may promote the establishment of brain metastases of TN breast cancer cells. In addition, our data suggest a benefit to perioperative β-blockade during surgery-induced stress with respect to breast cancer recurrence and metastases.

  14. Clinical outcomes in patients with brain metastases from breast cancer treated with single-session radiosurgery or whole brain radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mix, Michael; Elmarzouky, Rania; O'Connor, Tracey; Plunkett, Robert; Prasad, Dheerendra

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is used to treat brain metastases from breast cancer (BMB) as the sole treatment or in conjunction with tumor resection and/or whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). This study evaluates outcomes in BMB based on treatment techniques and tumor biological features. METHODS The authors reviewed all patients treated with BMB between 2004 and 2014. Patients were identified from a prospectively collected radiosurgery database and institutional tumor registry; 214 patients were identified. Data were collected from aforementioned sources and supplemented with chart review where needed. Independent radiological review was performed for all available brain imaging in those treated with GKRS. Survival analyses are reported using Kaplan-Meier estimates. RESULTS During the 10-year study period, 214 patients with BMB were treated; 23% underwent GKRS alone, 46% underwent a combination of GKRS and WBRT, and 31% underwent WBRT alone. Median survival after diagnosis of BMB in those treated with GKRS alone was 21 months, and in those who received WBRT alone it was 3 months. In those treated with GKRS plus WBRT, no significant difference in median survival was observed between those receiving WBRT upfront or in a salvage setting following GKRS (19 months vs 14 months, p = 0.63). The median survival of patients with total metastatic tumor volume of ≤ 7 cm(3) versus > 7 cm(3) was 20 months vs 7 months (p < 0.001). Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (Her-2) positively impacted survival after diagnosis of BMB (19 months vs 12 months, p = 0.03). Estrogen receptor status did not influence survival after diagnosis of BMB. No difference was observed in survival after diagnosis of BMB based on receptor status in those who received WBRT alone. CONCLUSIONS In this single-institution series of BMB, the addition of WBRT to GKRS did not significantly influence survival, nor did the number of lesions treated with GKRS. Survival after the diagnosis of BMB

  15. Predictors of Individual Tumor Local Control After Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Brain Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Garsa, Adam A.; Badiyan, Shahed N.; DeWees, Todd; Simpson, Joseph R.; Huang, Jiayi; Drzymala, Robert E.; Barani, Igor J.; Dowling, Joshua L.; Rich, Keith M.; Chicoine, Michael R.; Kim, Albert H.; Leuthardt, Eric C.; Robinson, Clifford G.

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate local control rates and predictors of individual tumor local control for brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: Between June 1998 and May 2011, 401 brain metastases in 228 patients were treated with Gamma Knife single-fraction SRS. Local failure was defined as an increase in lesion size after SRS. Local control was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox proportional hazards model was used for univariate and multivariate analysis. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to identify an optimal cutpoint for conformality index relative to local control. A P value <.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Median age was 60 years (range, 27-84 years). There were 66 cerebellar metastases (16%) and 335 supratentorial metastases (84%). The median prescription dose was 20 Gy (range, 14-24 Gy). Median overall survival from time of SRS was 12.1 months. The estimated local control at 12 months was 74%. On multivariate analysis, cerebellar location (hazard ratio [HR] 1.94, P=.009), larger tumor volume (HR 1.09, P<.001), and lower conformality (HR 0.700, P=.044) were significant independent predictors of local failure. Conformality index cutpoints of 1.4-1.9 were predictive of local control, whereas a cutpoint of 1.75 was the most predictive (P=.001). The adjusted Kaplan-Meier 1-year local control for conformality index ≥1.75 was 84% versus 69% for conformality index <1.75, controlling for tumor volume and location. The 1-year adjusted local control for cerebellar lesions was 60%, compared with 77% for supratentorial lesions, controlling for tumor volume and conformality index. Conclusions: Cerebellar tumor location, lower conformality index, and larger tumor volume were significant independent predictors of local failure after SRS for brain metastases from NSCLC. These results warrant further investigation in a prospective

  16. Molecular subtyping of brain metastases and implications for therapy.

    PubMed

    Renfrow, Jaclyn J; Lesser, Glenn J

    2013-12-01

    Molecular subtyping of tumors and treatment with specifically targeted therapy is a rapidly developing trend in oncology. Genetic and protein biomarkers impact biological behavior, patient prognosis, and inform treatment options. Select examples include EGFR mutations in primary non-small cell lung cancers, Her2 overexpression in breast cancer, and BRAF mutations in melanoma. Systemic benefit is emphasized in targeted therapies; yet lung cancer, breast cancer, and melanoma comprise the most common diagnoses in patients with brain metastases making the effectiveness of targeted therapies in the treatment and/or prevention of brain metastases relevant.Emerging evidence suggests efficacy for targeted therapy in the setting of brain metastases. Randomized, phase III clinical trials indicate targeted HER2 treatment with lapatinib and capecitabine in brain metastases from breast cancer increases the time to progression and decreases the frequency of CNS involvement at progression. Phase II trials and retrospective reviews for gefitinib and erlotinib demonstrate these agents may have a role in both the chemoprevention of brain metastases and, in combination with WBRT, treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) brain metastases. Dabrafenib and other BRAF inhibitors have demonstrated improved survival in patients with brain metastases from melanoma in a recent phase II clinical trial. Further data that support the use of these agents are the subject of several active clinical trials. Challenges and future directions for targeted therapies in brain metastases include both better characterization and drug design with respect to central nervous system distribution. Limited published data demonstrate suboptimal CNS distribution of currently available targeted chemotherapeutic agents. Increasing systemic dosing, alternate delivery methods, and new compounds with improved CNS distribution are being pursued. Additionally, eventual resistance to targeted therapies poses a

  17. Inhibition of checkpoint kinase 1 sensitizes lung cancer brain metastases to radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Heekyoung; Yoon, Su Jin; Jin, Juyoun; Choi, Seung Ho; Seol, Ho Jun; Lee, Jung-Il; and others

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} The most important therapeutic tool in brain metastasis is radiation therapy. {yields} Radiosensitivity of cancer cells was enhanced with treatment of Chk1 inhibitor. {yields} Depletion of Chk1 in cancer cells showed an enhancement of sensitivity to radiation. {yields} Chk1 can be a good target for enhancement of radiosensitivity. -- Abstract: The most important therapeutic tool in brain metastasis is radiation therapy. However, resistance to radiation is a possible cause of recurrence or treatment failure. Recently, signal pathways about DNA damage checkpoints after irradiation have been noticed. We investigated the radiosensitivity can be enhanced with treatment of Chk1 inhibitor, AZD7762 in lung cancer cell lines and xenograft models of lung cancer brain metastasis. Clonogenic survival assays showed enhancement of radiosensitivity with AZD7762 after irradiation of various doses. AZD7762 increased ATR/ATM-mediated Chk1 phosphorylation and stabilized Cdc25A, suppressed cyclin A expression in lung cancer cell lines. In xenograft models of lung cancer (PC14PE6) brain metastasis, AZD7762 significantly prolonged the median survival time in response to radiation. Depletion of Chk1 using shRNA also showed an enhancement of sensitivity to radiation in PC14PE6 cells. The results of this study support that Chk1 can be a good target for enhancement of radiosensitivity.

  18. Brain metastases in women with epithelial ovarian cancer: multimodal treatment including surgery or gamma-knife radiation is associated with prolonged survival.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiaoyu; Rajanbabu, Anupama; Delisle, Megan; Peng, Feng; Vijaykumar, Dehannathuparambil K; Pavithran, Keechilattu; Feng, Yukuan; Lau, Susie; Gotlieb, Walter H; Press, Joshua Z

    2013-09-01

    To explore the impact of treatment modality on survival in patients with brain metastases from epithelial ovarian cancer. We conducted a retrospective review of cases of ovarian cancer with brain metastases treated at institutions in three countries (Canada, China, and India) and conducted a search for studies regarding brain metastases in ovarian cancer reporting survival related to treatment modality. Survival was analyzed according to treatment regimens involving (1) some form of surgical excision or gamma-knife radiation with or without other modalities, (2) other modalities without surgery or gamma-knife radiation, or (3) palliation only. Twelve patients (mean age 56 years) with detailed treatment/outcome data were included; five were from China, four from Canada, and three from India. Median time from diagnosis of ovarian cancer to brain metastasis was 19 months (range 10 to 37 months), and overall median survival time from diagnosis of ovarian cancer was 38 months (13 to 82 months). Median survival time from diagnosis of brain metastasis was 17 months (1 to 45 months). Among patients who had multimodal treatment including gamma-knife radiotherapy or surgical excision, the median survival time after the identification of brain metastasis was 25.6 months, compared with 6.0 months in patients whose treatment did not include this type of focused localized modality (P = 0.006). Analysis of 20 studies also indicated that use of gamma-knife radiotherapy and excisional surgery in multi-modal treatment resulted in improved median survival interval (25 months vs. 6.0 months, P < 0.001). In the subset of patients with brain metastases from ovarian cancer, prolonged survival may result from use of multidisciplinary therapy, particularly if metastases are amenable to localized treatments such as gamma-knife radiotherapy and surgical excision.

  19. Twice weekly pulse and daily continuous-dose erlotinib as initial treatment for patients with epidermal growth factor receptor-mutant lung cancers and brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Arbour, Kathryn C; Kris, Mark G; Riely, Gregory J; Ni, Ai; Beal, Kathryn; Daras, Mariza; Hayes, Sara A; Young, Robert J; Rodriguez, Christopher R; Ahn, Linda; Pao, William; Yu, Helena A

    2017-09-21

    In a phase 1 study of pulse/continuous-dose erlotinib, no patient had disease progression in the central nervous system (CNS). This expansion cohort of the phase 1 study tested the same regimen in a cohort of individuals with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant lung cancers with untreated brain metastases. Patients had not received EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors or radiation for brain metastases. All received 1200 mg of erlotinib on days 1 and 2 and 50 mg on days 3 to 7 weekly. The primary endpoints were the overall and CNS response rates (according to version 1.1 of the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors). Between May 2015 and August 2016, 19 patients were enrolled. Forty-two percent of the patients had target brain lesions, and the median size of the target brain lesions was 13 mm. Overall, 14 patients (74%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 51%-89%) had partial responses. The response rate in brain metastases was 75%. The overall median progression-free survival was 10 months (95% CI, 7 months to not reached). Only 3 patients (16%) had CNS progression. To date, 4 patients required CNS radiation at some time during their course. The adverse events (any grade) seen in 10% or more of the patients were rash, diarrhea, nausea, an increase in alanine aminotransferase, and fatigue. Pulse/continuous-dose erlotinib produced a 74% overall response rate and a 75% response rate in brain metastases in patients with EGFR-mutant lung cancers and untreated brain metastases. CNS control persisted even after progression elsewhere. Although this regimen did not improve progression-free survival or delay the emergence of EGFR T790M, it prevented progression in the brain and could be useful in situations in which CNS control is critical. Cancer 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  20. Differential Microstructure and Physiology of Brain and Bone Metastases in a Rat Breast Cancer Model by Diffusion and Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI

    PubMed Central

    Budde, Matthew D; Gold, Eric; Jordan, E. Kay; Frank, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacological approaches to treat breast cancer metastases in the brain have been met with limited success. In part, the impermeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB) has hindered delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to metastatic tumors in the brain. BBB-permeable chemotherapeutic drugs are being developed, and noninvasively assessing the efficacy of these agents will be important in both preclinical and clinical settings. In this regard, dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to monitor tumor vascular permeability and cellularity, respectively. In a rat model of metastatic breast cancer, we demonstrate that brain and bone metastases develop with distinct physiological characteristics as measured with MRI. Specifically, brain metastases have limited permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB) as assessed with DCE and an increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measured with DWI compared to the surrounding brain. Microscopically, brain metastases were highly infiltrative, grew through vessel co-option, and caused extensive edema and injury to the surrounding neurons and their dendrites. By comparison, metastases situated in the leptomenengies or in the bone had high vascular permeability and significantly lower ADC values suggestive of hypercellularity. On histological examination, tumors in the bone and leptomenengies were solid masses with distinct tumor margins. The different characteristics of these tissue sites highlight the influence of the microenvironment on metastatic tumor growth. In light of these results, the suitability of DWI and DCE to evaluate the response of chemotherapeutic and anti-angiogenic agents used to treat co-opted brain metastases, respectively, remains a formidable challenge. PMID:22042553

  1. High probability and frequency of EGFR mutations in non-small cell lung cancer with brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Ge, Mengxi; Zhuang, Yingjie; Zhou, Xinli; Huang, Ruofan; Liang, Xiaohua; Zhan, Qiong

    2017-08-05

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men and women worldwide. Brain metastasis (BMs) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most important cause of death. This study aimed to explore the association of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and BMs in NSCLC. We analyzed 50 NSCLC patients with BMs and 50 match-paired NSCLC patients with no brain metastases (NBMs). The EGFR mutation status of primary lesions was detected using the amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction. The BMs patients had a higher frequency of EGFR mutations than the NBMs patients (52.0 vs. 22.0% respectively, P < 0.001), in both adenocarcinoma (60.5 vs. 30.6%, P = 0.003) and squamous carcinoma (37.5 vs. 0%, P = 0.04). The incidence of BMs in patients with EGFR mutations was higher than in patients with wild-type EGFR (70.3 vs. 38.1%, P = 002). NSCLC patients with BMs had a higher incidence of EGFR mutations and those with mutant EGFR had a higher frequency of BMs. EGFR mutations may promote brain metastasis growth of NSCLC.

  2. Analyses of Resected Human Brain Metastases of Breast Cancer Reveal the Association between Up-regulation of Hexokinase 2 and Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri, Diane; Fitzgerald, Daniel; Shreeve, S. Martin; Hua, Emily; Bronder, Julie L.; Weil, Robert J.; Davis, Sean; Stark, Andreas M.; Merino, Maria J.; Kurek, Raffael; Mehdorn, H. Maximilian; Davis, Gary; Steinberg, Seth M.; Meltzer, Paul S.; Aldape, Kenneth; Steeg, Patricia S.

    2009-01-01

    Brain metastases of breast cancer appear to be increasing in incidence as systemic therapy improves. Metastatic disease in the brain is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We present the first gene expression analysis of laser captured epithelial cells from resected human brain metastases of breast cancer compared to unlinked primary breast tumors. The tumors were matched for histology, TNM stage and hormone receptor status. Most differentially expressed genes were down-regulated in the brain metastases which included, surprisingly, many genes associated with metastasis. Q-PCR analysis confirmed statistically significant differences or strong trends in the expression of six genes: BMP1, PEDF, LAMγ3, SIAH, STHMN3 and TSPD2. Hexokinase 2 (HK2) was also of interest because of its increased expression in brain metastases. HK2 is important in glucose metabolism and apoptosis. In agreement with our microarray results, HK2 levels (both mRNA and protein) were elevated in a brain metastatic derivative (231-BR) of the human breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 relative to the parental cell line (231-P), in vitro. Knockdown of HK2 expression in 231-BR cells using shRNA reduced cell proliferation when cultures were maintained in glucose limiting conditions. Finally, HK2 expression was analyzed in a cohort of 123 resected brain metastases of breast cancer. High HK2 expression was significantly associated with poor patient survival post-craniotomy (P=0.028). The data suggest that HK2 overexpression is associated with metastasis to the brain in breast cancer and it may be a therapeutic target. PMID:19723875

  3. Differential microstructure and physiology of brain and bone metastases in a rat breast cancer model by diffusion and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Budde, Matthew D; Gold, Eric; Jordan, E Kay; Frank, Joseph A

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacological approaches to treat breast cancer metastases in the brain have been met with limited success. In part, the impermeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB) has hindered delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to metastatic tumors in the brain. BBB-permeable chemotherapeutic drugs are being developed, and noninvasively assessing the efficacy of these agents will be important in both preclinical and clinical settings. In this regard, dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to monitor tumor vascular permeability and cellularity, respectively. In a rat model of metastatic breast cancer, we demonstrate that brain and bone metastases develop with distinct physiological characteristics as measured with MRI. Specifically, brain metastases have limited permeability of the BBB as assessed with DCE and an increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measured with DWI compared to the surrounding brain. Microscopically, brain metastases were highly infiltrative, grew through vessel co-option, and caused extensive edema and injury to the surrounding neurons and their dendrites. By comparison, metastases situated in the leptomenengies or in the bone had high vascular permeability and significantly lower ADC values suggestive of hypercellularity. On histological examination, tumors in the bone and leptomenengies were solid masses with distinct tumor margins. The different characteristics of these tissue sites highlight the influence of the microenvironment on metastatic tumor growth. In light of these results, the suitability of DWI and DCE to evaluate the response of chemotherapeutic and anti-angiogenic agents used to treat co-opted brain metastases, respectively, remains a formidable challenge.

  4. Prognostic Value of MR Imaging Texture Analysis in Brain Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Oligo-Metastases Undergoing Stereotactic Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Tini, Paolo; Biondi, Michelangelo; Sebaste, Lucio; Vanzi, Eleonora; De Otto, Gianmarco; Rubino, Giovanni; Carfagno, Tommaso; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Pastina, Pierpaolo; Cerase, Alfonso; Mazzoni, Lorenzo Nicola; Banci Buonamici, Fabrizio; Pirtoli, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Background  Stereotactic irradiation is widely used in brain oligo-metastases treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prognostic value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) texture analysis (TA) of brain metastases (BM) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and methods  This study included thirty-eight consecutive patients undergoing stereotactic irradiation, that is, stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy (SRT) or radiosurgery (SRS), from January 2011 to December 2014 for 1-2 brain BM from NSCLC. Whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) was not delivered. The diagnostic MRI DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) images were collected and analyzed with a homemade ImageJ macro, and typical TA parameters (mean, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, entropy, and uniformity) were evaluated for: brain progression-free survival; modality of brain metastatic progression (local progression or/and new metastases); and overall survival, after SRT/SRS. Results After SRT/SRS 14 patients (36.8%) experienced recurrence in the brain, with a recurrence in the irradiated site (five patients, 13.2%), new metastases (11 patients, 28.9%), local recurrence and new metastases (two patients, 5.25%). Nineteen patients (50%) died of tumor progression or other causes. Entropy and uniformity were significantly associated with local progression, whereas kurtosis was significantly associated with both local progression and new brain metastases. Conclusions  These results appear promising, since the knowledge of factors correlated with the modality of brain progression after stereotactic irradiation of brain oligo-metastatic foci of NSCLC might help in driving the best treatment in these patients (association of SRT/SRS with WBRT? Increase of SRT/SRS dose?). Our preliminary data needs confirmation in large patient series. PMID:27226944

  5. Prognostic Value of MR Imaging Texture Analysis in Brain Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Oligo-Metastases Undergoing Stereotactic Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Valerio; Tini, Paolo; Biondi, Michelangelo; Sebaste, Lucio; Vanzi, Eleonora; De Otto, Gianmarco; Rubino, Giovanni; Carfagno, Tommaso; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Pastina, Pierpaolo; Cerase, Alfonso; Mazzoni, Lorenzo Nicola; Banci Buonamici, Fabrizio; Pirtoli, Luigi

    2016-04-25

    BACKGROUND : Stereotactic irradiation is widely used in brain oligo-metastases treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prognostic value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) texture analysis (TA) of brain metastases (BM) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MATERIALS AND METHODS : This study included thirty-eight consecutive patients undergoing stereotactic irradiation, that is, stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy (SRT) or radiosurgery (SRS), from January 2011 to December 2014 for 1-2 brain BM from NSCLC. Whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) was not delivered. The diagnostic MRI DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) images were collected and analyzed with a homemade ImageJ macro, and typical TA parameters (mean, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, entropy, and uniformity) were evaluated for: brain progression-free survival; modality of brain metastatic progression (local progression or/and new metastases); and overall survival, after SRT/SRS. After SRT/SRS 14 patients (36.8%) experienced recurrence in the brain, with a recurrence in the irradiated site (five patients, 13.2%), new metastases (11 patients, 28.9%), local recurrence and new metastases (two patients, 5.25%). Nineteen patients (50%) died of tumor progression or other causes. Entropy and uniformity were significantly associated with local progression, whereas kurtosis was significantly associated with both local progression and new brain metastases. CONCLUSIONS : These results appear promising, since the knowledge of factors correlated with the modality of brain progression after stereotactic irradiation of brain oligo-metastatic foci of NSCLC might help in driving the best treatment in these patients (association of SRT/SRS with WBRT? Increase of SRT/SRS dose?). Our preliminary data needs confirmation in large patient series.

  6. Novel therapeutic agents in the management of brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Venur, Vyshak A; Ahluwalia, Manmeet S

    2017-09-01

    This review aims to highlight the novel therapeutic agents in the management of brain metastases which are in various stages of clinical development. We review the results from recent clinical trials, publications and presentations at recent national and international conferences. Several new systemic treatment options for brain metastases are in early or advanced clinical trials. These drugs have good intracranial and extracranial activities. As lung cancer, breast cancer, and melanoma are the three most common causes of brain metastases, most agents in clinical development are focused on these tumor types. Several of these therapies are small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors or monoclonal antibodies against the tyrosine kinase receptors. Another exciting development in brain metastases management is the use of immunotherapy agents. The anti-CTLA-4 and\\or anti-PD-1 antibodies have shown promising intracranial activity in melanoma and nonsmall cell lung cancer patients with brain metastases. Contemporary clinical trials have shown encouraging intracranial activity of newer tyrosine kinase inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies against tyrosine kinase receptors and immunotherapy agents in select group of patients with brain metastases. Further studies are needed to develop therapeutic strategies, in order to improve survival in patients with brain metastases.

  7. Psychometric validation of the functional assessment of cancer therapy--brain (FACT-Br) for assessing quality of life in patients with brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Thavarajah, Nemica; Bedard, Gillian; Zhang, Liying; Cella, David; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Tsao, May; Barnes, Elizabeth; Danjoux, Cyril; Sahgal, Arjun; Soliman, Hany; Chow, Edward

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to test the reliability, psychometric, and clinical validity of the use of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy--Brain (FACT-Br) in patients with brain metastases. Patients with brain metastases were interviewed using the FACT-Br (including the FACT-general) 1 week prior to treatment. All patients completed a follow-up assessment 1 month post-treatment. Patients with a good performance status and receiving stereotactic radiosurgery completed an additional 1 week follow-up assessment after the initial baseline interview to assess test-retest reliability. Forty patients had complete 1 month follow-up data. Ten of these patients also completed the 1 week follow-up assessment from baseline. The median Karnofsky performance status of patients was 80 and the median age was 64 years. All subscales of the FACT-Br were found to be conceptually related (except for two correlations) using the following subscales: physical well-being (PWB), social/family well-being (SWB), emotional well-being (EWB), functional well-being (FWB), FACT-G total score, brain cancer subscale (BrC), and the FACT-Br total score. All FACT-Br scores demonstrated excellent reliability, except for the SWB scale which revealed good reliability. The FACT-Br scores showed no significant change in the quality of life (QoL) of patients from baseline to 1 month follow-up. The use of the combined FACT-G and FACT-Br Subscale to assess QoL specifically in patients with brain metastases has successfully undergone psychometric validation. Future clinical trials should use the FACT-G and FACT-Br Subscale to assess QoL in this patient population.

  8. Inverse spatial distribution of brain metastases and white matter hyperintensities in advanced lung and non-lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Quattrocchi, Carlo Cosimo; Errante, Yuri; Mallio, Carlo Augusto; Carideo, Luciano; Scarciolla, Laura; Santini, Daniele; Tonini, Giuseppe; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to test by means of a voxel-based approach the hypothesis that there is a different spatial distribution of brain metastases (BM) and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and that the presence of WMH affects the location of BM in lung and non-lung cancer patients. Two-hundred consecutive cancer patients at first diagnosis of BM were included. Images were acquired using a 1.5 Tesla MRI system (Magnetom Avanto B13, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Axial FLAIR T2 weighted images and gadolinium-enhanced T1 weighted images were post-processed for segmentation, co-registration and analysis. Binary lesion masks were created for WMH and BM, using Volumes of Interest. Lesion probability maps were generated and the voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping approach was used to model each voxel and to calculate a non parametric statistics (Brunner-Munzel test) describing the differences between the groups. In the lung cancer group we found higher frequency of BM in WMH- than in WMH+ patients in the occipital lobe and the cerebellum. In contrast, BM were more frequent in the right frontal lobe in WMH+ than in WMH- patients. We suggest that there exists an inverse brain spatial distribution between WMH and BM. In lung cancer patients, the presence of WMH seems to shift the distribution of BM toward locations different than what it is expected based on primary tumor.

  9. Management of brain metastasized non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) - From local treatment to new systemic therapies.

    PubMed

    Tsakonas, G; De Petris, L; Ekman, S

    2017-03-01

    Lung cancer has the highest frequency of brain dissemination compared to all other solid tumours. Classical treatment options such as brain irradiation have started to be questioned due to lack of survival benefit and risk for severe side effects. Oncogenic driven tumours have the highest frequency of brain dissemination among NSCLC patients and available targeted therapies have shown activity both intra-and extracranially, with an acceptable toxicity profile. The recent approval of immune checkpoint inhibitors for the treatment of NSCLC has complicated treatment selection even more. Data regarding efficacy of immune therapy in the CNS are limited, though promising, and data from larger cohorts are eagerly expected. The purpose of this review is to summarize all available treatment options for brain metastatic NSCLC with an emphasis on oncogenic driven tumours. Treatment selection for brain metastasized NSCLC patients is challenging because of the detrimental effect of potential treatment related CNS side effects in patients' quality of life. Clinical decision making should be done in an individualised way, taking both clinical and molecular factors into consideration.

  10. P-glycoprotein mediated efflux limits substrate and drug uptake in a preclinical brain metastases of breast cancer model.

    PubMed

    Adkins, Chris E; Mittapalli, Rajendar K; Manda, Vamshi K; Nounou, Mohamed I; Mohammad, Afroz S; Terrell, Tori B; Bohn, Kaci A; Yasemin, Celik; Grothe, Tiffany R; Lockman, Julie A; Lockman, Paul R

    2013-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a specialized vascular interface that restricts the entry of many compounds into brain. This is accomplished through the sealing of vascular endothelial cells together with tight junction proteins to prevent paracellular diffusion. In addition, the BBB has a high degree of expression of numerous efflux transporters which actively extrude compounds back into blood. However, when a metastatic lesion develops in brain the vasculature is typically compromised with increases in passive permeability (blood-tumor barrier; BTB). What is not well documented is to what degree active efflux retains function at the BTB despite the changes observed in passive permeability. In addition, there have been previous reports documenting both increased and decreased expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in lesion vasculature. Herein, we simultaneously administer a passive diffusion marker ((14)C-AIB) and a tracer subject to P-gp efflux (rhodamine 123) into a murine preclinical model of brain metastases of breast cancer. We observed that the metastatic lesions had similar expression (p > 0.05; n = 756-1214 vessels evaluated) at the BBB and the BTB. Moreover, tissue distribution of R123 was not significantly (p > 0.05) different between normal brain and the metastatic lesion. It is possible that the similar expression of P-gp on the BBB and the BTB contribute to this phenomenon. Additionally we observed P-gp expression at the metastatic cancer cells adjacent to the vasculature which may also contribute to reduced R123 uptake into the lesion. The data suggest that despite the disrupted integrity of the BTB, efflux mechanisms appear to be intact, and may be functionally comparable to the normal BBB. The BTB is a significant hurdle to delivering drugs to brain metastasis.

  11. P-glycoprotein mediated efflux limits substrate and drug uptake in a preclinical brain metastases of breast cancer model

    PubMed Central

    Adkins, Chris E.; Mittapalli, Rajendar K.; Manda, Vamshi K.; Nounou, Mohamed I.; Mohammad, Afroz S.; Terrell, Tori B.; Bohn, Kaci A.; Yasemin, Celik; Grothe, Tiffany R.; Lockman, Julie A.; Lockman, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a specialized vascular interface that restricts the entry of many compounds into brain. This is accomplished through the sealing of vascular endothelial cells together with tight junction proteins to prevent paracellular diffusion. In addition, the BBB has a high degree of expression of numerous efflux transporters which actively extrude compounds back into blood. However, when a metastatic lesion develops in brain the vasculature is typically compromised with increases in passive permeability (blood-tumor barrier; BTB). What is not well documented is to what degree active efflux retains function at the BTB despite the changes observed in passive permeability. In addition, there have been previous reports documenting both increased and decreased expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in lesion vasculature. Herein, we simultaneously administer a passive diffusion marker (14C-AIB) and a tracer subject to P-gp efflux (rhodamine 123) into a murine preclinical model of brain metastases of breast cancer. We observed that the metastatic lesions had similar expression (p > 0.05; n = 756–1214 vessels evaluated) at the BBB and the BTB. Moreover, tissue distribution of R123 was not significantly (p > 0.05) different between normal brain and the metastatic lesion. It is possible that the similar expression of P-gp on the BBB and the BTB contribute to this phenomenon. Additionally we observed P-gp expression at the metastatic cancer cells adjacent to the vasculature which may also contribute to reduced R123 uptake into the lesion. The data suggest that despite the disrupted integrity of the BTB, efflux mechanisms appear to be intact, and may be functionally comparable to the normal BBB. The BTB is a significant hurdle to delivering drugs to brain metastasis. PMID:24312053

  12. Chemotherapy as primary treatment for brain metastases from breast cancer: analysis of 115 one-year survivors.

    PubMed

    Boogerd, Willem; Groenveld, Femke; Linn, Sabine; Baars, Joke W; Brandsma, Dieta; van Tinteren, Harm

    2012-08-01

    Given the potential toxicity of whole brain radiotherapy, we introduced systemic therapy as possible primary treatment for brain metastases (BM) from breast cancer. This study aims to evaluate the feasibility of this therapeutic approach. Review of 115 breast cancer patients treated for BM with at least 1 year of follow-up. Patients with single BM without extracranial disease were usually treated with surgery, patients with multiple BM and controlled extracranial disease usually with RT, and those with progressive extracranial disease usually with systemic therapy as primary treatment for BM. Primary treatment for BM was surgery in 30 patients, RT in 26 patients, RT combined with systemic therapy in 33 patients, and systemic therapy as single treatment in 27 patients (chemotherapy n = 20; hormonal therapy n = 7). Response rate to surgery was 100 %, to RT 85 %, to RT+systemic therapy 87 %, to chemotherapy 70 %, and to hormonal therapy 14 %. Duration of neurological response and of extracranial response to chemotherapy as single treatment was similar (8 and 7 months, respectively). Patients with single BM and patients without extracranial disease had a better survival but the difference was not significant. Chemotherapy as single treatment for BM from breast cancer is feasible and should not be restricted to salvage treatment.

  13. Fatal herpetic encephalitis during brain radiotherapy in a cerebral metastasized breast cancer patient.

    PubMed

    Koudriavtseva, Tatiana; Onesti, Emanuela; Tonachella, Riccardo; Pelagalli, Lorella; Vidiri, Antonello; Jandolo, Bruno

    2010-10-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a life-threatening condition with high mortality. The pathogenesis underlying the reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus (HSV) remains undefined. We present the case of a 55-year-old female who developed HSE type 1 during brain irradiation and antioedematous dexamethasone treatment for leptomeningeal metastasized breast tumor with epileptic seizures. During the radiotherapy (RT), after a total of 32 Gray administrated in 16 fractions, our patient developed cognitive impairment and partial epileptic status without fever. Two days later the patient's clinical conditions had deteriorated and high fever manifested. A diagnosis of HSE type 1 was made by a positive cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction. Antiviral therapy with high doses of acyclovir was practiced for four weeks but the comatose state persisted. The patient died 59 days after the last RT fraction. The temporal relationship of RT to the occurrence of HSE suggests that cranial irradiation may play a role in the reactivation of latent HSV. Although antiviral therapy resistance is infrequent in immunocompetent patients, it is one of the main problems in immunocompromized patients.

  14. Phase I Study of Concurrent Whole Brain Radiotherapy and Erlotinib for Multiple Brain Metastases From Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, Joline S.W.; Lagerwaard, Frank J. Smit, Egbert F.; Senan, Suresh

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: Erlotinib has shown activity in patients with brain metastases from non-small-cell lung cancer. The present dose-escalation Phase I trial evaluated the toxicity of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) with concurrent and maintenance erlotinib in this patient group. Methods and Materials: Erlotinib (Cohort 1, 100 mg/d; Cohort 2, 150 mg/d) was started 1 week before, and continued during, WBRT (30 Gy in 10 fractions). Maintenance erlotinib (150 mg/d) was continued until unacceptable toxicity or disease progression. Results: A total of 11 patients completed WBRT, 4 in Cohort 1 and 7 in Cohort 2. The median duration of erlotinib treatment was 83 days. No treatment-related neurotoxicity was observed. No treatment-related Grade 3 or greater toxicity occurred in Cohort 1. In Cohort 2, 1 patient developed a Grade 3 acneiform rash and 1 patient had Grade 3 fatigue. Two patients in Cohort 2 developed erlotinib-related interstitial lung disease, contributing to death during maintenance therapy. The median overall survival and interval to progression was 133 and 141 days, respectively. Six patients developed extracranial progression; only 1 patient had intracranial progression. In 7 patients with follow-up neuroimaging at 3 months, 5 had a partial response and 2 had stable disease. Conclusion: WBRT with concurrent erlotinib is well tolerated in patients with brain metastases from non-small-cell lung cancer. The suggestion of a high intracranial disease control rate warrants additional study.

  15. Serum levels of selenium in patients with brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer before and after radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Y C; Xue, M; Chi, F; Xu, Z G; Fan, G L; Fan, Y C; Zheng, M H; Zhong, W Z; Wang, S L; Zhang, Z Y; Chen, X D; Wu, L N; Jin, X Y; Chen, W; Li, Q; Zhang, X Y; Xiao, Y P; Wu, R; Guo, Q Y

    2012-05-01

    This study was to evaluate the influence of radiotherapy on the selenium serum levels of non-small cell cancer patients with brain metastases. This prospective study included 95 non-small cell cancer patients with brain metastases treated by radiotherapy from December 2007 until November 2010. Plasma selenium levels were determined before and at the end of the radiotherapy. Age, body mass index (BMI), prior chemotherapy, pathological type and personal habits (smoking and alcoholism) were recorded for each patient. The mean age was 63 years; the mean BMI was 27.6. Seventy-six patients (80%) were non-smokers. Sixty-two patients (65.3%) showed no drinking habits and 8 (8.4%) have no prior chemotherapy. Thirty-nine patients (41.1%) were adenocarcinoma, 51 (53.7%) were squamous cell carcinoma and five (5.3%) were large cell carcinoma. At the beginning of radiotherapy, the mean selenium level for all patients was 90.4 μg/l and after radiation this value dropped to 56.3 μg/l. Multivariate analysis showed statistically significant difference in the plasma selenium concentration before and after radiotherapy for age (P<0.001), BMI (P<0.001), smoking (P<0.001), alcoholism (P<0.001), prior chemotherapy (P<0.001) and pathological type (P<0.001). Significant reduction in plasma levels of selenium was recorded in patients undergoing radiotherapy, suggesting attention to the nutritional status of this micronutrient and other antioxidant agents. Copyright © 2012 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. [Stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy for brain metastases].

    PubMed

    Tanguy, Ronan; Métellus, Philippe; Mornex, Françoise; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Brain metastases management is still controversial even though many trials are trying to define the respective roles of neurosurgery, whole-brain radiotherapy, single-dose stereotactic radiotherapy and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. In this article, we review data from trials that examine the role of radiosurgery and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in the management of brain metastases.

  17. White matter changes in breast cancer brain metastases patients who undergo radiosurgery alone compared to whole brain radiation therapy plus radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Timothy B; Niranjan, Ajay; Kano, Hideyuki; Choi, Phillip A; Kondziolka, Douglas; Dade Lunsford, L; Monaco, Edward A

    2015-02-01

    Delayed toxicity after whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is of increasing concern in patients who survive more than one year with brain metastases from breast cancer. Radiation-related white matter toxicity is detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and has been correlated with neurocognitive dysfunction. This study assessed the risk of developing white matter changes (WMC) in breast cancer patients who underwent either WBRT plus stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or SRS alone. We retrospectively compared 35 patients with breast cancer brain metastases who received WBRT and SRS to 30 patients who only received SRS. All patients had evaluable imaging at a median of one year after their initial management. The development of white matter T2 prolongation as detected by T2 or FLAIR imaging was graded: grade 1 = little or no white matter T2 hyperintensity; grade 2 = limited periventricular hyperintensity; and grade 3 = diffuse white matter hyperintensity. After WBRT plus SRS, patients demonstrated a significantly higher incidence of WMC (p < 0.0001). After one year, 71.5 % of patients whose treatment included WBRT demonstrated WMC (42.9 % grade 2; 28.6 % grade 3). Only one patient receiving only SRS developed WMC. In long-term survivors of breast cancer, the risk of WMC was significantly reduced when SRS alone was used for management. Further prospective studies are necessary to determine how these findings correlate with neurocognitive toxicity. WBRT usage as initial management of limited brain disease should be replaced by SRS alone to reduce the risk of delayed white matter toxicity.

  18. Comparison of two dose levels of stereotactic radiosurgery for 1-3 brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Rades, Dirk; Huttenlocher, Stefan; Dahlke, Markus; Hornung, Dagmar; Blanck, Oliver; Van Thai, Pham; Trang, Ngo Thuy; Khoa, Mai Trong; Schild, Steven E

    2014-12-01

    Two dose groups of patients treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone for 1-3 brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were compared for outcomes. Based on the SRS dose administered to the margins of the brain lesions, 46 patients were assigned to groups treated with 15-18 Gy (n=13) or with 20 Gy (n=33). Seven additional factors were investigated: age (≤ 58 vs. ≥ 59 years), gender, Karnofsky performance score (KPS 70-80 vs. 90-100), number of brain metastases (1 vs. 2-3), histology (adenocarcinoma vs. other) extracerebral metastases and interval from NSCLC diagnosis to SRS (≤ 6 vs. >6 months). Local control rates for 15-18-Gy and 20-Gy groups were 75% and 92% at one year (p=0.043). SRS dose was significant on multivariate analysis (p=0.030). SRS dose was not associated with freedom from new brain metastases (p=0.24) or survival (p=0.37). SRS with 20 Gy resulted in better control of the irradiated metastases than 15-18 Gy did. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  19. Vorinostat and Concurrent Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Brain Metastases: A Phase 1 Dose Escalation Trial.

    PubMed

    Choi, Clara Y H; Wakelee, Heather A; Neal, Joel W; Pinder-Schenck, Mary C; Yu, Hsiang-Hsuan Michael; Chang, Steven D; Adler, John R; Modlin, Leslie A; Harsh, Griffith R; Soltys, Scott G

    2017-09-01

    To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, given concurrently with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) brain metastases. Secondary objectives were to determine toxicity, local failure, distant intracranial failure, and overall survival rates. In this multicenter study, patients with 1 to 4 NSCLC brain metastases, each ≤2 cm, were enrolled in a phase 1, 3 + 3 dose escalation trial. Vorinostat dose levels were 200, 300, and 400 mg orally once daily for 14 days. Single-fraction SRS was delivered on day 3. A dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was defined as any Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 grade 3 to 5 acute nonhematologic adverse event related to vorinostat or SRS occurring within 30 days. From 2009 to 2014, 17 patients were enrolled and 12 patients completed study treatment. Because no DLTs were observed, the MTD was established as 400 mg. Acute adverse events were reported by 10 patients (59%). Five patients discontinued vorinostat early and withdrew from the study. The most common reasons for withdrawal were dyspnea (n=2), nausea (n=1), and fatigue (n=2). With a median follow-up of 12 months (range, 1-64 months), Kaplan-Meier overall survival was 13 months. There were no local failures. One patient (8%) at the 400-mg dose level with a 2.0-cm metastasis developed histologically confirmed grade 4 radiation necrosis 2 months after SRS. The MTD of vorinostat with concurrent SRS was established as 400 mg. Although no DLTs were observed, 5 patients withdrew before completing the treatment course, a result that emphasizes the need for supportive care during vorinostat administration. There were no local failures. A larger, randomized trial may evaluate both the tolerability and potential local control benefit of vorinostat concurrent with SRS for brain metastases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Neural Stem Cells Secreting Anti-HER2 Antibody Improve Survival in a Preclinical Model of HER2 Overexpressing Breast Cancer Brain Metastases.

    PubMed

    Kanojia, Deepak; Balyasnikova, Irina V; Morshed, Ramin A; Frank, Richard T; Yu, Dou; Zhang, Lingjiao; Spencer, Drew A; Kim, Julius W; Han, Yu; Yu, Dihua; Ahmed, Atique U; Aboody, Karen S; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2015-10-01

    The treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-overexpressing breast cancer has been revolutionized by trastuzumab. However, longer survival of these patients now predisposes them to forming HER2 positive brain metastases, as the therapeutic antibodies cannot cross the blood brain barrier. The current oncologic repertoire does not offer a rational, nontoxic targeted therapy for brain metastases. In this study, we used an established human neural stem cell line, HB1.F3 NSCs and generated a stable pool of cells secreting a high amount of functional full-length anti-HER2 antibody, equivalent to trastuzumab. Anti-HER2Ab secreted by the NSCs (HER2Ab-NSCs) specifically binds to HER2 overexpressing human breast cancer cells and inhibits PI3K-Akt signaling. This translates to HER2Ab-NSC inhibition of breast cancer cell growth in vitro. Preclinical in vivo experiments using HER2Ab overexpressing NSCs in a breast cancer brain metastases (BCBM) mouse model demonstrate that intracranial injection of HER2Ab-NSCs significantly improves survival. In effect, these NSCs provide tumor localized production of HER2Ab, minimizing any potential off-target side effects. Our results establish HER2Ab-NSCs as a novel, nontoxic, and rational therapeutic approach for the successful treatment of HER2 overexpressing BCBM, which now warrants further preclinical and clinical investigation.

  1. Leptomeningeal failure in patients with breast cancer receiving stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Edina C; Huang, Andrew J; Huang, Karen E; McTyre, Emory R; Lo, Hui-Wen; Watabe, Kounosuke; Metheny-Barlow, Linda; Laxton, Adrian W; Tatter, Stephen B; Strowd, Roy E; Chan, Michael D; Page, Brandi R

    2017-09-01

    Prior studies suggest a high incidence of leptomeningeal failure (LMF) in breast cancer metastatic to brain. This study examines breast cancer-specific variables affecting development of LMF and survival after Gamma-Knife Radiosurgery (GKS). Between 2000-2010, 149 (breast) and 658 other-histology patients were treated with GKS. Hormone/HER2, age, local/distant brain failure, prior craniotomy, and prior whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) were assessed. Median follow-up was 54months (range, 0-106). Serial MRI determined local and distant-brain failure and LMF. Statistical analysis with categorical/continuous data comparisons were done with Fisher's-exact, Wilcoxon rank-sum, log-rank tests, and Cox-Proportional Hazard models. Of 149 patients, 21 (14%) developed LMF (median time of 11.9months). None of the following predicted for LMF: Her2-status (HR=0.49, p=0.16), hormone-receptor status (HR=1.15, p=0.79), prior craniotomy (HR=1.58, p=0.42), prior WBRT (HR=1.36, p=0.55). Non-significant factors between patients that did (n=21) and did not (n=106) develop LMF included neurologic death (p=0.34) and median survival (8.6 vs 14.2months, respectively). Breast patients who had distant-failure after GKS (65/149; 43.6%) were more likely to later develop LMF (HR 4.2, p=0.005); including 15/65 (23%) patients who had distant-failure and developed LMF. Median time-to-death for patients experiencing LMF was 6.1months (IQR 3.4-7.8) from onset of LMF. Median survival from LMF to death was much longer in breast (6.1months) than in other (1.7months) histologies CONCLUSION: Breast cancer patients had a longer survival after diagnosis of LMF versus other histologies. Neither ER/PR/HER2 status, nor prior surgery or prior WBRT predicted for development of LMF in breast patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Validity of Three Recently Proposed Prognostic Grading Indexes for Breast Cancer Patients With Radiosurgically Treated Brain Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Masaaki; Kawabe, Takuya; Higuchi, Yoshinori; Sato, Yasunori; Barfod, Bierta E.; Kasuya, Hidetoshi; Urakawa, Yoichi

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: We tested the validity of 3 recently proposed prognostic indexes for breast cancer patients with brain metastases (METs) treated radiosurgically. The 3 indexes are Diagnosis-Specific Graded Prognostic Assessment (DS-GPA), New Breast Cancer (NBC)-Recursive Partitioning Analysis (RPA), and our index, sub-classification of RPA class II patients into 3 sub-classes (RPA class II-a, II-b and II-c) based on Karnofsky performance status, tumor number, original tumor status, and non-brain METs. Methods and Materials: This was an institutional review board-approved, retrospective cohort study using our database of 269 consecutive female breast cancer patients (mean age, 55 years; range, 26-86 years) who underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) alone, without whole-brain radiation therapy, for brain METs during the 15-year period between 1996 and 2011. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the absolute risk of each event. Results: Kaplan-Meier plots of our patient series showed statistically significant survival differences among patients stratified into 3, 4, or 5 groups based on the 3 systems (P<.001). However, the mean survival time (MST) differences between some pairs of groups failed to reach statistical significance with all 3 systems. Thus, we attempted to regrade our 269 breast cancer patients into 3 groups by modifying our aforementioned index along with the original RPA class I and III, (ie, RPA I+II-a, II-b, and II-c+III). There were statistically significant MST differences among these 3 groups without overlap of 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between any 2 pairs of groups: 18.4 (95% CI = 14.0-29.5) months in I+II-a, 9.2 in II-b (95% CI = 6.8-12.9, P<.001 vs I+II-a) and 5.0 in II-c+III (95% CI = 4.2-6.8, P<.001 vs II-b). Conclusions: As none of the new grading systems, DS-GPS, BC-RPA and our system, was applicable to our set of radiosurgically treated patients for comparing survivals after GKRS, we slightly modified our system for breast cancer

  3. Comparing Postoperative Radiation Therapies for Brain Metastases

    Cancer.gov

    In this clinical trial, patients with one to four brain metastases who have had at least one of the metastatic tumors removed surgically will be randomly assigned to undergo whole-brain radiation therapy or stereotactic radiosurgery.

  4. First-Line Afatinib versus Chemotherapy in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Common Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Gene Mutations and Brain Metastases.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Martin; Wu, Yi-Long; Hirsh, Vera; O'Byrne, Kenneth; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Mok, Tony; Popat, Sanjay; Sequist, Lecia V; Massey, Dan; Zazulina, Victoria; Yang, James C-H

    2016-03-01

    Metastatic spread to the brain is common in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but these patients are generally excluded from prospective clinical trials. The studies, phase III study of afatinib or cisplatin plus pemetrexed in patients with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma with EGFR mutations (LUX-Lung 3) and a randomized, open-label, phase III study of BIBW 2992 versus chemotherapy as first-line treatment for patients with stage IIIB or IV adenocarcinoma of the lung harbouring an EGFR activating mutation (LUX-Lung 6) investigated first-line afatinib versus platinum-based chemotherapy in epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) mutation-positive patients with NSCLC and included patients with brain metastases; prespecified subgroup analyses are assessed in this article. For both LUX-Lung 3 and LUX-Lung 6, prespecified subgroup analyses of progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival, and objective response rate were undertaken in patients with asymptomatic brain metastases at baseline (n = 35 and n = 46, respectively). Post hoc analyses of clinical outcomes was undertaken in the combined data set (n = 81). In both studies, there was a trend toward improved PFS with afatinib versus chemotherapy in patients with brain metastases (LUX-Lung 3: 11.1 versus 5.4 months, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.54, p = 0.1378; LUX-Lung 6: 8.2 versus 4.7 months, HR = 0.47, p = 0.1060). The magnitude of PFS improvement with afatinib was similar to that observed in patients without brain metastases. In combined analysis, PFS was significantly improved with afatinib versus with chemotherapy in patients with brain metastases (8.2 versus 5.4 months; HR, 0.50; p = 0.0297). Afatinib significantly improved the objective response rate versus chemotherapy in patients with brain metastases. Safety findings were consistent with previous reports. These findings lend support to the clinical activity of afatinib in EGFR mutation-positive patients with NSCLC and asymptomatic

  5. Frequent overexpression of ErbB--receptor family members in brain metastases of non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Berghoff, Anna Sophie; Magerle, Manuel; Ilhan-Mutlu, Ayseguel; Dinhof, Carina; Widhalm, Georg; Dieckman, Karin; Marosi, Christine; Wöhrer, Adelheid; Hackl, Monika; Zöchbauer-Müller, Sabine; Preusser, Matthias; Birner, Peter

    2013-12-01

    The ErbB receptor family has been implicated in brain metastases (BM) formation in various cancer types and specific targeted therapies are available. We investigated the overexpression of EGFR, HER2 and HER3 in BM of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients to get a better insight on pathobiology of BM and potential drugable targets. We performed immunohistochemical analysis of EGFR, HER2 and HER3 on tissue microarrays of 131 NSCLC-BM. Fifty-one of 131 (38.9%) specimens were considered as positive for EGFR overexpression, 12/131 (9.2%) for HER2 and 27/131 (20.6%) for HER3 respectively. Sixty-nine of 131 (52.7%) of the cases showed overexpression of at least one marker. Four of 131 (3.1%) were positive for all three markers. Strong correlation was observed between HER2 and HER3 overexpression (p = 0.009; Chi-square test after Bonferroni-Holmes correction). No statistically significant correlation of EGFR, HER2 or HER3 overexpression with clinico-pathological parameters including overall survival times was observed. We observed overexpression of ErbB receptor family members, which represent established therapeutic targets in various primary tumours, in approximately half of NSCLC-BM. Further studies should investigate the role of the ErbB pathway in development of and as a therapeutic target in BM of NSCLC patients. © 2013 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Predictors of quality of life and survival following Gamma Knife surgery for lung cancer brain metastases: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Bragstad, Sidsel; Flatebø, Marianne; Natvig, Gerd Karin; Eide, Geir Egil; Skeie, Geir Olve; Behbahani, Maziar; Pedersen, Paal-Henning; Enger, Per Øyvind; Skeie, Bente Sandvei

    2017-08-18

    OBJECTIVE Lung cancer (LC) patients who develop brain metastases (BMs) have a poor prognosis. Estimations of survival and risk of treatment-related deterioration in quality of life (QOL) are important when deciding on treatment. Although we know of several prognostic factors for LC patients with BMs, the role of QOL has not been established. Authors of this study set out to evaluate changes in QOL following Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) for BMs in LC patients and QOL as a prognostic factor for survival. METHODS Forty-four of 48 consecutive LC patients with BMs underwent GKS in the period from May 2010 to September 2011, and their QOL was prospectively assessed before and 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after GKS by using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain (FACT-BR) questionnaire. A mixed linear regression model was used to identify potential predictive factors for QOL and to assess the effect of GKS and the disease course on QOL at follow-up. RESULTS Mean QOL as measured by the brain cancer subscale (BRCS) of the FACT-BR remained stable from baseline (score 53.0) up to 12 months post-GKS (57.1; p = 0.624). The BRCS score improved for 32 patients (72.3%) with a total BM volume ≤ 5 cm(3). Mean improvement in these patients was 0.45 points each month of follow-up, compared to a decline of 0.50 points each month despite GKS treatment in patients with BM volumes > 5 cm(3) (p = 0.04). Asymptomatic BMs (p = 0.01), a lower recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) classification (p = 0.04), and a higher Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score (p < 0.01) at baseline were predictors for a high, stable QOL after GKS. After multivariate analysis, a high KPS score (p < 0.01) remained the only positive predictor of a high, stable QOL post-GKS. Median survival post-GKS was 5.6 months (95% CI 1.0-10.3). A higher BRCS score (p = 0.01), higher KPS score (p = 0.01), female sex (p = 0.01), and the absence of liver (p = 0.02), adrenal (p = 0.02), and bone metastases (p = 0

  7. Temporal and spatial discordance of programmed cell death-ligand 1 expression and lymphocyte tumor infiltration between paired primary lesions and brain metastases in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, A. S.; Aubry, M. C.; Moser, J. C.; Harrington, S. M.; Dronca, R. S.; Park, S. S.; Dong, H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The dynamics of PD-L1 expression may limit its use as a tissue-based predictive biomarker. We sought to expand our understanding of the dynamics of PD-L1 expression and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in patients with lung cancer-related brain metastases. Experimental design Paired primary lung cancers and brain metastases were identified and assessed for PD-L1 and CD3 expression by immunohistochemistry. Lesions with 5% or greater PD-L1 expression were considered positive. Agreement statistics and the χ2 or Fisher's exact test were used for analysis. Results We analyzed 146 paired lesions from 73 cases. There was disagreement of tumor cell PD-L1 expression in 10 cases (14%, κ = 0.71), and disagreement of TIL PD-L1 expression in 19 cases (26%, κ = 0.38). Most paired lesions with discordant tumor cell expression of PD-L1 were obtained 6 or more months apart. When specimens were categorized using a proposed tumor microenvironment categorization scheme based on PD-L1 expression and TILs, there were significant changes in the classifications because many of the brain metastases lacked either PD-L1 expression, tumor lymphocyte infiltration or both even when they were present in the primary lung cancer specimens (P = 0.009). Conclusions We identified that there are significant differences between the tumor microenvironment of paired primary lung cancers and brain metastases. When physicians decide to treat patients with lung cancer with a PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitor, they must do so in the context of the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment. PMID:27502709

  8. The emerging role of advanced neuroimaging techniques for brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Nowosielski, Martha; Radbruch, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    Brain metastases are an increasingly encountered and frightening manifestation of systemic cancer. More effective therapeutic strategies for the primary tumor are resulting in longer patient survival on the one hand while on the other, better brain tumor detection has resulted from increased availability and development of more precise brain imaging methods. This review focuses on the emerging role of functional neuroimaging techniques; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as positron emission tomography (PET), in establishing diagnosis, for monitoring treatment response with an emphasis on new targeted as well as immunomodulatory therapies and for predicting prognosis in patients with brain metastases.

  9. A combinational therapy of EGFR-CAR NK cells and oncolytic herpes simplex virus 1 for breast cancer brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xilin; Han, Jianfeng; Chu, Jianhong; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Jianying; Chen, Charlie; Chen, Luxi; Wang, Youwei; Wang, Hongwei; Yi, Long; Elder, J Bradley; Wang, Qi-En; He, Xiaoming; Kaur, Balveen; Chiocca, E Antonio; Yu, Jianhua

    2016-05-10

    Breast cancer brain metastases (BCBMs) are common in patients with metastatic breast cancer and indicate a poor prognosis. These tumors are especially resistant to currently available treatments due to multiple factors. However, the combination of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified immune cells and oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) has not yet been explored in this context. In this study, NK-92 cells and primary NK cells were engineered to express the second generation of EGFR-CAR. The efficacies of anti-BCBMs of EGFR-CAR NK cells, oHSV-1, and their combination were tested in vitro and in a breast cancer intracranial mouse model. In vitro, compared with mock-transduced NK-92 cells or primary NK cells, EGFR-CAR-engineered NK-92 cells and primary NK cells displayed enhanced cytotoxicity and IFN-γ production when co-cultured with breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, and MCF-7. oHSV-1 alone was also capable of lysing and destroying these cells. However, a higher cytolytic effect of EGFR-CAR NK-92 cells was observed when combined with oHSV-1 compared to the monotherapies. In the mice intracranially pre-inoculated with EGFR-expressing MDA-MB-231 cells, intratumoral administration of either EGFR-CAR-transduced NK-92 cells or oHSV-1 mitigated tumor growth. Notably, the combination of EGFR-CAR NK-92 cells with oHSV-1 resulted in more efficient killing of MDA-MB-231 tumor cells and significantly longer survival of tumor-bearing mice when compared to monotherapies. These results demonstrate that regional administration of EGFR-CAR NK-92 cells combined with oHSV-1 therapy is a potentially promising strategy to treat BCBMs.

  10. A combinational therapy of EGFR-CAR NK cells and oncolytic herpes simplex virus 1 for breast cancer brain metastases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianying; Chen, Charlie; Chen, Luxi; Wang, Youwei; Wang, Hongwei; Yi, Long; Elder, J. Bradley; Wang, Qi-En; He, Xiaoming; Kaur, Balveen; Chiocca, E. Antonio; Yu, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer brain metastases (BCBMs) are common in patients with metastatic breast cancer and indicate a poor prognosis. These tumors are especially resistant to currently available treatments due to multiple factors. However, the combination of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified immune cells and oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) has not yet been explored in this context. In this study, NK-92 cells and primary NK cells were engineered to express the second generation of EGFR-CAR. The efficacies of anti-BCBMs of EGFR-CAR NK cells, oHSV-1, and their combination were tested in vitro and in a breast cancer intracranial mouse model. In vitro, compared with mock-transduced NK-92 cells or primary NK cells, EGFR-CAR-engineered NK-92 cells and primary NK cells displayed enhanced cytotoxicity and IFN-γ production when co-cultured with breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, and MCF-7. oHSV-1 alone was also capable of lysing and destroying these cells. However, a higher cytolytic effect of EGFR-CAR NK-92 cells was observed when combined with oHSV-1 compared to the monotherapies. In the mice intracranially pre-inoculated with EGFR-expressing MDA-MB-231 cells, intratumoral administration of either EGFR-CAR-transduced NK-92 cells or oHSV-1 mitigated tumor growth. Notably, the combination of EGFR-CAR NK-92 cells with oHSV-1 resulted in more efficient killing of MDA-MB-231 tumor cells and significantly longer survival of tumor-bearing mice when compared to monotherapies. These results demonstrate that regional administration of EGFR-CAR NK-92 cells combined with oHSV-1 therapy is a potentially promising strategy to treat BCBMs. PMID:27050072

  11. Breast cancer subtype as a predictor for outcomes and control in the setting of brain metastases treated with stereotactic radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Grubb, Christopher S; Jani, Ashish; Wu, Cheng-Chia; Saad, Shumaila; Qureshi, Yasir H; Nanda, Tavish; Yaeh, Andrew; Rozenblat, Tzlil; Sisti, Michael B; Bruce, Jeffrey N; McKhann, Guy M; Sheth, Sameer A; Lesser, Jeraldine; Cheng, Simon K; Isaacson, Steven R; Lassman, Andrew B; Connolly, Eileen P; Wang, Tony J C

    2016-03-01

    We investigated effects of breast cancer subtype on overall survival (OS), local and distant control, and time from initial diagnosis to brain metastases (BM). We also investigated advances in graded prognostic assessment (GPA) scores. A cohort of 72 patients treated for BM from breast cancer with Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery at our institution from 2000 to 2014 had subtyping available and were used for this study. Median follow up for OS was 12 months and for control was 6 months. OS for luminal, HER2, and triple negative subtypes were 26, 20, and 22 months. OS when stratified by Sperduto et al. (J Clin Oncol 30(4):419-425, 2012) and Subbiah et al. (J Clin Oncol 33(20):2239-2245, 2015) GPAs were similar (p = 0.087 and p = 0.063). KPS and treatment modality were significant for OS (p = 0.002; p = 0.034). On univariate analysis, triple negative subtype and >3 BM were trending and significant for decreased OS (p = 0.084; p = 0.047). On multivariable analysis HER2, triple negative, and >3 BM were significant for OS (p = 0.022; p = 0.040; p = 0.009). Subtype was significant for response on a per lesion basis (p = 0.007). Subtype was trending towards significance when analyzing time from initial diagnosis to BM treatment (p = 0.064). Breast cancer subtype is an important prognostic factor when stratifying breast cancer patients with BM. The addition of number of BM to the GPA is a useful addition and should be further investigated. Subtype has an effect on lesion response, and also on rate of development BM after initial diagnosis.

  12. Factors Predictive of Improved Survival in Patients With Brain Metastases From Gynecologic Cancer: A Single Institution Retrospective Study of 47 Cases and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Gressel, Gregory M; Lundsberg, Lisbet S; Altwerger, Gary; Katchi, Tasleem; Azodi, Masoud; Schwartz, Peter E; Ratner, Elena S; Damast, Shari

    2015-11-01

    The reported incidence of brain metastasis from epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), endometrial cancer (EC), and cervical cancer (CC) is exceedingly rare. As the long-term survival for patients with gynecologic cancer increases, there has been a corresponding increase in the number of diagnosed intracranial metastases. We seek to report our experience with managing brain metastatic disease (BMD) in patients with gynecologic cancer. A retrospective review of all patients with EOC, EC, and CC at our institution revealed 47 patients with concurrent BMD between 2000 and 2013. Demographic data, risk factors, treatment modalities, progression-free data, and overall survival data were collected. Median survival time in patients with brain metastasis from EOC, EC, and CC was 9.0, 4.5, and 3.0 months, respectively. Two-year overall survival rates were 31.6%, 13.6%, and 0%, respectively. Patients received surgery, radiation therapy alone, palliative care, or radiation plus surgery. Radiation combined with surgical resection resulted in a significant hazards ratio of 0.36 (95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.86), compared with radiation alone. Our report provides a large single-institution experience of brain metastases from gynecologic cancer. Patients with BMD have poor prognoses; however, treatment with multimodal therapy including surgical resection and radiation may prolong overall survival.

  13. Combination inhibition of PI3K and mTORC1 yields durable remissions in orthotopic patient-derived xenografts of HER2-positive breast cancer brain metastases

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Jing; Ramkissoon, Shakti H.; Xie, Shaozhen; Goel, Shom; Stover, Daniel G.; Guo, Hanbing; Luu, Victor; Marco, Eugenio; Ramkissoon, Lori A.; Kang, Yun Jee; Hayashi, Marika; Nguyen, Quang-De; Ligon, Azra H.; Du, Rose; Claus, Elizabeth B.; Alexander, Brian M.; Yuan, Guo-Cheng; Wang, Zhigang C.; Iglehart, J. Dirk; Krop, Ian E.; Roberts, Thomas M.; Winer, Eric P.; Lin, Nancy U.; Ligon, Keith L.; Zhao, Jean J.

    2016-01-01

    Brain metastases represent the greatest clinical challenge in treating HER2-positive breast cancer. We report the development of orthotopic patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) of HER2-expressing breast cancer brain metastases (BCBM), and their use for the identification of targeted combination therapies. Combined inhibition of PI3K and mTOR resulted in durable tumor regressions in three of five PDXs, and therapeutic response correlated with reduction of 4EBP1 phosphorylation. The two non-responding PDXs showed hypermutated genomes with enrichment of mutations in DNA repair genes, suggesting an association of genomic instability with therapeutic resistance. These findings suggest that a biomarker-driven clinical trial of PI3K inhibitor plus an mTOR inhibitor should be conducted for patients with HER2-positive BCBM. PMID:27270588

  14. [Lymph node and distant metastases of thyroid gland cancer. Metastases in the thyroid glands].

    PubMed

    Schmid, K W

    2015-11-01

    The different biological features of the various major entities of thyroid cancer, e.g. papillary, follicular, poorly differentiated, anaplastic and medullary, depend to a large extent on their different metastatic spread. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has a propensity for cervical lymphatic spread that occurs in 20-50 % of patients whereas distant metastasis occurs in < 5 % of cases. Cervical lymphadenopathy may be the first symptom particularly of (micro) PTC. In contrast follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) has a marked propensity for vascular but not lymphatic invasion and 10-20 % of FTC develop distant metastases. At the time of diagnosis approximately one third of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) cases show lymph node metastases, in 10-15 % distant metastases and 25 % develop metastases during the course of the disease. Poorly differentiated (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) spread via both lymphatic and vascular invasion. Thus distant metastases are relatively uncommon in DTC and when they occur, long-term stable disease is the typical clinical course. The major sites of distant metastases are the lungs and bone. Metastases to the brain, breasts, liver, kidneys, muscle and skin are relatively rare or even rare. The thyroid gland itself can be a site of metastases from a variety of other tumors. In autopsy series of patients with disseminated cancer disease, metastases to the thyroid gland were found in up to 10 % of cases. Metastases from other primary tumors to the thyroid gland have been reported in 1.4-3 % of patients who have surgery for suspected cancer of the thyroid gland. The most common primary cancers that metastasize to the thyroid gland are renal cell (48.1 %), colorectal (10.4 %), lung (8.3 %) and breast cancer (7.8 %) and surprisingly often sarcomas (4.0 %).

  15. TBCRC 018: phase II study of iniparib in combination with irinotecan to treat progressive triple negative breast cancer brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Anders, Carey; Deal, Allison M; Abramson, Vandana; Liu, Minetta C; Storniolo, Anna M; Carpenter, John T; Puhalla, Shannon; Nanda, Rita; Melhem-Bertrandt, Amal; Lin, Nancy U; Kelly Marcom, P; Van Poznak, Catherine; Stearns, Vered; Melisko, Michelle; Smith, J Keith; Karginova, Olga; Parker, Joel; Berg, Jonathan; Winer, Eric P; Peterman, Amy; Prat, Aleix; Perou, Charles M; Wolff, Antonio C; Carey, Lisa A

    2014-08-01

    Nearly half of patients with advanced triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) develop brain metastases (BM) and most will also have uncontrolled extracranial disease. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of iniparib, a small molecule anti-cancer agent that alters reactive oxygen species tumor metabolism and penetrates the blood brain barrier, with the topoisomerase I inhibitor irinotecan in patients with TNBC-BM. Eligible patients had TNBC with new or progressive BM and received irinotecan and iniparib every 3 weeks. Time to progression (TTP) was the primary end point; secondary endpoints were response rate (RR), clinical benefit rate (CBR), overall survival (OS), toxicity, and health-related quality of life. Correlative endpoints included molecular subtyping and gene expression studies on pre-treatment archival tissues, and determination of germline BRCA1/2 status. Thirty-seven patients began treatment; 34 were evaluable for efficacy. Five of 24 patients were known to carry a BRCA germline mutation (4 BRCA1, 1 BRCA2). Median TTP was 2.14 months and median OS was 7.8 months. Intracranial RR was 12 %, while intracranial CBR was 27 %. Treatment was well-tolerated; the most common grade 3/4 adverse events were neutropenia and fatigue. Grade 3/4 diarrhea was rare (3 %). Intrinsic subtyping revealed 19 of 21 tumors (79 %) were basal-like, and intracranial response was associated with high expression of proliferation-related genes. This study suggests a modest benefit of irinotecan plus iniparib in progressive TNBC-BM. More importantly, this trial design is feasible and lays the foundation for additional studies for this treatment-refractory disease.

  16. F18 EF5 PET/CT Imaging in Patients with Brain Metastases from Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    metastases. We have had a change in the paradigm of treatment here at the University of Pennsylvania, where more patients are offered gamma knife ...interested in the study, many of them have concurrent extracranial disease. Patients with better performance status often receive upfront gamma knife ...include patients receiving gamma knife radiotherapy was done. Including patients with other types of primary malignancies has also been considered

  17. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging pharmacokinetic parameters as predictors of treatment response of brain metastases in patients with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kuchcinski, Grégory; Le Rhun, Emilie; Cortot, Alexis B; Drumez, Elodie; Duhal, Romain; Lalisse, Maxime; Dumont, Julien; Lopes, Renaud; Pruvo, Jean-Pierre; Leclerc, Xavier; Delmaire, Christine

    2017-09-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of pharmacokinetic parameters measured by dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in predicting the response of brain metastases to antineoplastic therapy in patients with lung cancer. Forty-four consecutive patients with lung cancer, harbouring 123 newly diagnosed brain metastases prospectively underwent conventional 3-T MRI at baseline (within 1 month before treatment), during the early (7-10 weeks) and midterm (5-7 months) post-treatment period. An additional DCE MRI sequence was performed during baseline and early post-treatment MRI to evaluate baseline pharmacokinetic parameters (K (trans), k ep, v e, v p) and their early variation (∆K (trans), ∆k ep, ∆v e, ∆v p). The objective response was judged by the volume variation of each metastasis from baseline to midterm MRI. ROC curve analysis determined the best DCE MRI parameter to predict the objective response. Baseline DCE MRI parameters were not associated with the objective response. Early ∆K (trans), ∆v e and ∆v p were significantly associated with the objective response (p = 0.02, p = 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively). The best predictor of objective response was ∆v e with an area under the curve of 0.93 [95% CI = 0.87, 0.99]. DCE MRI and early ∆v e may be a useful tool to predict the objective response of brain metastases in patients with lung cancer. • DCE MRI could predict the response of brain metastases from lung cancer • ∆v e was the best predictor of response • DCE MRI could be used to individualize patients' follow-up.

  18. Development and Preclinical Application of an Immunocompetent Transplant Model of Basal Breast Cancer with Lung, Liver and Brain Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Hoenerhoff, Mark; Hixon, Julie A.; Durum, Scott K.; Qiu, Ting-hu; He, Siping; Burkett, Sandra; Liu, Zi-Yao; Swanson, Steven M.; Green, Jeffrey E.

    2016-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer that is associated with a poor prognosis and for which no targeted therapies currently exist. In order to improve preclinical testing for TNBC that relies primarily on using human xenografts in immunodeficient mice, we have developed a novel immunocompetent syngeneic murine tumor transplant model for basal-like triple-negative breast cancer. The C3(1)/SV40-T/t-antigen (C3(1)/Tag) mouse mammary tumor model in the FVB/N background shares important similarities with human basal-like TNBC. However, these tumors or derived cell lines are rejected when transplanted into wt FVB/N mice, likely due to the expression of SV40 T-antigen. We have developed a sub-line of mice (designated REAR mice) that carry only one copy of the C3(1)/Tag-antigen transgene resulting from a spontaneous transgene rearrangement in the original founder line. Unlike the original C3(1)/Tag mice, REAR mice do not develop mammary tumors or other phenotypes observed in the original C3(1)/Tag transgenic mice. REAR mice are more immunologically tolerant to SV40 T-antigen driven tumors and cell lines in an FVB/N background (including prostate tumors from TRAMP mice), but are otherwise immunologically intact. This transplant model system offers the ability to synchronously implant the C3(1)/Tag tumor-derived M6 cell line or individual C3(1)/Tag tumors from various stages of tumor development into the mammary fat pads or tail veins of REAR mice. C3(1)/Tag tumors or M6 cells implanted into the mammary fat pads spontaneously metastasize at a high frequency to the lung and liver. M6 cells injected by tail vein can form brain metastases. We demonstrate that irradiated M6 tumor cells or the same cells expressing GM-CSF can act as a vaccine to retard tumor growth of implanted tumor cells in the REAR model. Preclinical studies performed in animals with an intact immune system should more authentically replicate treatment responses in

  19. [ANOCEF guidelines for the management of brain metastases].

    PubMed

    Le Rhun, É; Dhermain, F; Noël, G; Reyns, N; Carpentier, A; Mandonnet, E; Taillibert, S; Metellus, P

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of brain metastases is increasing because of the use of new therapeutic agents, which allow an improvement of overall survival, but with only a poor penetration into the central nervous system brain barriers. The management of brain metastases has changed due to a better knowledge of immunohistochemical data and molecular biological data, the development of new surgical, radiotherapeutic approaches and improvement of systemic treatments. Most of the time, the prognosis is still limited to several months, nevertheless, prolonged survival may be now observed in some sub-groups of patients. The main prognostic factors include the type and subtype of the primitive, age, general status of the patient, number and location of brain metastases, extracerebral disease. The multidisciplinary discussion should take into account all of these parameters. We should notice also that treatments including surgery or radiotherapy may be proposed in a symptomatic goal in advanced phases of the disease underlying the multidisciplinary approach until late in the evolution of the disease. This article reports on the ANOCEF (French neuro-oncology association) guidelines. The management of brain metastases of breast cancers and lung cancers are discussed in the same chapter, while the management of melanoma brain metastases is reported in a separate chapter due to different responses to the brain radiotherapy.

  20. Evaluation of Biomarkers Predictive of Benefit From PD-1 Inhibitor MK-3475 in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Brain Metastases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    Cell Lung Cancer and Brain Metastases PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Sarah B. Goldberg, MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520...axis can result in dramatic responses and durable benefit in patients with non- small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the overall response rate is...8. Special Reporting Requirements……………………………………13 9. Appendices……………………………………………………………13 4 1. INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer is the leading cause of

  1. Lung Cancer and Eye Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Lampaki, Sofia; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Lazaridis, George; Syrigos, Konstantinos; Trakada, Georgia; Kakolyris, Stylianos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Rapti, Aggeliki; Zarogoulidis, Paul

    2014-01-01

    It has been observed that lung cancer either non-small cell or small cell is responsible for eye metastases. This form of metastases in several cases was the first manifestation of the disease and further investigation led to the diagnosis of the underlying malignancy. Both types of lung cancer are equally responsible for this demonstration. Furthermore; both chemotherapy and tyrosine kinase inhibitors have shown equal positive results in treating the exophalmos manifestation. Up to date information will be presented in our current work. PMID:25738158

  2. Brain Metastases from Lung Cancer Show Increased Expression of DVL1, DVL3 and Beta-Catenin and Down-Regulation of E-Cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Kafka, Anja; Tomas, Davor; Beroš, Vili; Pećina, Hrvoje Ivan; Zeljko, Martina; Pećina-Šlaus, Nives

    2014-01-01

    The susceptibility of brain to secondary formation from lung cancer primaries is a well-known phenomenon. In contrast, the molecular basis for invasion and metastasis to the brain is largely unknown. In the present study, 31 brain metastases that originated from primary lung carcinomas were analyzed regarding over expression of Dishevelled-1 (DVL1), Dishevelled-3 (DVL3), E-cadherin (CDH1) and beta-catenin (CTNNB1). Protein expressions and localizations were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Genetic alterations of E-cadherin were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/loss of heterozygosity (LOH). Heteroduplex was used to investigate mutations in beta-catenin. DVL1 and DVL3 showed over expression in brain metastasis in 87.1% and 90.3% of samples respectively. Nuclear staining was observed in 54.8% of cases for DVL1 and 53.3% for DVL3. The main effector of the Wnt signaling, beta-catenin, was up-regulated in 56%, and transferred to the nucleus in 36% of metastases. When DVL1 and DVL3 were up-regulated the number of cases with nuclear beta-catenin significantly increased (p = 0.0001). Down-regulation of E-cadherin was observed in 80% of samples. Genetic analysis showed 36% of samples with LOH of the CDH1. In comparison to other lung cancer pathologies, the diagnoses adenocarcinoma and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were significantly associated to CDH1 LOH (p = 0.001). Microsatellite instability was detected in one metastasis from adenocarcinoma. Exon 3 of beta-catenin was not targeted. Altered expression of Dishevelled-1, Dishevelled-3, E-cadherin and beta-catenin were present in brain metastases which indicates that Wnt signaling is important and may contribute to better understanding of genetic profile conditioning lung cancer metastasis to the brain. PMID:24933634

  3. Brain metastases from lung cancer show increased expression of DVL1, DVL3 and beta-catenin and down-regulation of E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Kafka, Anja; Tomas, Davor; Beroš, Vili; Pećina, Hrvoje Ivan; Zeljko, Martina; Pećina-Šlaus, Nives

    2014-06-13

    The susceptibility of brain to secondary formation from lung cancer primaries is a well-known phenomenon. In contrast, the molecular basis for invasion and metastasis to the brain is largely unknown. In the present study, 31 brain metastases that originated from primary lung carcinomas were analyzed regarding over expression of Dishevelled-1 (DVL1), Dishevelled-3 (DVL3), E-cadherin (CDH1) and beta-catenin (CTNNB1). Protein expressions and localizations were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Genetic alterations of E-cadherin were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/loss of heterozygosity (LOH). Heteroduplex was used to investigate mutations in beta-catenin. DVL1 and DVL3 showed over expression in brain metastasis in 87.1% and 90.3% of samples respectively. Nuclear staining was observed in 54.8% of cases for DVL1 and 53.3% for DVL3. The main effector of the Wnt signaling, beta-catenin, was up-regulated in 56%, and transferred to the nucleus in 36% of metastases. When DVL1 and DVL3 were up-regulated the number of cases with nuclear beta-catenin significantly increased (p=0.0001). Down-regulation of E-cadherin was observed in 80% of samples. Genetic analysis showed 36% of samples with LOH of the CDH1. In comparison to other lung cancer pathologies, the diagnoses adenocarcinoma and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were significantly associated to CDH1 LOH (p=0.001). Microsatellite instability was detected in one metastasis from adenocarcinoma. Exon 3 of beta-catenin was not targeted. Altered expression of Dishevelled-1, Dishevelled-3, E-cadherin and beta-catenin were present in brain metastases which indicates that Wnt signaling is important and may contribute to better understanding of genetic profile conditioning lung cancer metastasis to the brain.

  4. Neural Stem Cell Delivery of Therapeutic Antibodies to Treat Breast Cancer Brain Metastases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    cell numbers, and brain metastatic growth was monitored by non-invasive bioluminescence imaging . Figure 5 shows that, surprisingly, the ALDH1 negative...the brains of SCID mice and lesion growth followed by non- invasive bioluminescence imaging over time (x-axis in the graph denotes days after...mouse brain. Histological analysis of brain lesions 60 days after implanting 500 tumor cells of each subpopulation. Each image represents one mouse

  5. Value of oncogenes for the prediction of brain metastases at initial diagnosis: a review of published data.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qian; Ouyang, Xuenong

    2014-12-09

    Identifying cancer patients who are at high risk of developing brain metastases at initial diagnosis and applying effective intervention or monitoring strategies is of vital importance. Recent advances in the biology of brain metastases revealed that some oncogenes from primary tumors may be potential markers for identifying cancer patients likely to metastasize to the brain. We here summarize data on the mechanisms of brain metastases supporting the involvement of oncogene changes in the brain metastatic evolution. We also review the available evidence on clinical studies of oncogenes in the prediction of cancer patients with high incidence of brain metastases.

  6. EGFR and KRAS Mutations Predict the Incidence and Outcome of Brain Metastases in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tomasini, Pascale; Serdjebi, Cindy; Khobta, Nataliya; Metellus, Philippe; Ouafik, L’Houcine; Nanni, Isabelle; Greillier, Laurent; Loundou, Anderson; Fina, Frederic; Mascaux, Celine; Barlesi, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of brain metastases (BM). The identification of driver oncogenes and matched targeted therapies has improved outcome in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients; however, a better understanding of BM molecular biology is needed to further drive the process in this field. Methods: In this observational study, stage IV NSCLC patients tested for EGFR and KRAS mutations were selected, and BM incidence, recurrence and patients’ outcome were assessed. Results: A total of 144 patients (142 Caucasian and two Asian) were selected, including 11.27% with EGFR-mutant and 33.10% with KRAS-mutant tumors, and 57.04% patients had developed BM. BM incidence was more frequent in patients with EGFR mutation according to multivariate analyses (MVA) (Odds ratio OR = 8.745 [1.743–43.881], p = 0.008). Among patients with treated BM, recurrence after local treatment was less frequent in patients with KRAS mutation (OR = 0.234 [0.078–0.699], p = 0.009). Among patients with untreated BM, overall survival (OS) was shorter for patients with KRAS mutation according to univariate analysis (OR = 7.130 [1.240–41.012], p = 0.028), but not MVA. Conclusions: EGFR and KRAS mutations have a predictive role on BM incidence, recurrence and outcome in Caucasian NSCLC patients. These results may impact the routine management of disease in these patients. Further studies are required to assess the influence of other biomarkers on NSCLC BM. PMID:27999344

  7. Outcomes and Prognostic Factors in Women With 1 to 3 Breast Cancer Brain Metastases Treated With Definitive Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, T. Jonathan; Oh, Jung Hun; Folkert, Michael R.; Gupta, Gaorav; Shi, Weiji; Zhang, Zhigang; Morikawa, Aki; Seidman, Andrew; Brennan, Cameron; Yamada, Yoshiya; Chan, Timothy A.; Beal, Kathryn

    2014-11-01

    Background: With the continuing increase in the use of definitive stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for patients with limited brain metastases (BM), clinicians need more specific prognostic tools. We investigated clinical predictors of outcomes in patients with limited breast cancer BM treated with SRS alone. Methods and Materials: We identified 136 patients with breast cancer and 1-3 BM who underwent definitive SRS for 186 BM between 2000 and 2012. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess overall survival (OS), regional failure (RF), and local failure (LF). Associations between clinical factors and outcomes were tested using Cox regression. A point scoring system was used to stratify patients based on OS, and the predictive power was tested with concordance probability estimate (CPE). Results: The median OS was 17.6 months. The 12-month RF and LF rates were 45% and 10%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, >1 lesion (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.6, P=.02), triple-negative (TN) disease (HR=2.0, P=.006), and active extracranial disease (ED) (HR=2.7, P<.0001) were significantly associated with worse OS. The point score system was defined using proportional simplification of the multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression function. The median OS for patients with 3.0-4.0 points (n=37), 4.5-5.5 points (n=28), 6.0-6.5 points (n=37), and 8-8.5 points (n=34) were 9.2, 15.6, 25.1, and 45.1 months, respectively (P<.0001, CPE = 0.72). Active ED (HR=2.4, P=.0007) was significantly associated with RF. Higher risk for LF was significantly associated with larger BM size (HR=3.1, P=.0001). Conclusion: Patients with >1 BM, active ED, and TN had the highest risk of death after SRS. Active ED is an important prognostic factor for OS and intracranial control.

  8. Predicting early brain metastases based on clinicopathological factors and gene expression analysis in advanced HER2-positive breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Duchnowska, Renata; Jassem, Jacek; Goswami, Chirayu Pankaj; Dundar, Murat; Gökmen-Polar, Yesim; Li, Lang; Woditschka, Stephan; Biernat, Wojciech; Sosińska-Mielcarek, Katarzyna; Czartoryska-Arłukowicz, Bogumiła; Radecka, Barbara; Tomasevic, Zorica; Stępniak, Piotr; Wojdan, Konrad; Sledge, George W; Steeg, Patricia S; Badve, Sunil

    2015-03-01

    The overexpression or amplification of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 gene (HER2/neu) is associated with high risk of brain metastasis (BM). The identification of patients at highest immediate risk of BM could optimize screening and facilitate interventional trials. We performed gene expression analysis using complementary deoxyribonucleic acid-mediated annealing, selection, extension and ligation and real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) in primary tumor samples from two independent cohorts of advanced HER2 positive breast cancer patients. Additionally, we analyzed predictive relevance of clinicopathological factors in this series. Study group included discovery Cohort A (84 patients) and validation Cohort B (75 patients). The only independent variables associated with the development of early BM in both cohorts were the visceral location of first distant relapse [Cohort A: hazard ratio (HR) 7.4, 95 % CI 2.4-22.3; p < 0.001; Cohort B: HR 6.1, 95 % CI 1.5-25.6; p = 0.01] and the lack of trastuzumab administration in the metastatic setting (Cohort A: HR 5.0, 95 % CI 1.4-10.0; p = 0.009; Cohort B: HR 10.0, 95 % CI 2.0-100.0; p = 0.008). A profile including 13 genes was associated with early (≤36 months) symptomatic BM in the discovery cohort. This was refined by qRT-PCR to a 3-gene classifier (RAD51, HDGF, TPR) highly predictive of early BM (HR 5.3, 95 % CI 1.6-16.7; p = 0.005; multivariate analysis). However, predictive value of the classifier was not confirmed in the independent validation Cohort B. The presence of visceral metastases and the lack of trastuzumab administration in the metastatic setting apparently increase the likelihood of early BM in advanced HER2-positive breast cancer.

  9. Outcomes targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis in conjunction with stereotactic radiation for patients with non-small cell lung cancer brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Kamran A; Kim, Sungjune; Arrington, John; Naghavi, Arash O; Dilling, Thomas J; Creelan, Ben C; Antonia, Scott J; Caudell, Jimmy J; Harrison, Louis B; Sahebjam, Solmaz; Gray, Jhanelle E; Etame, Arnold B; Johnstone, Peter A; Yu, Michael; Perez, Bradford A

    2017-06-01

    Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapies have demonstrated activity in patients with advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, little is known about the safety and feasibility of patients receiving anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy and stereotactic radiation for the treatment of brain metastases. Data were analyzed retrospectively from NSCLC patients treated with stereotactic radiation either before, during or after anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy with nivolumab (anti-PD-1) or durvalumab (anti-PD-L1). Seventeen patients treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (FSRT) to 49 brain metastases over 21 sessions were identified. Radiation was administered prior to, during and after anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy in 22 lesions (45%), 13 lesions (27%), and 14 lesions (29%), respectively. The 6 months Kaplan-Meier (KM) distant brain control rate was 48% following stereotactic radiation. Six and 12 month KM rates of OS from the date of stereotactic radiation and the date of cranial metastases diagnosis were 48/41% and 81/51%, respectively. The 6 month rate of distant brain control following stereotactic radiation for patients treated with stereotactic radiation during or prior to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy was 57% compared to 0% among patients who received anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy before stereotactic radiation (p = 0.05). A Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) of <90 was found to be predictive of worse OS following radiation treatment on both univariate and multivariate analyses (MVA, p = 0.01). In our series, stereotactic radiation to NSCLC brain metastases was well tolerated in patients who received anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. Prospective evaluation to determine how these two modalities can be used synergistically to improve distant brain control and OS is warranted.

  10. Risk Factors for Brain Metastases in Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer With Definitive Chest Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Zhe; Bi, Nan; Wang, Jingbo; Hui, Zhouguang; Xiao, Zefen; Feng, Qinfu; Zhou, Zongmei; Chen, Dongfu; Lv, Jima; Liang, Jun; Fan, Chengcheng; Liu, Lipin; Wang, Luhua

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: We intended to identify risk factors that affect brain metastases (BM) in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) receiving definitive radiation therapy, which may guide the choice of selective prevention strategies. Methods and Materials: The characteristics of 346 patients with stage III NSCLC treated with thoracic radiation therapy from January 2008 to December 2010 in our institution were retrospectively reviewed. BM rates were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to determine independent risk factors for BM. Results: The median follow-up time was 48.3 months in surviving patients. A total of 74 patients (21.4%) experienced BM at the time of analysis, and for 40 (11.7%) of them, the brain was the first site of failure. The 1-year and 3-year brain metastasis rates were 15% and 28.1%, respectively. In univariate analysis, female sex, age ≤60 years, non-squamous cell carcinoma, T3-4, N3, >3 areas of lymph node metastasis, high lactate dehydrogenase and serum levels of tumor markers (CEA, NSE, CA125) before treatment were significantly associated with BM (P<.05). In multivariate analysis, age ≤60 years (P=.004, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.491), non-squamous cell carcinoma (P=.000, HR=3.726), NSE >18 ng/mL (P=.008, HR=1.968) and CA125 ≥ 35 U/mL (P=.002, HR=2.129) were independent risk factors for BM. For patients with 0, 1, 2, and 3 to 4 risk factors, the 3-year BM rates were 7.3%, 18.9%, 35.8%, and 70.3%, respectively (P<.001). Conclusions: Age ≤60 years, non-squamous cell carcinoma, serum NSE >18 ng/mL, and CA125 ≥ 35 U/mL were independent risk factors for brain metastasis. The possibilities of selectively using prophylactic cranial irradiation in higher-risk patients with LA-NSCLC should be further explored in the future.

  11. Development and responses of brain metastases during treatment with trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) for HER2 positive advanced breast cancer: A single institution experience.

    PubMed

    Okines, Alicia; Irfan, Tazia; Khabra, Komel; Smith, Ian; O'Brien, Mary; Parton, Marina; Noble, Jill; Stanway, Susie; Somaiah, Navita; Ring, Alistair; Johnston, Stephen; Turner, Nicholas

    2017-08-22

    Ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is an antibody-drug conjugate that does not cross an intact blood-brain barrier. In the EMILIA trial of T-DM1 vs capecitabine/lapatinib for HER2 positive advanced breast cancer, all patients had baseline brain imaging, and 9/450 (2%) of patients with negative baseline imaging developed new brain disease during T-DM1. We assessed the frequency of brain progression in clinical practice, without routine baseline imaging. We undertook a retrospective study of all patients treated with T-DM1 at the Royal Marsden Hospital from 2011 to 2016. Data collected included baseline characteristics, previous treatment for advanced breast cancer, sites of metastatic disease, duration of T-DM1, sites of progression, and treatment of CNS progression. Fifty-five patients were identified who had received a median of two prior lines of treatment (range 0-5). All were HER2 positive; 45 patients had IHC 3+ tumors and 10 were ISH positive. Patients received a median of 12 cycles of T-DM1 (range 1-34), and six remain on treatment at the time of analysis. Before commencing T-DM1, 16/55 (29%) had known brain metastases (treated with whole brain [9] stereotactic radiotherapy [6] or both [1]). Brain was the first site of progression in 56% (9/16) patients, with a median time to brain progression of 9.9 months (95% CI 3.9-12.2). In patients without known baseline brain metastases, 17.9% (7/39) developed new symptomatic brain disease during T-DM1, after a median of 7.5 months (95%CI 3.8-9.6). Brain progression was isolated, with control of extra-cranial disease in 4/7 patients. Only one patient was suitable for stereotactic radiotherapy. Median time to extra-cranial progression in all patients was 11.5 months (95% CI 9.1-17.7), and median OS in all patients was 17.8 months (95% CI 14.2-22). In patients not screened for brain metastases at baseline, the brain was the first site of progression in a significant proportion. Baseline brain imaging may have a role

  12. Commentary: Treatment Considerations for Patients With Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Mutated Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Brain Metastases in the Era of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Vaca, Silvia Daniela; Connolly, Ian David; Ho, Clement; Neal, Joel; Hayden Gephart, Melanie

    2017-08-12

    Brain metastasis is a serious complication of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) affecting up to 40% of NSCLC patients. A subset of NSCLC tumors has mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, and determination of tumor EGFR mutation status is essential in guiding treatment decisions, as it directly affects the treatment approach. Patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC have a higher cumulative incidence of brain metastases, and are especially sensitive to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Patients with newly diagnosed EGFR-mutated lung cancer presenting to a neurosurgeon with a new diagnosis of brain metastases now have a variety of treatment options available, including whole brain radiation therapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, surgical resection, chemotherapy, and targeted therapeutics such as the EGFR TKIs. In this review, we discuss the impact of EGFR mutation status on brain and leptomeningeal metastasis treatment considerations. Additionally, we present clinical cases of patients treated with EGFR TKIs alone and in combination with other therapies to highlight treatment alternatives. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons.

  13. Antitumor effects of genetically engineered stem cells expressing yeast cytosine deaminase in lung cancer brain metastases via their tumor-tropic properties.

    PubMed

    Yi, Bo-Rim; Kim, Seung U; Kim, Yun-Bae; Lee, Hong Jun; Cho, Myung-Haing; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2012-06-01

    Although mortality related with primary tumors is approximately 10%, metastasis leads to 90% of cancer-associated death. The majority of brain metastases result from lung cancer, but the metastatic mechanism remains unclear. In general, chemotherapy for treating brain diseases is disrupted by the brain blood barrier (BBB). As an approach to improve treatment of lung cancer metastasis to the brain, we employed genetically engineered stem cells (GESTECs), consisting of neural stem cells (NSCs) expressing a suicide gene. Cytosine deaminase (CD), one of the suicide genes, originating from bacterial (bCD) or yeast (yCD), which can convert the non-toxic prodrug, 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), into 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), can inhibit cancer cell growth. We examined the therapeutic efficacy and migratory properties of GESTECs expressing yCD, designated as HB1.F3.yCD, in a xenograft mouse model of lung cancer metastasis to the brain. In this model, A549 lung cancer cells were implanted in the right hemisphere of the mouse brain, while CM-DiI pre-stained HB1.F3.yCD cells were implanted in the contralateral brain. Two days after the injection of stem cells, 5-FC was administered via intraperitoneal injection. The tumor-tropic effect of HB1.F3.yCD was evident by fluorescent analysis, in which red-colored stem cells migrated to the lung tumor mass of the contralateral brain. By histological analysis of extracted brain, the therapeutic efficacy of HB1.F3.yCD in the presence of 5-FC was confirmed by the reduction in density and aggressive tendency of lung cancer cells following treatment with 5-FC, compared to a negative control or HB1.F3.yCD injection without 5-FC. Taken together, these results indicate that HB1.F3.yCD expressing a suicide gene may be a new therapeutic strategy for lung cancer metastases to the brain in the presence of a prodrug.

  14. F18 EF5 PET/CT Imaging in Patients with Brain Metastases from Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    patients are offered gamma knife radiotherapy upfront rather than whole brain radiotherapy which has impacted our accrual rates. Additionally, though we...status often receive upfront gamma knife radiotherapy instead which currently those patients are excluded from the study. To address these challenges...treatment. Additionally, opening up the protocol enrollment to include patients receiving gamma knife radiotherapy has also been considered. Including

  15. F18 EF5 PET/CT Imaging in Patients with Brain Metastases from Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Pennsylvania, where more patients are offered gamma knife radiotherapy upfront rather than whole brain radiotherapy which has impacted our accrual rates...to follow. Furthermore, patients with better performance status often receive upfront gamma knife radiotherapy instead. These patients were...four weeks post treatment. Additionally, opening up the protocol enrollment to include patients receiving gamma knife radiotherapy was done

  16. Neural Stem Cell Delivery of Therapeutic Antibodies to Treat Breast Cancer Brain Metastases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    brain tumors remains dismal. High-grade neoplasms , such as gliomas, are highly invasive and spawn widely disseminated microsatellites that have... myeloproliferative sarcoma virus long terminal repeat negative control region deleted (MND promoter), allows suffi- cient expression in some cell types at a level

  17. The role of microRNA-21 in predicting brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jing; Zhang, Zhi; Gu, Tao; Xu, Shu-Feng; Dong, Li-Xin; Li, Xin; Fu, Bao-Hong; Fu, Zhan-Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study aimed at exploring the role of microRNA-21 (miR-21) in predicting brain metastases (BM) from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods A total of 132 NSCLC patients, including 68 patients with BM and 64 patients without BM, were included in the study. NSCLC cells were collected and assigned to the inhibitor (IN) group, the mock group, and the negative control (NC) group. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was used to detect the miR-21 expression. Cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis were detected by colony-forming assay, MTT assay, transwell assay, and flow cytometry, respectively. Angiogenesis was measured by endothelial cell tube formation assay. Results The miR-21 expression was higher in NSCLC patients with BM than in those without BM. The miR-21 expression in the IN group was lower than that in the NC and mock groups. Compared with the NC and mock groups, the values of optical density (OD) and the colony-forming number decreased in the IN group. Compared with the NC and mock groups, cell invasion and migration abilities significantly reduced in the IN group. The IN group had higher apoptosis rate than the NC and mock groups. The tube length was shorter and the number of junction points was less in the IN group in comparison to the NC and mock groups. Conclusion miR-21 might be a potential biomarker for the development of BM in NSCLC patients and could promote the proliferation, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis of NSCLC cells. PMID:28096685

  18. Regression of experimental NIS-expressing breast cancer brain metastases in response to radioiodide/gemcitabine dual therapy

    PubMed Central

    Renier, Corinne; Foster, Deshka; De, Abhijit; Vogel, Hannes; Jeffrey, Stefanie S.; Tse, Victor; Carrasco, Nancy; Wapnir, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Treating breast cancer brain metastases (BCBMs) is challenging. Na+/I− symporter (NIS) expression in BCBMs would permit their selective targeting with radioiodide (131I−). We show impressive enhancement of tumor response by combining131I− with gemcitabine (GEM), a cytotoxic radiosensitizer. Nude mice mammary fat-pad (MFP) tumors and BCBMs were generated with braintropic MDA-MB-231Br cells transduced with bicistronically-linked NIS and firefly luciferase cDNAs. Response was monitored in vivo via bioluminescent imaging and NIS tumor expression.131I−/GEM therapy inhibited MFP tumor growth more effectively than either agent alone. BCBMs were treated with: high or low-dose GEM (58 or 14.5 mg/Kg×4); 131I− (1mCi or 2×0.5 mCi 7 days apart); and 131I−/GEM therapy. By post-injection day (PID) 25, 82-86% of controls and 78-83% of 131I−-treated BCBM grew, whereas 17% low-dose and 36% high-dose GEM regressed. The latter tumors were smaller than the controls with comparable NIS expression (~20% of cells). High and low-dose 131I−/GEM combinations caused 89% and 57% tumor regression, respectively. High-dose GEM/131I− delayed tumor growth: tumors increased 5-fold in size by PID45 (controls by PID18). Although fewer than 25% of cells expressed NIS, GEM/131I− caused dramatic tumor regression in NIS-transduced BCBMs. This effect was synergistic, and supports the hypothesis that GEM radiosensitizes cells to 131I−. PMID:27363025

  19. Correlation between EGFR mutation status and the incidence of brain metastases in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Lina; Luo, Shuimei; Lin, Heng; Yang, Haitao; Chen, Huijuan; Liao, Ziyuan; Lin, Wanzun; Zheng, Weili; Xie, Xianhe

    2017-08-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Numerous studies have been performed to investigate the correlation between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status and the incidence of brain metastases (BMs) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), however, the outcomes were inconsistent. Thus, we performed this study to establish the role of EGFR mutation status in BMs. Electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CBM, WanFang, CNKI were searched to identify relevant trials. The primary endpoint was the incidence of BMs in EGFR mutations or wild type NSCLC and the secondary endpoint was overall survival calculated from the BMs emerging (BMOS). Twenty-two studies incorporating 8,152 participants were eligible. EGFR mutations group possessed a significantly higher risk of BMs (OR =1.99; 95% CI, 1.59-2.48; P=0.000) than EGFR wild type group. In the stratified analysis, compared with EGFR wild type group, EGFR mutations group had a significant higher incidence (OR =2.01; 95% CI, 1.56-2.59; P=0.000) of subsequent BMs while only a trend of increasing the incidence of initial BMs (OR =1.38; 95% CI, 0.98-1.94; P=0.066). Moreover, exon 19 deletion had a trend of increasing the incidence of BMs than exon 21 mutation (OR =1.44; 95% CI, 0.77-2.68; P=0.252). Compared with EGFR wild type group, EGFR mutations group possessed a prolonged overall BMOS (HR =0.68; 95% CI, 0.47-0.98; P=0.038) and a longer BMOS in initial BMs (HR =0.50; 95% CI, 0.31-0.80; P=0.004) but no significant difference in NSCLC with subsequent BMs (HR =0.95; 95% CI, 0.42-2.15; P=0.901). Patients with EGFR mutations were more susceptible to develop into BMs than those with EGFR wild type, especially during the course of disease.

  20. Gender, Race, and Survival: A Study in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Brain Metastases Patients Utilizing the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Recursive Partitioning Analysis Classification

    SciTech Connect

    Videtic, Gregory M.M.; Reddy, Chandana A.; Chao, Samuel T.; Rice, Thomas W.; Adelstein, David J.; Barnett, Gene H.; Mekhail, Tarek M.; Vogelbaum, Michael A.; Suh, John H.

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To explore whether gender and race influence survival in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in patients with brain metastases, using our large single-institution brain tumor database and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) brain metastases classification. Methods and materials: A retrospective review of a single-institution brain metastasis database for the interval January 1982 to September 2004 yielded 835 NSCLC patients with brain metastases for analysis. Patient subsets based on combinations of gender, race, and RPA class were then analyzed for survival differences. Results: Median follow-up was 5.4 months (range, 0-122.9 months). There were 485 male patients (M) (58.4%) and 346 female patients (F) (41.6%). Of the 828 evaluable patients (99%), 143 (17%) were black/African American (B) and 685 (83%) were white/Caucasian (W). Median survival time (MST) from time of brain metastasis diagnosis for all patients was 5.8 months. Median survival time by gender (F vs. M) and race (W vs. B) was 6.3 months vs. 5.5 months (p = 0.013) and 6.0 months vs. 5.2 months (p = 0.08), respectively. For patients stratified by RPA class, gender, and race, MST significantly favored BFs over BMs in Class II: 11.2 months vs. 4.6 months (p = 0.021). On multivariable analysis, significant variables were gender (p = 0.041, relative risk [RR] 0.83) and RPA class (p < 0.0001, RR 0.28 for I vs. III; p < 0.0001, RR 0.51 for II vs. III) but not race. Conclusions: Gender significantly influences NSCLC brain metastasis survival. Race trended to significance in overall survival but was not significant on multivariable analysis. Multivariable analysis identified gender and RPA classification as significant variables with respect to survival.

  1. Incidence of Brain Metastases on Follow-up (18)F-FDG PET/CT Scans of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients: Should We Include the Brain?

    PubMed

    Nia, Emily S; Garland, Linda L; Eshghi, Naghmehossadat; Nia, Benjamin B; Avery, Ryan J; Kuo, Phillip H

    2017-09-01

    The brain is the most common site of distant metastasis from lung cancer. Thus, MRI of the brain at initial staging is routinely performed, but if this examination is negative a follow-up examination is often not performed. This study evaluates the incidence of asymptomatic brain metastases in non-small cell lung cancer patients detected on follow-up (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans. Methods: In this Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective review, all vertex to thigh (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans in patients with all subtypes of lung cancer from August 2014 to August 2016 were reviewed. A total of 1,175 (18)F-FDG PET/CT examinations in 363 patients were reviewed. Exclusion criteria included brain metastases on initial staging, histologic subtype of small-cell lung cancer, and no follow-up (18)F-FDG PET/CT examinations. After our exclusion criteria were applied, a total of 809 follow-up (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans in 227 patients were included in the final analysis. The original report of each (18)F-FDG PET/CT study was reviewed for the finding of brain metastasis. The finding of a new brain metastasis prompted a brain MRI, which was reviewed to determine the accuracy of the (18)F-FDG PET/CT. Results: Five of 227 patients with 809 follow-up (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans reviewed were found to have incidental brain metastases. The mean age of the patients with incidental brain metastasis was 68 y (range, 60-77 y). The mean time from initial diagnosis to time of detection of incidental brain metastasis was 36 mo (range, 15-66 mo). When MRI was used as the gold standard, our false-positive rate was zero. Conclusion: By including the entire head during follow-up (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans of patients with non-small cell lung cancer, brain metastases can be detected earlier while still asymptomatic. But, given the additional scan time, radiation, and low incidence of new brain metastases in asymptomatic patients, the cost-to-benefit ratio should be weighed by each institution. © 2017 by the

  2. Dose-dense temozolomide regimen for the treatment of brain metastases from melanoma, breast cancer, or lung cancer not amenable to surgery or radiosurgery: a multicenter phase II study

    PubMed Central

    Siena, S.; Crinò, L.; Danova, M.; Del Prete, S.; Cascinu, S.; Salvagni, S.; Schiavetto, I.; Vitali, M.; Bajetta, E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Brain metastases reduce survival because therapeutic options are limited. This phase II study evaluated the efficacy of single-agent therapy with alternating weekly, dose-dense temozolomide in pretreated patients with brain metastases prospectively stratified by primary tumor type. Methods: Eligible patients had bidimensionally measurable brain metastases from histologically/cytologically confirmed melanoma, breast cancer (BC), or non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Prior chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) were allowed. Patients received temozolomide 150 mg/m2/day (days 1–7 and 15–21 every 28- or 35-day cycle). Results: In the intent-to-treat population (N = 157; 53 melanoma, 51 BC, and 53 NSCLC), one patient had complete response, nine (6%) had partial responses, and 31 (20%) had stable disease in the brain. Median progression-free survival was 56, 58, and 66 days for melanoma, BC, and NSCLC, respectively. Median overall survival was 100 days for melanoma, 172 days for NSCLC, and not evaluable in the BC group. Thrombocytopenia was the most common adverse event causing dose modification or treatment discontinuation. Grade 4 toxic effects were rare. Conclusions: This alternating weekly, dose-dense temozolomide regimen was well tolerated and clinically active in heavily pretreated patients with brain metastases, particularly in patients with melanoma. Combining temozolomide with WBRT or other agents may improve clinical outcomes. PMID:19767314

  3. Translational Breast Cancer Research Consortium (TBCRC) 022: A Phase II Trial of Neratinib for Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Breast Cancer and Brain Metastases.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Rachel A; Gelman, Rebecca S; Wefel, Jeffrey S; Melisko, Michelle E; Hess, Kenneth R; Connolly, Roisin M; Van Poznak, Catherine H; Niravath, Polly A; Puhalla, Shannon L; Ibrahim, Nuhad; Blackwell, Kimberly L; Moy, Beverly; Herold, Christina; Liu, Minetta C; Lowe, Alarice; Agar, Nathalie Y R; Ryabin, Nicole; Farooq, Sarah; Lawler, Elizabeth; Rimawi, Mothaffar F; Krop, Ian E; Wolff, Antonio C; Winer, Eric P; Lin, Nancy U

    2016-03-20

    Evidence-based treatments for metastatic, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer in the CNS are limited. Neratinib is an irreversible inhibitor of erbB1, HER2, and erbB4, with promising activity in HER2-positive breast cancer; however, its activity in the CNS is unknown. We evaluated the efficacy of treatment with neratinib in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer brain metastases in a multicenter, phase II open-label trial. Eligible patients were those with HER2-positive brain metastases (≥ 1 cm in longest dimension) who experienced progression in the CNS after one or more line of CNS-directed therapy, such as whole-brain radiotherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, and/or surgical resection. Patients received neratinib 240 mg orally once per day, and tumors were assessed every two cycles. The primary endpoint was composite CNS objective response rate (ORR), requiring all of the following: ≥ 50% reduction in volumetric sum of target CNS lesions and no progression of non-target lesions, new lesions, escalating corticosteroids, progressive neurologic signs/symptoms, or non-CNS progression--the threshold for success was five of 40 responders. Forty patients were enrolled between February 2012 and June 2013; 78% of patients had previous whole-brain radiotherapy. Three women achieved a partial response (CNS objective response rate, 8%; 95% CI, 2% to 22%). The median number of cycles received was two (range, one to seven cycles), with a median progression-free survival of 1.9 months. Five women received six or more cycles. The most common grade ≥ 3 event was diarrhea (occurring in 21% of patients taking prespecified loperamide prophylaxis and 28% of those without prophylaxis). Patients in the study experienced a decreased quality of life over time. Although neratinib had low activity and did not meet our threshold for success, 12.5% of patients received six or more cycles. Studies combining neratinib with chemotherapy in patients

  4. Immune response in breast cancer brain metastases and their microenvironment: the role of the PD-1/PD-L axis.

    PubMed

    Duchnowska, Renata; Pęksa, Rafał; Radecka, Barbara; Mandat, Tomasz; Trojanowski, Tomasz; Jarosz, Bożena; Czartoryska-Arłukowicz, Bogumiła; Olszewski, Wojciech P; Och, Waldemar; Kalinka-Warzocha, Ewa; Kozłowski, Wojciech; Kowalczyk, Anna; Loi, Sherene; Biernat, Wojciech; Jassem, Jacek

    2016-04-27

    A better understanding of immune response in breast cancer brain metastases (BCBM) may prompt new preventive and therapeutic strategies. Immunohistochemical expression of stromal tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs: CD4, CD8, CTLA4), macrophage/microglial cells (CD68), programmed cell death protein 1 receptor (PD-1), programmed cell death protein 1 receptor ligand (PD-L)1, PD-L2 and glial fibrillary acid protein was assessed in 84 BCBM and their microenvironment. Median survival after BCBM excision was 18.3 months (range 0-99). Median number of CD4+, CD8+ TILs and CD68+ was 49, 69 and 76 per 1 mm(2), respectively. PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression in BCBM was present in 53 % and 36 % of cases, and was not related to BCBM phenotype. PD-1 expression on TILs correlated positively with CD4+ and CD8+ TILs (r = 0.26 and 0.33), and so did CD68+ (r = 0.23 and 0.27, respectively). In the multivariate analysis, survival after BCBM excision positively correlated with PD-1 expression on TILs (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.3, P = 0.003), CD68+ infiltration (HR = 0.2, P < 0.001), brain radiotherapy (HR = 0.1, P < 0.001), endocrine therapy (HR = 0.1, P < 0.001), and negatively with hormone-receptor-negative/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive phenotype of primary tumor (HR = 2.6, P = 0.01), HER2 expression in BCBM (HR = 4.9, P = 0.01). PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression is a common occurrence in BCBM, irrespective of primary tumor and BCBM phenotype. Favorable prognostic impact of PD-1 expression on TILs suggests a beneficial effect of preexisting immunity and implies a potential therapeutic role of immune checkpoint inhibitors in BCBM.

  5. Carmustine and methotrexate in combination after whole brain radiation therapy in breast cancer patients presenting with brain metastases: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since 1999, patients presenting with brain metastases (BM) from breast cancer (BC) are treated in our institution with a carmustine (BCNU) - methotrexate (MTX) combination. We report here our clinical experience regarding this combination. Patients and Methods Patients were treated by a combination of BCNU 100 mg/m² on day 1 and MTX 600 mg/m² on day 1 and 15 of a 28 day cycle. Treatment was continued until progression or unacceptable toxicity. Results 50 patients were treated between 1999 and 2007. 94% of the patients presented with concomitant extra-cerebral disease. Median number of previous metastatic setting chemotherapy regimens was 2 (0-5). Median number of cycles was 3 (1-20). There were 11 objective responses (23% [95%CI 12-37]) among 48 evaluable patients. Median progression-free survival and overall survival (OS) were 4.2 (95%CI: 2.8-5.3) and 6.9 (4.2-10.7) months respectively, with a one-year OS rate of 32% (20-46). Median Relative Dose Intensity for BCNU and MTX were 0.98 (0.31-1.1) and 0.96 (0.57-1.66) respectively. There were 2 presumed treatment-related deaths. One patient developed febrile neutropenia. Performance status, BS-BM score and presence of liver metastases were associated with OS in univariate analysis. Conclusions This combination appears to be effective and well tolerated in good performance status BC patients presenting with BM. PMID:20525352

  6. The Treatment of Melanoma Brain Metastases.

    PubMed

    Kibbi, Nour; Kluger, Harriet

    2016-12-01

    Melanoma is the malignancy with the highest rate of dissemination to the central nervous system once it metastasizes. Until recently, the prognosis of patients with melanoma brain metastases (MBM) was poor. In recent years, however, the prognosis has improved due to high-resolution imaging that facilitates early detection of small asymptomatic brain metastases and early intervention with local modalities such as stereotactic radiosurgery. More recently, a number of systemic therapies have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for metastatic melanoma, resulting in improved survival for many MBM patients. Registration trials for these newer therapies excluded patients with untreated brain metastases, and a number of studies specifically tailored to this population of patients have been conducted or are underway. Herein, we review contemporary locoregional and systemic therapies and describe the unique challenges posed by treatment of brain metastases, such as radionecrosis, cerebral edema, and pseudoprogression. Since the number of systemic and combined modality clinical trials has increased, we expect that the treatment landscape for patients with melanoma brain metastasis will change dramatically. In addition to ongoing clinical trials, which show great promise, we conclude that our understanding of intracranial metastasis remains quite limited. In addition to inter-disciplinary, multi-modality studies, bench-side work to better understand the process of cerebrotropism is needed to fuel more drug development and further improve outcomes.

  7. MIP Improves Detection of Brain Metastases.

    PubMed

    Sepulveda, Francisco; Yáñez, Paulina; Carnevale, Martin Diego; Romero, Carlos; Castillo, Mauricio

    This study aimed to compare the sensitivity for detection of brain metastases using postcontrast 3-dimensional, T1W-gradient echo sequence (3DT1W) and maximum intensity projections (MIPs) obtained from the same data set. A prospective analysis of patients with known brain metastases was performed. We compared 1-mm postcontrast 3DT1W with 6-mm MIP reconstructions obtained from the same images (MIP-3DT1) in 95 patients using 1.5 (42 patients) and 3 T (53 patient). Two independent readers analyzed all studies and the examinations were presented in anonymized and random fashion for a total of 190 interpretations per observer. One reader had more than 20 years of experience and the second reader had 1 year of experience. The least experienced observer found 542 brain metastases on postcontrast non-MIP 3DT1W and 605 with the MIP-3DT1 technique. For this observer, use of MIP resulted in increased number of detected metastases in 36% of patients regardless of field strength. The more experienced observer found 589 brain metastases on non-MIP 3DT1W and 621 with the MIP-3DT1 technique and the use of the latter also resulted in increased detection of metastases in 33% of patients regardless of field strength. In our study, we found that using MIP-3DT1 reconstructions of previously obtained postcontrast 3DT1W improved detection of brain metastases. This improvement was experienced by both the junior and experienced neuroradiologists and was also better at 3.0 T than at 1.5 T.

  8. Skin metastases from lung cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pajaziti, Laura; Hapçiu, Syzana Rexhepi; Dobruna, Shkendije; Hoxha, Naim; Kurshumliu, Fisnik; Pajaziti, Artina

    2015-04-11

    Lung cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies, with high mortality rates. It can metastasize in almost all organs, but more often invades hilar nodes, liver, adrenal glands, bones and brain. There are various data on the incidence of lung cancer metastases in the skin. In 1-12% of patients with lung cancer are developed skin metastases. Metastases in the skin may be the first sign of lung cancer. Forty-five years old Albanian male, smoker, was admitted to our department with multiple nodules localized in the skin of the head, neck, back and chest. The nodules measuring 5-15 millimeters in greatest dimension were round and skin-colored, with telangiectasias, firm and tender. They appeared in an eruptive form about two weeks before being admitted at our hospital. In addition, the patient exhibited signs of weight loss, anorexia and fatigue. Excisional biopsy was performed to one of the lesions. Histopathology confirmed metastatic nature of the lesion namely, malignant tumor of neuroendocrine phenotype consistent with small-cell carcinoma. Chest X-ray and computed tomography revealed an expansive process in the 7(th) segment of the left lung, left hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy and a suspicious initial secondary deposit in the left adrenal gland. The patient was referred to the department of oncology for further treatment. After the third cycle of chemotherapy, the magnetic resonance imaging revealed brain metastases. The patient passed away four months after the diagnosis of lung cancer first presented with skin metastases. Metastases in skin may be the first sign of lung cancer. Although rare appearing, we should raise suspicion in cases of atypical lesions in the skin not only of the smokers, but also of the non-smokers. Skin metastases from small-cell lung carcinoma are a poor prognostic indicator. The appearance of multiple skin metastases with other internal metastases shorten the survival time.

  9. [Systemic treatment of melanoma brain metastases].

    PubMed

    Le Rhun, É; Mateus, C; Mortier, L; Dhermain, F; Guillot, B; Grob, J-J; Lebbe, C; Thomas, M; Jouary, T; Leccia, M-T; Robert, C

    2015-02-01

    Melanomas have a high rate of brain metastases. Both the functional prognosis and the overall survival are poor in these patients. Until now, surgery and radiotherapy represented the two main modalities of treatment. Nevertheless, due to the improvement in the management of the extracerebral melanoma, the systemic treatment may be an option in patients with brain metastases. Immunotherapy with anti-CTLA4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4) - ipilimumab - or BRAF (serine/threonine-protein kinase B-raf) inhibitors - vemurafenib, dabrafenib - has shown efficacy in the management of brain metastases in a- or pauci-symptomatic patients. Studies are ongoing with anti-PD1 (programmed cell death 1) and combinations of targeted therapies associating anti-RAF (raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase) and anti-MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase).

  10. Brain metastases management paradigm shift: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Refaat, Tamer; Sachdev, Sean; Desai, Brijal; Bacchus, Ian; Hatoum, Saleh; Lee, Plato; Bloch, Orin; Chandler, James P; Kalapurakal, John; Marymont, Maryanne Hoffman

    2016-04-01

    Brain metastases are the most common intracranial tumors in adults, accounting for over half of all lesions. Whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) has been a cornerstone in the management of brain metastases for decades. Recently, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has been considered as a definitive or postoperative approach instead of WBRT, to minimize the risk of cognitive impairment that may be associated with WBRT. This is the case report of a 74-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with lung cancer in November, 2002, and histopathologically confirmed brain metastases in January, 2005. The patient received 5 treatments with Gamma Knife SRS for recurring brain metastases between 2005 and 2014. The patient remains highly functional, with stable intracranial disease at 10 years since first developing brain metastases, and with stable lung disease. Therefore, Gamma Knife SRS is a safe and effective treatment modality for patients with recurrent intracranial metastases, with durable local control and minimal cognitive impairment.

  11. Brain metastases management paradigm shift: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    REFAAT, TAMER; SACHDEV, SEAN; DESAI, BRIJAL; BACCHUS, IAN; HATOUM, SALEH; LEE, PLATO; BLOCH, ORIN; CHANDLER, JAMES P.; KALAPURAKAL, JOHN; MARYMONT, MARYANNE HOFFMAN

    2016-01-01

    Brain metastases are the most common intracranial tumors in adults, accounting for over half of all lesions. Whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) has been a cornerstone in the management of brain metastases for decades. Recently, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has been considered as a definitive or postoperative approach instead of WBRT, to minimize the risk of cognitive impairment that may be associated with WBRT. This is the case report of a 74-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with lung cancer in November, 2002, and histopathologically confirmed brain metastases in January, 2005. The patient received 5 treatments with Gamma Knife SRS for recurring brain metastases between 2005 and 2014. The patient remains highly functional, with stable intracranial disease at 10 years since first developing brain metastases, and with stable lung disease. Therefore, Gamma Knife SRS is a safe and effective treatment modality for patients with recurrent intracranial metastases, with durable local control and minimal cognitive impairment. PMID:27073647

  12. Efficacy and pharmacokinetics of a modified acid-labile docetaxel-PRINT® nanoparticle formulation against non-small-cell lung cancer brain metastases

    PubMed Central

    Sambade, Maria; Deal, Allison; Schorzman, Allison; Luft, J Christopher; Bowerman, Charles; Chu, Kevin; Karginova, Olga; Swearingen, Amanda Van; Zamboni, William; DeSimone, Joseph; Anders, Carey K

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Particle Replication in Nonwetting Templates (PRINT®) PLGA nanoparticles of docetaxel and acid-labile C2-dimethyl-Si-Docetaxel were evaluated with small molecule docetaxel as treatments for non-small-cell lung cancer brain metastases. Materials & methods: Pharmacokinetics, survival, tumor growth and mice weight change were efficacy measures against intracranial A549 tumors in nude mice. Treatments were administered by intravenous injection. Results: Intracranial tumor concentrations of PRINT-docetaxel and PRINT-C2-docetaxel were 13- and sevenfold greater, respectively, than SM-docetaxel. C2-docetaxel conversion to docetaxel was threefold higher in intracranial tumor as compared with nontumor tissues. PRINT-C2-docetaxel increased median survival by 35% with less toxicity as compared with other treatments. Conclusion: The decreased toxicity of the PRINT-C2-docetaxel improved treatment efficacy against non-small-cell lung cancer brain metastasis. PMID:27456556

  13. The predictive value and potential mechanisms of miRNA-328 and miRNA-378 for brain metastases in operable and advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dianshui; Li, Xin; Ma, Maoqiang; Liu, Jie; Xu, Ying; Ye, Lan; Hou, Huaying; Wang, Cuihong; Li, Xiaomei; Jiang, Yuhua

    2015-05-01

    The incidence of brain metastases greatly varies in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, and molecular markers are considered to predict brain metastases. Therefore, this study sought to identify the predictive value and potential mechanisms of miRNA-328 and miRNA-378 for brain metastases in non-small-cell lung cancer. Patients who received a curable surgery for their lung cancer were screened according to our criteria. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples from the patients were examined for the expression of miRNA-328 and miRNA-378 using real-time polymerase chain reaction and the expression of N-cadherin, E-cadherin, vascular endothelial growth factor, protein kinase Cα and S100B were investigated using immunohistochemical staining. In total, 86 patients were screened for this study and 23 patients were diagnosed with brain metastases during the follow-up period. Comparing patients with and without brain metastases, the expression of miRNA-328 and miRNA-378 in tumor tissues were significantly different (P = 6.2 × 10(-5) and P = 2.8 × 10(-5), respectively). For the patients with brain metastases, the expression of miRNA-328 and miRNA-378 in tumor tissues compared with para-carcinoma tissues were also significantly different (P = 2.2 × 10(-5) and P = 1.6 × 10(-5), respectively). For patients with brain metastases, the association between miRNA-328 and protein kinase Cα was significant (r = 0.591, P = 0.003), but that between miRNA-378 and protein kinase Cα was not significant (r = 0.259, P = 0.232). The expression of miRNA-328 and miRNA-378 in tumor tissues can be used to predict brain metastases in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. miRNA-328 might promote brain metastases by regulating the expression of protein kinase Cα. However, the mechanisms of miRNA-378 to promote brain metastases should be studied in the future. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Drug-Resistant Brain Metastases: A Role for Pharmacology, Tumor Evolution, and Too-Late Therapy.

    PubMed

    Stricker, Thomas; Arteaga, Carlos L

    2015-11-01

    Two recent studies report deep molecular profiling of matched brain metastases and primary tumors. In both studies, somatic alterations in the brain metastases were frequently discordant with those in the primary tumor, suggesting divergent evolution at metastatic sites and raising questions about the use of biomarkers in patients in clinical trials with targeted therapies. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Prolonged survival in patients with breast cancer and a history of brain metastases: results of a preplanned subgroup analysis from the randomized phase III BEACON trial.

    PubMed

    Cortés, Javier; Rugo, Hope S; Awada, Ahmad; Twelves, Chris; Perez, Edith A; Im, Seock-Ah; Gómez-Pardo, Patricia; Schwartzberg, Lee S; Diéras, Veronique; Yardley, Denise A; Potter, David A; Mailliez, Audrey; Moreno-Aspitia, Alvaro; Ahn, Jin-Seok; Zhao, Carol; Hoch, Ute; Tagliaferri, Mary; Hannah, Alison L; O'Shaughnessy, Joyce

    2017-09-01

    Conventional chemotherapy has limited activity in patients with breast cancer and brain metastases (BCBM). Etirinotecan pegol (EP), a novel long-acting topoisomerase-1 inhibitor, was designed using advanced polymer technology to preferentially accumulate in tumor tissue including brain metastases, providing sustained cytotoxic SN38 levels. The phase 3 BEACON trial enrolled 852 women with heavily pretreated locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer between 2011 and 2013. BEACON compared EP with treatment of physician's choice (TPC; eribulin, vinorelbine, gemcitabine, nab-paclitaxel, paclitaxel, ixabepilone, or docetaxel) in patients previously treated with anthracycline, taxane, and capecitabine, including those with treated, stable brain metastases. The primary endpoint, overall survival (OS), was assessed in a pre-defined subgroup of BCBM patients; an exploratory post hoc analysis adjusting for the diagnosis-specific graded prognostic assessment (GPA) index was also conducted. In the trial, 67 BCBM patients were randomized (EP, n = 36; TPC, n = 31). Treatment subgroups were balanced for baseline characteristics and GPA indices. EP was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of death (HR 0.51; P < 0.01) versus TPC; median OS was 10.0 and 4.8 months, respectively. Improvement in OS was observed in both poorer and better GPA prognostic groups. Survival rates at 12 months were 44.4% for EP versus 19.4% for TPC. Consistent with the overall BEACON population, fewer patients on EP experienced grade ≥3 toxicity (50 vs. 70%). The significant improvement in survival in BCBM patients provides encouraging data for EP in this difficult-to-treat subgroup of patients. A phase three trial of EP in BCBM patients is underway (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02915744).

  16. The Effect of Tumor Subtype on Survival and the Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA) for Patients with Breast Cancer and Brain Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Sperduto, Paul W.; Kased, Norbert; Roberge, David; Xu, Zhiyuan; Shanley, Ryan; Luo, Xianghua; Sneed, Penny K.; Chao, Samuel T.; Weil, Robert J.; Suh, John; Bhatt, Amit; Jensen, Ashley W.; Brown, Paul D.; Shih, Helen A.; Kirkpatrick, John; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Fiveash, John B.; Chiang, Veronica; Knisely, Jonathan P.S.; Sperduto, Christina Maria; Lin, Nancy; Mehta, Minesh

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The diagnosis-specific Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA) was published to clarify prognosis for patients with brain metastases. This study refines the existing Breast-GPA by analyzing a larger cohort and tumor subtype. METHODS A multi-institutional retrospective database of 400 breast cancer patients treated for newly-diagnosed brain metastases was generated. Prognostic factors significant for survival were analyzed by multivariate Cox regression (MCR) and recursive partitioning analysis (RPA). Factors were weighted by the magnitude of their regression coefficients to define the GPA index. RESULTS Significant prognostic factors by MCR and RPA were Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS), HER2, ER/PR status, and the interaction between ER/PR and HER2. RPA showed age was significant for patients with KPS 60–80. The median survival time (MST) overall was 13.8 months, and for GPA scores of 0–1.0, 1.5–2.0, 2.5–3.0 and 3.5–4.0 was 3.4 (n=23), 7.7 (n=104), 15.1 (n=140) and 25.3 (n=133) months, respectively (p < 0.0001). Among HER2-negative patients, being ER/PR-positive improved MST from 6.4 to 9.7 months whereas in HER2-positive patients, being ER/PR-positive improved MST from 17.9 to 20.7 months. The log-rank statistic (predictive power) was 110 for the Breast-GPA versus 55 for tumor subtype. CONCLUSIONS The Breast-GPA documents wide variation in prognosis and shows clear separation between subgroups of patients with breast cancer and brain metastases. This tool will aid clinical decision-making and stratification of clinical trials. These data confirm the effect of tumor subtype on survival and show the Breast-GPA offers significantly more predictive power than the tumor subtype alone. PMID:21497451

  17. Comparative survival in patients with brain metastases from non-small-cell lung cancer treated before and after implementation of radiosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Greenspoon, J.N.; Ellis, P.M.; Pond, G.; Caetano, S.; Broomfield, J.; Swaminath, A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Survival after a diagnosis of brain metastasis in non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc) is generally poor. We previously reported a median survival of approximately 4 months in a cohort of patients treated with whole-brain radiotherapy (wbrt). Since that time, we implemented a program of stereotactic radiosurgery (srs). In the present study, we examined survival and prognostic factors in a consecutive cohort of patients after the introduction of the srs program. Methods Data from a retrospective review of 167 nsclc patients with brain metastasis referred to a tertiary cancer centre during 2010–2012 were compared with data from a prior cohort of 91 patients treated during 2005–2007 (“pre-srs cohort”). Results Median overall survival from the date of diagnosis of brain metastasis (4.3 months in the srs cohort vs. 3.9 months in the pre-srs cohort, p = 0.74) was not significantly different in the cohorts. The result was similar when the no-treatment group was excluded from the srs cohort. Within the srs cohort only, significant differences is overall survival were observed between treatment groups (srs, wbrt plus srs, wbrt, and no treatment), with improved survival being observed on univariate and multivariate analysis for patients receiving srs compared with patients receiving wbrt alone (p < 0.001). Conclusions No improvement in survival was observed for nsclc patients with brain metastases after the implementation of srs. Selected patients (younger age, female sex, good performance status, fewer brain metastases) treated with srs appeared to demonstrate improved survival. However, those observations might also reflect better patient selection for srs or a greater tendency to offer those patients systemic therapy in addition to srs. PMID:28490938

  18. Choroidal and skin metastases from colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Joo Young; Oh, Edward Hynseung; Jung, Moon Ki; Park, Song Ee; Kim, Ji Tak; Hwang, In Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Choroidal and skin metastasis of colon cancer is rare. In women, the frequency of cutaneous metastasis from colon cancer as the primary lesion in is 9% and skin metastasis occurs in 0.81% of all colorectal cancers. We report a patient with colonic adenocarcinoma who presented with visual disorder in her right eye and scalp pain as her initial symptoms. Contrast-enhance orbital magnetic resonance imaging with fat suppression revealed an infrabulbar mass, and skin biopsy of the posterior parietal scalp confirmed adenocarcinoma. These symptoms were diagnosed as being caused by choroidal and skin metastases of colonic adenocarcinoma. We started palliative chemotherapy with oral capecitabine (1000 mg/m2, twice a day, on days 1-14) every 3 wk, which was effective at shrinking the brain masses and improving the visual disorder. This is the first report that capecitabine is effective at reducing a choroidal and cutaneous metastatic lesion from right-sided colorectal cancer. PMID:27920486

  19. Choroidal and skin metastases from colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ha, Joo Young; Oh, Edward Hynseung; Jung, Moon Ki; Park, Song Ee; Kim, Ji Tak; Hwang, In Gyu

    2016-11-21

    Choroidal and skin metastasis of colon cancer is rare. In women, the frequency of cutaneous metastasis from colon cancer as the primary lesion in is 9% and skin metastasis occurs in 0.81% of all colorectal cancers. We report a patient with colonic adenocarcinoma who presented with visual disorder in her right eye and scalp pain as her initial symptoms. Contrast-enhance orbital magnetic resonance imaging with fat suppression revealed an infrabulbar mass, and skin biopsy of the posterior parietal scalp confirmed adenocarcinoma. These symptoms were diagnosed as being caused by choroidal and skin metastases of colonic adenocarcinoma. We started palliative chemotherapy with oral capecitabine (1000 mg/m(2), twice a day, on days 1-14) every 3 wk, which was effective at shrinking the brain masses and improving the visual disorder. This is the first report that capecitabine is effective at reducing a choroidal and cutaneous metastatic lesion from right-sided colorectal cancer.

  20. Prognostic factors analysis in EGFR mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer with brain metastases treated with whole brain-radiotherapy and EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    WEI, HANGPING; SU, MENG; LIN, RUIFANG; LI, HUIFANG; ZOU, CHANGLIN

    2016-01-01

    The survival time of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with brain metastases has been previously reported to be 6.5–10.0 months, even with systematic treatment. Patients that possess a certain epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation alongside NSCLC with brain metastases also have a short survival rate, and a reliable prognostic model for these patients demonstrates a strong correlation between the outcome and treatment recommendations. The Cox proportional hazards regression and classification tree models were used to explore the prognostic factors in EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC patients with brain metastases following whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) and EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) treatment. A total of 66 EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC patients with brain metastases were retrospectively reviewed. Univariate and multivariate analyses by Cox proportional hazards regression were then performed. The classification tree model was applied in order to identify prognostic groups of the patients. In the survival analysis, age, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and status of the primary tumor were prognostic factors for progression free survival (P=0.006, 0.014 and 0.005, respectively) and overall survival (P=0.009, 0.013 and 0.009, respectively). The classification tree model was subsequently applied, which revealed 3 patient groups with significantly different survival times: Group I, age <65 years and CEA ≤10 µg/ml; Group II, age <65 years and CEA >10 µg/ml or age ≥65 years and CEA ≤10 µg/ml; and Group III, age ≥65 years and CEA >10 µg/ml. The major prognostic predictors for EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC patients with brain metastases following WBRT and EGFR-TKI were age and CEA. In addition, primary tumor control may be important for predicting survival. PMID:26998157

  1. Updates in the management of brain metastases

    PubMed Central

    Arvold, Nils D.; Lee, Eudocia Q.; Mehta, Minesh P.; Margolin, Kim; Alexander, Brian M.; Lin, Nancy U.; Anders, Carey K.; Soffietti, Riccardo; Camidge, D. Ross; Vogelbaum, Michael A.; Dunn, Ian F.; Wen, Patrick Y.

    2016-01-01

    The clinical management/understanding of brain metastases (BM) has changed substantially in the last 5 years, with key advances and clinical trials highlighted in this review. Several of these changes stem from improvements in systemic therapy, which have led to better systemic control and longer overall patient survival, associated with increased time at risk for developing BM. Development of systemic therapies capable of preventing BM and controlling both intracranial and extracranial disease once BM are diagnosed is paramount. The increase in use of stereotactic radiosurgery alone for many patients with multiple BM is an outgrowth of the desire to employ treatments focused on local control while minimizing cognitive effects associated with whole brain radiotherapy. Complications from BM and their treatment must be considered in comprehensive patient management, especially with greater awareness that the majority of patients do not die from their BM. Being aware of significant heterogeneity in prognosis and therapeutic options for patients with BM is crucial for appropriate management, with greater attention to developing individual patient treatment plans based on predicted outcomes; in this context, recent prognostic models of survival have been extensively revised to incorporate molecular markers unique to different primary cancers. PMID:27382120

  2. High plasma fibrinogen concentration and platelet count unfavorably impact survival in non-small cell lung cancer patients with brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian-Fei; Cai, Ling; Zhang, Xue-Wen; Wen, Yin-Sheng; Su, Xiao-Dong; Rong, Tie-Hua; Zhang, Lan-Jun

    2014-02-01

    High expression of fibrinogen and platelets are often observed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with local regional or distant metastasis. However, the role of these factors remains unclear. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prognostic significance of plasma fibrinogen concentration and platelet count, as well as to determine the overall survival of NSCLC patients with brain metastases. A total of 275 NSCLC patients with brain metastasis were enrolled into this study. Univariate analysis showed that high plasma fibrinogen concentration was associated with age≥65 years (P = 0.011), smoking status (P = 0.009), intracranial symptoms (P = 0.022), clinical T category (P = 0.010), clinical N category (P = 0.003), increased partial thromboplastin time (P < 0.001), and platelet count (P < 0.001). Patients with low plasma fibrinogen concentration demonstrated longer overall survival compared with those with high plasma fibrinogen concentration (median, 17.3 months versus 11.1 months; P≤0.001). A similar result was observed for platelet counts (median, 16.3 months versus 11.4 months; P = 0.004). Multivariate analysis showed that both plasma fibrinogen concentration and platelet count were independent prognostic factors for NSCLC with brain metastases (R2 = 1.698, P < 0.001 and R2 = 1.699, P < 0.001, respectively). Our results suggest that high plasma fibrinogen concentration and platelet count indicate poor prognosis for NSCLC patients with brain metastases. Thus, these two biomarkers might be independent prognostic predictors for this subgroup of NSCLC patients.

  3. Liver metastases

    MedlinePlus

    Metastases to the liver; Metastatic liver cancer; Liver cancer - metastatic; Colorectal cancer - liver metastases; Colon cancer - liver metastases; Esophageal cancer - liver metastases; Lung cancer - liver metastases; Melanoma - liver metastases

  4. CyberKnife radiosurgery for brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Wowra, Berndt; Muacevic, Alexander; Tonn, Jörg-Christian

    2012-01-01

    Classic radiosurgery is a neurosurgical treatment concept for single-fraction irradiation of cerebral lesions not amenable to open surgery. Until recently it has been realized mainly by frame-based technologies (Gamma Knife; stereotactic linear accelerators). The CyberKnife described in 1997 is an image-guided frameless robotic technology for whole-body radiosurgery. It can be used for classic single-fraction radiosurgery and for hypofractionated treatments. The CyberKnife treatment procedure is completely non-invasive and can be repeated throughout the body if necessary. Brain metastases are an important and frequently treated indication of modern radiosurgery. Data concerning radiosurgical treatment of brain metastases with the CyberKnife are reviewed. Scientific evidence shows that the full-body applicability of the CyberKnife is not at the expense of an inferior intracranial treatment quality when compared to standard frame-based technology. The clinical results of CyberKnife single-fraction radiosurgery are in line with the published literature. The attractive therapeutic profile of CyberKnife radiosurgery is reflected by a high tumor control and a low toxicity and the repeatability of the treatments for recurrent metastases. Although hypofractionated treatments (in 3-5 fractions) of brain metastases have been performed with the CyberKnife to treat large metastases, the clinical significance of this new radiosurgical concept is unclear and requires further study. A new approach is to treat the resection cavity with radiosurgery after surgical removal of brain metastases. In this concept radiosurgery replaces fractionated radiation therapy as an adjunct to surgery. The initial results are very promising. The CyberKnife has been established as a modern non-invasive technology for intra- and extracranial radiosurgery. It adds to the oncological armamentarium and confers upon radiosurgery a greater emphasis as an oncological treatment concept.

  5. The TNM 8 M1b and M1c classification for non-small cell lung cancer in a cohort of patients with brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Nieder, C; Hintz, M; Oehlke, O; Bilger, A; Grosu, A L

    2017-09-01

    According to the recent TNM 8 classification, patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and single extrathoracic metastasis should be classified as stage M1b, while those with 2 or more metastases comprise stage M1c. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of this classification in patients with brain metastases. This retrospective study included 172 patients treated with individualized approaches. Actuarial survival was calculated. Uni- and multivariate analyses were performed. Thirty patients (17%) were staged as M1b. Those with squamous cell cancer were more likely to harbor M1b disease (29%, adenocarcinoma 14%, other histology 17%, p = 0.16). Median survival was 5.4 months (8.0 months in case of M1b disease and 4.5 months in case of M1c disease, p = 0.001). Multivariate analysis confirmed the role of M1b stage. M1b patients managed with upfront surgery or radiosurgery had significantly longer median survival than those who received whole-brain irradiation (21.0 vs. 3.5 months, p = 0.0001) and the potential to survive beyond 5 years. We found the M1b classification to provide clinically relevant information. The multivariate analysis suggested that patients with M1b disease, better performance status and younger age have better survival.

  6. Role for loss of nuclear PTEN in a harbinger of brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Nosaka, Ryo; Yamasaki, Fumiyuki; Saito, Taiichi; Takayasu, Takeshi; Kolakshyapati, Manish; Amatya, Vishwa Jeet; Takeshima, Yukio; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2017-10-01

    Earlier studies proposed phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) acts as a 3'-specific phosphatidylinositol phosphatase and inhibits the PI3K pathway. Recent reports show that PTEN mRNA expression is significantly downregulated in brain metastases compared to primary breast cancer. We focused on the differential expression of nuclear and cytoplasmic PTEN between primary tumors and brain metastases. We retrospectively studied 30 patients with histologically confirmed primary tumors and brain metastases. PTEN and PDK1 expression levels were examined by immunohistochemical staining and categorized as negative, positive, or strong positive expression. The difference in PTEN expression levels were compared, and the values with P<0.05 were considered statistically significant. Expression of cytoplasmic PTEN was 100% at primary site, and 70% at brain metastases. Expression of nuclear PTEN was 87% at primary site, and 20% at brain metastases. Study results demonstrated that PTEN expression levels in brain metastases are lower compared with that of primary tumors. Especially, nuclear PTEN expression was significantly downregulated in various brain metastases. Higher PDK1 expression at brain metastases also confirmed the down regulation of PTEN function. Our findings indicate that decreased PTEN function by loss of nuclear PTEN expression may be associated with brain metastases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic Characterization of Brain Metastases in the Era of Targeted Therapy.

    PubMed

    Han, Catherine H; Brastianos, Priscilla K

    2017-01-01

    In the current era of molecularly targeted therapies and precision medicine, choice of cancer treatment has been increasingly tailored according to the molecular or genomic characterization of the cancer the individual has. Previously, the clinical observation of inadequate control of brain metastases was widely attributed to a lack of central nervous system (CNS) penetration of the anticancer drugs. However, more recent data have suggested that there are genetic explanations for such observations. Genomic analyses of brain metastases and matching primary tumor and other extracranial metastases have revealed that brain metastases can harbor potentially actionable driver mutations that are unique to them. Identification of genomic alterations specific to brain metastases and targeted therapies against these mutations represent an important research area to potentially improve survival outcomes for patients who develop brain metastases. Novel approaches in genomic testing such as that using cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) facilitate advancing our understanding of the genomics of brain metastases, which is critical for precision medicine. CSF-derived ctDNA sequencing may be particularly useful in patients who are unfit for surgical resection or have multiple brain metastases, which can harbor mutations that are distinct from their primary tumors. Compared to the traditional chemotherapeutics, novel targeted agents appear to be more effective in controlling the CNS disease with better safety profiles. Several brain metastases-dedicated trials of various targeted therapies are currently underway to address the role of these agents in the treatment of CNS disease. This review focuses on recent advances in genomic profiling of brain metastases and current knowledge of targeted therapies in the management of brain metastases from cancers of the breast, lung, colorectum, kidneys, and ovaries as well as melanoma.

  8. Genomic characterization of brain metastases reveals branched evolution and potential therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Santagata, Sandro; Cahill, Daniel P.; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Jones, Robert T.; Van Allen, Eliezer M.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Horowitz, Peleg M.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Ligon, Keith L.; Tabernero, Josep; Seoane, Joan; Martinez-Saez, Elena; Curry, William T.; Dunn, Ian F.; Paek, Sun Ha; Park, Sung-Hye; McKenna, Aaron; Chevalier, Aaron; Rosenberg, Mara; Barker, Frederick G.; Gill, Corey M.; Van Hummelen, Paul; Thorner, Aaron R.; Johnson, Bruce E.; Hoang, Mai P.; Choueiri, Toni K.; Signoretti, Sabina; Sougnez, Carrie; Rabin, Michael S.; Lin, Nancy U.; Winer, Eric P.; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat; Meyerson, Matthew; Garraway, Levi; Gabriel, Stacey; Lander, Eric S.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Batchelor, Tracy T.; Baselga, Jose; Louis, David N.

    2016-01-01

    Brain metastases are associated with a dismal prognosis. Whether brain metastases harbor distinct genetic alterations beyond those observed in primary tumors is unknown. We performed whole-exome sequencing of 86 matched brain metastases, primary tumors and normal tissue. In all clonally related cancer samples, we observed branched evolution, where all metastatic and primary sites shared a common ancestor yet continued to evolve independently. In 53% of cases, we found potentially clinically informative alterations in the brain metastases not detected in the matched primary-tumor sample. In contrast, spatially and temporally separated brain metastasis sites were genetically homogenous. Distal extracranial and regional lymph node metastases were highly divergent from brain metastases. We detected alterations associated with sensitivity to PI3K/AKT/mTOR, CDK, and HER2/EGFR inhibitors in the brain metastases. Genomic analysis of brain metastases provides an opportunity to identify potentially clinically informative alterations not detected in clinically sampled primary tumors, regional lymph nodes, or extracranial metastases. PMID:26410082

  9. EGFR-TKI therapy for patients with brain metastases from non-small-cell lung cancer: a pooled analysis of published data

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yun; Xu, Xiaoling; Xie, Conghua

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Brain metastases are one of the leading causes of death from non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The use of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) to treat brain metastases remains controversial. Thus, we performed a pooled analysis of published data to evaluate the efficacy of EGFR-TKIs in NSCLC patients with brain metastases, particularly for tumors with activating EGFR mutations. Methods Several data sources were searched, including PubMed, Web of Science, and ASCO Annual Meetings databases. The end points were intracranial overall response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and adverse events. The pooled ORR, DCR, PFS, and OS with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated employing fixed- or random-effect models, depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies. Results Sixteen published studies were included in this analysis, with a total of 464 enrolled patients. The EGFR mutational status was unknown for 362 (unselected group), and 102 had activating EGFR mutations. The pooled intracranial ORR and DCR were 51.8% (95% CI: 45.8%–57.8%) and 75.7% (95% CI: 70.3%–80.5%), respectively. A higher ORR was observed in the EGFR mutation group than in the unselected group (85.0% vs 45.1%); a similar trend was observed for the DCR (94.6% vs 71.3%). The pooled median PFS and OS were 7.4 months (95% CI, 4.9–9.9) and 11.9 months (95% CI, 7.7–16.2), respectively, with longer PFS (12.3 months vs 5.9 months) and OS (16.2 months vs 10.3 months) in the EGFR mutation group than in the unselected group. Conclusion This pooled analysis strongly suggests that EGFR-TKIs are an effective treatment for NSCLC patients with brain metastases, particularly in those patients harboring EGFR mutations. Larger prospective randomized clinical trials are warranted to confirm our conclusion and identify the most appropriate treatment model. PMID:25419145

  10. Modernizing Clinical Trial Eligibility Criteria: Recommendations of the American Society of Clinical Oncology-Friends of Cancer Research Brain Metastases Working Group.

    PubMed

    Lin, Nancy U; Prowell, Tatiana; Tan, Antoinette R; Kozak, Marina; Rosen, Oliver; Amiri-Kordestani, Laleh; White, Julia; Sul, Joohee; Perkins, Louise; Beal, Katherine; Gaynor, Richard; Kim, Edward S

    2017-10-02

    Purpose Broadening trial eligibility to improve accrual and access and to better reflect intended-to-treat populations has been recognized as a priority. Historically, patients with brain metastases have been understudied, because of restrictive eligibility across all phases of clinical trials. Methods In 2016, after a literature search and series of teleconferences, a multistakeholder workshop was convened. Our working group focused on developing consensus recommendations regarding the inclusion of patients with brain metastases in clinical trials, as part of a broader effort that encompassed minimum age, HIV status, and organ dysfunction. The working group attempted to balance the needs of protecting patient safety, facilitating access to investigational therapies, and ensuring trial integrity. On the basis of input at the workshop, guidelines were further refined and finalized. Results The working group identified three key populations: those with treated/stable brain metastases, defined as patients who have received prior therapy for their brain metastases and whose CNS disease is radiographically stable at study entry; those with active brain metastases, defined as new and/or progressive brain metastases at the time of study entry; and those with leptomeningeal disease. In most circumstances, the working group encourages the inclusion of patients with treated/stable brain metastases in clinical trials. A framework of key considerations for patients with active brain metastases was developed. For patients with leptomeningeal disease, inclusion of a separate cohort in both early-phase and later-phase trials is recommended, if CNS activity is anticipated and when relevant to the specific disease type. Conclusion Expanding eligibility to be more inclusive of patients with brain metastasis is justified in many cases and may speed the development of effective therapies in this area of high clinical need.

  11. Stereotactic Radiosurgical Treatment of Brain Metastases to the Choroid Plexus;Renal cell cancer; Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA); Graded prognostic assessment (GPA); Survival and outcomes; Gamma knife

    SciTech Connect

    Siomin, Vitaly; Lin, Jennifer L.; Marko, Nicholas F.; Barnett, Gene H.; Toms, Steven A.; Chao, Samuel T.; Angelov, Lilyana; Vogelbaum, Michael A.; Navaratne, Kapila; Suh, John H.; Weil, Robert J.

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Choroid plexus metastases (CPM) are uncommon lesions. Consequently, optimal management of CPM is uncertain. We summarize our experience with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of CPM. Methods and Materials: Sixteen consecutive patients with presumed CPM treated with SRS between 1997 and 2007 were examined. Twelve were men with a median age at diagnosis of CPM of 61.9 {+-} 9.9 years; 14 had metastases from renal cell carcinoma (RCC). All patients had controlled primary disease at the time of treatment for CPM. Four patients with RCC and 1 with non-small-cell lung cancer had undergone whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) previously and 2 had received SRS to other brain metastases. The disease-free interval from the primary diagnosis to CPM diagnosis averaged 39.3 {+-} 46.2 months (range, 1.0-156.3). Five patients were asymptomatic; of the remaining 11, none had symptoms related to CPM. All presented with a single CPM. Results: Average maximum diameter of the CPMs was 2.0 {+-} 1.0 cm (range, 0.9-4.1 cm); mean volume was 2.4 {+-} 2.6 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.2-9.3). Median SRS dose was 24 Gy to the 53% isodose line (range, 14-24 Gy). Survival after SRS to the CPM was 25.3 {+-} 23.4 months (range, 3.2-101.6). Patients in Recursive Partitioning Analysis (RPA) class I (n = 10) had improved survival compared to those in class II (n = 6), as did those with better GPA scores. There were no local failures. After SRS, 1 patient underwent WBRT, 3 patients had one, and another had two subsequent SRS treatments to other brain lesions. Of the 14 patients who have died, 11 succumbed to systemic disease progression, 2 to progressive, multifocal central nervous system disease, and 1 to systemic disease with concurrent, stable central nervous system disease. There were no complications related to SRS. Conclusions: Most CPMs are associated with RCC. SRS represents a safe and viable treatment option as primary modality for these metastases, with excellent outcomes.

  12. Motexafin Gadolinium Combined With Prompt Whole Brain Radiotherapy Prolongs Time to Neurologic Progression in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients With Brain Metastases: Results of a Phase III Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, Minesh P. Shapiro, William R.; Phan, See C.; Gervais, Radj; Carrie, Christian; Chabot, Pierre; Patchell, Roy A.; Glantz, Michael J.; Recht, Lawrence; Langer, Corey; Sur, Ranjan K.; Roa, Wilson H.; Mahe, Marc A.; Fortin, Andre; Nieder, Carsten; Meyers, Christina A.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Miller, Richard A.; Renschler, Markus F.

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of motexafin gadolinium (MGd) in combination with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) for the treatment of brain metastases from non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: In an international, randomized, Phase III study, patients with brain metastases from non-small-cell lung cancer were randomized to WBRT with or without MGd. The primary endpoint was the interval to neurologic progression, determined by a centralized Events Review Committee who was unaware of the treatment the patients had received. Results: Of 554 patients, 275 were randomized to WBRT and 279 to WBRT+MGd. Treatment with MGd was well tolerated, and 92% of the intended doses were administered. The most common MGd-related Grade 3+ adverse events included liver function abnormalities (5.5%), asthenia (4.0%), and hypertension (4%). MGd improved the interval to neurologic progression compared with WBRT alone (15 vs. 10 months; p = 0.12, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.78) and the interval to neurocognitive progression (p = 0.057, HR = 0.78). The WBRT patients required more salvage brain surgery or radiosurgery than did the WBRT+MGd patients (54 vs. 25 salvage procedures, p < 0.001). A statistically significant interaction between the geographic region and MGd treatment effect (which was in the prespecified analysis plan) and between treatment delay and MGd treatment effect was found. In North American patients, where treatment was more prompt, a statistically significant prolongation of the interval to neurologic progression, from 8.8 months for WBRT to 24.2 months for WBRT+MGd (p = 0.004, HR = 0.53), and the interval to neurocognitive progression (p = 0.06, HR = 0.73) were observed. Conclusion: In the intent-to-treat analysis, MGd exhibited a favorable trend in neurologic outcomes. MGd significantly prolonged the interval to neurologic progression in non-small-cell lung cancer patients with brain metastases receiving prompt WBRT. The toxicity was acceptable.

  13. High-dose MR in the evaluation of brain metastases: Will increased detection decrease costs?

    SciTech Connect

    Black, W.C. |

    1994-06-01

    Brain metastases occur in about 25% of patients with cancer and are often diagnosed within the first year after the diagnosis of the primary tumor. The treatment of patients with brain metastases usually depends on whether they are solitary or multiple. Surgical resection has been shown to prolong survival by 6 months and improve the quality of life in patients with solitary brain metastases. However, surgery is not usually considered appropriate for patients with multiple brain metastases. A phase III multicenter trial in this issue demonstrates that the sensitivity of magnetic resonance (MR) in the detection of brain metastases can be increased by increasing the dose of contrast. In this trial comparing high-dose (0.3 mmol/kg) with standard-dose (0.1 mmol/kg) gadolinium, 50% more lesions were detected on the high-dose examinations. 15 refs., 1 tab.

  14. [Experience with the radiosurgical treatment of brain metastases].

    PubMed

    Fernández-de Aspe, Pablo; Fernández-Quinto, Alejandro; Guerro-Moya, Andrea; Arán-Echabe, Eduardo; Varela-Pazos, Ana; Peleteiro-Higuero, Paula; Cascalla-Caneda, Luis; Gelabert-González, Miguel

    To analyse the survival rate of a cohort of patients with intracranial metastases treated with radiosurgery, and to determine the factors that influence the results. Retrospective analysis performed on a cohort of 126 patients undergoing radiosurgery for brain metastases. Patients treated with surgery before or after radiosurgery were excluded. Survival is analysed based on clinical (age, sex, primary tumour), radiological (number, location and volume of lesions), and radiotherapy factors (treatment dose, holocraneal radiation). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine significant prognostic factors. A total of 225 brain metastases in 126 patients, with a mean age of 59.8±11.6years, were treated between February 2008 and April 2015. The mean survival was 8.2 months. The overall survival rates at 6months, 1year, and 2years were 60.3%, 31.5%, and 12.8%, respectively. Lung (59.5%) and breast (14.3) were the most common primary tumours, and the most common site for metastases was the cerebral hemisphere (77%) and the average volume was 10.35 cc (0.2-43.5). Significant survival factors were: age under 60 (P=.046), female (P<.001), breast cancer (P<.001), KPS >80 (P=.001), SIR6 >5 (P=.031), and GPA ≥2.5 (P=.003). Radiosurgery is an appropriate technique for the treatment of brain metastases, and the main prognostic factors include being age under 65, female, breast cancer, and good scores on Karnofsky, SIR, and GPA scales. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. [Management of brain metastases from urological malignancies].

    PubMed

    Gaillard, S; Lebret, T; Scarone, P; Lepeintre, J-F; Méjean, A; Aldea, S

    2008-11-01

    Brain metastases account for 30 to 40% of all brain tumors in adults. Even if urological carcinomas are not very common, anti-angiogenic drugs have transformed their prognosis, leading physicians to consider their specific treatment. For the majority of cases, surgery is quite simple with low associated morbidity. Depending on the size and the location, surgery or stereotaxic radiotherapy should be discussed. As soon as the metastasis is suspected a neurosurgerical opinion must be sought before beginning any treatment to coordinate the global management.

  16. Risk of brain metastases in patients with nonmetastatic lung cancer: Analysis of the Metropolitan Detroit Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Priscila H; Peterson, Stephanie L; Vigneau, Fawn D; Shore, Ronald D; Quarshie, William O; Islam, Khairul; Schwartz, Ann G; Wozniak, Antoinette J; Gadgeel, Shirish M

    2016-06-15

    Brain metastases (BM) remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with lung cancer. The current study evaluated population-based incidence and outcomes of BM in patients with nonmetastatic lung cancer. Patients diagnosed with nonmetastatic first primary lung cancer between 1973 and 2011 in the Metropolitan Detroit Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry were used for the current analysis. Age-adjusted odds ratios of developing BM based on various demographic characteristics and histology were calculated with 95% confidence intervals. Adjusted Cox proportional hazard ratios and log-rank tests of Kaplan-Meier survival curves were calculated to evaluate survival differences for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). The incidence of BM in patients with nonmetastatic NSCLC and SCLC was 9% and 18%, respectively. There was variation in the incidence of BM according to NCSLC histology. The incidence of BM was higher in patients aged <60 years for both NSCLC and SCLC, but there were no differences noted by race for either histological group. Female patients with NSCLC were more likely to have BM than male patients. There was variation in the proportion of BM in both patients with NSCLC and SCLC over the three 13-year periods of diagnosis. The risk of death (hazard ratio) was found to be significantly higher for patients with NSCLC with BM, but was not significantly higher in patients with SCLC with BM. The incidence of BM in patients with nonmetastatic lung cancer varies according to histology, age, and sex. BM are associated with worse survival for patients with NSCLC but not those with SCLC. Cancer 2016;122:1921-7. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  17. The value of computed tomographic (CT) scan surveillance in the detection and management of brain metastases in patients with small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, J.; Smith, I.; Cherryman, G.; Vincent, M.; Judson, I.; Perren, T.; Williams, M.

    1990-01-01

    One hundred and twenty-seven consecutive patients presenting with small cell lung cancer were entered into a whole-brain CT scan surveillance study, starting at presentation and repeating at 3-monthly intervals for 2 years as an alternative to prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI). The aim of the study was to detect CNS metastases at an early asymptomatic stage in the hope that prompt CNS radiotherapy could achieve long-term control; at the same time unnecessary PCI with its potential long-term morbidity could be avoided. CNS metastases were found in 56 patients (44%) including 16 (13%) at diagnosis and 40 at a median of 4 months (range 1-27 months) after completing chemotherapy. No patient developed CNS disease while on chemotherapy. Thirty-six patients were asymptomatic at diagnosis (group A) but 20 developed clinical CNS relapse between scans (group B) (interval relapse). Despite prompt radiotherapy 56% of patients in group A and 60% of patients in group B died with active CNS disease. Likewise, there was no survival difference between patients in group A, group B or those who never developed CNS disease. Regular 3-month CT scan surveillance is therefore not an effective substitute for PCI. PMID:2171623

  18. Brain metastases in non-small cell lung cancer patients on epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors: symptom and economic burden.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ancilla W; Wu, Bingcao; Turner, Ralph M

    2017-08-14

    This study describes the symptom and economic burden associated with brain metastases (BM) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). This retrospective study included adults with ≥2 medical claims, within 90 days, for lung cancer and ≥1 administration of EGFR-TKIs. Based on ICD-9 codes, patients were stratified into cohorts by type of metastases (BM, other metastases [OM], or no metastases [NM]), and by when the metastasis diagnosis occurred (synchronous or asynchronous). The population (synchronous BM [SBM] = 24, synchronous OM [SOM] = 23, asynchronous BM [ASBM] = 15, asynchronous OM [ASOM] = 49, NM = 85) was mostly female (57%), average age 69 years (SD = 11). SBM patients experienced more fatigue and nausea/vomiting compared with SOM and NM patients and more headaches and loss of appetite than NM patients. ASBM was associated with more fatigue, nausea/vomiting, headaches, pain/numbness, altered mental status, and seizures than NM, and more headaches and pain/numbness than ASOM. SBM patients experienced a greater increase in per-member-per-month all-cause total healthcare costs after diagnosis ($20,301) vs SOM ($9,131, p = .001) and NM ($2,493, p = .001). ASBM's cost increase between baseline and follow-up ($7,867) did not differ from ASOM's ($4,947, p = .195); both were larger than NM ($2,493, p = .001 and p = .009, respectively). EGFR mutation status was inferred based on EGFR-TKI treatment, not by molecular testing. Patients were from US commercial insurance plans; results may not be generalizable to other populations. Among patients with EGFR-TKI-treated NSCLC, patients with BM experienced more symptoms and, when diagnosed synchronously, had significant increases in total medical costs vs patients with OM and NM. Therapeutic options with central nervous system activity may offer advantages in symptomatology and

  19. Progress in the Biological Understanding and Management of Breast Cancer-Associated Central Nervous System Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    Metastasis to the central nervous system (CNS) is a devastating neurological complication of systemic cancer. Brain metastases from breast cancer have been documented to occur in approximately 10%–16% of cases over the natural course of the disease with leptomeningeal metastases occurring in approximately 2%–5% of cases of breast cancer. CNS metastases among women with breast cancer tend to occur among those who are younger, have larger tumors, and have a more aggressive histological subtype such as the triple negative and HER2-positive subtypes. Treatment of CNS metastases involves various combinations of whole brain radiation therapy, surgery, stereotactic radiosurgery, and chemotherapy. We will discuss the progress made in the treatment and prevention of breast cancer-associated CNS metastases and will delve into the biological underpinnings of CNS metastases including evaluating the role of breast tumor subtype on the incidence, natural history, prognostic outcome, and impact of therapeutic efficacy. PMID:23740934

  20. Incipient Melanoma Brain Metastases Instigate Astrogliosis and Neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Hila; Blacher, Eran; Amer, Malak; Livneh, Nir; Abramovitz, Lilach; Klein, Anat; Ben-Shushan, Dikla; Soffer, Shelly; Blazquez, Raquel; Barrantes-Freer, Alonso; Müller, Meike; Müller-Decker, Karin; Stein, Reuven; Tsarfaty, Galia; Satchi-Fainaro, Ronit; Umansky, Viktor; Pukrop, Tobias; Erez, Neta

    2016-08-01

    Malignant melanoma is the deadliest of skin cancers. Melanoma frequently metastasizes to the brain, resulting in dismal survival. Nevertheless, mechanisms that govern early metastatic growth and the interactions of disseminated metastatic cells with the brain microenvironment are largely unknown. To study the hallmarks of brain metastatic niche formation, we established a transplantable model of spontaneous melanoma brain metastasis in immunocompetent mice and developed molecular tools for quantitative detection of brain micrometastases. Here we demonstrate that micrometastases are associated with instigation of astrogliosis, neuroinflammation, and hyperpermeability of the blood-brain barrier. Furthermore, we show a functional role for astrocytes in facilitating initial growth of melanoma cells. Our findings suggest that astrogliosis, physiologically instigated as a brain tissue damage response, is hijacked by tumor cells to support metastatic growth. Studying spontaneous melanoma brain metastasis in a clinically relevant setting is the key to developing therapeutic approaches that may prevent brain metastatic relapse. Cancer Res; 76(15); 4359-71. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. The presence and clinical implications of α-2,6-galactose-linked sialic acids in non-small-cell lung cancer brain metastases--preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Pelak, Maciej J; Jarosz, Bozena; Straczynska-Niemiec, Anita; Krawczyk, Pawel; Skoczylas, Piotr; Pecka, Katarzyna M; Snietura, Miroslaw; Szumilo, Justyna; Trojanowski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Brain metastases (BM) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients present an increasing clinical challenge. Identifying biomarkers which specifically identify patients at high risk of BM may improve their early diagnosis, which is crucial for surgical and radiotherapeutic treatment outcome. Alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase (α-2,6-ST) and the primary product of its activity, alpha-2,6-galactose-linked sialic acids (α-2,6-GalSA) have been found responsible for the adhesion of tumor cells to the brain vessels' endothelium and enabling their transmigration through the blood-brain barrier in brain metastatic tumors. The aim of the study was to investigate by histochemical method the presence and possible role of α-2,6-GalSA in the formation of brain metastasis in NSCLC. In the screening phase 76 metastatic brain tumors were stained for α-2,6-GalSA and the second phase involved an identical staining of 20 primary tumors of patients who had their primary tumors treated with surgery or definite radiochemotherapy yet who later developed BM. The results were compared to a control group of 22 patients treated with surgery for NSCLC and who survived 5 years without the recurrence of disease. Alpha-2,6-GalSA presence was found to be down-regulated in poorly differentiated tumor types, whereas majority of differentiated tumors overexpressed it. This was statistically significant for both BM and the primary tumors. The expression of α-2,6-GalSA remained stable in primary and metastatic tumor pairs, however, no statistically significant differences were observed between study and control groups. Within the study group, a higher α-2,6-GalSA expression was associated with better overall survival, but not all statistical models found this result significant. Further studies are recommended to validate these findings.

  2. Lattice light sheet imaging of membrane nanotubes between human breast cancer cells in culture and in brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Parker, Ian; Evans, Katrina T; Ellefsen, Kyle; Lawson, Devon A; Smith, Ian F

    2017-09-08

    Membrane nanotubes are cytosolic protrusions with diameters <1 µm that extend between cells separated by tens of µm. They mediate several forms of intercellular communication and are upregulated in diverse diseases. Difficulties in visualizing and studying nanotubes within intact tissues have, however, prompted skepticism regarding their in vivo relevance, and most studies have been confined to cell culture systems. Here, we introduce lattice-light sheet imaging of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells genetically engineered to brightly express membrane-targeted GFP as a promising approach to visualize membrane nanotubes in vitro and in situ. We demonstrate that cultured cells form multiple nanotubes that mediate intercellular communication of Ca(2+) signals and actively traffic GFP-tagged membrane vesicles along their length. Furthermore, we directly visualize nanotubes in situ, interconnecting breast cancer cells in live acute brain slices from an experimental mouse model of breast cancer brain metastasis. This amenable experimental system should facilitate the transition of the study of intercellular communication by membrane nanotubes from cell culture to the whole animal.

  3. Paradigm shift of therapeutic management of brain metastases in EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer in the era of targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Akimasa; Satoh, Hiroaki

    2017-07-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations commonly present brain metastases (BM) at the time of NSCLC diagnosis or during the clinical course. Conventionally, the prognosis of BM has been extremely poor, but the advent of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has drastically improved the prognosis in these patients. Despite the presence of the blood-brain barrier, EGFR-TKIs have dramatic therapeutic effects on both BM and extracranial disease. In addition, recent systemic chemotherapies reportedly play a role in controlling BM. These treatment modalities can potentially replace whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) to prevent or delay neurocognitive decline. Therefore, how to utilize these treatments is one issue. The other issue is what kind of treatment is best for recurrence after TKI therapy. Recent reports have shown a positive effect of a combination therapy of EGFR-TKI and radiotherapy on BM. Although neurocognitive decline is underscored when WBRT is considered, a survival benefit from WBRT has been proven especially in the potential long survivors with good prognostic index, especially disease-specific graded prognostic index (DS-GPA). In this review, treatment strategy including chemotherapeutic agents and radiotherapy is discussed in terms of risk-benefit balance in conjunction with DS-GPA.

  4. Bevacizumab, pemetrexed and carboplatin in first-line treatment of non-small cell lung cancer patients: Focus on patients with brain metastases

    PubMed Central

    Stefanou, Dimitra; Stamatopoulou, Sofia; Sakellaropoulou, Antigoni; Akakios, Gavriil; Gkiaouraki, Marina; Gkeka, Despina; Prevezanou, Maria; Ardavanis, Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    Data concerning bevacizumab plus pemetrexed plus carboplatin as first-line treatment for patients with non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with or without brain metastases (BM) are lacking. The present study analyzed the efficacy and safety of this combination as induction therapy, followed by maintenance therapy with bevacizumab plus pemetrexed in non-squamous NSCLC patients with or without BM. Treatment-naïve patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0–2 were eligible. Treatment consisted of carboplatin (area under the curve of 5), pemetrexed (500 mg/m2) and bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) every 3 weeks for 6 cycles. Responders and patients with stable disease received maintenance therapy with bevacizumab plus pemetrexed until disease progression, which was evaluated every 3 cycles, or unacceptable toxicity. Kaplan-Meier median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) times were the primary endpoints, and safety was the secondary endpoint. In total, 39 patients, aged 44–78 years (median, 60 years), were treated; 11 (28.2%) of whom presented with BM. The majority of patients (56.4%) completed 6 cycles of induction therapy, and 26 patients continued on to maintenance therapy. The median PFS time was 8.2 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 7.05–9.35] and the median OS time was 14.0 months (95% CI, 8.46–19.54). Median PFS and OS times did not differ significantly between patients with or without BM (log rank (Mantel-Cox): PFS, P=0.748 and OS, P=0.447). The majority of patients (76.9%) did not experience adverse events during treatment. Overall, bevacizumab plus pemetrexed plus carboplatin as induction therapy, followed by bevacizumab plus pemetrexed as maintenance therapy was effective and well tolerated in advanced NSCLC, whether brain metastases were present or not. PMID:28101218

  5. A Phase 3 Trial of Whole Brain Radiation Therapy and Stereotactic Radiosurgery Alone Versus WBRT and SRS With Temozolomide or Erlotinib for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and 1 to 3 Brain Metastases: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0320

    SciTech Connect

    Sperduto, Paul W.; Wang, Meihua; Robins, H. Ian; Schell, Michael C.; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Komaki, Ritsuko; Souhami, Luis; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Khuntia, Deepak; Demas, William; Shah, Sunjay A.; Nedzi, Lucien A.; Perry, Gad; Suh, John H.; Mehta, Minesh P.

    2013-04-01

    Background: A phase 3 Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) study subset analysis demonstrated improved overall survival (OS) with the addition of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases. Because temozolomide (TMZ) and erlotinib (ETN) cross the blood-brain barrier and have documented activity in NSCLC, a phase 3 study was designed to test whether these drugs would improve the OS associated with WBRT + SRS. Methods and Materials: NSCLC patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases were randomized to receive WBRT (2.5 Gy × 15 to 37.5 Gy) and SRS alone, versus WBRT + SRS + TMZ (75 mg/m{sup 2}/day × 21 days) or ETN (150 mg/day). ETN (150 mg/day) or TMZ (150-200 mg/m{sup 2}/day × 5 days/month) could be continued for as long as 6 months after WBRT + SRS. The primary endpoint was OS. Results: After 126 patients were enrolled, the study closed because of accrual limitations. The median survival times (MST) for WBRT + SRS, WBRT + SRS + TMZ, and WBRT + SRS + ETN were qualitatively different (13.4, 6.3, and 6.1 months, respectively), although the differences were not statistically significant. Time to central nervous system progression and performance status at 6 months were better in the WBRT + SRS arm. Grade 3 to 5 toxicity was 11%, 41%, and 49% in arms 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P<.001). Conclusion: The addition of TMZ or ETN to WBRT + SRS in NSCLC patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases did not improve survival and possibly had a deleterious effect. Because the analysis is underpowered, these data suggest but do not prove that increased toxicity was the cause of inferior survival in the drug arms.

  6. A phase 3 trial of whole brain radiation therapy and stereotactic radiosurgery alone versus WBRT and SRS with temozolomide or erlotinib for non-small cell lung cancer and 1 to 3 brain metastases: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0320.

    PubMed

    Sperduto, Paul W; Wang, Meihua; Robins, H Ian; Schell, Michael C; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Komaki, Ritsuko; Souhami, Luis; Buyyounouski, Mark K; Khuntia, Deepak; Demas, William; Shah, Sunjay A; Nedzi, Lucien A; Perry, Gad; Suh, John H; Mehta, Minesh P

    2013-04-01

    A phase 3 Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) study subset analysis demonstrated improved overall survival (OS) with the addition of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases. Because temozolomide (TMZ) and erlotinib (ETN) cross the blood-brain barrier and have documented activity in NSCLC, a phase 3 study was designed to test whether these drugs would improve the OS associated with WBRT + SRS. NSCLC patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases were randomized to receive WBRT (2.5 Gy × 15 to 37.5 Gy) and SRS alone, versus WBRT + SRS + TMZ (75 mg/m(2)/day × 21 days) or ETN (150 mg/day). ETN (150 mg/day) or TMZ (150-200 mg/m(2)/day × 5 days/month) could be continued for as long as 6 months after WBRT + SRS. The primary endpoint was OS. After 126 patients were enrolled, the study closed because of accrual limitations. The median survival times (MST) for WBRT + SRS, WBRT + SRS + TMZ, and WBRT + SRS + ETN were qualitatively different (13.4, 6.3, and 6.1 months, respectively), although the differences were not statistically significant. Time to central nervous system progression and performance status at 6 months were better in the WBRT + SRS arm. Grade 3 to 5 toxicity was 11%, 41%, and 49% in arms 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P<.001). The addition of TMZ or ETN to WBRT + SRS in NSCLC patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases did not improve survival and possibly had a deleterious effect. Because the analysis is underpowered, these data suggest but do not prove that increased toxicity was the cause of inferior survival in the drug arms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Veliparib in combination with whole-brain radiation therapy for patients with brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer: results of a randomized, global, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Chabot, Pierre; Hsia, Te-Chun; Ryu, Jeong-Seon; Gorbunova, Vera; Belda-Iniesta, Cristobal; Ball, David; Kio, Ebenezer; Mehta, Minesh; Papp, Katherine; Qin, Qin; Qian, Jane; Holen, Kyle D; Giranda, Vince; Suh, John H

    2017-01-01

    Veliparib is a potent, orally bioavailable, poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor that crosses the blood-brain barrier and has been shown to potentiate the effects of radiation in preclinical and early clinical studies. This phase 2, randomized, global study evaluated the efficacy and safety of veliparib in combination with whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) in patients with brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Three-hundred and seven patients with brain metastases from NSCLC were randomized 1:1:1 to WBRT (30 Gy in 10 fractions) plus 50 mg veliparib twice daily (BID; n = 103), 200 mg veliparib BID (n = 102), or placebo BID (n = 102). Treatment began within 28 days of diagnosis. Tumor response and safety were assessed; the primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Patients who received ≥1 dose of treatment were included in the safety analysis. All randomized patients were included in the efficacy endpoint analyses. Patient characteristics were well balanced between treatment arms. Median OS was 185 days for patients treated with WBRT plus placebo and 209 days for WBRT plus veliparib (50 or 200 mg). No statistically significant differences in OS, intracranial response rate, and time to clinical or radiographic progression between any of the treatment arms were noted. No differences were observed in adverse events (all grades) across treatment arms; nausea, fatigue, alopecia, and headache were the most commonly reported. No new safety signals were identified for veliparib. A significant unmet need for therapies that improve the outcomes of patients with brain metastases from NSCLC remains.

  8. [Radiotherapy of brain metastases according to the GPA score (Graded Prognostic Assessment)].

    PubMed

    Antoni, D; Noël, G

    2013-10-01

    The management of patients with brain metastases remains a difficult and controversial subject. For years, the standard treatment has been whole-brain radiation therapy alone, but its validity is now under question because of improvements in surgery and the development of radiosurgery or novel targeted therapies and also because whole-brain radiation therapy is responsible for long term neurocognitive toxicity. Therefore it is important to assess diagnosis-specific prognostic factors and indexes when scheduling treatments. The GPA score (Graded Prognostic Assessment), established for various histologic tumor types, includes five prognostic factors: age, Karnofsky Performance Status, presence of extracranial metastases, number of brain metastases and also genetic subtype for breast cancer. We propose an adaptation of the management of brain metastases according to the GPA score. Copyright © 2013 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Could new reconstruction CT techniques challenge MRI for the detection of brain metastases in the context of initial lung cancer staging?

    PubMed

    Millon, Domitille; Byl, David; Collard, Philippe; Cambier, Samantha E; Van Maanen, Aline G; Vlassenbroek, Alain; Coche, Emmanuel E

    2017-08-30

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of brain CT images reconstructed with a model-based iterative algorithm performed at usual and reduced dose. 115 patients with histologically proven lung cancer were prospectively included over 15 months. Patients underwent two CT acquisitions at the initial staging, performed on a 256-slice MDCT, at standard (CTDIvol: 41.4 mGy) and half dose (CTDIvol: 20.7 mGy). Both image datasets were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and iterative model-based reconstruction (IMR) algorithms. Brain MRI was considered as the reference. Two blinded independent readers analysed the images. Ninety-three patients underwent all examinations. At the standard dose, eight patients presented 17 and 15 lesions on IMR and FBP CT images, respectively. At half-dose, seven patients presented 15 and 13 lesions on IMR and FBP CT images, respectively. The test could not highlight any significant difference between the standard dose IMR and the half-dose FBP techniques (p-value = 0.12). MRI showed 46 metastases on 11 patients. Specificity, negative and positive predictive values were calculated (98.9-100 %, 93.6-94.6 %, 75-100 %, respectively, for all CT techniques). No significant difference could be demonstrated between the two CT reconstruction techniques. • No significant difference between IMR100 and FBP50 was shown. • Compared to FBP, IMR increased the image quality without diagnostic impairment. • A 50 % dose reduction combined with IMR reconstructions could be achieved. • Brain MRI remains the best tool in lung cancer staging.

  10. A pathology-based substrate for target definition in radiosurgery of brain metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Baumert, Brigitta G. . E-mail: brigitta.baumert@maastro.nl; Rutten, Isabelle; Dehing-Oberije, Cary M.Sc.; Twijnstra, Albert; Dirx, Miranda J.M.; Debougnoux-Huppertz, Ria M.T.L.; Lambin, Philippe; Kubat, Bela

    2006-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate the need of a margin other than for accuracy reasons in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of brain metastases by means of histopathology. Methods and Materials: Evaluation of 45 patients from two pathology departments having had brain metastases and an autopsy of the brain. Growth patterns were reviewed with a focus on infiltration beyond the metastases boundary and made visible with immunohistochemical staining: the metastasis itself with tumor-specific markers, surrounding normal brain tissue with a glial marker, and a possible capsule with a soft tissue marker. Measurements were corrected by a tissue-shrinkage correction factor taken from literature. Outcomes parameters for infiltration were mean and maximum depths of infiltration and number of measured infiltration sites. Results: In 48 of 76 metastases, an infiltration was present. The largest group of metastases was lung cancer. Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and melanoma showed a maximum depth of infiltration of {>=}1 mm, and other histologies <1 mm. For non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), melanoma, and sarcoma, the highest number of infiltrative sites were observed (median, 2; range, 1-8). SCLC showed significantly larger infiltrative growth, compared with other diagnostic groups. In NSCLC, the highest percentage of infiltration was present (70%). Conclusions: Infiltrative growth beyond the border of the brain metastasis was demonstrated in 63% of the cases evaluated. Infiltrative growth, therefore, has an impact in defining the clinical target volume for SRS of brain metastases, and a margin of {approx}1 mm should be added to the visible lesion.

  11. Hypofractionated Whole-Brain Radiotherapy for Multiple Brain Metastases From Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk; Meyners, Thekla; Veninga, Theo; Stalpers, Lukas J.A.; Schild, Steven E.

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: Brain metastases in bladder cancer patients are extremely rare. Most patients with multiple lesions receive longer-course whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) with 10 x 3 Gy/2 weeks or 20 x 2 Gy/4 weeks. Because its radiosensitivity is relatively low, metastases from bladder cancer may be treated better with hypofractionated radiotherapy. This study compared short-course hypofractionated WBRT (5 x 4 Gy/1 week) to longer-course WBRT. Methods and Materials: Data for 33 patients receiving WBRT alone for multiple brain metastases from transitional cell bladder carcinoma were retrospectively analyzed. Short-course WBRT with 5 x 4 Gy (n = 12 patients) was compared to longer-course WBRT with 10 x 3 Gy/20 x 2 Gy (n = 21 patients) for overall survival (OS) and local (intracerebral) control (LC). Five additional potential prognostic factors were investigated: age, gender, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), number of brain metastases, and extracranial metastases. The Bonferroni correction for multiple tests was used to adjust the p values derived from the multivariate analysis. p values of <0.025 were considered significant. Results: At 6 months, OS was 42% after 5 x 4 Gy and 24% after 10 x 3/20 x 2 Gy (p = 0.31). On univariate analysis, improved OS was associated with less than four brain metastases (p = 0.021) and almost associated with a lack of extracranial metastases (p = 0.057). On multivariate analysis, both factors were not significant. At 6 months, LC was 83% after 5 x 4 Gy and 27% after 10 x 3/20 x 2 Gy (p = 0.035). Improved LC was almost associated with a KPS of {>=}70 (p = 0.051). On multivariate analysis, WBRT regimen was almost significant (p = 0.036). KPS showed a trend (p = 0.07). Conclusions: Short-course WBRT with 5 x 4 Gy should be seriously considered for most patients with multiple brain metastases from bladder cancer, as it resulted in improved LC.

  12. Shorter-Course Whole-Brain Radiotherapy for Brain Metastases in Elderly Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk; Evers, Jasmin N.; Veninga, Theo; Stalpers, Lukas J.A.; Lohynska, Radka; Schild, Steven E.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Many patients with brain metastases receive whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) alone. Using 10 Multiplication-Sign 3 Gy in 2 weeks is the standard regimen in most centers. Regarding the extraordinarily poor survival prognosis of elderly patients with multiple brain metastases, a shorter WBRT regimen would be preferable. This study compared 10 Multiplication-Sign 3 Gy with 5 Multiplication-Sign 4 Gy in elderly patients ({>=}65 years). Methods and Materials: Data from 455 elderly patients who received WBRT alone for brain metastases were retrospectively analyzed. Survival and local (= intracerebral) control of 293 patients receiving 10 Multiplication-Sign 3 Gy were compared with 162 patients receiving 5 Multiplication-Sign 4 Gy. Eight additional potential prognostic factors were investigated including age, gender, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), primary tumor, number of brain metastases, interval from tumor diagnosis to WBRT, extracerebral metastases, and recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class. Results: The 6-month overall survival rates were 29% after 5 Multiplication-Sign 4 Gy and 21% after 10 Multiplication-Sign 3 Gy (p = 0.020). The 6-month local control rates were 12% and 10%, respectively (p = 0.32). On multivariate analysis, improved overall survival was associated with KPS {>=} 70 (p < 0.001), only one to three brain metastases (p = 0.029), no extracerebral metastasis (p = 0.012), and lower RPA class (p < 0.001). Improved local control was associated with KPS {>=} 70 (p < 0.001), breast cancer (p = 0.029), and lower RPA class (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Shorter-course WBRT with 5 Multiplication-Sign 4 Gy was not inferior to 10 Multiplication-Sign 3 Gy with respect to overall survival or local control in elderly patients. 5 Multiplication-Sign 4 Gy appears preferable for the majority of these patients.

  13. Survival of patients with brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer harboring EGFR mutations treated with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Jumpei; Okuma, Yusuke; Miwa, Maki; Hosomi, Yukio

    2016-11-01

    Brain metastases (BM) is one of the most crucial distant metastases in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. There is no consensus about which EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) is most effective against BM in such patients. Here, we compared prognoses of patients with EGFR-TKI naïve EGFR-positive BM treated with erlotinib or gefitinib after BM diagnosis. Of 269 patients with NSCLC treated with EGFR-TKIs at a single institution, we reviewed medical records of 205 patients with documented EGFR mutations. Eleven patients were administered erlotinib, and 52 patients were administered gefitinib as the first-line EGFR-TKI treatment after diagnosis. We used propensity score matching to balance patient backgrounds between groups, and the log-rank test to compare survival curves. Patients with BM at the induction of chemotherapy had a poorer prognosis than those without BM [median overall survival (OS) 18.5 vs. 28.0 months]. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in OS between those with or without BM at the initiation of EGFR-TKI treatment (20.3 vs. 23.8 months). Median OS of patients treated with erlotinib was not significantly longer than that of patients treated with gefitinib (25.0 vs. 18.1 months). The presence of BM at the initiation of EGFR-TKI treatment had no apparent effect on survival. Erlotinib was deemed more effective than gefitinib in preventing intracranial lesions and prolonging survival; however, prospective studies are needed to confirm these results.

  14. Hepatic resection for breast cancer metastases.

    PubMed Central

    Okaro, A. C.; Durkin, D. J.; Layer, G. T.; Kissin, M. W.; Karanjia, N. D.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hepatic resection is an established modality of treatment for colorectal cancer metastases. Resection of breast cancer liver metastases remains controversial, but has been shown to be an effective treatment in selected cases. This study reports the outcome of 8 patients with liver metastases from breast cancer. PATIENTS & METHODS: 8 patients with liver metastases from previously treated breast cancer were referred for hepatic resection between September 1996 and December 2002. Six were eligible for liver resection. The mean age was 45.8 years. The resections performed included 1 segmentectomy and 5 hemihepatectomies of which one was an extended hemihepatectomy. One patient had a repeat hepatectomy 44 months after the first resection. RESULTS: There were no postoperative deaths or major morbidity. The resectability rate was 75%. Follow-up periods range from 6 to 70 months with a median survival of 31 months following resection. There have been 2 deaths, one died of recurrence in the residual liver at 6 months and one died disease-free from a stroke. Of the remaining 4 patients, 1 has had a further liver resection at 44 months following which she is alive and 'disease-free' at 70 months. The one patient with peritoneal recurrence is alive 49 months after her liver resection with 2 patients remaining disease-free. CONCLUSION: Hepatic resection for breast cancer liver metastases is a safe procedure with low morbidity and mortality. PMID:15901375

  15. [Effective systemic palliative chemotherapy for intracranial metastases of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Sipőcz, István; Pintér, Tamás; Skaliczky, Zoltán; Kullmann, Tamás

    2016-11-01

    The authors present the history of two patients. The first patient, a 69-year-old woman was diagnosed with locally invasive triple negative breast cancer with pulmonary and cerebral metastases. Complete radiological remission of the clinically asymptomatic cerebral metastases was detected under systemic chemotherapy with carboplatin-docetaxel (75 mg/m(2)). Later, the patient received whole brain radiotherapy and a second line of chemotherapy. The overall survival was 20 months from the diagnosis of cerebral metastases with conservation of partial autonomy. The second patient, a 57-year-old woman was diagnosed as having hormone sensitive lobular breast cancer with leptomeningeal, lymphonodular and multiple osseal metastases. Before the appearance of the lymphonodular metastasis the patient received intrathecal methotrexate chemotherapy for the leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. Her neurological symptoms completely disappeared. At the onset of the lymphonodular metastasis systemic chemotherapy with ifosfamide (1000 mg/m(2), D1-3) - etoposide (100 mg/m(2), D1-3) was started allowing complete clinical remission of the lymphadenomegaly and stability of the asymptomatic neurological status. The overall survival was 13 months from the diagnosis of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis with conservation of autonomy. The two cases support potential efficacy of systemic chemotherapy for intracranial metastases of breast cancer. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(45), 1809-1813.

  16. Memory Function Before and After Whole Brain Radiotherapy in Patients With and Without Brain Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Welzel, Grit Fleckenstein, Katharina; Schaefer, Joerg; Hermann, Brigitte; Kraus-Tiefenbacher, Uta; Mai, Sabine K.; Wenz, Frederik

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: To prospectively compare the effect of prophylactic and therapeutic whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) on memory function in patients with and without brain metastases. Methods and Materials: Adult patients with and without brain metastases (n = 44) were prospectively evaluated with serial cognitive testing, before RT (T0), after starting RT (T1), at the end of RT (T2), and 6-8 weeks (T3) after RT completion. Data were obtained from small-cell lung cancer patients treated with prophylactic cranial irradiation, patients with brain metastases treated with therapeutic cranial irradiation (TCI), and breast cancer patients treated with RT to the breast. Results: Before therapy, prophylactic cranial irradiation patients performed worse than TCI patients or than controls on most test scores. During and after WBRT, verbal memory function was influenced by pretreatment cognitive status (p < 0.001) and to a lesser extent by WBRT. Acute (T1) radiation effects on verbal memory function were only observed in TCI patients (p = 0.031). Subacute (T3) radiation effects on verbal memory function were observed in both TCI and prophylactic cranial irradiation patients (p = 0.006). These effects were more pronounced in patients with above-average performance at baseline. Visual memory and attention were not influenced by WBRT. Conclusions: The results of our study have shown that WBRT causes cognitive dysfunction immediately after the beginning of RT in patients with brain metastases only. At 6-8 weeks after the end of WBRT, cognitive dysfunction was seen in patients with and without brain metastases. Because cognitive dysfunction after WBRT is restricted to verbal memory, patients should not avoid WBRT because of a fear of neurocognitive side effects.

  17. Outcome appraisal of patients with limited brain metastases (BMs) from non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with different local therapeutic strategies: a single institute evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pessina, Federico; Navarria, Pierina; Cozzi, Luca; Tomatis, Stefano; Ascolese, Anna M; Franzese, Ciro; Toschi, Luca; Santoro, Armando; De Rose, Fiorenza; Franceschini, Davide; Bello, Lorenzo; Scorsetti, Marta

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the outcome of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with limited brain metastases (BMs) treated with local approaches omitting whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT). Surgery was performed in case of a single, large BM, controlled extracranial disease and Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) 90-100; stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (HSRS) was performed in all other cases. The prescribed dose was 24 Gy/1 fraction for lesions <2.5 cm, and a median of 30 Gy (24-40 Gy) in 3-5 fractions for lesions >2.5 cm. 156 patients treated for 228 BMs were retrospectively evaluated. The median age was 62 years. The majority of patients had a KPS 90-100, recursive partitioning analysis Class II, diagnosis-specific graded prognostic assessment score 2.5-3 and 1-2 BMs. Surgical resection was performed in 18 cases, and SRS/HSRS was performed in 210 cases. The 1-2-year local control was 87.2 ± 3.0% and 72.8 ± 5.0%; the 1.2-year brain distant failure was 30.8 ± 4.0% and 58.1 ± 6.0%; the 1-2-year overall survival was 60.9 ± 3.9% and 31.4 ± 4.0%. On univariate and multivariate analysis, the following factors influenced survival: age (p = 0.01), the presence of lymph node involvement (p = 0.03), KPS (p < 0.01), the presence of extracranial metastases at the time of BM treatment (p < 0.01), the number of BMs (p = 0.02) and the treatment performed (p < 0.01). The choice of an adequate local treatment can impact on survival in patients with limited BMs from NSCLC. A careful evaluation of prognostic and predictive factors is a pivotal additional aid. Advances in knowledge: Radiosurgery or surgery followed by radiosurgery on the tumour bed in place of WBRT proved to be an effective treatment influencing outcome. Surgical resection followed by SRS on the tumour bed has to be considered for lesions ≥15 mm, in patients with good KPS, age ≤70 years, adenocarcinoma

  18. Brain tumor imaging: imaging brain metastasis using a brain-metastasizing breast adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Madden, Kelley S; Zettel, Martha L; Majewska, Ania K; Brown, Edward B

    2013-03-01

    Brain metastases from primary or secondary breast tumors are difficult to model in the mouse. When metastatic breast cancer cell lines are injected directly into the arterial circulation, only a small fraction of cells enter the brain to form metastatic foci. To study the molecular and cellular mechanisms of brain metastasis, we have transfected MB-231BR, a brain-homing derivative of a human breast adenocarcinoma line MDA-MB-231, with the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) variant Venus. MB-231BR selectively enters the brain after intracardiac injection into the arterial circulation, resulting in accumulation of fluorescent foci of cells in the brain that can be viewed by standard fluorescence imaging procedures. We describe how to perform the intracardiac injection and the parameters used to quantify brain metastasis in brain sections by standard one-photon fluorescence imaging. The disadvantage of this model is that the kinetics of growth over time cannot be determined in the same animal. In addition, the injection technique does not permit precise placement of tumor cells within the brain. This model is useful for determining the molecular determinants of brain tumor metastasis.

  19. Icotinib versus whole-brain irradiation in patients with EGFR-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer and multiple brain metastases (BRAIN): a multicentre, phase 3, open-label, parallel, randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-Ji; Zhou, Caicun; Huang, Yisheng; Feng, Jifeng; Lu, Sun; Song, Yong; Huang, Cheng; Wu, Gang; Zhang, Li; Cheng, Ying; Hu, Chengping; Chen, Gongyan; Zhang, Li; Liu, Xiaoqing; Yan, Hong Hong; Tan, Fen Lai; Zhong, Wenzhao; Wu, Yi-Long

    2017-09-01

    For patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and multiple brain metastases, whole-brain irradiation (WBI) is a standard-of-care treatment, but its effects on neurocognition are complex and concerning. We compared the efficacy of an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), icotinib, versus WBI with or without chemotherapy in a phase 3 trial of patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC and multiple brain metastases. We did a multicentre, open-label, parallel randomised controlled trial (BRAIN) at 17 hospitals in China. Eligible participants were patients with NSCLC with EGFR mutations, who were naive to treatment with EGFR-TKIs or radiotherapy, and had at least three metastatic brain lesions. We randomly assigned participants (1:1) to either icotinib 125 mg orally (three times per day) or WBI (30 Gy in ten fractions of 3 Gy) plus concurrent or sequential chemotherapy for 4-6 cycles, until unacceptable adverse events or intracranial disease progression occurred. The randomisation was done by the Chinese Thoracic Oncology Group with a web-based allocation system applying the Pocock and Simon minimisation method; groups were stratified by EGFR gene mutation status, treatment line (first line or second line), brain metastases only versus both intracranial and extracranial metastases, and presence or absence of symptoms of intracranial hypertension. Clinicians and patients were not masked to treatment assignment, but individuals involved in the data analysis did not participate in the treatments and were thus masked to allocation. Patients receiving icotinib who had intracranial progression only were switched to WBI plus either icotinib or chemotherapy until further progression; those receiving icotinib who had extracranial progression only were switched to icotinib plus chemotherapy. Patients receiving WBI who progressed were switched to icotinib until further progression. Icotinib could be continued beyond progression if a clinical benefit

  20. Innovative Therapeutic Strategies in the Treatment of Brain Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Caffo, Maria; Barresi, Valeria; Caruso, Gerardo; Cutugno, Mariano; La Fata, Giuseppe; Venza, Mario; Alafaci, Concetta; Tomasello, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Brain metastases (BM) are the most common intracranial tumors and their incidence is increasing. Untreated brain metastases are associated with a poor prognosis and a poor performance status. Metastasis development involves the migration of a cancer cell from the bulk tumor into the surrounding tissue, extravasation from the blood into tissue elsewhere in the body, and formation of a secondary tumor. In the recent past, important results have been obtained in the management of patients affected by BM, using surgery, radiation therapy, or both. Conventional chemotherapies have generally produced disappointing results, possibly due to their limited ability to penetrate the blood–brain barrier. The advent of new technologies has led to the discovery of novel molecules and pathways that have better depicted the metastatic process. Targeted therapies such as bevacizumab, erlotinib, gefitinib, sunitinib and sorafenib, are all licensed and have demonstrated improved survival in patients with metastatic disease. In this review, we will report current data on targeted therapies. A brief review about brain metastatic process will be also presented. PMID:23340652

  1. Cancer Metastases: So Close and So Far

    PubMed Central

    Sonnenschein, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Metastases are tumors that develop at a distance from their primary origin and are responsible for the death of 90% of cancer patients. For over a century the notion of seed (migrating cells) and soil (the locus where those cells anchor) provided an accurate account of which were the protagonists in their genesis. Despite aggressive efforts to unravel the dynamics involving migrating cells and the niche in which they anchor, explanations of this process remain ill-defined and controversial. The controversy is generated by the different premises that researchers adopt to integrate the vast amount of data collected at different levels of biological organization. The so-far hegemonic theory of cancer and its metastases has been the somatic mutation theory (SMT) and a number of its variants: They consider that cancers and their metastases represent a cell-based, genetic and molecular disease. This interpretation has been challenged by the tissue organization field theory (TOFT), which considers instead that cancer is a tissue-based disease, akin to development gone awry. In this Commentary, the merits of both theories are compared now in the context of metastases. Based on the epistemological shortcomings of the SMT and the acknowledged failure of therapeutic approaches based on this theory, we conclude that TOFT explains comprehensibly carcinogenesis and the appearance of metastases. PMID:26283653

  2. Cancer Metastases: So Close and So Far.

    PubMed

    Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M

    2015-11-01

    Metastases are tumors that develop at a distance from their primary origin and are responsible for the death of 90% of cancer patients. For over a century the notion of seed (migrating cells) and soil (the locus where those cells anchor) provided an accurate account of which were the protagonists in their genesis. Despite aggressive efforts to unravel the dynamics involving migrating cells and the niche in which they anchor, explanations of this process remain ill-defined and controversial. The controversy is generated by the different premises that researchers adopt to integrate the vast amount of data collected at different levels of biological organization. The so-far hegemonic theory of cancer and its metastases has been the somatic mutation theory (SMT) and a number of its variants: They consider that cancers and their metastases represent a cell-based, genetic and molecular disease. This interpretation has been challenged by the tissue organization field theory (TOFT), which considers instead that cancer is a tissue-based disease, akin to development gone awry. In this Commentary, the merits of both theories are compared now in the context of metastases. Based on the epistemological shortcomings of the SMT and the acknowledged failure of therapeutic approaches based on this theory, we conclude that TOFT explains comprehensibly carcinogenesis and the appearance of metastases.

  3. Multidisciplinary approach of colorectal cancer liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentini, Giammaria; Sarti, Donatella; Aliberti, Camillo; Carandina, Riccardo; Mambrini, Andrea; Guadagni, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Large bowel cancer is a worldwide public health challenge. More than one third of patients present an advanced stage of disease at diagnosis and the liver is the most common site of metastases. Selection criteria for early diagnosis, chemotherapy and surgery have been recently expanded. The definition of resectability remains unclear. The presence of metastases is the most significant prognostic factor. For this reason the surgical resection of hepatic metastases is the leading treatment. The most appropriate resection approach remains to be defined. The two step and simultaneous resection processes of both primary and metastases have comparable survival long-term outcomes. The advent of targeted biological chemotherapeutic agents and the development of loco-regional therapies (chemoembolization, thermal ablation, arterial infusion chemotherapy) contribute to extend favorable results. Standardized evidence-based protocols are missing, hence optimal management of hepatic metastases should be single patient tailored and decided by a multidisciplinary team. This article reviews the outcomes of resection, systemic and loco-regional therapies of liver metastases originating from large bowel cancer. PMID:28638789

  4. Efficacy of nab-paclitaxel plus trastuzumab in a long-surviving heavily pretreated HER2-positive breast cancer patient with brain metastases

    PubMed Central

    Ricciardi, Giuseppina Rosaria Rita; Russo, Alessandro; Franchina, Tindara; Ferraro, Giuseppa; Adamo, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Brain metastases (BMs) represent a major issue in clinical practice and are associated with a significant worsening of patient’s quality of life and, often, a dismal prognosis. Breast cancer (BC) is the second most common solid malignancy that metastasizes to the central nervous system. Incidence of BM varies according to the tumor subtype, with higher rates in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression and in triple negative breast cancers. The incidence of BM in HER2-positive BC patients has increased as a consequence of the success of trastuzumab-based therapy. BM represents an emerging unmet medical need and no specific treatment options exist because, until recently, nearly all randomized clinical trials in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) excluded such patients. Therefore, novel approaches in this setting are eagerly awaited. Herein, we report a lengthy progression-free survival with the combination trastuzumab/nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab)-paclitaxel in a heavily pretreated HER2-positive BC patient with BM. The long-term disease stabilization reported in the present case (>13 months) is of note for several reasons. First, the nab-paclitaxel plus trastuzumab combination, despite several previous lines of treatment, some of which were associated with known activity on BM, was the first systemic therapy not associated with central nervous system recurrence, avoiding recourse to additional locoregional treatments. Moreover, this combination was associated with long extracranial stabilization with minimal toxicity. The remarkably lengthy progression-free survival reported in our case with the nab-paclitaxel plus trastuzumab combination further confirms the efficacy and the favorable toxicity profile of this promising schedule that showed intriguing results in two phase II studies in first-line MBC and suggests a possible activity on BM. In conclusion, weekly nab-paclitaxel plus trastuzumab may represent a valuable option in the

  5. Contralateral Breast Cancers: Independent Cancers or Metastases?

    PubMed

    Begg, Colin B; Ostrovnaya, Irina; Geyer, Felipe C; Papanastasiou, Anastasios D; Ng, Charlotte Ky; Sakr, Rita; Bernstein, Jonine L; Burke, Kathleen A; King, Tari A; Piscuoglio, Salvatore; Mauguen, Audrey; Orlow, Irene; Weigelt, Britta; Seshan, Venkatraman E; Morrow, Monica; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2017-09-16

    A cancer in the contralateral breast in a woman with a previous or synchronous breast cancer is typically considered to be an independent primary tumor. Emerging evidence suggests that in a small subset of these cases the second tumor represents a metastasis. We sought to investigate the issue using massively parallel sequencing targeting 254 genes recurrently mutated in breast cancer. We examined the tumor archives at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center for the period 1995-2006 to identify cases of contralateral breast cancer where surgery for both tumors was performed at the Center. We report results from 49 patients successfully analyzed by a targeted massively parallel sequencing assay. Somatic mutations and copy number alterations were defined by state-of-the-art algorithms. Clonal relatedness was evaluated by statistical tests specifically designed for this purpose. We found evidence that the tumors in contralateral breasts were clonally related in 3 cases (6%) on the basis of matching mutations at codons where somatic mutations are rare. Clinical data and the presence of similar patterns of gene copy number alterations were consistent with metastasis for all 3 cases. In 3 additional cases there was a solitary matching mutation at a common PIK3CA locus. The results suggest that a subset of contralateral breast cancers represent metastases rather than independent primary tumors. Massively parallel sequencing analysis can provide important evidence to clarify the diagnosis. However, given the inter-tumor mutational heterogeneity in breast cancer, sufficiently large gene panels need to be employed to define clonality convincingly in all cases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 UICC.

  6. Fotemustine in the treatment of brain primary tumors and metastases.

    PubMed

    Khayat, D; Giroux, B; Berille, J; Cour, V; Gerard, B; Sarkany, M; Bertrand, P; Bizzari, J P

    1994-01-01

    Fotemustine is a new chloroethylnitrosourea characterized by the grafting of a phosphonoalanine group onto a nitrosourea radical. Clinical studies using fotemustine have been conducted in malignant glioma, brain metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer, and disseminated malignant melanoma. In recurrent malignant glioma, fotemustine has been used as a single agent: assessed by computed tomography scan, after 8 weeks, the objective response rate was 26.3% among 38 evaluable patients. Median duration of response was 33 weeks. The main toxicity was hematological (thrombocytopenia and leucopenia). A trial with high-dose fotemustine and autologous bone marrow rescue in newly diagnosed glioma was conducted in 26 patients, and 6 showed a partial response. The median overall survival was approximately 11 months. Myelosuppression was noted in all patients except 1, and other toxicity reported was central nervous system toxicity and epigastric pain. Combined with radiotherapy in 55 patients, a 29% response rate was observed, and this combination was well tolerated and easily manageable on an outpatient basis. Finally, fotemustine has been used intraarterially, with 10 objective responses observed among 26 evaluable patients. In brain metastases of non-small cell lung cancer, fotemustine proved to be active with a response rate of 16.7%. Combined with cisplatinum, fotemustine is still under study, but preliminary results are promising. In cerebral metastases of disseminated malignant melanoma, fotemustine has been evaluated in a total of 140 patients in the various studies: median response rate is 24.3%, ranging from 8.3% to 60.0%. Fotemustine appears to be a good candidate in the treatment of primary brain tumors and metastases.

  7. Esophageal Cancer Metastases to Unexpected Sites: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The most common pattern of esophageal cancer metastases (ECM) is to the lymph nodes, lung, liver, bones, adrenal glands, and brain. On the other hand, unexpected metastasis (UM) spread to uncommon sites has increasingly reported and consequently affected the pathway of diagnosis, staging, and management. Using the PubMed database, a systematic search of the following headings “Esophageal” and “Metastasis” or “Metastases” was performed, 10049 articles were identified, and the articles were included if they demonstrated unexpected ECM. 84% of cases were men with an average age of 60.7 years. EC was located in the lower third in 65%. Two-thirds of the UM originated from the lower esophagus, and the two major histological types were adenocarcinoma 40% and squamous cell carcinoma 60%. Metastases were disseminated toward five main anatomical sites: the head and neck (42%), thoracic (17%), abdomen and pelvis (25%), extremities (9%), and multiple skin and muscle metastases (7%). The EC metastases were found to be synchronous 42% and metachronous 58%, isolated in 53.5% and multiple in 46.5%. The overall survival rate was 10.2 months. Since distant metastases are responsible for most EC-related deaths, understanding of ECM dissemination patterns needs more extensive studies. These critical data are the cornerstone of optimal cancer approach and treatment. PMID:28659974

  8. Pulsatile Erlotinib in EGFR-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients With Leptomeningeal and Brain Metastases: Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    How, Joan; Mann, Janelle; Laczniak, Andrew N; Baggstrom, Maria Q

    2017-07-01

    Patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-positive (EGFR(+)) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) show improved response rates when treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as erlotinib. However, standard daily dosing of erlotinib often does not reach therapeutic concentrations within the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), resulting in progression of central nervous system (CNS) disease. Intermittent, high-dose administration of erlotinib reaches therapeutic concentrations within the CSF and is well tolerated in patients. Experience with "pulsatile" dosing, however, is limited. We review the literature on the pharmacology and clinical outcomes of pulsatile erlotinib in the treatment of EGFR(+) NSCLC with brain and leptomeningeal metastases, and include available data on the use of next-generation TKIs in CNS progression. We also provide our institution's experience with patients treated with pulsatile erlotinib for CNS metastasis, and propose clinical criteria for its use. Pulsatile erlotinib is a reasonable alternative in EGFR(+) patients with new or worsening CNS disease, without evidence of systemic progression, and without confirmed T790M resistance mutations within the CNS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pembrolizumab for patients with melanoma or non-small-cell lung cancer and untreated brain metastases: early analysis of a non-randomised, open-label, phase 2 trial.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Sarah B; Gettinger, Scott N; Mahajan, Amit; Chiang, Anne C; Herbst, Roy S; Sznol, Mario; Tsiouris, Apostolos John; Cohen, Justine; Vortmeyer, Alexander; Jilaveanu, Lucia; Yu, James; Hegde, Upendra; Speaker, Stephanie; Madura, Matthew; Ralabate, Amanda; Rivera, Angel; Rowen, Elin; Gerrish, Heather; Yao, Xiaopan; Chiang, Veronica; Kluger, Harriet M

    2016-07-01

    Immunotherapy targeting the PD-1 axis has activity in several tumour types. We aimed to establish the activity and safety of the PD-1 inhibitor pembrolizumab in patients with untreated brain metastases from melanoma or non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this non-randomised, open-label, phase 2 trial, we enrolled patients aged 18 years or older with melanoma or NSCLC with untreated brain metastases from the Yale Cancer Center. Patients had at least one untreated or progressive brain metastasis between 5 and 20 mm in diameter without associated neurological symptoms or the need for corticosteroids. Patients with NSCLC had tumour tissue positive for PD-L1 expression; this was not required for patients with melanoma. Patients were given 10 mg/kg pembrolizumab every 2 weeks until progression. The primary endpoint was brain metastasis response assessed in all treated patients. The trial is ongoing and here we present an early analysis. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02085070. Between March 31, 2014, and May 31, 2015, we screened 52 patients with untreated or progressive brain metastases (18 with melanoma, 34 with NSCLC), and enrolled 36 (18 with melanoma, 18 with NSCLC). A brain metastasis response was achieved in four (22%; 95% CI 7-48) of 18 patients with melanoma and six (33%; 14-59) of 18 patients with NSCLC. Responses were durable, with all but one patient with NSCLC who responded showing an ongoing response at the time of data analysis on June 30, 2015. Treatment-related serious and grade 3-4 adverse events were grade 3 elevated aminotransferases (n=1 [6%]) in the melanoma cohort, and grade 3 colitis (n=1 [6%]), grade 3 pneumonitis (n=1 [6%]), grade 3 fatigue (n=1 [6%]), grade 4 hyperkalemia (n=1 [6%]), and grade 2 acute kidney injury (n=1 [6%]) in the NSCLC cohort. Clinically significant neurological adverse events included transient grade 3 cognitive dysfunction and grade 1-2 seizures (n=3 [17%]) in the melanoma cohort

  10. [Brain metastases: Focal treatment (surgery and radiation therapy) and cognitive consequences].

    PubMed

    Reygagne, Emmanuelle; Du Boisgueheneuc, Foucaud; Berger, Antoine

    2017-04-01

    Brain metastases represent the first cause of malignant brain tumor. Without radiation therapy, prognosis was poor with fast neurological deterioration, and a median overall survival of one month. Nowadays, therapeutic options depend on brain metastases presentation, extra brain disease, performance status and estimated prognostic (DS GPA). Therefore, for oligometastatic brain patients with a better prognosis, this therapeutic modality is controversial. In fact, whole-brain radiation therapy improves neurological outcomes, but it can also induce late neuro-cognitive sequelae for long-term survivors of brain metastases. Thus, in this strategy for preserving good cognitive functions, stereotactic radiation therapy is a promising treatment. Delivering precisely targeted radiation in few high-doses in one to four brain metastases, allows to reduce radiation damage to normal tissues and it should allow to decrease radiation-induced cognitive decline. In this paper, we will discuss about therapeutic strategies (radiation therapy and surgery) with their neuro-cognitive consequences for brain metastases patients and future concerning preservation of cognitive functions. Copyright © 2016 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The use of palliative radiotherapy for bone and brain metastases in Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Daniel Samuel

    Background. Palliative radiotherapy (PRT) plays an important role in the management of patients with bone and brain metastases; however, little is known about the use of this treatment in Ontario. Objectives. The objectives of this thesis were to (a) identify health system-related and patient-related factors associated with the use of PRT for bone and brain metastases , and (b) describe temporal trends in the use of PRT for bone and brain metastases. Methods. The Ontario Cancer Registry was used to identify patients who died of cancer between the years 1984 and 2004. Temporal trends in the use of PRT were described by year and disease site, using the Cochran-Armitage test for trend. A multivariate logistic regression was conducted to describe the relationship between health system-related and patient-related factors, and the use of PRT, while controlling for disease-related factors. Results. Overall, 10.0% and 4.1% of patients dying of cancer received at least one course of PRT for bone metastases and brain metastases, respectively. The use of PRT for bone metastases significantly decreased from 10.4% to 9.5% (p<0.0001), while the use of PRT for brain metastases more than doubled from 2.2 to 5.1% during the same period (p<0.0001). In the multivariate analysis, age was negatively associated with the use of PRT in both cases. Patients residing in the richest communities were more likely to receive treatment. A farther distance to the nearest cancer was negatively associated with the use of PRT. The level of RT services at the diagnosing hospital was positively associated with the use of PRT for bone metastases. Prevailing waiting time did not significantly influence the use of PRT in either case. Conclusions. Over the course of the study period, the use of PRT for bone metastases decreased, while the use of PRT for brain metastases increased. Access to PRT for both bone and brain metastases was influenced by factors unrelated to need.

  12. The efficacy of lapatinib and capecitabine in HER-2 positive breast cancer with brain metastases: A systematic review and pooled analysis.

    PubMed

    Petrelli, Fausto; Ghidini, Michele; Lonati, Veronica; Tomasello, Gianluca; Borgonovo, Karen; Ghilardi, Mara; Cabiddu, Mary; Barni, Sandro

    2017-10-01

    Breast cancer (BC) with HER-2/neu overexpression or amplification (HER-2+) is associated with a higher prevalence of brain metastases (BMs) when compared to other subtypes. Among approved drugs for HER-2+ BC, lapatinib (L) is associated with single agent activity toward BMs. We conducted a systematic review to determine the efficacy of L, singly or in combination with capecitabine (C), as a treatment for HER-2+ BMs. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, SCOPUS, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), and the European Union Clinical Trials Register for studies reporting data on L, singly or in combination with C, for the treatment of HER-2+ BC with BMs. Primary end-points were overall response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR); these were pooled to provide an aggregate value. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were secondary end-points. Data were pooled using number of events/number of evaluable patients, according to a fixed or random effect model. Overall, 12 studies were included in the present meta-analysis, for a total of 799 patients with BMs. The pooled overall response rate (ORR) was 21.4% (95% CI 11.7-35.9). After exclusion of patients that received L alone, ORR reached 29.2% (95% CI 18.5-42.7). The pooled median PFS and OS were 4.1 (95% CI 3.1-6.7) and 11.2 (95% CI 8.9-14.1) months, respectively. Due to its activity on BMs, the L + C combination may be considered for HER-2+ BC that has progressed in the brain, when local therapy has been performed or failed and re-irradiation is not feasible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Blood-brain barrier permeability of gefitinib in patients with brain metastases from non-small-cell lung cancer before and during whole brain radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Wei, Wei-dong; Liang, Jian-zhong; Xu, Fei; Dinglin, Xiao-xiao; Ma, Shu-xiang; Chen, Li-kun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To explore the ability of gefitinib to penetrate blood brain barrier (BBB) during whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT). Patients and Methods Enrolled in this study were eligible patients who were diagnosed with BM from NSCLC. Gefitinib was given at 250 mg/day for 30 days, then concurrently with WBRT (40 Gy/20 F/4 w), followed by maintenance. Serial CSF and blood samples were collected on 30 day after gefitinib administration, and at the time of 10, 20, 30 and 40 Gy following WBRT. CSF and plasma samples of 13 patients without BM who were treated with gefitinib were collected as control. CSF and plasma gefitinib levels were measured by LC-MS/MS. Results Fifteen BM patients completed gefitinib plus WBRT. The CSF-to-plasma ratio of gefitinib in patients with BM was higher than that in patients without BM (1.34% vs. 0.36%, P < 0.001). The CSF-to-plasma ratio of gefitinib increased with the increased dose of WBRT and reached the peak (1.87 ± 0.72%) at 30 Gy, which was significantly higher than that 1.34 ± 0.49% at 0 Gy (P = 0.01). The median time to progression of brain lesions and the median overall survival were 7.07 and 15.4 months, respectively. Conclusion The BBB permeability of gefitinib increased in accordance with escalated dose of WBRT. PMID:25788260

  14. Blood-brain barrier permeability of gefitinib in patients with brain metastases from non-small-cell lung cancer before and during whole brain radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yin-Duo; Liao, Hai; Qin, Tao; Zhang, Li; Wei, Wei-Dong; Liang, Jian-Zhong; Xu, Fei; Dinglin, Xiao-Xiao; Ma, Shu-Xiang; Chen, Li-Kun

    2015-04-10

    To explore the ability of gefitinib to penetrate blood brain barrier (BBB) during whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT). Enrolled in this study were eligible patients who were diagnosed with BM from NSCLC. Gefitinib was given at 250 mg/day for 30 days, then concurrently with WBRT (40 Gy/20 F/4 w), followed by maintenance. Serial CSF and blood samples were collected on 30 day after gefitinib administration, and at the time of 10, 20, 30 and 40 Gy following WBRT. CSF and plasma samples of 13 patients without BM who were treated with gefitinib were collected as control. CSF and plasma gefitinib levels were measured by LC-MS/MS. Fifteen BM patients completed gefitinib plus WBRT. The CSF-to-plasma ratio of gefitinib in patients with BM was higher than that in patients without BM (1.34% vs. 0.36%, P < 0.001). The CSF-to-plasma ratio of gefitinib increased with the increased dose of WBRT and reached the peak (1.87 ± 0.72%) at 30 Gy, which was significantly higher than that 1.34 ± 0.49% at 0 Gy (P = 0.01). The median time to progression of brain lesions and the median overall survival were 7.07 and 15.4 months, respectively. The BBB permeability of gefitinib increased in accordance with escalated dose of WBRT.

  15. Brain metastases at the time of presentation of non-small cell lung cancer: a multi-centric AERIO analysis of prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Jacot, W; Quantin, X; Boher, J-M; Andre, F; Moreau, L; Gainet, M; Depierre, A; Quoix, E; Chevalier, T Le; Pujol, J-L

    2001-01-01

    A multi-centre retrospective study involving 4 French university institutions has been conducted in order to identify routine pre-therapeutic prognostic factors of survival in patients with previously untreated non-small cell lung cancer and brain metastases at the time of presentation. A total of 231 patients were recorded regarding their clinical, radiological and biological characteristics at presentation. The accrual period was January 1991 to December 1998. Prognosis was analysed using both univariate and multivariate (Cox model) statistics. The median survival of the whole population was 28 weeks. Univariate analysis (log-rank), showed that patients affected by one of the following characteristics proved to have a shorter survival in comparison with the opposite status of each variable: male gender, age over 63 years, poor performance status, neurological symptoms, serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE) level higher than 12.5 ng ml−1, high serum alkaline phosphatase level, high serum LDH level and serum sodium level below 132 mmol l−1. In the Cox's model, the following variables were independent determinants of a poor outcome: male gender: hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 2.29 (1.26–4.16), poor performance status: 1.73 (1.15–2.62), age: 1.02 (1.003–1.043), a high serum NSE level: 1.72 (1.11–2.68), neurological symptoms: 1.63 (1.05–2.54), and a low serum sodium level: 2.99 (1.17–7.62). Apart from 4 prognostic factors shared in common with other stage IV NSCLC patients, whatever the metastatic site (namely sex, age, gender, performance status and serum sodium level) this study discloses 2 determinants specifically resulting from brain metastasis: i.e. the presence of neurological symptoms and a high serum NSE level. The latter factor could be in relationship with the extent of normal brain tissue damage caused by the tumour as has been demonstrated after strokes. Additionally, the observation of a high NSE level as a prognostic

  16. Gamma knife radiosurgery for the treatment of brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Sansur, C A; Chin, L S; Ames, J W; Banegura, A T; Aggarwal, S; Ballesteros, M; Amin, P; Simard, J M; Eisenberg, H

    2000-01-01

    One hundred and ninety-three patients with brain metastases from various primary sites received Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKR) from July 1992 to August 1997 and were reviewed to evaluate their clinical outcome. Survival follow-up was available on 173 patients. Whole-brain radiation therapy was also administered to 148 of these patients. The median survival was 13.1 months from initial detection of brain metastases, and 7.5 months from GKR. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine prognostic factors that influenced survival following GKR. Enhanced survival is observed in patients with radiosensitive tumor types, supratentorial tumor, history of brain tumor resection, controlled primary site, and absent extracranial metastases. Local lesion control was obtained in 82% of the patients according to their last follow-up MRI scan. GKR is an effective means of treating patients with brain metastases.

  17. Toward the complete control of brain metastases using surveillance screening and stereotactic radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Amparo; Kvint, Svetlana; Chachoua, Abraham; Pavlick, Anna; Wilson, Melissa; Donahue, Bernadine; Golfinos, John G; Silverman, Joshua; Kondziolka, Douglas

    2017-02-17

    OBJECTIVE The incidence of brain metastases is increasing with improved systemic therapies, many of which have a limited impact on intracranial disease. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a first-line management option for brain metastases. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a threshold tumor size below which local control (LC) rates approach 100%, and to relate these findings to the use of routine surveillance brain imaging. METHODS From a prospective registry, 200 patients with 1237 brain metastases were identified who underwent SRS between December 2012 and May 2015. The median imaging follow-up duration was 7.9 months, and the median margin dose was 18 Gy. The maximal diameter and volume of tumors were measured. Histological analysis included 96 patients with non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs), 40 with melanoma, 35 with breast cancer, and 29 with other histologies. RESULTS Almost 50% of brain metastases were NSCLCs and commonly measured less than 6 mm in maximal diameter or 70 mm(3) in volume. Thirty-three of 1237 tumors had local progression at a median of 8.8 months. The 1- and 2-year actuarial LC rates were 97% and 93%, respectively. LC of 100% was achieved for all intracranial metastases less than 100 mm(3) in volume or 6 mm in diameter. Patients whose tumors at first SRS were less than 10 mm maximal diameter or a volume of 250 mm(3) had improved overall survival. CONCLUSIONS SRS can achieve LC rates approaching 100% for subcentimeter metastases. The earlier initial detection and prompt treatment of small intracranial metastases may prevent the development of neurological symptoms and the need for resection, and improve overall survival. To identify tumors when they are small, routine surveillance brain imaging should be considered as part of the standard of care for lung, breast, and melanoma metastases. ■ CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE Type of question: prognostic; study design: retrospective cohort; evidence: Class II.

  18. Dexamethasone and supportive care with or without whole brain radiotherapy in treating patients with non-small cell lung cancer with brain metastases unsuitable for resection or stereotactic radiotherapy (QUARTZ): results from a phase 3, non-inferiority, randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Mulvenna, Paula; Nankivell, Matthew; Barton, Rachael; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Wilson, Paula; McColl, Elaine; Moore, Barbara; Brisbane, Iona; Ardron, David; Holt, Tanya; Morgan, Sally; Lee, Caroline; Waite, Kathryn; Bayman, Neil; Pugh, Cheryl; Sydes, Benjamin; Stephens, Richard; Parmar, Mahesh K; Langley, Ruth E

    2016-10-22

    Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and dexamethasone are widely used to treat brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), although there have been no randomised clinical trials showing that WBRT improves either quality of life or overall survival. Even after treatment with WBRT, the prognosis of this patient group is poor. We aimed to establish whether WBRT could be omitted without a significant effect on survival or quality of life. The Quality of Life after Treatment for Brain Metastases (QUARTZ) study is a non-inferiority, phase 3 randomised trial done at 69 UK and three Australian centres. NSCLC patients with brain metastases unsuitable for surgical resection or stereotactic radiotherapy were randomly assigned (1:1) to optimal supportive care (OSC) including dexamethasone plus WBRT (20 Gy in five daily fractions) or OSC alone (including dexamethasone). The dose of dexamethasone was determined by the patients' symptoms and titrated downwards if symptoms improved. Allocation to treatment group was done by a phone call from the hospital to the Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit at University College London using a minimisation programme with a random element and stratification by centre, Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS), gender, status of brain metastases, and the status of primary lung cancer. The primary outcome measure was quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). QALYs were generated from overall survival and patients' weekly completion of the EQ-5D questionnaire. Treatment with OSC alone was considered non-inferior if it was no more than 7 QALY days worse than treatment with WBRT plus OSC, which required 534 patients (80% power, 5% [one-sided] significance level). Analysis was done by intention to treat for all randomly assigned patients. The trial is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN3826061. Between March 2, 2007, and Aug 29, 2014, 538 patients were recruited from 69 UK and three Australian centres, and were randomly assigned to

  19. Delivery of Nano-Tethered Therapies to Brain Metastases of Primary Breast Cancer Using a Cellular Trojan Horse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    will be required. Absorption of light by the skull and scatter of light by the brain parenchyma significantly reduce the dose of light that can be...power by the skull : Developing tools for simulation and local measurements of NIR photon transport in heterogeneous medium. b. Results: Voxel... skull and reaching ~3cm into the agar-based brain phantom. Fig.2: Comparison between voxel- based MC simulations of white and gray matter in water

  20. Delivery of Nano-Tethered Therapies to Brain Metastases of Primary Breast Cancer Using a Cellular Trojan Horse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    suggests that innovative formulations of these compounds will be required. Absorption of light by the skull and scatter of light by the brain parenchyma...brain barrier and cardiotoxicity. Task 2 a. Current Objectives: Determination of attenuation of laser power by the skull : Developing tools...Fig.3: Experimental setup to determine the fraction of NIR light (800nm) penetrating the sheep skull and reaching ~3cm into the agar-based

  1. Multimodality treatment of brain metastases from renal cell carcinoma in the era of targeted therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bassanelli, Maria; Viterbo, Antonella; Roberto, Michela; Giacinti, Silvana; Staddon, Anita; Aschelter, Anna Maria; D’Antonio, Chiara; Marchetti, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    In patients with renal cancer, brain metastasis is associated with poor survival and high morbidity. Poor life expectancy is often associated with widespread extracranial metastases. In such patients, a multidisciplinary approach is paramount. Brain metastases-specific therapies may include surgery, radiosurgery, conventional radiation and targeted therapies (TT) or a combination of these treatments. Some factors are important prognostically when choosing the best strategy: performance status, the number, size and location of brain metastases, the extension of systemic metastases and a well-controlled primary tumour. Failure of chemical therapy has always been attributed to an intact blood–brain barrier and acquired drug resistance by renal cancer cells. Recent studies have demonstrated objective responses with TT in a variety of cancer types, including renal cancer. In most cases, these agents have been used in combination and in conjunction with whole-brain radiation therapy and radiosurgery. Local control appears to be better with the combined method if the patient has a good performance status and may improve overall survival. This review summarizes current literature data on multidisciplinary approach in the management of renal brain metastasis with radiation, surgery and TT with an emphasis on potential better outcomes with a combination of current treatment methods. PMID:27800033

  2. Multimodality treatment of brain metastases from renal cell carcinoma in the era of targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Maria, Bassanelli; Antonella, Viterbo; Michela, Roberto; Silvana, Giacinti; Anita, Staddon; Anna Maria, Aschelter; Chiara, D'Antonio; Paolo, Marchetti

    2016-11-01

    In patients with renal cancer, brain metastasis is associated with poor survival and high morbidity. Poor life expectancy is often associated with widespread extracranial metastases. In such patients, a multidisciplinary approach is paramount. Brain metastases-specific therapies may include surgery, radiosurgery, conventional radiation and targeted therapies (TT) or a combination of these treatments. Some factors are important prognostically when choosing the best strategy: performance status, the number, size and location of brain metastases, the extension of systemic metastases and a well-controlled primary tumour. Failure of chemical therapy has always been attributed to an intact blood-brain barrier and acquired drug resistance by renal cancer cells. Recent studies have demonstrated objective responses with TT in a variety of cancer types, including renal cancer. In most cases, these agents have been used in combination and in conjunction with whole-brain radiation therapy and radiosurgery. Local control appears to be better with the combined method if the patient has a good performance status and may improve overall survival. This review summarizes current literature data on multidisciplinary approach in the management of renal brain metastasis with radiation, surgery and TT with an emphasis on potential better outcomes with a combination of current treatment methods.

  3. Identification of primary tumors of brain metastases by SIMCA classification of IR spectroscopic images.

    PubMed

    Krafft, Christoph; Shapoval, Larysa; Sobottka, Stephan B; Geiger, Kathrin D; Schackert, Gabriele; Salzer, Reiner

    2006-07-01

    Brain metastases are secondary intracranial lesions which occur more frequently than primary brain tumors. The four most abundant types of brain metastasis originate from primary tumors of lung cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer and renal cell carcinoma. As metastatic cells contain the molecular information of the primary tissue cells and IR spectroscopy probes the molecular fingerprint of cells, IR spectroscopy based methods constitute a new approach to determine the origin of brain metastases. IR spectroscopic images of 4 by 4 mm2 tissue areas were recorded in transmission mode by a FTIR imaging spectrometer coupled to a focal plane array detector. Unsupervised cluster analysis revealed variances within each cryosection. Selected clusters of five IR images with known diagnoses trained a supervised classification model based on the algorithm soft independent modeling of class analogies (SIMCA). This model was applied to distinguish normal brain tissue from brain metastases and to identify the primary tumor of brain metastases in 15 independent IR images. All specimens were assigned to the correct tissue class. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that IR spectroscopy can complement established methods such as histopathology or immunohistochemistry for diagnosis.

  4. Cancer metastases: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Xiangming

    2015-01-01

    Cancer metastasis is the major cause of cancer morbidity and mortality, and accounts for about 90% of cancer deaths. Although cancer survival rate has been significantly improved over the years, the improvement is primarily due to early diagnosis and cancer growth inhibition. Limited progress has been made in the treatment of cancer metastasis due to various factors. Current treatments for cancer metastasis are mainly chemotherapy and radiotherapy, though the new generation anti-cancer drugs (predominantly neutralizing antibodies for growth factors and small molecule kinase inhibitors) do have the effects on cancer metastasis in addition to their effects on cancer growth. Cancer metastasis begins with detachment of metastatic cells from the primary tumor, travel of the cells to different sites through blood/lymphatic vessels, settlement and growth of the cells at a distal site. During the process, metastatic cells go through detachment, migration, invasion and adhesion. These four essential, metastatic steps are inter-related and affected by multi-biochemical events and parameters. Additionally, it is known that tumor microenvironment (such as extracellular matrix structure, growth factors, chemokines, matrix metalloproteinases) plays a significant role in cancer metastasis. The biochemical events and parameters involved in the metastatic process and tumor microenvironment have been targeted or can be potential targets for metastasis prevention and inhibition. This review provides an overview of these metastasis essential steps, related biochemical factors, and targets for intervention. PMID:26579471

  5. Prognostic factors for brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer with EGFR mutation: influence of stable extracranial disease and erlotinib therapy.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Akimasa; Satoh, Hiroaki; Iwasawa, Tae; Tamura, Katsumi; Hayashihara, Kenji; Saito, Takefumi; Kato, Terufumi; Arai, Mito; Okudela, Koji; Ohashi, Kenichi; Ogura, Takashi

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore prognostic factors for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with brain metastases (BM) on the basis of EGFR mutation status. Among 779 consecutive NSCLC patients who underwent EGFR mutation screening, all 197 patients with BM were divided according to the EGFR mutation status. The prognostic factors, including patient characteristics at the time of BM diagnosis, treatment history, and radiologic features, were analyzed. Of 197 patients with BM, 108 had wild-type EGFR and 89 had EGFR mutation. The patients with EGFR mutation presented longer overall survival after BM diagnosis (OS) than those with wild-type EGFR, regardless of whether BM was synchronous or metachronous. For the patients with EGFR mutation, favorable prognostic factors in multivariate analysis were age<65 (p=0.037), good performance status (PS) (p<0.0001), cranial radiotherapy (p=0.020), previous chemotherapy≤1 regimen (p=0.009), stable extracranial disease at BM diagnosis (p=0.022), and erlotinib therapy after BM diagnosis (p=0.0015). On the other hand, favorable prognostic factors for the patients with wild-type EGFR were only good PS (p=0.0037) and cranial radiotherapy (p=0.0005). Among patients treated with erlotinib after BM diagnosis, the patients with exon 19 deletion showed longer OS than those with exon 21 point mutation (p=0.019). The prognostic factors for NSCLC patients with BM were different according to the EGFR mutation status. Particularly in NSCLC patients with EGFR mutation and stable extracranial disease, regular cranial evaluation for detecting asymptomatic BM would lead to good prognosis. In addition, erlotinib therapy would be preferable in NSCLC patients with BM and EGFR mutation, especially those with exon 19 deletion.

  6. CAPACITY OF PATIENTS WITH BRAIN METASTASES TO MAKE TREATMENT DECISIONS

    PubMed Central

    Triebel, Kristen L.; Gerstenecker, Adam; Meneses, Karen; Fiveash, John B.; Meyers, Christina A.; Cutter, Gary; Marson, Daniel C.; Martin, Roy C.; Eakin, Amanda; Watts, Olivia; Nabors, Louis B.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate medical decision-making capacity (MDC) in patients with brain metastasis. METHODS Participants were 41 adults with brain metastases with Karnofsky Performance Status scores ≥70 were recruited from an academic medical center and 41 demographically-matched controls recruited from the community. We evaluated MDC using the Capacity to Consent to Treatment Instrument (CCTI) and its four clinically relevant consent standards (expressing a treatment choice, appreciation, reasoning, and understanding). Capacity impairment ratings (no impairment, mild/moderate impairment, and severe impairment) on the consent standards were also assigned to each participant with brain metastasis using cutoff scores derived statistically from the performance of the control group. RESULTS The brain metastases patient group performed significantly below controls on consent standards of understanding and reasoning. Capacity compromise was defined as performance ≤1.5 standard deviations (SD) below the control group mean. Using this definition, approximately 60% of the participants with brain metastases demonstrated capacity compromise on at least one MDC standard. CONCLUSION When defining capacity compromise as performance ≤1.5 SD below the control group mean, over half of patients with brain metastases have reduced capacity to make treatment decisions. This impairment is demonstrated shortly after initial diagnosis of brain metastases and highlights the importance of routine clinical assessment of MDC following diagnosis of brain metastasis. These results also indicate a need for the development and investigation of interventions to support or improve MDC in this patient population. PMID:25613039

  7. Pancreatic Cancer Metastases Harbor Evidence of Polyclonality

    PubMed Central

    Maddipati, Ravikanth; Stanger, Ben Z.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the cancer genome have demonstrated that tumors are comprised of multiple sub-clones with varied genetic and phenotypic properties. However, little is known about how metastases arise and evolve from these sub-clones. To understand the cellular dynamics that drive metastasis, we used multi-color lineage tracing technology in an autochthonous mouse model of pancreatic cancer. Here, we report that precursor lesions exhibit significant clonal heterogeneity but that this diversity decreases during pre-malignant progression. Furthermore, we present evidence that a significant fraction of metastases are polyclonally seeded by distinct tumor sub-clones. Finally, we show that clonality during metastatic growth – leading to either monoclonal or polyclonal expansion – differs based on the site of metastatic invasion. These results provide an unprecedented window into the cellular dynamics of tumor evolution and suggest that heterotypic interactions between tumor subpopulations contribute to metastatic progression in native tumors. PMID:26209539

  8. Discrimination of Different Brain Metastases and Primary CNS Lymphomas Using Morphologic Criteria and Diffusion Tensor Imaging.

    PubMed

    Bette, S; Wiestler, B; Delbridge, C; Huber, T; Boeckh-Behrens, T; Meyer, B; Zimmer, C; Gempt, J; Kirschke, J

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: Brain metastases are a common complication of cancer and occur in about 15 - 40 % of patients with malignancies. The aim of this retrospective study was to differentiate between metastases from different primary tumors/CNS lymphyomas using morphologic criteria, fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Materials and Methods: Morphologic criteria such as hemorrhage, cysts, pattern of contrast enhancement and location were reported in 200 consecutive patients with brain metastases/primary CNS lymphomas. FA and ADC values were measured in regions of interest (ROIs) placed in the contrast-enhancing tumor part, the necrosis and the non-enhancing peritumoral region (NEPTR). Differences between histopathological subtypes of metastases were analyzed using non-parametric tests, decision trees and hierarchical clustering analysis. Results: Significant differences were found in morphologic criteria such as hemorrhage or pattern of contrast enhancement. In diffusion measurements, significant differences between the different tumor entities were only found in ADC analyzed in the contrast-enhancing tumor part. Among single tumor entities, primary CNS lymphomas showed significantly lower median ADC values in the contrast-enhancing tumor part (ADClymphoma 0.92 [0.83 - 1.07] vs. ADCno_lymphoma 1.35 [1.10 - 1.64] P = 0.001). Further differentiation between types of metastases was not possible using FA and ADC. Conclusion: There were morphologic differences among the main subtypes of brain metastases/CNS lymphomas. However, due to a high variability of common types of metastases and low specificity, prospective differentiation remained challenging. DTI including FA and ADC was not a reliable tool for differentiation between different histopathological subtypes of brain metastases except for CNS lymphomas showing lower ADC values. Biopsy, surgery and staging remain essential for diagnosis. Key Points:

  9. Stereotactic radiosurgery for newly diagnosed brain metastases: comparison of three dose levels.

    PubMed

    Rades, Dirk; Hornung, Dagmar; Blanck, Oliver; Martens, Kristina; Khoa, Mai Trong; Trang, Ngo Thuy; Hüppe, Michael; Terheyden, Patrick; Gliemroth, Jan; Schild, Steven E

    2014-09-01

    Three doses were compared for local control of irradiated metastases, freedom from new brain metastases, and survival in patients receiving stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone for one to three newly diagnosed brain metastases. In all, 134 patients were assigned to three groups according to the SRS dose given to the margins of the lesions: 13-16 Gy (n = 33), 18 Gy (n = 18), and 20 Gy (n = 83). Additional potential prognostic factors were evaluated: age (≤ 60 vs. > 60 years), gender, Karnofsky Performance Scale score (70-80 vs. 90-100), tumor type (non-small-cell lung cancer vs. melanoma vs. others), number of brain metastases (1 vs. 2-3), lesion size (< 15 vs. ≥ 15 mm), extracranial metastases (no vs. yes), RPA class (1 vs. 2), and interval of cancer diagnosis to SRS (≤ 24 vs. > 24 months). For 13-16 Gy, 18 Gy, and 20 Gy, the 1-year local control rates were 31, 65, and 79%, respectively (p < 0.001). The SRS dose maintained significance on multivariate analysis (risk ratio: 2.25; 95% confidence interval: 1.56-3.29; p < 0.001). On intergroup comparisons of local control, 20 Gy was superior to 13-16 Gy (p < 0.001) but not to 18 Gy (p = 0.12); 18 Gy showed a strong trend toward better local control when compared with 13-16 Gy (p = 0.059). Freedom from new brain metastases (p = 0.57) and survival (p = 0.15) were not associated with SRS dose in the univariate analysis. SRS doses of 18 Gy and 20 Gy resulted in better local control than 13-16 Gy. However, 20 Gy and 18 Gy must be compared again in a larger cohort of patients. Freedom from new brain metastases and survival were not associated with SRS dose.

  10. LDA-SVM-based EGFR mutation model for NSCLC brain metastases: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Nan; Wang, Ge; Wu, Yu-Hao; Chen, Shi-Feng; Liu, Guo-Dong; Chen, Chuan; Wang, Dong; He, Zhong-Shi; Yang, Xue-Qin; He, Yong; Xiao, Hua-Liang; Huang, Ding-De; Xiong, Kun-Lin; Wu, Yan; Huang, Ming; Yang, Zhen-Zhou

    2015-02-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activating mutations are a predictor of tyrosine kinase inhibitor effectiveness in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The objective of this study is to build a model for predicting the EGFR mutation status of brain metastasis in patients with NSCLC. Observation and model set-up. This study was conducted between January 2003 and December 2011 in 6 medical centers in Southwest China. The study included 31 NSCLC patients with brain metastases. Eligibility requirements were histological proof of NSCLC, as well as sufficient quantity of paraffin-embedded lung and brain metastases specimens for EGFR mutation detection. The linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method was used for analyzing the dimensional reduction of clinical features, and a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm was employed to generate an EGFR mutation model for NSCLC brain metastases. Training-testing-validation (3 : 1 : 1) processes were applied to find the best fit in 12 patients (validation test set) with NSCLC and brain metastases treated with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor and whole-brain radiotherapy. Primary and secondary outcome measures: EGFR mutation analysis in patients with NSCLC and brain metastases and the development of a LDA-SVM-based EGFR mutation model for NSCLC brain metastases patients. EGFR mutation discordance between the primary lung tumor and brain metastases was found in 5 patients. Using LDA, 13 clinical features were transformed into 9 characteristics, and 3 were selected as primary vectors. The EGFR mutation model constructed with SVM algorithms had an accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for determining the mutation status of brain metastases of 0.879, 0.886, and 0.875, respectively. Furthermore, the replicability of our model was confirmed by testing 100 random combinations of input values. The LDA-SVM-based model developed in this study could predict the EGFR status of brain metastases in this small cohort of

  11. Translational Breast Cancer Research Consortium (TBCRC) 022: A Phase II Trial of Neratinib for Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2–Positive Breast Cancer and Brain Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Rebecca S.; Wefel, Jeffrey S.; Melisko, Michelle E.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Connolly, Roisin M.; Van Poznak, Catherine H.; Niravath, Polly A.; Puhalla, Shannon L.; Ibrahim, Nuhad; Blackwell, Kimberly L.; Moy, Beverly; Herold, Christina; Liu, Minetta C.; Lowe, Alarice; Agar, Nathalie Y.R.; Ryabin, Nicole; Farooq, Sarah; Lawler, Elizabeth; Rimawi, Mothaffar F.; Krop, Ian E.; Wolff, Antonio C.; Winer, Eric P.; Lin, Nancy U.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Evidence-based treatments for metastatic, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)–positive breast cancer in the CNS are limited. Neratinib is an irreversible inhibitor of erbB1, HER2, and erbB4, with promising activity in HER2-positive breast cancer; however, its activity in the CNS is unknown. We evaluated the efficacy of treatment with neratinib in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer brain metastases in a multicenter, phase II open-label trial. Patients and Methods Eligible patients were those with HER2-positive brain metastases (≥ 1 cm in longest dimension) who experienced progression in the CNS after one or more line of CNS-directed therapy, such as whole-brain radiotherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, and/or surgical resection. Patients received neratinib 240 mg orally once per day, and tumors were assessed every two cycles. The primary endpoint was composite CNS objective response rate (ORR), requiring all of the following: ≥50% reduction in volumetric sum of target CNS lesions and no progression of non-target lesions, new lesions, escalating corticosteroids, progressive neurologic signs/symptoms, or non-CNS progression—the threshold for success was five of 40 responders. Results Forty patients were enrolled between February 2012 and June 2013; 78% of patients had previous whole-brain radiotherapy. Three women achieved a partial response (CNS objective response rate, 8%; 95% CI, 2% to 22%). The median number of cycles received was two (range, one to seven cycles), with a median progression-free survival of 1.9 months. Five women received six or more cycles. The most common grade ≥ 3 event was diarrhea (occurring in 21% of patients taking prespecified loperamide prophylaxis and 28% of those without prophylaxis). Patients in the study experienced a decreased quality of life over time. Conclusion Although neratinib had low activity and did not meet our threshold for success, 12.5% of patients received six or more cycles. Studies

  12. Distant metastases in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Duprez, Fréderic; Berwouts, Dieter; De Neve, Wilfried; Bonte, Katrien; Boterberg, Tom; Deron, Philippe; Huvenne, Wouter; Rottey, Sylvie; Mareel, Marc

    2017-09-01

    Most trials in head and neck cancer emphasize locoregional control, as this is the main pattern of therapy failure. However, up to 15% of patients develop distant metastases. The purpose of this study was to present the investigated factors associated with distant metastasis in a single-center patient cohort. A retrospective analysis of a single-center patient cohort over an 18-year period has been performed. We report on prevalence and incidence of distant metastasis, timing in relation to locoregional failure, Kaplan-Meier analysis for actuarial distant control rates, and univariate analysis taking into account histological, etiologic, surgical, site-dependent, stage-dependent characteristics, modality of primary therapy, and locoregional control. Of 1022 patients, 141 (13.8%) were diagnosed with distant metastases involving 283 sites. Actuarial rates of distant control were 88%, 84%, 80%, and 79% at 1, 2, 5, and 10 years, respectively. Factors associated with distant metastasis are stage grouping and regional node positivity, extranodal extension, locoregional residual disease, and human papillomavirus (HPV) negative status in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Distant metastases in head and neck cancer led to dismal prognosis. Factors associated with distant metastasis are related to characteristics of the primary tumor. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 1733-1743, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. MRI of pancreatic metastases from renal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kelekis, N.L.; Semelka, R.C.; Siegelman, E.S.

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to describe the MR features of pancreatic metastases from renal cancer. Five patients with pancreatic metastases from renal cancer were imaged with MR. Imaging was performed on a 1.5 T MR imager using excitation-spoiled fat-suppressed T1-weighted SE images (all patients), T1-weighted spoiled GE images (all patients), T2-weighted fast SE (one patient) and excitation-spoiled fat-suppressed T2-weighted fast SE (one patient) images, serial postgadolinium spoiled GE images (all patients), and postcontrast excitation-spoiled fat-suppressed T1-weighted SE images (two patients). Multiple pancreatic lesions (n = 6) were present in two patients, solitary tumors in two patients, and diffuse micronodular pancreatic enlargement in one patient. All lesions were hypointense compared to normal pancreas on T1-weighted fat-suppressed SE images. Lesions were high in ST on T2-weighted images in two of two patients. All lesions demonstrated enhancement on the immediate postgadolinium spoiled GE images with the smaller tumors (<1.5 cm, three individual and the micronodular tumors) showing diffuse enhancement and the larger tumors (>1.5 cm, five tumors) showing pre-dominantly rim enhancement. Pancreatic metastases from renal cell carcinoma have distinctive MR features that include diffuse enhancement in small lesions and rim enhancement in large lesions on immediate postgadolinium images and high SI on T2-weighted images. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Surgical Brain Metastases: Management and Outcome Related to Prognostic Indexes: A Critical Review of a Ten-Year Series

    PubMed Central

    Caroli, Manuela; Di Cristofori, Andrea; Lucarella, Francesca; Raneri, Fabio Angelo; Portaluri, Francesco; Gaini, Sergio Maria

    2011-01-01

    Brain metastasis are the most common neoplastic lesions of the nervous system. Many cancer patients are diagnosed on the basis of a first clinical presentation of cancer on the basis of a single or multiple brain lesions. Brain metastases are manifestations of primary disease progression and often determine a poor prognosis. Not all patients with a brain metastases undergo surgery: many are submitted to alternative or palliative treatments. Management of patients with brain metastases is still controversial, and many studies have been developed to determine which is the best therapy. Furthermore, management of patients operated for a brain metastasis is often difficult. Chemotherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, panencephalic radiation therapy, and surgery, in combination or alone, are the means most commonly used. We report our experience in the management of a ten-year series of surgical brain metastasis and discuss our results in the preoperative and postoperative management of this complex condition. PMID:22084749

  15. Diagnosis of Jejunal Metastases from Lung Cancer Using Capsule Endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Charlotte; Prim, Nathalie; Mennecier, Bertrand; Delvaux, Michel; Gangi, Afshin; Quoix, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal metastases from lung cancer are rare and usually asymptomatic. We report a case of small bowel metastases from primary lung cancer revealed by abdominal pain and severe recurrent anaemia. The diagnosis was obtained with capsule endoscopy. This non-invasive procedure thus represents a valuable method contributing to a rapid and detailed diagnosis while reducing underdiagnosis, and it should thus be considered for lung cancer patients complaining of abdominal symptoms, which may indeed be related to gastrointestinal metastases.

  16. Diagnosis of Jejunal Metastases from Lung Cancer Using Capsule Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Leduc, Charlotte; Prim, Nathalie; Mennecier, Bertrand; Delvaux, Michel; Gangi, Afshin; Quoix, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal metastases from lung cancer are rare and usually asymptomatic. We report a case of small bowel metastases from primary lung cancer revealed by abdominal pain and severe recurrent anaemia. The diagnosis was obtained with capsule endoscopy. This non-invasive procedure thus represents a valuable method contributing to a rapid and detailed diagnosis while reducing underdiagnosis, and it should thus be considered for lung cancer patients complaining of abdominal symptoms, which may indeed be related to gastrointestinal metastases. PMID:27790115

  17. Brain nodules with lung mass: are they always metastases?

    PubMed

    Jorcano, Sandra; Farrús, Blanca; Pujol, Teresa; Verger, Eugenia; Marruecos, Jordi; Conill, Carlos

    2008-08-01

    In a smoking adult with a lung mass, brain masses are usually diagnosed as brain metastases of lung origin. Nevertheless, differential diagnosis between cerebral abscesses cannot be performed based on clinical symptoms or imaging technologies, and histological diagnosis is essential. This case illustrates the advisability of always obtaining histological diagnosis of the primary tumor and/or cerebral lesion before introducing any oncological treatment.

  18. Papillary thyroid cancer with bilateral adrenal metastases.

    PubMed

    Batawil, Nadia

    2013-12-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer is the most common type of thyroid malignancy and has an excellent prognosis. Distant organ metastasis is rare. Bilateral adrenal metastases with iodine uptake has not been described before. A 47-year-old woman presented for evaluation because of severe right upper arm pain and weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic spine showed a compression fracture at the third thoracic vertebra associated with a soft tissue mass. Computed tomography (CT)-guided biopsy of the mass showed metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma. Ultrasonography of the neck showed an enlarged right thyroid lobe with cervical lymphadenopathy. A high-resolution CT scan of the chest showed multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules. Treatment included total thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection, external beam radiation to the thoracic spine, and (131)I therapy. Initial whole body (131)I scintigraphy showed faint uptake in the right upper abdomen, interpreted as a sign of physiologic bowel activity; however, repeat whole body (131)I scintigraphy showed increased uptake in both adrenal glands, consistent with metastatic disease. Serial abdominal CT scans showed progressively enlarging bilateral adrenal masses. Despite additional treatment with (131)I, the patient's disease progressed at all metastatic sites. This patient had bilateral adrenal metastases from advanced papillary thyroid cancer with distant metastasis to lung and bone at initial presentation and poor response to repeated (131)I therapy. Unilateral adrenal metastasis from thyroid cancer has been described previously in six cases; this is the first case report of bilateral adrenal metastases. Bilateral adrenal metastasis is rare in papillary thyroid cancer. Elevated abdominal uptake of (131)I in a high-risk patient may be a sign of abdominal metastatic disease.

  19. Randomized Trial of Erlotinib Plus Whole-Brain Radiotherapy for NSCLC Patients With Multiple Brain Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Lewanski, Conrad R.; Counsell, Nicholas; Ottensmeier, Christian; Bates, Andrew; Patel, Nirali; Wadsworth, Christina; Ngai, Yenting; Hackshaw, Allan; Faivre-Finn, Corinne

    2014-01-01

    Background Median survival of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with brain metastases is poor. We examined concurrent erlotinib and whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) followed by maintenance erlotinib in patients with untreated brain metastases, given the potential radiosensitizing properties of erlotinib and its direct effect on brain metastases and systemic activity. Methods Eighty NSCLC patients with KPS of 70 and greater and multiple brain metastases were randomly assigned to placebo (n = 40) or erlotinib (100mg, n = 40) given concurrently with WBRT (20 Gy in 5 fractions). Following WBRT, patients continued with placebo or erlotinib (150mg) until disease progression. The primary end point was neurological progression-free survival (nPFS); hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox regression. All P values were two-sided. Results Fifteen patients (37.5%) from each arm were alive and without neurological progression 2 months after WBRT. Median nPFS was 1.6 months in both arms; nPFS HR 0.95 (95% CI = 0.59 to1.54; P = .84). Median overall survival (OS) was 2.9 and 3.4 months in the placebo and erlotinib arms; HR 0.95 (95% CI = 0.58 to 1.55; P = .83). The frequency of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations was low with only 1 of 35 (2.9%) patients with available samples had activating EGFR-mutations. Grade 3/4 adverse event rates were similar between the two groups (70.0% in each arm), except for rash 20.0% (erlotinib) vs 5.0% (placebo), and fatigue 17.5% vs 35.0%. No statistically significant quality of life differences were found. Conclusions Our study showed no advantage in nPFS or OS for concurrent erlotinib and WBRT followed by maintenance erlotinib in patients with predominantly EGFR wild-type NSCLC and multiple brain metastases compared to placebo. Future studies should focus on the role of erlotinib with or without WBRT in patients with EGFR mutations. PMID:25031274

  20. Liver resection for colorectal cancer metastases

    PubMed Central

    Gallinger, S.; Biagi, J.J.; Fletcher, G.G.; Nhan, C.; Ruo, L.; McLeod, R.S.

    2013-01-01

    Questions Should surgery be considered for colorectal cancer (crc) patients who have liver metastases plus (a) pulmonary metastases, (b) portal nodal disease, or (c) other extrahepatic metastases (ehms)? What is the role of chemotherapy in the surgical management of crc with liver metastases in (a) patients with resectable disease in the liver, or (b) patients with initially unresectable disease in the liver that is downsized with chemotherapy (“conversion”)? What is the role of liver resection when one or more crc liver metastases have radiographic complete response (rcr) after chemotherapy? Perspectives Advances in chemotherapy have improved survival in crc patients with liver metastases. The 5-year survival with chemotherapy alone is typically less than 1%, although two recent studies with folfox or folfoxiri (or both) reported rates of 5%–10%. However, liver resection is the treatment that is most effective in achieving long-term survival and offering the possibility of a cure in stage iv crc patients with liver metastases. This guideline deals with the role of chemotherapy with surgery, and the role of surgery when there are liver metastases plus ehms. Because only a proportion of patients with crc metastatic disease are considered for liver resection, and because management of this patient population is complex, multidisciplinary management is required. Methodology Recommendations in the present guideline were formulated based on a prepublication version of a recent systematic review on this topic. The draft methodology experts, and external review by clinical practitioners. Feedback was incorporated into the final version of the guideline. Practice Guideline These recommendations apply to patients with liver metastases from crc who have had or will have a complete (R0) resection of the primary cancer and who are being considered for resection of the liver, or liver plus specific and limited ehms, with curative intent. 1(a). Patients with liver and lung

  1. Characterization of brain metastases using high-resolution magic angle spinning MRS.

    PubMed

    Sjøbakk, Torill E; Johansen, Roar; Bathen, Tone F; Sonnewald, Ursula; Juul, Roar; Torp, Sverre H; Lundgren, Steinar; Gribbestad, Ingrid S

    2008-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to (a) explore the spectral characteristics of brain metastases, focusing on the origin of the primary cancer, and (b) evaluate the correlation with clinical outcome using multivariate analysis. High-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) MR spectra (n = 26) were obtained from 16 patients with brain metastases using a Bruker Avance DRX600 instrument. Standard pulse-acquired and spin-echo (TE 32 and 285 ms) (1)H spectra were obtained. These were examined using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression analysis (PLS) relating spectral data to clinical outcome. The PCA score plot of pulse-acquired HR-MAS spectra showed a trend of clustering due to the origin of the metastases, mainly based on differences in the lipid signals at 1.3 and 0.9 ppm. With PLS, spectra of patients who died less than 5 months after surgery appeared to cluster in the lower left quadrant of the score plot. These preliminary results on brain metastasis classification and prediction of survival must be validated in a larger patient cohort. However, the possibility of differentiating metastases according to origin and predicting survival on the basis of HR-MAS spectra suggests that this method may be useful for diagnosing and planning treatment for brain metastases and also for guiding decisions about terminating further treatment.

  2. Stereotactic Radiosurgery With or Without Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy for Limited Brain Metastases: A Secondary Analysis of the North Central Cancer Treatment Group N0574 (Alliance) Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Churilla, Thomas M; Ballman, Karla V; Brown, Paul D; Twohy, Erin L; Jaeckle, Kurt; Farace, Elana; Cerhan, Jane H; Anderson, S Keith; Carrero, Xiomara W; Garces, Yolanda I; Barker, Fred G; Deming, Richard; Dixon, Jesse G; Burri, Stuart H; Chung, Caroline; Ménard, Cynthia; Stieber, Volker W; Pollock, Bruce E; Galanis, Evanthia; Buckner, Jan C; Asher, Anthony L

    2017-08-05

    To determine whether whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is associated with improved overall survival among non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with favorable prognoses at diagnosis. In the N0574 trial, patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases were randomized to receive stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or SRS plus WBRT (SRS + WBRT), with a primary endpoint of cognitive deterioration. We calculated diagnosis-specific graded prognostic assessment (DS-GPA) scores for NSCLC patients and evaluated overall survival according to receipt of WBRT and DS-GPA score using 2 separate cut-points (≥2.0 vs <2.0 and ≥2.5 vs <2.5). A total of 126 NSCLC patients were included for analysis, with median follow-up of 14.2 months. Data for DS-GPA calculation were available for 86.3% of all enrolled NSCLC patients. Overall, 50.0% of patients had DS-GPA score ≥2.0, and 23.0% of patients had DS-GPA scores ≥2.5. The SRS and SRS + WBRT groups were well balanced with regard to prognostic factors. The median survival according to receipt of WBRT was 11.3 months (+WBRT) and 17.9 months (-WBRT) for patients with DS-GPA ≥2.0 (favorable prognoses, P=.63; hazard ratio 0.86; 95% confidence interval 0.47-1.59). Median survival was 3.7 months (+WBRT) and 6.6 months (-WBRT) for patients with DS-GPA <2.0 patients (unfavorable prognoses, P=.85; hazard ratio 0.95; 95% confidence interval 0.56-1.62). Outcomes according to the receipt of WBRT and DS-GPA remained similar utilizing DS-GPA ≥2.5 as a cutoff for favorable prognoses. There was no interaction between the continuum of the DS-GPA groups and WBRT on overall survival (P=.53). We observed no significant differences in survival according to receipt of WBRT in favorable-prognosis NSCLC patients. This study further supports the approach of SRS alone in the majority of patients with limited brain metastases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Multi-institutional Study of Factors Influencing the Use of Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, David C.; Charpentier, Anne-Marie; Cigsar, Candemir; Atenafu, Eshetu G.; Ng, Angela; Bahl, Guarav; Zadeh, Gelareh; San Miguel, John; Menard, Cynthia

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases is a relatively well-studied technology with established guidelines regarding patient selection, although its implementation is technically complex. We evaluated the extent to which local availability of SRS affected the treatment of patients with brain metastases. Methods and Materials: We identified 3030 patients who received whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) for brain metastases in 1 of 7 cancer centers in Ontario. Clinical data were abstracted for a random sample of 973 patients. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with the use of SRS as a boost within 4 months following WBRT or at any time following WBRT. Results: Of 898 patients eligible for analysis, SRS was provided to 70 (7.8%) patients at some time during the course of their disease and to 34 (3.8%) patients as a boost following WBRT. In multivariable analyses, factors significantly associated with the use of SRS boost following WBRT were fewer brain metastases (odds ratio [OR] = 6.50), controlled extracranial disease (OR = 3.49), age (OR = 0.97 per year of advancing age), and the presence of an on-site SRS program at the hospital where WBRT was given (OR = 12.34; all P values were <.05). Similarly, availability of on-site SRS was the factor most predictive of the use of SRS at any time following WBRT (OR = 5.98). Among patients with 1-3 brain metastases, good/fair performance status, and no evidence of active extracranial disease, SRS was provided to 40.3% of patients who received WBRT in a hospital that had an on-site SRS program vs 3.0% of patients who received WBRT at a hospital without SRS (P<.01). Conclusions: The availability of on-site SRS is the factor most strongly associated with the provision of this treatment to patients with brain metastases and appears to be more influential than accepted clinical eligibility factors.

  4. Heparanase Mechanisms in Brain - Metastatic Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    by 74%. These findings introduce a new concept that links microRNA mechanisms with brain metastatic breast cancer by downregulating HPSE, providing...the groundwork for heparanase-based therapeutics in patients with brain metastases, BMBC in particular. MicroRNA , Breast Cancer , Brain...by 74% (Figs. 4B-D). These findings introduce new concepts that links microRNA mechanisms with brain metastatic breast cancer by downregulating

  5. Treatment of Five or More Brain Metastases With Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, Grant K.; Suh, John H.; Reuther, Alwyn M.; Vogelbaum, Michael A.; Barnett, Gene H.; Angelov, Lilyana; Weil, Robert J.; Neyman, Gennady; Chao, Samuel T.

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To examine the outcomes of patients with five or more brain metastases treated in a single session with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: Sixty-four patients with brain metastases treated with SRS to five or more lesions in a single session were reviewed. Primary disease type, number of lesions, Karnofsky performance score (KPS) at SRS, and status of primary and systemic disease at SRS were included. Patients were treated using dosing as defined by Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 90-05, with adjustments for critical structures. We defined prior whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) as WBRT completed >1 month before SRS and concurrent WBRT as WBRT completed within 1 month before or after SRS. Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazard regression were used to determine which patient and treatment factors predicted overall survival (OS). Results: The median OS after SRS was 7.5 months. The median KPS was 80 (range, 60-100). A KPS of {>=}80 significantly influenced OS (median OS, 4.8 months for KPS {<=}70 vs. 8.8 months for KPS {>=}80, p = 0.0097). The number of lesions treated did not significantly influence OS (median OS, 6.6 months for eight or fewer lesions vs. 9.9 months for more than eight, p = nonsignificant). Primary site histology did not significantly influence median OS. On multivariate Cox modeling, KPS and prior WBRT significantly predicted for OS. Whole-brain radiotherapy before SRS compared with concurrent WBRT significantly influenced survival, with a risk ratio of 0.423 (95% confidence interval 0.191-0.936, p = 0.0338). No significant differences were observed when no WBRT was compared with concurrent WBRT or when the no WBRT group was compared with prior WBRT. A KPS of {<=}70 predicted for poorer outcomes, with a risk ratio of 2.164 (95% confidence interval 1.157-4.049, p = 0.0157). Conclusions: Stereotactic radiosurgery to five or more brain lesions is an effective treatment option for patients with

  6. Cerebellar Metastases From Prostate Cancer on 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Chan, Mico; Hsiao, Edward; Turner, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    Ga prostate-specific membrane antigen PET/CT is increasingly used to evaluate extent of disease in prostate carcinoma. Parenchymal brain metastases originating from prostate cancer have highly variable imaging appearance. We present a 77-year-old man with cerebellar metastasis from prostate cancer showing focal uptake on prostate-specific membrane antigen PET/CT.

  7. Self-Reported Cognitive Outcomes in Patients With Brain Metastases Before and After Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Ansa Maer; Scherwath, Angela; Ernst, Gundula; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Bremer, Michael; Steinmann, Diana

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Patients with brain metastases may experience treatment-related cognitive deficits. In this study, we prospectively assessed the self-reported cognitive abilities of patients with brain metastases from any solid primary cancer before and after irradiation of the brain. Methods and Materials: The treatment group (TG) consisted of adult patients (n=50) with brain metastases who received whole or partial irradiation of the brain without having received prior radiation therapy (RT). The control group (CG) consisted of breast cancer patients (n=27) without cranial involvement who were treated with adjuvant RT. Patients were recruited between May 2008 and December 2010. Self-reported cognitive abilities were acquired before RT and 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after irradiation. The information regarding the neurocognitive status was collected by use of the German questionnaires for self-perceived deficits in attention (FEDA) and subjectively experienced everyday memory performance (FEAG). Results: The baseline data showed a high proportion of self-perceived neurocognitive deficits in both groups. A comparison between the TG and the CG regarding the course of self-reported outcomes after RT showed significant between-group differences for the FEDA scales 2 and 3: fatigue and retardation of daily living activities (P=.002) and decrease in motivation (P=.032) with an increase of attention deficits in the TG, but not in the CG. There was a trend towards significance in FEDA scale 1: distractibility and retardation of mental processes (P=.059) between the TG and the CG. The FEAG assessment presented no significant differences. An additional subgroup analysis within the TG was carried out. FEDA scale 3 showed significant differences in the time-related progress between patients with whole-brain RT and those receiving hypofractionated stereotactic RT (P=.025), with less decrease in motivation in the latter group. Conclusion: Self-reported attention declined in

  8. Novel treatment strategies for brain tumors and metastases

    PubMed Central

    El-Habashy, Salma E.; Nazief, Alaa M.; Adkins, Chris E.; Wen, Ming Ming; El-Kamel, Amal H.; Hamdan, Ahmed M.; Hanafy, Amira S.; Terrell, Tori O.; Mohammad, Afroz S.; Lockman, Paul R.; Nounou, Mohamed Ismail

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes patent applications in the past 5 years for the management of brain tumors and metastases. Most of the recent patents discuss one of the following strategies: the development of new drug entities that specifically target the brain cells, the blood–brain barrier and the tumor cells, tailor-designing a novel carrier system that is able to perform multitasks and multifunction as a drug carrier, targeting vehicle and even as a diagnostic tool, direct conjugation of a US FDA approved drug with a targeting moiety, diagnostic moiety or PK modifying moiety, or the use of innovative nontraditional approaches such as genetic engineering, stem cells and vaccinations. Until now, there has been no optimal strategy to deliver therapeutic agents to the CNS for the treatment of brain tumors and metastases. Intensive research efforts are actively ongoing to take brain tumor targeting, and novel and targeted CNS delivery systems to potential clinical application. PMID:24998288

  9. Novel treatment strategies for brain tumors and metastases.

    PubMed

    El-Habashy, Salma E; Nazief, Alaa M; Adkins, Chris E; Wen, Ming Ming; El-Kamel, Amal H; Hamdan, Ahmed M; Hanafy, Amira S; Terrell, Tori O; Mohammad, Afroz S; Lockman, Paul R; Nounou, Mohamed Ismail

    2014-05-01

    This review summarizes patent applications in the past 5 years for the management of brain tumors and metastases. Most of the recent patents discuss one of the following strategies: the development of new drug entities that specifically target the brain cells, the blood-brain barrier and the tumor cells, tailor-designing a novel carrier system that is able to perform multitasks and multifunction as a drug carrier, targeting vehicle and even as a diagnostic tool, direct conjugation of a US FDA approved drug with a targeting moiety, diagnostic moiety or PK modifying moiety, or the use of innovative nontraditional approaches such as genetic engineering, stem cells and vaccinations. Until now, there has been no optimal strategy to deliver therapeutic agents to the CNS for the treatment of brain tumors and metastases. Intensive research efforts are actively ongoing to take brain tumor targeting, and novel and targeted CNS delivery systems to potential clinical application.

  10. Unsanctifying the sanctuary: challenges and opportunities with brain metastases

    PubMed Central

    Puhalla, Shannon; Elmquist, William; Freyer, David; Kleinberg, Lawrence; Adkins, Chris; Lockman, Paul; McGregor, John; Muldoon, Leslie; Nesbit, Gary; Peereboom, David; Smith, Quentin; Walker, Sara; Neuwelt, Edward

    2015-01-01

    While the use of targeted therapies, particularly radiosurgery, has broadened therapeutic options for CNS metastases, patients respond minimally and prognosis remains poor. The inability of many systemic chemotherapeutic agents to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) has limited their use and allowed brain metastases to become a burgeoning clinical challenge. Adequate preclinical models that appropriately mimic the metastatic process, the BBB, and blood-tumor barriers (BTB) are needed to better evaluate therapies that have the ability to enhance delivery through or penetrate into these barriers and to understand the mechanisms of resistance to therapy. The heterogeneity among and within different solid tumors and subtypes of solid tumors further adds to the difficulties in determining the most appropriate treatment approaches and methods of laboratory and clinical studies. This review article discusses therapies focused on prevention and treatment of CNS metastases, particularly regarding the BBB, and the challenges and opportunities these therapies present. PMID:25846288

  11. Physician Expectations of Treatment Outcomes for Patients With Brain Metastases Referred for Whole Brain Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, Elizabeth A.; Chow, Edward; Tsao, May N.; Bradley, Nicole M.; Doyle, Meagan; Li, Kathy; Lam, Kelvin; Danjoux, Cyril

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: Patients with advanced cancer are referred to our Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program for quick access to palliative radiotherapy. The primary objective of this prospective study was to determine the physician expectations of the treatment outcomes for patients with brain metastases referred for whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). The secondary objectives were to determine the factors influencing the expectations and to examine the accuracy of the physician-estimated patient survival. Methods and Materials: Patients were identified during a 17-month period. The referring physicians were sent a survey by facsimile to be completed and returned before the patient consultation. Information was sought on the patient's disease status, the physician's expectations of WBRT, the estimated patient survival and performance status, and physician demographic data. Results: A total of 137 surveys were sent out, and the overall response rate was 57.7%. The median patient age was 66 years (range, 35-87), 78.5% had multiple brain metastases, 42.3% had a controlled primary tumor, and 62.3% had extracranial disease. WBRT was thought to stabilize neurologic symptoms, improve quality of life, and allow for a Decadron (dexamethasone) taper by >=94.9% of the referring physicians; 87.0% thought WBRT would improve performance status; 77.9% thought it would improve neurologic symptoms; and 40.8% thought it would improve survival. The referring physicians estimated patient survival as a median of 6.0 months; however, the actual survival was a median of 2.5 months, for a median individual difference of 1.9 months (p < .0001). Conclusion: Physicians referring patients with brain metastases for consideration of WBRT are often overly optimistic when estimating the clinical benefit of the treatment and overestimate patient survival. These findings highlight the need for education and additional research in this field.

  12. Effects of icotinib with and without radiation therapy on patients with EGFR mutant non-small cell lung cancer and brain metastases

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yun; Xu, Yanjun; Gong, Lei; Fang, luo; Lu, Hongyang; Qin, Jing; Han, Na; Xie, Fajun; Qiu, Guoqin; Huang, Zhiyu

    2017-01-01

    EGFR-TKIs and radiation therapy (RT) are the principal treatment for patients with brain metastases (BM) and EGFR mutant NSCLC. However, the optimal use of brain RT for patients with asymptomatic BM remains undefined. A total of 152 patients were identified. 58 patients were excluded. Of the remaining 97 patients, 56 patients received upfront RT followed by icotinib, including WBRT or SRS. 41 patients received icotinib therapy alone. The mOS from diagnosis of BM was 27.0 months for the whole cohort (95% CI, 23.9–30.1 months). There was no difference in OS between the RT followed by icotinib group and the icotinib alone group (31.9 vs. 27.9 months, P = 0.237), and similar results were found in the SRS subgroup (35.5 vs. 27.9 months, P = 0.12). Patients with the EGFR Del19 mutation had a longer OS than patients with the exon 21 L858R mutation (32.7 vs. 27.4, P = 0.037). Intracranial progression-free survival (PFS) was improved in the patients who received RT followed by icotinib compared to those receiving icotinib alone (22.4 vs. 13.9 months, P = 0.043). Patients with EGFR-mutant adenocarcinoma and BM treated with icotinib exhibited prolonged survival. A longer duration of intracranial control was observed with brain RT. PMID:28332624

  13. New therapeutic targets for cancer bone metastases

    PubMed Central

    Krzeszinski, Jing Y.; Wan, Yihong

    2015-01-01

    Bone metastases are dejected consequences of many types of tumors including breast, prostate, lung, kidney and thyroid cancers. This complicated process begins with the successful tumor cell epithelial–mesenchymal transition, escape from the original site, and penetration into circulation. The homing of tumor cells to the bone depends on both tumor-intrinsic traits and various molecules supplied by the bone metastatic niche. The colonization and growth of cancer cells in the osseous environment, which awaken their dormancy to form micro- and macro-metastasis, involve an intricate interaction between the circulating tumor cells and local bone cells including osteoclasts, osteoblasts, adipocytes and macrophages. In this review, we discuss the most recent advances in the identification of new molecules and novel mechanisms during each step of bone metastasis that may serve as promising therapeutic targets. PMID:25962679

  14. Cancer around the brain

    PubMed Central

    Grisold, Wolfgang; Grisold, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Background Neuro-oncologists are familiar with primary brain tumors, intracerebral metastases meningeal carcinomatosis and extracerebral intracranial tumors as meningeoma. For these conditions, and also some other rare tumor entities several treatment options exist. Cancer can also involve structures around the brain as the dura, the base of the skull, the cavities of the skull and tissue around the bony skull, the skin, the tissue of the neck. and either compress, invade or spread in the central or peripheral nervous system. Methods A systematic literature research was conducted determining symptoms and signs, tumor sites of nerve invasion, tumor types, diagnostic techniques, mechanisms of nerve invasion, and important differential diagnosis. Additional cases from own experience were added for illustration. Results The mechanisms of tumor invasion of cranial nerves is heterogenous and not only involves several types of invasion, but also spread along the cranial nerves in antero- and retrograde fashion and even spread into different nerve territories via anastomosis. In addition the concept of angiosomas may have an influence on the spread of metastases. Conclusion In addition to the well described tumor spread in meningeal carcinomatosis and base of the skull metastases, dural spread, lesions of the bony skull, the cavities of the skull and skin of the face and tissue of the neck region need to be considered, and have an impact on therapeutic decisions. PMID:26034610

  15. Evaluating cancer patients for metastases: an approach using Bayes' theorem

    SciTech Connect

    Shimm, D.S.

    1985-08-01

    Before patients with apparently localized cancer are offered potentially curative surgery or radiation therapy, physicians often order a battery of imaging studies to exclude metastases. The yield of radionuclide liver and bone scans and computed tomography of the brain in breast, colorectal, and lung carcinomas was examined as follows: the literature was reviewed to obtain the autopsy prevalences of brain, liver and bone metastases in breast, colorectal and all histologies of lung carcinoma, to estimate the sensitivities and specificities of radionuclide liver and bone scans and computed tomography of the brain. Using Bayes' theorem, the predictive accuracies of positive and negative clinical evaluations and imaging studies were computed. For most of the examples analyzed, the imaging studies do not provide information beyond that obtained by the history, physical examination, and inexpensive laboratory tests and radiographs that would alter the physician's decision to offer curative treatment directed towards local disease. This method is presented as a model for clinical decision making where the information gained by an additional study is evaluated for its use in altering therapeutic decisions.

  16. Cancer Metastases: Early Dissemination and Late Recurrences

    PubMed Central

    Friberg, Sten; Nyström, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Metastatic cells from a primary tumor can occur before the primary cancer is detected. Metastatic cells can also remain in the patient for many years after removal of the primary tumor without proliferating. These dormant malignant cells can awaken and cause recurrent disease decades after the primary treatment. The purpose of this article is to review the clinical evidence for early dissemination and late recurrences in human malignant tumors. We used the following definitions: dormancy of cells may be defined as a nonproliferating state or an arrest in the cell cycle that results in a prolonged G0 phase. If one accepts the term “late metastases” to indicate a period exceeding 10 years from the removal of the primary tumor, then the two malignancies in which this occurs most frequently are cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched with the keywords “metastases,” “early dissemination,” “late recurrences,” “inadvertently transmitted cancer,” “tumor growth rate,” “dormancy,” “circulating tumor cells,” and “transplantation of cancer.” RESULTS Several case reports of early dissemination and late recurrences of various types of malignancies were found. Analyses of the growth rates of several malignant tumors in the original host indicated that the majority of cancers had metastasized years before they were detected. CMM, RCC, and malignant glioblastoma were the three most common malignancies resulting from an organ transplantation. CMM and RCC were also the two most common malignancies that showed dormancy. In several cases of transplanted CMM and RCC, the donor did not have any known malignancy or had had the malignancy removed so long ago that the donor was regarded as cured. CONCLUSION (1) Metastases can frequently exist prior to the detection of the primary tumor. (2) Metastatic cells may reside in organs in the original host that are not

  17. CT of irradiated solid tumor metastases to the brain.

    PubMed

    Brown, S B; Brant-Zawadzki, M; Eifel, P; Coleman, C N; Enzmann, D R

    1982-01-01

    Twenty patients with solid tumor metastases to the brain, demonstrated by CT scanning, had follow-up scans after radiation therapy of the metastatic focus. Nine patients (45%) showed no evidence of the metastasis on the initial follow-up scans. Another 10 patients (50%) showed some improvement in the size, enhancement, or surrounding edema of the lesion. Only one patient showed progression in spite of therapy. The CT scan identified those patients who achieved longer survival and/or longer time intervals before brain relapse. However, CT scans must be interpreted with caution in patients still on corticosteroid treatment. Additionally, other non-tumoral conditions may mimic tumor recurrence. Radiation therapy offered palliation in patients with brain metastases, and in some instances, sterilized patients of their metastatic brain involvement.

  18. Stereotactic radiosurgery for merkel cell carcinoma brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Arun T; Alexandru-Abrams, Daniela; Abrams, Eric M; Lee, John Y K

    2015-09-01

    In this report we propose a novel approach to treat merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) brain metastases and present a review of the literature in an attempt to establish a treatment algorithm and provide prognosis. MCC is a rare neuroendocrine malignancy affecting the aging population. This malignancy has a very aggressive behavior with frequent metastases. We report a 61-year-old man with a prior history of MCC who presented with diplopia. Brain MRI revealed a single right thalamic lesion consistent with metastasis. In the two weeks following GammaKnife stereotactic radiosurgery (Elekta, Stockholm, Sweden) the diplopia improved. A brain MRI demonstrated shrinkage of the tumor. From our literature search we found only six other patients with MCC brain metastases. The majority of these patients were treated with whole brain radiation in conjunction with chemotherapy. We propose that stereotactic radiosurgery can be used as a first line therapy for patients with MCC metastatic brain disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Radiation-induced dementia in patients cured of brain metastases

    SciTech Connect

    DeAngelis, L.M.; Delattre, J.Y.; Posner, J.B.

    1989-06-01

    When a patient with cancer develops a brain metastasis, death is usually imminent, but aggressive treatment in some patients with limited or no systemic disease yields long-term survival. In such patients, delayed deleterious effects of therapy are particularly tragic. We report 12 patients who developed delayed complications of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) given as sole treatment (4 patients) or in combination with surgical resection (8 patients). Within 5 to 36 months (median, 14) all patients developed progressive dementia, ataxia, and urinary incontinence causing severe disability in all and leading to death in 7. No patient had tumor recurrence when neurologic symptoms began. Cortical atrophy and hypodense white matter were identified by CT in all. Contrast-enhancing lesions were seen in 3 patients; 2 of the lesions yielded radionecrosis on biopsy. Autopsies on 2 patients revealed diffuse chronic edema of the hemispheric white matter in the absence of tumor recurrence. Corticosteroids and ventriculoperitoneal shunt offered significant but incomplete improvement in some patients. The total dose of WBRT was only 2,500 to 3,900 cGy, but daily fractions of 300 to 600 cGy were employed. We believe that these fractionation schedules, several of which are used commonly, predispose to delayed neurologic toxicity, and that more protracted schedules should be employed for the safe and efficacious treatment of good-risk patients with brain metastases. The incidence of WBRT-induced dementia was only 1.9 to 5.1% in the 2 populations reviewed here; however, this underestimates the incidence because only severely affected patients could be identified from chart review.

  20. A phase 2 study of radiosurgery and temozolomide for patients with 1 to 4 brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Fiveash, John B; Arafat, Waleed O; Naoum, George E; Guthrie, Barton L; Sawrie, Stephen M; Spencer, Sharon A; Meredith, Ruby F; Markert, James M; Conry, Robert M; Nabors, Burt L

    2016-01-01

    To determine if temozolomide reduces the risk of distant brain failure (DBF, metachronous brain metastases) in patients with 1 to 4 brain metastases treated with radiosurgery without whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT). Twenty-five patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases were enrolled in a single institution phase 2 trial of radiosurgery (15-24 Gy) and adjuvant temozolomide. Temozolomide was continued for a total of 12 cycles unless the patient developed DBF, unacceptable toxicity, or systemic progression requiring other therapy. Twenty-five patients were enrolled between 2002 and 2005; 3 were not evaluable for determining DBF. Of the remaining 22 patients, tumor types included non-small cell lung cancer (n = 8), melanoma (n = 7), and other (n = 7). Extracranial disease was present in 10 (45%) patients. The median number of tumors at the time of radiosurgery was 3 (range, 1-6). The median overall survival was 31 weeks. The median radiographic follow-up for patients who did not develop DBF was 33 weeks. Six patients developed DBF. The 1-year actuarial risk of DBF was 37%. In this study, there was a relatively low risk of distant brain failure observed in the nonmelanoma subgroup receiving temozolamide. However, patient selection factors rather than chemotherapy treatment efficacy are more likely the reason for the relatively low risk of distant brain failure observed in this study. Future trial design should account for these risk factors.

  1. Surgical management of breast cancer liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Cassera, Maria A; Hammill, Chet W; Ujiki, Michael B; Wolf, Ronald F; Swanström, Lee L; Hansen, Paul D

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Selected patients with isolated breast cancer liver metastases (BCLM) may benefit from surgical management; however, indications remain unclear and the risks may outweigh the benefits in patients with a generally poor prognosis. Methods Between 1998 and 2006, 17 patients diagnosed with BCLM were considered for surgical management (<4 tumours, tumour <4 cm in diameter and no/stable extrahepatic metastases). Peri-operative and outcomes data were analysed and compared. Results Eight patients were found to have extensive or untreatable disease on staging laparoscopy and intra-operative ultrasound (SL/IOUS). The remaining nine patients underwent surgical management [seven laparoscopic radiofrequency ablations (RFA) and two hepatic resections]. Median length of follow-up for patients treated surgically was 40.0 months, median disease-free survival (DFS) was 32.2 months and median time to disease progression was 17.7 months. Of the eight patients not amenable to surgery, median length of follow-up was 21.8 months. Conclusion SL/IOUS prevented unnecessary laparotomy in half of the patients taken to the operating room for surgical treatment of BCLM. In patients with BCLM, SL/IOUS should be considered standard of care before surgical intervention. The small number of patients and short follow-up may be inadequate to determine the true value of surgical management in this group of patients with BCLM. PMID:21418133

  2. Solitary brain metastasis from prostate cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Tasneem; Agarwal, Arnav; McDonald, Rachel; Ganesh, Vithusha; Vuong, Sherlyn; Borean, Michael; Chow, Edward; Soliman, Hany

    2016-07-01

    Brain metastases arising from prostate cancer are exceedingly rare and typically occur late in the course of the disease. Most patients have widespread metastatic disease before developing brain metastases from prostate cancer. We report the case of a 67-year-old male with prostate cancer presenting with an isolated symptomatic brain metastasis. Aggressive treatment of the metastatic site included tumor resection and adjuvant stereotactic radiation treatment (RT) to the surgical bed, resulting in a favorable outcome.

  3. Diagnosis and treatment of brain metastases from solid tumors: guidelines from the European Association of Neuro-Oncology (EANO).

    PubMed

    Soffietti, Riccardo; Abacioglu, Ufuk; Baumert, Brigitta; Combs, Stephanie E; Kinhult, Sara; Kros, Johan M; Marosi, Christine; Metellus, Philippe; Radbruch, Alexander; Villa Freixa, Salvador S; Brada, Michael; Carapella, Carmine M; Preusser, Matthias; Le Rhun, Emilie; Rudà, Roberta; Tonn, Joerg C; Weber, Damien C; Weller, Michael

    2017-02-01

    The management of patients with brain metastases has become a major issue due to the increasing frequency and complexity of the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In 2014, the European Association of Neuro-Oncology (EANO) created a multidisciplinary Task Force to draw evidence-based guidelines for patients with brain metastases from solid tumors. Here, we present these guidelines, which provide a consensus review of evidence and recommendations for diagnosis by neuroimaging and neuropathology, staging, prognostic factors, and different treatment options. Specifically, we addressed options such as surgery, stereotactic radiosurgery/stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy, whole-brain radiotherapy, chemotherapy and targeted therapy (with particular attention to brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer, melanoma and breast and renal cancer), and supportive care. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Musculoskeletal Complications and Bone Metastases in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Estrogen Deprivation Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0358 TITLE: Musculoskeletal Complications and Bone Metastases in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Estrogen...30 Sep 2014 - 29 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Musculoskeletal Complications and Bone Metastases in Breast Cancer Patients... musculoskeletal complications in my model of breast cancer bone metastases. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Breast cancer; bone metastases; estrogen; endocrine therapy

  5. Targeting CD81 to Prevent Metastases in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0398 TITLE: Targeting CD81 to Prevent Metastases in Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Stefanie Jeffrey...Targeting CD81 to Prevent Metastases in Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0398 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Stefanie Jeffrey 5d...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES None 14. ABSTRACT During the research period, we tested a role for CD81 in breast cancer metastases and found that loss of CD81

  6. Tropism between hepatic and pulmonary metastases in colorectal cancers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hyun; Choi, So-Jung; Park, Joon Suk; Lee, Jinseon; Cho, Yong Beom; Kang, Min-Woong; Lee, Woo Yong; Choi, Yong Soo; Kim, Hong Kwan; Han, Joungho; Chun, Ho-Kyung; Kim, Jhingook

    2012-08-01

    In metastatic colorectal cancers, tumor cells are disseminated prior to surgical resection of the primary tumor but remain dormant until proper colonization mechanisms are activated. To identify the colonization mechanisms of the metastatic tumors, we conducted a pairwise comparison between primary colorectal cancers and metastatic tumors (n=12 pairs), including six hepatic pairs and six pulmonary pairs. The mRNA levels of 224 genes previously reported to be associated with metastasis, cytokines and angiogenesis were quantitatively determined by PCR arrays. Among them, 27 genes were duplicated or triplicated to show consistent expression. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of the Ct values of metastasis-related genes revealed that liver metastases were indistinguishable from primary colorectal cancers (n=5/6), whereas lung metastases were highly diversified from one another and from the primary tumors (n=6/6). Cytokines and receptor gene expression array data also confirmed the divergence of pulmonary metastases from primary colorectal cancers (n=6/6). Heat map analyses of ΔCt values of the metastasis-related genes identified a 17-gene tropism signature that was sufficient not only to distinguish liver and the lung metastases, but also reconstituted the clustering of primary tumors with the hepatic metastases (n=17/18). In this pilot experiment, pulmonary metastases were significantly diverged from hepatic metastases that were indistinguishable from primary colorectal cancers. Further genomic and clinical studies are in progress to evaluate the potential of the tropism signature as a therapeutic target to inhibit the colonization of metastatic colorectal cancers.

  7. Viral Immunotherapy to Eradicate Subclinical Brain Metastases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    Cells. Journal of Immunology. 2013; 191(1):17-23. 24. Schmieder A, Michel J, Schonhaar K, Goerdt S, Schledzewski K. Differentiation and gene expression...Steinberg B, Barron D. Changes in peripheral T-cell subsets and natural-killer cytotoxicity in relation to colorec- tal cancer surgery. Cancer

  8. [Supportive care, cognition and quality of life in brain metastases].

    PubMed

    Le Rhun, É; Taillibert, S; Blonski, M; Jouniaux Delbez, N; Delgadillo, D; Taillia, H; Auquier, P; Belin, C; Bonnetain, F; Varin, D; Tallet, A; Taillandier, L

    2015-02-01

    Brain metastases impact on the survival of the patients, but on their quality of life as well. The objective of the management of these patients is then double. Currently, due to medical advances, survivals tend to improve, especially for some tumor subtypes. During the course of the disease, different neurological signs and symptoms can be observed according to the location, the number and the volume of the metastase(s). Patients and caregivers are especially worried about the loss of autonomy and cognitive impairments. A permanent dialogue, during the course of the disease, is mandatory, in order to adapt the management to the objectives determined by the patients and the medical team. These objectives may vary according to the objective response rates of the disease to anticancer therapies, according to the impact of the disease and its management in daily living. Anticancer therapies and supportive care must be appreciated according to their impact on the survival, on the preservation of the functional independence and the quality of life of the patient, on their abilities to preserve the neurological status and delay the apparition of new neurological signs and symptoms, and their adverse events. Supportive care, cognition and quality of life should be regularly evaluated and adapted according to the objectives of the management of brain metastases patients. Different approaches are described in this paper.

  9. In vivo imaging models of bone and brain metastases and pleural carcinomatosis with a novel human EML4-ALK lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Nanjo, Shigeki; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Takeuchi, Shinji; Kita, Kenji; Fukuda, Koji; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Uehara, Hisanori; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Hara, Eiji; Uramoto, Hidetaka; Tanaka, Fumihiro; Yano, Seiji

    2015-03-01

    EML4-ALK lung cancer accounts for approximately 3-7% of non-small-cell lung cancer cases. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying tumor progression and targeted drug sensitivity/resistance in EML4-ALK lung cancer, clinically relevant animal models are indispensable. In this study, we found that the lung adenocarcinoma cell line A925L expresses an EML4-ALK gene fusion (variant 5a, E2:A20) and is sensitive to the ALK inhibitors crizotinib and alectinib. We further established highly tumorigenic A925LPE3 cells, which also have the EML4-ALK gene fusion (variant 5a) and are sensitive to ALK inhibitors. By using A925LPE3 cells with luciferase gene transfection, we established in vivo imaging models for pleural carcinomatosis, bone metastasis, and brain metastasis, all of which are significant clinical concerns of advanced EML4-ALK lung cancer. Interestingly, crizotinib caused tumors to shrink in the pleural carcinomatosis model, but not in bone and brain metastasis models, whereas alectinib showed remarkable efficacy in all three models, indicative of the clinical efficacy of these ALK inhibitors. Our in vivo imaging models of multiple organ sites may provide useful resources to analyze further the pathogenesis of EML4-ALK lung cancer and its response and resistance to ALK inhibitors in various organ microenvironments.

  10. The Current and Future Treatment of Brain Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Hardesty, Douglas A.; Nakaji, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Brain metastases are the most common intracranial malignancy, accounting for significant morbidity and mortality in oncology patients. The current treatment paradigm for brain metastasis depends on the patient’s overall health status, the primary tumor pathology, and the number and location of brain lesions. Herein, we review the modern management options for these tumors, including surgical resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Recent operative advances, such as fluorescence, confocal microscopy, and brachytherapy, are highlighted. With an increased understanding of the pathophysiology of brain metastasis come increased future therapeutic options. Therapy targeted to specific tumor molecular pathways, such as those involved in blood–brain barrier transgression, cell–cell adhesion, and angiogenesis, are also reviewed. A personalized plan for each patient, based on molecular characterizations of the tumor that are used to better target radiotherapy and chemotherapy, is undoubtedly the future of brain metastasis treatment. PMID:27252942

  11. The Current and Future Treatment of Brain Metastases.

    PubMed

    Hardesty, Douglas A; Nakaji, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Brain metastases are the most common intracranial malignancy, accounting for significant morbidity and mortality in oncology patients. The current treatment paradigm for brain metastasis depends on the patient's overall health status, the primary tumor pathology, and the number and location of brain lesions. Herein, we review the modern management options for these tumors, including surgical resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Recent operative advances, such as fluorescence, confocal microscopy, and brachytherapy, are highlighted. With an increased understanding of the pathophysiology of brain metastasis come increased future therapeutic options. Therapy targeted to specific tumor molecular pathways, such as those involved in blood-brain barrier transgression, cell-cell adhesion, and angiogenesis, are also reviewed. A personalized plan for each patient, based on molecular characterizations of the tumor that are used to better target radiotherapy and chemotherapy, is undoubtedly the future of brain metastasis treatment.

  12. Impact of preexisting tumor necrosis on the efficacy of stereotactic radiosurgery in the treatment of brain metastases in women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhiyuan; Marko, Nicholas F; Angelov, Lilyana; Barnett, Gene H; Chao, Samuel T; Vogelbaum, Michael A; Suh, John H; Weil, Robert J

    2012-03-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common source of brain metastasis. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) can be an effective treatment for some patients with brain metastasis (BM). Necrosis is a common feature of many brain tumors, including BM; however, the influence of tumor necrosis on treatment efficacy of SRS in women with breast cancer metastatic to the brain is unknown. A cohort of 147 women with breast cancer and BM treated consecutively with SRS over 10 years were studied. Of these, 80 (54.4%) had necrosis identified on pretreatment magnetic resonance images and 67 (46.4%) did not. Survival times were computed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Log-rank tests were used to compare groups with respect to survival times, Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to perform univariate and multivariate analyses, and chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used to compare clinicopathologic covariates. Neurological survival (NS) and survival after SRS were decreased in BM patients with necrosis at the time of SRS compared with patients without necrosis by 32% and 27%, respectively (NS median survival, 25 vs 17 months [log-rank test, P = .006]; SRS median survival, 15 vs 11 months [log-rank test, P = .045]). On multivariate analysis, HER2 amplification status and necrosis influenced NS and SRS after adjusting for standard clinical features, including BM number, size, and volume as well as Karnofsky performance status. Neuroimaging evidence of necrosis at the time of SRS significantly diminished the efficacy of therapy and was a potent prognostic marker. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  13. Patterns of Practice of Palliative Radiotherapy in Africa, Part 1: Bone and Brain Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Vinay Gaye, Papa Macoumba M.Med.; Wahab, Sherif Abdel; Ndlovu, Ntokozo; Ngoma, Twalib; Vanderpuye, Verna; Sowunmi, Anthonia; Kigula-Mugambe, Joseph; Jeremic, Branislav

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: To provide data on the pattern of practice of palliative radiotherapy (RT) on the African continent. Methods and Materials: A questionnaire was distributed to participants in a regional training course of the International Atomic Energy Agency in palliative cancer care and sent by e-mail to other institutions in Africa. Requested information included both infrastructure and human resources available and the pattern of RT practice for metastatic and locally advanced cancers. Results: Of 35 centers contacted, 24 (68%) completed the questionnaire. Although RT is used by most centers for most metastatic cancers, liver and lung metastases are treated with chemotherapy. Of 23 centers, 14 (61%) had a single RT regimen as an institutional policy for treating painful bone metastases, but only 5 centers (23%) of 23 used 8 Gy in 1 fraction. Brain metastases were being treated by RT to the whole brain to 30 Gy in 10 fractions, either exclusively (n = 13, 56%) or in addition to the use of 20 Gy in 5 fractions (n = 3, 14%). Conclusion: Radiotherapy is a major component of treatment of cancer patients in African countries. There is consensus among few centers for treatment schedules for almost all sites regarding time and dose-fractionation characteristics of RT regimens used and/or indications for the use of RT in this setting.

  14. Impacts of EGFR mutation and EGFR-TKIs on incidence of brain metastases in advanced non-squamous NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao-Xiao; Ou, Wei; Mao, Xiao-Yong; Liu, Zui; Wu, Hui-Qi; Wang, Si-Yu

    2017-09-01

    Brain metastases remain lethal in lung cancer patients. The impacts of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) on the incidence of brain metastases in patients with advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are still uncertain. A total of 1672 patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC with a definitive report on EGFR mutation status between January 2005 and June 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. The impacts of EGFR mutation status and EGFR TKIs use on the incidence of brain metastases and survival were investigated. Of the 1672 patients, 465 (27.8%) had an EGFR mutation, and 1207 (72.2%) did not. Four hundred and eighteen (25.0%) patients had baseline brain metastases. The cumulative incidence of brain metastases for patients in EGFR+ group was significantly higher than patients in EGFR- group (HR, 1.27; 95% CI 1.06-1.52; P=0.008). The cumulative incidence of brain metastases was also higher for patients who received an EGFR-TKI as their first-line treatment than those who received other first-line treatment (HR, 1.36; 95% CI 1.14-1.64; P=0.001). Patients harboring EGFR mutations had prolonged overall survival (OS) than patients with wild-type EGFR (HR, 0.47; 95% CI 0.41-0.54; P<0.001; median, 25.2 vs. 12.9 months). Both the EGFR mutation-positive status and the use of a TKI are associated with higher incidence of brain metastases for patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Repeated gamma knife surgery for multiple brain metastases from renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wowra, Berndt; Siebels, Michael; Muacevic, Alexander; Kreth, Friedrich Wilhelm; Mack, Andreas; Hofstetter, Alfons

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic profile of repeated gamma knife surgery (GKS) for renal cell carcinoma that has metastasized to the brain on multiple occasions. Data from this study were culled from a single institution and cover a 6-year period of outpatient radiosurgery. A standard protocol for indication, dose planning, and follow up was established. In cases of distant or local recurrences, radiosurgery was undertaken repeatedly (up to six times in one individual). Seventy-five patients harboring 350 cerebral metastases were treated. Relief from pretreatment neurological symptoms occurred in 72% of patients within a few days or a few weeks after the procedure. The actuarial local tumor control rate after the initial GKS was 95%. In patients free from relapse of intracranial metastases after repeated radiosurgery, long-term survival was 91% after 4 years; median survival was 11.1+/-3.2 months after radiosurgery and 4.5+/-1.1 years after diagnosis of the primary kidney cancer. Survival following radiosurgery was independent of patient age and sex, side of the renal cell carcinoma, pretreatment of the cerebrum by using radiotherapy or surgery, number of brain metastases and their synchronization with the primary renal cell carcinoma, and the frequency of radiosurgical procedures. In contrast, survival was dependent on the patient's clinical performance score and the extracranial tumor status. Tumor bleeding was observed in seven patients (9%) and late radiation toxicity (LRT) in 15 patients (20%). Treatment-related morbidity was moderate and mostly transient. Late radiation toxicity was encountered predominantly in long-term survivors. Outpatient repeated radiosurgery is an effective and only minimally invasive treatment for multiple brain metastases from renal cell cancer and is recommended as being the method of choice to control intracranial disease, especially in selected patients with limited extracranial disease. Physicians dealing with

  16. Curing patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    2011-04-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third commonest malignancy worldwide and the second commonest cause of cancer-related deaths.1,2 Around 15-25% of patients with colorectal cancer have metastases at presentation, and a further 20-25% develop them subsequently.3 Management for metastatic disease is mainly palliative and traditionally 5-year survival has been rare.3-5 In colorectal cancer, metastases mostly occur in the liver and in 30-50% of patients with liver involvement, this is the only site of spread. For those with liver-only metastases, resection of these lesions provides a chance of longer-term survival or even cure (e.g. 5-year survival 25-71%).4,6-13 Here we focus on recent advances in chemotherapy for patients with initially unresectable liver metastases, aimed at rendering such lesions operable, with potential improvements in survival.4,13,14.

  17. Combination of 177Lu-PSMA-617 and External Radiotherapy for the Treatment of Cerebral Metastases in Patients With Castration-Resistant Metastatic Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiao; Schlenkhoff, Carl; Schwarz, Bettina; Essler, Markus; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat

    2017-09-01

    Two castration-resistant prostate cancer patients, both with cerebral and visceral and lymphatic metastases, received multiple cycles of Lu-PSMA-617 treatments. The prognosis of both cases is dependent on brain metastases. Between Lu-PSMA-617 treatment cycles, local radiotherapy was also applied to the brain metastases. Prior to the combined therapy, all systemic metastases, including cerebral lesions, showed PSMA expression using Ga-PSMA PET/CT. Under the combined therapy, all the metastases, particularly the cerebral lesions, showed significant regression in size and PSMA expression over time.

  18. Stereotactic Radiosurgery in the Management of Brain Metastases: An Institutional Retrospective Analysis of Survival

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, James L.; Batra, Sachin; Kapor, Sumit; Vellimana, Ananth; Gandhi, Rahul; Carson, Kathryn A.; Shokek, Ori; Lim, Michael; Kleinberg, Lawrence; Rigamonti, Daniele

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to report our experience with stereotactic radiosurgery performed with the Gamma Knife (GK) in the treatment of patients with brain metastases and to compare survival for those treated with radiosurgery alone with survival for those treated with radiosurgery and whole-brain radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Prospectively collected demographic and clinical characteristics and treatment and survival data on 237 patients with intracranial metastases who underwent radiosurgery with the GK between 2003 and 2007 were reviewed. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to compare survival by demographic and clinical characteristics and treatment. Results: The mean age of the patient population was 56 years. The most common tumor histologies were non-small-cell lung carcinoma (34.2%) and breast cancer (13.9%). The median overall survival time was 8.5 months from the time of treatment. The median survival times for patients with one, two/three, and four or more brain metastases were 8.5, 9.4, and 6.7 months, respectively. Patients aged 65 years or greater and those aged less than 65 years had median survival times of 7.8 and 9 months, respectively (p = 0.008). The Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS) at the time of treatment was a significant predictor of survival: those patients with a KPS of 70 or less had a median survival of 2.9 months compared with 10.3 months (p = 0.034) for those with a KPS of 80 or greater. There was no statistically significant difference in survival between patients treated with radiosurgery alone and those treated with radiosurgery plus whole-brain radiotherapy. Conclusions: Radiosurgery with the GK is an efficacious treatment modality for brain metastases. A KPS greater than 70, histology of breast cancer, smaller tumor volume, and age less than 65 years were associated with a longer median survival in our study.

  19. Strategies for Treatment of Bone Metastases from Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    develop bone metastases and 75% of patients with breast carcinoma were found to be with bone metastases at autopsy (1,2). In spite of skeletal...cancer mediated bone destruction (2). In addition to bone pain, these individuals may develop bone fractures, spinal cord compression (which can cause...Soluble growth factors from the cancer cell enable new bone to be formed around the neoplastic cell. Alternatively the growth factors produced by the

  20. Radium-223 dichloride therapy in breast cancer with osseous metastases.

    PubMed

    Takalkar, Amol; Paryani, Bhavna; Adams, Scott; Subbiah, Vivek

    2015-11-18

    Osseous metastases occur frequently in patients with breast cancer. Few options exist for bone targeted therapy for hormone refractory patients with breast cancer with progressive bone metastases. We present a case of breast cancer with osseous metastases but no visceral metastases. The patient had been treated with surgery, chemotherapy, radiation and hormonal therapy, but still had extensive symptomatic osseous metastases. She received radium-223 dichloride, a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for castration resistant prostate cancer with bone metastases. She tolerated the therapy well with no significant adverse effects. She had an excellent response with significant pain relief obviating need for regular analgaesics. Her tumour markers also dropped significantly. Osseous metastases assessed with F-18 fluorodeoxy glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) and F-18 sodium fluoride (NaF) bone PET/CT) scans at baseline, after two and six cycles, also showed interval improvement in the lesions. Radium-223 dichloride could potentially be a safe and useful therapeutic option in this setting.

  1. Nodal metastases in thyroid cancer: prognostic implications and management.

    PubMed

    Wang, Laura Y; Ganly, Ian

    2016-04-01

    The significance of cervical lymph node metastases in differentiated thyroid cancer has been controversial and continues to evolve. Current staging systems consider nodal metastases to confer a poorer prognosis, particularly in older patients. Increasingly, the literature suggests that characteristics of the metastatic lymph nodes such as size and number are also prognostic. There is a growing trend toward less aggressive treatment of low-volume nodal disease. The aim of this review is to summarize the current literature and discuss prognostic and management implications of lymph node metastases in differentiated thyroid cancer.

  2. Nodal metastases in thyroid cancer: prognostic implications and management

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Laura Y; Ganly, Ian

    2016-01-01

    The significance of cervical lymph node metastases in differentiated thyroid cancer has been controversial and continues to evolve. Current staging systems consider nodal metastases to confer a poorer prognosis, particularly in older patients. Increasingly, the literature suggests that characteristics of the metastatic lymph nodes such as size and number are also prognostic. There is a growing trend toward less aggressive treatment of low-volume nodal disease. The aim of this review is to summarize the current literature and discuss prognostic and management implications of lymph node metastases in differentiated thyroid cancer. PMID:26948758

  3. Development of symptomatic brain metastases after chemoradiotherapy for stage III non-small cell lung cancer: Does the type of chemotherapy regimen matter?

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Lizza E L; Brouns, Anita J W M; Amini, Mohammad; Uyterlinde, Wilma; Wijsman, Robin; Bussink, Jan; Biesma, Bonne; Oei, S Bing; Stigt, Jos A; Bootsma, Gerben P; Belderbos, José S A; De Ruysscher, Dirk K M; Van den Heuvel, Michel M; Dingemans, Anne-Marie C

    2016-11-01

    Symptomatic brain metastases (BM) occur frequently after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for stage III NSCLC. Aim of the current study was to determine whether the specific chemotherapy used in a CRT regimen influences BM development. Retrospective multicenter study including all consecutive stage III NSCLC who completed CRT. Primary endpoints: symptomatic BM development, whether this was the only site of first relapse. Differences between regimens were assessed with a logistic regression model including known BM risk factors and the specific chemotherapy: concurrent versus sequential (cCRT/sCRT), within cCRT: daily low dose cisplatin (LDC)-cyclic dose polychemotherapy; LDC-(non-)taxane cyclic dose; LDC-polychemotherapy subgroups of ≥50 patients. Between January 2006 and June 2014, 838 patients were eligible (737 cCRT, 101 sCRT). 18.2% developed symptomatic BM, 8.0% had BM as only site of first relapse. BM patients were significantly younger, female, had more advanced N-stage and had adenocarcinoma histology. In both cCRT and sCRT BM were found in 18% (p=0.904). In cyclic dose cCRT (N=346) and LDC (N=391) BM were found in 18.8% and 17.9%, respectively (p=0.757). In 7.2% and 8.7%, respectively, BM were the only site of first relapse (p=0.463). The chemotherapy used (cCRT versus sCRT) had no influence on BM development, not for all brain relapses nor as only site of first relapse (OR 0.88 (p=0.669), OR 0.93 (p=0.855), respectively). LDC versus cyclic dose cCRT was not significantly different: neither for all brain relapses nor as only site of first relapse (OR 0.96 (p=0.819), OR 1.21 (p=0.498), respectively). Comparable results were found for LDC versus cyclic dose non-taxane (N=277) and cyclic dose taxane regimens (N=69) and for cCRT regimens with ≥50 patients (LDC versus cisplatin/etoposide (N=188), cisplatin/vinorelbin (N=65), weekly cisplatin/docetaxel (N=60)). approximately 18% developed symptomatic BM after stage III diagnosis, not dependent on type of chemotherapy

  4. Pulmonary nodules and metastases in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer (CRC) are subjected to a preoperative thoraco-abdominal CT scan to determine the cancer stage. This staging is of relevance with regard to treatment and prognosis. About 20% of the patients have distant metastatic spread at the time of diagnosis, i.e. synchronous metastases. Most common are hepatic metastases followed by pulmonary involvement. The optimal staging modality for detecting synchronous pulmonary metastases is debated. It has been argued, that synchronous pulmonary metastases (SPCM) are rare in CRC and that the consequence of detecting SPCM is minimal. Furthermore, the current staging practice is complicated by a high number of incidental findings on the thoracic CT, so-called indeterminate pulmonary nodules (IPN). IPN can potentially represent SPCM. The purpose of this thesis was to estimate the prevalence, characteristics and clinical significance of IPN and SPCM detected at the primary staging in CRC. Study I was a systematic review of published studies on IPN in CRC focusing on the prevalence and radiological characteristics of IPN proving to be malignant. This knowledge would be of value in management strategies for IPN. On average 9% of all patients staged with a thoracic CT had IPN, however, the prevalence varied significantly between patients series. This was mainly attributed to varying/lacking definitions on IPN and variable radiological expertise in the assessment of the scans. Data were too inconsistently reported in the case series for a robust statement to be made on potential radiological characteristics suggestive of malignancy in IPN. Lymph node metastasis was the most common clinicopathological finding associated with malignancy of IPN. In conclusion, one patient of every 100 scanned patients had an IPN proving to a SPCM at follow-up, but we found no evidence that IPN should result in intensified diagnostic work-up besides routine follow-up for CRC. Study II was an analysis of the

  5. Brain Metastases of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Horner's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hyo; Lee, Jung-Hwan; Chough, Chung-Kee; Park, Hae-Kwan; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Rha, Hyoung-Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid malignancy and has relatively favorable prognosis. Blood-borne metastases of PTC are very rare among the thyroid malignancies. Moreover a case of blood-borne central nervous system metastasized PTC with only unilateral Horner's syndrome, and without any abnormalities in laboratory or physical examinations has not been described before. A 53-year-old female patient had been managed in ophthalmologic clinic due to vague symptoms of right monocular blurred vision with eye dryness for 3 months, but showed no signs of improvement. So it was performed a magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography to evaluate the possibilities of cerebral lesion. And a left frontal mass was incidentally found, and the tumor turned out to be a PTC that had metastasized to brain, regional lymph node, cervical, thoracic spine, and lung. We describe a PTC with extraordinary initial symptoms that metastasized to an unusual site. We recommend that if a papillary thyroid tumor with unusual symptoms or at an advanced stage is found, further investigation should be performed for distant metastasis. PMID:25408940

  6. Brain Metastases of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Horner's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hyo; Lee, Jung-Hwan; Joo, Won-Il; Chough, Chung-Kee; Park, Hae-Kwan; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Rha, Hyoung-Kyun

    2014-10-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid malignancy and has relatively favorable prognosis. Blood-borne metastases of PTC are very rare among the thyroid malignancies. Moreover a case of blood-borne central nervous system metastasized PTC with only unilateral Horner's syndrome, and without any abnormalities in laboratory or physical examinations has not been described before. A 53-year-old female patient had been managed in ophthalmologic clinic due to vague symptoms of right monocular blurred vision with eye dryness for 3 months, but showed no signs of improvement. So it was performed a magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography to evaluate the possibilities of cerebral lesion. And a left frontal mass was incidentally found, and the tumor turned out to be a PTC that had metastasized to brain, regional lymph node, cervical, thoracic spine, and lung. We describe a PTC with extraordinary initial symptoms that metastasized to an unusual site. We recommend that if a papillary thyroid tumor with unusual symptoms or at an advanced stage is found, further investigation should be performed for distant metastasis.

  7. Brain Metastases in Patients With Germ Cell Tumors: Prognostic Factors and Treatment Options—An Analysis From the Global Germ Cell Cancer Group

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Darren R.; Lorch, Anja; Kramar, Andrew; Albany, Costantine; Einhorn, Lawrence H.; Giannatempo, Patrizia; Necchi, Andrea; Flechon, Aude; Boyle, Helen; Chung, Peter; Huddart, Robert A.; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Tryakin, Alexey; Sava, Teodoro; Winquist, Eric William; De Giorgi, Ugo; Aparicio, Jorge; Sweeney, Christopher J.; Cohn Cedermark, Gabriella; Powles, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To define characteristics, treatment response, and outcomes of men with brain metastases (BM) from germ cell tumors (GCT). Patients and Methods Data from 523 men with BM from GCT were collected retrospectively from 46 centers in 13 countries by using standardized questionnaires. Clinical features were correlated with overall survival (OS) as the primary end point. Results BM were present at initial diagnosis in 228 men (group A) and at relapse in 295 men (group B). OS at 3 years (3-year OS) was superior in group A versus group B (48% v 27%; P < .001). Multiple BM and the presence of liver or bone metastasis were independent adverse prognostic factors in both groups; primary mediastinal nonseminoma (group A) and elevations of α-fetoprotein of 100 ng/mL or greater or of human chorionic gonadotropin of 5,000 U/L or greater (group B) were additional independent adverse prognostic factors. Depending on these factors, the 3-year OS ranged from 0% to 70% in group A and from 6% to 52% in group B. In group A, 99% of patients received chemotherapy; multimodality treatment or high-dose chemotherapy was not associated with statistically improved survival in multivariable analysis. In group B, only 54% of patients received chemotherapy; multimodality treatment was associated with improved survival compared with single-modality therapy (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.73; P < .001), as was high-dose compared with conventional-dose chemotherapy (hazard ratio, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.70; P = .001). Conclusion Men with BM from GCT have poor OS, particularly if additional risk factors are present. High-dose chemotherapy and multimodality treatment seemed to improve survival probabilities in men with BM at relapse. PMID:26460295

  8. Radium-223 Therapy of Bone Metastases in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Sten

    2016-11-01

    Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer frequently metastasizes to the bone, often resulting in painful skeletal events, reduced quality of life, and reduced survival. Radium-223 is a first-in-class alpha-emitting radiopharmaceutical that has proven to prolong overall survival, delay time to symptomatic skeletal events, and improve quality of life in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and symptomatic bone metastases and no visceral metastases. Radium-223 provides survival benefit to patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and symptomatic bone metastases, regardless of prior docetaxel use. This article gives an overview of the development of radium-223 from the first-in-human trial to current status. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) alone versus WBRT and radiosurgery for the treatment of brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Patil, Chirag G; Pricola, Katie; Sarmiento, J Manuel; Garg, Sachin K; Bryant, Andrew; Black, Keith L

    2017-09-25

    Historically, whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) has been the main treatment for brain metastases. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) delivers high-dose focused radiation and is being increasingly utilized to treat brain metastases. The benefit of adding SRS to WBRT is unclear. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in Issue 9, 2012. To assess the efficacy of WBRT plus SRS versus WBRT alone in the treatment of adults with brain metastases. For the original review, in 2009 we searched the following electronic databases: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and CancerLit in order to identify trials for inclusion in this review. For the first update the searches were updated in May 2012.For this update, in May 2017 we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and Embase in order to identify trials for inclusion in the review. We restricted the review to randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared use of WBRT plus SRS versus WBRT alone for upfront treatment of adults with newly diagnosed metastases (single or multiple) in the brain resulting from any primary, extracranial cancer. We used the generic inverse variance method, random-effects model in Review Manager 5 for the meta-analysis. We identified three studies and one abstract for inclusion but we could only include two studies, with a total of 358 participants in a meta-analysis. This found no difference in overall survival (OS) between the WBRT plus SRS and WBRT alone groups (hazard ratio (HR) 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65 to 1.02; 2 studies, 358 participants; moderate-quality evidence). For participants with one brain metastasis median survival was significantly longer in the WBRT plus SRS group (6.5 months) versus WBRT group (4.9 months; P = 0.04). Participants in the WBRT plus SRS group had decreased local failure compared to participants who received WBRT alone (HR 0.27, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.52; 2 studies, 129 participants; moderate-quality evidence). Furthermore, we observed an improvement in

  10. Four patients with cutaneous metastases from medullary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Santarpia, Libero; El-Naggar, Adel K; Sherman, Steven I; Hymes, Sharon R; Gagel, Robert F; Shaw, Stephanie; Sarlis, Nicholas J

    2008-08-01

    Cutaneous metastasis from thyroid cancer, especially medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is rare. We report four patients with cutaneous metastases from sporadic MTC, three women and one man, aged 50 to 69 years. They presented different cutaneous lesions phenotypes. The first patient had a remote history of MTC and initial presentation of the recurrence was a rapidly progressing cutaneous lesion; on subsequent disease staging, widely metastatic disease was discovered. The other three patients developed cutaneous metastases in the presence of known distant metastases, indicating systemic spread of thyroid cancer. Definitive diagnosis of cutaneous metastases of MTC was made on biopsy of the lesions with cells that stained positive for neuroendocrine markers. Accurate diagnosis of cutaneous metastasis from MTC is important because it is a negative prognostic factor indicative of multisystemic disease. Thus, MTC metastases should be included in the differential diagnosis of erythematous maculopapular eruptions and nodular lesions of the skin, especially when these metastases occur in the upper part of the body and if the patient has a history of MTC. The appearing of cutaneous metastasis is a negative prognostic factor since all the patients here described died within one year from the diagnosis of cutaneous metastases.

  11. Efficacy of the Irreversible ErbB Family Blocker Afatinib in Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor (TKI)–Pretreated Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients with Brain Metastases or Leptomeningeal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tufman, Amanda; Wehler, Thomas; Pelzer, Theo; Wiewrodt, Rainer; Schütz, Martin; Serke, Monika; Stöhlmacher-Williams, Jan; Märten, Angela; Maria Huber, Rudolf; Dickgreber, Nicolas J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Afatinib is an effective first-line treatment in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and has shown activity in patients progressing on EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). First-line afatinib is also effective in patients with central nervous system (CNS) metastasis. Here we report on outcomes of pretreated NSCLC patients with CNS metastasis who received afatinib within a compassionate use program. Methods: Patients with NSCLC progressing after at least one line of chemotherapy and one line of EGFR-TKI treatment received afatinib. Medical history, patient demographics, EGFR mutational status, and adverse events including tumor progression were documented. Results: From 2010 to 2013, 573 patients were enrolled and 541 treated with afatinib. One hundred patients (66% female; median age, 60 years) had brain metastases and/or leptomeningeal disease with 74% having documented EGFR mutation. Median time to treatment failure for patients with CNS metastasis was 3.6 months, and did not differ from a matched group of 100 patients without CNS metastasis. Thirty-five percent (11 of 31) of evaluable patients had a cerebral response, five (16%) responded exclusively in brain. Response duration (range) was 120 (21–395) days. Sixty-six percent (21 of 32) of patients had cerebral disease control on afatinib. Data from one patient with an impressive response showed an afatinib concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid of nearly 1 nMol. Conclusion: Afatinib appears to penetrate into the CNS with concentrations high enough to have clinical effect on CNS metastases. Afatinib may therefore be an effective treatment for heavily pretreated patients with EGFR-mutated or EGFR–TKI-sensitive NSCLC and CNS metastasis. PMID:25247337

  12. The response of cerebral metastases in small cell lung cancer to systemic chemotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Twelves, C. J.; Souhami, R. L.; Harper, P. G.; Ash, C. M.; Spiro, S. G.; Earl, H. M.; Tobias, J. S.; Quinn, H.; Geddes, D. M.

    1990-01-01

    Although small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is very chemosensitive, cerebral metastases are treated with radiotherapy in the belief that they are protected from chemotherapy by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The validity of this assumption has not been tested in clinical practice. In a randomised trial of treatment in 610 patients with SCLC, 19 patients who had symptomatic cerebral metastases at presentation were treated initially with chemotherapy, and cranial irradiation withheld. Chemotherapy was cyclophosphamide 1 g m-2 i.v. day 1, vincristine 2 mg i.v. day 1 and etoposide 100 mg tds p.o. days 1-3, repeated every 21 days, with response assessed objectively by computerised tomography (CT) or radionuclide brain scan, and by clinical examination. A post-chemotherapy scan was obtained in 14 patients, eight of whom achieved a partial remission and one a complete remission of the cerebral metastases. The radiologically proven responses were sustained and accompanied by rapid neurological improvement. Of the remaining five patients who were assessed by clinical examination alone, one had improved neurological function after chemotherapy. The response rate for SCLC cerebral metastases treated with chemotherapy was therefore 10/19 (53%). Chemotherapy has the advantage over cranial irradiation of simultaneously treating both cerebral metastases and extracranial disease. The place of chemotherapy in the management of cerebral metastases in this and other chemosensitive tumours should be reconsidered since these findings indicate that the BBB does not prevent response to chemotherapy. Images Figure 1 PMID:2153393

  13. Cisplatin, fotemustine and whole-brain radiotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer patients with asymptomatic brain metastases: a multicenter phase II study of the Gruppo Oncologico Italia Meridionale (GOIM 2603).

    PubMed

    Galetta, D; Gebbia, V; Silvestris, N; Ferraù, F; Carrozza, F; Cigolari, S; Russo, P; Calista, F; Adamo, V; Colucci, G

    2011-04-01

    More than 50% of brain metastases (BMs) occur in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Untreated patients with BMs have a poor prognosis with a median survival of 2 months. In most cases BMs are multiple and their optimal therapy is whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT). The role of systemic therapies for these patients is still a matter for investigation due to concerns about the ability of these drugs to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Cisplatin (CDDP) remains the backbone for medical treatment of NSCLC and fotemustine (FTM) is a nitrosurea able to cross the BBB. Patients with advanced NSCLC, ECOG performance status (PS) 0-1 and multiple BMs not amenable to surgery or stereotactic radiotherapy were treated with 2 cycles of FTM 80 mg/m(2) days 1, 8 and CDDP 80 mg/m(2) day 1, every 3 weeks followed by WBRT 30 Gy (3 Gy daily in 10 fractions). Radiological restaging was performed before WBRT to assess the role of chemotherapy both for cranial and extracranial disease. Patients with disease control (DC: complete response plus partial response) received 4 more cycles. To assess the basic activities of daily living (ADL), the Barthel ADL Index was used to score patients' performance every 2 cycles. The trial design provides a two-step evaluation according to the optimal two-stage design of Simon. In the first phase 29 patients were enrolled in order to verify if this schedule showed more than 25% response rate both for cranial and extracranial disease. If so, enrollment added up to a total of 81 patients. After the first evaluation 4 out of 29 patients were excluded from the study (3 untreated/1 not included for administrative reasons). At the time of the planned interim analysis patient's characteristics were the following: median age 61 years (range 44-70), M/F = 16/9, adenocarcinoma 11, squamous 5, large cell 2, undefined NSCLC 7; PS 0/1 in 11/14 cases, median Barthel Index score was 20 [13-20]. Three (12%) partial responses were observed, 9

  14. High-dose fractionated radiation therapy for select patients with brain metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Pezner, R.D.; Lipsett, J.A.; Archambeau, J.O.; Fine, R.M.; Moss, W.T.

    1981-08-01

    Four patients with metastases to the brain were treated by high-dose fractionated radiation therapy. In all four cases, a complete response and prolonged disease-free survival could be documented. Unlike the standard therapy for such patients (i.e., craniotomy and postoperative irradiation), high-dose fractionated radiation therapy carries no operative risk and can encompass multiple brain metastases and metastases in deep or critical intracranial sites. The risk of radiotherapy side effects in the brain is discussed.

  15. Brain metastases of metastatic malignant melanoma: response to DTIC and interferon-gamma.

    PubMed

    Schadendorf, D; Worm, M; Czarnetzki, B M

    1993-04-01

    The prognosis of patients with malignant melanoma and brain metastases is poor. Therapy of brain metastases is difficult and mostly unsuccessful, with brain metastases being the predominant factor which determines overall survival. We report here on a patient whose brain metastases responded to DTIC + INF-gamma. We present a short summary on the different effects on INF-alpha and INF-gamma and reach the conclusion that clinical trials which combine DTIC and INF-gamma should be performed. Based on this observation, combinations including INF-alpha are not necessarily comparable to modalities which include INF-gamma.

  16. Role of TGF-β in breast cancer bone metastases

    PubMed Central

    Chiechi, Antonella; Waning, David L.; Stayrook, Keith R.; Buijs, Jeroen T.; Guise, Theresa A.; Mohammad, Khalid S.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among females worldwide leading to approximately 350,000 deaths each year. It has long been known that cancers preferentially metastasize to particular organs, and bone metastases occur in ~70% of patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer bone metastases are predominantly osteolytic and accompanied by increased fracture risk, pain, nerve compression and hypercalcemia, causing severe morbidity. In the bone matrix, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is one of the most abundant growth factors, which is released in active form upon tumor-induced osteoclastic bone resorption. TGF-β, in turn, stimulates bone metastatic tumor cells to secrete factors that further drive osteolytic bone destruction adjacent to the tumor. Thus, TGF-β is a crucial factor responsible for driving the feed-forward vicious cycle of cancer growth in bone. Moreover, TGF-β activates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, increases tumor cell invasiveness and angiogenesis and induces immunosuppression. Blocking the TGF-β signaling pathway to interrupt this vicious cycle between breast cancer and bone offers a promising target for therapeutic intervention to decrease skeletal metastasis. This review will describe the role of TGF-β in breast cancer and bone metastasis, and pre-clinical and clinical data will be evaluated for the potential use of TGF-β inhibitors in clinical practice to treat breast cancer bone metastases. PMID:24558636

  17. Dose Escalation of Whole-Brain Radiotherapy for Brain Metastases From Melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk; Heisterkamp, Christine; Huttenlocher, Stefan; Bohlen, Guenther; Dunst, Juergen; Haatanen, Tiina; Schild, Steven E.

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: The majority of patients with brain metastases from melanoma receive whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT). However, the results are poor. Hypofractionation regimens failed to improve the outcome of these patients. This study investigates a potential benefit from escalation of the WBRT dose beyond the 'standard' regimen 30 Gy in 10 fractions (10x3 Gy). Methods and Materials: Data from 51 melanoma patients receiving WBRT alone were retrospectively analyzed. A dosage of 10x3 Gy (n = 33) was compared with higher doses including 40 Gy/20 fractions (n = 11) and 45 Gy/15 fractions (n = 7) for survival (OS) and local (intracerebral) control (LC). Additional potential prognostic factors were evaluated: age, gender, performance status, number of metastases, extracerebral metastases, and recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class. Results: At 6 months, OS rates were 27% after 10x3 Gy and 50% after higher doses (p = 0.009). The OS rates at 12 months were 4% and 20%. On multivariate analysis, higher WBRT doses (p = 0.010), fewer than four brain metastases (p = 0.012), no extracerebral metastases (p = 0.006), and RPA class 1 (p = 0.005) were associated with improved OS. The LC rates at 6 months were 23% after 10x3 Gy and 50% after higher doses (p = 0.021). The LC rates at 12 months were 0% and 13%. On multivariate analysis, higher WBRT doses (p = 0.020) and fewer than brain metastases (p = 0.002) were associated with better LC. Conclusions: Given the limitations of a retrospective study, the findings suggest that patients with brain metastases from melanoma receiving WBRT alone may benefit from dose escalation beyond 10x3 Gy. The hypothesis generated by this study must be confirmed in a randomized trial stratifying for significant prognostic factors.

  18. Societal Interactions in Ovarian Cancer Metastases: A Quorum Sensing Hypothesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    activity by p53-independent induction of p21WAF1/CIP1. Cancer Res 2005;65:3364–73. 36. Lee B, Kim CH, Moon SK. Honokiol causes the p21WAF1-mediated G...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-06-1-0041 TITLE: Societal Interactions in Ovarian Cancer Metastases: A Quorum Sensing...in Ovarian Cancer Metastases: A Quorum Sensing Hypothesis 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-1-0041 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Carrie

  19. [The treatment for cancer with bone metastases -whether to use zoledoronate or denosumab for bone metastases-].

    PubMed

    Kohno, Norio

    2014-08-01

    Osteoclast activation is a fundamental role in developing bone metastases. The treatment of any cancers with bone metastases has been changing due to emergence of bisphosphonates. Bisphosphonate reduces the occurrence of skeletal-related events (SREs ; pathological fractures, spinal cord compression, bone pain requiring palliative radiotherapy, hypercalcemia and orthopaedic surgery) by inhibiting the osteoclast function which affects improvement of daily life. Within the Bisphosphonate zoledoronate is the most effective agent in terms of reducing SREs. Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that binds to human receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) , that blocks the formation of osteoclast and inhibiting osteoclast-mediated bone destruction. Denosumab was superior to zoledonate in terms of prevention of SREs. But, denosumab was similar to zoledronic acid for quality of life, pain and overall survival. On the other hand bisphosphonate has diverse anti-tumor effects and many trials showed beneficial to survival when it used for breast cancer in an adjuvant setting especially low estradiol circumstances. Radionuclides are another treatment option for bone pain. New targeted therapies and radionuclides are promising option for treatment of bone metastases