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Sample records for cancer cells part

  1. Update in Cancer Chemotherapy, Part III: Lung Cancer, Part 1

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jane C.

    1985-01-01

    An update in cancer chemotherapy that deals with the various therapies of lung cancer is described. At present, the stage of the disease and cell type are the major factors that determine the treatment. Important differences in the biological behavior and response to treatment exist between small cell and non-small cell cancers. The small cell type is sensitive to many chemotherapeutic agents. Differences in response to chemotherapy and survival have been less among the non-small cell types. The treatment of non-small cell carcinomas including squamous cell, large cell, and adenocarcinoma are reviewed in Part I of this paper. Small cell lung cancer will be described in Part II, which will be published in a future issue of the journal. PMID:2414458

  2. [Pancreatic cancer stem cell].

    PubMed

    Hamada, Shin; Masamune, Atsushi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-05-01

    Prognosis of pancreatic cancer remains dismal due to the resistance against conventional therapies. Metastasis and massive invasion toward surrounding organs hamper radical resection. Small part of entire cancer cells reveal resistance against chemotherapy or radiotherapy, increased tumorigenicity and migratory phenotype. These cells are called as cancer stem cells, as a counter part of normal stem cells. In pancreatic cancer, several cancer stem cell markers have been identified, which enabled detailed characterization of pancreatic cancer stem cells. Recent researches clarified that conventional chemotherapy itself could increase cancer cells with stem cell-phenotype, suggesting the necessity of cancer stem cell-targeting therapy. Based on these observations, pancreatic cancer stem cell-targeting therapies have been tested, which effectively eliminated cancer stem cell fraction and attenuated cancer progression in experimental models. Clinical efficacy of these therapies need to be evaluated, and cancer stem cell-targeting therapy will contribute to improve the prognosis of pancreatic cancer.

  3. Exosomes from adriamycin-resistant breast cancer cells transmit drug resistance partly by delivering miR-222.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dan-Dan; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Lv, Meng-Meng; Chen, Wei-Xian; Chen, Xiu; Yang, Su-Jin; Shen, Hongyu; Zhong, Shan-Liang; Tang, Jin-Hai; Zhao, Jian-Hua

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer (BCa) is one of the major deadly cancers in women. However, treatment of BCa is still hindered by the acquired-drug resistance. It is increasingly reported that exosomes take part in the development, metastasis, and drug resistance of BCa. However, the specific role of exosomes in drug resistance of BCa is poorly understood. In this study, we investigate whether exosomes transmit drug resistance through delivering miR-222. We established an adriamycin-resistant variant of Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) breast cancer cell line (MCF-7/Adr) from a drug-sensitive variant (MCF-7/S). Exosomes were isolated from cell supernatant by ultracentrifugation. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay and apoptosis assay. Individual miR-222 molecules in BCa cells were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Then, FISH was combined with locked nucleic acid probes and enzyme-labeled fluorescence (LNA-ELF-FISH). Individual miR-222 could be detected as bright photostable fluorescent spots and then the quantity of miR-222 per cell could be counted. Stained exosomes were taken in by the receipt cells. MCF-7/S acquired drug resistance after co-culture with exosomes from MCF-7/Adr (A/exo) but did not after co-culture with exosomes from MCF-7/S (S/exo). The quantity of miR-222 in A/exo-treated MCF-7/S was significantly greater than in S/exo-treated MCF-7/S. MCF-7/S transfected with miR-222 mimics acquired adriamycin resistance while MCF-7/S transfected with miR-222 inhibitors lost resistance. In conclusion, exosomes are effective in transmitting drug resistance and the delivery of miR-222 via exosomes may be a mechanism.

  4. VEGF blockade enables oncolytic cancer virotherapy in part by modulating intratumoral myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Currier, Mark A; Eshun, Francis K; Sholl, Allyson; Chernoguz, Artur; Crawford, Kelly; Divanovic, Senad; Boon, Louis; Goins, William F; Frischer, Jason S; Collins, Margaret H; Leddon, Jennifer L; Baird, William H; Haseley, Amy; Streby, Keri A; Wang, Pin-Yi; Hendrickson, Brett W; Brekken, Rolf A; Kaur, Balveen; Hildeman, David; Cripe, Timothy P

    2013-05-01

    Understanding the host response to oncolytic viruses is important to maximize their antitumor efficacy. Despite robust cytotoxicity and high virus production of an oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) in cultured human sarcoma cells, intratumoral (ITu) virus injection resulted in only mild antitumor effects in some xenograft models, prompting us to characterize the host inflammatory response. Virotherapy induced an acute neutrophilic infiltrate, a relative decrease of ITu macrophages, and a myeloid cell-dependent upregulation of host-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Anti-VEGF antibodies, bevacizumab and r84, the latter of which binds VEGF and selectively inhibits binding to VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2) but not VEGFR1, enhanced the antitumor effects of virotherapy, in part due to decreased angiogenesis but not increased virus production. Neither antibody affected neutrophilic infiltration but both partially mitigated virus-induced depletion of macrophages. Enhancement of virotherapy-mediated antitumor effects by anti-VEGF antibodies could largely be recapitulated by systemic depletion of CD11b(+) cells. These data suggest the combined effect of oHSV virotherapy and anti-VEGF antibodies is in part due to modulation of a host inflammatory reaction to virus. Our data provide strong preclinical support for combined oHSV and anti-VEGF antibody therapy and suggest that understanding and counteracting the innate host response may help enable the full antitumor potential of oncolytic virotherapy.

  5. Lung cancer - small cell

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  6. Snail Promotes Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition in Breast Cancer Cells in Part via Activation of Nuclear ERK2

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Bethany N.; Burton, Liza J.; Henderson, Veronica; Randle, Diandra D.; Morton, Derrick J.; Smith, Basil A.; Taliaferro-Smith, Latonia; Nagappan, Peri; Yates, Clayton; Zayzafoon, Majd; Chung, Leland W. K.; Odero-Marah, Valerie A.

    2014-01-01

    Snail transcription factor is up-regulated in several cancers and associated with increased tumor migration and invasion via induction of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). MAPK (ERK1/2) signaling regulates cellular processes including cell motility, adhesion, and invasion. We investigated the regulation of ERK1/2 by Snail in breast cancer cells. ERK1/2 activity (p-ERK) was higher in breast cancer patient tissue as compared to normal tissue. Snail and p-ERK were increased in several breast cancer cell lines as compared to normal mammary epithelial cells. Snail knockdown in MDA-MB-231 and T47-D breast cancer cells decreased or re-localized p-ERK from the nuclear compartment to the cytoplasm. Snail overexpression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells induced EMT, increased cell migration, decreased cell adhesion and also increased tumorigenicity. Snail induced nuclear translocation of p-ERK, and the activation of its subcellular downstream effector, Elk-1. Inhibiting MAPK activity with UO126 or knockdown of ERK2 isoform with siRNA in MCF-7 Snail cells reverted EMT induced by Snail as shown by decreased Snail and vimentin expression, decreased cell migration and increased cell adhesion. Overall, our data suggest that ERK2 isoform activation by Snail in aggressive breast cancer cells leads to EMT associated with increased cell migration and decreased cell adhesion. This regulation is enhanced by positive feedback regulation of Snail by ERK2. Therefore, therapeutic targeting of ERK2 isoform may be beneficial for breast cancer. PMID:25122124

  7. Contribution of xanthine oxidoreductase to mammary epithelial and breast cancer cell differentiation in part modulates inhibitor of differentiation-1.

    PubMed

    Fini, Mehdi A; Monks, Jenifer; Farabaugh, Susan M; Wright, Richard M

    2011-09-01

    Loss of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) has been linked to aggressive breast cancer in vivo and to breast cancer cell aggressiveness in vitro. In the present study, we hypothesized that the contribution of XOR to the development of the normal mammary gland may underlie its capacity to modulate breast cancer. We contrasted in vitro and in vivo developmental systems by differentiation marker and microarray analyses. Human breast cancer microarray was used for clinical outcome studies. The role of XOR in differentiation and proliferation was examined in human breast cancer cells and in a mouse xenograft model. Our data show that XOR was required for functional differentiation of mammary epithelial cells both in vitro and in vivo. Poor XOR expression was observed in a mouse ErbB2 breast cancer model, and pharmacologic inhibition of XOR increased breast cancer tumor burden in mouse xenograft. mRNA microarray analysis of human breast cancer revealed that low XOR expression was significantly associated with time to tumor relapse. The opposing expression of XOR and inhibitor of differentiation-1 (Id1) during HC11 differentiation and mammary gland development suggested a potential functional relationship. While overexpression of Id1 inhibited HC11 differentiation and XOR expression, XOR itself modulated expression of Id1 in differentiating HC11 cells. Overexpression of XOR both inhibited Id1-induced proliferation and -stimulated differentiation of Heregulin-β1-treated human breast cancer cells. These results show that XOR is an important functional component of differentiation whose diminished expression contributes to breast cancer aggressiveness, and they support XOR as both a breast cancer biomarker and a target for pharmacologic activation in therapeutic management of aggressive breast cancer.

  8. Basal cell cancer (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Basal cell cancer is a malignant skin tumor involving cancerous changes of basal skin cells. Basal cell skin cancers ... biopsy is needed to prove the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. Treatment varies depending on the size, depth, and ...

  9. Comparative Phytochemical Analysis of Essential Oils from Different Biological Parts of Artemisia herba alba and Their Cytotoxic Effect on Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tilaoui, Mounir; Ait Mouse, Hassan; Jaafari, Abdeslam; Zyad, Abdelmajid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Carrying out the chemical composition and antiproliferative effects against cancer cells from different biological parts of Artemisia herba alba. Methods Essential oils were studied by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and their antitumoral activity was tested against P815 mastocytoma and BSR kidney carcinoma cell lines; also, in order to evaluate the effect on normal human cells, oils were tested against peripheral blood mononuclear cells PBMCs. Results Essential oils from leaves and aerial parts (mixture of capitulum and leaves) were mainly composed by oxygenated sesquiterpenes 39.89% and 46.15% respectively; capitulum oil contained essentially monoterpenes (22.86%) and monocyclic monoterpenes (21.48%); esters constituted the major fraction (62.8%) of stem oil. Essential oils of different biological parts studied demonstrated a differential antiproliferative activity against P815 and BSR cancer cells; P815 cells are the most sensitive to the cytotoxic effect. Leaves and capitulum essential oils are more active than aerial parts. Interestingly, no cytotoxic effect of these essential oils was observed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Conclusion Our results showed that the chemical composition variability of essential oils depends on the nature of botanical parts of Artemisia herba alba. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the differential cytotoxic effect depends not only on the essential oils concentration, but also on the target cells and the botanical parts of essential oils used. PMID:26196123

  10. PCNA--a cell proliferation marker in vocal cord cancer. Part II: Recurrence in malignant laryngeal lesions.

    PubMed

    Broich, G; Lavezzi, A M; Biondo, B; Pignataro, L D

    1996-01-01

    Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma constitutes the most frequent carcinoma found in the head and neck region. A precise prediction for recurrence potential cannot be done on site, treatment and histologic grading. Since Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) and DNA-cytometry have shown a good correlation between premalignant lesions and their progressive potential towards full-fledged carcinoma in the larynx as described in part I of this work, we have analyzed the PCNA index and DNA cytometry in specimen taken from vocal chord carcinomas with a 5-year follow-up, in order to assess its relationship with the presence or absence of tumour progression. 42 cases with (21) and without (2) recurrence have been examined. The DNA-index ranged from 1.01 to 1.43 (mean 1.10) in the group without and from 1.02 to 1.59 (mean 1.38) in the group with recurrent carcinoma (p = 0.002). The PCNA-index ranged from 0.00% to 18.90% (mean 6.97%) in the nonrecurrent group and from 0.00 to 3g.50% (mean 16.35%) in the patients with recurrence (p = 0.001). Both indices also correlated in a highly significant way. From these data emerges a highly significant correlation between the cytometric indices of cell proliferation and PCNA immunostaining. Furthermore the high correction between PCNA and DNA-index is of special interest for single case assessment. High DNA aberration and PCNA-index in vocal chord carcinoma may indicate a higher cellular aggressiveness of the tumour, resulting in a greater overall risk of metastases and local recurrences. Our results support the thesis that the indices of cellular proliferation within some cancers can define subsets of patients of high risk and help in isolating a population in which a more aggressive clinical protocol may be proposed.

  11. PCNA--a cell proliferation marker in vocal chord cancer. Part I: Premalignant laryngeal lesions.

    PubMed

    Pignataro, L D; Broich, G; Lavezzi, A M; Biondo, B; Ottaviani, F

    1995-01-01

    Laryngeal hyperkeratotic lesions can progress to fully developed malignant carcinoma in some cases. These premalignant lesions are proliferative disorders whose potential for further tumour progression is perhaps difficult to assess by mere histology. Immunostaining with PCNA, a protein correlated with cell proliferation, has been used to study tissue behavior in 30 cases of premalignant laryngeal vocal chord lesions treated by epithelial stripping in microlaryngoscopy, 15 of whom had no progression and 15 had recurrence and final development of full malignancy. The results showed a statistically significantly higher PCNA-index in the cases which underwent further tumour progression towards malignancy. PCNA testing may thus be suggested as a marker for tumour progression potential and help in determining clinical treatment choices.

  12. Squamous cell cancer (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a malignant tumor, and is more aggressive than basal cell cancer, but still may be relatively slow-growing. It is more likely than basal cell cancer to spread (metastasize) to other locations, including internal ...

  13. Cell phones and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer and cell phones; Do cell phones cause cancer? ... Several major studies show no link between cell phones and cancer at this time. However, since the information available is based on short-term studies, the impact of many years of ...

  14. Liver cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sell, Stewart; Leffert, Hyam L

    2008-06-10

    In an effort to review the evidence that liver cancer stem cells exist, two fundamental questions must be addressed. First, do hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) arise from liver stem cells? Second, do HCCs contain cells that possess properties of cancer stem cells? For many years the finding of preneoplastic nodules in the liver during experimental induction of HCCs by chemicals was interpreted to support the hypothesis that HCC arose by dedifferentiation of mature liver cells. More recently, recognition of the role of small oval cells in the carcinogenic process led to a new hypothesis that HCC arises by maturation arrest of liver stem cells. Analysis of the cells in HCC supports the presence of cells with stem-cell properties (ie, immortality, transplantability, and resistance to therapy). However, definitive markers for these putative cancer stem cells have not yet been found and a liver cancer stem cell has not been isolated.

  15. Breast cancer, stem cells and sex hormones. Part 2: the impact of the reproductive years and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Eden, John A

    2010-11-01

    The primitive breast develops in utero and during infancy breast growth largely parallels the growth of the child. At puberty, the GnRH pulse generator starts up, initially with just 1-2 pulses daily. This results in very small amounts of unopposed estrogen being secreted by the ovary. As the GnRH pulse generator matures, ovarian secretion of estrogen increases. The pubertal breast responds to this increasing estrogen drive. Breast glandular increase in size is mostly due to growth and division of the primary ducts. Eventually, the terminal buds give rise alveolar buds which tend to cluster around a terminal duct. Lobule formation begins in the first 2 years that follow menarche. With the onset of ovulation, breast mitotic activity increases and is usually maximal in the luteal phase. The final stage of breast maturation occurs during the first full-term pregnancy. The breast undergoes marked changes in preparation for breast feeding. There is evidence that breast SC number decreases during that first pregnancy. Also, the remaining SC undergo significant change which seems to render them less likely to undergo malignant change. These alterations to breast SC number and function may explain, at least in part, why early first pregnancy reduces the risk of breast cancer later in life.

  16. Late effects and quality of life of childhood cancer survivors: part 1. Impact of stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yasushi; Honda, Misato; Ozono, Shuichi; Okamura, Jun; Asami, Keiko; Maeda, Naoko; Sakamoto, Naoko; Inada, Hiroko; Iwai, Tsuyako; Kamibeppu, Kiyoko; Kakee, Naoko; Horibe, Keizo

    2010-06-01

    To examine the late effects and health-related quality of life among childhood cancer survivors (CCS) after stem cell transplantation (SCT), we performed a cross-sectional survey using self-rating questionnaires. The subjects were divided into 3 groups: SCT-treated CCS, CCS treated without SCT, and the general population who matched for age, gender, residential area, and work status with the CCS. We analyzed the questionnaires of 185 CCS and 1,000 control participants. The median ages of CCS at diagnosis and survey were 8 and 22 years, respectively. The mean final heights of male and female participants were significantly lower for SCT-treated CCS than for CCS treated without SCT and the controls. Among the SCT-treated CCS, >40% were underweight (BMI < 18.5). Late effects were observed in 78% of SCT-treated CCS versus 45% of CCS treated without SCT. Multivariate analysis revealed that >15 years' duration after therapy completion (OR 2.95; p = 0.014), solid tumors (4.31; p = 0.040), radiotherapy (2.82; p = 0.009), recurrence (4.22; p = 0.017), and SCT (3.39; p = 0.014) were significant risk factors for late effects. Subjective symptoms were significantly frequent in SCT-treated CCS. Physical dysfunction, psychological stress, and social adaptation problems were observed in >70% of SCT-treated CCS.

  17. Hallmarks of cancer: of all cancer cells, all the time?

    PubMed

    Floor, Sébastien L; Dumont, Jacques E; Maenhaut, Carine; Raspe, Eric

    2012-09-01

    In two landmark articles, Hanahan and Weinberg synthesized into one conceptual framework 'the hallmarks of cancer', a massive amount of information describing the characteristics of a cancer cell. Although this is neither the intention nor the belief of the authors, hallmarks are often interpreted as applying to a canonic cancer cell, or equally to all cells within a cancer. In this article, we clarify the separate concepts of causes, oncogenic events, signal transduction programs, and hallmarks to show that there is no unimodal relation between these concepts but a complex network of interrelations that vary in different cells, between cells, and at different times in any given cell. We consider cancer as an evolving, dynamic, and heterogeneous system, explaining, at least in part, the difficulty of treating cancer and supporting the use of simultaneous, multitarget therapies.

  18. [Influence of antiplatelet drugs (AD) on the efectiveness of combined therapy in patients with small cell lung cancer. Part I. Influence of AD on the haemostatic system].

    PubMed

    Ochmański, Władysław

    2008-01-01

    In the last years, a sharp rise in the morbidity due to lung cancer is observed, especially in the male population. Despite the intensive, multidirectional development of oncology, early detection and effective treatment of lung cancer is still limited. Its detection is delayed because of the lack of characteristic early signs. Especially poor in prognosis are patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), who usually die in consequence of distant metastases. This may result due to coating of the surface of circulating neoplastic cells with thrombocytes and clots. Platelets aggregates on the surface of neoplastic cells may have a protective action in relation to cytostatic drugs. This is why neoplastic cells that persist through this phase, implant themselves into various organs giving rise to metastases. The aim of the 1st part of the paper was to evaluate the influence of antiplatelet drugs (AD) on the haemostatic system of patients with SCLC. There is data in literature indicating a ameliorating influence of AD on time of survival of patients with certain neoplasms. The study was performed in 87 male patients aged 35-73 years with SCLC, limited to half of the chest (limited disease). After 2 i.v. chemotherapy series in 3 week intervals (VAC scheme according Greco): --Adriamycin (ADR) 40 mg on 1sq.m of body surface; --Vincristin (VCR) 1 mg; on 1sq.m of body surface; --Cyclophosfamid (CTX) 1000 mg on 1sq.m of body surface; radiation was also applied--40 Gy during 20 days on the tumor and mediastinum. The described treatment was performed in 22 patients from controls (Group I). Patients from Group II (n = 22) received additionally Defibrotide, Group III (n = 22) Ticlide and Group IV (n = 21) Aspirin. To evaluate of the influence of AD on the haemostatic system--every 3 months during the consecutive 27 weeks, the following tests were performed: bleeding time, clotting time, platelet aggregation, platelets aggregation ratio, euglobulin clot lysis time (ECLT

  19. Pancreatic cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ya-Yun; Yuan, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Studies are emerging in support of the cancer stem cells (CSCs) theory which considers that a tiny subset of cancer cells is exclusively responsible for the initiation and malignant behavior of a cancer. This cell population, also termed CSCs, possesses the capacity both to self-renew, producing progeny that have the identical tumorigenic potential, and to differentiate into the bulk of cancer cells, helping serve the formation of the tumor entities, which, altogether, build the hierarchically organized structure of a cancer. In this review, we try to articulate the complicated signaling pathways regulating the retention of the characteristics of pancreatic CSCs, and in the wake of which, we seek to offer insights into the CSCs-relevant targeted therapeutics which are, in the meantime, confronted with bigger challenges than ever.

  20. Colorectal cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Salama, Paul; Platell, Cameron

    2009-10-01

    Somatic stem cells reside at the base of the crypts throughout the colonic mucosa. These cells are essential for the normal regeneration of the colonic epithelium. The stem cells reside within a special 'niche' comprised of intestinal sub-epithelial myofibroblasts that tightly control their function. It has been postulated that mutations within these adult colonic stem cells may induce neoplastic changes. Such cells can then dissociate from the epithelium and travel into the mesenchyme and thus form invasive cancers. This theory is based on the observation that within a colon cancer, less than 1% of the neoplastic cells have the ability to regenerate the tumour. It is this group of cells that exhibits characteristics of colonic stem cells. Although anti-neoplastic agents can induce remissions by inhibiting cell division, the stem cells appear to be remarkably resistant to both standard chemotherapy and radiotherapy. These stem cells may therefore persist after treatment and form the nucleus for cancer recurrence. Hence, future treatment modalities should focus specifically on controlling the cancer stem cells. In this review, we discuss the biology of normal and malignant colonic stem cells.

  1. Breast cancer. Part 3: advanced cancer and psychological implications.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Victoria

    This is the last article in this 3-part series on breast cancer. The previous two articles have outlined the principles behind breast awareness and breast health, detailing common benign breast diseases, types of breast cancer and staging, and treatment for breast cancer, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and endocrine treatment. The series concludes by giving information on advanced disease, including when a patient presents late with a fungating breast lesion, or if the disease has metastasized from the breast to other organs. Lymphoedema is also described and discussed, and the latter half of this article discusses psychological implications of breast cancer, from diagnosis through the individual treatments.

  2. Chemotherapy targeting cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haiguang; Lv, Lin; Yang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Conventional chemotherapy is the main treatment for cancer and benefits patients in the form of decreased relapse and metastasis and longer overall survival. However, as the target therapy drugs and delivery systems are not wholly precise, it also results in quite a few side effects, and is less efficient in many cancers due to the spared cancer stem cells, which are considered the reason for chemotherapy resistance, relapse, and metastasis. Conventional chemotherapy limitations and the cancer stem cell hypothesis inspired our search for a novel chemotherapy targeting cancer stem cells. In this review, we summarize cancer stem cell enrichment methods, the search for new efficient drugs, and the delivery of drugs targeting cancer stem cells. We also discuss cancer stem cell hierarchy complexity and the corresponding combination therapy for both cancer stem and non-stem cells. Learning from cancer stem cells may reveal novel strategies for chemotherapy in the future. PMID:26045975

  3. Down-regulation of mir-221 and mir-222 restrain prostate cancer cell proliferation and migration that is partly mediated by activation of SIRT1.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Yang, Yingmei; Gan, Rong; Zhao, Lingxu; Li, Wei; Zhou, Huaibin; Wang, Xiaojuan; Lu, Jianxin; Meng, Qing H

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that miR-221 and miR-222 are deregulated in many cancers, including prostate cancer. Nevertheless, the biological role and the underlying mechanisms of miR-221 and miR-222 in the pathogenesis of androgen-independent prostate cancer are still not clear. The proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle distinction, and migration capacity of prostate cells were determined following transfection of miR-221 or miR-222 inhibitor. The biological impact and regulation of SIRT1 on prostate cancer cells were investigated. MiR-221 and miR-222 were highly expressed in PC-3 cells compared with in LNCap cells. After miR-221 or miR-222 expression was inhibited, the proliferation and migration rates of PC-3 cells decreased and the apoptosis rate increased. Moreover, SIRT1 protein was up-regulated in cells after they were transfected with miR-221 or miR-222 inhibitor. Cells transfected with siSIRT1 showed increased migration and a decreased apoptosis rate, but there was no significant effect on cell proliferation compared with the controls. There was a negative correlation between miR-221 or miR-222 and SIRT1, but no direct target relationship was identified. These data demonstrate that miR-221 and miR-222 are highly expressed in PC-3 cells. Their inhibition leads to reduced cell proliferation and migration and increased apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. These effects are potentially mediated by up-regulation of SIRT1.

  4. Inflammation and cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Shigdar, Sarah; Li, Yong; Bhattacharya, Santanu; O'Connor, Michael; Pu, Chunwen; Lin, Jia; Wang, Tao; Xiang, Dongxi; Kong, Lingxue; Wei, Ming Q; Zhu, Yimin; Zhou, Shufeng; Duan, Wei

    2014-04-10

    Cancer stem cells are becoming recognised as being responsible for metastasis and treatment resistance. The complex cellular and molecular network that regulates cancer stem cells and the role that inflammation plays in cancer progression are slowly being elucidated. Cytokines, secreted by tumour associated immune cells, activate the necessary pathways required by cancer stem cells to facilitate cancer stem cells progressing through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and migrating to distant sites. Once in situ, these cancer stem cells can secrete their own attractants, thus providing an environment whereby these cells can continue to propagate the tumour in a secondary niche.

  5. Pancreatic stellate cells enhance stem cell-like phenotypes in pancreatic cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, Shin; Masamune, Atsushi; Takikawa, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Noriaki; Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Hirota, Morihisa; Hamada, Hirofumi; Kobune, Masayoshi; Satoh, Kennichi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2012-05-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) promote the progression of pancreatic cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pancreatic cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs showed enhanced spheroid formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of stem cell-related genes ABCG2, Nestin and LIN28 was increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-injection of PSCs enhanced tumorigenicity of pancreatic cancer cells in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study suggested a novel role of PSCs as a part of the cancer stem cell niche. -- Abstract: The interaction between pancreatic cancer cells and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), a major profibrogenic cell type in the pancreas, is receiving increasing attention. There is accumulating evidence that PSCs promote the progression of pancreatic cancer by increasing cancer cell proliferation and invasion as well as by protecting them from radiation- and gemcitabine-induced apoptosis. Recent studies have identified that a portion of cancer cells, called 'cancer stem cells', within the entire cancer tissue harbor highly tumorigenic and chemo-resistant phenotypes, which lead to the recurrence after surgery or re-growth of the tumor. The mechanisms that maintain the 'stemness' of these cells remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that PSCs might enhance the cancer stem cell-like phenotypes in pancreatic cancer cells. Indirect co-culture of pancreatic cancer cells with PSCs enhanced the spheroid-forming ability of cancer cells and induced the expression of cancer stem cell-related genes ABCG2, Nestin and LIN28. In addition, co-injection of PSCs enhanced tumorigenicity of pancreatic cancer cells in vivo. These results suggested a novel role of PSCs as a part of the cancer stem cell niche.

  6. Cancer stem cells, cancer cell plasticity and radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Vlashi, Erina; Pajonk, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Since the first prospective identification of cancer stem cells in solid cancers the cancer stem cell hypothesis has reemerged as a research topic of increasing interest. It postulates that solid cancers are organized hierarchically with a small number of cancer stem cells driving tumor growth, repopulation after injury and metastasis. They give rise to differentiated progeny, which lack these features. The model predicts that for any therapy to provide cure, all cancer stem cells have to be eliminated while the survival of differentiated progeny is less critical. In this review we discuss recent reports challenging the idea of a unidirectional differentiation of cancer cells. These reports provide evidence supporting the idea that non-stem cancer cells exhibit a remarkable degree of plasticity that allows them to re-acquire cancer stem cell traits, especially in the context of radiation therapy. We summarize conditions under which differentiation is reversed and discuss the current knowledge of the underlying mechanisms.

  7. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Neutropenia and cancer; Absolute neutrophil count and cancer; ANC and cancer ... A person with cancer can get a low white blood cell count from the cancer or from treatment for the cancer. Cancer may ...

  8. Gene sensitizes cancer cells to chemotherapy drugs

    Cancer.gov

    NCI scientists have found that a gene, Schlafen-11 (SLFN11), sensitizes cells to substances known to cause irreparable damage to DNA.  As part of their study, the researchers used a repository of 60 cell types to identify predictors of cancer cell respons

  9. Disturbance of DKK1 level is partly involved in survival of lung cancer cells via regulation of ROMO1 and γ-radiation sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Seo Yoen; Kim, Hyun A; Kim, Jeong Yul; Lee, Jae Ha; Choi, Soo Im; Han, Jeong Ran; Kim, Kug Chan; Cho, Eun Wie

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •DKK1 was expressed differently among non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines. •DKK1 negatively regulated ROMO1 gene expression. •Disturbance of DKK1 level induced the imbalance of cellular ROS. •DKK1/ROMO1-induced ROS imbalance is involved in cell survival in NSCLC. -- Abstract: Dickkopf1 (DKK1), a secreted protein involved in embryonic development, is a potent inhibitor of the Wnt signaling pathway and has been postulated to be a tumor suppressor or tumor promoter depending on the tumor type. In this study, we showed that DKK1 was expressed differently among non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines. The DKK1 expression level was much higher in A549 cells than in H460 cells. We revealed that blockage of DKK1 expression by silencing RNA in A549 cells caused up-regulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulator (ROMO1) protein, followed by partial cell death, cell growth inhibition, and loss of epithelial–mesenchymal transition property caused by ROS, and it also increased γ-radiation sensitivity. DKK1 overexpression in H460 significantly inhibited cell survival with the decrease of ROMO1 level, which induced the decrease of cellular ROS. Thereafter, exogenous N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, or hydrogen peroxide, a pro-oxidant, partially rescued cells from death and growth inhibition. In each cell line, both overexpression and blockage of DKK1 not only elevated p-RB activation, which led to cell growth arrest, but also inactivated AKT/NF-kB, which increased radiation sensitivity and inhibited cell growth. This study is the first to demonstrate that strict modulation of DKK1 expression in different cell types partially maintains cell survival via tight regulation of the ROS-producing ROMO1 and radiation resistance.

  10. The cancer stem cell theory: is it correct?

    PubMed

    Yoo, Min-Hyuk; Hatfield, Dolph L

    2008-11-30

    The cancer stem cell hypothesis posits that tumor growth is driven by a rare subpopulation of cells, designated cancer stem cells (CSC). Studies supporting this theory are based in large part on xenotransplantation experiments wherein human cancer cells are grown in immunocompromised mice and only CSC, often constituting less than 1% of the malignancy, generate tumors. Herein, we show that all colonies derived from randomly chosen single cells in mouse lung and breast cancer cell lines form tumors following allografting histocompatible mice. Our study suggests that the majority of malignant cells rather than CSC can sustain tumors and that the cancer stem cell theory must be reevaluated.

  11. Membrane in cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Galeotti, T.; Cittadini, A.; Neri, G.; Scarpa, A.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at a conference on membranes in cancer cells. Topics covered include Oncogenies, hormones, and free-radical processes in malignant transformation in vitro and Superoxide onion may trigger DNA strand breaks in human granulorytes by acting as a membrane target.

  12. Disturbance of DKK1 level is partly involved in survival of lung cancer cells via regulation of ROMO1 and γ-radiation sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Seo Yoen; Kim, Hyun A; Kim, Jeong Yul; Lee, Jae Ha; Choi, Soo Im; Han, Jeong Ran; Kim, Kug Chan; Cho, Eun Wie

    2014-01-03

    Dickkopf1 (DKK1), a secreted protein involved in embryonic development, is a potent inhibitor of the Wnt signaling pathway and has been postulated to be a tumor suppressor or tumor promoter depending on the tumor type. In this study, we showed that DKK1 was expressed differently among non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines. The DKK1 expression level was much higher in A549 cells than in H460 cells. We revealed that blockage of DKK1 expression by silencing RNA in A549 cells caused up-regulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulator (ROMO1) protein, followed by partial cell death, cell growth inhibition, and loss of epithelial-mesenchymal transition property caused by ROS, and it also increased γ-radiation sensitivity. DKK1 overexpression in H460 significantly inhibited cell survival with the decrease of ROMO1 level, which induced the decrease of cellular ROS. Thereafter, exogenous N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, or hydrogen peroxide, a pro-oxidant, partially rescued cells from death and growth inhibition. In each cell line, both overexpression and blockage of DKK1 not only elevated p-RB activation, which led to cell growth arrest, but also inactivated AKT/NF-kB, which increased radiation sensitivity and inhibited cell growth. This study is the first to demonstrate that strict modulation of DKK1 expression in different cell types partially maintains cell survival via tight regulation of the ROS-producing ROMO1 and radiation resistance.

  13. Antiproliferative effect on human cancer cell lines after treatment with nimbolide extracted from an edible part of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica).

    PubMed

    Roy, Molay Kumar; Kobori, Masuko; Takenaka, Makiko; Nakahara, Kazuhiko; Shinmoto, Hiroshi; Isobe, Seiichiro; Tsushida, Tojiro

    2007-03-01

    Nimbolide, a triterpenoid extracted from the flowers of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica), was found to have antiproliferative activity against some cancer cell lines. Treatment of cells with 0.5-5.0 microm concentrations of nimbolide resulted in moderate to very strong growth inhibition in U937, HL-60, THP1 and B16 cell lines. Flow cytometric analysis of U937 cells showed that nimbolide treatment (1-2.5 microm) resulted in cell cycle disruption by decreasing the number of cells in G0/G1 phase, with initial increases in S and G2/M phases. Cells exposed to a higher dose of nimbolide for a longer period displayed a severely damaged DNA profile, resulting in a remarkable increase in the number of cells in the sub-G1 fraction, with a reciprocal decrease of cells in all phases. Quantification of the expression of phosphatidylserine in the outer cell membrane showed that doses of nimbolide higher than 0.4 microm exerted remarkable lethality, with over 60% of cells exhibiting apoptotic features after exposure to 1.2 microm nimbolide. The antiproliferative effect of nimbolide and its apoptosis-inducing property raise hope for its use in anticancer therapy by enhancing the effectiveness of cell cycle disruption.

  14. Update in Cancer Chemotherapy: Genitourinary Tract Cancer, Part 5: Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jane C.

    1988-01-01

    An update of the state of the art of cancer chemotherapeutic treatment of genitourinary tract cancer is described in this multi-part series: included are cancers of the kidney, bladder, prostate, testicle, ovary, uterus, vulva, and gestational trophoblastic neoplasms. Part 5 is a review of treatments for cancer of the ovary. Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of gynecologic cancer deaths and the fourth most frequent cause of death from cancer in women in the United States. Ovarian carcinoma is a classical “hidden” neoplasm of the abdomen and, as such, is insidious in its onset. Combination chemotherapy and cytoreductive surgery, however, have provided improved survival for patients with ovarian cancer. As dosage schedules and other refinements are made, the overall outlook for patients with ovarian cancer is promising. PMID:3047411

  15. Cancer stem cells and personalized cancer nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Gener, Petra; Rafael, Diana Fernandes de Sousa; Fernández, Yolanda; Ortega, Joan Sayós; Arango, Diego; Abasolo, Ibane; Videira, Mafalda; Schwartz, Simo

    2016-02-01

    Despite the progress in cancer treatment over the past years advanced cancer is still an incurable disease. Special attention is pointed toward cancer stem cell (CSC)-targeted therapies, because this minor cell population is responsible for the treatment resistance, metastatic growth and tumor recurrence. The recently described CSC dynamic phenotype and interconversion model of cancer growth hamper even more the possible success of current cancer treatments in advanced cancer stages. Accordingly, CSCs can be generated through dedifferentiation processes from non-CSCs, in particular, when CSC populations are depleted after treatment. In this context, the use of targeted CSC nanomedicines should be considered as a promising tool to increase CSC sensitivity and efficacy of specific anti-CSC therapies.

  16. Stochastic elimination of cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Michor, Franziska; Nowak, Martin A; Frank, Steven A; Iwasa, Yoh

    2003-01-01

    Tissues of multicellular organisms consist of stem cells and differentiated cells. Stem cells divide to produce new stem cells or differentiated cells. Differentiated cells divide to produce new differentiated cells. We show that such a tissue design can reduce the rate of fixation of mutations that increase the net proliferation rate of cells. It has, however, no consequence for the rate of fixation of neutral mutations. We calculate the optimum relative abundance of stem cells that minimizes the rate of generating cancer cells. There is a critical fraction of stem cell divisions that is required for a stochastic elimination ('wash out') of cancer cells. PMID:14561289

  17. Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Velasco-Velázquez, Marco A.; Homsi, Nora; De La Fuente, Marisol; Pestell, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) constitute a subpopulation of tumor cells that express stem cell-associated markers and have a high capacity for tumor generation in vivo. Identification of BCSCs from tumor samples or breast cancer cell lines has been based mainly on CD44+/CD24−/low or ALDH+ phenotypes. BCSCs isolation has allowed the analysis of the molecular mechanisms involved in their origin, self-renewal, differentiation into tumor cells, resistance to radiation therapy and chemotherapy, and invasiveness and metastatic ability. Molecular genetic analysis using knockout animals and inducible transgenics have identified NF-κB, c-Jun, p21CIP1, and Forkhead-like-protein Dach1 in BCSC expansion and fate. Clinical analyses of BCSCs in breast tumors have found a correlation between the proportion of BCSCs and poor prognosis. Therefore, new therapies that specifically target BCSCs are an urgent need. We summarize recent evidence that partially explain the biological characteristics of BCSCs. PMID:22249027

  18. Nonthermal Plasma-Mediated Cancer Cell Death; Targeted Cancer Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byul-Bora; Choi, Yeon-Sik; Lee, Hae-Jun; Lee, Jae-Koo; Kim, Uk-Kyu; Kim, Gyoo-Cheon

    Non-thermal air plasma can kill cancer cells. However, there is no selectivity between normal and cancer cells. Therefore, cancer specific antibody conjugated gold nanoparticle (GNP) was pretreated before plasma irradiation. Stimulation of antibody conjugated GNP by plasma treatment resulted in a significant decrease in viability of cancer cells. This technology shows the feasibility of using plasma therapy for killing cancer cells selectively.

  19. Targeting prostate cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Crea, Francesco; Mathews, Lesley A; Farrar, William L; Hurt, Elaine M

    2009-12-01

    Cancer stem cells are the sub-population of cells present within tumors responsible for tumorigenesis. These cells have unique biological properties including self-renewal and the ability to differentiate. Furthermore, it is thought that these cells are more resistant to conventional chemotherapy and, as a result, are responsible for patient relapse. We will discuss the identification of prostate cancer stem cells, their unique properties and how these cells may be targeted for more efficacious therapies.

  20. A new prospect in cancer therapy: targeting cancer stem cells to eradicate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li-Sha; Wang, An-Xin; Dong, Bing; Pu, Ke-Feng; Yuan, Li-Hua; Zhu, Yi-Min

    2012-01-01

    According to the cancer stem cell theory, cancers can be initiated by cancer stem cells. This makes cancer stem cells prime targets for therapeutic intervention. Eradicating cancer stem cells by efficient targeting agents may have the potential to cure cancer. In this review, we summarize recent breakthroughs that have improved our understanding of cancer stem cells, and we discuss the therapeutic strategy of targeting cancer stem cells, a promising future direction for cancer stem cell research. PMID:22507219

  1. Bioassay-guided isolation and identification of bioactive compound from aerial parts of Luffa acutangula against lung cancer cell line NCI-H460.

    PubMed

    Vanajothi, Ramar; Srinivasan, Pappu

    2015-01-01

    Luffa acutangula (Cucurbitaceae) is widely used as a traditional medicine in India and was reported to possess various pharmacological activities including its anti-proliferative effects. In this study, the bioactive compound of ethanolic extract of L. acutangula (LA) was isolated using bioassay-guided approach. Five major fractions were collected and evaluated for their anti-proliferative activity against non-small cell lung cancer cells (NCI-H460). Among the test fractions, the fraction LA/FII effectively decreased the growth of cancer cells with IC50 values of 10 µg/ml concentration. Furthermore, it significantly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential. The apoptogenic activity of fraction LA/FII was confirmed by cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing and formation of apoptotic bodies. A single bioactive compound was isolated from the active faction, LA/FII and subsequently identified as 1,8 dihydroxy-4-methylanthracene 9,10-dione (compound 1) by comparing its spectral data [Ultraviolet (UV), Infrared (IR), Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectroscopy (ESI-MS)] with literature values. This is the first report on the isolation of compound 1 from this plant.

  2. Epigenetics in cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Toh, Tan Boon; Lim, Jhin Jieh; Chow, Edward Kai-Hua

    2017-02-01

    Compelling evidence have demonstrated that bulk tumors can arise from a unique subset of cells commonly termed "cancer stem cells" that has been proposed to be a strong driving force of tumorigenesis and a key mechanism of therapeutic resistance. Recent advances in epigenomics have illuminated key mechanisms by which epigenetic regulation contribute to cancer progression. In this review, we present a discussion of how deregulation of various epigenetic pathways can contribute to cancer initiation and tumorigenesis, particularly with respect to maintenance and survival of cancer stem cells. This information, together with several promising clinical and preclinical trials of epigenetic modulating drugs, offer new possibilities for targeting cancer stem cells as well as improving cancer therapy overall.

  3. Lung cancer - non-small cell

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - lung - non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma - lung; Squamous cell carcinoma - lung ... Smoking causes most cases (around 90%) of lung cancer. The risk depends on the number of cigarettes ...

  4. Contemporary Renal Cell Cancer Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Wong-Ho; Devesa, Susan S.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed renal cell cancer incidence patterns in the United States and reviewed recent epidemiologic evidence with regard to environmental and host genetic determinants of renal cell cancer risk. Renal cell cancer incidence rates continued to rise among all racial/ethnic groups in the United States, across all age groups, and for all tumor sizes, with the most rapid increases for localized stage disease and small tumors. Recent cohort studies confirmed the association of smoking, excess body weight, and hypertension with an elevated risk of renal cell cancer, and suggested that these factors can be modified to reduce the risk. There is increasing evidence for an inverse association between renal cell cancer risk and physical activity and moderate intake of alcohol. Occupational exposure to TCE has been positively associated with renal cell cancer risk in several recent studies, but its link with somatic mutations of the VHL gene has not been confirmed. Studies of genetic polymorphisms in relation to renal cell cancer risk have produced mixed results, but genome-wide association studies with larger sample size and a more comprehensive approach are underway. Few epidemiologic studies have evaluated risk factors by subtypes of renal cell cancer defined by somatic mutations and other tumor markers. PMID:18836333

  5. Immunotargeting of cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Gąbka-Buszek, Agnieszka; Jankowski, Jakub; Mackiewicz, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a distinctive population of tumour cells that control tumour initiation, progression, and maintenance. Their influence is great enough to risk the statement that successful therapeutic strategy must target CSCs in order to eradicate the disease. Because cancer stem cells are highly resistant to chemo- and radiotherapy, new tools to fight against cancer have to be developed. Expression of antigens such as ALDH, CD44, EpCAM, or CD133, which distinguish CSCs from normal cells, together with CSC immunogenicity and relatively low toxicity of immunotherapies, makes immune targeting of CSCs a promising approach for cancer treatment. This review will present immunotherapeutic approaches using dendritic cells, T cells, pluripotent stem cells, and monoclonal antibodies to target and eliminate CSCs. PMID:25691822

  6. Piperlongumine exerts cytotoxic effects against cancer cells with mutant p53 proteins at least in part by restoring the biological functions of the tumor suppressor.

    PubMed

    Basak, Debasish; Punganuru, Surendra R; Srivenugopal, Kalkunte S

    2016-04-01

    Piperlongumine (PL), a small molecule alkaloid present in black pepper (Piper longum), has been reported to kill tumor cells irrespective of their p53 gene status, however, the mechanisms involved are unknown. Since p53 is a redox-sensitive protein, we hypothesized that the redox imbalance induced by PL may affect the structure and/or function of the mutant p53 protein and promote cell death. We used two human colon cancer cell lines, the HT29 and SW620 which harbor the R273H DNA contact abrogatory mutation in p53. PL treatment induced significant ROS production and protein glutathionylation with a concomitant increase in Nrf-2 expression in both cell lines. Surprisingly, immunoprecipitation with wt-p53 specific antibodies (PAb1620) or direct western blotting showed a progressive generation of wild-type-like p53 protein along with a loss of its mutant counterpart in PL-treated HT29 and SW620 cells. Moreover, the EMSA and DNA-affinity blotting revealed a time-dependent restoration of DNA-binding for the mutant p53, which was accompanied by the induction of p53 target genes, MDM2 and Bax. PL, while cytotoxic by itself, also increased the cell killing by many anticancer drugs. In nude mice bearing the HT29 tumors, PL alone (7.5 mg/kg daily) produced a 40% decrease in tumor volume, which was accompanied by diminished intratumoral mutant p53 protein levels. The antitumor efficacy of BCNU or doxorubicin in HT29 xenografts was highly potentiated by PL, followed by expression of apoptotic proteins. These clinically-relevant findings suggest that PL-induced oxidative milieu facilitates a weak functional restoration of mutant p53 through protein glutathionylation and contributes to the increased drug sensitivity.

  7. BRACHYURY confers cancer stem cell characteristics on colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Debalina; Shields, Brian; Davies, Melanie L; Müller, Jürgen; Wakeman, Jane A

    2012-01-15

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are initiating cells in colorectal cancer (CRC). Colorectal tumours undergo epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like processes at the invasive front, enabling invasion and metastasis, and recent studies have linked this process to the acquisition of stem cell-like properties. It is of fundamental importance to understand the molecular events leading to the establishment of cancer initiating cells and how these mechanisms relate to cellular transitions during tumourigenesis. We use an in vitro system to recapitulate changes in CRC cells at the invasive front (mesenchymal-like cells) and central mass (epithelial-like cells) of tumours. We show that the mesoderm inducer BRACHYURY is expressed in a subpopulation of CRC cells that resemble invasive front mesenchymal-like cells, where it acts to impose characteristics of CSCs in a fully reversible manner, suggesting reversible formation and modulation of such cells. BRACHYURY, itself regulated by the oncogene β-catenin, influences NANOG and other 'stemness' markers including a panel of markers defining CRC-CSC whose presence has been linked to poor patient prognosis. Similar regulation of NANOG through BRACHYURY was observed in other cells lines, suggesting this might be a pathway common to cancer cells undergoing mesenchymal transition. We suggest that BRACHYURY may regulate NANOG in mesenchymal-like CRC cells to impose a 'plastic-state', allowing competence of cells to respond to signals prompting invasion or metastasis.

  8. Cancer stem cells in human gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Moriya, Chiharu; Igarashi, Hisayoshi; Saitoh, Anri; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Adachi, Yasushi; Imai, Kohzoh

    2016-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are thought to be responsible for tumor initiation, drug and radiation resistance, invasive growth, metastasis, and tumor relapse, which are the main causes of cancer-related deaths. Gastrointestinal cancers are the most common malignancies and still the most frequent cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Because gastrointestinal CSCs are also thought to be resistant to conventional therapies, an effective and novel cancer treatment is imperative. The first reported CSCs in a gastrointestinal tumor were found in colorectal cancer in 2007. Subsequently, CSCs were reported in other gastrointestinal cancers, such as esophagus, stomach, liver, and pancreas. Specific phenotypes could be used to distinguish CSCs from non-CSCs. For example, gastrointestinal CSCs express unique surface markers, exist in a side-population fraction, show high aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 activity, form tumorspheres when cultured in non-adherent conditions, and demonstrate high tumorigenic potential in immunocompromised mice. The signal transduction pathways in gastrointestinal CSCs are similar to those involved in normal embryonic development. Moreover, CSCs are modified by the aberrant expression of several microRNAs. Thus, it is very difficult to target gastrointestinal CSCs. This review focuses on the current research on gastrointestinal CSCs and future strategies to abolish the gastrointestinal CSC phenotype.

  9. NK Cells and Cancer Immunoediting.

    PubMed

    Guillerey, Camille; Smyth, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells (ILC) known for their ability to recognize and rapidly eliminate infected or transformed cells. Consequently, NK cells are fundamental for host protection against virus infections and malignancies. Even though the critical role of NK cells in cancer immunosurveillance was suspected years ago, the underlying mechanisms took time to be unraveled. Today, it is clear that anti-tumor functions of NK cells are tightly regulated and expand far beyond the simple killing of malignant cells. In spite of tremendous steps made in understanding the NK cell biology, further work is warranted to fully exploit the anticancer potential of these cells. Indeed, tumor-mediated immune suppression hampers NK cell activity, thus complicating their stimulation for therapeutic purposes. Herein, we review the current knowledge of NK cell functions in anti-tumor immunity . We discuss NK cell activity in the cancer immunoediting process with particular emphasis on the elimination and escape phases.

  10. Autophagy and cancer cell metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lozy, Fred; Karantza, Vassiliki

    2012-06-01

    Autophagy is a catabolic process involving lysosomal turnover of proteins and organelles for maintenance of cellular homeostasis and mitigation of metabolic stress. Autophagy defects are linked to diseases, such as liver failure, neurodegeneration, inflammatory bowel disease, aging and cancer. The role of autophagy in tumorigenesis is complex and likely context-dependent. Human breast, ovarian and prostate cancers have allelic deletions of the essential autophagy regulator BECN1 and Becn1(+/-) and other autophagy-deficient transgenic mice are tumor-prone, whereas tumors with constitutive Ras activation, including human pancreatic cancers, upregulate basal autophagy and are commonly addicted to this pathway for survival and growth; furthermore, autophagy suppression by Fip200 deletion compromises PyMT-induced mammary tumorigenesis. The double-edged sword function of autophagy in cancer has been attributed to both cell- and non-cell-autonomous mechanisms, as autophagy defects promote cancer progression in association with oxidative and ER stress, DNA damage accumulation, genomic instability and persistence of inflammation, while functional autophagy enables cancer cell survival under stress and likely contributes to treatment resistance. In this review, we will focus on the intimate link between autophagy and cancer cell metabolism, a topic of growing interest in recent years, which has been recognized as highly clinically relevant and has become the focus of intense investigation in translational cancer research. Many tumor-associated conditions, including intermittent oxygen and nutrient deprivation, oxidative stress, fast growth and cell death suppression, modulate, in parallel and in interconnected ways, both cellular metabolism and autophagy to enable cancer cells to rapidly adapt to environmental stressors, maintain uncontrolled proliferation and evade the toxic effects of radiation and/or chemotherapy. Elucidating the interplay between autophagy and tumor cell

  11. Cancer Chemotherapy: Past, Present, and Future—Part II

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jane C.

    1984-01-01

    Cancer is of major concern today because of its high mortality. It is estimated that 66 million people in this country will eventually develop cancer; 1983 estimates were 855,000 new cases and 440,000 deaths from cancer. Because of limitations of surgery and radiation therapy in effecting a cure for cancer, chemotherapy has become increasingly important. The developments in the chemical control of cancer in man are encouraging. This two-part paper* covers the historical milestones in the development of the chemical and hormonal control of cancer, present successes with the use of polychemotherapy, and the hopeful trend in research. PMID:6492179

  12. Cancer cells with irons in the fire.

    PubMed

    Bystrom, Laura M; Rivella, Stefano

    2015-02-01

    Iron is essential for the growth and proliferation of cells, as well as for many biological processes that are important for the maintenance and survival of the human body. However, excess iron is associated with the development of cancer and other pathological conditions, due in part to the pro-oxidative nature of iron and its damaging effects on DNA. Current studies suggest that iron depletion may be beneficial for patients that have diseases associated with iron overload or other iron metabolism disorders that may increase the risk for cancer. On the other hand, studies suggest that cancer cells are more vulnerable to the effects of iron depletion and oxidative stress in comparison to normal cells. Therefore, cancer patients might benefit from treatments that alter both iron metabolism and oxidative stress. This review highlights the pro-oxidant effects of iron, the relationship between iron and cancer development, the vulnerabilities of the iron-dependent cancer phenotype, and how these characteristics may be exploited to prevent or treat cancer.

  13. Drugs Approved for Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer This page lists cancer drugs ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Afinitor (Everolimus) Aldesleukin Avastin (Bevacizumab) ...

  14. Phenotype heterogeneity in cancer cell populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Luis; Chisholm, Rebecca; Clairambault, Jean; Escargueil, Alexandre; Lorenzi, Tommaso; Lorz, Alexander; Trélat, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    Phenotype heterogeneity in cancer cell populations, be it of genetic, epigenetic or stochastic origin, has been identified as a main source of resistance to drug treatments and a major source of therapeutic failures in cancers. The molecular mechanisms of drug resistance are partly understood at the single cell level (e.g., overexpression of ABC transporters or of detoxication enzymes), but poorly predictable in tumours, where they are hypothesised to rely on heterogeneity at the cell population scale, which is thus the right level to describe cancer growth and optimise its control by therapeutic strategies in the clinic. We review a few results from the biological literature on the subject, and from mathematical models that have been published to predict and control evolution towards drug resistance in cancer cell populations. We propose, based on the latter, optimisation strategies of combined treatments to limit emergence of drug resistance to cytotoxic drugs in cancer cell populations, in the monoclonal situation, which limited as it is still retains consistent features of cell population heterogeneity. The polyclonal situation, that may be understood as "bet hedging" of the tumour, thus protecting itself from different sources of drug insults, may lie beyond such strategies and will need further developments. In the monoclonal situation, we have designed an optimised therapeutic strategy relying on a scheduled combination of cytotoxic and cytostatic treatments that can be adapted to different situations of cancer treatments. Finally, we review arguments for biological theoretical frameworks proposed at different time and development scales, the so-called atavistic model (diachronic view relying on Darwinian genotype selection in the coursof billions of years) and the Waddington-like epigenetic landscape endowed with evolutionary quasi-potential (synchronic view relying on Lamarckian phenotype instruction of a given genome by reversible mechanisms), to

  15. Probiotics, dendritic cells and bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Feyisetan, Oladapo; Tracey, Christopher; Hellawell, Giles O

    2012-06-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The suppressor effect of probiotics on superficial bladder cancer is an observed phenomenon but the specific mechanism is poorly understood. The evidence strongly suggests natural killer (NK) cells are the anti-tumour effector cells involved and NK cell activity correlates with the observed anti-tumour effect in mice. It is also known that dendritic cells (DC) cells are responsible for the recruitment and mobilization of NK cells so therefore it may be inferred that DC cells are most likely to be the interphase point at which probiotics act. In support of this, purification of NK cells was associated with a decrease in NK cells activity. The current use of intravesical bacille Calmette-Guérin in the management of superficial bladder cancer is based on the effect of a localised immune response. In the same way, understanding the mechanism of action of probiotics and the role of DC may potentially offer another avenue via which the immune system may be manipulated to resist bladder cancer. Probiotic foods have been available in the UK since 1996 with the arrival of the fermented milk drink (Yakult) from Japan. The presence of live bacterial ingredients (usually lactobacilli species) may confer health benefits when present in sufficient numbers. The role of probiotics in colo-rectal cancer may be related in part to the suppression of harmful colonic bacteria but other immune mechanisms are involved. Anti-cancer effects outside the colon were suggested by a Japanese report of altered rates of bladder tumour recurrence after ingestion of a particular probiotic. Dendritic cells play a central role to the general regulation of the immune response that may be modified by probiotics. The addition of probiotics to the diet may confer benefit by altering rates of bladder tumour recurrence and also alter the response to immune mechanisms involved with the application of intravesical treatments (bacille Calmette-Guérin).

  16. What Is Breast Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research? Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer What Is Breast Cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... spread, see our section on Cancer Basics . Where breast cancer starts Breast cancers can start from different parts ...

  17. Fas Protects Breast Cancer Stem Cells from Death

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0301 TITLE: Fas Protects Breast Cancer Stem Cells from Death PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Paolo Ceppi CONTRACTING...sensitive to Fas-mediated apoptosis, while the BCSCs part is more sensitive to the death induced by the elimination of CD95 (a phenomenon we have recently...identification of novel molecular targets for the treatment of breast cancer. I have in fact observed a significant enhancement of cancer cell death by

  18. Anti-Cancer Phytometabolites Targeting Cancer Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Torquato, Heron F V; Goettert, Márcia I; Justo, Giselle Z; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar J

    2017-04-01

    Medicinal plants are a plentiful source of bioactive molecules with much structural diversity. In cancer treatment, molecules obtained from plants represent an attractive alternative to other treatments because several plant-derived compounds have exhibited lower toxicity and higher selectivity against cancer cells. In this review, we focus on the possible application of bioactive molecules obtained from plants against more primitive cell populations in cancers, cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells are present in several kinds of tumors and are responsible for recurrences and metastases. Common anti-cancer drugs exhibit lower effectiveness against cancer stem cells because of their biological features. However, recently discovered natural phytometabolites exert cytotoxic effects on this rare population of cells in cancers. Therefore, this review presents the latest research on promising compounds from plants that can act as antitumor drugs and that mainly affect stem cell populations in cancers.

  19. Isolation of rare cancer cells from blood cells using dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Salmanzadeh, Alireza; Sano, Michael B; Shafiee, Hadi; Stremler, Mark A; Davalos, Rafael V

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the application of contactless dielectrophoresis (cDEP) for isolating cancer cells from blood cells. Devices with throughput of 0.2 mL/hr (equivalent to sorting 3×10(6) cells per minute) were used to trap breast cancer cells while allowing blood cells through. We have shown that this technique is able to isolate cancer cells in concentration as low as 1 cancer cell per 10(6) hematologic cells (equivalent to 1000 cancer cells in 1 mL of blood). We achieved 96% trapping of the cancer cells at 600 kHz and 300 V(RMS).

  20. Cancer Chemotherapy: Past, Present, and Future—Part I

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jane C.

    1984-01-01

    Cancer is of major concern today because of its high mortality. It is estimated that 66 million people in this country will eventually develop cancer; 1983 estimates were 855,000 new cases and 440,000 deaths from cancer. Because of limitations of surgery and radiation therapy in effecting a cure for cancer, chemotherapy has become increasingly important. The developments in the chemical control of cancer in man are encouraging. This two-part paper covers the historical milestones in the development of the chemical and hormonal control of cancer, present successes with the use of polychemotherapy, and the hopeful trends in research. Part II will be published in a future issue of this journal. PMID:6381742

  1. Breast cancer. Part 2: present and future treatment modalities.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Victoria

    This is the second article in a series of three on breast cancer. Part 1 discussed breast anatomy, the principles behind breast awareness and breast health, detailing common benign breast diseases, types of breast cancer and staging. In this article, treatment for breast cancer is discussed. The article will follow the usual order of modalities in the trajectory, starting with surgery, then chemotherapy, radiotherapy and endocrine treatment, finishing with a discussion of future and biological treatments.

  2. Basal cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. This type of skin ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight . Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

  3. Squamous cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. The earliest form of ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight . Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

  4. Cell membrane modulation as adjuvant in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Zalba, Sara; Ten Hagen, Timo L M

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease involving numerous biological processes, which can exist in parallel, can be complementary, or are engaged when needed and as such can replace each other. This redundancy in possibilities cancer cells have, are fundamental to failure of therapy. However, intrinsic features of tumor cells and tumors as a whole provide also opportunities for therapy. Here we discuss the unique and specific makeup and arrangement of cell membranes of tumor cells and how these may help treatment. Interestingly, knowledge on cell membranes and associated structures is present already for decades, while application of membrane modification and manipulation as part of cancer therapy is lagging. Recent developments of scientific tools concerning lipids and lipid metabolism, opened new and previously unknown aspects of tumor cells and indicate possible differences in lipid composition and membrane function of tumor cells compared to healthy cells. This field, coined Lipidomics, demonstrates the importance of lipid components in cell membrane in several illnesses. Important alterations in cancer, and specially in resistant cancer cells compared to normal cells, opened the door to new therapeutic strategies. Moreover, the ability to modulate membrane components and/or properties has become a reality. Here, developments in cancer-related Lipidomics and strategies to interfere specifically with cancer cell membranes and how these affect cancer treatment are discussed. We hypothesize that combination of lipid or membrane targeted strategies with available care to improve chemotherapy, radiotherapy and immunotherapy will bring the much needed change in treatment in the years to come.

  5. Schwann cells induce cancer cell dispersion and invasion.

    PubMed

    Deborde, Sylvie; Omelchenko, Tatiana; Lyubchik, Anna; Zhou, Yi; He, Shizhi; McNamara, William F; Chernichenko, Natalya; Lee, Sei-Young; Barajas, Fernando; Chen, Chun-Hao; Bakst, Richard L; Vakiani, Efsevia; He, Shuangba; Hall, Alan; Wong, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    Nerves enable cancer progression, as cancers have been shown to extend along nerves through the process of perineural invasion, which carries a poor prognosis. Furthermore, the innervation of some cancers promotes growth and metastases. It remains unclear, however, how nerves mechanistically contribute to cancer progression. Here, we demonstrated that Schwann cells promote cancer invasion through direct cancer cell contact. Histological evaluation of murine and human cancer specimens with perineural invasion uncovered a subpopulation of Schwann cells that associates with cancer cells. Coculture of cancer cells with dorsal root ganglion extracts revealed that Schwann cells direct cancer cells to migrate toward nerves and promote invasion in a contact-dependent manner. Upon contact, Schwann cells induced the formation of cancer cell protrusions in their direction and intercalated between the cancer cells, leading to cancer cell dispersion. The formation of these processes was dependent on Schwann cell expression of neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) and ultimately promoted perineural invasion. Moreover, NCAM1-deficient mice showed decreased neural invasion and less paralysis. Such Schwann cell behavior reflects normal Schwann cell programs that are typically activated in nerve repair but are instead exploited by cancer cells to promote perineural invasion and cancer progression.

  6. Schwann cells induce cancer cell dispersion and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Deborde, Sylvie; Lyubchik, Anna; Zhou, Yi; He, Shizhi; McNamara, William F.; Chernichenko, Natalya; Lee, Sei-Young; Barajas, Fernando; Chen, Chun-Hao; Bakst, Richard L.; Vakiani, Efsevia; He, Shuangba; Hall, Alan; Wong, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Nerves enable cancer progression, as cancers have been shown to extend along nerves through the process of perineural invasion, which carries a poor prognosis. Furthermore, the innervation of some cancers promotes growth and metastases. It remains unclear, however, how nerves mechanistically contribute to cancer progression. Here, we demonstrated that Schwann cells promote cancer invasion through direct cancer cell contact. Histological evaluation of murine and human cancer specimens with perineural invasion uncovered a subpopulation of Schwann cells that associates with cancer cells. Coculture of cancer cells with dorsal root ganglion extracts revealed that Schwann cells direct cancer cells to migrate toward nerves and promote invasion in a contact-dependent manner. Upon contact, Schwann cells induced the formation of cancer cell protrusions in their direction and intercalated between the cancer cells, leading to cancer cell dispersion. The formation of these processes was dependent on Schwann cell expression of neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) and ultimately promoted perineural invasion. Moreover, NCAM1-deficient mice showed decreased neural invasion and less paralysis. Such Schwann cell behavior reflects normal Schwann cell programs that are typically activated in nerve repair but are instead exploited by cancer cells to promote perineural invasion and cancer progression. PMID:26999607

  7. Update in Cancer Chemotherapy: General Considerations and Breast Cancer, Part I

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jane C.

    1985-01-01

    A general review of the current use of cancer chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of common types of cancer and an update of the state of the art of chemotherapeutic treatment of the late and early stages of breast cancer in 1984 are described. Since the introduction of effective cancer chemotherapy, important progress has been made in the control of cancer of the breast. Of the common tumors, breast cancer is the most responsive to a wide variety of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. In this two-part paper, Part I reviews the use of hormone therapy in the treatment of breast cancer; Part II, which will be published in a subsequent issue of the journal, will describe the use of nonhormonal treatment. PMID:4046061

  8. Leptin and Cancer: From Cancer Stem Cells to Metastasis (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    1 Endocrine-Related Cancer Commentary Leptin and Cancer: From Cancer Stem Cells to Metastasis Jiyoung Park 1 and Philipp E. Scherer...REPORT DATE JUN 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Leptin And Cancer: From Cancer Stem Cells To...interest. Recently several groups have addressed the functional roles of leptin , an adipocyte-derived adipokine, for mammary tumor progression. In this

  9. How Can We Treat Cancer Disease Not Cancer Cells?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyu-Won; Lee, Su-Jae; Kim, Woo-Young; Seo, Ji Hae; Lee, Ho-Young

    2017-01-01

    Since molecular biology studies began, researches in biological science have centered on proteins and genes at molecular level of a single cell. Cancer research has also focused on various functions of proteins and genes that distinguish cancer cells from normal cells. Accordingly, most contemporary anticancer drugs have been developed to target abnormal characteristics of cancer cells. Despite the great advances in the development of anticancer drugs, vast majority of patients with advanced cancer have shown grim prognosis and high rate of relapse. To resolve this problem, we must reevaluate our focuses in current cancer research. Cancer should be considered as a systemic disease because cancer cells undergo a complex interaction with various surrounding cells in cancer tissue and spread to whole body through metastasis under the control of the systemic modulation. Human body relies on the cooperative interaction between various tissues and organs, and each organ performs its specialized function through tissue-specific cell networks. Therefore, investigation of the tumor-specific cell networks can provide novel strategy to overcome the limitation of current cancer research. This review presents the limitations of the current cancer research, emphasizing the necessity of studying tissue-specific cell network which could be a new perspective on treating cancer disease, not cancer cells. PMID:28052653

  10. Alternative fuels for cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Melissa M; Chi, Jen-Tsan

    2015-01-01

    Tumor metabolism is significantly altered to support the various metabolic needs of tumor cells. The most prominent change is the increased tumor glycolysis that leads to increased glucose uptake and utilization. However, it has become obvious that many non-glucose nutrients, such as amino acids, lactate, acetate, and macromolecules, can serve as alternative fuels for cancer cells. This knowledge reveals an unexpected flexibility and evolutionarily conserved model in which cancer cells uptake nutrients from their external environment to fulfill their necessary energetic needs. Tumor cells may have evolved the ability to utilize different carbon sources because of the limited supply of nutrients in their microenvironment, which can be driven by oncogenic mutations or tumor microenvironmental stresses. In certain cases, these factors permanently alter the tumor cells' metabolism, causing certain nutrients to become indispensable and thus creating opportunities for therapeutic intervention to eradicate tumors by their metabolic vulnerabilities.

  11. On the stem cell origin of cancer.

    PubMed

    Sell, Stewart

    2010-06-01

    In each major theory of the origin of cancer-field theory, chemical carcinogenesis, infection, mutation, or epigenetic change-the tissue stem cell is involved in the generation of cancer. Although the cancer type is identified by the more highly differentiated cells in the cancer cell lineage or hierarchy (transit-amplifying cells), the property of malignancy and the molecular lesion of the cancer exist in the cancer stem cell. In the case of teratocarcinomas, normal germinal stem cells have the potential to become cancers if placed in an environment that allows expression of the cancer phenotype (field theory). In cancers due to chemically induced mutations, viral infections, somatic and inherited mutations, or epigenetic changes, the molecular lesion or infection usually first occurs in the tissue stem cells. Cancer stem cells then give rise to transit-amplifying cells and terminally differentiated cells, similar to what happens in normal tissue renewal. However, the major difference between cancer growth and normal tissue renewal is that whereas normal transit amplifying cells usually differentiate and die, at various levels of differentiation, the cancer transit-amplifying cells fail to differentiate normally and instead accumulate (ie, they undergo maturation arrest), resulting in cancer growth.

  12. Cell-Cell Adhesion and Breast Cancer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Staging of breast cancer. In: K.I. Bland and E.M. Copeland (eds.), The breast: Comprehensive management of benign and malignant diseases , pp. 313-330... desmosomes . The physical strength of adhesion between two cells is likely to be dependent upon a number of factors, including the number of adhesion

  13. Microrheology of keratin networks in cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paust, T.; Paschke, S.; Beil, M.; Marti, O.

    2013-12-01

    Microrheology is a valuable tool to determine viscoelastic properties of polymer networks. For this purpose measurements with embedded tracer beads inside the extracted network of pancreatic cancer cells were performed. Observing the beads motion with a CCD-high-speed-camera leads to the dynamic shear modulus. The complex shear modulus is divided into real and imaginary parts which give insight into the mechanical properties of the cell. The dependency on the distance of the embedded beads to the rim of the nucleus shows a tendency for a deceasing storage modulus. We draw conclusions on the network topology of the keratin network types based on the mechanical behavior.

  14. [Cancer initiating cell theory: popularity and controversies].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua; Huang, Qiang; Dong, Jun; Lan, Qing

    2006-06-01

    The cancer stem cell model proposes that most tumors are derived from a single cell that is transformed into a cancer-initiating cell (cancer stem cell). Cancer stem cells have the capacity to proliferate, differentiate, and form tumors in vivo. However, the origin of cancer stem cells remains controversial. Normal stem cells are regarded as an ideal candidate for the origin of cancer stem cells when take similar characters and signaling pathways between them into consideration. In addition,cell fusion is an important physiologic process during development and tissue repair,and is closely related to several fundamental features of tumors,and thus could be involved in the development of cancer stem cells.

  15. Intracellular signals of lung cancer cells as possible therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Kiyomichi; Kumano, Keiki; Ueno, Hiroo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several molecularly targeted therapies have been developed as part of lung cancer treatment; they have produced dramatically good results. However, among the many oncogenes that have been identified to be involved in the development of lung cancers, a number of oncogenes are not covered by these advanced therapies. For the treatment of lung cancers, which is a group of heterogeneous diseases, persistent effort in developing individual therapies based on the respective causal genes is important. In addition, for the development of a novel therapy, identification of the lung epithelial stem cells and the origin cells of lung cancer, and understanding about candidate cancer stem cells in lung cancer tissues, their intracellular signaling pathways, and the mechanism of dysregulation of the pathways in cancer cells are extremely important. However, the development of drug resistance by cancer cells, despite the use of molecularly targeted drugs for the causal genes, thus obstructing treatment, is a well-known phenomenon. In this article, we discuss major causal genes of lung cancers and intracellular signaling pathways involving those genes, and review studies on origin and stem cells of lung cancers, as well as the possibility of developing molecularly targeted therapies based on these studies. PMID:25707772

  16. NK Cells Preferentially Target Tumor Cells with a Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Ames, Erik; Canter, Robert J; Grossenbacher, Steven K; Mac, Stephanie; Chen, Mingyi; Smith, Rachel C; Hagino, Takeshi; Perez-Cunningham, Jessica; Sckisel, Gail D; Urayama, Shiro; Monjazeb, Arta M; Fragoso, Ruben C; Sayers, Thomas J; Murphy, William J

    2015-10-15

    Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are resistant to antiproliferative therapies, able to repopulate tumor bulk, and seed metastasis. NK cells are able to target stem cells as shown by their ability to reject allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells but not solid tissue grafts. Using multiple preclinical models, including NK coculture (autologous and allogeneic) with multiple human cancer cell lines and dissociated primary cancer specimens and NK transfer in NSG mice harboring orthotopic pancreatic cancer xenografts, we assessed CSC viability, CSC frequency, expression of death receptor ligands, and tumor burden. We demonstrate that activated NK cells are capable of preferentially killing CSCs identified by multiple CSC markers (CD24(+)/CD44(+), CD133(+), and aldehyde dehydrogenase(bright)) from a wide variety of human cancer cell lines in vitro and dissociated primary cancer specimens ex vivo. We observed comparable effector function of allogeneic and autologous NK cells. We also observed preferential upregulation of NK activation ligands MICA/B, Fas, and DR5 on CSCs. Blocking studies further implicated an NKG2D-dependent mechanism for NK killing of CSCs. Treatment of orthotopic human pancreatic cancer tumor-bearing NSG mice with activated NK cells led to significant reductions in both intratumoral CSCs and tumor burden. Taken together, these data from multiple preclinical models, including a strong reliance on primary human cancer specimens, provide compelling preclinical evidence that activated NK cells preferentially target cancer cells with a CSC phenotype, highlighting the translational potential of NK immunotherapy as part of a combined modality approach for refractory solid malignancies.

  17. Cancer stem cells and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, Katia; Fodde, Riccardo

    2012-06-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a subpopulation of tumour cells endowed with self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation capacity but also with an innate resistance to cytotoxic agents, a feature likely to pose major clinical challenges towards the complete eradication of minimal residual disease in cancer patients. Operationally, CSCs are defined by their tumour-propagating ability when serially transplanted into immune-compromised mice and by their capacity to fully recapitulate the original heterogeneity of cell types observed in the primary lesions they are derived from. CSCs were first identified in haematopoietic malignancies and later in a broad spectrum of solid tumours including those of the breast, colon and brain. Notably, several CSC characteristics are relevant to metastasis, such as motility, invasiveness and, as mentioned above, resistance to DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Here, we have reviewed the current literature on the relation between CSCs and metastasis formation. Preliminary studies on cancer cell lines and patient-derived material suggest a rate-limiting role for stem-like cells in the processes of tumour cell dissemination and metastasis formation. However, additional studies are needed to deliver formal proof of their identity as the cell of origin of recurrences at distant organ sites. Nevertheless, several studies have already provided pre-clinical evidence of the efficacy of novel therapies directed against disseminated CSCs.

  18. Invasive cancer cells and metastasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-12-01

    The physics of cancer is a relatively new emerging field of cancer research. In the last decade it has become a focus of biophysical research as well as becoming a novel focus for classical cancer research. This special section of Physical Biology focusing on invasive cancer cells and metastasis (physical oncology) will give greater insight into the different subfields where physical approaches are being applied to cancer research. This focus on the physical aspects of cancer is necessary because novel approaches in the field of genomics and proteomics have not altered the field of cancer research dramatically, due to the fact that few breakthroughs have been made. It is still not understood why some primary tumors metastasize and thus have a worse outcome compared to others that do not metastasize. As biophysicists, we and others suggest that the mechanical properties of the cancer cells, which possess the ability to transmigrate, are quite different compared to non-metastatic and non-invasive cancer cells. Furthermore, we hypothesize that these cancer cells undergo a selection process within the primary tumor that enables them to weaken their cell-cell adhesions and to alter their cell-matrix adhesions in order to be able to cross the outermost boundary of the primary tumor, as well as the surrounding basement membrane, and to invade the connective tissue. This prerequisite may also help the cancer cells to enter blood or lymph vessels, get transported with the vessel flow and form secondary tumors either within the vessel, directly on the endothelium, or in a different organ after crossing the endothelial lining a second time. This special section begins with a paper by Mark F Coughlin and Jeffrey J Fredberg on the changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology due to the metastatic capability of cancer cells from different cancer tissue types such as skin, bladder, prostate and kidney [1]. The hypothesis was that the metastatic outcome is impacted by

  19. PARK2, a Large Common Fragile Site Gene, is Part of a Stress Response Network in Normal Cells That is Disrupted During the Development of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Genet 2006; 118: 551-558. 20) Helmich A, Stout-Weibder K, Matthei A, Hermann K, Heiden T, Schrock E. Identification of the human/mouse syntenic common...fragile site FRA7K/Fra12C1—relation of FRA7K and other common fragile sites to evolutionary breakoints. Int J Cancer 2007; 120: 48-54 21) Helmich A

  20. Notch signaling in cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jialiang; Sullenger, Bruce A; Rich, Jeremy N

    2012-01-01

    Subpopulations of cancer cells with stem cell-like characteristics, termed cancer stem cells, have been identified in a wide range of human cancers. Cancer stem cells are defined by their ability to self-renew as well as recapitulate the original heterogeneity of cancer cells in culture and in serial xenotransplants. Not only are cancer stem cells highly tumorigenic, but these cells are implicated in tumor resistance to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, thus highlighting their significance as therapeutic targets. Considerable similarities have been found between cancer stem cells and normal stem cells on their dependence on certain signaling pathways. More specifically, the core stem cell signaling pathways, such as the Wnt, Notch and Hedgehog pathways, also critically regulate the self-renewal and survival of cancer stem cells. While the oncogenic functions of Notch pathway have been well documented, its role in cancer stem cells is just emerging. In this chapter, we will discuss recent advances in cancer stem cell research and highlight the therapeutic potential of targeting Notch in cancer stem cells.

  1. Update in Cancer Chemotherapy: Gastrointestinal Cancer—Colorectal Cancer, Part 2

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jane C.

    1986-01-01

    An update of the state of the art of cancer chemotherapeutic treatment of gastrointestinal tract cancer is described in a multi-part series. Part 1 surveyed colorectal cancer and the use of single-agent chemotherapy in the April issue of the Journal. Part 2 of colorectal cancer will describe combination chemotherapy, preoperative and postoperative radiation, and combinations of chemotherapy and radiation, and adjuvant chemotherapy. In advanced gastrointestinal tract cancer, chemotherapy is only of palliative value with response rates generally under 50 percent and survival rates of several months to one year or more. Combination chemotherapy often produces higher response rates, yet there is no acceptable evidence that survival is improved. While some adjuvant chemotherapy trials suggest improvement, major survival gains remain to be demonstrated. Uncertainty as to the role of chemotherapy in the treatment of gastrointestinal cancers may be due to lack of data. PMID:3519988

  2. The effect of cancer procoagulant on expression of metastatic and angiogenic markers in breast cancer and embryonic stem cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kee, Nalise Low Ah; Naudé, Ryno J; Blatch, Gregory L; Frost, Carminita L

    2012-03-01

    Cancer procoagulant is present only in malignant tumours and the undifferentiated tissues of human placenta. Its possible role in angiogenesis and metastasis was investigated. Cancer procoagulant increased the steady-state mRNA level of L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and E14 mouse embryonic stem cells (MESCs), while an increase in angiogenin mRNA was observed in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Furthermore, production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and E14 MESCs, but decreased in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. We conclude that cancer procoagulant could potentially play a part in angiogenesis in cancer and vascular development during embryonic development.

  3. [Dendritic cells in cancer immunotherapy].

    PubMed

    Gato, M; Liechtenstein, T; Blanco-Luquín, I; Zudaire, M I; Kochan, G; Escors, D

    2015-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, biomedical scientists have tried to take advantage of the natural anti-cancer activities of the immune system. However, all the scientific and medical efforts dedicated to this have not resulted in the expected success. In fact, classical antineoplastic treatments such as surgery, radio and chemotherapy are still first line treatments. Even so, there is a quantity of experimental evidence demonstrating that cancer cells are immunogenic. However, the effective activation of anti-cancer T cell responses closely depends on an efficient antigen presentation carried out by professional antigen presenting cells such as DC. Although there are a number of strategies to strengthen antigen presentation by DC, anti-cancer immunotherapy is not as effective as we would expect according to preclinical data accumulated in recent decades. We do not aim to make an exhaustive review of DC immunotherapy here, which is an extensive research subject already dealt with in many specialised reviews. Instead, we present the experimental approaches undertaken by our group over the last decade, by modifying DC to improve their anti-tumour capacities.

  4. Prostate Cancer Stem Cells: Research Advances

    PubMed Central

    Jaworska, Dagmara; Król, Wojciech; Szliszka, Ewelina

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells have been defined as cells within a tumor that possesses the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. Experimental evidence showed that these highly tumorigenic cells might be responsible for initiation and progression of cancer into invasive and metastatic disease. Eradicating prostate cancer stem cells, the root of the problem, has been considered as a promising target in prostate cancer treatment to improve the prognosis for patients with advanced stages of the disease. PMID:26593898

  5. Hypothesis of mitochondrial oncogenesis as the trigger of normal cells to cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Jianping

    2014-06-01

    The Warburg Effect showed that energy metabolism of cancer cells was similar to prokaryotic cells, which were different from normal eucaryotic cells. The Endosymbiotic Theory offered a plausible explanation that the eucaryotic cells were evolved from prokaryotic cells, by which host cells (ancient prokaryotic cells) had ingested mitochondria (ancient aerobic bacteria), which depended on oxidative phosphorylation rather than glycolysis for generating energy. The alteration of energy metabolism might mean that the survival style of cancer cells were the re-evolution from eucaryotic cells to prokaryotic cells. But how this alteration happened was still unknown. This hypothesis tries to explain how mitochondria take part in the re-evolution from normal cell to cancer cell.

  6. Metabolic Regulation of Ovarian Cancer Cell Death

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Following treatment with chemotherapeutic agents, responsive ovarian cancer cells undergo apoptotic cell death . Several groups have shown that the...apoptotic protease, caspase 2 (C2), is an essential activator of cell death in ovarian cancer cells treated with cisplatin and we have found, by knock

  7. Anatomical relationship between traditional acupuncture point ST 36 and Omura's ST 36 (True ST 36) with their therapeutic effects: 1) inhibition of cancer cell division by markedly lowering cancer cell telomere while increasing normal cell telomere, 2) improving circulatory disturbances, with reduction of abnormal increase in high triglyceride, L-homocystein, CRP, or cardiac troponin I & T in blood by the stimulation of Omura's ST 36--Part 1.

    PubMed

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Chen, Yemeng; Lu, Dominic P; Shimotsura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu; Duvvi, Harsha

    2007-01-01

    Using Bi-Digital O-Ring Test Resonance Phenomena between 2 identical substances, Omura, Y. succeeded in making the image of the outline of internal organs without use of standard imaging devices since 1982. When he imaged the outline of the stomach on the abdominal wall, a number of the lines came out from upper and lower parts of stomach wall. When the lines were followed, they were very close to the well-known stomach meridians. Subsequently, he found a method of localizing meridians and their corresponding acupuncture points as well as shapes and diameters accurately. At the anatomical location of ST 36 described in traditional textbooks, Omura, Y. found there is no acupuncture point. However, in the close vicinity, there is an acupuncture point which he named as true ST 36 in the mid 1980s, but it is generally known as Omura's ST 36. When the effects of the acupuncture on these 2 locations were compared, Omura's ST 36 (true ST 36) produced very significant well-known acupuncture beneficial effects including improved circulation and blood chemistry, while in the traditional ST 36, the effects were small. In this article, the anatomical relationship between these two acupuncture points, with a short distance of 0.6 approximately 1.5 cm between the centers of these locations, was described. In early 2000, Omura, Y. found Press Needle Stimulation of Omura's ST 36, using "Press-Release" procedure repeated 200 times, 4 times a day to cancer patients reduced high cancer cell telomere of 600-1500ng and high Oncogen C-fos Ab2 and Integrin alpha5beta1 of 100-700ng BDORT units to close to lyg (= 10(-24) g) BDORT units. In addition there was a significant reduction of Asbestos and Hg from cancer cells, while markedly reduced normal cell telomere of lyg was increased to optimally high amounts of 500-530ng BDORTunits. Thus, cancer cells can no longer divide and cancer activity is inhibited. The authors have successfully applied this method for a variety of cancers as well as

  8. Programmed Cell Death in Breast Cancer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-01

    TITLE: Programmed Cell Death in Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Clark W. Distelhorst, M.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Case Western Reserve...Programmed Cell Death in Breast Cancer DAMD17-94-J-4451 6. AUTHOR(S) Clark W. Distelhorst, M.D. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8...cell death , apoptosis, in breast cancer cells has been developed. This model is based on induction of apoptosis by the selective endoplasmic reticulum

  9. Nanomaterials in Targeting Cancer Stem Cells for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Weiwei; Huang, Guan; Chen, Zuanguang; Zhang, Yuanqing

    2017-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in almost all cancers and give rise to metastases and can also act as a reservoir of cancer cells that may cause a relapse after surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy. Thus they are obvious targets in therapeutic approaches and also a great challenge in cancer treatment. The threat presented by CSCs lies in their unlimited proliferative ability and multidrug resistance. These findings have necessitated an effective novel strategy to target CSCs for cancer treatment. Nanomaterials are on the route to providing novel methods in cancer therapies. Although, there have been a large number of excellent work in the field of targeted cancer therapy, it remains an open question how nanomaterials can meet future demands for targeting and eradicating of CSCs. In this review, we summarized recent and highlighted future prospects for targeting CSCs for cancer therapies by using a variety of nanomaterials. PMID:28149278

  10. Reversing breast cancer stem cell into breast somatic stem cell.

    PubMed

    Wijaya, L; Agustina, D; Lizandi, A O; Kartawinata, M M; Sandra, F

    2011-02-01

    Stem cells have an important role in cell biology, allowing tissues to be renewed by freshly created cells throughout their lifetime. The specific micro-environment of stem cells is called stem cell niche; this environment influences the development of stem cells from quiescence through stages of differentiation. Recent advance researches have improved the understanding of the cellular and molecular components of the micro-environment--or niche--that regulates stem cells. We point out an important trend to the study of niche activity in breast cancers. Breast cancer has long been known to conserve a heterogeneous population of cells. While the majority of cells that make up tumors are destined to differentiate and eventually stop dividing, only minority populations of cells, termed cancer stem cell, possess extensive self renewal capability. These cancer stem cells possess characteristics of both stem cells and cancer cells. Breast cancer stem cells reversal to breast somatic stem cells offer a new therapy, that not only can stop the spread of breast cancer cells, but also can differentiate breast cancer stem cells into normal breast somatic stem cells. These can replace damaged breast tissue. Nevertheless, the complexity of realizing this therapy approach needs further research.

  11. Leptin and cancer: from cancer stem cells to metastasis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jiyoung; Scherer, Philipp E

    2011-08-01

    There is growing evidence that obesity is a risk factor of cancer incidence and mortality. Hence, the identification of the mechanistic links between obesity and cancer progression is emerging as a topic of widespread interest. Recently, several groups have addressed the functional roles of leptin, an adipocyte-derived adipokine, for mammary tumor progression. In this issue of Endocrine-Related Cancer, Zheng et al. study the role of leptin on tumor growth in a xenograft model of MMTV-Wnt1-derived cancer cells. They study growth of these cancer cells in the context of obese animals, such as ob/ob mice (lacking leptin) and db/db mice (lacking functional leptin receptors (LEPR)) and find that leptin triggers LEPR-positive cancer stem cell differentiation, thereby promoting tumor cell survival. These findings highlight the therapeutic potential for leptin and leptin signaling in the context of mammary tumor growth.

  12. Significance of Cancer Stem Cells in Anti-Cancer Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Botelho, Mónica; Alves, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Stem cells are the focus of cutting edge research interest because of their competence both to self-renew and proliferate, and to differentiate into a variety of tissues, offering enticing prospects of growing replacement organs in vitro, among other possible therapeutic implications. It is conceivable that cancer stem cells share a number of biological hallmarks that are different from their normal-tissue counterparts and that these might be taken advantage of for therapeutic benefits. In this review we discuss the significance of cancer stem cells in diagnosis and prognosis of cancer as well as in the development of new strategies for anti-cancer drug design. PMID:28191547

  13. Breast Cancer Stem Cells in Antiestrogen Resistance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    stimulated by antiestrogens. The effects of antiestrogens on the ER-positive breast cancer stem/progenitor involve changes of both proliferation and...self-renewal capabilities of breast cancer stem/progenitor cells. The effects of antiestrogens on the ER- positive breast cancer stem/progenitor...potent tumor-seeding efficiency. . Fig 3. The effects of antiestrogens on the differentiation of ER-positive breast cancer stem cells expressing

  14. Cryotherapy in Treating Patients With Lung Cancer That Has Spread to the Other Lung or Parts of the Body

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-17

    Advanced Malignant Mesothelioma; Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Lung Metastases; Recurrent Malignant Mesothelioma; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  15. Pancreatic cancer stem cells: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Bhagwandin, Vikash J; Shay, Jerry W

    2009-04-01

    The terms cancer-initiating or cancer stem cells have been the subject of great interest in recent years. In this review we will use pancreatic cancer as an overall theme to draw parallels with historical findings to compare to recent reports of stem-like characteristics in pancreatic cancer. We will cover such topics as label-retaining cells (side-population), ABC transporter pumps, telomerase, quiescence, cell surface stem cell markers, and epithelial-mesenchymal transitions. Finally we will integrate the available findings into a pancreatic stem cell model that also includes metastatic disease.

  16. Programmed Cell Death in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-01

    Programmed cell death , or apoptosis, is a genetically regulated process through which a cell is active in bringing about its own death for the sake...delays and inhibits the cell death response, so that the breast cancer cell lines are much less susceptible to thapsigargin-induced apoptosis than...lymphoid cell lines, an observation that parallels the differential susceptibility of breast cancer and lymphomas to chemotherapy-induced cell death in

  17. Cancer stem cells and differentiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Sell, Stewart

    2006-01-01

    Cancers arise from stem cells in adult tissues and the cells that make up a cancer reflect the same stem cell --> progeny --> differentiation progression observed in normal tissues. All adult tissues are made up of lineages of cells consisting of tissue stem cells and their progeny (transit-amplifying cells and terminally differentiated cells); the number of new cells produced in normal tissue lineages roughly equals the number of old cells that die. Cancers result from maturation arrest of this process, resulting in continued proliferation of cells and a failure to differentiate and die. The biological behavior, morphological appearance, and clinical course of a cancer depend on the stage of maturation at which the genetic lesion is activated. This review makes a comparison of cancer cells to embryonic stem cells and to adult tis sue stem cells while addressing two basic questions: (1) Where do cancers come from?, and (2) How do cancers grow? The answers to these questions are critical to the development of approaches to the detection, prevention, and treatment of cancer.

  18. Inside the 2016 American Society of Clinical Oncology Genitourinary Cancers Symposium: part 1 - kidney cancer.

    PubMed

    Buti, Sebastiano; Ciccarese, Chiara; Iacovelli, Roberto; Bersanelli, Melissa; Scarpelli, Marina; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Cheng, Liang; Montironi, Rodolfo; Tortora, Giampaolo; Massari, Francesco

    2016-09-01

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology Genitourinary Cancers Symposium, Moscone West Building, San Francisco, CA, USA, 7-9 January 2016 The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Genitourinary Cancers Symposium, held in San Francisco (CA, USA), from 7 to 9 January 2016, focused on 'patient-centric care: translating research to results'. Every year, this meeting is a must for anyone studying genitourinary tumors to keep abreast of the most recent innovations in this field, exchange views on behaviors customarily adopted in daily clinical practice, and discuss future topics of scientific research. This two-part report highlights the key themes presented at the 2016 ASCO Genitourinary Cancers Symposium, with part 1 reporting the main novelties of kidney cancer and part 2 discussing the most relevant issues which have emerged for bladder and prostate tumors.

  19. Restoration of normal phenotype in cancer cells

    DOEpatents

    Bissell, Mina J.; Weaver, Valerie M.

    1998-01-01

    A method for reversing expression of malignant phenotype in cancer cells is described. The method comprises applying .beta..sub.1 integrin function-blocking antibody to the cells. The method can be used to assess the progress of cancer therapy. Human breast epithelial cells were shown to be particularly responsive.

  20. Restoration of normal phenotype in cancer cells

    DOEpatents

    Bissell, M.J.; Weaver, V.M.

    1998-12-08

    A method for reversing expression of malignant phenotype in cancer cells is described. The method comprises applying {beta}{sub 1} integrin function-blocking antibody to the cells. The method can be used to assess the progress of cancer therapy. Human breast epithelial cells were shown to be particularly responsive. 14 figs.

  1. Endothelial cell metabolism: parallels and divergences with cancer cell metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The stromal vasculature in tumors is a vital conduit of nutrients and oxygen for cancer cells. To date, the vast majority of studies have focused on unraveling the genetic basis of vessel sprouting (also termed angiogenesis). In contrast to the widely studied changes in cancer cell metabolism, insight in the metabolic regulation of angiogenesis is only just emerging. These studies show that metabolic pathways in endothelial cells (ECs) importantly regulate angiogenesis in conjunction with genetic signals. In this review, we will highlight these emerging insights in EC metabolism and discuss them in perspective of cancer cell metabolism. While it is generally assumed that cancer cells have unique metabolic adaptations, not shared by healthy non-transformed cells, we will discuss parallels and highlight differences between endothelial and cancer cell metabolism and consider possible novel therapeutic opportunities arising from targeting both cancer and endothelial cells. PMID:25250177

  2. [Prostate cancer. Part 1: Review of cell kinetics over the years 1966-2015 and future perspectives of the new grading of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP)].

    PubMed

    Helpap, B; Bubendorf, L

    2016-02-01

    Using tritium-labeled thymidine histoautoradiography, the AgNOR staining technique and Ki67-MIB-1 immunohistochemistry to study cell kinetics, prostate cancer can be subdivided into slowly, moderately and rapidly proliferating tumors. These are important supplementary methods and prerequisites for a grading as low, intermediate and high-grade in addition to classical histology and cytology. Cytometry of DNA can confirm the cell kinetics of prostate cancer by detection of a predominance of diploid or aneuploid cell nuclei but should only be evaluated together with histological investigations. All histology-based analyses of cell kinetics encompass the classical highly and poorly differentiated glandular and cribriform patterns as well as solid undifferentiated structures and the various subcategories. The malignancy grading of prostate cancer can result from the summation of histological grading and cell kinetic analyses, as long as the named investigations are included. The future perspectives of individualized therapy options, including active surveillance in early low-grade and also for high-grade prostate cancer and new antihormonal treatment in advanced disease, may increasingly rely on tissue biomarkers and advanced technologies for whole genome analysis including next generation sequencing.

  3. Deregulation of Cell Signaling in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Giancotti, Filippo G.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Oncogenic mutations disrupt the regulatory circuits that govern cell function, enabling tumor cells to undergo de-regulated mitogenesis, to resist to proapoptotic insults, and to invade through tissue boundaries. Cancer cell biology has played a crucial role in elucidating the signaling mechanisms by which oncogenic mutations sustain these malignant behaviors and thereby in identifying rational targets for cancer drugs. The efficacy of such targeted therapies illustrate the power of a reductionist approach to the study of cancer. PMID:24561200

  4. Targeting Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Cancer Stem Cells in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Landen, Charles N.; Goodman, Blake; Katre, Ashwini A.; Steg, Adam D.; Nick, Alpa M.; Stone, Rebecca L.; Miller, Lance D.; Mejia, Pablo Vivas; Jennings, Nicolas B.; Gershenson, David M.; Bast, Robert C.; Coleman, Robert L.; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Sood, Anil K.

    2010-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase-1A1 (ALDH1A1) expression characterizes a subpopulation of cells with tumor initiating or cancer stem cell properties in several malignancies. Our goal was to characterize the phenotype of ALDH1A1-positive ovarian cancer cells and examine the biological effects of ALDH1A1 gene silencing. In our analysis of multiple ovarian cancer cell lines, we found that ALDH1A1 expression and activity was significantly higher in taxane and platinum-resistant cell lines. In patient samples, 72.9% of ovarian cancers had ALDH1A1 expression, in whom the percent of ALDH1A1-positive cells correlated negatively with progression-free survival (6.05 v 13.81 months, p<0.035). Subpopulations of A2780cp20 cells with ALDH1A1 activity were isolated for orthotopic tumor initiating studies, where tumorigenicity was approximately 50-fold higher with ALDH1A1-positive cells. Interestingly, tumors derived from ALDH1A1-positive cells gave rise to both ALDH1A1-positive and ALDH1A1-negative populations, but ALDH1A1-negative cells could not generate ALDH1A1-positive cells. In an in vivo orthotopic mouse model of ovarian cancer, ALDH1A1 silencing using nanoliposomal siRNA sensitized both taxane- and platinum-resistant cell lines to chemotherapy, significantly reducing tumor growth in mice compared to chemotherapy alone (a 74–90% reduction, p<0.015). These data demonstrate that the ALDH1A1 subpopulation is associated with chemoresistance and outcome in ovarian cancer patients, and targeting ALDH1A1 sensitizes resistant cells to chemotherapy. ALDH1A1-positive cells have enhanced, but not absolute, tumorigenicity, but do have differentiation capacity lacking in ALDH1A1-negative cells. This enzyme may be important for identification and targeting of chemoresistant cell populations in ovarian cancer. PMID:20889728

  5. Ell3 stimulates proliferation, drug resistance, and cancer stem cell properties of breast cancer cells via a MEK/ERK-dependent signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Hee-Jin; Kim, Gwangil; Park, Kyung-Soon

    2013-08-09

    Highlights: •Ell3 enhances proliferation and drug resistance of breast cancer cell lines. •Ell3 is related to the cancer stem cell characteristics of breast cancer cell lines. •Ell3 enhances oncogenicity of breast cancer through the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. -- Abstract: Ell3 is a RNA polymerase II transcription elongation factor that is enriched in testis. The C-terminal domain of Ell3 shows strong similarities to that of Ell (eleven−nineteen lysine-rich leukemia gene), which acts as a negative regulator of p53 and regulates cell proliferation and survival. Recent studies in our laboratory showed that Ell3 induces the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells by protecting differentiating cells from apoptosis via the promotion of p53 degradation. In this study, we evaluated the function of Ell3 in breast cancer cell lines. MCF-7 cell lines overexpressing Ell3 were used to examine cell proliferation and cancer stem cell properties. Ectopic expression of Ell3 in breast cancer cell lines induces proliferation and 5-FU resistance. In addition, Ell3 expression increases the cancer stem cell population, which is characterized by CD44 (+) or ALDH1 (+) cells. Mammosphere-forming potential and migration ability were also increased upon Ell3 expression in breast cancer cell lines. Through biochemical and molecular biological analyses, we showed that Ell3 regulates proliferation, cancer stem cell properties and drug resistance in breast cancer cell lines partly through the MEK−extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway. Murine xenograft experiments showed that Ell3 expression promotes tumorigenesis in vivo. These results suggest that Ell3 may play a critical role in promoting oncogenesis in breast cancer by regulating cell proliferation and cancer stem cell properties via the ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

  6. Colon cancer: cancer stem cells markers, drug resistance and treatment.

    PubMed

    Kozovska, Zuzana; Gabrisova, Veronika; Kucerova, Lucia

    2014-10-01

    Malignant tumours consist of heterogeneous populations of tumour cells. Cancer stem cells (CSC) represent a population of cells within a tumour with highly tumorigenic and chemoresistant properties. These cells may be identified by the expression of CSC markers. There are several key stem cells markers specified for colon cancer: CD133, CD44, ALDH1, ALCAM. These days, a major obstacle to effective cancer management is development of a multidrug resistance (MDR). The principal mechanism responsible for development of MDR phenotype is the over-expression of ABC transporters. Tumours and relapsing tumours after therapy are drived by subpopulations of tumour cells with aggressive phenotype resistant to chemotherapeutics. These cells are called CSC or tumour-initiating cells (TIC). Here we outline recent information about MDR of colon cancer and CSC markers. We have focused on novel therapeutic strategies which have been developed to prevent or overcome MDR. One such strategy is a combination of chemotherapy and modulators of MDR pumps or chemotherapy and monoclonal antibodies against vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF. Colon cancer is characterized by the presence of colon CSC expressing specific stem cell markers. The divergent presence of these markers can help to adjust personalized therapy. The review provides a detailed overview of resistance of colon cancer cells and discusses how the presence of CSC markers can influence therapy and prognosis of patients.

  7. Cancer Stem Cells in Lung Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kratz, Johannes R.; Yagui-Beltrán, Adam; Jablons, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Although stem cells were discovered more than 50 years ago, we have only recently begun to understand their potential importance in cancer biology. Recent advances in our ability to describe, isolate, and study lung stem cell populations has led to a growing recognition of the central importance cells with stem cell-like properties may have in lung tumorigenesis. This article reviews the major studies supporting the existence and importance of cancer stem cells in lung tumorigenesis. Continued research in the field of lung cancer stem cell biology is vital, as ongoing efforts promise to yield new prognostic and therapeutic targets. PMID:20493987

  8. Natural killer cells: can they be useful as adoptive immunotherapy for cancer?

    PubMed

    Arai, Sally; Klingemann, Hans-G

    2005-02-01

    As part of the innate immune system, natural killer (NK) cells form the first line of defence against pathogens or transformed/cancerous host cells. Recent experimental and clinical data show the possibility of exploiting NK activity as a cell-based immunotherapy to treat cancer. This review discusses the recent knowledge on NK cell biology that has impacted on its development as a treatment for cancer.

  9. Addressing future challenges for cancer services: part II.

    PubMed

    Maher, Jane; Radford, Gina

    2016-02-01

    Jane Maher & Gina Radford speak to Gemma Westcott, Commissioning Editor Jane Maher has been Macmillan's Chief Medical Officer since 1999 and now shares the role as Joint Chief Medical Officer with general practitioner Rosie Loftus, reflecting the growing need for specialists and generalists to work more effectively together. She has been an National Health Service (NHS) improvement clinical leader for over 10 years and is a Consultant Clinical Oncologist at Mount Vernon Cancer Centre and Hillingdon Hospital where she has worked for more than 20 years, during which she helped develop nonsurgical oncology services in five district general hospitals. She is a senior Clinical Lecturer at University College London and Visiting Professor in Cancer and Supportive Care at the Centre for Complexity Management at the University of Hertfordshire. Jane chaired the Maher Committee for the Department of Health in 1995, led the UK National Audit of Late Effects Pelvic Radiotherapy for the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) in 2000 and, most recently, chaired the National Cancer Survivorship Initiative Consequences of Treatment work stream. She co-founded one of the first Cancer Support and Information services in the UK, winning the Nye Bevan award in 1992 and there are now more than 60 units based on this model. She is a member of the Older People and Cancer Clinical Advisory Group. She has written more than 100 published articles and is a UK representative for cancer survivorship in Europe and advises on cancer survivorship programs in Denmark and Canada. Gina Radford is Deputy Chief Medical Officer for England, a post she took up in January 2015. Prior to that, she has held a number of roles in public health, at local and regional level. Most recently she was Centre Director for Anglia and Essex for Public Health England, and as a part of that role helped lead nationally on the public health response to Ebola. She was until very recently Chair of one of the NICE public health

  10. Confocal Raman imaging for cancer cell classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathieu, Evelien; Van Dorpe, Pol; Stakenborg, Tim; Liu, Chengxun; Lagae, Liesbet

    2014-05-01

    We propose confocal Raman imaging as a label-free single cell characterization method that can be used as an alternative for conventional cell identification techniques that typically require labels, long incubation times and complex sample preparation. In this study it is investigated whether cancer and blood cells can be distinguished based on their Raman spectra. 2D Raman scans are recorded of 114 single cells, i.e. 60 breast (MCF-7), 5 cervix (HeLa) and 39 prostate (LNCaP) cancer cells and 10 monocytes (from healthy donors). For each cell an average spectrum is calculated and principal component analysis is performed on all average cell spectra. The main features of these principal components indicate that the information for cell identification based on Raman spectra mainly comes from the fatty acid composition in the cell. Based on the second and third principal component, blood cells could be distinguished from cancer cells; and prostate cancer cells could be distinguished from breast and cervix cancer cells. However, it was not possible to distinguish breast and cervix cancer cells. The results obtained in this study, demonstrate the potential of confocal Raman imaging for cell type classification and identification purposes.

  11. Epigenetic targeting of ovarian cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinu; Cardenas, Horacio; Fang, Fang; Condello, Salvatore; Taverna, Pietro; Segar, Matthew; Liu, Yunlong; Nephew, Kenneth P; Matei, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    Emerging results indicate that cancer stem-like cells contribute to chemoresistance and poor clinical outcomes in many cancers, including ovarian cancer. As epigenetic regulators play a major role in the control of normal stem cell differentiation, epigenetics may offer a useful arena to develop strategies to target cancer stem-like cells. Epigenetic aberrations, especially DNA methylation, silence tumor-suppressor and differentiation-associated genes that regulate the survival of ovarian cancer stem-like cells (OCSC). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that DNA-hypomethylating agents may be able to reset OCSC toward a differentiated phenotype by evaluating the effects of the new DNA methytransferase inhibitor SGI-110 on OCSC phenotype, as defined by expression of the cancer stem-like marker aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). We demonstrated that ALDH(+) ovarian cancer cells possess multiple stem cell characteristics, were highly chemoresistant, and were enriched in xenografts residual after platinum therapy. Low-dose SGI-110 reduced the stem-like properties of ALDH(+) cells, including their tumor-initiating capacity, resensitized these OCSCs to platinum, and induced reexpression of differentiation-associated genes. Maintenance treatment with SGI-110 after carboplatin inhibited OCSC growth, causing global tumor hypomethylation and decreased tumor progression. Our work offers preclinical evidence that epigenome-targeting strategies have the potential to delay tumor progression by reprogramming residual cancer stem-like cells. Furthermore, the results suggest that SGI-110 might be administered in combination with platinum to prevent the development of recurrent and chemoresistant ovarian cancer.

  12. Radiofrequency treatment alters cancer cell phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Matthew J.; Tinger, Sophia; Colbert, Kevin L.; Corr, Stuart J.; Rees, Paul; Koshkina, Nadezhda; Curley, Steven; Summers, H. D.; Godin, Biana

    2015-01-01

    The importance of evaluating physical cues in cancer research is gradually being realized. Assessment of cancer cell physical appearance, or phenotype, may provide information on changes in cellular behavior, including migratory or communicative changes. These characteristics are intrinsically different between malignant and non-malignant cells and change in response to therapy or in the progression of the disease. Here, we report that pancreatic cancer cell phenotype was altered in response to a physical method for cancer therapy, a non-invasive radiofrequency (RF) treatment, which is currently being developed for human trials. We provide a battery of tests to explore these phenotype characteristics. Our data show that cell topography, morphology, motility, adhesion and division change as a result of the treatment. These may have consequences for tissue architecture, for diffusion of anti-cancer therapeutics and cancer cell susceptibility within the tumor. Clear phenotypical differences were observed between cancerous and normal cells in both their untreated states and in their response to RF therapy. We also report, for the first time, a transfer of microsized particles through tunneling nanotubes, which were produced by cancer cells in response to RF therapy. Additionally, we provide evidence that various sub-populations of cancer cells heterogeneously respond to RF treatment. PMID:26165830

  13. Radiofrequency treatment alters cancer cell phenotype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, Matthew J.; Tinger, Sophia; Colbert, Kevin L.; Corr, Stuart J.; Rees, Paul; Koshkina, Nadezhda; Curley, Steven; Summers, H. D.; Godin, Biana

    2015-07-01

    The importance of evaluating physical cues in cancer research is gradually being realized. Assessment of cancer cell physical appearance, or phenotype, may provide information on changes in cellular behavior, including migratory or communicative changes. These characteristics are intrinsically different between malignant and non-malignant cells and change in response to therapy or in the progression of the disease. Here, we report that pancreatic cancer cell phenotype was altered in response to a physical method for cancer therapy, a non-invasive radiofrequency (RF) treatment, which is currently being developed for human trials. We provide a battery of tests to explore these phenotype characteristics. Our data show that cell topography, morphology, motility, adhesion and division change as a result of the treatment. These may have consequences for tissue architecture, for diffusion of anti-cancer therapeutics and cancer cell susceptibility within the tumor. Clear phenotypical differences were observed between cancerous and normal cells in both their untreated states and in their response to RF therapy. We also report, for the first time, a transfer of microsized particles through tunneling nanotubes, which were produced by cancer cells in response to RF therapy. Additionally, we provide evidence that various sub-populations of cancer cells heterogeneously respond to RF treatment.

  14. Cancer stem cell targeted therapy: progress amid controversies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Shigdar, Sarah; Gantier, Michael P; Hou, Yingchun; Wang, Li; Li, Yong; Shamaileh, Hadi Al; Yin, Wang; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Zhao, Xinhan; Duan, Wei

    2015-12-29

    Although cancer stem cells have been well characterized in numerous malignancies, the fundamental characteristics of this group of cells, however, have been challenged by some recent observations: cancer stem cells may not necessary to be rare within tumors; cancer stem cells and non-cancer stem cells may undergo reversible phenotypic changes; and the cancer stem cells phenotype can vary substantially between patients. Here the current status and progresses of cancer stem cells theory is illustrated and via providing a panoramic view of cancer therapy, we addressed the recent controversies regarding the feasibility of cancer stem cells targeted anti-cancer therapy.

  15. Cancer stem cell targeted therapy: progress amid controversies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Shigdar, Sarah; Gantier, Michael P.; Hou, Yingchun; Wang, Li; Li, Yong; Shamaileh, Hadi Al; Yin, Wang; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Zhao, Xinhan; Duan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Although cancer stem cells have been well characterized in numerous malignancies, the fundamental characteristics of this group of cells, however, have been challenged by some recent observations: cancer stem cells may not necessary to be rare within tumors; cancer stem cells and non-cancer stem cells may undergo reversible phenotypic changes; and the cancer stem cells phenotype can vary substantially between patients. Here the current status and progresses of cancer stem cells theory is illustrated and via providing a panoramic view of cancer therapy, we addressed the recent controversies regarding the feasibility of cancer stem cells targeted anti-cancer therapy. PMID:26496035

  16. CASPASE CONTROL: PROTAGONISTS OF CANCER CELL APOPTOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Fiandalo, M.V.; Kyprianou, N.

    2013-01-01

    Emergence of castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer is due to activation of survival pathways, including apoptosis suppression and anoikis resistance, and increased neovascularization. Thus targeting of apoptotic players is of critical significance in prostate cancer therapy since loss of apoptosis and resistance to anoikis are critical in aberrant malignant growth, metastasis and conferring therapeutic failure. The majority of therapeutic agents act through intrinsic mitochondrial, extrinsic death receptor pathways or endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways to induce apoptosis. Current therapeutic strategies target restoring regulatory molecules that govern the pro-survival pathways such as PTEN which regulates AKT activity. Other strategies focus on reactivating the apoptotic pathways either by down-regulating anti-apoptotic players such as BCL-2 or by up-regulating pro-apoptotic protein families, most notably, the caspases. Caspases are a family of cystine proteases which serve critical roles in apoptotic and inflammatory signaling pathways. During tumorigenesis, significant loss or inactivation of lead members in the caspase family leads to impairing apoptosis induction, causing a dramatic imbalance in the growth dynamics, ultimately resulting in aberrant growth of human cancers. Recent exploitation of apoptosis pathways towards re-instating apoptosis induction via caspase re-activation has provided new molecular platforms for the development of therapeutic strategies effective against advanced prostate cancer as well as other solid tumors. This review will discuss the current cellular landscape featuring the caspase family in tumor cells and their activation via pharmacologic intervention towards optimized anti-cancer therapeutic modalities. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled “Apoptosis: Four Decades Later”. PMID:23070001

  17. Reprogramming bladder cancer cells for studying cancer initiation and progression.

    PubMed

    Iskender, Banu; Izgi, Kenan; Canatan, Halit

    2016-10-01

    The induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology is the forced expression of specific transcription factors in somatic cells resulting in transformation into self-renewing, pluripotent cells which possess the ability to differentiate into any type of cells in the human body. While malignant cells could also be reprogrammed into iPSC-like cells with lower efficiency due to the genetic and epigenetic barriers in cancer cells, only a limited number of cancer cell types could be successfully reprogrammed until today. In the present study, we aimed at reprogramming two bladder cancer cell lines HTB-9 and T24 using a non-integrating Sendai virus (SeV) system. We have generated six sub-clones using distinct combinations of four factors-OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC-in two bladder cancer cell lines. Only a single sub-clone, T24 transduced with 4Fs, gave rise to iPSC-like cells. Bladder cancer cell-derived T24 4F cells represent unique features of pluripotent cells such as epithelial-like morphology, colony-forming ability, expression of pluripotency-associated markers and bearing the ability to differentiate in vitro. This is the first study focusing on the reprogramming susceptibility of two different bladder cancer cell lines to nuclear reprogramming. Further molecular characterisation of T24 4F cells could provide a better insight for biomarker research in bladder carcinogenesis and could offer a valuable tool for the development of novel therapeutic approaches in bladder carcinoma.

  18. Cancer stem cells in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Lathia, Justin D.; Mack, Stephen C.; Mulkearns-Hubert, Erin E.; Valentim, Claudia L.L.; Rich, Jeremy N.

    2015-01-01

    Tissues with defined cellular hierarchies in development and homeostasis give rise to tumors with cellular hierarchies, suggesting that tumors recapitulate specific tissues and mimic their origins. Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most prevalent and malignant primary brain tumor and contains self-renewing, tumorigenic cancer stem cells (CSCs) that contribute to tumor initiation and therapeutic resistance. As normal stem and progenitor cells participate in tissue development and repair, these developmental programs re-emerge in CSCs to support the development and progressive growth of tumors. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms that govern CSCs has informed the development of novel targeted therapeutics for GBM and other brain cancers. CSCs are not self-autonomous units; rather, they function within an ecological system, both actively remodeling the microenvironment and receiving critical maintenance cues from their niches. To fulfill the future goal of developing novel therapies to collapse CSC dynamics, drawing parallels to other normal and pathological states that are highly interactive with their microenvironments and that use developmental signaling pathways will be beneficial. PMID:26109046

  19. Stem cells in dentistry--part I: stem cell sources.

    PubMed

    Egusa, Hiroshi; Sonoyama, Wataru; Nishimura, Masahiro; Atsuta, Ikiru; Akiyama, Kentaro

    2012-07-01

    Stem cells can self-renew and produce different cell types, thus providing new strategies to regenerate missing tissues and treat diseases. In the field of dentistry, adult mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been identified in several oral and maxillofacial tissues, which suggests that the oral tissues are a rich source of stem cells, and oral stem and mucosal cells are expected to provide an ideal source for genetically reprogrammed cells such as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Furthermore, oral tissues are expected to be not only a source but also a therapeutic target for stem cells, as stem cell and tissue engineering therapies in dentistry continue to attract increasing clinical interest. Part I of this review outlines various types of intra- and extra-oral tissue-derived stem cells with regard to clinical availability and applications in dentistry. Additionally, appropriate sources of stem cells for regenerative dentistry are discussed with regard to differentiation capacity, accessibility and possible immunomodulatory properties.

  20. Targeting Signaling Pathways in Cancer Stem Cells for Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Li

    2017-01-01

    The Wnt, Hedgehog, and Notch pathways are inherent signaling pathways in normal embryogenesis, development, and hemostasis. However, dysfunctions of these pathways are evident in multiple tumor types and malignancies. Specifically, aberrant activation of these pathways is implicated in modulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs), a small subset of cancer cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation into heterogeneous tumor cells. The CSCs are accountable for tumor initiation, growth, and recurrence. In this review, we focus on roles of Wnt, Hedgehog, and Notch pathways in CSCs' stemness and functions and summarize therapeutic studies targeting these pathways to eliminate CSCs and improve overall cancer treatment outcomes. PMID:28356914

  1. Interfacial geometry dictates cancer cell tumorigenicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Junmin; Abdeen, Amr A.; Wycislo, Kathryn L.; Fan, Timothy M.; Kilian, Kristopher A.

    2016-08-01

    Within the heterogeneous architecture of tumour tissue there exists an elusive population of stem-like cells that are implicated in both recurrence and metastasis. Here, by using engineered extracellular matrices, we show that geometric features at the perimeter of tumour tissue will prime a population of cells with a stem-cell-like phenotype. These cells show characteristics of cancer stem cells in vitro, as well as enhanced tumorigenicity in murine models of primary tumour growth and pulmonary metastases. We also show that interfacial geometry modulates cell shape, adhesion through integrin α5β1, MAPK and STAT activity, and initiation of pluripotency signalling. Our results for several human cancer cell lines suggest that interfacial geometry triggers a general mechanism for the regulation of cancer-cell state. Similar to how a growing tumour can co-opt normal soluble signalling pathways, our findings demonstrate how cancer can also exploit geometry to orchestrate oncogenesis.

  2. Cancer Stem Cells: Repair Gone Awry?

    PubMed Central

    Rangwala, Fatima; Omenetti, Alessia; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2011-01-01

    Because cell turnover occurs in all adult organs, stem/progenitor cells within the stem-cell niche of each tissue must be appropriately mobilized and differentiated to maintain normal organ structure and function. Tissue injury increases the demands on this process, and thus may unmask defective regulation of pathways, such as Hedgehog (Hh), that modulate progenitor cell fate. Hh pathway dysregulation has been demonstrated in many types of cancer, including pancreatic and liver cancers, in which defective Hh signaling has been linked to outgrowth of Hh-responsive cancer stem-initiating cells and stromal elements. Hence, the Hh pathway might be a therapeutic target in such tumors. PMID:21188169

  3. Stress-induced cleavage of Myc promotes cancer cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Conacci-Sorrell, Maralice; Ngouenet, Celine; Anderson, Sarah; Brabletz, Thomas; Eisenman, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Evasion of apoptosis is critical in Myc-induced tumor progression. Here we report that cancer cells evade death under stress by activating calpain-mediated proteolysis of Myc. This generates Myc-nick, a cytoplasmic, transcriptionally inactive cleavage product of Myc. We found conversion of Myc into Myc-nick in cell lines and tissues derived from multiple cancers. In colon cancer, the production of Myc-nick is enhanced under stress conditions such as hypoxia and nutrient deprivation. Under these conditions, ectopic expression of Myc-nick promotes anchorage-independent growth and cell survival at least in part by promoting autophagy. Myc-nick also delays colon cancer cell death after treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs such as etoposide, cisplatin, and imatinib. Furthermore, colon cancer cells expressing a cleavage-resistant form of Myc undergo extensive apoptosis but are rescued by overexpression of Myc-nick. We also found that ectopic expression of Myc-nick results in the induction of the actin-bundling protein fascin, formation of filopodia, and increased cell motility—all mediators of tumor metastasis. Myc-nick-induced survival, autophagy, and motility require Myc box II (MBII), a region of Myc-nick that recruits acetyltransferases that in turn modify cytoplasmic proteins, including α-tubulin and ATG3. Our results suggest that Myc-nick-induced survival and motility contribute to colon cancer progression and metastasis. PMID:24696454

  4. Epigenetic Targeting of Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yinu; Cardenas, Horacio; Fang, Fang; Condello, Salvatore; Taverna, Pietro; Segar, Matthew; Liu, Yunlong; Nephew, Kenneth P.; Matei, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Emerging results indicate that cancer stem-like cells contribute to chemoresistance and poor clinical outcomes in many cancers, including ovarian cancer (OC). As epigenetic regulators play a major role in the control of normal stem cell differentiation, epigenetics may offer a useful arena to develop strategies to target cancer stem-like cells. Epigenetic aberrations, especially DNA methylation, silence tumor suppressor and differentiation-associated genes that regulate the survival of ovarian cancer stem-like cell (OCSC). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that DNA hypomethylating agents may be able to reset OCSC towards a differentiated phenotype, by evaluating the effects of the new DNA methytransferase inhibitor SGI-110 on OCSC phenotype, as defined by expression of the cancer stem-like marker aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). We demonstrated that ALDH+ OC cells possess multiple stem cell characteristics, were highly chemoresistant, and were enriched in xenografts residual after platinum therapy. Low dose SGI-110 reduced the stem-like properties of ALDH+ cells, including their tumor initiating capacity, resensitized these OCSCs to platinum, and induced re-expression of differentiation-associated genes. Maintenance treatment with SGI-110 after carboplatin inhibited OCSC growth, causing global tumor hypomethylation and decreased tumor progression. Our work offers preclinical evidence that epigenome-targeting strategies have the potential to delay tumor progression by re-programming residual cancer stem-like cells. Further, the results suggest that SGI-110 might be administered in combination with platinum to prevent the development of recurrent and chemoresistant ovarian cancer. PMID:25035395

  5. Human Nanog pseudogene8 promotes the proliferation of gastrointestinal cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Uchino, Keita; Hirano, Gen; Hirahashi, Minako; Isobe, Taichi; Shirakawa, Tsuyoshi; Kusaba, Hitoshi; Baba, Eishi; Tsuneyoshi, Masazumi; Akashi, Koichi

    2012-09-10

    There is emerging evidence that human solid tumor cells originate from cancer stem cells (CSCs). In cancer cell lines, tumor-initiating CSCs are mainly found in the side population (SP) that has the capacity to extrude dyes such as Hoechst 33342. We found that Nanog is expressed specifically in SP cells of human gastrointestinal (GI) cancer cells. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that NanogP8 but not Nanog was expressed in GI cancer cells. Transfection of NanogP8 into GI cancer cell lines promoted cell proliferation, while its inhibition by anti-Nanog siRNA suppressed the proliferation. Immunohistochemical staining of primary GI cancer tissues revealed NanogP8 protein to be strongly expressed in 3 out of 60 cases. In these cases, NanogP8 was found especially in an infiltrative part of the tumor, in proliferating cells with Ki67 expression. These data suggest that NanogP8 is involved in GI cancer development in a fraction of patients, in whom it presumably acts by supporting CSC proliferation. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog maintains pluripotency by regulating embryonic stem cells differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog is expressed in cancer stem cells of human gastrointestinal cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nucleotide sequencing revealed that Nanog pseudogene8 but not Nanog was expressed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog pseudogene8 promotes cancer stem cells proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog pseudogene8 is involved in gastrointestinal cancer development.

  6. Visualizing how cancer chromosome abnormalities form in living cells

    Cancer.gov

    For the first time, scientists have directly observed events that lead to the formation of a chromosome abnormality that is often found in cancer cells. The abnormality, called a translocation, occurs when part of a chromosome breaks off and becomes attac

  7. An immunosurveillance mechanism controls cancer cell ploidy.

    PubMed

    Senovilla, Laura; Vitale, Ilio; Martins, Isabelle; Tailler, Maximilien; Pailleret, Claire; Michaud, Mickaël; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Adjemian, Sandy; Kepp, Oliver; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Shen, Shensi; Mariño, Guillermo; Criollo, Alfredo; Boilève, Alice; Job, Bastien; Ladoire, Sylvain; Ghiringhelli, François; Sistigu, Antonella; Yamazaki, Takahiro; Rello-Varona, Santiago; Locher, Clara; Poirier-Colame, Vichnou; Talbot, Monique; Valent, Alexander; Berardinelli, Francesco; Antoccia, Antonio; Ciccosanti, Fabiola; Fimia, Gian Maria; Piacentini, Mauro; Fueyo, Antonio; Messina, Nicole L; Li, Ming; Chan, Christopher J; Sigl, Verena; Pourcher, Guillaume; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Lazar, Vladimir; Penninger, Josef M; Madeo, Frank; López-Otín, Carlos; Smyth, Mark J; Zitvogel, Laurence; Castedo, Maria; Kroemer, Guido

    2012-09-28

    Cancer cells accommodate multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations that initially activate intrinsic (cell-autonomous) and extrinsic (immune-mediated) oncosuppressive mechanisms. Only once these barriers to oncogenesis have been overcome can malignant growth proceed unrestrained. Tetraploidization can contribute to oncogenesis because hyperploid cells are genomically unstable. We report that hyperploid cancer cells become immunogenic because of a constitutive endoplasmic reticulum stress response resulting in the aberrant cell surface exposure of calreticulin. Hyperploid, calreticulin-exposing cancer cells readily proliferated in immunodeficient mice and conserved their increased DNA content. In contrast, hyperploid cells injected into immunocompetent mice generated tumors only after a delay, and such tumors exhibited reduced DNA content, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and calreticulin exposure. Our results unveil an immunosurveillance system that imposes immunoselection against hyperploidy in carcinogen- and oncogene-induced cancers.

  8. Breast cancer stem cells and radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Tiffany Marie

    2007-12-01

    The present studies explore the response of breast cancer stem cells (BCSC's) to radiation and the implications for clinical cancer treatment. Current cancer therapy eliminates bulky tumor mass but may fail to eradicate a critical tumor initiating cell population termed "cancer stem cells". These cells are potentially responsible for tumor formation, metastasis, and recurrence. Recently cancer stem cells have been prospectively identified in various malignancies, including breast cancer. The breast cancer stem cell has been identified by the surface markers CD44+/CD24 -(low). In vitro mammosphere cultures allow for the enrichment of the cancer stem cell population and were utilized in order to study differential characteristics of BCSC's. Initial studies found that BCSC's display increased radiation resistance as compared to other non-stem tumor cells. This resistance was accompanied by decreased H2AX phosphorylation, decreased reactive oxygen species formation, and increased phosphorylation of the checkpoint protein Chk1. These studies suggest differential DNA damage and repair within the BCSC population. Studies then examined the consequences of fractionated radiation on the BCSC population and found a two-fold increase in BCSC's following 5 x 3Gy. This observation begins to tie cancer stem cell self-renewal to the clinical stem cell phenomenon of accelerated repopulation. Accelerated repopulation is observed when treatment gaps increase between sequential fractions of radiotherapy and may be due to cancer stem cell symmetric self-renewal. The balance between asymmetric and symmetric stem cell division is vital for proper maintenance; deregulation is likely linked to cancer initiation and progression. The developmental Notch-1 pathway was found to regulate BCSC division. Over-expressing the constitutively active Notch-1-ICD in MCF7 cells produced an increase in the BCSC population. Additionally, radiation was observed to increase the expression of the Notch-1

  9. Wnt Signaling in Cancer Stem Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa e Melo, Felipe; Vermeulen, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant regulation of Wnt signaling is a common theme seen across many tumor types. Decades of research have unraveled the epigenetic and genetic alterations that result in elevated Wnt pathway activity. More recently, it has become apparent that Wnt signaling levels identify stem-like tumor cells that are responsible for fueling tumor growth. As therapeutic targeting of these tumor stem cells is an intense area of investigation, a concise understanding on how Wnt activity relates to cancer stem cell traits is needed. This review attempts at summarizing the intricacies between Wnt signaling and cancer stem cell biology with a special emphasis on colorectal cancer. PMID:27355964

  10. Relevance of mortalin to cancer cell stemness and cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Chae-Ok; Bhargava, Priyanshu; Na, Youjin; Lee, Jung-Sun; Ryu, Jihoon; Kaul, Sunil C.; Wadhwa, Renu

    2017-01-01

    Mortalin/mtHsp70 is a member of Hsp70 family of proteins. Enriched in a large variety of cancers, it has been shown to contribute to the process of carcinogenesis by multiple ways including inactivation of tumor suppressor p53 protein, deregulation of apoptosis and activation of EMT signaling. In this study, we report that upregulation of mortalin contributes to cancer cell stemness. Several cancer cell stemness markers, such as ABCG2, OCT-4, CD133, ALDH1, CD9, MRP1 and connexin were upregulated in mortalin-overexpressing cells that showed higher ability to form spheroids. These cells also showed higher migration, and were less responsive to a variety of cancer chemotherapeutic drugs. Of note, knockdown of mortalin by specific shRNA sensitized these cells to all the drugs used in this study. We report that low doses of anti-mortalin molecules, MKT-077 and CAPE, also caused similar sensitization of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs and hence are potential candidates for effective cancer chemotherapy. PMID:28165047

  11. Relevance of mortalin to cancer cell stemness and cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Yun, Chae-Ok; Bhargava, Priyanshu; Na, Youjin; Lee, Jung-Sun; Ryu, Jihoon; Kaul, Sunil C; Wadhwa, Renu

    2017-02-06

    Mortalin/mtHsp70 is a member of Hsp70 family of proteins. Enriched in a large variety of cancers, it has been shown to contribute to the process of carcinogenesis by multiple ways including inactivation of tumor suppressor p53 protein, deregulation of apoptosis and activation of EMT signaling. In this study, we report that upregulation of mortalin contributes to cancer cell stemness. Several cancer cell stemness markers, such as ABCG2, OCT-4, CD133, ALDH1, CD9, MRP1 and connexin were upregulated in mortalin-overexpressing cells that showed higher ability to form spheroids. These cells also showed higher migration, and were less responsive to a variety of cancer chemotherapeutic drugs. Of note, knockdown of mortalin by specific shRNA sensitized these cells to all the drugs used in this study. We report that low doses of anti-mortalin molecules, MKT-077 and CAPE, also caused similar sensitization of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs and hence are potential candidates for effective cancer chemotherapy.

  12. Repression of cancer cell senescence by PKCι.

    PubMed

    Paget, J A; Restall, I J; Daneshmand, M; Mersereau, J A; Simard, M A; Parolin, D A E; Lavictoire, S J; Amin, M S; Islam, S; Lorimer, I A J

    2012-08-02

    Senescence is an irreversible growth arrest phenotype adopted by cells that has a key role in protecting organisms from cancer. There is now considerable interest in therapeutic strategies that reactivate this process to control the growth of cancer cells. Protein kinase-Cι (PKCι) is a member of the atypical PKC family and an important downstream mediator in the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI-3-kinase) pathway. PKCι expression was found to be upregulated in a subset of breast cancers and breast cancer cell lines. Activation of the PI-3-kinase pathway by introduction of mutant, oncogenic PIK3CA into breast mammary epithelial cells increased both the expression and activation of PKCι. In breast cancer cells lines overexpressing PKCι, depletion of PKCι increased the number of senescent cells, as assessed by senescence-associated β-galactosidase, morphology and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. This phenomenon was not restricted to breast cancer cells, as it was also seen in glioblastoma cells in which PKCι is activated by loss of PTEN. Senescence occurred in the absence of a detectable DNA-damage response, was dependent on p21 and was enhanced by the aurora kinase inhibitor VX-680, suggesting that senescence is triggered by defects in mitosis. Depletion of PKCι had no effect on senescence in normal mammary epithelial cell lines. We conclude that PKCι is overexpressed in a subset of cancers where it functions to suppress premature senescence. This function appears to be restricted to cancer cells and inhibition of PKCι may therefore be an effective way to selectively activate premature senescence in cancer cells.

  13. Redox Regulation in Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Shijie; Li, Chunbao; Cheng, Ninghui; Cui, Xiaojiang; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ROS-dependent (redox regulation) signaling pathways and transcriptional activities are thought to be critical in stem cell self-renewal and differentiation during growth and organogenesis. Aberrant ROS burst and dysregulation of those ROS-dependent cellular processes are strongly associated with human diseases including many cancers. ROS levels are elevated in cancer cells partially due to their higher metabolism rate. In the past 15 years, the concept of cancer stem cells (CSCs) has been gaining ground as the subpopulation of cancer cells with stem cell-like properties and characteristics have been identified in various cancers. CSCs possess low levels of ROS and are responsible for cancer recurrence after chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Unfortunately, how CSCs control ROS production and scavenging and how ROS-dependent signaling pathways contribute to CSCs function remain poorly understood. This review focuses on the role of redox balance, especially in ROS-dependent cellular processes in cancer stem cells (CSCs). We updated recent advances in our understanding of ROS generation and elimination in CSCs and their effects on CSC self-renewal and differentiation through modulating signaling pathways and transcriptional activities. The review concludes that targeting CSCs by manipulating ROS metabolism/dependent pathways may be an effective approach for improving cancer treatment. PMID:26273424

  14. Cisplatin Induces Differentiation of Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakaran, Praseetha; Hassiotou, Foteini; Blancafort, Pilar; Filgueira, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Breast tumors are heterogeneous including cells with stem cell properties and more differentiated cells. This heterogeneity is reflected into the molecular breast cancer subtypes. Breast cancer stem cells are resistant to chemotherapy, thus recent efforts are focusing on identifying treatments that shift them toward a more differentiated phenotype, making them more susceptible to chemotherapy. We examined whether the drug cisplatin induces differentiation in breast cancer cell lines that represent different breast cancer subtypes. We used three cell lines representing triple-negative breast cancers, BT-549 and MDA-MB-231 (claudin-low), and MDA-MB-468 (basal-like), along with estrogen and progesterone receptor positive MCF-7 cells (luminal). Cisplatin was applied at 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 μM, and cell viability and proliferation were measured using MTS and BrdU assays, respectively. The effect of cisplatin on the cellular hierarchy was examined by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and qRT-PCR. Cisplatin treatment of 10 and 20 μM reduced cell viability by 36–51% and proliferation capacity by 36–67%. Treatment with cisplatin resulted in 12–67% down-regulation of stem cell markers (CD49f, SSEA4) and 10–130% up-regulation of differentiation markers (CK18, SMA, β-tubulin). At the mRNA level, CD49f was down-regulated whilst β-tubulin was up-regulated in the claudin-low cell lines. SSEA4 protein expression decreased upon cisplatin treatment, but SSEA4 mRNA expression increased indicating a differential regulation of cisplatin at the post-transcriptional level. It is concluded that cisplatin reduces breast cancer cell survival and induces differentiation of stem/progenitor cell subpopulations within breast cancer cell lines. These effects indicate the potential of this drug to target specific chemotherapy-resistant cells within a tumor. PMID:23761858

  15. Survivorship Care Planning in Patients With Colorectal or Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-12-16

    Stage I Colon Cancer; Stage I Rectal Cancer; Stage IA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

  16. Therapeutic strategies targeting cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Xiaoyan; Shu, Jianchang; Du, Yiqi; Ben, Qiwen; Li, Zhaoshen

    2013-01-01

    Increasing studies have demonstrated a small proportion of cancer stem cells (CSCs) exist in the cancer cell population. CSCs have powerful self-renewal capacity and tumor-initiating ability and are resistant to chemotherapy and radiation. Conventional anticancer therapies kill the rapidly proliferating bulk cancer cells but spare the relatively quiescent CSCs, which cause cancer recurrence. So it is necessary to develop therapeutic strategies acting specifically on CSCs. In recent years, studies have shown that therapeutic agents such as metformin, salinomycin, DECA-14, rapamycin, oncostatin M (OSM), some natural compounds, oncolytic viruses, microRNAs, cell signaling pathway inhibitors, TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), interferon (IFN), telomerase inhibitors, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and monoclonal antibodies can suppress the self-renewal of CSCs in vitro and in vivo. A combination of these agents and conventional chemotherapy drugs can significantly inhibit tumor growth, metastasis and recurrence. These strategies targeting CSCs may bring new hopes to cancer therapy. PMID:23358473

  17. Ataxin-10 is part of a cachexokine cocktail triggering cardiac metabolic dysfunction in cancer cachexia

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Michaela; Oeing, Christian U.; Rohm, Maria; Baysal-Temel, Ezgi; Lehmann, Lorenz H.; Bauer, Ralf; Volz, H. Christian; Boutros, Michael; Sohn, Daniela; Sticht, Carsten; Gretz, Norbert; Eichelbaum, Katrin; Werner, Tessa; Hirt, Marc N.; Eschenhagen, Thomas; Müller-Decker, Karin; Strobel, Oliver; Hackert, Thilo; Krijgsveld, Jeroen; Katus, Hugo A.; Berriel Diaz, Mauricio; Backs, Johannes; Herzig, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Cancer cachexia affects the majority of tumor patients and significantly contributes to high mortality rates in these subjects. Despite its clinical importance, the identity of tumor-borne signals and their impact on specific peripheral organ systems, particularly the heart, remain mostly unknown. Methods and results By combining differential colon cancer cell secretome profiling with large-scale cardiomyocyte phenotyping, we identified a signature panel of seven “cachexokines”, including Bridging integrator 1, Syntaxin 7, Multiple inositol-polyphosphate phosphatase 1, Glucosidase alpha acid, Chemokine ligand 2, Adamts like 4, and Ataxin-10, which were both sufficient and necessary to trigger cardiac atrophy and aberrant fatty acid metabolism in cardiomyocytes. As a prototypical example, engineered secretion of Ataxin-10 from non-cachexia-inducing cells was sufficient to induce cachexia phenotypes in cardiomyocytes, correlating with elevated Ataxin-10 serum levels in murine and human cancer cachexia models. Conclusions As Ataxin-10 serum levels were also found to be elevated in human cachectic cancer patients, the identification of Ataxin-10 as part of a cachexokine cocktail now provides a rational approach towards personalized predictive, diagnostic and therapeutic measures in cancer cachexia. PMID:26909315

  18. Diet, Stem Cells, and Breast Cancer Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    mammary epithelial cells, where breast cancer arises. In particular, curcumin from turmeric [37], resveratrol from grape [38], capsaicin from chili...diseases. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2009;41:40–59. [38] Das S, Das DK. Anti-inflammatory responses of resveratrol . Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets 2007;6:168–73...and genomic consequences on mammary epithelial cells, where breast cancer arises. In particular, curcumin from turmeric [37], resveratrol from grape

  19. Impact of NPR-A expression in gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jia; Qu, Jingkun; Yang, Ya; Li, Min; Zhang, Mingxin; Cui, Xiaohai; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Jiansheng

    2014-01-01

    Background: The receptors for the cardiac hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPR-A), have been reported to be expressed in lung cancer, prostate cancer, ovarian cancer. NPR-A expression and signaling is important for tumor growth, its deficiency protect C57BL/6 mice from lung, skin, and ovarian cancers, and these result suggest that NPR-A is a new target for cancer therapy. Recently, NPR-A has been demonstrated to be expressed in pre-implantation embryos and in ES cells, it has a novel role in the maintenance of self-renewal and pluripotency of ES cells. However, the direct role of NPR-A signaling in gastric cancer remains unclear. Method: NPR-A expression was downregulated by transfection of shRNA. The proliferation of gastric cancer cells was measured by Hoechst 33342 stain. Cell proliferation and invasion were determined via BrdU and transwell assays, respectively. Results: Down-regulation of NPR-A expression by shNPR-A induced apoptosis, inhibited proliferation and invasion in AGS cells. The mechanism of shNPR-A-induced anti-AGS effects was linked to NPR-A-induced expression of KCNQ1, a gene to be overexpressed in AGS and significantly reduced by shNPR-A. Conclusion: Collectively, these results suggest that NPR-A promotes gastric cancer development in part by regulating KCNQ1. Our findings also suggest that NPR-A is a target for gastric cancer therapy. PMID:25419351

  20. Triiodothyronine regulates cell growth and survival in renal cell cancer.

    PubMed

    Czarnecka, Anna M; Matak, Damian; Szymanski, Lukasz; Czarnecka, Karolina H; Lewicki, Slawomir; Zdanowski, Robert; Brzezianska-Lasota, Ewa; Szczylik, Cezary

    2016-10-01

    Triiodothyronine plays an important role in the regulation of kidney cell growth, differentiation and metabolism. Patients with renal cell cancer who develop hypothyreosis during tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment have statistically longer survival. In this study, we developed cell based model of triiodothyronine (T3) analysis in RCC and we show the different effects of T3 on renal cell cancer (RCC) cell growth response and expression of the thyroid hormone receptor in human renal cell cancer cell lines from primary and metastatic tumors along with human kidney cancer stem cells. Wild-type thyroid hormone receptor is ubiquitously expressed in human renal cancer cell lines, but normalized against healthy renal proximal tube cell expression its level is upregulated in Caki-2, RCC6, SKRC-42, SKRC-45 cell lines. On the contrary the mRNA level in the 769-P, ACHN, HKCSC, and HEK293 cells is significantly decreased. The TRβ protein was abundant in the cytoplasm of the 786-O, Caki-2, RCC6, and SKRC-45 cells and in the nucleus of SKRC-42, ACHN, 769-P and cancer stem cells. T3 has promoting effect on the cell proliferation of HKCSC, Caki-2, ASE, ACHN, SK-RC-42, SMKT-R2, Caki-1, 786-0, and SK-RC-45 cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor, sunitinib, directly inhibits proliferation of RCC cells, while thyroid hormone receptor antagonist 1-850 (CAS 251310‑57-3) has less significant inhibitory impact. T3 stimulation does not abrogate inhibitory effect of sunitinib. Renal cancer tumor cells hypostimulated with T3 may be more responsive to tyrosine kinase inhibition. Moreover, some tumors may be considered as T3-independent and present aggressive phenotype with thyroid hormone receptor activated independently from the ligand. On the contrary proliferation induced by deregulated VHL and or c-Met pathways may transgress normal T3 mediated regulation of the cell cycle.

  1. Cell of Origin and Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype in Medulloblastomas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0115 TITLE: Cell of Origin and Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype in Medulloblastomas PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kyuson Yun...of Origin and Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype in Medulloblastomas 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0115 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...some oncogene function in determining molecular phenotypes. To test this hypothesis, we proposed to transform neural stem cells (NSCs) and neural

  2. Power surge: supporting cells "fuel" cancer cell mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2012-01-04

    An emerging paradigm in tumor metabolism is that catabolism in host cells "fuels" the anabolic growth of cancer cells via energy transfer. A study in Nature Medicine (Nieman et al., 2011) supports this; they show that triglyceride catabolism in adipocytes drives ovarian cancer metastasis by providing fatty acids as mitochondrial fuels.

  3. Hallmarks of cancer stem cell metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sancho, Patricia; Barneda, David; Heeschen, Christopher

    2016-06-14

    Cancer cells adapt cellular metabolism to cope with their high proliferation rate. Instead of primarily using oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), cancer cells use less efficient glycolysis for the production of ATP and building blocks (Warburg effect). However, tumours are not uniform, but rather functionally heterogeneous and harbour a subset of cancer cells with stemness features. Such cancer cells have the ability to repopulate the entire tumour and thus have been termed cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumour-initiating cells (TICs). As opposed to differentiated bulk tumour cells relying on glycolysis, CSCs show a distinct metabolic phenotype that, depending on the cancer type, can be highly glycolytic or OXPHOS dependent. In either case, mitochondrial function is critical and takes centre stage in CSC functionality. Remaining controversies in this young and emerging research field may be related to CSC isolation techniques and/or the use of less suitable model systems. Still, the apparent dependence of CSCs on mitochondrial function, regardless of their primary metabolic phenotype, represents a previously unrecognised Achilles heel amendable for therapeutic intervention. Elimination of highly chemoresistant CSCs as the root of many cancers via inhibition of mitochondrial function bears the potential to prevent relapse from disease and thus improve patients' long-term outcome.

  4. Hallmarks of cancer stem cell metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sancho, Patricia; Barneda, David; Heeschen, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells adapt cellular metabolism to cope with their high proliferation rate. Instead of primarily using oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), cancer cells use less efficient glycolysis for the production of ATP and building blocks (Warburg effect). However, tumours are not uniform, but rather functionally heterogeneous and harbour a subset of cancer cells with stemness features. Such cancer cells have the ability to repopulate the entire tumour and thus have been termed cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumour-initiating cells (TICs). As opposed to differentiated bulk tumour cells relying on glycolysis, CSCs show a distinct metabolic phenotype that, depending on the cancer type, can be highly glycolytic or OXPHOS dependent. In either case, mitochondrial function is critical and takes centre stage in CSC functionality. Remaining controversies in this young and emerging research field may be related to CSC isolation techniques and/or the use of less suitable model systems. Still, the apparent dependence of CSCs on mitochondrial function, regardless of their primary metabolic phenotype, represents a previously unrecognised Achilles heel amendable for therapeutic intervention. Elimination of highly chemoresistant CSCs as the root of many cancers via inhibition of mitochondrial function bears the potential to prevent relapse from disease and thus improve patients' long-term outcome. PMID:27219018

  5. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors target cancer stem cells in renal cell cancer.

    PubMed

    Czarnecka, Anna M; Solarek, Wojciech; Kornakiewicz, Anna; Szczylik, Cezary

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to analyze the impact of multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors on the cancer stem cell subpopulation in renal cell cancer. The second objective was to evaluate the effect of tumor growth inhibition related to a tumor niche factor - oxygen deprivation - as hypoxia develops along with the anti-angiogenic activity of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in renal tumors. Cells were treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, sunitinib, sorafenib and axitinib, in 2D and 3D culture conditions. Cell proliferation along with drug toxicity were evaluated. It was shown that the proliferation rate of cancer stem cells was decreased by the tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The efficacy of the growth inhibition was limited by hypoxic conditions and 3D intratumoral cell-cell interactions. We conclude that understanding the complex molecular interaction feedback loops between differentiated cancer cells, cancer stem cells and the tumor microenvironment in 3D culture should aid the identification of novel treatment targets and to evalute the efficacy of renal cancer therapies. Cell-cell interaction may represent a critical microenvironmental factor regulating cancer stem cell self-renewal potential, enhancing the stem cell phenotype and limiting drug toxicity. At the same time the role of hypoxia in renal cancer stem cell biology is also significant.

  6. Homing of cancer cells to the bone.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Anjali; Shiozawa, Yusuke; Pienta, Kenneth J; Taichman, Russell S

    2011-12-01

    A variety of tumor cells preferentially home to the bone. The homing of cancer cells to the bone represents a multi-step process that involves malignant progression of the tumor, invasion of the tumor through the extracellular matrix and the blood vessels and settling of the tumor cells in the bone. Gaining a greater understanding as to the mechanisms used by cancer cells in these processes will facilitate the design of drugs which could specifically target the homing process. In this review we will discuss the properties of tumor cells and the bone microenvironment which promote homing of a cancer cell to the bone. We will highlight the different steps and the molecular pathways involved when a cancer cell metastasize to the bone. Since bone is the major home for hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), we will also highlight the similarities between the homing of cancer and HSC to the bone. Finally we will conclude with therapeutic and early detection strategies which can prevent homing of a cancer cell to the bone.

  7. Effective Medicinal Plant in Cancer Treatment, Part 2.

    PubMed

    Kooti, Wesam; Servatyari, Karo; Behzadifar, Masoud; Asadi-Samani, Majid; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Nouri, Bijan; Zare Marzouni, Hadi

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is the second cause of death after cardiovascular diseases. With due attention to rapid progress in the phytochemical study of plants, they are becoming popular because of their anticancer effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effective medicinal plants in the treatment of cancer and study their mechanism of action. In order to gather information the keywords "traditional medicine," "plant compounds," "medicinal plant," "medicinal herb," "toxicity," "anticancer effect," "cell line," and "treatment" were searched in international databases such as ScienceDirect, PubMed, and Scopus and national databases such as Magiran, Sid, and Iranmedex, and a total of 228 articles were collected. In this phase, 49 nonrelevant articles were excluded. Enhancement P53 protein expression, reducing the expression of proteins P27, P21, NFκB expression and induction of apoptosis, inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway, and reduction of the level of acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation are the most effective mechanisms of herbal plants that can inhibit cell cycle and proliferation. Common treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy can cause some complications. According to results of this study, herbal extracts have antioxidant compounds that can induce apoptosis and inhibit cell proliferation by the investigated mechanisms.

  8. [Markers of prostate cancer stem cells: research advances].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shun-Qi; Huang, Sheng-Song

    2013-12-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most seriously malignant diseases threatening men's health, and the mechanisms of its initiation and progression are not yet completely understood. Recent years have witnessed distinct advances in researches on prostate cancer stem cells in many aspects using different sources of materials, such as human prostate cancer tissues, human prostate cancer cell lines, and mouse models of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer stem cell study offers a new insight into the mechanisms of the initiation and progression of prostate cancer and contributes positively to its treatment. This article presents an overview on the prostate cancer stem cell markers utilized in the isolation and identification of prostate cancer stem cells.

  9. Nonlinear Growth Kinetics of Breast Cancer Stem Cells: Implications for Cancer Stem Cell Targeted Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinfeng; Johnson, Sara; Liu, Shou; Kanojia, Deepak; Yue, Wei; Singn, Udai; Wang, Qian; Wang, Qi; Nie, Qing; Chen, Hexin

    2013-08-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in primary breast cancer tissues and cell lines. The CSC population varies widely among cancerous tissues and cell lines, and is often associated with aggressive breast cancers. Despite of intensive research, how the CSC population is regulated within a tumor is still not well understood so far. In this paper, we present a mathematical model to explore the growth kinetics of CSC population both in vitro and in vivo. Our mathematical models and supporting experiments suggest that there exist non-linear growth kinetics of CSCs and negative feedback mechanisms to control the balance between the population of CSCs and that of non-stem cancer cells. The model predictions can help us explain a few long-standing questions in the field of cancer stem cell research, and can be potentially used to predict the efficicacy of anti-cancer therapy.

  10. Cell Polarity As A Regulator of Cancer Cell Behavior Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Muthuswamy, Senthil K; Xue, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Cell polarization is an evolutionarily conserved process that facilitates asymmetric distribution of organelles and proteins, is an evolutionarily conserved property that is modified dynamically during physiological processes such as cell division, migration, and morphogenesis. The plasticity with which cells change their behavior and phenotype in response to cell intrinsic and extrinsic cues is an essential feature of normal physiology. In disease states such as cancer, cells lose their ability to behave normally in response to physiological cues. A molecular understanding of mechanisms that alter the behavior of cancer cells is limited. Cell polarity proteins are an recognized class of molecules that can receive and interpret both intrinsic and extrinsic signals to modulate cell behavior. In this review, we discuss how cell polarity proteins regulate a diverse array of biological processes and how they can contribute to alterations in the behavior of cancer cells. PMID:22881459

  11. Cell Senescence: Aging and Cancer

    ScienceCinema

    Campisi, Judith

    2016-07-12

    Scientists have identified a molecular cause behind the ravages of old age and in doing so have also shown how a natural process for fighting cancer in younger persons can actually promote cancer in older individuals.

  12. Arf proteins in cancer cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Casalou, Cristina; Faustino, Alexandra; Barral, Duarte C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Members of the ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) family of small GTP-binding (G) proteins regulate several aspects of membrane trafficking, such as vesicle budding, tethering and cytoskeleton organization. Arf family members, including Arf-like (Arl) proteins have been implicated in several essential cellular functions, like cell spreading and migration. These functions are used by cancer cells to disseminate and invade the tissues surrounding the primary tumor, leading to the formation of metastases. Indeed, Arf and Arl proteins, as well as their guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) have been found to be abnormally expressed in different cancer cell types and human cancers. Here, we review the current evidence supporting the involvement of Arf family proteins and their GEFs and GAPs in cancer progression, focusing on 3 different mechanisms: cell-cell adhesion, integrin internalization and recycling, and actin cytoskeleton remodeling. PMID:27589148

  13. Physical View on the Interactions Between Cancer Cells and the Endothelial Cell Lining During Cancer Cell Transmigration and Invasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierke, Claudia T.

    2015-10-01

    There exist many reviews on the biological and biochemical interactions of cancer cells and endothelial cells during the transmigration and tissue invasion of cancer cells. For the malignant progression of cancer, the ability to metastasize is a prerequisite. In particular, this means that certain cancer cells possess the property to migrate through the endothelial lining into blood or lymph vessels, and are possibly able to transmigrate through the endothelial lining into the connective tissue and follow up their invasion path in the targeted tissue. On the molecular and biochemical level the transmigration and invasion steps are well-defined, but these signal transduction pathways are not yet clear and less understood in regards to the biophysical aspects of these processes. To functionally characterize the malignant transformation of neoplasms and subsequently reveal the underlying pathway(s) and cellular properties, which help cancer cells to facilitate cancer progression, the biomechanical properties of cancer cells and their microenvironment come into focus in the physics-of-cancer driven view on the metastasis process of cancers. Hallmarks for cancer progression have been proposed, but they still lack the inclusion of specific biomechanical properties of cancer cells and interacting surrounding endothelial cells of blood or lymph vessels. As a cancer cell is embedded in a special environment, the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix also cannot be neglected. Therefore, in this review it is proposed that a novel hallmark of cancer that is still elusive in classical tumor biological reviews should be included, dealing with the aspect of physics in cancer disease such as the natural selection of an aggressive (highly invasive) subtype of cancer cells displaying a certain adhesion or chemokine receptor on their cell surface. Today, the physical aspects can be analyzed by using state-of-the-art biophysical methods. Thus, this review will present

  14. Physical View on the Interactions Between Cancer Cells and the Endothelial Cell Lining During Cancer Cell Transmigration and Invasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierke, Claudia T.

    There exist many reviews on the biological and biochemical interactions of cancer cells and endothelial cells during the transmigration and tissue invasion of cancer cells. For the malignant progression of cancer, the ability to metastasize is a prerequisite. In particular, this means that certain cancer cells possess the property to migrate through the endothelial lining into blood or lymph vessels, and are possibly able to transmigrate through the endothelial lining into the connective tissue and follow up their invasion path in the targeted tissue. On the molecular and biochemical level the transmigration and invasion steps are well-defined, but these signal transduction pathways are not yet clear and less understood in regards to the biophysical aspects of these processes. To functionally characterize the malignant transformation of neoplasms and subsequently reveal the underlying pathway(s) and cellular properties, which help cancer cells to facilitate cancer progression, the biomechanical properties of cancer cells and their microenvironment come into focus in the physics-of-cancer driven view on the metastasis process of cancers. Hallmarks for cancer progression have been proposed, but they still lack the inclusion of specific biomechanical properties of cancer cells and interacting surrounding endothelial cells of blood or lymph vessels. As a cancer cell is embedded in a special environment, the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix also cannot be neglected. Therefore, in this review it is proposed that a novel hallmark of cancer that is still elusive in classical tumor biological reviews should be included, dealing with the aspect of physics in cancer disease such as the natural selection of an aggressive (highly invasive) subtype of cancer cells displaying a certain adhesion or chemokine receptor on their cell surface. Today, the physical aspects can be analyzed by using state-of-the-art biophysical methods. Thus, this review will present

  15. Generation of cancer stem-like cells through the formation of polyploid giant cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Mercado-Uribe, I; Xing, Z; Sun, B; Kuang, J; Liu, J

    2014-01-02

    Polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs) have been observed by pathologists for over a century. PGCCs contribute to solid tumor heterogeneity, but their functions are largely undefined. Little attention has been given to these cells, largely because PGCCs have been generally thought to originate from repeated failure of mitosis/cytokinesis and have no capacity for long-term survival or proliferation. Here we report our successful purification and culture of PGCCs from human ovarian cancer cell lines and primary ovarian cancer. These cells are highly resistant to oxygen deprivation and could form through endoreduplication or cell fusion, generating regular-sized cancer cells quickly through budding or bursting similar to simple organisms like fungi. They express normal and cancer stem cell markers, they divide asymmetrically and they cycle slowly. They can differentiate into adipose, cartilage and bone. A single PGCC formed cancer spheroids in vitro and generated tumors in immunodeficient mice. These PGCC-derived tumors gained a mesenchymal phenotype with increased expression of cancer stem cell markers CD44 and CD133 and become more resistant to treatment with cisplatin. Taken together, our results reveal that PGCCs represent a resistant form of human cancer using an ancient, evolutionarily conserved mechanism in response to hypoxia stress; they can contribute to the generation of cancer stem-like cells, and also play a fundamental role in regulating tumor heterogeneity, tumor growth and chemoresistance in human cancer.

  16. SOX10 induced Nestin expression regulates cancer stem cell properties of TNBC cells.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wen; Liu, Sihai; Zhu, Ruixia; Li, Baojian; Zhu, Zhu; Yang, Jinshan; Song, Chunhui

    2017-04-01

    The mechanisms modulating the cancer stem cell (CSC) properties of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells were not fully understood. In this study, we performed data mining in Breast Cancer Gene-Expression Miner v4.0 and found that TNBC tumors had significantly higher NES mRNA expression than other breast cancer subtypes. Pooled data suggested that NES mRNA expression is associated worse metastatic relapse (MR) free survival and also worse any event (AE) free survival in TNBC patients. Following data mining in multiple big data databases confirmed a positive correlation between SOX10 mRNA expression and NES mRNA expression in breast cancer tissues. In addition, the expression of SOX10 mRNA is significantly higher in TNBC tissues than in other breast cancer subtypes. SOX10 overexpression resulted in Nestin upregulation at both mRNA and protein levels. Bioinformatic analysis predicted a SOX10 binding site in NES promoter and the following dual luciferase assay verified the binding site. Functionally, SOX10 overexpression substantially increased CSC properties of TNBC cells, while SOX10 knockdown decreased the CSC properties, in terms of CD24(-)/CD44(+) cell ratio and tumorsphere-forming capabilities. Enforced Nestin expression partly counteracted the effect of SOX10 knockdown on reducing the CSC properties. Based on these findings, we infer that SOX10 regulates cancer stem cell properties of TNBC cells via inducing Nestin expression.

  17. Targetless T cells in cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Thor Straten, Per; Garrido, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Attention has recently focused on new cancer immunotherapy protocols aiming to activate T cell mediated anti-tumor responses. To this end, administration of antibodies that target inhibitory molecules regulating T-cell cytotoxicity has achieved impressive clinical responses, as has adoptive cell transfer (ACT) using expanded tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) or genetically modified cytotoxic T cells. However, despite clear clinical responses, only a fraction of patients respond to treatment and there is an urgent call for characterization of predictive biomarkers. CD8 positive T cells can infiltrate tumor tissues and destroy HLA class I positive tumor cells expressing the specific antigen. In fact, current progress in the field of cancer immune therapy is based on the capacity of T cells to kill cancer cells that present tumor antigen in the context on an HLA class I molecule. However, it is also well established that cancer cells are often characterized by loss or down regulation of HLA class I molecules, documented in a variety of human tumors. Consequently, immune therapy building on CD8 T cells will be futile in patients harboring HLA class-I negative or deficient cancer cells. It is therefore mandatory to explore if these important molecules for T cell cytotoxicity are expressed by cancer target cells. We have indications that different types of immunotherapy can modify the tumor microenvironment and up-regulate reduced HLA class I expression in cancer cells but only if the associated molecular mechanisms is reversible (soft). However, in case of structural (hard) aberrations causing HLA class I loss, tumor cells will not be able to recover HLA class I expression and as a consequence will escape T-cell lysis and continue to growth. Characterization of the molecular mechanism underlying the lack or downregulation of HLA class I expression, seems to be a crucial step predicting clinical responses to T cell mediated immunotherapy, and possibly aid the

  18. Cell Polarity Proteins in Breast Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    Rejon, Carlis; Al-Masri, Maia; McCaffrey, Luke

    2016-10-01

    Breast cancer, one of the leading causes of cancer related death in women worldwide, is a heterogeneous disease with diverse subtypes that have different properties and prognoses. The developing mammary gland is a highly proliferative and invasive tissue, and some of the developmental programs may be aberrantly activated to promote breast cancer progression. In the breast, luminal epithelial cells exhibit apical-basal polarity, and the failure to maintain this organizational structure, due to disruption of polarity complexes, is implicated in promoting hyperplasia and tumors. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying loss of polarity will contribute to our knowledge of the early stages leading to the pathogenesis of the disease. In this review, we will discuss recent findings that support the idea that loss of apical-basal cell polarity is a crucial step in the acquisition of the malignant phenotype. Oncogene induced loss of tissue organization shares a conserved cellular mechanism with developmental process, we will further describe the role of the individual polarity complexes, the Par, Crumbs, and Scribble, to couple cell division orientation and cell growth. We will examine symmetric or asymmetric cell divisions in mammary stem cell and their contribution to the development of breast cancer subtypes and cancer stem cells. Finally, we will highlight some of the recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which changes in epithelial polarity programs promote invasion and metastasis through single cell and collective cell modes. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2215-2223, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Induction of cancer cell stemness by chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xingwang; Ghisolfi, Laura; Keates, Andrew C; Zhang, Jian; Xiang, Shuanglin; Lee, Dong-ki; Li, Chiang J

    2012-07-15

    Recent studies indicate that cancer stem cells (CSCs) exist in most hematological and solid tumors. CSCs are characterized by their ability to self-renew and their capacity to differentiate into the multitude of cells that comprise the tumor mass. Moreover, these cells have been shown to be intrinsically resistant to conventional anticancer therapies. Despite their fundamental role in cancer pathogenesis, the cellular origin of CSCs remains highly controversial. The aim of this study was to examine whether heterogeneous cancer cells can acquire stem cell-like properties in response to chemotherapy. We demonstrate that carboplatin can induce the self-renewal (spherogenesis) and pluripotency (Sox2 and Oct3/4 expression) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells grown under stem cell culture conditions. Moreover, we show that non-CSC cells, obtained by side population flow cytometric sorting using Hoechst 33342, can acquire stem-like properties after exposure to carboplatin. Finally, we show that knockdown of Sox2 and Oct3/4 gene expression in HCC cells can reduce carboplatin-mediated increases in sphere formation and increase cellular sensitivity to chemotherapy. Taken together, our data indicate that bulk cancer cells may be an important source of CSCs during tumor development, and that targeting Sox2 and/or Oct3/4 may be a promising approach for targeting CSCs in clinical cancer treatment.

  20. Proceedings from the National Cancer Institute's Second International Workshop on the Biology, Prevention, and Treatment of Relapse after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: part II. Autologous Transplantation-novel agents and immunomodulatory strategies.

    PubMed

    Avigan, David; Hari, Parameswaran; Battiwalla, Minoo; Bishop, Michael R; Giralt, Sergio A; Hardy, Nancy M; Kröger, Nicolaus; Wayne, Alan S; Hsu, Katharine C

    2013-12-01

    In the National Cancer Institute's Second International Workshop on the Biology, Prevention, and Treatment of Relapse after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, the Scientific/Educational Session on Autologous Transplantation addressed the role of novel agents and immunomodulatory strategies in management of relapse after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT). Concepts were illustrated through in-depth discussion of multiple myeloma, with broader discussion of areas relevant for relapse of other malignancies as well as in the setting of allogeneic transplantation. Dr. Hari provided an overview of the epidemiology of relapse after AHSCT in multiple myeloma, addressing clinical patterns, management implications, and treatment options at relapse, highlighting the implications of novel therapeutic agents in initial, maintenance, and relapse treatment. Dr. Avigan discussed current concepts in tumor vaccine design, including whole cell and antigen-specific strategies, use of an AHSCT platform to reverse tumor-associated immunosuppression and tolerance, and combining vaccines with immunomodulatory agents to promote establishment of durable antitumor immunity. Dr. Hsu reviewed the immunogenetics of natural killer (NK) cells and general NK biology, the clinical importance of autologous NK activity (eg, lymphoma and neuroblastoma), the impact of existing therapies on promotion of NK cell activity (eg, immunomodulatory drugs, monoclonal antibodies), and strategies for enhancing autologous and allogeneic NK cell effects through NK cell gene profiling.

  1. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Metastatic Breast Cancer, Non-small Cell Lung Cancer, or Prostate Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-17

    Male Breast Carcinoma; Prostate Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Prostate Cancer

  2. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Oral cancer can form in any part of the mouth. Most oral cancers begin in the flat cells that cover the ... your mouth, tongue, and lips. Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are ...

  3. Measuring the metastatic potential of cancer cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.; Gratzner, Howard; Atassi, M. Z.

    1993-01-01

    Cancer cells must secrete proteolytic enzymes to invade adjacent tissues and migrate to a new metastatic site. Urokinase (uPA) is a key enzyme related to metastasis in cancers of the lung, colon, gastric, uterine, breast, brain, and malignant melanoma. A NASA technology utilization project has combined fluorescence microscopy, image analysis, and flow cytometry, using fluorescent dyes, and urokinase-specific antibodies to measure uPA and abnormal DNA levels (related to cancer cell proliferation) inside the cancer cells. The project is focused on developing quantitative measurements to determine if a patient's tumor cells are actively metastasizing. If a significant number of tumor cells contain large amounts of uPA (esp. membrane-bound) then the post-surgical chemotherapy or radiotherapy can be targeted for metastatic cells that have already left the primary tumor. These analytical methods have been applied to a retrospective study of biopsy tissues from 150 node negative, stage 1 breast cancer patients. Cytopathology and image analysis has shown that uPA is present in high levels in many breast cancer cells, but not found in normal breast. Significant amounts of uPA also have been measured in glioma cell lines cultured from brain tumors. Commercial applications include new diagnostic tests for metastatic cells, in different cancers, which are being developed with a company that provides a medical testing service using flow cytometry for DNA analysis and hormone receptors on tumor cells from patient biopsies. This research also may provide the basis for developing a new 'magic bullet' treatment against metastasis using chemotherapeutic drugs or radioisotopes attached to urokinase-specific monoclonal antibodies that will only bind to metastatic cells.

  4. Glycosaminoglycans: key players in cancer cell biology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Afratis, Nikos; Gialeli, Chrisostomi; Nikitovic, Dragana; Tsegenidis, Theodore; Karousou, Evgenia; Theocharis, Achilleas D; Pavão, Mauro S; Tzanakakis, George N; Karamanos, Nikos K

    2012-04-01

    Glycosaminoglycans are natural heteropolysaccharides that are present in every mammalian tissue. They are composed of repeating disaccharide units that consist of either sulfated or non-sulfated monosaccharides. Their molecular size and the sulfation type vary depending on the tissue, and their state either as part of proteoglycan or as free chains. In this regard, glycosaminoglycans play important roles in physiological and pathological conditions. During recent years, cell biology studies have revealed that glycosaminoglycans are among the key macromolecules that affect cell properties and functions, acting directly on cell receptors or via interactions with growth factors. The accumulated knowledge regarding the altered structure of glycosaminoglycans in several diseases indicates their importance as biomarkers for disease diagnosis and progression, as well as pharmacological targets. This review summarizes how the fine structural characteristics of glycosaminoglycans, and enzymes involved in their biosynthesis and degradation, are involved in cell signaling, cell function and cancer progression. Prospects for glycosaminoglycan-based therapeutic targeting in cancer are also discussed.

  5. Advances and perspectives of colorectal cancer stem cell vaccine.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mei; Dou, Jun

    2015-12-01

    Colorectal cancer is essentially an environmental and genetic disease featured by uncontrolled cell growth and the capability to invade other parts of the body by forming metastases, which inconvertibly cause great damage to tissues and organs. It has become one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality in the developed countries such as United States, and approximately 1.2 million new cases are yearly diagnosed worldwide, with the death rate of more than 600,000 annually and incidence rates are increasing in most developing countries. Apart from the generally accepted theory that pathogenesis of colorectal cancer consists of genetic mutation of a certain target cell and diversifications in tumor microenvironment, the colorectal cancer stem cells (CCSCs) theory makes a different explanation, stating that among millions of colon cancer cells there is a specific and scanty cellular population which possess the capability of self-renewal, differentiation and strong oncogenicity, and is tightly responsible for drug resistance and tumor metastasis. Based on these characteristics, CCSCs are becoming a novel target cells both in the clinical and the basic studies, especially the study of CCSCs vaccines due to induced efficient immune response against CCSCs. This review provides an overview of CCSCs and preparation technics and targeting factors related to CCSCs vaccines in detail.

  6. Reducing bone cancer cell functions using selenium nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Stolzoff, Michelle; Webster, Thomas J

    2016-02-01

    Cancer recurrence at the site of tumor resection remains a major threat to patient survival despite modern cancer therapeutic advances. Osteosarcoma, in particular, is a very aggressive primary bone cancer that commonly recurs after surgical resection, radiation, and chemotherapeutic treatment. The objective of the present in vitro study was to develop a material that could decrease bone cancer cell recurrence while promoting healthy bone cell functions. Selenium is a natural part of our diet which has shown promise for reducing cancer cell functions, inhibiting bacteria, and promoting healthy cells functions, yet, it has not been widely explored for osteosarcoma applications. For this purpose, due to their increased surface area, selenium nanoparticles (SeNP) were precipitated on a very common orthopedic tissue engineering material, poly-l-lactic acid (or PLLA). Selenium-coated PLLA materials were shown to selectively decrease long-term osteosarcoma cell density while promoting healthy, noncancerous, osteoblast functions (for example, up to two times more alkaline phosphatase activity on selenium coated compared to osteoblasts grown on typical tissue culture plates), suggesting they should be further studied for replacing tumorous bone tissue with healthy bone tissue. Importantly, results of this study were achieved without the use of chemotherapeutics or pharmaceutical agents, which have negative side effects.

  7. Tyrosine Kinase Display of Prostate Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    transdifferentiation . The fact that some prostate cancer cell lines, such as LNCaP, can undergo NE differentiation suggests that at least a subset of NE cells is...Katz, C. A. Olsson, and R. Buttyan. 1997. Transdifferentiation of cultured human prostate cells to a neuroendocrine cell phenotype in a hormone...in the above-mentioned cases 3), and some of these cells can be induced to transdifferentiate are tyrosine kinases, which are known initiators of

  8. Gentian violet induces wtp53 transactivation in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Garufi, Alessia; D'Orazi, Valerio; Arbiser, Jack L; D'Orazi, Gabriella

    2014-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that gentian violet (GV) may have anticancer activity by inhibiting for instance NADPH oxidases (Nox genes) whose overexpression is linked to tumor progression. Nox1 overexpression has been shown to inhibit transcriptional activity of the oncosuppressor p53, impairing tumor cell response to anticancer drugs. The tumor suppressor p53 is a transcription factor that, upon cellular stress, is activated to induce target genes involved in tumor cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. Thus, its activation is important for efficient tumor eradication. In this study, we examined the effect of GV on wild-type (wt) p53 activity in cancer cells. We found that GV was able to overcome the inhibitory effect of the NADPH oxidase Nox1 on p53 transcriptional activity. For the first time we show that GV was able to directly induce p53/DNA binding and transcriptional activity. In vitro, GV markedly induced cancer cell death and apoptotic marker PARP cleavage in wtp53-carrying cells. GV-induced cell death was partly inhibited in cells deprived of p53, suggesting that the anticancer activity of GV may partly depend on p53 activation. GV is US Food and Drug Administration approved for human use and may, therefore, have therapeutic potential in the management of cancer through p53 activation.

  9. Gentian violet induces wtp53 transactivation in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    GARUFI, ALESSIA; D’ORAZI, VALERIO; ARBISER, JACK L.; D’ORAZI, GABRIELLA

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that gentian violet (GV) may have anticancer activity by inhibiting for instance NADPH oxidases (Nox genes) whose overexpression is linked to tumor progression. Nox1 overexpression has been shown to inhibit transcriptional activity of the oncosuppressor p53, impairing tumor cell response to anticancer drugs. The tumor suppressor p53 is a transcription factor that, upon cellular stress, is activated to induce target genes involved in tumor cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. Thus, its activation is important for efficient tumor eradication. In this study, we examined the effect of GV on wild-type (wt) p53 activity in cancer cells. We found that GV was able to overcome the inhibitory effect of the NADPH oxidase Nox1 on p53 transcriptional activity. For the first time we show that GV was able to directly induce p53/DNA binding and transcriptional activity. In vitro, GV markedly induced cancer cell death and apoptotic marker PARP cleavage in wtp53-carrying cells. GV-induced cell death was partly inhibited in cells deprived of p53, suggesting that the anticancer activity of GV may partly depend on p53 activation. GV is US Food and Drug Administration approved for human use and may, therefore, have therapeutic potential in the management of cancer through p53 activation. PMID:24535435

  10. Cancer stem cells: progress and challenges in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Amanda K.; Miyamoto, Shinya; Babu, Anish; Munshi, Anupama

    2014-01-01

    The identification of a subpopulation of tumor cells with stem cell-like characteristics first in hematological malignancies and later in solid tumors has emerged into a novel field of cancer research. It has been proposed that this aberrant population of cells now called “cancer stem cells” (CSCs) drives tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, recurrence, and drug resistance. CSCs have been shown to have the capacity of self-renewal and multipotency. Adopting strategies from the field of stem cell research has aided in identification, localization, and targeting of CSCs in many tumors. Despite the huge progress in other solid tumors such as brain, breast, and colon cancers no substantial advancements have been made in lung cancer. This is most likely due to the current rudimentary understanding of lung stem cell hierarchy and heterogeneous nature of lung disease. In this review, we will discuss the most recent findings related to identification of normal lung stem cells and CSCs, pathways involved in regulating the development of CSCs, and the importance of the stem cell niche in development and maintenance of CSCs. Additionally, we will examine the development and feasibility of novel CSC-targeted therapeutic strategies aimed at eradicating lung CSCs. PMID:27358855

  11. Cancer stem cells, pluripotency, and cellular heterogeneity: a WNTer perspective.

    PubMed

    Atlasi, Yaser; Looijenga, Leendert; Fodde, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are thought to represent the "beating heart" of malignant growth as they continuously fuel tumors through their ability to self-renew and differentiate. Moreover, they are also believed to underlie malignant behavior, local invasion, and metastasis in distal organ sites upon reversible epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs). Nevertheless, the CSC concept has been the object of controversy, mainly due to the absence of robust operational definitions and to the lack of consistency in the use of the often incorrect nomenclature employed to refer to these cells. Notwithstanding the controversies, it is now generally accepted that primary cancers are organized in hierarchical fashion with neoplastic stem-like cells able to give rise to new CSCs and to more committed malignant cells. Notably, these hierarchical structures are not unidirectional, but are rather characterized by a more dynamic equilibrium where stem-like and more committed cancer cells transit from one meta-state to the other partly because of cues from the microenvironment (niche), but also because of intrinsic and yet incompletely understood characteristics in the activation/silencing of specific signal transduction pathways. Here, we will focus on the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway as one of the major regulator of stemness in homeostasis and cancer, and on germ cell tumors as the type of malignancy that most closely mimics normal embryonic development and as such serve as a unique model to study the role of stem cells in neoplasia.

  12. Genomic instability, driver genes and cell selection: Projections from cancer to stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ben-David, Uri

    2015-04-01

    Cancer cells and stem cells share many traits, including a tendency towards genomic instability. Human cancers exhibit tumor-specific genomic aberrations, which often affect their malignancy and drug response. During their culture propagation, human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) also acquire characteristic genomic aberrations, which may have significant impact on their molecular and cellular phenotypes. These aberrations vary in size from single nucleotide alterations to copy number alterations to whole chromosome gains. A prominent challenge in both cancer and stem cell research is to identify "driver aberrations" that confer a selection advantage, and "driver genes" that underlie the recurrence of these aberrations. Following principles that are already well-established in cancer research, candidate driver genes have also been suggested in hPSCs. Experimental validation of the functional role of such candidates can uncover whether these are bona fide driver genes. The identification of driver genes may bring us closer to a mechanistic understanding of the genomic instability of stem cells. Guided by terminologies and methodologies commonly applied in cancer research, such understanding may have important ramifications for both stem cell and cancer biology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stress as a fundamental theme in cell plasticity.

  13. Recombinant Interleukin-15 in Treating Patients With Advanced Melanoma, Kidney Cancer, Non-small Cell Lung Cancer, or Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-05

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Head and Neck Carcinoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Skin Carcinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Skin Melanoma

  14. Stapled peptide induces cancer cell death.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Jo

    2004-11-01

    Hydrocarbon stapling could enable peptides from the key domains of natural proteins to be used therapeutically. Using the technique on a peptide involved in apoptosis, researchers have succeeded in destroying cancer cells in a mouse model of leukaemia.

  15. Cancer Stem Cell Hierarchy in Glioblastoma Multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Amy; Wickremsekera, Agadha; Tan, Swee T.; Peng, Lifeng; Davis, Paul F.; Itinteang, Tinte

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), an aggressive tumor that typically exhibits treatment failure with high mortality rates, is associated with the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) within the tumor. CSCs possess the ability for perpetual self-renewal and proliferation, producing downstream progenitor cells that drive tumor growth. Studies of many cancer types have identified CSCs using specific markers, but it is still unclear as to where in the stem cell hierarchy these markers fall. This is compounded further by the presence of multiple GBM and glioblastoma cancer stem cell subtypes, making investigation and establishment of a universal treatment difficult. This review examines the current knowledge on the CSC markers SALL4, OCT-4, SOX2, STAT3, NANOG, c-Myc, KLF4, CD133, CD44, nestin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, specifically focusing on their use and validity in GBM research and how they may be utilized for investigations into GBM’s cancer biology. PMID:27148537

  16. Colon cancer stem cells: controversies and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Puglisi, Maria Ausiliatrice; Tesori, Valentina; Lattanzi, Wanda; Gasbarrini, Giovanni Battista; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2013-05-28

    Tumors have long been viewed as a population in which all cells have the equal propensity to form new tumors, the so called conventional stochastic model. The cutting-edge theory on tumor origin and progression, tends to consider cancer as a stem cell disease. Stem cells are actively involved in the onset and maintenance of colon cancer. This review is intended to examine the state of the art on colon cancer stem cells (CSCs), with regard to the recent achievements of basic research and to the corresponding translational consequences. Specific prominence is given to the hypothesized origin of CSCs and to the methods for their identification. The growing understanding of CSC biology is driving the optimization of novel anti-cancer targeted drugs.

  17. Proceedings from the National Cancer Institute's Second International Workshop on the Biology, Prevention, and Treatment of Relapse After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: part III. Prevention and treatment of relapse after allogeneic transplantation.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Marcos; Porter, David L; Battiwalla, Minoo; Bishop, Michael R; Giralt, Sergio A; Hardy, Nancy M; Kröger, Nicolaus; Wayne, Alan S; Schmid, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    In the Second Annual National Cancer Institute's Workshop on the Biology, Prevention, and Treatment of Relapse after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, the Scientific/Educational Session on the Prevention and Treatment of Relapse after Allogeneic Transplantation highlighted progress in developing new therapeutic approaches since the first relapse workshop. Recent insights that might provide a basis for the development of novel, practical clinical trials were emphasized, including utilization of newer agents, optimization of donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI), and investigation of novel cellular therapies. Dr. de Lima discussed pre-emptive and maintenance strategies to prevent relapse after transplantation, for example, recent promising results suggestive of enhanced graft-versus-tumor activity with hypomethylating agents. Dr. Schmid provided an overview of adjunctive strategies to improve cell therapy for relapse, including cytoreduction before DLI, combination of targeted agents with DLI, and considerations in use of second transplantations. Dr. Porter addressed strategies to enhance T cell function, including ex vivo activated T cells and T cell engineering, and immunomodulatory approaches to enhance T cell function in vivo, including exogenous cytokines and modulation of costimulatory pathways.

  18. Multiple myeloma cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Minjie; Kong, Yuanyuan; Yang, Guang; Gao, Lu; Shi, Jumei

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable despite much progress that has been made in the treatment of the disease. MM cancer stem cell (MMSC), a rare subpopulation of MM cells with the capacity for self-renewal and drug resistance, is considered to lead to disease relapse. Several markers such as side population (SP) and ALDH1+ have been used to identify MMSCs. However, ideally and more precisely, the identification of the MMSCs should rely on MMSCs phenotype. Unfortunately the MMSC phenotype has not been properly defined yet. Drug resistance is the most important property of MMSCs and contributes to disease relapse, but the mechanisms of drug resistance have not been fully understood. The major signaling pathways involved in the regulation of self-renewal and differentiation of MMSCs include Hedgehog (Hh), Wingless (Wnt), Notch and PI3K/Akt/mTOR. However, the precise role of these signaling pathways needs to be clarified. It has been reported that the microRNA profile of MMSCs is remarkably different than that of non-MMSCs. Therefore, the search for targeting MMSCs has also been focused on microRNAs. Complex and mutual interactions between the MMSC and the surrounding bone marrow (BM) microenvironment sustain self-renewal and survival of MMSC. However, the required molecules for the interaction of the MMSC and the surrounding BM microenvironment need to be further identified. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge of MMSCs regarding their phenotype, mechanisms of drug resistance, signaling pathways that regulate MMSCs self-renewal and differentiation, abnormal microRNAs expression, and their interactions with the BM microenvironment. PMID:27007154

  19. Liver cell cancer--intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Linsell, C A

    1981-01-01

    The field studies leading to possible intervention procedures are reviewed. Currently the most promising form of intervention is the prevention of aflatoxin contamination of foodstuffs. It is essential that these are monitored and their efficacy in lowering the incidence of liver cancer measured. The association of liver cancer with hepatitis B infection may be a confounding factor and the impact of this on the study population must also be considered. The imminent production of vaccines for hepatitis B infection may provide an alternative or additional mode of intervention. The possibilities for intervention in liver cell cancer appear one of the brighter prospects for primary prevention of a cancer.

  20. Cancer cell resistance mechanisms: a mini review.

    PubMed

    Al-Dimassi, S; Abou-Antoun, T; El-Sibai, M

    2014-06-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide accounting to 13 % of all deaths. One of the main causes behind the failure of treatment is the development of various therapy resistance mechanisms by the cancer cells leading to the recurrence of the disease. This review sheds a light on some of the mechanisms developed by cancer cells to resist therapy as well as some of the structures involved such as the ABC members' involvement in chemotherapy resistance and MET and survivin overexpression leading to radiotherapy resistance. Understanding those mechanisms will enable scientists to overcome resistance and possibly improve treatment and disease prognosis.

  1. Regulation of breast cancer stem cell features.

    PubMed

    Czerwinska, Patrycja; Kaminska, Bozena

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are rare, tumour-initiating cells that exhibit stem cell properties: capacity of self-renewal, pluripotency, highly tumorigenic potential, and resistance to therapy. Cancer stem cells have been characterised and isolated from many cancers, including breast cancer. Developmental pathways, such as the Wnt/β-catenin, Notch/γ-secretase/Jagged, Shh (sonic hedgehog), and BMP signalling pathways, which direct proliferation and differentiation of normal stem cells, have emerged as major signalling pathways that contribute to the self-renewal of stem and/or progenitor cells in a variety of organs and cancers. Deregulation of these signalling pathways is frequently linked to an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and breast CSCs often possess properties of cells that have undergone the EMT process. Signalling networks mediated by microRNAs and EMT-inducing transcription factors tie the EMT process to regulatory networks that maintain "stemness". Recent studies have elucidated epigenetic mechanisms that control pluripotency and stemness, which allows an assessment on how embryonic and normal tissue stem cells are deregulated during cancerogenesis to give rise to CSCs. Epigenetic-based mechanisms are reversible, and the possibility of "resetting" the abnormal cancer epigenome by applying pharmacological compounds targeting epigenetic enzymes is a promising new therapeutic strategy. Chemoresistance of CSCs is frequently driven by various mechanisms, including aberrant expression/activity of ABC transporters, aldehyde dehydrogenase and anti-oncogenic proteins (i.e. BCL2, B-cell lymphoma-2), enhanced DNA damage response, activation of pro-survival signalling pathways, and epigenetic deregulations. Despite controversy surrounding the CSC hypothesis, there is substantial evidence for their role in cancer, and a number of drugs intended to specifically target CSCs have entered clinical trials.

  2. Cancer stem cells: the lessons from pre-cancerous stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jian-Xin

    2008-01-01

    Abstract How a cancer is initiated and established remains elusive despite all the advances in decades of cancer research. Recently the cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis has been revived, challenging the long-standing model of ‘clonal evolution’ for cancer development and implicating the dawning of a potential cure for cancer [1]. The recent identification of pre-cancerous stem cells (pCSCs) in cancer, an early stage of CSC development, however, implicates that the clonal evolution is not contradictory to the CSC hypothesis but is rather an aspect of the process of CSC development [2]. The discovery of pCSC has revealed and will continue to reveal the volatile properties of CSC with respect to their phenotype, differentiation and tumourigenic capacity during initiation and progression. Both pCSC and CSC might also serve as precursors of tumour stromal components such as tumour vasculogenic stem/progenitor cells (TVPCs). Thus, the CSC hypothesis covers the developing process of tumour-initiating cells (TIC) → pCSC → CSC → cancer, a cellular process that should parallel the histological process of hyperplasia/metaplasia (TIC) → pre-cancerous lesions (pCSC) → malignant lesions (CSC → cancer). The embryonic stem (ES) cell and germ line stem (GS) cell genes are subverted in pCSCs. Especially the GS cell protein piwil2 may play an important role during the development of TIC → pCSC → CSC, and this protein may be used as a common biomarker for early detection, prevention, and treatment of cancer. As cancer stem cell research is yet in its infancy, definitive conclusions regarding the role of pCSC cannot be made at this time. However, this review will discuss what we have learned from pCSC and how this has led to innovative ideas that may eventually have major impacts on the understanding and treatment of cancer. PMID:18053092

  3. Cancer cells exhibit clonal diversity in phenotypic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Phenotypic heterogeneity in cancers is associated with invasive progression and drug resistance. This heterogeneity arises in part from the ability of cancer cells to switch between phenotypic states, but the dynamics of this cellular plasticity remain poorly understood. Here we apply DNA barcodes to quantify and track phenotypic plasticity across hundreds of clones in a population of cancer cells exhibiting epithelial or mesenchymal differentiation phenotypes. We find that the epithelial-to-mesenchymal cell ratio is highly variable across the different clones in cancer cell populations, but remains stable for many generations within the progeny of any single clone—with a heritability of 0.89. To estimate the effects of combination therapies on phenotypically heterogeneous tumours, we generated quantitative simulations incorporating empirical data from our barcoding experiments. These analyses indicated that combination therapies which alternate between epithelial- and mesenchymal-specific treatments eventually select for clones with increased phenotypic plasticity. However, this selection could be minimized by increasing the frequency of alternation between treatments, identifying designs that may minimize selection for increased phenotypic plasticity. These findings establish new insights into phenotypic plasticity in cancer, and suggest design principles for optimizing the effectiveness of combination therapies for phenotypically heterogeneous tumours. PMID:28202626

  4. Cancer cells exhibit clonal diversity in phenotypic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Mathis, Robert Austin; Sokol, Ethan S; Gupta, Piyush B

    2017-02-01

    Phenotypic heterogeneity in cancers is associated with invasive progression and drug resistance. This heterogeneity arises in part from the ability of cancer cells to switch between phenotypic states, but the dynamics of this cellular plasticity remain poorly understood. Here we apply DNA barcodes to quantify and track phenotypic plasticity across hundreds of clones in a population of cancer cells exhibiting epithelial or mesenchymal differentiation phenotypes. We find that the epithelial-to-mesenchymal cell ratio is highly variable across the different clones in cancer cell populations, but remains stable for many generations within the progeny of any single clone-with a heritability of 0.89. To estimate the effects of combination therapies on phenotypically heterogeneous tumours, we generated quantitative simulations incorporating empirical data from our barcoding experiments. These analyses indicated that combination therapies which alternate between epithelial- and mesenchymal-specific treatments eventually select for clones with increased phenotypic plasticity. However, this selection could be minimized by increasing the frequency of alternation between treatments, identifying designs that may minimize selection for increased phenotypic plasticity. These findings establish new insights into phenotypic plasticity in cancer, and suggest design principles for optimizing the effectiveness of combination therapies for phenotypically heterogeneous tumours.

  5. Cancer stem cells: A contentious hypothesis now moving forward.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Michael L; Xiang, Dongxi; Shigdar, Sarah; Macdonald, Joanna; Li, Yong; Wang, Tao; Pu, Chunwen; Wang, Zhidong; Qiao, Liang; Duan, Wei

    2014-03-28

    Cancer stem cells are a progressive concept to account for the cell biological nature of cancer. Despite the controversies regarding the cancer stem cell model, it has the potential to provide a foundation for new innovative treatment targeting the roots of cancer. The last two years have witnessed exceptional progress in cancer stem cell research, in particular on solid tumours, which holds promise for improved treatment outcomes. Here, we review recent advances in cancer stem cell research, discuss challenges in the field and explore future strategies and opportunities in cancer stem cell studies to overcome resistance to chemotherapy.

  6. Efficient killing of radioresistant breast cancer cells by cytokine-induced killer cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qingming; Zhu, Danni; Bu, Xiaocui; Wei, Xiaofang; Li, Changyou; Gao, Daiqing; Wei, Xiaoqiang; Ma, Xuezhen; Zhao, Peng

    2017-03-01

    Recurrence of breast cancer after radiotherapy may be partly explained by the presence of radioresistant cells. Thus, it would be desirable to develop an effective therapy against radioresistant cells. In this study, we demonstrated the intense antitumor activity of cytokine-induced killer cells against MCF-7 and radioresistant MCF-7 cells, as revealed by cytokine-induced killer-mediated cytotoxicity, tumor cell proliferation, and tumor invasion. Radioresistant MCF-7 cells were more susceptible to cytokine-induced killer cell killing. The stronger cytotoxicity of cytokine-induced killer cells against radioresistant MCF-7 cells was dependent on the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I polypeptide-related sequence A/B on radioresistant MCF-7 cells after exposure of cytokine-induced killer cells to sensitized targets. In addition, we demonstrated that cytokine-induced killer cell treatment sensitized breast cancer cells to chemotherapy via the downregulation of TK1, TYMS, and MDR1. These results indicate that cytokine-induced killer cell treatment in combination with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy may induce synergistic antitumor activities and represent a novel strategy for breast cancer.

  7. Cancer stem cells: controversies in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Sarah K; Matsui, William

    2009-11-01

    Increasing data suggest that the initiation, relapse, and progression of human cancers are driven by specific cell populations within an individual tumor. However, inconsistencies have emerged in precisely defining phenotypic markers that can reliably identify these "cancer stem cells" in nearly every human malignancy studied to date. Multiple myeloma, one of the first tumors postulated to be driven by a rare population of cancer stem cells, is no exception. Similar to other diseases, controversy surrounds the exact phenotype and biology of multiple myeloma cells with the capacity for clonogenic growth. Here, we review the studies that have led to these controversies and discuss potential reasons for these disparate findings. Moreover, we speculate how these inconsistencies may be resolved through studies by integrating advancements in both myeloma and stem cell biology.

  8. Infection, stem cells and cancer signals.

    PubMed

    Sell, S

    2011-02-01

    The association of cancer with preceding parasitic infections has been observed for over 200 years. Some such cancers arise from infection of tissue stem cells by viruses with insertion of viral oncogenes into the host DNA (mouse polyoma virus, mouse mammary tumor virus). In other cases the virus does not insert its DNA into the host cells, but rather commandeers the metabolism of the infected cells, so that the cells continue to proliferate and do not differentiate (human papilloma virus and cervical cancer). Cytoplasmic Epstein Barr virus infection is associated with a specific gene translocation (Ig/c-myc) that activates proliferation of affected cells (Burkitt lymphoma). In chronic osteomyelitis an inflammatory reaction to the infection appears to act through production of inflammatory cytokines and oxygen radical formation to induce epithelial cancers. Infection with Helicobacter pylori leads to epigenetic changes in methylation and infection by a parasite. Clonorchis sinensis also acts as a promoter of cancer of the bile ducts of the liver (cholaniocarcinoma). The common thread among these diverse pathways is that the infections act to alter tissue stem cell signaling with continued proliferation of tumor transit amplifying cells.

  9. Infection, Stem Cells and Cancer Signals

    PubMed Central

    Sell, S.

    2013-01-01

    The association of cancer with preceding parasitic infections has been observed for over 200 years. Some such cancers arise from infection of tissue stem cells by viruses with insertion of viral oncogenes into the host DNA (mouse polyoma virus, mouse mammary tumor virus). In other cases the virus does not insert its DNA into the host cells, but rather commandeers the metabolism of the infected cells, so that the cells continue to proliferate and do not differentiate (human papilloma virus and cervical cancer). Cytoplasmic Epstein Barr virus infection is associated with a specific gene translocation (Ig/c-myc) that activates proliferation of affected cells (Burkitt lymphoma). In chronic osteomyelitis an inflammatory reaction to the infection appears to act through production of inflammatory cytokines and oxygen radical formation to induce epithelial cancers. Infection with Helicobacter pylori leads to epigenetic changes in methylation and infection by a parasite. Clonorchis sinensis also acts as a promoter of cancer of the bile ducts of the liver (cholaniocarcinoma). The common thread among these diverse pathways is that the infections act to alter tissue stem cell signaling with continued proliferation of tumor transit amplifying cells. PMID:21044009

  10. Cancer stem cells: a metastasizing menace!

    PubMed

    Bandhavkar, Saurabh

    2016-04-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and is estimated to be a reason of death of more than 18 billion people in the coming 5 years. Progress has been made in diagnosis and treatment of cancer; however, a sound understanding of the underlying cell biology still remains an unsolved mystery. Current treatments include a combination of radiation, surgery, and/or chemotherapy. However, these treatments are not a complete cure, aimed simply at shrinking the tumor and in majority of cases, there is a relapse of tumor. Several evidences suggest the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor-initiating stem-like cells, a small population of cells present in the tumor, capable of self-renewal and generation of differentiated progeny. The presence of these CSCs can be attributed to the failure of cancer treatments as these cells are believed to exhibit therapy resistance. As a result, increasing attention has been given to CSC research to resolve the therapeutic problems related to cancer. Progress in this field of research has led to the development of novel strategies to treat several malignancies and has become a hot topic of discussion. In this review, we will briefly focus on the main characteristics, therapeutic implications, and perspectives of CSCs in cancer therapy.

  11. Biomechanical investigation of colorectal cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmieri, Valentina; Lucchetti, Donatella; Maiorana, Alessandro; Papi, Massimiliano; Maulucci, Giuseppe; Ciasca, Gabriele; Svelto, Maria; De Spirito, Marco; Sgambato, Alessandro

    2014-09-01

    The nanomechanical properties of SW480 colon cancer cells were investigated using Atomic Force Microscopy. SW480 cells are composed of two sub-populations with different shape and invasiveness. These two cells populations showed similar adhesion properties while appeared significantly different in term of cells stiffness. Since cell stiffness is related to invasiveness and growth, we suggest elasticity as a useful parameter to distinguish invasive cells inside the colorectal tumor bulk and the high-resolution mechanical mapping as a promising diagnostic tool for the identification of malignant cells.

  12. Isolation of cancer stem cells from human prostate cancer samples.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Samuel J; Quinn, S Aidan; de la Iglesia-Vicente, Janis; Bonal, Dennis M; Rodriguez-Bravo, Veronica; Firpo-Betancourt, Adolfo; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Domingo-Domenech, Josep

    2014-03-14

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) model has been considerably revisited over the last two decades. During this time CSCs have been identified and directly isolated from human tissues and serially propagated in immunodeficient mice, typically through antibody labeling of subpopulations of cells and fractionation by flow cytometry. However, the unique clinical features of prostate cancer have considerably limited the study of prostate CSCs from fresh human tumor samples. We recently reported the isolation of prostate CSCs directly from human tissues by virtue of their HLA class I (HLAI)-negative phenotype. Prostate cancer cells are harvested from surgical specimens and mechanically dissociated. A cell suspension is generated and labeled with fluorescently conjugated HLAI and stromal antibodies. Subpopulations of HLAI-negative cells are finally isolated using a flow cytometer. The principal limitation of this protocol is the frequently microscopic and multifocal nature of primary cancer in prostatectomy specimens. Nonetheless, isolated live prostate CSCs are suitable for molecular characterization and functional validation by transplantation in immunodeficient mice.

  13. Circulating tumor cells in prostate cancer: beyond enumeration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie-Fu; Lu, Yi-Tsung; Cheng, Shirley; Tseng, Hsian-Rong; Figlin, Robert A; Posadas, Edwin M

    2017-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a population of rare cancer cells that have detached from the primary tumor and/or metastatic lesions and entered the peripheral circulation. Enumeration of CTCs has demonstrated value as a prognostic biomarker, and newer studies have pointed to information beyond enumeration that is of critical importance in prostate cancer. Technologic advances that permit examination of the morphology, function, and molecular content of CTCs have made it possible to measure these factors as part of liquid biopsy. These advances provide a way to study tumor evolution and the development of resistance to therapy. Recent breakthroughs have created new applications for CTCs that will affect the care of patients with prostate cancer.

  14. Cancer Cells Hijack Gluconeogenic Enzymes to Fuel Cell Growth.

    PubMed

    Balsa-Martinez, Eduardo; Puigserver, Pere

    2015-11-19

    In this issue and the October 15th issue of Molecular Cell, studies by Montal et al. (2015) and Vincent et al. (2015) report that certain types of cancer cells utilize the gluconeogenic enzymes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 2 (PCK2) to reprogram anabolic metabolism and support cell growth.

  15. Immunosurveillance of senescent cancer cells by natural killer cells

    PubMed Central

    Iannello, Alexandre; Raulet, David H

    2014-01-01

    We recently dissected how senescent tumors can trigger complementing signaling pathways that mobilize natural killer (NK) cells to eliminate malignant cells. In addition to cell-intrinsic effects on proliferation, senescence induces the production of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), which recruits NK cells to mediate direct tumoricidal effects. Hence, senescence activates a cancer cell-extrinsic oncosuppression program. PMID:24800169

  16. Cell polarity signaling in the plasticity of cancer cell invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Gandalovičová, Aneta; Vomastek, Tomáš; Rosel, Daniel; Brábek, Jan

    2016-05-03

    Apico-basal polarity is typical of cells present in differentiated epithelium while front-rear polarity develops in motile cells. In cancer development, the transition from epithelial to migratory polarity may be seen as the hallmark of cancer progression to an invasive and metastatic disease. Despite the morphological and functional dissimilarity, both epithelial and migratory polarity are controlled by a common set of polarity complexes Par, Scribble and Crumbs, phosphoinositides, and small Rho GTPases Rac, Rho and Cdc42. In epithelial tissues, their mutual interplay ensures apico-basal and planar cell polarity. Accordingly, altered functions of these polarity determinants lead to disrupted cell-cell adhesions, cytoskeleton rearrangements and overall loss of epithelial homeostasis. Polarity proteins are further engaged in diverse interactions that promote the establishment of front-rear polarity, and they help cancer cells to adopt different invasion modes. Invading cancer cells can employ either the collective, mesenchymal or amoeboid invasion modes or actively switch between them and gain intermediate phenotypes. Elucidation of the role of polarity proteins during these invasion modes and the associated transitions is a necessary step towards understanding the complex problem of metastasis. In this review we summarize the current knowledge of the role of cell polarity signaling in the plasticity of cancer cell invasiveness.

  17. Cell polarity signaling in the plasticity of cancer cell invasiveness

    PubMed Central

    Gandalovičová, Aneta; Vomastek, Tomáš; Rosel, Daniel; Brábek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Apico-basal polarity is typical of cells present in differentiated epithelium while front-rear polarity develops in motile cells. In cancer development, the transition from epithelial to migratory polarity may be seen as the hallmark of cancer progression to an invasive and metastatic disease. Despite the morphological and functional dissimilarity, both epithelial and migratory polarity are controlled by a common set of polarity complexes Par, Scribble and Crumbs, phosphoinositides, and small Rho GTPases Rac, Rho and Cdc42. In epithelial tissues, their mutual interplay ensures apico-basal and planar cell polarity. Accordingly, altered functions of these polarity determinants lead to disrupted cell-cell adhesions, cytoskeleton rearrangements and overall loss of epithelial homeostasis. Polarity proteins are further engaged in diverse interactions that promote the establishment of front-rear polarity, and they help cancer cells to adopt different invasion modes. Invading cancer cells can employ either the collective, mesenchymal or amoeboid invasion modes or actively switch between them and gain intermediate phenotypes. Elucidation of the role of polarity proteins during these invasion modes and the associated transitions is a necessary step towards understanding the complex problem of metastasis. In this review we summarize the current knowledge of the role of cell polarity signaling in the plasticity of cancer cell invasiveness. PMID:26872368

  18. Open questions: The disrupted circuitry of the cancer cell

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H. Steven

    2014-10-18

    Every new decade of biology brings with it a change in outlook driven by new technologies and fresh perspectives. Such is the case for cancer and how we consider the disease. The advent of molecular biology led to the identification of altered signaling molecules and 'oncogenes' that were proposed to drive uncontrolled cell proliferation. The rise of cell biology and new imaging and culturing technologies led to the idea that disruptions in the extracellular environment prime cells for transformation. In the current genomics era, cancer is most commonly seen as a genetic disorder where an unstable genome gives rise to a variety of different cell variants that are selected for proliferation and survival. All of these views are partially correct, of course, and are simply different ways of saying that genetic alterations in cancer cells result in a loss of growth homeostasis. They also take the view that molecular changes 'drive' a cell to grow uncontrollably, rather than tip the balance from one normal state (quiescence) to another (proliferation). Underlying this oversimplification is a profound ignorance of what controls homeostatic cell growth in the first place and how specific mutations impact it. Normal, proliferation-competent cells can accurately monitor their environment and respond appropriately to perturbation, whether it is a loss of neighbors or an inflammatory stimulus. Cancer cells either proliferate or refuse to die where and when they should not, which clearly indicates that they have problems in detecting or responding to their environment. Thus, an enormous amount of effort has gone into defining the signaling pathways that can trigger a proliferative response and the biochemical mechanisms underlying these pathways. Far less work has focused on understanding the higher-order logic of these pathways and the roles played by all of the components as part of an integrated system. In other words, we do not really understand how cells process

  19. CD24 negative lung cancer cells, possessing partial cancer stem cell properties, cannot be considered as cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haineng; Mu, Jiasheng; Xiao, Jing; Wu, Xiangsong; Li, Maolan; Liu, Tianrun; Liu, Xinyuan

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play vital role in lung cancer progression, resistance, metastasis and relapse. Identifying lung CSCs makers for lung CSCs targeting researches are critical for lung cancer therapy. In this study, utilizing previous identified lung CSCs as model, we compared the expression of CD24, CD133 and CD44 between CSCs and non-stem cancer cells. Increased ratio of CD24- cells were found in CSCs. CD24- cells were then sorted by flow cytometry and their proliferative ability, chemo-resistance property and in vivo tumor formation abilities were detected. A549 CD24- cells formed smaller colonies, slower proliferated in comparison to A549 CD24+ cells. Besides, A549 CD24- exhibited stronger resistance to chemotherapy drug. However, A549 CD24- didn't exert any stronger tumor formation ability in vivo, which is the gold standard of CSCs. These results showed that CD24- A549 cells showed some properties of CSCs but not actually CSCs. This study provides evidence that CD24 cannot be considered as lung CSCs marker.

  20. Proceedings from the National Cancer Institute's Second International Workshop on the Biology, Prevention, and Treatment of Relapse after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Part I. Biology of relapse after transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gress, Ronald E; Miller, Jeffrey S; Battiwalla, Minoo; Bishop, Michael R; Giralt, Sergio A; Hardy, Nancy M; Kröger, Nicolaus; Wayne, Alan S; Landau, Dan A; Wu, Catherine J

    2013-11-01

    In the National Cancer Institute's Second Workshop on the Biology, Prevention, and Treatment of Relapse after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, the Scientific/Educational Session on the Biology of Relapse discussed recent advances in understanding some of the host-, disease-, and transplantation-related contributions to relapse, emphasizing concepts with potential therapeutic implications. Relapse after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) represents tumor escape, from the cytotoxic effects of the conditioning regimen and from immunologic control mediated by reconstituted lymphocyte populations. Factors influencing the biology of the therapeutic graft-versus-malignancy (GVM) effect-and relapse-include conditioning regimen effects on lymphocyte populations and homeostasis, immunologic niches, and the tumor microenvironment; reconstitution of lymphocyte populations and establishment of functional immune competence; and genetic heterogeneity within the malignancy defining potential for clonal escape. Recent developments in T cell and natural killer cell homeostasis and reconstitution are reviewed, with implications for prevention and treatment of relapse, as is the application of modern genome sequencing to defining the biologic basis of GVM, clonal escape, and relapse after HSCT.

  1. Biomechanics and biophysics of cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, Subra

    2010-01-01

    The past decade has seen substantial growth in research into how changes in the biomechanical and biophysical properties of cells and subcellular structures influence, and are influenced by, the onset and progression of human diseases. This paper presents an overview of the rapidly expanding, nascent field of research that deals with the biomechanics and biophysics of cancer cells. The review begins with some key observations on the biology of cancer cells and on the role of actin microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubule biopolymer cytoskeletal components in influencing cell mechanics, locomotion, differentiation and neoplastic transformation. In order to set the scene for mechanistic discussions of the connections among alterations to subcellular structures, attendant changes in cell deformability, cytoadherence, migration, invasion and tumor metastasis, a survey is presented of the various quantitative mechanical and physical assays to extract the elastic and viscoelastic deformability of cancer cells. Results available in the literature on cell mechanics for different types of cancer are then reviewed. Representative case studies are presented next to illustrate how chemically induced cytoskeletal changes, biomechanical responses and signals from the intracellular regions act in concert with the chemomechanical environment of the extracellular matrix and the molecular tumorigenic signaling pathways to effect malignant transformations. Results are presented to illustrate how changes to cytoskeletal architecture induced by cancer drugs and chemotherapy regimens can significantly influence cell mechanics and disease state. It is reasoned through experimental evidence that greater understanding of the mechanics of cancer cell deformability and its interactions with the extracellular physical, chemical and biological environments offers enormous potential for significant new developments in disease diagnostics, prophylactics, therapeutics and drug

  2. Cancer stem cells and cell size: A causal link?

    PubMed

    Li, Qiuhui; Rycaj, Kiera; Chen, Xin; Tang, Dean G

    2015-12-01

    The majority of normal animal cells are 10-20 μm in diameter. Many signaling mechanisms, notably PI3K/Akt/mTOR, Myc, and Hippo pathways, tightly control and coordinate cell growth, cell size, cell division, and cell number during homeostasis. These regulatory mechanisms are frequently deregulated during tumorigenesis resulting in wide variations in cell sizes and increased proliferation in cancer cells. Here, we first review the evidence that primitive stem cells in adult tissues are quiescent and generally smaller than their differentiated progeny, suggesting a correlation between small cell sizes with the stemness. Conversely, increased cell size positively correlates with differentiation phenotypes. We then discuss cancer stem cells (CSCs) and present some evidence that correlates cell sizes with CSC activity. Overall, a causal link between CSCs and cell size is relatively weak and remains to be rigorously assessed. In the future, optimizing methods for isolating cells based on size should help elucidate the connection between cancer cell size and CSC characteristics.

  3. Harnessing the apoptotic programs in cancer stem-like cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-Hua; Scadden, David T

    2015-09-01

    Elimination of malignant cells is an unmet challenge for most human cancer types even with therapies targeting specific driver mutations. Therefore, a multi-pronged strategy to alter cancer cell biology on multiple levels is increasingly recognized as essential for cancer cure. One such aspect of cancer cell biology is the relative apoptosis resistance of tumor-initiating cells. Here, we provide an overview of the mechanisms affecting the apoptotic process in tumor cells emphasizing the differences in the tumor-initiating or stem-like cells of cancer. Further, we summarize efforts to exploit these differences to design therapies targeting that important cancer cell population.

  4. High prevalence of side population in human cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Boesch, Maximilian; Zeimet, Alain G.; Fiegl, Heidi; Wolf, Barbara; Huber, Julia; Klocker, Helmut; Gastl, Guenther

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cell lines are essential platforms for performing cancer research on human cells. We here demonstrate that, across tumor entities, human cancer cell lines harbor minority populations of putative stem-like cells, molecularly defined by dye extrusion resulting in the side population phenotype. These findings establish a heterogeneous nature of human cancer cell lines and argue for their stem cell origin. This should be considered when interpreting research involving these model systems. PMID:27226981

  5. Cell-of-Origin of Cancer versus Cancer Stem Cells: Assays and Interpretations.

    PubMed

    Rycaj, Kiera; Tang, Dean G

    2015-10-01

    A tumor originates from a normal cell that has undergone tumorigenic transformation as a result of genetic mutations. This transformed cell is the cell-of-origin for the tumor. In contrast, an established clinical tumor is sustained by subpopulations of self-renewing cancer cells operationally called cancer stem cells (CSC) that can generate, intraclonally, both tumorigenic and nontumorigenic cells. Identifying and characterizing tumor cell-of-origin and CSCs should help elucidate tumor cell heterogeneity, which, in turn, should help understand tumor cell responses to clinical treatments, drug resistance, tumor relapse, and metastatic spread. Both tumor transplantation and lineage-tracing assays have been helpful in characterizing these cancer cell populations, although each system has its strengths and caveats. In this article, we briefly review and summarize advantages and limitations of both assays in support of a combinatorial approach to accurately define the roles of both cancer-initiating and cancer-propagating cells. As an aside, we also wish to clarify the definitions of cancer cell-of-origin and CSCs, which are often interchangeably used by mistake.

  6. Dendritic cells and immunity against cancer

    PubMed Central

    Palucka, Karolina; Ueno, Hideki; Fay, Joseph; Banchereau, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY T cells can reject established tumors when adoptively transferred into patients, thereby demonstrating the power of the immune system for cancer therapy. However, it has proven difficult to maintain adoptively transferred T cells in the long term. Vaccines have the potential to induce tumor-specific effector and memory T cells. However, clinical efficacy of current vaccines is limited, possibly because tumors skew the immune system by means of myeloid-derived suppressor cells, inflammatory type 2 T cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs), all of which prevent the generation of effector cells. To improve the clinical efficacy of cancer vaccines in patients with metastatic disease, we need to design novel and improved strategies that can boost adaptive immunity to cancer, help overcome Tregs and allow the breakdown of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. This can be achieved by exploiting the fast increasing knowledge about the dendritic cell (DC) system, including the existence of distinct DC subsets which respond differentially to distinct activation signals, (functional plasticity), both contributing to the generation of unique adaptive immune responses. We foresee that these novel cancer vaccines will be used as monotherapy in patients with resected disease, and in combination with drugs targeting regulatory/suppressor pathways in patients with metastatic disease. PMID:21158979

  7. Stem Cell Transplants in Cancer Treatment

    Cancer.gov

    Stem cell transplants are procedures that restore blood-forming stem cells in cancer patients who have had theirs destroyed by very high doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Learn about the types of transplants and side effects that may occur.

  8. Targeting cancer stem cells with oncolytic virus

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Yin

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a distinct subpopulation of cancer cells which are shown to be relatively resistant to conventional anticancer therapies and have been correlated to disease recurrence. Oncolytic viruses utilize methods of cell killing that differ from traditional therapies and thus are able to elude the typical mechanisms that CSCs use to resist current chemotherapies and radiotherapies. Moreover, genetically engineered oncolytic viruses may further augment the oncolytic effects. Here we review the recent data regarding the ability of several oncolytic viruses to eradicate CSCs. PMID:27358866

  9. Immune cell interplay in colorectal cancer prognosis.

    PubMed

    Norton, Samuel E; Ward-Hartstonge, Kirsten A; Taylor, Edward S; Kemp, Roslyn A

    2015-10-15

    The immune response to colorectal cancer has proven to be a reliable measure of patient outcome in several studies. However, the complexity of the immune response in this disease is not well understood, particularly the interactions between tumour-associated cells and cells of the innate and adaptive immune system. This review will discuss the relationship between cancer associated fibroblasts and macrophages, as well as between macrophages and T cells, and demonstrate how each population may support or prevent tumour growth in a different immune environment.

  10. Mesenchymal stem cells show little tropism for the resting and differentiated cancer stem cell-like glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenlin; Jiang, Zhongmin; Huang, Jianyong; Huang, Shuqiang; Li, Yanxia; Sheng, Feng; Yu, Simiao; Yu, Shizhu; Liu, Xiaozhi

    2014-04-01

    Intrinsic resistance of glioma cells to radiation and chemotherapy is currently hypothesized to be partially attributed to the existence of cancer stem cells. Emerging studies suggest that mesenchymal stem cells may serve as a potential carrier for delivery of therapeutic genes to disseminated glioma cells. However, the tropism character of mesenchymal stem cells for cancer stem cell-like glioma cells has rarely been described. In this study, we obtained homologous bone marrow-derived (BM-) and adipose tissue-derived (AT-) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), fibroblast, and cancer stem cell-like glioma cells (CSGCs) from tumor-bearing mice, and compared the tropism character of BM- and AT-MSCs for CSGCs with various form of existence. To characterize the cell proliferation and differentiation, the spheroids of CSGCs were cultured on the surface of the substrate with different stiffness, combined with or withdrew basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in medium. Our results showed that the CSGCs during the process of cell proliferation, but not in resting and differentiated status, display strong tropism characteristics on both BM- and AT-MSCs, as well as the expression of their cell chemokine factors which mediate cell migration. If the conclusion is further confirmed, it may expose a fatal flaw of MSCs as tumor-targeted delivery of therapeutic agents in the treatment of the CSGCs, even other cancer stem cells, because there always exist a part of cancer stem cells that are in resting status. Overall, our findings provide novel insight into the complex issue of the MSCs as drug delivery in the treatment of brain tumors, especially in tumor stem cells.

  11. Adoptive T cell immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Perica, Karlo; Varela, Juan Carlos; Oelke, Mathias; Schneck, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Harnessing the immune system to recognize and destroy tumor cells has been the central goal of anti-cancer immunotherapy. In recent years, there has been an increased interest in optimizing this technology in order to make it a clinically feasible treatment. One of the main treatment modalities within cancer immunotherapy has been adoptive T cell therapy (ACT). Using this approach, tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells are infused into cancer patients with the goal of recognizing, targeting, and destroying tumor cells. In the current review, we revisit some of the major successes of ACT, the major hurdles that have been overcome to optimize ACT, the remaining challenges, and future approaches to make ACT widely available.

  12. Lipid metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Beloribi-Djefaflia, S; Vasseur, S; Guillaumond, F

    2016-01-01

    Many human diseases, including metabolic, immune and central nervous system disorders, as well as cancer, are the consequence of an alteration in lipid metabolic enzymes and their pathways. This illustrates the fundamental role played by lipids in maintaining membrane homeostasis and normal function in healthy cells. We reviewed the major lipid dysfunctions occurring during tumor development, as determined using systems biology approaches. In it, we provide detailed insight into the essential roles exerted by specific lipids in mediating intracellular oncogenic signaling, endoplasmic reticulum stress and bidirectional crosstalk between cells of the tumor microenvironment and cancer cells. Finally, we summarize the advances in ongoing research aimed at exploiting the dependency of cancer cells on lipids to abolish tumor progression. PMID:26807644

  13. Targeting Strategies for Renal Cell Carcinoma: From Renal Cancer Cells to Renal Cancer Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhi-Xiang; Mo, Jingxin; Zhao, Guixian; Shu, Gang; Fu, Hua-Lin; Zhao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common form of urologic tumor that originates from the highly heterogeneous epithelium of renal tubules. Over the last decade, targeting therapies to renal cancer cells have transformed clinical care for RCC. Recently, it was proposed that renal cancer stem cells (CSCs) isolated from renal carcinomas were responsible for driving tumor growth and resistance to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, according to the theory of CSCs; this has provided the rationale for therapies targeting this aggressive cell population. Precise identification of renal CSC populations and the complete cell hierarchy will accurately inform characterization of disease subtypes. This will ultimately contribute to more personalized and targeted therapies. Here, we summarize potential targeting strategies for renal cancer cells and renal CSCs, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTOR), interleukins, CSC marker inhibitors, bone morphogenetic protein-2, antibody drug conjugates, and nanomedicine. In conclusion, targeting therapies for RCC represent new directions for exploration and clinical investigation and they plant a seed of hope for advanced clinical care.

  14. Targeting Strategies for Renal Cell Carcinoma: From Renal Cancer Cells to Renal Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhi-xiang; Mo, Jingxin; Zhao, Guixian; Shu, Gang; Fu, Hua-lin; Zhao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common form of urologic tumor that originates from the highly heterogeneous epithelium of renal tubules. Over the last decade, targeting therapies to renal cancer cells have transformed clinical care for RCC. Recently, it was proposed that renal cancer stem cells (CSCs) isolated from renal carcinomas were responsible for driving tumor growth and resistance to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, according to the theory of CSCs; this has provided the rationale for therapies targeting this aggressive cell population. Precise identification of renal CSC populations and the complete cell hierarchy will accurately inform characterization of disease subtypes. This will ultimately contribute to more personalized and targeted therapies. Here, we summarize potential targeting strategies for renal cancer cells and renal CSCs, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTOR), interleukins, CSC marker inhibitors, bone morphogenetic protein-2, antibody drug conjugates, and nanomedicine. In conclusion, targeting therapies for RCC represent new directions for exploration and clinical investigation and they plant a seed of hope for advanced clinical care. PMID:27891093

  15. Upregulated UHRF1 Promotes Bladder Cancer Cell Invasion by Epigenetic Silencing of KiSS1

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Xin; Liu, Jianwei; Han, Zhiyou; Ma, Xuetao; Zhang, Yuhai

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquitin-like with PHD and RING finger domains 1 (UHRF1), as an epigenetic regulator, plays important roles in the tumorigenesis and cancer progression. KiSS1 functions as a metastasis suppressor in various cancers, and epigenetic silencing of KiSS1 increases the metastatic potential of cancer cells. We therefore investigated whether UHRF1 promotes bladder cancer cell invasion by inhibiting KiSS1. The expression levels of UHRF1 and KiSS1 were examined by quantitative real-time PCR assay in vitro and in vivo. The role of UHRF1 in regulating bladder cancer metastasis was evaluated in bladder cancer cell. We found that UHRF1 levels are upregulated in most clinical specimens of bladder cancer when compared with paired normal tissues, and UHRF1 expression levels are significantly increased in primary tumors that subsequently metastasized compared with non-metastatic tumors. Forced expression of UHRF1 promotes bladder cancer cell invasion, whereas UHRF1 knockdown decreases cell invasion. Overexpression of UHRF1 increases the methylation of CpG nucleotides and reduces the expression of KiSS1. UHRF1 and KiSS1 expression level is negatively correlated in vivo and in vitro. Knockdown of KiSS1 promotes bladder cancer cell invasion. Importantly, forced expression of KiSS1 partly abrogates UHRF1-induced cell invasion. These data demonstrated that upregulated UHRF1 increases bladder cancer cell invasion by epigenetic silencing of KiSS1. PMID:25272010

  16. Upregulated UHRF1 promotes bladder cancer cell invasion by epigenetic silencing of KiSS1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Huang, Zhen; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Xin; Liu, Jianwei; Han, Zhiyou; Ma, Xuetao; Zhang, Yuhai

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquitin-like with PHD and RING finger domains 1 (UHRF1), as an epigenetic regulator, plays important roles in the tumorigenesis and cancer progression. KiSS1 functions as a metastasis suppressor in various cancers, and epigenetic silencing of KiSS1 increases the metastatic potential of cancer cells. We therefore investigated whether UHRF1 promotes bladder cancer cell invasion by inhibiting KiSS1. The expression levels of UHRF1 and KiSS1 were examined by quantitative real-time PCR assay in vitro and in vivo. The role of UHRF1 in regulating bladder cancer metastasis was evaluated in bladder cancer cell. We found that UHRF1 levels are upregulated in most clinical specimens of bladder cancer when compared with paired normal tissues, and UHRF1 expression levels are significantly increased in primary tumors that subsequently metastasized compared with non-metastatic tumors. Forced expression of UHRF1 promotes bladder cancer cell invasion, whereas UHRF1 knockdown decreases cell invasion. Overexpression of UHRF1 increases the methylation of CpG nucleotides and reduces the expression of KiSS1. UHRF1 and KiSS1 expression level is negatively correlated in vivo and in vitro. Knockdown of KiSS1 promotes bladder cancer cell invasion. Importantly, forced expression of KiSS1 partly abrogates UHRF1-induced cell invasion. These data demonstrated that upregulated UHRF1 increases bladder cancer cell invasion by epigenetic silencing of KiSS1.

  17. Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Part of the Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Joe R.; Altork, Linh Nguyen

    2010-01-01

    With the decreasing availability of oil and the perpetual dependence on foreign-controlled resources, many people around the world are beginning to insist on alternative fuel sources. Hydrogen fuel cell technology is one answer to this demand. Although modern fuel cell technology has existed for over a century, the technology is only now becoming…

  18. Gastric cancer stem cells: A novel therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shree Ram

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains one of the leading causes of global cancer mortality. Multipotent gastric stem cells have been identified in both mouse and human stomachs, and they play an essential role in the self-renewal and homeostasis of gastric mucosa. There are several environmental and genetic factors known to promote gastric cancer. In recent years, numerous in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that gastric cancer may originate from normal stem cells or bone marrow–derived mesenchymal cells, and that gastric tumors contain cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells are believed to share a common microenvironment with normal niche, which play an important role in gastric cancer and tumor growth. This mini-review presents a brief overview of the recent developments in gastric cancer stem cell research. The knowledge gained by studying cancer stem cells in gastric mucosa will support the development of novel therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer. PMID:23583679

  19. Nano-discs Destroy Cancer Cells

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    A new technique, designed with the potential to treat brain cancers, is under study at Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago Medical Center. The micron-sized magnetic materials, with vortex-like arrangements of spins, were successfully interfaced with Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cancer cells. The microdisks are gold-coated and biofunctionalized with a cancer-targeting antibody. The antibody recognizes unique receptors on the cancer cells and attaches to them (and them alone), leaving surrounding healthy cells unaffected during treatment. Under application of an alternative magnetic field, the magnetic vortices shift, leading to oscillatory motion of the disks and causing the magneto-mechanic stimulus to be transmitted directly to the cancer cell. Probably because of the damage to the cancer cell membrane, this results in cellular signal transduction and amplification, causing initiation of apoptosis (programmed cell death or "cell suicide"). Manifestation of apoptosis is of clinical significance because the malignant cells are known to be almost "immortal" (due to suppressed apoptosis), and, consequently, highly resistant to conventional (chemo- and radio-) therapies. Due to unique properties of the vortex microdisks, an extremely high spin-vortex-induced cytotoxicity effect can be caused by application of unprecedentedly weak magnetic fields. An alternative magnetic field as slow as about 10s Hertz (for comparison, 60 Hertz in a electrical outlet) and as small as less than 90 Oersteds (which is actually less than the field produced by a magnetized razor blade) applied only for 10 minutes was sufficient to cause ~90% cancer cell destruction in vitro. The study has only been conducted in cells in a laboratory; animal trials are being planned. Watch a news clip of the story from ABC-7 News: http://abclocal.go.com/wls/story?section=news/health&id=7245605 More details on this study can be found in the original research paper: Biofunctionalized

  20. Storytelling as part of cancer rehabilitation to support cancer patients and their relatives.

    PubMed

    la Cour, Karen; Ledderer, Loni; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on psychosocial support for cancer-related concerns has primarily focused on either patients or their relatives, although limited research is available on how patients and their relatives can be supported together. The aim of this article is to explore the use of storytelling as a part of a residential cancer rehabilitation intervention for patients together with their relatives, with a specific focus on their management of cancer-related concerns. Ten pairs participated in the intervention and data were generated through ethnographic fieldwork, including participant observations, informal conversations and follow-up interviews conducted one month after completing the intervention. Analysis was performed drawing on narrative theory combined with social practice theory. The results demonstrate that the use of storytelling and metaphors intertwined with other course activities, such as dancing and arts & crafts, provided the patients and their relatives with strategies to manage cancer-related concerns, which they were later able to apply in their everyday lives. The study results may be useful to other professionals in clinical practice for rehabilitation purposes for addressing issues of fear and worry.

  1. Getting to the heart of the matter in cancer: Novel approaches to targeting cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Colvin, Hugh; Mori, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide. While cancers may initially show good response to chemotherapy or radiotherapy, it is not uncommon for them to recur at a later date. This phenomenon may be explained by the existence of a small population of cancer stem cells, which are inherently resistant to anti-cancer treatment as well as being capable of self-renewal. Therefore, while most of the tumour bulk consisting of cells that are not cancer stem cells respond to treatment, the cancer stem cells remain, leading to disease recurrence. Following this logic, the effective targeting of cancer stem cells holds promise for providing long-term cure in individuals with cancer. Cancer stem cells, like normal stem cells are endowed with mechanisms to protect themselves against a wide range of insults including anti-cancer treatments, such as the enhancement of the DNA damage response and the ability to extrude drugs. It is therefore important to develop new strategies if cancer stem cells are to be eradicated. In this review, we describe the strategies that we have developed to target cancer stem cells. These strategies include the targeting of the histone demethylase jumonji, AT rich interactive domain 1B (JARID1B), which we found to be functionally significant in the maintenance of cancer stem cells. Other strategies being pursued include reprogramming of cancer stem cells and the targeting of a functional cell surface marker of liver cancer stem cells, the aminopeptidase CD13.

  2. Cancer cells in the circulating blood

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Haruo

    1962-01-01

    The author discusses the relation between the presence of cancer cells in the circulating blood and the development of metastasis, as demonstrated by studies on animals with experimentally induced tumours, by post-mortem studies on fatal human cases of cancer, and by studies on patients operated upon for stomach cancer. Although the correlation between the presence of tumour cells in the blood and the occurrence of metastatic lesions was found to be less close in the human cases of cancer than in the experimental animals, the author considers that it was sufficiently marked to justify the assumption that the appearance of tumour cells in the circulating blood is an important link in the chain of processes leading to cancer metastasis. In conclusion, the author puts forward the suggestion, based on the results of animal experiments, that chemotherapy might have an inhibitory effect on the liberated tumour cells in the blood, particularly if these cells are present only in small numbers, and thus be instrumental in halting the course of metastasis. PMID:14497407

  3. Electrochemical Genetic Profiling of Single Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Acero Sánchez, Josep Ll; Joda, Hamdi; Henry, Olivier Y F; Solnestam, Beata W; Kvastad, Linda; Akan, Pelin S; Lundeberg, Joakim; Laddach, Nadja; Ramakrishnan, Dheeraj; Riley, Ian; Schwind, Carmen; Latta, Daniel; O'Sullivan, Ciara K

    2017-03-21

    Recent understandings in the development and spread of cancer have led to the realization of novel single cell analysis platforms focused on circulating tumor cells (CTCs). A simple, rapid, and inexpensive analytical platform capable of providing genetic information on these rare cells is highly desirable to support clinicians and researchers alike to either support the selection or adjustment of therapy or provide fundamental insights into cell function and cancer progression mechanisms. We report on the genetic profiling of single cancer cells, exploiting a combination of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and electrochemical detection. Cells were isolated using laser capture and lysed, and the mRNA was extracted and transcribed into DNA. Seven markers were amplified by MLPA, which allows for the simultaneous amplification of multiple targets with a single primer pair, using MLPA probes containing unique barcode sequences. Capture probes complementary to each of these barcode sequences were immobilized on a printed circuit board (PCB) manufactured electrode array and exposed to single-stranded MLPA products and subsequently to a single stranded DNA reporter probe bearing a HRP molecule, followed by substrate addition and fast electrochemical pulse amperometric detection. We present a simple, rapid, flexible, and inexpensive approach for the simultaneous quantification of multiple breast cancer related mRNA markers, with single tumor cell sensitivity.

  4. Microfluidics and cancer analysis: cell separation, cell/tissue culture, cell mechanics, and integrated analysis systems.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Dimitri

    2016-01-21

    Among the growing number of tools available for cancer studies, microfluidic systems have emerged as a promising analytical tool to elucidate cancer cell and tumor function. Microfluidic methods to culture cells have created approaches to provide a range of environments from single-cell analysis to complex three-dimensional devices. In this review we discuss recent advances in tumor cell culture, cancer cell analysis, and advanced studies enabled by microfluidic systems.

  5. Cancer-Associated Myeloid Regulatory Cells

    PubMed Central

    De Vlaeminck, Yannick; González-Rascón, Anna; Goyvaerts, Cleo; Breckpot, Karine

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid cells are critically involved in the pathophysiology of cancers. In the tumor microenvironment (TME), they comprise tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), neutrophils (TANs), dendritic cells, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, which are further subdivided into a monocytic subset and a granulocytic subset. Some of these myeloid cells, in particular TAMs and TANs, are divided into type 1 or type 2 cells, according to the paradigm of T helper type 1 or type 2 cells. Type 1-activated cells are generally characterized as cells that aid tumor rejection, while all other myeloid cells are shown to favor tumor progression. Moreover, these cells are often at the basis of resistance to various therapies. Much research has been devoted to study the biology of myeloid cells. This endeavor has proven to be challenging, as the markers used to categorize myeloid cells in the TME are not restricted to particular subsets. Also from a functional and metabolic point of view, myeloid cells share many features. Finally, myeloid cells are endowed with a certain level of plasticity, which further complicates studying them outside their environment. In this article, we challenge the exclusive use of cell markers to unambiguously identify myeloid cell subsets in the TME. We further propose to divide myeloid cells into myeloid regulatory or stimulatory cells according to their pro- or antitumor function, because we contend that for therapeutic purposes it is not targeting the cell subsets but rather targeting their protumor traits; hence, myeloid regulatory cells will push antitumor immunotherapy to the next level. PMID:27065074

  6. Thyroid Hormones as Renal Cell Cancer Regulators

    PubMed Central

    Matak, Damian; Bartnik, Ewa; Szczylik, Cezary; Czarnecka, Anna M.

    2016-01-01

    It is known that thyroid hormone is an important regulator of cancer development and metastasis. What is more, changes across the genome, as well as alternative splicing, may affect the activity of the thyroid hormone receptors. Mechanism of action of the thyroid hormone is different in every cancer; therefore in this review thyroid hormone and its receptor are presented as a regulator of renal cell carcinoma. PMID:27034829

  7. Progesterone prevents radiation-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Vares, Guillaume; Ory, Katherine; Lectard, Bruno; Levalois, Céline; Altmeyer-Morel, Sandrine; Chevillard, Sylvie; Lebeau, Jérôme

    2004-06-03

    Sex steroid hormones play an essential role in the control of homeostasis in the mammary gland. Although the involvement of progesterone in cellular proliferation and differentiation is well established, its exact role in the control of cell death still remains unclear. As dysregulation of the apoptotic process plays an important role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer, we investigated the regulation of apoptosis by progesterone in various breast cancer cell lines. Our results show that progesterone treatment protects against radiation-induced apoptosis. This prevention appears to be mediated by the progesterone receptor and is unrelated to p53 status. There is also no correlation with the intrinsic hormonal effect on cell proliferation, as the presence of cells in a particular phase of the cell cycle. Surprisingly, progesterone partly allows bypassing of the irradiation-induced growth arrest in G(2)/M in PgR+ cells, leading to an increase in cell proliferation after irradiation. One consequence of this effect is a higher rate of chromosome damage in these proliferating progesterone-treated cells compared to what is observed in untreated irradiated cells. We propose that progesterone, by inhibiting apoptosis and promoting the proliferation of cells with DNA damage, potentially facilitates the emergence of genetic mutations that may play a role in malignant transformation.

  8. How Are Squamous and Basal Cell Skin Cancers Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Staging Tests for Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancers Most skin cancers are brought to a ... non-cancerous) without the need for a biopsy. Skin biopsy If the doctor thinks that a suspicious ...

  9. Breast Cancer Cells May Change When They Spread to Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Cells May Change When They Spread to Brain: Study Finding might lead to better treatment, researchers ... HealthDay News) -- When breast cancer spreads to the brain, important molecular changes may occur in the cancer, ...

  10. Dormancy activation mechanism of oral cavity cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiang; Li, Xin; Zhao, Baohong; Shang, Dehao; Zhong, Ming; Deng, Chunfu; Jia, Xinshan

    2015-07-01

    Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are targeted primarily at rapidly proliferating cancer cells and are unable to eliminate cancer stem cells in the G0 phase. Thus, these treatments cannot prevent the recurrence and metastasis of cancer. Understanding the mechanisms by which cancer stem cells are maintained in the dormant G0 phase, and how they become active is key to developing new cancer therapies. The current study found that the anti-cancer drug 5-fluorouracil, acting on the oral squamous cell carcinoma KB cell line, selectively killed proliferating cells while sparing cells in the G0 phase. Bisulfite sequencing PCR showed that demethylation of the Sox2 promoter led to the expression of Sox2. This then resulted in the transformation of cancer stem cells from the G0 phase to the division stage and suggested that the transformation of cancer stem cells from the G0 phase to the division stage is closely related to an epigenetic modification of the cell.

  11. Mechanisms of Chemoresistance in Breast Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    directly by anticancer agents such as vincristine , daunorubicin, doxorubicin, and colchicine (45); Figure 4. Influence of GCS blockade via PPMP and siRNA...SKOV3/AdrR human ovarian cancer cells (49), in KBV200 cells (50), and in the decreased efflux of [14C]paclitaxel and [3H] vincristine in a neuroblastoma...Expression of glucosylceramide synthase mRNA in vincristine - resistant KBV200 cell line in association with multidrug resistance. Di Yi Jun Yi Da Xue Xue

  12. Activation of ERK signaling and induction of colon cancer cell death by piperlongumine.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, H; Kibble, K; Zeng, H; Moyer, M P; Reindl, K M

    2013-09-01

    Piperlongumine (PPLGM) is a bioactive compound isolated from long peppers that shows selective toxicity towards a variety of cancer cell types including colon cancer. The signaling pathways that lead to cancer cell death in response to PPLGM exposure have not been previously identified. Our objective was to identify the intracellular signaling mechanisms by which PPLGM leads to enhanced colon cancer cell death. We found that PPLGM inhibited the growth of colon cancer cells in time- and concentration-dependent manners, but was not toxic toward normal colon mucosal cells at concentrations below 10 μM. Acute (0-60 min) and prolonged (24h) exposure of HT-29 cells to PPLGM resulted in phosphorylation of ERK. To investigate whether ERK signaling was involved in PPLGM-mediated cell death, we treated HT-29 cells with the MEK inhibitor U0126, prior to treating with PPLGM. We found that U0126 attenuated PPLGM-induced activation of ERK and partially protected against PPLGM-induced cell death. These results suggest that PPLGM works, at least in part, through the MEK/ERK pathway to result in colon cancer cell death. A more thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which PPLGM induces colon cancer cell death will be useful in developing therapeutic strategies to treat colon cancer.

  13. Hypoxic stellate cells of pancreatic cancer stroma regulate extracellular matrix fiber organization and cancer cell motility.

    PubMed

    Sada, Masafumi; Ohuchida, Kenoki; Horioka, Kohei; Okumura, Takashi; Moriyama, Taiki; Miyasaka, Yoshihiro; Ohtsuka, Takao; Mizumoto, Kazuhiro; Oda, Yoshinao; Nakamura, Masafumi

    2016-03-28

    Desmoplasia and hypoxia in pancreatic cancer mutually affect each other and create a tumor-supportive microenvironment. Here, we show that microenvironment remodeling by hypoxic pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) promotes cancer cell motility through alteration of extracellular matrix (ECM) fiber architecture. Three-dimensional (3-D) matrices derived from PSCs under hypoxia exhibited highly organized parallel-patterned matrix fibers compared with 3-D matrices derived from PSCs under normoxia, and promoted cancer cell motility by inducing directional migration of cancer cells due to the parallel fiber architecture. Microarray analysis revealed that procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2 (PLOD2) in PSCs was the gene that potentially regulates ECM fiber architecture under hypoxia. Stromal PLOD2 expression in surgical specimens of pancreatic cancer was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of PLOD2 in PSCs blocked parallel fiber architecture of 3-D matrices, leading to decreased directional migration of cancer cells within the matrices. In conclusion, these findings indicate that hypoxia-induced PLOD2 expression in PSCs creates a permissive microenvironment for migration of cancer cells through architectural regulation of stromal ECM in pancreatic cancer.

  14. Inhibition of Hedgehog signaling pathway impedes cancer cell proliferation by promotion of autophagy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoli; Deng, Libin; Chen, Qi; Wang, Yao; Xu, Rong; Shi, Chao; Shao, Jia; Hu, Guohui; Gao, Meng; Rao, Hai; Luo, Shiwen; Lu, Quqin

    2015-05-01

    Multiple lines of evidence implicate that aberrant activation of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is involved in a variety of human cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying how cancer cells respond to Hh inhibition remain to be elucidated. In this study, we found that blockade of Hh signaling suppresses cell proliferation in human cancer cells. Microarray analysis revealed that differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in human cancer cells are enriched in autophagy pathway in response to the inhibition of Hh signaling. Interestingly, inhibition of Hh signaling induced autophagy, whereas activation of Hh signaling by ligand treatments prevented the induction of autophagy. In addition, inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) partially suppressed cytotoxicity induced by inhibition of Hh signaling. Finally, in autophagy deficient cells, cytotoxic effect triggered by inhibition of Hh signaling was partially reversed, indicating the modulation of autophagy by Hh signaling is autophagy-specific. These results suggest that inhibition of Hh signaling impedes cancer cell proliferation in part through induction of autophagy.

  15. AKT and oxidative stress team up to kill cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Dolado, Ignacio; Nebreda, Angel R

    2008-12-09

    AKT, a protein kinase frequently hyperactivated in cancer, plays an important role in cell survival and contributes to tumor cell resistance to cytotoxic therapies. A new study in this issue of Cancer Cell shows that AKT also induces the accumulation of oxygen radicals, which can be exploited to selectively kill cancer cells containing high levels of AKT activity.

  16. Cancer stem cells in nervous system tumors.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sheila K; Clarke, Ian D; Hide, Takuichiro; Dirks, Peter B

    2004-09-20

    Most current research on human brain tumors is focused on the molecular and cellular analysis of the bulk tumor mass. However, evidence in leukemia and more recently in solid tumors such as breast cancer suggests that the tumor cell population is heterogeneous with respect to proliferation and differentiation. Recently, several groups have described the existence of a cancer stem cell population in human brain tumors of different phenotypes from both children and adults. The finding of brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) has been made by applying the principles for cell culture and analysis of normal neural stem cells (NSCs) to brain tumor cell populations and by identification of cell surface markers that allow for isolation of distinct tumor cell populations that can then be studied in vitro and in vivo. A population of brain tumor cells can be enriched for BTSCs by cell sorting of dissociated suspensions of tumor cells for the NSC marker CD133. These CD133+ cells, which also expressed the NSC marker nestin, but not differentiated neural lineage markers, represent a minority fraction of the entire brain tumor cell population, and exclusively generate clonal tumor spheres in suspension culture and exhibit increased self-renewal capacity. BTSCs can be induced to differentiate in vitro into tumor cells that phenotypically resembled the tumor from the patient. Here, we discuss the evidence for and implications of the discovery of a cancer stem cell in human brain tumors. The identification of a BTSC provides a powerful tool to investigate the tumorigenic process in the central nervous system and to develop therapies targeted to the BTSC. Specific genetic and molecular analyses of the BTSC will further our understanding of the mechanisms of brain tumor growth, reinforcing parallels between normal neurogenesis and brain tumorigenesis.

  17. Cell Membrane Softening in Cancer Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Sebastian; Händel, Chris; Käs, Josef

    Biomechanical properties are useful characteristics and regulators of the cell's state. Current research connects mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton to many cellular processes but does not investigate the biomechanics of the plasma membrane. We evaluated thermal fluctuations of giant plasma membrane vesicles, directly derived from the plasma membranes of primary breast and cervical cells and observed a lowered rigidity in the plasma membrane of malignant cells compared to non-malignant cells. To investigate the specific role of membrane rigidity changes, we treated two cell lines with the Acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitor Soraphen A. It changed the lipidome of cells and drastically increased membrane stiffness by up regulating short chained membrane lipids. These altered cells had a decreased motility in Boyden chamber assays. Our results indicate that the thermal fluctuations of the membrane, which are much smaller than the fluctuations driven by the cytoskeleton, can be modulated by the cell and have an impact on adhesion and motility.

  18. A Novel Collagen Dot Assay for Monitoring Cancer Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Alford, Vincent M; Roth, Eric; Zhang, Qian; Cao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Cell migration is a critical determinant of cancer invasion and metastasis. Drugs targeting cancer cell migration have been hindered due to the lack of effective assays for monitoring cancer cell migration. Here we describe a novel method to microscopically monitor cell migration in a quantitative fashion. This assay can be used to study genes involved in cancer cell migration, as well as screening anticancer drugs that target this cellular process.

  19. Comprehensive genomic characterization of squamous cell lung cancers.

    PubMed

    2012-09-27

    Lung squamous cell carcinoma is a common type of lung cancer, causing approximately 400,000 deaths per year worldwide. Genomic alterations in squamous cell lung cancers have not been comprehensively characterized, and no molecularly targeted agents have been specifically developed for its treatment. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas, here we profile 178 lung squamous cell carcinomas to provide a comprehensive landscape of genomic and epigenomic alterations. We show that the tumour type is characterized by complex genomic alterations, with a mean of 360 exonic mutations, 165 genomic rearrangements, and 323 segments of copy number alteration per tumour. We find statistically recurrent mutations in 11 genes, including mutation of TP53 in nearly all specimens. Previously unreported loss-of-function mutations are seen in the HLA-A class I major histocompatibility gene. Significantly altered pathways included NFE2L2 and KEAP1 in 34%, squamous differentiation genes in 44%, phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase pathway genes in 47%, and CDKN2A and RB1 in 72% of tumours. We identified a potential therapeutic target in most tumours, offering new avenues of investigation for the treatment of squamous cell lung cancers.

  20. Natural Compounds as Regulators of the Cancer Cell Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Cerella, Claudia; Radogna, Flavia; Dicato, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Even though altered metabolism is an “old” physiological mechanism, only recently its targeting became a therapeutically interesting strategy and by now it is considered an emerging hallmark of cancer. Nevertheless, a very poor number of compounds are under investigation as potential modulators of cell metabolism. Candidate agents should display selectivity of action towards cancer cells without side effects. This ideal favorable profile would perfectly overlap the requisites of new anticancer therapies and chemopreventive strategies as well. Nature represents a still largely unexplored source of bioactive molecules with a therapeutic potential. Many of these compounds have already been characterized for their multiple anticancer activities. Many of them are absorbed with the diet and therefore possess a known profile in terms of tolerability and bioavailability compared to newly synthetized chemical compounds. The discovery of important cross-talks between mediators of the most therapeutically targeted aberrancies in cancer (i.e., cell proliferation, survival, and migration) and the metabolic machinery allows to predict the possibility that many anticancer activities ascribed to a number of natural compounds may be due, in part, to their ability of modulating metabolic pathways. In this review, we attempt an overview of what is currently known about the potential of natural compounds as modulators of cancer cell metabolism. PMID:23762063

  1. Circulating Tumor Cell and Cell-free Circulating Tumor DNA in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zaini, Jamal; Putra, Andika Chandra; Andarini, Sita; Hudoyo, Achmad; Syahruddin, Elisna; Yunus, Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are tumor cells that are separated from the primary site or metastatic lesion and disseminate in blood circulation. CTCs are considered to be part of the long process of cancer metastasis. As a 'liquid biopsy', CTC molecular examination and investigation of single cancer cells create an important opportunity for providing an understanding of cancer biology and the process of metastasis. In the last decade, we have seen dramatic development in defining the role of CTCs in lung cancer in terms of diagnosis, genomic alteration determination, treatment response and, finally, prognosis prediction. The aims of this review are to understand the basic biology and to review methods of detection of CTCs that apply to the various types of solid tumor. Furthermore, we explored clinical applications, including treatment monitoring to anticipate therapy resistance as well as biomarker analysis, in the context of lung cancer. We also explored the potential use of cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in the genomic alteration analysis of lung cancer. PMID:27689025

  2. Circulating Tumor Cell and Cell-free Circulating Tumor DNA in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Nurwidya, Fariz; Zaini, Jamal; Putra, Andika Chandra; Andarini, Sita; Hudoyo, Achmad; Syahruddin, Elisna; Yunus, Faisal

    2016-09-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are tumor cells that are separated from the primary site or metastatic lesion and disseminate in blood circulation. CTCs are considered to be part of the long process of cancer metastasis. As a 'liquid biopsy', CTC molecular examination and investigation of single cancer cells create an important opportunity for providing an understanding of cancer biology and the process of metastasis. In the last decade, we have seen dramatic development in defining the role of CTCs in lung cancer in terms of diagnosis, genomic alteration determination, treatment response and, finally, prognosis prediction. The aims of this review are to understand the basic biology and to review methods of detection of CTCs that apply to the various types of solid tumor. Furthermore, we explored clinical applications, including treatment monitoring to anticipate therapy resistance as well as biomarker analysis, in the context of lung cancer. We also explored the potential use of cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in the genomic alteration analysis of lung cancer.

  3. Population dynamics of cancer cells with cell state conversions

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Da; Wu, Dingming; Li, Zhe; Qian, Minping; Zhang, Michael Q.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cell (CSC) theory suggests a cell-lineage structure in tumor cells in which CSCs are capable of giving rise to the other non-stem cancer cells (NSCCs) but not vice versa. However, an alternative scenario of bidirectional interconversions between CSCs and NSCCs was proposed very recently. Here we present a general population model of cancer cells by integrating conventional cell divisions with direct conversions between different cell states, namely, not only can CSCs differentiate into NSCCs by asymmetric cell division, NSCCs can also dedifferentiate into CSCs by cell state conversion. Our theoretical model is validated when applying the model to recent experimental data. It is also found that the transient increase in CSCs proportion initiated from the purified NSCCs subpopulation cannot be well predicted by the conventional CSC model where the conversion from NSCCs to CSCs is forbidden, implying that the cell state conversion is required especially for the transient dynamics. The theoretical analysis also gives the condition such that our general model can be equivalently reduced into a simple Markov chain with only cell state transitions keeping the same cell proportion dynamics. PMID:26085954

  4. Opioid and nicotine receptors affect growth regulation of human lung cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Maneckjee, R.; Minna, J.D. Uniformed Services Univ. of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD )

    1990-05-01

    Using specific radioactively-labeled ligands, the authors find that lung cancer cell lines of diverse histologic types express multiple, high-affinity membrane receptors for {mu}, {delta}, and {kappa} opioid agonists and for nicotine and {alpha}-bungarotoxin. These receptors are biologically active because cAMP levels decreased in lung cancer cells after opioid and nicotine application. Nicotine at concentrations found in the blood of smokers had no effect on in vitro lung cancer cell growth, whereas {mu}, {delta}, and {kappa} opioid agonists at low concentrations inhibited lung cancer growth in vitro. They also found that lung cancer cells expressed various combinations of immunoreactive opioid peptides ({beta}-endorphin, enkephalin, or dynorphin), suggesting the participation of opioids in a negative autocrine loop or tumor-suppressing system. Due to the almost universal exposure of patients with lung cancer to nicotine, they tested whether nicotine affected the response of lung cancer cell growth to opioids and found that nicotine at concentrations of 100-200 nM partially or totally reversed opioid-induced growth inhibition in 9/14 lung cancer cell lines. These in vitro results for lung cancer cells suggest that opioids could function as part of a tumor suppressor system and that nicotine can function to circumvent this system in the pathogenesis of lung cancer.

  5. Targeted therapy against cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Rycaj, Kiera

    2015-07-01

    Research into cancer stem cells (CSCs), which have the ability to self-renew and give rise to more mature (differentiated) cancer cells, and which may be the cells responsible for the overall organization of a tumor, has progressed rapidly and concomitantly with recent advances in studies of normal tissue stem cells. CSCs have been reported in a wide spectrum of human tumors. Like normal tissue stem cells, CSCs similarly exhibit significant phenotypic and functional heterogeneity. The ability of CSCs to self-renew results in the immortality of malignant cells at the population level, whereas the ability of CSCs to differentiate, either fully or partially, generates the cellular hierarchy and heterogeneity commonly observed in solid tumors. CSCs also appear to have maximized their pro-survival mechanisms leading to their relative resistance to anti-cancer therapies and subsequent relapse. Studies in animal models of human cancers have also provided insight into the heterogeneity and characteristics of CSCs, helping to establish a platform for the development of novel targeted therapies against specific CSCs. In the present study, we briefly review the most recent progress in dissecting CSC heterogeneity and targeting CSCs in various human tumor systems. We also highlight a few examples of CSC-targeted drug development and clinical trials, with the ultimate aim of developing more effective therapeutic regimens that are capable of preventing tumor recurrence and metastasis.

  6. SASH1 mediates sensitivity of breast cancer cells to chloropyramine and is associated with prognosis in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Joshua T.; Bolderson, Emma; Saunus, Jodi M.; Zhang, Shu-Dong; Reid, Lynne E.; McNicol, Anne Marie; Lakhani, Sunil R.; Cuff, Katharine; Richard, Kerry; Richard, Derek J.; O'Byrne, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Expression of the SASH1 protein is reduced in a range of human cancers and has been implicated in apoptotic cancer cell death. This study investigated whether increasing SASH1 expression could be a useful therapeutic strategy in breast cancer. Ectopic SASH1 expression increased apoptosis in 7/8 breast cancer cell lines. Subsequent in silico connectivity screening demonstrated that the clinically approved antihistamine drug, chloropyramine, increased SASH1 mRNA levels. Chloropyramine has previously been shown to have anti-tumour activity in breast cancer in part through modulation of FAK signalling, a pathway also regulated by SASH1. This study demonstrated that chloropyramine increased SASH1 protein levels in breast cancer cells. Consistent with this the agent reduced cell confluency in 7/8 cell lines treated irrespective of their ER status but not apoptosis incompetent MCF7 cells. In contrast SASH1 siRNA-transfected breast cancer cells exhibited reduced chloropyramine sensitivity. The prognostic significance of SASH1 expression was also investigated in two breast cancer cohorts. Expression was associated with favourable outcome in ER-positive cases, but only those of low histological grade/proliferative status. Conversely, we found a very strong inverse association in HER2+ disease irrespective of ER status, and in triple-negative, basal-like cases. Overall, the data suggest that SASH1 is prognostic in breast cancer and could have subtype-dependent effects on breast cancer progression. Pharmacologic induction of SASH1 by chloropyramine treatment of breast cancer warrants further preclinical and clinical investigation. PMID:27637080

  7. Cancer stem cells and field cancerization of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Simple, M; Suresh, Amritha; Das, Debashish; Kuriakose, Moni A

    2015-07-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has a high propensity for local failure, which is attributed to recurrence at the primary site or the development of second primary tumors (SPT). Field cancerization that refers to the existence of transformed cells in areas adjacent to the primary tumor, has been attributed to be one of the probable reasons underlying disease relapse. The carcinogenic process necessitates multiple molecular events for the transformation of a normal cell into a cancer cell. This implies that only the long-time residents of the epithelium, such as the stem cells, might be the candidates capable of accumulating these genetic hits. These transformed stem cells- the 'Cancer stem cells' (CSCs), are further known to be equipped with the properties of tumor initiation and migration, both of which are essential for orchestrating field cancerization. The concept that the CSCs might be responsible for field cancerization in OSCC has not been explored extensively. If the role of CSCs as the primary units of field cancerization process is established, their presence in the mucosa adjacent to the tumor may be an indicator for local recurrence and/or development of second primary tumors. In this review, we examine the available evidence in literature exploring the possibilities of CSCs driving the process of field cancerization and thereby being the underlying mechanism for disease recurrence and development of SPT.

  8. What Is Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Carcinoma)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment? Kidney Cancer About Kidney Cancer What Is Kidney Cancer? Kidney cancer is a cancer that starts ... and spread, see What Is Cancer? About the kidneys To understand more about kidney cancer, it helps ...

  9. EF5 and Motexafin Lutetium in Detecting Tumor Cells in Patients With Abdominal or Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-15

    Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Carcinoma of the Appendix; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Localized Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Localized Gallbladder Cancer; Localized Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Localized Resectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Stromal Cancer; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Small Intestine Cancer; Recurrent Uterine Sarcoma; Regional Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma; Small Intestine Leiomyosarcoma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Stage 0 Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage I Colon Cancer; Stage I Gastric Cancer; Stage I Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage I Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage I Pancreatic Cancer; Stage I Rectal Cancer; Stage I Uterine Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Colon Cancer; Stage II Gastric Cancer; Stage II Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Pancreatic Cancer; Stage II Rectal Cancer; Stage II Uterine Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Colon Cancer; Stage III Gastric Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Rectal Cancer; Stage III Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage

  10. Simvastatin suppresses breast cancer cell proliferation induced by senescent cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Su; Uppal, Harpreet; Demaria, Marco; Desprez, Pierre-Yves; Campisi, Judith; Kapahi, Pankaj

    2015-01-01

    Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by preventing the proliferation of damaged cells, but senescent cells can also promote cancer though the pro-inflammatory senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Simvastatin, an HMG-coA reductase inhibitor, is known to attenuate inflammation and prevent certain cancers. Here, we show that simvastatin decreases the SASP of senescent human fibroblasts by inhibiting protein prenylation, without affecting the senescent growth arrest. The Rho family GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42 were activated in senescent cells, and simvastatin reduced both activities. Further, geranylgeranyl transferase, Rac1 or Cdc42 depletion reduced IL-6 secretion by senescent cells. We also show that simvastatin mitigates the effects of senescent conditioned media on breast cancer cell proliferation and endocrine resistance. Our findings identify a novel activity of simvastatin and mechanism of SASP regulation. They also suggest that senescent cells, which accumulate after radio/chemo therapy, promote endocrine resistance in breast cancer and that simvastatin might suppress this resistance. PMID:26658759

  11. MicroRNA-21 directly targets MARCKS and promotes apoptosis resistance and invasion in prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tao; Li, Dong; Sha, Jianjun; Sun, Peng; Huang, Yiran

    2009-06-05

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignant cancers in men. Recent studies have shown that microRNA-21 (miR-21) is overexpressed in various types of cancers including prostate cancer. Studies on glioma, colon cancer cells, hepatocellular cancer cells and breast cancer cells have indicated that miR-21 is involved in tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. However, the roles of miR-21 in prostate cancer are poorly understood. In this study, the effects of miR-21 on prostate cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion were examined. In addition, the targets of miR-21 were identified by a reported RISC-coimmunoprecipitation-based biochemical method. Inactivation of miR-21 by antisense oligonucleotides in androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines DU145 and PC-3 resulted in sensitivity to apoptosis and inhibition of cell motility and invasion, whereas cell proliferation were not affected. We identified myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase c substrate (MARCKS), which plays key roles in cell motility, as a new target in prostate cancer cells. Our data suggested that miR-21 could promote apoptosis resistance, motility, and invasion in prostate cancer cells and these effects of miR-21 may be partly due to its regulation of PDCD4, TPM1, and MARCKS. Gene therapy using miR-21 inhibition strategy may therefore be useful as a prostate cancer therapy.

  12. Cancer stem cells: mirage or reality?

    PubMed

    Gupta, Piyush B; Chaffer, Christine L; Weinberg, Robert A

    2009-09-01

    The similarities and differences between normal tissue stem cells and cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been the source of much contention, with some recent studies calling into question the very existence of CSCs. An examination of the literature indicates, however, that the CSC model rests on firm experimental foundations and that differences in the observed frequencies of CSCs within tumors reflect the various cancer types and hosts used to assay these cells. Studies of stem cells and the differentiation program termed the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) point to the possible existence of plasticity between stem cells and their more differentiated derivatives. If present, such plasticity would have major implications for the CSC model and for future therapeutic approaches.

  13. Rho GTPases and cancer cell transendothelial migration.

    PubMed

    Reymond, Nicolas; Riou, Philippe; Ridley, Anne J

    2012-01-01

    Small Rho GTPases are major regulators of actin cytoskeleton dynamics and influence cell shape and migration. The expression of several Rho GTPases is often up-regulated in tumors and this frequently correlates with a poor prognosis for patients. Migration of cancer cells through endothelial cells that line the blood vessels, called transendothelial migration or extravasation, is a critical step during the metastasis process. The use of siRNA technology to target specifically each Rho family member coupled with imaging techniques allows the roles of individual Rho GTPases to be investigated. In this chapter we describe methods to assess how Rho GTPases affect the different steps of cancer cell transendothelial cell migration in vitro.

  14. Phase transitions in unstable cancer cell populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solé, R. V.

    2003-09-01

    The dynamics of cancer evolution is studied by means of a simple quasispecies model involving cells displaying high levels of genetic instability. Both continuous, mean-field and discrete, bit-string models are analysed. The string model is simulated on a single-peak landscape. It is shown that a phase transition exists at high levels of genetic instability, thus separating two phases of slow and rapid growth. The results suggest that, under a conserved level of genetic instability the cancer cell population will be close to the threshold level. Implications for therapy are outlined.

  15. Single Cell Characterization of Prostate Cancer-Circulating Tumor Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Ribonuclease Inhibitor (Life Technolo- gies)/0.2% Triton X-100 (10% solution, Sigma) prepared in nuclease free water . Collected cells were flash frozen on dry...CellSearch analysis. Clin Cancer Res 16: 5233–5243. 39. Weichert W, Schmidt M, Gekeler V, Denkert C, Stephan C, et al. (2004) Polo - like kinase 1 is

  16. Targeting cancer stem cell lines as a new treatment of human cancer.

    PubMed

    Giuffrida, D; Rogers, I M

    2010-11-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that most cancers are clonal and are maintained by a cancer stem cell. Cancer stem cells have been identified in blood, breast, brain, lungs, gastrointestinal, prostate and ovarian cancer. Under normal homeostasis tissue specific stem cell division would be under strict control. When proliferation becomes independent of normal cellular controls, cancer develops. Studies indicate that cancer stem cells maintain their ability to differentiate, which explains the variety of cell types observed in tumors. Most therapies are directed at the fast growing tumor mass but not the slow dividing cancer stem cells and therefore the cancer is not eradicated. Understanding the process of transformation from a highly regulated stem cell to a cancer stem cell requires an understanding of genetic and epigenetic processes as well as having an understanding of the stem cell niche and the interaction of the stem cells with supportive cells in the niche. Current research is helping us to understand stem cells and stem cell regulation and in turn this will help to develop novel therapies to eliminate cancer and the initiating cancer stem cell. The relevant patents on the stem cell regulation and cancer therapy by stem cells are discussed.

  17. Translational potential of cancer stem cells: A review of the detection of cancer stem cells and their roles in cancer recurrence and cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Islam, Farhadul; Gopalan, Vinod; Smith, Robert A; Lam, Alfred K-Y

    2015-07-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of cancer cells with many clinical implications in most cancer types. One important clinical implication of CSCs is their role in cancer metastases, as reflected by their ability to initiate and drive micro and macro-metastases. The other important contributing factor for CSCs in cancer management is their function in causing treatment resistance and recurrence in cancer via their activation of different signalling pathways such as Notch, Wnt/β-catenin, TGF-β, Hedgehog, PI3K/Akt/mTOR and JAK/STAT pathways. Thus, many different therapeutic approaches are being tested for prevention and treatment of cancer recurrence. These may include treatment strategies targeting altered genetic signalling pathways by blocking specific cell surface molecules, altering the cancer microenvironments that nurture cancer stem cells, inducing differentiation of CSCs, immunotherapy based on CSCs associated antigens, exploiting metabolites to kill CSCs, and designing small interfering RNA/DNA molecules that especially target CSCs. Because of the huge potential of these approaches to improve cancer management, it is important to identify and isolate cancer stem cells for precise study and application of prior the research on their role in cancer. Commonly used methodologies for detection and isolation of CSCs include functional, image-based, molecular, cytological sorting and filtration approaches, the use of different surface markers and xenotransplantation. Overall, given their significance in cancer biology, refining the isolation and targeting of CSCs will play an important role in future management of cancer.

  18. Thyroid cancer cell lines: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Saiselet, Manuel; Floor, Sébastien; Tarabichi, Maxime; Dom, Geneviève; Hébrant, Aline; van Staveren, Wilma C. G.; Maenhaut, Carine

    2012-01-01

    Human thyroid cancer cell lines are the most used models for thyroid cancer studies. They must be used with detailed knowledge of their characteristics. These in vitro cell lines originate from differentiated and dedifferentiated in vivo human thyroid tumors. However, it has been shown that mRNA expression profiles of these cell lines were closer to dedifferentiated in vivo thyroid tumors (anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, ATC) than to differentiated ones. Here an overview of the knowledge of these models was made. The mutational status of six human thyroid cancer cell lines (WRO, FTC133, BCPAP, TPC1, K1, and 8505C) was in line with previously reported findings for 10 genes frequently mutated in thyroid cancer. However, the presence of a BRAF mutation (T1799A: V600E) in WRO questions the use of this cell line as a model for follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC). Next, to investigate the biological meaning of the modulated mRNAs in these cells, a pathway analysis on previously obtained mRNA profiles was performed on five cell lines. In five cell lines, the MHC class II pathway was down-regulated and in four of them, ribosome biosynthesis and translation pathways were up-regulated. mRNA expression profiles of the cell lines were also compared to those of the different types of thyroid cancers. Three datasets originating from different microarray platforms and derived from distinct laboratories were used. This meta-analysis showed a significant higher correlation between the profiles of the thyroid cancer cell lines and ATC, than to differentiated thyroid tumors (i.e., PTC or FTC) specifically for DNA replication. This already observed higher correlation was obtained here with an increased number of in vivo tumors and using different platforms. In summary, this would suggest that some papillary thyroid carcinoma or follicular thyroid carcinoma (PTC or FTC) cell lines (i.e., TPC-1) might have partially lost their original DNA synthesis/replication regulation mechanisms during

  19. Extragonadal Germ Cell Cancer (EGC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... germ cells are first seen outside of the embryo in the yolk sac. At about 4 to ... weeks of development, these cells migrate into the embryo where they populate the developing testes or ovaries. ...

  20. Cancer Cell Colonisation in the Bone Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Casina; Vargas, Geoffrey; Le Pape, François; Clézardin, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Bone metastases are a common complication of epithelial cancers, of which breast, prostate and lung carcinomas are the most common. The establishment of cancer cells to distant sites such as the bone microenvironment requires multiple steps. Tumour cells can acquire properties to allow epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, extravasation and migration. Within the bone metastatic niche, disseminated tumour cells may enter a dormancy stage or proliferate to adapt and survive, interacting with bone cells such as hematopoietic stem cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Cross-talk with the bone may alter tumour cell properties and, conversely, tumour cells may also acquire characteristics of the surrounding microenvironment, in a process known as osteomimicry. Alternatively, these cells may also express osteomimetic genes that allow cell survival or favour seeding to the bone marrow. The seeding of tumour cells in the bone disrupts bone-forming and bone-resorbing activities, which can lead to macrometastasis in bone. At present, bone macrometastases are incurable with only palliative treatment available. A better understanding of how these processes influence the early onset of bone metastasis may give insight into potential therapies. This review will focus on the early steps of bone colonisation, once disseminated tumour cells enter the bone marrow. PMID:27782035

  1. Treatment options for small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Todd; Gillenwater, Heidi H

    2004-07-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) comprises 15% to 25% of all lung cancers. The leading cause of lung cancer remains smoking, and rates of smoking continue to rise in women, whereas rates in other subgroups have slowed. In this article we review recent advances in the treatment of limited-stage as well as extensive-stage small cell lung cancer. In limited-stage disease, the best survival results are observed when patients are treated with twice-daily thoracic radiotherapy given concurrently with chemotherapy. Patients who have been successful in smoking cessation during therapy for limited-stage disease may have a survival benefit over those who are unable to quit smoking during treatment. In extensive-stage disease, the most significant trial is one comparing irinotecan plus cisplatin and etoposide plus cisplatin, showing a survival advantage for the irinotecan arm. This trial may change the standard of care for patients with extensive-stage disease. A similar ongoing trial in the United States is attempting to confirm these results.

  2. Antitumor Immunity and Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schatton, Tobias; Frank, Markus H.

    2010-01-01

    Self-renewing cancer stem cells (CSC) capable of spawning more differentiated tumor cell progeny are required for tumorigenesis and neoplastic progression of leukemias and several solid cancers. The mechanisms by which CSC cause tumor initiation and growth are currently unknown. Recent findings that suggest a negative correlation between degrees of host immunocompetence and rates of cancer development raise the possibility that only a restricted minority of malignant cells, namely CSC, may possess the phenotypic and functional characteristics to evade host antitumor immunity. In human malignant melanoma, a highly immunogenic cancer, we recently identified malignant melanoma initiating cells (MMIC), a novel type of CSC, based on selective expression of the chemoresistance mediator ABCB5. Here we present evidence of a relative immune privilege of ABCB5+ MMIC, suggesting refractoriness to current immunotherapeutic treatment strategies. We discuss our findings in the context of established immunomodulatory functions of physiologic stem cells and in relation to mechanisms responsible for the downregulation of immune responses against tumors. We propose that the MMIC subset might be responsible for melanoma immune evasion and that immunomodulation might represent one mechanism by which CSC advance tumorigenic growth and resistance to immunotherapy. Accordingly, the possibility of an MMIC-driven tumor escape from immune-mediated rejection has important implications for current melanoma immunotherapy. PMID:19796244

  3. Proteomic analysis of cancer stem cells in human prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eun-Kyung; Cho, Hyungdon; Kim, Chan-Wha

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} DU145 prostate cancer cell line was isolated into CD44+ or CD44- cells. {yields} We confirmed CD44+ DU145 cells are more proliferative and tumorigenic than CD44- DU145 cells. {yields} We analyzed and identified proteins that were differentially expressed between CD44+ and CD44- DU145 cells. {yields} Cofilin and Annexin A5 associated with cancer were found to be positively correlated with CD44 expression. -- Abstract: Results from recent studies support the hypothesis that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumor initiation and formation. Here, we applied a proteome profiling approach to investigate the mechanisms of CSCs and to identify potential biomarkers in the prostate cancer cell line DU145. Using MACS, the DU145 prostate cancer cell line was isolated into CD44+ or CD44- cells. In sphere culture, CD44+ cells possessed stem cell characteristics and highly expressed genes known to be important in stem cell maintenance. In addition, they showed strong tumorigenic potential in the clonogenic assay and soft agar colony formation assay. We then analyzed and identified proteins that were differentially expressed between CD44+ and CD44- using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS. Cofilin and Annexin A5, which are associated with proliferation or metastasis in cancer, were found to be positively correlated with CD44 expression. These results provide information that will be important to the development of new cancer diagnostic tools and understanding the mechanisms of CSCs although a more detailed study is necessary to investigate the roles of Cofilin and Annexin A5 in CSCs.

  4. Cell membrane softening in human breast and cervical cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Händel, Chris; Schmidt, B. U. Sebastian; Schiller, Jürgen; Dietrich, Undine; Möhn, Till; Kießling, Tobias R.; Pawlizak, Steve; Fritsch, Anatol W.; Horn, Lars-Christian; Briest, Susanne; Höckel, Michael; Zink, Mareike; Käs, Josef A.

    2015-08-01

    Biomechanical properties are key to many cellular functions such as cell division and cell motility and thus are crucial in the development and understanding of several diseases, for instance cancer. The mechanics of the cellular cytoskeleton have been extensively characterized in cells and artificial systems. The rigidity of the plasma membrane, with the exception of red blood cells, is unknown and membrane rigidity measurements only exist for vesicles composed of a few synthetic lipids. In this study, thermal fluctuations of giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs) directly derived from the plasma membranes of primary breast and cervical cells, as well as breast cell lines, are analyzed. Cell blebs or GPMVs were studied via thermal membrane fluctuations and mass spectrometry. It will be shown that cancer cell membranes are significantly softer than their non-malignant counterparts. This can be attributed to a loss of fluid raft forming lipids in malignant cells. These results indicate that the reduction of membrane rigidity promotes aggressive blebbing motion in invasive cancer cells.

  5. Lung cancer stem cells: An epigenetic perspective.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Samriddhi; Khan, Sajid; Sinha, Sonam; Meeran, Syed Musthapa

    2017-02-05

    Lung cancer remains the major cause of human mortality among all the cancer types despite the colossal amount of efforts to prevent the cancer onset and to provide the appropriate cure. Recent reports have identified that important contributors of lung cancer-related mortality are the drug resistance and aggressive tumor relapse, the characteristics contributed by the presence of lung cancer stem cells (CSCs). The identification of lung CSCs is inherently complex due to the quiescent nature of lung epithelium, which makes the distinction between the normal lung epithelium and lung CSCs difficult. Recently, multiple researches have helped in the identification of lung CSCs based on the presence or absence of certain specific types of stem cell markers. Maintenance of lung CSCs is chiefly mediated through the epigenetic modifications of their genome. In this review, we will discuss about the origin of lung CSCs and the role of epigenetic modifications in their maintenance. We will also discuss in brief the major lung CSC markers and the therapeutic approaches to selectively target this population of cells.

  6. Drug treatment of cancer cell lines: a way to select for cancer stem cells?

    PubMed

    Chiodi, Ilaria; Belgiovine, Cristina; Donà, Francesca; Scovassi, A Ivana; Mondello, Chiara

    2011-03-04

    Tumors are generally composed of different cell types. In recent years, it has been shown that in many types of cancers a subset of cells show peculiar characteristics, such as the ability to induce tumors when engrafted into host animals, self-renew and being immortal, and give rise to a differentiated progeny. These cells have been defined as cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor initiating cells. CSCs can be isolated both from tumor specimens and established cancer cell lines on the basis of their ability to exclude fluorescent dyes, express specific cell surface markers or grow in particular culture conditions. A key feature of CSCs is their resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, which could contribute to the remaining of residual cancer cells after therapeutic treatments. It has been shown that CSC-like cells can be isolated after drug treatment of cancer cell lines; in this review, we will describe the strategies so far applied to identify and isolate CSCs. Furthermore, we will discuss the possible use of these selected populations to investigate CSC biology and develop new anticancer drugs.

  7. Drug Treatment of Cancer Cell Lines: A Way to Select for Cancer Stem Cells?

    PubMed Central

    Chiodi, Ilaria; Belgiovine, Cristina; Donà, Francesca; Scovassi, A. Ivana; Mondello, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    Tumors are generally composed of different cell types. In recent years, it has been shown that in many types of cancers a subset of cells show peculiar characteristics, such as the ability to induce tumors when engrafted into host animals, self-renew and being immortal, and give rise to a differentiated progeny. These cells have been defined as cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor initiating cells. CSCs can be isolated both from tumor specimens and established cancer cell lines on the basis of their ability to exclude fluorescent dyes, express specific cell surface markers or grow in particular culture conditions. A key feature of CSCs is their resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, which could contribute to the remaining of residual cancer cells after therapeutic treatments. It has been shown that CSC-like cells can be isolated after drug treatment of cancer cell lines; in this review, we will describe the strategies so far applied to identify and isolate CSCs. Furthermore, we will discuss the possible use of these selected populations to investigate CSC biology and develop new anticancer drugs. PMID:24212655

  8. Differential spheroid formation by oral cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Carlin; Lee, Casey; Atakilit, Amha; Siu, Amanda; Ramos, Daniel M

    2014-12-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) make up 96% of all oral cancers. Most laboratory SCC studies grow cells as a monolayer, which does not accurately represent the disease in vivo. We used a more relevant multicellular spheroid (MCS) model to study this disease. The SCC9β6KDFyn cell line, which expresses full-length β6 and a kinase dead Fyn formed the largest MCS. Cell adhesive properties are dynamic and N-cadherin was increased in the largest MCS. c-Raf mediates the survival of tumor cells and was consistently expressed both in monolayers and in the MCS by SCC9β6D1 cells which lack the β6 cytoplasmic tail and, do not activate Fyn. SCC9β6KDFyn cells also express high levels of c-Raf when grown as spheroids in which Fyn suppression stimulates MCS formation. Tumor microenvironment and growth patterns modulate cell behavior and suppression of Fyn kinase may promote MCS growth.

  9. Stromal influences on breast cancer cell growth.

    PubMed Central

    van Roozendaal, C. E.; van Ooijen, B.; Klijn, J. G.; Claassen, C.; Eggermont, A. M.; Henzen-Logmans, S. C.; Foekens, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    Paracrine influences from fibroblasts derived from different sources of breast tissue on epithelial breast cancer cell growth in vitro were investigated. Medium conditioned (CM) by fibroblasts derived from tumours, adjacent normal breast tissue, and normal breast tissue obtained from reduction mammoplasty or from skin tissue significantly stimulated the growth of the steroid-receptor positive cell lines MCF-7 and ZR 75.1. The proliferation index (PI) on MCF-7 cells with CM from fibroblasts derived from breast tumour tissue was significantly higher than that obtained with fibroblasts derived from adjacent normal breast tissue (2p less than 0.05, n = 8). The PI obtained with CM from normal fibroblast cultures from reduction mammoplasty tissue, like normal tissue adjacent to the tumour, fell in the lower range of values. Skin fibroblast, like tumour tissue derived fibroblast, CM caused a high range PI. MDA-MB-231 and Evsa-T, two steroid-receptor negative cell lines, showed only a minor growth stimulatory responses with some of the fibroblast CM's. Evsa-T was occasionally inhibited by CM's. In conclusion, stromal factors play a role in the growth regulation of human breast cancer cells. The effects on cancer cell growth are, however, varying depending on the source of the stroma and the characteristics of the epithelial tumour cells. PMID:1733444

  10. Genetic and Epigenetic Determinants of Lung Cancer Subtype: Adenocarcinoma to Small Cell Conversion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0223 TITLE: Genetic and Epigenetic Determinants of Lung Cancer Subtype: Adenocarcinoma to Small Cell Conversion...COVERED 1Aug2014 - 31Jul2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Genetic and Epigenetic Determinants of Lung Cancer Subtype: 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0223...histologies of lung cancer is made difficult in part because of the extensive genetic and epigenetic changes that occur in lung carcinogenesis, the

  11. Modeling selective elimination of quiescent cancer cells from bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Cavnar, Stephen P; Rickelmann, Andrew D; Meguiar, Kaille F; Xiao, Annie; Dosch, Joseph; Leung, Brendan M; Cai Lesher-Perez, Sasha; Chitta, Shashank; Luker, Kathryn E; Takayama, Shuichi; Luker, Gary D

    2015-08-01

    Patients with many types of malignancy commonly harbor quiescent disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow. These cells frequently resist chemotherapy and may persist for years before proliferating as recurrent metastases. To test for compounds that eliminate quiescent cancer cells, we established a new 384-well 3D spheroid model in which small numbers of cancer cells reversibly arrest in G1/G0 phase of the cell cycle when cultured with bone marrow stromal cells. Using dual-color bioluminescence imaging to selectively quantify viability of cancer and stromal cells in the same spheroid, we identified single compounds and combination treatments that preferentially eliminated quiescent breast cancer cells but not stromal cells. A treatment combination effective against malignant cells in spheroids also eliminated breast cancer cells from bone marrow in a mouse xenograft model. This research establishes a novel screening platform for therapies that selectively target quiescent tumor cells, facilitating identification of new drugs to prevent recurrent cancer.

  12. Targeting epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells for chemoresistant ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Junli; Wang, Li; Chen, Hongmin; Hao, Jingli; Ni, Jie; Chang, Lei; Duan, Wei; Graham, Peter; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Chemoresistance is the main challenge for the recurrent ovarian cancer therapy and responsible for treatment failure and unfavorable clinical outcome. Understanding mechanisms of chemoresistance in ovarian cancer would help to predict disease progression, develop new therapies and personalize systemic therapy. In the last decade, accumulating evidence demonstrates that epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells play important roles in ovarian cancer chemoresistance and metastasis. Treatment of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells holds promise for improving current ovarian cancer therapies and prolonging the survival of recurrent ovarian cancer patients in the future. In this review, we focus on the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells in ovarian cancer chemoresistance and explore the therapeutic implications for developing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells associated therapies for future ovarian cancer treatment. PMID:27304054

  13. EXAFS studies of prostate cancer cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla, J.; Kwiatek, W. M.; Lekki, J.; Kisiel, A.; Steininger, R.; Goettlicher, J.

    2013-04-01

    Sulphur plays a vital role in every human organism. It is known, that sulphur-bearing compounds, such as for example cysteine and glutathione, play critical roles in development and progression of many diseases. Any alteration in sulphur's biochemistry could become a precursor of serious pathological conditions. One of such condition is prostate cancer, the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in the western world and the second leading cause of cancer related death in men. The purpose of presented studies was to examine what changes occur in the nearest chemical environment of sulphur in prostate cancer cell lines in comparison to healthy cells. The Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy was used, followed by theoretical calculations. The results of preliminary analysis is presented.

  14. Cell Cycle Dependence of TRAIL Sensitivity in Prostate Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    or presence of proteasome inhibitors and measured HIF-1α levels by immunoblotting. We also incubated cells in cobalt chloride (to mimic hypoxia) in...Indistinguishable results were obtained in cells exposed to cobalt chloride . Figure 5: Effects of proteasome inhibitors on HIF- 1α promoter activity (LNCaP...havegenerated luciferase-transduced variants of our human prostate cancer cell lines in order touse them to generate orthotopic tumors in nude mice that can

  15. Mouth Cancer for Clinicians Part 5: Risk Factors (Other).

    PubMed

    Kalavrezos, Nicholas; Scully, Crispian

    2015-10-01

    A MEDLINE search early in 2015 revealed more than 250,000 papers on head and neck cancer; over 100,000 on oral cancer; and over 60,000 on mouth cancer. Not all publications contain robust evidence. We endeavour to encapsulate the most important of the latest information and advances now employed in practice, in a form comprehensible to healthcare workers, patients and their carers. This series offers the primary care dental team, in particular, an overview of the aetiopathogenesis, prevention, diagnosis and multidisciplinary care of mouth cancer, the functional and psychosocial implications, and minimization of the impact on the quality of life of patient and family. Clinical Relevance: This article offers the dental team an overview of other cancer risk factors agents, such as human papilloma viruses (HPV) and irradiation.

  16. Breast cancer. Part 1: Awareness and common benign diseases.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Victoria

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer for women in the United Kingdom and topic on which there is much information. This article discusses the principles behind breast awareness and breast health, detailing common benign breast diseases that cause disproportionate anxiety. The NHS Breast Screening Programme is celebrating 20 years of screening this year, and in all randomized controlled trials of women aged 50 and over, mortality from breast cancer is reduced in those offered screening compared with unscreened controls (although the reduction is not statistically significant in all trials). Once a breast cancer is diagnosed, the different characteristics and stage of the disease can be identified through histopathology and scans. These factors will be discussed later in this article, including illustrating if a cancer is hormone sensitive or HER-2 positive, for example. These factors enable clinicians to recommend a treatment pathway suitable for each individual.

  17. Tumor-initiating label-retaining cancer cells in human gastrointestinal cancers undergo asymmetric cell division.

    PubMed

    Xin, Hong-Wu; Hari, Danielle M; Mullinax, John E; Ambe, Chenwi M; Koizumi, Tomotake; Ray, Satyajit; Anderson, Andrew J; Wiegand, Gordon W; Garfield, Susan H; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S; Avital, Itzhak

    2012-04-01

    Label-retaining cells (LRCs) have been proposed to represent adult tissue stem cells. LRCs are hypothesized to result from either slow cycling or asymmetric cell division (ACD). However, the stem cell nature and whether LRC undergo ACD remain controversial. Here, we demonstrate label-retaining cancer cells (LRCCs) in several gastrointestinal (GI) cancers including fresh surgical specimens. Using a novel method for isolation of live LRCC, we demonstrate that a subpopulation of LRCC is actively dividing and exhibits stem cells and pluripotency gene expression profiles. Using real-time confocal microscopic cinematography, we show live LRCC undergoing asymmetric nonrandom chromosomal cosegregation LRC division. Importantly, LRCCs have greater tumor-initiating capacity than non-LRCCs. Based on our data and that cancers develop in tissues that harbor normal-LRC, we propose that LRCC might represent a novel population of GI stem-like cancer cells. LRCC may provide novel mechanistic insights into the biology of cancer and regenerative medicine and present novel targets for cancer treatment.

  18. Radiation Therapy and MK-3475 for Patients With Recurrent/Metastatic Head and Neck Cancer, Renal Cell Cancer, Melanoma, and Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-18

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer; Recurrent Head and Neck Carcinoma; Recurrent Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Skin Carcinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Lung Cancer; Stage IV Skin Melanoma

  19. Targeting cancer stem cells with p53 modulators

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Ryo; Appella, Ettore; Kopelovich, Levy; DeLeo, Albert B.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSC) typically over-express aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Thus, ALDHbright tumor cells represent targets for developing novel cancer prevention/treatment interventions. Loss of p53 function is a common genetic event during cancer development wherein small molecular weight compounds (SMWC) that restore p53 function and reverse tumor growth have been identified. Here, we focused on two widely studied p53 SMWC, CP-31398 and PRIMA-1, to target ALDHbright CSC in human breast, endometrial and pancreas carcinoma cell lines expressing mutant or wild type (WT) p53. CP-31398 and PRIMA-1 significantly reduced CSC content and sphere formation by these cell lines in vitro. In addition, these agents were more effective in vitro against CSC compared to cisplatin and gemcitabine, two often-used chemotherapeutic agents. We also tested a combinatorial treatment in methylcholantrene (MCA)-treated mice consisting of p53 SMWC and p53-based vaccines. Yet using survival end-point analysis, no increased efficacy in the presence of either p53 SMWC alone or with vaccine compared to vaccine alone was observed. These results may be due, in part, to the presence of immune cells, such as activated lymphocytes expressing WT p53 at levels comparable to some tumor cells, wherein further increase of p53 expression by p53 SMWC may alter survival of these immune cells and negatively impact an effective immune response. Continuous exposure of mice to MCA may have also interfered with the action of these p53 SMWC, including potential direct interaction with MCA. Nonetheless, the effect of p53 SMWC on CSC and cancer treatment remains of great interest. PMID:27074569

  20. Ciprofloxacin mediates cancer stem cell phenotypes in lung cancer cells through caveolin-1-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Phiboonchaiyanan, Preeyaporn Plaimee; Kiratipaiboon, Chayanin; Chanvorachote, Pithi

    2016-04-25

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a subpopulation of cancer cells with high aggressive behaviors, have been identified in many types of cancer including lung cancer as one of the key mediators driving cancer progression and metastasis. Here, we have reported for the first time that ciprofloxacin (CIP), a widely used anti-microbial drug, has a potentiating effect on CSC-like features in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. CIP treatment promoted CSC-like phenotypes, including enhanced anchorage-independent growth and spheroid formation. The known lung CSC markers: CD133, CD44, ABCG2 and ALDH1A1 were found to be significantly increased, while the factors involving in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT): Slug and Snail, were depleted. Also, self-renewal transcription factors Oct-4 and Nanog were found to be up-regulated in CIP-treated cells. The treatment of CIP on CSC-rich populations obtained from secondary spheroids resulted in the further increase of CSC markers. In addition, we have proven that the mechanistic insight of the CIP induced stemness is through Caveolin-1 (Cav-1)-dependent mechanism. The specific suppression of Cav-1 by stably transfected Cav-1 shRNA plasmid dramatically reduced the effect of CIP on CSC markers as well as the CIP-induced spheroid formation ability. Cav-1 was shown to activate protein kinase B (Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways in CSC-rich population; however, such an effect was rarely found in the main lung cancer cells population. These findings reveal a novel effect of CIP in positively regulating CSCs in lung cancer cells via the activation of Cav-1, Akt and ERK, and may provoke the awareness of appropriate therapeutic strategy in cancer patients.

  1. Decreased Sp1 Expression Mediates Downregulation of SHIP2 in Gastric Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yan; Qian, Xue Yi; Xiao, Miao Miao; Shao, Yu Ling; Guo, Li Mei; Liao, Dong Ping; Da, Jie; Zhang, Lin Jie; Xu, Jiegou

    2017-01-01

    Past studies have shown that the Src homology 2-containing inositol 5-phosphatase 2 (SHIP2) is commonly downregulated in gastric cancer, which contributes to elevated activation of PI3K/Akt signaling, proliferation and tumorigenesis of gastric cancer cells. However, the mechanisms underlying the reduced expression of SHIP2 in gastric cancer remain unclear. While gene copy number variation analysis and exon sequencing indicated the absence of genomic alterations of SHIP2, bisulfite genomic sequencing (BGS) showed promoter hypomethylation of SHIP2 in gastric cancer cells. Analysis of transcriptional activity of SHIP2 promoter revealed Specificity protein 1 (Sp1) was responsible for the regulation of SHIP2 expression in gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, Sp1 expression, but not Sp3, was frequently downregulated in gastric cancer compared with normal gastric mucosa, which was associated with a paralleled reduction in SHIP2 levels in gastric cancer. Moreover, overexpression of Sp1 inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, suppressed cell motility and invasion in gastric cancer cells in vitro, which was, at least in part, due to transcriptional activation of SHIP2 mediated by Sp1, thereby inactivating Akt. Collectively, these results indicate that decreased expression of transcription factor Sp1 contributes to suppression of SHIP2 in gastric cancer cells. PMID:28117748

  2. Human Colon Cancer Cells Cultivated in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Within five days, bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells (shown) grown in Microgravity on the STS-70 mission in 1995, had grown 30 times the volume of the control specimens on Earth. The samples grown in space had a higher level of cellular organization and specialization. Because they more closely resemble tumors found in the body, microgravity grown cell cultures are ideal for research purposes.

  3. iPSCs from cancer cells: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Mejia, Verónica; Fraga, Mario F; Menendez, Pablo

    2012-05-01

    Reprogramming and oncogenic transformation are stepwise processes that share many similarities, and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generated from cancer cells could illuminate molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of human cancer. Deciphering the barriers underlying the reprogramming process of primary cancer cells could reveal information on the links between pluripotency and oncogenic transformation that would be instrumental for therapy development.

  4. Cancer stem cells in lung cancer: Evidence and controversies.

    PubMed

    Alamgeer, Muhammad; Peacock, Craig D; Matsui, William; Ganju, Vinod; Watkins, D Neil

    2013-07-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) model is based on a myriad of experimental and clinical observations suggesting that the malignant phenotype is sustained by a subset of cells characterized by the capacity for self-renewal, differentiation and innate resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. CSC may be responsible for disease recurrence after definitive therapy and may therefore be functionally synonymous with minimal residual disease. Similar to other solid tumours, several putative surface markers for lung CSC have been identified, including CD133 and CD44. In addition, expression and/or activity of the cytoplasmic enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH and capacity of cells to exclude membrane permeable dyes (known as the 'side population') correlate with stem-like function in vitro and in vivo. Embryonic stem cell pathways such as Hedgehog, Notch and WNT may also be active in lung cancers stem cells and therefore may be therapeutically targetable for maintenance therapy in patients achieving a complete response to surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy. This paper will review the evidence regarding the existence and function of lung CSC in the context of the experimental and clinical evidence and discuss some ongoing controversies regarding this model.

  5. Cancer stem cell-like cells from a single cell of oral squamous carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Felthaus, O.; Ettl, T.; Gosau, M.; Driemel, O.; Brockhoff, G.; Reck, A.; Zeitler, K.; Hautmann, M.; Reichert, T.E.; Schmalz, G.; Morsczeck, C.

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Four oral squamous cancer cell lines (OSCCL) were analyzed for cancer stem cells (CSCs). {yields} Single cell derived colonies of OSCCL express CSC-marker CD133 differentially. {yields} Monoclonal cell lines showed reduced sensitivity for Paclitaxel. {yields} In situ CD133{sup +} cells are slow cycling (Ki67-) indicating a reduced drug sensitivity. {yields} CD133{sup +} and CSC-like cells can be obtained from single colony forming cells of OSCCL. -- Abstract: Resistance of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) to conventional chemotherapy or radiation therapy might be due to cancer stem cells (CSCs). The development of novel anticancer drugs requires a simple method for the enrichment of CSCs. CSCs can be enriched from OSCC cell lines, for example, after cultivation in serum-free cell culture medium (SFM). In our study, we analyzed four OSCC cell lines for the presence of CSCs. CSC-like cells could not be enriched with SFM. However, cell lines obtained from holoclone colonies showed CSC-like properties such as a reduced rate of cell proliferation and a reduced sensitivity to Paclitaxel in comparison to cells from the parental lineage. Moreover, these cell lines differentially expressed the CSC-marker CD133, which is also upregulated in OSCC tissues. Interestingly, CD133{sup +} cells in OSCC tissues expressed little to no Ki67, the cell proliferation marker that also indicates reduced drug sensitivity. Our study shows a method for the isolation of CSC-like cell lines from OSCC cell lines. These CSC-like cell lines could be new targets for the development of anticancer drugs under in vitro conditions.

  6. The Anti-Cancer Effect of Polyphenols against Breast Cancer and Cancer Stem Cells: Molecular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Abdal Dayem, Ahmed; Choi, Hye Yeon; Yang, Gwang-Mo; Kim, Kyeongseok; Saha, Subbroto Kumar; Cho, Ssang-Goo

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of breast cancer in developed and developing countries, and its correlation to cancer-related deaths, has prompted concerned scientists to discover novel alternatives to deal with this challenge. In this review, we will provide a brief overview of polyphenol structures and classifications, as well as on the carcinogenic process. The biology of breast cancer cells will also be discussed. The molecular mechanisms involved in the anti-cancer activities of numerous polyphenols, against a wide range of breast cancer cells, in vitro and in vivo, will be explained in detail. The interplay between autophagy and apoptosis in the anti-cancer activity of polyphenols will also be highlighted. In addition, the potential of polyphenols to target cancer stem cells (CSCs) via various mechanisms will be explained. Recently, the use of natural products as chemotherapeutics and chemopreventive drugs to overcome the side effects and resistance that arise from using chemical-based agents has garnered the attention of the scientific community. Polyphenol research is considered a promising field in the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. PMID:27657126

  7. Dendritic cells and immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Chang, David H; Dhodapkar, Madhav V

    2003-06-01

    Dendritic cells, nature's adjuvant, are antigen-presenting cells specialized to initiate and regulate immunity. Their potent antigen-presenting function has encouraged targeting of dendritic cells (DCs) for harnessing the immune system against cancer. DCs are efficient at activating not only CD4+ helper T-cells and CD8+ killer T-cells but also B-cells and innate effectors such as natural killer and natural killer T-cells. Early studies of adoptive transfer of tumor antigen-loaded DCs have shown promise. However, DC vaccination is at an early stage, and several parameters still need to be established. The complexity of the DC system brings about the necessity for its rational manipulation for achieving protective and therapeutic immunity in patients.

  8. Hematopoietic stem cells for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gschweng, Eric; De Oliveira, Satiro; Kohn, Donald B

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) provide an attractive target for immunotherapy of cancer and leukemia by the introduction of genes encoding T-cell receptors (TCRs) or chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) directed against tumor-associated antigens. HSCs engraft for long-term blood cell production and could provide a continuous source of targeted anti-cancer effector cells to sustain remissions. T cells produced de novo from HSCs may continuously replenish anti-tumor T cells that have become anergic or exhausted from ex vivo expansion or exposure to the intratumoral microenvironment. In addition, transgenic T cells produced in vivo undergo allelic exclusion, preventing co-expression of an endogenous TCR that could mis-pair with the introduced TCR chains and blunt activity or even cause off-target reactivity. CAR-engineered HSCs may produce myeloid and natural killer cells in addition to T cells expressing the CAR, providing broader anti-tumor activity that arises quickly after transplant and does not solely require de novo thymopoiesis. Use of TCR- or CAR-engineered HSCs would likely require cytoreductive conditioning to achieve long-term engraftment, and this approach may be used in clinical settings where autologous HSC transplant is being performed to add a graft-versus-tumor effect. Results of experimental and preclinical studies performed to date are reviewed.

  9. Cellular Adhesion Promotes Prostate Cancer Cells Escape from Dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Ruppender, Nazanin; Larson, Sandy; Lakely, Bryce; Kollath, Lori; Brown, Lisha; Coleman, Ilsa; Coleman, Roger; Nguyen, Holly; Nelson, Peter S.; Corey, Eva; Snyder, Linda A.; Vessella, Robert L.; Morrissey, Colm; Lam, Hung-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Dissemination of prostate cancer (PCa) cells to the bone marrow is an early event in the disease process. In some patients, disseminated tumor cells (DTC) proliferate to form active metastases after a prolonged period of undetectable disease known as tumor dormancy. Identifying mechanisms of PCa dormancy and reactivation remain a challenge partly due to the lack of in vitro models. Here, we characterized in vitro PCa dormancy-reactivation by inducing cells from three patient-derived xenograft (PDX) lines to proliferate through tumor cell contact with each other and with bone marrow stroma. Proliferating PCa cells demonstrated tumor cell-cell contact and integrin clustering by immunofluorescence. Global gene expression analyses on proliferating cells cultured on bone marrow stroma revealed a downregulation of TGFB2 in all of the three proliferating PCa PDX lines when compared to their non-proliferating counterparts. Furthermore, constitutive activation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), a downstream effector of integrin-beta1 and TGF-beta2, in non-proliferating cells promoted cell proliferation. This cell proliferation was associated with an upregulation of CDK6 and a downregulation of E2F4. Taken together, our data provide the first clinically relevant in vitro model to support cellular adhesion and downregulation of TGFB2 as a potential mechanism by which PCa cells may escape from dormancy. Targeting the TGF-beta2-associated mechanism could provide novel opportunities to prevent lethal PCa metastasis. PMID:26090669

  10. Rikkunshito Ameliorates Cancer Cachexia Partly through Elevation of Glucarate in Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Ohbuchi, Katsuya; Nishiumi, Shin; Fujitsuka, Naoki; Hattori, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Inui, Akio; Azuma, Takeshi; Yoshida, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cachexia, which is characterized by decreased food intake, weight loss and systemic inflammation, increases patient's morbidity and mortality. We previously showed that rikkunshito (RKT), a Japanese traditional herbal medicine (Kampo), ameliorated the symptoms of cancer cachexia through ghrelin signaling-dependent and independent pathways. To investigate other mechanisms of RKT action in cancer cachexia, we performed metabolome analysis of plasma in a rat model bearing the Yoshida AH-130 hepatoma. A total of 110 metabolites were detected in plasma and RKT treatment significantly altered levels of 23 of those metabolites in cachexia model rats. Among them, glucarate, which is known to have anticarcinogenic activity through detoxification of carcinogens via inhibition of β-glucuronidase, was increased in plasma following administration of RKT. In our AH-130 ascites-induced cachexia rat model, administration of glucarate delayed onset of weight loss, improved muscle atrophy, and reduced ascites content. Additionally, glucarate reduced levels of plasma interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in tumor-bearing rats and was also found to suppress LPS-induced IFN-γ expression in splenocytes in vitro. These results suggest that glucarate has anti-inflammatory activity via a direct effect on immune host cells and suggest that RKT may also ameliorate inflammation partly through the elevation of glucarate in plasma. PMID:26451159

  11. Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 (FGFR1), Partly Related to Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and Microvessel Density, is an Independent Prognostic Factor for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Dan; Liu, Jiewei; Li, Zhixi; Zhu, Jiang; Hou, Mei

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to explore the correlation between FGFR1 and clinical features, including survival analysis and the promotion of angiogenesis by fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2). FGFR1 gene amplification has been found in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the prognostic value of FGFR1 and the correlation between FGFR1 and clinical features are still controversial. Material/Methods A total of 92 patients with NSCLC who underwent R0 resection between July 2006 and July 2008 were enrolled in the study. The expression of FGFR1, VEGFR2, and CD34 was detected by immunohistochemistry. The correlations between the aforementioned markers and the patients’ clinical features were analyzed by the chi-square test. The impact factors of prognosis were evaluated by Cox regression analyses. Results The expression ratios of FGFR1 and VEGFR2 were 26.1% and 43.4%, respectively. The intensity of FGFR1 expression was related to VEGFR2 and histopathology. To some extent, the average microvessel density (MVD) had correlation to the expression of FGFR1 and VGEFR2. The pathological stages III–IV and high expression of FGFR1 were found to be independent prognostic factors. Conclusions The expression intensity of FGFR1 and VEGFR2 was associated with MVD, and the expression of FGFR1 is one of the independent prognostic indicators for NSCLC. PMID:28088809

  12. Principles of cancer cell culture.

    PubMed

    Cree, Ian A

    2011-01-01

    The basics of cell culture are now relatively common, though it was not always so. The pioneers of cell culture would envy our simple access to manufactured plastics, media and equipment for such studies. The prerequisites for cell culture are a well lit and suitably ventilated laboratory with a laminar flow hood (Class II), CO(2) incubator, benchtop centrifuge, microscope, plasticware (flasks and plates) and a supply of media with or without serum supplements. Not only can all of this be ordered easily over the internet, but large numbers of well-characterised cell lines are available from libraries maintained to a very high standard allowing the researcher to commence experiments rapidly and economically. Attention to safety and disposal is important, and maintenance of equipment remains essential. This chapter should enable researchers with little prior knowledge to set up a suitable laboratory to do basic cell culture, but there is still no substitute for experience within an existing well-run laboratory.

  13. Intrinsic cellular signaling mechanisms determine the sensitivity of cancer cells to virus-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunfei; Li, Dawei; Luo, Jian; Tian, Guimei; Zhao, Lisa Y.; Liao, Daiqing

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells of epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes exhibit different sensitivities to apoptosis stimuli, but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain partly understood. We constructed a novel recombinant adenovirus expressing Ad12 E1A (Ad-E1A12) that can strongly induce apoptosis. Ad-E1A12 infection of epithelial cancer cells displayed dramatic detachment and apoptosis, whereas cancer cells of mesenchymal phenotypes with metastatic propensity were markedly more resistant to this virus. Notably, forced detachment of epithelial cells did not further sensitize them to Ad-E1A12-induced apoptosis, suggesting that cell detachment is a consequence rather than the cause of Ad-E1A12-induced apoptosis. Ad-E1A12 increased phosphorylation of AKT1 and ribosomal protein S6 through independent mechanisms in different cell types. Ad-E1A12–induced AKT1 phosphorylation was PI3K-dependent in epithelial cancer cells, and mTOR-dependent in mesenchymal cancer cells. Epithelial cancer cells upon Ad-E1A12-induced detachment could not sustain AKT activation due to AKT1 degradation, but AKT1 activation was maintained in mesenchymal cancer cells. Expression of epithelial cell-restricted miR-200 family in mesenchymal cells limited mTOR signaling and sensitized them to Ad-E1A12-induced cell killing. Thus, epithelial cancer cells rely on the canonical PI3K-AKT signaling pathway for survival, while mesenchymal cancer cells deploy the PI3K-independent mTORC2-AKT axis in response to strong death stimuli. PMID:27849011

  14. Potential gene therapy strategies for cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sell, Stewart

    2006-10-01

    To be maximally effective, therapy of cancer must be directed against both the resting stem cells and the proliferating cells of the cancer. The cell populations of both normal and cancer tissues consist of resting stem cells, proliferating transit-amplifying cells, terminally differentiating cells and dying (apoptotic) cells. The difference between normal tissue renewal and growth of cancers is that some of the transit-amplifying cells in the cancer population do not mature into terminally differentiating cells, but instead continue to proliferate and do not die (maturation arrest). Because of this the number of cancer cells increase, whereas the cell population of normal tissues remains a relatively constant. Conventional radiation treatment and chemotherapy kill the actively proliferating transit- amplifying cells of the cancer. Differentiation therapy, using specific targeted inhibitors of activation, effectively induces differentiation of the proliferating transit-amplifying cancer cells. However, even if the proliferating cancer cells are completely inhibited or eliminated, the cancer stem cells may restore the transit-amplifying population, so that clinical remission is usually temporary. The hypothesis presented in this paper is that successful cancer therapy must be directed against both the resting stem cells and the proliferating cells of the cancer. This may be possible if specific stem cell signals are inhibited using gene therapy, while at the same time attacking proliferating cells by conventional radiation treatment or chemotherapy. With advances in approaches using specific inhibitory RNA, such combination therapy may now be possible, but critical problems in delivering the inhibitory effect specifically to the cancer stem cells have yet to be worked out.

  15. Inhibiting Mitochondrial DNA Ligase IIIα Activates Caspase 1-Dependent Apoptosis in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Sallmyr, Annahita; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Roginskaya, Vera; Van Houten, Bennett; Tomkinson, Alan E

    2016-09-15

    Elevated levels of DNA ligase IIIα (LigIIIα) have been identified as a biomarker of an alteration in DNA repair in cancer cells that confers hypersensitivity to a LigIIIα inhibitor, L67, in combination with a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor. Because LigIIIα functions in the nucleus and mitochondria, we examined the effect of L67 on these organelles. Here, we show that, although the DNA ligase inhibitor selectively targets mitochondria, cancer and nonmalignant cells respond differently to disruption of mitochondrial DNA metabolism. Inhibition of mitochondrial LigIIIα in cancer cells resulted in abnormal mitochondrial morphology, reduced levels of mitochondrial DNA, and increased levels of mitochondrially generated reactive oxygen species that caused nuclear DNA damage. In contrast, these effects did not occur in nonmalignant cells. Furthermore, inhibition of mitochondrial LigIIIα activated a caspase 1-dependent apoptotic pathway, which is known to be part of inflammatory responses induced by pathogenic microorganisms in cancer, but not nonmalignant cells. These results demonstrate that the disruption of mitochondrial DNA metabolism elicits different responses in nonmalignant and cancer cells and suggests that the abnormal response in cancer cells may be exploited in the development of novel therapeutic strategies that selectively target cancer cells. Cancer Res; 76(18); 5431-41. ©2016 AACR.

  16. Nano-Micelle of Moringa Oleifera Seed Oil Triggers Mitochondrial Cancer Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed

    Abd-Rabou, Ahmed A; A Zoheir, Khairy M; Kishta, Mohamed S; Shalby, Aziza B; Ezzo, Mohamed I

    2016-11-01

    Cancer, a worldwide epidemic disease with diverse origins, involves abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade other parts of the body. Globally, it is the main cause of mortality and morbidity. To overcome the drawbacks of the commercially available chemotherapies, natural products-loaded nano-composites are recommended to improve cancer targetability and decrease the harmful impact on normal cells. This study aimed at exploring the anti-cancer impacts of Moringa oleifera seed oil in its free- (MO) and nano-formulations (MOn) through studying whether it mechanistically promotes mitochondrial apoptosis-mediating cell death. Mitochondrial-based cytotoxicity and flow cytometric-based apoptosis analyses were performed on cancer HepG2, MCF7, HCT 116, and Caco-2 cell lines against normal kidney BHK-21 cell line. The present study resulted that MOn triggered colorectal cancer Caco-2 and HCT 116 cytotoxicity via mitochondrial dysfunction more powerful than its free counterpart (MO). On the other side, MOn and MO remarkably induces HCT 116 mitochondrial apoptosis, while sparing normal BHK-21 cells with minimal cytotoxic effect. The present results concluded that nano-micelle of Moringa oleifera seed oil (MOn) can provide a novel therapeutic approach for colorectal and breast cancers via mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, while sparing normal and even liver cancer cells a bit healthy or with minimal harmful effect. Intriguingly, MOn induced breast cancer not hepatocellular carcinoma cell death.

  17. Differential Cytotoxic Potential of Silver Nanoparticles in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells and Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Jung; Park, Jung-Hyun; Han, Jae Woong; Kim, Eunsu; Jae-Wook, Oh; Lee, Seung Yoon; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2016-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis postulates that cancer cells are composed of hierarchically-organized subpopulations of cells with distinct phenotypes and tumorigenic capacities. As a result, CSCs have been suggested as a source of disease recurrence. Recently, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used as antimicrobial, disinfectant, and antitumor agents. However, there is no study reporting the effects of AgNPs on ovarian cancer stem cells (OvCSCs). In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of AgNPs and their mechanism of causing cell death in A2780 (human ovarian cancer cells) and OvCSCs derived from A2780. In order to examine these effects, OvCSCs were isolated and characterized using positive CSC markers including aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and CD133 by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). The anticancer properties of the AgNPs were evaluated by assessing cell viability, leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mitochondrial membrane potential (mt-MP). The inhibitory effect of AgNPs on the growth of ovarian cancer cells and OvCSCs was evaluated using a clonogenic assay. Following 1–2 weeks of incubation with the AgNPs, the numbers of A2780 (bulk cells) and ALDH+/CD133+ colonies were significantly reduced. The expression of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes was measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Our observations showed that treatment with AgNPs resulted in severe cytotoxicity in both ovarian cancer cells and OvCSCs. In particular, AgNPs showed significant cytotoxic potential in ALDH+/CD133+ subpopulations of cells compared with other subpopulation of cells and also human ovarian cancer cells (bulk cells). These findings suggest that AgNPs can be utilized in the development of novel nanotherapeutic molecules for the treatment of ovarian cancers by specific targeting of the ALDH+/CD133+ subpopulation of cells. PMID:27973444

  18. Role of Oxidative Stress in Stem, Cancer, and Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dayem, Ahmed Abdal; Choi, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Cho, Ssang-Goo

    2010-01-01

    The term ‘‘oxidative stress” refers to a cell’s state characterized by excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress is one of the most important regulatory mechanisms for stem, cancer, and cancer stem cells. The concept of cancer stem cells arose from observations of similarities between the self-renewal mechanism of stem cells and that of cancer stem cells, but compared to normal stem cells, they are believed to have no control over the cell number. ROS have been implicated in diverse processes in various cancers, and generally the increase of ROS in cancer cells is known to play an important role in the initiation and progression of cancer. Additionally, ROS have been considered as the most significant mutagens in stem cells; when elevated, blocking self-renewal and at the same time, serving as a signal stimulating stem cell differentiation. Several signaling pathways enhanced by oxidative stress are suggested to have important roles in tumorigenesis of cancer or cancer stem cells and the self-renewal ability of stem or cancer stem cells. It is now well established that mitochondria play a prominent role in apoptosis and increasing evidence supports that apoptosis and autophagy are physiological phenomena closely linked with oxidative stress. This review elucidates the effect and the mechanism of the oxidative stress on the regulation of stem, cancer, and cancer stem cells and focuses on the cell signaling cascades stimulated by oxidative stress and their mechanism in cancer stem cell formation, as very little is known about the redox status in cancer stem cells. Moreover, we explain the link between ROS and both of apoptosis and autophagy and the impact on cancer development and treatment. Better understanding of this intricate link may shed light on mechanisms that lead to better modes of cancer treatment. PMID:24281098

  19. Common cancers--genetics, origin, prevention, screening: Parts I and II.

    PubMed

    Schifeling, D J; Horton, J; Tafelski, T J

    1997-10-01

    Carcinogenesis is a stepwise process that occurs through mutations of cancer-related genes. Five or more genes must be mutated before malignant transformation occurs in most adult cancers; in some childhood cancers as few as two mutated genes may be sufficient. A rare inherited mutation of a critical gene may predestine cancer to occur in one or more sites. This germline mutation is present in virtually every cell in the body, except half of the germ cells, which do not contain the mutated gene in their haploid chromosome set. These and other genes have been used to piece together a puzzle of regulatory systems that govern cell division and proliferation, as well as apoptosis or programmed cell death. Mutations of these genes result not only in increased cell proliferation but also in diminished cell death. Most genetic changes that occur during carcinogenesis are not inherited or germline. They are acquired after birth and are called somatic mutations. A somatic mutation affects only the mutated cell and its progeny. Each time a cell divides, there is a chance of somatic mutation, and therefore there always is a low, background risk for cancer and other malignant lesions. A far more prevalent cause of cancer-related death in the United States is environmental exposure. Such exposure causes somatic mutations of cancer-related genes through direct damage to DNA or through alteration of proliferation or cell death, which enhances the baseline risk for mutation. As carcinogenesis becomes understood, interventions may be designed that selectively interfere in important steps. Screening for cancer is based on the premise that one can treat a patient for a cancer that has not spread from its primary site. Nevertheless, cancer screening is controversial and often confusing. Issues of costs, risks versus benefits, physical time and effort, and patient compliance all affect the clinician's view of screening, often to the extent that the true value of this approach to cancer

  20. Biological Therapy Following Chemotherapy and Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation in Treating Patients With Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-03-25

    Breast Cancer; Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Kidney Cancer; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Sarcoma; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

  1. Lymphocyte Infusion in Treating Patients With Relapsed Cancer After Bone Marrow or Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2011-11-28

    Breast Cancer; Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Kidney Cancer; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Sarcoma; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

  2. Implications of cancer stem cell theory for cancer chemoprevention by natural dietary compounds.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanyan; Wicha, Max S; Schwartz, Steven J; Sun, Duxin

    2011-09-01

    The emergence of cancer stem cell theory has profound implications for cancer chemoprevention and therapy. Cancer stem cells give rise to the tumor bulk through continuous self-renewal and differentiation. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate self-renewal is of greatest importance for discovery of anticancer drugs targeting cancer stem cells. Naturally occurring dietary compounds have received increasing attention in cancer chemoprevention. The anticancer effects of many dietary components have been reported for both in vitro and in vivo studies. Recently, a number of studies have found that several dietary compounds can directly or indirectly affect cancer stem cell self-renewal pathways. Herein we review the current knowledge of most common natural dietary compounds for their impact on self-renewal pathways and potential effect against cancer stem cells. Three pathways (Wnt/β-catenin, Hedgehog and Notch) are summarized for their functions in self-renewal of cancer stem cells. The dietary compounds, including curcumin, sulforaphane, soy isoflavone, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, resveratrol, lycopene, piperine and vitamin D(3), are discussed for their direct or indirect effect on these self-renewal pathways. Curcumin and piperine have been demonstrated to target breast cancer stem cells. Sulforaphane has been reported to inhibit pancreatic tumor-initiating cells and breast cancer stem cells. These studies provide a basis for preclinical and clinical evaluation of dietary compounds for chemoprevention of cancer stem cells. This may enable us to discover more preventive strategies for cancer management by reducing cancer resistance and recurrence and improving patient survival.

  3. Mesenchymal Stem Cells engineered for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Khalid

    2012-01-01

    Recent pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown that stem cell-based therapies hold tremendous promise for the treatment of human disease. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are emerging as promising anti-cancer agents which have an enormous potential to be utilized to treat a number of different cancer types. MSC have inherent tumor-trophic migratory properties, which allows them to serve as vehicles for delivering effective, targeted therapy to isolated tumors and metastatic disease. MSC have been readily engineered to express anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-angiogenic agents that specifically target different cancer types. Many of these strategies have been validated in a wide range of studies evaluating treatment feasibility or efficacy, as well as establishing methods for real-time monitoring of stem cell migration in vivo for optimal therapy surveillance and accelerated development. This review aims to provide an in depth status of current MSC-based cancer therapies, as well as the prospects for their clinical translation. PMID:21740940

  4. Squamous cell lung cancer: from tumor genomics to cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Gandara, David R; Hammerman, Peter S; Sos, Martin L; Lara, Primo N; Hirsch, Fred R

    2015-05-15

    Squamous cell lung cancer (SCC) represents an area of unmet need in lung cancer research. For the past several years, therapeutic progress in SCC has lagged behind the now more common non-small cell lung cancer histologic subtype of adenocarcinoma. However, recent efforts to define the complex biology underlying SCC have begun to bear fruit in a multitude of ways, including characterization of previously unknown genomic and signaling pathways, delineation of new, potentially actionable molecular targets, and subsequent development of a large number of agents directed against unique SCC-associated molecular abnormalities. For the first time, SCC-specific prognostic gene signatures and predictive biomarkers of new therapeutic agents are emerging. In addition, recent and ongoing clinical trials, including the Lung-MAP master protocol, have been designed to facilitate approval of targeted therapy-biomarker combinations. In this comprehensive review, we describe the current status of SCC therapeutics, recent advances in the understanding of SCC biology and prognostic gene signatures, and the development of innovative new clinical trials, all of which offer new hope for patients with advanced SCC.

  5. Inside the 2016 American Society of Clinical Oncology Genitourinary Cancers Symposium: part 2 - prostate and bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Buti, Sebastiano; Ciccarese, Chiara; Iacovelli, Roberto; Bersanelli, Melissa; Scarpelli, Marina; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Cheng, Liang; Montironi, Rodolfo; Tortora, Giampaolo; Massari, Francesco

    2016-09-01

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology Genitourinary Cancers Symposium, Moscone West Building, San Francisco, CA, USA, 7-9 January 2016 The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Genitourinary Cancers Symposium, held in San Francisco (CA, USA), from 7 to 9 January 2016, focused on 'patient-centric care: translating research to results'. Every year, this meeting is a must for anyone studying genitourinary tumors to keep abreast of the most recent innovations in this field, exchange views on behaviors customarily adopted in daily clinical practice and discuss future topics of scientific research. This two-part report highlights the key themes presented at the 2016 ASCO Genitourinary Cancers Symposium, with part 1 reporting the main novelties of kidney cancer and part 2 discussing the most relevant issues which have emerged for bladder and prostate tumors.

  6. Synergistic Effect and Molecular Mechanisms of Traditional Chinese Medicine on Regulating Tumor Microenvironment and Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhuo; Li, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of tumor cells with the microenvironment is like a relationship between the “seeds” and “soil,” which is a hotspot in recent cancer research. Targeting at tumor microenvironment as well as tumor cells has become a new strategy for cancer treatment. Conventional cancer treatments mostly focused on single targets or single mechanism (the seeds or part of the soil); few researches intervened in the whole tumor microenvironment and achieved ideal therapeutic effect as expected. Traditional Chinese medicine displays a broad range of biological effects, and increasing evidence has shown that it may relate with synergistic effect on regulating tumor microenvironment and cancer cells. Based on literature review and our previous studies, we summarize the synergistic effect and the molecular mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine on regulating tumor microenvironment and cancer cells. PMID:27042656

  7. Single-cell sequencing in cancer research.

    PubMed

    Mato Prado, Mireia; Frampton, Adam E; Stebbing, Justin; Krell, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide single-cell sequencing investigations have the potential to classify individual cells within a tumor mass. In recent years, various single-cell DNA and RNA quantification techniques have facilitated significant advances in our ability to classify subpopulations of cells within a heterogeneous population. These approaches provide the possibility of unraveling the complex variability in genetic, epigenetic and transcriptional interactions that occur within identical cells in a tumor. This should enhance our knowledge of the underlying biological phenotypes and could have a huge impact in designing more precise anticancer treatments in order to improve outcomes and avoid tumor resistance. In addition, single-cell sequencing analysis has the potential to allow the development of better diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, and thus aid the delivery of more personalized targeted cancer therapy. Nevertheless, further research is still required to overcome technical, biological and computational problems before clinical application.

  8. Plasma membrane calcium channels in cancer: Alterations and consequences for cell proliferation and migration.

    PubMed

    Déliot, Nadine; Constantin, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    The study of calcium channels in molecular mechanisms of cancer transformation is still a novel area of research. Several studies, mostly conducted on cancer cell lines, however support the idea that a diversity of plasma membrane channels participates in the remodeling of Ca2+ homeostasis, which regulates various cancer hallmarks such as uncontrolled multiplication and increase in migration and invasion abilities. However few is still understood concerning the intracellular signaling cascades mobilized by calcium influx participating to cancer cell behavior. This review intends to gather some of these pathways dependent on plasma membrane calcium channels and described in prostate, breast and lung cancer cell lines. In these cancer cell types, the calcium channels involved in calcium signaling pathways promoting cancer behaviors are mostly non-voltage activated calcium channels and belong to the TRP superfamily (TRPC, TPRPV and TRPM families) and the Orai family. TRP and Orai channels are part of many signaling cascades involving the activation of transmembrane receptors by extracellular ligand from the tumor environment. TRPV can sense changes in the physical and chemical environment of cancer cells and TRPM7 are stretch activated and sensitive to cholesterol. Changes in activation and or expression of plasma-membrane calcium channels affect calcium-dependent signaling processes relevant to tumorigenesis. The studies cited in this review suggest that an increase in plasma membrane calcium channel expression and/or activity sustain an elevated calcium entry (constitutive or under the control of extracellular signals) promoting higher cell proliferation and migration in most cases. A variety of non-voltage-operated calcium channels display change expression and/or activity in a same cancer type and cooperate to the same process relevant to cancer cell behavior, or can be involved in a different sequence of events during the tumorigenesis. This article is part of a

  9. A novel steroidal saponin glycoside from Fagonia indica induces cell-selective apoptosis or necrosis in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Waheed, Abdul; Barker, James; Barton, Stephen J; Owen, Caroline P; Ahmed, Sabbir; Carew, Mark A

    2012-09-29

    Fagonia indica is a small spiny shrub of great ethnopharmacological importance in folk medicine. The aqueous decoction of aerial parts is a popular remedy against various skin lesions, including cancer. We used a biological activity-guided fractionation approach to isolate the most potent fraction of the crude extract on three cancer cell lines: MCF-7 oestrogen-dependent breast cancer, MDA-MB-468 oestrogen-independent breast cancer, and Caco-2 colon cancer cells. A series of chromatographic and spectroscopic procedures were utilised on the EtOAc fraction, which resulted in the isolation of a new steroidal saponin glycoside. The cytotoxic activity of the saponin glycoside was determined in cancer cells using the MTT and neutral red uptake assays. After 24h treatment, the observed IC(50) values of the saponin glycoside were 12.5 μM on MDA-MB-468 and Caco-2 cells, but 100 μM on MCF-7 cells. Several lines of evidence: PARP cleavage, caspase-3 cleavage, DNA ladder assays, and reversal of growth inhibition with the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk, suggested stimulation of apoptosis in MDA-MB-468 and Caco-2 cells, but not in MCF-7 cells, which do not express caspase-3. The haemolytic activity of the saponin glycoside was confirmed in sheep red blood cells, with cell lysis observed at >100 μM, suggesting that, at this concentration, the saponin glycoside caused necrosis through cell lysis in MCF-7 cells. Using the DNA ladder assay, the saponin glycoside (12.5 μM) was not toxic to HUVEC (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) or U937 cells, indicating some selectivity between malignant and normal cells. We conclude that the steroidal saponin glycoside isolated from F. indica is able to induce apoptosis or necrosis in cancer cells depending on the cell type.

  10. Stem-like cancer cells are inducible by increasing genomic instability in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yi; Zhong, Zhendong; Huang, Yijun; Deng, Wen; Cao, Junxia; Tsao, George; Liu, Quentin; Pei, Duanqing; Kang, Tiebang; Zeng, Yi-Xin

    2010-02-12

    The existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) or stem-like cancer cells (SLCCs) is regarded as the cause of tumor formation and recurrence. However, the origin of such cells remains controversial with two competing hypotheses: CSCs are either transformed from tissue adult stem cells or dedifferentiated from transformed progenitor cells. Compelling evidence has determined the chromosomal aneuploidy to be one of the hallmarks of cancer cells, indicating genome instability plays an important role in tumorigenesis, for which CSCs are believed to be the initiator. To gain direct evidence that genomic instability is involved in the induction of SLCCs, we utilized multiple approaches to enhance genomic instability and monitored the percentage of SLCC in cultured cancer cells. Using side population (SP) cells as a marker for SLCC in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and CD133 for human neuroblastoma cells, we found that DNA damage inducers, UV and mitomycin C were capable of increasing SP cells in NPC CNE-2 and neuroblastoma SKN-SH cells. Likewise, either overexpression of a key regulator of cell cycle, Mad2, or knock down of Aurora B, an important kinase in mitosis, or Cdh1, a key E3 ligase in cell cycle, resulted in a significant increase of SP cells in CNE-2. More interestingly, enrichment of SP cells was observed in recurrent tumor tissues as compared with the primary tumor in the same NPC patients. Our study thus suggested that, beside transformation of tissue stem cells leading to CSC generation, genomic instability could be another potential mechanism resulting in SLCC formation, especially at tumor recurrence stage.

  11. Cancer stem cells: Involvement in pancreatic cancer pathogenesis and perspectives on cancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Tanase, Cristiana Pistol; Neagu, Ana Iulia; Necula, Laura Georgiana; Mambet, Cristina; Enciu, Ana-Maria; Calenic, Bogdan; Cruceru, Maria Linda; Albulescu, Radu

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive and lethal malignancies. Despite remarkable progress in understanding pancreatic carcinogenesis at the molecular level, as well as progress in new therapeutic approaches, pancreatic cancer remains a disease with a dismal prognosis. Among the mechanisms responsible for drug resistance, the most relevant are changes in individual genes or signaling pathways and the presence of highly resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs). In pancreatic cancer, CSCs represent 0.2%-0.8% of pancreatic cancer cells and are considered to be responsible for tumor growth, invasion, metastasis and recurrence. CSCs have been extensively studied as of late to identify specific surface markers to ensure reliable sorting and for signaling pathways identified to play a pivotal role in CSC self-renewal. Involvement of CSCs in pancreatic cancer pathogenesis has also highlighted these cells as the preferential targets for therapy. The present review is an update of the results in two main fields of research in pancreatic cancer, pathogenesis and therapy, focused on the narrow perspective of CSCs. PMID:25152582

  12. Activated protein C upregulates ovarian cancer cell migration and promotes unclottability of the cancer cell microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    ALTHAWADI, HAMDA; ALFARSI, HALEMA; BESBES, SAMAHER; MIRSHAHI, SHAHSOLTAN; DUCROS, ELODIE; RAFII, ARASH; POCARD, MARC; THERWATH, AMU; SORIA, JEANNETTE; MIRSHAHI, MASSOUD

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of activated protein C (aPC), known to be a physiological anticoagulant, in ovarian cancer cell activation as well as in loss of clotting of cancer ascitic fluid. The effect of aPC on an ovarian cancer cell line (OVCAR-3) was tested in regards to i) cell migration and adhesion with the use of adhesion and wound healing assays as well as a droplet test; ii) protein phosphorylation, evaluated by cyto-ELISA; iii) cell cycle modification assessed by flow cytometric DNA quantification; and iv) anticoagulant activity evaluated by the prolongation of partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) of normal plasma in the presence or absence of aPC-treated ovarian cancer cells. In addition, the soluble endothelial protein C receptor (sEPCR) was quantified by ELISA in ascitic fluid of patients with ovarian cancer. Our results showed that in the OVCAR-3 aPC-induced cells i) an increase in cell migration was noted, which was inhibited when anti-endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) was added to the culture medium and which may act via MEK-ERK and Rho-GTPase pathways; ii) an increase in threonine, and to a lesser extent tyrosine phosphorylation; iii) cell cycle activation (G1 to S/G2); and iv) a 2-3-fold prolongation of aPTT of normal plasma. In the peritoneal fluid, the sEPCR concentration was 71±23 ng/ml. In conclusion, free aPC binds to membrane EPCR in ovarian cancer cells and induces cell migration via MEK-ERK and Rho-GTPase pathways. This binding could also explain the loss of clotting of peritoneal fluids. PMID:26082331

  13. Single-Cell-Precision Microplasma-Induced Cancer Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xinpei; He, Guangyuan; Ostrikov, Kostya

    2014-01-01

    The issue of single-cell control has recently attracted enormous interest. However, in spite of the presently achievable intracellular-level physiological probing through bio-photonics, nano-probe-based, and some other techniques, the issue of inducing selective, single-cell-precision apoptosis, without affecting neighbouring cells remains essentially open. Here we resolve this issue and report on the effective single-cell-precision cancer cell treatment using the reactive chemistry of the localized corona-type plasma discharge around a needle-like electrode with the spot size ∼1 µm. When the electrode is positioned with the micrometer precision against a selected cell, a focused and highly-localized micro-plasma discharge induces apoptosis in the selected individual HepG2 and HeLa cancer cells only, without affecting any surrounding cells, even in small cell clusters. This is confirmed by the real-time monitoring of the morphological and structural changes at the cellular and cell nucleus levels after the plasma exposure. PMID:24971517

  14. Oncogenic mutation profiling in new lung cancer and mesothelioma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Lam, David CL; Luo, Susan Y; Deng, Wen; Kwan, Johnny SH; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Cheung, Annie LM; Cheng, Grace HW; Lin, Chi-Ho; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Sham, Pak C; Wan, Thomas SK; Tsao, Sai-Wah

    2015-01-01

    Background Thoracic tumor, especially lung cancer, ranks as the top cancer mortality in most parts of the world. Lung adenocarcinoma is the predominant subtype and there is increasing knowledge on therapeutic molecular targets, namely EGFR, ALK, KRAS, and ROS1, among lung cancers. Lung cancer cell lines established with known clinical characteristics and molecular profiling of oncogenic targets like ALK or KRAS could be useful tools for understanding the biology of known molecular targets as well as for drug testing and screening. Materials and methods Five new cancer cell lines were established from pleural fluid or biopsy tissues obtained from Chinese patients with primary lung adenocarcinomas or malignant pleural mesothelioma. They were characterized by immunohistochemistry, growth kinetics, tests for tumorigenicity, EGFR and KRAS gene mutations, ALK gene rearrangement and OncoSeq mutation profiling. Results These newly established lung adenocarcinoma and mesothelioma cell lines were maintained for over 100 passages and demonstrated morphological and immunohistochemical features as well as growth kinetics of tumor cell lines. One of these new cell lines bears EML4-ALK rearrangement variant 2, two lung cancer cell lines bear different KRAS mutations at codon 12, and known single nucleotide polymorphism variants were identified in these cell lines. Discussion Four new lung adenocarcinoma and one mesothelioma cell lines were established from patients with different clinical characteristics and oncogenic mutation profiles. These characterized cell lines and their mutation profiles will provide resources for exploration of lung cancer and mesothelioma biology with regard to the presence of known oncogenic mutations. PMID:25653542

  15. Light induced drug delivery into cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shamay, Yosi; Adar, Lily; Ashkenasy, Gonen; David, Ayelet

    2011-02-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) can be used for intracellular delivery of a broad variety of cargoes, including various nanoparticulate pharmaceutical carriers. However, the cationic nature of all CPP sequences, and thus lack of cell specificity, limits their in vivo use for drug delivery applications. Here, we have devised and tested a strategy for site-specific delivery of dyes and drugs into cancer cells by using polymers bearing a light activated caged CPP (cCPP). The positive charge of Lys residues on the minimum sequence of the CPP penetratin ((52)RRMKWKK(58)) was masked with photo-cleavable groups to minimize non-specific adsorption and cellular uptake. Once illuminated by UV light, these protecting groups were cleaved, the positively charged CPP regained its activity and facilitated rapid intracellular delivery of the polymer-dye or polymer-drug conjugates into cancer cells. We have found that a 10-min light illumination time was sufficient to enhance the penetration of the polymer-CPP conjugates bearing the proapoptotic peptide, (D)(KLAKLAK)(2), into 80% of the target cells, and to promote a 'switch' like cytotoxic activity resulting a shift from 100% to 10% in cell viability after 2 h. This report provides an example for tumor targeting by means of light activation of cell-penetrating peptides for intracellular drug delivery.

  16. Transitional cell cancer of the urinary tract and renal cell cancer in relation to acetaminophen use (United States).

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, L; Rao, R S; Palmer, J R; Strom, B L; Zauber, A; Warshauer, M E; Stolley, P D; Shapiro, S

    1998-01-01

    Experimental and epidemiologic evidence have suggested that phenacetin use increases the risk of transitional cell cancers of the urinary tract. The drug is no longer marketed but a commonly used metabolite, acetaminophen, has been linked recently to an increased risk of renal cancer. We assessed the relation of acetaminophen use to the risk of transitional cell cancer of the urinary tract and of renal cell cancer with data from a hospital-based study of cancers and medication use conducted from 1976-96 in the eastern United States. We compared 498 cases of transitional cell cancer and 383 cases of renal cell cancer with 8,149 noncancer controls and 6,499 cancer controls and controlled confounding factors with logistic regression. For transitional cell cancer, the relative risk (RR) estimate for regular acetaminophen use that had begun at least a year before admission was 1.1 (95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 0.6-1.9) based on noncancer controls, and 0.9 (CI = 0.5-1.6) based on cancer controls. RR estimates for use that lasted at least five years, and for nonregular use, were also close to 1.0. For renal cell cancer, the corresponding estimates were again close to 1.0. Our results suggest that acetaminophen, as used in present study population, does not influence the risk of transitional cell cancer of the urinary tract or of renal cell cancer.

  17. Skin cancer in solid organ transplant recipients: advances in therapy and management: part II. Management of skin cancer in solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Zwald, Fiona O'Reilly; Brown, Marc

    2011-08-01

    The management of skin cancer in solid organ transplant recipients is a challenge to both the dermatologist and transplant physician. Part II of this continuing medical education review offers an approach to the management of this increasing problem. The importance of specialty dermatology clinics providing access to transplant patients, frequent skin cancer screening, patient education, and multidisciplinary care is discussed. The management of low risk squamous cell carcinoma with topical therapies, photodynamic therapy, systemic retinoids, and capecitabine is reviewed. Revision of immunosuppression in the management of high-risk patients is discussed in association with the potential role of sentinel lymph node biopsy for aggressive disease. Finally, management of in-transit and metastatic squamous cell carcinoma is reviewed, with a discussion of the role of more recent innovative therapies, including epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors in advanced squamous cell carcinoma in solid organ transplant recipients.

  18. An Easy-to-Assemble Three-Part Galvanic Cell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Per-Odd; Skaugrud, Brit

    2015-01-01

    The galvanic cell presented in this article is made of only three parts, is easy to assemble, and can light a red light emitting diode (LED). The three cell components consist of a piece of paper with copper sulfate, a piece of paper with sodium sulfate, and a piece of magnesium ribbon. Within less than 1 h, students have time to discuss the…

  19. Primary cultures of human colon cancer as a model to study cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Koshkin, Sergey; Danilova, Anna; Raskin, Grigory; Petrov, Nikolai; Bajenova, Olga; O'Brien, Stephen J; Tomilin, Alexey; Tolkunova, Elena

    2016-09-01

    The principal cause of death in cancer involves tumor progression and metastasis. Since only a small proportion of the primary tumor cells, cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are the most aggressive, have the capacity to metastasize and display properties of stem cells, it is imperative to characterize the gene expression of diagnostic markers and to evaluate the drug sensitivity in the CSCs themselves. Here, we have examined the key genes that are involved in the progression of colorectal cancer and are expressed in cancer stem cells. Primary cultures of colorectal cancer cells from a patient's tumors were studied using the flow cytometry and cytological methods. We have evaluated the clinical and stem cell marker expression in these cells, their resistance to 5-fluorouracil and irinotecan, and the ability of cells to form tumors in mice. The data shows the role of stem cell marker Oct4 in the resistance of primary colorectal cancer tumor cells to 5-fluorouracil.

  20. Stem cells in normal mammary gland and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Yin, Xin; Ma, Tao; Lu, Jun

    2010-04-01

    The mammary gland is a structurally dynamic organ that undergoes dramatic alterations with age, menstrual cycle, and reproductive status. Mammary gland stem cells, the minor cell population within the mature organ, are thought to have multiple functions in regulating mammary gland development, tissue maintenance, major growth, and structural remodeling. In addition, accumulative evidence suggests that breast cancers are initiated and maintained by a subpopulation of tumor cells with stem cell features (called cancer stem cells). A variety of methods have been developed to identify and characterize mammary stem cells, and several signal transduction pathways have been identified to be essential for the self-renewal and differentiation of mammary gland stem cells. Understanding the origin of breast cancer stem cells, their relationship to breast cancer development, and the differences between normal and cancer stem cells may lead to novel approaches to breast cancer diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.

  1. TNFα enhances cancer stem cell-like phenotype via Notch-Hes1 activation in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Hee; Hong, Hannah S; Liu, Zi Xiao; Kim, Reuben H; Kang, Mo K; Park, No-Hee; Shin, Ki-Hyuk

    2012-07-20

    Cancer stem-like cell (CSC; also known as tumor initiating cell) is defined as a small subpopulation of cancer cells within a tumor and isolated from various primary tumors and cancer cell lines. CSCs are highly tumorigenic and resistant to anticancer treatments. In this study, we found that prolonged exposure to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), a major proinflammatory cytokine, enhances CSC phenotype of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells, such as an increase in tumor sphere-forming ability, stem cell-associated genes expression, chemo-radioresistance, and tumorigenicity. Moreover, activation of Notch1 signaling was detected in the TNFα-exposed cells, and suppression of Notch1 signaling inhibited CSC phenotype. Furthermore, we demonstrated that inhibition of a Notch downstream target, Hes1, led to suppression of CSC phenotype in the TNFα-exposed cells. We also found that Hes1 expression is commonly upregulated in OSCC lesions compared to precancerous dysplastic lesions, suggesting the possible involvement of Hes1 in OSCC progression and CSC in vivo. In conclusion, inflammatory cytokine exposure may enhance CSC phenotype of OSCC, in part by activating the Notch-Hes1 pathway.

  2. Improving Cancer-Related Outcomes with Connected Health - Part 2: Objective 2

    Cancer.gov

    A core principle of connected health is that individuals are empowered to decide when, whether, and how much to participate in their health and healthcare (see Principles of Connected Health in Part 1). Decisions about participation may change over time. Connected health tools are needed to ensure that people at risk for cancer, cancer patients, and cancer survivors have access to the information they need when they need it and in formats that meet their needs.

  3. Hypoxia and metabolic adaptation of cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Eales, K L; Hollinshead, K E R; Tennant, D A

    2016-01-01

    Low oxygen tension (hypoxia) is a pervasive physiological and pathophysiological stimulus that metazoan organisms have contended with since they evolved from their single-celled ancestors. The effect of hypoxia on a tissue can be either positive or negative, depending on the severity, duration and context. Over the long-term, hypoxia is not usually consistent with normal function and so multicellular organisms have had to evolve both systemic and cellular responses to hypoxia. Our reliance on oxygen for efficient adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation has meant that the cellular metabolic network is particularly sensitive to alterations in oxygen tension. Metabolic changes in response to hypoxia are elicited through both direct mechanisms, such as the reduction in ATP generation by oxidative phosphorylation or inhibition of fatty-acid desaturation, and indirect mechanisms including changes in isozyme expression through hypoxia-responsive transcription factor activity. Significant regions of cancers often grow in hypoxic conditions owing to the lack of a functional vasculature. As hypoxic tumour areas contain some of the most malignant cells, it is important that we understand the role metabolism has in keeping these cells alive. This review will outline our current understanding of many of the hypoxia-induced changes in cancer cell metabolism, how they are affected by other genetic defects often present in cancers, and how these metabolic alterations support the malignant hypoxic phenotype. PMID:26807645

  4. Tumoral stem cell reprogramming as a driver of cancer: Theory, biological models, implications in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; Hauer, Julia; Ruiz-Roca, Lucía; Ingenhag, Deborah; Rodríguez-Meira, Alba; Auer, Franziska; Borkhardt, Arndt; Sánchez-García, Isidro

    2015-06-01

    Cancer is a clonal malignant disease originated in a single cell and characterized by the accumulation of partially differentiated cells that are phenotypically reminiscent of normal stages of differentiation. According to current models, therapeutic strategies that block oncogene activity are likely to selectively target tumor cells. However, recent evidences have revealed that cancer stem cells could arise through a tumor stem cell reprogramming mechanism, suggesting that genetic lesions that initiate the cancer process might be dispensable for tumor progression and maintenance. This review addresses the impact of these results toward a better understanding of cancer development and proposes new approaches to treat cancer in the future.

  5. Luteolin inhibits lung metastasis, cell migration, and viability of triple-negative breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Matthew T; Liang, Yayun; Besch-Williford, Cynthia; Hyder, Salman M

    2017-01-01

    Most breast cancer-related deaths from triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) occur following metastasis of cancer cells and development of tumors at secondary sites. Because TNBCs lack the three receptors targeted by current chemotherapeutic regimens, they are typically treated with extremely aggressive and highly toxic non-targeted treatment strategies. Women with TNBC frequently develop metastatic lesions originating from drug-resistant residual cells and have poor prognosis. For this reason, novel therapeutic strategies that are safer and more effective are sought. Luteolin (LU) is a naturally occurring, non-toxic plant compound that has proven effective against several types of cancer. With this in mind, we conducted in vivo and in vitro studies to determine whether LU might suppress metastasis of TNBC. In an in vivo mouse metastasis model, LU suppressed metastasis of human MDA-MB-435 and MDA-MB-231 (4175) LM2 TNBC cells to the lungs. In in vitro assays, LU inhibited cell migration and viability of MDA-MB-435 and MDA-MB-231 (4175) LM2 cells. Further, LU induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 (4175) LM2 cells. Relatively low levels (10 µM) of LU significantly inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion in MDA-MB-231 (4175) LM2 cells, suggesting that it has the ability to suppress a potent angiogenic and cell survival factor. In addition, migration of MDA-MB-231 (4175) LM2 cells was inhibited upon exposure to an antibody against the VEGF receptor, KDR, but not by exposure to a VEGF165 antibody. Collectively, these data suggest that the anti-metastatic properties of LU may, in part, be due to its ability to block VEGF production and KDR-mediated activity, thereby inhibiting tumor cell migration. These studies suggest that LU deserves further investigation as a potential treatment option for women with TNBC. PMID:28096694

  6. Cyclooxygenase-2: A Role in Cancer Stem Cell Survival and Repopulation of Cancer Cells during Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Emma A.; Argyle, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an inducible form of the enzyme that catalyses the synthesis of prostanoids, including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a major mediator of inflammation and angiogenesis. COX-2 is overexpressed in cancer cells and is associated with progressive tumour growth, as well as resistance of cancer cells to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. These therapies are often delivered in multiple doses, which are spaced out to allow the recovery of normal tissues between treatments. However, surviving cancer cells also proliferate during treatment intervals, leading to repopulation of the tumour and limiting the effectiveness of the treatment. Tumour cell repopulation is a major cause of treatment failure. The central dogma is that conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy selects resistant cancer cells that are able to reinitiate tumour growth. However, there is compelling evidence of an active proliferative response, driven by increased COX-2 expression and downstream PGE2 release, which contribute to the repopulation of tumours and poor patient outcome. In this review, we will examine the evidence for a role of COX-2 in cancer stem cell biology and as a mediator of tumour repopulation that can be molecularly targeted to overcome resistance to therapy. PMID:27882058

  7. Medicare Part D: Things People with Cancer May Want to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... avoid or delay entering the gap, and save money on drug costs while in the gap: • You may be ... almost all cancer drugs. The easiest way to research drug formularies for the Part D drug plans in ...

  8. Cell Transfer Therapy for Cancer: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xiaoling; Wang, Xian; Jin, Hongchuan

    2014-01-01

    Cell transfer therapy for cancer has made a rapid progress recently and the immunotherapy has been recognized as the fourth anticancer modality after operation, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Lymphocytes used for cell transfer therapy include dendritic cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and T lymphocytes such as tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). In vitro activated or engineered immune cells can traffic to cancer tissues to elicit persistent antitumor immune response which is very important especially after immunosuppressive treatments such as chemotherapy. In this review, we overviewed recent advances in the exploration of dendritic cells, NK cells, and T cells for the treatment of human cancer cells. PMID:24741604

  9. Epithelial stem cells and intestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shawna; Barker, Nick

    2015-06-01

    The mammalian intestine is comprised of an epithelial layer that serves multiple functions in order to maintain digestive activity as well as intestinal homeostasis. This epithelial layer contains highly proliferative stem cells which facilitate its characteristic rapid regeneration. How these stem cells contribute to tissue repair and normal homeostasis are actively studied, and while we have a greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms and cellular locations that underlie stem cell regulation in this tissue, much still remains undiscovered. This review describes epithelial stem cells in both intestinal and non-intestinal tissues, as well as the strategies that have been used to further characterize the cells. Through a discussion of the current understanding of intestinal self-renewal and tissue regeneration in response to injury, we focus on how dysregulation of critical signaling pathways results in potentially oncogenic aberrations, and highlight issues that should be addressed in order for effective intestinal cancer therapies to be devised.

  10. Heat induces gene amplification in cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Bin; Ouyang, Ruoyun; Huang, Chenghui; Liu, Franklin; Neill, Daniel; Li, Chuanyuan; Dewhirst, Mark

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study discovered that heat exposure (hyperthermia) results in gene amplification in cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hyperthermia induces DNA double strand breaks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA double strand breaks are considered to be required for the initiation of gene amplification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The underlying mechanism of heat-induced gene amplification is generation of DNA double strand breaks. -- Abstract: Background: Hyperthermia plays an important role in cancer therapy. However, as with radiation, it can cause DNA damage and therefore genetic instability. We studied whether hyperthermia can induce gene amplification in cancer cells and explored potential underlying molecular mechanisms. Materials and methods: (1) Hyperthermia: HCT116 colon cancer cells received water-submerged heating treatment at 42 or 44 Degree-Sign C for 30 min; (2) gene amplification assay using N-(phosphoacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA) selection of cabamyl-P-synthetase, aspartate transcarbarmylase, dihydro-orotase (cad) gene amplified cells; (3) southern blotting for confirmation of increased cad gene copies in PALA-resistant cells; (4) {gamma}H2AX immunostaining to detect {gamma}H2AX foci as an indication for DNA double strand breaks. Results: (1) Heat exposure at 42 or 44 Degree-Sign C for 30 min induces gene amplification. The frequency of cad gene amplification increased by 2.8 and 6.5 folds respectively; (2) heat exposure at both 42 and 44 Degree-Sign C for 30 min induces DNA double strand breaks in HCT116 cells as shown by {gamma}H2AX immunostaining. Conclusion: This study shows that heat exposure can induce gene amplification in cancer cells, likely through the generation of DNA double strand breaks, which are believed to be required for the initiation of gene amplification. This process may be promoted by heat when cellular proteins that are responsible for checkpoints, DNA replication, DNA repair and

  11. Treating cancer stem cells and cancer metastasis using glucose-coated gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chenxia; Niestroj, Martin; Yuan, Daniel; Chang, Steven; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Cancer ranks among the leading causes of human mortality. Cancer becomes intractable when it spreads from the primary tumor site to various organs (such as bone, lung, liver, and then brain). Unlike solid tumor cells, cancer stem cells and metastatic cancer cells grow in a non-attached (suspension) form when moving from their source to other locations in the body. Due to the non-attached growth nature, metastasis is often first detected in the circulatory systems, for instance in a lymph node near the primary tumor. Cancer research over the past several decades has primarily focused on treating solid tumors, but targeted therapy to treat cancer stem cells and cancer metastasis has yet to be developed. Because cancers undergo faster metabolism and consume more glucose than normal cells, glucose was chosen in this study as a reagent to target cancer cells. In particular, by covalently binding gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with thio-PEG (polyethylene glycol) and thio-glucose, the resulting functionalized GNPs (Glu-GNPs) were created for targeted treatment of cancer metastasis and cancer stem cells. Suspension cancer cell THP-1 (human monocytic cell line derived from acute monocytic leukemia patients) was selected because it has properties similar to cancer stem cells and has been used as a metastatic cancer cell model for in vitro studies. To take advantage of cancer cells’ elevated glucose consumption over normal cells, different starvation periods were screened in order to achieve optimal treatment effects. Cancer cells were then fed using Glu-GNPs followed by X-ray irradiation treatment. For comparison, solid tumor MCF-7 cells (breast cancer cell line) were studied as well. Our irradiation experimental results show that Glu-GNPs are better irradiation sensitizers to treat THP-1 cells than MCF-7 cells, or Glu-GNPs enhance the cancer killing of THP-1 cells 20% more than X-ray irradiation alone and GNP treatment alone. This finding can help oncologists to design

  12. Musashi signaling in stem cells and cancer.

    PubMed

    Fox, Raymond G; Park, Frederick D; Koechlein, Claire S; Kritzik, Marcie; Reya, Tannishtha

    2015-01-01

    How a single cell gives rise to an entire organism is one of biology's greatest mysteries. Within this process, stem cells play a key role by serving as seed cells capable of both self-renewal to sustain themselves as well as differentiation to generate the full diversity of mature cells and functional tissues. Understanding how this balance between self-renewal and differentiation is achieved is crucial to defining not only the underpinnings of normal development but also how its subversion can lead to cancer. Musashi, a family of RNA binding proteins discovered originally in Drosophila and named after the iconic samurai, Miyamoto Musashi, has emerged as a key signal that confers and protects the stem cell state across organisms. Here we explore the role of this signal in stem cells and how its reactivation can be a critical element in oncogenesis. Relative to long-established developmental signals such as Wnt, Hedgehog, and Notch, our understanding of Musashi remains in its infancy; yet all evidence suggests that Musashi will emerge as an equally powerful paradigm for regulating development and cancer and may be destined to have a great impact on biology and medicine.

  13. Open questions: The disrupted circuitry of the cancer cell

    DOE PAGES

    Wiley, H. Steven

    2014-10-18

    Every new decade of biology brings with it a change in outlook driven by new technologies and fresh perspectives. Such is the case for cancer and how we consider the disease. The advent of molecular biology led to the identification of altered signaling molecules and 'oncogenes' that were proposed to drive uncontrolled cell proliferation. The rise of cell biology and new imaging and culturing technologies led to the idea that disruptions in the extracellular environment prime cells for transformation. In the current genomics era, cancer is most commonly seen as a genetic disorder where an unstable genome gives rise tomore » a variety of different cell variants that are selected for proliferation and survival. All of these views are partially correct, of course, and are simply different ways of saying that genetic alterations in cancer cells result in a loss of growth homeostasis. They also take the view that molecular changes 'drive' a cell to grow uncontrollably, rather than tip the balance from one normal state (quiescence) to another (proliferation). Underlying this oversimplification is a profound ignorance of what controls homeostatic cell growth in the first place and how specific mutations impact it. Normal, proliferation-competent cells can accurately monitor their environment and respond appropriately to perturbation, whether it is a loss of neighbors or an inflammatory stimulus. Cancer cells either proliferate or refuse to die where and when they should not, which clearly indicates that they have problems in detecting or responding to their environment. Thus, an enormous amount of effort has gone into defining the signaling pathways that can trigger a proliferative response and the biochemical mechanisms underlying these pathways. Far less work has focused on understanding the higher-order logic of these pathways and the roles played by all of the components as part of an integrated system. In other words, we do not really understand how cells process

  14. Ewing's sarcoma cancer stem cell targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Todorova, Roumiana

    2014-01-01

    Ewing`s sarcoma (ES) family of tumors (ESFTs) are round cell tumors of bone and soft tissues, afflicting children and young adults. This review summarizes the present findings about ES cancer stem cell (CSC) targeted therapy: prognostic factors, chromosomal translocations, initiation, epigenetic mechanisms, candidate cell of ES origin (Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs)). The ES CSC model, histopathogenesis, histogenesis, pathogenesis, ES mediated Hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPCs) senescence are also discussed. ESFTs therapy is reviewed concerning CSCs, radiotherapy, risk of subsequent neoplasms, stem cell (SC) support, promising therapeutic targets for ES CSCs (CSC markers, immune targeting, RNAi phenotyping screens, proposed new drugs), candidate EWS-FLI1 target genes and further directions (including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)). Bone marrow-derived human MSCs are permissive for EWS-FLI1 expression with transition to ESFT-like cellular phenotype. ESFTs are genetically related to NCSC, permissive for EWS-FLI1 expression and susceptible to oncogene-induced immortalization. Primitive neuroectodermal features and MSC origin of ESFTs provide a basis of immune targeting. The microRNAs profile of ES CSCs is shared by ESCs and CSCs from divergent tumor types. Successful reprogramming of differentiated human somatic cells into a pluripotent state allows creation of patient- and disease-specific SCs. The functional role of endogenous EWS at stem cell level on both senescence and tumorigenesis is a link between cancer and aging. The regulatory mechanisms of oncogenic activity of EWS fusions could provide new prognostic biomarkers, therapeutic opportunities and tumor-specific anticancer agents against ESFTs.

  15. A study of structural differences between liver cancer cells and normal liver cells using FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Daping; Xu, Fangcheng; Yu, Qiang; Fang, Tingting; Xia, Junjun; Li, Seruo; Wang, Xin

    2015-11-01

    Since liver cancer seriously threatens human health, it is very urgent to explore an effective method for diagnosing liver cancer early. In this study, we investigated the structure differences of IR spectra between neoplastic liver cells and normal liver cells. The major differences of absorption bands were observed between liver cancer cells and normal liver cells, the values of A2955/A2921, A1744/A1082, A1640/A1535, H1121/H1020 might be potentially useful factors for distinguishing liver cancer cells from normal liver cells. Curve fitting also provided some important information on structural differences between malignant and normal liver cancer cells. Furthermore, IR spectra combined with hierarchical cluster analysis could make a distinction between liver cancer cells and normal liver cells. The present results provided enough cell basis for diagnosis of liver cancer by FTIR spectroscopy, suggesting FTIR spectroscopy may be a potentially useful tool for liver cancer diagnosis.

  16. (-)-Gossypol reduces invasiveness in metastatic prostate cancer cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acquisition of metastatic ability by prostatic cancer cells is the most lethal aspect of prostatic cancer progression. (-)-Gossypol, a polyphenolic compound present in cottonseeds, possesses anti-proliferation and pro-apoptotic effects in various cancer cells. In this study, the differences betwee...

  17. Therapeutic Effectiveness of Anticancer Phytochemicals on Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jisun; Hlatky, Lynn; Jeong, Yong-Seob; Kim, Dohoon

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how to target cancer stem cells (CSCs) may provide helpful insights for the development of therapeutic or preventive strategies against cancers. Dietary phytochemicals with anticancer properties are promising candidates and have selective impact on CSCs. This review summarizes the influence of phytochemicals on heterogeneous cancer cell populations as well as on specific targeting of CSCs. PMID:27376325

  18. Basal cell carcinoma of the skin (part 1): epidemiology, pathology and genetic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Correia de Sá, Tiago Ribeiro; Silva, Roberto; Lopes, José Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer worldwide with increasing incidence, but difficult to assess due to the current under registration practice. Despite the low mortality rate, BCC is a cause of great morbidity and an economic burden to health services. There are several risk factors that increase the risk of BCC and partly explain its incidence. Low-penetrance susceptibility alleles, as well as genetic alterations in signaling pathways, namely SHH pathway, also contribute to the carcinogenesis. BCC associate with several genetic syndromes, of which basal cell nevus syndrome is the most common.

  19. Cancer stem cells as a target population for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Bouvard, Claire; Barefield, Colleen; Zhu, Shoutian

    2014-09-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in a growing list of malignancies and are believed to be responsible for cancer initiation, metastasis and relapse following certain therapies, even though they may only represent a small fraction of the cells in a given cancer. Like somatic stem cells and embryonic stem cells, CSCs are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into more mature, less tumorigenic cells that make up the bulk populations of cancer cells. Elimination of CSCs promises intriguing therapeutic potential and this concept has been adopted in preclinical drug discovery programs. Herein we will discuss the progress of these efforts, general considerations in practice, major challenges and possible solutions.

  20. LGR5 and Nanog identify stem cell signature of pancreas beta cells which initiate pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Amsterdam, Abraham; Raanan, Calanit; Schreiber, Letizia; Polin, Nava; Givol, David

    2013-04-05

    Pancreas cancer, is the fourth leading cause of cancer death but its cell of origin is controversial. We compared the localization of stem cells in normal and cancerous pancreas using antibodies to the stem cell markers Nanog and LGR5. Here we show, for the first time, that LGR5 is expressed in normal pancreas, exclusively in the islets of Langerhans and it is co-localized, surprisingly, with Nanog and insulin in clusters of beta cells. In cancerous pancreas Nanog and LGR5 are expressed in the remaining islets and in all ductal cancer cells. We observed insulin staining among the ductal cancer cells, but not in metastases. This indicates that the islet's beta cells, expressing LGR5 and Nanog markers are the initiating cells of pancreas cancer, which migrated from the islets to form the ductal cancerous tissue, probably after mutation and de-differentiation. This discovery may facilitate treatment of this devastating cancer.

  1. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells in transplantation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Ochando, Jordi C; Chen, Shu Hsia

    2012-12-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are myeloid cells that suppress the immune response, a definition that reflects both their origin and their function. As negative regulators of the immune response, MDSC represent a novel therapeutic approach for manipulating the immune system toward tolerance or immunity. MDSC are present in cancer patients and tumor-bearing mice and are in part responsible for the inhibition of the cell-mediated immune response against the tumor. Our laboratories investigate the immunologic mechanisms of tumor acceptance mediated by MDSC, which can be exploited to prevent allograft rejection in transplantation. A better understanding of MDSC biology will open new avenues for therapeutic intervention, either by inhibiting their function (i.e. in cancer patients), or by enhancing their suppressive effects and promoting their expansion (i.e. in organ transplantation and alloimmune responses). In this review, we summarize some of the critical aspects of the immunoregulatory function of MDSC in cancer and transplantation and discuss their potential clinical applications.

  2. Review of metabolic pathways activated in cancer cells as determined through isotopic labeling and network analysis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wentao; Keibler, Mark A; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2017-02-10

    Cancer metabolism has emerged as an indispensable part of contemporary cancer research. During the past 10 years, the use of stable isotopic tracers and network analysis have unveiled a number of metabolic pathways activated in cancer cells. Here, we review such pathways along with the particular tracers and labeling observations that led to the discovery of their rewiring in cancer cells. The list of such pathways comprises the reductive metabolism of glutamine, altered glycolysis, serine and glycine metabolism, mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) induced reprogramming and the onset of acetate metabolism. Additionally, we demonstrate the critical role of isotopic labeling and network analysis in identifying these pathways. The alterations described in this review do not constitute a complete list, and future research using these powerful tools is likely to discover other cancer-related pathways and new metabolic targets for cancer therapy.

  3. Induction of iPS cells and of cancer stem cells: the stem cell or reprogramming hypothesis of cancer?

    PubMed

    Trosko, James E

    2014-01-01

    This article as designed to examine whether the "stoichiometric" or "elite models" of the origin of the "induced pluripotent stem" (iPS) cells fits some experiment facts from the developmental biology of adult stem cells and from the field of cancer research. In brief, since the evidence presented to support the stoichiometric model failed to recognize the factual existence of adult organ specific stem cells, the model has not been rigorously tested. In addition, the demonstration of a subset of cells (MUSE cells) in normal primary in vitro cultures of human fibroblasts (the usual source of iPS cells) seems to be the origin of the iPS cells. Moreover, from the field of carcinogenesis, the "stem cell" versus "de-differentiation" or "reprogramming" hypotheses were examined. Again, using the role of glycolysis, known to be associated with the Warburg effect in cancer cells, a list of experiments showing that (a) normal stem cells, which have few mitochondria, metabolize via glycolysis; (b) the stem cells are targets for "initiation" or "immortalization" or the blockage of differentiation and apoptosis of the stem cells by "immortalizing viruses"; (c) Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), when expressed, is associated with glycolysis and therefore, must be expressed in normal adult stem cells, as well as in cancer cells; and (d) p53, depleted or rendered dysfunctional by SV40 Large T antigen, is associated with the reduction of mitochondrial function and mass and is associated with the Warburg effect. Together, these observations from the iPS and "cancer stem cell" fields support the idea that both iPS cells and cancer stem cell are derived from adult organ-specific stem cells that do not restore or switch their metabolism of glucose from oxidative metabolism to glycolysis but, rather, in both cases, the adult stem cell, which metabolizes by glycolysis, is prevented from differentiation or from metabolizing by oxidative phosphorylation.

  4. CD133 is a temporary marker of cancer stem cells in small cell lung cancer, but not in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cui, Fei; Wang, Jian; Chen, Duan; Chen, Yi-Jiang

    2011-03-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Current investigations in the field of cancer research have intensively focused on the 'cancer stem cell' or 'tumor-initiating cell'. While CD133 was initially considered as a stem cell marker only in the hematopoietic system and the nervous system, the membrane antigen also identifies tumorigenic cells in certain solid tumors. In this study, we investigated the human lung cancer cell lines A549, H157, H226, Calu-1, H292 and H446. The results of real-time PCR analysis after chemotherapy drug selection and the fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis showed that CD133 only functioned as a marker in the small cell lung cancer line H446. The sorted CD133+ subset presented stem cell-like features, including self-renewal, differentiation, proliferation and tumorigenic capacity in subsequent assays. Furthermore, a proportion of the CD133+ cells had a tendency to remain stable, which may explain the controversies arising from previous studies. Therefore, the CD133+ subset should provide an enriched source of tumor-initiating cells among H446 cells. Moreover, the antigen could be used as an investigative marker of the tumorigenic process and an effective treatment for small cell lung cancer.

  5. Chemo Resistance of Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    in xenograft models as well as in neoadjuvant trial are providing strong support for our hypothesis for resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy...the tumor and thus may contribute to relapse following therapy. This was to be accomplished by utilizing mouse xenograft models as well as markers...and future clinical studies. Our preliminary results both in xenograft models as well as in the neoadjuvant trial support our hypothesis for

  6. Metabolic Regulation of Ovarian Cancer Cell Death

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    2013 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Metabolic Regulation of Ovarian Cancer cell death 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1...Introduction 3 2. Keywords 3 3. Overall Project Summary 3-6 4 . Key Research Accomplishments 6-7 5. Conclusion 7 6. Publications, Abstracts, and...synthase inhibitors Fig. 4 ). We were slightly delayed in submitting this work for publication as the first author had to finish his PhD thesis and

  7. [Targeted molecular therapy based on advanced cancer stem cell model].

    PubMed

    Hirao, Atsushi

    2015-08-01

    Improvement of cell purification and transplantation techniques have contributed to the identification of cell populations known as tumor-initiating cells (TICs). Although it was hypothesized that tumors are organized as hierarchies of tumor cells that are sustained by rare TICs, like normal tissue stem cells, there are several controversies towards such cancer stem cell model, e.g. reversible change of stem cell like population based on epigenetic changes, clonal genetic evolution and problems in xenotransplantation system. Despite complexity in cancer stem cell models, studies in cancer stem cell field have revealed that there are close relationship between cancer malignancy and stem cell properties, called "stemness". Understanding molecular mechanisms for controlling stemness would contribute to establishment of novel diagnostics or therapeutics for cancer.

  8. Genetic instability in cancer cells by impaired cell cycle checkpoints.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Makoto; Shimada, Midori; Niida, Hiroyuki

    2006-10-01

    Cells continuously encounter DNA damage caused either by damaging agents, including oxygen radicals and DNA replication errors caused by stalled replication forks, or by extracellular environments such as ultraviolet or ionizing irradiation. Such DNA damage poses a great threat to genome stability, potentially leading to loss or amplification of chromosome activity, which may result in cellular senescence, cancer or apoptosis. The DNA damage checkpoints coordinate an arrest in cell cycle progression with the DNA repair process, suppressing either mitotic catastrophe or proliferation of cells with damaged DNA. Numerous key players have been identified in terms of damage sensor proteins, transducer kinases and effectors, but their coordination and interconnectedness in damage control have only recently become evident. In this review, we discuss changes in chromatin structure, recruitment of mediator proteins and activation of transducer kinases in response to DNA damage. These cellular responses are important for determining the potential effects of current cancer therapies in terms of toxicity and efficacy.

  9. IL-33 facilitates endocrine resistance of breast cancer by inducing cancer stem cell properties.

    PubMed

    Hu, Haiyan; Sun, Jiaxing; Wang, Chunhong; Bu, Xiangmao; Liu, Xiangping; Mao, Yan; Wang, Haibo

    2017-02-16

    Breast cancers with estrogen receptor (ER) expressions account for the majority of all clinical cases. Due to hormone therapy with tamoxifen, prognoses of patients with ER-positive breast cancer are significantly improved. However, endocrine resistance to tamoxifen is common and inevitable, leading to compromised efficacy of hormone therapy. Herein, we identify a crucial role of IL-33 in inducing endocrine resistance of breast cancer. IL-33 overexpression in breast cancer cells results in resistance to tamoxifen-induced tumor growth inhibition, while IL-33 knockdown corrects this problem. Mechanistically, IL-33 induces breast cancer stem cell properties evidenced by mammosphere formation and xenograft tumorigenesis, as well as expression of cancer stem cell genes including ALDH1A3, OCT4, NANOG and SOX2. In breast cancer patients, higher serum IL-33 levels portend advanced clinical stages, poorly differentiated cancer cells and tumor recurrence. IL-33 expression levels in patients' freshly isolated breast cancer cells predicts tamoxifen resistance and cancer stem cell features in individual patient. Collectively, IL-33 induces endocrine resistance of breast cancer by promoting cancer stem cell properties. These findings provide novel mechanisms connecting IL-33 with cancer pathogenesis and pinpoint IL-33 as a promising target for optimizing hormone therapy in clinical practice.

  10. Pediatric cancer gone viral. Part I: strategies for utilizing oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 in children.

    PubMed

    Cripe, Timothy P; Chen, Chun-Yu; Denton, Nicholas L; Haworth, Kellie B; Hutzen, Brian; Leddon, Jennifer L; Streby, Keri A; Wang, Pin-Yi; Markert, James M; Waters, Alicia M; Gillespie, George Yancey; Beierle, Elizabeth A; Friedman, Gregory K

    Progress for improving outcomes in pediatric patients with solid tumors remains slow. In addition, currently available therapies are fraught with numerous side effects, often causing significant life-long morbidity for long-term survivors. The use of viruses to kill tumor cells based on their increased vulnerability to infection is gaining traction, with several viruses moving through early and advanced phase clinical testing. The prospect of increased efficacy and decreased toxicity with these agents is thus attractive for pediatric cancer. In part I of this two-part review, we focus on strategies for utilizing oncolytic engineered herpes simplex virus (HSV) to target pediatric malignancies. We discuss mechanisms of action, routes of delivery, and the role of preexisting immunity on antitumor efficacy. Challenges to maximizing oncolytic HSV in children are examined, and we highlight how these may be overcome through various arming strategies. We review the preclinical and clinical evidence demonstrating safety of a variety of oncolytic HSVs. In Part II, we focus on the antitumor efficacy of oncolytic HSV in pediatric tumor types, pediatric clinical advances made to date, and future prospects for utilizing HSV in pediatric patients with solid tumors.

  11. Immature myeloid cells and cancer-associated immune suppression.

    PubMed

    Kusmartsev, Sergei; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I

    2002-08-01

    Impaired balance between mature and immature myeloid cells is one of the hallmarks of cancer. In cancer patients as well as in mouse models there is increasing evidence that progressive tumor growth is associated with an accumulation of immature myeloid cells, monocytes/macrophages, and with a decreased number and function of dendritic cells (DC). This review examines recent findings on the contribution of immature myeloid cells (ImC) to cancer-induced immune suppression.

  12. Relationship Between Pak-Mediated Cell Death and Stress-Activated Kinase Signaling in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-02-01

    part of the cell death execution machinery. Here we show that a correlation exists in breast cancer cells between caspase- dependent cleavage of the...inhibits its activity might allow us to specifically inhibit signaling pathways downstream of Pak and evaluate how the cell death process is affected. In...a biochemical approach screening for substrates and possible mediators of cell death signaling components via Pak kinases we identified a guanine

  13. Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling regulates cancer stem cells in lung cancer A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Ying; Wang, Xiuwen; Wang, Yawei; Ma, Daoxin

    2010-02-12

    Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling plays an important role not only in cancer, but also in cancer stem cells. In this study, we found that {beta}-catenin and OCT-4 was highly expressed in cisplatin (DDP) selected A549 cells. Stimulating A549 cells with lithium chloride (LiCl) resulted in accumulation of {beta}-catenin and up-regulation of a typical Wnt target gene cyclin D1. This stimulation also significantly enhanced proliferation, clone formation, migration and drug resistance abilities in A549 cells. Moreover, the up-regulation of OCT-4, a stem cell marker, was observed through real-time PCR and Western blotting. In a reverse approach, we inhibited Wnt signaling by knocking down the expression of {beta}-catenin using RNA interference technology. This inhibition resulted in down-regulation of the Wnt target gene cyclin D1 as well as the proliferation, clone formation, migration and drug resistance abilities. Meanwhile, the expression of OCT-4 was reduced after the inhibition of Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling. Taken together, our study provides strong evidence that canonical Wnt signaling plays an important role in lung cancer stem cell properties, and it also regulates OCT-4, a lung cancer stem cell marker.

  14. Ferrocifen derivatives that induce senescence in cancer cells: selected examples.

    PubMed

    Bruyère, Céline; Mathieu, Véronique; Vessières, Anne; Pigeon, Pascal; Top, Siden; Jaouen, Gérard; Kiss, Robert

    2014-12-01

    Platinum coordination complexes represent an important class of anti-tumor agents. Due to recognized drawbacks, research into other types of metallodrugs has been diversified with the aim of finding new chemical entities with alternative mechanisms of action to overcome classical chemoresistance. P5 and DP1, two closely related ferrocenyl complexes bearing a similar ferrocenyl-ene-phenyl motif and displaying marked differences in their conformations and oxidation state versatility, were assayed in cancer cell models characterized by various sensitivities to pro-apoptotic stimuli. P5 and DP1 exert growth inhibitory effects between 0.5 and 10 μM against glioma and melanoma cells including pluripotent stem-like cells. These effects are due, at least partly, to senescence induction with typical SA-β-galactosidase staining and senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) as measured by the secretion of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α. Regulation of these cytokines' secretion may be related to AP-1 and other transcription factors unrelated to senescence. An in vivo graft of B16F10 cells after in vitro pre-incubation with DP1 or P5 led to increased survival in mice. In conclusion, P5 and DP1 ferrocenyl complexes induce senescence in various cancer cell models associated with distinct sensitivity to pro-apoptotic stimuli.

  15. Targeting cancer stem cell in castration resistant prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Eun-Jin; Zhou, Jiancheng; Lin, Chun-Jung; Hernandez, Elizabeth; Fazli, Ladan; Gleave, Martin; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Clinical evidence suggests an increased CSC in tumor mass may contribute to the failure of conventional therapies since CSCs seem to be more resistant than differentiated tumor cells. Thus, unveiling the mechanism regulating CSCs and candidate target molecules will provide new strategy to cure the patients. Experimental design The stem-like cell properties were determined by a prostasphere assay, and dye exclusion assay. To find critical stem cell marker and reveal regulation mechanism, basic biochemical and molecular biological methods such as qRT-PCR, Western blot, reporter gene assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay were employed. In addition, to determine the effect of combination therapy targeting both CSCs and its progeny, in vitro MTT assay and in vivo xenograft model was used. Results We demonstrate immortalized normal human prostate epithelial cells, appeared non-tumorigenic in vivo, become tumorigenic and acquire stem cell phenotype after knocking down a tumor suppressor gene. Also, those stem-like cells increase chemoresistance to conventional anti-cancer reagent. Mechanistically, we unveil that Wnt signaling is a key pathway regulating well-known stem cell marker CD44 by directly interacting to the promoter. Thus, by targeting CSCs using Wnt inhibitors synergistically enhances the efficacy of conventional drugs. Furthermore, the in vivo mice model bearing xenografts showed a robust inhibition of tumor growth after combination therapy. Conclusions Overall, this study provides strong evidence of CSC in CRPC. This new combination therapy strategy targeting CSC could significantly enhance therapeutic efficacy of current chemotherapy regimen only targeting non-CSC cells. PMID:26490309

  16. Biomarkers and Targeted Systemic Therapies in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Mukesh; Vinicius, Ernani; Owonikoko, Taofeek K.

    2015-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed significant growth in therapeutic options for patients diagnosed with lung cancer. This is due in major part to our improved technological ability to interrogate the genomics of cancer cells, which has enabled the development of biologically rational anticancer agents. The recognition that lung cancer is not a single disease entity dates back many decades to the histological subclassification of malignant neoplasms of the lung into subcategories of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). While SCLC continues to be regarded as a single histologic and therapeutic category, the NSCLC subset has undergone additional subcategorizations with distinct management algorithms for specific histologic and molecular subtypes. The defining characteristics of these NSCLC subtypes have evolved into important tools for prognosis and for predicting the likelihood of benefit when patients are treated with anticancer agents. PMID:26187108

  17. Combination Chemotherapy, Radiation Therapy, and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer That Cannot Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  18. Cell-ECM Interactions During Cancer Invasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yi

    The extracellular matrix (ECM), a fibrous material that forms a network in a tissue, significantly affects many aspects of cellular behavior, including cell movement and proliferation. Transgenic mouse tumor studies indicate that excess collagen, a major component of ECM, enhances tumor formation and invasiveness. Clinically, tumor associated collagen signatures are strong markers for breast cancer survival. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear since the properties of ECM are complex, with diverse structural and mechanical properties depending on various biophysical parameters. We have developed a three-dimensional elastic fiber network model, and parameterized it with in vitro collagen mechanics. Using this model, we study ECM remodeling as a result of local deformation and cell migration through the ECM as a network percolation problem. We have also developed a three-dimensional, multiscale model of cell migration and interaction with ECM. Our model reproduces quantitative single cell migration experiments. This model is a first step toward a fully biomechanical cell-matrix interaction model and may shed light on tumor associated collagen signatures in breast cancer. This work was partially supported by NIH-U01CA143069.

  19. Verrucous Squamous Cell Cancer in the Esophagus: An Obscure Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Egeland, Charlotte; Achiam, Michael P.; Federspiel, Birgitte; Svendsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma is a rare, slow-growing type of squamous cell cancer. Fewer than 50 patients with verrucous carcinoma in the esophagus have been described worldwide. In 2014, two male patients were diagnosed with verrucous carcinoma in the distal part of the esophagus. The endoscopic examinations showed a similar wart-like, white, irregular mucosa in both cases. The diagnosis was difficult to make since all biopsies taken from the affected area showed no malignancy. This cancer type has a relatively good prognosis when the diagnosis is finally obtained. Both our patients presented with dysphagia, weight loss, and an endoscopically malignant tumor, but surgery was not performed until after 9 and 10 months, respectively, and then in order to get a diagnosis. At the last follow-up, both patients were without any recurrence of the disease. PMID:27721734

  20. uPAR induces expression of transforming growth factor β and interleukin-4 in cancer cells to promote tumor-permissive conditioning of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jingjing; Jo, Minji; Eastman, Boryana M; Gilder, Andrew S; Bui, Jack D; Gonias, Steven L

    2014-12-01

    Cancer cells condition macrophages and other inflammatory cells in the tumor microenvironment so that these cells are more permissive for cancer growth and metastasis. Conditioning of inflammatory cells reflects, at least in part, soluble mediators (such as transforming growth factor β and IL-4) that are released by cancer cells and alter the phenotype of cells of the innate immune system. Signaling pathways in cancer cells that potentiate this activity are incompletely understood. The urokinase receptor (uPAR) is a cell-signaling receptor known to promote cancer cell survival, proliferation, metastasis, and cancer stem cell-like properties. The present findings show that uPAR expression in diverse cancer cells, including breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, and glioblastoma cells, promotes the ability of these cells to condition co-cultured bone marrow-derived macrophages so that the macrophages express significantly increased levels of arginase 1, a biomarker of the alternatively activated M2 macrophage phenotype. Expression of transforming growth factor β was substantially increased in uPAR-expressing cancer cells via a mechanism that requires uPA-initiated cell signaling. uPAR also controlled expression of IL-4 in cancer cells via a mechanism that involves activation of ERK1/2. The ability of uPAR to induce expression of factors that condition macrophages in the tumor microenvironment may constitute an important mechanism by which uPAR promotes cancer progression.

  1. Targeting Negative Surface Charges of Cancer Cells by Multifunctional Nanoprobes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bingdi; Le, Wenjun; Wang, Yilong; Li, Zhuoquan; Wang, Dong; Ren, Lei; Lin, Ling; Cui, Shaobin; Hu, Jennifer J.; Hu, Yihui; Yang, Pengyuan; Ewing, Rodney C.; Shi, Donglu; Cui, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    A set of electrostatically charged, fluorescent, and superparamagnetic nanoprobes was developed for targeting cancer cells without using any molecular biomarkers. The surface electrostatic properties of the established cancer cell lines and primary normal cells were characterized by using these nanoprobes with various electrostatic signs and amplitudes. All twenty two randomly selected cancer cell lines of different organs, but not normal control cells, bound specifically to the positively charged nanoprobes. The relative surface charges of cancer cells could be quantified by the percentage of cells captured magnetically. The activities of glucose metabolism had a profound impact on the surface charge level of cancer cells. The data indicate that an elevated glycolysis in the cancer cells led to a higher level secretion of lactate. The secreted lactate anions are known to remove the positive ions, leaving behind the negative changes on the cell surfaces. This unique metabolic behavior is responsible for generating negative cancer surface charges in a perpetuating fashion. The metabolically active cancer cells are shown to a unique surface electrostatic pattern that can be used for recovering cancer cells from the circulating blood and other solutions. PMID:27570558

  2. Targeting Negative Surface Charges of Cancer Cells by Multifunctional Nanoprobes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bingdi; Le, Wenjun; Wang, Yilong; Li, Zhuoquan; Wang, Dong; Ren, Lei; Lin, Ling; Cui, Shaobin; Hu, Jennifer J; Hu, Yihui; Yang, Pengyuan; Ewing, Rodney C; Shi, Donglu; Cui, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    A set of electrostatically charged, fluorescent, and superparamagnetic nanoprobes was developed for targeting cancer cells without using any molecular biomarkers. The surface electrostatic properties of the established cancer cell lines and primary normal cells were characterized by using these nanoprobes with various electrostatic signs and amplitudes. All twenty two randomly selected cancer cell lines of different organs, but not normal control cells, bound specifically to the positively charged nanoprobes. The relative surface charges of cancer cells could be quantified by the percentage of cells captured magnetically. The activities of glucose metabolism had a profound impact on the surface charge level of cancer cells. The data indicate that an elevated glycolysis in the cancer cells led to a higher level secretion of lactate. The secreted lactate anions are known to remove the positive ions, leaving behind the negative changes on the cell surfaces. This unique metabolic behavior is responsible for generating negative cancer surface charges in a perpetuating fashion. The metabolically active cancer cells are shown to a unique surface electrostatic pattern that can be used for recovering cancer cells from the circulating blood and other solutions.

  3. Alterations in Cell Signaling Pathways in Breast Cancer Cells after Environmental Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Kulp, K; McCutcheon-Maloney, S M; Bennett, L M

    2003-02-01

    Recent human epidemiological studies suggest that up to 75% of human cancers can be attributed to environmental exposures. Understanding the biologic impact of being exposed to a lifetime of complex environmental mixtures that may not be fully characterized is currently a major challenge. Functional endpoints may be used to assess the gross health consequences of complex mixture exposures from groundwater contamination, superfund sites, biologic releases, or nutritional sources. Such endpoints include the stimulation of cell growth or the induction of a response in an animal model. An environmental exposure that upsets normal cell growth regulation may have important ramifications for cancer development. Stimulating cell growth may alter an individual's cancer risk by changing the expression of genes and proteins that have a role in growth regulatory pathways within cells. Modulating the regulation of these genes and their products may contribute to the initiation, promotion or progression of disease in response to environmental exposure. We are investigating diet-related compounds that induce cell proliferation in breast cancer cell lines. These compounds, PhIP, Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign}, may be part of an everyday diet. PhIP is a naturally occurring mutagen that is formed in well-cooked muscle meats. PhIP consistently causes dose-dependent breast tumor formation in rats and consumption of well-done meat has been linked to increased risk of breast cancer in women. Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign} herbal tonics are complementary and alternative medicines used by women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer as an alternative therapy for disease treatment and prevention. The long-term goal of this work is to identify those cellular pathways that are altered by a chemical or biologic environmental exposure and understand how those changes correlate with and or predict changes in human health risk. This project addressed this goal by

  4. Fusion of bone marrow-derived cells with cancer cells: metastasis as a secondary disease in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pawelek, John M.

    2014-01-01

    This perspective article highlights the leukocyte-cancer cell hybrid theory as a mechanism for cancer metastasis. Beginning from the first proposal of the theory more than a century ago and continuing today with the first proof for this theory in a human cancer, the hybrid theory offers a unifying explanation for metastasis. In this scenario, leukocyte fusion with a cancer cell is a secondary disease superimposed upon the early tumor, giving birth to a new, malignant cell with a leukocyte-cancer cell hybrid epigenome. PMID:24589183

  5. Chinese medicine and biomodulation in cancer patients--Part one.

    PubMed

    Sagar, S M; Wong, R K

    2008-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (tcm) may be integrated with conventional Western medicine to enhance the care of patients with cancer. Although tcm is normally implemented as a whole system, recent reductionist research suggests mechanisms for the effects of acupuncture, herbs, and nutrition within the scientific model of biomedicine. The health model of Chinese medicine accommodates physical and pharmacologic interventions within the framework of a body-mind network. A Cartesian split does not occur within this model, but to allow for scientific exploration within the restrictions of positivism, reductionism, and controls for confounding factors, the components must necessarily be separated. Still, whole-systems research is important to evaluate effectiveness when applying the full model in clinical practice. Scientific analysis provides a mechanistic understanding of the processes that will improve the design of clinical studies and enhance safety. Enough preliminary evidence is available to encourage quality clinical trials to evaluate the efficacy of integrating tcm into Western cancer care.

  6. Chinese medicine and biomodulation in cancer patients—Part one

    PubMed Central

    Sagar, S.M.; Wong, R.K.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (tcm) may be integrated with conventional Western medicine to enhance the care of patients with cancer. Although tcm is normally implemented as a whole system, recent reductionist research suggests mechanisms for the effects of acupuncture, herbs, and nutrition within the scientific model of biomedicine. The health model of Chinese medicine accommodates physical and pharmacologic interventions within the framework of a body–mind network. A Cartesian split does not occur within this model, but to allow for scientific exploration within the restrictions of positivism, reductionism, and controls for confounding factors, the components must necessarily be separated. Still, whole-systems research is important to evaluate effectiveness when applying the full model in clinical practice. Scientific analysis provides a mechanistic understanding of the processes that will improve the design of clinical studies and enhance safety. Enough preliminary evidence is available to encourage quality clinical trials to evaluate the efficacy of integrating tcm into Western cancer care. PMID:18317584

  7. Docosahexaenoic acid suppresses breast cancer cell metastasis by targeting matrix-metalloproteinases

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Soyeon; Kim, Soyeon; Heo, Jun-Young; Kweon, Gi-Ryang; Wu, Tong; Park, Jong-Il; Lim, Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in women, and nearly half of breast cancer patients develop distant metastatic disease after therapy. Despite the significant advances that have been achieved in understanding breast cancer metastasis in the past decades, metastatic cancer is still hard to cure. Here, we demonstrated an anti-cancer mechanism of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that suppressed lung metastasis in breast cancer. DHA could inhibit proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells in vitro, and this was mainly through blocking Cox-2-PGE2-NF-κB-MMPs cascades. DHA treatment significantly decreased Cox-2 and NF-κB expression as well as nuclear translocation of NF-κB in MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, DHA also reduced NF-κB binding to DNA which may lead to inactivation of MMPs. Moreover, in vivo studies using Fat-1 transgenic mice showed remarkable decrease of tumor growth and metastasis to EO771 cells to lung in DHA-rich environment. In conclusion, DHA attenuated breast cancer progression and lung metastasis in part through suppressing MMPs, and these findings suggest chemoprevention and potential therapeutic strategy to overcome malignant breast cancer. PMID:27363023

  8. Direct targeting of cancer cells: a multiparameter approach.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Eileen L; Welty, Lily Anne Y; Banner, Lisa R; Oppenheimer, Steven B

    2005-01-01

    Lectins have been widely used in cell surface studies and in the development of potential anticancer drugs. Many past studies that have examined lectin toxicity have only evaluated the effects on cancer cells, not their non-cancer counterparts. In addition, few past studies have evaluated the relationship between lectin-cell binding and lectin toxicity on both cell types. Here we examine these parameters in one study: lectin-cell binding and lectin toxicity with both cancer cells and their normal counterparts. We found that the human colon cancer cell line CCL-220/Colo320DM bound to agarose beads derivatized with Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin (PHA-L) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), while the non-cancer human colon cell line CRL-1459/CCD-18Co did not. When these lectins were tested for their effects on cell viability in culture, both cell lines were affected by the lectins but at 6, 48 and 72 h incubation times, PHA-L was most toxic to the cancer cell line in a concentration dependent manner. At 48 h incubation, WGA was more toxic to the cancer cell line. The results suggest that it may be possible to develop lectin protocols that selectively target cancer cells for death. In any case, examination of both malignant cells and their non-malignant counterparts, analysis of their binding characteristics to immobilized lectins, and examination of the toxicity of free lectins in culture, provides a multiparameter model for obtaining more comprehensive information than from more limited approaches.

  9. Why are breast cancer stem cells resistant to radiation?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    repair after fractionated irradiation in endometrial cancer cell lines tested with the 96-well plate clonogenic assay. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 120... cancer imaging and therapy The main goals of this proposal are to develop nanoparticles for imaging and therapy for breast cancer patients. DOD... Physiological and Biochemical Functions of HSP70 WBHRI 94-47M P.I., 5% 1995-1996 $5,000 Proto-oncogene and Breast Cancer Angiogenesis

  10. Nanomaterials for regulating cancer and stem cell fate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Birju P.

    The realm of nanomedicine has grown exponentially over the past few decades. However, there are several obstacles that need to be overcome, prior to the wide-spread clinical applications of these nanoparticles, such as (i) developing well-defined nanoparticles of varying size, morphology and composition to enable various clinical applications; (ii) overcome various physiological barriers encountered in order to deliver the therapeutics to the target location; and (iii) real-time monitoring of the nano-therapeutics within the human body for tracking their uptake, localization and effect. Hence, this dissertation focuses on developing multimodal nanotechnology-based approaches to overcome the above-mentioned challenges and thus enable regulation of cancer and stem cell fate. The initial part of this dissertation describes the development of multimodal magnetic core-shell nanoparticles (MCNPs), comprised of a highly magnetic core surrounded by a thin gold shell, thus combining magnetic and plasmonic properties. These nanoparticles were utilized for mainly two applications: (i) Magnetically-facilitated delivery of siRNA and plasmid DNA for effective stem cell differentiation and imaging and (ii) Combined hyperthermia and targeted delivery of a mitochondria-targeting peptide for enhancing apoptosis in cancer cells. The following part of this dissertation presents the generation of a multi-functional cyclodextrin-conjugated polymeric delivery platform (known as DexAMs), for co-delivery of anticancer drugs and siRNAs in a target-specific manner to brain tumor cells. This combined delivery of chemotherapeutics and siRNA resulted in a synergistic effect on the apoptosis of brain tumor cells, as compared to the individual treatments. The final part of this thesis presents development of stimuli-responsive uorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based mesoporous silica nanoparticles for real-time monitoring of drug release in cells. The stimuli-responsive behavior of

  11. Spontaneous dormancy of metastatic breast cancer cells in an all human liver microphysiologic system

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, S E; Clark, A M; Taylor, D P; Young, C L; Pillai, V C; Stolz, D B; Venkataramanan, R; Lauffenburger, D; Griffith, L; Wells, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Metastatic outgrowth in breast cancer can occur years after a seeming cure. Existing model systems of dormancy are limited as they do not recapitulate human metastatic dormancy without exogenous manipulations and are unable to query early events of micrometastases. Methods: Here, we describe a human ex vivo hepatic microphysiologic system. The system is established with fresh human hepatocytes and non-parenchymal cells (NPCs) creating a microenvironment into which breast cancer cells (MCF7 and MDA-MB-231) are added. Results: The hepatic tissue maintains function through 15 days as verified by liver-specific protein production and drug metabolism assays. The NPCs form an integral part of the hepatic niche, demonstrated within the system through their participation in differential signalling cascades and cancer cell outcomes. Breast cancer cells intercalate into the hepatic niche without interfering with hepatocyte function. Examination of cancer cells demonstrated that a significant subset enter a quiescent state of dormancy as shown by lack of cell cycling (EdU− or Ki67−). The presence of NPCs altered the cancer cell fraction entering quiescence, and lead to differential cytokine profiles in the microenvironment effluent. Conclusions: These findings establish the liver microphysiologic system as a relevant model for the study of breast cancer metastases and entry into dormancy. PMID:25314052

  12. Interleukin-9 Promotes Pancreatic Cancer Cells Proliferation and Migration via the miR-200a/Beta-Catenin Axis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Bangli; Qiu-lan, Huang; Lei, Rong-e; Shi, Cheng; Jiang, Hai-xing

    2017-01-01

    Background. Both IL-9 and miR-200a are involved in the pathogenesis of cancers; however, the role of IL-9 in pancreatic cancer and the possible underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of IL-9 on pancreatic cancer cells and its interaction with miR-200a. Methods. Pancreatic cancer cells (PANC-1 and AsPC-1) were treated with IL-9 and the expression of miR-200a and β-catenin in pancreatic cancer cells was measured. β-Catenin was examined as a target gene of miR-200a in pancreatic cancer cells. The interaction between IL-9 and miR-200a in pancreatic cancer cells was determined by infecting miR-200a mimics prior to IL-9 treatment and then measuring miR-200a and β-catenin expression. Results. IL-9 significantly promoted the proliferation, invasion, and migration of pancreatic cancer cells; however, the effect on pancreatic cancer cell apoptosis was insignificant. β-Catenin was verified as a target gene of miR-200a in pancreatic cancer cells. Overexpression of miR-200a in pancreatic cancer cells significantly attenuated proliferation and metastasis and reduced β-catenin expression. IL-9 treatment of pancreatic cancer cells decreased miR-200a expression and increased β-catenin expression. The effect of miR-200a on pancreatic cancer cells decreased following IL-9 treatment. Conclusions. IL-9 promotes proliferation and metastasis in pancreatic cancer cells; this effect may partly involve regulation of the miR-200a/β-catenin axis. PMID:28349057

  13. MicroRNA reins in embryonic and cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Bibekanand; Chakrabarti, Jayprokas; Ghosh, Zhumur

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs represents a new layer of gene regulation in stem cells by controlling the molecular mechanisms involved in modulating stem cell fate and behavior. Such a role of microRNA is seen in embryonic stem cell as well, maintaining a delicate balance between survival, proliferation, and self-renewal signals. Further, dysregulation of stem cell self-renewal is a likely requirement for the initiation and formation of cancer stem cells that probably pose resistance to current cancer treatments. In fact, the precise mechanism that regulates embryonic as well as cancer stem cell self-renewal and pluripotency remains largely unknown. Understanding the miRNA related stem cell biology and pathways offers great promise for improving stem cell mediated regenerative therapy as well as cancer therapies. Here we summarize some of the emerging evidences demonstrating the role of these molecular switches in embryonic and cancer stem cells.

  14. Erlotinib Hydrochloride and Cetuximab in Treating Patients With Advanced Gastrointestinal Cancer, Head and Neck Cancer, Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, or Colorectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-28

    Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Carcinoma of the Appendix; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Anal Cancer; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Esophageal Cancer; Recurrent Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Small Intestine Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma; Small Intestine Leiomyosarcoma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Stage IV Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Anal Cancer; Stage IV Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  15. Androgen regulates ADAMTS15 gene expression in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Molokwu, Chidi N; Adeniji, Olajumoke O; Chandrasekharan, Shankar; Hamdy, Freddie C; Buttle, David J

    2010-08-01

    Prostate cancer is a major cause of mortality, largely as a consequence of metastases and transformation to androgen-independent growth. Metalloproteinases are implicated in cancer progression. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS) are expressed in prostate cancer cells, with ADAMTS-1 and ADAMTS-15 being the most abundant. ADAMTS-15 but not ADAMTS-1 expression was downregulated by androgen in LNCaP prostate cancer cells, possibly through androgen response elements associated with the gene. ADAMTS-15 expression is predictive for survival in breast cancer, and the situation may be similar in prostate cancer, as androgen independence is usually due to aberrant signaling through its receptor.

  16. Modulation of signal transduction in cancer cells by phytosterols.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Peter G; Awad, Atif B

    2010-01-01

    Phytosterols are biofactors found enriched in plant foods such as seeds, grains, and legumes. Their dietary consumption is associated with numerous health benefits. Epidemiologic and experimental animal studies indicate that phytosterols are cancer chemopreventive agents particularly against cancers of the colon, breast, and prostate. Phytosterols impede oncogenesis and prevent cancer cell proliferation and survival. The molecular mechanisms underlying these beneficial actions involve effects on signal transduction processes which regulate cell growth and apoptosis. Phytosterols increase sphingomyelin turnover, ceramide formation, and liver X receptor activation. In concert, these actions slow cell cycle progression, inhibit cell proliferation, and activate caspase cascades and apoptosis in cancer cells.

  17. Cancer stem cells: constantly evolving and functionally heterogeneous therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Rycaj, Kiera; Liu, Zhong-Min; Tang, Dean G

    2014-06-01

    Elucidating the origin of and dynamic interrelationship between intratumoral cell subpopulations has clear clinical significance in helping to understand the cellular basis of treatment response, therapeutic resistance, and tumor relapse. Cancer stem cells (CSC), together with clonal evolution driven by genetic alterations, generate cancer cell heterogeneity commonly observed in clinical samples. The 2013 Shanghai International Symposium on Cancer Stem Cells brought together leaders in the field to highlight the most recent progress in phenotyping, characterizing, and targeting CSCs and in elucidating the relationship between the cell-of-origin of cancer and CSCs. Discussions from the symposium emphasize the urgent need in developing novel therapeutics to target the constantly evolving CSCs.

  18. Tricking the balance: NK cells in anti-cancer immunity.

    PubMed

    Pahl, Jens; Cerwenka, Adelheid

    2017-01-01

    Natural Killer (NK) cells are classically considered innate immune effector cells involved in the first line of defense against infected and malignant cells. More recently, NK cells have emerged to acquire properties of adaptive immunity in response to certain viral infections such as expansion of specific NK cell subsets and long-lasting virus-specific responses to secondary challenges. NK cells distinguish healthy cells from abnormal cells by measuring the net input of activating and inhibitory signals perceived from target cells through NK cell surface receptors. Acquisition of activating ligands in combination with reduced expression of MHC class I molecules on virus-infected and cancer cells activates NK cell cytotoxicity and release of immunostimulatory cytokines like IFN-γ. In the cancer microenvironment however, NK cells become functionally impaired by inhibitory factors produced by immunosuppressive immune cells and cancer cells. Here we review recent progress on the role of NK cells in cancer immunity. We describe regulatory factors of the tumor microenvironment on NK cell function which determine cancer cell destruction or escape from immune recognition. Finally, recent strategies that focus on exploiting NK cell anti-cancer responses for immunotherapeutic approaches are outlined.

  19. Targeting Cell Survival Proteins for Cancer Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Manoj K.; Prasad, Sahdeo; Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Deb, Lokesh; Huang, Jiamin; Karelia, Deepkamal N.; Amin, Shantu G.; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2016-01-01

    Escaping from cell death is one of the adaptations that enable cancer cells to stave off anticancer therapies. The key players in avoiding apoptosis are collectively known as survival proteins. Survival proteins comprise the Bcl-2, inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP), and heat shock protein (HSP) families. The aberrant expression of these proteins is associated with a range of biological activities that promote cancer cell survival, proliferation, and resistance to therapy. Several therapeutic strategies that target survival proteins are based on mimicking BH3 domains or the IAP-binding motif or competing with ATP for the Hsp90 ATP-binding pocket. Alternative strategies, including use of nutraceuticals, transcriptional repression, and antisense oligonucleotides, provide options to target survival proteins. This review focuses on the role of survival proteins in chemoresistance and current therapeutic strategies in preclinical or clinical trials that target survival protein signaling pathways. Recent approaches to target survival proteins-including nutraceuticals, small-molecule inhibitors, peptides, and Bcl-2-specific mimetic are explored. Therapeutic inventions targeting survival proteins are promising strategies to inhibit cancer cell survival and chemoresistance. However, complete eradication of resistance is a distant dream. For a successful clinical outcome, pretreatment with novel survival protein inhibitors alone or in combination with conventional therapies holds great promise. PMID:26927133

  20. Niche construction game cancer cells play

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, Aviv; Gligorijevic, Bojana

    2015-10-01

    Niche construction concept was originally defined in evolutionary biology as the continuous interplay between natural selection via environmental conditions and the modification of these conditions by the organism itself. Processes unraveling during cancer metastasis include construction of niches, which cancer cells use towards more efficient survival, transport into new environments and preparation of the remote sites for their arrival. Many elegant experiments were done lately illustrating, for example, the premetastatic niche construction, but there is practically no mathematical modeling done which would apply the niche construction framework. To create models useful for understanding niche construction role in cancer progression, we argue that a) genetic, b) phenotypic and c) ecological levels are to be included. While the model proposed here is phenomenological in its current form, it can be converted into a predictive outcome model via experimental measurement of the model parameters. Here we give an overview of an experimentally formulated problem in cancer metastasis and propose how niche construction framework can be utilized and broadened to model it. Other life science disciplines, such as host-parasite coevolution, may also benefit from niche construction framework adaptation, to satisfy growing need for theoretical considerations of data collected by experimental biology.

  1. Circulating tumor cells in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pukazhendhi, Geetha; Glück, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Circulating tumor cell (CTC) measurement in peripheral blood of patients with breast cancer offers prognostic information. In this review, we will try to identify evidence that could be used for prognosis, predictive power to draw this tool to clinical utility. We reviewed 81 manuscripts, and categorized those in discovery datasets, prognostic factors in metastatic breast cancer, identification of clinical utility in early breast cancer and in novel approaches. With each patient responding differently to chemotherapy, more efficient markers would improve clinical outcome. Current CTC diagnostic techniques use epithelial markers predominantly; however, the most appropriate method is the measurement of circulating DNA. It has been hypothesized that micrometastasis occurs early in the development of tumors. That implies the presence of CTCs in nonmetastatic setting. The origin of stimulus for malignant transformation is yet unknown. The role of microenvironment as a stimulus is also being investigated. It has been shown that CTCs vary in numbers with chemotherapy. The markers, which are followed-up in the primary tumors, are also being studied on the CTCs. There is discordance of the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 status between the primary tumor and CTCs. This review summarizes our current knowledge about the CTCs. With genetic profiling and molecular characterization of CTCs, it is possible to overcome the diagnostic difficulties. Evidence for clinical utility of CTC as prognostic and predictive marker is increasing. Appropriate patient stratification according to CTC determination among other tests, would make personalized cancer therapy more feasible. PMID:25191136

  2. Expression of pleiotrophin in small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, H Q; Wang, J

    2015-01-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a kind of heparin binding growth factor closely related to tumor progression. This study aimed to discuss the significance of the expression of PTN in benign and malignant lung cancer tissues, especially small cell lung cancer. Lung cancer samples were collected for study and lung tissue samples with benign lesions were taken as controls. The expression of PTN was detected using tissue chip combined with the immunohistochemical method, and the differences of small cell lung cancer with non-small cell lung cancer and benign lesion tissue were compared. It was found that PTN expression was mainly located in the cytoplasm and membrane of cells; PTN expression in the lung cancer group was higher than that in the control group (p < 0.01), and PTN expression in the small cell cancer group was higher than that in the squamous carcinoma group and glandular cancer group (p < 0.05). In addition, PTN expression quantity in patients with lung cancer were in close correlation with TNM staging, pathological type and tumor differentiation degree (p < 0.05). PTN was found to express abnormally high in lung cancer, especially small cell lung cancer tissue. PTN is most likely to be a new tumor marker for diagnosis and prognosis of lung cancer.

  3. Implications of Cancer Stem Cell Theory for Cancer Chemoprevention by Natural Dietary Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanyan; Wicha, Max S.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Sun, Duxin

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of cancer stem cell theory has profound implications for cancer chemoprevention and therapy. Cancer stem cells give rise to the tumor bulk through continuous self-renewal and differentiation. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate self-renewal is of greatest importance for discovery of anti-cancer drugs targeting cancer stem cells. Naturally-occurring dietary compounds have received increasing attention in cancer chemoprevention. The anti-cancer effects of many dietary components have been reported for both in vitro and in vivo studies. Recently, a number of studies have found that several dietary compounds can directly or indirectly affect cancer stem cell self-renewal pathways. Herein we review the current knowledge of most common natural dietary compounds for their impact on self-renewal pathways and potential effect against cancer stem cells. Three pathways (Wnt/β-catenin, Hedgehog, and Notch) are summarized for their functions in self-renewal of cancer stem cells. The dietary compounds, including curcumin, sulforaphane, soy isoflavone, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, resveratrol, lycopene, piperine, and vitamin D3, are discussed for their direct or indirect effect on these self-renewal pathways. Curcumin and piperine have been demonstrated to target breast cancer stem cells. Sulforaphane has been reported to inhibit pancreatic tumor initiating cells and breast cancer stem cells. These studies provide a basis for preclinical and clinical evaluation of dietary compounds for chemoprevention of cancer stem cells. This may enable us to discover more preventive strategies for cancer management by reducing cancer resistance and recurrence and improving patient survival. PMID:21295962

  4. Nicastrin regulates breast cancer stem cell properties and tumor growth in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Ylenia; Filipović, Aleksandra; Molyneux, Gemma; Periyasamy, Manikandan; Giamas, Georgios; Hu, Yunhui; Trivedi, Pritesh S; Wang, Jayson; Yagüe, Ernesto; Michel, Loren; Coombes, R Charles

    2012-10-09

    Nicastrin (NCT) is a crucial component of the γ-secretase (GS) enzyme, which prompted investigations into its biological role in cancer. We have previously shown that nicastrin is overexpressed in breast cancer (BC), conferring worse overall survival in invasive, ERα negative patients. Here, we used 2D and 3D Matrigel, anchorage-independent growth conditions and a breast cancer xenograft mouse model to assess the impact of nicastrin on breast cancer stem cell (BCSC) propagation and invasion in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Stable knockdown of nicastrin in HCC1806 breast cancer cells reduced cell invasion by 51.4 ± 1.7%, accompanied by a morphological change to a rounded cell phenotype and down-regulation of vimentin, Snail, Twist, MMP2, and MMP9. We observed a reduction of the pool of CD44(+)/CD24(-) and ALDH1 high breast cancer stem cells by threefold and twofold, respectively, and a reduction by 2.6-fold of the mammospheres formation. Nicastrin overexpression in nontransformed MCF10A cells caused an induction of epithelial to mesenchymal regulators, as well as a fivefold increased ALDH1 activity, a threefold enrichment for CD44(+)/CD24(-) stem cells, and a 3.2-fold enhanced mammosphere-forming capacity. Using the γ-sescretase inhibiton, Notch1/4 siRNA, and Akt inhibition, we show that nicastrin regulates breast cancer stem cells partly through Notch1 and the Akt pathway. Exploiting serial dilution transplantation of the HCC1806 cells expressing nicastrin and HCC1806 stably depleted of nicastrin, in vivo, we demonstrate that nicastrin inhibition may be relevant for the reduced tumorigenicity of breast cancer cells. These data could serve as a benchmark for development of nicastrin-targeted therapies in breast cancer.

  5. Atractylenolide I-mediated Notch pathway inhibition attenuates gastric cancer stem cell traits

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Li; Mao, Rurong; Shen, Ke; Zheng, Yuanhong; Li, Yueqi; Liu, Jianwen; Ni, Lei

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • This paper supports the anti-tumor effects of AT-I on gastric cancer in vitro. • AT-I attenuates gastric cancer stem cell traits. • It is the systematic study regarding AT-I suppression of Notch pathway in GC and GCSLCs. - Abstract: Atractylenolide I (AT-I), one of the main naturally occurring compounds of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, has remarkable anti-cancer effects on various cancers. However, its effects on the treatment of gastric cancer remain unclear. Via multiple cellular and molecular approaches, we demonstrated that AT-I could potently inhibit cancer cell proliferation and induce apoptosis through inactivating Notch pathway. AT-I treatment led to the reduction of expressions of Notch1, Jagged1, and its downstream Hes1/ Hey1. Our results showed that AT-I inhibited the self-renewal capacity of gastric stem-like cells (GCSLCs) by suppression of their sphere formation capacity and cell viability. AT-I attenuated gastric cancer stem cell (GCSC) traits partly through inactivating Notch1, leading to reducing the expressions of its downstream target Hes1, Hey1 and CD44 in vitro. Collectively, our results suggest that AT-I might develop as a potential therapeutic drug for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  6. The promise of γδ T cells and the γδ T cell receptor for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Legut, Mateusz; Cole, David K; Sewell, Andrew K

    2015-11-01

    γδ T cells form an important part of adaptive immune responses against infections and malignant transformation. The molecular targets of human γδ T cell receptors (TCRs) remain largely unknown, but recent studies have confirmed the recognition of phosphorylated prenyl metabolites, lipids in complex with CD1 molecules and markers of cellular stress. All of these molecules are upregulated on various cancer types, highlighting the potential importance of the γδ T cell compartment in cancer immunosurveillance and paving the way for the use of γδ TCRs in cancer therapy. Ligand recognition by the γδ TCR often requires accessory/co-stimulatory stress molecules on both T cells and target cells; this cellular stress context therefore provides a failsafe against harmful self-reactivity. Unlike αβ T cells, γδ T cells recognise their targets irrespective of HLA haplotype and therefore offer exciting possibilities for off-the-shelf, pan-population cancer immunotherapies. Here, we present a review of known ligands of human γδ T cells and discuss the promise of harnessing these cells for cancer treatment.

  7. [Dendritic cell-based therapeutic cancer vaccines].

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Manglio; Alaniz, Laura; Mazzolini, Guillermo D

    2016-01-01

    In recent years immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of patients with advanced cancer. The increased knowledge in the tumor immune-biology has allowed developing rational treatments by manipulation of the immune system with significant clinical impact. This rapid development has significantly changed the prognosis of many tumors without treatment options up to date. Other strategies have explored the use of therapeutic vaccines based on dendritic cells (DC) by inducing antitumor immunity. DC are cells of hematopoietic origin, constitutively expressing molecules capable to present antigens, that are functionally the most potent inducers of the activation and proliferation of antigen specific T lymphocytes. The CD8+ T cells proliferate and acquire cytotoxic capacity after recognizing their specific antigen presented on the surface of DC, although only some types of DC can present antigens internalized from outside the cell to precursors of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (this function is called cross-presentation) requiring translocation mechanisms of complex antigens. The induction of an effective adaptive immune response is considered a good option given its specificity, and prolonged duration of response. The DC, thanks to its particular ability of antigen presentation and lymphocyte stimulation, are able to reverse the poor antitumor immune response experienced by patients with cancer. The DC can be obtained from various sources, using different protocols to generate differentiation and maturation, and are administered by various routes such as subcutaneous, intravenous or intranodal. The wide variety of protocols resulted in heterogeneous clinical responses.

  8. Notch-1 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition consistent with cancer stem cell phenotype in pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bao, Bin; Wang, Zhiwei; Ali, Shadan; Kong, Dejuan; Li, Yiwei; Ahmad, Aamir; Banerjee, Sanjeev; Azmi, Asfar S; Miele, Lucio; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2011-08-01

    Activation of Notch-1 is known to be associated with the development and progression of human malignancies including pancreatic cancer. Emerging evidence suggest that the acquisition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype and induction of cancer stem cell (CSC) or cancer stem-like cell phenotype are interrelated and contributes to tumor recurrence and drug resistance. The molecular mechanism(s) by which Notch-1 contributes to the acquisition of EMT phenotype and CSC self-renewal capacity has not been fully elucidated. Here we show that forced over-expression of Notch-1 leads to increased cell growth, clonogenicity, migration and invasion of AsPC-1 cells. Moreover, over-expression of Notch-1 led to the induction of EMT phenotype by activation of mesenchymal cell markers such as ZEB1, CD44, EpCAM, and Hes-1. Here we also report, for the first time, that over-expression of Notch-1 leads to increased expression of miR-21, and decreased expression of miR-200b, miR-200c, let-7a, let-7b, and let-7c. Re-expression of miR-200b led to decreased expression of ZEB1, and vimentin, and increased expression of E-cadherin. Over-expression of Notch-1 also increased the formation of pancreatospheres consistent with expression of CSC surface markers CD44 and EpCAM. Finally, we found that genistein, a known natural anti-tumor agent inhibited cell growth, clonogenicity, migration, invasion, EMT phenotype, formation of pancreatospheres and expression of CD44 and EpCAM. These results suggest that the activation of Notch-1 signaling contributes to the acquisition of EMT phenotype, which is in part mediated through the regulation of miR-200b and CSC self-renewal capacity, and these processes could be attenuated by genistein treatment.

  9. Crosstalk between stromal cells and cancer cells in pancreatic cancer: New insights into stromal biology.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Han-Xiang; Zhou, Bin; Cheng, Yu-Gang; Xu, Jian-Wei; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Guang-Yong; Hu, San-Yuan

    2017-04-28

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) remains one of the most lethal malignancies worldwide. Increasing evidence has confirmed the pivotal role of stromal components in the regulation of carcinogenesis, invasion, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance in PC. Interaction between neoplastic cells and stromal cells builds a specific microenvironment, which further modulates the malignant properties of cancer cells. Instead of being a "passive bystander", stroma may play a role as a "partner in crime" in PC. However, the role of stromal components in PC is complex and requires further investigation. In this article, we review recent advances regarding the regulatory roles and mechanisms of stroma biology, especially the cellular components such as pancreatic stellate cells, macrophages, neutrophils, adipocytes, epithelial cells, pericytes, mast cells, and lymphocytes, in PC. Crosstalk between stromal cells and cancer cells is thoroughly investigated. We also review the prognostic value and molecular therapeutic targets of stroma in PC. This review may help us further understand the molecular mechanisms of stromal biology and its role in PC development and therapeutic resistance. Moreover, targeting stroma components may provide new therapeutic strategies for this stubborn disease.

  10. Low-Dose Acetylsalicylic Acid in Treating Patients With Stage I-III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-28

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  11. Radiation Therapy, Chemotherapy, and Soy Isoflavones in Treating Patients With Stage IIIA-IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-28

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  12. Cancer Stem Cell Biomarker Discovery Using Antibody Array Technology.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Rob; Huang, Ruo-Pan

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease involving hundreds of pathways and numerous levels of disease progression. In addition, there is a growing body of evidence that the origins and growth rates of specific types of cancer may involve "cancer stem cells," which are defined as "cells within a tumor that possess the capacity to self-renew and to cause the development of heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor.(1)" Many types of cancer are now thought to harbor cancer stem cells. These cells themselves are thought to be unique in comparison to other cells types present within the tumor and to exhibit characteristics that allow for the promotion of tumorigenesis and in some cases metastasis. In addition, it is speculated that each type of cancer stem cell exhibits a unique set of molecular and biochemical markers. These markers, alone or in combination, may act as a signature for defining not only the type of cancer but also the progressive state. These biomarkers may also double as signaling entities which act autonomously or upon neighboring cancer stem cells or other cells within the local microenvironment to promote tumorigenesis. This review describes the heterogeneic properties of cancer stem cells and outlines the identification and application of biomarkers and signaling molecules defining these cells as they relate to different forms of cancer. Other examples of biomarkers and signaling molecules expressed by neighboring cells in the local tumor microenvironment are also discussed. In addition, biochemical signatures for cancer stem cell autocrine/paracrine signaling, local site recruitment, tumorigenic potential, and conversion to a stem-like phenotype are described.

  13. Targeting Notch to target cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Pannuti, Antonio; Foreman, Kimberly; Rizzo, Paola; Osipo, Clodia; Golde, Todd; Osborne, Barbara; Miele, Lucio

    2010-06-15

    The cellular heterogeneity of neoplasms has been at the center of considerable interest since the "cancer stem cell hypothesis", originally formulated for hematologic malignancies, was extended to solid tumors. The origins of cancer "stem" cells (CSC) or tumor-initiating cells (TIC; henceforth referred to as CSCs) and the methods to identify them are hotly debated topics. Nevertheless, the existence of subpopulations of tumor cells with stem-like characteristics has significant therapeutic implications. The stem-like phenotype includes indefinite self-replication, pluripotency, and, importantly, resistance to chemotherapeutics. Thus, it is plausible that CSCs, regardless of their origin, may escape standard therapies and cause disease recurrences and/or metastasis after apparently complete remissions. Consequently, the idea of selectively targeting CSCs with novel therapeutics is gaining considerable interest. The Notch pathway is one of the most intensively studied putative therapeutic targets in CSC, and several investigational Notch inhibitors are being developed. However, successful targeting of Notch signaling in CSC will require a thorough understanding of Notch regulation and the context-dependent interactions between Notch and other therapeutically relevant pathways. Understanding these interactions will increase our ability to design rational combination regimens that are more likely to prove safe and effective. Additionally, to determine which patients are most likely to benefit from treatment with Notch-targeting therapeutics, reliable biomarkers to measure pathway activity in CSC from specific tumors will have to be identified and validated. This article summarizes the most recent developments in the field of Notch-targeted cancer therapeutics, with emphasis on CSC.

  14. Objective analysis of cancer stem cell marker expression using immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Miller, T J; McCoy, M J; Hemmings, C; Bulsara, M K; Iacopetta, B; Platell, C F

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of immunohistochemical expression is often a subjective and semiquantitative process that can lead to the inconsistent reporting of results. To assess the effect that region selection and quantification method have on results, five different cancer stem cell markers were used in this study to compare tissue scoring with digital analysis methods that used three different tissue annotation methods. Samples of tumour and normal mucosa were used from 10 consecutive stage II colon cancer patients and stained for the putative cancer stem cell markers ALDH1, CD44v6, CD133, Lgr5 and SOX2. Tissue scoring was found to have considerably different results to digital analysis with the three different digital methods harbouring concordant results overall. However, SOX2 on normal tissue and CD133 on tumour and normal tissue produced discordant results which could be attributed to the different regions of tissue that were analysed. It is important that quantification method and selection of analysis areas are considered as part of study design to ensure that reproducible and consistent results are reported in the literature.

  15. New Findings on Breast Cancer Stem Cells: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Bozorgi, Azam; Khazaei, Mohammad Rasool

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of the "cancer stem cell" theory, significant developments have been made in the understanding of cancer and the heterogenic structure of tumors. In 2003, with the isolation of cancer stem cells from the first solid tumor, breast cancer, and recognition of the tumorigenicity of these cells, this theory suggested that the main reason for therapy failure might be the presence of cancer stem cells. This review article describes breast cancer stem cell origin, the related cellular and molecular characteristics, signaling pathways, and therapy resistance mechanisms. The databases PubMed, SCOPUS, and Embase were explored, and articles published on these topics between 1992 and 2015 were investigated. It appears that this small subpopulation of cells, with the capacity for self-renewal and a high proliferation rate, originate from normal stem cells, are identified by specific markers such as CD44+/CD24-/low, and enhance a tumor's capacity for metastasis, invasion, and therapy resistance. Cancer stem cell characteristics depend on their interactions with their microenvironment as well as on the inducing factors and elements. Although uncertainties about breast cancer stem cells exist, many of researchers believe that cancer stem cells should be considered as possible therapeutic targets. PMID:26770236

  16. Biological therapies in nonsmall cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zugazagoitia, Jon; Molina-Pinelo, Sonia; Lopez-Rios, Fernando; Paz-Ares, Luis

    2017-03-01

    Biological therapies have improved survival outcomes of advanced-stage nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Genotype-directed therapies have changed treatment paradigms of patients with EGFR-mutant and ALK/ROS1-rearranged lung adenocarcinomas, and the list of druggable targets with demonstrated clinical actionability (BRAF, MET, RET, NTRK1 and HER2) continues to expand. Furthermore, we have incrementally understood the mechanisms of cancer immune evasion and foresee ways to effectively circumvent them, particularly at the immune checkpoint level. Drugs targeting the tumour immune-evasive PD-1 pathway have demonstrated remarkable treatment benefits in this disease, with a non-negligible fraction of patients potentially receiving long-term survival benefits. Herein, we briefly discuss the role of various medical disciplines in the management of advanced-stage NSCLC and review the most relevant biological therapies for this disease, with particular emphasis in genotype-directed therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors.

  17. Method for restoration of normal phenotype in cancer cells

    DOEpatents

    Bissell, Mina J.; Weaver, Valerie M.

    2000-01-01

    A method for reversing expression of malignant phenotype in cancer cells is described. The method comprises applying .beta..sub.1 integrin function-blocking antibody to the cells. The method can be used to assess the progress of cancer therapy. Human breast epithelial cells were shown to be particularly responsive.

  18. Bispecific T cell engagers for cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Huehls, Amelia M.; Coupet, Tiffany A.; Sentman, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    Bispecific T cell engagers are a new class of immunotherapeutic molecules intended for the treatment of cancer. These molecules, termed BiTEs, enhance the patient’s immune response to tumors by retargeting T cells to tumor cells. BiTEs are constructed of two single chain variable fragments (scFv) connected in tandem by a flexible linker. One scFv binds to a T cell-specific molecule, usually CD3, while the second scFv binds to a tumor-associated antigen. This structure and specificity allows a BiTE to physically link a T cell to a tumor cell, ultimately stimulating T cell activation, tumor killing and cytokine production. BiTEs have been developed that target several tumor-associated antigens for a variety of both hematological and solid tumors. Several BiTEs are currently in clinical trials for their therapeutic efficacy and safety. This review examines the salient structural and functional features of BiTEs as well as the current state of their clinical and preclinical development. PMID:25367186

  19. Harnessing Dendritic Cells to Generate Cancer Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Palucka, Karolina; Ueno, Hideki; Fay, Joseph; Banchereau, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Passive immunotherapy of cancer, i.e., transfer of T cells or antibodies, can lead to some objective clinical responses, thus demonstrating that the immune system can reject tumors. However, passive immunotherapy is not expected to yield memory T cells that might control tumor outgrowth. Active immunotherapy with dendritic cell (DCs) vaccines has the potential to induce tumor-specific effector and memory T cells. Clinical trials testing first generation DC vaccines pulsed with tumor antigens provided a proof-of-principle that therapeutic immunity can be elicited. Newer generation DC vaccines are build on the increased knowledge of the DC system including the existence of distinct DC subsets and their plasticity all leading to generation of distinct types of immunity. Rather than the quantity of IFN-γ secreting CD8+ T cells, we should aim at generating high quality high avidity poly-functional effector CD8+ T cells able to reject tumors and long-lived memory CD8+ T cells able to prevent relapse. PMID:19769741

  20. Mesenchymal stem cell secretome and regenerative therapy after cancer.

    PubMed

    Zimmerlin, Ludovic; Park, Tea Soon; Zambidis, Elias T; Donnenberg, Vera S; Donnenberg, Albert D

    2013-12-01

    Cancer treatment generally relies on tumor ablative techniques that can lead to major functional or disfiguring defects. These post-therapy impairments require the development of safe regenerative therapy strategies during cancer remission. Many current tissue repair approaches exploit paracrine (immunomodulatory, pro-angiogenic, anti-apoptotic and pro-survival effects) or restoring (functional or structural tissue repair) properties of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC). Yet, a major concern in the application of regenerative therapies during cancer remission remains the possible triggering of cancer recurrence. Tumor relapse implies the persistence of rare subsets of tumor-initiating cancer cells which can escape anti-cancer therapies and lie dormant in specific niches awaiting reactivation via unknown stimuli. Many of the components required for successful regenerative therapy (revascularization, immunosuppression, cellular homing, tissue growth promotion) are also critical for tumor progression and metastasis. While bi-directional crosstalk between tumorigenic cells (especially aggressive cancer cell lines) and MSC (including tumor stroma-resident populations) has been demonstrated in a variety of cancers, the effects of local or systemic MSC delivery for regenerative purposes on persisting cancer cells during remission remain controversial. Both pro- and anti-tumorigenic effects of MSC have been reported in the literature. Our own data using breast cancer clinical isolates have suggested that dormant-like tumor-initiating cells do not respond to MSC signals, unlike actively dividing cancer cells which benefited from the presence of supportive MSC. The secretome of MSC isolated from various tissues may partially diverge, but it includes a core of cytokines (i.e. CCL2, CCL5, IL-6, TGFβ, VEGF), which have been implicated in tumor growth and/or metastasis. This article reviews published models for studying interactions between MSC and cancer cells with a focus

  1. Smac therapeutic Peptide nanoparticles inducing apoptosis of cancer cells for combination chemotherapy with Doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingxing; Liu, Peng; Gao, Guanhui; Deng, Jizhe; Pan, Zhengyin; Wu, Xu; Xie, Gaofeng; Yue, Caixia; Cho, Chi Hin; Ma, Yifan; Cai, Lintao

    2015-04-22

    Smac-conjugated nanoparticle (Smac-NP) was designed to induce the apoptosis of cancer cells and as a drug carrier for combination therapy. It contained three parts, a SmacN7 peptide which could induce apoptosis of cancer cells by interacting with XIAPs, the cell penetrating domain rich in arginine, and four hydrophobic tails for self-assembled Smac-NP. We demonstrated that Smac-NPs exerted an antitumor effect in breast cancer cell MDA-MB-231 and nonsmall lung cancer (NSCLC) cell H460, which efficiently inhibited cancer cells proliferation without influencing normal liver cell lines LO2. Smac-NPs also significantly induced apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 and H460 cells through activating pro-caspase-3, down-regulating the expression of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and up-regulating the pro-apoptotic protein Bax. Furthermore, Smac-NPs could be explored as a drug delivery system to load hydrophobic drug such as DOX for combination therapy. The DOX-loaded nanoparticles (DOX-Smac-NPs) exhibited higher cellular uptake efficiency and antitumor effect. Our work provided a new insight into therapeutic peptides integrated with drug simultaneously in one system for cancer combination treatment.

  2. Microvesicle removal of anticancer drugs contributes to drug resistance in human pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Muralidharan-Chari, Vandhana; Kohan, Hamed Gilzad; Asimakopoulos, Alexandros G.; Sudha, Thangirala; Sell, Stewart; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Boroujerdi, Mehdi; Davis, Paul J.; Mousa, Shaker A.

    2016-01-01

    High mortality in pancreatic cancer patients is partly due to resistance to chemotherapy. We describe that human pancreatic cancer cells acquire drug resistance by a novel mechanism in which they expel and remove chemotherapeutic drugs from the microenvironment via microvesicles (MVs). Using human pancreatic cancer cells that exhibit varied sensitivity to gemcitabine (GEM), we show that GEM exposure triggers the cancer cells to release MVs in an amount that correlates with that cell line's sensitivity to GEM. The importance of MV-release in gaining drug resistance in GEM-resistant pancreatic cancer cells was confirmed when the inhibition of MV-release sensitized the cells to GEM treatment, both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, MVs remove drugs that are internalized into the cells and that are in the microenvironment. The differences between the drug-resistant and drug-sensitive pancreatic cancer cell lines tested here are explained based on the variable content of influx/efflux proteins present on MVs, which directly dictates the ability of MVs either to trap GEM or to allow GEM to flow back to the microenvironment. PMID:27391262

  3. Targeting Prostate Cancer Stemlike Cells Through Cell Surface-Expressed GRP78

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    the cell surface GRP78-expressing subpopulation of cells supports nuclear Akt/GSK-3/ Snail -1 signaling. These findings are important because they are...original tasks outlined in the approved statement of work. 15. SUBJECT TERMS prostate cancer, cell surface GRP78, cancer stem cell, Snail -1 16. SECURITY...associated with cell surface GRP78 (Akt/GSK-3/ Snail -1) were upregulated in GRP78(+) relative to GRP78(-) prostate cancer cells. Our results in this

  4. Cancer Stem Cells: A Novel Paradigm for Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, D.; Ramalingam, S.; Houchen, C.W.; Anant, S.

    2010-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause for mortality in US only after heart disease and lacks a good or effective therapeutic paradigm. Despite the emergence of new, targeted agents and the use of various therapeutic combinations, none of the treatment options available is curative in patients with advanced cancer. A growing body of evidence is supporting the idea that human cancers can be considered as a stem cell disease. Malignancies are believed to originate from a fraction of cancer cells that show self renewal and pluripotency and are capable of initiating and sustaining tumor growth. The cancer-initiating cells or cancer stem cells were originally identified in hematological malignancies but is now being recognized in several solid tumors. The hypothesis of stem cell-driven tumorigenesis raises questions as to whether the current treatments, most of which require rapidly dividing cells are able to efficiently target these slow cycling tumorigenic cells. Recent characterization of cancer stem cells should lead to the identification of key signaling pathways that may make cancer stem cells vulnerable to therapeutic interventions that target drug-effluxing capabilities, anti-apoptotic mechanisms, and induction of differentiation. Dietary phytochemicals possess anti-cancer properties and represent a promising approach for the prevention and treatment of many cancers. PMID:20370703

  5. Arctigenin induces cell cycle arrest by blocking the phosphorylation of Rb via the modulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins in human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jin Boo; Hong, Se Chul; Jeong, Hyung Jin; Koo, Jin Suk

    2011-10-01

    Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths, worldwide being second only to lung cancer as a cause of death. Arctigenin, a representative dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan, occurs in a variety of plants. However, the molecular mechanisms of arctigenin for anti-tumor effect on gastric cancer have not been examined. This study examined the biological effects of arctigenin on the human gastric cancer cell line SNU-1 and AGS. Cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay. In MTT assay, the proliferation of SNU-1 and AGS cells was significantly inhibited by arctigenin in a time and dose dependent manner, as compared with SNU-1 and AGS cells cultured in the absence of arctigenin. Inhibition of cell proliferation by arctigenin was in part associated with apoptotic cell death, as shown by changes in the expression ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax by arctigenin. Also, arctigenin blocked cell cycle arrest from G(1) to S phase by regulating the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins such as Rb, cyclin D1, cyclin E, CDK4, CDK2, p21Waf1/Cip1 and p15 INK4b. The antiproliferative effect of arctigenin on SNU-1 and AGS gastric cancer cells revealed in this study suggests that arctigenin has intriguing potential as a chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agent.

  6. Immunological Targeting of Tumor Initiating Prostate Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    AD Award Number: W81XWH-13-1-0369 TITLE: Immunological Targeting of Tumor Initiating Prostate Cancer Cells PRINCIPAL...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Immunological Targeting of Tumor Initiating Prostate Cancer Cells 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH13-1-0369 5c... prostate cancer . In two specific aims, we proposed to first identify novel antigenic targets on these castrate resistant luminal epithelial cells (CRLEC

  7. Cancer microenvironment, inflammation and cancer stem cells: A hypothesis for a paradigm change and new targets in cancer control.

    PubMed

    Blaylock, Russell L

    2015-01-01

    Since President Nixon officially declared a war on cancer with the National Cancer Act, billions of dollars have been spent on research in hopes of finding a cure for cancer. Recent reviews have pointed out that over the ensuing 42 years, cancer death rates have barely changed for the major cancers. Recently, several researchers have questioned the prevailing cancer paradigm based on recent discoveries concerning the mechanism of carcinogenesis and the origins of cancer. Over the past decade we have learned a great deal concerning both of these central issues. Cell signaling has taken center stage, particularly as regards the links between chronic inflammation and cancer development. It is now evident that the common factor among a great number of carcinogenic agents is activation of genes controlling inflammation cell-signaling pathways and that these signals control all aspects of the cancer process. Of these pathways, the most important and common to all cancers is the NFκB and STAT3 pathways. The second discovery of critical importance is that mutated stem cells appear to be in charge of the cancer process. Most chemotherapy agents and radiotherapy kill daughter cells of the cancer stem cell, many of which are not tumorigenic themselves. Most cancer stem cells are completely resistant to conventional treatments, which explain dormancy and the poor cure rate with metastatic tumors. A growing number of studies are finding that several polyphenol extracts can kill cancer stem cells as well as daughter cells and can enhance the effectiveness and safety of conventional treatments. These new discoveries provide the clinician with a whole new set of targets for cancer control and cure.

  8. Sphere Culture of Murine Lung Cancer Cell Lines Are Enriched with Cancer Initiating Cells

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Brian J.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer initiating cells (CICs) represent a unique cell population essential for the maintenance and growth of tumors. Most in vivo studies of CICs utilize human tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice. These models provide limited information on the interaction of CICs with the host immune system and are of limited value in assessing therapies targeting CICs, especially immune-based therapies. To assess this, a syngeneic cancer model is needed. We examined the sphere-forming capacity of thirteen murine lung cancer cell lines and identified TC-1 and a metastatic subclone of Lewis lung carcinoma (HM-LLC) as cell lines that readily formed and maintained spheres over multiple passages. TC-1 tumorspheres were not enriched for expression of CD133 or CD44, putative CIC markers, nor did they demonstrate Hoechst 33342 side population staining or Aldefluor activity compared to adherent TC-1 cells. However, in tumorsphere culture, these cells exhibited self-renewal and long-term symmetric division capacity and expressed more Oct-4 compared to adherent cells. HM-LLC sphere-derived cells exhibited increased Oct-4, CD133, and CD44 expression, demonstrated a Hoechst 33342 side population and Aldefluor activity compared to adherent cells or a low metastatic subclone of LLC (LM-LLC). In syngeneic mice, HM-LLC sphere-derived cells required fewer cells to initiate tumorigenesis compared to adherent or LM-LLC cells. Similarly TC-1 sphere-derived cells were more tumorigenic than adherent cells in syngeneic mice. In contrast, in immunocompromised mice, less than 500 sphere or adherent TC-1 cells and less than 1,000 sphere or adherent LLC cells were required to initiate a tumor. We suggest that no single phenotypic marker can identify CICs in murine lung cancer cell lines. Tumorsphere culture may provide an alternative approach to identify and enrich for murine lung CICs. Furthermore, we propose that assessing tumorigenicity of murine lung CICs in syngeneic mice better models the

  9. Delivery of therapeutics using nanocarriers for targeting cancer cells and cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Sangeetha; Ke, Xiyu; Yang, Yi Yan

    2015-01-01

    Development of cancer resistance, cancer relapse and metastasis are attributed to the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Eradication of this subpopulation has been shown to increase life expectancy of patients. Since the discovery of CSCs a decade ago, several strategies have been devised to specifically target them but with limited success. Nanocarriers have recently been employed to deliver anti-CSC therapeutics for reducing the population of CSCs at the tumor site with great success. This review discusses the different therapeutic strategies that have been employed using nanocarriers, their advantages, success in targeting CSCs and the challenges that are to be overcome. Exploiting this new modality of cancer treatment in the coming decade may improve outcomes profoundly with promise of effective treatment response and reducing relapse and metastasis.

  10. RhoC and ROCKs regulate cancer cell interactions with endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Reymond, Nicolas; Im, Jae Hong; Garg, Ritu; Cox, Susan; Soyer, Magali; Riou, Philippe; Colomba, Audrey; Muschel, Ruth J; Ridley, Anne J

    2015-06-01

    RhoC is a member of the Rho GTPase family that is implicated in cancer progression by stimulating cancer cell invasiveness. Here we report that RhoC regulates the interaction of cancer cells with vascular endothelial cells (ECs), a crucial step in the metastatic process. RhoC depletion by RNAi reduces PC3 prostate cancer cell adhesion to ECs, intercalation between ECs as well as transendothelial migration in vitro. Depletion of the kinases ROCK1 and ROCK2, two known RhoC downstream effectors, similarly decreases cancer interaction with ECs. RhoC also regulates the extension of protrusions made by cancer cells on vascular ECs in vivo. Transient RhoC depletion is sufficient to reduce both early PC3 cell retention in the lungs and experimental metastasis formation in vivo. Our results indicate RhoC plays a central role in cancer cell interaction with vascular ECs, which is a critical event for cancer progression.

  11. Genetically Modified T Cells in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer or Mesothelioma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-04

    Advanced Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma; HLA-A*0201 Positive Cells Present; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma; Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage III Pleural Mesothelioma; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Pleural Mesothelioma

  12. Cancer treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer. This helps your body get rid of cancer cells. Immunotherapy works by: Stopping or slowing the growth of ... to seek and attack certain parts of a cancer cell. Some have toxins or radioactive substances attached to them. Immunotherapy is given by a shot or IV. Hormonal ...

  13. Human β-Cell Proliferation and Intracellular Signaling: Part 3

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Mehboob A.; García-Ocaña, Adolfo; Vasavada, Rupangi C.; Bhushan, Anil; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    This is the third in a series of Perspectives on intracellular signaling pathways coupled to proliferation in pancreatic β-cells. We contrast the large knowledge base in rodent β-cells with the more limited human database. With the increasing incidence of type 1 diabetes and the recognition that type 2 diabetes is also due in part to a deficiency of functioning β-cells, there is great urgency to identify therapeutic approaches to expand human β-cell numbers. Therapeutic approaches might include stem cell differentiation, transdifferentiation, or expansion of cadaver islets or residual endogenous β-cells. In these Perspectives, we focus on β-cell proliferation. Past Perspectives reviewed fundamental cell cycle regulation and its upstream regulation by insulin/IGF signaling via phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, glucose, glycogen synthase kinase-3 and liver kinase B1, protein kinase Cζ, calcium-calcineurin–nuclear factor of activated T cells, epidermal growth factor/platelet-derived growth factor family members, Wnt/β-catenin, leptin, and estrogen and progesterone. Here, we emphasize Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription, Ras/Raf/extracellular signal–related kinase, cadherins and integrins, G-protein–coupled receptors, and transforming growth factor β signaling. We hope these three Perspectives will serve to introduce these pathways to new researchers and will encourage additional investigators to focus on understanding how to harness key intracellular signaling pathways for therapeutic human β-cell regeneration for diabetes. PMID:25999530

  14. Breast cancer and racial disparity between Caucasian and African American women, part 1 (BRCA-1).

    PubMed

    Tariq, Khurram; Latif, Naeem; Zaiden, Robert; Jasani, Nick; Rana, Fauzia

    2013-08-01

    Breast cancer is a commonly diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among American women today. Despite the lower incidence of breast cancer among African American women, they are more likely to die from the disease each year than their white counterparts. We present a retrospective cohort study of the tumor registry data from electronic medical records of patients diagnosed with breast cancer at the University of Florida Health, Jacksonville from 2000 to 2005. A total of 907 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer; 445 patients with invasive breast cancer had complete medical records and were selected for this review. Much like previously published research, we found that African American patients presented with a more advanced stage and aggressive subtype of breast cancer than white patients, and were less likely to have health insurance. However, we have yet to determine if universal health care insurance can lead to improved health care access, better breast cancer awareness, and an enhanced attitude toward breast cancer screenings. Such factors would ultimately lead to an earlier diagnosis and better outcomes in both African American and white patients. We plan to investigate this critical issue in a follow-up study (BRCA-2; Breast Cancer and Racial Disparity Between Caucasian and African American Women, Part 2), which will begin a few years after the complete implementation of the universal health care law enacted by President Obama in 2010. The higher frequency of aggressive tumor subtypes in African American women warrants more attention. We suggest further research to determine whether decreasing the initial age for screening or increasing the frequency of mammograms in African American women would improve breast cancer outcomes. This study underscores the importance of identifying and preventing obstacles in routine breast cancer screening, as well as increasing breast cancer awareness.

  15. The marine-derived fungal metabolite, terrein, inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell cycle arrest in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Fei; Wang, Shu-Ying; Shen, Hong; Yao, Xiao-Fen; Zhang, Feng-Li; Lai, Dongmei

    2014-12-01

    The difficulties faced in the effective treatment of ovarian cancer are multifactorial, but are mainly associated with relapse and drug resistance. Cancer stem-like cells have been reported to be an important contributor to these hindering factors. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anticancer activities of a bioactive fungal metabolite, namely terrein, against the human epithelial ovarian cancer cell line, SKOV3, primary human ovarian cancer cells and ovarian cancer stem-like cells. Terrein was separated and purified from the fermentation metabolites of the marine sponge-derived fungus, Aspergillus terreus strain PF26. Its anticancer activities against ovarian cancer cells were investigated by cell proliferation assay, cell migration assay, cell apoptosis and cell cycle assays. The ovarian cancer stem-like cells were enriched and cultured in a serum-free in vitro suspension system. Terrein inhibited the proliferation of the ovarian cancer cells by inducing G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. The underlying mechanisms involved the suppression of the expression of LIN28, an important marker gene of stemness in ovarian cancer stem cells. Of note, our study also demonstrated the ability of terrein to inhibit the proliferation of ovarian cancer stem-like cells, in which the expression of LIN28 was also downregulated. Our findings reveal that terrein (produced by fermention) may prove to be a promising drug candidate for the treatment of ovarian cancer by inhibiting the proliferation of cancer stem-like cells.

  16. Stem Cell Transplantation in Treating Patients With Hematologic Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-05-31

    Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Graft Versus Host Disease; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Precancerous/Nonmalignant Condition; Small Intestine Cancer

  17. Cell Death and Deubiquitinases: Perspectives in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Seemana

    2014-01-01

    The process of cell death has important physiological implications. At the organism level it is mostly involved in maintenance of tissue homeostasis. At the cellular level, the strategies of cell death may be categorized as either suicide or sabotage. The mere fact that many of these processes are programmed and that these are often deregulated in pathological conditions is seed to thought. The various players that are involved in these pathways are highly regulated. One of the modes of regulation is via post-translational modifications such as ubiquitination and deubiquitination. In this review, we have first dealt with the different modes and pathways involved in cell death and then we have focused on the regulation of several proteins in these signaling cascades by the different deubiquitinating enzymes, in the perspective of cancer. The study of deubiquitinases is currently in a rather nascent stage with limited knowledge both in vitro and in vivo, but the emerging roles of the deubiquitinases in various processes and their specificity have implicated them as potential targets from the therapeutic point of view. This review throws light on another aspect of cancer therapeutics by targeting the deubiquitinating enzymes. PMID:25121098

  18. Top Notch cancer stem cells by paracrine NF-κB signaling in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weizhou; Grivennikov, Sergei I

    2013-01-01

    Cancer stem cells are likely to play critical roles in metastasis, therapy resistance, and recurrence of hematological and solid malignancies. It is well known that the stem cell niche plays a key role for asymmetric division and homeostasis of normal stem cells, whereas cancer stem cells seem to use these niches. Among many pathways involved in self-renewal of cancer stem cells, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling has been documented to promote their expansion in a cell-autonomous fashion. A recent study, however, suggests that paracrine NF-κB activation promotes the expansion of cancer stem cells through the activation of Notch in basal-type breast cancer cells.

  19. Delirium: assessment and treatment of patients with cancer. PART 2.

    PubMed

    Brown, Michelle; Hardy, Kersten

    Delirium at the end of life may present significant ethical dilemmas in clinical practice: whether to simply treat it in order to maximise symptom relief, with the resulting side effect being palliative sedation, or to attempt to reverse delirium and risk prolonging suffering. Determining whether the delirium can be reversed involves comprehensive assessment using established tools, which may or may not provide the answer to the question posed. This article examines the evidence surrounding several assessment tools that have been suggested as effective in identifying delirium, and the consequences of various approaches to the management of delirium in a patient with a cancer diagnosis. It also considers the impact delirium may have on the health professional and those close to the patient.

  20. Inhibitory Effect of Baicalin and Baicalein on Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianchu; Li, Zhaoliang; Chen, Allen Y.; Ye, Xingqian; Luo, Haitao; Rankin, Gary O.; Chen, Yi Charlie

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the primary causes of death for women all through the Western world. Baicalin and baicalein are naturally occurring flavonoids that are found in the roots and leaves of some Chinese medicinal plants and are thought to have antioxidant activity and possible anti-angiogenic, anti-cancer, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities. Two kinds of ovarian cancer (OVCAR-3 and CP-70) cell lines and a normal ovarian cell line (IOSE-364) were selected to be investigated in the inhibitory effect of baicalin and baicalein on cancer cells. Largely, baicalin and baicalein inhibited ovarian cancer cell viability in both ovarian cancer cell lines with LD50 values in the range of 45–55 μM for baicalin and 25–40 μM for baicalein. On the other hand, both compounds had fewer inhibitory effects on normal ovarian cells viability with LD50 values of 177 μM for baicalin and 68 μM for baicalein. Baicalin decreased expression of VEGF (20 μM), cMyc (80 μM), and NFkB (20 μM); baicalein decreased expression of VEGF (10 μM), HIF-1α (20 μM), cMyc (20 μM), and NFkB (40 μM). Therefore baicalein is more effective in inhibiting cancer cell viability and expression of VEGF, HIF-1α, cMyc, and NFκB in both ovarian cancer cell lines. It seems that baicalein inhibited cancer cell viability through the inhibition of cancer promoting genes expression including VEGF, HIF-1α, cMyc, and NFκB. Overall, this study showed that baicalein and baicalin significantly inhibited the viability of ovarian cancer cells, while generally exerting less of an effect on normal cells. They have potential for chemoprevention and treatment of ovarian cancers. PMID:23502466

  1. Second non-germ cell malignancies after radiotherapy of testicular cancer with or without chemotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Fosså, S. D.; Langmark, F.; Aass, N.; Andersen, A.; Lothe, R.; Børresen, A. L.

    1990-01-01

    The incidence of a new primary non-germ cell malignancy was determined in 876 patients with testicular cancer treated at the Norwegian Radium Hospital from 1956 to 1977. Sixty-five patients developed a second cancer leading to a statistically significant increased relative risk (RR = 1.58), especially if extended radiotherapy had been given (RR = 4.13). The excess risks of developing lung cancer and malignant melanoma were 2.03 and 3.89, respectively. Increased RR for these two cancer types were seen both after extended radiotherapy and after radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy. Studies of the time between treatment and secondary lung cancer indicated that the development of the new lung cancer could be partly treatment related, whereas the raised incidence of malignant melanoma may be related to the frequent health checks performed in patients with testicular cancer. Patients who had received extended radiotherapy were also at an increased risk of developing cancer of the stomach and of the colon. Three cases of acute leukaemia were observed more than 5 years after treatment, all of them in patients who had received abdominal radiotherapy only. It is concluded that patients apparently cured of a testicular cancer have an increased risk of developing a new treatment related non-germ cell malignancy, in particular lung cancer. The application of the extended radiotherapy or the combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy containing alkylating drugs should be avoided in order to reduce this excess risk. Images Figure 1 PMID:2109999

  2. Adherence to Survivorship Care Guidelines in Health Care Providers for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Colorectal Cancer Survivor Care

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-05

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Colon Cancer; Stage I Rectal Cancer; Stage IA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

  3. Intravital characterization of tumor cell migration in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Beerling, Evelyne; Oosterom, Ilse; Voest, Emile; Lolkema, Martijn; van Rheenen, Jacco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Curing pancreatic cancer is difficult as metastases often determine the poor clinical outcome. To gain more insight into the metastatic behavior of pancreatic cancer cells, we characterized migratory cells in primary pancreatic tumors using intravital microscopy. We visualized the migratory behavior of primary tumor cells of a genetically engineered pancreatic cancer mouse model and found that pancreatic tumor cells migrate with a mesenchymal morphology as single individual cells or collectively as a stream of non-cohesive single motile cells. These findings may improve our ability to conceive treatments that block metastatic behavior. PMID:28243522

  4. Cancer Stem Cells and Their Microenvironment: Biology and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Eunice Yuen-Ting; Ho, Nicole Pui-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Tumor consists of heterogeneous cancer cells including cancer stem cells (CSCs) that can terminally differentiate into tumor bulk. Normal stem cells in normal organs regulate self-renewal within a stem cell niche. Likewise, accumulating evidence has also suggested that CSCs are maintained extrinsically within the tumor microenvironment, which includes both cellular and physical factors. Here, we review the significance of stromal cells, immune cells, extracellular matrix, tumor stiffness, and hypoxia in regulation of CSC plasticity and therapeutic resistance. With a better understanding of how CSC interacts with its niche, we are able to identify potential therapeutic targets for the development of more effective treatments against cancer. PMID:28337221

  5. MicroRNA-29a inhibits cell migration and invasion via targeting Roundabout homolog 1 in gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueting; Cai, Jun; Sun, Yanjun; Gong, Renhua; Sun, Dengqun; Zhong, Xingguo; Jiang, Shitao; He, Xinmiao; Bao, Enwu; Yang, Liusheng; Li, Yongxiang

    2015-09-01

    Deregulation of Roundabout homolog 1 (Robo1) has been demonstrated to be associated with several types of human cancer, including gastric cancer. However, the detailed role of Robo1 and its regulatory mechanism in gastric cancer remain largely unclear. In the current study, it was demonstrated that the expression of microRNA (miR)‑29a was frequently reduced in gastric cancer tissues, compared with their matched normal adjacent tissues. Similar results were additionally observed in AGS and SGC‑7901 human gastric cancer cells. Overexpression of miR‑29a led to reduced migration and invasion of AGS cells. To explore the targets of miR‑29a in gastric cancer, bioinformatics analysis was conducted and Robo1 was identified as a putative target of miR‑29a. Further western blotting and luciferase activity assay data confirmed that miR‑29a was able to negatively regulate the protein expression of Robo1, through directly binding to the 3'‑untranslated region of Robo1 mRNA in gastric cancer cells. In addition, it was demonstrated that Robo1 was frequently upregulated in gastric cancer tissues compared with their matched adjacent normal tissues, and a significant inverse correlation was identified between miR‑29a and Robo1 expression. In addition, knockdown of Robo1 by small interfering RNA markedly inhibited the migratory and invasive capabilities of AGS cells, which the results obtained with overexpression of miR‑29a. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge the current study suggested for the first time, that miR‑29a inhibits migration and invasion in part via direct inhibition of Robo1 in gastric cancer cells. Therefore, Robo1 and miR‑29a may serve as diagnostic or therapeutic targets for gastric cancer.

  6. Role of microRNAs in maintaining cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Michela; Croce, Carlo M

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence sustains that the establishment and maintenance of many, if not all, human cancers are due to cancer stem cells (CSCs), tumor cells with stem cell properties, such as the capacity to self-renew or generate progenitor and differentiated cells. CSCs seem to play a major role in tumor metastasis and drug resistance, but albeit the potential clinical importance, their regulation at the molecular level is not clear. Recent studies have highlighted several miRNAs to be differentially expressed in normal and cancer stem cells and established their role in targeting genes and pathways supporting cancer stemness properties. This review focuses on the last advances on the role of microRNAs in the regulation of stem cell properties and cancer stem cells in different tumors.

  7. Aptamer-Mediated Delivery of Chemotherapy to Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Partha; Cheek, Marcus A.; Sharaf, Mariam L.; Li, Na; Ellington, Andrew D.; Sullenger, Bruce A.; Shaw, Barbara Ramsay

    2012-01-01

    Gemcitabine is a nucleoside analog that is currently the best available single-agent chemotherapeutic drug for pancreatic cancer. However, efficacy is limited by our inability to deliver sufficient active metabolite into cancer cells without toxic effects on normal tissues. Targeted delivery of gemcitabine into cancer cells could maximize effectiveness and concurrently minimize toxic side effects by reducing uptake into normal cells. Most pancreatic cancers overexpress epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a trans-membrane receptor tyrosine kinase. We utilized a nuclease resistant RNA aptamer that binds and is internalized by EGFR on pancreatic cancer cells to deliver gemcitabine-containing polymers into EGFR-expressing cells and inhibit cell proliferation in vitro. This approach to cell type–specific therapy can be adapted to other targets and to other types of therapeutic cargo. PMID:23030589

  8. Adhesion between peptides/antibodies and breast cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, J.; Paetzell, E.; Bogorad, A.; Soboyejo, W. O.

    2010-06-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques were used to measure the adhesion forces between the receptors on breast cancer cells specific to human luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) peptides and antibodies specific to the EphA2 receptor. The adhesion forces between LHRH-coated AFM tips and human MDA-MB-231 cells (breast cancer cells) were shown to be about five times greater than those between LHRH-coated AFM tips and normal Hs578Bst breast cells. Similarly, those between EphA2 antibody-coated AFM tips and breast cancer cells were over five times greater than those between EphA2 antibody-coated AFM tips and normal breast cells. The results suggest that AFM can be used for the detection of breast cancer cells in biopsies. The implications of the results are also discussed for the early detection and localized treatment of cancer.

  9. Radiobiological characteristics of cancer stem cells from esophageal cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-Lin; Yu, Jing-Ping; Sun, Zhi-Qiang; Sun, Su-Ping

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To study the cancer stem cell population in esophageal cancer cell lines KYSE-150 and TE-1 and identify whether the resulting stem-like spheroid cells display cancer stem cells and radiation resistance characteristics. METHODS: A serum-free medium (SFM) suspension was used to culture esophageal cancer stem cell lines and enrich the esophageal stem-like spheres. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay was used to detect stem cell gene expression in the spheroid cells. Radiosensitivity of stem-like spheres and parental cells were evaluated by clonogenic assays. Furthermore, different cells after different doses of irradiation were tested to evaluate the change in sphere formation, cell cycle and CD44+CD271+ expression of tumor stem-like spheroid cells using flow cytometry before and after irradiation. RESULTS: The cells were observed to generate an increased number of spheres in SFM with increasing cell passage. Radiation increased the rate of generation of stem-like spheres in both types of cells. The average survival fraction (SF2) of the cultured KYSE-150 compared with TE-1 stem-like spheres after 2 Gy of radiation was 0.81 ± 0.03 vs 0.87 ± 0.01 (P < 0.05), while the average SF2 of KYSE-150 compared with TE-1 parental cells was 0.69 ± 0.04 vs 0.80 ± 0.03, P < 0.05. In the esophageal parental cells, irradiation dose-dependently induced G2 arrest. Stem-like esophageal spheres were resistant to irradiation-induced G2 arrest without significant changes in the percentage population of irradiated stem-like cells. Under irradiation at 0, 4, and 8 Gy, the CD44+CD271+ cell percentage for KYSE150 parental cells was 1.08% ± 0.03% vs 1.29% ± 0.07% vs 1.11% ± 0.09%, respectively; the CD44+CD271+ cell percentage for TE1 parental cells was 1.16% ± 0.11% vs 0.97% ± 0.08% vs 1.45% ± 0.35%, respectively. The differences were not statistically significant. Under irradiation at 0, 4, and 8 Gy, the CD44+CD271+ cell percentage for KYSE-150 stem

  10. Thanks to Cancer Cell International reviewers (2012)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Contributing reviewers The editor and editorial board of Cancer Cell International would like to thank Angela Panther for her continued hard work throughout 2012 in keeping the journal going as our managing editor. We take this opportunity in early 2013 to thank all our reviewers who contributed to the journal in Volume 12 (2012). Last year saw submissions double, which will mean that in 2013 we will certainly have many more articles to publish, and hopefully our Impact Factor will rise above 2. PMID:23522244

  11. Small compound inhibitors of basal glucose transport inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in cancer cells via glucose-deprivation-like mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Weihe; Cao, Yanyan; Liu, Yan; Bergmeier, Stephen; Chen, Xiaozhuo

    2010-12-08

    Cancer cells depend heavily on glucose as both energy and biosynthesis sources and are found to upregulate glucose transport and switch their main energy supply pathway from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. These molecular and metabolic changes also provide targets for cancer treatment. Here we report that novel small molecules inhibited basal glucose transport and cell proliferation, and induced apoptosis in lung and breast cancer cells without affecting much their normal cell counterparts. Cancer cells survived the compound treatment lost their capability to proliferate. Mechanistic study indicates that the cancer cell inhibition by the test compounds has a component of apoptosis and the induced apoptosis was p53-independent and caspase 3-dependent, similar to those resulted from glucose deprivation. Compound treatment also led to cell cycle arrest in G1/S phase. The inhibition of cancer cell growth was partially relieved when additional glucose was supplied to cells, suggesting that the inhibition was due to, at least in part, the inhibition of basal glucose transport. When used in combination, the test compounds demonstrated synergistic effects with anticancer drugs cisplatin or paclitaxel in inhibition of cancer cell growth. All these results suggest that these glucose transport inhibitors mimic glucose deprivation and work through inhibiting basal glucose transport. These inhibitors have the potential to complement and replace traditional glucose deprivation, which cannot be used in animals, as new tools to study the effects of glucose transport and metabolism on cancer and normal cells.

  12. Cancer stem cells as the engine of unstable tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Solé, Ricard V; Rodríguez-Caso, Carlos; Deisboeck, Thomas S; Saldaña, Joan

    2008-08-21

    Genomic instability is considered by many authors the key engine of tumorigenesis. However, mounting evidence indicates that a small population of drug resistant cancer cells can also be a key component of tumor progression. Such cancer stem cells would define a compartment effectively acting as the source of most tumor cells. Here we study the interplay between these two conflicting components of cancer dynamics using two types of tissue architecture. Both mean field and multicompartment models are studied. It is shown that tissue architecture affects the pattern of cancer dynamics and that unstable cancers spontaneously organize into a heterogeneous population of highly unstable cells. This dominant population is in fact separated from the low-mutation compartment by an instability gap, where almost no cancer cells are observed. The possible implications of this prediction are discussed.

  13. Molecular Connections between Cancer Cell Metabolism and the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Justus, Calvin R.; Sanderlin, Edward J.; Yang, Li V.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells preferentially utilize glycolysis, instead of oxidative phosphorylation, for metabolism even in the presence of oxygen. This phenomenon of aerobic glycolysis, referred to as the “Warburg effect”, commonly exists in a variety of tumors. Recent studies further demonstrate that both genetic factors such as oncogenes and tumor suppressors and microenvironmental factors such as spatial hypoxia and acidosis can regulate the glycolytic metabolism of cancer cells. Reciprocally, altered cancer cell metabolism can modulate the tumor microenvironment which plays important roles in cancer cell somatic evolution, metastasis, and therapeutic response. In this article, we review the progression of current understandings on the molecular interaction between cancer cell metabolism and the tumor microenvironment. In addition, we discuss the implications of these interactions in cancer therapy and chemoprevention. PMID:25988385

  14. Stem cell origin of cancer and differentiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Sell, Stewart

    2004-07-01

    Our forefathers in pathology, on observing cancer tissue under the microscope in the mid-19th century, noticed the similarity between embryonic tissue and cancer, and suggested that tumors arise from embryo-like cells [Recherches dur le Traitement du Cancer, etc. Paris. (1829); Editoral Archiv fuer pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und fuer klinische Medizin 8 (1855) 23]. The concept that adult tissues contain embryonic remnants that generally lie dormant, but that could be activated to become cancer was later formalized by Cohnheim [Path. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 40 (1867) 1-79; Virchows Arch. 65 (1875) 64] and Durante [Arch. Memori ed Osservazioni di Chirugia Practica 11 (1874) 217-226], as the "embryonal rest" theory of cancer. An updated version of the embryonal rest theory of cancer is that cancers arise from tissue stem cells in adults. Analysis of the cellular origin of carcinomas of different organs indicates that there is, in each instance, a determined stem cell required for normal tissue renewal that is the most likely cell of origin of carcinomas [Lab. Investig. 70 (1994) 6-22]. In the present review, the nature of normal stem cells (embryonal, germinal and somatic) is presented and their relationships to cancer are further expanded. Cell signaling pathways shared by embryonic cells and cancer cells suggest a possible link between embryonic cells and cancer cells. Wilm's tumors (nephroblastomas) and neuroblastomas are presented as possible tumors of embryonic rests in children. Teratocarcinoma is used as the classic example of the totipotent cancer stem cell which can be influenced by its environment to differentiate into a mature adult cell. The observation that "promotion" of an epidermal cancer may be accomplished months or even years after the initial exposure to carcinogen ("initiation"), implies that the original carcinogenic event occurs in a long-lived epithelial stem cell population. The cellular events during hepatocarcinogenesis

  15. Exploring Cancer Therapeutics with Natural Products from African Medicinal Plants, Part II: Alkaloids, Terpenoids and Flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Nwodo, Justina N; Ibezim, Akachukwu; Simoben, Conrad V; Ntie-Kang, Fidele

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stands as second most common cause of disease-related deaths in humans. Resistance of cancer to chemotherapy remains challenging to both scientists and physicians. Medicinal plants are known to contribute significantly to a large population of Africa, which is to a very large extent linked to folkloric claims which is part of their livelihood. In this review paper, the potential of naturally occurring anti-cancer agents from African flora has been explored, with suggested modes of action, where such data is available. Literature search revealed plant-derived compounds from African flora showing anti-cancer and/or cytotoxic activities, which have been tested in vitro and in vivo. This corresponds to 400 compounds (from mildly active to very active) covering various compound classes. However, in this part II, we only discussed the three major compound classes which are: flavonoids, alkaloids and terpenoids.

  16. Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  17. SF3B4 is decreased in pancreatic cancer and inhibits the growth and migration of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wentao; Ma, Ning; Jiang, Hao; Rong, Yefei; Deng, Yuezhen; Feng, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Hongxu; Kuang, Tiantao; Lou, Wenhui; Xie, Dong; Wang, Dansong

    2017-03-01

    Splicing factor 3b subunit 4, a critical component of pre-message RNA splicing complex, has been reported to play an important part in the tumorigenesis. However, the expression pattern and biological role of splicing factor 3b subunit 4 in pancreatic cancer have never been investigated. In this study, we found that both the messenger RNA ( p < 0.001) and protein level of splicing factor 3b subunit 4 were decreased significantly in pancreatic cancer specimens compared with their adjacent normal tissues. Overexpression of splicing factor 3b subunit 4 in pancreatic cancer cells inhibited cell growth and motility in vitro, while suppressing splicing factor 3b subunit 4 expression promoted the proliferation and migration of pancreatic cancer cells. In addition, splicing factor 3b subunit 4 was found to inhibit the activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling via downregulating the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 on a tyrosine residue at position 705. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that splicing factor 3b subunit 4 acted as a suppressive role in pancreatic cancer and indicated that restoring the function of splicing factor 3b subunit 4 might be a strategy for cancer therapy.

  18. A rare case of palatin tonsillar metastasis from small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    D’Antonio, Chiara; Lombardini, Alberto; Falcone, Rosa; Romiti, Adriana; Lombardi, Marianna; Lauro, Salvatore; Marchetti, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Tonsillar metastases are absolutely rare. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is known to be the most frequent histological type of tonsillar metastases, however the way of tumor cells spreading to tonsil remains controversial. We described a case report of 76-year-old man with SCLC and tonsillar metastases, to highlight the importance of oral cavity evaluation as a part of a clinical exam and to show the rare tumor cells spreading. PMID:28149765

  19. Tumor microenvironment derived exosomes pleiotropically modulate cancer cell metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a major cellular component of tumor microenvironment in most solid cancers. Altered cellular metabolism is a hallmark of cancer, and much of the published literature has focused on neoplastic cell-autonomous processes for these adaptations. We demonstrate tha...

  20. Beta IV Spectrin in Normal and Cancer Breast Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    paraneoplastic conditions, primarily autoantigens expressed in breast cancer. Recently, we have identified a woman with lower motor neuron syndrome , breast...Long-term goal of this application was to elucidate pathogenetic mechanisms in human autoimmune paraneoplastic neurological conditions. These... syndromes result from the ectopic expression in cancer cells of neuronal antigens followed by the onset of an autoimmune response directed at the cancer

  1. Regulation of apoptosis pathways in cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Fulda, Simone

    2013-09-10

    Cancer stem cell are considered to represent a population within the bulk tumor that share many similarities to normal stem cells as far as their capacities to self-renew, differentiate, proliferate and to reconstitute the entire tumor upon serial transplantation are concerned. Since cancer stem cells have been shown to be critical for maintaining tumor growth and have been implicated in treatment resistance and tumor progression, they constitute relevant targets for therapeutic intervention. Indeed, it has been postulated that eradication of cancer stem cells will be pivotal in order to achieve long-term relapse-free survival. However, one of the hallmarks of cancer stem cells is their high resistance to undergo cell death including apoptosis in response to environmental cues or cytotoxic stimuli. Since activation of apoptosis programs in tumor cells underlies the antitumor activity of most currently used cancer therapeutics, it will be critical to develop strategies to overcome the intrinsic resistance to apoptosis of cancer stem cells. Thus, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the ability of cancer stem cells to evade apoptosis will likely open new avenues to target this critical pool of cells within the tumor in order to develop more efficient treatment options for patients suffering from cancer.

  2. A multi-phenotypic cancer model with cell plasticity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Da; Wang, Yue; Wu, Bin

    2014-09-21

    The conventional cancer stem cell (CSC) theory indicates a hierarchy of CSCs and non-stem cancer cells (NSCCs), that is, CSCs can differentiate into NSCCs but not vice versa. However, an alternative paradigm of CSC theory with reversible cell plasticity among cancer cells has received much attention very recently. Here we present a generalized multi-phenotypic cancer model by integrating cell plasticity with the conventional hierarchical structure of cancer cells. We prove that under very weak assumption, the nonlinear dynamics of multi-phenotypic proportions in our model has only one stable steady state and no stable limit cycle. This result theoretically explains the phenotypic equilibrium phenomena reported in various cancer cell lines. Furthermore, according to the transient analysis of our model, it is found that cancer cell plasticity plays an essential role in maintaining the phenotypic diversity in cancer especially during the transient dynamics. Two biological examples with experimental data show that the phenotypic conversions from NCSSs to CSCs greatly contribute to the transient growth of CSCs proportion shortly after the drastic reduction of it. In particular, an interesting overshooting phenomenon of CSCs proportion arises in three-phenotypic example. Our work may pave the way for modeling and analyzing the multi-phenotypic cell population dynamics with cell plasticity.

  3. Antisense bcl-2 treatment increases programmed cell death in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Koty, P P; Zhang, H; Levitt, M L

    1999-02-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a genetically regulated pathway that is altered in many cancers. This process is, in part, regulated by the ratio of PCD inducers (Bax) or inhibitors (Bcl-2). An abnormally high ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax prevents PCD, thus contributing to resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, many of which are capable of inducing PCD. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells demonstrate resistance to these PCD-inducing agents. If Bcl-2 prevents NSCLC cells from entering the PCD pathway, then reducing the amount of endogenous Bcl-2 product may allow these cells to spontaneously enter the PCD pathway. Our purpose was to determine the effects of bcl-2 antisense treatment on the levels of programmed cell death in NSCLC cells. First, we determined whether bcl-2 and bax mRNA were expressed in three morphologically distinct NSCLC cell lines: NCI-H226 (squamous), NCI-H358 (adenocarcinoma), and NCI-H596 (adenosquamous). Cells were then exposed to synthetic antisense bcl-2 oligonucleotide treatment, after which programmed cell death was determined, as evidenced by DNA fragmentation. Bcl-2 protein expression was detected immunohistochemically. All three NSCLC cell lines expressed both bcl-2 and bax mRNA and had functional PCD pathways. Synthetic antisense bcl-2 oligonucleotide treatment resulted in decreased Bcl-2 levels, reduced cell proliferation, decreased cell viability, and increased levels of spontaneous PCD. This represents the first evidence that decreasing Bcl-2 in three morphologically distinct NSCLC cell lines allows the cells to spontaneously enter a PCD pathway. It also indicates the potential therapeutic use of antisense bcl-2 in the treatment of NSCLC.

  4. GTI-2040 and Docetaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent, Metastatic, or Unresectable Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Prostate Cancer, or Other Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-23

    Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Prostate Cancer; Stage III Prostate Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Prostate Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  5. Rottlerin exerts its anti-tumor activity through inhibition of Skp2 in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yingying; Wang, Lixia; Ye, Xiantao; Zhao, Zhe; Zhou, Xiuxia; Li, Yali; Wang, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    Studies have investigated the tumor suppressive role of rottlerin in carcinogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms of rottlerin-induced anti-tumor activity are largely unclear. Skp2 (S-phase kinase associated protein 2) has been validated to play an oncogenic role in a variety of human malignancies. Therefore, inactivation of Skp2 could be helpful for the treatment of human cancers. In the current study, we explore whether rottlerin could inhibit Skp2 expression, leading to inhibition of cell growth, migration and invasion in breast cancer cells. We found that rottlerin treatment inhibited cell growth, induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. We also revealed that rottlerin suppressed cell migration and invasion in breast cancer cells. Mechanically, we observed that rottlerin significantly down-regulated the expression of Skp2 in breast cancer cells. Importantly, overexpression of Skp2 abrogated rottlerin-mediated tumor suppressive activity, whereas down-regulation of Skp2 enhanced rottlerin-triggered anti-tumor function. Strikingly, we identified that rottlerin exhibited its anti-tumor potential partly through inactivation of Skp2 in breast cancer. Our findings indicate that rottlerin could be a potential safe agent for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:27582552

  6. Adipose microenvironment promotes triple negative breast cancer cell invasiveness and dissemination by producing CCL5

    PubMed Central

    D’Esposito, Vittoria; Liguoro, Domenico; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; Collina, Francesca; Cantile, Monica; Spinelli, Rosa; Raciti, Gregory Alexander; Miele, Claudia; Valentino, Rossella; Campiglia, Pietro; De Laurentiis, Michelino; Di Bonito, Maurizio; Botti, Gerardo; Franco, Renato; Beguinot, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that adiposity is associated with raised cancer incidence, morbidity and mortality. In a subset of tumors, cancer cell growth and/or metastasis predominantly occur in adipocyte-rich microenvironment. Indeed, adipocytes represent the most abundant cell types surrounding breast cancer cells. We have studied the mechanisms by which peritumoral human adipose tissue contributes to Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) cell invasiveness and dissemination. Co-culture with human adipocytes enhanced MDA-MB231 cancer cell invasiveness. Adipocytes cultured in high glucose were 2-fold more active in promoting cell invasion and motility compared to those cultured in low glucose. This effect is induced, at least in part, by the CC-chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5). Indeed, CCL5 inhibition by specific peptides and antibodies reduced adipocyte-induced breast cancer cell migration and invasion. CCL5 immuno-detection in peritumoral adipose tissue of women with TNBC correlated with lymph node (p-value = 0.04) and distant metastases (p-value = 0.001). A positive trend was also observed between CCL5 expression and glycaemia. Finally, Kaplan-Meier curves showed a negative correlation between CCL5 staining in the peritumoral adipose tissue and overall survival of patients (p-value = 0.039). Thus, inhibition of CCL5 in adipose microenvironment may represent a novel approach for the therapy of highly malignant TNBC. PMID:27027351

  7. FOXP1 functions as an oncogene in promoting cancer stem cell-like characteristics in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Jung; Seo, Eun Jin; Kim, Dae Kyoung; Lee, Su In; Kwon, Yang Woo; Jang, Il Ho; Kim, Ki-Hyung; Suh, Dong-Soo; Kim, Jae Ho

    2016-01-19

    Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate of all gynecological cancers with a high recurrence rate. It is important to understand the nature of recurring cancer cells to terminally eliminate ovarian cancer. The winged helix transcription factor Forkhead box P1 (FOXP1) has been reported to function as either oncogene or tumor-suppressor in various cancers. In the current study, we show that FOXP1 promotes cancer stem cell-like characteristics in ovarian cancer cells. Knockdown of FOXP1 expression in A2780 or SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells decreased spheroid formation, expression of stemness-related genes and epithelial to mesenchymal transition-related genes, cell migration, and resistance to Paclitaxel or Cisplatin treatment, whereas overexpression of FOXP1 in A2780 or SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells increased spheroid formation, expression of stemness-related genes and epithelial to mesenchymal transition-related genes, cell migration, and resistance to Paclitaxel or Cisplatin treatment. In addition, overexpression of FOXP1 increased promoter activity of ABCG2, OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2, among which the increases in ABCG2, OCT4, and SOX2 promoter activity were dependent on the presence of FOXP1-binding site. In xenotransplantation of A2780 ovarian cancer cells into nude mice, knockdown of FOXP1 expression significantly decreased tumor size. These results strongly suggest FOXP1 functions as an oncogene by promoting cancer stem cell-like characteristics in ovarian cancer cells. Targeting FOXP1 may provide a novel therapeutic opportunity for developing a relapse-free treatment for ovarian cancer patients.

  8. Project for the National Program of Early Diagnosis of Endometrial Cancer Part II

    PubMed Central

    Bohîlțea, RE; Ancăr, V; Rădoi, V; Furtunescu, F; Bohîlțea, LC

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Endometrial cancer recorded a peak incidence in ages 60-64 years in Romania. Since 2013, an increased trend of endometrial cancer occurrence has been registered in urban areas as compared with rural ones. Unfortunately, most of the cancer cases are diagnosed too late, in an advanced stage of the disease, resulting into diminished lifetime expectancy. The first part of the article concentrated on issues such as: the description of the study, results, and discussions regarding the study, definitions and terms, risk factors specific for endometrial carcinomas, presentation of the activities of the Program, etc. Objective: Drafting a national program that will serve as an early diagnosis method of endometrial cancer. This second part of the study continues with the presentation of the activities of the Program, analyzes the human resources and materials needed to implement the Program, presents the strategies and the indicators specific for the implementation of the project. Methods and Results: A standardization of the diagnostic steps was proposed and the focus was on 4 key elements for the early diagnosis of endometrial cancer: The first steps were approached in the first part of the study and the second part of the study investigated the proper monitoring of precursor endometrial lesions or cancer associated endometrial lesions and screening high risk populations (Lynch syndrome, Cowden syndrome). Discussion: Improving medical practice based on diagnostic algorithms and programs improves and increases the lifetime expectancy, due to the fact that endometrial cancer is early diagnosed and treated before it causes serious health problems or even death. Abbreviations: ASCCP = American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, CT = Computerized Tomography, HNPCC = Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (Lynch syndrome), IHC = Immunohistochemistry, MSI = Microsatellites instability, MSI-H/ MSI-L = high (positive test)/ low (negative test

  9. VGLL4 inhibits EMT in part through suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Wang, Ziwei; Zhang, Wei; Qian, Kun; Liao, Gang; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Shouru

    2015-03-01

    VGLL4 is a member of the Vestigial-like proteins that functions as a tumor suppressor, which directly competes with YAP for binding TEADs in several cancer types. Recently, an increasing number of studies have reported that VGLL4 acts as a crucial role in regulating cell mobility, migration, and invasion. However, little is known about the signaling mechanisms in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of gastric cancer. In our study, we confirmed that the expression level of VGLL4 was down-regulated in gastric cancer tissues, and reduced VGLL4 expression levels inhibited apoptosis and promoted proliferation, migration, and invasion. Additionally, we found a phenomenon that VGLL4 was associated with the change in nuclear location of β-catenin, which suggested that β-catenin was a significant downstream factor of VGLL4. These results suggest that VGLL4 suppressed EMT in part via negative regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Taken together, our study demonstrated that VGLL4 is important in the process of suppressing tumor progression of gastric cancer and provided a potential therapeutic strategy for gastric cancer.

  10. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Cancer Cell Cytotoxicity: Implications for Multi-Targeted Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    D’Eliseo, Donatella; Velotti, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a major disease worldwide. Despite progress in cancer therapy, conventional cytotoxic therapies lead to unsatisfactory long-term survival, mainly related to development of drug resistance by tumor cells and toxicity towards normal cells. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), can exert anti-neoplastic activity by inducing apoptotic cell death in human cancer cells either alone or in combination with conventional therapies. Indeed, n-3 PUFAs potentially increase the sensitivity of tumor cells to conventional therapies, possibly improving their efficacy especially against cancers resistant to treatment. Moreover, in contrast to traditional therapies, n-3 PUFAs appear to cause selective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells with little or no toxicity on normal cells. This review focuses on studies investigating the cytotoxic activity of n-3 PUFAs against cancer cells via apoptosis, analyzing the molecular mechanisms underlying this effective and selective activity. Here, we highlight the multiple molecules potentially targeted by n-3 PUFAs to trigger cancer cell apoptosis. This analysis can allow a better comprehension of the potential cytotoxic therapeutic role of n-3 PUFAs against cancer, providing specific information and support to design future pre-clinical and clinical studies for a better use of n-3 PUFAs in cancer therapy, mainly combinational therapy. PMID:26821053

  11. Inhibition of notch signaling in glioblastoma targets cancer stem cells via an endothelial cell intermediate.

    PubMed

    Hovinga, Koos E; Shimizu, Fumiko; Wang, Rong; Panagiotakos, Georgia; Van Der Heijden, Maartje; Moayedpardazi, Hamideh; Correia, Ana Sofia; Soulet, Denis; Major, Tamara; Menon, Jayanthi; Tabar, Viviane

    2010-06-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly heterogeneous malignant tumor. Recent data suggests the presence of a hierarchical organization within the GBM cell population that involves cancer cells with stem-like behavior, capable of repopulating the tumor and contributing to its resistance to therapy. Tumor stem cells are thought to reside within a vascular niche that provides structural and functional support. However, most GBM studies involve isolated tumor cells grown under various culture conditions. Here, we use a novel three-dimensional organotypic "explant" system of surgical GBM specimens that preserves cytoarchitecture and tumor stroma along with tumor cells. Notch inhibition in explants results in decreased proliferation and self-renewal of tumor cells but is also associated with a decrease in endothelial cells. When endothelial cells are selectively eliminated from the explants via a toxin conjugate, we also observed a decrease in self-renewal of tumor stem cells. These findings support a critical role for tumor endothelial cells in GBM stem cell maintenance, mediated at least in part by Notch signaling. The explant system further highlighted differences in the response to radiation between explants and isolated tumor neurospheres. Combination treatment with Notch blockade and radiation resulted in a substantial decrease in proliferation and in self-renewal in tumor explants while radiation alone was less effective. This data suggests that the Notch pathway plays a critical role in linking angiogenesis and cancer stem cell self-renewal and is thus a potential therapeutic target. Three-dimensional explant systems provide a novel approach for the study of tumor and microenvironment interactions.

  12. Phototheranostics of CD44-positive cell populations in triple negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jiefu; Krishnamachary, Balaji; Mironchik, Yelena; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is one of the most lethal subtypes of breast cancer that has limited treatment options. Its high rates of recurrence and metastasis have been associated, in part, with a subpopulation of breast cancer stem-like cells that are resistant to conventional therapies. A compendium of markers such as CD44high/CD24low, and increased expression of the ABCG2 transporter and increased aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH1), have been associated with these cells. We developed a CD44-targeted monoclonal antibody photosensitizer conjugate for combined fluorescent detection and photoimmunotherapy (PIT) of CD44 expressing cells in TNBC. The CD44-targeted conjugate demonstrated acute cell killing of breast cancer cells with high CD44 expression. This cell death process was dependent upon CD44-specific cell membrane binding combined with near-infrared irradiation. The conjugate selectively accumulated in CD44-positive tumors and caused dramatic tumor shrinkage and efficient elimination of CD44-positive cell populations following irradiation. This novel phototheranostic strategy provides a promising opportunity for the destruction of CD44-positive populations that include cancer stem-like cells, in locally advanced primary and metastatic TNBC. PMID:27302409

  13. The DNA aptamer binds stemness-enriched cancer cells in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon-Jin; Lee, Hee Seung; Jung, Dawoon E; Kim, Jeong Mi; Song, Si Young

    2017-04-01

    Pancreatic cancer remains one of the most common and lethal cancers. Most patients (80%) present with inoperable advanced pancreatic cancer at initial diagnosis, and their early diagnosis is a significant unmet challenge. Recent studies indicate that cancer, including pancreatic cancer, is initiated and propagated by cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs are responsible not only for the pathogenesis of cancer but also for the heterogeneity, malignant degree, anticancer therapy resistance, and recurrence of tumors. Therefore, the identification of CSCs may be a crucial stepping stone for overcoming this disastrous pancreatic cancer. Here, we investigated pancreatic CSC-associated aptamers as a novel tool for diagnosis and therapeutic agents. Aptamers that bind to stemness-enriched cancer cells in pancreatic cancer were developed by modified Cell-SELEX method. Positive selection was performed by the sphere cells generated by pancreatic cancer cell line, HPAC, and then the aptamer pool was negatively selected by pancreatic normal cell line, HPDE. Aptamers 1 and 146 showing high specificity upon the KD values with 22.18 and 22.62 nM were selected. These 2 aptamers were validated by binding to HPAC sphere cells and to HPDE cells, and both aptamers showed specificity to HPAC sphere cells only. Aptamer-positive cells showed high expression levels of CSC-associated genes compared with the aptamer-negative cells by FACS analysis. The colocalization of CD44, CD24, ESA, and CD133 was also observed in the aptamer-positive cells by confocal microscopy. In the present study, these 2 pancreatic CSC-associated aptamers may be potential candidates for novel diagnostic markers, CSC-targeting drug delivery, or circulating tumor cell detection.

  14. Deadly crosstalk: Notch signaling at the intersection of EMT and cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Ingrid; Miele, Lucio

    2013-11-28

    Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway involved in cell fate control during development, stem cell self-renewal and postnatal tissue differentiation. Roles for Notch in carcinogenesis, in the biology of cancer stem cells, tumor angiogenesis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) have been reported. This mini-review describes the role of Notch signaling deregulation in EMT and tumor aggressiveness. We describe how accumulated evidence suggests that Notch inhibition is an attractive strategy for the treatment of several cancers, at least in part because of its potential to reverse or prevent EMT.

  15. Myeloid derived suppressor cells - a new therapeutic target in the treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    Wesolowski, Robert; Markowitz, Joseph; Carson, William E

    2013-01-01

    Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells (MDSC) are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells that are increased in states of cancer, inflammation and infection. In malignant states, MDSC are induced by tumor secreted growth factors. MDSC play an important part in suppression of host immune responses through several mechanisms such as production of arginase 1, release of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide and secretion of immune-suppressive cytokines. This leads to a permissive immune environment necessary for the growth of malignant cells. MDSC may also contribute to angiogenesis and tumor invasion. This review focuses on currently available strategies to inhibit MDSC in the treatment of cancer.

  16. Part I: cancer in Sudan—burden, distribution, and trends breast, gynecological, and prostate cancers.

    PubMed

    Elamin, Amany; Ibrahim, Muntaser E; Abuidris, Dafalla; Mohamed, Kamal Eldin H; Mohammed, Sulma Ibrahim

    2015-03-01

    Despite the growing burden of cancer worldwide, it continues to receive low priority in Africa, across the continent and specifically in Sudan. This is due to political unrest, limited health resources, and other pressing public health issues such as infectious diseases. Lack of awareness about the magnitude of the current and future cancer burden among policy makers play a major role as well. Although, the real scope of cancer in Sudan is not known, the reported cases have increased from 303 in 1967-6303 in 2010. According to Globocan estimates, the top most common cancers in both sexes are breast, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, esophagus, and colorectum. This review is the first of four papers that focuses on cancer, its distribution and trend as well as the risk factors most common in Sudan. It is expected that cancer will increase in Sudan as a result of migration of people from rural areas to urban cities in the pursuit of a better standard of living, which has resulted in lifestyle and behavioral changes that include tobacco chewing and smoking, unhealthy dieting, and a lack of physical activity. These changes are further exacerbated by the aging population and have made the country vulnerable to many diseases including cancer. These reviews are meant to provide a better understanding and knowledge required to plan appropriate cancer-control and prevention strategies in the country.

  17. Part I: cancer in Sudan—burden, distribution, and trends breast, gynecological, and prostate cancers

    PubMed Central

    Elamin, Amany; Ibrahim, Muntaser E; Abuidris, Dafalla; Mohamed, Kamal Eldin H; Mohammed, Sulma Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing burden of cancer worldwide, it continues to receive low priority in Africa, across the continent and specifically in Sudan. This is due to political unrest, limited health resources, and other pressing public health issues such as infectious diseases. Lack of awareness about the magnitude of the current and future cancer burden among policy makers play a major role as well. Although, the real scope of cancer in Sudan is not known, the reported cases have increased from 303 in 1967–6303 in 2010. According to Globocan estimates, the top most common cancers in both sexes are breast, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, esophagus, and colorectum. This review is the first of four papers that focuses on cancer, its distribution and trend as well as the risk factors most common in Sudan. It is expected that cancer will increase in Sudan as a result of migration of people from rural areas to urban cities in the pursuit of a better standard of living, which has resulted in lifestyle and behavioral changes that include tobacco chewing and smoking, unhealthy dieting, and a lack of physical activity. These changes are further exacerbated by the aging population and have made the country vulnerable to many diseases including cancer. These reviews are meant to provide a better understanding and knowledge required to plan appropriate cancer-control and prevention strategies in the country. PMID:25641872

  18. Selective in vivo metabolic cell-labeling-mediated cancer targeting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Wang, Ruibo; Cai, Kaimin; He, Hua; Liu, Yang; Yen, Jonathan; Wang, Zhiyu; Xu, Ming; Sun, Yiwen; Zhou, Xin; Yin, Qian; Tang, Li; Dobrucki, Iwona T; Dobrucki, Lawrence W; Chaney, Eric J; Boppart, Stephen A; Fan, Timothy M; Lezmi, Stéphane; Chen, Xuesi; Yin, Lichen; Cheng, Jianjun

    2017-02-13

    Distinguishing cancer cells from normal cells through surface receptors is vital for cancer diagnosis and targeted therapy. Metabolic glycoengineering of unnatural sugars provides a powerful tool to manually introduce chemical receptors onto the cell surface; however, cancer-selective labeling still remains a great challenge. Herein we report the design of sugars that can selectively label cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, we inhibit the cell-labeling activity of tetraacetyl-N-azidoacetylmannosamine (Ac4ManAz) by converting its anomeric acetyl group to a caged ether bond that can be selectively cleaved by cancer-overexpressed enzymes and thus enables the overexpression of azido groups on the surface of cancer cells. Histone deacetylase and cathepsin L-responsive acetylated azidomannosamine, one such enzymatically activatable Ac4ManAz analog developed, mediated cancer-selective labeling in vivo, which enhanced tumor accumulation of a dibenzocyclooctyne-doxorubicin conjugate via click chemistry and enabled targeted therapy against LS174T colon cancer, MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer and 4T1 metastatic breast cancer in mice.

  19. Vasculogenic mimicry in small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Stuart C; Metcalf, Robert L; Trapani, Francesca; Mohan, Sumitra; Antonello, Jenny; Abbott, Benjamin; Leong, Hui Sun; Chester, Christopher P E; Simms, Nicole; Polanski, Radoslaw; Nonaka, Daisuke; Priest, Lynsey; Fusi, Alberto; Carlsson, Fredrika; Carlsson, Anders; Hendrix, Mary J C; Seftor, Richard E B; Seftor, Elisabeth A; Rothwell, Dominic G; Hughes, Andrew; Hicks, James; Miller, Crispin; Kuhn, Peter; Brady, Ged; Simpson, Kathryn L; Blackhall, Fiona H; Dive, Caroline

    2016-11-09

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is characterized by prevalent circulating tumour cells (CTCs), early metastasis and poor prognosis. We show that SCLC patients (37/38) have rare CTC subpopulations co-expressing vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cadherin) and cytokeratins consistent with vasculogenic mimicry (VM), a process whereby tumour cells form 'endothelial-like' vessels. Single-cell genomic analysis reveals characteristic SCLC genomic changes in both VE-cadherin-positive and -negative CTCs. Higher levels of VM are associated with worse overall survival in 41 limited-stage patients' biopsies (P<0.025). VM vessels are also observed in 9/10 CTC patient-derived explants (CDX), where molecular analysis of fractionated VE-cadherin-positive cells uncovered copy-number alterations and mutated TP53, confirming human tumour origin. VE-cadherin is required for VM in NCI-H446 SCLC xenografts, where VM decreases tumour latency and, despite increased cisplatin intra-tumour delivery, decreases cisplatin efficacy. The functional significance of VM in SCLC suggests VM regulation may provide new targets for therapeutic intervention.

  20. Vasculogenic mimicry in small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Stuart C.; Metcalf, Robert L.; Trapani, Francesca; Mohan, Sumitra; Antonello, Jenny; Abbott, Benjamin; Leong, Hui Sun; Chester, Christopher P. E.; Simms, Nicole; Polanski, Radoslaw; Nonaka, Daisuke; Priest, Lynsey; Fusi, Alberto; Carlsson, Fredrika; Carlsson, Anders; Hendrix, Mary J. C.; Seftor, Richard E. B.; Seftor, Elisabeth A.; Rothwell, Dominic G.; Hughes, Andrew; Hicks, James; Miller, Crispin; Kuhn, Peter; Brady, Ged; Simpson, Kathryn L.; Blackhall, Fiona H.; Dive, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is characterized by prevalent circulating tumour cells (CTCs), early metastasis and poor prognosis. We show that SCLC patients (37/38) have rare CTC subpopulations co-expressing vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cadherin) and cytokeratins consistent with vasculogenic mimicry (VM), a process whereby tumour cells form ‘endothelial-like' vessels. Single-cell genomic analysis reveals characteristic SCLC genomic changes in both VE-cadherin-positive and -negative CTCs. Higher levels of VM are associated with worse overall survival in 41 limited-stage patients' biopsies (P<0.025). VM vessels are also observed in 9/10 CTC patient-derived explants (CDX), where molecular analysis of fractionated VE-cadherin-positive cells uncovered copy-number alterations and mutated TP53, confirming human tumour origin. VE-cadherin is required for VM in NCI-H446 SCLC xenografts, where VM decreases tumour latency and, despite increased cisplatin intra-tumour delivery, decreases cisplatin efficacy. The functional significance of VM in SCLC suggests VM regulation may provide new targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27827359

  1. The Interconnectedness of Cancer Cell Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Rehemtulla, Alnawaz

    2011-01-01

    The elegance of fundamental and applied research activities have begun to reveal a myriad of spatial and temporal alterations in downstream signaling networks affected by cell surface receptor stimulation including G protein-coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases. Interconnected biochemical pathways serve to integrate and distribute the signaling information throughout the cell by orchestration of complex biochemical circuits consisting of protein interactions and covalent modification processes. It is clear that scientific literature summarizing results from both fundamental and applied scientific research activities has served to provide a broad foundational biologic database that has been instrumental in advancing our continued understanding of underlying cancer biology. This article reflects on historical advances and the role of innovation in the competitive world of grant-sponsored research. PMID:22241964

  2. Overexpression of ankyrin1 promotes pancreatic cancer cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Omura, Noriyuki; Mizuma, Masamichi; MacGregor, Anne; Hong, Seung-Mo; Ayars, Michael; Almario, Jose Alejandro; Borges, Michael; Kanda, Mitsuro; Li, Ang; Vincent, Audrey; Maitra, Anirban; Goggins, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The methylation status of a promoter influences gene expression and aberrant methylation during tumor development has important functional consequences for pancreatic and other cancers. Using methylated CpG island amplification and promoter microarrays, we identified ANK1 as hypomethylated in pancreatic cancers. Expression analysis determined ANK1 as commonly overexpressed in pancreatic cancers relative to normal pancreas. ANK1 was co-expressed with miR-486 in pancreatic cancer cells. Stable knockdown of ANK1 in the pancreatic cancer cell line AsPC1 led to changes in cell morphology, and decreases in colony formation. Stable knockdown of ANK1 also marked reduced the growth of tumors in athymic nude mice. Among patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy, those with pancreatic cancers expressing ANK1 had a poorer prognosis than those without ANK1 expression. These findings indicate a role for ANK1 overexpression in mediating pancreatic cancer tumorigenicity. PMID:27144336

  3. Cell stiffness is a biomarker of the metastatic potential of ovarian cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenwei; Mezencev, Roman; Kim, Byungkyu; Wang, Lijuan; McDonald, John; Sulchek, Todd; Sulchek Team; McDonald Team

    2013-03-01

    The metastatic potential of cells is an important parameter in the design of optimal strategies for the personalized treatment of cancer. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we show that ovarian cancer cells are generally softer and display lower intrinsic variability in cell stiffness than non-malignant ovarian epithelial cells. A detailed study of highly invasive ovarian cancer cells (HEY A8) and their less invasive parental cells (HEY), demonstrates that deformability can serve as an accurate biomarker of metastatic potential. Comparative gene expression profiling indicate that the reduced stiffness of highly metastatic HEY A8 cells is associated with actin cytoskeleton remodeling, microscopic examination of actin fiber structure in these cell lines is consistent with this prediction. Our results indicate that cell stiffness not only distinguishes ovarian cancer cells from non-malignant cells, but may also be a useful biomarker to evaluate the relative metastatic potential of ovarian and perhaps other types of cancer cells.

  4. 3D cancer cell migration in a confined matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alobaidi, Amani; Sun, Bo

    Cancer cell migration is widely studied in 2D motion, which does not mimic the invasion processes in vivo. More recently, 3D cell migration studies have been performed. The ability of cancer cells to migrate within the extracellular matrix depends on the physical and biochemical features of the extracellular matrix. We present a model of cell motility in confined matrix geometry. The aim of the study is to study cancer migration in collagen matrix, as a soft tissue, to investigate their motility within the confined and surrounding collagen environment. Different collagen concentrations have been used to show the ability of these cancer cells to move through such a complex structure by measuring Cancer cell migration velocity as well as the displacement. Graduate student physics department.

  5. Identification of a distinct population of CD133(+)CXCR4(+) cancer stem cells in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Cioffi, Michele; D'Alterio, Crescenzo; Camerlingo, Rosalba; Tirino, Virginia; Consales, Claudia; Riccio, Anna; Ieranò, Caterina; Cecere, Sabrina Chiara; Losito, Nunzia Simona; Greggi, Stefano; Pignata, Sandro; Pirozzi, Giuseppe; Scala, Stefania

    2015-05-28

    CD133 and CXCR4 were evaluated in the NCI-60 cell lines to identify cancer stem cell rich populations. Screening revealed that, ovarian OVCAR-3, -4 and -5 and colon cancer HT-29, HCT-116 and SW620 over expressed both proteins. We aimed to isolate cells with stem cell features sorting the cells expressing CXCR4(+)CD133(+) within ovarian cancer cell lines. The sorted population CD133(+)CXCR4(+) demonstrated the highest efficiency in sphere formation in OVCAR-3, OVCAR-4 and OVCAR-5 cells. Moreover OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and NANOG were highly expressed in CD133(+)CXCR4(+) sorted OVCAR-5 cells. Most strikingly CXCR4(+)CD133(+) sorted OVCAR-5 and -4 cells formed the highest number of tumors when inoculated in nude mice compared to CD133(-)CXCR4(-), CD133(+)CXCR4(-), CD133(-)CXCR4(+) cells. CXCR4(+)CD133(+) OVCAR-5 cells were resistant to cisplatin, overexpressed the ABCG2 surface drug transporter and migrated toward the CXCR4 ligand, CXCL12. Moreover, when human ovarian cancer cells were isolated from 37 primary ovarian cancer, an extremely variable level of CXCR4 and CD133 expression was detected. Thus, in human ovarian cancer cells CXCR4 and CD133 expression identified a discrete population with stem cell properties that regulated tumor development and chemo resistance. This cell population represents a potential therapeutic target.

  6. Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule regulates the interaction between pancreatic cancer cells and stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei-Wei; Zhan, Shu-Hui; Geng, Chang-Xin; Sun, Xin; Erkan, Mert; Kleeff, Jörg; Xie, Xiang-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is involved in tumor progression and metastasis. In the present study, the expression and functional role of ALCAM in pancreatic cancer cells and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) was investigated. Tissue specimens were obtained from patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (n=56) or chronic pancreatitis (CP; n=10), who underwent pancreatic resection, and from normal pancreatic tissue samples (n=10). Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the localization and expression of ALCAM in pancreatic tissues. Subsequently, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting were applied to assess the expression of ALCAM in pancreatic cancer Panc-1 and T3M4 cells, as well as in PSCs. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure ALCAM levels in cell culture medium stimulated by hypoxia, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and transforming growth factor-β. Silencing of ALCAM was performed using ALCAM small interfering (si)RNA and immunocytochemistry was used to analyze the inhibition efficiency. An invasion assay and a cell interaction assay were performed to assess the invasive ability and co-cultured adhesive potential of Panc-1 and T3M4 cells, as well as PSCs. Histologically, ALCAM expression was generally weak or absent in pancreatic cancer cells, but was markedly upregulated in PSCs in pancreatic cancer tissues. ALCAM was highly expressed in PSCs from CP tissues and PSCs surrounding pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias, as well as in pancreatic cancer cells. ALCAM mRNA was highly expressed in PSCs, with a low to moderate expression in T3M4 and Panc-1 cells. Similar to the mRNA expression, immunoblotting demonstrated that ALCAM protein levels were high in PSCs and T3M4 cells, but low in Panc-1 cells. The expression of TNF-α increased, while hypoxia decreased the secretion of ALCAM in pancreatic cancer Panc-1 and T3M4 cells, and also in

  7. Analysis of non-thermal plasma-induced cell injury in human lung cancer cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurita, Hirofumi; Sano, Kaori; Wada, Motoi; Mizuno, Kazue; Ono, Ryo; Yasuda, Hachiro; Takashima, Kazunori; Mizuno, Akira

    2015-09-01

    Recent progress of biomedical application of atmospheric pressure plasma shows that the biological effects are mainly due to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) in liquid produced by the plasma exposure. To elucidate the cellular responses induced by exposure to the plasma, we focused on identification and quantification of reactive chemical species in plasma-exposed cell culture medium, and cell injury in mammalian cells after treatment of the plasma-exposed medium. In this study, we examined human lung cancer cell lines. The contribution of H2O2 to the cellular responses was considered. Here, an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) sustained by a pulsed power supply in argon was used. After APPJ exposure to cell culture medium, RONS detection in liquid was conducted. It showed that OH radical, ONOO-, NO2-, NO3-, and H2O2 were produced in the plasma-exposed medium. Cellular responses of human lung cancer cell lines to the plasma-exposed medium in a concentration-dependence manner were also studied. It showed that the plasma-exposed medium and the H2O2 treatment gave similar reduction in viability and induction of apoptosis. This work was partly supported by MEXT KAKENHI Grant Number 24108005 and JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 26390096.

  8. Ki-67 is required for maintenance of cancer stem cells but not cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Cidado, Justin; Wong, Hong Yuen; Rosen, D Marc; Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Garay, Joseph P; Fessler, Abigail G; Rasheed, Zeshaan A; Hicks, Jessica; Cochran, Rory L; Croessmann, Sarah; Zabransky, Daniel J; Mohseni, Morassa; Beaver, Julia A; Chu, David; Cravero, Karen; Christenson, Eric S; Medford, Arielle; Mattox, Austin; De Marzo, Angelo M; Argani, Pedram; Chawla, Ajay; Hurley, Paula J; Lauring, Josh; Park, Ben Ho

    2016-02-02

    Ki-67 expression is correlated with cell proliferation and is a prognostic marker for various cancers; however, its function is unknown. Here we demonstrate that genetic disruption of Ki-67 in human epithelial breast and colon cancer cells depletes the cancer stem cell niche. Ki-67 null cells had a proliferative disadvantage compared to wildtype controls in colony formation assays and displayed increased sensitivity to various chemotherapies. Ki-67 null cancer cells showed decreased and delayed tumor formation in xenograft assays, which was associated with a reduction in cancer stem cell markers. Immunohistochemical analyses of human breast cancers revealed that Ki-67 expression is maintained at equivalent or greater levels in metastatic sites of disease compared to matched primary tumors, suggesting that maintenance of Ki-67 expression is associated with metastatic/clonogenic potential. These results elucidate Ki-67's role in maintaining the cancer stem cell niche, which has potential diagnostic and therapeutic implications for human malignancies.

  9. Ki-67 is required for maintenance of cancer stem cells but not cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Cidado, Justin; Wong, Hong Yuen; Rosen, D. Marc; Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Garay, Joseph P.; Fessler, Abigail G.; Rasheed, Zeshaan A.; Hicks, Jessica; Cochran, Rory L.; Croessmann, Sarah; Zabransky, Daniel J.; Mohseni, Morassa; Beaver, Julia A.; Chu, David; Cravero, Karen; Christenson, Eric S.; Medford, Arielle; Mattox, Austin; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Argani, Pedram; Chawla, Ajay; Hurley, Paula J.; Lauring, Josh; Park, Ben Ho

    2016-01-01

    Ki-67 expression is correlated with cell proliferation and is a prognostic marker for various cancers; however, its function is unknown. Here we demonstrate that genetic disruption of Ki-67 in human epithelial breast and colon cancer cells depletes the cancer stem cell niche. Ki-67 null cells had a proliferative disadvantage compared to wildtype controls in colony formation assays and displayed increased sensitivity to various chemotherapies. Ki-67 null cancer cells showed decreased and delayed tumor formation in xenograft assays, which was associated with a reduction in cancer stem cell markers. Immunohistochemical analyses of human breast cancers revealed that Ki-67 expression is maintained at equivalent or greater levels in metastatic sites of disease compared to matched primary tumors, suggesting that maintenance of Ki-67 expression is associated with metastatic/clonogenic potential. These results elucidate Ki-67's role in maintaining the cancer stem cell niche, which has potential diagnostic and therapeutic implications for human malignancies. PMID:26823390

  10. Transglutaminase Is a Tumor Cell and Cancer Stem Cell Survival Factor

    PubMed Central

    Eckert, Richard L.; Fisher, Matthew L.; Grun, Dan; Adhikary, Gautam; Xu, Wen; Kerr, Candace

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that cancer cells express elevated levels of type II transglutaminase (TG2), and that expression is further highly enriched in cancer stem cells derived from these cancers. Moreover, elevated TG2 expression is associated with enhanced cancer stem cell marker expression, survival signaling, proliferation, migration, invasion, integrin-mediated adhesion, epithelial–mesenchymal transition, and drug resistance. TG2 expression is also associated with formation of aggressive and metastatic tumors that are resistant to conventional therapeutic intervention. This review summarizes the role of TG2 as a cancer cell survival factor in a range of tumor types, and as a target for preventive and therapeutic intervention. The literature supports the idea that TG2, in the closed/GTP-binding/signaling conformation, drives cancer cell and cancer stem cell survival, and that TG2, in the open/crosslinking conformation, is associated with cell death. PMID:26258961

  11. Lidocaine inhibits the invasion and migration of TRPV6-expressing cancer cells by TRPV6 downregulation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuan; Gou, Hui; Zhu, Jiang; Tian, Si; Yu, Lehua

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that local anesthetics have a broad spectrum of pharmacological actions, acting as nerve blocks, and treating pain and cardiac arrhythmias via blocking of the sodium channel. The use of local anesthetics could reduce the possibility of cancer metastasis and recurrence following surgical tumor excision. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of lidocaine upon the invasion and migration of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 6 (TRPV6)-expressing cancer cells. Human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, prostatic cancer PC-3 cells and ovarian cancer ES-2 cells were treated with lidocaine. Cell viability was quantitatively determined by MTT assay. The migration of the cells was evaluated using the wound healing assay, and the invasion of the cells was assessed using a Transwell assay. Calcium (Ca2+) measurements were performed using a Fluo-3 AM fluorescence kit. The expression of TRPV6 mRNA and protein in the cells was determined by quantitative-polymerase chain r