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Sample records for cancer epidemiologic evidence

  1. Trichloroethylene and cancer: epidemiologic evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Wartenberg, D; Reyner, D; Scott, C S

    2000-01-01

    Trichloroethylene is an organic chemical that has been used in dry cleaning, for metal degreasing, and as a solvent for oils and resins. It has been shown to cause liver and kidney cancer in experimental animals. This article reviews over 80 published papers and letters on the cancer epidemiology of people exposed to trichloroethylene. Evidence of excess cancer incidence among occupational cohorts with the most rigorous exposure assessment is found for kidney cancer (relative risk [RR] = 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-2.7), liver cancer (RR = 1.9, 95% CI(1.0-3.4), and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (RR = 1.5, 95% CI 0.9-2.3) as well as for cervical cancer, Hodgkin's disease, and multiple myeloma. However, since few studies isolate trichloroethylene exposure, results are likely confounded by exposure to other solvents and other risk factors. Although we believe that solvent exposure causes cancer in humans and that trichloroethylene likely is one of the active agents, we recommend further study to better specify the specific agents that confer this risk and to estimate the magnitude of that risk. PMID:10807550

  2. Trichloroethylene and cancer: epidemiologic evidence

    PubMed

    Scott; Cogliano

    2000-05-01

    adopt a traditional review of the mutagenicity data on TCE and its metabolites but instead raise several issues regarding the interpretation of mutagenicity and genetic toxicity tests in shedding light on whether these processes are key events in tumor initiation. As discussed in the U.S. EPA proposed cancer guidelines, a salient question is whether TCE or its metabolites interacts directly with and mutates DNA to bring about changes in gene expression or whether DNA mutation is achieved through some other process. The Moore and Harrington-Brock article examines this question. Bull ((italic)10(/italic)), Lash et al. ((italic)11(/italic)), and Green ((italic)12(/italic)) present the experimental support for several modes of action for tumor development in rodents. These articles discuss a number of hypotheses including the influence on tumor development from mutagenesis, cytotoxicity, cell proliferation, *(subscript)2u(/subscript)-globin, peroxisome proliferation, oxidative stress, receptor binding, and perturbation of cell-signaling pathways. Quantitative dose-response issues important to the statistical modeling of both noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic effects are discussed in articles by Fisher ((italic)5(/italic)), Bois ((italic)13(/italic)), Clewell et al. ((italic)14(/italic)), Bois ((italic)15(/italic)), Boyes et al. ((italic)16(/italic)), Barton and Clewell ((italic)17(/italic)), Chen ((italic)18(/italic)), and Rhomberg ((italic)19(/italic)). Because pharmacokinetic data are available for the TCE assessment, dose metrics other than applied dose may be evaluated in benchmark and other dose-response analyses. Fisher's article ((italic)5(/italic)) describes modeling liver concentration of TCE and its oxidative metabolites, while Clewell et al. ((italic)14(/italic)) model plasma concentrations of the oxidative metabolites and flux through the kidney for metabolites of the glutathione-(italic)S(/italic)-transferase pathway. Both models are scaled from mice or

  3. Epidemiological evidence indicates asbestos causes laryngeal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.H.; Handley, M.A.; Wood, R. )

    1990-06-01

    A variety of opinions have been expressed in the literature concerning asbestos and laryngeal cancer. This paper presents an analysis of epidemiological studies based on criteria that prioritized the most heavily exposed cohorts. Emphasis was given to the six cohorts or subcohorts with lung cancer relative risk estimates of 2 or more. The two groups of workers with the highest lung cancer relative risk estimates (4.06 and 3.28) both gave strong support for a causal association of asbestos and laryngeal cancer, with relative risk estimates of 1.91 (90% confidence limits 1.00 to 3.34) and 3.75 (90% confidence limits 1.01 to 9.68), respectively. Confounding with cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption does not explain the findings. Case-control studies gave mixed results, but generally supported the hypothesis. It was concluded that asbestos is a probable cause of laryngeal cancer in view of the reasonable consistency of the studies, the strength of the association in key studies, the evidence for dose-response relationships, and the biological plausibility for asbestos being a cause of laryngeal cancer. 48 references.

  4. Energy intake, physical activity, energy balance, and cancer: epidemiologic evidence.

    PubMed

    Pan, Sai Yi; DesMeules, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Energy intake, physical activity, and obesity are modifiable lifestyle factors. This chapter reviews and summarizes the epidemiologic evidence on the relation of energy intake, physical activity, and obesity to cancer. High energy intake may increase the risk of cancers of colon-rectum, prostate (especially advanced prostate cancer), and breast. However, because physical activity, body size, and metabolic efficiency are highly related to total energy intake and expenditure, it is difficult to assess the independent effect of energy intake on cancer risk. There are sufficient evidences to support a role of physical activity in preventing cancers of the colon and breast, whereas the association is stronger in men than in women for colon cancer and in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women for breast cancer. The evidence also suggests that physical activity likely reduces the risk of cancers of endometrium, lung, and prostate (to a lesser extent). On the other hand, there is little or no evidence that the risk of rectal cancer is related to physical activity, whereas the results have been inconsistent regarding the association between physical activity and the risks of cancers of pancreas, ovary and kidney. Epidemiologic studies provide sufficient evidence that obesity is a risk factor for both cancer incidence and mortality. The evidence supports strong links of obesity with the risk of cancers of the colon, rectum, breast (in postmenopausal women), endometrium, kidney (renal cell), and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Epidemiologic evidence also indicates that obesity is probably related to cancers of the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder, and aggressive prostate cancer, while it seems that obesity is not associated with lung cancer. The role of obesity in other cancer risks is unclear.

  5. Carbohydrates and cancer: an overview of the epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Key, T J; Spencer, E A

    2007-12-01

    To assess the epidemiological evidence on dietary carbohydrates and the risk of developing cancer. Review of published studies, concentrating on recent systematic reviews, meta-analyses and large prospective studies. Carbohydrates have not been intensively investigated in epidemiological studies of diet and cancer. There is a moderately large amount of data on the possible association between dietary fibre and the risk for colorectal cancer; the results of studies have varied and no firm conclusion can be drawn, but the available data suggest that high intakes of dietary fibre possibly reduce the risk for colorectal cancer. There are also limited data which suggest that high intakes of sucrose might increase the risk for colorectal cancer and that high intakes of lactose might increase the risk for ovarian cancer. For other components of carbohydrates and other types of cancer, the available data are too sparse to draw even tentative conclusions. Further research is needed on the possible associations of carbohydrates with cancer risk.

  6. Coffee and cancer risk, epidemiological evidence, and molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bøhn, Siv Kjølsrud; Blomhoff, Rune; Paur, Ingvild

    2014-05-01

    Although early studies suggested that coffee consumption might increase risk of some cancers, more comprehensive epidemiological and experimental data now generally indicate either neutral or beneficial effects. In this review, we summarize the current evidence for associations between breast, prostate, colorectal, and liver cancers and the consumption of coffee, and discuss the experimental evidence for potential chemopreventive mechanisms of coffee and coffee constituents. The epidemiological evidence consistently indicates that coffee protects against liver cancer, and also point toward protective effects for risk of colorectal cancers (with relative risks of 0.50 (95% CI: 0.42-0.59) and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.75-0.92), respectively, in the most recent meta-analyses). There seems to be no association between the overall risk of breast and prostate cancer and coffee intake. However, for subgroups such as postmenopausal breast cancers, advanced prostate cancers, and breast and prostate cancer survivors, an inverse association with coffee intake is indicated. Potential mechanisms for chemopreventive effects of coffee phytochemicals includes inhibition of oxidative stress and oxidative damage, regulation of DNA repair, phase II enzymatic activity, apoptosis, inflammation, as well as having antiproliferative, antiangiogenetic effects and antimetastatic effects. The experimental evidence for effects of coffee and coffee constituents on each of these processes is discussed.

  7. Atrazine and cancer: a review of the epidemiologic evidence.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, Paolo; Adami, Hans-Olov; Berry, Sir Colin; Mandel, Jack S

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the conflicting reports from the Environmental Protection Agency and the Scientific Advisory Panel (Panel) on the carcinogenicity of atrazine in order to determine whether the results from epidemiologic studies support a causal relationship between atrazine and any specific cancer. We reviewed the Environmental Protection Agency and Panel reports in the context of all the epidemiologic studies on the specific cancers of interest. A weight-of-evidence approach leads to the conclusion that there is no causal association between atrazine and cancer and that occasional positive results can be attributed to bias or chance. Atrazine appears to be a good candidate for a category of herbicides with a probable absence of cancer risk. Atrazine should be treated for regulatory and public health purposes as an agent unlikely to pose a cancer risk to humans.

  8. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields and cancer: the epidemiologic evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Bates, M N

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the epidemiologic evidence that low frequency electromagnetic fields generated by alternating current may be a cause of cancer. Studies examining residential exposures of children and adults and studies of electrical and electronics workers are reviewed. Using conventional epidemiologic criteria for inferring causal associations, including strength and consistency of the relationship, biological plausibility, and the possibility of bias as an explanation, it is concluded that the evidence is strongly suggestive that such radiation is carcinogenic. The evidence is strongest for brain and central nervous system cancers in electrical workers and children. Weaker evidence supports an association with leukemia in electrical workers. Some evidence also exists for an association with melanoma in electrical workers. Failure to find consistent evidence of a link between residential exposures and adult cancers may be attributable to exposure misclassification. Studies so far have used imperfect surrogates for any true biologically effective magnetic field exposure. The resulting exposure misclassification has produced relative risk estimates that understate any true risk. PMID:1821368

  9. Inflammation in the development of lung cancer: epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Engels, Eric A

    2008-04-01

    The lung is a site for repeated or chronic inflammatory insults. Epidemiologic research has provided evidence to support the hypothesis that tissue damage caused by inflammation can initiate or promote the development of lung cancer, possibly in conjunction with tobacco use. For example, some studies suggest an increased risk of lung cancer among persons with lung infections, such as tuberculosis, bacterial pneumonia, or inflammatory lung diseases. Elevated serum levels of C-reactive protein, an inflammation marker, are associated with heightened lung cancer risk. Recent studies also demonstrate increased lung cancer risk among immunosuppressed individuals infected with HIV. Other research indicates an association between genetic polymorphisms in the inflammation pathway, which might modulate the inflammatory response and lung cancer risk.

  10. Cancer prevention by green tea: evidence from epidemiologic studies1234

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the consistent results of an inhibitory effect of green tea extracts and tea polyphenols on the development and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in experimental animal models, results from human studies are mixed. Both observational and intervention studies have provided evidence in support of a protective role of green tea intake in the development of oral–digestive tract cancer or an inhibitory role of oral supplementation of green tea extract on a precancerous lesion of oral cavity. Evidence in support of green tea intake against the development of liver cancer risk is limited and inconsistent. An inverse association between green tea intake and lung cancer risk has been observed among never smokers but not among smokers. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake against the development of prostate cancer, several phase 2 clinical trials have shown an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate premalignant lesions to malignant tumors. Prospective epidemiologic studies so far have not provided evidence for a protective effect of green tea consumption on breast cancer development. Current data neither confirm nor refute a definitive cancer-preventive role of green tea intake. Large randomized intervention trials on the efficacy of green tea polyphenols or extracts are required before a recommendation for green tea consumption for cancer prevention should be made. PMID:24172305

  11. Cancer prevention by green tea: evidence from epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jian-Min

    2013-12-01

    In contrast to the consistent results of an inhibitory effect of green tea extracts and tea polyphenols on the development and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in experimental animal models, results from human studies are mixed. Both observational and intervention studies have provided evidence in support of a protective role of green tea intake in the development of oral-digestive tract cancer or an inhibitory role of oral supplementation of green tea extract on a precancerous lesion of oral cavity. Evidence in support of green tea intake against the development of liver cancer risk is limited and inconsistent. An inverse association between green tea intake and lung cancer risk has been observed among never smokers but not among smokers. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake against the development of prostate cancer, several phase 2 clinical trials have shown an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate premalignant lesions to malignant tumors. Prospective epidemiologic studies so far have not provided evidence for a protective effect of green tea consumption on breast cancer development. Current data neither confirm nor refute a definitive cancer-preventive role of green tea intake. Large randomized intervention trials on the efficacy of green tea polyphenols or extracts are required before a recommendation for green tea consumption for cancer prevention should be made.

  12. Diabetes mellitus and cancer risk: review of the epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Shikata, Kentaro; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus and cancer are diseases of epidemic proportions across the globe. These diseases are influenced by many factors, both genetic and environmental. A possible association between diabetes and cancer risk has long been speculated. Increased incidence of several cancers has been observed in diabetes patients, notably pancreatic, hepatic, colorectal, breast, urinary tract, and endometrial cancers. In contrast, a decreased incidence of prostate cancer is observed in diabetes patients, implying a protective effect. Precise knowledge of the complex associations and interactions between these two conditions is of great importance for their prevention and treatment. Multiple potential mechanisms have been proposed, but they have tended to be site-specific. Possible common mechanisms for a biological link between diabetes and cancer include hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and inflammation. Today, 366 million people live with diabetes globally, and this figure is expected to increase. Thus, if diabetes is associated with even a small increase in cancer risk, this may have important consequences at the population level. The aim of this review is to summarize recent epidemiological evidence of an association between diabetes and total cancer and specific sites of cancer, and to consider causal associations between these diseases. © 2012 Japanese Cancer Association.

  13. Vitamin D and colorectal cancer: molecular, epidemiological and clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Dou, Ruoxu; Ng, Kimmie; Giovannucci, Edward L; Manson, JoAnn E; Qian, Zhi Rong; Ogino, Shuji

    2016-05-01

    In many cells throughout the body, vitamin D is converted into its active form calcitriol and binds to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which functions as a transcription factor to regulate various biological processes including cellular differentiation and immune response. Vitamin D-metabolising enzymes (including CYP24A1 and CYP27B1) and VDR play major roles in exerting and regulating the effects of vitamin D. Preclinical and epidemiological studies have provided evidence for anti-cancer effects of vitamin D (particularly against colorectal cancer), although clinical trials have yet to prove its benefit. In addition, molecular pathological epidemiology research can provide insights into the interaction of vitamin D with tumour molecular and immunity status. Other future research directions include genome-wide research on VDR transcriptional targets, gene-environment interaction analyses and clinical trials on vitamin D efficacy in colorectal cancer patients. In this study, we review the literature on vitamin D and colorectal cancer from both mechanistic and population studies and discuss the links and controversies within and between the two parts of evidence.

  14. Vitamin D and Colorectal Cancer: Molecular, Epidemiological, and Clinical Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Ruoxu; Ng, Kimmie; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Qian, Zhi Rong; Ogino, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    In many cells throughout the body, vitamin D is converted into its active form calcitriol, and binds to vitamin D receptor (VDR), which functions as a transcription factor to regulate various biological processes including cellular differentiation and immune response. Vitamin D metabolizing enzymes (including CYP24A1 and CYP27B1) and VDR play major roles in exerting and regulating effects of vitamin D. Preclinical and epidemiological studies provide evidence for anticancer effects of vitamin D (in particular, against colorectal cancer), though clinical trials have yet to prove its benefit. Additionally, molecular pathological epidemiology research can provide insights into the interaction of vitamin D with tumour molecular and immunity status. Other future research directions include genome-wide research on VDR transcriptional targets, gene-environment interaction analyses, and clinical trials on vitamin D efficacy in colorectal cancer patients. Here we review the literature on vitamin D and colorectal cancer from both mechanistic and population studies, and discuss the links and controversies within and between the two parts of evidence. PMID:27245104

  15. Epidemiologic evidence for an association between gasoline and kidney cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Enterline, P E; Viren, J

    1985-01-01

    A recent animal experiment suggests that gasoline exposure may be a cause of human kidney cancer. This is a literature review to see whether there is any epidemiologic support for these animal findings. Trends and geographic patterns in gasoline consumption and kidney cancer mortality are moderately supportive of a relationship, although this cannot be considered important evidence for a causal relationship. Most other ecological correlations are not supportive of a relationship. Eleven oil refinery populations and one population of petroleum products distribution workers have been studied. These studies taken as a group do not appear to support the notion of a relationship between gasoline exposure and kidney cancer. However, most were not designed or analyzed with this hypothesis in mind. An examination of these data which attempts to consider the ages of the populations studied provides some evidence of a small kidney cancer excess among older workers or among workers exposed for long periods. Because of the importance of gasoline and the potential for exposure by the public further study of exposed populations is needed. PMID:4085434

  16. Mobile telephones and cancer--a review of epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Kundi, Michael; Mild, Kjell; Hardell, Lennart; Mattsson, Mats-Olof

    2004-01-01

    There is considerable public concern about possible long-term adverse health effects of mobile phones. While there is scientific controversy about long-term health effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields lasting for at least 50 yr, the rise and success of mobile telecommunication made it necessary to investigate the problem more comprehensively and assess the possible risk cautiously because never before in history has a substantial proportion of the population been exposed to microwaves in the near field and at comparably high levels. Because the mostly localized exposure target region is the head, most epidemiological studies focus on brain tumors. Overall nine epidemiological studies have been published, four from the United States, two from Sweden, and one each from Denmark, Finland, and Germany. Seven studies were mainly on brain tumors, with one investigating in addition to brain tumors salivary gland cancer and another cancer of the hematopoietic and lymphatic tissues, and one examining intraocular melanoma. All studies have some methodological deficiencies: (1) too short duration of mobile phone use to be helpful in risk assessment, (2) exposure was not rigorously determined, and (3) there is a possibility of recall and response error in some studies. Nevertheless, all studies approaching reasonable latencies found an increased cancer risk associated with mobile phone use. Estimates of relative risk in these studies vary between 1.3 and 4.6 with highest overall risk for acoustic neuroma (3.5) and uveal melanoma (4.2), and there is evidence for enhanced cancer risk with increasing latency and duration of mobile phone use.

  17. Green tea and the risk of gastric cancer: Epidemiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Hou, I-Chun; Amarnani, Saral; Chong, Mok T; Bishayee, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death in the world. Numerous efforts are being made to find chemoprotective agents able to reduce its risk. Amongst these, green tea has been reported to have a protective effect against stomach cancer. This article aims to critically evaluate all epidemiological studies reporting an association between green tea consumption and GC risk. MEDLINE, EBSCOHOST and Google Scholar were used to search for clinical trials of green tea and its correlation to stomach cancer. Studies include cohort and case-control studies. Outcome of interests are inverse association, no association, and positive association. Seventeen epidemiologic studies were reviewed. Eleven studies were conducted in Japan, five in China, and one with Japanese descendent in Hawaii. Ten case-control studies and seven cohort studies were included. The relative risks or odds ratio of GC for the highest level of green tea consumption was compared. Seven studies suggested no association, eight an inverse association, and one a positive association. One study had shown a significantly lowered GC risk when tea was served warm to cold. Another study also showed a significantly risk with lukewarm tea. All studies that analyzed men and women separately have suggested a reduced risk in women than in men, albeit no significant difference. This review demonstrates that there is insufficient information to support green tea consumption reduces the risk of GC. More studies on the subject matter are warranted. PMID:23840110

  18. Green tea and the risk of gastric cancer: epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Hou, I-Chun; Amarnani, Saral; Chong, Mok T; Bishayee, Anupam

    2013-06-28

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death in the world. Numerous efforts are being made to find chemoprotective agents able to reduce its risk. Amongst these, green tea has been reported to have a protective effect against stomach cancer. This article aims to critically evaluate all epidemiological studies reporting an association between green tea consumption and GC risk. MEDLINE, EBSCOHOST and Google Scholar were used to search for clinical trials of green tea and its correlation to stomach cancer. Studies include cohort and case-control studies. Outcome of interests are inverse association, no association, and positive association. Seventeen epidemiologic studies were reviewed. Eleven studies were conducted in Japan, five in China, and one with Japanese descendent in Hawaii. Ten case-control studies and seven cohort studies were included. The relative risks or odds ratio of GC for the highest level of green tea consumption was compared. Seven studies suggested no association, eight an inverse association, and one a positive association. One study had shown a significantly lowered GC risk when tea was served warm to cold. Another study also showed a significantly risk with lukewarm tea. All studies that analyzed men and women separately have suggested a reduced risk in women than in men, albeit no significant difference. This review demonstrates that there is insufficient information to support green tea consumption reduces the risk of GC. More studies on the subject matter are warranted.

  19. [Childhood cancer epidemiology and available evidence on case clustering].

    PubMed

    Maule, Milena; Terracini, Benedetto

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a Monograph on childhood cancer clusters addressed to Italian public health workers, paediatricians and paediatric oncologists, and the general public. Two issues have been underlined in most definitions of cancer clusters reported in the literature over the last 30 years. The first is the need for an unbiased methodological approach for the detection and the interpretation of clustering and of individual clusters. The other is the responsibility for scientists and public health workers to unravel suspicious events and to interact with the population in circumstances which may turn out to be false alarms. The relative weight given to epidemiological methods and to risk perception has varied between definitions of clusters given in different periods. In the field of childhood cancer clusters, epidemiological research has produced very little fresh knowledge. However, it is recognized that this is not a sufficient reason for refusing to pay attention to reports of perceived clusters. Models of spatio-temporal interactions according to Birch et al. (2000) are taken in consideration: the literature offers a very limited number of circumstances fitting such models. In Italy, over the years, only two childhood cancer clusters have been reported in the indexed literature, both of them regarded cases of acute lymphatic leukaemia and occurred in Sardinia in the Eighties and in the area of Roma in the Nineties. A possible reason for the paucity of reports (compared, for instance, to the UK scenario) is the limited availability of health statistics.

  20. Hormonal aspects of epithelial ovarian cancer: review of epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Riman, T; Persson, I; Nilsson, S

    1998-12-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is fairly common with high rates in Scandinavia, intermediate rates in western Europe and North America and low rates in the developing countries and in Japan. The 5-year survival rate is less than 40%. Increasing parity consistently gives a strong protection against epithelial ovarian cancer. A lesser degree of protection is probably derived from incomplete pregnancies and lactation. Ages at menarche and menopause are most probably weak predictors of epithelial ovarian cancer risk. Ever users of oral contraceptives (OC) have 30% lower risk compared to never users. The protection increases with duration of OC use, being about 50% after 5 years. The reduced risk among past OC users persists for at least 10 years after cessation of use. Results concerning hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and epithelial ovarian cancer risk are conflicting, but most data point to a weak or no association, but as an increasing number of women use HRT it still seems important to resolve any potential effect. Infertility adds to epithelial ovarian cancer risk in nulliparous women, while temporary fertility problems in parous women do not appear to increase risk. A possible independent risk effect of fertility drug use has not been easy to assess and remains unresolved. It has been particularly difficult to separate the effects of fertility drugs from those of infertility. Tubal ligation and hysterectomy convey protection against epithelial ovarian cancer, possibly through a suppressed ovarian hormone production. The causes of epithelial ovarian cancer are poorly understood, but reproductive hormones are thought to be involved in the aetiology. For a long time the 'incessant' and 'gonadotrophin' hypotheses have been promoted in relation to carcinogenesis. Both hypotheses find support in ovarian cancer epidemiology, and recent progress in molecular biology adds to the understanding of possible aetiological mechanisms. Another hypothesis focuses on the retrograde

  1. Dietary fibre and colon cancer: epidemiologic and experimental evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, B S

    1980-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have identified two dietary factors, a relatively high intake of fat and a relatively low intake of fibre, that are associated with colon cancer in humans. However, a recent study has shown a low risk of large bowel cancer in a rural Finnish population with a high dietary intake of fat, but also a high intake of fibre. Observations in humans and studies in animals have indicated that dietary fibre may protect against colon carcinogenesis by binding bile acids in the intestinal tract, by a direct effect on the colonic mucosa and by an indirect effect on the metabolism of carcinogens. The strength of protection varies with the type of fibre. PMID:6254626

  2. Population-Based Precision Cancer Screening: A Symposium on Evidence, Epidemiology, and Next Steps.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Pamela M; Pashayan, Nora; Church, Timothy R; Doria-Rose, V Paul; Gould, Michael K; Hubbard, Rebecca A; Marrone, Michael; Miglioretti, Diana L; Pharoah, Paul D; Pinsky, Paul F; Rendle, Katherine A; Robbins, Hilary A; Roberts, Megan C; Rolland, Betsy; Schiffman, Mark; Tiro, Jasmin A; Zauber, Ann G; Winn, Deborah M; Khoury, Muin J

    2016-11-01

    Precision medicine, an emerging approach for disease treatment that takes into account individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle, is under consideration for preventive interventions, including cancer screening. On September 29, 2015, the National Cancer Institute sponsored a symposium entitled "Precision Cancer Screening in the General Population: Evidence, Epidemiology, and Next Steps". The goal was two-fold: to share current information on the evidence, practices, and challenges surrounding precision screening for breast, cervical, colorectal, lung, and prostate cancers, and to allow for in-depth discussion among experts in relevant fields regarding how epidemiology and other population sciences can be used to generate evidence to inform precision screening strategies. Attendees concluded that the strength of evidence for efficacy and effectiveness of precision strategies varies by cancer site, that no one research strategy or methodology would be able or appropriate to address the many knowledge gaps in precision screening, and that issues surrounding implementation must be researched as well. Additional discussion needs to occur to identify the high priority research areas in precision cancer screening for pertinent organs and to gather the necessary evidence to determine whether further implementation of precision cancer screening strategies in the general population would be feasible and beneficial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(11); 1449-55. ©2016 AACR.

  3. Occupational cancer epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Occupational cancer epidemiology has led to the identification of more than 40 agents, groups of agents, and exposure circumstances which cause cancer in humans. This evidence has been followed by preventive and control measures. There are four areas where occupational cancer epidemiology may contribute important results in the future: surveillance of workers exposed to carcinogens, identification of new carcinogens and target organs, study of interactions, and research on special exposure circumstances.

  4. Population-Based Precision Cancer Screening: A Symposium on Evidence, Epidemiology, and Next Steps

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Pamela M.; Pashayan, Nora; Church, Timothy R.; Doria-Rose, V. Paul; Gould, Michael K.; Hubbard, Rebecca A.; Marrone, Michael; Miglioretti, Diana L.; Pharoah, Paul D.; Pinsky, Paul F.; Rendle, Katherine A.; Robbins, Hilary A.; Roberts, Megan C.; Rolland, Betsy; Schiffman, Mark; Tiro, Jasmin A.; Zauber, Ann G.; Winn, Deborah M.; Khoury, Muin J.

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine, an emerging approach for disease treatment that takes into account individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle, is under consideration for preventive interventions, including cancer screening. On September 29, 2015, the National Cancer Institute sponsored a symposium entitled “Precision Cancer Screening in the General Population: Evidence, Epidemiology, and Next Steps”. The goal was two-fold: to share current information on the evidence, practices, and challenges surrounding precision screening for breast, cervical, colorectal, lung, and prostate cancers, and to allow for in-depth discussion among experts in relevant fields regarding how epidemiology and other population sciences can be used to generate evidence to inform precision screening strategies. Attendees concluded that the strength of evidence for efficacy and effectiveness of precision strategies varies by cancer site, that no one research strategy or methodology would be able or appropriate to address the many knowledge gaps in precision screening, and that issues surrounding implementation must be researched as well. Additional discussion needs to occur to identify the high priority research areas in precision cancer screening for pertinent organs and to gather the necessary evidence to determine whether further implementation of precision cancer screening strategies in the general population would be feasible and beneficial. PMID:27507769

  5. The impact of red and processed meat consumption on cancer and other health outcomes: Epidemiological evidences.

    PubMed

    Boada, Luis D; Henríquez-Hernández, L A; Luzardo, O P

    2016-06-01

    Meat is one of the staples of the human diet, which provides high-quality nutrients, but that also constitutes a relevant source of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids. Epidemiologic studies have linked consumption of red or processed meat with obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. Most epidemiological studies suggest that a high intake of meat, especially processed meat, is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. Potential reasons for the association between high meat intake and colorectal cancer risk include some chemicals naturally contained in meat, or generated by the processing and cooking. From the literature it can be concluded that there is enough epidemiological evidence linking processed meat intake and colorectal cancer risk, but there is limited evidence regarding unprocessed red meat intake and the disease. On the contrary, there is only limited evidence linking meat intake with other diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes or other cancers. Nevertheless, the literature suggest that dietary intervention may be a promising approach for prevention of cancers of the colon, esophagus, liver, stomach and bladder, and type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which still need to be confirmed by further well designed prospective studies and experimental research.

  6. Role of experimental and epidemiological evidence of carcinogenicity in the primary prevention of cancer.

    PubMed

    Tomatis, Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    Experimental chemical carcinogenesis, which included long-term tests in experimental animals,had a dominating role in cancer research between the 1920s and the late 1960s. Two events marked a certain decline of confidence in the ability of experimental results to predict human risks: the incapacity of developing methods to identify agents acting on the different steps of the carcinogenesis process, and the incapacity to reproduce experimentally the strong evidence of carcinogenicity of tobacco smoke provided by epidemiological studies. It was at that time that epidemiologists and biostatisticians developed criteria for assessing the causation of chronic-degenerative diseases relying primarily on epidemiological evidence. In 1969 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) did initiate a programme for identifying the cause of cancer with the aim of promoting the primary prevention of cancer. The programme is focused on the evaluation of the carcinogenicity of environmental agents on the basis of both the experimental and epidemiological evidence and, since the 1990s, a balanced use of the new tools provided by advances in toxicology, molecular biology and genetics. A strong point of the IARC programme is that in the absence of adequate human data it is reasonable and prudent to regard agents for which there is sufficient experimental evidence of carcinogenicity as if they were carcinogenic to humans.

  7. Brassica vegetables and prostate cancer risk: a review of the epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Kristal, Alan R; Lampe, Johanna W

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have yielded conflicting results on the associations of diet with prostate cancer. We review evidence that Brassica vegetables are associated with reduced prostate cancer risk. Brassica vegetables, which include broccoli, cabbage, mustard and collard greens, and bok choy, contain glucosinolates, the metabolic breakdown products of which are potent modulators of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes that protect DNA from damage. Twelve published studies give some information about Brassica vegetables and prostate cancer risk; six of these studies can be clearly interpreted. Of these, three reported statistically significant reduced risks (P < 0.05) and one reported a borderline significant reduced risk (P = 0.06) with high Brassica vegetable consumption. The epidemiological literature provides modest support for the hypothesis that high intakes of Brassica vegetables reduce prostate cancer risk.

  8. Need for epidemiological evidence from the developing world to know the cancer-related risk factors.

    PubMed

    Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V

    2007-01-01

    The existing evidence on cancer etiology has mostly come from epidemiological studies conducted in the developed world. Now there is an urgent need to gather information on cancer risks in developing countries. Due to recent economic, demographic and health transitions, cancers are on the rise in many developing countries. Future epidemiological studies in these countries should address changing diet, level of physical activity, various environmental and occupational exposures, smoking habits and infections, relative to cancers. In many low resource settings western and conventional lifestyles can be found side by side. Therefore, epidemiological studies in such societies should determine the wide varieties of potentially dangerous exposures, examine changing patterns of related factors and should study other contributing variables as well. Apart from the advantages of such research, there are some challenges. For example, incomplete cancer and death registration, lack of documentation, only partial computerization of medical records, cultural barriers and other technical difficulties can present problems. Some strategies to meet these challenges will be discussed in this paper. There is an immediate need for more detailed epidemiological studies before these developing societies are transformed.

  9. Friend or foe? The current epidemiologic evidence on selenium and human cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Vinceti, Marco; Crespi, Catherine M; Malagoli, Carlotta; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Krogh, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    Scientific opinion on the relationship between selenium and the risk of cancer has undergone radical change over the years, with selenium first viewed as a possible carcinogen in the 1940s then as a possible cancer preventive agent in the 1960s-2000s. More recently, randomized controlled trials have found no effect on cancer risk but suggest possible low-dose dermatologic and endocrine toxicity, and animal studies indicate both carcinogenic and cancer-preventive effects. A growing body of evidence from human and laboratory studies indicates dramatically different biological effects of the various inorganic and organic chemical forms of selenium, which may explain apparent inconsistencies across studies. These chemical form-specific effects also have important implications for exposure and health risk assessment. Overall, available epidemiologic evidence suggests no cancer preventive effect of increased selenium intake in healthy individuals and possible increased risk of other diseases and disorders.

  10. The association between type 2 diabetes mellitus and women cancer: the epidemiological evidences and putative mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Joung, Kyong Hye; Jeong, Jae-Wook; Ku, Bon Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a chronic disease increasing rapidly worldwide, is well established as an important risk factor for various types of cancer. Although many factors impact the development of T2DM and cancer including sex, age, ethnicity, obesity, diet, physical activity levels, and environmental exposure, many epidemiological and experimental studies are gradually contributing to knowledge regarding the interrelationship between DM and cancer. The insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and chronic inflammation associated with diabetes mellitus are all associated strongly with cancer. The changes in bioavailable ovarian steroid hormone that occur in diabetes mellitus (the increasing levels of estrogen and androgen and the decreasing level of progesterone) are also considered potentially carcinogenic conditions for the breast, endometrium, and ovaries in women. In addition, the interaction among insulin, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), and ovarian steroid hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone, could act synergistically during cancer development. Here, we review the cancer-related mechanisms in T2DM, the epidemiological evidence linking T2DM and cancers in women, and the role of antidiabetic medication in these cancers.

  11. The Association between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Women Cancer: The Epidemiological Evidences and Putative Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a chronic disease increasing rapidly worldwide, is well established as an important risk factor for various types of cancer. Although many factors impact the development of T2DM and cancer including sex, age, ethnicity, obesity, diet, physical activity levels, and environmental exposure, many epidemiological and experimental studies are gradually contributing to knowledge regarding the interrelationship between DM and cancer. The insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and chronic inflammation associated with diabetes mellitus are all associated strongly with cancer. The changes in bioavailable ovarian steroid hormone that occur in diabetes mellitus (the increasing levels of estrogen and androgen and the decreasing level of progesterone) are also considered potentially carcinogenic conditions for the breast, endometrium, and ovaries in women. In addition, the interaction among insulin, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), and ovarian steroid hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone, could act synergistically during cancer development. Here, we review the cancer-related mechanisms in T2DM, the epidemiological evidence linking T2DM and cancers in women, and the role of antidiabetic medication in these cancers. PMID:25866823

  12. Genetic-epidemiological evidence for the role of acetaldehyde in cancers related to alcohol drinking.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, C J Peter

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol drinking increases the risk for a number of cancers. Currently, the highest risk (Group 1) concerns oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver, colorectum, and female breast, as assessed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Alcohol and other beverage constituents, their metabolic effects, and alcohol-related unhealthy lifestyles have been suggested as etiological factors. The aim of the present survey is to evaluate the carcinogenic role of acetaldehyde in alcohol-related cancers, with special emphasis on the genetic-epidemiological evidence. Acetaldehyde, as a constituent of alcoholic beverages, and microbial and endogenous alcohol oxidation well explain why alcohol-related cancers primarily occur in the digestive tracts and other tissues with active alcohol and acetaldehyde metabolism. Genetic-epidemiological research has brought compelling evidence for the causality of acetaldehyde in alcohol-related cancers. Thus, IARC recently categorized alcohol-drinking-related acetaldehyde to Group 1 for head and neck and esophageal cancers. This is probably just the tip of the iceberg, since more recent epidemiological studies have also shown significant positive associations between the aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH2 (rs671)*2 allele (encoding inactive enzyme causing high acetaldehyde elevations) and gastric, colorectal, lung, and hepatocellular cancers. However, a number of the current studies lack the appropriate matching or stratification of alcohol drinking in the case-control comparisons, which has led to erroneous interpretations of the data. Future studies should consider these aspects more thoroughly. The polymorphism phenotypes (flushing and nausea) may provide valuable tools for future successful health education in the prevention of alcohol-drinking-related cancers.

  13. Cancer risk in the rubber industry: a review of the recent epidemiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Kogevinas, M.; Sala, M.; Boffetta, P.; Kazerouni, N.; Kromhout, H.; Hoar-Zahm, S.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the recent epidemiological evidence on cancer risk among workers in the rubber industry. METHODS: Epidemiological studies published after the last detailed review by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 1982 were reviewed. 12 cohort studies in nine countries that examined distinct populations of workers in the rubber industry, seven industry based nested case-control studies, 48 community based case-control studies in 16 countries, and 23 studies based on administrative data that reported risks for employment in the rubber industry were identified. RESULTS: Excess risks of bladder cancer, lung cancer, and leukaemia were found in most studies, with risks above 1.5 in about half of the studies. A moderate excess risk for laryngeal cancer was consistent across studies. Excess risks were found in a few studies for cancers of the oesophagus, stomach, colon, liver, pancreas, skin, prostate, kidney, brain, and thyroid, and for malignant lymphoma and multiple myeloma, but overall results were not consistent for these neoplasms. CONCLUSIONS: Magnitude of the observed risks varied considerably between studies, but overall the findings indicate the presence of a widespread moderate increased cancer risk among rubber workers. The most consistent results were for bladder, laryngeal, and lung cancer and for leukaemia. Excess risks were also found for other neoplasms but an evaluation of the consistency of the findings is difficult because of the possible selective reporting of results. Recent studies do not provide information associating specific exposures with cancer risk. The preventive measures taken in the rubber industry in recent years may decrease risks, but this has not been documented yet in epidemiological studies.   PMID:9536156

  14. Why are diabetics at reduced risk for prostate cancer? A review of the epidemiologic evidence.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Brandon L

    2012-09-01

    A large body of epidemiologic evidence provides strong support for the notion that type-2 diabetics are at decreased risk for prostate cancer. In this review article, we summarize the epidemiologic literature that explores the role of diabetes mellitus and related biomarkers in prostate cancer risk and detection, in order to create a better understanding of the potential mechanisms that underlie this inverse association. The bulk of the data supporting this association comes from the USA, as evidence for this association is less consistent in many other regions of the world. The relationship between diabetes and prostate cancer is suspected to be causal due to evidence of decreasing prostate cancer risk with increasing diabetes duration and lack of evidence for any confounding of this association. Hypothesized mechanisms for decreased prostate cancer risk among diabetics include (1) decreased levels of hormones and other cancer-related growth factors among diabetics, (2) the impact of diabetes on detection-related factors, such as prostate size, circulating prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and health-care seeking behaviors, (3) protective effects of diabetes medications, and (4) a protective effect of diabetes-induced vascular damage in the prostate. The evidence for screening-related factors is compelling, as diabetics appear to have reduced PSA and lower levels of health-care seeking behavior compared with nondiabetics. Furthermore, the inverse association between diabetes and prostate cancer is much less apparent in populations that do not perform biopsies based on PSA levels and in studies restricted to biopsied individuals. The inverse association appears to be stronger for low-grade disease, as compared with high-grade (Gleason >7), which is consistent with the observation that among patients receiving biopsy or prostate cancer treatment, diabetics are more likely to have high-grade disease as compared to nondiabetics, potentially resulting in worse outcomes

  15. Mediterranean diet and cancer: epidemiological evidence and mechanism of selected aspects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Populations living in the area of the Mediterranean Sea suffered by decreased incidence of cancer compared with those living in the regions of northern Europe and US countries, attributed to healthier dietary habits. Nowadays, we are assisting to a moving away from the traditional Mediterranean dietary pattern, but whether this changing is influencing risk of cancers is still unclear. The aim of the study was to review recent evidence on potential relationship between the adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cancer. Discussion The most recent pooled analyses of epidemiological studies supported strongly the hypothesis that the Mediterranean diet may play a role in preventing several types of cancers, especially those of digestive tract, whereas contrasting results were reported for hormone-dependent cancers. Specific aspects of the Mediterranean diet such as high fruit and vegetables and low red processed meat intake may explain such protective effects. Moreover, evidence regarding olive oil and whole grains increase the beneficial effects of such dietary pattern against cancer. Conclusions Literature evidence actually demonstrates that the increased adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern is beneficial to health across populations and may translate a protective effect with certain cancers. PMID:24267672

  16. Occupational exposure to beryllium and cancer risk: a review of the epidemiologic evidence.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, Paolo; Fryzek, Jon P; Mandel, Jack S

    2012-02-01

    There is controversy on whether occupational exposure to beryllium causes lung cancer. We conducted a systematic review of epidemiologic studies on cancer among workers exposed to beryllium, including a study of seven U.S. production plants which has been recently updated, a study of patients with beryllium disease (largely overlapping with the former study) and several smaller studies. A small excess mortality from lung cancer was detected in the large cohort, which was partially explained by confounding by tobacco smoking and urban residence. Other potential confounders have not been addressed. The excess mortality was mainly among workers employed (often for a short duration) in the early phase of the manufacturing industry. There was no relation with duration of employment or cumulative exposure, whereas average and maximum exposure were associated with lung cancer risk. The use of lagged exposure variables resulted in associations with lung cancer risk; however, these associations were due to confounding by year of birth and year of hire. The studies of beryllium disease patients do not provide independent evidence and the results from other studies do not support the hypothesis of an increased risk of lung cancer or any other cancer. Overall, the available evidence does not support a conclusion that a causal association has been established between occupational exposure to beryllium and the risk of cancer.

  17. A review of the epidemiological evidence on tea, flavonoids, and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Arts, Ilja C W

    2008-08-01

    Tea and its main bioactive ingredients, the flavonoids, have been associated with human cancer for several decades. In this article, an overview is provided of observational epidemiological studies of lung cancer incidence in relation to intake of green tea, black tea, flavonols/flavones, and catechins. A PubMed search was conducted in September 2007. Articles were selected if they provided risk ratios (relative risk or odds ratio) for lung cancer and were of observational design (cohort, case-control, or case-cohort). Three of 12 studies reported a significantly lower risk of lung cancer with a high intake of flavonoids, whereas 1 study reported a significantly increased risk. After stratification by type of flavonoid, catechin intake was no longer associated with lung cancer risk in 3 of 4 studies available. For tea, 4 of 20 studies reported significantly reduced risks with high intake. Two studies found significantly increased risk ratios, but both were older studies. Findings were similar for green and black tea but became more significant when only methodologically sounder cohort studies were considered. When tea intake and lung cancer were studied among never- or former smokers to eliminate the confounding effect of smoking, 4 of 7 reported associations were significantly protective. In general, the studies on tea, flavonoids, and lung cancer risk indicate a small beneficial association, particularly among never-smokers. More well-designed cohort studies, in particular for catechins, are needed to strengthen the evidence on effects of long-term exposure to physiological doses of dietary flavonoids.

  18. Iron and cancer risk--a systematic review and meta-analysis of the epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Nunes, Ana; Jakszyn, Paula; Agudo, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Iron has been suggested as a risk factor for different types of cancers mainly due to its prooxidant activity, which can lead to oxidative DNA damage. Furthermore, subjects with hemochromatosis or iron overload have been shown to have a higher risk of developing liver cancer. We have systematically reviewed 59 epidemiologic studies, published between 1995 and 2012, reporting information on total iron, dietary iron, heme iron, and biomarkers of iron status and cancer risk. Furthermore we conducted meta-analysis for colorectal [relative risk (RR), 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00-1.17], colon (RR = 1.12; 95% CI, 1.03-1.22), breast (RR = 1.03; 95% CI, 0.97-1.09), and lung cancer (RR = 1.12; 95% CI, 0.98-1.29), for an increase of 1 mg/day of heme iron intake. Globally, on the basis of the systematic review and the meta-analysis results, a higher intake of heme iron has shown a tendency toward a positive association with cancer risk. Evidence regarding high levels of biomarkers of iron stores (mostly with serum ferritin) suggests a negative effect toward cancer risk. More prospective studies combining research on dietary iron intake, iron biomarkers, genetic susceptibility, and other relevant factors need to be conducted to clarify these findings and better understand the role of iron in cancer development.

  19. Occupational exposures and colorectal cancers: A quantitative overview of epidemiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Oddone, Enrico; Modonesi, Carlo; Gatta, Gemma

    2014-01-01

    A traditional belief widespread across the biomedical community was that dietary habits and genetic predisposition were the basic factors causing colorectal cancer. In more recent times, however, a growing evidence has shown that other determinants can be very important in increasing (or reducing) incidence of this malignancy. The hypothesis that environmental and occupational risk factors are associated with colorectal cancer is gaining ground, and high risks of colorectal cancer have been reported among workers in some industrial branches. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic relationship between colorectal cancer and occupational exposures to several industrial activities, by means of a scientific literature review and meta-analysis. This work pointed out increased risks of colorectal cancer for labourers occupied in industries with a wide use of chemical compounds, such as leather (RR = 1.70, 95%CI: 1.24-2.34), basic metals (RR = 1.32, 95%CI: 1.07-1.65), plastic and rubber manufacturing (RR = 1.30, 95%CI: 0.98-1.71 and RR = 1.27, 95%CI: 0.92-1.76, respectively), besides workers in the sector of repair and installation of machinery exposed to asbestos (RR = 1.40, 95%CI: 1.07-1.84). Based on our results, the estimated crude excess risk fraction attributable to occupational exposure ranged from about 11% to about 15%. However, homogeneous pattern of association between colorectal cancer and industrial branches did not emerge from this review. PMID:25253943

  20. Obesity and pancreatic cancer: overview of epidemiologic evidence and biologic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bracci, Paige M.

    2012-01-01

    In the U.S. pancreatic cancer is characterized by a low 5-year survival rate of approximately 6%, fewer than 10% of patients diagnosed with localized disease and thus candidates for “curative” surgical resection, increasing incidence and few established risk factors. Similar statistics are observed for other industrialized nations. With new evidence to suggest that pancreatic cancer develops over a number of years, markers that can better identify high risk patients and are applicable to earlier diagnosis hold promise for improving these dire statistics. Obesity is one of the few modifiable risk factors that has been associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer and also is related to increased risk of diabetes, a condition that in turn has been associated with pancreatic cancer development. Given recent data that nearly 70% of U.S. adults are overweight or obese, a clarification of the complex association between obesity and pancreatic cancer may disclose targets for prevention and intervention to decrease incidence and improve prognosis of this highly fatal disease. An overview of the current epidemiology and hypothesized biological mechanisms involved in the obesity-pancreatic cancer association are presented. PMID:22162231

  1. Obesity and pancreatic cancer: overview of epidemiologic evidence and biologic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bracci, Paige M

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, pancreatic cancer is characterized by a low 5-yr survival rate of approximately 6%, fewer than 10% of patients diagnosed with localized disease and thus candidates for "curative" surgical resection, increasing incidence and few established risk factors. Similar statistics are observed for other industrialized nations. With new evidence to suggest that pancreatic cancer develops over a number of years, markers that can better identify high risk patients and are applicable to earlier diagnosis hold promise for improving these dire statistics. Obesity is one of the few modifiable risk factors that has been associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer and also is related to increased risk of diabetes, a condition that in turn has been associated with pancreatic cancer development. Given recent data that nearly 70% of United States adults are overweight or obese, a clarification of the complex association between obesity and pancreatic cancer may disclose targets for prevention and intervention to decrease incidence and improve prognosis of this highly fatal disease. An overview of the current epidemiology and hypothesized biological mechanisms involved in the obesity-pancreatic cancer association are presented. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Occupational exposures and colorectal cancers: a quantitative overview of epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Oddone, Enrico; Modonesi, Carlo; Gatta, Gemma

    2014-09-21

    A traditional belief widespread across the biomedical community was that dietary habits and genetic predisposition were the basic factors causing colorectal cancer. In more recent times, however, a growing evidence has shown that other determinants can be very important in increasing (or reducing) incidence of this malignancy. The hypothesis that environmental and occupational risk factors are associated with colorectal cancer is gaining ground, and high risks of colorectal cancer have been reported among workers in some industrial branches. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic relationship between colorectal cancer and occupational exposures to several industrial activities, by means of a scientific literature review and meta-analysis. This work pointed out increased risks of colorectal cancer for labourers occupied in industries with a wide use of chemical compounds, such as leather (RR = 1.70, 95%CI: 1.24-2.34), basic metals (RR = 1.32, 95%CI: 1.07-1.65), plastic and rubber manufacturing (RR = 1.30, 95%CI: 0.98-1.71 and RR = 1.27, 95%CI: 0.92-1.76, respectively), besides workers in the sector of repair and installation of machinery exposed to asbestos (RR = 1.40, 95%CI: 1.07-1.84). Based on our results, the estimated crude excess risk fraction attributable to occupational exposure ranged from about 11% to about 15%. However, homogeneous pattern of association between colorectal cancer and industrial branches did not emerge from this review.

  3. Cruciferous Vegetables and Human Cancer Risk: Epidemiologic Evidence and Mechanistic Basis

    PubMed Central

    Higdon, Jane V.; Delage, Barbara; Williams, David E.; Dashwood, Roderick H.

    2009-01-01

    Cruciferous vegetables are a rich source of glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products, including indoles and isothiocyanates, and high intake of cruciferous vegetables has been associated with lower risk of lung and colorectal cancer in some epidemiological studies. Glucosinolate hydrolysis products alter the metabolism or activity of sex hormones in ways that could inhibit the development of hormone-sensitive cancers, but evidence of an inverse association between cruciferous vegetable intake and breast or prostate cancer in humans is limited and inconsistent. Organizations such as the National Cancer Institute recommend the consumption of 5–9 servings of fruits and vegetables daily, but separate recommendations for cruciferous vegetables have not been established. Isothiocyanates and indoles derived from the hydrolysis of glucosinolates, such as sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol (I3C), have been implicated in a variety of anticarcinogenic mechanisms, but deleterious effects also have been reported in some experimental protocols, including tumor promotion over prolonged periods of exposure. Epidemiological studies indicate that human exposure to isothiocyanates and indoles through cruciferous vegetable consumption may decrease cancer risk, but the protective effects may be influenced by individual genetic variation (polymorphisms) in the metabolism and elimination of isothiocyanates from the body. Cooking procedures also affect the bioavailability and intake of glucosinolates and their derivatives. Supplementation with I3C or the related dimer 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM) alters urinary estrogen metabolite profiles in women, but the effects of I3C and DIM on breast cancer risk are not known. Small preliminary trials in humans suggest that I3C supplementation may be beneficial in treating conditions related to human papilloma virus infection, such as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, but larger randomized controlled

  4. Circadian Disruption and Prostate Cancer Risk: An Updated Review of Epidemiological Evidences.

    PubMed

    Wendeu-Foyet, Méyomo G; Menegaux, Florence

    2017-04-04

    Since the publication of the IARC Monograph in 2007 classifying night shift work leading to a disruption of circadian rhythm as probably carcinogenic to humans, there is an increasingly growing interest in understanding how circadian disruption may play a role in cancer development. This systematic review provides a comprehensive update on epidemiological evidences on circadian disruption and prostate cancer since the last review published in 2012. We identified 12 new studies evaluating the effects of several circadian disruptors such as night shift work, sleep patterns, and circadian genes in prostate cancer risk. In contrast, no new studies have focused on exposure to light at night. Several convincing and biologically plausible hypotheses have been proposed to understand how circadian disruption may be related to cancer. However, the current difficulty of concluding on the role of circadian disruption on prostate cancer risk requires further studies including a better characterization of the different night shift systems, data on sleep patterns and chronotype, measurement of biomarkers and investigations of polymorphisms in the genes regulating the biological clock.

  5. Review of the epidemiological evidence for a possible relationship between hypocholesterolemia and cancer.

    PubMed

    Feinleib, M

    1983-05-01

    The evidence relating hypocholesterolemia to an increased risk of cancer is controversial. Although more than a dozen populations have been studied in prospective epidemiological investigations, there is relatively little consistency relating low serum cholesterol levels to future risk or mortality from cancer. Several studies have demonstrated a significant inverse relationship, but many others have failed to do so, and there is no ready explanation for the divergence of results. The data from dietary studies, both at the group level and at the individual level, indicate that, if anything, higher intakes of cholesterol appear to be related to cancer rather than lower levels. A potential role for vitamin A and for some genetic predisposition to cancer perhaps associated with lower cholesterol absorption and decreased degradation of cholesterol in the gut may possibly explain some of these inconsistencies. It is concluded that: (a) the available data do not substantiate any direct cause and effect relationship between low blood cholesterol levels and cancer. Rather, the data suggest that low cholesterol levels may serve as a "marker," possibly genetic, and in only small numbers of male individuals in any given population; (b) the data do not preclude, countermand, or contradict the current public health message which recommends that those with elevated cholesterol levels seek to lower them through diets lower in saturated fat and cholesterol.

  6. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  7. An evidence-based analysis of epidemiologic associations between lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers and occupational exposure to gasoline.

    PubMed

    Keenan, J J; Gaffney, S; Gross, S A; Ronk, C J; Paustenbach, D J; Galbraith, D; Kerger, B D

    2013-10-01

    The presence of benzene in motor gasoline has been a health concern for potential increased risk of acute myelogenous leukemia and perhaps other lymphatic/hematopoietic cancers for approximately 40 years. Because of the widespread and increasing use of gasoline by consumers and the high exposure potential of occupational cohorts, a thorough understanding of this issue is important. The current study utilizes an evidence-based approach to examine whether or not the available epidemiologic studies demonstrate a strong and consistent association between occupational exposure to gasoline and lymphatic/hematopoietic cancers. Among 67 epidemiologic studies initially identified, 54 were ranked according to specific criteria relating to the relevance and robustness of each study for answering the research question. The 30 highest-ranked studies were sorted into three tiers of evidence and were analyzed for strength, specificity, consistency, temporality, dose-response trends and coherence. Meta statistics were also calculated for each general and specific lymphatic/hematopoietic cancer category with adequate data. The evidence-based analysis did not confirm any strong and consistent association between occupational exposure to gasoline and lymphatic/hematopoietic cancers based on the epidemiologic studies available to date. These epidemiologic findings, combined with the evidence showing relatively low occupational benzene vapor exposures associated with gasoline formulations during the last three decades, suggest that current motor gasoline formulations are not associated with increased lymphatic/hematopoietic cancer risks related to benzene.

  8. Modulation of MnSOD in Cancer:Epidemiological and Experimental Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Aekyong

    2010-01-01

    Since it was first observed in late 1970s that human cancers often had decreased manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) protein expression and activity, extensive studies have been conducted to verify the association between MnSOD and cancer. Significance of MnSOD as a primary mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme is unquestionable; results from in vitro, in vivo and epidemiological studies are in harmony. On the contrary, studies regarding roles of MnSOD in cancer often report conflicting results. Although putative mechanisms have been proposed to explain how MnSOD regulates cellular proliferation, these mechanisms are not capitulated in epidemiological studies. This review discusses most recent epidemiological and experimental studies that examined the association between MnSOD and cancer, and describes emerging hypotheses of MnSOD as a mitochondrial redox regulatory enzyme and of how altered mitochondrial redox may affect physiology of normal as well as cancer cells. PMID:24278510

  9. Atrazine and Breast Cancer: A Framework Assessment of the Toxicological and Epidemiological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Simpkins, James W.; Swenberg, James A.; Weiss, Noel; Brusick, David; Eldridge, J. Charles; Stevens, James T.; Handa, Robert J.; Hovey, Russell C.; Plant, Tony M.; Pastoor, Timothy P.; Breckenridge, Charles B.

    2011-01-01

    The causal relationship between atrazine exposure and the occurrence of breast cancer in women was evaluated using the framework developed by Adami et al. (2011) wherein biological plausibility and epidemiological evidence were combined to conclude that a causal relationship between atrazine exposure and breast cancer is “unlikely”. Carcinogenicity studies in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) but not Fischer-344 rats indicate that high doses of atrazine caused a decreased latency and an increased incidence of combined adenocarcinoma and fibroadenoma mammary tumors. There were no effects of atrazine on any other tumor type in male or female SD or Fischer-344 rats or in three strains of mice. Seven key events that precede tumor expression in female SD rats were identified. Atrazine induces mammary tumors in aging female SD rats by suppressing the luteinizing hormone surge, thereby supporting a state of persistent estrus and prolonged exposure to endogenous estrogen and prolactin. This endocrine mode of action has low biological plausibility for women because women who undergo reproductive senescence have low rather than elevated levels of estrogen and prolactin. Four alternative modes of action (genotoxicity, estrogenicity, upregulation of aromatase gene expression or delayed mammary gland development) were considered and none could account for the tumor response in SD rats. Epidemiological studies provide no support for a causal relationship between atrazine exposure and breast cancer. This conclusion is consistent with International Agency for Research on Cancer’s classification of atrazine as “unclassifiable as to carcinogenicity” and the United States Environmental Protection Agency's classification of atrazine as “not likely to be carcinogenic.” PMID:21768606

  10. Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane burden and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of the epidemiologic evidence.

    PubMed Central

    López-Cervantes, Malaquías; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; Tobías, Aurelio; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2004-01-01

    The relationship of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) exposure and breast cancer risk has received increasing attention since the beginning of the 1990s. Contradicting published results regarding the relationship between body burden levels of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDE)--the main DDT metabolite--and breast cancer, we argue that such differences stem from methodologic differences among those studies. We performed a meta-analysis of 22 articles using DerSimonian and Laird's method for random effects models. The Q-statistic was used to identify heterogeneity in the outcome variable across studies. The gradient of p,p'-DDE exposure in epidemiologic studies was homogenized to serum lipid bases (nanograms per gram). The potential for publication bias was examined by means of the Begg's test. We discuss methodologic features of the studies in an attempt to reconcile the findings. The summary odds ratio (OR) for selected studies was 0.97 (95% confidence interval, 0.87-1.09) and the gradient of exposure ranged from 84.37 to 12,948 ng/g. No overall heterogeneity in the OR was observed (chi-squared = 27.93; df = 23; p = 0.218). Neither the study design nor the lack of breast-feeding control or the type of biologic specimen used to measure p,p'-DDE levels were the causes of heterogeneity throughout the studies. Evidence for publication bias was not found (p = 0.253). Overall, these results should be regarded as a strong evidence to discard the putative relationship between p,p'-DDE and breast cancer risk. Nevertheless, the exposure to DDT during critical periods of human development--from conception to adolescence--and individual variations in metabolizing enzymes of DDT or its derivatives are still important areas to be researched in regard to breast cancer development in adulthood. PMID:14754575

  11. Relationship between bladder cancer and total fluid intake: a meta-analysis of epidemiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Epidemiological findings regarding the association between total fluid intake and bladder cancer risk have yielded varying results. Our objective is to examine the possible associations between total fluid intake and bladder cancer risk. Methods Databases searched include the EMBASE and PUBMED, from inception to February 2014, with no limits on study language. We also reviewed the reference lists of identified studies. Stratified analyses were performed. A random-effect model was used to summarize the estimates of odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Overall,17 case-control and four cohort studies were included. The overall OR of bladder cancer for the highest versus the lowest fluid intake was 1.06 (95% CI: 0.88-1.27). In the subgroup analyses, the overall ORs for coffee, green, and black tea intake were 1.17 (95% CI: 1.03-1.33), 0.76 (95% CI: 0.66-0.95), and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65-0.97), respectively. A significantly decreased risk was observed in Asian people (OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.10-0.72). Among smokers, a suggestive inverse association was observed between total fluid intake and overall bladder cancer risk (OR 0.80; 95% CI: 0.62-1.02). Conclusions Although this meta-analysis suggested that greater consumption of fluid may have a protective effect on bladder cancer in Asian people, there was no convincing evidence on this association because of the limitations of the individual trials. PMID:25033957

  12. Epidemiological evidence on hair dyes and the risk of cancer in humans.

    PubMed

    La Vecchia, C; Tavani, A

    1995-02-01

    Epidemiological data on occupational exposure and personal use of hair dyes was reviewed with specific focus on bladder cancer and lymphoid neoplasms. At least seven cohort and 11 case-control studies included data on occupational exposure to hair dyes by hairdressers, barbers and beauticians, and their subsequent bladder cancer risk. The relative risk (RR) estimate was 1.4 (183 observed vs 129 expected) for cohort studies, and in several case-control studies the RRs were somewhat above unity. These results are compatible with some moderate association between past professional exposure to hair dyes and subsequent bladder cancer risk, but also with errors and biases in observational epidemiological studies, particularly since allowance for smoking was lacking or inadequate in most studies. An open question is whether current occupational exposure to modern hair dyes is still related to some excess bladder cancer risk. Five case-control studies included information on personal use of hair dyes and bladder cancer risk. There was no evidence of any association. Nine cohort and eight case-control studies considering occupational exposure to hair dyes and lymphoid neoplasms were reviewed. In the cohort studies, a total of 100 lymphoid neoplasms was observed compared with 84.4 expected (RR 1.2). The RR estimates were 1.5 for non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL, 17 observed vs 11.2 expected) and 1.1 for multiple myeloma (MM, 19 observed cases vs 16.8 expected). Interpretation of case-control studies of occupational exposure is seriously hampered by the small number of exposed cases. Five case-control studies considered personal use of hair dyes and the risk of lymphoid neoplasms. Of these, three reported some association, particularly with NHL and MM. However, the RR estimates were only moderately above unity, and inadequate allowance was made for potential confounding factors, including social class and greying hair, which could be correlates of both hair dye use and lymphoid

  13. Risk of Cancer in relation to Natural Radiation, including Radon: Evidence from Epidemiological Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baysson, Hélène; Tirmarche, Margot; Laurier, Dominique

    2008-08-01

    A review of recently published epidemiological studies on populations exposed to natural background ionizing radiation is proposed. The advantages and disadvantages of different types of epidemiological studies as well as the uncertainty linked to multiple exposures are discussed. As radon is the greatest source of natural radiation, particular attention is given to quantification of risk obtained through cohort studies of uranium miners and after joint analysis of case-control studies on lung cancer and residential radon.

  14. Epidemiologic evidence of cancer risk in textile industry workers: a review and update.

    PubMed

    Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Fedeli, Ugo; Fadda, Emanuela; Milan, Giovanni; Lange, John H

    2002-05-01

    A meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies for textile industry workers was undertaken in an attempt to evaluate whether the cancer risk varies within the textile industry in relation to the job held or the textile fiber used. We combined studies published up until 1990, when an ad hoc IARC Monograph was issued, and those published after 1990 with the aim of appreciating evidence of reversing trends in cancer risk. Observed and expected cases reported in the original studies were summed up and the totals were divided to obtain a pooled relative risk (PRR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) estimated with a fixed-effect model. We calculated a chi-square test (chi2) of heterogeneity among studies. When PRR and chi2 were both significant, PRR and CI were calculated with a random-effect model and the source of heterogeneity was investigated. Lung cancer risk was around 0.4 in the first study on cotton workers published in 1936, around 0.7 in subsequent studies, mostly published in the 1970s and 1980s, and around 1.0 in the last studies published in the 1990s. Papers published in the 1970s and 1980s produced consistent risk estimates for lung cancer risk, which was significantly lower than 1.0 in workers exposed to cotton (PRR = 0.77; CI = 0.69-0.86) and wool dust (0.71; 0.50-0.92), as well as in carders and fiber preparers (0.73; 0.54-0.91), weavers (0.71; 0.56-0.85), and spinners and weavers (0.78; 0.66-0.91). Lung cancer PRRs did not significantly deviate from 1.0 in textile workers using synthetic fibers or silk, and in dyers. Increased PRRs were found for sinonasal cancer in workers exposed to cotton dust, and in workers involved in spinning or weaving (4.14; 1.80-6.49). PRR was 1.46 (1.10-1.82) for cancer of the digestive system in textile workers using synthetic fibers or silk, and 1.34 (1.10-1.59) for colorectal cancer in spinners and weavers. The increased bladder cancer PRR in dyers (1.39; 1.07-1.71) is generally attributed to textile dye exposure. In studies

  15. Consumption of fruit and vegetables reduces risk of pancreatic cancer: evidence from epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi-Jun; Wu, Lang; Zheng, Li-Qiang; Xu, Xin; Ji, Chao; Gong, Ting-Ting

    2016-05-01

    Observational studies have reported inconsistent results on the association between fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer. We carried out a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies to summarize available evidence. We searched PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science databases for relevant studies published until the end of January 2015. Fixed-effects and random-effects models were used to estimate the summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer. A total of 15 case-control studies, eight prospective studies, and one pooled analysis fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The summary RR for the highest versus the lowest intake was 0.73 (95% CI=0.53-1.00) for fruit and vegetables, 0.73 (95% CI=0.63-0.84) for fruit, and 0.76 (95% CI=0.69-0.83) for vegetables, with significant heterogeneities (I=70.5, 55.7, and 43.0%, respectively). Inverse associations were observed in the stratified analysis by study design, although the results of prospective studies showed borderline significance, with corresponding RR=0.90 (95% CI=0.77-1.05) for fruit and vegetable intake, 0.93 (95% CI=0.83-1.03) for fruit intake, and 0.89 (95% CI=0.80-1.00) for vegetable intake. Besides, significant inverse associations were observed in the majority of other subgroup analyses by study quality, geographic location, exposure assessment method, and adjustment for potential confounders. Findings from the present meta-analysis support that fruit and vegetable intake is associated inversely with the risk of pancreatic cancer. However, study design may play a key role in the observed magnitude of the aforementioned association. Future well-designed prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  16. Epidemiological-molecular evidence of metabolic reprogramming on proliferation, autophagy and cell signaling in pancreas cancer.

    PubMed

    Søreide, Kjetil; Sund, Malin

    2015-01-28

    Pancreatic cancer remains one of the deadliest human cancers with little progress made in survival over the past decades, and 5-year survival usually below 5%. Despite this dismal scenario, progresses have been made in understanding of the underlying tumor biology through among other definition of precursor lesions, delineation of molecular pathways, and advances in genome-wide technology. Further, exploring the relationship between epidemiological risk factors involving metabolic features to that of an altered cancer metabolism may provide the foundation for new therapies. Here we explore how nutrients and caloric intake may influence the KRAS-driven ductal carcinogenesis through mediators of metabolic stress, including autophagy in presence of TP53, advanced glycation end products (AGE) and the receptors (RAGE) and ligands (HMGB1), as well as glutamine pathways, among others. Effective understanding the cancer metabolism mechanisms in pancreatic cancer may propose new ways of prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary fat and fatty acid intake and epithelial ovarian cancer risk: evidence from epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Rui; Wu, Qi-Jun; Gong, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Luo

    2015-01-01

    The associations between dietary fat and fatty acid (FA) intakes and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk have been inconsistent in previous studies. We conducted a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies to evaluate these associations. We identified relevant studies by searching PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases. We used random-effects models to estimate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, the search yielded 20 studies (1 pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies, 5 cohorts, and 14 case-control studies). The summary RR for EOC for the highest versus lowest categories of total dietary fat intake was 1.12 (95%CI= 0.95–1.33; I2 = 77.4%; n = 14). The RRs were not significant when fats were divided into plant-based fats (RR = 0.93, 95%CI = 0.77–1.13; n = 6), animal-based fats (RR = 1.15, 95%CI = 0.95–1.39; n = 8), dairy-based fats (RR = 1.02, 95%CI = 0.88–1.18; n = 3), saturated FAs (RR = 1.04, 95%CI = 0.93–1.17; n = 12), monounsaturated FAs (RR = 0.98, 95%CI = 0.84–1.13; n = 10), polyunsaturated FAs (RR = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.81–1.12; n = 10), and trans-unsaturated FAs (RR = 1.15, 95%CI = 0.98–1.36; n = 3). Similar non-significant results were also observed in most of the subgroup and sensitivity analyses. The findings of this meta-analysis suggest a lack of evidence for associations between dietary fat and FA intakes and EOC risk. Further analyses should be conducted to assess the associations with other types of fat, and the results should be stratified by tumor invasiveness and EOC histology. PMID:26515595

  18. Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts

    Cancer.gov

    Cohort studies are fundamental for epidemiological research by helping researchers better understand the etiology of cancer and provide insights into the key determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

  19. Review of salt consumption and stomach cancer risk: epidemiological and biological evidence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Qin; Terry, Paul-D; Yan, Hong

    2009-05-14

    Stomach cancer is still the fourth most common cancer; thus, it remains an important public health burden worldwide, especially in developing countries. The remarkable geographic variations in the rates of stomach cancer indicate that dietary factors, including a range of food groups to which salt and/or nitrates have been added, may affect stomach cancer risk. In this paper, we review the results from ecologic, case-control and cohort studies on the relationship between salt or salted foods and stomach cancer risk. The majority of ecological studies indicated that the average salt intake in each population was closely correlated with gastric cancer mortality. Most case-control studies showed similar results, indicating a moderate to high increase in risk for the highest level of salt or salted food consumption. The overall results from cohort studies are not totally consistent, but are suggestive of a moderate direct association. Since salt intake has been correlated with Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection, it is possible that these two factors may synergize to promote the development of stomach cancer. Additionally, salt may also cause stomach cancer through directly damaging gastric mucus, improving temporary epithelial proliferation and the incidence of endogenous mutations, and inducing hypergastrinemia that leads to eventual parietal cell loss and progression to gastric cancer. Based on the considerable evidence from ecological, case-control and cohort studies worldwide and the mechanistic plausibility, limitation on salt and salted food consumption is a practical strategy for preventing gastric cancer.

  20. Salt, salted food intake, and risk of gastric cancer: epidemiologic evidence.

    PubMed

    Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2005-01-01

    Because gastric cancer is still the most common cancer, its prevention is one of the most important aspects of Japan's cancer control strategy. Observations among Japanese immigrants in the USA and Brazil based on the geographic differences, the trend in cancer incidence with time, and the change in incidence patterns indicate that gastric cancer is closely associated with dietary factors, such as the intake of salt and salted food. In international and intra-Japanese ecological studies, the average salt excretion level, estimated using randomly selected 24-h urine samples in each population, was closely correlated with gastric cancer mortality. Several case-control and cohort studies, including the author's recent works, have shown that a higher intake of some traditional salt-preserved food and salt per se, which was estimated using a validated food-frequency questionnaire, was associated with a risk of gastric cancer. While salted food intake may increase the risk of Helicobacter pylori infection, it can also act synergistically to promote the development of gastric cancer. Based on substantial evidence about the association between salt and salted food intake and the risk of gastric cancer from ecological, case-control, and cohort studies conducted in Japan and other countries, as well as mechanistic plausibility, dietary modification involving less salt and salted food intake is a practical strategy with which to prevent gastric cancer.

  1. Lung cancer risk and talc not containing asbestiform fibres: a review of the epidemiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Wild, P

    2006-01-01

    A literature search was done and all epidemiological cancer studies mentioning talc as a risk factor were selected. The talc exposed populations were divided into three groups: (1) populations in which no other occupational carcinogen was mentioned (only talc millers satisfied this criterion); (2) populations of talc miners exposed to talc, quartz, and/or radon; and (3) other industrial populations in which talc is associated with quartz, nitrosamines, and asbestos depending on the study. No excess lung cancer mortality was found for the populations of talc millers exposed to high levels of talc but without any other potential carcinogen (SMR = 0.92, 42 cases) while the summary of mortality of talc miners exposed to quartz and/or radon was in excess (fixed effect SMR = 1.20, random effect RR = 1.85, 40 cases). Six studies in other industrial settings were identified. All reported increased lung cancer mortality among talc exposed workers but the talc exposure was confounded with other carcinogens and only one study was able to adjust on them. In conclusion, no increased lung cancer mortality was observed among talc millers despite their high exposure experience. In populations in which talc was associated with other potential carcinogens, some lung cancer excesses were observed. PMID:16361399

  2. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Endometrial Cancer: An Overview of Recent Laboratory Evidence and Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Mallozzi, Maddalena; Leone, Chiara; Manurita, Francesca; Bellati, Filippo; Caserta, Donatella

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although exposure to endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs) has been suggested as a contributing factor to a range of women’s health disorders including infertility, polycystic ovaries and the early onset of puberty, considerable challenges remain in attributing cause and effect on gynaecological cancer. Until recently, there were relatively few epidemiological studies examining the relationship between EDCs and endometrial cancer, however, in the last years the number of these studies has increased. Methods: A systematic MEDLINE (PubMed) search was performed and relevant articles published in the last 23 years (from 1992 to 2016) were selected. Results: Human studies and animal experiments are confirming a carcinogenic effect due to the EDC exposure and its carcinogenesis process result to be complex, multifactorial and long standing, thus, it is extremely difficult to obtain the epidemiological proof of a carcinogenic effect of EDCs for the high number of confusing factors. Conclusions: The carcinogenic effects of endocrine disruptors are plausible, although additional studies are needed to clarify their mechanisms and responsible entities. Neverthless, to reduce endocrine disruptors (ED) exposure is mandatory to implement necessary measures to limit exposure, particularly during those periods of life most vulnerable to the impact of oncogenic environmental causes, such as embryonic period and puberty. PMID:28327540

  3. New Exposure Biomarkers as Tools for Breast Cancer Epidemiology, Biomonitoring, and Prevention: A Systematic Approach Based on Animal Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Janet M.; Attfield, Kathleen R.; Brody, Julia Green

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to chemicals that cause rodent mammary gland tumors is common, but few studies have evaluated potential breast cancer risks of these chemicals in humans. Objective: The goal of this review was to identify and bring together the needed tools to facilitate the measurement of biomarkers of exposure to potential breast carcinogens in breast cancer studies and biomonitoring. Methods: We conducted a structured literature search to identify measurement methods for exposure biomarkers for 102 chemicals that cause rodent mammary tumors. To evaluate concordance, we compared human and animal evidence for agents identified as plausibly linked to breast cancer in major reviews. To facilitate future application of exposure biomarkers, we compiled information about relevant cohort studies. Results: Exposure biomarkers have been developed for nearly three-quarters of these rodent mammary carcinogens. Analytical methods have been published for 73 of the chemicals. Some of the remaining chemicals could be measured using modified versions of existing methods for related chemicals. In humans, biomarkers of exposure have been measured for 62 chemicals, and for 45 in a nonoccupationally exposed population. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has measured 23 in the U.S. population. Seventy-five of the rodent mammary carcinogens fall into 17 groups, based on exposure potential, carcinogenicity, and structural similarity. Carcinogenicity in humans and rodents is generally consistent, although comparisons are limited because few agents have been studied in humans. We identified 44 cohort studies, with a total of > 3.5 million women enrolled, that have recorded breast cancer incidence and stored biological samples. Conclusions: Exposure measurement methods and cohort study resources are available to expand biomonitoring and epidemiology related to breast cancer etiology and prevention. Citation: Rudel RA, Ackerman JM, Attfield KR, Brody JG. 2014. New exposure

  4. Processed meat and colorectal cancer: a review of epidemiologic and experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Santarelli, Raphaëlle L; Pierre, Fabrice; Corpet, Denis E

    2008-01-01

    Processed meat intake may be involved in the etiology of colorectal cancer, a major cause of death in affluent countries. The epidemiologic studies published to date conclude that the excess risk in the highest category of processed meat-eaters is comprised between 20% and 50% compared with non-eaters. In addition, the excess risk per gram of intake is clearly higher than that of fresh red meat. Several hypotheses, which are mainly based on studies carried out on red meat, may explain why processed meat intake is linked to cancer risk. Those that have been tested experimentally are (i) that high-fat diets could promote carcinogenesis via insulin resistance or fecal bile acids; (ii) that cooking meat at a high temperature forms carcinogenic heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; (iii) that carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds are formed in meat and endogenously; (iv) that heme iron in red meat can promote carcinogenesis because it increases cell proliferation in the mucosa, through lipoperoxidation and/or cytotoxicity of fecal water. Nitrosation might increase the toxicity of heme in cured products. Solving this puzzle is a challenge that would permit to reduce cancer load by changing the processes rather than by banning processed meat.

  5. Processed meat and colorectal cancer: a review of epidemiologic and experimental evidence

    PubMed Central

    Santarelli, Raphaëlle L.; Pierre, Fabrice; Corpet, Denis E.

    2008-01-01

    Processed meat intake may be involved in the etiology of colorectal cancer, a major cause of death in affluent countries. The epidemiologic studies published to date conclude that the excess risk in the highest category of processed meat-eaters is comprised between 20 and 50% compared with non-eaters. In addition, the excess risk per gram of intake is clearly higher than that of fresh red meat. Several hypotheses, which are mainly based on studies carried out on red meat, may explain why processed meat intake is linked to cancer risk. Those that have been tested experimentally are (i) that high-fat diets could promote carcinogenesis via insulin resistance or fecal bile acids; (ii) that cooking meat at a high temperature forms carcinogenic heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; (iii) that carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds are formed in meat and endogenously; (iv) that heme iron in red meat can promote carcinogenesis because it increases cell proliferation in the mucosa, through lipoperoxidation and/or cytotoxicity of fecal water. Nitrosation might increase the toxicity of heme in cured products. Solving this puzzle is a challenge that would permit to reduce cancer load by changing the processes rather than by banning processed meat. PMID:18444144

  6. Epidemiology of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marley, Andrew R; Nan, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is currently the third deadliest cancer in the United States and will claim an estimated 49,190 U.S. lives in 2016. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of this disease, based on nationally published statistics and information presented in peer-reviewed journal articles. Specifically, this review will cover the following topics: descriptive epidemiology (including time and disease trends both in the United States and abroad), risk factors (environmental, genetic, and gene-environment interactions), screening, prevention and control, and treatment. Landmark discoveries in colorectal cancer risk factor research will also be presented. Based on the information reviewed for this report, we suggest that future U.S. public health efforts aim to increase colorectal cancer screening among African American communities, and that future worldwide colorectal cancer epidemiology studies should focus on researching nutrient-gene interactions towards the goal of improving personalized treatment and prevention strategies. PMID:27766137

  7. Trichloroethylene and Cancer: Systematic and Quantitative Review of Epidemiologic Evidence for Identifying Hazards

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Jinot, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis focusing on studies with high potential for trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure to provide quantitative evaluations of the evidence for associations between TCE exposure and kidney, liver, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) cancers. A systematic review documenting essential design features, exposure assessment approaches, statistical analyses, and potential sources of confounding and bias identified twenty-four cohort and case-control studies on TCE and the three cancers of interest with high potential for exposure, including five recently published case-control studies of kidney cancer or NHL. Fixed- and random-effects models were fitted to the data on overall exposure and on the highest exposure group. Sensitivity analyses examined the influence of individual studies and of alternative risk estimate selections. For overall TCE exposure and kidney cancer, the summary relative risk (RRm) estimate from the random effects model was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.43), with a higher RRm for the highest exposure groups (1.58, 95% CI: 1.28, 1.96). The RRm estimates were not overly sensitive to alternative risk estimate selections or to removal of an individual study. There was no apparent heterogeneity or publication bias. For NHL, RRm estimates for overall exposure and for the highest exposure group, respectively, were 1.23 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.42) and 1.43 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.82) and, for liver cancer, 1.29 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.56) and 1.28 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.77). Our findings provide strong support for a causal association between TCE exposure and kidney cancer. The support is strong but less robust for NHL, where issues of study heterogeneity, potential publication bias, and weaker exposure-response results contribute uncertainty, and more limited for liver cancer, where only cohort studies with small numbers of cases were available. PMID:22163205

  8. Genetic epidemiology of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Thompson, W D

    1994-07-01

    It has been recognized for some time that a family history of breast cancer is associated rather strongly with a woman's own risk of developing the disease. Recent segregation analyses of population-based data on familial patterns provide evidence for a rare autosomal dominant allele that increases a carrier's susceptibility to breast cancer. The estimated proportion of breast cancer patients who carry this allele declines sharply with age at diagnosis. Empirical estimates of the risk associated with particular patterns of family history of breast cancer indicate the following: (1) having any first-degree relative with breast cancer increases a woman's risk of breast cancer 1.5-3-fold, depending on age, (2) having multiple first degree relatives affected is associated with particularly elevated risks, (3) having a second-degree relative affected increases the risk by approximately 50%, (4) affected family members on the maternal side and the paternal side contribute similarly to the risk, (5) a family history of breast cancer is associated with bilateral disease, and (6) breast cancer in males is associated with breast cancer in female relatives in much the same way as is breast cancer in women. Ovarian cancer clearly has been shown to be associated with breast cancer in families, and genetic linkage has provided strong evidence for a breast-ovarian cancer gene located somewhere on chromosome 17q. At the population level, having a first degree relative with ovarian cancer may be at least as predictive of a woman's risk for developing breast cancer as is having a second-degree relative with breast cancer. Considerably weaker evidence points to a possible familial relationship between breast and endometrial cancer and between breast cancer in women and prostatic cancer in males. The clinical applications of the genetic epidemiology of breast cancer are complicated by uncertainty as to the efficacy of mammographic screening in women under the age of 50. For the vast

  9. Contemporary Renal Cell Cancer Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Wong-Ho; Devesa, Susan S.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed renal cell cancer incidence patterns in the United States and reviewed recent epidemiologic evidence with regard to environmental and host genetic determinants of renal cell cancer risk. Renal cell cancer incidence rates continued to rise among all racial/ethnic groups in the United States, across all age groups, and for all tumor sizes, with the most rapid increases for localized stage disease and small tumors. Recent cohort studies confirmed the association of smoking, excess body weight, and hypertension with an elevated risk of renal cell cancer, and suggested that these factors can be modified to reduce the risk. There is increasing evidence for an inverse association between renal cell cancer risk and physical activity and moderate intake of alcohol. Occupational exposure to TCE has been positively associated with renal cell cancer risk in several recent studies, but its link with somatic mutations of the VHL gene has not been confirmed. Studies of genetic polymorphisms in relation to renal cell cancer risk have produced mixed results, but genome-wide association studies with larger sample size and a more comprehensive approach are underway. Few epidemiologic studies have evaluated risk factors by subtypes of renal cell cancer defined by somatic mutations and other tumor markers. PMID:18836333

  10. Epidemiological evidence in forensic pharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Persaud, Nav; Healy, David

    2012-01-01

    Until recently epidemiological evidence was not regarded as helpful in determining cause and effect. It generated associations that then had to be explained in terms of bio-mechanisms and applied to individual patients. A series of legal cases surrounding possible birth defects triggered by doxylamine (Bendectin) and connective tissue disorders linked to breast implants made it clear that in some instances epidemiological evidence might have a more important role, but the pendulum swung too far so that epidemiological evidence has in recent decades been given an unwarranted primacy, partly perhaps because it suits the interests of certain stakeholders. Older and more recent epidemiological studies on doxylamine and other antihistamines are reviewed to bring out the ambiguities and pitfalls of an undue reliance on epidemiological studies.

  11. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Malcolm V.; Ford, Jean G.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ever since a lung cancer epidemic emerged in the mid-1900s, the epidemiology of lung cancer has been intensively investigated to characterize its causes and patterns of occurrence. This report summarizes the key findings of this research. Methods: A detailed literature search provided the basis for a narrative review, identifying and summarizing key reports on population patterns and factors that affect lung cancer risk. Results: Established environmental risk factors for lung cancer include smoking cigarettes and other tobacco products and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, occupational lung carcinogens, radiation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Cigarette smoking is the predominant cause of lung cancer and the leading worldwide cause of cancer death. Smoking prevalence in developing nations has increased, starting new lung cancer epidemics in these nations. A positive family history and acquired lung disease are examples of host factors that are clinically useful risk indicators. Risk prediction models based on lung cancer risk factors have been developed, but further refinement is needed to provide clinically useful risk stratification. Promising biomarkers of lung cancer risk and early detection have been identified, but none are ready for broad clinical application. Conclusions: Almost all lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking, underscoring the need for ongoing efforts at tobacco control throughout the world. Further research is needed into the reasons underlying lung cancer disparities, the causes of lung cancer in never smokers, the potential role of HIV in lung carcinogenesis, and the development of biomarkers. PMID:23649439

  12. Systematic review of the epidemiological evidence comparing lung cancer risk in smokers of mentholated and unmentholated cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background US mentholated cigarette sales have increased considerably over 50 years. Preference for mentholated cigarettes is markedly higher in Black people. While menthol itself is not genotoxic or carcinogenic, its acute respiratory effects might affect inhalation of cigarette smoke. This possibility seems consistent with the higher lung cancer risk in Black men, despite Black people smoking less and starting smoking later than White people. Despite experimental data suggesting similar carcinogenicity of mentholated and non-mentholated cigarettes, the lack of convincing evidence that mentholation increases puffing, inhalation or smoke uptake, and the similarity of lung cancer rates in Black and White females, a review of cigarette mentholation and lung cancer is timely given current regulatory interest in the topic. Methods Epidemiological studies comparing lung cancer risk in mentholated and non-mentholated cigarette smokers were identified from MedLine and other sources. Study details were extracted and strengths and weaknesses assessed. Relative risk estimates were extracted, or derived, for ever mentholated use and for long-term use, overall and by gender, race, and current/ever smoking, and meta-analyses conducted. Results Eight generally good quality studies were identified, with valid cases and controls, and appropriate adjustment for age, gender, race and smoking. The studies afforded good power to detect possible effects. However, only one study presented results by histological type, none adjusted for occupation or diet, and some provided no results by length of mentholated cigarette use. The data do not suggest any effect of mentholation on lung cancer risk. Adjusted relative risk estimates for ever use vary from 0.81 to 1.12, giving a combined estimate of 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.84-1.02, n = 8), with no increase in males (1.01, 0.84-1.22, n = 5), females (0.80, 0.67-0.95, n = 5), White people (0.87, 0.75-1.03, n = 4) or Black people (0.90, 0

  13. [Update on Cancer Epidemiology in Japan].

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Motoki

    2016-01-01

    Accumulated epidemiological evidence has revealed several risk and preventive factors for cancer. Thus, cancer prevention guidelines for the Japanese population have been developed on the basis of scientific evidence from mainly studies conducted in Japan. In Japan, tobacco smoking and infections are the major causes of cancer. Further control of these factors will contribute to substantial reductions in cancer incidence and mortality in Japan. Concurrently, large-scale molecular epidemiologic studies are ongoing in order to obtain epidemiological evidence for personalized prevention strategies. In particular, evidence from omics analyses and investigation of gene-environment interactions may contribute to the further understanding of the biological mechanism underlying cancer occurrence. In addition, the establishment of preventive measures according to individual disease risk, on the basis of risk prediction models including omics data, is necessary.

  14. New exposure biomarkers as tools for breast cancer epidemiology, biomonitoring, and prevention: a systematic approach based on animal evidence.

    PubMed

    Rudel, Ruthann A; Ackerman, Janet M; Attfield, Kathleen R; Brody, Julia Green

    2014-09-01

    Exposure to chemicals that cause rodent mammary gland tumors is common, but few studies have evaluated potential breast cancer risks of these chemicals in humans. The goal of this review was to identify and bring together the needed tools to facilitate the measurement of biomarkers of exposure to potential breast carcinogens in breast cancer studies and biomonitoring. We conducted a structured literature search to identify measurement methods for exposure biomarkers for 102 chemicals that cause rodent mammary tumors. To evaluate concordance, we compared human and animal evidence for agents identified as plausibly linked to breast cancer in major reviews. To facilitate future application of exposure biomarkers, we compiled information about relevant cohort studies. Exposure biomarkers have been developed for nearly three-quarters of these rodent mammary carcinogens. Analytical methods have been published for 73 of the chemicals. Some of the remaining chemicals could be measured using modified versions of existing methods for related chemicals. In humans, biomarkers of exposure have been measured for 62 chemicals, and for 45 in a nonoccupationally exposed population. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has measured 23 in the U.S. population. Seventy-five of the rodent mammary carcinogens fall into 17 groups, based on exposure potential, carcinogenicity, and structural similarity. Carcinogenicity in humans and rodents is generally consistent, although comparisons are limited because few agents have been studied in humans. We identified 44 cohort studies, with a total of > 3.5 million women enrolled, that have recorded breast cancer incidence and stored biological samples. Exposure measurement methods and cohort study resources are available to expand biomonitoring and epidemiology related to breast cancer etiology and prevention.

  15. Systematic review with meta-analysis of the epidemiological evidence in the 1900s relating smoking to lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Smoking is a known lung cancer cause, but no detailed quantitative systematic review exists. We summarize evidence for various indices. Methods Papers published before 2000 describing epidemiological studies involving 100+ lung cancer cases were obtained from Medline and other sources. Studies were classified as principal, or subsidiary where cases overlapped with principal studies. Data were extracted on design, exposures, histological types and confounder adjustment. RRs/ORs and 95% CIs were extracted for ever, current and ex smoking of cigarettes, pipes and cigars and indices of cigarette type and dose–response. Meta-analyses and meta-regressions investigated how relationships varied by study and RR characteristics, mainly for outcomes exactly or closely equivalent to all lung cancer, squamous cell carcinoma (“squamous”) and adenocarcinoma (“adeno”). Results 287 studies (20 subsidiary) were identified. Although RR estimates were markedly heterogeneous, the meta-analyses demonstrated a relationship of smoking with lung cancer risk, clearly seen for ever smoking (random-effects RR 5.50, CI 5.07-5.96) current smoking (8.43, 7.63-9.31), ex smoking (4.30, 3.93-4.71) and pipe/cigar only smoking (2.92, 2.38-3.57). It was stronger for squamous (current smoking RR 16.91, 13.14-21.76) than adeno (4.21, 3.32-5.34), and evident in both sexes (RRs somewhat higher in males), all continents (RRs highest for North America and lowest for Asia, particularly China), and both study types (RRs higher for prospective studies). Relationships were somewhat stronger in later starting and larger studies. RR estimates were similar in cigarette only and mixed smokers, and similar in smokers of pipes/cigars only, pipes only and cigars only. Exceptionally no increase in adeno risk was seen for pipe/cigar only smokers (0.93, 0.62-1.40). RRs were unrelated to mentholation, and higher for non-filter and handrolled cigarettes. RRs increased with amount smoked, duration

  16. Obesity and liver cancer risk: an evaluation based on a systematic review of epidemiologic evidence among the Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Keitaro; Tsuji, Ichiro; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Wakai, Kenji; Nagata, Chisato; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2012-03-01

    With increased interest in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, its common co-morbid condition, obesity, has recently attracted much attention as a risk factor for liver cancer. Recent studies also suggest that obesity may play a role in the development of liver cancer in alcoholic cirrhosis or viral hepatitis and in the general population. We systematically reviewed epidemiologic studies on overweight/obesity and liver cancer among Japanese populations. Original data were obtained by searching the MEDLINE (PubMed) and Ichushi databases, complemented by manual searches. The evaluation was performed in terms of the magnitude of association in each study and the strength of evidence ('convincing', 'probable', 'possible' or 'insufficient'), together with biologic plausibility. Among nine cohort studies identified, five (four on patients with chronic liver disease and one on local residents) reported a weak to strong positive association, while four (one on patients with hepatitis B and three on local residents) found no association [summary relative risk for one unit increase in body mass index (kg/m(2)) 1.07, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.10]. All three case-control studies identified (two on cirrhotic patients and one on atomic bomb survivors) reported a strong positive association (summary relative risk 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.12-1.53). Overall, the summary relative risk was estimated at 1.13 (95% confidence interval 1.07-1.20), and overweight/obese individuals had a relative risk of 1.74 (95% confidence interval 1.33-2.28) compared with those who had normal/low weight. We conclude that overweight or obesity 'probably' increases the risk of primary liver cancer, to a moderate degree, among the Japanese population.

  17. The cancer epidemiology of radiation.

    PubMed

    Wakeford, Richard

    2004-08-23

    Ionizing radiation has been the subject of intense epidemiological investigation. Studies have demonstrated that exposure to moderate-to-high levels can cause most forms of cancer, leukaemia and cancers of the breast, lung and thyroid being particularly sensitive to induction by radiation, especially at young ages at exposure. Predominant among these studies is the Life Span Study of the cohort of survivors of the atomic bombings of Japan in 1945, but substantial evidence is derived from groups exposed for medical reasons, occupationally or environmentally. Notable among these other groups are underground hard rock miners who inhaled radioactive radon gas and its decay products, large numbers of patients irradiated therapeutically and workers who received high doses in the nuclear weapons programme of the former USSR. The degree of carcinogenic risk arising from low levels of exposure is more contentious, but the available evidence points to an increased risk that is approximately proportional to the dose received. Epidemiological investigations of nonionizing radiation have established ultraviolet radiation as a cause of skin cancer. However, the evidence for a carcinogenic effect of other forms of nonionizing radiation, such as those associated with mobile telephones or electricity transmission lines, is not convincing, although the possibility of a link between childhood leukaemia and extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields cannot be dismissed entirely.

  18. Association between vitamin A, retinol and carotenoid intake and pancreatic cancer risk: Evidence from epidemiologic studies

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaoyi; Gao, Yisha; Zhi, Xiaosong; Ta, Na; Jiang, Hui; Zheng, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease with poor prognosis. The association between vitamin A, retinol and carotenoid intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer occurrence remains controversial, and therefore it is necessary to make a meta-analysis to clarify the association between vitamin A, retinol and carotenoid intake and pancreatic cancer risk. In the present study, PubMed and EMBASE databases were used to identify qualified studies. The association between dietary vitamin A, retinol and carotenoids was estimated by pooled odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). It was found that there was an inverse correlation between vitamin A, beta-carotene and lycopene intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer (for vitamin A, pooled OR = 0.85, 95%CI = 0.74–0.97, P = 0.015; for beta-carotene, pooled OR = 0.78, 95%CI = 0.66–0.92, P = 0.003; for lycopene, pooled OR = 0.84, 95%CI = 0.73–0.97, P = 0.020), which was more prominent in case-control study subgroup. In conclusion, dietary vitamin A, beta-carotene and lycopene might inversely correlate with pancreatic cancer. PMID:27941847

  19. Cancer Epidemiology Data Repository (CEDR)

    Cancer.gov

    In an effort to broaden access and facilitate efficient data sharing, the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) has created the Cancer Epidemiology Data Repository (CEDR), a centralized, controlled-access database, where Investigators can deposit individual-level de-identified observational cancer datasets.

  20. Epidemiology of cancer in children

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, R.S.; Shuster, J.L. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The epidemiologic features of cancers among children have stimulated abundant descriptive and analytic investigation. The descriptive work has demonstrated consistent differences in the incidence rates of these cancers by anatomic site, age, race, and gender. It is clear that the various forms of cancer during childhood have distinctive patterns of occurrence. To a large extent, the characteristic population distributions of these diseases may represent differences in the underlying etiologic processes. Analytic studies of cancer during childhood have addressed possible genetic and environmental risk factors for these diseases. The demonstration of cancers induced by transplacental exposure to diethylstilbestrol has confirmed the speculation that the prenatal environment may influence subsequent carcinogenesis. Although possible leukemogenic effects of intrauterine diagnostic irradiation remain controversial, the issue may become unimportant clinically as prenatal irradiation is replaced by other diagnostic modalities (194). To date, studies of prenatal ultrasound have provided no evidence of an overall excess of subsequent malignancies. Postnatal exposure to high doses of irradiation is known to produce considerable excesses of leukemias and other cancers. At present, there are insufficient data available to reach a firm conclusion on the possible carcinogenic effects of exposure during childhood to low doses of irradiation, fringe magnetic fields, or chemicals.

  1. Epidemiology of gastrointestinal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Selikoff, Irving J.

    1974-01-01

    Some 99,000 new cases of cancer of the colon are expected next year, an incidence rate higher than that for both cancer of the lung and cancer of the breast. Evidence from geographic pathology suggests that some environmental factors play a strong role in its etiology. Data obtained in the 1959 survey of one million people by the American Cancer Society and followed since, has failed to show correlation with any of the large number of factors listed. It is suggested that the etiology is one of multiple factors. The synergistic effect of exposure to asbestos and cigarette smoking in the production of bronchogenic carcinoma is demonstrated by data on cohorts of insulation workers. There was also a modest increase in the number of deaths from gastrointestinal cancer in asbestos workers, but smoking did not seem to act in synergistic fashion at that site, except perhaps in the esophagus. Deaths from cancer occurred almost entirely after a period of 20 years or more from initial exposure. The death rate from cancer tended to increase with duration of exposure, but a distinct rise over the expected was seen in those who had been exposed less than one year to amosite dust. PMID:4470947

  2. [Epidemiology of childhood cancers].

    PubMed

    Clavel, Jacqueline

    2007-05-31

    In industrial countries, 1 child out of 500 develops a cancer before the age of 15 years, and before the age of 6 years for almost half of them. In France, incidence rates were stable over the 15 last years with around 1500 cases each year. A very small fraction of cases is attributable to known risk factors, including heritable cancers or cancers in children with heritable predisposing diseases, cancers induced by high doses of ionizing radiation of medical or accidental origin, by chemotherapeutic or immunosuppressive drugs. Responsibility of Epstein Barr virus in a fraction of Hodgkin's and Burkitt's lymphomas is also established, even though little is still known on the cofactors involved in industrial countries. Other virus could cause leukaemia, as suggested by localized increases in incidence in various conditions of population mixing. Conversely, there is some evidence that early common infections could be protective toward leukaemia risk, probably through their contribution to the maturation of the immune system. Several agents are suspected to induce chemical cancers, particularly pesticides, which are consistently reported in childhood leukaemia and brain tumours. It is more and more likely that genetic factors may modulate risk induced of environmental factors.

  3. Sample Cancer Epidemiology Grant Applications

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute frequently receives questions from investigators for examples of successfully funded grant applications. Several investigators agreed to let the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program post excerpts of their grant applications online.

  4. Genomic Resources for Cancer Epidemiology

    Cancer.gov

    This page provides links to research resources, complied by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, that may be of interest to genetic epidemiologists conducting cancer research, but is not exhaustive.

  5. Cancer and Aging: Epidemiology and Methodological Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Jacob K; Engholm, Gerda; Skytthe, Axel; Christensen, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological cancer data shed light on key questions within basic science, clinical medicine and public health. For decades, Denmark has had linkable health registers that contain individual level data on the entire population with virtually complete follow-up. This has enabled high quality studies of cancer epidemiology and minimized the challenges often faced in many countries, such as uncertain identification of the study base, age misreporting, and low validity of the cancer diagnoses. However, methodological challenges still remain to be addressed, especially in cancer epidemiology studies among the elderly and the oldest-old. E.g., a characteristic pattern for many cancer types is that the incidence increases up to a maximum at about ages 75 to 90 years and is then followed by a decline or a leveling off at the oldest ages. It has been suggested that the oldest individuals may be asymptomatic, or even insusceptible to cancer. An alternative interpretation is that this pattern is an artifact due to lower diagnostic intensity among the elderly and oldest-old caused by higher levels of co-morbidities in this age group. Currently, the available cancer epidemiology data are not able to provide clear evidence for any of these hypotheses. PMID:26825001

  6. Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Mukesh; Patel, Payal; Verma, Mudit

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high risk for developing prostate cancer. In cancer epidemiology, epigenetic biomarkers offer advantages over other types of biomarkers because they are expressed against a person's genetic background and environmental exposure, and because abnormal events occur early in cancer development, which includes several epigenetic alterations in cancer cells. This article describes different biomarkers that have potential use in studying the epidemiology of prostate cancer. We also discuss the characteristics of an ideal biomarker for prostate cancer, and technologies utilized for biomarker assays. Among epigenetic biomarkers, most reports indicate GSTP1 hypermethylation as the diagnostic marker for prostate cancer; however, NKX2-5, CLSTN1, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS, and NSE1 also have been reported to be regulated by methylation mechanisms in prostate cancer. Current challenges in utilization of biomarkers in prostate cancer diagnosis and epidemiologic studies and potential solutions also are discussed. PMID:24213111

  7. Arsenic in drinking water and urinary tract cancers: a systematic review of 30 years of epidemiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Arsenic in drinking water is a public health issue affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide. This review summarizes 30 years of epidemiological studies on arsenic exposure in drinking water and the risk of bladder or kidney cancer, quantifying these risks using a meta-analytical framework. Methods Forty studies met the selection criteria. Seventeen provided point estimates of arsenic concentrations in drinking water and were used in a meta-analysis of bladder cancer incidence (7 studies) and mortality (10 studies) and kidney cancer mortality (2 studies). Risk estimates for incidence and mortality were analyzed separately using Generalized Linear Models. Predicted risks for bladder cancer incidence were estimated at 10, 50 and 150 μg/L arsenic in drinking water. Bootstrap randomizations were used to assess robustness of effect size. Results Twenty-eight studies observed an association between arsenic in drinking water and bladder cancer. Ten studies showed an association with kidney cancer, although of lower magnitude than that for bladder cancer. The meta-analyses showed the predicted risks for bladder cancer incidence were 2.7 [1.2–4.1]; 4.2 [2.1–6.3] and; 5.8 [2.9–8.7] for drinking water arsenic levels of 10, 50, and 150 μg/L, respectively. Bootstrapped randomizations confirmed this increased risk, but, lowering the effect size to 1.4 [0.35–4.0], 2.3 [0.59–6.4], and 3.1 [0.80–8.9]. The latter suggests that with exposures to 50 μg/L, there was an 83% probability for elevated incidence of bladder cancer; and a 74% probability for elevated mortality. For both bladder and kidney cancers, mortality rates at 150 ug/L were about 30% greater than those at 10 μg/L. Conclusion Arsenic in drinking water is associated with an increased risk of bladder and kidney cancers, although at lower levels (<150 μg/L), there is uncertainty due to the increased likelihood of exposure misclassification at the lower end of the exposure curve. Meta

  8. Saccharin/cyclamates: epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, B K

    1985-01-01

    Adequate data on the carcinogenicity of saccharin and cyclamate to humans are available only for the urinary bladder. In the studies available, exposure to saccharin and to cyclamate cannot be distinguished readily. Descriptive studies have shown no evidence of time trends in bladder cancer that can be related to use of saccharin or cyclamate. Likewise, studies of diabetics, who have used more saccharin and cyclamate than other people, have shown no evidence of an increased risk of bladder cancer. This association, however, is probably confounded negatively by cigarette smoking. Thirteen case-control studies have addressed the relationship of saccharin and cyclamate intake to bladder cancer in individuals. While statistically significant positive associations have been observed, a similar number of significant negative associations has also been observed. Studies of the dose-response relationships have also shown no consistent pattern. Studies of saccharin and cyclamate use with smoking habits have shown no consistent interaction with heavy smoking, as might be expected from a promotional effect. In some studies, however, an increased risk with saccharin and cyclamate use has been observed in female non-smokers--a group otherwise at low risk for bladder cancer.

  9. Epidemiology of lung cancer: Diagnosis and management of lung cancer, 3rd ed: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Alberg, Anthony J; Brock, Malcolm V; Ford, Jean G; Samet, Jonathan M; Spivack, Simon D

    2013-05-01

    Ever since a lung cancer epidemic emerged in the mid-1900 s, the epidemiology of lung cancer has been intensively investigated to characterize its causes and patterns of occurrence. This report summarizes the key findings of this research. A detailed literature search provided the basis for a narrative review, identifying and summarizing key reports on population patterns and factors that affect lung cancer risk. Established environmental risk factors for lung cancer include smoking cigarettes and other tobacco products and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, occupational lung carcinogens, radiation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Cigarette smoking is the predominant cause of lung cancer and the leading worldwide cause of cancer death. Smoking prevalence in developing nations has increased, starting new lung cancer epidemics in these nations. A positive family history and acquired lung disease are examples of host factors that are clinically useful risk indicators. Risk prediction models based on lung cancer risk factors have been developed, but further refinement is needed to provide clinically useful risk stratification. Promising biomarkers of lung cancer risk and early detection have been identified, but none are ready for broad clinical application. Almost all lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking, underscoring the need for ongoing efforts at tobacco control throughout the world. Further research is needed into the reasons underlying lung cancer disparities, the causes of lung cancer in never smokers, the potential role of HIV in lung carcinogenesis, and the development of biomarkers.

  10. [Epidemiology of colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Bouvier, Anne-Marie; Launoy, Guy

    2015-06-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer increased in France until the 2000s' then decreased. Time trends in incidence for this cancer varied according to its sublocation along the gut. Incidence increased for right and left colon cancers, whereas it remained stable for sigmoid cancers in males and decreased in females. Incidence decreased over time for rectal cancers. The proportion of colorectal cancer in the overall French cancer prevalence is 12%. In 2008, 121,000 patients had a colorectal cancer diagnosed in the 5 previous years. The cumulative risk of colorectal cancer increased from 3.9% for males born around 1900 to 4.9% for those born around 1930 and then slightly decreased, being 4.5% among those born around 1950. It remained at the same level for females and was 2.9% for those born around 1950. The prognosis of colorectal cancer improved over time. Net 5-year survival increased in males from 53% for cancers diagnosed between 1989 and 1991 to 58% for those diagnosed between 2001 and 2004. The highest improvement of 10 year survival rates concerned left colon and rectosigmoid junction (+19% in a decade). The progressive set up of national colorectal screening since the early 2000's and the introduction of recent immunological tests in 2015 should decrease the mortality for this cancer and, at term, should decrease its incidence too.

  11. Mitochondrial DNA and Cancer Epidemiology Workshop

    Cancer.gov

    A workshop to review the state-of-the science in the mitochondrial DNA field and its use in cancer epidemiology, and to develop a concept for a research initiative on mitochondrial DNA and cancer epidemiology.

  12. Epidemiology of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ilic, Milena; Ilic, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the pancreas remains one of the deadliest cancer types. Based on the GLOBOCAN 2012 estimates, pancreatic cancer causes more than 331000 deaths per year, ranking as the seventh leading cause of cancer death in both sexes together. Globally, about 338000 people had pancreatic cancer in 2012, making it the 11th most common cancer. The highest incidence and mortality rates of pancreatic cancer are found in developed countries. Trends for pancreatic cancer incidence and mortality varied considerably in the world. A known cause of pancreatic cancer is tobacco smoking. This risk factor is likely to explain some of the international variations and gender differences. The overall five-year survival rate is about 6% (ranges from 2% to 9%), but this vary very small between developed and developing countries. To date, the causes of pancreatic cancer are still insufficiently known, although certain risk factors have been identified, such as smoking, obesity, genetics, diabetes, diet, inactivity. There are no current screening recommendations for pancreatic cancer, so primary prevention is of utmost importance. A better understanding of the etiology and identifying the risk factors is essential for the primary prevention of this disease. PMID:27956793

  13. Epidemiology of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Ilic, Milena; Ilic, Irena

    2016-11-28

    Cancer of the pancreas remains one of the deadliest cancer types. Based on the GLOBOCAN 2012 estimates, pancreatic cancer causes more than 331000 deaths per year, ranking as the seventh leading cause of cancer death in both sexes together. Globally, about 338000 people had pancreatic cancer in 2012, making it the 11(th) most common cancer. The highest incidence and mortality rates of pancreatic cancer are found in developed countries. Trends for pancreatic cancer incidence and mortality varied considerably in the world. A known cause of pancreatic cancer is tobacco smoking. This risk factor is likely to explain some of the international variations and gender differences. The overall five-year survival rate is about 6% (ranges from 2% to 9%), but this vary very small between developed and developing countries. To date, the causes of pancreatic cancer are still insufficiently known, although certain risk factors have been identified, such as smoking, obesity, genetics, diabetes, diet, inactivity. There are no current screening recommendations for pancreatic cancer, so primary prevention is of utmost importance. A better understanding of the etiology and identifying the risk factors is essential for the primary prevention of this disease.

  14. False positives in cancer epidemiology.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Joseph K; Tarone, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    A recent attempt to estimate the false-positive rate for cancer epidemiology studies is based on agents in International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) category 3 (agent not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans) in the IARC Monographs Program. The estimation method is critiqued regarding biases caused by its reliance on the IARC classification criteria for assessing carcinogenic potential. The privileged position given to epidemiologic studies by the IARC criteria ensures that the percentage of positive epidemiologic studies for an agent will depend strongly on the IARC category to which the agent is assigned. Because IARC category 3 is composed of agents with the lowest-assessed carcinogenic potential to which the estimation approach in question could be applied, a spuriously low estimated false-positive rate was necessarily the outcome of this approach. Tendentious estimation approaches like that employed will by necessity produce spuriously low and misleading false positive rates. The recently reported estimates of the false-positive rate in cancer epidemiology are seriously biased and contribute nothing substantive to the literature on the very real problems related to false-positive findings in epidemiology.

  15. Epidemiological trends in skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Apalla, Zoe; Lallas, Aimilios; Sotiriou, Elena; Lazaridou, Elizabeth; Ioannides, Demetrios

    2017-04-01

    Skin cancer, including melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), represents the most common type of malignancy in the white population. The incidence rate of melanoma is increasing worldwide, while the associated mortality remains stable, or is slightly decreasing. On the other hand, the incidence for NMSC varies widely, with the highest rates reported in Australia. In the current review, we highlight recent global trends in epidemiology of skin cancer. We discuss controversial issues raised in current epidemiological data, we analyze the most important risk factors associated with the development of melanoma and NMSC and the impact of skin cancer on health care services. Furthermore, we underline the pressing need for improved registration policies, especially for NMSC, and lastly, we refer to the ongoing primary and secondary prevention strategies and their outcomes so far.

  16. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2012 Archive

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  17. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2013 Archive

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  18. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2015 Archive

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  19. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2014 Archive

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  20. [Epidemiology of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Becker, N

    2010-08-01

    Lung cancer is by far the most common form of cancer worldwide and in Germany is now "only" still the commonest cause of death from cancer. The most important single risk factor is smoking but in selected population groups, for example in the professional area, other factors can also play a role which cannot be ignored and open up a corresponding potential for prevention. Effective early detection procedures are at present unknown. The most promising, however, is multislice computed tomography (MSCT) which for this reason is presently being tested for effectiveness in several large research projects. The results are not expected for some years. Until then the early detection of lung cancer with MSCT cannot be considered suitable for routine use but can only be justified within the framework of research studies.

  1. Some aspects of cancer epidemiology

    SciTech Connect

    Lilienfeld, A.M.

    1982-03-01

    Epidemiolgic studies have strongly suggested that a vast majority (80-90%) of cancers are caused by radiation, chemical and biologic agents; the remainder result from endogenous or genetic factors. Biologically, cancer is most probably the end result of a complex multistage process and therefore may be due to a sequence of exposures to different agents at each of these stages. This emphasizes the need to stress the study of interactions in epidemiologic studies to a greater extent than has been done thus far. Examples of the importance of interactions in several types of cancer are presented.

  2. Descriptive and analytic epidemiology. Bridges to cancer control

    SciTech Connect

    Mettlin, C.

    1988-10-15

    Epidemiology serves as a bridge between basic science and cancer control. The two major orientations of epidemiology are descriptive and analytic. The former is useful in assessing the scope and dimensions of the cancer problem and the latter is used to assess environmental and lifestyle sources of cancer risk. A recent development in descriptive epidemiology is the use of functional measures of disease such as lost life expectancy. In analytical epidemiology, there is new or renewed interest in several lifestyle factors including diet and exercise as well as environmental factors such as involuntary tobacco exposure and radon in dwellings. Review of the evidence should consider the strengths and weaknesses of different research procedures. Each method is inconclusive by itself but, the different research designs of epidemiology collectively may represent a hierarchy of proof. Although the roles of many factors remain to be defined, the aggregate epidemiologic data continue to demonstrate the special importance of personal behavior and lifestyle in affecting cancer risk.

  3. Environmental Factors Affecting Growth and Occurrence of Testicular Cancer in Childhood: An Overview of the Current Epidemiological Evidence.

    PubMed

    Giannandrea, Fabrizio; Fargnoli, Stefania

    2017-01-05

    Testicular cancer (TC) is the most frequently occurring malignancy among adolescents and young men aged 15-34 years. Although incidence of TC has been growing over the past 40 years in several western countries, the explanations for this increase still remain uncertain. It has been postulated that early life exposure to numerous occupational and environmental estrogenic chemicals, such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), may play a contributing role in the etiology of TC, but the subject is still open to additional investigation. Recently, it has also been suggested that prenatal and postnatal environmental exposures associated with child growth and development might also be involved in TC progression. This review of current epidemiological studies (2000-2015) aims to identify environmental factors associated with TC, with a particular focus on infancy and childhood factors that could constitute a risk for disease development. It may also contribute towards recognizing gaps in knowledge and recent research requirements for TC, and to point out possible interactions between child growth and development in relation to prenatal and postnatal environmental exposures.

  4. Environmental Factors Affecting Growth and Occurrence of Testicular Cancer in Childhood: An Overview of the Current Epidemiological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Giannandrea, Fabrizio; Fargnoli, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) is the most frequently occurring malignancy among adolescents and young men aged 15–34 years. Although incidence of TC has been growing over the past 40 years in several western countries, the explanations for this increase still remain uncertain. It has been postulated that early life exposure to numerous occupational and environmental estrogenic chemicals, such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), may play a contributing role in the etiology of TC, but the subject is still open to additional investigation. Recently, it has also been suggested that prenatal and postnatal environmental exposures associated with child growth and development might also be involved in TC progression. This review of current epidemiological studies (2000–2015) aims to identify environmental factors associated with TC, with a particular focus on infancy and childhood factors that could constitute a risk for disease development. It may also contribute towards recognizing gaps in knowledge and recent research requirements for TC, and to point out possible interactions between child growth and development in relation to prenatal and postnatal environmental exposures. PMID:28067779

  5. Breast cancer epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, J L; Berkowitz, G S

    1988-10-15

    The various risk factors for breast cancer have been recognized for many years. A table lists these established breast cancer risk factors together with the approximate magnitude of the increase in risk associated with them. Breast cancer incidence rates increase with age throughout the life span in Western countries, although the rate of increase is greater up to age 50 years than after 50 years. Breast cancer is more common among women in upper rather than lower social classes, among women who never have been married, among women living in urban areas, among women living in the northern US than in the southern US, and among whites than blacks, at least among those over age 50. Women in North American and Northern European countries have the highest risk for breast cancer, women in Southern European and Latin American countries are at intermediate risk, and women in Africa and Asian countries have the lowest risk. Yet, rapid rates of increase in incident rates have been noted in recent years in many Asian, Central European, and some South American countries. The later the age at which a woman has her 1st full-term pregnancy, the higher her risk for breast cancer; the earlier the age at menarche and the later the age at menopause the higher the risk; and among women who have a premenopausal oophorectomy, the earlier the age at which this occurs the lower the risk. Among postmenopausal women, obesity is associated with an increase in risk. Lactation is negatively associated with subsequent breast cancer risk. Some current research is considering potential risk factors that have not been well studied in the past, including alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, caffeine consumption, exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), emotional stress, exposure to electric power, and lack of physical activity. Other areas of current research reviewed here include radiation, mammographic parenchymal patterns, a high-fat diet, use of oral contraceptives (OCs), use of estrogen

  6. Epidemiologic evidence relevant to radar (microwave) effects.

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, J R

    1997-01-01

    Public and occupational exposures to microwave (RF) are of two main types. The first type of exposures are those connected with military and industrial uses and, to some extent broadcast exposures. It is this type that most of the data cited in this study draw upon. The second type, cellular telephones and their associated broadcast requirements, have raised concerns about current exposures because of their increasingly widespread use. Four types of effects were originally reported in multiple studies: increased spontaneous abortion, shifts in red and white blood cell counts, increased somatic mutation rates in lymphocytes, and increased childhood, testicular, and other cancers. In addition, there is evidence of generalized increased disability rates from a variety of causes in one study and symptoms of sensitivity reactions and lenticular opacity in at least one other. These findings suggest that RF exposures are potentially carcinogenic and have other health effects. Therefore, prudent avoidance of unneeded exposures is recommended as a precautionary measure. Epidemiologic studies of occupational groups such as military users and air traffic controllers should have high priority because their exposures can be reasonably well characterized and the effects reported are suitable for epidemiologic monitoring. Additional community studies are needed. PMID:9467086

  7. Epidemiology of skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Ulrike; Eigentler, Thomas; Garbe, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are now the most common types of cancer in white populations. Both tumor entities show an increasing incidence rate worldwide but a stable or decreasing mortality rate. NMSC is the most common cancer in white-skinned individuals with a worldwide increasing incidence. NMSC is an increasing problem for health care services worldwide which causes significant morbidity. The rising incidence rates of NMSC are probably caused by a combination of increased exposure to ultraviolet (UV) or sun light, increased outdoor activities, changes in clothing style, increased longevity, ozone depletion, genetics and in some cases, immune suppression. An intensive UV exposure in childhood and adolescence was causative for the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) whereas for the etiology of SCC a chronic UV exposure in the earlier decades was accused. Cutaneous melanoma is the most rapidly increasing cancer in white populations, in the last 3 decades incidence rates have risen up to 5-fold. In 2008 melanoma was on place 5 in women and on place 8 in men of the most common solid tumor entities in Germany. The frequency of its occurrence is closely associated with the constitutive color of the skin, and the geographical zone. Changes in outdoor activities and exposure to sunlight during the past 50 years are an important factor for the increasing incidence of melanoma. Mortality rates of melanoma show a stabilization in the USA, Australia and also in European countries. In contrast to SCC, melanoma risk seems to be associated with an intermittent exposure to sunlight. Prevention campaigns aim on reducing incidence and achieving earlier diagnosis, which resulted in an ongoing trend toward thin melanoma since the last two decades. However, the impact of primary prevention measures on incidence rates of melanoma is unlikely to be seen in the near future, rather increasing incidence rates to 40-50/100,000 inhabitants/year should be expected in

  8. The epidemiology of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Tortolero-Luna, G; Mitchell, M F

    1995-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the second most common cancer of the female reproductive system and the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancies. In 1995, 26,600 women will be diagnosed with ovarian cancer in the U.S., and 14,500 women will die from the disease. Between 1986-1900, the overall age-adjusted incidence was 14.3/100,000 women; mortality was 7.8/100,000 women. Ovarian cancer, rare before age 40, increases steeply thereafter and peaks at ages 65-75. Incidence and mortality rates are higher among white women than among African-American women. Over the last three decades, ovarian cancer incidence has remained stable in high-risk countries, while an increasing trend has been reported in low-risk countries. Despite recent advancements in treatment, the overall five-year survival rates continues to be low (39%). Over 70% of ovarian tumors are diagnosed when regional or distant involvement has already occurred, causing survival rates to remain stable. The etiology of ovarian cancer is poorly understood. Most studies have focused on the epidemiology of invasive epithelial ovarian tumors, while few have explored the epidemiology of epithelial tumors of low malignant potential and nonepithelial tumors. Factors associated with an increased risk for invasive epithelial ovarian cancer include age, race, nulliparity, family history of ovarian cancer, and history of endometrial or breast cancer. Factors associated with a reduced risk are history of one or more full-term pregnancies, use of oral contraceptives, history of breast feeding, tubal ligation, and hysterectomy. Other factors such as infertility drugs, hormone replacement therapy, age at menarche, age at menopause, dietary factors, lactose intolerance, talc use, coffee and alcohol consumption have been suggested, but their role is still inconclusive.

  9. Epidemiology of Kidney Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, D.; Borque, A.

    2008-01-01

    Some tumors are known to have a definite cause-effect etiology, but renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is not one of them precisely. With regard to RCC we can only try to identify some clinical and occupational factors as well as substances related to tumorigenesis. Smoking, chemical carcinogens like asbestos or organic solvents are some of these factors that increase the risk of the RCC. Viral infections and radiation therapy have also been described as risk factors. Some drugs can increase the incidence of RCC as well as other neoplasms. Of course, genetics plays an outstanding role in the development of some cases of kidney cancer. Chronic renal failure, hypertension, and dialysis need to be considered as special situations. Diet, obesity, lifestyle, and habits can also increase the risk of RCC. The aim of this review is to summarize the well-defined causes of renal cell carcinoma. PMID:19009036

  10. Etiology of breast cancer. II. Epidemiologic aspects *

    PubMed Central

    Vakil, Damodar V.; Morgan, Robert W.

    1973-01-01

    The epidemiology of breast cancer is reviewed with particular emphasis on its etiology. A number of studies suggest that differences in breast cancer incidence are associated with differences in marital status, number of pregnancies, age at menarche, age at menopause, height and weight, socioeconomic status, geographic location and residence. However, in no case is the evidence adequate to establish a “cause and effect” relationship. The genetic component of these associations may be of primary importance, while other conditions such as marital status are probably indirect reflections of the operation of more fundamental factors. There is a general consensus that endocrine factors play an important part in mammary cancer occurrence. At present, the association between breast cancer and the presence of the virus-like (type B) particles in human milk is not established. PMID:4353980

  11. Breast Cancer: Epidemiology and Etiology.

    PubMed

    Tao, ZiQi; Shi, Aimin; Lu, Cuntao; Song, Tao; Zhang, Zhengguo; Zhao, Jing

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer, the most frequently occurring cancer in women, is a major public health problem, with 1,384,155 estimated new cases worldwide with nearly 459,000 related deaths. Breast cancer is highly heterogeneous in its pathological characteristics, some cases showing slow growth with excellent prognosis, while others being aggressive tumors. Current predictions and statistics suggest that both worldwide incidence of breast cancer and related mortality are on the rise. According to 2012 GLOBOCAN statistics, nearly 1.7 million women were diagnosed with breast cancer with 522,000 related deaths-an increase in breast cancer incidence and related mortality by nearly 18 % from 2008. According to American Cancer Society, one in eight women in the United States will develop breast cancer in her lifetime. It has been predicted that the worldwide incidence of female breast cancer will reach approximately 3.2 million new cases per year by 2050. These numbers reflect the magnitude of breast cancer incidence, its effect on society worldwide and the need for urgency for preventive and treatment measures. While technological advances in medical sciences and health care have made it possible to detect the disease early and to start the treatment early on to prevent the progress of the disease into a metastatic state, there are several unanswered questions with regard to the molecular mechanisms that underlie the aggressiveness of certain forms of this disease. Epidemiological studies suggest that addressing socio economical issues is utmost important, so that all women have equal access to medical care from screening to advanced treatment, and only such decisive action can help reduce the worldwide burden of breast cancer.

  12. Association Between Cannabis and Psychosis: Epidemiologic Evidence.

    PubMed

    Gage, Suzanne H; Hickman, Matthew; Zammit, Stanley

    2016-04-01

    Associations between cannabis use and psychotic outcomes are consistently reported, but establishing causality from observational designs can be problematic. We review the evidence from longitudinal studies that have examined this relationship and discuss the epidemiologic evidence for and against interpreting the findings as causal. We also review the evidence identifying groups at particularly high risk of developing psychosis from using cannabis. Overall, evidence from epidemiologic studies provides strong enough evidence to warrant a public health message that cannabis use can increase the risk of psychotic disorders. However, further studies are required to determine the magnitude of this effect, to determine the effect of different strains of cannabis on risk, and to identify high-risk groups particularly susceptible to the effects of cannabis on psychosis. We also discuss complementary epidemiologic methods that can help address these questions.

  13. Tea and cancer prevention: epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Canlan; Butler, Lesley M

    2011-08-01

    Experimental studies have consistently shown the inhibitory activities of tea extracts on tumorigenesis in multiple model systems. Epidemiological studies, however, have produced inconclusive results in humans. A comprehensive review was conducted to assess the current knowledge on tea consumption and risk of cancers in humans. In general, consumption of black tea was not associated with lower risk of cancer. High intake of green tea was consistently associated with reduced risk of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers after sufficient control for confounders. Limited data support a protective effect of green tea on lung and hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake on prostate cancer risk, phase II clinical trials have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate pre-malignant lesions. Green tea may exert beneficial effects against mammary carcinogenesis in premenopausal women and recurrence of breast cancer. There is no sufficient evidence that supports a protective role of tea intake on the development of cancers of the colorectum, pancreas, urinary tract, glioma, lymphoma, and leukemia. Future prospective observational studies with biomarkers of exposure and phase III clinical trials are required to provide definitive evidence for the hypothesized beneficial effect of tea consumption on cancer formation in humans.

  14. The Epidemiology of Cancer Among Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Michael; Vena, John E.; Smith, Emily K.; Bauer, Sarah E.; Violanti, John; Burch, James

    2013-01-01

    Background This review summarizes peer-reviewed studies examining cancer risks among police officers. It provides an overview of existing research limitations and uncertainties and the plausible etiologic risk factors associated with cancer in this understudied occupation. Methods Previous cancer studies among police officers were obtained via a systematic review of the MEDLINE, CABDirect, and Web of Science bibliographic databases. Results Quality observational studies of cancer among police officers are sparse and subject to limitations in exposure assessment and other methods. Results from three studies suggested possible increased mortality risks for all cancers, and cancers of the colon, kidney, digestive system, esophagus, male breast, and testis, as well as Hodgkin’s disease. Few incidence studies have been performed, and results have been mixed, although some associations with police work have been observed for thyroid, skin, and male breast cancer. Conclusions Police are exposed to a mix of known or suspected agents or activities that increase cancer risk. Epidemiologic evidence to date is sparse and inconsistent. There is a critical need for more research to understand the biological and social processes underlying exposures and the suggested disproportionate risks and to identify effective prevention strategies. PMID:23255299

  15. Trichloroethylene Cancer Epidemiology: A Consideration of Select Issues

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Chiu, Weihsueh A.

    2006-01-01

    A large body of epidemiologic evidence exists for exploring causal associations between cancer and trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2001 draft TCE health risk assessment concluded that epidemiologic studies, on the whole, support associations between TCE exposure and excess risk of kidney cancer, liver cancer, and lymphomas, and, to a lesser extent, cervical cancer and prostate cancer. As part of a mini-monograph on key issues in the health risk assessment of TCE, this article reviews recently published scientific literature examining cancer and TCE exposure and identifies four issues that are key to interpreting the larger body of epidemiologic evidence: a) relative sensitivity of cancer incidence and mortality data; b) different classifications of lymphomas, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma; c) differences in data and methods for assigning TCE exposure status; and d) different methods employed for causal inferences, including statistical or meta-analysis approaches. The recent epidemiologic studies substantially expand the epidemiologic database, with seven new studies available on kidney cancer and somewhat fewer studies available that examine possible associations at other sites. Overall, recently published studies appear to provide further support for the kidney, liver, and lymphatic systems as targets of TCE toxicity, suggesting, as do previous studies, modestly elevated (typically 1.5–2.0) site-specific relative risks, given exposure conditions in these studies. However, a number of challenging issues need to be considered before drawing causal conclusions about TCE exposure and cancer from these data. PMID:16966107

  16. Gene-Environment Research and Cancer Epidemiology

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program supports extramural research that investigates both genetic and environmental factors that may contribute to the etiology of cancer and/or impact cancer outcomes.

  17. Genetic epidemiology of familial aggregation of cancer.

    PubMed

    Schneider, N R; Williams, W R; Chaganti, R S

    1986-01-01

    Literature pertaining to genetic epidemiological studies of familial cancer has been reviewed from a historical perspective. Although interest in the question of heritability of cancer was extant at least as early as the beginning of the nineteenth century, early investigators were unable to produce consistent and meaningful evidence pertaining to the issue because of unsystematic methods of data collection and inadequate methods of data analysis. During the early twentieth century, developments in the fields of genetics, statistics, and epidemiology provided concepts and methods that permitted investigators to recognize important deficiencies in past studies, and to design others in which the critical comparisons could be made between patient groups and control groups. Registries of cancer incidence in large populations became available in several countries in the middle twentieth century, providing a standard "control group" for comparison. Large surveys of site-specific cancer experience in families, rigorously designed and analyzed, found for most kinds of cancers a two- to threefold increased risk for close relatives of propositi. These studies also reemphasized the great difficulty in obtaining even minimally complete family health history information, and the importance of verifying all reported cases with medical or vital records. Although clinical and laboratory investigation will be necessary to understand the mechanisms by which human genes may predispose to cancer, epidemiological approaches can estimate the extent to which genetic etiological factors may be present in a population, whether a general population or one defined by other factors under investigation. Population-based studies are already of practical significance to the clinical geneticist in the estimation of risk of eventual cancer development in unaffected family members, and can be expected to continue to identify specific groups and characteristics associated with genetic cancer

  18. Lung Cancer Epidemiology in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Aesun; Oh, Chang-Mo; Kim, Byung-Woo; Woo, Hyeongtaek; Won, Young-Joo; Lee, Jin-Soo

    2017-07-01

    The current study was undertaken to examine the trends in the lung cancer incidence, mortality, and survival after a diagnosis in Korea. Lung cancer incidence data according to the histologic type and mortality data were obtained from the Korea Central Cancer Registry and the Statistics Korea, respectively. The age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were calculated, and the Joinpoint model and age-period-cohort analyses were used to describe the trends in the rates. The 5-year relative survival rates of lung cancer were also calculated. Although the number of new lung cancer cases increased between 1999 and 2012, the age-standardized incidence rate decreased by 0.9% per year in men, whereas the incidence in women increased by 1.7% per year over the same time. Until 2010, the most common histologic type in men was squamous cell carcinoma, then adenocarcinoma prevailed thereafter. Since 1999, the most frequent histological type in women was adenocarcinoma. The lung cancer mortality started to decrease in 2002, with a more apparent decline for the younger age groups in both men and women. Overall, the 5-year relative survival rates have improved significantly from 11.2% for men and 14.7% for women among patients diagnosed between 1993 and 1997 to 19.3% for men and 28.2% for women among patients diagnosed between 2008 and 2012, respectively. An improvement in survival rate was observed for all major histology groups. The epidemiology of lung cancer in Korea has changed over a short time span, with decreasing mortality and improving survival rates. Further study is warranted to determine the cause of these changes.

  19. Integrative Cancer Epidemiology - The Next Generation

    PubMed Central

    Spitz, Margaret R.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Sellers, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary We outline an integrative approach to extend the boundaries of molecular cancer epidemiology by integrating modern and rapidly evolving “omics” technologies into state-of-the-art molecular epidemiology. In this way, one can comprehensively explore the mechanistic underpinnings of epidemiologic observations into cancer risk and outcome. We highlight the exciting opportunities to collaborate across large observational studies and to forge new interdisciplinary collaborative ventures. PMID:23230187

  20. Integrative cancer epidemiology--the next generation.

    PubMed

    Spitz, Margaret R; Caporaso, Neil E; Sellers, Thomas A

    2012-12-01

    We outline an integrative approach to extend the boundaries of molecular cancer epidemiology by integrating modern and rapidly evolving "omics" technologies into state-of-the-art molecular epidemiology. In this way, one can comprehensively explore the mechanistic underpinnings of epidemiologic observations in cancer risk and outcome. We highlight the exciting opportunities to collaborate across large observational studies and to forge new interdisciplinary collaborative ventures. ©2012 AACR.

  1. Interpreting the epidemiological evidence linking obesity and cancer: A framework for population-attributable risk estimations in Europe.

    PubMed

    Renehan, Andrew G; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Leitzmann, Michael F

    2010-09-01

    Standard approaches to estimating population-attributable risk (PAR) include modelling estimates of exposure prevalence and relative risk. Here, we examine the associations between body mass index (BMI) and cancer risk and how effect modifications of these associations impact on PAR estimates. In 2008, sex- and population-specific risk estimates were determined for associations with BMI in a standardised meta-analysis for 20 cancer types. Since then, refinements of these estimates have emerged: (i) absence of menopausal hormonal therapy (MHT) is associated with elevated BMI associations in post-menopausal breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers; (ii) current smoking attenuates the BMI associations in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, lung and pancreatic cancers; (iii) prostate screening attenuates BMI associations when all prostate cancers are considered together; and (iv) BMI is differentially associated with different histological subtypes within the same cancer group. Using secondary analyses of the aforementioned meta-analysis, we show 2-3-fold shifts in PAR estimations for breast and endometrial cancers depending on the MHT usage in European countries. We also critically examine how to best handle exposures (in this example, BMI distributions) and relative risk estimates in PAR models, and argue in favour of a counterfactual approach based around BMI means. From these observations, we develop a research framework in which to optimally evaluate future trends in numbers of new cancers attributable to excess BMI. Overall, this framework gives conservative estimates for PAR - nonetheless, the numbers of avoidable cancers across Europe through avoidance of excess weight are substantial. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Tobacco and cancer: epidemiology and the laboratory.

    PubMed Central

    Vineis, P; Caporaso, N

    1995-01-01

    Tobacco smoke contains many mutagenic and carcinogenic chemicals. Both whole tobacco smoke and extracts induce tumors in experimental animals. Work with carcinogen-macromolecule adducts provided evidence for the action of specific chemicals. Molecular epidemiology studies suggested that point mutations in tumor-suppressor genes (e.g., p53) and oncogenes (e.g., ras) may be specific both for the type of tumor and for the critical environmental exposure. The consistency among investigations on oncogene/tumor-suppressor gene mutations in lung cancer (and other tobacco-related cancers) in smokers is highly suggestive, although we still lack information about the time sequence between exposure, gene mutation, and cancer onset. Current work that deserves emphasis includes investigations revealing that lungs of smokers contain benzo[a]pyrene diol-epoxide-guanine DNA adducts, which are in accordance with the type of mutations found in K-ras or p53 genes (G to T transversions). In addition, DNA in human exfoliated bladder cells showed a derivative of 4-aminobiphenyl as a main adduct; there was also an association between smoking habits (amount and type of tobacco) and the levels of both DNA adducts and hemoglobin adducts formed by aromatic amines. Increasing evidence indicates that genetically based metabolic polymorphisms exert a role in modulating individual susceptibility to the action of tobacco carcinogens. Overall, the weight of evidence strongly supports the causal nature of the association between smoking and cancer and falsifies Fisher's hypothesis that the association was due to confounding by genetic predisposition. PMID:7737063

  3. Diabetes and cancer: epidemiology and potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Joost, Hans-Georg

    2014-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for cancer such as pancreatic, liver, colorectal and breast cancer. In addition, diabetes decreases the risk of prostate cancer. These associations have been found in numerous epidemiological studies, among them several prospective cohorts. However, such studies do not prove causality of the association and cannot exclude inadequate correction for known confounders (e.g. visceral fat) or the influence of unknown confounders. Thus, it is unclear whether the cancer risk is increased by the causes (e.g. the metabolic syndrome), the metabolic consequences (e.g. hyperglycaemia) or the therapy of diabetes; a question which is of major importance for therapeutic guidelines. Identification of the potential mechanisms by which the diabetes or its therapy accelerates or inhibits the development of cancer will help answering the question by providing biological plausibility. This review will summarize the evidence supporting the association of cancer and type 2 diabetes and discuss its potential causes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. CYP1A1 polymorphism interactions with smoking status in oral cancer risk: evidence from epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kai-Tao; Ge, Cheng; Xu, Xiao-Fang; Zou, Jing-Cai; Zou, Xuan; Zhen, Shuai

    2014-11-01

    The cytochrome CYP1A1 gene has been implicated in the etiology of oral cancer. However, the results have been inconsistent. In this study, a meta-analysis was performed to clarify the associations of polymorphisms in CYP1A1 gene with oral cancer risk. Published literatures from PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and China National Knowledge infrastructure (CNKI) databases were retrieved. A total of 12 studies were included in this meta-analysis. We found that significant positive associations between CYP1A1*2A polymorphism and oral cancer risk in recessive model (CC vs. TC + TT, OR = 1.93), dominant model (CC + TC vs. TT, OR = 1.33), and additive model (CC vs. TT, OR = 1.97). In subgroup analysis based on the ethnicity of study population, significant associations were found in all three genetic models for Asians (recessive OR = 2.29, 95% CI =  .42-3.71; dominant OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.03-2.31; additive OR  2.39, 95% CI = 1.47-3.88) but not non-Asians. For the smoking stratification, the result indicated a significant association between CYP1A1*2A polymorphism and oral cancer among the smoking subjects (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.47-2.26). This meta-analysis indicated a marked association of CYP1A1*2A polymorphisms with oral cancer risk, particularly among Asians, whereas there were significant interactions between the polymorphisms and cigarette smoking on oral cancer risk.

  5. Gallbladder cancer: epidemiology and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Hundal, Rajveer; Shaffer, Eldon A

    2014-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer, though generally considered rare, is the most common malignancy of the biliary tract, accounting for 80%–95% of biliary tract cancers. An early diagnosis is essential as this malignancy progresses silently with a late diagnosis, often proving fatal. Its carcinogenesis follows a progression through a metaplasia–dysplasia–carcinoma sequence. This comprehensive review focuses on and explores the risks, management, and outcomes for primary gallbladder carcinoma. Epidemiological studies have identified striking geographic and ethnic disparities – inordinately high occurrence in American Indians, elevated in Southeast Asia, yet quite low elsewhere in the Americas and the world. Age, female sex, congenital biliary tract anomalies, and a genetic predisposition represent important risk factors that are immutable. Environmental triggers play a critical role in eliciting cancer developing in the gallbladder, best exemplified by cholelithiasis and chronic inflammation from biliary tract and parasitic infections. Mortality rates closely follow incidence; those countries with the highest prevalence of gallstones experience the greatest mortality from gallbladder cancer. Vague symptoms often delay the diagnosis of gallbladder cancer, contributing to its overall progression and poor outcome. Surgery represents the only potential for cure. Some individuals are fortunate to be incidentally found to have gallbladder cancer at the time of cholecystectomy being performed for cholelithiasis. Such an early diagnosis is imperative as a late presentation connotes advanced staging, nodal involvement, and possible recurrence following attempted resection. Overall mean survival is a mere 6 months, while 5-year survival rate is only 5%. The dismal prognosis, in part, relates to the gallbladder lacking a serosal layer adjacent to the liver, enabling hepatic invasion and metastatic progression. Improved imaging modalities are helping to diagnose patients at an earlier

  6. Gallbladder cancer: epidemiology and outcome.

    PubMed

    Hundal, Rajveer; Shaffer, Eldon A

    2014-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer, though generally considered rare, is the most common malignancy of the biliary tract, accounting for 80%-95% of biliary tract cancers. An early diagnosis is essential as this malignancy progresses silently with a late diagnosis, often proving fatal. Its carcinogenesis follows a progression through a metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence. This comprehensive review focuses on and explores the risks, management, and outcomes for primary gallbladder carcinoma. Epidemiological studies have identified striking geographic and ethnic disparities - inordinately high occurrence in American Indians, elevated in Southeast Asia, yet quite low elsewhere in the Americas and the world. Age, female sex, congenital biliary tract anomalies, and a genetic predisposition represent important risk factors that are immutable. Environmental triggers play a critical role in eliciting cancer developing in the gallbladder, best exemplified by cholelithiasis and chronic inflammation from biliary tract and parasitic infections. Mortality rates closely follow incidence; those countries with the highest prevalence of gallstones experience the greatest mortality from gallbladder cancer. Vague symptoms often delay the diagnosis of gallbladder cancer, contributing to its overall progression and poor outcome. Surgery represents the only potential for cure. Some individuals are fortunate to be incidentally found to have gallbladder cancer at the time of cholecystectomy being performed for cholelithiasis. Such an early diagnosis is imperative as a late presentation connotes advanced staging, nodal involvement, and possible recurrence following attempted resection. Overall mean survival is a mere 6 months, while 5-year survival rate is only 5%. The dismal prognosis, in part, relates to the gallbladder lacking a serosal layer adjacent to the liver, enabling hepatic invasion and metastatic progression. Improved imaging modalities are helping to diagnose patients at an earlier stage

  7. The association betweeen cancers and low level radiation: An evaluation of the epidemiological evidence at the Hanford Nuclear Weapons Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, J. |

    1993-05-01

    Cancer has traditionally been linked to exposure to high doses of radiation, but there is considerable controversy regarding the carcinogenicity of low doses of ionizing radiation in humans. Over the past 30 years there have been 14 studies conducted on employees at the Hanford nuclear weapons facility to investigate the relationship between exposure to low doses of radiation and mortality due to cancer (1-14). Interest in this issue was originally stimulated by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) which was trying to determine whether the linear extrapolation of health effects from high to low dose exposure was accurate. If the risk has been underestimated, then the maximum permissible occupational radiation exposure in the United States had been set too high. Because the health risk associated with low level radiation are unclear and controversial it seems appropriate to review the studies relating to Hanford at this time.

  8. The epidemiology of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Peter; Severi, Gianluca; Giles, Graham G

    2003-05-01

    The etiology of prostate cancer remains virtually unknown. Although there are a number of new leads with regard to risk factors for prostate cancer, more research is required to confirm them. There is little purpose in conducting further case-control studies of prostate cancer-particularly since the use of PSA testing has become wide-spread. Instead, future epidemiologic studies should focus on prostate tumor subclassification, in terms of method of detection, markers of biological "aggressiveness," and genetic changes. Many of these new leads involve the possible influence of polymorphisms in key genes involved in important physiologic processes in the prostate. To fully explore the complexity of interrelationships between the several elements in these pathways will require large cohort studies in which blood is sampled prior to diagnosis. Such studies will be important for identifying which modifiable aspects of lifestyle (such as diet, alcohol, tobacco, physical activity) might be targeted for intervention, to reduce risk. The detection of early prostate cancers by PSA testing relatives of men with prostate cancer has affected the prevalence of phenocopies and, hence, the meaningfulness of risk estimation in prostate cancer families. Because multiple-case families form the substrate for gene hunting via linkage analysis, this phenocopy phenomenon is going to cause considerable confusion and wasted effort. Presently, men with a family history of prostate cancer can be provided with little advice in terms of preventive action. It is likely that one or more genetic mutations associated with a high risk for prostate cancer will be identified in the near future. Even so, the risks probably will be similar to those for mutations in the first two breast cancer genes--informative for very few families. It is difficult to foresee, as and when high-risk mutation carriers are identified, what advice should be offered to them: prophylactic prostatectomies seem to have less

  9. Environmental exposure measurement in cancer epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Environmental exposures, used in the broadest sense of lifestyle, infections, radiation, natural and man-made chemicals and occupation, are a major cause of human cancer. However, the precise contribution of specific risk factors and their interaction, both with each other and with genotype, continues to be difficult to elucidate. This is partially due to limitations in accurately measuring exposure with the subsequent risk of misclassification. One of the primary challenges of molecular cancer epidemiology therefore is to improve exposure assessment. Progress has been made with biomarkers such as carcinogens and their metabolites, DNA and protein adducts and mutations measured in various tissues and body fluids. Nevertheless, much remains to be accomplished in order to establish aetiology and provide the evidence base for public health decisions. This review considers some of the principles behind the application of exposure biomarkers in cancer epidemiology. It also demonstrates how the same biomarkers can contribute both to establishing the biological plausibility of associations between exposure and disease and be valuable endpoints in intervention studies. The potential of new technologies such as transcriptomics, proteomics and metabonomics to provide a step change in environmental exposure assessment is discussed. An increasing recognition of the role of epigenetic changes in carcinogenesis presents a fresh challenge as alterations in DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA in response to environmental exposures demand a new generation of exposure biomarker. The overall importance of this area of research is brought into sharp relief by the large prospective cohort studies (e.g. UK Biobank) which need accurate exposure measurement in order to shed light on the complex gene:environment interactions underlying common chronic disorders including cancer. It is suggested that a concerted effort is now required, with appropriate funding, to develop and

  10. Epidemiological evidence of carcinogenicity of chlorinated organics in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Cantor, K P

    1982-12-01

    Concern has recently been voiced over possible chronic toxicity associated with chlorination of public drinking water supplies in the United States. This paper reviews the available evidence and the studies underway to further evaluate hypothesized associations between cancer risk and byproducts of chlorination. Preliminary data from measures of halogenated volatiles and personal exposure histories from respondents in a large epidemiologic study of bladder cancer are presented. These data support the use in epidemiologic studies of categorical measures of exposure and suggest that results from completed case-control studies, based on death certificates, may have underestimated the true risk of exposure to chlorination by-products. The current generation of studies which use a case-control interview design offer many advantages over earlier efforts to evaluate this issue.

  11. Epidemiological evidence of carcinogenicity of chlorinated organics in drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Cantor, K P

    1982-01-01

    Concern has recently been voiced over possible chronic toxicity associated with chlorination of public drinking water supplies in the United States. This paper reviews the available evidence and the studies underway to further evaluate hypothesized associations between cancer risk and byproducts of chlorination. Preliminary data from measures of halogenated volatiles and personal exposure histories from respondents in a large epidemiologic study of bladder cancer are presented. These data support the use in epidemiologic studies of categorical measures of exposure and suggest that results from completed case-control studies, based on death certificates, may have underestimated the true risk of exposure to chlorination by-products. The current generation of studies which use a case-control interview design offer many advantages over earlier efforts to evaluate this issue. PMID:6759108

  12. Recent developments in the epidemiology of lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kabat, G.C. )

    1993-03-01

    Lung cancer is currently the leading cause of cancer death in the United States and also the most common tumor worldwide. Changes in the distribution of histologic types over the past two decades in the United States, as well as high rates of lung cancer in certain subpopulations, require explanation. While cigarette smoking and specific occupational exposures are firmly established as important risk factors for lung cancer, recent work provides evidence that other factors may play a role either as independent risk factors or as modifiers of the effect of smoking. This paper reviews the epidemiology of lung cancer, with an emphasis on developments in the past decade. 79 refs.

  13. Infectious Agents and Cancer Epidemiology Research Webinar Series

    Cancer.gov

    Infectious Agents and Cancer Epidemiology Research Webinar Series highlights emerging and cutting-edge research related to infection-associated cancers, shares scientific knowledge about technologies and methods, and fosters cross-disciplinary discussions on infectious agents and cancer epidemiology.

  14. The state of cancer epidemiology curricula in postgraduate schools worldwide.

    PubMed

    Mosavi-Jarrahi, Alireza; Azargashb, Ezanollah; Mousavi-Jarrahi, Yasaman; Mohagheghi, Mohammad Ali

    2011-09-01

    The study aimed to describe the cancer epidemiology curricula in postgraduate schools worldwide. Using a stepwise approach, information on the cancer epidemiology curricula were abstracted through an internet search of medical or public heath schools worldwide. The common scientific outline (a scholarly developed classification of cancer-related topics) was used to describe the extents that cancer epidemiology and its scientific domains are incorporated into postgraduate degrees in the epidemiology. Among the 120 studied schools, no school offered an explicitly doctoral degree in cancer epidemiology. Just eight schools offered cancer epidemiology as an area of concentration in their epidemiology curricula. The contents of the cancer epidemiology courses offered in different schools were related in 44% of times to topics of cancer control, 19% times to risk factors, and just 11% of times to biology of cancer. The need for comprehensive re-evaluation of the cancer epidemiology curricula in postgraduate teaching was concluded.

  15. Causality and the Interpretation of Epidemiologic Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Kundi, Michael

    2006-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate regarding how and when an agent’s or determinant’s impact can be interpreted as causation with respect to some target disease. The so-called criteria of causation, originating from the seminal work of Sir Austin Bradford Hill and Mervyn Susser, are often schematically applied disregarding the fact that they were meant neither as criteria nor as a checklist for attributing to a hazard the potential of disease causation. Furthermore, there is a tendency to misinterpret the lack of evidence for causation as evidence for lack of a causal relation. There are no criteria in the strict sense for the assessment of evidence concerning an agent’s or determinant’s propensity to cause a disease, nor are there criteria to dismiss the notion of causation. Rather, there is a discursive process of conjecture and refutation. In this commentary, I propose a dialogue approach for the assessment of an agent or determinant. Starting from epidemiologic evidence, four issues need to be addressed: temporal relation, association, environmental equivalence, and population equivalence. If there are no valid counterarguments, a factor is attributed the potential of disease causation. More often than not, there will be insufficient evidence from epidemiologic studies. In these cases, other evidence can be used instead that increases or decreases confidence in a factor being causally related to a disease. Even though every verdict of causation is provisional, action must not be postponed until better evidence is available if our present knowledge appears to demand immediate measures for health protection. PMID:16835045

  16. Trichloroethylene: Mechanistic, Epidemiologic and Other Supporting Evidence of Carcinogenic Hazard

    PubMed Central

    Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Lash, Lawrence H.; Kromhout, Hans; Hansen, Johnni; Guyton, Kathryn Z.

    2013-01-01

    The chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The carcinogenic hazard of TCE was the subject of a 2012 evaluation by a Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Information on exposures, relevant data from epidemiologic studies, bioassays in experimental animals, and toxicity and mechanism of action studies was used to conclude that TCE is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). This article summarizes the key evidence forming the scientific bases for the IARC classification. Exposure to TCE from environmental sources (including from hazardous waste sites and contaminated water) is common throughout the world. While workplace use of TCE has been declining, occupational exposures remain of concern, especially in developing countries. Strongest human evidence is from studies of occupational TCE exposure and kidney cancer. Positive, although less consistent, associations were reported for liver cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. TCE is carcinogenic at multiple sites in multiple species and strains of experimental animals. The mechanistic evidence includes extensive data on the toxicokinetics and genotoxicity of TCE and its metabolites. Together, available evidence provided a cohesive database supporting the human cancer hazard of TCE, particularly in the kidney. For other target sites of carcinogenicity, mechanistic and other data were found to be more limited. Important sources of susceptibility to TCE toxicity and carcinogenicity were also reviewed by the Working Group. In all, consideration of the multiple evidence streams presented herein informed the IARC conclusions regarding the carcinogenicity of TCE. PMID:23973663

  17. Trichloroethylene: Mechanistic, epidemiologic and other supporting evidence of carcinogenic hazard.

    PubMed

    Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A; Lash, Lawrence H; Kromhout, Hans; Hansen, Johnni; Guyton, Kathryn Z

    2014-01-01

    The chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The carcinogenic hazard of TCE was the subject of a 2012 evaluation by a Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Information on exposures, relevant data from epidemiologic studies, bioassays in experimental animals, and toxicity and mechanism of action studies was used to conclude that TCE is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). This article summarizes the key evidence forming the scientific bases for the IARC classification. Exposure to TCE from environmental sources (including hazardous waste sites and contaminated water) is common throughout the world. While workplace use of TCE has been declining, occupational exposures remain of concern, especially in developing countries. The strongest human evidence is from studies of occupational TCE exposure and kidney cancer. Positive, although less consistent, associations were reported for liver cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. TCE is carcinogenic at multiple sites in multiple species and strains of experimental animals. The mechanistic evidence includes extensive data on the toxicokinetics and genotoxicity of TCE and its metabolites. Together, available evidence provided a cohesive database supporting the human cancer hazard of TCE, particularly in the kidney. For other target sites of carcinogenicity, mechanistic and other data were found to be more limited. Important sources of susceptibility to TCE toxicity and carcinogenicity were also reviewed by the Working Group. In all, consideration of the multiple evidence streams presented herein informed the IARC conclusions regarding the carcinogenicity of TCE.

  18. Childhood cancer: etiologic clues from epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Safyer, A W; Miller, R W

    1977-03-01

    Epidemiologic reseach has revealed a wide spectrum of etiologic information concerning childhood cancer. Often, important clues have come from observations made by alert practitioners. The school health professional can help further progress in cancer research by observing peculiarities of environmental exposures as well as the family's medical history when cancer affects a child. Any unusual findings should be referred to an appropriate research center for evaluation.

  19. Tea and cancer prevention: an evaluation of the epidemiologic literature.

    PubMed

    Kohlmeier, L; Weterings, K G; Steck, S; Kok, F J

    1997-01-01

    Animal and in vitro studies provide evidence of an anticarcinogenic potential of active ingredients in teas. This review encompasses epidemiologic studies of stomach, colon, and lung cancer as well as the evidence of a relationship between tea drinking and cancer at large in humans. Cohort studies do not suggest a protective role for tea drinking in the total risk of cancer. Site-specific studies reveal a more complex picture. The epidemiologic studies on tea drinking and stomach cancer do not justify claims of a cancer-protective effect. A protective effect of green tea on the development of colon cancer is suggested. The evidence regarding black tea is less clear, with some indication of a risk of colon or rectal cancer associated with regular use of black tea. The studies on tea and lung cancer also suggest an increased risk with increased tea consumption. The range and crude categorization of tea consumption, choice of control groups, and inadequate control for confounding might have obscured possible relationships. From the limited studies that suggest a favorable effect from tea, it is likely that benefits are restricted to high intakes in high-risk populations.

  20. TCDD and cancer: A critical review of epidemiologic studies

    PubMed Central

    Boffetta, Paolo; Mundt, Kenneth A; Adami, Hans-Olov; Cole, Philip; Mandel, Jack S

    2011-01-01

    The authors reviewed the epidemiologic studies on exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and cancer risk, published since the last full-scale review made by the International Agency for Research on Cancer Monographs program in 1997. The update of a cohort of US herbicide producers generated negative results overall; the internal analysis provided evidence of an increased “all-cancer” risk in the highest exposure category, with a statistically significant exposure-response association in some of the many analyses performed.The update of a similar Dutch cohort did not confirm the previously observed association with TCDD exposure. The updated surveillance of the Seveso population provided evidence of increased all-cancer mortality 15-20 years after exposure among those living in the most contaminated area but might also reflect random variation, as overall excesses in the most recent follow-up were not observed. Corresponding data on cancer incidence offer little support to the mortality results. Updated results from cohort studies of Vietnam veterans potentially exposed to TCDD did not consistently suggest an increased risk of cancer. Results of additional, smaller studies of other occupational groups potentially exposed to TCDD, and of community-based case-control studies, did not provide consistent evidence of an increased cancer risk. In conclusion, recent epidemiological evidence falls far short of conclusively demonstrating a causal link between TCDD exposure and cancer risk in humans. The emphasis on results for overall cancer risk—rather than risk for specific neoplasms—is notjustified on epidemiologic grounds and is nota reason for ignoring the weaknesses of the available evidence. PMID:21718216

  1. Clinical epidemiology of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Tiing Leong; Fock, Kwong Ming

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality and the fourth most common cancer globally. There are, however, distinct differences in incidence rates in different geographic regions. While the incidence rate of gastric cancer has been falling, that of gastric cardia cancers is reportedly on the rise in some regions. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major risk factor of non-cardia gastric cancer, and data has emerged concerning the role of H. pylori eradication for primary prevention of gastric cancer. Dietary, lifestyle and metabolic factors have also been implicated. Although addressing these other factors may contribute to health, the actual impact in terms of cancer prevention is unclear. Once irreversible histological changes have occurred, endoscopic surveillance would be necessary. A molecular classification system offers hope for molecularly tailored, personalised therapies for gastric cancer, which may improve the prognosis for patients. PMID:25630323

  2. Clinical epidemiology of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Ang, Tiing Leong; Fock, Kwong Ming

    2014-12-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality and the fourth most common cancer globally. There are, however, distinct differences in incidence rates in different geographic regions. While the incidence rate of gastric cancer has been falling, that of gastric cardia cancers is reportedly on the rise in some regions. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major risk factor of non-cardia gastric cancer, and data has emerged concerning the role of H. pylori eradication for primary prevention of gastric cancer. Dietary, lifestyle and metabolic factors have also been implicated. Although addressing these other factors may contribute to health, the actual impact in terms of cancer prevention is unclear. Once irreversible histological changes have occurred, endoscopic surveillance would be necessary. A molecular classification system offers hope for molecularly tailored, personalised therapies for gastric cancer, which may improve the prognosis for patients.

  3. Ovarian cancer: epidemiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    La Vecchia, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    The present overview of ovarian cancer epidemiology summarizes the main results for a network of case-control studies in Italy and from the Collaborative Group on Epidemiological Studies of Ovarian Cancer. There are consistent inverse relations between parity, oral contraceptive use and the risk of ovarian cancer. For other menstrual and hormonal factors (i.e. early age at menarche and late menopause), there are established associations, but of limited impact on ovarian cancer incidence on a population level. Serous and endometrioid ovarian cancers (but not mucinous or clear cell types) are related to current and recent use of hormone replacement therapy in menopause. There are no strong associations with alcohol and tobacco overall, but a direct link for tobacco with (borderline) mucinous cancers, of limited impact, however, on overall ovarian cancer mortality. There are direct associations of ovarian cancer risk with height and BMI, as well as possible relations with selected dietary factors - in the absence, however, of consistent findings - and a possible inverse association with physical activity. There is a strong association with a family history of ovarian cancer (and a few selected other neoplasms, including colorectum and endometrium). Recognized risk factors explain only a limited proportion of ovarian cancer cases on a population level. A key reason for the recent favourable trends of ovarian cancer incidence and mortality in several high-income countries is the widespread use of oral contraceptive in the generations born after 1930.

  4. Obesity Biomarkers, Metabolism and Risk of Cancer: An Epidemiological Perspective.

    PubMed

    Nimptsch, Katharina; Pischon, Tobias

    Obesity is associated with metabolic alterations that may pose a biological link between body fatness and risk of cancer. Elucidating the role of obesity-related biomarkers in cancer development is essential for developing targeted strategies aiming at obesity-associated cancer prevention. Molecular epidemiological studies of the past decades have provided evidence that major hormonal pathways linking obesity and cancer risk include the insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis, sex-steroid hormones, adipokines and chronic low-grade inflammation. These pathways are interrelated with each other, and their importance varies by obesity-related cancer type. The insulin/IGF-1 axis has been implicated to play an important mediating role in the association between obesity and risk of pancreatic, colorectal and prostate cancer. Endogenous sex-steroid hormone concentrations, in particular obesity-associated pre-diagnostic elevations of estrogens and androgens, play an important role in postmenopausal breast cancer and endometrial cancer development. The adipokines adiponectin and leptin and adipocyte-mediated chronic low-grade inflammation represented by the acute-phase C-reactive protein may explain a substantial part of the association between obesity and risk of colorectal cancer. There is less evidence on whether these hormonal pathways play a mediating role in other obesity-associated types of cancer. In this chapter, the molecular epidemiologic evidence from prospective studies relating circulating obesity-related biomarkers to cancer risk is summarized, taking into account available evidence from Mendelian Randomization investigations aiming at improving causal inference.

  5. Lung cancer: epidemiology, etiology, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Dela Cruz, Charles S; Tanoue, Lynn T; Matthay, Richard A

    2011-12-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States and around the world. A vast majority of lung cancer deaths are attributable to cigarette smoking, and curbing the rates of cigarette smoking is imperative. Understanding the epidemiology and causal factors of lung cancer can provide additional foundation for disease prevention. This article focuses on modifiable risk factors, including tobacco smoking, occupational carcinogens, diet, and ionizing radiation. It also discusses briefly the molecular and genetic aspects of lung carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Renal cell cancer among African Americans: an epidemiologic review.

    PubMed

    Lipworth, Loren; Tarone, Robert E; McLaughlin, Joseph K

    2011-04-12

    Incidence rates for renal cell cancer, which accounts for 85% of kidney cancers, have been rising more rapidly among blacks than whites, almost entirely accounted for by an excess of localized disease. This excess dates back to the 1970s, despite less access among blacks to imaging procedures in the past. In contrast, mortality rates for this cancer have been virtually identical among blacks and whites since the early 1990s, despite the fact that nephrectomy rates, regardless of stage, are lower among blacks than among whites. These observations suggest that renal cell cancer may be a less aggressive tumor in blacks. We have reviewed the epidemiology of renal cell cancer, with emphasis on factors which may potentially play a role in the observed differences in incidence and mortality patterns of renal cell cancer among blacks and whites. To date, the factors most consistently, albeit modestly, associated with increased renal cell cancer risk in epidemiologic studies among whites--obesity, hypertension, cigarette smoking--likely account for less than half of these cancers, and there is virtually no epidemiologic evidence in the literature pertaining to their association with renal cell cancer among blacks. There is a long overdue need for detailed etiologic cohort and case-control studies of renal cell cancer among blacks, as they now represent the population at highest risk in the United States. In particular, investigation of the influence on renal cell cancer development of hypertension and chronic kidney disease, both of which occur substantially more frequently among blacks, is warranted, as well as investigations into the biology and natural history of this cancer among blacks.

  7. Epidemiology of osteoarthritis: state of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Kelli D.; Golightly, Yvonne M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review This review focuses on recent studies of osteoarthritis epidemiology, including research on prevalence, incidence, and a broad array of potential risk factors at the person level and joint level. Recent findings Studies continue to illustrate the high impact of osteoarthritis worldwide, with increasing incidence. Person-level risk factors with strong evidence regarding osteoarthritis incidence and/or progression include age, sex, socioeconomic status, family history, and obesity. Joint-level risk factors with strong evidence for incident osteoarthritis risk include injury and occupational joint loading; the associations of injury and joint alignment with osteoarthritis progression are compelling. Moderate levels of physical activity have not been linked to increased osteoarthritis risk. Some topics of high recent interest or emerging evidence for association with osteoarthritis include metabolic pathways, vitamins, joint shape, bone density, limb length inequality, muscle strength and mass, and early structural damage. Summary Osteoarthritis is a complex, multifactorial disease, and there is still much to learn regarding mechanisms underlying incidence and progression. However, there are several known modifiable and preventable risk factors, including obesity and joint injury; efforts to mitigate these risks can help to lessen the impact of osteoarthritis. PMID:25775186

  8. Epidemiological studies of radio frequency exposures and human cancer.

    PubMed

    Elwood, J Mark

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of radio frequency (RF) exposures and human cancers include studies of military and civilian occupational groups, people who live near television and radio transmitters, and users of mobile phones. Many types of cancer have been assessed, with particular attention given to leukemia and brain tumors. The epidemiological results fall short of the strength and consistency of evidence that is required to come to a conclusion that RF emissions are a cause of human cancer. Although the epidemiological evidence in total suggests no increased risk of cancer, the results cannot be unequivocally interpreted in terms of cause and effect. The results are inconsistent, and most studies are limited by lack of detail on actual exposures, short follow-up periods, and the limited ability to deal with other relevant factors. In some studies, there may be substantial biases in the data used. For these same reasons, the studies are unable to confidently exclude any possibility of an increased risk of cancer. Further research to clarify the situation is justified. Priorities include further studies of leukemia in both adults and children, and of cranial tumors in relationship to mobile phone use. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Q&A: Muin Khoury on cancer epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Muin J; Rose, Suzanne

    2014-02-01

    Muin J. Khoury, MD, PhD, director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Office of Public Health Genomics and head of the National Cancer Institute's Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program in the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, talks about challenges and opportunities in cancer epidemiology research and efforts in the epidemiology community to transform the field.

  10. The epidemiology of pesticide exposure and cancer: A review.

    PubMed

    Jaga, Kushik; Dharmani, Chandrabhan

    2005-01-01

    Cancer is a multifactorial disease with contributions from genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Pesticide exposure is recognized as an important environmental risk factor associated with cancer development. The epidemiology of pesticide exposure and cancer in humans has been studied globally in various settings. Insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides are associated with hemopoetic cancers, and cancers of the prostate, pancreas, liver, and other body systems. The involvement of pesticides in breast cancer has not yet been determined. In developing countries, sufficient epidemiologic research and evidence is lacking to link pesticide exposure with cancer development. Agricultural and industrial workers are high-risk groups for developing cancer following pesticide exposure. Children of farm workers can be exposed to pesticides through their parents. Maternal exposure to pesticides can pose a health risk to the fetus and the newborn. The organophosphates are most the commonly used compounds, but the organochlorines are still permitted for limited use in developing countries. Pesticide exposure, independently or in synergism with modifiable risk factors, is associated with several types of cancer.

  11. [Epidemiological aspects of childhood cancer].

    PubMed

    Lacour, Brigitte; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2014-11-01

    In France, cancer hits around 1700 children (0-14 years) each year. The age-standardized incidence rate for all cancers combined is 152 cases per million children per year, with a sex ratio of 1.2. In other terms, one child out of 440 develops a cancer before the age of 15 in industrial countries. The most frequent cancers were leukaemia (29%), embryonal tumours apart central nervous system (25%), central nervous system tumour (23%) and lymphoma (12%). The incidence varies between countries with higher overall rates in industrialized countries. These variations may reflect differences in diagnostic techniques or registration or in the distribution of possible risk factors. Five-year survival after childhood cancer has dramatically improved in the last 30 years, reaching yet 80%.

  12. [The epidemiology of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Rébillard, Xavier; Tretarre, Brigitte; Villers, Arnauld

    2003-12-31

    Prostate cancer is a public health problem. Currently, it is the most frequent cause of cancer, and the second most common cause of cancer mortality, in men in most developed countries. Its incidence in France in 2000 is close to 40 000 new cases, a consistent increase of 7,9% per year. One man in 8 in France will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in the course of his life. More than half of these cancers are diagnosed before 75 years, most often at a localized stage accessible to a curative treatment. The increasing practice of PSA testing and systematic prostatic biopsies are responsible for this rise in incidence. The mortality is stable at around 10 000 per year in France. Hereditary risk factors permit a definition of a target population for screening. Environmental factors are little known, but a diet rich in fat seems to be associated with a more elevated risk.

  13. Evaluation of endometrial cancer epidemiology in Romania.

    PubMed

    Bohîlțea, R E; Furtunescu, F; Dosius, M; Cîrstoiu, M; Radoi, V; Baroș, A; Bohîlțea, L C

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial cancer represents the most frequent gynecological malignant affection in the developed countries, in which the incidence of cervical cancer has significantly decreased due to the rigorous application of screening methods and prophylaxis. According to its frequency, endometrial cancer is situated on the fourth place in the category of women's genital-mammary malignant diseases, after breast, cervical and ovarian cancer in Romania. The incidence and mortality rates due to endometrial cancer have registered an increasing trend worldwide and also in Romania, a significant decrease of the age of appearance for the entire endometrial pathology sphere being noticed. At the national level, the maximum incidence is situated between 60 and 64 years old, the mortality rate of the women under 65 years old being high in Romania. The study evaluates endometrial cancer, from an epidemiologic point of view, at the national level compared to the international statistic data.

  14. [Epidemiological analysis of childhood cancer in China].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan-Ling; An, Jia-Lu; Tian, Ling

    2015-07-01

    To analyze the epidemiological features of childhood cancer in China, and to provide some clues and basis for related academic research, the formulation of prevention and control strategy, and the construction of prevention and control system of childhood cancer. The data of childhood cancer in children aged 0-14 years which were published in Chinese Cancer Registry Annual Report in 2009-2012 and from GLOBOCAN2012 database were collected. A descriptive statistical analysis was done to determine the distributions of incidence and mortality by time, area, age, and sex. In China, the incidence of childhood cancer showed a slight fluctuation with time, while the mortality rate remained stable. The incidence of childhood cancer in China was lower than the world average, and it was much lower than in the United States and Japan. However, the mortality of childhood cancer in China was higher than that in the United States and Japan. The incidence of childhood cancer in Chinese urban areas was about 2 times that in Chinese rural areas, while the mortality in the urban and rural areas was similar. The incidence and the mortality of childhood cancer both declined with increasing age. The incidence and the mortality of childhood cancer in boys were higher than those in girls. The incidence and mortality of childhood cancer in China show distribution characteristics by time, area, age, and sex, which can help to make clear the future direction of childhood cancer research and provide some ideas for the comprehensive prevention and control.

  15. The epidemiology of cancer in animals.

    PubMed

    Dorn, C R

    1967-12-01

    The principles of epidemiology are applicable to the study of the distribution and determinants of cancer in both human and animal populations. There are many examples of epidemiologic factors (host, environment, agent and time) related to cancer in animals. Certain host characteristics such as age, sex and breed are related to risk of developing cancer. Some environmental influences are illustrated by differences in the geographical distribution of certain types of animal cancer. Aggregations of cancer cases have been reported in herds, families and households. However, the usual distribution of cases in a population does not resemble epidemics typical of infectious diseases. Several factors (radiological, chemical, dietary, parasitic, mechanical, genetic and viral) have been identified as influences that affect the development of animal tumors. Animal species that have been domesticated live longer and consequently malignant disease develops in more of them. Cancer incidence rates now available from data compiled by an animal neoplasm registry in Alameda and Contra Costa counties, California, indicate that some of the frequent sites of cancer in man (skin, breast and the hemic and lymphatic systems) are among the most frequent sites in dogs and cats, man's closest animal associates.

  16. Epidemiology of breast cancer in young women.

    PubMed

    Pollán, Marina

    2010-09-01

    Breast cancer is mainly a postmenopausal disease, but in younger women breast tumors often exhibit more aggressive features and worse prognosis. Furthermore, high-risk and low-risk tumors present different age distributions suggesting that breast cancer comprises a mixture of two different disease processes. In agreement with this hypothesis, breast cancer presents different epidemiologic traits in pre- and postmenopausal women. Regarding racial distribution, incidence is higher in black women at younger ages in US, while the reverse is true among women older than 50 years. Genetic predisposition is a stronger risk factor in young women. On the contrary, nulliparity and obesity decrease the risk of early-onset breast cancers while are associated with higher incidence in older women. Epidemiologic data related with the hormonal exposure in utero suggest that the effect is stronger in early breast cancers. In most developed countries, breast cancer has shown an upward trend until recent years in postmenopausal women, while incidence rates in younger women have been stable. However, Spain is an exception to this rule: Spanish women younger than 45 years of age have registered a steady increase of breast cancer that may be related with the remarkable lifestyle changes experienced by women born in the second half of the twentieth century.

  17. Cancer Epidemiology in the Pacific Islands - Past, Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Malcolm A; Baumann, Francine; Foliaki, Sunia; Goodman, Marc T; Haddock, Robert; Maraka, Roger; Koroivueta, Josefa; Roder, David; Vinit, Thomas; Whippy, Helen JD; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific Ocean contains approximately 25,000 islands, stretching from Papua New Guinea to Easter Island, populated by mixtures of Melanesians, Micronesians and Polynesians, as well as migrant groups from Asia and Europe. The region encompasses a third of the surface of the earth although it is sparsely populated at a total of around 9 million. With the exception of some of the more populated islands, such as New Zealand and Hawaii, few surveys of chronic diseases have been conducted, but it is increasingly recognized that obesity, diabetes and associated conditions are emerging public health problems and clearly there is a need for cooperation to optimize control. Here we focus on cancer registry and epidemiological findings for Papua New Guinea, the Solomons, Vanuatu, Samoa, New Caledonia, Fiji, Polynesia, French Polynesia, Maori in New Zealand, Native Hawaiians, Micronesia, including Guam, and Aboriginal populations in Australia as assessed by PubMed searches and perusal of the International Agency for Cancer Research descriptive epidemiology database. Overall, the major cancers in males are oral and liver in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, and lung and prostate elsewhere (Fiji being exceptional in demonstrating a predominance of esophageal cancer), whereas in females it is breast and either cervix or lung, depending largely on whether cervical cancer screening program is active. In certain locations thyroid cancer is also very prevalent in females. The similarities and variation point to advantages for collaborative research to provide the evidence-base for effective cancer control programs in the region. PMID:20553071

  18. Cancer epidemiology in the pacific islands - past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Moore, Malcolm A; Baumann, Francine; Foliaki, Sunia; Goodman, Marc T; Haddock, Robert; Maraka, Roger; Koroivueta, Josefa; Roder, David; Vinit, Thomas; Whippy, Helen J D; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2010-01-01

    The Pacific Ocean contains approximately 25,000 islands, stretching from Papua New Guinea to Easter Island, populated by mixtures of Melanesians, Micronesians and Polynesians, as well as migrant groups from Asia and Europe. The region encompasses a third of the surface of the earth although it is sparsely populated at a total of around 9 million. With the exception of some of the more populated islands, such as New Zealand and Hawaii, few surveys of chronic diseases have been conducted, but it is increasingly recognized that obesity, diabetes and associated conditions are emerging public health problems and clearly there is a need for cooperation to optimize control. Here we focus on cancer registry and epidemiological findings for Papua New Guinea, the Solomons, Vanuatu, Samoa, New Caledonia, Fiji, Polynesia, French Polynesia, Maori in New Zealand, Native Hawaiians, Micronesia, including Guam, and Aboriginal populations in Australia as assessed by PubMed searches and perusal of the International Agency for Cancer Research descriptive epidemiology database. Overall, the major cancers in males are oral and liver in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, and lung and prostate elsewhere (Fiji being exceptional in demonstrating a predominance of esophageal cancer), whereas in females it is breast and either cervix or lung, depending largely on whether cervical cancer screening program is active. In certain locations thyroid cancer is also very prevalent in females. The similarities and variation point to advantages for collaborative research to provide the evidence-base for effective cancer control programs in the region.

  19. Molecular Epidemiology of Gastric Cancer: Current Status and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhibin; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Wei, Qingyi

    2007-01-01

    Gene-environment interaction appears to contribute to the etiology of gastric cancer, as suggested by the varying geographic patterns of gastric cancer incidence. Even in areas with a high rate Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, only a small proportion of infected individuals develop gastric cancer. It is likely that genetic factors, particularly relatively common genetic variants, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), may modulate the effects of environmental risk factors by regulating multiple biologic pathways involved in gastric carcinogenesis. Thus, common genetic variants can pose a substantial influence on the population attributable risk, even though the absolute risk associated with each of these variants may be low. Remarkable progress has been made in the field of molecular epidemiology, but it appears that an initial view on the magnitude of the effects of inherited variants was overestimated. Nevertheless, evidence suggests that genetic variants may contribute to the etiology of gastric cancer, particularly those SNPs in genes that are involved in inflammatory response, metabolism of chemical carcinogens, DNA repair, and tumor suppression. Although previous molecular epidemiologic studies of potentially functional polymorphisms in candidate genes and gastric cancer susceptibility lack consistency, they have advanced our knowledge of the role of genetic susceptibility in the etiology of gastric cancer. Future, welldesigned large population-based studies will validate current findings and provide the rationale for identifying at-risk subpopulations for primary prevention of gastric cancer. PMID:19262698

  20. Molecular Epidemiology of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    tissue and 10 blood samples have been collected to date. We are in the process of cross -checking with the local Gynaecology-Oncology register and the...ongoing basis (b) Data will be cleaned using frequency and range checks, implausible values will be cross -checked against the original questionnaires and...Initially, a cross -validated model of gene expression in primary ovarian cancer vs. over 100 other primary tumours was created and applied to LMP

  1. Epidemiology of HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pytynia, Kristen B.; Dahlstrom, Kristina R.; Sturgis, Erich M.

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx is increasing in incidence in epidemic proportion. This site specific increase in incidence is due to an increase in human papillomavirus (HPV)-related squamous cell carcinoma, while the incidence of tobacco related squamous cell carcinoma is decreasing. In particular, the incidence of HPV-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is increased among middle aged white men, and sexual behavior is a risk factor. HPV-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma represents a growing etiologically distinct subset of head and neck cancers with unique epidemiological, clinical, and molecular characteristics that differ from those of HPV-unassociated cancers. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology of HPV-related OPSCC, the prevalence of oral/oropharyngeal HPV infection, and efforts aimed at reducing the incidence of HPV-related OPSCC. PMID:24461628

  2. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Capote Negrin, Luis G

    2015-01-01

    The basic aspects of the descriptive epidemiology of cervical cancer in Latin America are presented. A decrease in the incidence and mortality rates has been observed in the period from 2000 to 2012 in all countries across the region, this has not occurred at the same proportions, and in many countries, observed figures of incidence and mortality are among the highest levels in the world. In Latin America, calculating a mean measure of the numbers from the GLOBOCAN data from 2000 to 2012, we can observe a difference of up to fivefold of the incidence (Puerto Rico 9,73 Vs Bolivia 50,73) and almost seven times for mortality (Puerto Rico 3,3 Vs Nicaragua 21,67). A report of the epidemiology, risk factors, and evaluation of screening procedures regarding the possible impact of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine I in the prevention of cervical cancer is presented. PMID:26557875

  3. Gastric cancer: epidemiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    de Martel, Catherine; Forman, David; Plummer, Martyn

    2013-06-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the major malignancies in the world. This article summarizes the current understanding of the worldwide burden of this disease, its geographic variation, and temporal trends. An overview is presented of known risk factors, including genetic, dietary, and behavioral, but focuses on Helicobacter pylori infection as the most important factor in noncardia gastric cancer. When the data and the literature allow, we distinguish between cardia and noncardia sub-sites, as it is now clear that these two anatomic locations present distinct and sometimes opposite epidemiological characteristics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Why does obesity promote cancer? Epidemiology, biology, and open questions.

    PubMed

    Mazzarella, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The association between obesity and/or metabolic syndrome and an elevated mortality from cancer has been confirmed by an astonishing number of studies across nations and ethnicities, such that obesity is now recognised to be among the most prominent cancer risk factors worldwide. Despite this overwhelming evidence and the societal impact of obesity, we know surprisingly little about the underlying molecular mechanisms. This knowledge gap is a major obstacle to the implementation of effective lifestyle change policies. As the scientific community is insecure on what messages it should deliver, administrators are uncertain as to what exactly to recommend, and consumers are confused about whom to believe. This leaves the field flooded with pseudo-scientific recommendations that are hard to eradicate. In this review, I will provide a summary of the existing epidemiological and mechanistic evidence on the relationship between systemic metabolism and cancer, highlighting debated issues and ongoing investigations.

  5. Why does obesity promote cancer? Epidemiology, biology, and open questions

    PubMed Central

    Mazzarella, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The association between obesity and/or metabolic syndrome and an elevated mortality from cancer has been confirmed by an astonishing number of studies across nations and ethnicities, such that obesity is now recognised to be among the most prominent cancer risk factors worldwide. Despite this overwhelming evidence and the societal impact of obesity, we know surprisingly little about the underlying molecular mechanisms. This knowledge gap is a major obstacle to the implementation of effective lifestyle change policies. As the scientific community is insecure on what messages it should deliver, administrators are uncertain as to what exactly to recommend, and consumers are confused about whom to believe. This leaves the field flooded with pseudo-scientific recommendations that are hard to eradicate. In this review, I will provide a summary of the existing epidemiological and mechanistic evidence on the relationship between systemic metabolism and cancer, highlighting debated issues and ongoing investigations. PMID:26284118

  6. Epidemiology of breast cancer in young women.

    PubMed

    Yankaskas, Bonnie C

    Breast cancer is a rare disease in young women, yet is the leading cause of cancer deaths in all ethnic groups in the United States and many parts of the world. The epidemiology for breast cancer in young women is reviewed, focusing on women under 40, prior to the recommended screening age. Specific age comparison groups used and results for young women vary in the literature, yet there are some common results. Young women have low incidence rates of breast cancer compared to older women. However, cancer incidence increases at a faster rate with increasing age in young women. Their cancers tend to be larger and higher grade with poorer prognostic characteristics, resulting in a higher risk of recurrence and death from breast cancer when compared to older women. Many of the usual risk factors for breast cancer in older women also increase risk in younger women including increasing age, Black race, family history, later age at first birth and menarche, radiation exposure and lack of physical activity. Risk factors that have specific relevance to young women include reproductive factors, history of induced abortion or miscarriage, oral contraceptive use, smoking, and radiation exposure, most specifically for treatment of Hodgkin Disease.

  7. The epidemiology of endometrial and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Daniel W

    2012-02-01

    This review highlights similarities in the epidemiology of endometrial and ovarian cancer, including highly correlated incidence rates and similar risk factor profiles. Factors that decrease risk for both cancers include a late menarche, early age at first birth, giving birth and breastfeeding, and use of oral contraceptives. Short or irregular cycles and late menopause are associated with increased risk for both. Other risk factors that appear to operate in a similar direction include decreased risk associated with IUD use or a tubal ligation, and increased risk associated with obesity, lack of exercise, and use of talc powders in genital hygiene. Estrogen excess is proposed as the underlying mechanism for most endometrial cancers, whereas incessant ovulation has been suggested as the explanation for ovarian cancer. However, an increased number of estimated ovulatory cycles correlates directly with risk for both endometrial and ovarian cancer, suggesting that reproductive tissue turnover with an accumulation of PTEN or p53 mutations represents a possible common mechanism. An immune-based explanation involving mucin proteins represents another common mechanism that could explain additional risk factors. Maintenance of ideal weight, breastfeeding children, use of oral contraceptives, and avoidance of talc powders in genital hygiene are measures that could lower the risk for both types of cancer. Careful selection of patients for prophylactic oophorectomy for those women who are coming to hysterectomy for benign disease is an additional measure to consider for ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Chapter 8. Tea and Cancer Prevention: Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Canlan; Butler, Lesley M.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental studies have consistently shown the inhibitory activities of tea extracts on tumorigenesis in multiple model systems. Epidemiologic studies, however, have produced inconclusive results in humans. A comprehensive review was conducted to assess the current knowledge on tea consumption and risk of cancers in humans. In general, consumption of black tea was not associated with lower risk of cancer. High intake of green tea was consistently associated with reduced risk of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers after sufficient control for confounders. Limited data support a protective effect of green tea on lung and hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake on prostate cancer risk, phase II clinical trials have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate pre-malignant lesions. Green tea may exert beneficial effects against mammary carcinogenesis in premenopausal women and recurrence of breast cancer. There is no sufficient evidence that supports a protective role of tea intake on the development of cancers of the colorectum, pancreas, urinary tract, glioma, lymphoma, and leukemia. Future prospective observational studies with biomarkers of exposure and phase III clinical trials are required to provide definitive evidence for the hypothesized beneficial effect of tea consumption on cancer formation in humans. PMID:21419224

  9. Epidemiology and etiology of ovarian cancer: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Heintz, A.P.; Hacker, N.F.; Lagasse, L.D.

    1985-07-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most frequent cause of death from gynecologic malignancies in the western world. Much effort has been put into attempts to correlate differences in incidence rates with environmental, endocrinologic, and genetic factors. A review of the literature reveals that there is currently no evidence to incriminate any single etiologic factor for this group of tumors. There is growing evidence of familial predisposition in a small group of patients and of a relationship with reproductive history. If current knowledge of the epidemiology of ovarian cancer is to be translated into disease prevention, more attention should be paid to women at risk because of their family history, and more awareness should be made of the protective effect of oral contraceptives. 79 references.

  10. Obesity and Prostate Cancer: Weighing the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Allott, Emma H.; Masko, Elizabeth M.; Freedland, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Context Obesity and prostate cancer (PCa) affect substantial proportions of Western society. Mounting evidence, both epidemiologic and mechanistic, for an association between the two is of public health interest. An improved understanding of the role of this modifiable risk factor in PCa etiology is imperative to optimize screening, treatment, and prevention. Objective To consolidate and evaluate the evidence for an epidemiologic link between obesity and PCa, in addition to examining the proposed underlying molecular mechanisms. Evidence acquisition A PubMed search for relevant articles published between 1991 and July 2012 was performed by combining the following terms: obesity, BMI, body mass index and prostate cancer risk, prostate cancer incidence, prostate cancer mortality, radical prostatectomy, androgen-deprivation therapy, external-beam radiation, brachytherapy, prostate cancer and quality of life, prostate cancer and active surveillance, in addition to obesity, BMI, body mass index and prostate cancer and insulin, insulinlike growth factor, androgen, estradiol, leptin, adiponectin, and IL-6. Articles were selected based on content, date of publication, and relevancy, and their references were also searched for relevant articles. Evidence synthesis Increasing evidence suggests obesity is associated with elevated incidence of aggressive PCa, increased risk of biochemical failure following radical prostatectomy and external-beam radiotherapy, higher frequency of complications following androgen-deprivation therapy, and increased PCa-specific mortality, although perhaps a lower overall PCa incidence. These results may in part relate to difficulties in detecting and treating obese men. However, multiple molecular mechanisms could explain these associations as well. Weight loss slows PCa in animal models but has yet to be fully tested in human trials. Conclusions Obesity appears to be linked with aggressive PCa. We suggest clinical tips to better diagnose and

  11. Triple-negative breast cancer: epidemiological considerations and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Boyle, P

    2012-08-01

    Breast cancer is a major problem for global public health. Breast Cancer is the most common incident form of cancer in women around the world. The incidence is increasing while mortality is declining in many high-income countries. The last decade has seen a revolution in the understanding of breast cancer, with new classifications proposed that have significant prognostic value and provide guides to treatment options. Breast cancers that demonstrate the absence of oestrogen receptor and progesterone receptor and no overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are referred to as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). There is now evidence emerging from epidemiological studies regarding important characteristics of this group of tumours that carry a relatively poorer prognosis than the major breast cancer sub-types. From this review of available data and information, there are some consistent findings that emerge. Women with TNBC experience the peak risk of recurrence within 3 years of diagnosis, and the mortality rates appear to be increased for 5 years after diagnosis. TNBC represents 10%-20% of invasive breast cancers and has been associated with African-American race, deprivation status, younger age at diagnosis, more advanced disease stage, higher grade, high mitotic indices, family history of breast cancer and BRCA1 mutations. TNBC is regularly reported to be three times more common in women of African descent and in pre-menopausal women, and carries a poorer prognosis than other forms of breast cancer. Although prospects for prevention of non-hormone-dependent breast cancer are currently poor, it is still important to understand the aetiology of such tumours. There remains a great deal of work to be done to arrive at a comprehensive picture of the aetiology of breast cancer. Key recommendations are that there is a clear and urgent need to have more epidemiological studies of the breast cancer sub-types to integrate aetiological and

  12. Shared genetics underlying epidemiological association between endometriosis and ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yi; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Painter, Jodie N.; Nyholt, Dale R.; Morris, Andrew P.; Fasching, Peter A.; Hein, Alexander; Burghaus, Stefanie; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Lambrechts, Diether; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Vergote, Ignace; Vanderstichele, Adriaan; Doherty, Jennifer Anne; Rossing, Mary Anne; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Eilber, Ursula; Rudolph, Anja; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Goodman, Marc T.; Bogdanova, Natalia; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Hillemanns, Peter; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Antonenkova, Natalia; Butzow, Ralf; Leminen, Arto; Nevanlinna, Heli; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Edwards, Robert P.; Kelley, Joseph L.; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Ness, Roberta B.; Cannioto, Rikki; Høgdall, Estrid; Jensen, Allan; Giles, Graham G.; Bruinsma, Fiona; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T.; Liang, Dong; Lu, Karen H.; Wu, Xifeng; Bisogna, Maria; Dao, Fanny; Levine, Douglas A.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Missmer, Stacey; Bjorge, Line; Salvesen, Helga B.; Kopperud, Reidun K.; Bischof, Katharina; Aben, Katja K.H.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Olson, Sara H.; McGuire, Valerie; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Sieh, Weiva; Whittemore, Alice S.; Cook, Linda S.; Le, Nhu D.; Gilks, C. Blake; Gronwald, Jacek; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubiński, Jan; Gawełko, Jan; Song, Honglin; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Brinton, Louise; Trabert, Britton; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mclaughlin, John R.; Narod, Steven A.; Phelan, Catherine; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Eccles, Diana; Gayther, Simon A.; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha; Ramus, Susan J.; Wu, Anna H.; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Timorek, Agnieszka; Szafron, Lukasz; Cunningham, Julie M.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Winham, Stacey J.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Morgan, Terry K.; Risch, Harvey A.; Goode, Ellen L.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Webb, Penelope M.; Pearce, Celeste L.; Berchuck, Andrew; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Zondervan, Krina T.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; MacGregor, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated associations between endometriosis and certain histotypes of ovarian cancer, including clear cell, low-grade serous and endometrioid carcinomas. We aimed to determine whether the observed associations might be due to shared genetic aetiology. To address this, we used two endometriosis datasets genotyped on common arrays with full-genome coverage (3194 cases and 7060 controls) and a large ovarian cancer dataset genotyped on the customized Illumina Infinium iSelect (iCOGS) arrays (10 065 cases and 21 663 controls). Previous work has suggested that a large number of genetic variants contribute to endometriosis and ovarian cancer (all histotypes combined) susceptibility. Here, using the iCOGS data, we confirmed polygenic architecture for most histotypes of ovarian cancer. This led us to evaluate if the polygenic effects are shared across diseases. We found evidence for shared genetic risks between endometriosis and all histotypes of ovarian cancer, except for the intestinal mucinous type. Clear cell carcinoma showed the strongest genetic correlation with endometriosis (0.51, 95% CI = 0.18–0.84). Endometrioid and low-grade serous carcinomas had similar correlation coefficients (0.48, 95% CI = 0.07–0.89 and 0.40, 95% CI = 0.05–0.75, respectively). High-grade serous carcinoma, which often arises from the fallopian tubes, showed a weaker genetic correlation with endometriosis (0.25, 95% CI = 0.11–0.39), despite the absence of a known epidemiological association. These results suggest that the epidemiological association between endometriosis and ovarian adenocarcinoma may be attributable to shared genetic susceptibility loci. PMID:26231222

  13. Shared genetics underlying epidemiological association between endometriosis and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Painter, Jodie N; Nyholt, Dale R; Morris, Andrew P; Fasching, Peter A; Hein, Alexander; Burghaus, Stefanie; Beckmann, Matthias W; Lambrechts, Diether; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Vergote, Ignace; Vanderstichele, Adriaan; Doherty, Jennifer Anne; Rossing, Mary Anne; Wicklund, Kristine G; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Eilber, Ursula; Rudolph, Anja; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Goodman, Marc T; Bogdanova, Natalia; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Hillemanns, Peter; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Antonenkova, Natalia; Butzow, Ralf; Leminen, Arto; Nevanlinna, Heli; Pelttari, Liisa M; Edwards, Robert P; Kelley, Joseph L; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B; Ness, Roberta B; Cannioto, Rikki; Høgdall, Estrid; Jensen, Allan; Giles, Graham G; Bruinsma, Fiona; Kjaer, Susanne K; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Liang, Dong; Lu, Karen H; Wu, Xifeng; Bisogna, Maria; Dao, Fanny; Levine, Douglas A; Cramer, Daniel W; Terry, Kathryn L; Tworoger, Shelley S; Missmer, Stacey; Bjorge, Line; Salvesen, Helga B; Kopperud, Reidun K; Bischof, Katharina; Aben, Katja K H; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Massuger, Leon F A G; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Olson, Sara H; McGuire, Valerie; Rothstein, Joseph H; Sieh, Weiva; Whittemore, Alice S; Cook, Linda S; Le, Nhu D; Gilks, C Blake; Gronwald, Jacek; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubiński, Jan; Gawełko, Jan; Song, Honglin; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Brinton, Louise; Trabert, Britton; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mclaughlin, John R; Narod, Steven A; Phelan, Catherine; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Eccles, Diana; Gayther, Simon A; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha; Ramus, Susan J; Wu, Anna H; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Timorek, Agnieszka; Szafron, Lukasz; Cunningham, Julie M; Fridley, Brooke L; Winham, Stacey J; Bandera, Elisa V; Poole, Elizabeth M; Morgan, Terry K; Risch, Harvey A; Goode, Ellen L; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Webb, Penelope M; Pearce, Celeste L; Berchuck, Andrew; Pharoah, Paul D P; Montgomery, Grant W; Zondervan, Krina T; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; MacGregor, Stuart

    2015-10-15

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated associations between endometriosis and certain histotypes of ovarian cancer, including clear cell, low-grade serous and endometrioid carcinomas. We aimed to determine whether the observed associations might be due to shared genetic aetiology. To address this, we used two endometriosis datasets genotyped on common arrays with full-genome coverage (3194 cases and 7060 controls) and a large ovarian cancer dataset genotyped on the customized Illumina Infinium iSelect (iCOGS) arrays (10 065 cases and 21 663 controls). Previous work has suggested that a large number of genetic variants contribute to endometriosis and ovarian cancer (all histotypes combined) susceptibility. Here, using the iCOGS data, we confirmed polygenic architecture for most histotypes of ovarian cancer. This led us to evaluate if the polygenic effects are shared across diseases. We found evidence for shared genetic risks between endometriosis and all histotypes of ovarian cancer, except for the intestinal mucinous type. Clear cell carcinoma showed the strongest genetic correlation with endometriosis (0.51, 95% CI = 0.18-0.84). Endometrioid and low-grade serous carcinomas had similar correlation coefficients (0.48, 95% CI = 0.07-0.89 and 0.40, 95% CI = 0.05-0.75, respectively). High-grade serous carcinoma, which often arises from the fallopian tubes, showed a weaker genetic correlation with endometriosis (0.25, 95% CI = 0.11-0.39), despite the absence of a known epidemiological association. These results suggest that the epidemiological association between endometriosis and ovarian adenocarcinoma may be attributable to shared genetic susceptibility loci.

  14. Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2)

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium studies the etiology of this common cancer and build on resources from existing studies by combining data across studies in order to advance the understanding of the etiology of this disease.

  15. Atopy and Specific Cancer Sites: a Review of Epidemiological Studies.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yubao; Hill, Andrew W

    2016-12-01

    Mounting evidence appears to link asthma and atopy to cancer susceptibility. This review presents and discusses published epidemiological studies on the association between site-specific cancers and atopy. PubMed was searched electronically for publications between 1995 and 2015, and cited references were researched manually. Quantitative studies relating to atopy, allergy, or asthma and cancer were identified and tabulated. Despite many exposure-related limitations, patterns in the studies were observed. Asthma, specifically, has been observed to be a risk factor for lung cancer. A protective effect of atopic diseases against pancreatic cancer has been shown consistently in case-control studies but not in cohort studies. Allergy of any type appears to be protective against glioma and adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Most studies on atopic diseases and non-Hodgkin lymphoma or colorectal cancer reported an inverse association. The other sites identified had varying and non-significant outcomes. Further research should be dedicated to carefully defined exposure assessments of "atopy" as well as the biological plausibility in the association between atopic diseases and cancer.

  16. [Colorectal cancer screening: evidence and implementation].

    PubMed

    Brenner, H; Hoffmeister, M

    2014-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer among both men and women in Germany. Owing to its relatively slow growth, perspectives for effective early detection are much better than for other forms of cancer. To summarize the evidence on effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of CRC screening, and to provide an overview on the current state and perspectives for effective CRC screening. Summary and critical review of evidence from randomized trials and observational epidemiological studies. A reduction in CRC mortality by offering annual fecal occult blood tests or once-only flexible sigmoidoscopy has been demonstrated in randomized trials. Novel fecal immunochemical tests for hemoglobin in stool have been shown to be more sensitive than traditional fecal occult blood tests and could substantially improve noninvasive CRC screening. Epidemiological studies suggest that the majority of CRC cases and deaths could be prevented by colonoscopy and removal of colorectal adenomas. However, adherence to screening offered outside organized screening programs is low. The National Cancer Plan recommends an organized CRC screening program in Germany. The law on the early detection of cancer from April 2013 has paved the way for its implementation. The great potential for CRC prevention by early detection has so far only been realized to a very limited extent in Germany. Introduction of an organized screening program and the offer of enhanced noninvasive screening tests could strongly enhance the utilization and effectiveness of CRC screening in Germany. The political frame has been set, and timely quality-assured implementation is required.

  17. The etiology of prostate cancer: what does the epidemiology suggest

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, R.K.; Paganini-Hill, A.; Henderson, B.E.

    1983-01-01

    The two most important demographic characteristics of prostate cancer in Los Angeles are the high rates among blacks, which are two times those among whites and four times those among Asians, and the rapid increase in rates with age after age 40. Despite the high rates among blacks, a birth cohort analysis indicates that mortality rates among black men born after 1900 have decreased. In this report, epidemiologic and experimental evidence supporting each of three etiologic hypotheses--industrial exposure to cadmium, sexual transmission by an infectious agent, and endocrine factors--are reviewed. Evidence from descriptive data in Los Angeles suggests that only a small portion of cases might be attributable to industrial exposures. In a cohort study of Catholic priests, we found no deficit of prostate cancer mortality, strong evidence against sexual transmission of the disease. Experimental evidence and a limited amount of human data support an endocrine hypothesis. Preliminary results of a case-control study of prostate cancer are presented, but these results are unable to distinguish among these hypotheses further. This study finds a substantial protective effect of vasectomy, an event that is accompanied by reduced prostatic function and size, but this result is thus far statistically insignificant.

  18. The role of nutrition in Alzheimer's disease: epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Morris, M C

    2009-09-01

    The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) increases exponentially with age but there is limited knowledge of the modifiable risk factors for AD. However, there is growing evidence for possible dietary risk factors in the development of AD and cognitive decline with age, such as antioxidant nutrients, fish, dietary fats, and B-vitamins. Numerous animal and laboratory studies have shown that antioxidant nutrients can protect the brain from oxidative and inflammatory damage, but there are limited data available from epidemiological studies. There is more substantial epidemiological evidence from a number of recent studies that demonstrate a protective role of omega-3 fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid, in AD and cognitive decline. This review will focus on epidemiological evidence investigating the relationship between nutrition and AD, focusing particularly on the roles of dietary fats and antioxidants.

  19. Aggregating disparate epidemiological evidence: comparing two seminal EMF reviews.

    PubMed

    O'Carroll, Michael J; Henshaw, Denis L

    2008-02-01

    Two seminal reviews (IARC, 2002; CDHS, 2002) of possible health effects from power-frequency EMFs reached partly different conclusions from similar epidemiological evidence. These differences have an impact on precautionary policy. We examine the statistical aggregation of results from individual disparate studies. Without consistent exposure metrics, the advantage of meta-analysis to estimate magnitude of effect is lost. However, counting positive and statistically significant results yields important information. This is not a substitute for meta-analysis, but a fall-back when meaningful meta-analysis is not available. Representative results from 33 independent adult leukemia studies tabled by IARC yielded 23.5 positives (p approximately 0.01) and 9 significant-positives (p<10(-7)). From 43 representative results from CDHS, there were 32 positive (p<0.001) and 14 significant-positives (p<10(-12)). There were no significant-negative results in either list. Results for adult brain cancer gave a similar, but less clear, message. Childhood leukemia EMF studies have been sufficiently comparable to allow selective pooled analysis, which was important in classifying carcinogenicity. Aggregating all the studies suggests that results for childhood leukemia are not stronger, numerically, than those for adult leukemia. CDHS did not note the number of significant-positives, but noted the meta-analytic summary and the number of positives, forming a view about the strength of these findings. IARC shows no evidence of considering the aggregation of results other than subjectively. It considered individual studies but this led to a tendency to fragment and dismiss evidence that is intrinsically highly significant. We make recommendations for future reviews.

  20. Epidemiology and risk factors for kidney cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Wong-Ho; Dong, Linda M.; Devesa, Susan S.

    2010-01-01

    After over two decades of increasing rates, kidney cancer incidence trends worldwide show signs of plateauing or decreases in recent years. In the United States, rates for renal cell cancer, the predominant form of kidney cancer in adults, continue to rise but mainly for early stage tumors. Incidence rates for renal pelvis cancer have declined, while kidney cancer mortality rates overall have leveled. These patterns are consistent with reports of incidental diagnosis and downward shift of tumor stage and size in clinical series. The changing prevalence of known risk factors for renal cell cancer, including cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension, may also be influencing the incidence trends, although their relative impact may differ in various populations,. Evidence is accumulating to suggest an etiologic role for physical activity, alcohol consumption, occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, and high parity among women, but causal conclusions are not yet supported. Genetic susceptibility and its interaction with environmental exposures are believed to influence renal cell cancer risk, but limited studies based on candidate gene approaches have not produced conclusive results. Large consortium efforts employing genome-wide scanning technology are underway, which hold promise for novel discoveries in renal carcinogenesis. PMID:20448658

  1. Gastric cancer - clinical and epidemiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Venerito, Marino; Link, Alexander; Rokkas, Theodoros; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) ranks fifth for cancer incidence and second for cancer deaths. Epidemiological data showed that survivors of Hodgkin's lymphoma and patients with pernicious anemia etiologically linked to autoimmune gastritis are at increased risk of GC. Screening of patients with autoimmune thyroid disease by means of pepsinogen (PG) I and PG I/II detected autoimmune gastritis with oxyntic gastric atrophy in one of four patients and may be recommended for GC prevention purposes. The International Agency for Research on Cancer reported a positive association between consumption of processed meet and increased GC risk. A new GC risk prediction model based on biological markers, age, gender, smoking status, family history of GC, and consumption of highly salted food showed good predictive performance, and might prompt individuals to modify their lifestyle habits, attend regular check-up visits or participate in screening programs. A novel GC classification based on gene expression of primary resected cancers correlated with clinicopathological features. Noncoding RNA for GC screening remains the focus of multiple studies. Patients with early GC undergoing endoscopic resection are more likely to develop metachronous lesions than patients undergoing surgery and endoscopic surveillance is warranted in this special cohort. The addition of gastrectomy to chemotherapy did not improve survival of patients with advanced GC and a single noncurable factor. Apatinib, a novel oral vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, improved the median overall survival of patients with advanced GC and progressive disease after two or more lines of prior chemotherapy of nearly 3 months.

  2. [Testicular Cancer Epidemiology in Developing Countries. Review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Medina-Rico, Mauricio; López-Ramos, Hugo

    2017-06-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) is the most common cancer in men between 15 and 44 years. It has been reported that the incidence of TC is rising. The aim of this article is to determine the epidemiology of TC in Colombia. A literature review on four databases was performed PubMed, Embase, Lilacs and Scielo. Studies of incidence, prevalence, mortality and survival of TC were taken from different countries. Studies included were published in the last 10 years. 2308 references were reviewed by title and abstract. In search of local references in non-indexed journals 5 references were extracted. In total 139 references for review in full text were selected. The global incidence and prevalence of cancer varies. In the Northern Europe region, the highest incidence is evident, mainly in Denmark, Croatia and Norway. Followed by Western Europe and South America with Chile. In Colombia the general age incidence is 2,2/100.000, finding a zero incidence in departments such as Chocó and Guajira. A rise in the incidence of TC has been seen globally, this trend mainly in developing countries. In Colombia most studies are crossectional studies. By seeing the epidemiological data from some departments and the lack of specialists in those regions, it can be deduced the existence of an underreport of the disease that reveals the need to improve both surveillance systems and information registration, such as policies to achieve early diagnosis of TC.

  3. Obesity and prostate cancer: weighing the evidence.

    PubMed

    Allott, Emma H; Masko, Elizabeth M; Freedland, Stephen J

    2013-05-01

    Obesity and prostate cancer (PCa) affect substantial proportions of Western society. Mounting evidence, both epidemiologic and mechanistic, for an association between the two is of public health interest. An improved understanding of the role of this modifiable risk factor in PCa etiology is imperative to optimize screening, treatment, and prevention. To consolidate and evaluate the evidence for an epidemiologic link between obesity and PCa, in addition to examining the proposed underlying molecular mechanisms. A PubMed search for relevant articles published between 1991 and July 2012 was performed by combining the following terms: obesity, BMI, body mass index and prostate cancer risk, prostate cancer incidence, prostate cancer mortality, radical prostatectomy, androgen-deprivation therapy, external-beam radiation, brachytherapy, prostate cancer and quality of life, prostate cancer and active surveillance, in addition to obesity, BMI, body mass index and prostate cancer and insulin, insulin-like growth factor, androgen, estradiol, leptin, adiponectin, and IL-6. Articles were selected based on content, date of publication, and relevancy, and their references were also searched for relevant articles. Increasing evidence suggests obesity is associated with elevated incidence of aggressive PCa, increased risk of biochemical failure following radical prostatectomy and external-beam radiotherapy, higher frequency of complications following androgen-deprivation therapy, and increased PCa-specific mortality, although perhaps a lower overall PCa incidence. These results may in part relate to difficulties in detecting and treating obese men. However, multiple molecular mechanisms could explain these associations as well. Weight loss slows PCa in animal models but has yet to be fully tested in human trials. Obesity appears to be linked with aggressive PCa. We suggest clinical tips to better diagnose and treat obese men with PCa. Whether reversing obesity slows PCa growth is

  4. Diesel Exhaust Exposure and the Risk of Lung Cancer—A Review of the Epidemiological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yi; Bochmann, Frank; Nold, Annette; Mattenklott, Markus

    2014-01-01

    To critically evaluate the association between diesel exhaust (DE) exposure and the risk of lung cancer, we conducted a systematic review of published epidemiological evidences. To comprehensively identify original studies on the association between DE exposure and the risk of lung cancer, literature searches were performed in literature databases for the period between 1970 and 2013, including bibliographies and cross-referencing. In total, 42 cohort studies and 32 case-control studies were identified in which the association between DE exposures and lung cancer was examined. In general, previous studies suffer from a series of methodological limitations, including design, exposure assessment methods and statistical analysis used. A lack of objective exposure information appears to be the main problem in interpreting epidemiological evidence. To facilitate the interpretation and comparison of previous studies, a job-exposure matrix (JEM) of DE exposures was created based on around 4,000 historical industrial measurements. The values from the JEM were considered during interpretation and comparison of previous studies. Overall, neither cohort nor case-control studies indicate a clear exposure-response relationship between DE exposure and lung cancer. Epidemiological studies published to date do not allow a valid quantification of the association between DE and lung cancer. PMID:24473109

  5. Epidemiology of ovarian cancer: a review

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Brett M.; Permuth, Jennifer B.; Sellers, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is the seventh most commonly diagnosed cancer among women in the world and the tenth most common in China. Epithelial OC is the most predominant pathologic subtype, with five major histotypes that differ in origination, pathogenesis, molecular alterations, risk factors, and prognosis. Genetic susceptibility is manifested by rare inherited mutations with high to moderate penetrance. Genome-wide association studies have additionally identified 29 common susceptibility alleles for OC, including 14 subtype-specific alleles. Several reproductive and hormonal factors may lower risk, including parity, oral contraceptive use, and lactation, while others such as older age at menopause and hormone replacement therapy confer increased risks. These associations differ by histotype, especially for mucinous OC, likely reflecting differences in etiology. Endometrioid and clear cell OC share a similar, unique pattern of associations with increased risks among women with endometriosis and decreased risks associated with tubal ligation. OC risks associated with other gynecological conditions and procedures, such as hysterectomy, pelvic inflammatory disease, and polycystic ovarian syndrome, are less clear. Other possible risk factors include environmental and lifestyle factors such as asbestos and talc powder exposures, and cigarette smoking. The epidemiology provides clues on etiology, primary prevention, early detection, and possibly even therapeutic strategies. PMID:28443200

  6. Epidemiology of ovarian cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Reid, Brett M; Permuth, Jennifer B; Sellers, Thomas A

    2017-02-01

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is the seventh most commonly diagnosed cancer among women in the world and the tenth most common in China. Epithelial OC is the most predominant pathologic subtype, with five major histotypes that differ in origination, pathogenesis, molecular alterations, risk factors, and prognosis. Genetic susceptibility is manifested by rare inherited mutations with high to moderate penetrance. Genome-wide association studies have additionally identified 29 common susceptibility alleles for OC, including 14 subtype-specific alleles. Several reproductive and hormonal factors may lower risk, including parity, oral contraceptive use, and lactation, while others such as older age at menopause and hormone replacement therapy confer increased risks. These associations differ by histotype, especially for mucinous OC, likely reflecting differences in etiology. Endometrioid and clear cell OC share a similar, unique pattern of associations with increased risks among women with endometriosis and decreased risks associated with tubal ligation. OC risks associated with other gynecological conditions and procedures, such as hysterectomy, pelvic inflammatory disease, and polycystic ovarian syndrome, are less clear. Other possible risk factors include environmental and lifestyle factors such as asbestos and talc powder exposures, and cigarette smoking. The epidemiology provides clues on etiology, primary prevention, early detection, and possibly even therapeutic strategies.

  7. Epidemiology of Gallbladder Disease: Cholelithiasis and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stinton, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    Diseases of the gallbladder are common and costly. The best epidemiological screening method to accurately determine point prevalence of gallstone disease is ultrasonography. Many risk factors for cholesterol gallstone formation are not modifiable such as ethnic background, increasing age, female gender and family history or genetics. Conversely, the modifiable risks for cholesterol gallstones are obesity, rapid weight loss and a sedentary lifestyle. The rising epidemic of obesity and the metabolic syndrome predicts an escalation of cholesterol gallstone frequency. Risk factors for biliary sludge include pregnancy, drugs like ceftiaxone, octreotide and thiazide diuretics, and total parenteral nutrition or fasting. Diseases like cirrhosis, chronic hemolysis and ileal Crohn's disease are risk factors for black pigment stones. Gallstone disease in childhood, once considered rare, has become increasingly recognized with similar risk factors as those in adults, particularly obesity. Gallbladder cancer is uncommon in developed countries. In the U.S., it accounts for only ~ 5,000 cases per year. Elsewhere, high incidence rates occur in North and South American Indians. Other than ethnicity and female gender, additional risk factors for gallbladder cancer include cholelithiasis, advancing age, chronic inflammatory conditions affecting the gallbladder, congenital biliary abnormalities, and diagnostic confusion over gallbladder polyps. PMID:22570746

  8. Endometriosis and breast cancer: A survey of the epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Pontikaki, A; Sifakis, S; Spandidos, D A

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic gynecological disease with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that affects approximately 10% of women of reproductive age. Recent reviews have demonstrated the connection between endometriosis and breast cancer, which represents the most frequently diagnosed female cancer and the most common cause of cancer-related mortality among women worldwide. The aim of this study was to conduct a survey of available published epidemiological studies indicating the association between endometriosis and breast cancer, and simultaneously to categorize the results based on the strength of the association, with the intention of the critical evaluation of the existing data. We performed a rigorous search of the PubMed/Medline database, using the key words 'endometriosis' and 'breast cancer' for all studies published in the English language until September 2015. We found 4 retrospective cohort studies, 4 case-control studies and 3 case-cohort studies that demonstrated a notable risk for developing breast cancer among women with endometriosis. By contrast, we also found 5 case-control studies, 1 prospective cohort study, 1 case-cohort study and 1 cross-sectional study that demonstrated a negative association between endometriosis and breast cancer. In conclusion, as regards the clarification of a 'robust' or 'weak' association between endometriosis and breast cancer, no definite conclusions could be drawn, due to the limited number of studies and the limitations of each of these studies. New well-designed, prospective cohort or randomized control trials with long-term follow-up are warranted in order to provide evidence-based clinical recommendations for proper counseling, screening and treatment strategies for patients with endometriosis, and hence to improve public health.

  9. Epidemiology and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hillemanns, Peter; Soergel, Phillip; Hertel, Hermann; Jentschke, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The new German S3 guideline 'Prevention of Cervical Cancer' published in 2016 is based on the latest available evidence about cervical cancer screening and treatment of cervical precancer. Large randomized controlled trials indicate that human papillomavirus (HPV)-based screening may provide better protection against cervical cancer than cytology alone through improved detection of premalignant disease in the first screening round prior to progression. Therefore, women aged 30 years and older should preferably be screened with HPV testing every 3-5 years (cytology alone every 2 years is an acceptable alternative). Co-testing is not recommended. Screening should start at 25 years using cytology alone every 2 years. The preferred triage test after a positive HPV screening test is cytology. Women positive for HPV 16 and HPV 18 should receive immediate colposcopy. Another alternative triage method is p16/Ki-67 dual stain cytology. The mean yearly participation rate in Germany is between 45 and 50%. Offering devices for HPV self-sampling has the potential to increase participation rates in those women who are at higher risk of developing cervical cancer. Regarding primary prevention, the 9-valent vaccine may provide protection against up to 85% of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 3 and 90% of cervical cancer, and is available in Europe as a 2-dose schedule from May 2016. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  10. Calcium and Cancer Prevention: Strengths and Limits of the Evidence

    MedlinePlus

    ... incidence of rectal cancer among postmenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 1998; 7(3):221–225. [ ... Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 2007; 16(12):2623–2630. [ ...

  11. [Active monitoring of cancer clusters: comments from an epidemiological perspective].

    PubMed

    Becker, N

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological cancer registries are responsible for the description of the occurrence of cancers in time and space in the respective Federal State(s). Their work also involves the work-up of suspected or obvious regional clusters of cancer cases. The current sequence of action - (a) to confirm the cluster by a statistical test, (b) to identify specific exposures as potential causes, (c) to potentially conduct etiologic-epidemiological studies to confirm a suspected association - fails because of methodological difficulties. This article outlines a different approach that focuses on (a) the explanation of these methodological limitations and (b) on the current epidemiological knowledge on cancer etiology in order to rule out misunderstandings on potential causes of cancer clusters. Collaboration with professional cancer registries is advised.

  12. Epidemiology of the four major cancers in South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Jacy

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the findings of epidemiological analyses of cancer incidence and mortality for the top four cancers in South Dakota: female breast, colorectal, lung and prostate during 2002-2006. Throughout this report, the South Dakota Cancer Registry Data were used to obtain South Dakota specific rates. From 2002-2006, there were 10,834 new cases of female breast, colorectal, lung and prostate cancers identified among South Dakotans. Specific to the type of cancer itself, there were 2,656 women with breast cancer, 2,271 colorectal cancers, 2,596 lung cancers and 3,311 prostate cancers. From 2002-2006, there were 4,019 deaths due to female breast, colorectal, lung and prostate cancer. Specifically, there were 546 female breast cancer deaths reported, 827 colorectal deaths, 2,132 lung cancer deaths and 514 prostate cancer deaths.

  13. Toxicology and Epidemiology: Improving the Science with a Framework for Combining Toxicological and Epidemiological Evidence to Establish Causal Inference

    PubMed Central

    Adami, Hans-Olov; Berry, Sir Colin L.; Breckenridge, Charles B.; Smith, Lewis L.; Swenberg, James A.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Weiss, Noel S.; Pastoor, Timothy P.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, toxicology has played a significant role in verifying conclusions drawn on the basis of epidemiological findings. Agents that were suggested to have a role in human diseases have been tested in animals to firmly establish a causative link. Bacterial pathogens are perhaps the oldest examples, and tobacco smoke and lung cancer and asbestos and mesothelioma provide two more recent examples. With the advent of toxicity testing guidelines and protocols, toxicology took on a role that was intended to anticipate or predict potential adverse effects in humans, and epidemiology, in many cases, served a role in verifying or negating these toxicological predictions. The coupled role of epidemiology and toxicology in discerning human health effects by environmental agents is obvious, but there is currently no systematic and transparent way to bring the data and analysis of the two disciplines together in a way that provides a unified view on an adverse causal relationship between an agent and a disease. In working to advance the interaction between the fields of toxicology and epidemiology, we propose here a five-step “Epid-Tox” process that would focus on: (1) collection of all relevant studies, (2) assessment of their quality, (3) evaluation of the weight of evidence, (4) assignment of a scalable conclusion, and (5) placement on a causal relationship grid. The causal relationship grid provides a clear view of how epidemiological and toxicological data intersect, permits straightforward conclusions with regard to a causal relationship between agent and effect, and can show how additional data can influence conclusions of causality. PMID:21561883

  14. Epidemiology of cancer in the Republic of Kiribati.

    PubMed

    Ou, Alan C; Kienene, Takeieta; Tenaua, Kautu; Etheredge, Gina D; Palafox, Neal A

    2004-09-01

    Little is known about cancer epidemiology in Kiribati. Between November 1998 and December 1999, trained medical record abstractors visited 8 Micronesian jurisdictions including the Republic of Kiribati to review all available medical records in order to describe the epidemiology of cancer in Micronesia and to better understand the cancer data and control systems in each entity. The Republic of Kiribati has identified many prevalent preventable cancers. The lack of a robust cancer data tracking and surveillance system, as well as the lack of resources to institute a technologically and medically sustainable cancer control system was apparent. The implementation or existence of a national comprehensive cancer control strategic plan would facilitate greater identification, prevention, and treatment of cancer patients. The health sector and Government of Kiribati are working towards this end.

  15. A Molecular Epidemiologic Case-Case Study of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    AD__ _ _ _ Award Number: DAMD17-98-1-8471 TITLE: A Molecular Epidemiologic Case-Case Study of Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Sara S. Strom...Molecular Epidmeiologic Case-Case Study of Prostate DAMD17-98-1-8471 Cancer Susceptibility 6. AUTHOR(S) Sara S. Strom, Ph.D. Sue-Hwa Lin 7. PERFORMING...DISTRIBUTION CODE Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words) Although prostate cancer is the most common cancer in

  16. Epigenetic Research in Cancer Epidemiology: Trends, Opportunities, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Mukesh; Rogers, Scott; Divi, Rao L.; Schully, Sheri D.; Nelson, Stefanie; Su, L. Joseph; Ross, Sharon; Pilch, Susan; Winn, Deborah M.; Khoury, Muin J.

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetics is emerging as an important field in cancer epidemiology that promises to provide insights into gene regulation and facilitate cancer control throughout the cancer care continuum. Increasingly, investigators are incorporating epigenetic analysis into the studies of etiology and outcomes. To understand current progress and trends in the inclusion of epigenetics in cancer epidemiology, we evaluated the published literature and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) supported research grant awards in this field to identify trends in epigenetics research. We present a summary of the epidemiological studies in NCI’s grant portfolio (from January 2005 through December 2012) and in the scientific literature published during the same period, irrespective of support from NCI. Blood cells and tumor tissue were the most commonly used biospecimens in these studies, although buccal cells, cervical cells, sputum, and stool samples also were used. DNA methylation profiling was the focus of the majority of studies, but several studies also measured microRNA profiles. We illustrate here the current status of epidemiologic studies that are evaluating epigenetic changes in large populations. The incorporation of epigenomic assessments in cancer epidemiology studies has and is likely to continue to provide important insights into the field of cancer research. PMID:24326628

  17. Epigenetic research in cancer epidemiology: trends, opportunities, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mukesh; Rogers, Scott; Divi, Rao L; Schully, Sheri D; Nelson, Stefanie; Joseph Su, L; Ross, Sharon A; Pilch, Susan; Winn, Deborah M; Khoury, Muin J

    2014-02-01

    Epigenetics is emerging as an important field in cancer epidemiology that promises to provide insights into gene regulation and facilitate cancer control throughout the cancer care continuum. Increasingly, investigators are incorporating epigenetic analysis into the studies of etiology and outcomes. To understand current progress and trends in the inclusion of epigenetics in cancer epidemiology, we evaluated the published literature and the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported research grant awards in this field to identify trends in epigenetics research. We present a summary of the epidemiologic studies in NCI's grant portfolio (from January 2005 through December 2012) and in the scientific literature published during the same period, irrespective of support from the NCI. Blood cells and tumor tissue were the most commonly used biospecimens in these studies, although buccal cells, cervical cells, sputum, and stool samples were also used. DNA methylation profiling was the focus of the majority of studies, but several studies also measured microRNA profiles. We illustrate here the current status of epidemiologic studies that are evaluating epigenetic changes in large populations. The incorporation of epigenomic assessments in cancer epidemiology studies has and is likely to continue to provide important insights into the field of cancer research.

  18. Epidemiology of pancreas cancer in Los Angeles

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, T.M.; Paganini-Hill, A.

    1981-03-15

    The characteristics of the 3614 Los Angeles County residents in whom cancer of the exocrine pancreas was diagnosed during the period 1972-1977 were compared with those of all county residents and patients in whom any cancer was diagnosed during the same period. Seventy-nine percent of the diagnoses had been pathologically verified. This disease still preferentially afflicts the old, the black, and men, although the differences in risk with factors other than age are modest. The disease is not evenly distributed by social class, or over time, although it is not clear that the observed differences reflect etiology. The distributions with respect to important categories of occupation and industry, religion, marital status, geography of residence, and birthplace were rather uniform. Although there is no obvious explanation for any of several unexpected minor inequities in the pattern of incidence, there is no compelling evidence to support any specific environmental cause. There is substantial evidence which is inconsistent with those environmental hypotheses that have been proposed previously.

  19. Rationale for promoting physical activity among cancer survivors: literature review and epidemiologic examination.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Lee, Hyo

    2014-03-01

    To review the extant literature on the link between physical activity and health outcomes among cancer survivors; identify evidence-based strategies to promote physical activity among this population; and conduct an epidemiologic study based on gaps from the literature review, examining the association between physical activity and various biologic markers. The authors used PubMed and Google Scholar up to July 2013, as well as data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the empirical study. Studies were examined through a systematic review process. In the epidemiologic study, 227 adult cancer survivors wore an accelerometer for four days or longer, with biologic markers (e.g., cholesterol) assessed from a blood sample. The review study demonstrated that cancer survivors are relatively inactive, but physical activity may help to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence and cancer-related mortality, increase cancer treatment rates, reduce pain and other side effects associated with cancer treatment, and improve physical and mental health. The epidemiologic study showed that physical activity was associated with several understudied biomarkers (e.g., neutrophils, white blood cells) that are linked with cancer recurrence, cancer-related mortality, and other chronic diseases. Nurses are encouraged to promote physical activity in cancer survivors.

  20. Evidence-Based Cancer Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Khorasani, Ramin

    2017-01-01

    With the advances in the field of oncology, imaging is increasingly used in the follow-up of cancer patients, leading to concerns about over-utilization. Therefore, it has become imperative to make imaging more evidence-based, efficient, cost-effective and equitable. This review explores the strategies and tools to make diagnostic imaging more evidence-based, mainly in the context of follow-up of cancer patients. PMID:28096722

  1. Physical activity and cancer prevention: etiologic evidence and biological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Friedenreich, Christine M; Orenstein, Marla R

    2002-11-01

    Scientific evidence is accumulating on physical activity as a means for the primary prevention of cancer. Nearly 170 observational epidemiologic studies of physical activity and cancer risk at a number of specific cancer sites have been conducted. The evidence for decreased risk with increased physical activity is classified as convincing for breast and colon cancers, probable for prostate cancer, possible for lung and endometrial cancers and insufficient for cancers at all other sites. Despite the large number of studies conducted on physical activity and cancer, most have been hampered by incomplete assessment of physical activity and a lack of full examination of effect modification and confounding. Several plausible hypothesized biological mechanisms exist for the association between physical activity and cancer, including changes in endogenous sexual and metabolic hormone levels and growth factors, decreased obesity and central adiposity and possibly changes in immune function. Weight control may play a particularly important role because links between excess weight and increased cancer risk have been established for several sites, and central adiposity has been particularly implicated in promoting metabolic conditions amenable to carcinogenesis. Based on existing evidence, some public health organizations have issued physical activity guidelines for cancer prevention, generally recommending at least 30 min of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity on > or =5 d/wk. Although most research has focused on the efficacy of physical activity in cancer prevention, evidence is increasing that exercise also influences other aspects of the cancer experience, including cancer detection, coping, rehabilitation and survival after diagnosis.

  2. An epidemiologic review of marijuana and cancer: an update.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Hui Jenny; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Tashkin, Donald P; Feng, Bingjian; Straif, Kurt; Hashibe, Mia

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana use is legal in two states and additional states are considering legalization. Approximately 18 million Americans are current marijuana users. There is currently no consensus on whether marijuana use is associated with cancer risk. Our objective is to review the epidemiologic studies on this possible association. We identified 34 epidemiologic studies on upper aerodigestive tract cancers (n = 11), lung cancer (n = 6), testicular cancer (n = 3), childhood cancers (n = 6), all cancers (n = 1), anal cancer (n = 1), penile cancer (n = 1), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 2), malignant primary gliomas (n = 1), bladder cancer (n = 1), and Kaposi sarcoma (n = 1). Studies on head and neck cancer reported increased and decreased risks, possibly because there is no association, or because risks differ by human papillomavirus status or geographic differences. The lung cancer studies largely appear not to support an association with marijuana use, possibly because of the smaller amounts of marijuana regularly smoked compared with tobacco. Three testicular cancer case-control studies reported increased risks with marijuana use [summary ORs, 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-2.23 for higher frequency and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.08-2.09) for ≥10 years]. For other cancer sites, there is still insufficient data to make any conclusions. Considering that marijuana use may change due to legalization, well-designed studies on marijuana use and cancer are warranted. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Racial and Ethnic Differences in the Epidemiology of Lung Cancer and the Lung Cancer Genome

    PubMed Central

    Schabath, Matthew B.; Cress, W. Douglas; Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita

    2017-01-01

    Background Globally and in the United States, lung cancer has been the most common cancer for the past several decades. In addition to the well-established geographical- and sex-specific differences in lung cancer incidence, mortality and survival, there is also growing evidence for racial and ethnic differences. Methods Based on available published data, we present a summary of the current knowledge and substantive findings related to racial and ethnic differences in lung cancer. Results Although this report is not a systematic review, we summarized the current knowledge and substantive findings related to racial and ethnic differences in lung cancer with a particular focus on lung cancer statistics(incidence, mortality, and survival), cigarette smoking, prevention and early detection, and the lung cancer genome. Finally, we summarize some the systems-level and provider-related issues that likely contribute to racial and ethnic-specific health disparities and provide some suggestions for future strategies that may reduce the disproportionate burden of lung cancer. Conclusions Although lung carcinogenesis is a multifactorial process driven by exogenous exposures (e.g., cigarette smoking), inherited genetic variations, and an accumulation of somatic genetic events, this multifactorial process appears to have racial and ethnic differences which in turn impacts the observed epidemiologic differences in incidence, mortality, and survival. PMID:27842323

  4. Cancer in the elderly. Epidemiologic and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Balducci, L; Lyman, G H

    1997-02-01

    Cancer is a major problem for the older population. The incidence of most malignancies increases with age, with cancer being the second most common cause of death in persons older than 65. With the decline in deaths related to cardiovascular diseases, cancer is becoming an even more prominent cause of death among the elderly. Despite the advances in cancer prevention and treatment over the past 20 years for persons under 50, the mortality has not improved for older persons. In this article we explore the interactions of cancer and age that may be of interest to the practitioner, after reviewing the epidemiology of cancer in the elderly.

  5. Epidemiological studies of oats consumption and risk of cancer and overall mortality.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, Paolo; Thies, Frank; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2014-10-01

    A review of epidemiological studies on the intake of oats and oat-based products and its effect on the risk of chronic disease and deaths was performed. Seven studies were identified of cancer risk (two each on prostate and colorectal cancer, and one each on pancreatic, breast and endometrial cancer), and one study on overall mortality. With the exception of a case-control study of pancreatic cancer, all studies were of cohort design: five studies were based on a single cohort from Denmark. The results of most cohort studies suggest a weak protective effect of a high intake of oats on cancer risk (relative risks in the order of 0·9). Potential limitations of the studies are dietary exposure misclassification, low statistical power because of limited exposure contrast and residual confounding. Despite the evidence from experimental and mechanistic studies of a protective effect of oats intake on CVD and diabetes, no epidemiological studies have been conducted on these conditions.

  6. Epidemiology: allergy history, IgE, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Turner, Michelle C

    2012-09-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have investigated potential associations between allergy history and cancer risk with strong inverse associations reported in studies of pancreatic cancer, glioma, and childhood leukemia. Recently, there has been a rapid expansion of the epidemiological literature both of studies evaluating self-reported allergy history in relation to cancer risk and of studies evaluating biological indicators of allergy history and immune function including levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) E. However, there are several potential methodological limitations associated with prior studies, and further research is required to clarify associations observed. This paper summarizes the recent epidemiological literature examining associations between allergy history and cancer risk. From 2008, a total of 55 epidemiological studies were identified that examined some aspect of the association between allergy and cancer. Although the majority of studies examined self-reported allergy history in relation to cancer risk, there were also studies examining allergy diagnoses or discharges as captured in existing administrative databases, levels of IgE, polymorphisms of allergy, inflammatory- or allergy-related cytokine genes, and concentrations of immune regulatory proteins. The most frequently studied cancer sites included brain and lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers. Potential methodological sources of bias are discussed as well as recommendations for future work.

  7. Training Grant in Epidemiology and Prevention of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    Larissa Nekhlyadov, to begin the first year of training and we are still in the process of recruiting a third MD. We established the Advanced Cancer ... Epidemiology Seminar in Breast Cancer in which all trainees participated. The seminar met once per week for eight weeks this past spring and will continue again this coming spring.

  8. Proving Causation With Epidemiological Evidence in Tobacco Lawsuits

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a series of lawsuits were filed in Korea claiming tort liability against tobacco companies. The Supreme Court has already issued decisions in some cases, while others are still pending. The primary issue in these cases is whether the epidemiological evidence submitted by the plaintiffs clearly proves the causal relationship between smoking and disease as required by civil law. Proving causation is difficult in tobacco lawsuits because factors other than smoking are involved in the development of a disease, and also because of the lapse of time between smoking and the manifestation of the disease. The Supreme Court (Supreme Court Decision, 2011Da22092, April 10, 2014) has imposed some limitations on using epidemiological evidence to prove causation in tobacco lawsuits filed by smokers and their family members, but these limitations should be reconsidered. First, the Court stated that a disease can be categorized as specific or non-specific, and for each disease type, causation can be proven by different types of evidence. However, the concept of specific diseases is not compatible with multifactor theory, which is generally accepted in the field of public health. Second, when the epidemiological association between the disease and the risk factor is proven to be significant, imposing additional burdens of proof on the plaintiff may considerably limit the plaintiff’s right to recovery, but the Court required the plaintiffs to provide additional information such as health condition and lifestyle. Third, the Supreme Court is not giving greater weight to the evidential value of epidemiological study results because the Court focuses on the fact that these studies were group-level, not individual-level. However, group-level studies could still offer valuable information about individual members of the group, e.g., probability of causation. PMID:27055545

  9. Stress and breast cancer: from epidemiology to molecular biology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Stress exposure has been proposed to contribute to the etiology of breast cancer. However, the validity of this assertion and the possible mechanisms involved are not well established. Epidemiologic studies differ in their assessment of the relative contribution of stress to breast cancer risk, while physiological studies propose a clear connection but lack the knowledge of intracellular pathways involved. The present review aims to consolidate the findings from different fields of research (including epidemiology, physiology, and molecular biology) in order to present a comprehensive picture of what we know to date about the role of stress in breast cancer development. PMID:21575279

  10. An epidemiologic review of marijuana and cancer: an update

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-Hui Jenny; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Tashkin, Donald P.; Feng, Bingjian; Straif, Kurt; Hashibe, Mia

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana use is legal in two states and additional states are considering legalization. Approximately 18 million Americans are current marijuana users. There is currently no consensus on whether marijuana use is associated with cancer risk. Our objective is to review the epidemiologic studies on this possible association. We identified 34 epidemiologic studies on upper aerodigestive tract cancers (n=11), lung cancer (n=6), testicular cancer (n=3), childhood cancers (n=6), all cancers (n=1), anal cancer (n=1), penile cancer (n=1), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=2), malignant primary gliomas(n=1), bladder cancer (n=1), and Kaposi's sarcoma (n=1). Studies on head and neck cancer reported increased and decreased risks, possibly because there is no association, or because risks differ by HPV status or geographic differences. The lung cancer studies largely appear not to support an association with marijuana use, possibly because of the smaller amounts of marijuana regularly smoked compared to tobacco. Three testicular cancer case-control studies reported increased risks with marijuana use (summary odds ratios 1.56 (95%CI=1.09-2.23) for higher frequency; 1.50 (95%=1.08-2.09) for ≥10 years). For other cancer sites, there is still insufficient data to make any conclusions. Considering that marijuana use may change due to legalization, well-designed studies on marijuana use and cancer are warranted. PMID:25587109

  11. Body fatness as a cause of cancer: epidemiologic clues to biologic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Byers, Tim; Sedjo, Rebecca L

    2015-06-01

    Carrying excess body fat is a leading cause of cancer. Epidemiologic evidence gives strong clues about the mechanisms that link excess adiposity to risk for several cancer sites. For postmenopausal breast cancer and endometrial cancer, the hyper-estrogenic state that is induced by excess body fatness is the likely cause. For esophageal cancer and gallbladder cancer, chronic local inflammation induced by acid reflux and gallstones is the likely cause, and for liver cancer, local inflammation induced by hepatic fatty infiltration is the likely cause. However, for several other cancers known to be associated with excess adiposity, including cancers of the colon, pancreas, ovary, kidney, and prostate, specific causes are not known. Possible candidates include elevated systemic or local tissue inflammation induced by adiposity and effects of the elevated levels of leptin, insulin, IGFs, and depressed immune function that are seen with excess adiposity. There is growing evidence that intentional weight loss not only reduces circulating levels of cancer-associated factors but that it also reduces cancer incidence and recurrence. Better research is needed to understand the mechanisms that link excess body fat to cancer risk as well as to understand the amount of weight loss needed for substantial cancer risk reduction. Finally, as we develop better understanding of the mediators of the effects of excess body fatness on cancer risk, we should identify pharmacologic interventions that target those mediators so that they can be used to complement weight loss in order to reduce cancer risk. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  12. [Epidemiology of urogenital cancers in France].

    PubMed

    Rébillard, Xavier; Tretarre, Brigitte

    2007-03-31

    Estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in France as well as survival data are published by the cancer registry network (Francim). In 2000, the number of new cancer cases was almost 280,000 in France. This number has been gradually increasing, partly due to population aging. The proportion of urological cancers is increasing as well, as a consequence of the marked increase in number of prostate cancers. The estimated number of new cases for the 4 main urological cancers in 2000 reached 61,174, distributed as follows: 40,310 prostate cancers, 10,771 bladder cancers, 8,293 kidney cancers and 1,800 testis cancers. Urological tumours represented at the time 22% of new cancer cases in France: 35% of male cancers (56,402 /161,025) and 4% of female cancers (4,772/117,228). The relative five-year survival for prostate cancers is high: 80%. It is below that of testis cancers (95% after 5 years), but higher than that of kidney cancers (64% in men and 63% in women after five years). Of all urological cancers, bladder cancers have the worst prognosis, since the relative five-year survival is 60% in men and especially 50% in women.

  13. Epidemiologic evidence of cardiovascular effects of particulate air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Dockery, D W

    2001-01-01

    In the past decade researchers have developed a body of epidemiologic evidence showing increased daily cardiovascular mortality and morbidity associated with acute exposures to particulate air pollution. Associations have been found not only with cardiovascular deaths reported on death certificates but also with myocardial infarctions and ventricular fibrillation. Particulate air pollution exposure has been associated with indicators of autonomic function of the heart including increased heart rate, decreased heart rate variability, and increased cardiac arrhythmias. Several markers of increased risk for sudden cardiac death have also been associated with such exposures. These epidemiologic studies provide early guidance to possible pathways of particulate air pollution health effects, which can only be addressed fully in toxicologic and physiologic studies. PMID:11544151

  14. [Does periodontal disease cause cardiovascular disease? Analysis of epidemiological evidences].

    PubMed

    Cunha-Cruz, Joana; Nadanovsky, Paulo

    2003-01-01

    This article reports a critical analysis of epidemiologic studies that evaluated periodontal disease as a cause of cardiovascular disease. Thirty-five studies were identified through a manual search of the special abstracts volumes of the Journal of Dental Research, as well as an electronic search on MEDLINE, LILACS, and ISI and inspection of the articles' bibliographies. Inclusion criteria were: articles in any language published between 1989 and 2000 reporting the presence or absence of an association between periodontal and cardiovascular diseases. Available studies are scarce, and interpretations are limited by potential bias and confounding. The studies analyzed (whether separately or jointly) fail to provide convincing epidemiologic evidence for a causal association between periodontal and cardiovascular diseases. Although the possibility that oral diseases can cause cardiovascular diseases cannot be discarded, until better data are available, periodontal disease should not be incriminated as a cause of cardiovascular disease.

  15. Reducing Prostate Cancer Disparities through Behavioral and Biologic Epidemiologic Approaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Research Seminar Series, Boston, MA, 2006. Oral presentation. 3. Drake BF. Cancer Health Disparities. Young Woman’s Auxiliary of the South...Epidemiology. 18(7): 579-583, 2008. 7. Elder K, Drake BF, Wagner S, Hebert JR. Social and Clinical Influences of Prostate Cancer Treatment. Journal for...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-09-1-0638 TITLE: Reducing Prostate Cancer

  16. Reducing Prostate Cancer Disparities Through Behavioral and Biologic Epidemiologic Approaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Research Seminar Series, Boston, MA, 2006. Oral presentation. 3. Drake BF. Cancer Health Disparities. Young Woman’s Auxiliary of the South...Epidemiology. 18(7): 579-583, 2008. 7. Elder K, Drake BF, Wagner S, Hebert JR. Social and Clinical Influences of Prostate Cancer Treatment. Journal for...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-09-1-0638 TITLE: Reducing Prostate Cancer

  17. Oral cancer, HPV infection and evidence of sexual transmission.

    PubMed

    Martín-Hernán, Fátima; Sánchez-Hernández, Juan-Gabriel; Cano, Jorge; Campo, Julián; del Romero, Jorge

    2013-05-01

    The incidence of oropharyngeal cancer and oral cancer is growing worldwide, both in young non-smokers and in young non-drinkers (smoking and drinking are considered the main risk factors). Epidemiologic studies suggest a strong association between the infection by human papillomavirus (HPV), especially types 16 and 18 (high oncological risk) which have already demonstrated their etiological role in anal tumours as well as in cervix cancer. There is clear epidemiologic evidence that both types of tumours relate to changes in sexual behaviour and that both are linked to sexual transmission of HPV. The number of oral and oropharyngeal cancer cases is rising nowadays, especially among young individuals with no typical toxic habits, such as tobacco and/or alcohol. In this review we set out to update the aspects related to the onset of oral cancer, its relationship with HPV infection and whether this association may be due to the sexual transmission of the virus.

  18. Bladder cancer epidemiology and genetic susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Haiyan; Wang, Meilin; Zhang, Zhengdong

    2013-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy of the urinary system. The incidence of bladder cancer of men is higher than that of women (approximately 4:1). Here, we summarize the bladder cancer-related risk factors, including environmental and genetic factors. In recent years, although the mortality rate induced by bladder cancer has been stable or decreased gradually, the public health effect may be pronounced. The well-established risk factors for bladder cancer are cigarette smoking and occupational exposure. Genetic factors also play important roles in the susceptibility to bladder cancer. A recent study demonstrated that hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer is associated with increased risk of bladder cancer. Since 2008, genome-wide association study (GWAS) has been used to identify the susceptibility loci for bladder cancer. Further gene-gene or gene-environment interaction studies need to be conducted to provide more information for the etiology of bladder cancer. PMID:23720672

  19. Particulate matter and heart disease: Evidence from epidemiological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Annette . E-mail: peters@gsf.de

    2005-09-01

    The association between particulate matter and heart disease was noted in the mid-nineties of last century when the epidemiological evidence for an association between air pollution and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular disease accumulated and first hypotheses regarding the pathomechanism were formulated. Nowadays, epidemiological studies have demonstrated coherent associations between daily changes in concentrations of ambient particles and cardiovascular disease mortality, hospital admission, disease exacerbation in patients with cardiovascular disease and early physiological responses in healthy individuals consistent with a risk factor profile deterioration. In addition, evidence was found that annual average PM{sub 2.5} exposures are associated with increased risks for mortality caused by ischemic heart disease and dysrhythmia. Thereby, evidence is suggesting not only a short-term exacerbation of cardiovascular disease by ambient particle concentrations but also a potential role of particles in defining patients' vulnerability to acute coronary events. While this concept is consistent with the current understanding of the factors defining patients' vulnerability, the mechanisms and the time-scales on which the particle-induced vulnerability might operate are unknown.

  20. Atrazine and Pregnancy Outcomes: A Systematic Review of Epidemiologic Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Michael; Mandel, Jack S; DeSesso, John M; Scialli, Anthony R

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine (ATR) is a commonly used agricultural herbicide that has been the subject of epidemiologic studies assessing its relation to reproductive health problems. This review evaluates both the consistency and the quality of epidemiologic evidence testing the hypothesis that ATR exposure, at usually encountered levels, is a risk factor for birth defects, small for gestational age birth weight, prematurity, miscarriages, and problems of fetal growth and development. We followed the current methodological guidelines for systematic reviews by using two independent researchers to identify, retrieve, and evaluate the relevant epidemiologic literature on the relation of ATR to various adverse outcomes of birth and pregnancy. Each eligible paper was summarized with respect to its methods and results with particular attention to study design and exposure assessment, which have been cited as the main areas of weakness in ATR research. As a quantitative meta-analysis was not feasible, the study results were categorized qualitatively as positive, null, or mixed. The literature on ATR and pregnancy-related health outcomes is growing rapidly, but the quality of the data is poor with most papers using aggregate rather than individual-level information. Without good quality data, the results are difficult to assess; however, it is worth noting that none of the outcome categories demonstrated consistent positive associations across studies. Considering the poor quality of the data and the lack of robust findings across studies, conclusions about a causal link between ATR and adverse pregnancy outcomes are not warranted. PMID:24797711

  1. Ovarian cancer epidemiology in the era of collaborative team science.

    PubMed

    Cannioto, Rikki A; Trabert, Britton; Poole, Elizabeth M; Schildkraut, Joellen M

    2017-05-01

    Over the past decade, a number of consortia have formed to further investigate genetic associations, pathogenesis, and epidemiologic risk and prognostic factors for ovarian cancer. Here, we review the benefits that ovarian cancer consortia provide as well as challenges that have arisen. Methods for managing key challenges are also discussed. We review the structural organization and some of the milestone epidemiologic publications of five consortia dedicated to the study of ovarian cancer, including the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC), the Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis (OTTA) Consortium, the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium (OC3), the Collaborative Group on Epidemiological Studies of Ovarian Cancer (The Oxford Collaborative Group), and the Ovarian Cancer in Women of African Ancestry (OCWAA) consortium. As ovarian cancer is a rare and heterogeneous disease, consortia have made important contributions in the study of risk factors by improving statistical power beyond what any single study, or even a few studies, would provide. Thus, a major accomplishment of consortial research is enhanced characterization of histotype-specific risk factor associations. In addition, consortia have facilitated impressive synergy between researchers across many institutions, spawning new collaborative research. Importantly, through these efforts, many challenges have been met, including difficulties with data harmonization and analysis, laying a road map for future collaborations. While ovarian cancer consortia have made valuable contributions to the ovarian cancer epidemiological literature over the past decade, additional efforts comprising of new, well-designed case-control studies are needed to further elucidate novel, histotype-specific risk, and prognostic factors which are not consistently available in existing studies.

  2. Lung cancer molecular epidemiology in China: recent trends

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is both the most common diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer related deaths in China. During the past three decades, the incidence and mortality of lung cancer in China are increasing rapidly. According to data from National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) in 2010, the crude incidence of lung cancer in China was 46.08 per 100,000 population (61.86 per 100,000 men and 29.54 per 100,000 women), with an estimated over 600,000 new diagnosed lung cancer patients (416,333 males and 189,613 females). Meanwhile, the crude mortality of lung cancer in China was 37.00 per 100,000 population (50.04 per 100,000 men and 23.33 per 100,000 women). Consistent with the change in developed countries, adenocarcinoma has become the most predominant histological subtype of lung cancer in China. For the majority advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, especially patients with adenocarcinoma, targeted therapy became increasing important in the treatment. Chinese researcher have done a lot work in terms of lung cancer molecular epidemiology, therefore, in this review, we further summarized the epidemiology of driver genes in NSCLC, hoping to help clinicians to better screen certain driver genes in China for treatment decisions. PMID:25806311

  3. Epidemiologic perspective on immune-surveillance in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Daniel W.; Finn, Olivera J.

    2011-01-01

    Common “themes” in epidemiology related to cancer risk beg a comprehensive mechanistic explanation. As people age, risk for cancer increases. Obesity and smoking increase the risk for many types of cancer. History of febrile childhood diseases lowers the risk for melanomas, leukemias, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) and ovarian cancer. Increasing number of ovulatory cycles uninterrupted by pregnancies correlate positively with breast, endometrial and ovarian cancer risk while pregnancies and breastfeeding lower the risk for these cancers as well as cancers of the colon, lung, pancreas and NHL. Chronic inflammatory events such endometriosis or mucosal exposure to talc increase the risk for several types of cancer. Mechanisms so far considered are site specific and do not explain multiple associations. We propose that most of these events affect cancer immunosurveillance by changing the balance between an effective immune response and immune tolerance of an emerging cancer. We review recently published data that suggest that immune mechanisms underlie most of the observed epidemiologic associations with cancer risk. PMID:21277761

  4. From obesity to diabetes and cancer: epidemiological links and role of therapies.

    PubMed

    García-Jiménez, Custodia; Gutiérrez-Salmerón, María; Chocarro-Calvo, Ana; García-Martinez, Jose Manuel; Castaño, Angel; De la Vieja, Antonio

    2016-03-29

    Increasing evidence suggests a complex relationship between obesity, diabetes and cancer. Here we review the evidence for the association between obesity and diabetes and a wide range of cancer types. In many cases the evidence for a positive association is strong, but for other cancer types a more complex picture emerges with some site-specific cancers associated with obesity but not to diabetes, and some associated with type I but not type II diabetes. The evidence therefore suggests the existence of cumulative common and differential mechanisms influencing the relationship between these diseases. Importantly, we highlight the influence of antidiabetics on cancer and antineoplastic agents on diabetes and in particular that antineoplastic targeting of insulin/IGF-1 signalling induces hyperglycaemia that often evolves to overt diabetes. Overall, a coincidence of diabetes and cancer worsens outcome and increases mortality. Future epidemiology should consider dose and time of exposure to both disease and treatment, and should classify cancers by their molecular signatures. Well-controlled studies on the development of diabetes upon cancer treatment are necessary and should identify the underlying mechanisms responsible for these reciprocal interactions. Given the global epidemic of diabetes, preventing both cancer occurrence in diabetics and the onset of diabetes in cancer patients will translate into a substantial socioeconomic benefit.

  5. From obesity to diabetes and cancer: epidemiological links and role of therapies

    PubMed Central

    García-Jiménez, Custodia; Gutiérrez-Salmerón, María; Chocarro-Calvo, Ana; García-Martinez, Jose Manuel; Castaño, Angel; De la Vieja, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests a complex relationship between obesity, diabetes and cancer. Here we review the evidence for the association between obesity and diabetes and a wide range of cancer types. In many cases the evidence for a positive association is strong, but for other cancer types a more complex picture emerges with some site-specific cancers associated with obesity but not to diabetes, and some associated with type I but not type II diabetes. The evidence therefore suggests the existence of cumulative common and differential mechanisms influencing the relationship between these diseases. Importantly, we highlight the influence of antidiabetics on cancer and antineoplastic agents on diabetes and in particular that antineoplastic targeting of insulin/IGF-1 signalling induces hyperglycaemia that often evolves to overt diabetes. Overall, a coincidence of diabetes and cancer worsens outcome and increases mortality. Future epidemiology should consider dose and time of exposure to both disease and treatment, and should classify cancers by their molecular signatures. Well-controlled studies on the development of diabetes upon cancer treatment are necessary and should identify the underlying mechanisms responsible for these reciprocal interactions. Given the global epidemic of diabetes, preventing both cancer occurrence in diabetics and the onset of diabetes in cancer patients will translate into a substantial socioeconomic benefit. PMID:26908326

  6. Nutrition and neurodegeneration: epidemiological evidence and challenges for future research.

    PubMed

    Gillette-Guyonnet, Sophie; Secher, Marion; Vellas, Bruno

    2013-03-01

    The prevention of dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), is a growing public health concern, due to a lack of effective curative treatment options and a rising global prevalence. Various potential risk or preventive factors have been suggested by epidemiological research, including modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet. Current epidemiological data are in favour of a protective role of certain micronutrients (B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism, the anti-oxidant vitamins C and E, flavonoids, polyunsatured omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D) and macronutrients (fish) in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia/AD. Some factors have been targeted by interventions tested in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), but many of the results are conflicting with observational evidence. Epidemiological analysis of the relations between nutrient consumption and cognitive decline is complex and it is highly unlikely that a single component plays a major role. In addition, since multiple factors across the life course influence brain function in late life, multidomain interventions might be more promising in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia/AD. Designing such trials remains very challenging for researchers. The main objective of this paper is to review the epidemiologic data linking potential protective factors to cognitive decline or dementia/AD, focusing particularly on the roles of adiposity, caloric restriction, micro (group B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism, the anti-oxidant vitamins C and E, flavonoids, polyunsatured omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D) and macronutrients (fish). Limitations of the current data, divergence with results of interventional prevention studies and challenges for future research are discussed.

  7. Nutrition and neurodegeneration: epidemiological evidence and challenges for future research

    PubMed Central

    Gillette‐Guyonnet, Sophie; Secher, Marion; Vellas, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), is a growing public health concern, due to a lack of effective curative treatment options and a rising global prevalence. Various potential risk or preventive factors have been suggested by epidemiological research, including modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet. Current epidemiological data are in favour of a protective role of certain micronutrients (B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism, the anti‐oxidant vitamins C and E, flavonoids, polyunsatured omega‐3 fatty acids, vitamin D) and macronutrients (fish) in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia/AD. Some factors have been targeted by interventions tested in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), but many of the results are conflicting with observational evidence. Epidemiological analysis of the relations between nutrient consumption and cognitive decline is complex and it is highly unlikely that a single component plays a major role. In addition, since multiple factors across the life course influence brain function in late life, multidomain interventions might be more promising in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia/AD. Designing such trials remains very challenging for researchers. The main objective of this paper is to review the epidemiologic data linking potential protective factors to cognitive decline or dementia/AD, focusing particularly on the roles of adiposity, caloric restriction, micro (group B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism, the anti‐oxidant vitamins C and E, flavonoids, polyunsatured omega‐3 fatty acids, vitamin D) and macronutrients (fish). Limitations of the current data, divergence with results of interventional prevention studies and challenges for future research are discussed. PMID:23384081

  8. The Epidemiology of Male Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ferzoco, Raina M; Ruddy, Kathryn J

    2016-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease, accounting for only 1% of breast cancer diagnoses in the USA. The current literature suggests that genetic factors including BRCA2 mutations, family history, age, androgen/estrogen imbalance, and environmental exposures may predispose to male breast cancer. In this manuscript, we will review known and possible risk factors for male breast cancer, as well as describe the clinical patterns of the disease.

  9. Molecular Epidemiology of Female Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Seon-Hee; Chung, Yeun-Jun

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is still a leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. The incidence of lung cancer in developed countries started to decrease mainly due to global anti-smoking campaigns. However, the incidence of lung cancer in women has been increasing in recent decades for various reasons. Furthermore, since the screening of lung cancer is not as yet very effective, clinically applicable molecular markers for early diagnosis are much required. Lung cancer in women appears to have differences compared with that in men, in terms of histologic types and susceptibility to environmental risk factors. This suggests that female lung cancer can be derived by carcinogenic mechanisms different from those involved in male lung cancer. Among female lung cancer patients, many are non-smokers, which could be studied to identify alternative carcinogenic mechanisms independent from smoking-related ones. In this paper, we reviewed molecular susceptibility markers and genetic changes in lung cancer tissues observed in female lung cancer patients, which have been validated by various studies and will be helpful to understand the tumorigenesis of lung cancer. PMID:24212786

  10. Genetic epidemiology of breast cancer in Britain.

    PubMed

    Iselius, L; Slack, J; Littler, M; Morton, N E

    1991-05-01

    A complex segregation analysis was conducted on two British series (one consecutive series of probands with breast cancer and one series ascertained through a normal consultand). Altogether there were 1248 nuclear families with breast cancer. A dominant gene with a frequency of 0.003 giving a lifetime penetrance of 0.83 is favoured. Ovarian, endometrial and cancers associated with the SBLA syndrome, as well as benign breast disease, were significantly more common in familial breast cancer than in families of single cases. Probands in families with more than one individual with breast cancer were non-significantly younger than isolated probands.

  11. Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Kristin; Stuckey, Ashley

    2016-12-01

    Between the years 2010 and 2012, the lifetime probability of developing female breast cancer was 12.3%, or approximately 1 in 8. Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Survival is increasing. Between 2005 and 2011, the 5-year relative survival was found to be 89%. This is thought to be due to both the increase in utilization of population-wide screening, as well as advances in treatment. Less than 10% of breast cancers can be attributed to an inherited genetic mutation. Breast cancer is more commonly associated with environmental, reproductive, and lifestyle factors, some of which are potentially modifiable.

  12. Epidemiological bases and molecular mechanisms linking obesity, diabetes, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Salmerón, María; Chocarro-Calvo, Ana; García-Martínez, José Manuel; de la Vieja, Antonio; García-Jiménez, Custodia

    2017-02-01

    The association between diabetes and cancer was hypothesized almost one century ago. Today, a vast number of epidemiological studies support that obese and diabetic populations are more likely to experience tissue-specific cancers, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Obesity, diabetes, and cancer share many hormonal, immune, and metabolic changes that may account for the relationship between diabetes and cancer. In addition, antidiabetic treatments may have an impact on the occurrence and course of some cancers. Moreover, some anticancer treatments may induce diabetes. These observations aroused a great controversy because of the ethical implications and the associated commercial interests. We report an epidemiological update from a mechanistic perspective that suggests the existence of many common and differential individual mechanisms linking obesity and type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus to certain cancers. The challenge today is to identify the molecular links responsible for this association. Classification of cancers by their molecular signatures may facilitate future mechanistic and epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Epidemiologic Evidence on the Health Effects of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA)

    PubMed Central

    Steenland, Kyle; Fletcher, Tony; Savitz, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective and sources We reviewed the epidemiologic literature for PFOA. Data synthesis Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) does not occur naturally but is present in the serum of most residents of industrialized countries (U.S. median, 4 ng/mL). Drinking water is the primary route of exposure in some populations, but exposure sources are not well understood. PFOA has been used to manufacture such products as Gore-Tex and Teflon. PFOA does not break down in the environment; the human half-life is estimated at about 3 years. PFOA is not metabolized in the body; it is not lipophilic. PFOA is not directly genotoxic; animal data indicate that it can cause several types of tumors and neonatal death and may have toxic effects on the immune, liver, and endocrine systems. Data on the human health effects of PFOA are sparse. There is relatively consistent evidence of modest positive associations with cholesterol and uric acid, although the magnitude of the cholesterol effect is inconsistent across different exposure levels. There is some but much less consistent evidence of a modest positive correlation with liver enzymes. Most findings come from cross-sectional studies, limiting conclusions. Two occupational cohort studies do not provide consistent evidence for chronic disease; both are limited by sample size and reliance on mortality data. Reproductive data have increased recently but are inconsistent, and any observed adverse effects are modest. Conclusions Epidemiologic evidence remains limited, and to date data are insufficient to draw firm conclusions regarding the role of PFOA for any of the diseases of concern. PMID:20423814

  14. Epidemiologic evidence on the health effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA).

    PubMed

    Steenland, Kyle; Fletcher, Tony; Savitz, David A

    2010-08-01

    OBJECTIVE AND SOURCES: We reviewed the epidemiologic literature for PFOA. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) does not occur naturally but is present in the serum of most residents of industrialized countries (U.S. median, 4 ng/mL). Drinking water is the primary route of exposure in some populations, but exposure sources are not well understood. PFOA has been used to manufacture such products as Gore-Tex and Teflon. PFOA does not break down in the environment; the human half-life is estimated at about 3 years. PFOA is not metabolized in the body; it is not lipophilic. PFOA is not directly genotoxic; animal data indicate that it can cause several types of tumors and neonatal death and may have toxic effects on the immune, liver, and endocrine systems. Data on the human health effects of PFOA are sparse. There is relatively consistent evidence of modest positive associations with cholesterol and uric acid, although the magnitude of the cholesterol effect is inconsistent across different exposure levels. There is some but much less consistent evidence of a modest positive correlation with liver enzymes. Most findings come from cross-sectional studies, limiting conclusions. Two occupational cohort studies do not provide consistent evidence for chronic disease; both are limited by sample size and reliance on mortality data. Reproductive data have increased recently but are inconsistent, and any observed adverse effects are modest. Epidemiologic evidence remains limited, and to date data are insufficient to draw firm conclusions regarding the role of PFOA for any of the diseases of concern.

  15. Epidemiologic studies of ionizing radiation and cancer: past successes and future challenges.

    PubMed Central

    Samet, J M

    1997-01-01

    The health effects of radiation have been a focus for research since early in the 20th century. As the century ends, extensive experimental and epidemiologic evidence has been accumulated that addresses the adverse consequences of radiation exposure; epidemiologic studies of radiation-exposed groups from the general population and specific occupational groups provide quantitative estimates of the cancer risks associated with exposure. This report provides a perspective on the extensive epidemiologic evidence on the health effects of ionizing radiation and on likely needs for further epidemiologic research on radiation and health. Epidemiologic studies have proved informative on the quantitative risks of radiation-caused cancer but we now face the challenges of more precisely characterizing risks at lower levels of exposure and also of assessing modifiers of the risks, including dose rate, genetic susceptibility, and other environmental exposures. This report considers investigative approaches, such as pooled analysis of multiple data sets, that can be used to address these complex questions and the limitations of these approaches for addressing societal concerns about the risks of radiation exposure. PMID:9255575

  16. Gastric Cancer: Descriptive Epidemiology, Risk Factors, Screening, and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Parisa; Islami, Farhad; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Freedman, Neal D.; Kamangar, Farin

    2014-01-01

    Less than a century ago, gastric cancer (GC) was the most common cancer in the United States and perhaps throughout the world. Despite its worldwide decline in incidence over the past century, GC remains a major killer across the globe. This article reviews the epidemiology, screening, and prevention of gastric cancer. We first discuss the descriptive epidemiology of GC, including its incidence, survival, and mortality, including trends over time. Next, we characterize the risk factors for gastric cancer, both environmental and genetic. Serological markers and histological precursor lesions of GC and early detection of GC of using these markers is reviewed. Finally, we discuss prevention strategies and provide suggestions for further research. PMID:24618998

  17. The two-stage clonal expansion model in occupational cancer epidemiology: results from three cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Zeka, Ariana; Gore, Rebecca; Kriebel, David

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this work was to apply the two-stage clonal expansion model, with the intention to expand the literature on epidemiological applications of the model and demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating biologically based modelling methods into the widely used retrospective cohort study. The authors fitted the two-stage clonal expansion model model to three occupational cohort studies: (1) a cohort of textile workers exposed to asbestos and followed for lung cancer mortality; (2) a cohort of diatomaceous earth workers exposed to silica and also followed for lung cancer mortality; and (3) a cohort of automotive manufacturing workers exposed to straight metalworking fluid (MWF) and followed for larynx cancer incidence. The model allowed the authors to estimate exposure effects in three stages: cancer initiation (early effects), promotion or malignant transformation (late effects). In the first cohort, the authors found strong evidence for an early effect of asbestos on lung cancer risk. Findings from analyses of the second cohort suggested early and less evidently late effects of silica on lung cancer risk. In the MWF (third) cohort, there was only weak evidence of straight MWF exposure effects on both early and late stages. The authors also observed a late birth cohort effect on larynx cancer risk. The findings for asbestos and silica were essentially confirmatory, supporting evidence for their early effects on lung cancer from a large body of literature. The effect of straight MWF on larynx cancer was less clear.

  18. Frontiers in cancer epidemiology: a challenge to the research community from the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program at the National Cancer Institute.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Muin J; Freedman, Andrew N; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Harvey, Chinonye E; Kaefer, Christie; Reid, Britt C; Rogers, Scott; Schully, Sheri D; Seminara, Daniela; Verma, Mukesh

    2012-07-01

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is developing scientific priorities for cancer epidemiology research in the next decade. We would like to engage the research community and other stakeholders in a planning effort that will include a workshop in December 2012 to help shape new foci for cancer epidemiology research. To facilitate the process of defining the future of cancer epidemiology, we invite the research community to join in an ongoing web-based conversation at http://blog-epi.grants.cancer.gov/ to develop priorities and the next generation of high-impact studies. ©2012 AACR

  19. Endometrial cancer and obesity: epidemiology, biomarkers, prevention and survivorship.

    PubMed

    Fader, Amanda Nickles; Arriba, Lucybeth Nieves; Frasure, Heidi E; von Gruenigen, Vivian E

    2009-07-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the Western world and is strongly associated with obesity. Despite the fact that most cases are diagnosed in early, more favorable stages, endometrial cancer incidence and mortality rates are on the rise. Morbidly obese women with endometrial cancer are more likely to die of their co-morbidities and also of their cancers when compared to their leaner cohorts. Given the increasing rates of morbid obesity in the United States, it is essential to develop appropriate screening tools and guidelines to reduce cancer morbidity and death amongst this group. Through an analysis of the existing literature, we present a review of the epidemiologic trends in obesity and endometrial cancer, discuss the promising role of screening biomarker studies, review prevention efforts and modifiable risk factors, and ways in which health outcomes and quality of life for endometrial cancer survivors may be optimized.

  20. Biologically based epidemiological studies of electric power and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, R.G.

    1993-12-01

    Use of electricity is a hallmark of the industrialization process, but there has been no suspicion that electricity could increase the risk of cancer. Recently, however, a number of epidemiologic studies have suggested that electromagnetic fields (EMF) may do just that. Although few cancer experiments have been done yet, there are a number of biological effects of EMF reported in the literature that might provide bases for designing cancer experiments and epidemiologic studies. These include effects of EMF on: (a) DNA transcription and translation, (b) calcium balance in cells, and (c) pineal production of melatonin. Alterations in DNA transcription and translation could have pleiotropic effects. Disruption of calcium homeostasis has many implications including oncogene activation, promotional activity via protein kinases and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), and increasing oxidative stress. Reduction of melatonin suggests a possible increased risk of cancers of hormone-dependent tissues such as breast and prostate. The idea that a cancer-causing agent must either be an initiator or a promoter should be discarded; indeed, the phenomenologic meaning of these two terms has become confused with imputed mechanistic necessity in recent years. Agents that affect division of normal cells or of fully transformed cells can play an important role in clinical cancer development quite apart from initiation or promotion. Epidemiologic studies of EMF and cancer should attempt to take account of other products of electric power (e.g., light at night) or factors associated with occupational EMF exposure (e.g., toxic chemicals) that may increase cancer risk and therefore act as cofactors or confounders. Epidemiology and laboratory studies should act synergistically in determining if there is a problem and identifying mitigation strategies if needed. 84 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. [Oral cavity cancer: epidemiology and early diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Ghantous, Y; Yaffi, V; Abu-Elnaaj, I

    2015-07-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity (Oral cancer) is the 11th most common malignancy in the world, despite the general global trend of a slight decrease in the incidence of oral cancer, tongue cancer incidence is increasing. About 90% of tumors are subtyped to oral Squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The incidence and mortality of this tumor shows variability according to the geographic location in which it is diagnosed, however in the last decade an increase was seen in the percentage of young patients, especially patients with tongue cancer. The overall prognosis of this cancer is roughly 55-65%, this is probably due to late diagnosis. Early diagnosis of oral cancer is the most important factor affecting the overall survival and prognosis, thus several diagnosis methods have been developed in the past few years. Still, the prognosis did not improve as expected. Oral cancer biomarkers in saliva is as easy body fluid, for noninvasive detection. Several researches identified several possible biomarkers, but none was specific. In our review, the incidence and mortality of oral tumors pose a main health problem in many aspects all around the world, as well as differences in behavior of these tumors. We witnessed more cases of anterior tongue cancers affecting mainly the young age patient group, a two decades younger than the normal risk group of oral cancer. Several countries in Europe showed a significant increase of oral cancer prevalence, such as Germany, especially in men. Similar behavior was also reported in the United States, which showed a change in the risk groups. Studies have reported an alarming lack of awareness about oral cancer, its symptoms and early diagnosis. These gaps in knowledge need to be addressed by further public education, possibly targeted at high-risk groups. With the knowledge of possible, specific, early biomarkers, primary detection could improve the prognosis tremendously. Research on the salivary biomarkers of the disease would help to develop

  2. [Descriptive epidemiology of cancers in Cote d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Effi, Ahoua Benjamin; Koffi, Kouakou Emmanuel; Aman, N'guiessan Alphonse; Doukouré, Brahima; N'dah, Kouamé Justin; Koffi, Kouadio Donatien; Kouyaté, Mohamed; Koui, Béossin Baumaney Sylvanus; Hondé, Michel; Diomandé, Mohenou Isidore Jean Marie

    2013-02-01

    The cancerous disease is a real pain in developed countries due to the ageing of the population. According to the World Report Cancer in 2000, cancer tends to be a major problem of public health in the developing nations. This study research aimed at describing the epidemiological features of cancers in Cote d'Ivoire. It is a 26-year retrospective and descriptive study focusing on all cancers confirmed histologically by using the data from the registers of Anatomic Pathology laboratory of Abidjan teaching hospitals. The parameters of the study were frequency, age, sex, site and histological type. We obtained 12,841 cancers within patients aged from 2 months to 107 years old along with 51.26-year median age and 0.9 as sex-ratio. The most important cancer locations are cervix (17.41%) followed by skin (15.81%), prostate (7.73%), breast (6.88%), and stomach (6.09%). With women, the median age was 49.23 years, and the most common cancers were cervical cancer (33.25%) followed by breast cancer (12.44%) and skin cancer (10.50%). With men, the median age was 53.95 years, and the most frequent cancers were skin cancer (21.29%) followed by prostate cancer (15.69%) and stomach cancer (8.71%). Burkitt lymphoma (33.95%), retinoblastoma (10.92%) and nephroblastoma (5.88%) are the most important cancers in children. Cancers are frequent in Cote d'Ivoire. Cervical cancer, skin cancer, and prostate are updated problems with a worse prognosis. Therefore, the screening and the early diagnosis remain the best conditions to improve the prognosis of cancer.

  3. Current issues in gastric cancer epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Patru, C L; Surlin, V; Georgescu, I; Patru, Emilia

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer, one of the most common malignant tumors of digestive tract continues to be a major health problem by frequency, aggressiveness and low rate of cure in symptomatic stage. Although its incidence is decreasing (especially in the West), globally the gastric cancer is ranked fourth in incidence among cancers at various sites. Despite these developments, the gastric cancer mortality, overall declining globally, is high. especially in the West where even if diagnosed fewer cases of gastric cancer, TNM stages are advanced and have a poor prognosis. In contrast, in Japan, where the incidence is still high, the percentage of cases diagnosed at the stage of "early gastric cancer" has greatly increased, thus improving prognosis. Gastric neoplasia affects more men, age range 50-70 years, disadvantaged social classes and black race. In Romania the gastric cancer incidence is increasing over recent years, presenting variations across the country being more common in men compared with women, reaching a peak of incidence around age 60. Gastric cancer mortality in the world places Romania among the countries with average mortality. Gastric cancer prognosis remains extremely reserved, in close correlation with tumor stage at diagnosis, surgical treatment being the only possibility to provide improved survival, especially in the early stages. Improvement of survival rate in recent years is due to increased gastric resectability result of an earlier diagnosis, a more complex treatment and a closer monitoring of the population at risk.

  4. Confidence intervals for effect parameters common in cancer epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Sato, T

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews approximate confidence intervals for some effect parameters common in cancer epidemiology. These methods have computational feasibility and give nearly nominal coverage rates. In the analysis of crude data, the simplest type of epidemiologic analysis, parameters of interest are the odds ratio in case-control studies and the rate ratio and difference in cohort studies. These parameters can estimate the instantaneous-incidence-rate ratio and difference that are the most meaningful effect measures in cancer epidemiology. Approximate confidence intervals for these parameters including the classical Cornfield's method are mainly based on efficient scores. When some confounding factors exist, stratified analysis and summary measures for effect parameters are needed. Since the Mantel-Haenszel estimators have been widely used by epidemiologists as summary measures, confidence intervals based on the Mantel-Haenszel estimators are described. The paper also discusses recent developments in these methods. PMID:2269246

  5. Gallbladder cancer epidemiology, pathogenesis and molecular genetics: Recent update.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Aarti; Sharma, Kiran Lata; Gupta, Annapurna; Yadav, Alka; Kumar, Ashok

    2017-06-14

    Gallbladder cancer is a malignancy of biliary tract which is infrequent in developed countries but common in some specific geographical regions of developing countries. Late diagnosis and deprived prognosis are major problems for treatment of gallbladder carcinoma. The dramatic associations of this orphan cancer with various genetic and environmental factors are responsible for its poorly defined pathogenesis. An understanding to the relationship between epidemiology, molecular genetics and pathogenesis of gallbladder cancer can add new insights to its undetermined pathophysiology. Present review article provides a recent update regarding epidemiology, pathogenesis, and molecular genetics of gallbladder cancer. We systematically reviewed published literature on gallbladder cancer from online search engine PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed). Various keywords used for retrieval of articles were Gallbladder, cancer Epidemiology, molecular genetics and bullion operators like AND, OR, NOT. Cross references were manually searched from various online search engines (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed,https://scholar.google.co.in/, http://www.medline.com/home.jsp). Most of the articles published from 1982 to 2015 in peer reviewed journals have been included in this review.

  6. Gallbladder cancer epidemiology, pathogenesis and molecular genetics: Recent update

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Aarti; Sharma, Kiran Lata; Gupta, Annapurna; Yadav, Alka; Kumar, Ashok

    2017-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer is a malignancy of biliary tract which is infrequent in developed countries but common in some specific geographical regions of developing countries. Late diagnosis and deprived prognosis are major problems for treatment of gallbladder carcinoma. The dramatic associations of this orphan cancer with various genetic and environmental factors are responsible for its poorly defined pathogenesis. An understanding to the relationship between epidemiology, molecular genetics and pathogenesis of gallbladder cancer can add new insights to its undetermined pathophysiology. Present review article provides a recent update regarding epidemiology, pathogenesis, and molecular genetics of gallbladder cancer. We systematically reviewed published literature on gallbladder cancer from online search engine PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed). Various keywords used for retrieval of articles were Gallbladder, cancer Epidemiology, molecular genetics and bullion operators like AND, OR, NOT. Cross references were manually searched from various online search engines (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed,https://scholar.google.co.in/, http://www.medline.com/home.jsp). Most of the articles published from 1982 to 2015 in peer reviewed journals have been included in this review. PMID:28652652

  7. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Nubia; Bravo, Luis Eduardo

    2012-10-01

    Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women, and the first or second most common in developing countries. Cervical cancer remains in Colombia the first cause of cancer mortality and the second cause of cancer incidence among women, despite the existence of screening programs during the last 3 decades. Bucaramanga, Manizales and Cali reported rates around 20 per 100,000and Pasto 27 per 100,000. The Cali cancer registry has reported a progressive decrease in the age standardized incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer over the past 40 years. Reasons for the decline in incidence and mortality of cervical cancer are multiple and probably include: improvement in socio-economic conditions, decrease in parity rates and some effect of screening programs. Human papilloma Virus is the main cause of cervical cancer, HPV natural history studies have now revealed that HPVs are the commonest of the sexually transmitted infections in most populations. Most HPV exposures result in spontaneous clearance without clinical manifestations and only a small fraction of the infected persons, known as chronic or persistent carriers, will retain the virus and progress to precancerous and cancer. HPV 16 and 18 account for 70% of cervical cancer and the 8 most common types. (HPV 16, 18, 45, 33, 31, 52, 58 and 35) account for about 90% of cervical cancer. Case-control studies also allowed the identification of the following cofactors that acting together with HPV increase the risk of progression from HPV persistent infection to cervical cancer: tobacco, high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives and past infections with herpes simplex type 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis. The demonstration that infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is not only the main cause but also a necessary cause of cervical cancer has led to great advances in the prevention of this disease on two fronts: (i) Primary prevention by the use of prophylactic HPV

  8. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Nubia

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women, and the first or second most common in developing countries. Cervical cancer remains in Colombia the first cause of cancer mortality and the second cause of cancer incidence among women, despite the existence of screening programs during the last 3 decades. Bucaramanga, Manizales and Cali reported rates around 20 per 100,000and Pasto 27 per 100,000. The Cali cancer registry has reported a progressive decrease in the age standardized incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer over the past 40 years. Reasons for the decline in incidence and mortality of cervical cancer are multiple and probably include: improvement in socio-economic conditions, decrease in parity rates and some effect of screening programs. Human papilloma Virus is the main cause of cervical cancer, HPV natural history studies have now revealed that HPVs are the commonest of the sexually transmitted infections in most populations. Most HPV exposures result in spontaneous clearance without clinical manifestations and only a small fraction of the infected persons, known as chronic or persistent carriers, will retain the virus and progress to precancerous and cancer. HPV 16 and 18 account for 70% of cervical cancer and the 8 most common types. (HPV 16, 18, 45, 33, 31, 52, 58 and 35) account for about 90% of cervical cancer. Case-control studies also allowed the identification of the following cofactors that acting together with HPV increase the risk of progression from HPV persistent infection to cervical cancer: tobacco, high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives and past infections with herpes simplex type 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis. The demonstration that infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is not only the main cause but also a necessary cause of cervical cancer has led to great advances in the prevention of this disease on two fronts: (i) Primary prevention by the use of prophylactic HPV

  9. Breast Cancer Epidemiology in Puerto Rico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-30

    0329 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Cruz Nazario, Ph.D. 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING...Both, diet and body size, are important elements of the planned study. Dr. Mansilla-Rivera took a course in Environmental Epidemiology at Ohio State...Asparagus Carrot Watercress Dark green lettuce Other lettuce Spinach Avocado Radish

  10. Epidemiology of cancer-associated venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Timp, Jasmijn F; Braekkan, Sigrid K; Versteeg, Henri H; Cannegieter, Suzanne C

    2013-09-05

    Cancer-associated venous thrombosis is a common condition, although the reported incidence varies widely between studies depending on patient population, start and duration of follow-up, and the method of detecting and reporting thrombotic events. Furthermore, as cancer is a heterogeneous disease, the risk of venous thrombosis depends on cancer types and stages, treatment measures, and patient-related factors. In general, cancer patients with venous thrombosis do not fare well and have an increased mortality compared with cancer patients without. This may be explained by the more aggressive type of malignancies associated with this condition. It is hypothesized that thromboprophylaxis in cancer patients might improve prognosis and quality of life by preventing thrombotic events. However, anticoagulant treatment leads to increased bleeding, particularly in this patient group, so in case of proven benefit of thromboprophylaxis, only patients with a high risk of venous thrombosis should be considered. This review describes the literature on incidence of and risk factors for cancer-associated venous thrombosis, with the aim to provide a basis for identification of high-risk patients and for further development and refinement of prediction models. Furthermore, knowledge on risk factors for cancer-related venous thrombosis may enhance the understanding of the pathophysiology of thrombosis in these patients.

  11. Penile cancer: is there an epidemiological role for smoking and sexual behaviour?

    PubMed Central

    Hellberg, D; Valentin, J; Eklund, T; Nilsson, S

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out to determine whether penile cancer, like cervical cancer, was associated with smoking and sexual behaviour. Altogether 244 men with penile cancer and 232 matched controls completed a questionnaire by post or telephone. Data on marital state, socioeconomic group, occupation, history of phimosis and balanitis, sexual behaviour, and smoking were obtained. The results of statistical analyses confirmed that phimosis and balanitis were risk factors for penile cancer, but there was no epidemiological evidence for it being a sexually transmitted disease. Smoking was a risk factor with a dose-response relation and remained associated with penile cancer even after adjustment for confounding factors. Penile cancer is associated with smoking independently of phimosis; treatment of phimosis alone does not remove the risk caused by smoking. PMID:3120988

  12. Risk Factors and Epidemiology of Gastric Cancer in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Daniyal, Muhammad; Ahmad, Saeed; Ahmad, Mukhtiar; Asif, Hafiz Muhammad; Akram, Muhammad; Ur Rehman, Saif; Sultana, Sabira

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the 2nd most common cause of death among all cancers and is the 4th most common cancer in the world. The number of deaths due to gastric cancer is about 800,000 annually. Gastric cancer is more common in men as compared to women and is 3rd most common cancer after colorectal and breast cancers in women. A progressive rise in the incidence rate has been observed in females over the last 5 years. The highest incidence of stomach cancer is in China, South America and Eastern Europe. The incidence of gastric cancer has 20 fold variation worldwide. Global variation is linked by two factors which play important role in developing gastric cancer. One is infection with Helicobacter pylori and the 2nd is diet. South Asia is a region with low risk, despite a high prevalence of H.pylori. Gastric carcinoma is common in southern region of India. Gastric cancer is more readily treated if diagnosed early. This study aims to provide awareness about gastric cancer as well as an updated knowledge about risk factors and epidemiology of gastric cancer in Pakistan.

  13. An epidemiologic risk prediction model for ovarian cancer in Europe: the EPIC study

    PubMed Central

    Li, K; Hüsing, A; Fortner, R T; Tjønneland, A; Hansen, L; Dossus, L; Chang-Claude, J; Bergmann, M; Steffen, A; Bamia, C; Trichopoulos, D; Trichopoulou, A; Palli, D; Mattiello, A; Agnoli, C; Tumino, R; Onland-Moret, N C; Peeters, P H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B(as); Gram, I T; Weiderpass, E; Sánchez-Cantalejo, E; Chirlaque, M-D; Duell, E J; Ardanaz, E; Idahl, A; Lundin, E; Khaw, K-T; Travis, R C; Merritt, M A; Gunter, M J; Riboli, E; Ferrari, P; Terry, K; Cramer, D; Kaaks, R

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ovarian cancer has a high case-fatality ratio, largely due to late diagnosis. Epidemiologic risk prediction models could help identify women at increased risk who may benefit from targeted prevention measures, such as screening or chemopreventive agents. Methods: We built an ovarian cancer risk prediction model with epidemiologic risk factors from 202 206 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Results: Older age at menopause, longer duration of hormone replacement therapy, and higher body mass index were included as increasing ovarian cancer risk, whereas unilateral ovariectomy, longer duration of oral contraceptive use, and higher number of full-term pregnancies were decreasing risk. The discriminatory power (overall concordance index) of this model, as examined with five-fold cross-validation, was 0.64 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57, 0.70). The ratio of the expected to observed number of ovarian cancer cases occurring in the first 5 years of follow-up was 0.90 (293 out of 324, 95% CI: 0.81–1.01), in general there was no evidence for miscalibration. Conclusion: Our ovarian cancer risk model containing only epidemiological data showed modest discriminatory power for a Western European population. Future studies should consider adding informative biomarkers to possibly improve the predictive ability of the model. PMID:25742479

  14. Nutritional epidemiological studies in cancer prevention: what went wrong, and how to move forwards.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Cristina; Boffetta, Paolo

    2011-11-01

    It has been almost 30 years since Doll and Peto suggested that most of the differences in cancer rates could be attributed to the environment and behavioral factors including diet. Since then epidemiological studies have reported that individuals consuming large amounts of fruits and vegetables have a reduced risk of cancer. From this evidence, large randomized trials of long duration were designed to test the hypothesis that some micronutrients contained in plant foods decrease cancer risk. Despite the promising experimental and epidemiological data, most randomized controlled trials failed to confirm a protective role for single or combined elements in cancer prevention. The results from randomized trials of micronutrients for cancer prevention have been mixed. Some trials did not demonstrate chemopreventive efficacy for their primary endpoints but showed statistically significant reductions in secondary outcomes, whereas others showed unexpected harmful effects. On the basis of these findings and reflections of what went wrong it is important to find alternative approaches to move forwards in cancer prevention. Clearly, the evidence is not encouraging for further preventive trials on cancer in healthy populations. However, if we identify high-risk individuals using models that include genetic polymorphisms, or in the future, MicroRNA profiles, prevention trials could be designed to target only these groups.

  15. Epidemiology of basal-like breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Millikan, Robert C; Newman, Beth; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Moorman, Patricia G; Conway, Kathleen; Dressler, Lynn G; Smith, Lisa V; Labbok, Miriam H; Geradts, Joseph; Bensen, Jeannette T; Jackson, Susan; Nyante, Sarah; Livasy, Chad; Carey, Lisa; Earp, H Shelton; Perou, Charles M

    2008-05-01

    Risk factors for the newly identified "intrinsic" breast cancer subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, basal-like and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive/estrogen receptor-negative) were determined in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based, case-control study of African-American and white women. Immunohistochemical markers were used to subtype 1,424 cases of invasive and in situ breast cancer, and case subtypes were compared to 2,022 controls. Luminal A, the most common subtype, exhibited risk factors typically reported for breast cancer in previous studies, including inverse associations for increased parity and younger age at first full-term pregnancy. Basal-like cases exhibited several associations that were opposite to those observed for luminal A, including increased risk for parity and younger age at first term full-term pregnancy. Longer duration breastfeeding, increasing number of children breastfed, and increasing number of months breastfeeding per child were each associated with reduced risk of basal-like breast cancer, but not luminal A. Women with multiple live births who did not breastfeed and women who used medications to suppress lactation were at increased risk of basal-like, but not luminal A, breast cancer. Elevated waist-hip ratio was associated with increased risk of luminal A in postmenopausal women, and increased risk of basal-like breast cancer in pre- and postmenopausal women. The prevalence of basal-like breast cancer was highest among premenopausal African-American women, who also showed the highest prevalence of basal-like risk factors. Among younger African-American women, we estimate that up to 68% of basal-like breast cancer could be prevented by promoting breastfeeding and reducing abdominal adiposity.

  16. Ambient temperature and morbidity: a review of epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaofang; Wolff, Rodney; Yu, Weiwei; Vaneckova, Pavla; Pan, Xiaochuan; Tong, Shilu

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we review the epidemiological evidence on the relationship between ambient temperature and morbidity. We assessed the methodological issues in previous studies and proposed future research directions. We searched the PubMed database for epidemiological studies on ambient temperature and morbidity of noncommunicable diseases published in refereed English journals before 30 June 2010. Forty relevant studies were identified. Of these, 24 examined the relationship between ambient temperature and morbidity, 15 investigated the short-term effects of heat wave on morbidity, and 1 assessed both temperature and heat wave effects. Descriptive and time-series studies were the two main research designs used to investigate the temperature-morbidity relationship. Measurements of temperature exposure and health outcomes used in these studies differed widely. The majority of studies reported a significant relationship between ambient temperature and total or cause-specific morbidities. However, there were some inconsistencies in the direction and magnitude of nonlinear lag effects. The lag effect of hot temperature on morbidity was shorter (several days) compared with that of cold temperature (up to a few weeks). The temperature-morbidity relationship may be confounded or modified by sociodemographic factors and air pollution. There is a significant short-term effect of ambient temperature on total and cause-specific morbidities. However, further research is needed to determine an appropriate temperature measure, consider a diverse range of morbidities, and to use consistent methodology to make different studies more comparable.

  17. Ambient Temperature and Morbidity: A Review of Epidemiological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiaofang; Wolff, Rodney; Yu, Weiwei; Vaneckova, Pavla; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In this paper, we review the epidemiological evidence on the relationship between ambient temperature and morbidity. We assessed the methodological issues in previous studies and proposed future research directions. Data sources and data extraction: We searched the PubMed database for epidemiological studies on ambient temperature and morbidity of noncommunicable diseases published in refereed English journals before 30 June 2010. Forty relevant studies were identified. Of these, 24 examined the relationship between ambient temperature and morbidity, 15 investigated the short-term effects of heat wave on morbidity, and 1 assessed both temperature and heat wave effects. Data synthesis: Descriptive and time-series studies were the two main research designs used to investigate the temperature–morbidity relationship. Measurements of temperature exposure and health outcomes used in these studies differed widely. The majority of studies reported a significant relationship between ambient temperature and total or cause-specific morbidities. However, there were some inconsistencies in the direction and magnitude of nonlinear lag effects. The lag effect of hot temperature on morbidity was shorter (several days) compared with that of cold temperature (up to a few weeks). The temperature–morbidity relationship may be confounded or modified by sociodemographic factors and air pollution. Conclusions: There is a significant short-term effect of ambient temperature on total and cause-specific morbidities. However, further research is needed to determine an appropriate temperature measure, consider a diverse range of morbidities, and to use consistent methodology to make different studies more comparable. PMID:21824855

  18. Cancer chemoprevention by nuts: evidence and promises.

    PubMed

    Falasca, Marco; Casari, Ilaria

    2012-01-01

    Chemoprevention is the use of chemical compounds to interfere with the early precancerous stages of carcinogenesis and thereby reverse tumor formation. Many chemopreventive agents, either natural or synthetic, have been identified. Some of the most promising compounds are found in vegetables and fruits. There are numerous mechanisms of action by which these components can intervene in the prevention of cancer, although they have not been fully elucidated. It is worth to note that some foods contain different bioactive compounds. Therefore the possibility exists that combinations of compounds, naturally occurring in those foods, may have a cumulative or even synergistic effect. Nuts are very rich in different bioactive compounds whose anti-cancer properties have already been described. Epidemiologic studies have already suggested that nuts consumption may be potentially beneficial in the incidence of other diseases, such as coronary heart disease and diabetes. Although the results are not conclusive, recent studies show possible cancer protective effects of nuts. This review will focus on the laboratory and clinical evidence of nuts chemopreventive and therapeutic properties.

  19. Shift work and chronic disease: the epidemiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, M. E. G.; Cairns, B. J.; Key, T. J.; Travis, R. C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Shift work, including night work, has been hypothesized to increase the risk of chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Recent reviews of evidence relating to these hypotheses have focussed on specific diseases or potential mechanisms, but no general summary of the current data on shift work and chronic disease has been published. Methods Systematic and critical reviews and recent original studies indexed in PubMed prior to 31 December 2009 were retrieved, aided by manual searches of reference lists. The main conclusions from reviews and principle results from recent studies are presented in text and tables. Results Published evidence is suggestive but not conclusive for an adverse association between night work and breast cancer but limited and inconsistent for cancers at other sites and all cancers combined. Findings on shift work, in relation to risks of CVD, metabolic syndrome and diabetes are also suggestive but not conclusive for an adverse relationship. Conclusions Heterogeneity of study exposures and outcomes and emphasis on positive but non-significant results make it difficult to draw general conclusions. Further data are needed for additional disease endpoints and study populations. PMID:21355031

  20. Epidemiological appraisal of studies of residential exposure to power frequency magnetic fields and adult cancers.

    PubMed Central

    Li, C Y; Thériault, G; Lin, R S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To appraise epidemiological evidence of the purported association between residential exposure to power frequency magnetic fields and adult cancers. METHODS: Literature review and epidemiological evaluation. RESULTS: Seven epidemiological studies have been conducted on the risk of cancer among adults in relation to residential exposure to power frequency magnetic fields. Leukaemia was positively associated with magnetic fields in three case-control studies. The other two case-control studies and two cohort studies did not show such a link. Brain tumours and breast cancer have rarely been examined by these studies. Based on the epidemiological results, the analysis of the role of chance and bias, and the criteria for causal inferences, it seems that the evidence is not strong enough to support the putative causal relation between residential exposure to magnetic fields and adult leukaemia, brain tumours, or breast cancer. Inadequate statistical power is far more a concern than selection bias, information bias, and confounding in interpreting the results from these studies, and in explaining inconsistencies between studies. CONCLUSIONS: Our reviews suggested that the only way to answer whether residential exposure to magnetic fields is capable of increasing the risks of adult cancers is to conduct more studies carefully avoiding methodological flaws, in particular small sample size. We also suggested that the risk of female breast cancer should be the object of additional investigations, and that future studies should attempt to include information on exposure to magnetic fields from workplaces as well as residential exposure to estimate the effects of overall exposure to magnetic fields. PMID:8983460

  1. Epidemiology and prevention of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hawk, Ernest T; Limburg, Paul J; Viner, Jaye L

    2002-10-01

    CRC, the second-leading cause of cancer death in the United States, is a highly preventable disease. Ironically, available and effective screening technologies are not consistently applied, even as new ones are developed. This discordance between preventive opportunity and practice conveys a sobering message regarding nontechnologic issues that must be addressed if the promise of CRC prevention is to be realized. Our response to this message will determine the public health impact of cancer prevention. In the 1980s, cancer chemoprevention was regarded as scientific speculation. Within the last decade, however, cancer has been recognized as a late, nonobligate stage of carcinogenesis, a chronic process that provides time and targets for preventive intervention. Further advances are emerging out of rigorous clinical testing, which remains the limiting factor in transforming ingenious concepts into useful tools for the prevention of CRC. The challenges and rewards of participation in chemoprevention research--both as patients and health care providers-have never been greater.

  2. The epidemiology of hypopharynx and cervical esophagus cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bertesteanu, SVG; Mirea, D; Grigore, R; Ionescu, D; Popescu, B

    2010-01-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century hypopharynx and cervical esophagus cancer represents a major issue for all countries of the world. The epidemiology of the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus cancer deals with the spread of the disease in human population in regards to sex, age, profession, time and space, as well as risk factors that contribute to these phenomena. The main goal is to investigate the causes and the factors involved in the development of the tumors at the pharyngo–esophageal junction, knowledge that contributes to latest therapeutic assessment through interdisciplinary collaboration (E.N.T. surgeon, general surgeon, radiation oncologist, chemotherapist, nutritionist). The epidemiology of the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus cancer includes three major areas of interest: descriptive (the study of the spread in mass population), analytical (the study of causal risk factors on the disease) and experimental (that verifies by experiments on animals the prior identified hypothesis). PMID:21254737

  3. Epidemiological associations of allergy, IgE and cancer.

    PubMed

    Josephs, D H; Spicer, J F; Corrigan, C J; Gould, H J; Karagiannis, S N

    2013-10-01

    Several epidemiological studies have evaluated potential associations between allergy and risk of malignancy. It remains clear that the relationship between allergy and cancer is complex. Three hypotheses have been proposed to account for observed relationships: these are chronic inflammation, immunosurveillance, prophylaxis, and we propose adding a fourth: inappropriate T-helper 2 (Th2) immune skewing. Each of these attempts to explain either the increased or decreased risk of different cancer types in 'allergic' patients reported in the literature. All four hypotheses are based on known mechanisms of allergic inflammation and/or IgE antibody functions, and uphold the view of an immunological basis for the relationship between allergy and malignancies. This review summarizes and draws conclusions from the epidemiological literature examining the relationships between specific types of cancer and allergic diseases. Particular emphasis is placed on the most recent contributions to the field, and on consideration of the allergic immune mechanisms that may influence positive or negative associations.

  4. Epidemiology of breast cancer in Indian women.

    PubMed

    Malvia, Shreshtha; Bagadi, Sarangadhara Appalaraju; Dubey, Uma S; Saxena, Sunita

    2017-02-09

    Breast cancer has ranked number one cancer among Indian females with age adjusted rate as high as 25.8 per 100,000 women and mortality 12.7 per 100,000 women. Data reports from various latest national cancer registries were compared for incidence, mortality rates. The age adjusted incidence rate of carcinoma of the breast was found as high as 41 per 100,000 women for Delhi, followed by Chennai (37.9), Bangalore (34.4) and Thiruvananthapuram District (33.7). A statistically significant increase in age adjusted rate over time (1982-2014) in all the PBCRs namely Bangalore (annual percentage change: 2.84%), Barshi (1.87%), Bhopal (2.00%), Chennai (2.44%), Delhi (1.44%) and Mumbai (1.42%) was observed. Mortality-to-incidence ratio was found to be as high as 66 in rural registries whereas as low as 8 in urban registries. Besides this young age has been found as a major risk factor for breast cancer in Indian women. Breast cancer projection for India during time periods 2020 suggests the number to go as high as 1797900. Better health awareness and availability of breast cancer screening programmes and treatment facilities would cause a favorable and positive clinical picture in the country.

  5. Prostate cancer in Brazil and Latin America: epidemiology and screening

    PubMed Central

    Tourinho-Barbosa, Rafael Rocha; Pompeo, Antonio Carlos Lima; Glina, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Prostate cancer is one of the tumors with higher incidence and mortality among men in the World. Epidemiological data are influenced by life expectancy of population, available diagnostic methods, correct collection of data and quality of health services. Screening of the disease is not standardized around the World. Up till now there is no consensus about the risks versus benefits of early detection. There are still missing data about this pathology in Latin America. Objective: to revise current epidemiologic situation and early diagnosis policies of prostate cancer in Brazil and Latin America. Materials and Methods: Medline, Cochrane Library and SciELO databases were reviewed on the subject of epidemiology and screening of prostate cancer. Screening research was performed in websites on national public health organizations and Latin America. Screening recommendations were obtained from those governmental organizations and from Latin American urological societies and compared to the most prominent regulatory agencies and societies of specialists and generalists from around the World. Results: Brazil and Latin America have a special position in relation to incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. In Brazil, it occupies the first position regarding incidence of cancer in men and the second cause of mortality. Central America has the highest rate of mortality of the continent with lower incidence/mortality ratios. Screening recommendations are very distinct, mainly among regulatory organs and urological societies. Conclusion: prostate cancer epidemiology is an important health public topic. Data collection related to incidence and mortality is still precarious, especially in less developed countries. It is necessary to follow-up long term screening studies results in order to conclude its benefits. PMID:27622278

  6. Prostate cancer in Brazil and Latin America: epidemiology and screening.

    PubMed

    Tourinho-Barbosa, Rafael Rocha; Pompeo, Antonio Carlos Lima; Glina, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the tumors with higher incidence and mortality among men in the World. Epidemiological data are influenced by life expectancy of population, available diagnostic methods, correct collection of data and quality of health services. Screening of the disease is not standardized around the World. Up till now there is no consensus about the risks versus benefits of early detection. There are still missing data about this pathology in Latin America. to revise current epidemiologic situation and early diagnosis policies of prostate cancer in Brazil and Latin America. Medline, Cochrane Library and SciELO databases were reviewed on the subject of epidemiology and screening of prostate cancer. Screening research was performed in websites on national public health organizations and Latin America. Screening recommendations were obtained from those governmental organizations and from Latin American urological societies and compared to the most prominent regulatory agencies and societies of specialists and generalists from around the World. Brazil and Latin America have a special position in relation to incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. In Brazil, it occupies the first position regarding incidence of cancer in men and the second cause of mortality. Central America has the highest rate of mortality of the continent with lower incidence/mortality ratios. Screening recommendations are very distinct, mainly among regulatory organs and urological societies. prostate cancer epidemiology is an important health public topic. Data collection related to incidence and mortality is still precarious, especially in less developed countries. It is necessary to follow-up long term screening studies results in order to conclude its benefits. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  7. Genetic epidemiology of early onset breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Eccles, D; Marlow, A; Royle, G; Collins, A; Morton, N E

    1994-01-01

    Risks for breast cancer when there is a family history of the disease are usually calculated using data from segregation analyses which favour a single dominant gene with high penetrance. There are, however, at least three loci known to be associated with familial breast cancer (p53, BRCA1, and an as yet unpublished locus) and the frequencies and penetrances of these genes are not likely to be the same. We have attempted to address the problem of which genetic parameters should be used to calculate risks for different patterns of familial breast cancer. Data from 384 nuclear families ascertained through a proband selected for early onset breast cancer were subjected to complex segregation analysis, correcting for ascertainment bias resulting from selection for severe phenotype. Age of onset of breast cancer, incorporated as severity, provides additional information to the segregation model over and above that given by assigning liability classes on the basis of age at observation. The use of this additional parameter in the analysis is described. There is fair agreement between estimates from this sample and previous predictions from consecutive probands and consultands. The differences suggest more than one rare dominant gene for susceptibility to breast cancer, with different penetrances. Although refinements of segregation analysis will help to delineate these different genes, perfect resolution will require identification of the mutant alleles. Methods to estimate genetic parameters under genotype specific mortality need to be developed. Meanwhile, we suggest that high and low estimates of penetrance be used in risk estimation for genetic counselling, and as a guide to candidates for entry into clinical trials of screening and chemoprevention in breast cancer. PMID:7891376

  8. Epidemiology of prostate cancer: current status.

    PubMed

    Tao, Z-Q; Shi, A-M; Wang, K-X; Zhang, W-D

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers affecting men with > 1,100,000 new cases and 300,000 deaths worldwide each year. The disease is more common among older men, with a median age at diagnosis around age above 60 years. Prostate cancer is a major medical problem that needs immediate attention as the disease is indolent, shows prolonged latency in association with high morbidity and mortality. Administration of diagnostic tests including PSA test and biopsies and the advances in other diagnostic procedures have led to early detection of the disease with therapeutic steps being taken early on, there has been a steady decline in the disease-specific mortality. Global incidence and mortality rates show that the disease is more prevalent among black people, even though the differences cannot be attributed entirely to race, as the influence of socioeconomic situation and the resultant limited access to medical technologies and treatment could not be ruled out completely. Several genes have been identified that when mutated confer high risk for the disease. Besides the genetic factors, family history and nutritional factors such as lack of enough vitamin D, high intake of calcium, obesity and high fat diets have been implicated as risk factors for prostate cancer. Therapeutic measures for prostate cancer involve mostly radical prostatectomy followed by radiotherapy in combination with hormonal treatment as needed.

  9. Pancreatic Cancer Epidemiology, Detection, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiubo; Zeng, Linjuan; Chen, Yinting; Lian, Guoda; Qian, Chenchen; Chen, Shaojie; Li, Jiajia; Huang, Kaihong

    2016-01-01

    PC (pancreatic cancer) is the fourth most common cause of death due to cancer worldwide. The incidence and mortality rates have been increasing year by year worldwide, and this review has analyzed the most recent incidence and mortality data for pancreatic cancer occurrence in China. Several possible risk factors have been discussed here, involving known established risk factors and novel possible risk factors. The development of this cancer is a stepwise progression through intraepithelial neoplasia to carcinoma. Though early and accurate diagnosis is promising based on a combination of recent techniques including tumor markers and imaging modalities, lacking early clinical symptoms makes the diagnosis late. Correct staging is critical because treatment is generally based on this parameter. Treatment options have improved throughout the last decades. However, surgical excision remains the primary therapy and efficacy of conventional chemoradiotherapy for PC is limited. Recently, some novel new therapies have been developed and will be applied in clinics soon. This review will provide an overview of pancreatic cancer, including an understanding of the developments and controversies. PMID:26941789

  10. Pancreatic Cancer Epidemiology, Detection, and Management.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiubo; Zeng, Linjuan; Chen, Yinting; Lian, Guoda; Qian, Chenchen; Chen, Shaojie; Li, Jiajia; Huang, Kaihong

    2016-01-01

    PC (pancreatic cancer) is the fourth most common cause of death due to cancer worldwide. The incidence and mortality rates have been increasing year by year worldwide, and this review has analyzed the most recent incidence and mortality data for pancreatic cancer occurrence in China. Several possible risk factors have been discussed here, involving known established risk factors and novel possible risk factors. The development of this cancer is a stepwise progression through intraepithelial neoplasia to carcinoma. Though early and accurate diagnosis is promising based on a combination of recent techniques including tumor markers and imaging modalities, lacking early clinical symptoms makes the diagnosis late. Correct staging is critical because treatment is generally based on this parameter. Treatment options have improved throughout the last decades. However, surgical excision remains the primary therapy and efficacy of conventional chemoradiotherapy for PC is limited. Recently, some novel new therapies have been developed and will be applied in clinics soon. This review will provide an overview of pancreatic cancer, including an understanding of the developments and controversies.

  11. Heavy metal pollution in sub-Saharan Africa and possible implications in cancer epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Fasinu, Pius; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    2013-01-01

    The increasing scourge of cancer epidemiology is a global concern. With WHO emphasizing that 40% of all cancer cases are preventable, exposure to known and suspected carcinogens must be discouraged. The battle with communicable diseases and other third world challenges has greatly de-emphasized anti-cancer campaigns in sub-Saharan Africa. The abundant deposit of mineral resources in sub-Saharan Africa has attracted high mining activity with its negative environmental aftermath. Poor regulatory mechanisms have led to environmental contamination by products of mining including heavy metals. In addition to poor urban planning, the springing up of settlements in industrial areas has led to generation and exposure to more hazardous wastes consequent on poor disposal systems. Studies establishing close association between exposure to heavy metals and cancer epidemiology in sub-Saharan Africa are increasing. The current review assesses the level of environmental pollution by heavy metals in sub-Saharan Africa, and brings to the fore available evidence implicating such in the increasing cancer epidemiology in the sub-continent.

  12. Evolution of the "drivers" of translational cancer epidemiology: analysis of funded grants and the literature.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tram Kim; Chang, Christine Q; Rogers, Scott D; Khoury, Muin J; Schully, Sheri D

    2015-04-01

    Concurrently with a workshop sponsored by the National Cancer Institute, we identified key "drivers" for accelerating cancer epidemiology across the translational research continuum in the 21st century: emerging technologies, a multilevel approach, knowledge integration, and team science. To map the evolution of these "drivers" and translational phases (T0-T4) in the past decade, we analyzed cancer epidemiology grants funded by the National Cancer Institute and published literature for 2000, 2005, and 2010. For each year, we evaluated the aims of all new/competing grants and abstracts of randomly selected PubMed articles. Compared with grants based on a single institution, consortium-based grants were more likely to incorporate contemporary technologies (P = 0.012), engage in multilevel analyses (P = 0.010), and incorporate elements of knowledge integration (P = 0.036). Approximately 74% of analyzed grants and publications involved discovery (T0) or characterization (T1) research, suggesting a need for more translational (T2-T4) research. Our evaluation indicated limited research in 1) a multilevel approach that incorporates molecular, individual, social, and environmental determinants and 2) knowledge integration that evaluates the robustness of scientific evidence. Cancer epidemiology is at the cusp of a paradigm shift, and the field will need to accelerate the pace of translating scientific discoveries in order to impart population health benefits. While multi-institutional and technology-driven collaboration is happening, concerted efforts to incorporate other key elements are warranted for the discipline to meet future challenges.

  13. Ethylene oxide: an assessment of the epidemiological evidence on carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    Shore, R E; Gardner, M J; Pannett, B

    1993-11-01

    cancer. The overall SMRs and exposure-response analyses did not indicate a risk from EtO for pancreatic cancer (SMR = 0.98), brain and nervous system cancer (SMR = 0.89), or total cancer (SMR = 0.94). Although the current data do not provide consistent and convincing evidence that EtO causes leukaemia or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, the issues are not resolved and await further studies of exposed populations.

  14. Ethylene oxide: an assessment of the epidemiological evidence on carcinogenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Shore, R E; Gardner, M J; Pannett, B

    1993-01-01

    cancer. The overall SMRs and exposure-response analyses did not indicate a risk from EtO for pancreatic cancer (SMR = 0.98), brain and nervous system cancer (SMR = 0.89), or total cancer (SMR = 0.94). Although the current data do not provide consistent and convincing evidence that EtO causes leukaemia or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, the issues are not resolved and await further studies of exposed populations. PMID:8280635

  15. Epidemiology of Esophageal Cancer in Japan and China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yingsong; Totsuka, Yukari; He, Yutong; Kikuchi, Shogo; Qiao, Youlin; Ueda, Junko; Wei, Wenqiang; Inoue, Manami; Tanaka, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    In preparation for a collaborative multidisciplinary study of the pathogenesis of esophageal cancer, the authors reviewed the published literature to identify similarities and differences between Japan and China in esophageal cancer epidemiology. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the predominant histologic type, while the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma remains extremely low in both countries. Numerous epidemiologic studies in both countries show that alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are contributing risk factors for ESCC. There are differences, however, in many aspects of esophageal cancer between Japan and China, including cancer burden, patterns of incidence and mortality, sex ratio of mortality, risk factor profiles, and genetic variants. Overall incidence and mortality rates are higher in China than in Japan, and variation in mortality and incidence patterns is greater in China than in Japan. During the study period (1987–2000), the decline in age-adjusted mortality rates was more apparent in China than in Japan. Risk factor profiles differed between high- and low-incidence areas within China, but not in Japan. The association of smoking and drinking with ESCC risk appears to be weaker in China than in Japan. Genome-wide association studies in China showed that variants in several chromosome regions conferred increased risk, but only genetic variants in alcohol-metabolizing genes were significantly associated with ESCC risk in Japan. A well-designed multidisciplinary epidemiologic study is needed to examine the role of diet and eating habits in ESCC risk. PMID:23629646

  16. Skin cancer: an overview of epidemiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Randy

    2013-08-01

    To provide a general overview of malignant melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer, with an emphasis on epidemiology, clinical presentation, and the multiple and varied risk factors associated with skin cancer. Peer-reviewed journal articles, government health reports, book chapters, and Web-based resources. Skin cancer is the most common carcinoma, affecting millions worldwide. Incidence is increasing yearly, making it a pre-eminent public health threat. Myriad factors increase the risk of skin cancer and may serve as important prognostic indicators for the disease. To provide nurses with a clearer understanding of the causative mechanisms of skin cancer and an improved awareness of the risk factors associated with the disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Epidemiologic studies of the human microbiome and cancer.

    PubMed

    Vogtmann, Emily; Goedert, James J

    2016-02-02

    The human microbiome, which includes the collective genome of all bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists, and viruses found in and on the human body, is altered in many diseases and may substantially affect cancer risk. Previously detected associations of individual bacteria (e.g., Helicobacter pylori), periodontal disease, and inflammation with specific cancers have motivated studies considering the association between the human microbiome and cancer risk. This short review summarises microbiome research, focusing on published epidemiological associations with gastric, oesophageal, hepatobiliary, pancreatic, lung, colorectal, and other cancers. Large, prospective studies of the microbiome that employ multidisciplinary laboratory and analysis methods, as well as rigorous validation of case status, are likely to yield translational opportunities to reduce cancer morbidity and mortality by improving prevention, screening, and treatment.

  18. Biliary Tract Cancer: Epidemiology, Radiotherapy, and Molecular Profiling.

    PubMed

    Bridgewater, John A; Goodman, Karyn A; Kalyan, Aparna; Mulcahy, Mary F

    2016-01-01

    Biliary tract cancer, or cholangiocarcinoma, arises from the biliary epithelium of the small ducts in the periphery of the liver (intrahepatic) and the main ducts of the hilum (extrahepatic), extending into the gallbladder. The incidence and epidemiology of biliary tract cancer are fluid and complex. It is shown that intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is on the rise in the Western world, and gallbladder cancer is on the decline. Radiation therapy has emerged as an important component of adjuvant therapy for resected disease and definitive therapy for locally advanced disease. The emerging sophisticated techniques of imaging tumors and conformal dose delivery are expanding the indications for radiotherapy in the management of bile duct tumors. As we understand more about the molecular pathways driving biliary tract cancers, targeted therapies are at the forefront of new therapeutic combinations. Understanding the gene expression profile and mutational burden in biliary tract cancer allows us to better discern the pathogenesis and identify promising new developmental therapeutic targets.

  19. Epidemiology of Testicular Cancer in Oklahoma and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Shannon; Janitz, Amanda; Campbell, Janis

    2016-01-01

    Testicular cancer is a rare cause of morbidity and mortality in the US. Marked disparities in the development of this cancer exist, with testicular cancer being more common in Caucasian men and men of higher socioeconomic status. The incidence of testicular cancer is increasing worldwide, and the reasons for this have not been well documented. It has been proposed that this increase may be due to highly prevalent environmental factors, or from exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls, polyvinyl chloride, cigarette smoking, and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). For our analysis, data were obtained from the Oklahoma Central Cancer Registry and the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program. Age-adjusted incidence rates and five-year relative survival were calculated for Oklahoma and for the US. Overall, incidence was lower in Oklahoma than the US, but no differences were observed between the US and Oklahoma regarding survival by year of diagnosis, race, age, and stage. PMID:27885307

  20. The Epidemiology of Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Dhiraj; Lowenfels, Albert B.

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is one of the most frequent gastrointestinal causes for hospital admission in the US. Chronic pancreatitis, although lower in incidence, significantly reduces patients’ quality of life. Pancreatic cancer has high mortality and is 1 of the top 5 causes of death from cancer. The burden of pancreatic disorders is expected to increase over time. The risk and etiology of pancreatitis differ with age and sex, and all pancreatic disorders affect Blacks more than any other race. Gallstones are the most common cause of acute pancreatitis, and early cholecystectomy eliminates the risk of future attacks. Alcohol continues to be the single most important risk factor for chronic pancreatitis. Smoking is an independent risk factor for acute and chronic pancreatitis, and its effects could synergize with those of alcohol. Significant risk factors for pancreatic cancer include smoking and non-O blood groups. Alcohol abstinence and smoking cessation can alter progression of pancreatitis and reduce recurrence; smoking cessation is the most effective strategy to reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer. PMID:23622135

  1. [Epidemiological overview of uterine cervical cancer].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Hernández, Dulce M; Apresa-García, Teresa; Patlán-Pérez, Rosa Ma

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) reported more than 6 million cases of cancer worldwide in women during 2008; 57.2 % of those cases occurred in less developed countries. Cervical cancer (CC) ranks third in the world in all cancers affecting women, with an estimated of 530 000 new cases. CC has multiple causes and it arises by the association of various risk factors. The main factor is related to the human papillomavirus infection (HPV), which acts as a necessary but not sufficient cause. Also, the interaction with other cofactors has an impact on the development and severity of this neoplasm. Survival is related to the timeliness of care and, therefore, to more access to health services. CC is a neoplasm considered a preventable cancer; thus, it is possible to save more than 150 000 lives by 2030 if control measures are applied with opportunity. The aim of this work is to review the CC in different geographical areas and to make an analysis of risk factors related to this neoplasm.

  2. Summary of the epidemiological evidence relating snus to health.

    PubMed

    Lee, Peter N

    2011-03-01

    Interest in snus (Swedish-type moist snuff) as a smoking alternative has increased. This wide-ranging review summarizes evidence relating snus to health and to initiation and cessation of smoking. Meta-analyses are included. After smoking adjustment, snus is unassociated with cancer of the oropharynx (meta-analysis RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.68-1.37), oesophagus (1.10, 0.92-1.33), stomach (0.98, 0.82-1.17), pancreas (1.20, 0.66-2.20), lung (0.71, 0.66-0.76) or other sites, or with heart disease (1.01, 0.91-1.12) or stroke (1.05, 0.95-1.15). No clear associations are evident in never smokers, any possible risk from snus being much less than from smoking. "Snuff-dipper's lesion" does not predict oral cancer. Snus users have increased weight, but diabetes and chronic hypertension seem unaffected. Notwithstanding unconfirmed reports of associations with reduced birthweight, and some other conditions, the evidence provides scant support for any major adverse health effect of snus. Although some claims that snus reduces initiation or encourages quitting are unsoundly based, snus seems not to increase initiation, as indicated by few smokers using snus before starting and current snus use being unassociated with smoking in adults (the association in children probably being due to uncontrolled confounding), and there are no reports that snus discourages quitting. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Epidemiological evidence for metabolic programming in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Opsomer, G; Van Eetvelde, M; Kamal, M; Van Soom, A

    2016-01-01

    In humans, there is evidence that metabolic diseases occurring in later life arise in utero as a result of programming of key endocrine systems during suboptimal intrauterine conditions. The process by which prenatal insults lead to permanent changes in tissue structure and function, and finally to low birthweight (BW), is known as developmental programming. Poor nutrition, environmental temperature, oxygen availability and overnutrition all have been shown to significantly affect intrauterine development. Because the placenta is the organ for communication between mother and fetus, placental insufficiency invariably affects embryonic development and health in later life. In order to optimise their income, dairy farmers inseminate their nulliparous heifers at adolescent age, and subsequently strive for calving intervals not longer than 380 days. Hence, heifers are still growing and multiparous animals are still yielding large quantities of milk while pregnant. Dairy cows heavily selected for milk yield have specific endocrinological characteristics, like low peripheral insulin levels and low peripheral insulin sensitivity, both contributing to safeguard glucose for milk production. The reverse of this advanced selection is the high incidence of a wide range of metabolic diseases. Evidence from epidemiological studies is now available demonstrating that milk yield during gestation and environmental factors, such as season of pregnancy and parturition, affect both the size and the intermediary metabolism of the neonatal calf. The latter suggests that further optimisation in terms of production, reproduction, general health and longevity in the dairy sector may be feasible by taking into account environmental factors occurring during pregnancy.

  4. The epidemiologic evidence linking autoimmune diseases and psychosis.

    PubMed

    Benros, Michael E; Eaton, William W; Mortensen, Preben B

    2014-02-15

    This review summarizes the epidemiologic evidence linking autoimmune diseases and psychosis. The associations between autoimmune diseases and psychosis have been studied for more than a half century, but research has intensified within the last decades, since psychosis has been associated with genetic markers of the immune system and with excess autoreactivity and other immune alterations. A range of psychiatric disorders, including psychosis, have been observed to occur more frequently in some autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and multiple sclerosis. Many autoimmune diseases involve multiple organs and general dysfunction of the immune system, which could affect the brain and induce psychiatric symptoms. Most studies have been cross-sectional, observing an increased prevalence of a broad number of autoimmune diseases in people with psychotic disorders. Furthermore, there is some evidence of associations of psychosis with a family history of autoimmune disorders and vice versa. Additionally, several autoimmune diseases, individually and in aggregate, have been identified as raising the risk for psychotic disorders in longitudinal studies. The associations have been suspected to be caused by inflammation or brain-reactive antibodies associated with the autoimmune diseases. However, the associations could also be caused by shared genetic factors or common etiologic components such as infections. Infections can induce the development of autoimmune diseases and autoantibodies, possibly affecting the brain. Autoimmune diseases and brain-reactive antibodies should be considered by clinicians in the treatment of individuals with psychotic symptoms, and even if the association is not causal, treatment would probably still improve quality of life and survival.

  5. Review of the epidemiological evidence relating toluene to reproductive outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, J A

    2001-04-01

    This review examines the epidemiological evidence for adverse reproductive outcomes from those occupational studies that present toluene-specific findings. Clinical investigations of the reproductive effects of toluene abuse are also examined. Six occupational studies reported associations between toluene and spontaneous abortion, two between toluene and congenital malformation, and three between toluene and reduced fertility. The spontaneous abortion studies provided the most suggestive evidence for an association with toluene. However, the potential for bias in some of these studies, the relatively homogeneous nature of the populations examined (e.g., four of the six studies evaluated similar groups of Finnish workers), and the multiple chemicals to which most workers were simultaneously exposed suggest cautious interpretation of these findings. Also, spontaneous abortion has generally not been observed as a major problem among highly exposed women who abuse toluene during pregnancy. The results of the occupational studies should be considered "hypothesis generating". Truly prospective studies with individually monitored data on toluene exposure and early fetal loss are needed to more definitively investigate this issue.

  6. Oral cancer, HPV infection and evidence of sexual transmission

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Hernández, Juan G.; Cano, Jorge; Campo, Julián; del Romero, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of oropharyngeal cancer and oral cancer is growing worldwide, both in young non-smokers and in young non-drinkers (smoking and drinking are considered the main risk factors). Epidemiologic studies suggest a strong association between the infection by human papillomavirus (HPV), especially types 16 and 18 (high oncological risk) which have already demonstrated their etiological role in anal tumours as well as in cervix cancer. There is clear epidemiologic evidence that both types of tumours relate to changes in sexual behaviour and that both are linked to sexual transmission of HPV. The number of oral and oropharyngeal cancer cases is rising nowadays, especially among young individuals with no typical toxic habits, such as tobacco and/or alcohol. In this review we set out to update the aspects related to the onset of oral cancer, its relationship with HPV infection and whether this association may be due to the sexual transmission of the virus. Key words:Human papillomavirus, oral sex, head and neck cancer, oral cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:23524417

  7. Epidemiologic evidence of relationships between reproductive and child health outcomes and environmental chemical contaminants.

    PubMed

    Wigle, Donald T; Arbuckle, Tye E; Turner, Michelle C; Bérubé, Annie; Yang, Qiuying; Liu, Shiliang; Krewski, Daniel

    2008-05-01

    This review summarizes the level of epidemiologic evidence for relationships between prenatal and/or early life exposure to environmental chemical contaminants and fetal, child, and adult health. Discussion focuses on fetal loss, intrauterine growth restriction, preterm birth, birth defects, respiratory and other childhood diseases, neuropsychological deficits, premature or delayed sexual maturation, and certain adult cancers linked to fetal or childhood exposures. Environmental exposures considered here include chemical toxicants in air, water, soil/house dust and foods (including human breast milk), and consumer products. Reports reviewed here included original epidemiologic studies (with at least basic descriptions of methods and results), literature reviews, expert group reports, meta-analyses, and pooled analyses. Levels of evidence for causal relationships were categorized as sufficient, limited, or inadequate according to predefined criteria. There was sufficient epidemiological evidence for causal relationships between several adverse pregnancy or child health outcomes and prenatal or childhood exposure to environmental chemical contaminants. These included prenatal high-level methylmercury (CH(3)Hg) exposure (delayed developmental milestones and cognitive, motor, auditory, and visual deficits), high-level prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and related toxicants (neonatal tooth abnormalities, cognitive and motor deficits), maternal active smoking (delayed conception, preterm birth, fetal growth deficit [FGD] and sudden infant death syndrome [SIDS]) and prenatal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure (preterm birth), low-level childhood lead exposure (cognitive deficits and renal tubular damage), high-level childhood CH(3)Hg exposure (visual deficits), high-level childhood exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) (chloracne), childhood ETS exposure (SIDS, new-onset asthma, increased

  8. Physical activity: from epidemiological evidence to individualized patient management.

    PubMed

    Charansonney, Olivier Luc; Vanhees, Luc; Cohen-Solal, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity (PA), physical fitness (PF), and even a few sedentary behaviors (SB) are strongly and independently linked to improved survival rate. However, key questions remain: what are the physiological interrelationships between SB, PA, and PF? How should we differently emphasize promoting PA, increasing PF with exercise, and decreasing SB among other prevention measures? What are the interrelationships of both PA and SB levels with drug treatment efficacy? To address these questions we developed an integrated patient-centric model combining physiology with epidemiological evidence to characterize the individual risk attached to PA level, PF, and SB. Epidemiological data were collected by extensive literature review. Nine meta-analyses, 198 cohort studies (3.8 million people), and 13 controlled trials were reviewed. 1. A high level of SB induces chronic stress and increases the risk of both chronic disease and mortality. 2. Vigorous PA increases PF and physiological reserve, thereby improving survival rate. This effect is not mediated by improved traditional risk factors. The risk for most individuals is a mix of high SB, low to mild PA, and low to mild PF. This model can improve the individualized prescription of PA modalities. Furthermore, the benefit of treatments such as statins or beta-blockers can be cancelled out if a decrease in PA or an increase in SB is induced by drug related side effects. To improve patient management both types of therapeutic interventions and dose should be carefully chosen for each individual in order to maintain/increase PA level while decreasing SB. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An epidemiological study of oral and pharyngeal cancer in Central and South-East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Hirayama, Takeshi

    1966-01-01

    The author has investigated the epidemiology of oral and pharyngeal cancer in several different countries and localities in Central and South-East Asia. From comparisons of the various countries and areas and from detailed case studies among oral-cancer groups and control groups, the author has obtained strong supportive evidence for the association of the disease with the habit of chewing tobacco. He has also found a less marked association with smoking, the drinking of alcohol, and vegetarian dietary customs. PMID:5295564

  10. The epidemiology of lung cancer in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Lee, H P

    1985-07-01

    Lung cancer has reached epidemic proportions in all developed countries and many of the urban centres of the developing world. It is the most frequent cancer site in Singapore, accounting for 23.4% (623 cases) of all cancer deaths and nearly 5% of all causes in 1982. Based on incidence data for 1968-1977, among males, there was an average of about 330 cases diagnosed each year, giving an annual incidence rate of 30.7 per 100,000 and a proportion of 21% against all sites. Among females, there was an average of about 115 cases, with the incidence rate at 11.2 and the proportion 10.3% (ranking third behind breast and cervix). The risks among the Chinese were more than double those of the other ethnic groups. The Hokkien (73.2 per 100,000) and Teochew (67.0) males had one of the highest age-standardized incidence rates in the world. Most of the cases were of the epidermoid carcinoma type. Among the females, the Cantonese (28.5) had about double the risks compared to the other dialect groups, and the rate was among the highest in the world. Adenocarcinomas accounted for almost 50% of the cases. The relevant host and environmental factors associated with lung cancer are discussed. Without doubt, cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor. The ultimate solution to this problem must lie in an effective smoking control programme, besides much-needed improvements in early diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

  11. Breast Cancer Epidemiology in Puerto Rico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    among the worst for overweight and obesity, physical inactivity and low fruit and vegetable intake. Because of this combination of low overall... physical activity questionnaires; (4) Imar Mansilla Rivera, professor of environmental health involved in the assessment of environmental exposures...Rico, as well as the association of breast cancer and lifetime history of physical activity . Dr. Rosario has the leading role on an article on sun

  12. Breast Cancer Epidemiology in Puerto Rico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    saliva es simple y el riesgo a su salud es minimo. Una enfermera adiestrada del Centro de Investigaciones Clinicas del Recinto de Ciencias Medicas...daremos una merienda y la entrevistadora le hara las preguntas del cuestionario. La entrevista dura aproximadamente 30 minutos y las preguntas estan...hijos que ha tenido, al igual que algunas preguntas sobre diagnostico y tratarniento de cancer. Una vez que terminemos la entrevista , usted habra

  13. The Epidemiology of Skin Cancer and its Trend in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Razi, Saeid; Enayatrad, Mostafa; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Salehiniya, Hamid; Fathali-loy-dizaji, Mehri; Soltani, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the most common cancers is skin cancer worldwide. Since incidence and cost of treatment of the cancer are increasing, it is necessary to further investigate to prevent and control this disease. This study aimed to determine skin cancer trend and epidemiology in Iran. Methods: This study was done based on existing data. Data used in this study were obtained from a national registry of cancer cases and the Disease Management Center of Ministry of Health in Iran. All cases registered in the country were included during 2004–2008. Incidence rates were reported based on the direct method and standard population of World Health Organization. Results: Based on the results of this study, the incidence of skin cancer is rising in Iran and the sex ratio was more in men than women in all provinces. The age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) of skin cancer was highest in males in Semnan, Isfahan, and Hamedan provinces (34.9, 30.80, and 28.84, respectively). The highest ASRs were seen in females in Semnan, Yazd, and Isfahan provinces (26.7, 24.14, and 18.97, respectively). The lowest ASR in male was observed in Sistan and Baluchestan, and in female in Hormozgan provinces. Conclusions: The incidence of skin cancer is increasing in the country. Therefore, the plan for the control and prevention of this cancer must be a high priority for health policy makers. PMID:26288708

  14. Comparison of cancer risks projected from animal bioassays to epidemiologic studies of acrylonitrile-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Ward, C E; Starr, T B

    1993-10-01

    Bioassay findings have demonstrated that acrylonitrile (ACN) is a rodent carcinogen, but the available epidemiologic evidence provides little support for the human carcinogenicity of ACN. This discordance between laboratory animal and human study findings is explored by determining post hoc the statistical power of 11 epidemiologic studies of ACN-exposed workers to detect the all-site and brain cancer excesses that are projected from rodent drinking water bioassay data. At reasonable estimates of the level and duration of exposures among the occupational cohorts, a majority of the human studies had sufficient power (> 80%) to detect the projected excesses, yet such responses were consistently absent. We conclude, subject to certain caveats, that the upper bound estimate of ACN's inhalation cancer potency of 1.5 x 10(-4) per ppm is too high to be consistent with the human ACN experience.

  15. Skin Cancer Epidemiology, Detection, and Management.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Sumul Ashok; Kampp, Jeremy

    2015-11-01

    Although the signs and symptoms of the 3 most common skin malignancies are well known to physicians, any new or changing lesions should be monitored and worked up to rule out varying forms of cutaneous malignancy. Classic presenting features of each condition exist, but patients may present with overlapping or atypical features, and a biopsy is almost always required to definitively determine the true nature of each disorder. Given the intense psychosocial ramifications of skin cancer diagnosis and treatment, early detection remains the hallmark in producing favorable outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Early oesophageal cancer: epidemiology diagnosis and management].

    PubMed

    Koessler, T; Bichard, P; Puppa, G; Lepilliez, V; Roth, A; Cacheux, W

    2015-05-20

    In Europe, oesophageal cancers are diagnosed at an early stage in less than 10% of the cases. They are superficial tumours whose invasion is limited to the mucosae and the submucosa. Synchronous node invasion is the most important prognosis factor. Oesophagectomy is the benchmark treatment. Nowadays, endoscopic resection is a validated curative therapeutic alternative. Accurate endoscopic evaluation using chemical or virtual colouring as well as an echoendoscopy, followed by an expert pathological review, must be conducted beforehand. It can be realised for good prognosis tumours after evaluation of the synchronous node invasion or its risk. After completion, regular endoscopic follow-ups are compulsory to detect local relapse.

  17. In search of the cancer candidate: can lay epidemiology help?

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Sara; Watt, Graham; Macleod, Una

    2013-05-01

    First published in 1991, the ideas embedded in 'Lay epidemiology and the prevention paradox' offered a novel and rational explanation for the lay public's failure to fully engage with the lifestyle messages offered by health educators. During the course of a large ethnographic study in South Wales, Davison and colleagues described the emergence of what they termed the coronary candidate. Candidacy provides a 'cultural mechanism' that facilitates the estimation of risk for coronary heart disease. The model has rarely been applied to other major illnesses. This article presents findings from a study that sought to explore the lay epidemiology model, candidacy and cancer. In a series of in-depth individual interviews, members of the lay public discussed their ideas about cancer, and what emerged was an explanatory hierarchy to account for cancer events. Yet the random and unpredictable nature of cancer was emphasised as well as a general reluctance to accept the idea of cancer candidacy. © 2012 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Epidemiologic studies of glyphosate and cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Mink, Pamela J; Mandel, Jack S; Sceurman, Bonnielin K; Lundin, Jessica I

    2012-08-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency and other regulatory agencies around the world have registered glyphosate as a broad-spectrum herbicide for use on multiple food and non-food use crops. Glyphosate is widely considered by regulatory authorities and scientific bodies to have no carcinogenic potential, based primarily on results of carcinogenicity studies of rats and mice. To examine potential cancer risks in humans, we reviewed the epidemiologic literature to evaluate whether exposure to glyphosate is associated causally with cancer risk in humans. We also reviewed relevant methodological and biomonitoring studies of glyphosate. Seven cohort studies and fourteen case-control studies examined the association between glyphosate and one or more cancer outcomes. Our review found no consistent pattern of positive associations indicating a causal relationship between total cancer (in adults or children) or any site-specific cancer and exposure to glyphosate. Data from biomonitoring studies underscore the importance of exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies, and indicate that studies should incorporate not only duration and frequency of pesticide use, but also type of pesticide formulation. Because generic exposure assessments likely lead to exposure misclassification, it is recommended that exposure algorithms be validated with biomonitoring data.

  19. Epidemiological studies on ethylene oxide and cancer: an updating.

    PubMed

    Hogstedt, L C

    1988-01-01

    In 1959, Dr Lars Ehrenberg and a coworker warned the Swedish authorities that ethylene oxide, a common chemical, constituted a potential cancer hazard. Twenty years later, the first epidemiological study and case reports were published indicating an increased cancer risk after occupational exposure to ethylene oxide. An updating of three small Swedish cohorts comprising 709 employees revealed 33 deaths from cancer whereas 20 were expected from national average rates. The excess was due mainly to an increased risk of stomach cancer in one production plant and an excess of blood and lymphatic malignancies in all three cohorts. The results are in accordance with the results of clastogenic, animal and short-term tests and support Professor Ehrenberg's hypothesis, formulated 28 years ago.

  20. Pancreatic cancer in obesity: epidemiology, clinical observations, and basic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zyromski, Nicholas J; White, Patrick B

    2011-06-01

    Obesity, now a worldwide epidemic, causes myriad medical problems. One of the most significant obesity-related problems is the well-recognized relationship between obesity and various malignancies, including pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease--the annual death rate nearly approximates its incidence. While surgical extirpation provides the best chance at long term survival, systemic therapy is largely ineffective: even those patients undergoing successful operative resection have only approximately 20% 5-year survival. These poor outcomes are largely a consequence of poor understanding of tumor biology. Clearly, identification of novel treatment strategies is of paramount importance; investigation of pancreatic cancer biology from the novel aspect of obesity offers the potential to identify unique therapeutic targets. This manuscript reviews the epidemiology, clinical findings, and putative basic science mechanisms underlying obesity-related pancreatic cancer.

  1. Epidemiology of cervical cancer with special focus on India.

    PubMed

    Sreedevi, Aswathy; Javed, Reshma; Dinesh, Avani

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is on the declining trend in India according to the population-based registries; yet it continues to be a major public health problem for women in India. Multifactorial causation, potential for prevention, and the sheer threat it poses make cervical cancer an important disease for in-depth studies, as has been attempted by this paper. This paper attempts to review the available knowledge regarding the epidemiology and pattern of cervical cancer; types of HPV (human papilloma virus) prevalent among cervical cancer patients and among women in general, high-risk groups such as commercial sex workers, and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)-positive women; and the role of the national program on cancer in control efforts. The peak age of incidence of cervical cancer is 55-59 years, and a considerable proportion of women report in the late stages of disease. Specific types of oncogenic HPV-16, 18 have been identified in patients with cervical cancer. Other epidemiological risk factors are early age at marriage, multiple sexual partners, multiple pregnancies, poor genital hygiene, malnutrition, use of oral contraceptives, and lack of awareness. A multipronged approach is necessary which can target areas of high prevalence identified by registries with a combination of behavior change communication exercises and routine early screening with VIA. Sensitizing the people of the area, including menfolk, is necessary to increase uptake levels. Vaccination against types 16 and 18 can also be undertaken after taking into confidence all stakeholders, including the parents of adolescent girls. Preventing and treating cervical cancer and reducing the burden are possible by targeting resources to the areas with high prevalence.

  2. Epidemiology of cervical cancer with special focus on India

    PubMed Central

    Sreedevi, Aswathy; Javed, Reshma; Dinesh, Avani

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is on the declining trend in India according to the population-based registries; yet it continues to be a major public health problem for women in India. Multifactorial causation, potential for prevention, and the sheer threat it poses make cervical cancer an important disease for in-depth studies, as has been attempted by this paper. This paper attempts to review the available knowledge regarding the epidemiology and pattern of cervical cancer; types of HPV (human papilloma virus) prevalent among cervical cancer patients and among women in general, high-risk groups such as commercial sex workers, and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)-positive women; and the role of the national program on cancer in control efforts. The peak age of incidence of cervical cancer is 55–59 years, and a considerable proportion of women report in the late stages of disease. Specific types of oncogenic HPV-16, 18 have been identified in patients with cervical cancer. Other epidemiological risk factors are early age at marriage, multiple sexual partners, multiple pregnancies, poor genital hygiene, malnutrition, use of oral contraceptives, and lack of awareness. A multipronged approach is necessary which can target areas of high prevalence identified by registries with a combination of behavior change communication exercises and routine early screening with VIA. Sensitizing the people of the area, including menfolk, is necessary to increase uptake levels. Vaccination against types 16 and 18 can also be undertaken after taking into confidence all stakeholders, including the parents of adolescent girls. Preventing and treating cervical cancer and reducing the burden are possible by targeting resources to the areas with high prevalence. PMID:25931830

  3. A review of some epidemiological studies on cancer risk from low-dose radiation or other carcinogenic agents.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Hiromitsu

    2011-07-01

    It is extremely difficult to assess cancer risks accurately due to health effects of low-dose radiation exposure or other carcinogens based on epidemiological studies. For the detection of minute increases of the risk at low-level exposure, most of epidemiological studies lack statistical power, and they involve various complicated confounding factors. This paper reports on a literature survey of epidemiological studies published since 2000 on cancer risks associated with low-dose radiation and other carcinogens to gather major epidemiological data. Integrated risk indices were derived from those data by using, where possible, statistical models. Regarding risk assessment of low-dose radiation exposure, it is important to lower the degree of uncertainty arising from risk estimation. Risk assessment of low-dose radiation exposure could be scientific evidence when uncertainty is considered in comparing carcinogenic risks of radiation with those of other carcinogens.

  4. [Early gastric cancer: epidemiology, diagnostic and management].

    PubMed

    Koessler, T; Roth, A; Cacheux, W

    2014-05-21

    Stomach cancers are diagnosed at an early stage in less than 10% of cases in Europe. They are superficial tumours, involving the mucosa and the submucosa only. Node involvement is the most important prognostic factor for these tumours. To determine the optimal therapeutic strategy, it is necessary to carry out a precise work-up involving an endoscopy, with chemical or virtual colorations and an echo-endoscopy. Gastric surgery is the reference treatment. Nowadays, endoscopic tumour resection is a validated curative alternative. High quality medical expertise is needed for those tumours with a good prognosis, after evaluating risk for node involvement, and should be followed by Helicobacter pylori eradication and regular endoscopic surveillance.

  5. Descriptive Epidemiology of Female Breast Cancer in Delhi, India

    PubMed

    Manoharan, Nalliah; Nair, Omana; Shukla, N K; Rath, Goura Kishor

    2017-04-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in females worldwide. The Population Based Cancer Registry data of Delhi were here used to describe the epidemiology and trends in breast cancer incidence in Delhi. Methods: Crude rate, age-standardized incidence rates (ASR) and age-specific incidence rates were calculated using the data collected by Delhi PBCR for the year 2012. The time trend of breast cancer incidence was evaluated by joinpoint regression using the PBCR data from 1988-2012. Results: A total of 19,746 cancer cases were registered in 2012, 10,148 in males and 9,598 in females. Breast cancer was the leading site of cancer in females accounting for 2,744 (28.6%) of cases with a median age of 50 years. The crude and age standardized incidence rates for breast cancer were 34.8 and 41.0 per 100,000 females, respectively. Age specific incidence rates increased with age and attained a peak in the 70-74 years age group..A statistically significant increase in ASR with an annual percentage change (APC) of 1.44% was observed. Conclusions: The breast, which was the second most common cancer site in Delhi in 1988, has now surpassed cancer of cervix to become the leading site over the years. A similar trend has also been noted for other metropolitan cities viz. Bangalore, Bhopal and Chennai. Though the ASRs in these are comparable, they are still low compared to Western countries. Changing life styles in metropolitan cities like delayed marriage, late age at first child birth, lower parity and higher socio-economic status, may be some of the probable primary cause for higher incidences of breast cancer in urban as opposed to rural areas. Creative Commons Attribution License

  6. Review of epidemiological evidence for reproductive and hormonal factors in relation to the risk of epithelial ovarian malignancies.

    PubMed

    Riman, Tomas; Nilsson, Staffan; Persson, Ingemar R

    2004-09-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of mortality related to gynecologic malignancies in Sweden but there is no current screening program. Based upon epidemiological research there is evidence that certain reproductive factors are associated with ovarian cancer risk. Most studies generally indicate that each childbirth incurs a 15-20% risk reduction. Women who have used oral contraceptives for 5 years or longer experience about half the risk of ovarian cancer compared with never users. Breastfeeding seems to be protective while age at menarche and at menopause are less consistent risk predictors. Tubal ligation and hysterectomy seem to reduce ovarian cancer risk by up to 80%. Although some studies found endometriosis, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) to be positively related to ovarian cancer, the role of these factors is not yet established. Most recent studies observed an approximately 50% ovarian cancer risk increase among ever users of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) compared with never users, and the risk increased further with long-term use. There is less information concerning separate estrogen and progestin effects of HRT and ovarian cancer risk. Although the cause of ovarian cancer remains obscure, hypotheses relating to "incessant" ovulation, excessive gonadotropin secretion, retrograde carcinogen transportation, apoptosis and estrogen/progestin imbalance have been invoked as etiological explanations. All these hypotheses find various epidemiological support. The aim of this review is to summarize the epidemiological findings on reproductive factors and ovarian cancer risk. These findings are considered in the context of etiologic hypotheses and some new research areas are suggested.

  7. Epidemiology and treatment patterns of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Jessmon, Philip; Boulanger, Talia; Zhou, Wei; Patwardhan, Pallavi

    2017-05-01

    While ovarian cancer (OC) is relatively rare, it remains one of the most fatal cancers. Lack of robust screening methods for eOC lead to detection of most cases at advanced stages, and most patients relapse following initial treatment. Areas covered: This review summarizes epidemiology and treatment patterns of epithelial ovarian cancer (eOC). MEDLINE, EMBASE, conference proceedings, and the Cochrane Library were searched using key terms and Medical Subject Headings for ovarian cancer, treatment patterns, and epidemiology to identify articles published from 2005-2015. Expert commentary: To improve early detection, future studies should focus on the identification of biomarkers that can detect asymptomatic disease. Following diagnosis and eventual relapse, response to first-line platinum appears to guide physicians' choice of subsequent therapies, but we do not understand what patients ultimately receive or its relationship to categories of response to first-line platinum. Improved understanding of later-line treatment patterns, by initial response to platinum, could correlate with overall outcomes among relapsed patients and promote development of more effective treatment guidelines. Novel treatment approaches, such as immunotherapies, would fulfill a need for an effective strategy against advanced stages of OC that results in fewer toxic side effects.

  8. Overlooking evidence: media ignore environmental connections to breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Miranda C

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews seven years' worth of major news media coverage of the role of environmental pollutants in the etiology of breast cancer. The time frame was 2002-2008 and the outlets studied included prominent newspapers, national news magazines, and network television news programs. Noting that a growing body of private, university, and government environmental health research has implicated a variety of common chemicals and radiation in the disease, the author looked for quantity and quality of coverage of two scientific metastudies during the specified time frame: State of the Evidence: The Connection Between Breast Cancer and the Environment and Environmental Pollutants and Breast Cancer: Epidemiological Studies. She also examined reporting on breast cancer in the month of October ("National Breast Cancer Awareness Month") during the seven years. Despite recent scientific findings, the news media have downplayed and frequently overlooked the evidence. None of the outlets studied covered the State of the Evidence report, and only one covered the Environmental Pollutants report. Breast Cancer Awareness Month similarly saw few articles or newscasts about environmental connections. The author attributes the dearth of coverage to several factors: journalists' lack of awareness about environmental health science, the seemingly higher standards of proof for research findings that implicate chemicals in disease than for other types of scientific research, establishments' lack of acceptance of environmental theories of breast cancer, and economic pressures on news outlets not to alienate their advertisers.

  9. Epidemiologic evidence for chloroprene carcinogenicity: review of study quality and its application to risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, John Arthur

    2009-09-01

    This article evaluates the quality and weight of evidence associated with epidemiologic studies of cancer among occupational cohorts exposed to chloroprene. The focus is on liver, lung, and lymphohematopoietic cancers, which had been increased in early studies. Literature searches identified eight morbidity/mortality studies covering seven chloroprene-exposed cohorts from six countries. These studies were summarized and their quality was assessed using the 10 criteria suggested by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The limitations within this literature (primarily the early studies) included crude exposure assessment, incomplete follow-up, uncertain baseline rates, and uncontrolled confounding by factors such as smoking, drinking, and co-exposure to benzene and vinyl chloride. Four cohorts were studied by the same group of investigators, who reported no overall increased associations for any cancers. This four-cohort study was by far the most rigorous, having the most comprehensive exposure assessment and follow-up and the most detailed documentation. This study also contained the two largest cohorts, including an American cohort from Louisville, Kentucky, that ranked at or near the top for each of the 10 quality criteria. There was evidence of a strong healthy worker effect in the four-cohort study, which could have hidden small excess risks. Small increased risks were suggested by internal or company-specific analyses, but these were most likely caused by uncontrolled confounding and low baseline rates. Overall, the weight of evidence does not support any substantial link between chloroprene exposure and cancer, but inconsistencies and a lack of control for major confounders preclude drawing firmer conclusions.

  10. [Epidemiological analysis of breast cancer mortality in women in Chile].

    PubMed

    Icaza, Gloria; Núñez, Loreto; Bugueño, Herna

    2017-01-01

    Among women, breast cancer is the leading cause of death due to cancer worldwide. To describe the epidemiology of breast cancer mortality in Chilean women by age, time trend and explore its ecological association with socio-demographic variables. Descriptive study of age specific death rates (2009-2013), and time trend analysis of crude mortality rates (1995-2013) using RiskDiff analysis. Additionally, time trend analysis of age specific death rates was done using Jointpoint regression. The relationship between county mortality risk and socio-demographic variables in the period 2001-2008 was done through an ecological analysis. Socio-demographic variables were: education, income, occupation, housing and living in rural areas. Breast cancer mortality in Chilean women increases with age, with a sharp increase from 80 years old on. In the 1995-2013 period the increase in the crude death rate was 21.8%, this increment was due to changes in demographic structure (43.4%) and decrease in risk (21.7%). The county relative risk of breast cancer mortality is positively associated with education level and negatively associated with living in rural areas. The risk of dying from breast cancer in women has decreased in the period 1995-2013. Nonetheless, the crude death rate has increased in the same period. At an ecological level (counties), breast cancer mortality in Chile is associated with a higher socioeconomic status, measured by educational level and living in rural areas.

  11. Epidemiologic investigation of a cancer cluster in professional football players

    SciTech Connect

    Kraut, A. ); Chan, E.; Landrigan, P.J. ); Lioy, P.J.; Goldstein, B.D. ); Cohen, F.B. )

    1991-12-01

    In 1976, the New York Giants profession football team relocated to the newly constructed Meadowlands Sports Complex (MSC) in East Rutherford, NJ. Between 1980 and 1987 four team members developed cancer: one case each of non-hodgkin's lymphoma, glioblastoma, angiosarcoma, and Hodgkin's disease. Because the surrounding area contains three superfund sites, concern was widespread that the cancers were related to environmental contamination. To assess for a possible environmental etiology, the authors conducted clinical, environmental, and epidemiologic studies at the MSC. Measurements of volatile organic compounds were all below occupational exposure limits and were similar to ambient levels in nearby Lyndhurst, NJ. Outdoor AM radio broadcast field strengths were in the uppermost 0.1% of field strengths measured in urban areas of the US. Proportionate mortality ratio and proportional cancer incidence ratio studies of the MSC workforce found no excesses of cancer deaths or of incident cancer cases either for all sites combined or for any specific site. No significant differences in cancer incidence or mortality were found between indoor and nonindoor workers. Based on examination of all available data, the four cancer cases were judged most likely to have been clustered by chance and not to have been caused by environmental conditions at the MSC.

  12. A critical review of epidemiologic studies of radiofrequency exposure and human cancers.

    PubMed Central

    Elwood, J M

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews studies that have assessed associations between likely exposure to radiofrequency (RF) transmissions and various types of human cancer. These studies include three cluster investigations and five studies relating to general populations; all of these studies consider place of residence at the time of cancer diagnosis in regard to proximity to radio or television transmitters. There are also five relevant occupational cohort studies and several case-control studies of particular types of cancer. These studies assessed a large number of possible associations. Several positive associations suggesting an increased risk of some types of cancer in those who may have had greater exposure to RF emissions have been reported. However, the results are inconsistent: there is no type of cancer that has been consistently associated with RF exposures. The epidemiologic evidence falls short of the strength and consistency of evidence that is required to come to a reasonable conclusion that RF emissions are a likely cause of one or more types of human cancer. The evidence is weak in regard to its inconsistency, the design of the studies, the lack of detail on actual exposures, and the limitations of the studies in their ability to deal with other likely relevant factors. In some studies there may be biases in the data used PMID:10229715

  13. Occupational cancer in France: epidemiology, toxicology, prevention, and compensation.

    PubMed Central

    Aubrun, J C; Binet, S; Bozec, C; Brochard, P; Dimerman, S; Fontaine, B; Guénel, P; Luce, D; Martinet, Y; Moulin, J J; Mur, J M; Pietruszynski, M; Vallayer, C

    1999-01-01

    This article is a description of the current situation in France with regard to occupational cancer: research, prevention, and occupation. Toxicologic experiments are carried out using (italic)in vitro(/italic) and (italic)in vivo(/italic) tests, particularly using transgenic mice. Several epidemiologic studies have been conducted over the last decades: population-based case-control studies; mortality studies and cancer incidence studies carried out in historical cohorts of workers employed in the industry; and case-control studies nested in occupational cohorts. French ethical aspects of toxicologic and epidemiologic studies are described. The results thus obtained are used to establish regulations for the prevention and the compensation of cancers attributable to occupational exposure. This French regulation for prevention of occupational cancer involves several partners: (italic)a(/italic)) the states authorities, including labor inspectors, responsible for preparing and implementing the labor legislation and for supervising its application, particularly in the fields of occupational health and safety and working conditions; (italic)b(/italic)) the Social Security Organisation for the analysis of present or potential occupational risks based on tests, visits in plants, complaints or requests from various sources, and statistics. These activities are performed within the framework of the general French policy for the prevention of occupational cancer. This organization includes the National Institute for Research and Safety, particularly involved in research in the various fields of occupational risks--animal toxicology, biologic monitoring, exposure measurements epidemiology, psychology, ergonomy, electronic systems and machineries, exposure to chemicals, noise, heat, vibration, and lighting; and (italic)c(/italic)) companies where the regulation defines the role of the plant manager, the occupational physician, and the Health, Safety and Working Conditions

  14. Cancers of the pancreas and biliary tract: epidemiological considerations.

    PubMed

    Fraumeni, J F

    1975-11-01

    The epidemiological patterns for pancreatic and biliary cancers reveal more differences than similarities. Pancreatic carcinoma is common in western countries, although 2 Polynesian groups (New Zealand Maoris and native Hawaiians) have the highest rates internationally. In the United States the disease is rising in frequency, predominating in males and in blacks. The rates are elevated in urban areas, but geographic analysis uncovered no clustering of contiguous counties except in southern Louisiana. The origin of pancreatic cancer is obsure, but a twofold increased risk has been documented for cigarette smokers and diabetic patients. Alcohol, occupational agents, and dietary fat have been suspected, but not proven to be risk factors. Except for the rare hereditary form of pancreatitis, there are few clues to genetic predisposition. In contrast, the reported incidence of biliary tract cancer is highest in Latin American populations and American Indians. The tumor predominates in females around the world, except for Chinese and Japanese who show a male excess. In the United States the rates are higher in whites than blacks, and clusters of high-risk counties have been found in the north central region, the southwest, and Appalachia. The distribution of biliary tumors parallels that of cholesterol gallstones, the major risk factor for biliary cancer. Insights into biliary carcinogenesis depend upon clarification of lithogenic influences, such as pregnancy, obesity, and hyperlipoproteinemia, exogenous estrogens, familial tendencies, and ethnic-geographic factors that may reflect dietary habits. Noncalculous risk factors for biliary cancer include ulcerative colitis, clonorchiasis, Gardner's syndrome, and probably certain industrial exposures. Within the biliary tract, tumors of the gallbladder and bile duct show epidemiological distinctions. In contrast to gallbladder cancer, bile duct neoplasms predominate in males; they are less often associated with stones and more

  15. [Trends in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology in Slovakia - an International Comparison].

    PubMed

    Ondrušová, M; Ondruš, D

    According to worldwide estimates, Slovakia is classed as a country with a medium-high incidence of prostate cancer. Current predictions indicate that in the near future prostate cancer will become the most frequent cancer among males in Slovakia. The aims of the study presented in this paper were to analyse trends in the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer in Slovakia and compare these trends with those in other countries and regions of the world, predict epidemiological indicators of prostate cancer in Slovakia, and provide relevant and updated data for the purposes of further analyses and evaluation of the impacts of interventions. National data were analysed for the period 1968-2009. Trends in prostate cancer incidence and mortality were extracted using the joinpoint regression model and are presented with correspoding 95% CI and p values. Predictions of incidence and prevalence were calculated for the years 2014 and 2015, resp. A significant increase in standardized incidence was observed in Slovakia (from 14.5/100,000 in 1980 to 49.0/100,000 in 2009), representing as much as a 6.7% annual percentage change in recent years. The mortality values showed a slower rate of increase, from 9.4/100,000 in 1980 to 13.3/100,000 in 2009, while national mortality of prostate cancer decreased in recent years. These facts have made prostate cancer the most prevalent malignant tumor in males in Slovakia. Unlike in other countries, in Slovakia, no peak in prostate cancer incidence with a subsequent drop is observed. Mortality values reveal a favorable trend in the current national data.Key words: prostate cancer - incidence - mortality - prevalence - clinical stages The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE recommendation for biomedical papers.Submitted: 14. 12. 2016Accepted: 25. 1. 2017.

  16. [Epidemiology of screening-targeted cancers according to new data of the Czech National Cancer Registry].

    PubMed

    Dušek, L; Mužík, J; Malúšková, D; Májek, O; Pavlík, T; Koptíková, J; Gregor, J; Brabec, P; Abrahámová, J

    2014-01-01

    The Czech Society for Oncology has developed an information system which combines the population-based Czech National Cancer Registry with clinical databases in order to cover the main areas of health care assessment - monitoring of the population burden, prediction of the number of cancer patients, diagnostic and treatment results. The presented data demonstrate a high cancer burden within the Czech population - each year there are approximately 8,000 new cases of colorectal cancer, 6,500 new cases of breast cancer, and 1,000 new cases of cervical cancer. And each year, about 4,000 people die from colorectal cancer, around 2,000 women die from breast cancer, and approximately 400 women die from cervical cancer in the Czech Republic. Population-based screening programmes focus on all of the above-mentioned groups of malignant tumours; therefore, it is essential to monitor epidemiological trends in order to assess the screening impact. Despite the high incidence rates of all three cancer types, the trend in mortality rates has been stable or has even decreased in the long term, which has inevitably led to a significant increase in the total prevalence of cancer patients. In 2011, the prevalence of colorectal cancer, breast cancer and cervical cancer amounted to 51,064 people, 67,261 women and 17,398 women, respectively. When compared with the year 2001, there was a 59%, 69% and 25% increase in the prevalence of colorectal cancer, breast cancer, and cervical cancer, respectively. Undoubtedly, taking care of high numbers of cancer patients will continue to require significant financial resources in the near future. As the epidemiological burden is still on the increase, preventive programmes need to be further promoted, including secondary prevention, which is provided through organised screening programmes. Although effective methods exist for timely diagnosis of all three of the above-mentioned cancer types, the epidemiological situation in the Czech Republic is

  17. Report of the Integrative Molecular Cancer Epidemiology International Symposium, Lyon, France.

    PubMed

    Raimondi, S

    2008-01-01

    An International Symposium on Integrative Molecular Cancer Epidemiology took place in Lyon, France, on 3-5 July 2008. The Symposium focused on aetiological and mechanistic aspects of molecular and genetic cancer epidemiology research and was divided into the following three sections: Molecular epidemiology-application of novel molecular markers to cancer epidemiology.Genomic epidemiology in the era of whole genome scan.INTEGRATIVE MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY: visions for the future.Participants included epidemiologists, geneticists, biochemical and molecular biologists, pharmacologists, pathologists and all researchers interested in this field. The Symposium provided a complete and clear overview of the present and future programmes in molecular cancer epidemiology. It also served to encourage international scientific collaboration between investigators working in this specific research field, and to stimulate transdisciplinary research with experts of other research areas. Highlights of each of the scientific presentations are summarized below.

  18. Molecular epidemiology, cancer-related symptoms, and cytokines pathway

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Gibby, Cielito C; Wu, Xifeng; Spitz, Margaret; Kurzrock, Razelle; Fisch, Michael; Bruera, Eduardo; Shete, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    The Human Genome Project and HapMap have led to a better appreciation of the importance of common genetic variation in determining cancer risk, created potential for predicting response to therapy, and made possible the development of targeted prevention and therapeutic interventions. Advances in molecular epidemiology can be used to explore the role of genetic variation in modulating the risk for severe and persistent symptoms, such as pain, depression, and fatigue, in patients with cancer. The same genes that are implicated in cancer risk might also be involved in the modulation of therapeutic outcomes. For example, polymorphisms in several cytokine genes are potential markers for genetic susceptibility both for cancer risk and for cancer-related symptoms. These genetic polymorphisms are stable markers and easily and reliably assayed to explore the extent to which genetic variation might prove useful in identifying patients with cancer at high-risk of symptom development. Likewise, they could identify subgroups who might benefit most from symptom intervention, and contribute to developing personalised and more effective therapies for persistent symptoms. PMID:18672213

  19. Epidemiologic survey of head and neck cancers in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang-Moon; Kim, Young Mo; Shim, Yoon-Sang; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Chang, Hyuck Soon; Choi, Jong Ouck; Rho, Young Soo; Kim, Min-Sik; Choi, Eun Chang; Choi, Geon; Sung, Myung-Whun; Kim, Sang-Yun; Lee, Yong-Sik; Baek, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Young-Ho; Im, Jung-Hyuk; Choi, Sang-Hak; Kim, Jae-Hee

    2003-02-01

    Head and neck cancers have never been systematically studied for clinical purposes yet in Korea. This epidemiological survey on head and neck cancer patients was undertaken from January to December 2001 in 79 otorhinolaryngology resident-training hospitals nationwide. The number of head and neck cancer patients was 1,063 cases in the year. The largest proportion of cases arose in the larynx, as many as 488 cases, which accounted for 45.9%. It was followed by, in order of frequency, oral cavity (16.5%), oropharynx (10.0%), and hypopharynx (9.5%). The male:female ratio was 5:1, and the mean age was 60.3 yr. Surgery was the predominant treatment modality in head and neck cancers: 204 (21.5%) cases were treated with only surgery, 198 (20.8%) cases were treated with surgery and radiotherapy, 207 cases (21.8%) were treated with combined therapy of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Larynx and hypopharynx cancers had a stronger relationship with smoking and alcohol drinking than other primary site cancers. Of them, 21 cases were found to be metastasized at the time of diagnosis into the lung, gastrointestinal tract, bone, or brain. Coexisting second primary malignancies were found in 23 cases. At the time of diagnosis, a total of 354 cases had cervical lymph node metastasis accounting for 42.0%.

  20. Collaborative cancer epidemiology in the 21st century: the model of cancer consortia.

    PubMed

    Burgio, Michael R; Ioannidis, John P A; Kaminski, Brett M; Derycke, Eric; Rogers, Scott; Khoury, Muin J; Seminara, Daniela

    2013-12-01

    During the last two decades, epidemiology has undergone a rapid evolution toward collaborative research. The proliferation of multi-institutional, interdisciplinary consortia has acquired particular prominence in cancer research. Herein, we describe the characteristics of a network of 49 established cancer epidemiology consortia (CEC) currently supported by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI). This collection represents the largest disease-based research network for collaborative cancer research established in population sciences. We describe the funding trends, geographic distribution, and areas of research focus. The CEC have been partially supported by 201 grants and yielded 3,876 publications between 1995 and 2011. We describe this output in terms of interdisciplinary collaboration and translational evolution. We discuss challenges and future opportunities in the establishment and conduct of large-scale team science within the framework of CEC, review future prospects for this approach to large-scale, interdisciplinary cancer research, and describe a model for the evolution of an integrated Network of Cancer Consortia optimally suited to address and support 21st-century epidemiology. ©2013 AACR.

  1. Nasopharyngeal Cancer in Sudan: Epidemiology, Clinical and Histological Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Nazik E.; Adam, Ameera A.M.; Khalifa, Eman H.; EL Hassan, Lamyaa A.M.; Ibrahim, M.E.; Hamad, K.M.; El Hassan, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To study the epidemiology, clinical features, staging, etiology and pathology of nasopharyngeal cancer in Sudan. Study design: This is a retrospective study. Setting: Ear, Nose and Throat Department Khartoum Teaching Hospital, Khartoum City, Sudan. Subjects and methods: Patients suspected to have nasopharyngeal cancer were assessed during the period March 2004 to May 2010. Data from confirmed cases was obtained; it included clinical and epidemiological information. Results: Three hundred and eighty five cases were studied. Bimodal age distribution of the disease was noted with two peaks, one at 15–19 years and one at 50–54 years. The male to female ratio was 2.6:1 and a distinct geographical distribution of the disease was noted, with clustering of cases in the towns of Dilling, Kadogli and the surrounding rural area of the Nuba Mountains. These areas in the Western States were reported to be of high background radiation due to naturally produced radioactive uranium. The Nuba tribe headed the list among other tribes, demonstrating a clear ethnic predilection. Sixty-eight cases presented at stage IV. There was a predominance of Type II (15.58%) and Type III (65.97%). Patients were treated by neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Conclusions: NPC is an important form of cancer in Sudan. Some tribes are significantly more affected than others. Patients present with advanced disease. Environmental and genetic factors need further studies. Screening at risk populations that aim at early diagnosis and management of patients is recommended. PMID:24179400

  2. Cancer and the environment: Ten topics in environmental cancer epidemiology in Canada.

    PubMed

    Huchcroft, Shirley A; Mao, Yang; Semenciw, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This Chronic Diseases in Canada supplement is a compilation of literature reviews by scientific experts. It was initiated as follow-up to the Green Plan, the federal government's environmental agenda in the 1990s. In recognizing that Canadians are concerned about the environment and its relationship to their health, this document attempts to address some of these concerns in relation to cancer by reviewing and summarizing the epidemiological literature for ten environmental exposures, and highlighting future research needs. The topics include three types of radiation exposure (ultraviolet, radon and electromagnetic (powerfrequency electromagnetic fields)), three classes of chemical exposure (organochlorines, disinfection by-products, and pesticides), two types of air pollution (environmental tobacco smoke and outdoor air pollution), and two industrial sources (pulp and paper milling, and metal mining and processing). This publication is intended to provide a base of information for researchers interested in environmental cancer epidemiology and to assist with the formulation of research priorities. The ten topics reviewed here were selected because concern about them has been expressed or because they involve known animal carcinogens. Complete elimination of exposures to carcinogens in the environment, synthetic or natural, is not technically feasible if cancer can potentially occur at any level of exposure (i.e., the linear non-threshold theory). Consequently, it is important to have an operational concept of safety which is more practical than that of zero risk. Such an approach uses the concept of acceptable or essentially negligible risk to determine the exposure levels at which carcinogens are regulated. Acceptable risk has been defined as one that is "so small, whose consequences are so slight, or whose associated benefits (perceived or real) are so great that persons or groups in society are willing to take or be subjected to that risk". The level of risk

  3. Vigorous physical activity and risk of breast cancer in the African American breast cancer epidemiology and risk consortium.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhihong; Hong, Chi-Chen; Bandera, Elisa V; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Troester, Melissa A; Park, Song-Yi; McInerney, Kathryn A; Zirpoli, Gary; Olshan, Andrew F; Palmer, Julie R; Ambrosone, Christine B; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between physical activity and breast cancer risk has been extensively studied among women of European descent, with most studies reporting inverse associations. However, data on American women of African ancestry (AA) and by tumor subtypes are sparse. Thus, we examined associations of vigorous exercise and breast cancer risk overall, and by estrogen receptor (ER) status, in the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk Consortium. We pooled data from four large studies on 2482 ER+ cases, 1374 ER- cases, and 16,959 controls. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the risk of breast cancer overall, and polytomous logistic regression was used to model the risk of ER+ and ER- cancer. Recent vigorous exercise was associated with a statistically significant, modestly decreased risk for breast cancer overall (OR 0.88, 95 % CI 0.81-0.96) and for ER+ cancer (OR 0.88, 95 % CI 0.80-0.98), but not for ER- cancer (OR 0.93, 95 % CI 0.82-1.06). Overall, there was no strong evidence of effect modification by age, menopausal status, body mass index, and parity. However, our data were suggestive of modification by family history, such that an inverse association was present among women without a family history but not among those with a relative affected by breast cancer. Results from this large pooled analysis provide evidence that vigorous physical activity is associated with a modestly reduced risk of breast cancer in AA women, specifically ER+ cancer.

  4. Geometrically Evident: Framing Studies Using the Graphic Appraisal Tool for Epidemiology (GATE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andres; Srihari, Vinod

    2006-01-01

    Educators in evidence-based medicine (EBM) have noted that the core set of epidemiological concepts outlined in standard sources are sometimes put to use as oversimplified checklists for the appraisal of research reports. In this article, the authors present the Graphic Appraisal Tool for Epidemiology which was designed as a way combat, by visual…

  5. Geometrically Evident: Framing Studies Using the Graphic Appraisal Tool for Epidemiology (GATE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andres; Srihari, Vinod

    2006-01-01

    Educators in evidence-based medicine (EBM) have noted that the core set of epidemiological concepts outlined in standard sources are sometimes put to use as oversimplified checklists for the appraisal of research reports. In this article, the authors present the Graphic Appraisal Tool for Epidemiology which was designed as a way combat, by visual…

  6. Sunlight, vitamin D and the prevention of cancer: a systematic review of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    van der Rhee, Han; Coebergh, Jan Willem; de Vries, Esther

    2009-11-01

    The number of studies reporting beneficial effects of sunlight and vitamin D on several types of cancer with a high mortality rate is growing rapidly. Present health recommendations on sun exposure are mainly based on the increased risks for skin cancer. We reviewed all published studies concerning cancer and sun exposure and vitamin D, respectively, excluding those about skin cancer. Most identified ecological, case-control and prospective studies on the incidence and mortality of colorectal, prostate, breast carcinoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma reported a significantly inverse association with sun exposure. The results of the included studies on the association between cancer risk and vitamin D were much less consistent. Only those studies that prospectively examined the 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum levels in relation to risk of colorectal cancer are homogeneous: they all reported inverse associations, although not all reaching statistical significance. The results of the intervention studies are suggestive of a protective role of high doses of vitamin D in cancer, but they have been criticized in the literature. We, therefore, conclude that there is accumulating evidence for sunlight as a protective factor for several types of cancer. The same conclusion can be made concerning high vitamin D levels and the risk of colorectal cancer. This evidence, however, is not conclusive, because the number of (good quality) studies is still limited and publication biases cannot be excluded. The discrepancies between the epidemiological evidence for a possible preventive effect of sunlight and vitamin D and the question of how to apply the findings on the beneficial effects of sunlight to (public) health recommendations are discussed.

  7. A critical review of the epidemiology of Agent Orange/TCDD and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ellen T; Boffetta, Paolo; Adami, Hans-Olov; Cole, Philip; Mandel, Jack S

    2014-10-01

    To inform risk assessment and regulatory decision-making, the relationship between 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and prostate cancer requires clarification. This article systematically and critically reviews the epidemiologic evidence on the association between exposure to TCDD or Agent Orange, a TCDD-contaminated herbicide used during the Vietnam War, and prostate cancer risk. Articles evaluated include 11 studies of three cohorts, four case-control or cross-sectional studies, and three case-only studies of military veterans with information on estimated Agent Orange or TCDD exposure; 13 studies of seven cohorts, one case-control study, and eight proportionate morbidity or mortality studies of Vietnam veterans without information on Agent Orange exposure; 11 cohort studies of workers with occupational exposure to TCDD; and two studies of one community cohort with environmental exposure to TCDD. The most informative studies, including those of Vietnam veterans involved in Agent Orange spraying or other handling, herbicide manufacturing or spraying workers with occupational TCDD exposure, and community members exposed to TCDD through an industrial accident, consistently reported no significant increase in prostate cancer incidence or mortality. Only some potentially confounded studies of Vietnam veterans compared with the general population, studies with unreliable estimates of Agent Orange exposure, and analyses of selected subgroups of Vietnam veterans reported positive associations. Overall, epidemiologic research offers no consistent or convincing evidence of a causal relationship between exposure to Agent Orange or TCDD and prostate cancer. More accurate exposure assessment is needed in large epidemiologic studies to rule out a causal association more conclusively.

  8. Biochemical and molecular epidemiology of human cancer: indicators of carcinogen exposure, DNA damage, and genetic predisposition.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, C C; Weston, A; Willey, J C; Trivers, G E; Mann, D L

    1987-01-01

    The primary goal of biochemical and molecular epidemiology is to identify individuals at high cancer risk by obtaining evidence of high exposure to carcinogens, leading to pathobiological lesions in target cells, and/or increased oncogenic susceptibility due to either inherited or acquired host factors. This emerging and multidisciplinary area of cancer research combines epidemiological and laboratory approaches. Because DNA is considered to be an important target for modification by mutagens and carcinogens, damage to DNA can be used as an internal, molecular dosimeter of carcinogen exposure. The reactive species of these carcinogens may directly bind to DNA to form adducts and may indirectly cause secondary DNA lesions, e.g., via induction of free radicals and aldehydes. Highly sensitive and specific methods have been developed to measure the minute amounts of DNA lesions and DNA repair products found in biological specimens from humans exposed to carcinogens. For example, DNA adducts have been measured in cells and tissues from people occupationally exposed to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Antibodies recognizing carcinogen-DNA adducts have also been detected in human sera. Inherited predisposition to cancer has been revealed by recent advances in molecular genetics, including restriction-fragment-length polymorphism. For example, the hypothesis that rare alleles of the Ha-ras proto-oncogene are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer is currently being tested. These approaches afford the potential of biochemical and molecular epidemiology to predict disease risk for individual persons, instead of for populations, and before the onset of clinically evident disease. PMID:3319559

  9. Clinical epidemiology and pharmacology of CYP2D6 inhibition related to breast cancer outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Lash, Timothy L

    2011-01-01

    Adjuvant tamoxifen therapy of breast cancer patients with estrogen receptor-positive tumors reduces the rate of breast cancer recurrence by approximately a half. Tamoxifen is metabolized by several polymorphic enzymes, including cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6), to more active metabolites. We have reviewed the clinical pharmacology of tamoxifen and evaluated the evidence from clinical epidemiology studies regarding the association between CYP2D6 inhibition and tamoxifen effectiveness. We conclude that the impact of CYP2D6 inhibition on tamoxifen effectiveness is likely to be null or small, at least in the populations studied so far. Understanding the effect of variations in tamoxifen metabolism on breast cancer outcomes, if any, will likely require a broader perspective, including examination of the complete metabolic pathway and subgroups of patients with other markers of potentially poor tamoxifen response. PMID:21709817

  10. Phytoestrogens: epidemiology and a possible role in cancer protection.

    PubMed Central

    Adlercreutz, H

    1995-01-01

    Because many diseases of the Western Hemisphere are hormone-dependent cancers, we have postulated that the Western diet, compared to a vegetarian or semivegetarian diet, may alter hormone production, metabolism, or action at the cellular level by some biochemical mechanisms. Recently, our interest has been mainly focused on the cancer-protective role of some hormonelike diphenolic phytoestrogens of dietary origin, the lignans and the isoflavonoids. The precursors of the biologically active compounds originate in soybean products (mainly isoflavonoids), whole grain cereal food, seeds, and probably berries and nuts (mainly lignans). The plant lignan and isoflavonoid glycosides are converted by intestinal bacteria to hormonelike compounds with weak estrogenic but also antioxidative activity; they have now been shown to influence not only sex hormone metabolism and biological activity but also intracellular enzymes, protein synthesis, growth factor action, malignant cell proliferation, differentiation, and angiogenesis in a way that makes them strong candidates for a role as natural cancer-protective compounds. Epidemiologic investigations strongly support this hypothesis because the highest levels of these compounds in the diet are found in countries or regions with low cancer incidence. This report is a review on recent results suggesting that the diphenolic isoflavonoids and lignans are natural cancer-protective compounds. PMID:8593855

  11. Colorectal Cancer Epidemiology in the Nurses' Health Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Keum, NaNa; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-09-01

    To review the contribution of the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) to identifying risk and protective factors for colorectal adenomas and colorectal cancer (CRC). We performed a narrative review of the publications using the NHS between 1976 and 2016. Existing epidemiological studies using the NHS have reported that red and processed meat, alcohol, smoking, and obesity were associated with an increased risk of CRC, whereas folate, calcium, vitamin D, aspirin, and physical activity were associated with decreased risk of CRC. Moreover, modifiable factors, such as physical activity, vitamin D, folate, insulin and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, and diet quality, were identified to be associated with survival among CRC patients. In recent years, molecular pathological epidemiological studies have been actively conducted and have shown refined results by molecular subtypes of CRC. The NHS has provided new insights into colorectal adenomas, CRC etiology, and pathogenic mechanisms. With its unique strengths, the NHS should continue to contribute to the field of CRC epidemiology and play a major role in public health.

  12. Colorectal Cancer Epidemiology in the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Giovannucci, Edward L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) to identifying risk and protective factors for colorectal adenomas and colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods. We performed a narrative review of the publications using the NHS between 1976 and 2016. Results. Existing epidemiological studies using the NHS have reported that red and processed meat, alcohol, smoking, and obesity were associated with an increased risk of CRC, whereas folate, calcium, vitamin D, aspirin, and physical activity were associated with decreased risk of CRC. Moreover, modifiable factors, such as physical activity, vitamin D, folate, insulin and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, and diet quality, were identified to be associated with survival among CRC patients. In recent years, molecular pathological epidemiological studies have been actively conducted and have shown refined results by molecular subtypes of CRC. Conclusions. The NHS has provided new insights into colorectal adenomas, CRC etiology, and pathogenic mechanisms. With its unique strengths, the NHS should continue to contribute to the field of CRC epidemiology and play a major role in public health. PMID:27459444

  13. The autoimmune disease complex interstitial pneumonia/dermatomyositis in the light of endocrinology and cancer epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Mitsuo; Kodama, Masahiko

    2009-01-01

    The autoimmune disease interstitial pneumonia/dermatomyositis complex (ID) is classified as a paramalignancy since it is associated with a variety of malignancies at a high incidence in aged patients. We found a striking resemblance of pathophysiological features between ID and immunoendocrinopathy syndromes (IES) with depressed adrenocortical function. Drip infusion of megadose vitamin C, dehydroepiandrosterone and cortisol (an adrenocortical secretion substitute) was found to be effective for the control of ID. It has also been indicated that ID is a disease of adrenocortical insufficiency. Evidence is presented to indicate that ID in its clinical course is linked to environmental stress. The nature of paramalignant ID is discussed in the light of cancer epidemiology.

  14. Epidemiology of cancer of the cervix: global and national perspective.

    PubMed

    Shanta, V; Krishnamurthi, S; Gajalakshmi, C K; Swaminathan, R; Ravichandran, K

    2000-02-01

    Cancer of the uterine cervix is one of the leading causes of cancer death among women worldwide. The estimated new cancer cervix cases per year is 500,000 of which 79% occur in the developing countries. Cancer cervix occupies either the top rank or second among cancers in women in the developing countries, whereas in the affluent countries cancer cervix does not even find a place in the top 5 leading cancers in women. The truncated rate (TR) in the age group 35-64 years in Chennai, India, is even higher (99.1/100,000; 1982-95) than rate reported from Cali, Colombia (77.4/100,000, 1987-91). The cervical cancer burden in India alone is estimated as 100,000 in 2001 AD. The differential pattern of cervical cancer and the wide variation in incidence are possibly related to environmental differences. Aetiologic association and possible risk factors for cervical carcinoma have been extensively studied. The factors are: Sexual and reproductive factors, socio-economic factors (education and income), viruses e.g., herpes simplex virus (HSV), human papillomavirus (HPV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in cervical carcinogenesis and other factors like smoking, diet, oral contraceptives, hormones, etc. The accumulated evidence suggests that cervical cancer is preventable and is highly suitable for primary prevention. Sexual hygiene, use of barrier contraceptives and ritual circumcision can undoubtedly reduce cervical cancer incidence. Education, cervical cancer screening of high risk groups and improvement in socio-economic status can reduce cervical cancer morbidity and mortality significantly.

  15. Invited commentary: progress in the nutritional epidemiology of ovary cancer.

    PubMed

    Mettlin, C J

    1991-09-01

    Researchers do not understand what causes ovarian cancer. Some studies find galactose to be toxic to oocytes which renders ovaries susceptible to cancer. 1 hypothesis is that high levels of lactose consumption and retained ability to digest lactose (lactase persistence) lead to high levels of galactose exposure which increases the ovarian cancer risk. Denmark, Sweden, and Switzerland have the highest risk of ovarian cancer in the world. They also have the highest levels of lactase persistence and among the highest levels of milk supply for the population. Conversely, Hong Kong, Japan, Shanghai, and Singapore have low ovarian cancer risk, low consumption of milk, and low levels of lactase persistence. yet other researchers using the same data did not find per capita availability of milk to be significant independent of nondairy animal fat. Lactase persistence did have an independent association, however, but data was not standardized across populations. In a case control study, researchers took the dietary history of 11 dairy products to measure lactose consumption. A significant increase in ovarian cancer risk only existed with frequent intake of yogurt and cottage cheese. Researchers hypothesized that the prehydrolyzed lactose in both foods was the main contributor. Using the case control data, others found an increased risk for total lactose intake in women who never used oral contraceptives (OCs). The strongest predictor to date is the lactose/transferase ratio, yet those who found this association did not define this index based on an earlier study or examination. 1 problem with these studies is that dietary fat confounds the association. 2 studies showed that low fat milk was associated with decreased risk, even though both milks have the same lactose content. Another problem is that the subsets of exposure or subgroups of the population are unpredictable. Further research in nutritional epidemiology of ovarian cancer is needed.

  16. Screening for gastric cancer in Asia: current evidence and practice.

    PubMed

    Leung, Wai K; Wu, Ming-shiang; Kakugawa, Yasuo; Kim, Jae J; Yeoh, Khay-guan; Goh, Khean Lee; Wu, Kai-chun; Wu, Deng-chyang; Sollano, Jose; Kachintorn, Udom; Gotoda, Takuji; Lin, Jaw-town; You, Wei-cheng; Ng, Enders K W; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2008-03-01

    Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer in Asia. Although surgery is the standard treatment for this disease, early detection and treatment is the only way to reduce mortality. This Review summarises the epidemiology of gastric cancer, and the evidence for, and current practices of, screening in Asia. Few Asian countries have implemented a national screening programme for gastric cancer; most have adopted opportunistic screening of high-risk individuals only. Although screening by endoscopy seems to be the most accurate method for detection of gastric cancer, the availability of endoscopic instruments and expertise for mass screening remains questionable--even in developed countries such as Japan. Therefore, barium studies or serum-pepsinogen testing are sometimes used as the initial screening tool in some countries, and patients with abnormal results are screened by endoscopy. Despite the strong link between infection with Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer, more data are needed to define the role of its eradication in the prevention of gastric cancer in Asia. At present, there is a paucity of quality data from Asia to lend support for screening for gastric cancer.

  17. Colorectal Cancer in Iran: Molecular Epidemiology and Screening Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Dolatkhah, Roya; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Bonyadi, Mortaza Jabbarpour; Asvadi Kermani, Iraj; Farassati, Faris; Dastgiri, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The increasing incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the past three decades in Iran has made it a major public health burden. This study aimed to report its epidemiologic features, molecular genetic aspects, survival, heredity, and screening pattern in Iran. Methods. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify the relevant published articles. We used medical subject headings, including colorectal cancer, molecular genetics, KRAS and BRAF mutations, screening, survival, epidemiologic study, and Iran. Results. Age standardized incidence rate of Iranian CRCs was 11.6 and 10.5 for men and women, respectively. Overall five-year survival rate was 41%, and the proportion of CRC among the younger age group was higher than that of western countries. Depending on ethnicity, geographical region, dietary, and genetic predisposition, mutation genes were considerably diverse and distinct among CRCs across Iran. The high occurrence of CRC in records of relatives of CRC patients showed that family history of CRC was more common among young CRCs. Conclusion. Appropriate screening strategies for CRC which is amenable to early detection through screening, especially in relatives of CRCs, should be considered as the first step in CRC screening programs. PMID:25685149

  18. Ovarian cancer risk and nonisoflavone flavonoids intake: A systematic review of epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Vida; Dehghani, Sirous; Larijani, Bagher; Azadbakht, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although several studies have investigated the association between ovarian cancer risk and nonisoflavone flavonoids intake, these findings are inconsistent. This systematic review of published epidemiological studies was conducted to summarize and clarify the evidence on the association between ovarian cancer incidence and nonisoflavone flavonoids intake. Materials and Methods: PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and EMBASE databases were searched based on MeSH term (ovarian neoplasm in combination with flavonoids) to identify related English and non-English papers published up to June 2016. We summarized the results of the relevant studies in this review. Results: In total, seven studies (four with cohort and three with case–control design) included in this review. The results of conducted cohort studies show no relation between ovarian cancer risk and total nonisoflavone flavonoids intake, and only one study reported a significant reduction between ovarian cancer incidence and kaempferol and luteolin intake. Similar to those in the cohort studies, also in case–control studies, no association was found between total nonisoflavone flavonoids intake and ovarian cancer risk, just an inverse association between flavonols intake and ovarian cancer was reported. Conclusion: Several studies investigated the relation of nonisoflavone flavonoids intake and ovarian cancer risk; none of them reported any association for total nonisoflavone flavonoids intake, but some reported an inverse association between certain subclasses or individual flavonoids. These findings are limited, and there is a need for further and more accurate researches to be confirmed. PMID:28331509

  19. Pesticides and prostate cancer: a review of epidemiologic studies with specific agricultural exposure information.

    PubMed

    Mink, Pamela J; Adami, Hans-Olov; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Britton, Nicole L; Mandel, Jack S

    2008-04-01

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in US men, and the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among men worldwide. Although pesticides have been implicated in studies of prostate cancer among farmers, meta-analyses have found heterogeneity across studies, and a number of exposures and lifestyle factors may be unique to farmers. The purpose of this paper is to review the epidemiologic literature to evaluate the hypothesis that agricultural exposure to pesticides is causally associated with prostate cancer risk. We analyzed the eight cohort studies and five case-control studies that quantified and/or evaluated agricultural exposure to particular pesticide classes or chemicals. Despite sporadic positive findings, these studies did not show consistently increased risks to support a causal association between agricultural pesticide use and prostate cancer. Studies using an 'external' comparison group must be interpreted in the context of confounding by differences in prostate-specific antigen screening intensity. Furthermore, most studies did not adjust for potential confounders other than age and time period. It is clearly not possible to exonerate any particular pesticide as a putative cause of prostate cancer - to do so would require an inverse empirical association with an upper confidence limit below the null value. Existing evidence does not point to any pesticide as satisfying widely used guidelines for establishing causation: a strong, exposure-dependent and demonstrably unconfounded, unbiased association, documented in several studies.

  20. Diabetes mellitus and gynecologic cancer: molecular mechanisms, epidemiological, clinical and prognostic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Vrachnis, Nikolaos; Iavazzo, Christos; Iliodromiti, Zoe; Sifakis, Stavros; Alexandrou, Andreas; Siristatidis, Charalambos; Grigoriadis, Charalambos; Botsis, Dimitrios; Creatsas, George

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus, the prevalence of which has increased dramatically worldwide, may put patients at a higher risk of cancer. The aim of our study is the clarification of the possible mechanisms linking diabetes mellitus and gynecological cancer and their epidemiological relationship. This is a narrative review of the current literature, following a search on MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library, from their inception until January 2012. Articles investigating gynecologic cancer (endometrial, ovarian, and breast) incidence in diabetic patients were extracted. The strong evidence for a positive association between diabetes mellitus and the risk for cancer indicates that energy intake in excess to energy expenditure, or the sequelae thereof, is involved in gynecological carcinogenesis. This risk may be further heightened by glucose which can directly promote the production of tumor cells by functioning as a source of energy. Insulin resistance accompanied by secondary hyperinsulinemia is hypothezised to have a mitogenic effect. Steroid hormones are in addition potent regulators of the balance between cellular differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Inflammatory pathways may also be implicated, as a correlation seems to exist between diabetes mellitus and breast or endometrial carcinoma pathogenesis, although an analogous correlation with ovarian carcinoma is still under investigation. Antidiabetic agents have been correlated with elevated cancer risk, while metformin seems to lower the risk. Diabetes mellitus is associated with an elevation in gynecologic cancer risk. Moreover, there are many studies exploring the prognosis of patients with diabetes and gynecological cancer, the outcome and the overall survival in well-regulated patients.

  1. Nurses’ Health Study Contributions on the Epidemiology of Less Common Cancers: Endometrial, Ovarian, Pancreatic, and Hematologic

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Mollie E.; Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Bao, Ying; Crous-Bou, Marta; Wolpin, Brian M.; De Vivo, Immaculata; Tworoger, Shelley S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contributions of the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) to epidemiologic knowledge of endometrial, ovarian, pancreatic, and hematologic cancers. Methods. We reviewed selected NHS publications from 1976 to 2016, including publications from consortia and other pooled studies. Results. NHS studies on less common cancers have identified novel risk factors, such as a reduced risk of endometrial cancer in women of advanced age at last birth, and have clarified or prospectively confirmed previously reported associations, including an inverse association between tubal ligation and ovarian cancer. Through biomarker research, the NHS has furthered understanding of the pathogenesis of rare cancers, such as the role of altered metabolism in pancreatic cancer risk and survival. NHS investigations have also demonstrated the importance of the timing of exposure, such as the finding of a positive association of early life body fatness, but not of usual adult body mass index, with non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk. Conclusions. Evidence from the NHS has informed prevention strategies and contributed to improved survival from less common but often lethal malignancies, including endometrial, ovarian, pancreatic, and hematologic cancers. PMID:27459458

  2. Evidence for colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Bretthauer, Michael

    2010-08-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been increasing during the past decades, and the lifetime risk for CRC in industrialised countries is about 5%. CRC is a good candidate for screening, because it is a disease with high prevalence, has recognised precursors, and early treatment is beneficial. This paper outlines the evidence for efficacy from randomised trials for the most commonly used CRC screening tests to reduce CRC incidence and mortality in the average-risk population. Four randomised trials have investigated the effect of guaiac-based fecal occult blood screening on CRC mortality, with a combined CRC mortality risk reduction of 15-17% in an intention-to-screen analysis, and 25% for those people who attended screening. Flexible sigmoidoscopy screening has been evaluated in three randomised trials. The observed reduction in CRC incidence varied between 23 and 80%, and between 27 and 67% for CRC mortality, respectively (intention-to-screen analyses) in the trials with long follow-up time. No randomised trials exist in other CRC screening tools, included colonoscopy screening. FOBT and flexible sigmoidoscopy are the two CRC screening methods which have been tested in randomised trials and shown to reduce CRC mortality. These tests can be recommended for CRC screening. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cancer Screening: The Journey from Epidemiology to Policy

    PubMed Central

    Deppen, Stephen A.; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Hartge, Patricia; Berg, Christine D.; Colditz, Graham A.; Petitti, Diana B.; Hiatt, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer screening procedures have brought great benefit to the public’s health. However, the science of cancer screening and the evidence arising from research in this field as it is applied to policy is complex and has been difficult to communicate, especially on the national stage. We explore how epidemiologists have contributed to this evidence base and to its translation into policy. Our essay focuses on breast and lung cancer screening to identify commonalities of experience by epidemiologists across two different cancer sites and describe how epidemiologists interact with evolving scientific and policy environments. We describe the roles and challenges that epidemiologists encounter according to the maturity of the data, stakeholders, and the related political context. We also explore the unique position of cancer screening as influenced by the legislative landscape where, due to recent healthcare reform, cancer screening research plays directly into national policy. In the complex landscape for cancer screening policy, epidemiologists can increase their impact by learning from past experiences, being well prepared and communicating effectively. PMID:22626002

  4. Kids, Adolescents, and Young Adult Cancer Study—A Methodologic Approach in Cancer Epidemiology Research

    PubMed Central

    Link, Nancy J.; Maurer, Eva; Largent, Joan; Kent, Erin; Morris, Rebecca A.; Sender, Leonard S.; Anton-Culver, Hoda

    2009-01-01

    Advances have been made in treatment and outcomes for pediatric cancer. However adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer have not experienced similar relative improvements. We undertook a study to develop the methodology necessary for epidemiologic cancer research in these age groups. Our goal was to create the Kids, Adolescents, and Young Adults Cancer (KAYAC) project to create a resource to address research questions relevant to this population. We used a combination of clinic and population-based ascertainment to enroll 111 cases aged 0–39 for this methodology development study. The largest groups of cancer types enrolled include: breast cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, and melanoma. The overall participation rate is 69.8% and varies by age and tumor type. The study included patients, mothers, and fathers. The methods used to establish this resource are described, and the values of the resource in studies of childhood and young adult cancer are outlined. PMID:20445801

  5. Research Strategies for Nutritional and Physical Activity Epidemiology and Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    In response to a series of controversial articles about nutritional epidemiology and cancer published in 2014, staff from the Environmental Epidemiology Branch initiated a series of meetings to refine programmatic priorities for human nutrition/physical activity and cancer etiology research in the near term.

  6. Sequencing Strategies for Population and Cancer Epidemiology Studies (SeqSPACE) Webinar Series

    Cancer.gov

    The Sequencing Strategies for Population and Cancer Epidemiology Studies (SeqSPACE) Webinar Series provides an opportunity for our grantees and other interested individuals to share lessons learned and practical information regarding the application of next generation sequencing to cancer epidemiology studies.

  7. Parental occupation and childhood cancer: review of epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed Central

    Savitz, D A; Chen, J H

    1990-01-01

    Parental occupational exposures might affect childhood cancer in the offspring through genetic changes in the ovum or sperm or through transplacental carcinogenesis. The 24 published epidemiologic studies of this association have all used case-control designs, with controls generally selected from birth certificates or from general population sampling. Occupational exposures were inferred from job titles on birth certificates or through interviews. A large number of occupation-cancer associations have been reported, many of which were not addressed or not confirmed in other studies. Several associations have been found with consistency: paternal exposures in hydrocarbon-associated occupations, the petroleum and chemical industries, and especially paint exposures have been associated with brain cancer; paint exposures have also been linked to leukemias. Maternal exposures have received much less attention, but studies have yielded strongly suggestive results linking a variety of occupational exposures to leukemia and brain cancer. The primary limitations in this literature are the inaccuracy inherent in assigning exposure based on job title alone and imprecision due to limited study size. Although no etiologic associations have been firmly established by these studies, the public health concerns and suggestive data warrant continued research. PMID:2272330

  8. Chronic exposure to sour gas emissions: meeting a community concern with epidemiologic evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Spitzer, W O; Dales, R E; Schechter, M T; Suissa, S; Tousignant, P; Steinmetz, N; Hutcheon, M E

    1989-01-01

    For 25 years residents of a rural area in southwestern Alberta have complained of health problems attributed to sour gas emissions from nearby natural gas refineries. We undertook a large epidemiologic study of the current health status and the selected morbidity rates among 2152 people in the exposed area. We established two comparison groups: one was a demographically similar unexposed population and the other a demographically different group also exposed to sour gas emissions in another region. The methods included a cross-sectional survey of current residents and separate historical cohort studies involving registry linkage to investigate cancer incidence and all-cause mortality. The cross-sectional survey involved a comprehensive health questionnaire, standardized clinical examinations by physicians blinded to the subjects' symptoms and concerns, and several laboratory tests. We were able to contact just under 60% of the people who we knew had moved from each area since 1958 and found no evidence of selective migration for health reasons. Although the residents of the exposed area reported an excess number of symptoms and health problems there were no significant differences in the mortality rate, incidence of cancer, reproductive problems, major ailments, hair levels of arsenic and certain metals or respiratory function between the groups. PMID:2790604

  9. Prostate cancer and inflammation: the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Sfanos, Karen S; De Marzo, Angelo M

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is now known to contribute to several forms of human cancer, with an estimated 20% of adult cancers attributable to chronic inflammatory conditions caused by infectious agents, chronic noninfectious inflammatory diseases and / or other environmental factors. Indeed, chronic inflammation is now regarded as an ‘enabling characteristic’ of human cancer. The aim of this review is to summarize the current literature on the evidence for a role for chronic inflammation in prostate cancer aetiology, with a specific focus on recent advances regarding the following: (i) potential stimuli for prostatic inflammation; (ii) prostate cancer immunobiology; (iii) inflammatory pathways and cytokines in prostate cancer risk and development; (iv) proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) as a risk factor lesion to prostate cancer development; and (v) the role of nutritional or other antiinflammatory compounds in reducing prostate cancer risk. PMID:22212087

  10. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) and cancer prevention: a systematic review of randomized trials and epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianping; Xing, Jianmin; Fei, Yutong

    2008-01-01

    Background Green tea is one of the most popular beverages worldwide. This review summarizes the beneficial effects of green tea on cancer prevention. Methods Electronic databases, including PubMed (1966–2008), the Cochrane Library (Issue 1, 2008) and Chinese Biomedical Database (1978–2008) with supplement of relevant websites, were searched. There was no language restriction. The searches ended at March 2008. We included randomized and non-randomized clinical trials, epidemiological studies (cohort and case-control) and a meta-analysis. We excluded case series, case reports, in vitro and animal studies. Outcomes were measured with estimation of relative risk, hazard or odd ratios, with 95% confidence interval. Results Forty-three epidemiological studies, four randomized trials and one meta-analysis were identified. The overall quality of these studies was evaluated as good or moderate. While some evidence suggests that green tea has beneficial effects on gastrointestinal cancers, the findings are not consistent. Conclusion Green tea may have beneficial effects on cancer prevention. Further studies such as large and long term cohort studies and clinical trials are warranted. PMID:18940008

  11. HPV and Cervical Cancer Epidemiology - Current Status of HPV Vaccination in India.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sharmila; Chattopadhyay, Amit; Samanta, Luna; Panigrahi, Pinaki

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CaCx) is the second most fatal cancer contributing to 14% of cancers in Indian females, which account for 25.4% and 26.5% of the global burden of CaCx prevalence and mortality, respectively. Persistent infection with high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV- strains 16 and 18) is the most important risk factor for precursors of invasive CaCx. Comprehensive prevention strategies for CaCx should include screening and HPV vaccination. Three screening modalities for CaCx are cytology, visual inspection with acetic acid, and HPV testing. There is no Indian national policy on CaCx prevention, and screening of asymptomatic females against CaCx is practically non-existent. HPV vaccines can make a major breakthrough in the control of CaCx in India which has high disease load and no organized screening program. Despite the Indian Government's effort to introduce HPV vaccination in the National Immunization Program and bring down vaccine cost, challenges to implementing vaccination in India are strong such as: inadequate epidemiological evidence for disease prioritization, duration of vaccine use, parental attitudes, and vaccine acceptance. This paper reviews the current epidemiology of CaCx and HPV in India, and the current status of HPV vaccination in the country. This article stresses the need for more research in the Indian context, to evaluate interventions for CaCx and assess their applicability, success, scalability and sustainability within the constraints of the Indian health care system.

  12. Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis transmission: Contextualizing the evidence through social network theory.

    PubMed

    Hollm-Delgado, Maria-Graciela

    2009-09-01

    Despite a long-standing recognition that factors such as age, gender, and socioeconomic status play a fundamental role in tuberculosis transmission and susceptibility, few molecular epidemiological studies have fully elucidated the etiological mechanisms by which each of these social factors may influence transmission of the disease. In this paper, we propose that in order to achieve this goal, molecular epidemiology must move towards a more holistic approach for disease transmission, thus enabling social theory to be integrated into molecular epidemiological studies on tuberculosis. We then present a social network model to illustrate how molecular and social epidemiology can be combined to study disease transmission patterns, and provide preliminary molecular epidemiological evidence to support the role of social networks in tuberculosis transmission.

  13. A review of epidemiological data on epilepsy, phenobarbital, and risk of liver cancer.

    PubMed

    La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Phenobarbital is not genotoxic, but has been related to promotion of liver cancer (as well as inhibition) in rodents. In October 2012, we carried out a systematic literature search in the Medline database and searched reference lists of retrieved publications. We identified 15 relevant papers. Epidemiological data on epileptics/anticonvulsant use and liver cancer were retrieved from eight reports from seven cohort (record linkage) studies of epileptics, and data on phenobarbital use from a pharmacy-based record linkage investigation of patients treated with phenobarbital (three reports), plus a case-control study nested in one of the cohort studies and including information on phenobarbital use. Of the studies of cancer in epileptics, two showed no excess risk of liver cancer. A long-term (1933-1984) Danish cohort study of epileptics found relative risks (RRs) of 4.7 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.2-6.8] of liver cancer and of 2.2 (95% CI 1.2-3.5) of biliary tract cancers. Such apparent excess risks could, however, be largely or completely attributed to thorotrast, a contrast medium used in the past in epileptic patients for cerebral angiography. A Finnish cohort study of epileptics obtained an RR of 1.7 (95% CI 1.2-2.4). Such an apparent excess risk, however, was not related to phenobarbital or to any specific anticonvulsant drug. The long-term follow-up of two UK cohorts found some excess risk of liver cancer among severe, but not among mild, epileptics. Some excess risk of liver cancer was also found in cohort studies of patients hospitalized for epilepsy in Sweden and Taiwan, in the absence, however, of association with any specific drugs. A UK General Practice database, comparing epileptics treated with valproate with unexposed ones, found a very low incidence of liver cancer. Of the studies of cancer in patients treated with phenobarbital, a large US pharmacy-based cohort investigation showed no excess risk of liver cancer. In a case-control study, nested in

  14. Spontaneous fungal peritonitis: Epidemiology, current evidence and future prospective.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Marco; Leone, Sebastiano

    2016-09-14

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a complication of ascitic patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD); spontaneous fungal peritonitis (SFP) is a complication of ESLD less known and described. ESLD is associated to immunodepression and the resulting increased susceptibility to infections. Recent perspectives of the management of the critically ill patient with ESLD do not specify the rate of isolation of fungi in critically ill patients, not even the antifungals used for the prophylaxis, neither optimal treatment. We reviewed, in order to focus the epidemiology, characteristics, and, considering the high mortality rate of SFP, the use of optimal empirical antifungal therapy the current literature.

  15. Spontaneous fungal peritonitis: Epidemiology, current evidence and future prospective

    PubMed Central

    Fiore, Marco; Leone, Sebastiano

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a complication of ascitic patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD); spontaneous fungal peritonitis (SFP) is a complication of ESLD less known and described. ESLD is associated to immunodepression and the resulting increased susceptibility to infections. Recent perspectives of the management of the critically ill patient with ESLD do not specify the rate of isolation of fungi in critically ill patients, not even the antifungals used for the prophylaxis, neither optimal treatment. We reviewed, in order to focus the epidemiology, characteristics, and, considering the high mortality rate of SFP, the use of optimal empirical antifungal therapy the current literature. PMID:27678356

  16. A bibliometric analysis of scientific production in cancer molecular epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Ugolini, Donatella; Puntoni, Riccardo; Perera, Frederica P; Schulte, Paul A; Bonassi, Stefano

    2007-08-01

    The main purpose of this research was to compare the scientific production in the field of cancer molecular epidemiology among countries and to evaluate the publication trend between 1995 and 2004. A bibliometric study was carried out searching the PubMed database with a combined search strategy based on the keywords listed in the medical subject headings and a free text search. Only articles from a representative subset of 92 journals--accounting for 80% of papers identified--were selected for the analysis, and the resulting 13,240 abstracts were manually checked according to a list of basic inclusion criteria. The study evaluated the number of publications and the impact factor (mean and sum), absolute and normalized by country population and gross domestic product. A total of 3,842 citations were finally selected for the analysis. Thirty-seven percent came from the European Union (UK, Germany, Italy, France and Sweden ranking at the top), 31.6% from USA and 9.7% from Japan. The highest mean impact factor was reported for Canada (6.3), USA (5.9), Finland (5.8) and UK (5.2). Finland, Sweden and Israel had the best ratio between scientific production and available resources. 'Genetic polymorphism, glutathione transferase, breast neoplasm, risk factors, case-control studies and polymerase chain reaction' were the most used keywords in each of the subgroups evaluated, although inclusion criteria may have privileged studies dealing with exogenous carcinogens. Cancer molecular epidemiology is an expanding area attracting an increasing interest. The identification of an operative definition is a necessary condition to give to this discipline a unique scientific identity.

  17. Provocative questions in cancer epidemiology in a time of scientific innovation and budgetary constraints.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tram Kim; Schully, Sheri D; Rogers, Scott D; Benkeser, Rachel; Reid, Britt; Khoury, Muin J

    2013-04-01

    In a time of scientific and technological developments and budgetary constraints, the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Provocative Questions Project offers a novel funding mechanism for cancer epidemiologists. We reviewed the purposes underlying the Provocative Questions Project, present information on the contributions of epidemiologic research to the current Provocative Questions portfolio, and outline opportunities that the cancer epidemiology community might capitalize on to advance a research agenda that spans a translational continuum from scientific discoveries to population health impact.

  18. [Progress of the micronucleus test in the field of molecular cancer epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Xu, Huadong; Jia, Guang

    2015-01-01

    The micronucleus test (MNT) can be used to detect multiple genetic end points simultaneously, including chromosome aberration, mis-repaired DNA damage, apoptosis, parts of mutation and so on, which MNT has been an important part of the study of cancer epidemiology.Here, we reviewed the progress of MNT in the field of molecular cancer epidemiology in recent years, including early detection and diagnosis of cancer, evaluation of carcinogenic substances, genetic susceptibility biomarkers, micronutrient and cohort studies.

  19. Epidemiological evidence for aggravation and promotion of COPD by acid air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Dockery, D.W.; Speizer, F.E.

    1989-01-01

    The chapter discusses epidemiologic evidence for the role of acidic aerosols in the development and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The hypothesis that sulfuric acid was the most important component of the mix of pollutants responsible for classic air pollution episodes was first proposed more than 50 years ago. However, analyses of these episodes and more recent epidemiologic studies of lower level exposures are suggestive but not conclusive, primarily because of the limitations in technology available for measuring exposure.

  20. Epidemiological risk factors associated with inflammatory breast cancer subtypes.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Rachel L; El-Zein, Randa; Valero, Vicente; Lucci, Anthony; Bevers, Therese B; Fouad, Tamer; Liao, Weiqin; Ueno, Naoto T; Woodward, Wendy A; Brewster, Abenaa M

    2016-03-01

    In this single-institution case-control study, we identified risk factors associated with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) subtypes based on staining of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and expression of human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2neu) to determine distinct etiologic pathways. We identified 224 women with IBC and 396 cancer-free women seen at the MD Anderson Cancer Center. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between breast cancer risk factors and the IBC tumor subtypes: luminal (ER+ and/or PR+/HER2neu-), HER2neu+ (any ER and PR, HER2neu+), and triple-negative (ER-/PR-/HER2neu-). In multivariable analysis, compared with women age ≥26 at first pregnancy, women age <26 had a higher risk of triple-negative IBC (OR 3.32, 95% CI 1.37-8.05). Women with a history of breast-feeding had a lower risk of triple-negative (OR 0.30; 95% CI 0.15-0.62) and luminal IBC (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.18-0.68). A history of smoking was associated with an increased risk of luminal IBC (OR 2.37; 95% CI 1.24-4.52). Compared with normal-weight women, those who were overweight or obese (body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2)) had a higher risk of all three tumor subtypes (p < 0.01 for all subtypes). Overweight or obese status is important modifiable risk factor for IBC of any subtype. Modifiable risk factors, age at first pregnancy (≥26), breast-feeding, and smoking may be associated with specific IBC subtypes. These results highlight the importance of evaluating epidemiologic risk factors for IBC for the identification of subtype-specific prevention strategies.

  1. Epidemiologic aspects of exogenous progestagens in relation to their role in pathogenesis of human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, F E

    1991-01-01

    This review focuses on epidemiologic studies of the relationship between breast cancer risk and exogenous progestagens, as present in oral contraceptives, injectable contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy. Subsequently, it will be discussed whether the present findings are consistent with one of the hypotheses that have been postulated for the role of hormones in breast cancer pathogenesis. The relationship between oral contraceptives and breast cancer is still controversial. Several studies have found that prolonged oral contraceptives use at young ages is associated with increased risk to develop breast cancer at an early age, i.e. before age 35. None of these studies, however, has been able to attribute the increased risk to specific formulations of oral contraceptives, or to the progestagen content of the preparations. This may be largely due to the fact that there is no good method to calculate progestagen potencies of different formulations. There are no reliable data regarding the effect of progestagen-only oral contraceptives on breast cancer risk. Studies conducted so far included only few women who used these preparations exclusively and for an extended period. Use of injectable contraceptives, mainly depot-medroxy-progesterone acetate, may slightly increase breast cancer, but current findings are inconclusive. There is suggestive evidence that the addition of progestagens to estrogen replacement therapy may increase breast cancer risk over that associated with exposure to estrogens alone. However, the data are not sufficient to warrant any recommendation about changes in clinical practice, and more studies of estrogen-progestagen replacement therapy are needed to settle this issue. It is argued that the "unopposed estrogen" hypothesis for breast cancer is not consistent with the known effects of oral contraceptives and estrogen replacement therapy. The "estrogen plus progestagen" hypothesis seems to be more consistent with current epidemiologic

  2. Epidemiological research on radiation-induced cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    PubMed Central

    Ozasa, Kotaro

    2016-01-01

    The late effects of exposure to atomic bomb radiation on cancer occurrence have been evaluated by epidemiological studies on three cohorts: a cohort of atomic bomb survivors (Life Span Study; LSS), survivors exposed in utero, and children of atomic bomb survivors (F1). The risk of leukemia among the survivors increased remarkably in the early period after the bombings, especially among children. Increased risks of solid cancers have been evident since around 10 years after the bombings and are still present today. The LSS has clarified the dose–response relationships of radiation exposure and risk of various cancers, taking into account important risk modifiers such as sex, age at exposure, and attained age. Confounding by conventional risk factors including lifestyle differences is not considered substantial because people were non-selectively exposed to the atomic bomb radiation. Uncertainty in risk estimates at low-dose levels is thought to be derived from various sources, including different estimates of risk at background levels, uncertainty in dose estimates, residual confounding and interaction, strong risk factors, and exposure to residual radiation and/or medical radiation. The risk of cancer in subjects exposed in utero is similar to that in LSS subjects who were exposed in childhood. Regarding hereditary effects of radiation exposure, no increased risk of cancers associated with parental exposure to radiation have been observed in the F1 cohort to date. In addition to biological and pathogenetic interpretations of the present results, epidemiological investigations using advanced technology should be used to further analyze these cohorts. PMID:26976124

  3. Epidemiological research on radiation-induced cancer in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, Kotaro

    2016-08-01

    The late effects of exposure to atomic bomb radiation on cancer occurrence have been evaluated by epidemiological studies on three cohorts: a cohort of atomic bomb survivors (Life Span Study; LSS), survivors exposed IN UTERO : , and children of atomic bomb survivors (F1). The risk of leukemia among the survivors increased remarkably in the early period after the bombings, especially among children. Increased risks of solid cancers have been evident since around 10 years after the bombings and are still present today. The LSS has clarified the dose-response relationships of radiation exposure and risk of various cancers, taking into account important risk modifiers such as sex, age at exposure, and attained age. Confounding by conventional risk factors including lifestyle differences is not considered substantial because people were non-selectively exposed to the atomic bomb radiation. Uncertainty in risk estimates at low-dose levels is thought to be derived from various sources, including different estimates of risk at background levels, uncertainty in dose estimates, residual confounding and interaction, strong risk factors, and exposure to residual radiation and/or medical radiation. The risk of cancer in subjects exposed IN UTERO : is similar to that in LSS subjects who were exposed in childhood. Regarding hereditary effects of radiation exposure, no increased risk of cancers associated with parental exposure to radiation have been observed in the F1 cohort to date. In addition to biological and pathogenetic interpretations of the present results, epidemiological investigations using advanced technology should be used to further analyze these cohorts. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  4. Divergent associations of height with cardiometabolic disease and cancer: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and global implications.

    PubMed

    Stefan, Norbert; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Hu, Frank B; Schulze, Matthias B

    2016-05-01

    Among chronic non-communicable diseases, cardiometabolic diseases and cancer are the most important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although high BMI and waist circumference, as estimates of total and abdominal fat mass, are now accepted as predictors of the increasing incidence of these diseases, adult height, which also predicts mortality, has been neglected. Interestingly, increasing evidence suggests that height is associated with lower cardiometabolic risk, but higher cancer risk, associations supported by mendelian randomisation studies. Understanding the complex epidemiology, biology, and pathophysiology related to height, and its association with cardiometabolic diseases and cancer, is becoming even more important because average adult height has increased substantially in many countries during recent generations. Among the mechanisms driving the increase in height and linking height with cardiometabolic diseases and cancer are insulin and insulin-like growth factor signalling pathways. These pathways are thought to be activated by overnutrition, especially increased intake of milk, dairy products, and other animal proteins during different stages of child development. Limiting overnutrition during pregnancy, early childhood, and puberty would avoid not only obesity, but also accelerated growth in children-and thus might reduce risk of cancer in adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Epidemiology of cancer by tobacco products and the significance of TSNA.

    PubMed

    Gupta, P C; Murti, P R; Bhonsle, R B

    1996-01-01

    Globally, oral cancer is one of the ten common cancers. In some parts of the world, including the Indian subcontinent, oral cancer is a major cancer problem. Tobacco use is the most important risk factor for oral cancer. The most common form of tobacco use, cigarette smoking, demonstrates a very high relative risk--in a recent cohort study (CPS II), even higher than lung cancer. In areas where tobacco is used in a smokeless form, oral cancer incidence is generally high. In the West, especially in the U.S. and Scandinavia, smokeless tobacco use consists of oral use of snuff. In Central, South, and Southeast Asia smokeless tobacco use encompasses nass, naswar, khaini, mawa, mishri, gudakhu, and betel quid. In India tobacco is smoked in many ways; the most common is bidi, others being chutta, including reverse smoking, hooka, and clay pipe. A voluminous body of research data implicating most of these forms of tobacco use emanates from the Indian subcontinent. These studies encompass case and case-series reports, and case-control, cohort, and intervention studies. Collectively, the evidence fulfills the epidemiological criteria of causality: strength, consistency, temporality, and coherence. The biological plausibility is provided by the identification of several carcinogens in tobacco, the most abundant and strongest being tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines such as N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). These are formed by N-nitrosation of nicotine, the major alkaloid responsible for addiction to tobacco. The etiological relationship between tobacco use and oral cancer has provided us with a comprehensive model for understanding carcinogenesis.

  6. Epidemiology of Human Papillomavirus Infection in Men, in Cancers other than Cervical and in Benign Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Giuliano, Anna R.; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Ferrer, Elena; Burchell, Ann N.; de Sanjose, Silvia; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Muñoz, Nubia; Schiffman, Mark; Bosch, F. Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is commonly found in the genital tract of men and women with or without any clinical lesion. The association of HPV DNA with several different ano-genital cancers other than cervical has been reported for the vulva, vagina, anus and penis. HPV DNA has also been identified in head and neck cancers in the oral cavity, the oropharynx and the larynx in both sexes. In men, 80–85% of anal cancers and close to 50% of penile cancers are associated with HPV infection. In women, HPV DNA is prevalent in 36–40 % vulvar cancer cases and close to 90 % of vaginal cancers. There is limited data available on the natural history and HPV-related diseases in the genital tract in men, although studies are ongoing. Efficacy of HPV vaccines in the prevention of HPV infection and disease among men also remains unknown. Among HPV DNA positive ano-genital cancer cases, HPV-16 is the most frequently found followed distantly by HPV-18. In benign HPV-related diseases such as genital warts or recurrent respiratory papillomatosis HPV-6 and 11, the two most frequent non-oncogenic types, are the predominant types detected. Oncogenic types are rarely detected. In this article we summarize and review studies describing the natural history of HPV infections among men and its impact on HPV related disease in women. We summarize the evidence linking HPV in the epidemiology and etiology of cancers of the vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx and present recent estimates of the burden of and HPV type distribution in genital warts and in cases of HPV infection of the airways. PMID:18847554

  7. Overview of epidemiologic research on electric and magnetic fields and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Savitz, D.A. )

    1993-04-01

    This overview of epidemiologic research addresses the potential role of 60 Hertz electric and magnetic fields (EMF) in the etiology of cancer. The key findings are summarized with notation of the methodological challenges with which investigators must content. Although exposure is ubiquitous, long-term average EMF is influenced primarily by the background levels in homes, use of selected electric appliances such as electric blankets, and workplace exposures to energized equipment. Studies of residential exposure have focused on childhood cancer, starting with the report of an excess of wire configurations associated with elevated magnetic fields near the homes of children who developed cancer compared to healthy children. Several subsequent studies have tended to confirm that association, although the evidence falls short of demonstrating a causal association between magnetic fields and cancer. Exposures from electric appliances have been less extensively pursued, with some suggestions of an association with childhood cancer. A more extensive literature has evaluated the association between workplace exposure to EMF, based on job titles of electrical workers and cancer. Across many different study designs and settings, certain groups of electrical workers show elevated occurrence of leukemia and brain cancer. The consistency of findings is notable, but the key question is whether the association with job title is due to EMF or some other agent in the workplace. Future research would benefit from specification of testable challenges to a causal association between EMF exposure in the home or workplace and cancer, along with continued efforts to improve our understanding and measurement of EMF exposure. 64 refs.

  8. The role of nutrition in Alzheimer’s disease: epidemiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Morris, M. C.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) increases exponentially with age but there is limited knowledge of the modifiable risk factors for AD. However, there is growing evidence for possible dietary risk factors in the development of AD and cognitive decline with age, such as antioxidant nutrients, fish, dietary fats, and B-vitamins. Numerous animal and laboratory studies have shown that antioxidant nutrients can protect the brain from oxidative and inflammatory damage, but there are limited data available from epidemiological studies. There is more substantial epidemiological evidence from a number of recent studies that demonstrate a protective role of omega-3 fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid, in AD and cognitive decline. This review will focus on epidemiological evidence investigating the relationship between nutrition and AD, focusing particularly on the roles of dietary fats and antioxidants. PMID:19703213

  9. Skin Cancer: Epidemiology, Disease Burden, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Therapeutic Approaches.

    PubMed

    Apalla, Zoe; Nashan, Dorothée; Weller, Richard B; Castellsagué, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Skin cancer, including both melanoma and non-melanoma, is the most common type of malignancy in the Caucasian population. Firstly, we review the evidence for the observed increase in the incidence of skin cancer over recent decades, and investigate whether this is a true increase or an artefact of greater screening and over-diagnosis. Prevention strategies are also discussed. Secondly, we discuss the complexities and challenges encountered when diagnosing and developing treatment strategies for skin cancer. Key case studies are presented that highlight the practic challenges of choosing the most appropriate treatment for patients with skin cancer. Thirdly, we consider the potential risks and benefits of increased sun exposure. However, this is discussed in terms of the possibility that the avoidance of sun exposure in order to reduce the risk of skin cancer may be less important than the reduction in all-cause mortality as a result of the potential benefits of increased exposure to the sun. Finally, we consider common questions on human papillomavirus infection.

  10. Geographical epidemiology of prostate cancer in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Jarup, Lars; Best, Nicky; Toledano, Mireille B; Wakefield, Jon; Elliott, Paul

    2002-02-10

    Prostate cancer incidence has increased during recent years, possibly linked to environmental exposures. Exposure to environmental carcinogens is unlikely to be evenly distributed geographically, which may give rise to variations in disease occurrence that is detectable in a spatial analysis. The aim of our study was to examine the spatial variation of prostate cancer in Great Britain at ages 45-64 years. Spatial variation was examined across electoral wards from 1975-1991. Poisson regression was used to examine regional, urbanisation and socioeconomic effects, while Bayesian mapping techniques were used to assess spatial variability. There was an indication of geographical differences in prostate cancer risk at a regional level, ranging from 0.83 (95% CI: 0.78-0.87) to 1.2 (95% CI: 1.1-1.3) across regions. There was significant heterogeneity in the risk across wards, although the range of relative risks was narrow. More detailed spatial analyses within 4 regions did not indicate any clear evidence of localised geographical clustering for prostate cancer. The absence of any marked geographical variability at a small-area scale argues against a geographically varying environmental factor operating strongly in the aetiology of prostate cancer.

  11. Critical review of the epidemiology literature on the potential cancer risks of methyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Tomenson, John A; Carpenter, Arvind V; Pemberton, Mark A

    2005-09-01

    To critically review and summarise all of the available epidemiological evidence, both published and unpublished, to date on the carcinogenicity of methyl methacrylate (MMA) to humans. The review focused on studies of cast acrylic sheet manufacturing workers because this industry has historically had a potential for exposure to high levels of MMA. The majority of papers for review were identified through Medline (National Library of Medicine) but there is some discussion of two cohort studies and a nested case-control study, which to date have not been published. An increased risk of colorectal cancer was reported in one group of workers highly exposed to MMA and ethyl acrylate (EA) in the manufacture of acrylic sheet. Analysis of colon cancer by cumulative exposure to MMA indicated that the excess was largely confined to the group with the highest exposure. However, a large excess of colon cancer deaths occurred among workers who never worked in a job entailing more than minimal exposure. Studies of other large occupational cohorts of workers potentially exposed to MMA, including some with potentially comparable exposures, have failed to strengthen the evidence that there is a causal association between colorectal cancer and MMA exposure although one reported an excess that did not appear to be exposure-related. Excesses of cancers of the respiratory system and stomach were seen in some cohorts, but not among the acrylic sheet workers who had the increased risk of colorectal cancer. Excesses of respiratory, stomach and colorectal cancers were observed in some cohorts of workers exposed to MMA. There was little to suggest that MMA exposure was responsible for the excesses of respiratory and stomach cancer and it is more likely that they resulted from unexplained contributions of lifestyle exposures such as cigarette smoking and diet. An excess of colorectal cancer in one group of workers exposed to high levels of MMA and EA during the 1930s and 1940s remains

  12. Dietary fiber intake and pancreatic cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Hui; Qiao, Chong; Wang, Ruo-Chen; Zhou, Wen-Ping

    2015-06-02

    Evidence on the association between dietary fiber intake and pancreatic cancer risk has been controversial. Therefore, we carried out this meta-analysis to summarize available evidence from epidemiologic studies on this point. Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases as well as by reviewing the rence lists of relevant articles. Random or fixed-effects model was used to calculate the summary risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). This meta-analysis included one cohort and thirteen case-control studies which involving a total of 3287 subjects with pancreatic cancer. After summarizing the risk estimates of these studies, we yielded a significant association between dietary fiber intake and pancreatic cancer risk among case-control studies (odds ratio = 0.54; 95%CI = 0.44-0.67; I(2) = 41.4%; P = 0.043) but a non-significant result in cohort study (hazard ratio = 1.01; 95%CI = 0.59-1.74). Additionally, significant inverse associations were observed when we carried out the stratify analyses by the study characteristics and adjustment for potential confounders among case-control studies. Given only one cohort study included in the present meta-analysis, further prospective-designed studies should validate our findings and report more detail results, including those for subtypes of fiber, the risk estimates which corrected the impact of measurement errors and fully adjust for the potential confounders.

  13. Extremely low frequency electric fields and cancer: assessing the evidence.

    PubMed

    Kheifets, Leeka; Renew, David; Sias, Glenn; Swanson, John

    2010-02-01

    Much of the research and reviews on extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) have focused on magnetic rather than electric fields. Some have considered such focus to be inappropriate and have argued that electric fields should be part of both epidemiologic and laboratory work. This paper fills the gap by systematically and critically reviewing electric-fields literature and by comparing overall strength of evidence for electric versus magnetic fields. The review of possible mechanisms does not provide any specific basis for focusing on electric fields. While laboratory studies of electric fields are few, they do not indicate that electric fields should be the exposure of interest. The existing epidemiology on residential electric-field exposures and appliance use does not support the conclusion of adverse health effects from electric-field exposure. Workers in close proximity to high-voltage transmission lines or substation equipment can be exposed to high electric fields. While there are sporadic reports of increase in cancer in some occupational studies, these are inconsistent and fraught with methodologic problems. Overall, there seems little basis to suppose there might be a risk for electric fields, and, in contrast to magnetic fields, and with a possible exception of occupational epidemiology, there seems little basis for continued research into electric fields. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Fiber glass exposure and human respiratory system cancer risk: lack of evidence persists since 2001 IARC re-evaluation.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Gary M; Buchanich, Jeanine M; Youk, Ada O

    2011-06-01

    To determine whether IARC's 2001 decision to downgrade the classification of insulation glass wool from Group 2B to Group 3 remains valid in light of epidemiological evidence reported after 2001. We performed a systematic review of epidemiological evidence regarding respiratory cancer risks in relation to man-made vitreous fiber (MMVF) exposure before and after the 2001 IARC re-evaluation with focus on glass wool exposure and respiratory system cancer. Since 2001, three new community-based, case-control studies, two detailed analyses of existing cohort studies and two reviews/meta-analyses were published. These studies revealed no consistent evidence of an increased respiratory system cancer risk in relation to glass wool exposure. From our evaluation of the epidemiological evidence published since 2001, we conclude that IARC's 2001 decision to downgrade insulation glass wool from Group 2B to Group 3 remains valid. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Biomarkers of Dietary Polyphenols in Cancer Studies: Current Evidence and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jincheng; Tang, Lili; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenols, commonly contained in fruits and vegetables, have long been associated with a protective role against multiple diseases and adverse health effects. Generally, in vitro and animal experiments have provided strong positive evidence, whereas evidence from in vivo and human epidemiological studies is not strong enough. Most epidemiological studies to date use food frequency questionnaire based dietary intake estimations, which inevitably incur imprecision. Biomarkers of polyphenol have the potential to complement and enhance current studies. This review performed a literature search of all epidemiological studies or controlled clinical/intervention trials which employed biomarkers of exposure for polyphenols to help assess their anticarcinogenic role, using studies on green tea polyphenols as a study model. Currently, studies on this topic are still limited; breast cancer and prostate cancer were the only widely studied cancer types. Isoflavone is the only widely studied polyphenol. In addition to associations between polyphenols and cancer risks, factors such as host genetic susceptibility, epigenetic modification, and gut microbiome patterns may also impact on the protective roles of polyphenols. More evidence should be collected by utilizing biomarkers of exposure for polyphenols in future epidemiological studies before a clear conclusion can be made.

  16. Recent trends in published occupational cancer epidemiology research: results from a comprehensive review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Raj, Priyanka; Hohenadel, Karin; Demers, Paul A; Zahm, Shelia Hoar; Blair, Aaron

    2014-03-01

    To assess trends in occupational cancer epidemiology research through a literature review of occupational health and epidemiology journals. Fifteen journals were reviewed from 1991 to 2009, and characteristics of articles that assessed the risk of cancer associated with an occupation, industry, or occupational exposure, were incorporated into a database. The number of occupational cancer epidemiology articles published annually declined in recent years (2003 onwards) in the journals reviewed. The number of articles presenting dose-response analyses increased over the review period, from 29% in the first 4 years of review to 49% in the last 4 years. There has been a decrease in the number of occupational cancer epidemiology articles published annually during the review period. The results of these articles help determine the carcinogenicity of workplace exposures and permissible exposure limits, both of which may be hindered with a decline in research. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Impact of environmental inequity on health outcome: where is the epidemiological evidence?

    PubMed Central

    René, A. A.; Daniels, D. E.; Martin, S. A.

    2000-01-01

    A significant amount of evidence reveals a presence of environmental inequity. Although there is a disproportionate distribution of waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities, and chemical and manufacturing plants in minority and low-income communities in the United States, little research has been devoted to show any associations based on analytic epidemiological methods. To date, attempts to quantify health disparities have included demographic data, race, sex, income, other socioeconomic factors, and broad symptomatic survey instruments. To study this, we examined the latest epidemiological evidence documenting the existence of adverse health impacts resulting from environmental inequity. We observed that the overwhelming majority of studies were descriptive in nature and lacked comparison populations. As a result, we believe that further research based on analytic epidemiological methods would further contribute to the determination of the cause-effect relationship between environmental exposure and health outcome. PMID:10918762

  18. The changing epidemiology of smoking and lung cancer histology.

    PubMed Central

    Wynder, E L; Muscat, J E

    1995-01-01

    In 1950, the first large-scale epidemiological studies demonstrated that lung cancer is causatively associated with cigarette smoking, a finding subsequently confirmed by the Royal College of Physicians in London, the U.S. Surgeon General, and the World Health Organization. Although cigarette consumption has gradually decreased in the United States from a high of about 3800 cigarettes per adult per year in 1965 to about 2800 cigarettes in 1993, death from lung cancer has reached a high among males at the rate of 74.9/100,000/year and among females at the rate of 28.5. However, in the younger cohorts, the lung cancer death rate is decreasing in both men and women. In this overview we discuss the steeper increase during recent decades of lung adenocarcinoma incidence compared with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. In 1950, the ratio of these two major types of lung cancer in males was about 1:18; today it is about 1:1.2-1.4. This overview discusses two concepts that are regarded as contributors to this change in the histological types of lung cancer. One factor is the decrease in average nicotine and tar delivery of cigarettes from about 2.7 and 38 mg in 1955 to 1.0 and 13.5 mg in 1993, respectively. Other major factors for the reduced emission of smoke relate to changes in the composition of the cigarette tobacco blend and general acceptance of cigarettes with filter tips; the latter constitute 97% of all cigarettes currently sold. However, smokers of low-yield cigarettes compensate for the low delivery of nicotine by inhaling the smoke more deeply and by smoking more intensely; such smokers may be taking up to 5 puffs/min with puff volumes up to 55 ml. Under these conditions, the peripheral lung is exposed to increased amounts of smoke carcinogens that are suspected to lead to lung adenocarcinoma. Among the important changes in the composition of the tobacco blend of the U.S. cigarette is a significant increase in nitrate content (0.5% to 1.2-1.5%), which raises

  19. Lung cancer and diesel exhaust: an updated critical review of the occupational epidemiology literature

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, John F.; Nicolich, Mark J.; Boffetta, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    A recent review concluded that the evidence from epidemiology studies was indeterminate and that additional studies were required to support the diesel exhaust-lung cancer hypothesis. This updated review includes seven recent studies. Two population-based studies concluded that significant exposure-response (E-R) trends between cumulative diesel exhaust and lung cancer were unlikely to be entirely explained by bias or confounding. Those studies have quality data on life-style risk factors, but do not allow definitive conclusions because of inconsistent E-R trends, qualitative exposure estimates and exposure misclassification (insufficient latency based on job title), and selection bias from low participation rates. Non-definitive results are consistent with the larger body of population studies. An NCI/NIOSH cohort mortality and nested case-control study of non-metal miners have some surrogate-based quantitative diesel exposure estimates (including highest exposure measured as respirable elemental carbon (REC) in the workplace) and smoking histories. The authors concluded that diesel exhaust may cause lung cancer. Nonetheless, the results are non-definitive because the conclusions are based on E-R patterns where high exposures were deleted to achieve significant results, where a posteriori adjustments were made to augment results, and where inappropriate adjustments were made for the “negative confounding” effects of smoking even though current smoking was not associated with diesel exposure and therefore could not be a confounder. Three cohort studies of bus drivers and truck drivers are in effect air pollution studies without estimates of diesel exhaust exposure and so are not sufficient for assessing the lung cancer-diesel exhaust hypothesis. Results from all occupational cohort studies with quantitative estimates of exposure have limitations, including weak and inconsistent E-R associations that could be explained by bias, confounding or chance, exposure

  20. Lung cancer and diesel exhaust: an updated critical review of the occupational epidemiology literature.

    PubMed

    Gamble, John F; Nicolich, Mark J; Boffetta, Paolo

    2012-08-01

    A recent review concluded that the evidence from epidemiology studies was indeterminate and that additional studies were required to support the diesel exhaust-lung cancer hypothesis. This updated review includes seven recent studies. Two population-based studies concluded that significant exposure-response (E-R) trends between cumulative diesel exhaust and lung cancer were unlikely to be entirely explained by bias or confounding. Those studies have quality data on life-style risk factors, but do not allow definitive conclusions because of inconsistent E-R trends, qualitative exposure estimates and exposure misclassification (insufficient latency based on job title), and selection bias from low participation rates. Non-definitive results are consistent with the larger body of population studies. An NCI/NIOSH cohort mortality and nested case-control study of non-metal miners have some surrogate-based quantitative diesel exposure estimates (including highest exposure measured as respirable elemental carbon (REC) in the workplace) and smoking histories. The authors concluded that diesel exhaust may cause lung cancer. Nonetheless, the results are non-definitive because the conclusions are based on E-R patterns where high exposures were deleted to achieve significant results, where a posteriori adjustments were made to augment results, and where inappropriate adjustments were made for the "negative confounding" effects of smoking even though current smoking was not associated with diesel exposure and therefore could not be a confounder. Three cohort studies of bus drivers and truck drivers are in effect air pollution studies without estimates of diesel exhaust exposure and so are not sufficient for assessing the lung cancer-diesel exhaust hypothesis. Results from all occupational cohort studies with quantitative estimates of exposure have limitations, including weak and inconsistent E-R associations that could be explained by bias, confounding or chance, exposure

  1. Epidemiology and early diagnosis of primary liver cancer in China.

    PubMed

    Yen, F S; Shen, K N

    1986-01-01

    Epidemiological studies in different areas in China have revealed several outstanding risk factors of PLC, i.e., HBV infection, pollution of drinking water, contamination of food by AFB1 and/or nitrosamines, and family predisposition. Accordingly, a program of HBV vaccination, improved supply of drinking water, better preservation and storage of food, and possibly chemoprevention for high-risk populations should be effective preventive measures. Studies have shown that frequent AFP screening in high-risk populations is highly recommended to detect early cases of PLC. According to research in Qidong, careful follow-up of the dynamic changes of AFP in individuals with persistent low levels of positive AFP is important for distinguishing other conditions from true PLC. Newer means for the localization of small-size PLC (under 5 cm), such as type B ultrasonography, nuclide scanning, computerized tomography, and hepatoangiography, represent remarkable progress in improving markedly the success of surgery and hence the survival rate of PLC patients. The advances in knowledge of PLC have been encouraging. Although much work remains to be done on the etiological agents and the mechanism of oncogenesis, it is time that larger scale control measures be put into effect in high-incidence areas to discover if one of the most common cancers in the world can be controlled.

  2. Epidemiology and early diagnosis of primary liver cancer in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, F.S.; Shen, K.N.

    1986-01-01

    Epidemiological studies in different areas in China have revealed several outstanding risk factors of PLC, i.e., HBV infection, pollution of drinking water, contamination of food by AFB1 and/or nitrosamines, and family predisposition. Accordingly, a program of HBV vaccination, improved supply of drinking water, better preservation and storage of food, and possibly chemoprevention for high-risk populations should be effective preventive measures. Studies have shown that frequent AFP screening in high-risk populations is highly recommended to detect early cases of PLC. According to research in Qidong, careful follow-up of the dynamic changes of AFP in individuals with persistent low levels of positive AFP is important for distinguishing other conditions from true PLC. Newer means for the localization of small-size PLC (under 5 cm), such as type B ultrasonography, nuclide scanning, computerized tomography, and hepatoangiography, represent remarkable progress in improving markedly the success of surgery and hence the survival rate of PLC patients. The advances in knowledge of PLC have been encouraging. Although much work remains to be done on the etiological agents and the mechanism of oncogenesis, it is time that larger scale control measures be put into effect in high-incidence areas to discover if one of the most common cancers in the world can be controlled. 62 references.

  3. [Epidemiological pattern of breast cancer mortality in Mexico State].

    PubMed

    Del Socorro Romero-Figueroa, María; Santillán-Arreygue, Leopoldo; Miranda-García, Maximino; Del Pilar Torres-Arreola, Laura; Pérez-Espejel, Ingrid Marisol; Duarte-Mote, Jesús; de la Cruz-Vargas, Jhony Alberto

    2010-01-01

    breast cancer (BC) is the leading cause of death secondary to malignancy in women. It ranks third in mortality in women in reproductive age, produced by non-modifiable (genetic and hormonal) and modifiable factors. Our objective was to describe and analyze the epidemiological characteristics of deaths from BC in the State of Mexico. of 273 verbal autopsies, the most common age (23.07 %) was between 40 and 49 years. The educational level of schooling were complete elementary school (20.51 %), incomplete elementary school (19.04 %) and complete high school (13.91 %). the institution with the highest number of patients was the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social with 139 (50.91 %). The towns with a higher frequency were Malinalco, Ayapango, Atizapán, Zacualpan and Apaxco. The Mortality was higher in Valle de Bravo, Coatepec Harinas and Toluca. the increase in BC has permitted the emergence of a new hypothesis known as endocrine disruption, according to this premise, this results from exposure to chemicals introduced into the environment by human activity capable of altering the hormonal balance.

  4. Descriptive epidemiology and geographic variation of childhood brain cancer in the US

    SciTech Connect

    Bunin, G.R.

    1984-11-01

    The descriptive epidemiology and geographic variation of childhood brain cancer by cell type was studied. For each cell type, the study indicates time trends, sex ratios, geographic variation, racial differences, urban-rural differences, and socioeconomic differences. Since, in animals, one virus or chemical often causes tumors at several sites, the sex, race, age and socio-economic status of childhood brain cancer cases was compared to the epidemiologic profile of childhood leukemias. Similar epidemiological profiles would imply similar etiologies. 116 references, 18 figures, 71 tables.

  5. Distributions of colorectal cancer in two Chinese cities with contrasting colorectal cancer epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Leung, Wai K; Chen, Wei-Qing; Gu, Li; Long, Dan; Law, W L

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is rising rapidly in Chinese. We studied the anatomic distributions and characteristics of CRC in Hong Kong (HK) and Chongqing (CQ) with different CRC epidemiology. It was a retrospective study conducted in three large regional hospitals of the two cities. We identified all patients newly diagnosed with CRC between 2003 and 2012. The distribution and characteristics of CRC of the two cities were compared. Of CRC, 3664 new cases were diagnosed within the study period. CRC was more common in men (>56%) in both cities. The mean age at diagnosis was significantly younger in CQ, the lower prevalence area, than in HK (62.1 vs 70.4 years; P < 0.001). Rectal cancer was the predominant (61.3%) cancer in CQ, but only 18% of cancers in HK were rectal cancer (P = 0.0001). Right-sided colonic cancer, however, was more common in HK than CQ (27.2% vs 17.4%; P < 0.001). Women had more right-sided colonic cancer than men in both cities (P < 0.002), and there was an age-related increase in right-sided colonic cancer in HK but not in CQ. Multivariate analysis showed that older age, female, and living in HK were independent risk factors associated with right-sided colonic cancer. There are significant differences in the distribution of CRC between HK and CQ. The discrepancy may be partly accounted by older population and an increase in proximal colonic cancer, particularly in women, in HK. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Metabolic Syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes, and Cancer: Epidemiology and Potential Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shmuel, Sarit; Rostoker, Ran; Scheinman, Eyal J; LeRoith, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with multiple metabolic disorders that drive cardiovascular disease, T2D and cancer. The doubling in the number of obese adults over the past 3 decades led to the recognition of obesity as a "disease". With over 42 million children obese or overweight, this epidemic is rapidly growing worldwide. Obesity and T2D are both associated together and independently with an increased risk for cancer and a worse prognosis. Accumulating evidence from epidemiological studies revealed potential factors that may explain the association between obesity-linked metabolic disorders and cancer risk. Studies based on the insulin resistance MKR mice, highlighted the roe of the insulin receptor and its downstream signaling proteins in mediating hyperinsulinemia's mitogenic effects. Hypercholesterolemia was also shown to promote the formation of larger tumors and enhancement in metastasis. Furthermore, the conversion of cholesterol into 27-Hydroxycholesterol was found to link high fat diet-induced hypercholesterolemia with cancer pathophysiology. Alteration in circulating adipokines and cytokines are commonly found in obesity and T2D. Adipokines are involved in tumor growth through multiple mechanisms including mTOR, VEGF and cyclins. In addition, adipose tissues are known to recruit and alter macrophage phenotype; these macrophages can promote cancer progression by secreting inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6. Better characterization on the above factors and their downstream effects is required in order to translate the current knowledge into the clinic, but more importantly is to understand which are the key factors that drive cancer in each patient. Until we reach this point, policies and activities toward healthy diets and physical activities remain the best medicine.

  7. Analgesic use and the risk of kidney cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Choueiri, Toni K; Je, Youjin; Cho, Eunyoung

    2014-01-15

    Analgesics are the most commonly used over-the-counter drugs worldwide with certain analgesics having cancer prevention effect. The evidence for an increased risk of developing kidney cancer with analgesic use is mixed. Using a meta-analysis design of available observational epidemiologic studies, we investigated the association between analgesic use and kidney cancer risk. We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases to identify eligible case-control or cohort studies published in English until June 2012 for three categories of analgesics: acetaminophen, aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Study-specific effect estimates were pooled to compute an overall relative risk (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) using a random-effects model for each category of the analgesics. We identified 20 studies (14 with acetaminophen, 13 with aspirin and five with other NSAIDs) that were performed in six countries, including 8,420 cases of kidney cancer. Use of acetaminophen and non-aspirin NSAIDs were associated with an increased risk of kidney cancer (pooled RR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.15-1.44 and 1.25; 95% CI: 1.06-1.46, respectively). For aspirin use, we found no overall increased risk (pooled RR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.95-1.28), except for non-US studies (five studies, pooled RR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.04-1.33). Similar increases in risks were seen with higher analgesic intake. In this largest meta-analysis to date, we found that acetaminophen and non-aspirin NSAIDs are associated with a significant risk of developing kidney cancer. Further work is needed to elucidate biologic mechanisms behind these findings.

  8. Cancer and OSA: Current Evidence From Human Studies.

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, Miguel Ángel; Campos-Rodriguez, Francisco; Barbé, Ferrán

    2016-08-01

    Despite the undeniable medical advances achieved in recent decades, cancer remains one of the main causes of mortality. It is thus extremely important to make every effort to discover new risk factors for this disease, particularly ones that can be treated or modified. Various pathophysiologic pathways have been postulated as possible causes of cancer or its increased aggressiveness, and also of greater resistance to antitumoral treatment, in the presence of both intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation (both inherent to sleep apnea). Thus far, these biological hypotheses have been supported by various experimental studies in animals. Meanwhile, recent human studies drawing on preexisting databases have observed an increase in cancer incidence and mortality in patients with a greater severity of sleep-disordered breathing. However, the methodologic limitations of these studies (which are mostly retrospective and lack any measurement of direct markers of intermittent hypoxia or sleep fragmentation) highlight the need for controlled, prospective studies that would provide stronger scientific evidence regarding the existence of this association and its main characteristics, as well as explore its nature and origin in greater depth. The great epidemiologic impact of both cancer and sleep apnea and the potential for clinical treatment make this field of research an exciting challenge. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. International pooled study on diet and bladder cancer: the bladder cancer, epidemiology and nutritional determinants (BLEND) study: design and baseline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Maria E; Isa, Fatima; Brinkman, Maree; Mak, David; Reulen, Raoul; Wesselius, Anke; Benhamou, Simone; Bosetti, Cristina; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Carta, Angela; Allam, Md Farouk; Golka, Klaus; Grant, Eric J; Jiang, Xuejuan; Johnson, Kenneth C; Karagas, Margaret R; Kellen, Eliane; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lu, Chih-Ming; Marshall, James; Moysich, Kirsten; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Porru, Stefano; Steineck, Gunnar; Stern, Marianne C; Tang, Li; Taylor, Jack A; van den Brandt, Piet; Villeneuve, Paul J; Wakai, Kenji; Weiderpass, Elisabete; White, Emily; Wolk, Alicja; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Buntinx, Frank; Zeegers, Maurice P

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, more than 400,000 urinary bladder cancer cases occurred worldwide, making it the 7(th) most common type of cancer. Although many previous studies focused on the relationship between diet and bladder cancer, the evidence related to specific food items or nutrients that could be involved in the development of bladder cancer remains inconclusive. Dietary components can either be, or be activated into, potential carcinogens through metabolism, or act to prevent carcinogen damage. The BLadder cancer, Epidemiology and Nutritional Determinants (BLEND) study was set up with the purpose of collecting individual patient data from observational studies on diet and bladder cancer. In total, data from 11,261 bladder cancer cases and 675,532 non-cases from 18 case-control and 6 cohort studies from all over the world were included with the aim to investigate the association between individual food items, nutrients and dietary patterns and risk of developing bladder cancer. The substantial number of cases included in this study will enable us to provide evidence with large statistical power, for dietary recommendations on the prevention of bladder cancer.

  10. Epidemiological evidence for a health risk from mobile phone base stations.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Vini G; Hardell, Lennart; Everaert, Joris; Bortkiewicz, Alicja; Carlberg, Michael; Ahonen, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Human populations are increasingly exposed to microwave/radiofrequency (RF) emissions from wireless communication technology, including mobile phones and their base stations. By searching PubMed, we identified a total of 10 epidemiological studies that assessed for putative health effects of mobile phone base stations. Seven of these studies explored the association between base station proximity and neurobehavioral effects and three investigated cancer. We found that eight of the 10 studies reported increased prevalence of adverse neurobehavioral symptoms or cancer in populations living at distances < 500 meters from base stations. None of the studies reported exposure above accepted international guidelines, suggesting that current guidelines may be inadequate in protecting the health of human populations. We believe that comprehensive epidemiological studies of long-term mobile phone base station exposure are urgently required to more definitively understand its health impact.

  11. Evidence and evidence gaps of laryngeal cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wiegand, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Surgical treatment of laryngeal cancer has been established for decades. In addition to total laryngectomy, which was first performed in 1873, a large number or organ preservation surgical techniques, like open partial laryngectomy, transoral laser microsurgery, and transoral robotic surgery have been developed. Studies on laryngeal cancer surgery are mainly retrospective case series and cohort studies. The evolution of chemoradiation protocols and their analysis in prospective randomized trials have led to an increasing acceptance of non-surgical treatment procedures. In addition to an improvement of prognosis, in recent years the preservation of function and maintenance of life quality after primary therapy of laryngeal cancer has increasingly become the focus of therapy planning. Significant late toxicity after chemoradiation has been identified as an important issue. This leads to a reassessment of surgical concepts and initiation of studies on laryngeal cancer surgery which was additionally stimulated by the advent of transoral robotic surgery in the US. Improving the evidence base of laryngeal cancer surgery by successful establishment of surgical trials should be the future goal. PMID:28025603

  12. Periodontal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease: emerging epidemiologic and biologic evidence.

    PubMed

    Agossa, K; Dendooven, A; Dubuquoy, L; Gower-Rousseau, C; Delcourt-Debruyne, E; Capron, M

    2016-09-24

    Inflammatory bowel disease and periodontitis are both described as a disproportionate mucosal inflammatory response to a microbial environment in susceptible patients. Moreover, these two conditions share major environmental and lifestyle-related risk factors. Despite this intriguing pathogenic parallel, large-scale studies and basic research have only recently considered periodontal outcomes as relevant data. There are mounting and consistent arguments, from recent epidemiologic studies and animal models, that these two conditions might be related. This article is a comprehensive and critical up-to-date review of the current evidence and future prospects in understanding the biologic and epidemiologic relationships between periodontal status and inflammatory bowel disease.

  13. Prevention of cardiovascular risk by moderate alcohol consumption: epidemiologic evidence and plausible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Costanzo, Simona; Donati, Maria Benedetta; Iacoviello, Licia; de Gaetano, Giovanni

    2010-08-01

    An inverse association between moderate alcohol intake and cardiovascular risk, in particular coronary disease and ischemic stroke, has been shown in many epidemiologic studies. In addition, several other diseases are also known to occur less frequently in moderate drinkers than in non-drinkers, whereas excess of drinking is invariably harmful. However, some concern has been recently raised about the possibility that at all dosages the harm of alcohol could overcome its beneficial effects. We present here the epidemiologic and mechanistic evidence to support the protective effect of moderate alcohol intake against cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality.

  14. Estimation of the tumor size at cure threshold among aggressive non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs): evidence from the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) program and the national lung screening trial (NLST).

    PubMed

    Goldwasser, Deborah L

    2017-03-15

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated that non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) mortality can be reduced by a program of annual CT screening in high-risk individuals. However, CT screening regimens and adherence vary, potentially impacting the lung cancer mortality benefit. We defined the NSCLC cure threshold as the maximum tumor size at which a given NSCLC would be curable due to early detection. We obtained data from 518,234 NSCLCs documented in the U.S. SEER cancer registry between 1988 and 2012 and 1769 NSCLCs detected in the NLST. We demonstrated mathematically that the distribution function governing the cure threshold for the most aggressive NSCLCs, G(x|Φ = 1), was embedded in the probability function governing detection of SEER-documented NSCLCs. We determined the resulting probability functions governing detection over a range of G(x|Φ = 1) scenarios and compared them with their expected functional forms. We constructed a simulation framework to determine the cure threshold models most consistent with tumor sizes and outcomes documented in SEER and the NLST. Whereas the median tumor size for lethal NSCLCs documented in SEER is 43 mm (males) and 40 mm (females), a simulation model in which the median cure threshold for the most aggressive NSCLCs is 10 mm (males) and 15 mm (females) best fit the SEER and NLST data. The majority of NSCLCs in the NLST were treated at sizes greater than our median cure threshold estimates. New technology is needed to better distinguish and treat the most aggressive NSCLCs when they are small (i.e., 5-15 mm). © 2016 UICC.

  15. The use and interpretation of anthropometric measures in cancer epidemiology: A perspective from the world cancer research fund international continuous update project.

    PubMed

    Bandera, Elisa V; Fay, Stephanie H; Giovannucci, Edward; Leitzmann, Michael F; Marklew, Rachel; McTiernan, Anne; Mullee, Amy; Romieu, Isabelle; Thune, Inger; Uauy, Ricardo; Wiseman, Martin J

    2016-12-01

    Anthropometric measures relating to body size, weight and composition are increasingly being associated with cancer risk and progression. Whilst practical in epidemiologic research, where population-level associations with disease are revealed, it is important to be aware that such measures are imperfect markers of the internal physiological processes that are the actual correlates of cancer development. Body mass index (BMI), the most commonly used marker for adiposity, may mask differences between lean and adipose tissue, or fat distribution, which varies across individuals, ethnicities, and stage in the lifespan. Other measures, such as weight gain in adulthood, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio, contribute information on adipose tissue distribution and insulin sensitivity. Single anthropometric measures do not capture maturational events, including the presence of critical windows of susceptibility (i.e., age of menarche and menopause), which presents a challenge in epidemiologic work. Integration of experimental research on underlying dynamic genetic, hormonal, and other non-nutritional mechanisms is necessary for a confident conclusion of the overall evidence in cancer development and progression. This article discusses the challenges confronted in evaluating and interpreting the current evidence linking anthropometric factors and cancer risk as a basis for issuing recommendations for cancer prevention.

  16. Invited commentary: epidemiologic studies of the impact of air pollution on lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Hart, Jaime E

    2014-02-15

    In this issue of the Journal, Villeneuve et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2014;179(4):443-451) present epidemiologic evidence supporting the literature on the adverse effects of air pollution on risk of lung cancer. They found that ambient exposure to volatile organic compounds, especially when measured at longer time scales, was associated with increased odds of lung cancer in citizens of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, between 1997 and 2002. Specifically, in fully adjusted models, they observed that an interquartile-range increase in benzene concentration was associated with an odds ratio of 1.51 (95% confidence interval: 1.13, 2.01) using exposure at the time of interview. The odds ratio increased to 1.84 (95% confidence interval: 1.26, 2.68) when time-weighted exposure at all previous addresses was considered. They obtained similar results for exposure to nitrogen dioxide. These findings add weight to the substantial (and rapidly growing) body of literature on the relation of air pollution with lung cancer risk, as well as illustrate important aspects of the effects of different exposure assessment choices and potential sources of key interest.

  17. Addressing the contribution of previously described genetic and epidemiological risk factors associated with increased prostate cancer risk and aggressive disease within men from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although African ancestry represents a significant risk factor for prostate cancer, few studies have investigated the significance of prostate cancer and relevance of previously defined genetic and epidemiological prostate cancer risk factors within Africa. We recently established the Southern African Prostate Cancer Study (SAPCS), a resource for epidemiological and genetic analysis of prostate cancer risk and outcomes in Black men from South Africa. Biased towards highly aggressive prostate cancer disease, this is the first reported data analysis. Methods The SAPCS is an ongoing population-based study of Black men with or without prostate cancer. Pilot analysis was performed for the first 837 participants, 522 cases and 315 controls. We investigate 46 pre-defined prostate cancer risk alleles and up to 24 epidemiological measures including demographic, lifestyle and environmental factors, for power to predict disease status and to drive on-going SAPCS recruitment, sampling procedures and research direction. Results Preliminary results suggest that no previously defined risk alleles significantly predict prostate cancer occurrence within the SAPCS. Furthermore, genetic risk profiles did not enhance the predictive power of prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing. Our study supports several lifestyle/environmental factors contributing to prostate cancer risk including a family history of cancer, diabetes, current sexual activity and erectile dysfunction, balding pattern, frequent aspirin usage and high PSA levels. Conclusions Despite a clear increased prostate cancer risk associated with an African ancestry, experimental data is lacking within Africa. This pilot study is therefore a significant contribution to the field. While genetic risk factors (largely European-defined) show no evidence for disease prediction in the SAPCS, several epidemiological factors were associated with prostate cancer status. We call for improved study power by building on the

  18. Addressing the contribution of previously described genetic and epidemiological risk factors associated with increased prostate cancer risk and aggressive disease within men from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Tindall, Elizabeth A; Bornman, M S Riana; van Zyl, Smit; Segone, Alpheus M; Monare, L Richard; Venter, Philip A; Hayes, Vanessa M

    2013-12-29

    Although African ancestry represents a significant risk factor for prostate cancer, few studies have investigated the significance of prostate cancer and relevance of previously defined genetic and epidemiological prostate cancer risk factors within Africa. We recently established the Southern African Prostate Cancer Study (SAPCS), a resource for epidemiological and genetic analysis of prostate cancer risk and outcomes in Black men from South Africa. Biased towards highly aggressive prostate cancer disease, this is the first reported data analysis. The SAPCS is an ongoing population-based study of Black men with or without prostate cancer. Pilot analysis was performed for the first 837 participants, 522 cases and 315 controls. We investigate 46 pre-defined prostate cancer risk alleles and up to 24 epidemiological measures including demographic, lifestyle and environmental factors, for power to predict disease status and to drive on-going SAPCS recruitment, sampling procedures and research direction. Preliminary results suggest that no previously defined risk alleles significantly predict prostate cancer occurrence within the SAPCS. Furthermore, genetic risk profiles did not enhance the predictive power of prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing. Our study supports several lifestyle/environmental factors contributing to prostate cancer risk including a family history of cancer, diabetes, current sexual activity and erectile dysfunction, balding pattern, frequent aspirin usage and high PSA levels. Despite a clear increased prostate cancer risk associated with an African ancestry, experimental data is lacking within Africa. This pilot study is therefore a significant contribution to the field. While genetic risk factors (largely European-defined) show no evidence for disease prediction in the SAPCS, several epidemiological factors were associated with prostate cancer status. We call for improved study power by building on the SAPCS resource, further validation of

  19. Planning cancer prevention strategies based on epidemiologic characteristics: an Egyptian example.

    PubMed

    Soliman, A S; Levin, B; El-Badawy, S; Nasser, S S; Raouf, A A; Khaled, H; El-Hattab, O H; Chamberlain, R M

    2001-01-01

    We describe the epidemiology, cancer prevention strategies, and educational messages to be learned from four characteristic cancers in Egypt: urinary bladder, liver, lung, and early-onset colorectal cancers. For bladder cancer, effective and convenient treatment of schistosomiasis, using social marketing and mass media in public and medical education has contributed dramatically to primary prevention of bladder cancer in Egypt. For liver cancer, educating hospital administrators to remove structural barriers to good practice may help the control of hepatitis transmission and related liver cancer. For lung cancer, the 50-year American experience for controlling tobacco smoking, beginning with physicians, could be very effective in Egypt and other countries with increasing smoking rates in the young so as to avert the expected epidemics of lung cancer. For colorectal cancer, more attention to physician and public education about the importance of interviewing colorectal cancer patients about a family history of cancer and the screening of at-risk families could be very effective in early detection of colorectal cancer. Countries with similar cancer epidemiology experience should make use of successful cancer prevention and education strategies that could be translated from the Egyptian experience.

  20. Weight cycling and cancer: weighing the evidence of intermittent caloric restriction and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Henry J; McTiernan, Anne

    2011-11-01

    Overweight and obese individuals frequently restrict caloric intake to lose weight. The resultant weight loss, however, typically is followed by an equal or greater weight gain, a phenomenon called weight cycling. Most attention to weight cycling has focused on identifying its detrimental effects, but preclinical experiments indicating that intermittent caloric restriction or fasting can reduce cancer risk have raised interest in potential benefits of weight cycling. Although hypothesized adverse effects of weight cycling on energy metabolism remain largely unsubstantiated, there is also a lack of epidemiologic evidence that intentional weight loss followed by regain of weight affects chronic-disease risk. In the limited studies of weight cycling and cancer, no independent effect on postmenopausal breast cancer but a modest enhancement of risk for renal cell carcinoma, endometrial cancer, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma have been reported. An effect of either intermittent caloric restriction or fasting in protecting against cancer is not supported by the majority of rodent carcinogenesis experiments. Collectively, the data argue against weight cycling and indicate that the objective of energy balance-based approaches to reduce cancer risk should be to strive to prevent adult weight gain and maintain body weight within the normal range defined by body mass index.

  1. Prostate Cancer in Iran: Trends in Incidence and Morphological and Epidemiological Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Pakzad, Reza; Rafiemanesh, Hosein; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Sarmad, Arezoo; Salehiniya, Hamid; Hosseini, Sayedehafagh; Sepehri, Zahra; Afshari-Moghadam, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is second most common cancer in men overall in the world, whereas it is the third most common cancer in men and the sixth most common cancer in Iran. Few studies have been conducted on the epidemiology of prostate cancer in Iran. Since ethnicity of Iranian men is different from Asian people and given the epidemiologic and demographic transition taking place in Iran, this study aimed to investigate trends of incidence and morphology of prostate cancer during 2003 - 2008 in the country. Data were collected retrospectively reviewing all new prostate cancer patients in the Cancer Registry Center of the Health Deputy for Iran during a 6-year period. Also carcinoma, NOS and adenocarcinoma, NOS morphology were surveyed. Trends analysis of incidence and morphology was by joinpoint regression. During the six years a total of 16,071 cases of prostate cancer were recorded in Iran. Most were adenocarcinomas at 95.2 percent. Trend analysis of incidence (ASR) There was a significant increase incidence, with annual percentage change (APC) of 17.3% and for morphology change percentage trends there was a significant decrease in adenocarcinoma with an APC of -1.24%. Prostate cancer is a disease of older men and the incidence is increasing in Iran. The most common morphology is adenocarcinoma this appears to be decreasing over time. Due to the changing lifestyles and the aging of the population, epidemiological studies and planning assessment of the etiology of prostate cancer and its early detection are essential.

  2. Dietary flavonoid intake and colorectal cancer risk: evidence from human population studies.

    PubMed

    Kocic, B; Kitic, D; Brankovic, S

    2013-01-01

    Flavonoids are biologically active polyphenolic compounds widely distributed in plants. More than 5000 individual flavonoids have been identified, which are classified into at least 10 subgroups according to their chemical structure. Flavonoids of 6 principal subgroups- flavonols, flavones, anthocyanidins, catechins, flavanones, and isoflavones- are relatively common in human diets. Flavonoids are a large and diverse group of phytochemicals and research into their anti-carcinogenic potential with animal and cellular model systems supports a protective role. Whether dietary intake of flavonoids is protective against colorectal cancer in humans cannot be easily extrapolated from cell line and animal findings. Epidemiological assessment of the relationship between dietary flavonoid intake and colorectal cancer is limited, with different case-control and cohort study design investigating different combinations of flavonoids. Epidemiologic studies on flavonoid intake and colorectal cancer risk that were conducted yielded inconsistent results, with positive, inverse, and null associations. Because only a very limited number of epidemiological studies have been conducted to examine the associations of dietary intake of flavonoids with colorectal cancer risk, it is premature to make public health recommendations at this time. However, the data to date are promising and emphasize the need for further investigation of these important bioactive plant compounds. This review summarises the epidemiological evidence from case-control and cohort studies on the associations of dietary flavonoid intake with the risk for colorectal cancer. The difficulties in investigating this topic and possibilities for further research are then discussed.

  3. Gene-Environment Interactions in Cancer Epidemiology: A National Cancer Institute Think Tank Report

    PubMed Central

    Hutter, Carolyn M.; Mechanic, Leah E.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Kraft, Peter; Gillander, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer risk is determined by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of common (minor allele frequency [MAF]>0.05) and less common (0.01cancer. The marginal effects of most of these variants have been small (odds ratios: 1.1–1.4). There remain unanswered questions on how best to incorporate the joint effects of genes and environment, including gene-environment interactions, into epidemiologic studies of cancer. To help address these questions, and to better inform research priorities and allocation of resources, the National Cancer Institute sponsored a “Gene-Environment Think Tank” on January 10th–011th, 2012. The objective of the Think Tank was to facilitate discussions on: 1) the state of the science; 2) the goals of gene-environment interaction studies in cancer epidemiology; and 3) opportunities for developing novel study designs and analysis tools. This report summarizes the Think Tank discussion, with a focus on contemporary approaches to the analysis of gene-environment interactions. Selecting the appropriate methods requires first identifying the relevant scientific question and rationale, with an important distinction made between analyses aiming to characterize the joint effects of putative or established genetic and environmental factors and analyses aiming to discover novel risk factors or novel interaction effects. Other discussion items include measurement error, statistical power, significance and replication. Additional designs, exposure assessments, and analytical approaches need to be considered as we move from the current small number of success stories to a fuller understanding of the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. PMID:24123198

  4. Gene-environment interactions in cancer epidemiology: a National Cancer Institute Think Tank report.

    PubMed

    Hutter, Carolyn M; Mechanic, Leah E; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Kraft, Peter; Gillanders, Elizabeth M

    2013-11-01

    Cancer risk is determined by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of common (minor allele frequency [MAF] > 0.05) and less common (0.01 < MAF < 0.05) genetic variants associated with cancer. The marginal effects of most of these variants have been small (odds ratios: 1.1-1.4). There remain unanswered questions on how best to incorporate the joint effects of genes and environment, including gene-environment (G × E) interactions, into epidemiologic studies of cancer. To help address these questions, and to better inform research priorities and allocation of resources, the National Cancer Institute sponsored a "Gene-Environment Think Tank" on January 10-11, 2012. The objective of the Think Tank was to facilitate discussions on (1) the state of the science, (2) the goals of G × E interaction studies in cancer epidemiology, and (3) opportunities for developing novel study designs and analysis tools. This report summarizes the Think Tank discussion, with a focus on contemporary approaches to the analysis of G × E interactions. Selecting the appropriate methods requires first identifying the relevant scientific question and rationale, with an important distinction made between analyses aiming to characterize the joint effects of putative or established genetic and environmental factors and analyses aiming to discover novel risk factors or novel interaction effects. Other discussion items include measurement error, statistical power, significance, and replication. Additional designs, exposure assessments, and analytical approaches need to be considered as we move from the current small number of success stories to a fuller understanding of the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. © 2013 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  5. Association between Body Powder Use and Ovarian Cancer: The African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES).

    PubMed

    Schildkraut, Joellen M; Abbott, Sarah E; Alberg, Anthony J; Bandera, Elisa V; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Bondy, Melissa L; Cote, Michele L; Funkhouser, Ellen; Peres, Lauren C; Peters, Edward S; Schwartz, Ann G; Terry, Paul; Crankshaw, Sydnee; Camacho, Fabian; Wang, Frances; Moorman, Patricia G

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate increased ovarian cancer risk among women who use genital powder, but this has not been thoroughly investigated in African American (AA) women, a group with a high prevalence of use. We evaluate the relationship between use of genital powder and nongenital powder in invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Subjects are 584 cases and 745 controls enrolled in the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES), an ongoing, population-based case-control study of EOC in AA women in 11 geographic locations in the United States. AA controls were frequency matched to cases on residence and age. Logistic regression was used to calculate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between genital and nongenital powder exposure and EOC risk, controlling for potential confounders. Powder use was common (62.8% of cases and 52.9% of controls). Genital powder was associated with an increased risk of EOC (OR = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.11-1.86) and a dose-response relationship was found for duration of use and number of lifetime applications (P < 0.05). Nongenital use was also associated with EOC risk, particularly among nonserous EOC cases (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 1.39-3.74). An association between powder use and upper respiratory conditions suggests an enhanced inflammatory response may explain the association between body powder and EOC. In a study of AA women, body powder use was significantly associated with EOC risk. The results support that body powder is a modifiable risk factor for EOC among AA women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(10); 1411-7. ©2016 AACRSee related commentary by Trabert, p. 1369. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. The utility of web mining for epidemiological research: studying the association between parity and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Tourassi, Georgia; Yoon, Hong-Jun; Xu, Songhua; Han, Xuesong

    2016-05-01

    The World Wide Web has emerged as a powerful data source for epidemiological studies related to infectious disease surveillance. However, its potential for cancer-related epidemiological discoveries is largely unexplored. Using advanced web crawling and tailored information extraction procedures, the authors automatically collected and analyzed the text content of 79 394 online obituary articles published between 1998 and 2014. The collected data included 51 911 cancer (27 330 breast; 9470 lung; 6496 pancreatic; 6342 ovarian; 2273 colon) and 27 483 non-cancer cases. With the derived information, the authors replicated a case-control study design to investigate the association between parity (i.e., childbearing) and cancer risk. Age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for each cancer type and compared to those reported in large-scale epidemiological studies. Parity was found to be associated with a significantly reduced risk of breast cancer (OR = 0.78, 95% CI, 0.75-0.82), pancreatic cancer (OR = 0.78, 95% CI, 0.72-0.83), colon cancer (OR = 0.67, 95% CI, 0.60-0.74), and ovarian cancer (OR = 0.58, 95% CI, 0.54-0.62). Marginal association was found for lung cancer risk (OR = 0.87, 95% CI, 0.81-0.92). The linear trend between increased parity and reduced cancer risk was dramatically more pronounced for breast and ovarian cancer than the other cancers included in the analysis. This large web-mining study on parity and cancer risk produced findings very similar to those reported with traditional observational studies. It may be used as a promising strategy to generate study hypotheses for guiding and prioritizing future epidemiological studies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The utility of web mining for epidemiological research: studying the association between parity and cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hong-Jun; Xu, Songhua; Han, Xuesong

    2016-01-01

    Background The World Wide Web has emerged as a powerful data source for epidemiological studies related to infectious disease surveillance. However, its potential for cancer-related epidemiological discoveries is largely unexplored. Methods Using advanced web crawling and tailored information extraction procedures, the authors automatically collected and analyzed the text content of 79 394 online obituary articles published between 1998 and 2014. The collected data included 51 911 cancer (27 330 breast; 9470 lung; 6496 pancreatic; 6342 ovarian; 2273 colon) and 27 483 non-cancer cases. With the derived information, the authors replicated a case-control study design to investigate the association between parity (i.e., childbearing) and cancer risk. Age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for each cancer type and compared to those reported in large-scale epidemiological studies. Results Parity was found to be associated with a significantly reduced risk of breast cancer (OR = 0.78, 95% CI, 0.75-0.82), pancreatic cancer (OR = 0.78, 95% CI, 0.72-0.83), colon cancer (OR = 0.67, 95% CI, 0.60-0.74), and ovarian cancer (OR = 0.58, 95% CI, 0.54-0.62). Marginal association was found for lung cancer risk (OR = 0.87, 95% CI, 0.81-0.92). The linear trend between increased parity and reduced cancer risk was dramatically more pronounced for breast and ovarian cancer than the other cancers included in the analysis. Conclusion This large web-mining study on parity and cancer risk produced findings very similar to those reported with traditional observational studies. It may be used as a promising strategy to generate study hypotheses for guiding and prioritizing future epidemiological studies. PMID:26615183

  8. History of breast-feeding in relation to breast cancer risk: a review of the epidemiologic literature.

    PubMed

    Lipworth, L; Bailey, L R; Trichopoulos, D

    2000-02-16

    The purpose of this review is to critically evaluate the collective epidemiologic evidence that a history of breast-feeding may decrease the risk of breast cancer. Original data for inclusion were identified through a MEDLINE(R) search of the English language literature from 1966 through 1998. To date, virtually all epidemiologic data regarding breast-feeding and breast cancer risk are derived from case-control studies, which vary according to classification of breast-feeding history. Overall, the evidence with respect to "ever" breast-feeding remains inconclusive, with results indicating either no association or a rather weak protective effect against breast cancer. An inverse association between increasing cumulative duration of breast-feeding and breast cancer risk among parous women has been reported in some, but not all, studies; the failure to detect an association in some Western populations may be due to the low prevalence of prolonged breast-feeding. It appears that the protective effect, if any, of long-term breast-feeding is stronger among, or confined to, premenopausal women. It has been hypothesized that an apparently protective effect of breast-feeding may be due to elevated breast cancer risk among women who discontinue breast-feeding or who take medication to suppress lactation; however, the evidence is limited and should be interpreted with caution. The biology underlying a protective effect of breast-feeding and why this should be restricted to premenopausal women remain unknown, although several mechanisms have been postulated (hormonal changes, such as reduced estrogen; removal of estrogens through breast fluid; excretion of carcinogens from breast tissue through breast-feeding; physical changes in the mammary epithelial cells, reflecting maximal differentiation; and delay of the re-establishment of ovulation). While breast-feeding is a potentially modifiable behavior, the practical implication of reduced breast cancer risk among premenopausal

  9. Molecular epidemiology, and possible real-world applications in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hidemi; Matsuo, Keitaro

    2016-01-01

    Gene-environment interaction, a key idea in molecular epidemiology, has enabled the development of personalized medicine. This concept includes personalized prevention. While genome-wide association studies have identified a number of genetic susceptibility loci in breast cancer risk, however, the application of this knowledge to practical prevention is still underway. Here, we briefly review the history of molecular epidemiology and its progress in breast cancer epidemiology. We then introduce our experience with the trial combination of GWAS-identified loci and well-established lifestyle and reproductive risk factors in the risk prediction of breast cancer. Finally, we report our exploration of the cumulative risk of breast cancer based on this risk prediction model as a potential tool for individual risk communication, including genetic risk factors and gene-environment interaction with obesity.

  10. The role of olive oil in disease prevention: a focus on the recent epidemiological evidence from cohort studies and dietary intervention trials.

    PubMed

    Buckland, Genevieve; Gonzalez, Carlos A

    2015-04-01

    Consumption of olive oil within the Mediterranean diet has been long known to have many health benefits. However, only over the last decade has epidemiological research confirmed its protective role against developing several chronic diseases. The objective of this review was to give an overview of the state of art epidemiological evidence concerning the relationship between olive oil and key public health outcomes including mortality, CVD, diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MetS), obesity and cancer, with a particular focus on recent results from cohort studies and dietary intervention trials. Recent epidemiological research has shown that regular consumption of olive oil is associated with increased longevity. This benefit is partly due to the olive oil's unequivocal cardio-protective role. There is converging evidence on the benefits of olive oil for preventing several CVD risk factors, including diabetes, MetS and obesity. Olive oil is also implicated in preventing certain cancers, with the most promising findings for breast and digestive tract cancers, although the data are still not entirely consistent and mainly from case-control studies. These health benefits are supported by strong mechanistic evidence from experimental studies, demonstrating that specific components of olive oil have antihypertensive, antithrombotic, antioxidant, antiinflammatory and anticarcinogenic action. Despite the accumulating epidemiological research, there is still a lack of consistent results from high-quality studies for many health outcomes (i.e. certain cancers and metabolism-related disorders). Further research is mandatory, above all from prospective studies and randomised dietary intervention trials when feasible, to confirm some of the still potential health benefits.

  11. Recent Evidence Regarding Triclosan and Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Dinwiddie, Michael T.; Terry, Paul D.; Chen, Jiangang

    2014-01-01

    Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antibacterial commonly used in cosmetics, dentifrices, and other consumer products. The compound’s widespread use in consumer products and its detection in breast milk, urine, and serum have raised concerns regarding its potential association with various human health outcomes. Recent evidence suggests that triclosan may play a role in cancer development, perhaps through its estrogenicity or ability to inhibit fatty acid synthesis. Our aims here are to review studies of human exposure levels, to evaluate the results of studies examining the effects of triclosan on cancer development, and to suggest possible directions for future research. PMID:24566048

  12. Environmental Chemicals and Type 2 Diabetes: An Updated Systematic Review of the Epidemiologic Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chin-Chi; Moon, Katherine; Thayer, Kristina A.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The burden of diabetes is increasing globally. Identifying novel preventable risk factors is an urgent need. In 2011, the U.S. National Toxicological Program (NTP) conducted a workshop to evaluate the epidemiologic and experimental evidence on the relationship of environmental chemicals with obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Although the evidence was insufficient to establish causality, the NTP workshop review identified an overall positive association between some environmental chemicals and diabetes. In this systematic review, our objective was to summarize the epidemiological research published since the NTP workshop. We identified a total of 29 articles (7 on arsenic, 3 on cadmium, 2 on mercury, 11 on persistent organic pollutants, 3 on phthalates and 4 on bisphenol A) including 7 prospective studies. Considering consistency, temporality, strength, dose-response, and biological plausibility (confounding), we concluded that the evidence is suggestive but not sufficient for a relationship between arsenic and persistent organic pollutants, and insufficient for mercury, phthalates and bisphenol A. For cadmium the epidemiologic evidence does not seem to suggest an association with diabetes. Important research questions include the need of additional prospective studies and the evaluation of the dose-response relationship, the role of joint exposures, and effect modification with other comorbidities and genetic variants. PMID:24114039

  13. Effect of periodontal disease on diabetes: systematic review of epidemiologic observational evidence.

    PubMed

    Borgnakke, Wenche S; Ylöstalo, Pekka V; Taylor, George W; Genco, Robert J

    2013-04-01

    Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus are common, chronic diseases worldwide. Epidemiologic and biologic evidence suggest periodontal disease may affect diabetes. To systematically review non-experimental, epidemiologic evidence for effects of periodontal disease on diabetes control, complications and incidence. Electronic bibliographic databases, supplemented by hand searches of recent and future issues of relevant journals. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA AND PARTICIPANTS: Longitudinal and cross-sectional epidemiologic, non-interventional studies that permit determination of directionality of observed effects were included. Four reviewers evaluated pair-wise each study. Review findings regarding study results and quality were summarized in tables by topic, using the PRISMA Statement for reporting and the Newcastle-Ottawa System for quality assessment, respectively. From 2246 citations identified and available abstracts screened, 114 full-text reports were assessed and 17 included in the review. A small body of evidence supports significant, adverse effects of periodontal disease on glycaemic control, diabetes complications, and development of type 2 (and possibly gestational) diabetes. There were only a limited number of eligible studies, several of which included small sample sizes. Exposure and outcome parameters varied, and the generalizability of their results was limited. Current evidence suggests that periodontal disease adversely affects diabetes outcomes, and that further longitudinal studies are warranted. © 2013 European Federation of Periodontology and American Academy of Periodontology.

  14. Effect of periodontal disease on diabetes: systematic review of epidemiologic observational evidence.

    PubMed

    Borgnakke, Wenche S; Ylöstalo, Pekka V; Taylor, George W; Genco, Robert J

    2013-04-01

    Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus are common, chronic diseases worldwide. Epidemiologic and biologic evidence suggest periodontal disease may affect diabetes. To systematically review non-experimental, epidemiologic evidence for effects of periodontal disease on diabetes control, complications and incidence. Electronic bibliographic databases, supplemented by hand searches of recent and future issues of relevant journals. Study eligibility criteria and participants: Longitudinal and cross-sectional epidemiologic, non-interventional studies that permit determination of directionality of observed effects were included. Four reviewers evaluated pair-wise each study. Review findings regarding study results and quality were summarized in tables by topic, using the PRISMA Statement for reporting and the Newcastle-Ottawa System for quality assessment, respectively. From 2246 citations identified and available abstracts screened, 114 full-text reports were assessed and 17 included in the review. A small body of evidence supports significant, adverse effects of periodontal disease on glycaemic control, diabetes complications, and development of type 2 (and possibly gestational) diabetes. There were only a limited number of eligible studies, several of which included small sample sizes. Exposure and outcome parameters varied, and the generalizability of their results was limited. Current evidence suggests that periodontal disease adversely affects diabetes outcomes, and that further longitudinal studies are warranted.

  15. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer: A Quantitative Update on the State of the Epidemiologic Science

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Dominik D.; Weed, Douglas L.; Miller, Paula E.; Mohamed, Muhima A.

    2015-01-01

    The potential relationship between red meat consumption and colorectal cancer (CRC) has been the subject of scientific debate. Given the high degree of resulting uncertainty, our objective was to update the state of the science by conducting a systematic quantitative assessment of the epidemiologic literature. Specifically, we updated and expanded our previous meta-analysis by integrating data from new prospective cohort studies and conducting a broader evaluation of the relative risk estimates by specific intake categories. Data from 27 independent prospective cohort studies were meta-analyzed using random-effects models, and sources of potential heterogeneity were examined through subgroup and sensitivity analyses. In addition, a comprehensive evaluation of potential dose-response patterns was conducted. In the meta-analysis of all cohorts, a weakly elevated summary relative risk was observed (1.11, 95% CI: 1.03–1.19); however, statistically significant heterogeneity was present. In general, summary associations were attenuated (closer to the null and less heterogeneous) in models that isolated fresh red meat (from processed meat), adjusted for more relevant factors, analyzed women only, and were conducted in countries outside of the United States. Furthermore, no clear patterns of dose-response were apparent. In conclusion, the state of the epidemiologic science on red meat consumption and CRC is best described in terms of weak associations, heterogeneity, an inability to disentangle effects from other dietary and lifestyle factors, lack of a clear dose-response effect, and weakening evidence over time. Key Teaching Points: •The role of red meat consumption in colorectal cancer risk has been widely contested among the scientific community.•In the current meta-analysis of red meat intake and colorectal cancer, we comprehensively examined associations by creating numerous sub-group stratifications, conducting extensive sensitivity analyses, and evaluating

  16. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer: A Quantitative Update on the State of the Epidemiologic Science.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Dominik D; Weed, Douglas L; Miller, Paula E; Mohamed, Muhima A

    2015-01-01

    The potential relationship between red meat consumption and colorectal cancer (CRC) has been the subject of scientific debate. Given the high degree of resulting uncertainty, our objective was to update the state of the science by conducting a systematic quantitative assessment of the epidemiologic literature. Specifically, we updated and expanded our previous meta-analysis by integrating data from new prospective cohort studies and conducting a broader evaluation of the relative risk estimates by specific intake categories. Data from 27 independent prospective cohort studies were meta-analyzed using random-effects models, and sources of potential heterogeneity were examined through subgroup and sensitivity analyses. In addition, a comprehensive evaluation of potential dose-response patterns was conducted. In the meta-analysis of all cohorts, a weakly elevated summary relative risk was observed (1.11, 95% CI: 1.03-1.19); however, statistically significant heterogeneity was present. In general, summary associations were attenuated (closer to the null and less heterogeneous) in models that isolated fresh red meat (from processed meat), adjusted for more relevant factors, analyzed women only, and were conducted in countries outside of the United States. Furthermore, no clear patterns of dose-response were apparent. In conclusion, the state of the epidemiologic science on red meat consumption and CRC is best described in terms of weak associations, heterogeneity, an inability to disentangle effects from other dietary and lifestyle factors, lack of a clear dose-response effect, and weakening evidence over time. KEY TEACHING POINTS: •The role of red meat consumption in colorectal cancer risk has been widely contested among the scientific community.•In the current meta-analysis of red meat intake and colorectal cancer, we comprehensively examined associations by creating numerous sub-group stratifications, conducting extensive sensitivity analyses, and evaluating dose

  17. 2017 update on the relationship between diabetes and colorectal cancer: epidemiology, potential molecular mechanisms and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    González, Nieves; Prieto, Isabel; Del Puerto-Nevado, Laura; Portal-Nuñez, Sergio; Ardura, Juan Antonio; Corton, Marta; Fernández-Fernández, Beatriz; Aguilera, Oscar; Gomez-Guerrero, Carmen; Mas, Sebastián; Moreno, Juan Antonio; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Sanz, Ana Belen; Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores; Rojo, Federico; Vivanco, Fernando; Esbrit, Pedro; Ayuso, Carmen; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; Egido, Jesús; García-Foncillas, Jesús; Ortiz, Alberto

    2017-03-14

    Worldwide deaths from diabetes mellitus (DM) and colorectal cancer increased by 90% and 57%, respectively, over the past 20 years. The risk of colorectal cancer was estimated to be 27% higher in patients with type 2 DM than in non-diabetic controls. However, there are potential confounders, information from lower income countries is scarce, across the globe there is no correlation between DM prevalence and colorectal cancer incidence and the association has evolved over time, suggesting the impact of additional environmental factors. The clinical relevance of these associations depends on understanding the mechanism involved. Although evidence is limited, insulin use has been associated with increased and metformin with decreased incidence of colorectal cancer. In addition, colorectal cancer shares some cellular and molecular pathways with diabetes target organ damage, exemplified by diabetic kidney disease. These include epithelial cell injury, activation of inflammation and Wnt/β-catenin pathways and iron homeostasis defects, among others. Indeed, some drugs have undergone clinical trials for both cancer and diabetic kidney disease. Genome-wide association studies have identified diabetes-associated genes (e.g. TCF7L2) that may also contribute to colorectal cancer. We review the epidemiological evidence, potential pathophysiological mechanisms and therapeutic implications of the association between DM and colorectal cancer. Further studies should clarify the worldwide association between DM and colorectal cancer, strengthen the biological plausibility of a cause-and-effect relationship through characterization of the molecular pathways involved, search for specific molecular signatures of colorectal cancer under diabetic conditions, and eventually explore DM-specific strategies to prevent or treat colorectal cancer.

  18. 2017 update on the relationship between diabetes and colorectal cancer: epidemiology, potential molecular mechanisms and therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Ardura, Juan Antonio; Corton, Marta; Fernández-Fernández, Beatriz; Aguilera, Oscar; Gomez-Guerrero, Carmen; Mas, Sebastián; Moreno, Juan Antonio; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Sanz, Ana Belen; Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores; Rojo, Federico; Vivanco, Fernando; Esbrit, Pedro; Ayuso, Carmen; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; Egido, Jesús; García-Foncillas, Jesús; Ortiz, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide deaths from diabetes mellitus (DM) and colorectal cancer increased by 90% and 57%, respectively, over the past 20 years. The risk of colorectal cancer was estimated to be 27% higher in patients with type 2 DM than in non-diabetic controls. However, there are potential confounders, information from lower income countries is scarce, across the globe there is no correlation between DM prevalence and colorectal cancer incidence and the association has evolved over time, suggesting the impact of additional environmental factors. The clinical relevance of these associations depends on understanding the mechanism involved. Although evidence is limited, insulin use has been associated with increased and metformin with decreased incidence of colorectal cancer. In addition, colorectal cancer shares some cellular and molecular pathways with diabetes target organ damage, exemplified by diabetic kidney disease. These include epithelial cell injury, activation of inflammation and Wnt/β-catenin pathways and iron homeostasis defects, among others. Indeed, some drugs have undergone clinical trials for both cancer and diabetic kidney disease. Genome-wide association studies have identified diabetes-associated genes (e.g. TCF7L2) that may also contribute to colorectal cancer. We review the epidemiological evidence, potential pathophysiological mechanisms and therapeutic implications of the association between DM and colorectal cancer. Further studies should clarify the worldwide association between DM and colorectal cancer, strengthen the biological plausibility of a cause-and-effect relationship through characterization of the molecular pathways involved, search for specific molecular signatures of colorectal cancer under diabetic conditions, and eventually explore DM-specific strategies to prevent or treat colorectal cancer. PMID:28060743

  19. Little Evidence That Vasectomy Raises Prostate Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_167274.html Little Evidence That Vasectomy Raises Prostate Cancer Risk Most thorough analysis of the data so ... evidence that the procedure raises their risk of prostate cancer. "At most, there is a trivial association between ...

  20. Cancer risks from diabetes therapies: evaluating the evidence.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Kong, Deling

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological studies have identified positive associations between diabetes, obesity and cancer. Insulin, metformin and thiazolidinediones (TDZs) are among the major diabetes therapies that improve glycaemic control by acting via molecular targets including the insulin receptor and insulin-like growth factor pathways, adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. It is well-established that clinical application of insulin and TDZs is associated with weight gain, but the potential of these therapies to promote tumourigenesis is less well-studied. In addition, although anti-tumour properties of metformin have been proposed, recently published data do not support a protective effect of metformin against cancer in diabetic patients. Given that diabetes and cancer each account for 8% and 13% of global deaths and there is a substantial financial burden incurred by both disorders, developing diabetes therapies that are safe, efficacious and cost-effective has never been more desirable. This timely review examines recent progress in delineating the molecular mechanisms responsible for the anti-diabetic actions of insulin, metformin and TZDs and considers evidence implicating these therapies in cell transformation and tumourigenesis. In addition, since the endocannabinoid signalling system (ECS) is now considered a therapeutic target and biomarker candidate for hyperglycaemia, obesity and cell growth, a brief section covering recent scientific advances regarding the ECS, particularly its functions in regulating glucose metabolism and cell survival, is also included in this review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Children’s Exposure to Diagnostic Medical Radiation and Cancer Risk: Epidemiologic and Dosimetric Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Linet, Martha S.; Kim, Kwang pyo; Rajaraman, Preetha

    2009-01-01

    While the etiology of most childhood cancers is largely unknown, epidemiologic studies have consistently found an association between exposure to medical radiation during pregnancy and risk of childhood cancer in offspring. The relation between early life diagnostic radiation exposure and occurrence of pediatric cancer risks is less clear. This review summarizes current and historical estimated doses for common diagnostic radiologic procedures as well as the epidemiologic literature on the role of maternal prenatal, children’s postnatal and parental preconception diagnostic radiologic procedures on subsequent risk of childhood malignancies Risk estimates are presented according to factors such as the year of birth of the child, trimester and medical indication for the procedure, and the number of films taken. The paper also discusses limitations of the methods employed in epidemiologic studies to assess pediatric cancer risks, the effects on clinical practice of the results reported from the epidemiologic studies, and clinical and public health policy implications of the findings. Gaps in understanding and additional research needs are identified. Important research priorities include nationwide surveys to estimate fetal and childhood radiation doses from common diagnostic procedures, and epidemiologic studies to quantify pediatric and lifetime cancer risks from prenatal and early childhood exposures to diagnostic radiography, computed tomography, and fluoroscopically-guided procedures. PMID:19083224

  2. "Drivers" of translational cancer epidemiology in the 21st century: needs and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tram Kim; Spitz, Margaret; Schully, Sheri D; Khoury, Muin J

    2013-02-01

    Cancer epidemiology is at the cusp of a paradigm shift--propelled by an urgent need to accelerate the pace of translating scientific discoveries into health care and population health benefits. As part of a strategic planning process for cancer epidemiologic research, the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is leading a "longitudinal" meeting with members of the research community to engage in an on-going dialogue to help shape and invigorate the field. Here, we review a translational framework influenced by "drivers" that we believe have begun guiding cancer epidemiology toward translation in the past few years and are most likely to drive the field further in the next decade. The drivers include: (i) collaboration and team science, (ii) technology, (iii) multilevel analyses and interventions, and (iv) knowledge integration from basic, clinical, and population sciences. Using the global prevention of cervical cancer as an example of a public health endeavor to anchor the conversation, we discuss how these drivers can guide epidemiology from discovery to population health impact, along the translational research continuum.

  3. Second Solid Cancers After Radiation Therapy: A Systematic Review of the Epidemiologic Studies of the Radiation Dose-Response Relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy; Gilbert, Ethel; Curtis, Rochelle; Inskip, Peter; Kleinerman, Ruth; Morton, Lindsay; Rajaraman, Preetha; Little, Mark P.

    2013-06-01

    Rapid innovations in radiation therapy techniques have resulted in an urgent need for risk projection models for second cancer risks from high-dose radiation exposure, because direct observation of the late effects of newer treatments will require patient follow-up for a decade or more. However, the patterns of cancer risk after fractionated high-dose radiation are much less well understood than those after lower-dose exposures (0.1-5 Gy). In particular, there is uncertainty about the shape of the dose-response curve at high doses and about the magnitude of the second cancer risk per unit dose. We reviewed the available evidence from epidemiologic studies of second solid cancers in organs that received high-dose exposure (>5 Gy) from radiation therapy where dose-response curves were estimated from individual organ-specific doses. We included 28 eligible studies with 3434 second cancer patients across 11 second solid cancers. Overall, there was little evidence that the dose-response curve was nonlinear in the direction of a downturn in risk, even at organ doses of ≥60 Gy. Thyroid cancer was the only exception, with evidence of a downturn after 20 Gy. Generally the excess relative risk per Gray, taking account of age and sex, was 5 to 10 times lower than the risk from acute exposures of <2 Gy among the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. However, the magnitude of the reduction in risk varied according to the second cancer. The results of our review provide insights into radiation carcinogenesis from fractionated high-dose exposures and are generally consistent with current theoretical models. The results can be used to refine the development of second solid cancer risk projection models for novel radiation therapy techniques.

  4. Flavan-3-ols consumption and cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Lei; Yang, Ying; He, Hongjuan; Chen, Erfei; Du, Le; Dong, Jing; Yang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous in vitro studies and animal model data have suggested that flavan-3-ols, the most common subclass of flavonoids in the diet, may exert protective effects against cancer, epidemiologic studies have reported inconclusive results for the association between flavan-3-ols intake and cancer risk. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies to investigate the preventive effects of flavan-3-ols on various types of cancers. A total of 43 epidemiologic studies, consisting of 25 case-control and 18 prospective cohort studies, were included. A significant inverse association was shown between flavan-3-ols intake and the risk of overall cancer (relative risk (RR) 0.935, 95%CI: 0.891-0.981). When cancer types were separately analyzed, a statistically significant protective effect of flavan-3-ols consumption was observed in rectal cancer (RR 0.838, 95%CI: 0.733-0.958), oropharyngeal and laryngeal cancer (RR 0.759, 95%CI: 0.581-0.993), breast (RR 0.885, 95%CI: 0.790-0.991) in case-control studies and stomach cancer in women (RR 0.633, 95%CI: 0.468-0.858). Our analysis indicates the potential benefits of flavan-3-ols in cancer prevention. PMID:27634884

  5. Cadmium and Reproductive Health in Women: A Systematic Review of the Epidemiologic Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ranasinghe, Shamika; Sjaarda, Lindsey A.; Mumford, Sunni L.

    2016-01-01

    An evolving body of evidence supports that cadmium, a non-essential heavy metal, may be associated with multiple adverse women’s reproductive health outcomes. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of epidemiologic studies that evaluated cadmium exposure and the following reproductive health outcomes: puberty/menarche, fertility, time to pregnancy, pregnancy loss, preeclampsia, endometriosis, uterine leiomyoma, and menopause. Twenty-two studies were identified based upon our search criteria. Available evidence was inadequate to draw meaningful conclusions for most of the reproductive outcomes studied. The strongest evidence was for a possible association between cadmium and preeclampsia, which was limited to cross-sectional studies. Some evidence, although conflicting, was also observed for fertility related outcomes. This lack of evidence underscores the need for additional research on cadmium and women’s reproductive health outcomes. PMID:27453808

  6. [Epidemiological cancer data online: an overview of information service in Germany and Europe].

    PubMed

    Schönfeld, I; Kraywinkel, K

    2014-01-01

    Finding reliable data about cancer epidemiology on the World Wide Web is not an easy task. Information is often scattered, and sources are not always clear. This article gives a short overview of the most important websites that provide reliable data for Germany and Europe. Four internet sites are presented: The German Centre for Cancer Registry Data (ZfKD), the Association of Population-Based Cancer Registries in Germany (GEKID), and two different websites created by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). In combination, they provide comprehensive information about the distribution of cancer in Germany and Europe.

  7. Reducing Prostate Cancer Disparities Through Behavioral and Biologic Epidemiologic Approaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    PRESENTATIONS Oral 1. Drake BF. Prostate Cancer Walk – Prostate Cancer Education Session. Missouri Black Expo. St. Louis, MO. August 2011. Moderator. 2...Harvard Cancer Center Disparities Research Seminar Series, Boston, MA, 2006. Oral presentation. 8. Drake BF. Cancer Health Disparities. Young...MD, July 2011. Poster Presentation. 2. Wagner S, Drake BF, Elder K, Hebert JR. Social and clinical predictors of prostate cancer treatment

  8. Cancers in Togo from 1984 to 2008: Epidemiological and Pathological Aspects of 5251 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Amégbor, Koffi; Darre, Tchin; Ayéna, Koffi Didier; Padaro, Essohana; Tengué, Kodjo; Abalo, Anani; Napo-Koura, Gado

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To describe the epidemiological and histological aspects of cancers in Togo. Materials and Methods. We made a retrospective review of the epidemiological and pathological features of cancers observed from 1984 to 2008 at the laboratory of pathology of CHU-TOKOIN in Lomé, Togo. Results. During our study period, we found 5251 cases of cancers with an annual average frequency of 210 cases. The sex ratio, male/female, was 0.9 and the average age of occurring was 45.3 years. This average age was 46.9 years for men and 43.8 years for women. The most frequent cancers for men were prostate cancer (12.9%), nonmelanoma skin cancer (10.4%), and gastric cancer (10.3%). For women it was breast cancer (27.1%), cervix cancer (11.2%) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (6.3%). Histologically, it was carcinomas in 68.1% of the cases, sarcomas in 11% of the cases and non-Hodgkin lymphomas in 12.6% of the cases. Children cancers were primarily Burkitt lymphoma (27.9% of cases) and retinoblastoma (8.5% of cases). Conclusion. This study shows that cancers are frequent in Togo and emphasizes on the necessity of having a cancer register for the prevention and the control of this disease in Togo. PMID:22007216

  9. Epidemiological studies of esophageal cancer in the era of genome-wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, An-Hui; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Bo; He, Yi-Xuan; Fang, Ye-Xian; Yan, Yong-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal cancer (EC) caused about 395000 deaths in 2010. China has the most cases of EC and EC is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in China. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the predominant histologic type (90%-95%), while the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) remains extremely low in China. Traditional epidemiological studies have revealed that environmental carcinogens are risk factors for EC. Molecular epidemiological studies revealed that susceptibility to EC is influenced by both environmental and genetic risk factors. Of all the risk factors for EC, some are associated with the risk of ESCC and others with the risk of EAC. However, the details and mechanisms of risk factors involved in the process for EC are unclear. The advanced methods and techniques used in human genome studies bring a great opportunity for researchers to explore and identify the details of those risk factors or susceptibility genes involved in the process of EC. Human genome epidemiology is a new branch of epidemiology, which leads the epidemiology study from the molecular epidemiology era to the era of genome wide association studies (GWAS). Here we review the epidemiological studies of EC (especially ESCC) in the era of GWAS, and provide an overview of the general risk factors and those genomic variants (genes, SNPs, miRNAs, proteins) involved in the process of ESCC. PMID:25133033

  10. The epidemiologic status of gynecologic cancer in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wilailak, Sarikapan; Lertchaipattanakul, Nuttapong

    2016-11-01

    Between the years of 2010-2012, it was estimated there were a total of 112,392 new cases of cancers in Thailand, thus, the total age-standardized rate (ASR) per 100,000 is 137.6. In regards to the most prevalent types of cancer in female, breast cancer has the highest ASR, followed by cervical cancer (ASR=14.4); liver and bile duct cancer; colon and rectum cancer; trachea, bronchus and lung cancer; ovarian cancer (ASR=6.0); thyroid cancer; non-Hodgkin lymphoma and uterine cancer (ASR=4.3). The trend of cervical cancer in Thailand is decreasing, one key factor in making this possible was the employment of dual tract strategy (Pap smear and visual inspection with acetic acid [VIA]) by the government in 2005. In the future, the government is also considering integrating human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination into the national immunization program, which may assist in the prevention of cervical cancer. By studying the statistical data of gynecologic cancer, it will be possible to formulate measures for the prevention, control and treatment of gynecologic cancer. Eventually, it will potentially improve the quality of life (QoL) of patients as well as decrease the mortality rate caused by gynecologic cancer.

  11. The epidemiologic status of gynecologic cancer in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Between the years of 2010–2012, it was estimated there were a total of 112,392 new cases of cancers in Thailand, thus, the total age-standardized rate (ASR) per 100,000 is 137.6. In regards to the most prevalent types of cancer in female, breast cancer has the highest ASR, followed by cervical cancer (ASR=14.4); liver and bile duct cancer; colon and rectum cancer; trachea, bronchus and lung cancer; ovarian cancer (ASR=6.0); thyroid cancer; non-Hodgkin lymphoma and uterine cancer (ASR=4.3). The trend of cervical cancer in Thailand is decreasing, one key factor in making this possible was the employment of dual tract strategy (Pap smear and visual inspection with acetic acid [VIA]) by the government in 2005. In the future, the government is also considering integrating human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination into the national immunization program, which may assist in the prevention of cervical cancer. By studying the statistical data of gynecologic cancer, it will be possible to formulate measures for the prevention, control and treatment of gynecologic cancer. Eventually, it will potentially improve the quality of life (QoL) of patients as well as decrease the mortality rate caused by gynecologic cancer. PMID:27775261

  12. Evolution of the “Drivers” of Translational Cancer Epidemiology: Analysis of Funded Grants and the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Tram Kim; Chang, Christine Q.; Rogers, Scott D.; Khoury, Muin J.; Schully, Sheri D.

    2015-01-01

    Concurrently with a workshop sponsored by the National Cancer Institute, we identified key “drivers” for accelerating cancer epidemiology across the translational research continuum in the 21st century: emerging technologies, a multilevel approach, knowledge integration, and team science. To map the evolution of these “drivers” and translational phases (T0–T4) in the past decade, we analyzed cancer epidemiology grants funded by the National Cancer Institute and published literature for 2000, 2005, and 2010. For each year, we evaluated the aims of all new/competing grants and abstracts of randomly selected PubMed articles. Compared with grants based on a single institution, consortium-based grants were more likely to incorporate contemporary technologies (P = 0.012), engage in multilevel analyses (P = 0.010), and incorporate elements of knowledge integration (P = 0.036). Approximately 74% of analyzed grants and publications involved discovery (T0) or characterization (T1) research, suggesting a need for more translational (T2–T4) research. Our evaluation indicated limited research in 1) a multilevel approach that incorporates molecular, individual, social, and environmental determinants and 2) knowledge integration that evaluates the robustness of scientific evidence. Cancer epidemiology is at the cusp of a paradigm shift, and the field will need to accelerate the pace of translating scientific discoveries in order to impart population health benefits. While multi-institutional and technology-driven collaboration is happening, concerted efforts to incorporate other key elements are warranted for the discipline to meet future challenges. PMID:25767265

  13. [Testicular cancer - a matter of geography? Epidemiology and etiopathogenesis of germ cell tumors].

    PubMed

    Mikuz, G

    2014-05-01

    More than 90 % of testicular tumors are germ cell tumors. There is no doubt that ethnicity is one of the single overriding etiological factors in the development of these tumors. White males living in western industrialized countries, particularly in northern Europe show the highest incidence rates, whereas black males in Africa show the lowest. These differences are the result of interaction of genetic factors and exogenous noxious agents. Some of these agents are chemical substances with an estrogen-like effect. Many exogenous substances have been blamed for causing testicular cancer, but clear epidemiological evidence is lacking for most cases. Some well-established risk factors prevail, such as cryptorchidism, familial association, gonadal dysgenesis (intersex) and germ cell tumor in the contralateral testis. In terms of importance, overalimentation appears to outweigh occupation. The development of germ cell tumors is assumed to have an intrauterine origin through defect gonocytes which evolve into atypical germ cells of unclassified intratubular germ cell neoplasms. The trigger event is, however, the appearance of isochromosome 12p, which makes these cells aggressive and results in overt invasive testicular cancer.

  14. The role of an electronic questionnaires in epidemiologic studies aimed at cancer prevention

    PubMed

    Gajda, Maksymilian; Kowalska, Małgorzata

    The growing number of people diagnosed with cancer is an important issue in public health. Evaluation of the population’s level of cancer-related knowledge is mandatory for planning effective prevention or intervention programs. Until recently, traditional methodology, using paper questionnaire or telephone-based interviews had dominated previous cross sectional studies related to this issue. Currently, the use of new research methods based on information technology solutions has been more frequent. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review published data available in the PubMed database towards the identification of strengths and weaknesses of crosssectional studies conducted via Internet, a type of information technology solution. This review allowed the authors to conclude that web-based questionnaire studies could be an effective solution and may possibly replace traditionally conducted interviews. Likewise, it evidently appears that an online mode is more adequate for querying young people. However, there is lack of consensus regarding the cost-effectiveness of the application of Web technology as a research tool for epidemiological questionnaire-based studies. Data security was revealed to be an important aspect of conducting Internet-based questionnaire studies. Further efforts are aimed at standardizing this type of researches to assess their strengths and weaknesses leading to more widespread use.

  15. Molecular epidemiology in cancer risk assessment and prevention: recent progress and avenues for future research.

    PubMed Central

    Wogan, G N

    1992-01-01

    these changes are known to occur in chemically induced tumors of experimental animals, the possible role of chemical carcinogens in the induction of genetic abnormalities in human cancers has yet to be determined. Continuing investigations employing the methods of molecular epidemiology promise to provide further evidence concerning these relationships. Future investigations employing newly developed molecular biological methods, in particular those based on polymerase chain reaction amplification of DNA, to identify alterations in DNA and chromosomal structure, combined with methods for characterizing exposure to carcinogens and early effects, have great potential for further elucidating the role of genotoxic agents in the etiology of human cancers and also for the development of strategies for their prevention. PMID:1486846

  16. Association between Body Powder Use and Ovarian Cancer: the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES)

    PubMed Central

    Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Abbott, Sarah E.; Alberg, Anthony J.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Bondy, Melissa L.; Cote, Michele L.; Funkhouser, Ellen; Peres, Lauren C.; Peters, Edward S.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Terry, Paul; Crankshaw, Sydnee; Camacho, Fabian; Wang, Frances; Moorman, Patricia G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies indicate increased ovarian cancer risk among women who use genital powder, but this has not been thoroughly investigated in African American (AA) women, a group with a high prevalence of use. We evaluate the relationship between use of genital powder and non-genital powder in invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Methods Subjects are 584 cases and 745 controls enrolled in the African American Epidemiology Cancer Study, an ongoing, population-based case-control study of EOC in AA women in 11 geographic locations in the U.S. AA controls were frequency matched to cases on residence and age. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between genital and non-genital powder exposure and EOC risk, controlling for potential confounders. Results Powder use was common (62.8 % of cases and 52.9% of controls). Genital powder was associated with an increased risk of EOC (OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.86) and a dose-response relationship was found for duration of use and number of lifetime applications (p <0.05). Non-genital use was also associated with EOC risk, particularly among non-serous EOC cases (OR = 2.28; 95% CI: 1.39, 3.74). An association between powder use and upper respiratory conditions suggests an enhanced inflammatory response may explain the association between body powder and EOC. Conclusion In a study of AA women, body powder use was significantly associated with EOC risk. Impact The results support that body powder is a modifiable risk factor for EOC among AA women. PMID:27197282

  17. False-Positive Results in Cancer Epidemiology: A Plea for Epistemological Modesty

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Joseph K.; La Vecchia, Carlo; Tarone, Robert E.; Lipworth, Loren; Blot, William J.

    2008-01-01

    False-positive results are inherent in the scientific process of testing hypotheses concerning the determinants of cancer and other human illnesses. Although much of what is known about the etiology of human cancers has arisen from well-conducted epidemiological studies, epidemiology has been increasingly criticized for producing findings that are often sensationalized in the media and fail to be upheld in subsequent studies. Herein we describe examples from cancer epidemiology of likely false-positive findings and discuss conditions under which such results may occur. We suggest general guidelines or principles, including the endorsement of editorial policies requiring the prominent listing of study caveats, which may help reduce the reporting of misleading results. Increased epistemological humility regarding findings in epidemiology would go a long way to diminishing the detrimental effects of false-positive results on the allocation of limited research resources, on the advancement of knowledge of the causes and prevention of cancer, and on the scientific reputation of epidemiology and would help to prevent oversimplified interpretations of results by the media and the public. PMID:18612135

  18. BEST PRACTICES FOR GAUGING EVIDENCE OF CAUSALITY IN AIR POLLUTION EPIDEMIOLOGY.

    PubMed

    Dominici, Francesca; Zigler, Corwin

    2017-09-06

    The contentious political climate surrounding air pollution regulations has brought some researchers and policy makers to argue that evidence of causality is necessary for more stringent regulations. Recently, an increasing number of air pollution studies purport the use of "causal analysis," generating the impression that studies not explicitly labeled as such are merely "associational" and therefore less rigorous. Using three prominent air pollution studies as examples, we review good practices for how to critically evaluate the extent to which an air pollution study provides evidence of causality. We argue that evidence of causality should be gauged by a critical evaluation of design decisions such as: a) what actions or exposure levels are being compared; b) whether an adequate comparison group was constructed and; c) how closely these design decisions approximate an idealized randomized study. We argue that air pollution studies that are more scientifically rigorous in terms of the decisions made to approximate a randomized experiment are more likely to provide evidence of causality and should be prioritized among the body of evidence for regulatory review accordingly. Our considerations, although presented in the context of air pollution epidemiology, can be broadly applied to other fields of epidemiology. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Use of elderly tumor-free subjects as a "supercontrol" for cancer epidemiological studies: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Imyanitov, Evgeny N

    2009-01-01

    Search for cancer-predisposing single-nucleotide gene polymorphisms is complicated due to weakness of expected associations. We introduced a novel design for molecular epidemiological study, which relies on selection of highly demonstrative cases and controls. It is assumed that patients with clinical features of hereditary predisposition (e.g., cancer bilaterality, or young onset, or presence of family history, etc.) are more likely to accumulate at-risk alleles than randomly recruited cases. Furthermore, subjects with characteristics of cancer tolerance, e.g., elderly tumor-free smokers, may serve as a "supercontrol" for the rapid assessment of polymorphic candidates. The utility of the "comparison of extremes" design has already been exemplified in a series of reports. However, the use of elderly subjects for cancer case-control studies may possess a bias; for example, factors contributing to cancer predisposition may nevertheless be advantageous for the overall longevity, as they could compensate age-related decline of tissue maintenance and renewal. For example, there is some evidence for a dual role of the apoptosis-deficient Pro/Pro genotype of p53 gene, which may simultaneously increase both cancer risk and survival. Comprehensive studies on distribution of cancer-related gene polymorphisms in elderly population remain to be done.

  20. Colorectal cancer in Iran: Epidemiology and morphology trends

    PubMed Central

    Rafiemanesh, Hosein; Pakzad, Reza; Abedi, Mehdi; Kor, Yones; Moludi, Jalal; Towhidi, Farhad; Reza Makhsosi, Behnam; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in different countries, including Iran. No comprehensive study has been done in the country for colorectal cancer, but information on the incidence and trends is essential to planning. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence and morphology of colorectal cancer and its trend in Iran. This study was conducted using data from the national cancer registry system in Iran from 2003-2008. We used joinpoint regression analysis for assessing incidence time trends and morphology change percentage. Of all cases of colorectal cancer, 61.83 % were colon cancer, 27.54 % rectal cancer, 7.46 % rectosigmoid cancer, and 3.10 anal cancer. The most common histological types with the frequencies of 80.85 % was related to adenocarcinoma, NOS. The Annual percentage changes (APC) in ASIR for colorectal cancer significantly increased in both men and women. APC in ASIR was 13.7 (CI: 10.5-17.1) in women and 16.4 (CI: 12.4-20.5) in men. APC of adenocarcinoma in villous adenoma showed significant declining trend (p<0.05), while APC of adenocarcinoma, NOS had a constant trend. The incidence of the cancer in recent years has increased in Iran because of changes in lifestyle and diet. Therefore, further studies are necessary to detect the cause of this cancer and perform preventive measures. PMID:28337105

  1. Molecular Epidemiology Investigation of Obesity and Lethal Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    acetylation, DNA methylation  Test experimentally using diet-induced obesity mouse model of prostate cancer (David Labbé and Miles Brown, Dana-Farber...epigenetic state of prostate cancers. Epigenetic alterations, including DNA methylation and histone modifications, are a common feature of cancer and are...transcription of genes involved in cancer-related cellular processes, such as proliferation, apoptosis, inflammation, and invasion (10). Both global DNA

  2. SRD5A1 Genetic Variation and Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    al. 1999). Mutant enzymes also demonstrated a 32-fold range of inhibition to the selective steroid 5-alpha reductase inhibitor, finasteride ...Makridakis, M, et al. 2004). In the prostate cancer prevention trial (PCPT), daily oral dosing of finasteride decreased prostate cancer risk by roughly 25...while those that did develop cancer and who had taken finasteride were at a 6-fold higher risk for more aggressive, higher grade cancers (Thompson

  3. SRD5A1 Genetic Variation and Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    finasteride (Makridakis, M, et al. 2004). In the prostate cancer prevention trial, daily oral dosing of finasteride decreased prostate cancer risk by...roughly 25%, while those that did develop cancer and who had taken finasteride were at a 6 fold higher risk for more aggressive, higher grade cancers...tissue. Oncogene (2004) 23, 7399-7405. Thompson IM, Goodman PJ, Tangen CM, Lucia MS, Miller GJ, Ford LC, et al. The influence of finasteride on the

  4. Review: Epidemiological evidence of groundwater contribution to global enteric disease, 1948-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Heather M.; Prioleau, Morgan D.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Hynds, Paul D.

    2017-03-01

    Globally, approximately 2.2 billion people rely on groundwater for daily consumption. It is widely accepted that groundwater is more pristine than surface water but while this assumption is frequently the case, groundwater is not ubiquitously free of contaminants; accordingly, this presumption can result in an unfounded and potentially hazardous sense of security among owners, operators and users. The current paper presents a review of published literature providing epidemiological evidence of the contribution of groundwater to global human enteric infection. An emphasis is placed on enteric pathogens transmitted via the faecal-oral route, and specifically those associated with acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI). The review identified 649 published groundwater outbreaks globally between 1948 and 2013 and several epidemiological studies that show there is an increased risk of AGI associated with the consumption of untreated groundwater. The review identified that the following five pathogens were responsible for most outbreaks: norovirus, Campylobacter, Shigella, Hepatitis A and Giardia. Crudely, the authors estimate that between 35.2 and 59.4 million cases of AGI per year globally could be attributable to the consumption of groundwater. Although groundwater is frequently presumed to be a microbiologically safe source of water for consumption, this review demonstrates that consumers served by an untreated groundwater supply remain at risk to enteric disease. The authors conclude that collaboration between microbiologists, hydrogeologists and epidemiologists is needed to better understand pathogen occurrence, persistence, detection and transport in groundwater as well as build stronger epidemiological evidence documenting the true magnitude of disease associated with groundwater globally.

  5. Review: Epidemiological evidence of groundwater contribution to global enteric disease, 1948-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Heather M.; Prioleau, Morgan D.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Hynds, Paul D.

    2017-06-01

    Globally, approximately 2.2 billion people rely on groundwater for daily consumption. It is widely accepted that groundwater is more pristine than surface water but while this assumption is frequently the case, groundwater is not ubiquitously free of contaminants; accordingly, this presumption can result in an unfounded and potentially hazardous sense of security among owners, operators and users. The current paper presents a review of published literature providing epidemiological evidence of the contribution of groundwater to global human enteric infection. An emphasis is placed on enteric pathogens transmitted via the faecal-oral route, and specifically those associated with acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI). The review identified 649 published groundwater outbreaks globally between 1948 and 2013 and several epidemiological studies that show there is an increased risk of AGI associated with the consumption of untreated groundwater. The review identified that the following five pathogens were responsible for most outbreaks: norovirus, Campylobacter, Shigella, Hepatitis A and Giardia. Crudely, the authors estimate that between 35.2 and 59.4 million cases of AGI per year globally could be attributable to the consumption of groundwater. Although groundwater is frequently presumed to be a microbiologically safe source of water for consumption, this review demonstrates that consumers served by an untreated groundwater supply remain at risk to enteric disease. The authors conclude that collaboration between microbiologists, hydrogeologists and epidemiologists is needed to better understand pathogen occurrence, persistence, detection and transport in groundwater as well as build stronger epidemiological evidence documenting the true magnitude of disease associated with groundwater globally.

  6. Cancer epidemiology and trends in Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Rafiemanesh, Hosein; Mehtarpoor, Mojtaba; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Salehiniya, Hamid; Enayatrad, Mostafa; Khazaei, Salman

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in developing countries. In Iran, cancer is the third cause of death. The present study aimed at providing the incidence rates (crude and agestandardized) of different types of cancers in Sistan and Baluchestan province (Southeastern of Iran). Data were collected retrospectively reviewing all new cancer patients registered in Cancer Registry Center of Health Heputy for Sistan and Baluchestan province. Common cancers were defined based on the number of cases and standardized incidence rates. To compute the annual percentage change (APC), joinpoint 4.1.1.1 software was applied. A total of 3535 cases of cancers registered during 2004-2009 were identified. Of these, 46.82% occurred in females and 53.18% in males. The most frequent cancer in women was breast cancer followed by esophagus, skin, colorectal and leukemia. The 5 most frequent cancers in men were stomach, skin, leukemia, esophagus and bladder. Joinpoint analyze showed a significant increasing trend for adjusted standard incidence rate (ASIR) for both sexes (p<0.05). According to The results of the present study and comparison to previous studies for other provinces in Iran, cancer incidence in Sistan and Baluchistan is less common but trends of cancers are increasing in Sistan and Baluchestan Province. It is necessary to have a comprehensive health policy for prevention and control of this problem.

  7. Review of new evidence regarding the relationship of gasoline exposure to kidney cancer and leukemia.

    PubMed Central

    Enterline, P E

    1993-01-01

    Four new or updated epidemiologic studies were presented at a meeting on the health effects of gasoline exposure held in Miami, Florida, November 5-8, 1991. A focus of these studies was whether there is a relationship between gasoline exposure and kidney cancer and leukemia. For gasoline distribution workers, who have a relatively high exposure, there was some evidence for a kidney cancer relationship in three studies but none in the fourth. There was evidence for an acute myelocytic leukemia relationship in three studies. The fourth study dealt only with kidney cancer. It is possible that the benzene content of gasoline was responsible for the leukemia findings. It is uncertain whether gasoline exposure is a cause of kidney cancer. PMID:8020432

  8. Physical activity and its relation to cancer risk: updating the evidence.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Joanna; Czerniak, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    Scientific evidence for the primary prevention of cancer caused by physical activity of regular moderate-intensity or greater is rapidly accumulating in this field. About 300 epidemiologic studies on the association between physical activity and cancer risk have been conducted worldwide. The objectives of this paper were three-fold: (i) to describe briefly the components of physical activity and its quantification; (ii) to summarize the most important conclusions available from comprehensive reports, and reviews of the epidemiologic individual and intervention studies on a role physical activity in cancer prevention; (iii) to present proposed biological mechanisms accounting for effects of activity on cancer risk. The evidence of causal linked physical activity and cancer risk is found to be strong for colon cancer - convincing; weaker for postmenopausal breast and endometrium cancers - probable; and limited suggestive for premenopausal breast, lung, prostate, ovary, gastric and pancreatic cancers. The average risk reductions were reported to be 20-30%. The protective effects of physical activity on cancer risk are hypothesized to be through multiple interrelated pathways: decrease in adiposity, decrease in sexual and metabolic hormones, changes in biomarkers and insulin resistance, improvement of immune function, and reduction of inflammation. As there are several gaps in the literature for associations between activity and cancer risk, additional studies are needed. Future research should include studies dealing with limitations in precise estimates of physical activity and of a lack of consensus on what defines sedentary behavior of individuals and those linked with the proposed biomarkers to cancer risk and controlled exercise intervention trials.

  9. Mechanistic and Technical Challenges in Studying the Human Microbiome and Cancer Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mukesh

    2017-04-01

    This article reviews the significance of the microbiome in cancer epidemiology, mechanistic and technical challenges in the field, and characterization of the microbiome in different tumor types to identify biomarkers of risk, progression, and prognosis. Publications on the microbiome and cancer epidemiology were reviewed to analyze sample collection and processing, microbiome taxa characterization by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, and microbiome metabolite characterization (metabotyping) by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The analysis identified methodology types, research design, sample types, and issues in integrating data from different platforms. Aerodigestive cancer epidemiology studies conducted by different groups demonstrated the significance of microbiome information in developing approaches to improve health. Challenges exist in sample preparation and processing (eg, standardization of methods for collection and analysis). These challenges relate to technology, data integration from "omics" studies, inherent bias in primer selection during 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, the need for large consortia with well-characterized biospecimens, cause and effect issues, resilience of microbiota to exposure events (requires longitudinal studies), and expanding studies for fungal and viral diversity (most studies used bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing for microbiota characterization). Despite these challenges, microbiome and cancer epidemiology studies are significant and may facilitate cancer risk assessment, diagnosis, and prognosis. In the future, clinical trials likely will use microbiota modifications to improve the efficacy of existing treatments.

  10. Mechanistic and Technical Challenges in Studying the Human Microbiome and Cancer Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the significance of the microbiome in cancer epidemiology, mechanistic and technical challenges in the field, and characterization of the microbiome in different tumor types to identify biomarkers of risk, progression, and prognosis. Publications on the microbiome and cancer epidemiology were reviewed to analyze sample collection and processing, microbiome taxa characterization by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, and microbiome metabolite characterization (metabotyping) by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The analysis identified methodology types, research design, sample types, and issues in integrating data from different platforms. Aerodigestive cancer epidemiology studies conducted by different groups demonstrated the significance of microbiome information in developing approaches to improve health. Challenges exist in sample preparation and processing (eg, standardization of methods for collection and analysis). These challenges relate to technology, data integration from “omics” studies, inherent bias in primer selection during 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, the need for large consortia with well-characterized biospecimens, cause and effect issues, resilience of microbiota to exposure events (requires longitudinal studies), and expanding studies for fungal and viral diversity (most studies used bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing for microbiota characterization). Despite these challenges, microbiome and cancer epidemiology studies are significant and may facilitate cancer risk assessment, diagnosis, and prognosis. In the future, clinical trials likely will use microbiota modifications to improve the efficacy of existing treatments. PMID:27121074

  11. Thyroid Cancer Epidemiology in Iran: a Time Trend Study.

    PubMed

    Safavi, Ali; Azizi, Fereidoun; Jafari, Rozita; Chaibakhsh, Samira; Safavi, Amir Ali

    2016-01-01

    Considering the rising incidence of thyroid cancer worldwide, the aim of our study was to investigate the temporal trends in the incidence of this cancer in a large population of Iranian patients. We used the Iran Cancer Data System (ICDS) Registry to assess the thyroid cancer trend from 2004 to 2010 with regard to different genders, age groups, and morphologies. To do this we analyzed the data of 10,913 new cases of thyroid cancer that occurred during these years. The incidence rate (per one year) of thyroid cancer was 2.20 per 100,000 persons between 2004 and 2010 in Iran. Papillary thyroid cancer was the most common histology type, with an annual rate of 0.29 in Iran. The highest rate of prevalence in thyroid cancer was observed at the age of 45 years at the time of diagnosis. We found a female-to-male ratio of 2 in Iran. A significant decrease was detected in the trend of thyroid cancer in children <19y, which was not correlated to the trend of older patients. As expected, the trend of thyroid cancer increased over the 7 years, primarily contributed by papillary thyroid cancer. A rising pattern of incidence was seen in all the age groups except patients aged under 19 years.

  12. Integrating Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Into Breast Cancer Epidemiologic Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    Spatial Epidemiology: Methods and Applications. Oxford, Oxford University Press; 2000. 9. Kelsall JE, Diggle PJ: Non-parametric estimation of spatial...1990, 9:691-701. 30. Bailey TC, Gatrell AC: Interactive Spatial Data Analysis. Harlow, England, Longman Scientific & Technical; 1995. 31. Kelsall JE

  13. Integrating Geographic Information System (GIS) into Breast Cancer Epidemiologic Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    1998:63-80. 31. Kelsall JE, Diggle PJ: Spatial variation in risk of disease: a non- 8. Elliott P, Wakefield JC, Best NG, Briggs DJ: Spatial Epidemiology...Bowman AW, Azzalini A: Applied Smoothing Techniques for 9. Kelsall JE, Diggle PJ: Non-parametric estimation of spatial vari- Data Analysis. Oxford

  14. Pancreatic Cancer Metastases Harbor Evidence of Polyclonality

    PubMed Central

    Maddipati, Ravikanth; Stanger, Ben Z.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the cancer genome have demonstrated that tumors are comprised of multiple sub-clones with varied genetic and phenotypic properties. However, little is known about how metastases arise and evolve from these sub-clones. To understand the cellular dynamics that drive metastasis, we used multi-color lineage tracing technology in an autochthonous mouse model of pancreatic cancer. Here, we report that precursor lesions exhibit significant clonal heterogeneity but that this diversity decreases during pre-malignant progression. Furthermore, we present evidence that a significant fraction of metastases are polyclonally seeded by distinct tumor sub-clones. Finally, we show that clonality during metastatic growth – leading to either monoclonal or polyclonal expansion – differs based on the site of metastatic invasion. These results provide an unprecedented window into the cellular dynamics of tumor evolution and suggest that heterotypic interactions between tumor subpopulations contribute to metastatic progression in native tumors. PMID:26209539

  15. Epidemiology characteristics and trends of incidence and morphology of stomach cancer in Iran.

    PubMed

    Almasi, Zeinab; Rafiemanesh, Hosein; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Stomach cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer- related death through the world. It is predicted that the number of new cancer cases will be more than 15 million cases by 2020. Regarding the lack of studies on this topic in the country, we have thoroughly examined the patho-epidemiology of stomach cancer in Iran. In this cross- sectional study data were collected retrospectively reviewing all new stomach cancer patients in Cancer Registry Center report of health deputy for Iran during a 6-year period (2003-2008). The study also examined the morphology of common stomach cancers. Trends in incidence and morphology underwent joinpoint regression analysis. During the six-year period, a total of 35,171 cases of stomach cancer were registered. Average age standardized rate for females and males were equal to 7.1 and 15.1 per 100,000 persons, respectively. Most common histological type was adenocarcinoma, NOS with 21,980 cases (62.50%). The annual percentage change (APC) in age-standardized incidence rate (per 100,000) was increase in both females and males at 11.1 (CI: 4.3 to 18.3) and 9.2 (CI: 5.2 to 13.4), respectively. According to our results, the incidence of gastric cancer is increasing in Iran, so further epidemiological studies into the etiology and early detection are essential.

  16. LUNG CANCER IN NEVER SMOKERS: CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS

    PubMed Central

    Samet, Jonathan M.; Avila-Tang, Erika; Boffetta, Paolo; Hannan, Lindsay M.; Olivo-Marston, Susan; Thun, Michael J.; Rudin, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    More than 161,000 lung cancer deaths are projected to occur in the U.S. in 2008. Of these, an estimated 10–15% will be caused by factors other than active smoking, corresponding to 16,000–24,000 deaths annually. Thus lung cancer in never smokers would rank among the most common causes of cancer mortality in the U.S. if considered to be a separate category. Slightly more than half of the lung cancers caused by factors other than active smoking occur in never smokers. As summarized in the accompanying article, lung cancers that occur in never smokers differ from those that occur in smokers in their molecular profile and response to targeted therapy. These recent laboratory and clinical observations highlight the importance of defining the genetic and environmental factors responsible for the development of lung cancer in never-smokers. This article summarizes available data on the clinical epidemiology of lung cancer in never smokers, and the several environmental risk factors that population-based research has implicated in the etiology of these cancers. Primary factors closely tied to lung cancer in never smokers include exposure to known and suspected carcinogens including radon, second-hand tobacco smoke, and other indoor air pollutants. Several other exposures have been implicated. However, a large fraction of lung cancers occurring in never-smokers cannot be definitively associated with established environmental risk factors, highlighting the need for additional epidemiologic research in this area. PMID:1975