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Sample records for cancer pilot study

  1. Tryptophan degradation in women with breast cancer: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Altered tryptophan metabolism and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity are linked to cancer development and progression. In addition, these biological factors have been associated with the development and severity of neuropsychiatric syndromes, including major depressive disorder. However, this biological mechanism associated with both poor disease outcomes and adverse neuropsychiatric symptoms has received little attention in women with breast cancer. Therefore, a pilot study was undertaken to compare levels of tryptophan and other proteins involved in tryptophan degradation in women with breast cancer to women without cancer, and secondarily, to examine levels in women with breast caner over the course of chemotherapy. Findings Blood samples were collected from women with a recent diagnosis of breast cancer (n = 33) before their first cycle of chemotherapy and after their last cycle of chemotherapy. The comparison group (n = 24) provided a blood sample prior to breast biopsy. Plasma concentrations of tryptophan, kynurenine, and tyrosine were determined. The kynurenine to tryptophan ratio (KYN/TRP) was used to estimate indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity. On average, the women with breast cancer had lower levels of tryptophan, elevated levels of kynurenine and tyrosine and an increased KYN/TRP ratio compared to women without breast cancer. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in the KYN/TRP ratio (p = 0.036), which remained elevated in women with breast cancer throughout the treatment trajectory. Conclusions The findings of this pilot study suggest that increased tryptophan degradation may occur in women with early-stage breast cancer. Given the multifactorial consequences of increased tryptophan degradation in cancer outcomes and neuropsychiatric symptom manifestation, this biological mechanism deserves broader attention in women with breast cancer. PMID:21615916

  2. Cancer, Employment, and American Indians: A Participatory Action Research Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sharon R.; Finifrock, DeAnna; Marshall, Catherine A.; Jaakola, Julia; Setterquist, Janette; Burross, Heidi L.; Hodge, Felicia Schanche

    2011-01-01

    American Indian cancer survivors are an underserved and understudied group. In this pilot study we attempted to address, through participatory action research, missing information about those factors that serve to either facilitate employment or hinder it for adult cancer survivors. One task of the study was to develop and/or modify…

  3. A pilot randomized study of skills training for African American cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Davis, Cindy; Rust, Connie; Choi, Sam

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of a psychosocial group intervention for African American breast cancer survivors based on the Cancer Survival Toolbox with the specific aim of decreasing distress and improving aspects of psychosocial functioning and quality of life. This pilot study utilized a randomized, repeated measures, experimental design. The study sample (N = 71) consisted of an intervention group (n = 23) of cancer survival skills training for 6 weeks and a control group (n = 48). The study could not confirm that cancer skills training in a psychoeducational group setting had a positive effect on decreasing stress or improving aspects of psychosocial functioning and quality of life.

  4. A pilot study on respiratory and digestive tract cancer among woodworkers.

    PubMed

    Esping, B; Axelson, O

    1980-09-01

    Cancer of the nose and paranasal sinuses is a known occupational hazard among workers in the furniture industry. An increased frequency of cancer at other sites has also been suggested to occur among different types of woodworkers in the United States, eg, cancer of the gastrointestinal tract and lung but also lymphatic and hematopoietic malignancies. This case-referent study is of a pilot character and was undertaken for the further elucidation of respiratory and digestive tract cancer among Swedish woodworkers. A four-fold excess of respiratory cancer, other than nasal cancer, was found, particularly in relation to furniture workers, whereas no definite excess of digestive tract cancer was indicated. Further studies seem worthwhile regarding cancer hazard in the woodworking industry.

  5. Incidence of cancer among Nordic airline pilots over five decades: occupational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Pukkala, Eero; Aspholm, Rafael; Auvinen, Anssi; Eliasch, Harald; Gundestrup, Maryanne; Haldorsen, Tor; Hammar, Niklas; Hrafnkelsson, Jón; Kyyrönen, Pentti; Linnersjö, Anette; Rafnsson, Vilhjálmur; Storm, Hans; Tveten, Ulf

    2002-01-01

    Objective To assess the incidence of cancer among male airline pilots in the Nordic countries, with special reference to risk related to cosmic radiation. Design Retrospective cohort study, with follow up of cancer incidence through the national cancer registries. Setting Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Participants 10 032 male airline pilots, with an average follow up of 17 years. Main outcome measures Standardised incidence ratios, with expected numbers based on national cancer incidence rates; dose-response analysis using Poisson regression. Results 466 cases of cancer were diagnosed compared with 456 expected. The only significantly increased standardised incidence ratios were for skin cancer: melanoma 2.3 (95% confidence interval 1.7 to 3.0), non-melanoma 2.1 (1.7 to 2.8), basal cell carcinoma 2.5 (1.9 to 3.2). The relative risk of skin cancers increased with the estimated radiation dose. The relative risk of prostate cancer increased with increasing number of flight hours in long distance aircraft. Conclusions This study does not indicate a marked increase in cancer risk attributable to cosmic radiation, although some influence of cosmic radiation on skin cancer cannot be entirely excluded. The suggestion of an association between number of long distance flights (possibly related to circadian hormonal disturbances) and prostate cancer needs to be confirmed. What is already known on this topicAirline pilots are occupationally exposed to cosmic radiation and other potentially carcinogenic elementsIn the studies published so far, dose-response patterns have not been characterisedWhat this study addsNo marked risk of cancer attributable to cosmic radiation is observed in airline pilotsA threefold excess of skin cancers is seen among pilots with longer careers, but the influence of recreational exposure to ultraviolet light cannot be quantifiedA slight increase in risk of prostate cancer with increasing number of long haul flights suggests a need

  6. Linking the National Health Interview Survey with the Florida Cancer Data System: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    McClure, Laura A; Miller, Eric A; Tannenbaum, Stacey L; Hernandez, Monique N; MacKinnon, Jill A; He, Yulei; LeBlanc, William G; Lee, David J

    2016-01-01

    Cancer registry data are vital for the surveillance of cancer trends, but registries are limited in the number of data items that can be collected for hypothesis-driven research. Linkage with other databases can add valuable information and is a potentially effective tool for increasing our understanding of and identifying the causes of cancer and health disparities along the cancer continuum. We conducted a pilot study to link data from the 1981-2010 Florida Cancer Data System (FCDS) with data from the 1986-2009 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The NHIS data contain important information on sociodemographics, screening behaviors, comorbidities, risk factors, health care access, and quality of life, which are not available from FCDS. The linkage resulted in a total of 6,281 linked cases. After removing cases with a first cancer diagnosis before 1981 (prior to FCDS creation) or missing date of diagnosis information, there were 1,908 cases diagnosed with cancer prior to their NHIS interview and 4,367 cases diagnosed after their NHIS interview. The enriched data set resulting from the linkage allows us to evaluate risk factors associated with developing cancer as well as conduct analyses on cancer survivorship issues and mortality. This pilot study demonstrates the feasibility and utility of a linkage between cancer registries and national health surveys, while also acknowledging the cost and challenges associated with such linkages. PMID:27195994

  7. Pilot Study of a Clinical Pathway Implementation in Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Uña, Esther; López-Lara, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Background: Rectal cancer is a highly prevalent disease which needs a multidisciplinary approach to be treated. The absence of specific protocols implies a significant and unjustifiable variability among the different professionals involved in this disease. The purpose is to develop a clinical pathway based on the analysis process and aims to reduce this variability and to reduce unnecessary costs. Methods: We created a multidisciplinary team with contributors from every clinical area involved in the diagnosis and treatment in this disease. We held periodic meetings to agree on a protocol based on the best available clinical practice guidelines. Once we had agreed on the protocol, we implemented its use as a standard in our institution. Every patient older than 18 years who was diagnosed with rectal cancer was considered a candidate to be treated via the pathway. Results: We evaluated 48 patients during the course of this study. Every parameter measured was improved after the implementation of the pathway, except the proportion of patients with 12 nodes or more analysed. The perception that our patients had about this project was very good. Conclusions: Clinical pathways are needed to improve the quality of health care. This kind of project helps reduce hospital costs and optimizes the use of limited resources. On the other hand, unexplained variability is also reduced, with consequent benefits for the patients. PMID:21151842

  8. Cosmic radiation and cancer mortality among airline pilots: results from a European cohort study (ESCAPE).

    PubMed

    Langner, I; Blettner, M; Gundestrup, M; Storm, H; Aspholm, R; Auvinen, A; Pukkala, E; Hammer, G P; Zeeb, H; Hrafnkelsson, J; Rafnsson, V; Tulinius, H; De Angelis, G; Verdecchia, A; Haldorsen, T; Tveten, U; Eliasch, H; Hammar, N; Linnersjö, A

    2004-02-01

    Cosmic radiation is an occupational risk factor for commercial aircrews. In this large European cohort study (ESCAPE) its association with cancer mortality was investigated on the basis of individual effective dose estimates for 19,184 male pilots. Mean annual doses were in the range of 2-5 mSv and cumulative lifetime doses did not exceed 80 mSv. All-cause and all-cancer mortality was low for all exposure categories. A significant negative risk trend for all-cause mortality was seen with increasing dose. Neither external and internal comparisons nor nested case-control analyses showed any substantially increased risks for cancer mortality due to ionizing radiation. However, the number of deaths for specific types of cancer was low and the confidence intervals of the risk estimates were rather wide. Difficulties in interpreting mortality risk estimates for time-dependent exposures are discussed. PMID:14648170

  9. Cosmic radiation and cancer mortality among airline pilots: results from a European cohort study (ESCAPE).

    PubMed

    Langner, I; Blettner, M; Gundestrup, M; Storm, H; Aspholm, R; Auvinen, A; Pukkala, E; Hammer, G P; Zeeb, H; Hrafnkelsson, J; Rafnsson, V; Tulinius, H; De Angelis, G; Verdecchia, A; Haldorsen, T; Tveten, U; Eliasch, H; Hammar, N; Linnersjö, A

    2004-02-01

    Cosmic radiation is an occupational risk factor for commercial aircrews. In this large European cohort study (ESCAPE) its association with cancer mortality was investigated on the basis of individual effective dose estimates for 19,184 male pilots. Mean annual doses were in the range of 2-5 mSv and cumulative lifetime doses did not exceed 80 mSv. All-cause and all-cancer mortality was low for all exposure categories. A significant negative risk trend for all-cause mortality was seen with increasing dose. Neither external and internal comparisons nor nested case-control analyses showed any substantially increased risks for cancer mortality due to ionizing radiation. However, the number of deaths for specific types of cancer was low and the confidence intervals of the risk estimates were rather wide. Difficulties in interpreting mortality risk estimates for time-dependent exposures are discussed.

  10. Cohort study of Air Canada pilots: mortality, cancer incidence, and leukemia risk.

    PubMed

    Band, P R; Le, N D; Fang, R; Deschamps, M; Coldman, A J; Gallagher, R P; Moody, J

    1996-01-15

    Despite the special working environment and exposures of airline pilots, data on risk of death and cancer incidence in this occupational group are limited. The authors investigated a cohort of 2,740 Air Canada pilots who contributed 62,449 person-years of observation. All male pilots employed for at least 1 year on and since January 1, 1950, were studied. The cutoff date for outcome information was December 31, 1992. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and standardized incidence ratio (SIR) were used to compare mortality rates and cancer incidence rates of the cohort with the respective Canadian population rates. Ninety percent confidence intervals of the SMR and SIR were calculated. Statistically significant decreased mortality was observed for all causes (SMR = 0.63, 90% confidence interval (CI) 0.56-0.70), for all cancers (SMR = 0.61, 90% CI 0.48-0.76), and for all noncancer diseases (SMR = 0.53, 90% CI 0.45-0.62). Mortality from aircraft accidents was significantly raised (SMR = 26.57, 90% CI 19.3-35.9). Significantly decreased cancer incidence was observed for all cancers (SIR = 0.71, 90% CI 0.61-0.82), rectal cancer (SIR = 0.42, 90% CI 0.14-0.96), lung cancer (SIR = 0.28, 90% CI 0.16-0.46), and bladder cancer (SIR = 0.36, 90% CI 0.12-0.82). Prostate cancer (SIR = 1.87, 90% CI 1.38-2.49) and acute myeloid leukemia (SIR = 4.72, 90% CI 2.05-9.31) were significantly increased. The preferred relative risk model for radiation-induced nonchronic lymphoid leukemia (Beir V report) was applied to the cohort by using published estimates of in-flight radiation exposures. The estimated relative risk ranged from 1.001 to 1.06 and did not differ significantly from the observed SIR (SIR = 1.88, 90% CI 0.80-3.53). However, the incidence rate of acute myeloid leukemia was significantly increased. Monitoring of in-flight radiation exposure and long-term follow-up of civil aviation crew members is needed to further assess cancer incidence and leukemia risk in this special

  11. Excessive adiposity and sedentary lifestyles are prevalent in cancer patients; a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Ana Isabel; João, Dina Raquel; Rolão, Andreia; Monteiro-Grillo, Isabel; Camilo, Maria; Ravasco, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Cancer aetiology is multifactorial; risk factors comprise obesity, central adiposity, physical inactivity and excessive/ deficient intake of foods and/or nutrients with procarcinogenic/ protective effects. We aim to analyze the pattern of nutritional status, food intake and physical activity in a cohort of cancer patients. This pilot crosssectional study was conducted in 64 outpatients referred for Radiotherapy. Nutritional parameters evaluated: BMI, waist circumference, body composition by tetrapolar bioimpedance (Xitron®). Usual food intake was collected with a short food frequency questionnaire and physical activity was assessed with Jacksons' questionnaire. Overweight/obesity and excessive body fat mass prevalence was of 53% and 61%, respectively. Central obesity, which indicates moderate/high cardio-metabolic risk, was found in 78% of patients. Food frequency analysis showed a poor intake in vegetables and a high intake in meat and carbohydrates. Physical inactivity was prevalent. This pilot study in cancer patients, showed a high prevalence of overweight/obesity, excessive fat mass and central obesity, simultaneously with sedentary lifestyles and an inadequate diet, poor in protective foods and excessive in deleterious ones. Thus, these patients exhibit a high risk pattern for cancer development and for a poorer prognosis. The implementation of measures to promote balanced and protective diets and to encourage physical activity practice is urgently needed.

  12. Quantitative approach to skin field cancerization using a nanoencapsulated photodynamic therapy agent: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Passos, Simone K; de Souza, Paulo EN; Soares, Priscila KP; Eid, Danglades RM; Primo, Fernando L; Tedesco, Antonio Cláudio; Lacava, Zulmira GM; Morais, Paulo C

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper introduces a new nanoformulation of 5-aminolevulinic acid (nano-ALA) as well as a novel quantitative approach towards evaluating field cancerization for actinic keratosis and/or skin photodamage. In this pilot study, we evaluated field cancerization using nano-ALA and methyl aminolevulinate (MAL), the latter being commercialized as Metvix®. Methods and results Photodynamic therapy was used for the treatment of patients with selected skin lesions, whereas the fluorescence of the corresponding photosensitizer was used to evaluate the time evolution of field cancerization in a quantitative way. Field cancerization was quantified using newly developed color image segmentation software. Using photodynamic therapy as the precancer skin treatment and the approach introduced herein for evaluation of fluorescent area, we found that the half-life of field cancerization reduction was 43.3 days and 34.3 days for nano-ALA and MAL, respectively. We also found that nano-ALA targeted about 45% more skin lesion areas than MAL. Further, we found the mean reduction in area of skin field cancerization was about 10% greater for nano-ALA than for MAL. Conclusion Although preliminary, our findings indicate that the efficacy of nano-ALA in treating skin field cancerization is higher than that of MAL. PMID:23450821

  13. Collagen content as a risk factor in breast cancer? A pilot clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pifferi, Antonio; Quarto, Giovanna; Abbate, Francesca; Balestreri, Nicola; Menna, Simona; Cassano, Enrico; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Taroni, Paola

    2015-07-01

    A retrospective pilot clinical study on time domain multi-wavelength (635 to 1060 nm) optical mammography was exploited to assess collagen as a breast-cancer risk factor on a total of 109 subjects (53 healthy and 56 with malignant lesions). An increased cancer occurrence is observed on the 15% subset of patients with higher age-matched collagen content. Further, a similar clustering based on the percentage breast density leads to a different set of patients, possibly indicating collagen as a new independent breast cancer risk factor. If confirmed statistically and on larger numbers, these results could have huge impact on personalized diagnostics, health care systems, as well as on basic research.

  14. Breast cancer education for Navajo women: a pilot study evaluating a culturally relevant video.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Priscilla R; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette I; Baldwin, Julie A; Sandoval, Nellie; Robinson, Frances

    2010-06-01

    This pilot study evaluated a culturally specific video designed to teach Navajo women about breast cancer treatment options. Fourteen Navajo women diagnosed with breast cancer and 26 healthcare providers participated in a mixed-method evaluation that documented their perceptions immediately and 6 months after viewing the video. After initial viewing, women reported reduced anxiety about treatment and interest in support groups. Six months later, women said the video prompted them to seek more information from printed sources and their provider. Younger Navajo women who were 44 to 51 years old were more likely to attend support groups than women who were 55-67 years. Providers corroborated the positive effects of the video. The providers believed the video encouraged patients to seek information about breast cancer and to ask questions about treatment plans and side effects. A culturally relevant video for Navajo women can be an effective teaching tool and can enhance patient-provider communication. PMID:20111913

  15. The photodynamic detection of mucosal abnormality in oral cancer patients: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dwyer, Martin; Ogden, Graham; McLaren, Stuart; Padgett, Miles

    2005-03-01

    Patients who have had one oral cancer are at increased risk of developing a semi-malignant tumour. The detecting of oral cancer is made difficult (and is often delayed) by the unknown appearance of the early oral lesion. A technique that could reliably detect early cancers would be useful to the oral and dental health specialist. One possible technique is the use of a photosensitiser that may be preferentially taken up by cancerous cells. 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) is one such drug that is converted to Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) and fluoresces at 636nm when illuminated with light of wavelength 405nm. It has been hypothesized that cell inclined towards malignant change would have a higher metabolic rate, and thus convert more ALA into its metabolite PpIX. These drugs can then be detected using a technique called Photodynamic detection, through the analysis of their fluorescence spectra. We describe a pilot study that used a compact spectroscopic instrument designed to excite and measure fluorescence in the oral cavity. Some Inter-subject variation in PpIX time course characteristics may be evident in our volunteers, as has been reported by other researchers. The obtained data would suggest that this instrument may be a valuable tool for detecting early oral cancers. However, further studies are required, not least to ensure that these data are due to detection of ALA metabolite in cancer and not some other systemic effect.

  16. A pilot case-cohort study of brain cancer in poultry and control workers.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, S; Felini, M J; Ndetan, H; Cardarelli, K; Jadhav, S; Faramawi, M; Johnson, E S

    2014-01-01

    We conducted an exploratory study to investigate which exposures (including poultry oncogenic viruses) are associated with brain cancer in poultry workers. A total of 46,819 workers in poultry and nonpoultry plants from the same union were initially followed for mortality. Brain cancer was observed to be in excess among poultry workers. Here we report on a pilot case-cohort study with cases consisting of 26 (55%) of the 47 brain cancer deaths recorded in the cohort, and controls consisting of a random sample of the cohort (n = 124). Exposure information was obtained from telephone interviews, and brain cancer mortality risk estimated by odds ratios. Increased risk of brain cancer was associated with killing chickens, odds ratio (OR) = 5.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-28.3); working in a shell-fish farm, OR = 13.0 (95% CI, 1.9-84.2); and eating uncooked fish, OR = 8.2 (95% CI, 1.8-37.0). Decreased risks were observed for chicken pox illness, OR = 0.2 (95% CI, 0.1-0.6), and measles vaccination, OR = 0.2 (95% CI, 0.1-0.6). Killing chickens, an activity associated with the highest occupational exposure to poultry oncogenic viruses, was associated with brain cancer mortality, as were occupational and dietary shellfish exposures. These findings are novel.

  17. Lung cancer in uranium miners: A tissue resource and pilot study. Final performance report

    SciTech Connect

    Samet, J.; Gilliland, F.D.

    1998-08-13

    This project incorporates two related research projects directed toward understanding respiratory carcinogenesis in radon-exposed former uranium miners. The first project involved a continuation of the tissue resource of lung cancer cases from former underground uranium miners and comparison cases from non-miners. The second project was a pilot study for a proposed longitudinal study of respiratory carcinogenesis in former uranium miners. The objectives including facilitating the investigation of molecular changes in radon exposed lung cancer cases, developing methods for prospectively studying clinical, cytologic, cytogenetic, and molecular changes in the multi-event process of respiratory carcinogenesis, and assessing the feasibility of recruiting former uranium miners into a longitudinal study that collected multiple biological specimens. A pilot study was conducted to determine whether blood collection, induced sputum, bronchial brushing, washings, and mucosal biopsies from participants at two of the hospitals could be included efficiently. A questionnaire was developed for the extended study and all protocols for specimen collection and tissue handling were completed. Resource utilization is in progress at ITRI and the methods have been developed to study molecular and cellular changes in exfoliated cells contained in sputum as well as susceptibility factors.

  18. Breast cancer and personal environmental risk factors in Marin County - Pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Erdmann, C.A.; Farren, G.; Baltzell, K.; Chew, T.; Clarkson, C.; Fleshman, R.; Leary, C.; Mizroch, M.; Orenstein, F.; Russell, M.L.; Souders-Mason, V.; Wrensch, M.

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of the Personal Environmental Risk Factor Study (PERFS) pilot project was to develop methodologies and a questionnaire for a future population-based case-control study to investigate the role of selected environmental exposures in breast cancer development. Identification of etiologically relevant exposures during a period of potential vulnerability proximate to disease onset offers the possibility of clinical disease prevention even when disease initiation may have already occurred many years earlier. Certain personal environmental agents or combinations of agents may influence disease promotion. Therefore, this pilot study focused on exposures that occurred during the ten-year period prior to diagnosis for cases and the last ten years for controls, rather than more historic exposures. For this pilot study, they used a community-based research approach. In the collaborative efforts, community members participated with academic researchers in all phases of the research, including research question identification, study design, development of research tools, development of the human subjects protocol, and report writing. Community member inclusion was based upon the concept that community participation could improve the relevance of scientific studies and ultimate success of the research by encouraging an ongoing dialogue between community members and academic representatives. Early activities of this project focused on the collection of input from the community regarding the possible role of environmental factors in the incidence of breast cancer in Marin County. The intent was to inform the scientists of community concerns, enhance the research team's understanding of the community being studied, and provide interested community members with a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of traditional research methods through active participation in the research process.

  19. Collagen I fiber density increases in lymph node positive breast cancers: pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kakkad, Samata M.; Solaiyappan, Meiyappan; Argani, Pedram; Sukumar, Saraswati; Jacobs, Lisa K.; Leibfritz, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Collagen I (Col1) fibers are a major structural component in the extracellular matrix of human breast cancers. In a preliminary pilot study, we explored the link between Col1 fiber density in primary human breast cancers and the occurrence of lymph node metastasis. Col1 fibers were detected by second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy in primary human breast cancers from patients presenting with lymph node metastasis (LN+) versus those without lymph node metastasis (LN−). Col1 fiber density, which was quantified using our in-house SHG image analysis software, was significantly higher in the primary human breast cancers of LN+ (fiber volume=29.22%±4.72%, inter-fiber distance=2.25±0.45  μm) versus LN− (fiber volume=20.33%±5.56%, inter-fiber distance=2.88±1.07  μm) patients. Texture analysis by evaluating the co-occurrence matrix and the Fourier transform of the Col1 fibers proved to be significantly different for the parameters of co-relation and energy, as well as aspect ratio and eccentricity, for LN+ versus LN− cases. We also demonstrated that tissue fixation and paraffin embedding had negligible effect on SHG Col1 fiber detection and quantification. High Col1 fiber density in primary breast tumors is associated with breast cancer metastasis and may serve as an imaging biomarker of metastasis. PMID:23117811

  20. Collagen I fiber density increases in lymph node positive breast cancers: pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakkad, Samata M.; Solaiyappan, Meiyappan; Argani, Pedram; Sukumar, Saraswati; Jacobs, Lisa K.; Leibfritz, Dieter; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.; Glunde, Kristine

    2012-11-01

    Collagen I (Col1) fibers are a major structural component in the extracellular matrix of human breast cancers. In a preliminary pilot study, we explored the link between Col1 fiber density in primary human breast cancers and the occurrence of lymph node metastasis. Col1 fibers were detected by second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy in primary human breast cancers from patients presenting with lymph node metastasis (LN+) versus those without lymph node metastasis (LN-). Col1 fiber density, which was quantified using our in-house SHG image analysis software, was significantly higher in the primary human breast cancers of LN+ (fiber volume=29.22%±4.72%, inter-fiber distance=2.25±0.45 μm) versus LN- (fiber volume=20.33%±5.56%, inter-fiber distance=2.88±1.07 μm) patients. Texture analysis by evaluating the co-occurrence matrix and the Fourier transform of the Col1 fibers proved to be significantly different for the parameters of co-relation and energy, as well as aspect ratio and eccentricity, for LN+ versus LN- cases. We also demonstrated that tissue fixation and paraffin embedding had negligible effect on SHG Col1 fiber detection and quantification. High Col1 fiber density in primary breast tumors is associated with breast cancer metastasis and may serve as an imaging biomarker of metastasis.

  1. A Pilot and Feasibility Study of Virtual Reality as a Distraction for Children with Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershon, Jonathan; Zimand, Elana; Pickering, Melissa; Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov; Hodges, Larry

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To pilot and test the feasibility of a novel technology to reduce anxiety and pain associated with an invasive medical procedure in children with cancer. Method: Children with cancer (ages 7-19) whose treatment protocols required access of their subcutaneous venous port device (port access) were randomly assigned to a virtual reality…

  2. Pilot Training Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooz, William E.

    The purpose of the Pilot Training Study is to produce tools with which to analyze the pilot training process of the Air Force in terms of the resources required to train pilots and the cost of pilot training. These tools allow examination of the training courses themselves, and also of the policy factors which drive the need for pilots. The tools…

  3. A pilot study into the problematic use of opioid analgesics in chronic non-cancer pain patients.

    PubMed

    Cowan, David T; Allan, Laurie; Griffiths, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Controversy surrounds the use of strong opioid analgesic drugs for chronic non-cancer pain. Specialists have concluded that fears of problematic drug use are often unfounded. In contrast, others claim the existence of significant problems.'Problematic drug use' includes the following definitions; addiction, abuse, physiological dependence and tolerance.We present a case study and the results of a pilot, longitudinal, cohort study, via a pilot questionnaire, of 22 chronic pain clinic patients following a trial of opioid drugs. The results suggest that chronic non-cancer pain patients can be maintained on opioids with few problems, and likewise can withdraw with minimal adverse effects, other than a return of pain.

  4. Hyperspectral imaging fluorescence excitation scanning for detecting colorectal cancer: pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leavesley, Silas J.; Wheeler, Mikayla; Lopez, Carmen; Baker, Thomas; Favreau, Peter F.; Rich, Thomas C.; Rider, Paul F.; Boudreaux, Carole W.

    2016-03-01

    Optical spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging have shown the theoretical potential to discriminate between cancerous and non-cancerous tissue with high sensitivity and specificity. To date, these techniques have not been able to be effectively translated to endoscope platforms. Hyperspectral imaging of the fluorescence excitation spectrum represents a new technology that may be well-suited for endoscopic implementation. However, the feasibility of detecting differences between normal and cancerous mucosa using fluorescence excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging has not been evaluated. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the changes in the fluorescence excitation spectrum of resected specimen pairs of colorectal adenocarcinoma and normal colorectal mucosa. Patients being treated for colorectal adenocarcinoma were enrolled. Representative adenocarcinoma and normal colonic mucosa specimens were collected from each case. Specimens were flash frozen in liquid nitrogen. Adenocarcinoma was confirmed by histologic evaluation of H&E permanent sections. Hyperspectral image data of the fluorescence excitation of adenocarcinoma and surrounding normal tissue were acquired using a custom microscope configuration previously developed in our lab. Results demonstrated consistent spectral differences between normal and cancerous tissues over the fluorescence excitation spectral range of 390-450 nm. We conclude that fluorescence excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging may offer an alternative approach for differentiating adenocarcinoma and surrounding normal mucosa of the colon. Future work will focus on expanding the number of specimen pairs analyzed and will utilize fresh tissues where possible, as flash freezing and reconstituting tissues may have altered the autofluorescence properties.

  5. Copper isotope effect in serum of cancer patients. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Télouk, Philippe; Puisieux, Alain; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Balter, Vincent; Bondanese, Victor P; Morel, Anne-Pierre; Clapisson, Gilles; Lamboux, Aline; Albarede, Francis

    2015-02-01

    The isotope effect describes mass-dependent variations of natural isotope abundances for a particular element. In this pilot study, we measured the (65)Cu/(63)Cu ratios in the serums of 20 breast and 8 colorectal cancer patients, which correspond to, respectively, 90 and 49 samples taken at different times with molecular biomarker documentation. Copper isotope compositions were determined by multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). When compared with the literature data from a control group of 50 healthy blood donors, abundances of Cu isotopes predict mortality in the colorectal cancer group with a probability p = 0.018. For the breast cancer patients and the group of control women the probability goes down to p = 0.0006 and the AUC under the ROC curve is 0.75. Most patients considered in this preliminary study and with serum δ(65)Cu lower than the threshold value of -0.35‰ (per mil) did not survive. As a marker, a drop in δ(65)Cu precedes molecular biomarkers by several months. The observed decrease of δ(65)Cu in the serum of cancer patients is assigned to the extensive oxidative chelation of copper by cytosolic lactate. The potential of Cu isotope variability as a new diagnostic tool for breast and colorectal cancer seems strong. Shifts in Cu isotope compositions fingerprint cytosolic Cu chelation by lactate mono- and bidentates. This simple scheme provides a straightforward explanation for isotopically light Cu in the serum and isotopically heavy Cu in cancer cells: Cu(+) escaping chelation by lactate and excreted into the blood stream is isotopically light. Low δ(65)Cu values in serum therefore reveal the strength of lactate production by the Warburg effect.

  6. Copper isotope effect in serum of cancer patients. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Télouk, Philippe; Puisieux, Alain; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Balter, Vincent; Bondanese, Victor P; Morel, Anne-Pierre; Clapisson, Gilles; Lamboux, Aline; Albarede, Francis

    2015-02-01

    The isotope effect describes mass-dependent variations of natural isotope abundances for a particular element. In this pilot study, we measured the (65)Cu/(63)Cu ratios in the serums of 20 breast and 8 colorectal cancer patients, which correspond to, respectively, 90 and 49 samples taken at different times with molecular biomarker documentation. Copper isotope compositions were determined by multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). When compared with the literature data from a control group of 50 healthy blood donors, abundances of Cu isotopes predict mortality in the colorectal cancer group with a probability p = 0.018. For the breast cancer patients and the group of control women the probability goes down to p = 0.0006 and the AUC under the ROC curve is 0.75. Most patients considered in this preliminary study and with serum δ(65)Cu lower than the threshold value of -0.35‰ (per mil) did not survive. As a marker, a drop in δ(65)Cu precedes molecular biomarkers by several months. The observed decrease of δ(65)Cu in the serum of cancer patients is assigned to the extensive oxidative chelation of copper by cytosolic lactate. The potential of Cu isotope variability as a new diagnostic tool for breast and colorectal cancer seems strong. Shifts in Cu isotope compositions fingerprint cytosolic Cu chelation by lactate mono- and bidentates. This simple scheme provides a straightforward explanation for isotopically light Cu in the serum and isotopically heavy Cu in cancer cells: Cu(+) escaping chelation by lactate and excreted into the blood stream is isotopically light. Low δ(65)Cu values in serum therefore reveal the strength of lactate production by the Warburg effect. PMID:25532497

  7. Physicians' perceptions of cancer care for elderly patients: a qualitative sociological study based on a pilot geriatric oncology program.

    PubMed

    Sifer-Rivière, Lynda; Girre, Véronique; Gisselbrecht, Mathilde; Saint-Jean, Olivier

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to document physicians' perceptions of cancer care for elderly patients within an oncogeriatric coordination pilot unit (UPCOG) created in Paris, France. We focused on how physicians apply new cancer care practices, how they establish new teamwork, and their experience of oncogeriatrics in everyday practice. Qualitative methods were used, including a literature review, observation of working sessions in the oncogeriatric pilot unit, and semi-structured interviews with 28 physicians. The results show how physicians' differing perceptions of geriatric oncology can hinder routine collaboration.

  8. Yoga for women with metastatic breast cancer: results from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Carson, James W; Carson, Kimberly M; Porter, Laura S; Keefe, Francis J; Shaw, Heather; Miller, Julie M

    2007-03-01

    Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) remains a terminal illness for which major treatment advances are slow to appear, and hence it is crucial that effective palliative interventions be developed to reduce the cancer-related symptoms of women with this condition during the remaining years of their lives. This pilot/feasibility study examined a novel, yoga-based palliative intervention, the Yoga of Awareness Program, in a sample of women with MBC. The eight-week protocol included gentle yoga postures, breathing exercises, meditation, didactic presentations, and group interchange. Outcome was assessed using daily measures of pain, fatigue, distress, invigoration, acceptance, and relaxation during two preintervention weeks and the final two weeks of the intervention. Thirteen women completed the intervention (mean age=59; mean time since diagnosis=7 years; two African American, 11 Caucasian). During the study, four participants had cancer recurrences, and the physical condition of several others deteriorated noticeably. Despite low statistical power, pre-to-post multilevel outcomes analyses showed significant increases in invigoration and acceptance. Lagged analyses of length of home yoga practice (controlling for individual mean practice time and outcome levels on the lagged days) showed that on the day after a day during which women practiced more, they experienced significantly lower levels of pain and fatigue, and higher levels of invigoration, acceptance, and relaxation. These findings support the need for further investigation of the effects of the Yoga of Awareness Program in women with MBC.

  9. The value of prostate cancer support groups: a pilot study of primary physicians’ perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Canada, prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common male cancer, and prostate cancer support groups (PCSGs) have prevailed for more than 20 years providing support to men with PCa and their families. While the format, focus and benefits of attending PCSGs have been reported little is known about primary physicians’ (PPs) perceptions of these groups. This article describes Canadian primary physicians’ views about face-to-face and web-based PCSGs. Methods Canadian based primary physicians (n = 140) attending a 2012 Continuing Medical Education Conference participated in a pilot survey questionnaire study. The 56-item questionnaire used in this study included six sets of attitudinal items to measure primary physicians’ beliefs about positive and negative influences of PCSGs, reasons for attending PCSGs, the attributes of effective PCSGs, and the value of face-to-face and web-based PCSGs. Results Results showed that PCSGs were positively valued, particularly for information sharing, education and psychosocial support. Poor inclusivity, privacy, and accessibility were identified as potential barriers, and recommendations were made for better marketing and web-based PCSGs to increase engagement with potential attendees. Conclusions Findings suggest PPs highly valued the role and potential benefits of PCSGs. Information provision and an educational role were perceived as key benefits amid the need to improve local and provincial marketing of PCSGs. The potential for web-based PCSGs to help in the support of PCa patients was also recognized. PMID:24673983

  10. Adherence to the 2012 national cervical cancer screening guidelines: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Teoh, Deanna G. K.; Marriott, Amity E.; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Marriott, Ryan T.; Lais, Charles W.; Downs, Levi S.; Kulasingam, Shalini L.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The goal of this pilot study was to evaluate adherence to the 2012 cervical cancer screening guidelines among health care providers in a large health maintenance organization. STUDY DESIGN A cross-sectional survey evaluating knowledge, reported practices, and views of the 2012 cervical cancer screening guidelines was distributed to 325 health care providers within HealthPartners. The survey was divided into 3 sections: (1) provider demographics; (2) knowledge of the 2012 age-specific cancer screening guidelines; and (3) provider practice. Comparisons based on appropriate knowledge and practice of the guidelines were made using Fisher exact tests. RESULTS The response rate was 42%. Of 124 respondents, 15 (12.1%) reported they were not aware of the 2012 guideline changes. Only 7 (5.7%) respondents answered all the knowledge questions correctly. A majority of respondents reported correct screening practices in the 21–29 year patient age group (65.8%) and in the >65 year patient age group (74.3%). Correct screening intervals in the 30–65 year patient age group varied by modality, with 89.3% correctly screening every 3 years with Pap smear alone, but only 57.4% correctly screening every 5 years with Pap smear + human papillomavirus cotesting. The most frequently cited reasons for not adhering were lack of knowledge of the guidelines and patient demand for a different screening interval. CONCLUSION Adherence to the 2012 cervical cancer screening guidelines is poor due, in part, to a lack of knowledge of the guidelines. Efforts should focus on improved provider and patient education, and methods that facilitate adherence to the guidelines such as electronic health record order sets. PMID:24992692

  11. Urinary Polyamines: A Pilot Study on Their Roles as Prostate Cancer Detection Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Tsoi, Tik-Hung; Chan, Chi-Fai; Chan, Wai-Lun; Chiu, Ka-Fung; Wong, Wing-Tak; Ng, Chi-Fai; Wong, Ka-Leung

    2016-01-01

    Current screening methods towards prostate cancer (PCa) are not without limitations. Research work has been on-going to assess if there are other better tests suitable for primary or secondary screening of PCa to supplement the serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) test, which fails to work accurately in a grey zone of 4-10ng/ml. In this pilot study, the potential roles of urinary polyamines as prostate cancer biomarkers were evaluated. PCa, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients and healthy controls (HC) showing PSA>4.0ng/ml were enrolled in the study. Their urine samples were obtained, and the urinary levels of putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) were determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve and Student’s t-test were used to evaluate their diagnostic accuracies. Among the three biogenic polyamines, Spm had demonstrated a good diagnostic performance when comparing their levels in PCa patients with BPH patients (1.47 in PCa vs 5.87 in BPH; p<0.0001). Results are in accordance with transrectal ultrasound prostatic biopsy (TRUSPB) results, with an area under curve (AUC) value of 0.83±0.03. Therefore urinary Spm shows potential to serve as a novel PCa diagnostic biomarker, which in turn can help to address the limited sensitivity and specificity problem of serum PSA test. PMID:27598335

  12. Urinary Polyamines: A Pilot Study on Their Roles as Prostate Cancer Detection Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Tsoi, Tik-Hung; Chan, Chi-Fai; Chan, Wai-Lun; Chiu, Ka-Fung; Wong, Wing-Tak; Ng, Chi-Fai; Wong, Ka-Leung

    2016-01-01

    Current screening methods towards prostate cancer (PCa) are not without limitations. Research work has been on-going to assess if there are other better tests suitable for primary or secondary screening of PCa to supplement the serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) test, which fails to work accurately in a grey zone of 4-10ng/ml. In this pilot study, the potential roles of urinary polyamines as prostate cancer biomarkers were evaluated. PCa, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients and healthy controls (HC) showing PSA>4.0ng/ml were enrolled in the study. Their urine samples were obtained, and the urinary levels of putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) were determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve and Student's t-test were used to evaluate their diagnostic accuracies. Among the three biogenic polyamines, Spm had demonstrated a good diagnostic performance when comparing their levels in PCa patients with BPH patients (1.47 in PCa vs 5.87 in BPH; p<0.0001). Results are in accordance with transrectal ultrasound prostatic biopsy (TRUSPB) results, with an area under curve (AUC) value of 0.83±0.03. Therefore urinary Spm shows potential to serve as a novel PCa diagnostic biomarker, which in turn can help to address the limited sensitivity and specificity problem of serum PSA test. PMID:27598335

  13. A pilot study to explore circulating tumour cells in pancreatic cancer as a novel biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Khoja, L; Backen, A; Sloane, R; Menasce, L; Ryder, D; Krebs, M; Board, R; Clack, G; Hughes, A; Blackhall, F; Valle, J W; Dive, C

    2012-01-01

    Background: Obtaining tissue for pancreatic carcinoma diagnosis and biomarker assessment to aid drug development is challenging. Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) may represent a potential biomarker to address these unmet needs. We compared prospectively the utility of two platforms for CTC enumeration and characterisation in pancreatic cancer patients in a pilot exploratory study. Patients and methods: Blood samples were obtained prospectively from 54 consenting patients and analysed by CellSearch and isolation by size of epithelial tumour cells (ISET). CellSearch exploits immunomagnetic capture of CTCs-expressing epithelial markers, whereas ISET is a marker independent, blood filtration device. Circulating tumour cell expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers was assessed to explore any discrepancy in CTC number between the two platforms. Results: ISET detected CTCs in more patients than CellSearch (93% vs 40%) and in higher numbers (median CTCs/7.5 ml, 9 (range 0–240) vs 0 (range 0–144)). Heterogeneity observed for epithelial cell adhesion molecule, pan-cytokeratin (CK), E-Cadherin, Vimentin and CK 7 expression in CTCs may account for discrepancy in CTC number between platforms. Conclusion: ISET detects more CTCs than CellSearch and offers flexible CTC characterisation with potential to investigate CTC biology and develop biomarkers for pancreatic cancer patient management. PMID:22187035

  14. Feasibility of transanal endoscopic total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer: results of a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jae Hwan; Park, Sung Chan; Kim, Min Jung; Park, Byung Kwan; Hyun, Jong Hee; Chang, Hee Jin; Han, Kyung Su

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the feasibility of transanal total mesorectal excision (TME) in patients with rectal cancer. Methods This study enrolled 12 patients with clinically node negative rectal cancer located 4–12 cm from the anal verge who underwent transanal endoscopic TME with the assistance of single port laparoscopic surgery between September 2013 and August 2014. The primary endpoint was TME quality; secondary endpoints included number of harvested lymph nodes and postoperative complications within 30 days (NCT01938027). Results The 12 patients included 7 males and 5 females, of median age 59 years and median body mass index 24.2 kg/m2. Tumors were located on average 6.7 cm from the anal verge. Four patients (33.3%) received preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Median operating time was 195 minutes and median blood loss was 50 mL. There were no intraoperative complications and no conversions to open surgery. TME was complete or nearly complete in 11 patients (91.7%). Median distal resection and circumferential resection margins were 18.5 mm and 10 mm, respectively. Median number of harvested lymph nodes was 15. Median length of hospital stay was 9 days. There were no postoperative deaths. Six patients experienced minor postoperative complications, including urinary dysfunction in 2, transient ileus in 3, and wound abscess in 1. Conclusion This pilot study showed that high-quality TME was possible in most patients without serious complications. Transanal TME for patients with rectal cancer may be feasible and safe, but further investigations are necessary to evaluate its long-term functional and oncologic outcomes and to clarify its indications. PMID:27757396

  15. Screening for Body Image Dissatisfaction in Patients with Advanced Cancer: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Rhondali, Wadih; Chisholm, Gary B.; Filbet, Marilene; Kang, Duck-Hee; Hui, David; Cororve Fingeret, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Cancer and its treatment can significantly affect appearance and body integrity. A number of studies have explored the impact of cancer and its treatment on body image, primarily in head and neck and breast cancer. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the construct of body image dissatisfaction and its measurement using a single question in patients with advanced cancer. Methods Outpatients with advanced cancer were recruited (n=81). Assessments included Body Image Scale (BIS), Appearance Schema Inventory (ASI-R), Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) with a total symptom distress score (TSDS) and two subscales scores (physical distress [PHS] and psychological distress [PSS]), Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS), and one question assessing the overall appearance satisfaction from the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ). We also asked patients to rate the body image changes importance compared with five symptoms (pain, fatigue, depression, insomnia, lack of appetite). Results Forty-seven (58%) patients had a BIS score >10 (body image dissatisfaction) with a median of 11 (first–third quartiles, Q1–Q3; 5–16) and a median ASI-R of 3.1 (Q1–Q3; 2.8–3.5). Sensitivity and specificity of ≤3 for body image dissatisfaction in the single overall appearance question using the BIS as a standard was 0.70 and 0.71, respectively. BIS score was significantly correlated with ASI-R (r=0.248; p=0.025), age (r=−0.225; p=0.043), HADS-A (r=0.522, p<0.001), HADS-D (r=0.422, p<0.001), PSS score (r=0.371, p=0.001), PHS score (r=0.356, p=0.001), TSDS score (r=0.416, p<0.001), and the overall appearance question (MBSRQ; r=−0.449, p<0.001). Conclusion Body image dissatisfaction was frequent and associated with symptom burden. A single item ≤3 has a sensitivity of 70% for body image satisfaction screening. PMID:25188590

  16. Comparison of organochlorine chemical body burdens of female breast cancer cases with cancer free women in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil--Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Erdmann, C.A.; Petreas, M.X.; Caleffi, M.; Barbosa, F.S.; Goth-Goldstein, R.

    1999-12-01

    This pilot study collected preliminary data to examine known and suspected breast cancer risk factors among women living in rural and urban areas in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil by questionnaire. In addition, the body burden levels of a panel of organochlorines was measured in a small clinic-based prospective sample.

  17. Next-generation personalised medicine for high-risk paediatric cancer patients - The INFORM pilot study.

    PubMed

    Worst, Barbara C; van Tilburg, Cornelis M; Balasubramanian, Gnana Prakash; Fiesel, Petra; Witt, Ruth; Freitag, Angelika; Boudalil, Miream; Previti, Christopher; Wolf, Stephan; Schmidt, Sabine; Chotewutmontri, Sasithorn; Bewerunge-Hudler, Melanie; Schick, Matthias; Schlesner, Matthias; Hutter, Barbara; Taylor, Lenka; Borst, Tobias; Sutter, Christian; Bartram, Claus R; Milde, Till; Pfaff, Elke; Kulozik, Andreas E; von Stackelberg, Arend; Meisel, Roland; Borkhardt, Arndt; Reinhardt, Dirk; Klusmann, Jan-Henning; Fleischhack, Gudrun; Tippelt, Stephan; Dirksen, Uta; Jürgens, Heribert; Kramm, Christof M; von Bueren, Andre O; Westermann, Frank; Fischer, Matthias; Burkhardt, Birgit; Wößmann, Wilhelm; Nathrath, Michaela; Bielack, Stefan S; Frühwald, Michael C; Fulda, Simone; Klingebiel, Thomas; Koscielniak, Ewa; Schwab, Matthias; Tremmel, Roman; Driever, Pablo Hernáiz; Schulte, Johannes H; Brors, Benedikt; von Deimling, Andreas; Lichter, Peter; Eggert, Angelika; Capper, David; Pfister, Stefan M; Jones, David T W; Witt, Olaf

    2016-09-01

    The 'Individualized Therapy for Relapsed Malignancies in Childhood' (INFORM) precision medicine study is a nationwide German program for children with high-risk relapsed/refractory malignancies, which aims to identify therapeutic targets on an individualised basis. In a pilot phase, reported here, we developed the logistical and analytical pipelines necessary for rapid and comprehensive molecular profiling in a clinical setting. Fifty-seven patients from 20 centers were prospectively recruited. Malignancies investigated included sarcomas (n = 25), brain tumours (n = 23), and others (n = 9). Whole-exome, low-coverage whole-genome, and RNA sequencing were complemented with methylation and expression microarray analyses. Alterations were assessed for potential targetability according to a customised prioritisation algorithm and subsequently discussed in an interdisciplinary molecular tumour board. Next-generation sequencing data were generated for 52 patients, with the full analysis possible in 46 of 52. Turnaround time from sample receipt until first report averaged 28 d. Twenty-six patients (50%) harbored a potentially druggable alteration with a prioritisation score of 'intermediate' or higher (level 4 of 7). Common targets included receptor tyrosine kinases, phosphoinositide 3-kinase-mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and cell cycle control. Ten patients received a targeted therapy based on these findings, with responses observed in some previously treatment-refractory tumours. Comparative primary relapse analysis revealed substantial tumour evolution as well as one case of unsuspected secondary malignancy, highlighting the importance of re-biopsy at relapse. This study demonstrates the feasibility of comprehensive, real-time molecular profiling for high-risk paediatric cancer patients. This extended proof-of-concept, with examples of treatment consequences, expands upon previous personalised oncology endeavors

  18. Next-generation personalised medicine for high-risk paediatric cancer patients - The INFORM pilot study.

    PubMed

    Worst, Barbara C; van Tilburg, Cornelis M; Balasubramanian, Gnana Prakash; Fiesel, Petra; Witt, Ruth; Freitag, Angelika; Boudalil, Miream; Previti, Christopher; Wolf, Stephan; Schmidt, Sabine; Chotewutmontri, Sasithorn; Bewerunge-Hudler, Melanie; Schick, Matthias; Schlesner, Matthias; Hutter, Barbara; Taylor, Lenka; Borst, Tobias; Sutter, Christian; Bartram, Claus R; Milde, Till; Pfaff, Elke; Kulozik, Andreas E; von Stackelberg, Arend; Meisel, Roland; Borkhardt, Arndt; Reinhardt, Dirk; Klusmann, Jan-Henning; Fleischhack, Gudrun; Tippelt, Stephan; Dirksen, Uta; Jürgens, Heribert; Kramm, Christof M; von Bueren, Andre O; Westermann, Frank; Fischer, Matthias; Burkhardt, Birgit; Wößmann, Wilhelm; Nathrath, Michaela; Bielack, Stefan S; Frühwald, Michael C; Fulda, Simone; Klingebiel, Thomas; Koscielniak, Ewa; Schwab, Matthias; Tremmel, Roman; Driever, Pablo Hernáiz; Schulte, Johannes H; Brors, Benedikt; von Deimling, Andreas; Lichter, Peter; Eggert, Angelika; Capper, David; Pfister, Stefan M; Jones, David T W; Witt, Olaf

    2016-09-01

    The 'Individualized Therapy for Relapsed Malignancies in Childhood' (INFORM) precision medicine study is a nationwide German program for children with high-risk relapsed/refractory malignancies, which aims to identify therapeutic targets on an individualised basis. In a pilot phase, reported here, we developed the logistical and analytical pipelines necessary for rapid and comprehensive molecular profiling in a clinical setting. Fifty-seven patients from 20 centers were prospectively recruited. Malignancies investigated included sarcomas (n = 25), brain tumours (n = 23), and others (n = 9). Whole-exome, low-coverage whole-genome, and RNA sequencing were complemented with methylation and expression microarray analyses. Alterations were assessed for potential targetability according to a customised prioritisation algorithm and subsequently discussed in an interdisciplinary molecular tumour board. Next-generation sequencing data were generated for 52 patients, with the full analysis possible in 46 of 52. Turnaround time from sample receipt until first report averaged 28 d. Twenty-six patients (50%) harbored a potentially druggable alteration with a prioritisation score of 'intermediate' or higher (level 4 of 7). Common targets included receptor tyrosine kinases, phosphoinositide 3-kinase-mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and cell cycle control. Ten patients received a targeted therapy based on these findings, with responses observed in some previously treatment-refractory tumours. Comparative primary relapse analysis revealed substantial tumour evolution as well as one case of unsuspected secondary malignancy, highlighting the importance of re-biopsy at relapse. This study demonstrates the feasibility of comprehensive, real-time molecular profiling for high-risk paediatric cancer patients. This extended proof-of-concept, with examples of treatment consequences, expands upon previous personalised oncology endeavors

  19. Medical Qigong for cancer patients: pilot study of impact on quality of life, side effects of treatment and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Oh, Byeongsang; Butow, Phyllis; Mullan, Barbara; Clarke, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) of cancer patients is often diminished due to the side effects of treatment and symptoms of the disease itself. Medical Qigong (coordination of gentle exercise and relaxation through meditation and breathing exercise based on Chinese medicine theory of energy channels) may be an effective therapy for improving QOL, symptoms and side effects, and longevity of cancer patients. In this pilot study, the feasibility, acceptability, and impact of Medical Qigong (MQ) were evaluated on outcomes in cancer patients. Thirty patients diagnosed with heterogeneous cancers, were randomly assigned to two groups: a control group that received usual medical care and an intervention group who participated in a MQ program for 8 weeks in addition to receiving usual medical care. Randomization was stratified by completion of cancer treatment (n = 14) or under chemotherapy (n = 16). Patients completed measures before and after the program. Quality of life and symptoms were measured by the EORTC QLQ-C 30 and progress of disease by the inflammation biomarker (CRP: c-reactive protein) via a blood test was assessed. The MQ intervention group reported clinically significant improved global QOL scores pre- and post-intervention. The MQ intervention also reduced the symptoms of side effects of cancer treatment and inflammation biomarker (CRP) compare to the control group. Due to the small sample size, however, the results were not statistically significant between treatment and the control groups. Data from the pilot study suggest that MQ with usual medical treatment can enhance the QOL of cancer patients and reduce inflammation. This study needs a further investigation with a larger sample size.

  20. Pilot study on workload estimate in breast cancer, lung cancer and colorectal cancer in a Medical Oncology Service at Valme hospital.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Javier; Grávalos, Cristina; Albanell, Joan; Barnadas, Agustin; Borrega, Pablo; García-Mata, Jesús; Garrido, Pilar; Gonzalez-Flores, Encarnación; Isla, Dolores; Lomas, María; Rodríguez-Lescure, Alvaro; Cruz, Juan Jesus; Alba, Emilio

    2012-11-01

    New advances in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and the increased incidence and prevalence of this disease have led to an increase in the number and duration of visits in Medical Oncology in the last few years. Based on the functions of a medical oncologist and the time recommended for each work activity established by the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology (SEOM), we carried out a pilot study on the three most frequent neoplasias in our country [breast cancer (BC), lung cancer (LC) and colorectal cancer (CRC)], in order to determine the real time each patient requires from a physician and thus establish a recommendation on the number of medical oncologists necessary. Using the actual itinerary of the first 20 patients of 2009 in each of the three neoplasias seen at the Medical Oncology Service of the Virgen de Valme University Hospital, we measured the number of visits, the antineoplastic treatments received, the number of hospital admissions and average length of stay. During the years following the study, these data were estimated based on the natural history of each neoplasia. During the first year, the average time spent by the medical oncologist was 235, 390 and 265 min on each outpatient with BC, LC and CRC, respectively. In hospitalisation, the average oncologist/patient minutes were 40, 360 and 118 for BC, LC and CRC, respectively. Finally, the time spent on each visit or day of hospitalisation was that recommended by the SEOM, achieving an ultimate ratio of 1 oncologist for every 83 first visits.

  1. Lung cancer in uranium miners: A tissue resource and pilot study. Progress report, September 25, 1992--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Samet, J.M.

    1993-05-01

    This project involves two related activities directed toward understanding respiratory carcinogenesis in radon-exposed former uranium miners. The first activity involves a continuation of the tissue resource of lung cancer cases from former underground uranium miners and comparison cases from non-miners. The second activity is a pilot study for a proposed longitudinal study of respiratory carcinogenesis in former uranium miners. The objectives are to facilitate the investigation of molecular changes in radon exposed lung cancer cases and to develop methods for prospectively studying clinical, cytologic, cytogenetic, and molecular changes in the multi-event process of respiratory carcinogenesis, and to assess the feasibility of recruiting former uranium miners into a longitudinal study that collects multiple biologic specimens.

  2. Pilot Study: Fluvoxamine Treatment for Depression and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gothelf, Doron; Rubinstein, Maly; Shemesh, Eyal; Miller, Orit; Farbstein, Ilana; Klein, Anat; Weizman, Abraham; Apter, Alan; Yaniv, Isaac

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and benefit of fluvoxamine for the treatment of major depressive disorder or anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with cancer. Method: The study was conducted from 2001 to 2004 at a pediatric hematology-oncology center. Fifteen children and adolescents with cancer were treated with…

  3. Incidence of cancer among commercial airline pilots

    PubMed Central

    Rafnsson, V.; Hrafnkelsson, J.; Tulinius, H.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To describe the cancer pattern in a cohort of commercial pilots by follow up through the Icelandic Cancer Registry.
METHODS—This is a retrospective cohort study of 458 pilots with emphasis on subcohort working for an airline operating on international routes. A computerised file of the cohort was record linked to the Cancer Registry by making use of personal identification numbers. Expected numbers of cancer cases were calculated on the basis of number of person-years and incidences of cancer at specific sites for men provided by the Cancer Registry. Numbers of separate analyses were made according to different exposure variables.
RESULTS—The standardised incidence ratio (SIR) for all cancers was 0.97 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.62 to 1.46) in the total cohort and 1.16 (95% CI 0.70 to 1.81) among those operating on international routes. The SIR for malignant melanoma of the skin was 10.20, 95% CI 3.29 to 23.81 in the total cohort and 15.63, 95% CI 5.04 to 36.46 in the restricted cohort. Analyses according to number of block-hours and radiation dose showed that malignant melanomas were found in the subgroups with highest exposure estimates, the SIRs were 13.04 and 28.57 respectively. The SIR was 25.00 for malignant melanoma among those who had been flying over five time zones.
CONCLUSIONS—The study shows a high occurrence of malignant melanoma among pilots. It is open to discussion what role exposure of cosmic radiation, numbers of block-hours flown, or lifestyle factors—such as possible excessive sunbathing—play in the aetiology of cancer among pilots. This calls for further and more powerful studies. The excess of malignant melanoma among those flying over five time zones suggests that the importance of disturbance of the circadian rhythm should be taken into consideration in future studies.


Keywords: cancer registry; malignant melanoma of the skin; cosmic radiation; block-hours; time zones PMID:10810099

  4. Evaluation of a novel saliva‐based epidermal growth factor receptor mutation detection for lung cancer: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Dan; Liang, Hao; Wei, Fang; Akin, David; Feng, Ziding; Yan, QingXiang; Li, Yin; Zhen, Yan; Xu, Lin; Dong, Gaochao; Wan, Huajing; Dong, Jingsi; Qiu, Xiaoming; Qin, Changlong; Zhu, Daxing; Wang, Xi; Sun, Tong; Zhang, Wenbiao; Li, Canjun; Tang, Xiaojun; Qiao, Youlin

    2016-01-01

    Background This article describes a pilot study evaluating a novel liquid biopsy system for non‐small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. The electric field‐induced release and measurement (EFIRM) method utilizes an electrochemical biosensor for detecting oncogenic mutations in biofluids. Methods Saliva and plasma of 17 patients were collected from three cancer centers prior to and after surgical resection. The EFIRM method was then applied to the collected samples to assay for exon 19 deletion and p.L858 mutations. EFIRM results were compared with cobas results of exon 19 deletion and p.L858 mutation detection in cancer tissues. Results The EFIRM method was found to detect exon 19 deletion with an area under the curve (AUC) of 1.0 in both saliva and plasma samples in lung cancer patients. For L858R mutation detection, the AUC of saliva was 1.0, while the AUC of plasma was 0.98. Strong correlations were also found between presurgery and post‐surgery samples for both saliva (0.86 for exon 19 and 0.98 for L858R) and plasma (0.73 for exon 19 and 0.94 for L858R). Conclusion Our study demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing EFIRM to rapidly, non‐invasively, and conveniently detect epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in the saliva of patients with NSCLC, with results corresponding perfectly with the results of cobas tissue genotyping. PMID:27385985

  5. The benefits of medical qigong in patients with cancer: a descriptive pilot study.

    PubMed

    Overcash, Janine; Will, Kathryn M; Lipetz, Debra Weisenburger

    2013-12-01

    Medical Qigong (MQ) is a mind-body exercise that includes movement and meditation and is beneficial in reducing high blood pressure, high cholesterol, anxiety, stress, pain, and incidence of falls. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether patients with cancer and survivors who participated in an MQ class experienced a change in fatigue, depression, and sleep from a preintervention evaluation to a postintervention evaluation. Participants were patients diagnosed with cancer who participated in MQ classes. Some were actively undergoing cancer treatment (e.g., surgery, hormone therapy, radiation therapy, chemotherapy) and some were receiving no treatment. Patients diagnosed with cancer and enrolled in an MQ class were invited to participate. A packet of surveys was completed before the first class and before the final class. Scores showed a reduced depression score after completing the five-week MQ course. Those findings indicate that MQ is helpful in reducing some of the problems associated with cancer and cancer treatment. PMID:24305486

  6. Pilot clinical study for quantitative spectral diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rajaram, Narasimhan; Reichenberg, Jason S.; Migden, Michael R.; Nguyen, Tri H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several research groups have demonstrated the non-invasive diagnostic potential of diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) techniques for early cancer detection. By combining both modalities, one can simultaneously measure quantitative parameters related to the morphology, function and biochemical composition of tissue and use them to diagnose malignancy. The objective of this study was to use a quantitative reflectance/fluorescence spectroscopic technique to determine the optical properties of normal skin and non-melanoma skin cancers and the ability to accurately classify them. An additional goal was to determine the ability of the technique to differentiate non-melanoma skin cancers from normal skin. Study Design The study comprised 48 lesions measured from 40 patients scheduled for a biopsy of suspected non-melanoma skin cancers. White light reflectance and laser-induced fluorescence spectra (wavelength range = 350–700 nm) were collected from each suspected lesion and adjacent clinically normal skin using a custom-built, optical fiber-based clinical instrument. After measurement, the skin sites were biopsied and categorized according to histopathology. Using a quantitative model, we extracted various optical parameters from the measured spectra that could be correlated to the physiological state of tissue. Results Scattering from cancerous lesions was significantly lower than normal skin for every lesion group, whereas absorption parameters were significantly higher. Using numerical cut-offs for our optical parameters, our clinical instrument could classify basal cell carcinomas with a sensitivity and specificity of 94 and 89%, respectively. Similarly, the instrument classified actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinomas with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 50%. Conclusion The measured optical properties and fluorophore contributions of normal skin and non-melanoma skin cancers are significantly different

  7. Multimodal snapshot spectral imaging for oral cancer diagnostics: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Bedard, Noah; Schwarz, Richard A.; Hu, Aaron; Bhattar, Vijayashree; Howe, Jana; Williams, Michelle D.; Gillenwater, Ann M.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2013-01-01

    Optical imaging and spectroscopy have emerged as effective tools for detecting malignant changes associated with oral cancer. While clinical studies have demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity for detection, current devices either interrogate a small region or can have reduced performance for some benign lesions. We describe a snapshot imaging spectrometer that combines the large field-of-view of widefield imaging with the diagnostic strength of spectroscopy. The portable device can stream RGB images at 7.2 frames per second and record both autofluorescence and reflectance spectral datacubes in < 1 second. We report initial data from normal volunteers and oral cancer patients. PMID:23760882

  8. Links between private habits, psychological stress and brain cancer: a case-control pilot study in France.

    PubMed

    Cabaniols, Cécilia; Giorgi, Roch; Chinot, Olivier; Ferahta, Nabila; Spinelli, Valérie; Alla, Philippe; Barrie, Maryline; Lehucher-Michel, Marie-Pascale

    2011-06-01

    Numerous studies have increasingly suggested that medical history and lifestyle factors could be involved in the increase of cancer risk in adults. The issue whether psychological factors can influence the development of cancer has been discussed for many years. In the field of brain cancer, psychological stress has not so far been investigated. We conducted a French case-control pilot study with 122 adult incident cases and 122 controls free of any cancer diagnosis, matched for age and gender, to investigate links between malignant primitive brain tumours (MPBT) and medical history, private habits and psychological stress. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires, and person-to-person interviews. To complete the psychological stress assessment, 100-mm visual analog scales were used. After adjustment for confounders, we found no significant effect of head trauma, aspartame, tobacco or alcohol consumption, place (rural or urban) of residence, sociodemographic data, and experience of psychological stress at work/home. Our results showed a significant association between MPBT risk and major life events over the past 5 years before diagnosis (OR = 1.90, 95% CI 1.13-3.20), family histories of cancer (OR = 1.90, 95% CI 1.12-3.22), fresh vegetable and fruit intake (OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.09-0.95), and skipped meals several times per week (OR = 0.35, 95% CI 0.16-0.77). The present study suggests the role of genetic factors in glioma risk, and also suggests that an acute and sudden psychological stress might influence MPBT appearance. Additional large clinical studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  9. Stereo display of CT images for lung cancer screening: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao Hui; Durick, Janet E.; Herbert, David L.; Lu, Amy; Golla, Sarawathi K.; Shinde, Dilip D.; Piracha, Samaia; Foley, Kristin; Fuhrman, Carl R.; Shindel, Betty E.; Leader, J. Ken; Good, Walter F.

    2007-03-01

    To improve radiologist's performance in lesion detection and diagnosis on 3D medical image dataset, we have conducted a pilot study to test viability and efficiency of the stereo display for lung nodule detection and classification. Using our previously developed stereo compositing methods, stereo image pairs were prestaged and precalculated from CT slices for real-time interactive display. Three display modes (i.e., stereoscopic 3D, orthogonal MIP and slice-by-slice) were compared for lung nodule detection and total of eight radiologists have participated this pilot study to interpret the images. The performance of lung nodule detection was analyzed and compared between the modes using FROC analysis. Subjective assessment indicates that stereo display was well accepted by the radiologists, despite some uncertainty of beneficial results due to the novelty of the display. The FROC analysis indicates a trend that, among the three display modes, stereo display resulted in the best performance of nodule detection followed by slice-based display, although no statistically significant difference was shown between the three modes. The stereo display of a stack of thin CT slices has the potential to clarify three-dimensional structures, while avoiding ambiguities due to tissue superposition. Few studies, however, have addressed actual utility of stereo display for medical diagnosis. Our preliminary results suggest a potential role of stereo display for improving radiologists' performance in medical detection and diagnosis, and also indicate some factors likely affect the performance with new display, such as novelty of the display, training effect from projected radiography interpretation and confidence with the new technology.

  10. Down-regulation of tumor necrosis factor expression by pentoxifylline in cancer patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dezube, B J; Sherman, M L; Fridovich-Keil, J L; Allen-Ryan, J; Pardee, A B

    1993-01-01

    The wasting syndrome (cachexia) characterized by anorexia, malaise, and weight loss is observed in many patients with cancer or chronic infection. The excessive levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)/cachectin reported in 50% of cancer patients exhibiting clinically active disease may therefore mediate, at least in part, the cachexia associated with malignancy. Pentoxifylline, a substituted methylxanthine approved for treatment of intermittent claudication, has been shown in preclinical studies to down-regulate TNF RNA expression as well as TNF activity. We report that pentoxifylline suppressed TNF RNA levels on all three occasions in patients with initially elevated levels of TNF RNA. Pentoxifylline did not suppress TNF RNA to subnormal levels in all five patients with initially normal TNF RNA levels. Four patients reported an increased sense of well-being, improved appetite and ability to perform the activities of daily living. Two of these five patients with normal TNF levels each had a weight gain of more than 5% after 3 weeks of pentoxifylline therapy suggesting that, although TNF may be important in the pathogenesis of cancer cachexia, other anorexia-producing cytokines that are potentially affected by pentoxifylline may also be involved. No severe adverse effects were observed. Taken together these findings suggest that pentoxifylline can down-regulate TNF expression and improve the sense of well-being in cancer patients. A larger study with a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design and more sophisticated estimates of quality of life will be needed to confirm these observations.

  11. Effect of Kinesiology Taping on breast cancer-related lymphedema: a randomized single-blind controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Smykla, A; Walewicz, K; Trybulski, R; Halski, T; Kucharzewski, M; Kucio, C; Mikusek, W; Klakla, K; Taradaj, J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of Kinesiology Taping (KT) for treating breast cancer-related lymphedema. Sixty-five women with unilateral stage II and III lymphedema were randomly grouped into the KT group (K-tapes, n = 20), the Quasi KT group (quasi K-tapes, n = 22), or the MCT group (multilayered compression therapy group, n = 23). Skin care, 45 min pneumatic compression therapy, 1 h manual lymphatic drainage, and application of K-tape/Quasi K-tapes/multilayered short-stretch bandages were given every treatment session, 3 times per week for 1 month. Patient evaluation items included limb size and percentage edema. Comparing the changes in K-tapes with quasi K-tapes changes, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05). The edema reduction of multilayered bandages was much better than in results observed in taping groups. The KT appeared to be ineffective at secondary lymphedema after breast cancer treatment. The single-blind, controlled pilot study results suggest that K-tape could not replace the bandage, and at this moment it must not be an alternative choice for the breast cancer-related lymphedema patient. The trial is registered with ACTRN12613001173785.

  12. How to select elderly colorectal cancer patients for surgery: a pilot study in an Italian academic medical center

    PubMed Central

    Ugolini, Giampaolo; Pasini, Francesco; Ghignone, Federico; Zattoni, Davide; Bacchi Reggiani, Maria Letizia; Parlanti, Daniele; Montroni, Isacco

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cancer is one of the most common diagnoses in elderly patients. Of all types of abdominal cancer, colorectal cancer (CRC) is undoubtedly the most frequent. Median age at diagnosis is approximately 70 years old worldwide. Due to the multiple comorbidities affecting elderly people, frailty evaluation is very important in order to avoid over- or under-treatment. This pilot study was designed to investigate the variables capable of predicting the long-term risk of mortality and living situation after surgery for CRC. Methods Patients with 70 years old and older undergoing elective surgery for CRC were prospectively enrolled in the study. The patients were preoperatively screened using 11 internationally-validated-frailty-assessment tests. The endpoints of the study were long-term mortality and living situation. The data were analyzed using univariate Cox proportional-hazard regression analysis to verify the predictive value of score indices in order to identify possible risk factors. Results Forty-six patients were studied. The median follow-up time after surgery was 4.6 years (range, 2.9-5.7 years) and no patients were lost to follow-up. The overall mortality rate was 39%. Four of the patients who survived (4/28, 14%) lost their functional autonomy. The preoperative impaired Timed Up and Go (TUG), Eastern Cooperative Group Performance Status (ECOG PS), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs), Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES-13) scoring systems were significantly associated with increased long term mortality risk. Conclusion Simplified frailty-assessing tools should be routinely used in elderly cancer patients before treatment in order to stratify patient risk. The TUG, ECOG-PS, IADLs and VES-13 scoring systems are potentially able to predict long-term mortality and disability. Additional studies will be needed to confirm the preliminary data in order to improve management strategies for oncogeriatric surgical patients. PMID:26779367

  13. Association between Chemotherapy-Response Assays and Subsets of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Gastric Cancer: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jee Youn; Son, Taeil; Cheong, Jae-Ho; Hyung, Woo Jin; Noh, Sung Hoon; Kim, Choong-Bai; Park, Chung-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the association between adenosine triphosphate-based chemotherapy response assays (ATP-CRAs) and subsets of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in gastric cancer. Materials and Methods In total, 15 gastric cancer tissue samples were obtained from gastrectomies performed between February 2007 and January 2011. Chemotherapy response assays were performed on tumor cells from these samples using 11 chemotherapeutic agents, including etoposide, doxorubicin, epirubicin, mitomycin, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), oxaliplatin, irinotecan, docetaxel, paclitaxel, methotrexate, and cisplatin. TILs in the tissue samples were evaluated using antibodies specific for CD3, CD4, CD8, Foxp3, and Granzyme B. Results The highest cancer cell death rates were induced by etoposide (44.8%), 5-FU (43.1%), and mitomycin (39.9%). Samples from 10 patients who were treated with 5-FU were divided into 5-FU-sensitive and -insensitive groups according to median cell death rate. No difference was observed in survival between the two groups (P=0.216). Only two patients were treated with a chemotherapeutic agent determined by an ATP-CRA and there was no significant difference in overall survival compared with that of patients treated with their physician's choice of chemotherapeutic agent (P=0.105). However, a high number of CD3 TILs was a favorable prognostic factor (P=0.008). Pearson's correlation analyses showed no association between cancer cell death rates in response to chemotherapeutic agents and subsets of TILs. Conclusions Cancer cell death rates in response to specific chemotherapeutic agents were not significantly associated with the distribution of TIL subsets. PMID:26819801

  14. Improvement of QOL and Immunological Function With Lentinula Edodes Mycelia in Patients Undergoing Cancer Immunotherapy: An Open Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Tanigawa, Keishi; Itoh, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Yasunobu

    2016-07-01

    Context • Combined treatment with an extract of Lentinula edodes mycelia (LEM) and chemotherapy has been reported to improve quality of life (QOL) and immunological function in cancer patients. However, those effects have not been elucidated for patients receiving cancer immunotherapy. Objective • The present study intended to investigate the effects of oral LEM on QOL and immunological function in cancer patients receiving immunotherapy. Design • The research team designed an open-label, single-armed pilot study. Setting • The study took place at Bio-Thera Clinic, a facility associated with Tokyo Women's Medical University in Tokyo, Japan. Participants • The participants were 10 cancer patients undergoing cancer immunotherapy at Bio-Thera Clinic. Intervention • The participants received either dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer vaccine therapy or CD3-activated T-lymphocyte (CAT) therapy as immunotherapy. They received the immunotherapy only for the first 4 wk of the study, and then oral LEM (1800 mg/d) was added for the next 4 wk. Outcome Measures • Preintervention and at 4 and 8 wk after the start of the study, participants completed a QOL survey, and immunological parameters were measured. Results • Participants' QOL symptom scores increased (ie, worsened) by 5.1 ± 1.7 during the first 4 wk of treatment when they were receiving immunotherapy only, but it decreased (ie, improved) by -2.5 ± 1.6 during the next 4 wk when the immunotherapy was combined with the LEM, P < .05. The measurement of the immunological parameters during the 4 wk of immunotherapy combined with LEM showed that the amount of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) produced in the peripheral blood tended to increase as compared with that during the first 4 wk of immunotherapy only. The rise in IFN-γ was correlated with changes in several regulatory T cells (Tregs) (ie, forkhead box P3 [FOXP3]+/cluster of differentiation 4 [CD4]+ and transforming growth factor beta [TGF-β]). Conclusions • The

  15. Single high dose intraoperative electrons for advanced stage pancreatic cancer: Phase I pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Goldson, A.L.; Ashaveri, E.; Espinoza, M.C.

    1981-07-01

    Phase I toxicity studies with intraoperative radiotherapy proved to be a feasible adjunct to surgery for unresectable malignancies of the pancreas at Howard University Hospital. There have been minimal side effects or complications related to the combination of limited surgical decompression and intraoperative radiotherapy alone. The toxic effects of intraoperative radiotherapy on normal tissues is being assessed on a dose volume basis. Doses of 2000 to 2500 rad in a single exposure to include the pancreas, regional nodes and duodenum are acceptable if the total treatment volume is less than or equal to 100 cm. The tumoricidal effects on the cancer are demonstratable when one reviews the pathological specimens that illustrate massive tumor necrosis and fibros replacement, but in all cases reviewed, viable cancer was noted. Intraoperative radiotherapy, therefore, represents a significant boost dose for resectable, partially resectable or non-resectable tumors when added to conventional external beam irradiation and/or chemotherapy. Preliminary clinical data and minimal toxicity justifies further investigation.

  16. Photoacoustic spectroscopy based investigatory approach to discriminate breast cancer from normal: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priya, Mallika; Rao, Bola Sadashiva Satish; Chandra, Subhash; Ray, Satadru; Mathew, Stanley; Datta, Anirbit; Nayak, Subramanya G.; Mahato, Krishna Kishore

    2016-02-01

    In spite of many efforts for early detection of breast cancer, there is still lack of technology for immediate implementation. In the present study, the potential photoacoustic spectroscopy was evaluated in discriminating breast cancer from normal, involving blood serum samples seeking early detection. Three photoacoustic spectra in time domain were recorded from each of 20 normal and 20 malignant samples at 281nm pulsed laser excitations and a total of 120 spectra were generated. The time domain spectra were then Fast Fourier Transformed into frequency domain and 116.5625 - 206.875 kHz region was selected for further analysis using a combinational approach of wavelet, PCA and logistic regression. Initially, wavelet analysis was performed on the FFT data and seven features (mean, median, area under the curve, variance, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis) from each were extracted. PCA was then performed on the feature matrix (7x120) for discriminating malignant samples from the normal by plotting a decision boundary using logistic regression analysis. The unsupervised mode of classification used in the present study yielded specificity and sensitivity values of 100% in each respectively with a ROC - AUC value of 1. The results obtained have clearly demonstrated the capability of photoacoustic spectroscopy in discriminating cancer from the normal, suggesting its possible clinical implications.

  17. Chemotherapy Altered Brain Functional Connectivity in Women with Breast Cancer: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Julie A.; Makarewicz, Jenna; Schaubhut, Geoffrey J.; Devins, Robert; Albert, Kimberly; Dittus, Kim; Newhouse, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy is associated with improvements in long-term cancer survival. However, reports of cognitive impairment following treatment emphasize the importance of understanding the long-term effects of chemotherapy on brain functioning. Cognitive deficits found in chemotherapy patients suggest a change in brain functioning that affects specific cognitive domains such as attentional processing and executive functioning. This study examined the processes potentially underlying these changes in cognition by examining brain functional connectivity pre- and post-chemotherapy in women with breast cancer. Functional connectivity examines the temporal correlation between spatially remote brain regions in an effort to understand how brain networks support specific cognitive functions. Nine women diagnosed with breast cancer completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session before chemotherapy, one month after, and one year after the completion of chemotherapy. Seed-based functional connectivity analyses were completed using seeds in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) to examine connectivity in the dorsal anterior attention network and in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) to examine connectivity in the default mode network. Results showed decreased functional connectivity one month after chemotherapy that partially returned to baseline at one year in the dorsal attention network. Decreased connectivity was seen in the default mode network at one month and one year following chemotherapy. In addition, increased subjective memory complaints were noted at one month and one year post-chemotherapy. These findings suggest a detrimental effect of chemotherapy on brain functional connectivity that is potentially related to subjective cognitive assessment. PMID:23852814

  18. A Pilot Study of Self-Management-based Nutrition and Physical Activity Intervention in Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michelle; Zrim, Stephanie; Lawn, Sharon; Woodman, Richard; Leggett, Stephanie; Jones, Lynnette; Karapetis, Christos; Kichenadasse, Ganessan; Sukumaran, Shawgi; Roy, Amitesh C; Koczwara, Bogda

    2016-07-01

    Exercise and a healthy diet are beneficial after cancer, but are not uniformly adopted by cancer survivors. This study reports on the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a self-management-based nutrition and exercise intervention for Australian cancer survivors. Adult survivors (n  =  25) during curative chemotherapy (stratum 1[S1]; n  =  11) or post-treatment (stratum 2 [S2]; n  =  14) were recruited prospectively from a single center. The Flinders Living Well Self-Management Program™ (FLW Program) was utilized to establish patient-led nutrition and exercise goals and develop a tailored 12-wk intervention plan. Fortnightly reviews occurred with assessments at baseline, 6 and 12 wk. A recruitment and retention rate of 38% and 84% were observed. Both strata maintained total skeletal muscle mass. Small reductions in body mass index, hip circumference, and percentage body fat, and small increases in hand grip strength and exercise capacity among subjects in both strata were observed. No significant differences were observed between strata; however, significant increases in exercise capacity and global health status for S2 were observed from baseline to 12 wk. FLW Program is a feasible mode of delivering nutrition and exercise intervention to cancer survivors and it appears that there are no barriers to implementing this program early during chemotherapy. Hence, the additive effect of gains achieved over a longer duration is promising and this should be explored in randomized controlled trials adequately powered to observe clinically and statistically significant improvements in relevant outcomes. PMID:27176450

  19. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Coates, J.D.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    A multi-well microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot has been performed in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit in Payne County, Oklahoma. The primary emphasis of the experiment was preferential plugging of high permeability zones for the purpose of improving waterflood sweep efficiency. Studies were performed to determine reservoir chemistry, ecology, and indigenous bacteria populations. Growth experiments were used to select a nutrient system compatible with the reservoir that encouraged growth of a group of indigenous nitrate-using bacteria and inhibit growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. A specific field pilot area behind an active line drive waterflood was selected. Surface facilities were designed and installed. Injection protocols of bulk nutrient materials were prepared to facilitate uniform distribution of nutrients within the pilot area. By the end of December, 1991, 82.5 tons (75.0 tonnes) of nutrients had been injected in the field. A tracer test identified significant heterogeneity in the SEVVSU and made it necessary to monitor additional production wells in the field. The tracer tests and changes in production behavior indicate the additional production wells monitored during the field trial were also affected. Eighty two and one half barrels (13.1 m[sup 3]) of tertiary oil have been recovered. Microbial activity has increased CO[sub 2] content as indicated by increased alkalinity. A temporary rise in sulfide concentration was experienced. These indicate an active microbial community was generated in the field by the nutrient injection. Pilot area interwell pressure interference test results showed that significant permeability reduction occurred. The interwell permeabilities in the pilot area between the injector and the three pilot production wells were made more uniform which indicates a successful preferential plugging enhanced oil recovery project.

  20. Inter-observer variability in the classification of ovarian cancer cell type using microscopy: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrielides, Marios A.; Ronnett, Brigitte M.; Vang, Russell; Seidman, Jeffrey D.

    2015-03-01

    Studies have shown that different cell types of ovarian carcinoma have different molecular profiles, exhibit different behavior, and that patients could benefit from typespecific treatment. Different cell types display different histopathology features, and different criteria are used for each cell type classification. Inter-observer variability for the task of classifying ovarian cancer cell types is an under-examined area of research. This study served as a pilot study to quantify observer variability related to the classification of ovarian cancer cell types and to extract valuable data for designing a validation study of digital pathology (DP) for this task. Three observers with expertise in gynecologic pathology reviewed 114 cases of ovarian cancer with optical microscopy, with specific guidelines for classifications into distinct cell types. For 93 cases all 3 pathologists agreed on the same cell type, for 18 cases 2 out of 3 agreed, and for 3 cases there was no agreement. Across cell types with a minimum sample size of 10 cases, agreement between all three observers was {91.1%, 80.0%, 90.0%, 78.6%, 100.0%, 61.5%} for the high grade serous carcinoma, low grade serous carcinoma, endometrioid, mucinous, clear cell, and carcinosarcoma cell types respectively. These results indicate that unanimous agreement varied over a fairly wide range. However, additional research is needed to determine the importance of these differences in comparison studies. These results will be used to aid in the design and sizing of such a study comparing optical and digital pathology. In addition, the results will help in understanding the potential role computer-aided diagnosis has in helping to improve the agreement of pathologists for this task.

  1. Determinants of quality of life in ovarian cancer survivors: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Teng, Flora F; Kalloger, Steve E; Brotto, Lori; McAlpine, Jessica N

    2014-08-01

    Objectif : Les traitements contre le cancer de l’ovaire et leurs résultats varient considérablement, il en résulte donc un groupe diversifié de survivantes. Nous ne disposons que de peu de données sur les questions liées à la qualité de vie (QdV) de ces patientes et sur leurs besoins les plus criants. Nous avions pour objectif de mener une étude pilote visant à déterminer les besoins des survivantes du cancer de l’ovaire en matière de QdV afin d’établir les priorités pour ce qui est des futures interventions. Méthodes : Dans le cadre de cette étude transversale, les questionnaires sur la QdV de la European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30 et OV28) et un questionnaire formulé par les chercheurs ont été administrés au sein d’une clinique externe. Les paramètres cliniques ont été résumés et analysés en vue d’y déceler des associations avec les mesures de la QdV. Résultats : Au total, 102 femmes ont consenti à participer à l’étude et ont rempli toutes les composantes requises. Leur âge moyen était de 58 ans (plage : de 29 à 85); 80 % d’entre elles présentaient un carcinome épithélial de l’ovaire et 66 % présentaient un carcinome séreux de haut grade histologique. Les femmes présentant des lésions de stade I (28 %), de stade II (15 %), de stade III (47 %) et de stade IV (10 %) étaient représentées dans les phases « traitement primaire » (25 %), « surveillance » (46 %), « récurrent » (23 %) et « palliatif » (7 %) du continuum de la survie. Cinquante et un pour cent des répondantes ont caractérisé le fardeau de la maladie comme étant « plutôt lourd » ou « très lourd » et cette façon de répondre ne variait pas en fonction de l’histologie ou du diagnostic. La QdV globale ne variait pas en fonction des paramètres clinico-pathologiques. Des comorbidités cardiovasculaires et respiratoires ont

  2. The Effect of Prospective Monitoring and Early Physiotherapy Intervention on Arm Morbidity Following Surgery for Breast Cancer: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Chiara; De Vera, Mary

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Significant arm morbidity is reported following surgery for breast cancer, yet physiotherapy is not commonly part of usual care. This study compared the effect on arm morbidity after surgery for breast cancer of a clinical care pathway including preoperative education, prospective monitoring, and early physiotherapy (experimental group) to that of preoperative education alone (comparison group). Methods: A prospective quasi-experimental pretest–posttest, non-equivalent group design compared two clinical sites; Site A (n=41) received the experimental intervention, and Site B (n=31) received the comparison intervention. At baseline (preoperative) and 7 months postoperative, shoulder range of motion (ROM), upper-extremity (UE) strength, UE circumference, pain, UE function, and quality of life were assessed. Results: The experimental group maintained shoulder flexion ROM at 7 months, whereas the comparison group saw a decrease (mean 1° [SD 9°] vs. −6° [SD 15°], p=0.03). A lower incidence of arm morbidity and better quality of life were observed in the experimental group, but these findings were not statistically significant. Baseline characteristics and surgical approaches differed between the two sites, which may have had an impact on the findings. Conclusion: Initial results are promising and support the feasibility of integrating a surveillance approach into follow-up care. This pilot study provides the foundation for a larger, more definitive trial. PMID:24403683

  3. A Pilot Study on Tamoxifen Sexual Side Effects and Hand Preference in Male Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Motofei, Ion G; Rowland, David L; Popa, Florian; Bratucu, Eugen; Straja, Dan; Manea, Mirela; Georgescu, Simona R; Paunica, Stana; Bratucu, Mircea; Balalau, Cristian; Constantin, Vlad D

    2015-08-01

    Recent clinical and imaging studies suggest that sex hormones modulate sexuality according to a psychophysiologic process of lateralization of the brain, with androgens playing a greater role in sexual functioning of left hemibrain/right handedness and estrogens possibly for right hemibrain/left handedness. Based on this perspective, the current study attempted to specify the relationship between hand preference, estrogens, and sexual function in subjects with male breast cancer, taking into account the sexual side effects of tamoxifen as the agent for inhibiting estrogen action. Twenty-eight Romanian men-17 right-handed and 11 left-handed-undergoing treatment with tamoxifen for male breast cancer participated in this study. These men were assessed both prior to and during tamoxifen treatment using the International Index of Erectile Function, a standardized instrument used for the evaluation of various aspects of sexual functioning, including erectile function (EF), orgasmic function (OF), sexual desire (SD), and overall functioning (OF). A main effect for handedness was found on EF, OF, SD, and OS scales, with right-handed men showing higher functioning than left-handed men. Regarding interaction effects, the left-handed group of men showed greater decreased sexual functioning during tamoxifen (on three subscales: OF, SD, OS) compared to right-handed men. Further research should be conducted in order to support and refine this potential lateralized process of sexual neuromodulation within the brain. PMID:26108899

  4. Effects of yoga on arm volume among women with breast cancer related lymphedema: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Mary Insana; Donahoe-Fillmore, Betsy; Leach, Laura; O'Malley, Colleen; Paeplow, Cheryl; Prescott, Tess; Merriman, Harold

    2014-10-01

    Lymphedema affects 3-58% of survivors of breast cancer and can result in upper extremity impairments. Exercise can be beneficial in managing lymphedema. Yoga practice has been minimally studied for its effects on breast cancer related lymphedema (BCRL). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of yoga on arm volume, quality of life (QOL), self-reported arm function, and hand grip strength in women with BCRL. Six women with BCRL participated in modified Hatha yoga 3×/week for 8 weeks. Compression sleeves were worn during yoga sessions. Arm volume, QOL, self-reported arm function, and hand grip strength were measured at baseline, half-way, and at the conclusion of yoga practice. Arm volume significantly decreased from baseline (2423.3 ml ± 597.2) to final measures (2370.8 ml ± 577.2) (p = .02). No significant changes in QOL (p = .12), self-reported arm function (p = .34), or hand grip strength (p = .26) were found. Yoga may be beneficial in the management of lymphedema.

  5. Swallowing appliance: intraoral reshaping prosthesis for dysphagia secondary to oral floor cancer: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Yuji; Ota, Yoshihide; Sakaizumi, Kazuo; Simoda, Naoshi; Kodama, Mitsuhiko; Toyokura, Minoru; Masakado, Yoshihisa

    2014-11-01

    Patients with oral floor cancer often have difficulty swallowing solid foods. The aim of this study was to improve the propulsion of solid foods using a swallowing appliance (SW-A). Subjects comprised three patients with oral floor cancer who had undergone curative surgery. Each participant was asked to swallow gelatin under three conditions: without an SW-A, with a maxillary SW-A, and with both maxillary and mandibular SW-As. This procedure was repeated thrice with three volumes of gelatin (2.5, 5, and 7.5 ml), with videofluorographic swallowing study. Swallowing was assessed on the basis of whether the participant could propel the gelatin from the oral cavity to the pharynx. No subject could propel 2.5 ml of gelatin to the pharynx without an SW-A or with only a maxillary SW-A in place. When both SW-As were used, all subjects could propel all three volumes of gelatin. The mandibular SW-A complemented the compensatory effects of the maxillary SW-A.

  6. Pilot study of bone mineral density in breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Headley, J. A.; Theriault, R. L.; LeBlanc, A. D.; Vassilopoulou-Sellin, R.; Hortobagyi, G. N.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) in breast cancer patients previously treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Sixteen of 27 patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy became permanently amenorrheic as a result of chemotherapy. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Chemotherapy drugs and dosages along with a history of risk factors for reduced bone density including activity level, tobacco and/or alcohol use, metabolic bone disease, family history, and hormone exposure were identified. Results showed that women who became permanently amenorrheic as a result of chemotherapy had BMD 14% lower than women who maintained menses after chemotherapy. Chemotherapy-treated women who maintained ovarian function had normal BMD. This study suggests that women who have premature menopause as a result of chemotherapy for breast cancer are at increased risk of bone loss and may be at risk for early development of osteoporosis. Women who maintain menses do not appear to be at risk for accelerated trabecular bone loss.

  7. Therapeutic Potential of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) from Cancer Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    García-Contreras, Marta; Vera-Donoso, César David; Hernández-Andreu, José Miguel; García-Verdugo, José Manuel; Oltra, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue (ADSCs) are an important source of cells for regenerative medicine. The therapeutic effect of culture-expanded adipose derived stem cells has been shown; however, optimal xeno-free culture conditions remain to be determined. Cancer patients, specifically those undergoing invasive surgery, constitute a subgroup of patients who could benefit from autologous stem cell transplantation. Although regenerative potential of their ADSCs could be affected by the disease and/or treatment, we are not aware of any study that has evaluated the therapeutic potential of ADSCs isolated from cancer patients in reference to that of ADSCs derived from healthy subjects. Here we report that ADSCs isolated from subabdominal adipose tissue of patients with urological neoplasms yielded similar growth kinetics, presented equivalent mesenchymal surface markers and showed similar differentiation potential into distinct mesodermal cell lineages: adipocytes, chondroblasts and osteoblasts than ADSCs isolated from adipose tissue of age-matched non-oncogenic participants, all under xeno-free growth culture conditions. Molecular karyotyping of patient expanded ADSCs genomes showed no disease-related alterations indicating their safety. In addition, vesicles <100 nm identified as exosomes (EXOs) which may be at least partly responsible for the attributed therapeutic paracrine effects of the ADSCs were effectively isolated from ADSCs and showed equivalent miRNA content regardless they were derived from cancer patients or non-oncogenic participants indicating that the repair capabilities of xeno-free expanded ADSCs are not compromised by patient condition and therefore their xeno-free culture expanded ADSCs should be suitable for autologous stem cell transplantation in a clinical setting. PMID:25412325

  8. Chemotherapy altered brain functional connectivity in women with breast cancer: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Julie A; Makarewicz, Jenna; Schaubhut, Geoffrey J; Devins, Robert; Albert, Kimberly; Dittus, Kim; Newhouse, Paul A

    2013-12-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy is associated with improvements in long-term cancer survival. However, reports of cognitive impairment following treatment emphasize the importance of understanding the long-term effects of chemotherapy on brain functioning. Cognitive deficits found in chemotherapy patients suggest a change in brain functioning that affects specific cognitive domains such as attentional processing and executive functioning. This study examined the processes potentially underlying these changes in cognition by examining brain functional connectivity pre- and post-chemotherapy in women with breast cancer. Functional connectivity examines the temporal correlation between spatially remote brain regions in an effort to understand how brain networks support specific cognitive functions. Nine women diagnosed with breast cancer completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session before chemotherapy, 1 month after, and 1 year after the completion of chemotherapy. Seed-based functional connectivity analyses were completed using seeds in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) to examine connectivity in the dorsal anterior attention network and in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) to examine connectivity in the default mode network. Results showed decreased functional connectivity 1 month after chemotherapy that partially returned to baseline at 1 year in the dorsal attention network. Decreased connectivity was seen in the default mode network at 1 month and 1 year following chemotherapy. In addition, increased subjective memory complaints were noted at 1 month and 1 year post-chemotherapy. These findings suggest a detrimental effect of chemotherapy on brain functional connectivity that is potentially related to subjective cognitive assessment.

  9. Effect of Music Therapy on Pain and Anxiety Levels of Cancer Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaswamy, Priyadharshini; Nair, Shoba

    2016-01-01

    Background: The pain associated with cancer is highly detrimental to the quality of life of the affected individuals. It also contributes to the anxiety of the patient. There is a need for a nonpharmacological approach in addition to the pharmacological therapy for the management of the pain for a more holistic improvement in the individual. With this study, we wish to achieve this through music. Objective: To assess the effect of music therapy on pain scores and anxiety levels of cancer patients with pain. Study Design: In this quantitative study, a comparative study was done on fourteen cancer patients admitted for pain relief under the Department of Pain and Palliative Medicine, of a tertiary care hospital, having moderate to severe pain (numerical pain rating scale [NRS] – of 4 to 10). Subjects and Methods: Convenience sampling was used. Patients were allocated to test group or control group nonrandomly. The test group patients were subjected to music therapy for 20 min while the control group patients were kept occupied by talking to them for 20 min. The NRS scale was used to assess the pre- and post-interventional pain scores and the Hamilton anxiety rating scale was used to assess the pre- and post-interventional anxiety scores in the two groups. Statistics: Student's t-test was used for comparing the pre- and post-interventional data. Two sample t-test was used to compare the data obtained from the control and study groups. Results: Statistically significant reduction seen in the pain scores in the test group after music therapy (P = 0.003). No statistically significant reduction seen in the pain score in the control group (P = 0.356). There was a statistically significant reduction in the postintervention pain scores in the test group compared to the control group (P = 0.034). The reduction in anxiety levels in both groups after intervention was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Music therapy was found to lower the pain score of a patient who

  10. The Pilot Training Study: Personnel Flow and the PILOT Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooz, W. E.

    The results of the Rand study of pilot flows and the computer-operated decision model, called the PILOT model, are described. The flows of pilots within the Air Force are caused by policies that require the career-development rotation of pilots from cockpit jobs to desk jobs, the maintenance of a supplement of pilots in excess of cockpit-related…

  11. A Chaplain-led Spiritual Life Review Pilot Study for Patients with Brain Cancers and Other Degenerative Neurologic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Piderman, Katherine M.; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Jenkins, Sarah M.; Euerle, Terin T.; Lovejoy, Laura A.; Kwete, Gracia M.; Jatoi, Aminah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study was designed to describe changes in spiritual well-being (SWB), spiritual coping, and quality of life (QOL) in patients with brain cancer or other neurodegenerative diseases participating in a chaplain-led spiritual life review interview and development of a spiritual legacy document (SLD). Methods: Eligible participants were enrolled and completed baseline questionnaires. They were interviewed by a board-certified chaplain about spiritual influences, beliefs, practices, values, and spiritual struggles. An SLD was prepared for each participant, and one month follow-up questionnaires were completed. Two cases are summarized, and spiritual development themes are illustrated within a spiritual development framework. Results: A total of 27 patients completed baseline questionnaires and the interview; 24 completed the SLD, and 15 completed the follow-up questionnaire. Increases in SWB, religious coping, and QOL were detected. The majority maintained the highest (best) scores of negative religious coping, demonstrating minimal spiritual struggle. Conclusions: Despite the challenges of brain cancers and other neurodegenerative diseases, participants demonstrated improvements in SWB, positive religious coping, and QOL. Patient comments indicate that benefit is related to the opportunity to reflect on and integrate spiritual experiences and to preserve them for others. Research with a larger, more diverse sample is needed, as well as clinical applications for those too vulnerable to participate in longitudinal follow-up. PMID:25973267

  12. A pilot study examining germline minisatellite mutations in the offspring of Danish childhood and adolescent cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    REES, GWEN S.; TRIKIC, MICHAEL Z.; WINTHER, JEANETTE F.; TAWN, E. JANET; STOVALL, MARILYN; OLSEN, JØRGEN H.; RECHNITZER, CATHERINE; SCHRØDER, HENRIK; GULDBERG, PER; BOICE, JOHN D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To investigate germline mutation rate at eight minisatellite loci in 24 Danish families, where one parent is the survivor of childhood or adolescent cancer treated with radiotherapy. Materials and methods Parents and offspring were profiled for eight hypervariable minisatellite loci (B6.7, CEB1, CEB15, CEB25, CEB36, MS1, MS31, MS32) by Southern blotting. Results Seven paternal mutations were observed for 130 informative alleles in 18 offspring from 11 radiation-exposed fathers (mean preconceptional dose for offspring 0.29 Gy, range <0.01 - 1.2 Gy), compared to six mutations for 146 informative alleles in 21 offspring from 13 unexposed fathers. No statistically significant difference between the total paternal mutation rates was observed (5.4% for exposed fathers and 4.1% for unexposed fathers). Three maternal mutations were observed for 148 informative alleles in 21 offspring from 13 radiation-exposed mothers (mean preconceptional dose for offspring 0.71 Gy, range <0.01 - 9.2 Gy), compared to one mutation for 130 informative alleles in 18 offspring from 11 unexposed mothers. Again, no statistically significant difference was observed between the total maternal mutation rates (2.0% for exposed mothers and 0.8% for unexposed mothers). Conclusions The data from this pilot study demonstrate no statistically significant increase in germline minisatellite mutation rate associated with radiotherapy for childhood and adolescent cancer. PMID:16638712

  13. Distinguishing between cancer driver and passenger gene alteration candidates via cross-species comparison: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We are developing a cross-species comparison strategy to distinguish between cancer driver- and passenger gene alteration candidates, by utilizing the difference in genomic location of orthologous genes between the human and other mammals. As an initial test of this strategy, we conducted a pilot study with human colorectal cancer (CRC) and its mouse model C57BL/6J ApcMin/+, focusing on human 5q22.2 and 18q21.1-q21.2. Methods We first performed bioinformatics analysis on the evolution of 5q22.2 and 18q21.1-q21.2 regions. Then, we performed exon-targeted sequencing, real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and real time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses on a number of genes of both regions with both human and mouse colon tumors. Results These two regions (5q22.2 and 18q21.1-q21.2) are frequently deleted in human CRCs and encode genuine colorectal tumor suppressors APC and SMAD4. They also encode genes such as MCC (mutated in colorectal cancer) with their role in CRC etiology unknown. We have discovered that both regions are evolutionarily unstable, resulting in genes that are clustered in each human region being found scattered at several distinct loci in the genome of many other species. For instance, APC and MCC are within 200 kb apart in human 5q22.2 but are 10 Mb apart in the mouse genome. Importantly, our analyses revealed that, while known CRC driver genes APC and SMAD4 were disrupted in both human colorectal tumors and tumors from ApcMin/+ mice, the questionable MCC gene was disrupted in human tumors but appeared to be intact in mouse tumors. Conclusions These results indicate that MCC may not actually play any causative role in early colorectal tumorigenesis. We also hypothesize that its disruption in human CRCs is likely a mere result of its close proximity to APC in the human genome. Expanding this pilot study to the entire genome may identify more questionable genes like MCC, facilitating the discovery of

  14. Plasma and urinary alkylresorcinol metabolites as potential biomarkers of breast cancer risk in Finnish women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Koskela, Anja; Samaletdin, Adile; Adlercreutz, Herman

    2010-01-01

    Alkylresorcinols (ARs) are shown to be good biomarkers of consumption of rye and whole-grain wheat products in man. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate AR metabolites as potential biomarkers of breast cancer (BC) risk in Finnish women since intake of cereal fiber and its components has been proposed to reduce this risk through an effect on the enterohepatic circulation of estrogens. This was a cross-sectional and observational pilot study. A total of 20 omnivores, 20 vegetarians, and 16 BC women (6-12 mo after operation) were investigated on 2 occasions 6 mo apart. Dietary intake (5-days record), plasma/urinary AR metabolites [3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) and 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-propanoic acid (DHPPA)] and plasma/urinary enterolactone were measured. The groups were compared using nonparametric tests. We observed that plasma DHBA (P = 0.007; P = 0.03), plasma DHPPA (P = 0.02; P = 0.01), urinary DHBA (P = 0.001; P = 0.003), urinary DHPPA (P = 0.001; P = 0.001), and cereal fiber intake (P = 0.007; P = 0.003) were significantly lower in the BC group compared to the vegetarian and omnivore groups, respectively. Based on measurements of AR metabolites in urine and in plasma, whole-grain rye and wheat cereal fiber intake is low in BC subjects. Thus, urinary and plasma AR metabolites may be used as potential biomarkers of BC risk in women. This novel approach will likely also facilitate studies of associations between rye and whole-grain wheat cereal fiber intake and other diseases. Our findings should, however, be confirmed with larger subject populations.

  15. Natural history of postural instability in breast cancer patients treated with taxane-based chemotherapy: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Monfort, Scott M; Pan, Xueliang; Patrick, Robyn; Singaravelu, Janani; Loprinzi, Charles L; Lustberg, Maryam B; Chaudhari, Ajit M W

    2016-07-01

    Over 230,000 new cases of breast cancer are expected to be diagnosed in the United States in 2015. Taxane-based chemotherapy is often an effective treatment, but can also cause adverse symptoms in patients due to neurotoxicity. These side effects can impair postural control in patients; however, this instability has scarcely been quantified. The purpose of this pilot study was to gain insight into the natural history of postural instability in breast cancer patients being treated with taxane-based chemotherapy. Thirty-two breast cancer patients (31 female/1 male; 47.6±11.2 year; 16 stage II/16 stage III) completed eyes open and eyes closed quiet standing trials in the oncology clinic where they were being treated. These trials were collected at five timepoints throughout their chemotherapy treatment: (1) before initiating chemotherapy to provide a baseline, (2-4) before starting subsequent chemotherapy cycles, and (5) 1-3 months after receiving their last taxane infusion. After the first chemotherapy cycle, patients demonstrated increases in 95% confidence ellipse area of center of pressure (CoP) [45.2%, p=0.01] and root mean squared CoP excursion [18%, p=0.006] compared to baseline values for the eyes closed condition. These balance deficiencies progressed with cumulative taxane exposure. Postural instability persisted 1-3 months after completing chemotherapy with increases in 95% CoP ellipse area [86.8%, p=0.002], root mean squared CoP excursion [32.6%, p=0.001], and mean CoP velocity [30.4%, p=0.024]. The balance impairments demonstrated by patients in this study appear to be clinically relevant when compared to balance impairments previously reported in other patient populations. PMID:27341530

  16. A Pilot Study Evaluating Steroid-Induced Diabetes after Antiemetic Dexamethasone Therapy in Chemotherapy-Treated Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Yusook; Han, Hye Sook; Lee, Hyo Duk; Yang, Jiyoul; Jeong, Jiwon; Choi, Moon Ki; Kwon, Jihyun; Jeon, Hyun-Jung; Oh, Tae-Keun; Lee, Ki Hyeong; Kim, Seung Taik

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Dexamethasone is a mainstay antiemetic regimen for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the incidence of and factors associated with steroid-induced diabetes in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy with dexamethasone as an antiemetic. Materials and Methods Non-diabetic patients with newly diagnosed gastrointestinal cancer who received at least three cycles of highly or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy with dexamethasone as an antiemetic were enrolled. Fasting plasma glucose levels, 2-hour postprandial glucose levels, and hemoglobin A1C tests for the diagnosis of diabetes were performed before chemotherapy and at 3 and 6 months after the start of chemotherapy. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used as an index for measurement of insulin resistance, defined as a HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5. Results Between January 2012 and November 2013, 101 patients with no history of diabetes underwent laboratory tests for assessment of eligibility; 77 of these patients were included in the analysis. Forty-five patients (58.4%) were insulin resistant and 17 (22.1%) developed steroid-induced diabetes at 3 or 6 months after the first chemotherapy, which included dexamethasone as an antiemetic. Multivariate analysis showed significant association of the incidence of steroid-induced diabetes with the cumulative dose of dexamethasone (p=0.049). Conclusion We suggest that development of steroid-induced diabetes after antiemetic dexamethasone therapy occurs in approximately 20% of non-diabetic cancer patients; this is particularly significant for patients receiving high doses of dexamethasone. PMID:26987397

  17. Quantitative Ultrasonic Evaluation of Radiation-Induced Late Tissue Toxicity: Pilot Study of Breast Cancer Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Tian; Zhou Jun; Yoshida, Emi J.; Woodhouse, Shermian A.; Schiff, Peter B.; Wang, Tony J.C.; Lu Zhengfeng; Pile-Spellman, Eliza; Zhang Pengpeng; Kutcher, Gerald J.

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the use of advanced ultrasonic imaging to quantitatively evaluate normal-tissue toxicity in breast-cancer radiation treatment. Methods and Materials: Eighteen breast cancer patients who received radiation treatment were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved clinical study. Radiotherapy involved a radiation dose of 50.0 to 50.4 Gy delivered to the entire breast, followed by an electron boost of 10.0 to 16.0 Gy delivered to the tumor bed. Patients underwent scanning with ultrasound during follow-up, which ranged from 6 to 94 months (median, 22 months) postradiotherapy. Conventional ultrasound images and radio-frequency (RF) echo signals were acquired from treated and untreated breasts. Three ultrasound parameters, namely, skin thickness, Pearson coefficient, and spectral midband fit, were computed from RF signals to measure radiation-induced changes in dermis, hypodermis, and subcutaneous tissue, respectively. Ultrasound parameter values of the treated breast were compared with those of the untreated breast. Ultrasound findings were compared with clinical assessment using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) late-toxicity scores. Results: Significant changes were observed in ultrasonic parameter values of the treated vs. untreated breasts. Average skin thickness increased by 27.3%, from 2.05 {+-} 0.22mm to 2.61 {+-} 0.52mm; Pearson coefficient decreased by 31.7%, from 0.41 {+-} 0.07 to 0.28 {+-} 0.05; and midband fit increased by 94.6%, from -0.92 {+-} 7.35 dB to 0.87 {+-} 6.70 dB. Ultrasound evaluations were consistent with RTOG scores. Conclusions: Quantitative ultrasound provides a noninvasive, objective means of assessing radiation-induced changes to the skin and subcutaneous tissue. This imaging tool will become increasingly valuable as we continue to improve radiation therapy technique.

  18. Cervical Microbiome and Cytokine Profile at Various Stages of Cervical Cancer: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Audirac-Chalifour, Astride; Torres-Poveda, Kirvis; Bahena-Román, Margarita; Téllez-Sosa, Juan; Martínez-Barnetche, Jesús; Cortina-Ceballos, Bernardo; López-Estrada, Guillermina; Delgado-Romero, Karina; Burguete-García, Ana I; Cantú, David; García-Carrancá, Alejandro; Madrid-Marina, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is caused by high-risk human papillomavirus persistence due to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment mediated by cytokines. Vaginal microbiota determines the presence of certain cytokines locally. We assessed the association between cervical microbiota diversity and the histopathological diagnosis of each stage of CC, and we evaluated mRNA cervical expression levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TGF-β1, TNF-α and IFN-γ across the histopathological diagnosis and specific bacterial clusters. We determined the cervical microbiota by high throughput sequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons and classified it in community state types (CST). Mean difference analyses between alpha-diversity and histopathological diagnosis were carried out, as well as a β-diversity analysis within the histological diagnosis. Cervical cytokine mRNA expression was analyzed across the CSTs and the histopathological diagnoses. We found a significant difference in microbiota's diversity in NCL-HPV negative women vs those with squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and CC(p = 0.006, p = 0.036).When β-diversity was evaluated, the CC samples showed the highest variation within groups (p<0.0006) and the largest distance compared to NCL-HPV negative ones (p<0.00001). The predominant bacteria in women with normal cytology were L. crispatus and L. iners, whereas for SIL, it was Sneathia spp. and for CC, Fusobacterium spp. We found higher median cervical levels of IL-4 and TGF-β1 mRNA in the CST dominated by Fusobacterium spp. These results suggest that the cervical microbiota may be implicated in cervical cancer pathology. Further cohort studies are needed to validate these findings.

  19. Cervical Microbiome and Cytokine Profile at Various Stages of Cervical Cancer: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Bahena-Román, Margarita; Téllez-Sosa, Juan; Martínez-Barnetche, Jesús; Cortina-Ceballos, Bernardo; López-Estrada, Guillermina; Delgado-Romero, Karina; Burguete-García, Ana I.; Cantú, David; García-Carrancá, Alejandro; Madrid-Marina, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is caused by high-risk human papillomavirus persistence due to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment mediated by cytokines. Vaginal microbiota determines the presence of certain cytokines locally. We assessed the association between cervical microbiota diversity and the histopathological diagnosis of each stage of CC, and we evaluated mRNA cervical expression levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TGF-β1, TNF-α and IFN-γ across the histopathological diagnosis and specific bacterial clusters. We determined the cervical microbiota by high throughput sequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons and classified it in community state types (CST). Mean difference analyses between alpha-diversity and histopathological diagnosis were carried out, as well as a β-diversity analysis within the histological diagnosis. Cervical cytokine mRNA expression was analyzed across the CSTs and the histopathological diagnoses. We found a significant difference in microbiota's diversity in NCL-HPV negative women vs those with squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and CC(p = 0.006, p = 0.036).When β-diversity was evaluated, the CC samples showed the highest variation within groups (p<0.0006) and the largest distance compared to NCL-HPV negative ones (p<0.00001). The predominant bacteria in women with normal cytology were L. crispatus and L. iners, whereas for SIL, it was Sneathia spp. and for CC, Fusobacterium spp. We found higher median cervical levels of IL-4 and TGF-β1 mRNA in the CST dominated by Fusobacterium spp. These results suggest that the cervical microbiota may be implicated in cervical cancer pathology. Further cohort studies are needed to validate these findings. PMID:27115350

  20. Mitochondrial copy number and risk of breast cancer: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie; Platek, Mary; Mahasneh, Amjad; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Zhao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that the copy number of mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) per cell reflects gene–environment interactions between unknown hereditary factors and exposures affecting levels of oxidative stress. However, whether copy number of mtDNA could be a risk predictor of oxidative stress-related human cancers, such as breast cancer, remains to be determined. To explore the role of mtDNA copy number in breast cancer etiology, we analyzed mtDNA copy number in whole blood from 103 patients with breast cancer and 103 matched control subjects and examined in relation to endogenous antioxidants. Case patients with breast cancer had a statistically significantly higher mtDNA copy number than control subjects (median: 1.29 vs. 0.80, P < 0.01). High mtDNA copy number (above the median in controls) was associated with a statistically significantly increased risk of breast cancer, compared with low copy number (Odds ratio (OR) = 4.67, 95% CI: 2.45–8.92), with a statistically significant dose–response relationship in trend analysis (P < 0.01). Moreover, mtDNA copy number was significantly inversely associated with several important endogenous oxidants and antioxidants in blood in either the cases (total glutathione, CuZn-SOD activity and myeloperoxidase (MPO)) or the controls (catalase (CAT) activity). These results suggest the mtDNA copy number could be associated with risk of breast cancer, perhaps through an oxidative stress mechanism. PMID:19788937

  1. Nutritional Adequacy and Diet Quality in Colorectal Cancer Patients Postsurgery: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Alegria-Lertxundi, Iker; Alvarez, Maider; Rocandio, Ana M; de Pancorbo, Marian M; Arroyo-Izaga, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that an unhealthy diet is associated with a higher risk of tumor recurrence, metastasis, and death among patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The aims of this study were to assess nutritional adequacy and diet quality in a group of CRC patients postsurgery and to identify possible associations between dietary and nutritional aspects and environmental factors and weight status. This was an observational study conducted on a random sample of 74 patients, aged 50-69 years. Dietary intake was evaluated utilizing a validated frequency questionnaire, and diet quality was evaluated utilizing the Healthy Eating Index for Spanish Diet and the MedDietScore. Data regarding socioeconomic, demographic, lifestyles, dietary supplements use, and body mass index were collected. Subjects followed a diet characterized by a low carbohydrate intake (94% of the cases), excessive protein (48%), high fat intake (67%), and some micronutrient deficiencies. The inadequacy of some nutrients was associated with male gender, overweight/obesity, smoking, and low educational level; and low adherence to the MedDiet was identified in those with a low educational level (adjusted odds ratio = 4.16, P < 0.05). Therefore, such patients should be an important target group when applying educational programs and giving individualized nutritional advice to improve their quality of life. PMID:27144653

  2. Symptom monitoring and dependent care during cancer treatment in children: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Phoebe D; Schmideskamp, Jami; Ridder, E Lavonne; Williams, Arthur R

    2006-01-01

    Symptom monitoring by parents/caregivers of children with cancer and what the caregiver and child did to help alleviate symptoms during chemotherapy were studied. The Therapy-Related Symptom Checklist (TRSC) child version was administered to parents/caregivers of 11 children and adolescents (mean age, 10.4 years; SD, 6.1 years; range, 2-18 years; 45% were boys). The Karnofsky scale was completed by clinicians to rate the child's functional status. The TRSC child version and functional status scores were inversely related. All children experienced nausea; the most frequent symptoms reported were in TRSC subscales: fatigue, nausea, eating, fever, oropharynx, pain, and hair loss. Care strategies that helped were distraction, massage, mouth rinses, and vitamins; some reported that their child received medications for pain, nausea, and vomiting. Using complementary medicine categories, the care strategies were diet/nutrition/lifestyle change (eg, more high-fat, high-calorie foods; new foods; any food the child likes; and much sleep and rest); mind/body control (eg, play, video games, television, reading, activity puzzle, breathing exercises, relaxation methods, and prayer); manual healing method (massage and skin-to-skin contact); and biologic treatments (vitamins). The first 2 categories were the most used. Systematic assessment with a self-report checklist enables the provider to identify and prioritize (according to reported severity) those symptoms needing intervention.

  3. Feasibility and preliminary outcomes from a pilot study of coping skills training for adolescent--young adult survivors of childhood cancer and their parents.

    PubMed

    Judge Santacroce, Sheila; Asmus, Kirsten; Kadan-Lottick, Nina; Grey, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainty is a central feature of long-term childhood cancer survivorship during which time it principally has to do with late effects. Therefore, the purposes of this article are (a) to assess feasibility of a randomized clinical trial of a telephone-delivered coping skills training (CST) intervention in terms of recruitment, retention, and timeline, as well as the performance of the study measures; and (b) to demonstrate trends in change on outcomes within the context of a small pilot study. The results of this pilot study suggest that HEROS PLUS CST has clinical relevance and that in-person long-term follow-up plus telephone-delivered psychosocial care is a practical way to deliver integrated care to adolescent-young adult childhood cancer survivors and their parents.

  4. The Pilot Training Study: Advanced Pilot Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, P. J.

    An overview is presented of advanced pilot training and of the formal advanced pilot training program that constitutes the primary means of providing this training. Section I deals with the various phases of advanced pilot training that a pilot may encounter during his career; Section II deals with the types of aircraft that require some form of…

  5. Phase II Pilot Study of Vemurafenib in Patients With Metastatic BRAF-Mutated Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kopetz, Scott; Desai, Jayesh; Chan, Emily; Hecht, Joel Randolph; O'Dwyer, Peter J.; Maru, Dipen; Morris, Van; Janku, Filip; Dasari, Arvind; Chung, Woonbook; Issa, Jean-Pierre J.; Gibbs, Peter; James, Brian; Powis, Garth; Nolop, Keith B.; Bhattacharya, Suman; Saltz, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose BRAF V600E mutation is seen in 5% to 8% of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) and is associated with poor prognosis. Vemurafenib, an oral BRAF V600 inhibitor, has pronounced activity in patients with metastatic melanoma, but its activity in patients with BRAF V600E–positive metastatic CRC was unknown. Patients and Methods In this multi-institutional, open-label study, patients with metastatic CRC with BRAF V600 mutations were recruited to an expansion cohort at the previously determined maximum-tolerated dose of 960 mg orally twice a day. Results Twenty-one patients were enrolled, of whom 20 had received at least one prior metastatic chemotherapy regimen. Grade 3 toxicities included keratoacanthomas, rash, fatigue, and arthralgia. Of the 21 patients treated, one patient had a confirmed partial response (5%; 95% CI, 1% to 24%) and seven other patients had stable disease by RECIST criteria. Median progression-free survival was 2.1 months. Patterns of concurrent mutations, microsatellite instability status, CpG island methylation status, PTEN loss, EGFR expression, and copy number alterations were not associated with clinical benefit. In contrast to prior expectations, concurrent KRAS and NRAS mutations were detected at low allele frequency in a subset of the patients' tumors (median, 0.21% allele frequency) and were apparent mechanisms of acquired resistance in vemurafenib-sensitive patient-derived xenograft models. Conclusion In marked contrast to the results seen in patients with BRAF V600E–mutant melanoma, single-agent vemurafenib did not show meaningful clinical activity in patients with BRAF V600E mutant CRC. Combination strategies are now under development and may be informed by the presence of intratumor heterogeneity of KRAS and NRAS mutations. PMID:26460303

  6. Working Memory Training in Survivors of Pediatric Cancer: A Randomized Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Kristina K.; Willard, Victoria W.; Allen, Taryn M.; Bonner, Melanie J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Survivors of pediatric brain tumors and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at increased risk for neurocognitive deficits, but few empirically-supported treatment options exist. We examined the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a home-based, computerized working memory training program, CogmedRM, with survivors of childhood cancer. Methods Survivors of brain tumors or ALL (n = 20) with identified deficits in attention and/or working memory were randomized to either the success-adapted computer intervention or a non-adaptive, active control condition. Specifically, children in the adaptive condition completed exercises that became more challenging with each correct trial, whereas those in the non-adaptive version trained with exercises that never increased in difficulty. All participants were asked to complete 25 training sessions at home, with weekly, phone-based coaching support. Brief assessments were completed pre- and post-intervention; outcome measures included both performance-based and parent-report measures of working memory and attention. Results Eighty-five percent of survivors were compliant with the intervention, with no adverse events reported. After controlling for baseline intellectual functioning, survivors who completed the intervention program evidenced significant post-training improvements in their visual working memory and in parent-rated learning problems compared with those in the active control group. No differences in verbal working memory functioning were evident between groups, however. Conclusions Home-based, computerized cognitive training demonstrates good feasibility and acceptability in our sample. Children with higher intellectual functioning at baseline appeared to benefit more from the training, though further study is needed to clarify the strength, scope, and particularly the generalizability of potential treatment effects. PMID:23203754

  7. Evaluation of Human Papilloma Virus Communicative Education Strategies: A Pilot Screening Study for Cervical Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera-Clavijo, Lizeth K.; Wiesner-Ceballos, Carolina; Rincón-Martínez, Lina M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: High-risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV) is highly prevalent in sexually active men and women; HR-HPV has been classified as a sexually transmitted infection (STI) and as a necessary, but not sufficient, causal agent for cervical cancer. Women who test positive for HPV often experience serious psychosocial consequences such as fear,…

  8. Smartphone Use for Cervical Cancer Screening in Low-Resource Countries: A Pilot Study Conducted in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Catarino, Rosa; Vassilakos, Pierre; Scaringella, Stefano; Undurraga-Malinverno, Manuela; Meyer-Hamme, Ulrike; Ricard-Gauthier, Dominique; Matute, Juan Carlos; Petignat, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background Visual inspection of the cervix after application of 5% acetic acid (VIA) is a screening technique for cervical cancer used widely in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). To improve VIA screening performance, digital images after acid acetic application (D-VIA) are taken. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a smartphone for on- and off-site D-VIA diagnosis. Materials and Methods Women aged 30–65 years, living in the city of Ambanja, Madagascar, were recruited through a cervical cancer screening campaign. Each performed a human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sample as a primary screen. Women testing positive for HPV were referred for VIA followed by D-VIA, cervical biopsy and endocervical curettage according to routine protocol. In addition, the same day, the D-VIA was emailed to a tertiary care center for immediate assessment. Results were scored as either D-VIA normal or D-VIA abnormal, requiring immediate therapy or referral to a tertiary center. Each of the three off-site physicians were blinded to the result reported by the one on-site physician and each gave their individual assessment followed by a consensus diagnosis. Statistical analyses were conducted using STATA software. Results Of the 332 women recruited, 137 (41.2%) were HPV-positive and recalled for VIA triage; compliance with this invitation was 69.3% (n = 95). Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia was detected in 17.7% and 21.7% of digital images by on-site and off-site physicians, respectively. The on-site physician had a sensitivity of 66.7% (95%CI: 30.0–90.3) and a specificity of 85.7% (95%CI: 76.7–91.6); the off-site physician consensus sensitivity was 66.7% (95%CI: 30.0–90.3) with a specificity of 82.3% (95%CI: 72.4–89.1). Conclusion This pilot study supports the use of telemedicine for off-site diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, with diagnostic performance similar to those achieved on-site. Further studies need to determine if smartphones can improve

  9. A pilot study for a randomized controlled trial to prevent gastric cancer in high-risk Japanese population: study design and feasibility evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tsugane, S; Tsubono, Y; Okubo, S; Hayashi, M; Kakizoe, T

    1996-07-01

    Observational epidemiological studies suggest that some nutrients reduce the risk of gastric cancer and that individuals with atrophic gastritis are at high risk of developing gastric cancer. One possible measure for gastric cancer prevention is therefore nutritional supplementation for the high risk group. Before recommending this strategy for the general public, however, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) is necessary. To evaluate the feasibility of an RCT, the authors conducted a pilot study using recipients of a health check-up program in a general hospital in Japan. The subjects who were asked to participate in the trial had been diagnosed as having atrophic gastritis on the basis of serum pepsinogen I < 70 ng/ml and the ratio of pepsinogen I to II < 3.0. They were requested to ingest double-blinded capsules containing different levels of vitamin C and beta-carotene every day. Out of the 219 subjects (118 males, 101 females) who were eligible for the study and had the required pepsinogen measurement, 90 (41%) met the criteria for atrophic gastritis. Among them, 55 (61%) (35 males, 20 females) gave their informed consent to participate in the RCT. Fifty-four participants completed a 3-month course of supplementation, and all of them agreed to a 5-year supplementation period. The authors concluded that an RCT using double-blinded nutritional supplements and targeting apparently healthy individuals is feasible in an intervention study for cancer prevention in Japan.

  10. Microbial Field Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1990-11-01

    This report covers progress made during the first year of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology and characterization, facility and treatment design, core experiments, bacterial mobility, and mathematical modeling are addressed. To facilitate an understanding of the ecology of the target reservoir analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. A preliminary design of facilities for the operation of the field pilot test was prepared. In addition, procedures for facilities installation and for injection treatments are described. The Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU), the site of the proposed field pilot study, is described physically, historically, and geologically. The fields current status is presented and the ongoing reservoir simulation is discussed. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. Two possible mechanisms, relative permeability effects and changes in the capillary number, are discussed and related to four Berea core experiments' results. The experiments were conducted at reservoir temperature using SEVVSU oil, brine, and bacteria. The movement and activity of bacteria in porous media were investigated by monitoring the growth of bacteria in sandpack cores under no flow conditions. The rate of bacteria advancement through the cores was determined. A mathematical model of the MEOR process has been developed. The model is a three phase, seven species, one dimensional model. Finite difference methods are used for solution. Advection terms in balance equations are represented with a third- order upwind differencing scheme to reduce numerical dispersion and oscillations. The model is applied to a batch fermentation example. 52 refs., 26 figs., 21 tabs.

  11. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been referentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. This report covers progress made during the second year, January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990, of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology, surface facilities design, operation of the unit, core experiments, modeling of microbial processes, and reservoir characterization and simulation are presented in the report. To better understand the ecology of the target reservoir, additional analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. The results of the produced and injected water analysis show increasing sulfide concentrations with respect to time. In March of 1990 Mesa Limited Partnership sold their interest in the SEVVSU to Sullivan and Company. In April, Sullivan and Company assumed operation of the field. The facilities for the field operation of the pilot were refined and implementation was begun. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The experiments were performed at SEVVSU temperature using fluids and inoculum from the unit. The model described in last year's report was further validated using results from a core flood experiment. The model was able to simulate the results of one of the core flood experiments with good quality.

  12. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been referentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. This report covers progress made during the second year, January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990, of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology, surface facilities design, operation of the unit, core experiments, modeling of microbial processes, and reservoir characterization and simulation are presented in the report. To better understand the ecology of the target reservoir, additional analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. The results of the produced and injected water analysis show increasing sulfide concentrations with respect to time. In March of 1990 Mesa Limited Partnership sold their interest in the SEVVSU to Sullivan and Company. In April, Sullivan and Company assumed operation of the field. The facilities for the field operation of the pilot were refined and implementation was begun. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The experiments were performed at SEVVSU temperature using fluids and inoculum from the unit. The model described in last year`s report was further validated using results from a core flood experiment. The model was able to simulate the results of one of the core flood experiments with good quality.

  13. A pilot study of sampling subcutaneous adipose tissue to examine biomarkers of cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Kristin L; Makar, Karen W; Kratz, Mario; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; McTiernan, Anne; Ulrich, Cornelia M

    2009-01-01

    Examination of adipose tissue biology may provide important insight into mechanistic links for the observed association between higher body fat and risk of several types of cancer, in particular colorectal and breast cancer. We tested two different methods of obtaining adipose tissue from healthy individuals. Ten overweight or obese (body mass index, 25-40 kg/m(2)), postmenopausal women were recruited. Two subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue samples were obtained per individual (i.e., right and left lower abdominal regions) using two distinct methods (method A: 14-gauge needle with incision, versus method B: 16-gauge needle without incision). Gene expression was examined at the mRNA level for leptin, adiponectin, aromatase, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in flash-frozen tissue, and at the protein level for leptin, adiponectin, IL-6, and TNF-alpha following short-term culture. Participants preferred biopsy method A and few participants reported any of the usual minor side effects. Gene expression was detectable for leptin, adiponectin, and aromatase, but was below detectable limits for IL-6 and TNF-alpha. For detectable genes, relative gene expression in adipose tissue obtained by methods A and B was similar for adiponectin (r = 0.64, P = 0.06) and leptin (r = 0.80, P = 0.01), but not for aromatase (r = 0.37,P = 0.34). Protein levels in tissue culture supernatant exhibited good intra-assay agreement [coefficient of variation (CV), 1-10%], with less agreement for intraindividual agreement (CV, 17-29%) and reproducibility, following one freeze-thaw cycle (CV, >14%). Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies from healthy, overweight individuals provide adequate amounts for RNA extraction, gene expression, and other assays of relevance to cancer prevention research. PMID:19139016

  14. Incorporating patient preferences into drug development and regulatory decision making: Results from a quantitative pilot study with cancer patients, carers, and regulators.

    PubMed

    Postmus, D; Mavris, M; Hillege, H L; Salmonson, T; Ryll, B; Plate, A; Moulon, I; Eichler, H-G; Bere, N; Pignatti, F

    2016-05-01

    Currently, patient preference studies are not required to be included in marketing authorization applications to regulatory authorities, and the role and methodology for such studies have not been agreed upon. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) conducted a pilot study to gain experience on how the collection of individual preferences can inform the regulatory review. Using a short online questionnaire, ordinal statements regarding the desirability of different outcomes in the treatment of advanced cancer were elicited from 139 participants (98 regulators, 29 patient or carers, and 12 healthcare professionals). This was followed by face-to-face meetings to gather feedback and validate the individual responses. In this article we summarize the EMA pilot study and discuss the role of patient preference studies within the regulatory review. Based on the results, we conclude that our preference elicitation instrument was easy to implement and sufficiently precise to learn about the distribution of the participants' individual preferences. PMID:26715217

  15. A pilot study of carboplatin (JM8, CBDCA) and chlorambucil in combination for advanced ovarian cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Harding, M.; Kennedy, R.; Mill, L.; MacLean, A.; Duncan, I.; Kennedy, J.; Soukop, M.; Kaye, S. B.

    1988-01-01

    Forty-six patients with previously untreated, advanced ovarian cancer received carboplatin (JM8, CBDCA) and chlorambucil (CLB) to assess the efficacy and toxicity of this combination. Carboplatin 300 mg m-2 was given on day 1 with CLB 10 mg daily for 7, 10 or 14 days; 6 treatment courses were given at 4-6 weekly intervals in the absence of disease progression. Tumour response was assessed, where possible, by restaging laparotomy after 6 treatment cycles. Five complete and 16 partial remission were seen in 37 evaluable patients giving an overall response rate of 57%. The median survival of all patients was 15 months. The major toxicity was myelosuppression. Nausea and vomiting were generally minor (WHO, grades I or II) and most courses were given on an outpatient basis. Leucopenia was the major factor causing treatment delays, particularly with the 10 and 14 day CLB regimens. Thrombocytopenia was minimal in the early chemotherapy cycles but the data suggest that cumulative toxicity may occur. This combination may provide a satisfactory degree of efficacy with less toxicity than cisplatin-based regimens. PMID:3064798

  16. High-resolution fiber optic microscopy with fluorescent contrast enhancement for the identification of axillary lymph node metastases in breast cancer: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rosbach, Kelsey J; Shin, Dongsuk; Muldoon, Timothy J; Quraishi, Mohammad A; Middleton, Lavinia P; Hunt, Kelly K; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Yu, Tse-Kuan; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R; Yang, Wei

    2010-01-01

    This prospective pilot study evaluates the potential of high-resolution fiber optic microscopy (HRFM) to identify lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients. 43 lymph nodes were collected from 14 consenting breast cancer patients. Proflavine dye was topically applied to lymph nodes ex vivo to allow visualization of nuclei. 242 images were collected at 105 sites with confirmed histopathologic diagnosis. Quantitative statistical features were calculated from images, assessed with one-way ANOVA, and were used to develop a classification algorithm with the goal of objectively discriminating between normal and metastatic tissue. A classification algorithm using mean image intensity and skewness achieved sensitivity of 79% (27/34) and specificity of 77% (55/71). This study demonstrates the technical feasibility and diagnostic potential of HRFM with fluorescent contrast in the ex vivo evaluation of lymph nodes from breast cancer patients. PMID:21258518

  17. Online Adaptive Radiotherapy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: Results of a Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Foroudi, Farshad; Wong, Jacky; Kron, Tomas; Rolfo, Aldo; Haworth, Annette; Roxby, Paul; Thomas, Jessica; Herschtal, A.; Pham, Daniel; Williams, Scott; Tai, Keen Hun; Duchesne, Gillian

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the advantages and disadvantages of daily online adaptive image-guided radiotherapy (RT) compared with conventional RT for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty-seven patients with T2-T4 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder were treated with daily online adaptive image-guided RT using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). From day 1 daily soft tissue-based isocenter positioning was performed using CBCT images acquired before treatment. Using a composite of the initial planning CT and the first five daily CBCT scans, small, medium, and large adaptive plans were created. Each of these adaptive plans used a 0.5-cm clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume expansion. For Fractions 8-32, treatment involved daily soft tissue-based isocenter positioning and selection of suitable adaptive plan of the day. Treating radiation therapists completed a credentialing program, and one radiation oncologist performed all the contouring. Comparisons were made between adaptive and conventional treatment on the basis of CTV coverage and normal tissue sparing. Results: All 27 patients completed treatment per protocol. Bladder volume decreased with time or fraction number (p < 0.0001). For the adaptive component (Fractions 8-32) the small, medium, large, and conventional plans were used in 9.8%, 49.2%, 39.5%, and 1.5% of fractions, respectively. For the adaptive strategy, 2.7% of occasions resulted in a CTV V95 <99%, compared with 4.8% of occasions for the conventional approach (p = 0.42). Mean volume of normal tissue receiving a dose >45 Gy was 29% (95% confidence interval, 24-35%) less with adaptive RT compared with conventional RT. The mean volume of normal tissue receiving >5 Gy was 15% (95% confidence interval, 11-18%) less with adaptive RT compared with conventional RT. Conclusions: Online adaptive radiotherapy is feasible in an academic radiotherapy center. The volume of normal tissue irradiated can be significantly

  18. Assessment of colorectal cancer incidence among polypropylene pilot plant employees

    SciTech Connect

    Acquavella, J.F.; Owen, C.V. )

    1990-02-01

    Our recent study reported a colorectal cancer excess among workers involved in the manufacture of polypropylene. To follow up on this finding, we initiated a study of colorectal cancer incidence among polypropylene pilot plant workers within the same company. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether colorectal cancer incidence was elevated among workers who may have had exposures similar to those experienced on the commercial production unit. The study population included 183 employees who worked at least 6 months on either of two pilot plants. Overall, there were three observed colorectal cases v. 3.3 expected (standardized incidence ratio = 0.9, 90% confidence interval 0.3 to 2.3). Analyses for the process, mechanic, and laboratory subgroup showed rates consistent with expected values (3 observed, 2.8 expected; standardized incidence ratio = 1.1, 90% confidence interval 0.3 to 2.8). Analyses by duration of employment and latency did not show patterns consistent with the colorectal cancer excess previously reported. The likelihood of lower or different exposures on the pilot plant than would be found on commercial production units is discussed along with the need for studies of workers in other polypropylene manufacturing environments.

  19. Predictors of skin cancer in commercial airline pilots

    PubMed Central

    Swearingen, Christopher J.; Kilmer, Jeffrey B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Skin cancers among commercial airline pilots have been reported to occur at increased rates in pilot populations worldwide. The reasons for these increases are unclear, but postulated factors include ionizing radiation, circadian disruption and leisure sun exposure. Aims To investigate the potential association of these occupational and lifestyle factors, as well as medical history and skin type, with non-melanoma skin cancer in pilots. Methods Data were collected using a confidential Internet survey administered in collaboration with the Air Line Pilots Association International to all active pilots in four US commercial airlines. Pilots with non-melanoma skin cancer were compared to those without using multivariable analysis. Results The response rate was 19%. Among pilots flying <20 years prior to diagnosis, factors associated with increased odds of non-melanoma skin cancer were at-risk skin type, childhood sunburns and family history of non-melanoma skin cancer. Off-duty sunscreen use and family history of melanoma were protective. Among pilots with ≥20 years flight time prior to diagnosis, childhood sunburns and family history of non-melanoma skin cancer persisted as risk factors, with the addition of flight time at high latitude. Conclusions Further investigation regarding the potential health impact of long-term flying at high latitudes is recommended. Additionally, occupational health programmes for pilots should stress awareness of and protection against established risk factors for non-melanoma skin cancer. PMID:19465434

  20. In vivo detection of oral epithelial cancer using endogenous fluorescence lifetime imaging: a pilot human study (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Javier A.; Hwang, Dae Yon; Palma, Jorge; Cheng, Shuna; Cuenca, Rodrigo; Malik, Bilal; Jabbour, Joey; Cheng, Lisa; Wright, John; Maitland, Kristen

    2016-03-01

    Endogenous fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) provides direct access to the concomitant functional and biochemical changes accompanying tissue transition from benign to precancerous and cancerous. Since FLIM can noninvasively measure different and complementary biomarkers of precancer and cancer, we hypothesize that it will aid in clinically detecting early oral epithelial cancer. Our group has recently demonstrated the detection of benign from premalignant and malignant lesions based on endogenous multispectral FLIM in the hamster cheek-pouch model. Encouraged by these positive preliminary results, we have developed a handheld endoscope capable of acquiring multispectral FLIM images in real time from the oral mucosa. This novel FLIM endoscope is being used for imaging clinically suspicious pre-malignant and malignant lesions from patients before undergoing tissue biopsy for histopathological diagnosis of oral epithelial cancer. Our preliminary results thus far are already suggesting the potential of endogenous FLIM for distinguishing a variety of benign lesions from advanced dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). To the best of out knowledge, this is the first in vivo human study aiming to demonstrate the ability to predict the true malignancy of clinically suspicious lesions using endogenous FLIM. If successful, the resulting clinical tool will allow noninvasive real-time detection of epithelial precancerous and cancerous lesions in the oral mucosa and could potentially be used to assist at every step involved on the clinical management of oral cancer patients, from early screening and diagnosis, to treatment and monitoring of recurrence.

  1. Community-based participatory research to improve life quality and clinical outcomes of patients with breast cancer (DianaWeb in Umbria pilot study)

    PubMed Central

    Villarini, Milena; Lanari, Chiara; Nucci, Daniele; Gianfredi, Vincenza; Marzulli, Tiziana; Berrino, Franco; Borgo, Alessandra; Bruno, Eleonora; Gargano, Giuliana; Moretti, Massimo; Villarini, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent cancer in Europe and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has estimated over 460 000 incident cases per year. Survival among patients with BC has increased in the past decades and EUROCARE-5 has estimated a 5-year relative survival rate of 82% for patients diagnosed in 2000–2007. There is growing evidence that lifestyle (such as a diet based on Mediterranean principles associated with moderate physical activity) may influence prognosis of BC; however, this information is not currently available to patients and is not considered in oncology protocols. Only a few epidemiological studies have investigated the role of diet in BC recurrence and metastasis. Methods and analysis DianaWeb is a community-based participatory research dedicated to patients with BC and represents a collaborative effort between participants and research institutions to determine if specified changes in lifestyle would result in improved outcomes in terms of quality of life or survival. The aim of the study is to recruit a large number of participants, to monitor their lifestyle and health status over time, to provide them tips to encourage sustainable lifestyle changes, to analyse clinical outcomes as a function of baseline risk factors and subsequent changes, and to share with patients methodologies and results. DianaWeb uses a specific interactive website (http://www.dianaweb.org/) and, with very few exceptions, all communications will be made through the web. In this paper we describe the pilot study, namely DianaWeb in Umbria. Ethics and dissemination DianaWeb does not interfere with prescribed oncological treatments; rather, it recommends that participants should follow the received prescriptions. The results will be used to plan guidelines for nutrition and physical activity for patients with BC. The pilot study was approved by the ethics committee of the University of Perugia (reference number 2015-002), and is

  2. Paraguayan Education Study: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Patricia

    A qualitative pilot study, guided by an ecological framework, illustrates the complexities involved in studying the unique linguistic situation in Paraguay between Spanish and the indigenous language of Guarani, and its relationship with education. The pilot study interviewing eight kindergarten children. Seventy five children have been…

  3. The safety and efficacy of irreversible electroporation for the ablation of prostate cancer: a multicentre prospective human in vivo pilot study protocol

    PubMed Central

    van den Bos, W; de Bruin, D M; Muller, B G; Varkarakis, I M; Karagiannis, A A; Zondervan, P J; Laguna Pes, M P; Veelo, D P; Savci Heijink, C D; Engelbrecht, M R W; Wijkstra, H; de Reijke, T M; de la Rosette, J J M C H

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Current surgical and ablative treatment options for prostate cancer have a relatively high incidence of side effects, which may diminish the quality of life. The side effects are a consequence of procedure-related damage of the blood vessels, bowel, urethra or neurovascular bundle. Ablation with irreversible electroporation (IRE) has shown to be effective in destroying tumour cells and harbours the advantage of sparing surrounding tissue and vital structures. The aim of the study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy and to acquire data on patient experience of minimally invasive, transperineally image-guided IRE for the focal ablation of prostate cancer. Methods and analysis In this multicentre pilot study, 16 patients with prostate cancer who are scheduled for a radical prostatectomy will undergo an IRE procedure, approximately 30 days prior to the radical prostatectomy. Data as adverse events, side effects, functional outcomes, pain and quality of life will be collected and patients will be controlled at 1 and 2 weeks post-IRE, 1 day preprostatectomy and postprostatectomy. Prior to the IRE procedure and the radical prostatectomy, all patients will undergo a multiparametric MRI and contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the prostate. The efficacy of ablation will be determined by whole mount histopathological examination, which will be correlated with the imaging of the ablation zone. Ethics and dissemination The protocol is approved by the ethics committee at the coordinating centre (Academic Medical Center (AMC) Amsterdam) and by the local Institutional Review Board at the participating centres. Data will be presented at international conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. Conclusions This pilot study will determine the safety and efficacy of IRE in the prostate. It will show the radiological and histopathological effects of IRE ablations and it will provide data to construct an accurate treatment planning tool for IRE in prostate

  4. A Pilot Study of Self-Reported Physical Activity and Eating Habits in Turkish Cancer Patients Under Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gunes-Bayir, Ayse; Kiziltan, Huriye Senay; Sentürk, Nidanur; Mayadaglı, Alpaslan; Gumus, Mahmut

    2015-01-01

    As in all individuals, improving the quality of life, balanced nutrition and physical activity habits must be acquired in cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to determine eating habits and physical activity of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Sixty-six patients were completed the questionnaire included sociodemographic data, type of cancer, anthropometric measurements (size and body weight), dietary and physical activity habits. Body mass index for each patient was calculated. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science software. Patients were ranged from underweight to obese according to their body mass index: 6.1% of patients were classified as underweight. Almost half (48.5%, n = 32) reported to be regularly physical active, and 46.9% (n = 15) thereof reported 30 min brisk walking. More vegetables consumption was the most popular answer with 62.1% (n = 41), whereas vegetables/fruit or vegetables/legume consumption was 22.7% (n = 15). Gender differences in food choice and preferring the taste of food were not seen as statistically significant. In this article, patients with different types of cancer reported their eating habits and physical activity. Disease-related and worse prognostic factors were found. An institutional program should be offered to cancer patients for consulting about nutrition and physical activity. PMID:26134589

  5. A Pilot Study of Self-Reported Physical Activity and Eating Habits in Turkish Cancer Patients Under Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gunes-Bayir, Ayse; Kiziltan, Huriye Senay; Sentürk, Nidanur; Mayadaglı, Alpaslan; Gumus, Mahmut

    2015-01-01

    As in all individuals, improving the quality of life, balanced nutrition and physical activity habits must be acquired in cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to determine eating habits and physical activity of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Sixty-six patients were completed the questionnaire included sociodemographic data, type of cancer, anthropometric measurements (size and body weight), dietary and physical activity habits. Body mass index for each patient was calculated. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science software. Patients were ranged from underweight to obese according to their body mass index: 6.1% of patients were classified as underweight. Almost half (48.5%, n = 32) reported to be regularly physical active, and 46.9% (n = 15) thereof reported 30 min brisk walking. More vegetables consumption was the most popular answer with 62.1% (n = 41), whereas vegetables/fruit or vegetables/legume consumption was 22.7% (n = 15). Gender differences in food choice and preferring the taste of food were not seen as statistically significant. In this article, patients with different types of cancer reported their eating habits and physical activity. Disease-related and worse prognostic factors were found. An institutional program should be offered to cancer patients for consulting about nutrition and physical activity.

  6. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot test in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate-reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been preferentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions or the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. Injection of nutrient stimulates the growth and metabolism of reservoir bacteria, which produces beneficial products to enhance oil recovery. Sometimes, chemical treatments are used to clean or condition injection water. Such a chemical treatment has been initiated by Sullivan and Company at the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit. The unit injection water was treated with a mixture of water, methanol, isopropyl alcohol, and three proprietary chemicals. To determine if the chemicals would have an impact on the pilot, it was important to determine the effects of the chemical additives on the growth and metabolism of the bacteria from wells in this field. Two types of media were used: a mineral salts medium with molasses and nitrate, and this medium with 25 ppm of the treatment chemicals added. Samples were collected anaerobically from each of two wells, 1A-9 and 7-2. A sample from each well was inoculated and cultured in the broth tubes of molasses-nitrate medium with and without the chemicals. Culturing temperature was 35{degrees}C. Absorbance, pressure and cell number were checked to determine if the chemicals affected the growth and metabolism of bacteria in the brine samples. 12 figs.

  7. Effects of Aerobic Exercise and Resistance Training on Stage I and II Breast Cancer Survivors: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Dena; Erck, Elizabeth G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Lack of physical activity has been noted in breast cancer survivors and been attributed to decreased physical function. Purpose: This study assessed the effects of a moderate-to-vigorous physical exercise program on body fat percentage, maximal oxygen consumption (VO[subscript 2] max), body mass index, and bone mineral density (BMD) of…

  8. Double-blind, randomized pilot study of bioadhesive chlorhexidine gel in the prevention and treatment of mucositis induced by chemoradiotherapy of head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Sanchez, Rosa-Maria; Pachón-Ibáñez, Jerónimo; Marín-Conde, Fátima; Rodríguez-Caballero, Ángela; Gutierrez-Perez, Jose-Luis

    2015-01-01

    Background To evaluate, in an initial way, the effectiveness of bioadhesive chlorhexidine gel 0.2% versus placebo as a preventive and therapeutic intervention of oral mucositis induced by radiation therapy and chemotherapy in patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy. Material and Methods In this pilot study, 7 patients (range of age: 18- 65), having histological documented diagnosis of squamous carcinoma on the head and neck region in stage III and IV, and receiving combined radiation treatment and chemotherapy (cisplatin 100 mg/m2 IV on days 1, 22, and 43 of irradiation) were studied. Simultaneously, a topical application was performed with bioadhesive chlorhexidine gel 0.2% in the study group, and the placebo gel for the control group in 5 applications per day, from the time of initiation of cancer treatment to 2 weeks after completion of chemo-radiotherapy treatment (11 weeks of follow-up). The gradation of mucositis, pain, analgesic consumption, infectious complications, and treatment tolerance was measured. Results After 7 patients completed the protocol, any differences were observed between groups in an interval analysis. Mucositis, pain, and tolerance was similar in both groups. Conclusions Our results must be interpreted with caution due to the reduced sample size, but the use of bioadhesive chlorhexidine gel 0.2% didn’t contribute clinical improvement to the oral mucositis induced by radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Key words: Chlorhexidine, mucositis, head and neck cancer. PMID:25662553

  9. Role of NF-κB as a Prognostic Marker in Breast Cancer : A Pilot Study in Indian Patients.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, D K; Jana, Debarshi; Patil, P S; Chaudhari, K S; Chattopadhyay, B K; Chikkala, B R; Mandal, S; Chowdhary, P

    2013-09-01

    The nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is a superfamily of transcription factors. It plays an important role in development & progression of cancer. This study was conducted in a tertiary care centre to investigate the significance of NF-κB as a prognostic marker in breast cancer and study its relation with established prognostic markers such as tumor grade, lymph node status, hormone receptor & HER-2/neu expression. We measured NF-κB expression of breast cancer tissue as a test sample & from fibroadenoma as a control. Measurement was done by Western Blot Technique using p65 protein of NF-κB super family of transcription factors. ER,PR and HER-2/neu were measured by immunohistochemistry methods. NF-κB/p65 is significantly associated with large tumor size (≥5 cm), high grade tumors, negative ER, negative PR, positive HER-2/neu and high NPI (≥5.4) scores. NF-κB/p65 expression implies aggressive biological behaviour of breast cancer & this study validates significant association of NF-κB /p65 overexpression with large tumor size, negative estrogen & progesterone receptor status and overexpression of c-erbB2 oncoprotein. PMID:24426730

  10. Using tablet-based technology in patient education about systemic therapy options for early-stage breast cancer: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, E.R.; Laing, K.; McCarthy, J.; McCrate, F.; Seal, M.D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient education in early-stage breast cancer has been shown to improve patient well-being and quality of life, but it poses a challenge given the increasingly complex regimens and time constraints in clinical practice. Technology-aided teaching in the clinic could help to improve the understanding of adjuvant systemic therapy for patients. In this prospective pilot study, we used a clinician-administered, tablet-based teaching aid to teach patients with early-stage breast cancer about adjuvant systemic therapy. Methods Participation was offered to newly diagnosed patients with early-stage breast cancer presenting for their first medical oncology visit at a provincial cancer centre. Participants were shown a tablet-based presentation describing procedures, rationales, risks, and benefits of adjuvant systemic therapy as an adjunct to a discussion with the medical oncologist. After the clinic visit, participants completed a questionnaire measuring satisfaction with the visit and knowledge of the treatment plan discussed. Results The 25 patients recruited for the study had a mean age of 57 years. An offer of upfront chemotherapy alone was made to 12 participants (48%), chemotherapy with trastuzumab to 4 (16%), and hormonal therapy to 9 (36%). Correct answers to all questions related to treatment knowledge were given by 22 patients (88%). Satisfaction with the clinic visit was high (mean satisfaction score: 4.53 ± 0.1 of a possible 5). Conclusions We found that a tablet-based presentation about adjuvant systemic therapy was satisfactory to patients with early-stage breast cancer and that knowledge retention after the clinic visit was high. Tablet-based teaching could be a feasible and effective way of educating patients in the breast oncology clinic and warrants further investigation in randomized studies. PMID:26628877

  11. Stimulation of natural killer cells by homoeopathic complexes: an in vitro and in vivo pilot study in advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Toliopoulos, Ioannis K; Simos, Yannis; Bougiouklis, Dimitrios; Oikonomidis, Stergios

    2013-12-01

    The present study was designed in order to evaluate the effects of five homoeopathic complex preparations on functional activity natural killer cells (NKCs) in advanced cancer patients. We examined the effects of Coenzyme Compositum®, Ubichinon Compositum®, Glyoxal Compositum®, Katalysatoren® and Traumeel® on the functional activity of NKCs. Experimental procedures included in vitro and in vivo trials. The in vitro trials were performed in NKCs isolated from 12 healthy volunteers (aged 44 ± 4 years) and incubated with the five homoeopathic complex preparations. The in vivo trials were performed in 15 advanced cancer patients (aged 55 ± 12 years) supplemented for 3 months with the homoeopathic preparations. All five homoeopathic preparations significantly increased the cytotoxic activity of the NKCs at the lowest NKCs/target cell ratio 12:1 (p < 0·05). The order of activity was: Ubichinon Compositum® > Glyoxal Compositum® > Katalysatoren® > Traumeel® > Coenzyme Compositum®. In the advanced cancer patients, the homoeopathic preparation significantly increased NKCs cytotoxic activity (p < 0·05). The homoeopathic complex preparations tested in this study can be used as an adjuvant immunotherapy in advanced cancer patients.

  12. Viable tumor volume: volume of interest within segmented metastatic lesions, a pilot study of proposed computed tomography response criteria for urothelial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Folio, Les Roger; Turkbey, Evrim B.; Steinberg, Seth M.; Apolo, Andrea B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the ability of new computed tomography (CT) response criteria for solid tumors such as urothelial cancer (VTV; viable tumor volume) to predict overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic bladder cancer treated with cabozantinib. Materials and Methods We compared the relative capabilities of VTV, RECIST, MASS (morphology, attenuation, size, and structure), and Choi criteria, as well as volume measurements, to predict OS using serial follow-up contrast-enhanced CT exams in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma. Kaplan-Meier curves and 2-tailed log-rank tests compared OS based on early RECIST 1.1 response against each of the other criteria. A Cox proportional hazards model assessed response at follow-up exams as a time-varying covariate for OS. Results We assessed 141 lesions in 55 CT scans from 17 patients with urothelial metastasis, comparing VTV, RECIST, MASS, and Choi criteria, and volumetric measurements, for response assessment. Median follow-up was 4.5 months, range was 2–14 months. Only the VTV criteria demonstrated a statistical association with OS (p = 0.019; median OS 9.7 vs. 3.5 months). Conclusion This pilot study suggests that VTV is a promising tool for assessing tumor response and predicting OS, using criteria that incorporate tumor volume and density in patients receiving antiangiogenic therapy for urothelial cancer. Larger studies are warranted to validate these findings. PMID:26149529

  13. Utilization of an Anti-Gravity Treadmill in a Physical Activity Program with Female Breast Cancer Survivors: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    FAIRMAN, CIARAN M.; KENDALL, KRISTINA L.; HARRIS, BRANDONN S.; CRANDALL, KENNETH J.; MCMILLAN, JIM

    2016-01-01

    Breast Cancer survivors can experience a myriad of physical and psychological benefits as a result of regular exercise. This study aimed to build on previous research using lower impact exercise programs by using an antigravity (Alter-G®) treadmill to administer cardiovascular training. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness a physical activity program, including an Alter-G® treadmill, for improving physiological and psychosocial measures in female breast cancer survivors. A 14-week intervention using an AB-AB study design was employed. Six female breast cancer survivors were recruited to participate in the study. Participants attended three 60-minute sessions per week, consisting of a combination of muscular strength/endurance, and cardiovascular endurance exercises. Consistent with current literature and guidelines, exercise interventions were individualized and tailored to suit individuals. Data was collected and analyzed in 2013. Visual inspection of results found improvements in cardiovascular endurance and measures of body composition. Quality of life was maintained and in some cases, improved. Finally, no adverse effects were reported from the participants, and adherence to the program for those who completed the study was 97%. The results of this study suggest that the use of a physical activity program in combination with an Alter-G® treadmill may provide practical and meaningful improvements in measures of cardiovascular endurance and body composition. PMID:27293508

  14. Social inequalities and cancer: can the European deprivation index predict patients' difficulties in health care access? a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Moriceau, Guillaume; Bourmaud, Aurélie; Tinquaut, Fabien; Oriol, Mathieu; Jacquin, Jean-Philippe; Fournel, Pierre; Magné, Nicolas; Chauvin, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Context The European Deprivation Index (EDI), is a new ecological estimate for Socio-Economic Status (SES). This study postulates that Time-To-Treatment could be used as a cancer quality-of -care surrogate in order to identify the association between cancer patient's SES and quality of care in a French comprehensive cancer center. Methods retrospective mono-centered cohort study. All consecutive incoming adult patients diagnosed for breast cancer(BC), prostate cancer(PC), colorectal cancer (CRC), lung cancer(LC) or sarcoma(S) were included between January 2013 and December 2013. The association of EDI and Time-To-Diagnosis(TTD), as well as Time-To-Treatment(TTT) was analyzed using a cox regression, and a strata analysis per tumor site was performed. Results 969 patients were included. Primitive tumor site was 505 BC(52%), 169 PC(17%), 145 LC(15%), 116 CRC(12%), and 34 S(4%). Median TTD was 1.41 months (Q1-Q3 0.5 to 3.5 months). Median TTT was 0.9 months (0.4 - 1.4). In a multivariate analysis, we identified the tumor site as a predictive factor to influence TTD, shorter for BC (0.75months, [0.30- 1.9]) than PC (4.69 months [1.6-29.7]), HR 0.27 95%CI= [0.22-0.34], p < 0.001. TTT was also shorter for BC (0.75months [0.4-1.1]) than PC (2.02 [0.9-3.2]), HR 0.32 95%CI= [0.27-0.39], p < 0.001. EDI quintiles were not found associated with either TTT or TTD. Conclusions Deprivation estimated by the EDI does not appear to be related to an extension of the Time-to-Diagnosis or Time-to-Treatment in our real-life population. Further research should be done to identify other frailty-sensitive factors that could be responsible for delays in care. PMID:26540571

  15. A pilot study of an online cognitive rehabilitation program for executive function skills in children with cancer-related brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Kesler, Shelli R.; Lacayo, Norman J.; Jo, Booil

    2011-01-01

    Primary objectives Children with a history of cancer are at increased risk for cognitive impairments, particularly in executive and memory domains. Traditional, in-person cognitive rehabilitation strategies may be unavailable and/or impractical for many of these children given difficulties related to resources and health status. The feasibility and efficacy of implementing a computerized, home-based cognitive rehabilitation curriculum designed to improve executive function skills was examined in these children. Methods A one-arm open trial pilot study of an original executive function cognitive rehabilitation curriculum was conducted with 23 paediatric cancer survivors aged 7–19. Results Compliance with the cognitive rehabilitation program was 83%, similar to that of many traditional programs. Following the cognitive intervention, participants showed significantly increased processing speed, cognitive flexibility, verbal and visual declarative memory scores as well as significantly increased pre-frontal cortex activation compared to baseline. Conclusions These results suggest that a program of computerized cognitive exercises can be successfully implemented at home in young children with cancer. These exercises may be effective for improving executive and memory skills in this group, with concurrent changes in neurobiologic status. PMID:21142826

  16. Case management vocational rehabilitation for women with breast cancer after surgery: a feasibility study incorporating a pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of methodologically robust vocational rehabilitation (VR) intervention trials. This study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of a VR trial of women with breast cancer to inform the development of a larger interventional study. Methods Women were recruited in Scotland and randomised to either a case management VR service or to usual care. Data were collected on eligibility, recruitment and attrition rates to assess trial feasibility, and interviews conducted to determine trial acceptability. Sick leave days (primary outcome) were self-reported via postal questionnaire every 4 weeks during the first 6 months post-surgery and at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures were change in employment pattern, quality of life and fatigue. Results Of the 1,114 women assessed for eligibility, 163 (15%) were eligible. The main reason for ineligibility was age (>65 years, n = 637, 67%). Of those eligible, 111 (68%) received study information, of which 23 (21%) consented to participate in the study. Data for 18 (78%) women were analysed (intervention: n = 7; control: n = 11). Participants in the intervention group reported, on average, 53 fewer days of sick leave over the first 6 months post-surgery than those in the control group; however, this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.122; 95% confidence interval −15.8, 122.0). No statistically significant differences were found for secondary outcomes. Interviews with trial participants indicated that trial procedures, including recruitment, randomisation and research instruments, were acceptable. Conclusions Conducting a pragmatic trial of effectiveness of a VR intervention among cancer survivors is both feasible and acceptable, but more research about the exact components of a VR intervention and choice of outcomes to measure effectiveness is required. VR to assist breast cancer patients in the return to work process is an important component of cancer survivorship plans. Trial

  17. Kinesiology Taping reduces lymphedema of the upper extremity in women after breast cancer treatment: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Rosseger, Agnieszka; Hanuszkiewicz, Justyna; Woźniewski, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Secondary lymphedema affects approximately 40% of women treated for breast cancer and is recognized as a major problem associated with the therapy of malignant tumors. Consequently, new therapeutic methods are constantly being sought to effectively eliminate the condition. One of the new forms of edema management, especially in the initial stages of edematous development, is Kinesiology Taping (KT). Aim of the study The aim of the study was to assess the effects of KT applications on the extent of lymphedema of the upper extremity in women post cancer treatment. Material and methods The study group consisted of 28 women after axillary lymphadenectomy due to breast cancer. All the patients were diagnosed with grade I secondary lymphedema. Kinesiology Taping was applied to a total of 14 randomly selected women. The remaining 14 patients constituted a control group. The extent of lymphedema was measured using a centimeter tape and Limb Volumes Professional 5.0 software. Results A significant reduction in the extent of lymphedema (p = 0.0009) was achieved in the KT group between baseline and post-treatment assessments. No such reduction, however, was found in the control group (p = 0.36). Conclusions Kinesiology Taping applications are an effective method of early-stage edema management. Kinesiology Taping may be a safe new therapeutic option in patients who are contraindicated for the use of other methods. PMID:26327858

  18. Massage therapy alone and in combination with meditation for breast cancer patients undergoing autologous tissue reconstruction: A randomized pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dion, Liza J; Engen, Deborah J; Lemaine, Valerie; Lawson, Donna K; Brock, Charise G; Thomley, Barbara S; Cha, Stephen S; Sood, Amit; Bauer, Brent A; Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L

    2016-05-01

    This study explored whether massage combined with meditation is more helpful than massage alone for women recovering from autologous tissue reconstruction after mastectomy for breast cancer. Forty patients were randomly assigned to either massage therapy or massage plus meditation on postoperative days 1 through 3. Outcome measures were 1) visual analog scale (VAS) scores for stress, anxiety, relaxation, insomnia, alertness, fatigue, tension, pain, mood, and energy, and 2) Perceived Stress Scale-14 scores. Nineteen patients in each group finished the study. Preintervention and postintervention mean total VAS scores improved significantly in both groups (P < .001), but no significant difference occurred between groups. PMID:25986296

  19. A pilot study to investigate if New Zealand men with prostate cancer benefit from a Mediterranean-style diet

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Karen S.; Karunasinghe, Nishi; Han, Dug Yeo; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoma of the prostate is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the third leading cause of mortality in New Zealand men, making it a significant health issue in this country. Global distribution patterns suggest that diet and lifestyle factors may be linked to the development and progression of this cancer. Twenty men with diagnosed prostate cancer adhered to a Mediterranean diet, with specific adaptations, for three months. Prostate-specific antigen, C-reactive protein and DNA damage were evaluated at baseline and after three months of following the diet. Dietary data were collated from diet diaries and an adaptation of a validated Mediterranean diet questionnaire. A significant reduction in DNA damage compared to baseline was apparent, with particular benefit noted for overall adherence to the diet (p = 0.013), increased intake of folate (p = 0.023), vitamin C (p = 0.007), legumes (p = 0.004) and green tea (p = 0.002). Higher intakes of red meat and dairy products were inversely associated with DNA damage (p = 0.003 and p = 0.008 respectively). The results from this small feasibility study suggest that a high-antioxidant diet, modelled on Mediterranean traditions, may be of benefit for men with prostate cancer. Protection against DNA damage appears to be associated with the diet implemented, ostensibly due to reduction in reactive oxidant species. These findings warrant further exploration in a longer trial, with a larger cohort. PMID:26157638

  20. Serum Oxidative Stress Markers and Genotoxic Profile Induced by Chemotherapy in Patients with Breast Cancer: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Júnior, Antonio Luiz Gomes; Paz, Marcia Fernanda Correia Jardim; da Silva, Laís Iasmin Soares; Carvalho, Simone da Costa e Silva; Sobral, André Luiz Pinho; Machado, Kátia da Conceição; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Satyal, Prabodh; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes; Cavalcante, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxidative parameters of erythrocytes and genotoxicity in leukocytes of patients with breast cancer. Oxidative parameters were detected by spectrophotometry and genotoxic damage by single cell gel electrophoresis. Twenty-eight women with breast cancer were monitored before chemotherapy and after the second and fourth cycles of therapy with cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin. After the fourth cycle, increases (P < 0.05) in the reactive substances to thiobarbituric acid levels, nitrite content, and superoxide dismutase activity and high rates of DNA damage in leukocytes were observed when compared with healthy women group and baseline levels. Similarly, after the second cycle, the same parameters were increased (P < 0.05) when compared with baseline levels. Increase in catalase activity was detected only after the fourth cycle and reduced glutathione levels and glutathione peroxidase activity were decreased in all cycles when compared with healthy women, as well as after the second and fourth chemotherapy cycles compared to baseline (P < 0.05). Patients with breast cancer presented an indicative of oxidative stress before, during, and after chemotherapy, as well as increased genotoxic damage in all stages of treatment, demonstrating the clinical applicability of this investigation. PMID:26576218

  1. The effect of laughter therapy on radiation dermatitis in patients with breast cancer: a single-blind prospective pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Moonkyoo; Shin, Sung Hee; Lee, Eunmi; Yun, Eun Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    Background There have not yet been any published studies on the effects of laughter therapy on radiation-induced dermatitis in breast cancer patients treated with radiotherapy (RT). We assessed the effectiveness of laughter therapy in preventing radiation dermatitis in patients with breast cancer. Methods Thirty-seven patients were prospectively enrolled in this study. Eighteen patients were assigned to the experimental group and the other 19 patients were assigned to the control group. The patients who were assigned to the experimental group received laughter therapy during RT. Laughter therapy was started at the onset of RT and was provided twice a week until completion of RT. The patients who were assigned to the control group only received RT without laughter therapy. The grade of radiation dermatitis was scored by a radiation oncologist who was blinded to subject assignment. The patients’ evaluation of pain within the RT field was also assessed. Results In the experimental group, radiation dermatitis of grade 3, 2, and 1 developed in five (33.3%), five (33.3%), and five patients (33.3%), respectively. In comparison, in the control group, radiation dermatitis of grade 3, 2, 1, and 0 developed in seven (36.8%), nine (47.4%), two (10.5%), and one patient (5.3%), respectively. The experimental group exhibited a lower incidence of grade 2 or worse radiation dermatitis than the control group (33.3% versus 47.4%). The mean maximal pain scores in the experimental and control group were 2.53 and 3.95, respectively. The experimental group complained of less severe pain than the control group during RT. However, these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion The results of this study show that laughter therapy can have a beneficial role in preventing radiation dermatitis in patients with breast cancer. To confirm the results of our study, well-designed randomized studies with large sample sizes are required. PMID:25395864

  2. Is referral of postsurgical colorectal cancer survivors to cardiac rehabilitation feasible and acceptable? A pragmatic pilot randomised controlled trial with embedded qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Gill; Adams, Richard; Campbell, Anna; Kidd, Lisa; Leslie, Stephen J; Munro, Julie; Watson, Angus

    2016-01-01

    Objectives (1) Assess whether cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a feasible and acceptable model of rehabilitation for postsurgical colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors, (2) evaluate trial procedures. This article reports the results of the first objective. Design and setting A pragmatic pilot randomised controlled trial with embedded qualitative study was conducted in 3 UK hospitals with CR facilities. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise trial parameters indicative of intervention feasibility and acceptability. Interviews and focus groups were conducted and data analysed thematically. Participants People with CRC were considered for inclusion in the trial if they were ≥18 years old, diagnosed with primary CRC and in the recovery period postsurgery (they could still be receiving adjuvant therapy). 31% (n=41) of all eligible CRC survivors consented to participate in the trial. 22 of these CRC survivors, and 8 people with cardiovascular disease (CVD), 5 CRC nurses and 6 CR clinicians participated in the qualitative study. Intervention Referral of postsurgical CRC survivors to weekly CR exercise classes and information sessions. Classes included CRC survivors and people with CVD. CR nurses and physiotherapists were given training about cancer and exercise. Results Barriers to CR were protracted recoveries from surgery, ongoing treatments and poor mobility. No adverse events were reported during the trial, suggesting that CR is safe. 62% of participants completed the intervention as per protocol and had high levels of attendance. 20 health professionals attended the cancer and exercise training course, rating it as excellent. Participants perceived that CR increased CRC survivors’ confidence and motivation to exercise, and offered peer support. CR professionals were concerned about CR capacity to accommodate cancer survivors and their ability to provide psychosocial support to this group of patients. Conclusions CR is feasible and acceptable for postsurgical

  3. The effect of prospective monitoring and early physiotherapy intervention on arm morbidity following surgery for breast cancer: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Chiara; De Vera, Mary; Campbell, Kristin L

    2013-01-01

    Objectif : Un taux de morbidité considérable est constaté à la suite de chirurgie pour le cancer du sein, et malgré cela, la physiothérapie ne constitue pas un aspect habituel des soins. Cette étude vise à comparer l'effet d'une ligne de soins cliniques qui comprend une éducation préopératoire, un suivi prospectif et de la physiothérapie précoce (à titre expérimental) à l'éducation préopératoire seule (comparaison) sur la morbidité du bras après une chirurgie de cancer du sein. Méthodologie : Une étude prospective quasi expérimentale prétest, post-test, avec groupe témoin non équivalent a été utilisée pour comparer deux sites cliniques, dont le site A a reçu l'intervention (n=41) et le site B, l'intervention de contrôle (n=31). Initialement (en phase préopératoire) et en phase postopératoire après 7 mois, l'amplitude articulaire (ADM) de l'épaule, la force du membre supérieur, la circonférence du membre supérieur, la douleur et la fonction du membre supérieur ainsi que la qualité de vie ont été évaluées. Résultats : Le groupe expérimental a pu maintenir une ADM de l'épaule en flexion à 7 mois, alors que l'amplitude articulaire avait diminué dans le groupe de comparaison (moyen [écart-type] 1° [9°] comparativement à −6° [15°], p=0,03). Une plus faible incidence de morbidité du bras et une meilleure qualité de vie ont été observées dans le groupe expérimental comparativement au groupe de comparaison; toutefois, les conclusions obtenues ne sont pas significatives sur le plan statistique. Les caractéristiques initiales et les approches chirurgicales différaient dans les deux sites, ce qui pourrait avoir influé sur les résultats obtenus. Conclusion : Les résultats initiaux sont prometteurs et appuient la faisabilité de l'intégration d'une approche de surveillance aux soins de suivi. Cette étude pilote pourrait fournir les bases d'un essai plus important et plus concluant.

  4. Framework for planning and conducting pilot studies.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lisa Janette; Harrison, Margaret B

    2009-12-01

    Researchers working with partners in home care to plan a pragmatic multicenter community-based, randomized, controlled trial for leg ulcer compression treatment realized a smaller pilot study would be necessary. Because no framework for conducting pilot studies could be found, the authors developed a framework for pilot study methodology to inform the planning of such research. To this end, an integrative literature review was conducted, guided by an explicit search strategy, retrieval procedures, and appraisal process, to identify recognized pilot study aims, processes, and methodologies used in previously reported community pilot studies. Factors influencing study inclusion were recognized pilot study aims and purposes and a concise working definition of pilot study. Methodologies used in previously conducted community pilot studies were reviewed. Although relevant published research was limited, 11 pilot studies met the inclusion criteria for this review and contained suggestions to further develop or improve plans for larger definitive trials to enable a better fit of protocols within the delivery systems and scopes of practice. Pilot research processes could be divided into two stages: early planning and pilot trial. Direction for procedures and methods was gained relative to planning for an effective pilot study regarding eligibility, recruitment and data collection, management, and analysis. The results were used to develop an organizing framework for the authors' pilot study and named the Pilot Research Process (PReP) Framework. The process was instrumental in working with the authors' research team and clinical partners in the planning of their leg ulcer treatment pilot study. This framework may provide a foundation for others to analyze or develop a pilot study methodology in planning a large-scale study. PMID:20038790

  5. Metaphor use and health literacy: a pilot study of strategies to explain randomization in cancer clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Janice L; Parrott, Roxanne L; Nussbaum, Jon F

    2011-01-01

    Patients often have difficulty understanding what randomization is and why it is needed in Phase III clinical trials. Physicians commonly report using metaphorical language to convey the role of chance in being assignment to treatment; however, the effectiveness of this strategy as an educational tool has not been explored. Guided by W. McGuire's (1972) information-processing model, the purpose of this pilot study was to explore effects of metaphors to explain randomization on message acceptance and behavioral intention to participate in a Phase III clinical trial among a sample of low-income, rural women (N = 64). Participants were randomly assigned to watch a video that explained randomization using 1 of 3 message strategies: a low-literacy definition, standard metaphor (i.e., flip of a coin), or a culturally derived metaphor (i.e., sex of a baby). The influence of attention on behavioral intentions to participate in clinical trials was partially moderated by message strategy. Under conditions of low attention, participants in the culturally derived metaphor condition experienced significantly higher intentions to participate in clinical trials compared with participants in the standard metaphor condition. However, as attention increased, differences in intentions among the conditions diminished. Having a positive affective response to the randomization message was a strong, positive predictor of behavioral intentions to participate in clinical trials. The authors discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

  6. Mature autologous dendritic cell vaccines in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a phase I pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Overall therapeutic outcomes of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are poor. The dendritic cell (DC) immunotherapy has been developed as a new strategy for the treatment of lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety and immunologic responses in use in mature, antigen-pulsed autologous DC vaccine in NSCLC patients. Methods Five HLA-A2 patients with inoperable stage III or IV NSCLC were selected to receive two doses of 5 × 107 DC cells administered subcutaneous and intravenously two times at two week intervals. The immunologic response, safety and tolerability to the vaccine were evaluated by the lymphoproliferation assay and clinical and laboratorial evolution, respectively. Results The dose of the vaccine has shown to be safe and well tolerated. The lymphoproliferation assay showed an improvement in the specific immune response after the immunization, with a significant response after the second dose (p = 0.005). This response was not long lasting and a tendency to reduction two weeks after the second dose of the vaccine was observed. Two patients had a survival almost twice greater than the expected average and were the only ones that expressed HER-2 and CEA together. Conclusion Despite the small sample size, the results on the immune response, safety and tolerability, combined with the results of other studies, are encouraging to the conduction of a large clinical trial with multiples doses in patients with early lung cancer who underwent surgical treatment. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN45563569 PMID:21682877

  7. A pilot, quasi-experimental, mixed methods investigation into the efficacy of a group psychotherapy intervention for caregivers of outpatients with cancer: the COPE study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Mahendran, Rathi; Tan, Joyce Yi Siang; Griva, Konstadina; Lim, Haikel Asyraf; Ng, Hui Ying; Chua, Joanne; Lim, Siew Eng; Kua, Ee Heok

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite the rising trend of cancer prevalence and increase in family caregiving, little attention has been paid to the efficacy of psychosocial interventions among Asian caregiver samples, particularly support groups, given the benefits that have been shown in studies on Western populations. This trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a pilot 4-week group psychotherapy for Singaporean family caregivers of patients receiving outpatient care. Methods and analysis Facilitated by a clinical psychologist, this intervention is primarily based on the brief integrative psychological therapy with a supportive-expressive intent. Participants will be recruited while they are accompanying their care recipients for outpatient consultations. Since this is a pilot study, a sample size of 120 participants is targeted on the basis of sample sizes of previous studies. The study adopts a quasi-experimental design, as participants are assigned the intervention or control arms based on their availability to attend the intervention. A mixed methods approach is used to evaluate the outcomes of the intervention. A self-administered battery of tests is completed at four time points: baseline, postintervention and follow-up at 1-month and 2-month postinterventions; semi-structured interviews are conducted at baseline and post-intervention. Primary outcomes are quality of life and anxious and depressive symptoms; secondary outcomes are stress and basic psychological needs. Analysis using analysis of covariance would be conducted to determine the effectiveness of the intervention. Ethics and dissemination This study protocol has ethics approval from the National Healthcare Group Domain Specific Review Board (NHG DSRB Ref: 2013/00662). Written informed consent is obtained from every participant. Results will be disseminated through journals and conferences, and will be particularly relevant for clinicians intending to implement similar support groups to address the

  8. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, A.; Moses, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Currently on the International Space Station (ISS) and other space vehicles Caution & Warning (C&W) alerts are represented with various auditory tones that correspond to the type of event. This system relies on the crew's ability to remember what each tone represents in a high stress, high workload environment when responding to the alert. Furthermore, crew receive a year or more in advance of the mission that makes remembering the semantic meaning of the alerts more difficult. The current system works for missions conducted close to Earth where ground operators can assist as needed. On long duration missions, however, they will need to work off-nominal events autonomously. There is evidence that speech alarms may be easier and faster to recognize, especially during an off-nominal event. The Information Presentation Directed Research Project (FY07-FY09) funded by the Human Research Program included several studies investigating C&W alerts. The studies evaluated tone alerts currently in use with NASA flight deck displays along with candidate speech alerts. A follow-on study used four types of speech alerts to investigate how quickly various types of auditory alerts with and without a speech component - either at the beginning or at the end of the tone - can be identified. Even though crew were familiar with the tone alert from training or direct mission experience, alerts starting with a speech component were identified faster than alerts starting with a tone. The current study replicated the results from the previous study in a more rigorous experimental design to determine if the candidate speech alarms are ready for transition to operations or if more research is needed. Four types of alarms (caution, warning, fire, and depressurization) were presented to participants in both tone and speech formats in laboratory settings and later in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA). In the laboratory study, the alerts were presented by software and participants were

  9. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Moses, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    Speech alarms have been used extensively in aviation and included in International Building Codes (IBC) and National Fire Protection Association's (NFPA) Life Safety Code. However, they have not been implemented on space vehicles. Previous studies conducted at NASA JSC showed that speech alarms lead to faster identification and higher accuracy. This research evaluated updated speech and tone alerts in a laboratory environment and in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) in a realistic setup.

  10. Pilot study assessing 18F-fluorothymidine PET/CT in cervical and vaginal cancers before and after external beam radiation☆

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Linda P.; Kim, Chun K.; Viswanathan, Akila N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The role of F-18-fluorothymidine (FLT) PET-CT imaging in the evaluation of gynecologic cancers has not been established. We sought to evaluate (FLT) PET-CT imaging in gynecologic cancers by comparing standard uptake values (SUVs) of FLT with F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET in the primary tumor at diagnosis, and assess FLT uptake immediately following concurrent chemoradiotherapy (chemoRT). Methods In this pilot study, patients treated for cervical (5) or vaginal (1) cancer underwent FLT-PET and FDG-PET scanning at diagnosis (FLT1 and FDG1). Five patients (4 cervical and 1 vaginal) also underwent FLT-PET within 1–3 weeks after chemoRT before brachytherapy (FLT2). Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare the FLT1 and FDG1 parameters. Results Median age at diagnosis was 61-years (range, 33–72). Cervical cancers were staged as IB2 (n = 1, 20%), IIB (n = 1, 20%), IIIB (n = 1, 20%) and IVA (n = 2, 40%) and the single vaginal cancer was staged IIIB. The most common histology was squamous cell carcinoma (n = 3, 50%) followed by adenocarcinoma (n = 2, 33%) and clear-cell adenosquamous carcinoma (n = 1, 17%). Median tumor SUVmax at diagnosis was 7.8 on FLT1-PET (3.9–14.2) versus 11.6 (5.9–23.2) on FDG1-PET (p = 0.15). Tumor SUVmax of FLT declined 54%–100% after chemoRT. Conclusion The tumor SUV of FLT at diagnosis was lower than that of FDG-PET. FLT uptake was markedly decreased after chemoRT. Results indicate that there may not be a significant effect of inflammation on FLT uptake in gynecologic cancers. FLT may be a useful tool when assessing the effects of chemoRT on gynecologic malignancies and planning for postchemoRT brachytherapy treatments. PMID:26793770

  11. Effects of Qigong Training on Health-Related Quality of Life, Functioning, and Cancer-Related Symptoms in Survivors of Nasopharyngeal Cancer: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Shirley S. M.; Ng, Shamay S. M.; Luk, W. S.; Chung, Louisa M. Y.; Wong, Janet Y. H.; Chung, Joanne W. Y.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of Qigong intervention on quality of life (QOL), health-related functioning, and cancer-related symptoms in survivors of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). Twenty-five survivors of NPC were included in the experimental group (mean age ± SD: 55.4 ± 7.5 years) and 27 in the control group (mean age ± SD: 58.7 ± 9.5 years). The experimental group underwent a weekly 1.5-hour Qigong training program and an identical home program (three times/week) for six months. The control group received no training. Global health status/QOL, functioning, and cancer-related symptoms were assessed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-H&N35 questionnaires before training began, after three months of Qigong training, at the end of the six-month Qigong intervention (i.e., posttest), and six months posttest. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no statistically (P > 0.05) or clinically significant improvement in global health status/QOL, functioning, or symptoms in either group. The experimental group had 45.8% fewer sense-related (smell and taste) problems (P < 0.05) but 98.6% more speech-related problems (P < 0.05) than the control group after the Qigong intervention. Qigong training resulted in no apparent improvement in health-related QOL, functionality, or cancer-related symptoms in cancer-free survivors of NPC, except for a possible reduction in smell- and taste-related problems. PMID:24971148

  12. Pilot study of Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng) to improve cancer-related fatigue: a randomized, double-blind, dose-finding evaluation: NCCTG trial N03CA

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Debra L.; Soori, Gamini S.; Bauer, Brent A.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Johnson, Patricia A.; Figueras, Cesar; Duane, Steven; Mattar, Bassam; Liu, Heshan; Atherton, Pamela J.; Christensen, Bradley; Loprinzi, Charles L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This pilot trial sought to investigate whether any of three doses of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) might help cancer-related fatigue. A secondary aim was to evaluate toxicity. Methods Eligible adults with cancer were randomized in a double-blind manner, to receive American ginseng in doses of 750, 1,000, or 2,000 mg/day or placebo given in twice daily dosing over 8 weeks. Outcome measures included the Brief Fatigue Inventory, vitality subscale of the Medical Outcome Scale Short Form-36 (SF-36), and the Global Impression of Benefit Scale at 4 and 8 weeks. Results Two hundred ninety patients were accrued to this trial. Nonsignificant trends for all outcomes were seen in favor of the 1,000- and 2,000-mg/day doses of American ginseng. Area under the curve analysis of activity interference from the Brief Fatigue Inventory was 460–467 in the placebo group and 750 mg/day group versus 480–551 in the 1,000- and 2,000-mg/day arms, respectively. Change from baseline in the vitality subscale of the SF-36 was 7.3– 7.8 in the placebo and the 750-mg/day arm, versus 10.5– 14.6 in the 1,000- and 2,000-mg/day arms. Over twice as many patients on ginseng perceived a benefit and were satisfied with treatment over those on placebo. There were no significant differences in any measured toxicities between any of the arms. Conclusion There appears to be some activity and tolerable toxicity at 1,000–2,000 mg/day doses of American ginseng with regard to cancer-related fatigue. Thus, further study of American ginseng is warranted. PMID:19415341

  13. Assessing Heavy Metal and PCB Exposure from Tap Water by Measuring Levels in Plasma from Sporadic Breast Cancer Patients, a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Zimeri, Anne Marie; Robb, Sara Wagner; Hassan, Sayed M; Hire, Rupali R; Davis, Melissa B

    2015-12-09

    Breast cancer (BrCA) is the most common cancer affecting women around the world. However, it does not arise from the same causative agent among all women. Genetic markers have been associated with heritable or familial breast cancers, which may or may not be confounded by environmental factors, whereas sporadic breast cancer cases are more likely attributable to environmental exposures. Approximately 85% of women diagnosed with BrCA have no family history of the disease. Given this overwhelming bias, more plausible etiologic mechanisms should be investigated to accurately assess a woman's risk of acquiring breast cancer. It is known that breast cancer risk is highly influenced by exogenous environmental cues altering cancer genes either by genotoxic mechanisms (DNA mutations) or otherwise. Risk assessment should comprehensively incorporate exposures to exogenous factors that are linked to a woman's individual susceptibility. However, the exact role that some environmental agents (EA) play in tumor formation and/or cancer gene regulation is unclear. In this pilot project, we begin a multi-disciplinary approach to investigate the intersection of environmental exposures, cancer gene response, and BrCA risk. Here, we present data that show environmental exposure to heavy metals and PCBs in drinking water, heavy metal presence in plasma of nine patients with sporadic BrCA, and Toxic Release Inventory and geological data for a metal of concern, uranium, in Northeast Georgia.

  14. Assessing Heavy Metal and PCB Exposure from Tap Water by Measuring Levels in Plasma from Sporadic Breast Cancer Patients, a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Zimeri, Anne Marie; Robb, Sara Wagner; Hassan, Sayed M.; Hire, Rupali R.; Davis, Melissa B.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer (BrCA) is the most common cancer affecting women around the world. However, it does not arise from the same causative agent among all women. Genetic markers have been associated with heritable or familial breast cancers, which may or may not be confounded by environmental factors, whereas sporadic breast cancer cases are more likely attributable to environmental exposures. Approximately 85% of women diagnosed with BrCA have no family history of the disease. Given this overwhelming bias, more plausible etiologic mechanisms should be investigated to accurately assess a woman’s risk of acquiring breast cancer. It is known that breast cancer risk is highly influenced by exogenous environmental cues altering cancer genes either by genotoxic mechanisms (DNA mutations) or otherwise. Risk assessment should comprehensively incorporate exposures to exogenous factors that are linked to a woman’s individual susceptibility. However, the exact role that some environmental agents (EA) play in tumor formation and/or cancer gene regulation is unclear. In this pilot project, we begin a multi-disciplinary approach to investigate the intersection of environmental exposures, cancer gene response, and BrCA risk. Here, we present data that show environmental exposure to heavy metals and PCBs in drinking water, heavy metal presence in plasma of nine patients with sporadic BrCA, and Toxic Release Inventory and geological data for a metal of concern, uranium, in Northeast Georgia. PMID:26690196

  15. Assessing Heavy Metal and PCB Exposure from Tap Water by Measuring Levels in Plasma from Sporadic Breast Cancer Patients, a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Zimeri, Anne Marie; Robb, Sara Wagner; Hassan, Sayed M; Hire, Rupali R; Davis, Melissa B

    2015-12-01

    Breast cancer (BrCA) is the most common cancer affecting women around the world. However, it does not arise from the same causative agent among all women. Genetic markers have been associated with heritable or familial breast cancers, which may or may not be confounded by environmental factors, whereas sporadic breast cancer cases are more likely attributable to environmental exposures. Approximately 85% of women diagnosed with BrCA have no family history of the disease. Given this overwhelming bias, more plausible etiologic mechanisms should be investigated to accurately assess a woman's risk of acquiring breast cancer. It is known that breast cancer risk is highly influenced by exogenous environmental cues altering cancer genes either by genotoxic mechanisms (DNA mutations) or otherwise. Risk assessment should comprehensively incorporate exposures to exogenous factors that are linked to a woman's individual susceptibility. However, the exact role that some environmental agents (EA) play in tumor formation and/or cancer gene regulation is unclear. In this pilot project, we begin a multi-disciplinary approach to investigate the intersection of environmental exposures, cancer gene response, and BrCA risk. Here, we present data that show environmental exposure to heavy metals and PCBs in drinking water, heavy metal presence in plasma of nine patients with sporadic BrCA, and Toxic Release Inventory and geological data for a metal of concern, uranium, in Northeast Georgia. PMID:26690196

  16. Effect of nebulized colistin on the ventilator circuit: a prospective pilot case- control study from a single cancer center.

    PubMed

    Ghonimat, Iyad M; Nazer, Lama H; Aqel, Flsteen; Mohammad, Mohammad K; Hawari, Feras I; Le, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Nebulized colistin (NC) is used for the treatment of pneumonia due to multidrug- resistant Gram-negative bacteria. In this one-year case-control study, our objective was to evaluate the effect of NC on the ventilator circuit (VC) components. The case group consisted of 25 mechanically-ventilated patients who received NC for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia while the control group was 25 mechanically-ventilated patients who did not receive NC. Respiratory therapists inspected the VC every 4 hrs and whenever a ventilator alarm was reported. The VC component was changed if the alarm did not subside after necessary measures were performed. Patients from both groups were treated at the adult medical/surgical intensive care unit at King Hussein Cancer Center. In the case group, 22 (88%) patients required changing at least one of the circuit components (flow sensor, exhalation membrane, or nebulizer kit). The median number of changes (range) per patient of the flow sensor, exhalation membrane, and nebulizer kit were: 2 (1-3), 2 (1-6), and 1 (1-2), respectively. Large amounts of white crystals, which resembled the colistin powder, were reported on the replaced VC components. The flow sensor was changed in 2 control patients, but white crystals were absent. Crystals obtained from one case subject were confirmed to be colistin by chromatographic mass spectroscopy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of crystal formation on the efficacy of NC and clinical outcomes.

  17. Photodetection of early human bladder cancer based on the fluorescence of 5-aminolaevulinic acid hexylester-induced protoporphyrin IX: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Lange, N; Jichlinski, P; Zellweger, M; Forrer, M; Marti, A; Guillou, L; Kucera, P; Wagnières, G; Bergh, H van den

    1999-01-01

    Exogenous administration of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) is becoming widely used to enhance the endogenous synthesis of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in photodynamic therapy (PDT) and fluorescence photodetection (PD). Recently, results have shown that the chemical modification of ALA into its more lipophilic esters circumvents limitations of ALA-induced PpIX like shallow penetration depth into deep tissue layers and inhomogeneous biodistribution and enhances the total PpIX formation. The present clinical pilot study assesses the feasibility and the advantages of a topical ALA ester-based fluorescence photodetection in the human bladder. In this preliminary study 5-aminolaevulinic acid hexylester (h-ALA) solutions, containing concentrations ranging from 4 to 16 mM, were applied intravesically to 25 patients. Effects of time and drug dose on the resulting PpIX fluorescence level were determined in vivo with an optical fibre-based spectrofluorometer. Neither local nor systemic side-effects were observed for the applied conditions. All conditions used yielded a preferential PpIX accumulation in the neoplastic tissue. Our clinical investigations indicate that with h-ALA a twofold increase of PpIX fluorescence intensity can be observed using 20-fold lower concentrations as compared to ALA. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10389995

  18. Arsenic exposure and human papillomavirus response in non-melanoma skin cancer Mexican patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rosales-Castillo, J Alberto; Acosta-Saavedra, Leonor C; Torres, Rosantina; Ochoa-Fierro, Jesús; Borja-Aburto, Víctor H; Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo G; Gurrola, Georgina B; Cebrian, Mariano E; Calderón-Aranda, Emma S

    2004-08-01

    We assessed the relationships between chronic arsenic (As) exposure, human papilloma virus (HPV) contact and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) by means of a dermatology clinic-based case-control study (42 cases and 48 controls) in Region Lagunera, Mexico, where chronic As poisoning is endemic. Exposure was determined through detailed history of residence in the As-contaminated area and measurement of As levels in drinking water and urine. We used a consensus epitope from the central region of L1 protein of the HPV family to determine antibodies against HPV. A history of As exposure and HPV seropositivity were associated with increased NMSC risks. A history of exposure to high levels of As increased the risk for NMSC (OR = 4.53; P = 0.11) in the group of seronegative HPV patients. A positive response to HPV significantly increased the OR for NMSC to 9.04 (P = 0.01) when history showed exposure to low levels of As. Interestingly, the OR was significantly increased to 16.5 (P = 0.001) when both exposure to high levels of As and HPV seropositivity were present. In addition, the presence of NMSC increased the OR (5.45; P = 0.03) for a positive response to HPV when history showed exposure to low levels of As, but the OR was increased to 8.0 (P = 0.005) in the cases with high exposure levels. Thus, HPV infection could constitute an additional risk factor for NMSC development in humans chronically exposed to As. However, further studies with additional populations are needed to determine the interaction between HPV and As exposure in NMSC.

  19. [Studies on evaluation of risk factors of cancer by a large-scale cohort study newly organized in Japan--planning and pilot study].

    PubMed

    Aoki, K; Sasaki, R

    1990-02-01

    A large-scale cohort study has been planned in cooperation of 22 epidemiologists in Japan since 1986. The objective of this new cohort aged more than 40, consisting the inhabitants throughout Japan is to evaluate risk factors of cancer already known and suspected agents in so rapidly changing society of Japan where age-sex contraction of population, disease pattern and lifestyle habits have remarkably changing for the last decades. The factors examined are not only social factors but also biological ones from blood, serum and other body fluids. At the same time serum bank of healthy inhabitants in Japan is established in this study.

  20. A pilot study on concurrent platinum chemotherapy and intracavitary brachytherapy for locally advanced cancer of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Koumantakis, E; Haralambakis, Z; Koukourakis, M; Mazonakis, M; Haldeopoulos, D; Papageorgiou, N; Livas, V; Froudarakis, G; Varveris, H

    1998-05-01

    This study aims to evaluate the feasibility, toxicity and efficacy of concurrent chemotherapy with platinum compounds and brachytherapy, for locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix (Stages IIA/B, IIIA). The hypothesis was that synchronous chemo-brachytherapy may be sufficient to cause down-staging of the tumour, to render it operable, and hopefully improve the prognosis. 36 women with locally advanced cervical cancer were treated with concomitant brachytherapy and chemotherapy before surgery and/or definitive external radiotherapy. All patients received two caesium-137 Selectron MDR applications, 1 week apart. The dose calculated to point A for each implant was 20-25 Gy. Chemotherapy consisting of continuous cisplatin infusion (50 mg m2) and of carboplatin (300 mg m-2) was given simultaneously with intracavitary irradiation during the first and second application, respectively. The combined therapy was followed when feasible by radical hysterectomy, pelvic lymphadenectomy and pelvic radiotherapy. Patients deemed ineligible for surgery because of poor response were given full dose external radiotherapy. 31/36 patients were treated by Wertheim hysterectomy of whom 10 had negative lymph nodes and resection margins. Definitive external radiotherapy was given in the remaining five patients. Overall, 83% were disease free at 2.8 years mean follow-up. The most frequent acute side-effects of chemobrachytherapy were nausea and vomiting. No renal toxicity was observed. Thrombocytopenia was seen in five patients and was responsible for delayed surgery in four patients. Concerning late effects, two patients developed grade 2 intestinal sequelae, two mild frequency and two vaginal stenosis. One rectovaginal and one vesicovaginal fistula developed in two patients; and a third patient had a fistula associated with tumour recurrence. Concurrent brachytherapy and chemotherapy with platinum compounds is well tolerated and effective in reducing tumour bulk before definitive local

  1. Periodontal Health in Women with Early Stage Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Newly on Aromatase Inhibitors: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Taichman, LS; Inglehart, MR; Giannobile, W; Braun, T; Kolenic, G; Van Poznak, C

    2015-01-01

    Background Aromatase inhibitor (AI) use results in low estrogen levels which in turn affect bone mineral density (BMD). Periodontitis, alveolar bone loss, and tooth loss are associated with low BMD. The goal of this study was to assess the prevalence of periodontitis, perceived oral health, and evaluate salivary biomarkers in postmenopausal women who are early stage (I-IIIA) breast cancer (BCa) survivors and receive adjuvant AI therapy. Methods Participants included 58 postmenopausal women; 29 with BCa on AIs and 29 controls without BCa diagnoses. Baseline periodontal status was assessed with: (1) periodontal pocket depth (PD); (2) bleeding on probing (BOP); and (3) attachment loss (AL). Demographic and dental utilization information was gathered by questionnaire. Linear regression modeling was used to analyze the outcomes. Results No differences in mean PD or the number of teeth were found. The AI group had significantly more sites with BOP (27.8 vs. 16.7; p = 0.02), higher worst-site AL (5.2 mm vs. 4.0 mm; p < 0.01) and more sites with dental calculus than did controls (18.2 vs. 6.4; p < 0.001). Linear regression adjusted for income, tobacco use, and dental insurance, and previous radiation and chemotherapy exposure demonstrated AI use increased CAL over 2 mm (95% CI: 0.46 -3.92). Median salivary osteocalcin and Tumor Necrosis Factor levels were significantly higher in the BCa group than the control group. Conclusions This first investigation of the periodontal status of women initiating adjuvant AI therapy identifies this population as having an increased risk for periodontitis (NCT1272570). PMID:25672657

  2. Modulation of Breast Cancer Risk Biomarkers by High Dose Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Phase II Pilot Study in Pre-menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Fabian, Carol J; Kimler, Bruce F.; Phillips, Teresa A.; Box, Jessica A.; Kreutzjans, Amy L.; Carlson, Susan E.; Hidaka, Brandon H.; Metheny, Trina; Zalles, Carola M.; Mills, Gordon B.; Powers, Kandy R.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Petroff, Brian K.; Hensing, Whitney L.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Hursting, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Higher intakes of the omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) relative to the omega-6 arachidonic acid (AA) have been variably associated with reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer. The purpose of this pilot trial was to assess feasibility and explore effects of high dose EPA and DHA on blood and benign breast tissue risk biomarkers prior to design of a placebo controlled Phase IIB trial. Premenopausal women with evidence of hyperplasia +/- atypia by baseline random periareolar fine needle aspiration (RPFNA) were given 1860 mg of EPA + 1500 mg of DHA ethyl esters daily for 6 months. Blood and benign breast tissue were sampled during the same menstrual cycle phase pre-study and a median of 3 weeks after last dose. Additional blood was obtained within 24 hours of last dose. Feasibility which was pre-defined as 50% uptake, 85% retention and 70% compliance, was demonstrated with 46% uptake, 94% completion, and 85% compliance. Cytologic atypia decreased from 77 to 38% (p=0.002), and Ki-67 from a median of 2.1 to 1.0 % (p=0.021) with an increase in the ratio of EPA + DHA to AA in erythrocyte phospholipids but no change in blood hormones, adipokines, or cytokines. Exploratory breast proteomics assessment showed decreases in several proteins involved in hormone and cytokine signaling with mixed effects on those in the AKT/mTOR pathways. Further investigation of EPA plus DHA for breast cancer prevention in a placebo controlled trial in premenopausal women is warranted. PMID:26276744

  3. Feasibility of self-sampling and human papillomavirus testing for cervical cancer screening in First Nation women from Northwest Ontario, Canada: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zehbe, Ingeborg; Moeller, Helle; Severini, Alberto; Weaver, Bruce; Escott, Nicholas; Bell, Crystal; Crawford, Sandra; Bannon, Diane; Paavola, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Background The incidence of cervical cancer is up to sixfold higher among First Nation women in Canada than in the general population. This is probably due to lower participation rates in cervical cancer prevention programmes. Objective To raise screening participation in this underserved population by launching an alternative approach to (Pap)anicolaou testing in a clinic-namely, vaginal self-sampling followed by human papillomavirus (HPV) diagnostics. Methods Good relationships were established with a First Nation community of the Northern Superior region in Northwest Ontario, and then 49 community women, aged 25-59, were recruited, who provided a vaginal self-sample and answered a questionnaire. Frequency distributions and cross-tabulations were used to summarise the data. Associations between categorical variables were assessed using the χ(2) test of association, or the Goodman-Kruskal γ if both variables had ordered categories. Self-collected samples were tested for integrity and HPV using optimised molecular biological methods. Results The majority of participants (87.2%) were amenable to future HPV screening by self-sampling. This finding was independent of age, educational level and a previous history of abnormal Pap tests. Interestingly, the preferred way to learn about sexual health remained through interaction with healthcare professionals. As defined by the presence of a housekeeping gene, self-sample integrity was high (96%). Using polymerase chain reaction-based Luminex typing, the overall HPV positivity was 28.6% (ie, with either a low- or high-risk type) and 16.3% were infected with a high-risk type such as HPV16. Conclusion In this pilot study of First Nation women, self-sampling and HPV testing was well received and self-sample quality was excellent. A larger survey to be conducted in other Northern Superior communities in Northwest Ontario will determine whether this approach could become a viable screening strategy for First Nation women. PMID

  4. Effects of a community-based multimodal exercise program on physical function and quality of life in cancer survivors: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Foley, Michael P; Barnes, Vernon A; Hasson, Scott M

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this single-arm pilot study was to examine the effects of a community-based multimodal exercise program on: physical function (Timed-Up-and-Go [TUG], 6-min walk test [6MWT], leg and chest press strength, and functional reach [FR]); and quality of life, QoL [FACT-G]), in cancer survivors. Fifty-nine cancer survivors (91.5% female; mean age 59 ± 12 years) completed supervised exercise training for 90 min twice weekly for 12 weeks. Exercise training consisted of 30 min of each of the following: (1) aerobic conditioning; (2) resistance training; and (3) balance and flexibility training. Pre-post-outcome measures were compared for statistically significant differences (p < 0.01) and were related to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Model. Effect sizes (ES), minimal clinically important differences, and minimal detectable change at 90% confidence intervals were calculated. Participants decreased TUG time by 21.1% and walked 15.5% farther during 6-MWT (p < 0.001). Leg and chest press strength increased by 34.5% and 32.7%, respectively (p < 0.001). FR increased by 15.1% (p < 0.001). Significant improvements for physical well-being (13.9%), emotional well-being (6.7%), functional well-being (13.0%), and total well-being (9.6%) were found (p < 0.01). Improvements in physical function and QoL showed "moderate to large" ESs indicating improvements in physical function and QoL are clinically meaningful.

  5. A Hybrid Approach Using Case-Based Reasoning and Rule-Based Reasoning to Support Cancer Diagnosis: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Renata M; Bezerra, João; Perkusich, Mirko; Almeida, Hyggo; Siebra, Clauirton

    2015-01-01

    Recently there has been an increasing interest in applying information technology to support the diagnosis of diseases such as cancer. In this paper, we present a hybrid approach using case-based reasoning (CBR) and rule-based reasoning (RBR) to support cancer diagnosis. We used symptoms, signs, and personal information from patients as inputs to our model. To form specialized diagnoses, we used rules to define the input factors' importance according to the patient's characteristics. The model's output presents the probability of the patient having a type of cancer. To carry out this research, we had the approval of the ethics committee at Napoleão Laureano Hospital, in João Pessoa, Brazil. To define our model's cases, we collected real patient data at Napoleão Laureano Hospital. To define our model's rules and weights, we researched specialized literature and interviewed health professional. To validate our model, we used K-fold cross validation with the data collected at Napoleão Laureano Hospital. The results showed that our approach is an effective CBR system to diagnose cancer. PMID:26262174

  6. 90% Compliance Pilot Studies Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    In early 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced an opportunity for states to participate in energy code compliance evaluation pilot studies. DOE worked with five Regional Energy Efficiency Organizations (REEOs, formerly referred to as Energy Efficiency Partnerships, or EEPs) to fund pilot studies covering nine states. This report details conclusions stated in individual state reports, as well as conclusions drawn by DOE based on their oversight of the pilot studies, and based on discussions held with the REEOs and representatives from the pilot study states and their contractors.

  7. Classroom acoustics: Three pilot studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smaldino, Joseph J.

    2005-04-01

    This paper summarizes three related pilot projects designed to focus on the possible effects of classroom acoustics on fine auditory discrimination as it relates to language acquisition, especially English as a second language. The first study investigated the influence of improving the signal-to-noise ratio on the differentiation of English phonemes. The results showed better differentiation with better signal-to-noise ratio. The second studied speech perception in noise by young adults for whom English was a second language. The outcome indicated that the second language learners required a better signal-to-noise ratio to perform equally to the native language participants. The last study surveyed the acoustic conditions of preschool and day care classrooms, wherein first and second language learning occurs. The survey suggested an unfavorable acoustic environment for language learning.

  8. Will More Diversified Staffs Diversify Newspaper Content? A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedler, Fred; and Others

    A pilot study asked 94 students enrolled in introductory newswriting classes at three separate universities to evaluate 18 news stories. About half the stories concerned topics that proponents of multiculturalism have suggested would receive more emphasis if newspapers employed more women and minorities: topics such as breast cancer, divorce,…

  9. Responses to online GSTM1 genetic test results among smokers related to patients with lung cancer: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Saskia C; O'Neill, Suzanne C; White, Della Brown; Bepler, Gerold; Bastian, Lori; Lipkus, Isaac M; McBride, Colleen M

    2009-07-01

    Providing smokers with personal genetic test results indicating increased lung cancer risk may increase uptake of effective smoking cessation services. Using the internet may increase reach and enable real-time assessment of how people process genetic risk information away from the clinic setting. We therefore explored smokers' responses to Web-delivered GSTM1 genetic test results indicating higher or lower lung cancer risk. Participants were smokers (n = 44) biologically related to patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer. Measures were assessed at baseline, before and immediately after receipt of online genetic test results, and at 6-month follow-up. Outcomes included accurate comprehension of results, regret about being tested, cessation-related cognitions (e.g., perceived response efficacy), and uptake of free smoking cessation services (nicotine replacement therapy, printed self-help materials, telephone counseling sessions). Twenty-two "relative smokers" received a GSTM1-missing (higher risk) and 22 a GSTM1-present (lower risk) result. All relative smokers with GSTM1-missing results and 55% of those with GSTM1-present results accurately interpreted their results. No relative smokers regretted having taken the test. Relative smokers receiving GSTM1-missing results reported lower confidence that quitting could reduce lung cancer risk (perceived response efficacy) than those receiving GSTM1-present results. There were no other significant between-group differences. Uptake of smoking cessation services was high (e.g., 91% nicotine replacement therapy uptake). Genetic test results may not influence uptake of free smoking cessation services because of ceiling effects. Further research is needed to determine the risks and benefits of Web-based disclosure of genetic test results.

  10. An exploratory pilot study of palliative medicine compared to anesthesia-pain consultation for pain in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Pachman, Deirdre R; Swetz, Keith M; Mauck, William D; Pingree, Matthew J; Hoelzer, Bryan C; Haugland, Anita J; Novotny, Paul J; Sloan, Jeff A; Moynihan, Timothy J; Rho, Richard H

    2011-01-01

    Oncologists often manage cancer-associated symptoms including pain. When symptoms are severe, anesthesia-pain medicine (APM) and/or palliative medicine (PM) can effectively treat symptoms. Nevertheless, symptom management may be suboptimal, leading to diminished quality of life (QOL). We assessed the value of PM vs. APM consultation in cancer patients referred for pain management alone. Patients referred to an APM-based Cancer Pain Clinic (CPC) over an 8-month period were evaluated by PM or APM based on the first available appointment. Symptoms and QOL were assessed by the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory and Linear Analog Self-Assessment at baseline and 4-6 weeks after initial encounter. Data were analyzed on an available-case basis. Sixty-two patients (37 PM, 25 APM) completed the initial survey, with 48 patients (31 PM, 17 APM) completing followup. Mean pain score improved from 7.97 to 5.47 in the PM group (P < 0.0001) and from 7.1 to 4.5 (P = 0.29) in the APM group. The PM group demonstrated a clinically significant improvement in 8/19 symptoms vs. 3/19 in the APM group and in 3/5 QOL parameters in the PM group vs. 1/5 in the APM group. Our small sample size weakens our power and ability to detect significant differences between the groups. Only one follow-up symptom-assessment point was obtained. PM consultation is as effective as APM in improving cancer pain but may be more effective with symptom management and improving QOL. PMID:21702403

  11. Phospholipid makeup of the breast adipose tissue is impacted by obesity and mammary cancer in the mouse: Results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Michael; Perez, Osvaldo; Martinez, Mitchell; Santander, Ana M; Mendez, Armando J; Nadji, Mehrdad; Nayer, Ali; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy; Torroella-Kouri, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Obesity, an established risk factor for breast cancer (BC), is associated with systemic inflammation. The breast contains adipose tissue (bAT), yet whether it plays a role in BC progression in obese females is being intensively studied. There is scarce knowledge on the lipid composition of bAT in health and disease. The purpose of this pilot study was: 1) to determine whether obesity and BC are associated with inflammatory changes in bAT 2) to analyze for the first time the lipid profile of bAT in obese and lean mammary tumor-bearing and normal mice. Syngeneic E0771 mammary tumor cells were implanted into the mammary fat pad of lean and diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice. BATs were analyzed four weeks after tumor cell inoculation by immunohistochemistry and mass spectrometry. Phospholipids were identified and subjected to ratiometric quantification using a TSQ Quantum Access Max triple quadrupole mass spectrometer utilizing precursor ion scan or neutral ion loss scan employing appropriate class specific lipid standards in a two step quantification process. Four main classes of phospholipids were analyzed: phosphatidylcholines phosphatidylserines, phosphatidylethanolamines and phosphatidylinositols. Our results showed that bAT in obese (normal and tumor-bearing) mice contained hypertrophic adipocytes compared with their corresponding samples in lean mice; higher numbers of macrophages and crown-like structures were observed in obese tumor bearers compared to obese normal mice. BAT from normal obese mice revealed higher concentrations of phosphatidylethanolamines. Furthermore, bAT from tumor-bearing mice expressed higher phosphatidylcholines than that from non-tumor bearing mice, suggesting the presence of the tumor is associated with phosphatidylcholines. Conversion of phosphatidylethanolamines to phosphatidylcholines will be investigated in E0771 cells. Additional studies are projected to investigate macrophage activation by these specific classes of phospholipids

  12. Preoperative concurrent radiation therapy and cisplatinum continuous infusion in IIIa (N2) non small cell lung cancer. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Maggi, G; Casadio, C; Cianci, R; Oliaro, A; Molinatti, M; Bretti, S; Clerico, M; Boidi-Trotti, A; Rovea, P

    1994-08-01

    From April 1991 to September 1993, 18 patients affected by a presumed operable IIIa (N2) non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with histologically confirmed bulky mediastinal metastases, received preoperative concurrent radiation therapy and continuous infusion of cisplatinum (CDDP). The radiotherapy consisted of 2 Gy given 5 days a week for a total dose of 50 Gy; CDDP was administered by means of a central catheter and a portable pump at the daily dose of 6 mg/m2 given on the same days as the radiation therapy (total dose: 150 mg/m2). Two weeks after the end of the treatment, the patients were reevaluated: 5 patients had either local or distant disease progression, the other 13 were submitted to thoracotomy: 12 received a complete resection and 1 patient underwent only a mediastinal lymphadenectomy, because pneumonectomy was impossible due to lack of respiratory function. No histological evidence of cancer cells was observed in the specimens of 6 patients (33%). Radiological response rate was 61% (11/18); resection rate was 66% (12/18) and complete resection rate was 61% (11/18). There was one postoperative death (5%). The 3 year actuarial survival rate is 63.6% for the patients who received a resection with a median survival time of 18 months. All non operated patients died within one year. Combined preoperative treatment was well tolerated. Better results were achieved in patients with squamous cell carcinoma who had a complete resection following a total tumor sterilization with radio-chemotherapy.

  13. A pilot study of fiberscopy-guided local injection of anti-cancer drugs bound to carbon particles for control of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, A; Hirata, Y; Takahashi, T

    1998-04-01

    Rectal cancer patients with contra-indicatory risks may not be able to undergo surgery. In these cases the preferred treatment is chemotherapy. The present dosage formulation, consisting of an anti-cancer drug bound to activated carbon particles, was designed to deliver the anti-cancer drug at high concentration selectively to the injection site as well as to the regional lymph nodes and to improve survival of mice bearing cancer with nodal metastases, as compared to the same dose of aqueous anti-cancer drug in animal experiments. The present clinical trial includes two patients with histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the rectum and who had risks contra-indicating surgery. Carbon particles adsorbing anti-cancer drugs totaling 400 mg of methotrexate and 32 mg of mitomycin C in one patient and 100 mg of methotrexate and 8 mg of mitomycin C in another patient were injected into the cancer tissue under guidance of a colono-fiberscope. The rectal cancers were successfully reduced in size and controlled over 2 years or 6 months until the patients died from other causes. Side effect was mild. Local injection of this dosage formulation will be useful for the control of rectal cancer in patients who cannot undergo surgery. PMID:9635928

  14. Preoperative concurrent radiation therapy and cisplatinum continuous infusion in IIIa (N2) non small cell lung cancer. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Maggi, G; Casadio, C; Cianci, R; Oliaro, A; Molinatti, M; Bretti, S; Clerico, M; Boidi-Trotti, A; Rovea, P

    1994-08-01

    From April 1991 to September 1993, 18 patients affected by a presumed operable IIIa (N2) non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with histologically confirmed bulky mediastinal metastases, received preoperative concurrent radiation therapy and continuous infusion of cisplatinum (CDDP). The radiotherapy consisted of 2 Gy given 5 days a week for a total dose of 50 Gy; CDDP was administered by means of a central catheter and a portable pump at the daily dose of 6 mg/m2 given on the same days as the radiation therapy (total dose: 150 mg/m2). Two weeks after the end of the treatment, the patients were reevaluated: 5 patients had either local or distant disease progression, the other 13 were submitted to thoracotomy: 12 received a complete resection and 1 patient underwent only a mediastinal lymphadenectomy, because pneumonectomy was impossible due to lack of respiratory function. No histological evidence of cancer cells was observed in the specimens of 6 patients (33%). Radiological response rate was 61% (11/18); resection rate was 66% (12/18) and complete resection rate was 61% (11/18). There was one postoperative death (5%). The 3 year actuarial survival rate is 63.6% for the patients who received a resection with a median survival time of 18 months. All non operated patients died within one year. Combined preoperative treatment was well tolerated. Better results were achieved in patients with squamous cell carcinoma who had a complete resection following a total tumor sterilization with radio-chemotherapy. PMID:7929550

  15. A prospective pilot study of analysis of surgical margins of breast cancers using high-resolution sonography.

    PubMed

    Scaranelo, Anabel M; Moshonov, Hadas; Escallon, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the role of high-resolution specimen sonography (SS) to determine the precise location of the targeted lesion in relation to the six surgical margins; the specimen digital radiography isocenter and the correlation with the rate of re-excision and residual tumour. Freshly excised surgical specimens were scanned by a breast radiologist using a high-frequency linear transducer in a cohort of 25 consecutive women undergoing breast conservation. Sonographic measurements of radial distances from all six margins (superior, inferior, lateral, medial, anterior and posterior) were obtained. Sonographic positive margin status was defined as targeted mass identified <5 mm from the tissue edge. The paired t test was used for statistical comparisons between sonographic and pathological measurements. The median cancer size was 15 mm (range 3.80-42 mm; 95 % CI 9.8-18) on sonography and 16 mm (range 2-60 mm; 95 % CI 15-20) on surgical pathology. SS showed 100 % sensitivity and 59 % specificity in the evaluation of surgical pathology margins. 20 % (5 of 25) patients had positive margins where 60 % were in situ carcinoma. The likelihood of carcinoma at the initial surgical margins was significantly higher in dense breasts (3/6 = 50 % vs 1/17 = 5.8 %; p = 0.04). The deviation of the isocenter of the specimens was found not significant. SS is a valuable tool for identify the cancer within the specimen, and better asses the margins. It is of significant importance in patients with dense breasts where specimen radiography is of limited value. PMID:27026943

  16. Parent-Directed Intervention for Children With Cancer-Related Neurobehavioral Late Effects: A Randomized Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Paula; Cuevas, Michelle; Turk, Anne; Kim, Heeyoung; Lo, Tracy T. Y.; Wong, Lennie F.; Bhatia, Smita

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an intervention directed at parents of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) with neurobehavioral late effects to improve targeted parenting skills, and thus to indirectly benefit the child’s educational functioning. Methods 44 CCSs and their parents were randomized. Intervention-arm parents participated in eight individual training sessions augmented by a 3-month telephone support period. Pre- and postparent measures and child performance on Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-II and School Motivation and Learning Strategies Inventory assessed intervention effects. Results 90% of intervention parents completed the program with high adherence/perceived benefit. Between-group effect sizes ranged from d = 0.77 to d = 1.45 for parent knowledge, efficacy, frequency of pro-learning behaviors, and d = 0.21 to d = 0.76 for child academic scores. Parental time spent in intervention activities was associated with academic change. Conclusions A parent-directed intervention to indirectly promote academic functioning in CCSs appears feasible and effective in improving targeted parenting outcomes and for selected child academic outcomes. PMID:24966398

  17. Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Among Low-Income Women of Color in Primary Care: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Emily E.; Tejeda, Silvia; Childers, Kimberly; Stolley, Melinda R.; Warnecke, Richard B.; Hoskins, Kent F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends identifying candidates for breast cancer (BC) chemoprevention and referring them for genetic counseling as part of routine care. Little is known about the feasibility of implementing these recommendations or how low-income women of color might respond to individualized risk assessment (IRA) performed by primary care providers (PCPs). Methods: Women recruited from a federally qualified health center were given the option to discuss BC risk status with their PCP. Comprehensive IRA was performed using a software tool designed for the primary care environment combining three assessment instruments and providing risk-adapted recommendations for screening, prevention, and genetic referral. Logistic regression models assessed factors associated with wanting to learn and discuss BC risk with PCP. Results: Of 237 participants, only 12.7% (n = 30) did not want to discuss IRA results with their PCP. Factors associated with lower odds of wanting to learn results included having private insurance and reporting ever having had a mammogram. Factors associated with higher odds of wanting to learn results included older age (50 to 69 years) and increased BC worry. For all women wishing to learn results, IRA was successfully completed and delivered to the PCP immediately before the encounter for incorporation into the well-visit evaluation. Conclusion: Incorporation of US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations as part of routine primary care is feasible. Interest in IRA seems high among underserved women. This approach warrants further investigation as a strategy for addressing disparities in BC mortality. PMID:26036266

  18. Increased metabolic activity detected by FLIM in human breast cancer cells with desmoplastic reaction: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natal, Rodrigo de Andrade; Pelegati, Vitor B.; Bondarik, Caroline; Mendonça, Guilherme R.; Derchain, Sophie F.; Lima, Carmen P.; Cesar, Carlos L.; Sarian, Luís. O.; Vassallo, José

    2015-07-01

    Introduction: In breast cancer (BC), desmoplastic reaction, assembled primarily by fibroblasts, is associated with unfavorable prognosis, but the reason of this fact remains still unclear. In this context, nonlinear optics microscopy, including Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM), has provided advancement in cellular metabolism research. In this paper, our purpose is to differentiate BC cells metabolism with or without contact to desmoplastic reaction. Formalin fixed, paraffin embedded samples were used at different points of hematoxylin stained sections. Methodology: Sections from 14 patients with invasive ductal breast carcinoma were analyzed with FLIM methodology to NAD(P)H and FAD fluorescence lifetime on a Confocal Upright LSM780 NLO device (Carl Zeiss AG, Germany). Quantification of the fluorescence lifetime and fluorescence intensity was evaluated by SPC Image software (Becker &Hickl) and ImageJ (NIH), respectively. Optical redox ratio was calculated by dividing the FAD fluorescence intensity by NAD(P)H fluorescence intensity. Data value for FLIM measurements and fluorescence intensities were calculated using Wilcoxon test; p< 0.05 was considered significant. Results: BC cells in contact with desmoplastic reaction presented a significantly lower NAD(P)H and FAD fluorescence lifetime. Furthermore, optical redox ratio was also lower in these tumor cells. Conclusion: Our results suggest that contact of BC cells with desmoplastic reaction increase their metabolic activity, which might explain the adverse prognosis of cases associated with higher peritumoral desmoplastic reaction.

  19. Parent-directed intervention for children with cancer-related neurobehavioral late effects: a randomized pilot study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sunita K; Ross, Paula; Cuevas, Michelle; Turk, Anne; Kim, Heeyoung; Lo, Tracy T Y; Wong, Lennie F; Bhatia, Smita

    2014-10-01

    OBJECTIVE : To evaluate feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an intervention directed at parents of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) with neurobehavioral late effects to improve targeted parenting skills, and thus to indirectly benefit the child's educational functioning.  METHODS : 44 CCSs and their parents were randomized. Intervention-arm parents participated in eight individual training sessions augmented by a 3-month telephone support period. Pre- and postparent measures and child performance on Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-II and School Motivation and Learning Strategies Inventory assessed intervention effects.  RESULTS : 90% of intervention parents completed the program with high adherence/perceived benefit. Between-group effect sizes ranged from d = 0.77 to d = 1.45 for parent knowledge, efficacy, frequency of pro-learning behaviors, and d = 0.21 to d = 0.76 for child academic scores. Parental time spent in intervention activities was associated with academic change.  CONCLUSIONS : A parent-directed intervention to indirectly promote academic functioning in CCSs appears feasible and effective in improving targeted parenting outcomes and for selected child academic outcomes. PMID:24966398

  20. Identification of familial colorectal cancer and hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes through the Dutch population-screening program: results ofa pilot study

    PubMed Central

    van Erp, Sanne J. H.; Leicher, Laura W.; Hennink, Simone D.; Ghorbanoghli, Zeinab; Breg, Simone A. C.; Morreau, Hans; Nielsen, Maartje; Hardwick, James C. H.; Roukema, Jan A.; Langers, Alexandra M. J.; Cappel, Walter H. de Vos tot Nederveen; Vasen, Hans F. A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: In 2014, a population-screening program using immuno-faecal occult blood testing (I-FOBT) has started in the Netherlands. The aims of this study were to evaluate the proportion of individuals in the Dutch screening program with a positive I-FOBT that fulfill the criteria for familial colorectal cancer (FCC) and to evaluate the proportion of participants that needs genetic counseling or colonoscopic surveillance. Material and methods: This retrospective observational study was performed in two large hospitals. Individuals aged between 55 and 75 years with a positive I-FOBT that underwent colonoscopy were included. A detailed family history was obtained in all individuals. Results: A total of 657 individuals with a positive I-FOBT test underwent colonoscopy. A total of 120 (18.3%) participants were found to have a positive family history for CRC, 20 (3.0%) fulfilled the FCC criteria, 4 (0.6%) the Bethesda guidelines and 1 (0.2%) participant the Amsterdam criteria. Multiple adenomas (>10) were found in 21 (3.2%) participants. No cases of serrated polyposis were identified. Based on these criteria and guidelines, a total of 35 (5.3%) required referral to the clinical geneticist and the relatives of 20 (3.0%) participants should be referred for surveillance colonoscopy. Conclusion: Obtaining a detailed family history at the time of intake of participants with a positive I-FOBT in the Dutch surveillance program increased the identification of participants with familial CRC. PMID:27310819

  1. Intrarectal amifostine suspension may protect against acute proctitis during radiation therapy for prostate cancer: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Anurag K.; Menard, Cynthia; Guion, Peter . E-mail: guionp@mail.nih.gov; Simone, Nicole L.; Smith, Sharon; Crouse, Nancy Sears; Godette, Denise J.; Cooley-Zgela, Theresa; Sciuto, Linda C.; Camphausen, Kevin; Coleman, C. Norman; Coleman, Jonathan; Pinto, Peter; Albert, Paul S.

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: Our goal was to test the ability of intrarectal amifostine to limit symptoms of radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: The first 18 patients received 1 g of intrarectal amifostine suspension placed 30-45 min before each radiation treatment. The following 12 patients received 2 g of amifostine. Total dose prescribed ranged from 66 to 76 Gy. All patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. The suspension remained intrarectal during treatment and was expelled after treatment. For gastrointestinal symptoms, during treatment and follow-up, all patients had a Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade recorded. Results: Median follow-up was 18 months (range, 6-24 months). With 2 g vs. 1 g amifostine, there was a nearly significant decrease in RTOG Grade 2 acute rectal toxicity. Seven weeks after the start of radiation therapy, the incidence of Grade 2 toxicity was 33% in the 1-g group (6/18) compared with 0% (0/12) in the 2-g group (p = 0.06). No Grade 3 toxicity or greater occurred in this study. Conclusion: This trial suggests greater rectal radioprotection from acute effects with 2 g vs. 1 g amifostine suspension. Further studies should be conducted in populations at higher risk for developing symptomatic acute and late proctitis.

  2. High-risk human papillomavirus in HIV-infected women undergoing cervical cancer screening in Lilongwe, Malawi: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Deepa; Njala, Joseph; Stocker, Penny; Schooley, Alan; Flores, Martiniano; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Pfaff, Colin; Jansen, Perry; Mitsuyasu, Ronald T; Hoffman, Risa M

    2015-05-01

    Rates of abnormal visual inspection with acetic acid and prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes have not been well characterized in HIV-infected women in Malawi. We performed a prospective cohort study of visual inspection with acetic acid (N = 440) in HIV-infected women aged 25--59 years, with a nested study of HPV subtypes in first 300 women enrolled. Of 440 women screened, 9.5% (N = 42) had abnormal visual inspection with acetic acid with 69.0% (N = 29) having advanced disease not amenable to cryotherapy. Of 294 women with HPV results, 39% (N = 114) of women were positive for high-risk HPV infection. Only lower CD4 count (287 cells/mm(3) versus 339 cells/mm(3), p = 0.03) and high-risk HPV (66.7% versus 35.6%, p < 0.01) were associated with abnormal visual inspection with acetic acid. The most common high-risk HPV subtypes in women with abnormal visual inspection with acetic acid were 35 (33.3%), 16 (26.7%), and 58 (23.3%). Low CD4 cell count was associated with abnormal visual inspection with acetic acid and raises the importance of early antiretroviral therapy and expanded availability of visual inspection with acetic acid. HPV vaccines targeting additional non-16/18 high-risk HPV subtypes may have greater protective advantages in countries such as Malawi.

  3. Phospholipid makeup of the breast adipose tissue is impacted by obesity and mammary cancer in the mouse: results of a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Michael; Perez, Osvaldo; Martinez, Mitchel; Santander, Ana M.; Mendez, Armando J.; Nadji, Mehrdad; Nayer, Ali; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy; Torroella-Kouri, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, an established risk factor for breast cancer (BC), is associated with systemic inflammation. The breast contains adipose tissue (bAT), yet whether it plays a role in BC progression in obese females is being intensively studied. There is scarce knowledge on the lipid composition of bAT in health and disease. The purpose of this pilot study was: 1) to determine whether obesity and BC are associated with inflammatory changes in bAT 2) to analyze for the first time the lipid profile of bAT in obese and lean mammary tumor-bearing and normal mice. Syngeneic E0771 mammary tumor cells were implanted into the mammary fat pad of lean and diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice. BATs were analyzed four weeks after tumor cell inoculation by immunohistochemistry and mass spectrometry. Phospholipids were identified and subjected to ratiometric quantification using a TSQ Quantum Access Max triple quadrupole mass spectrometer utilizing precursor ion scan or neutral ion loss scan employing appropriate class specific lipid standards in a two step quantification process. Four main classes of phospholipids were analyzed: phosphatidylcholines phosphatidylserines, phosphatidylethanolamines and phosphatidylinositols. Our results showed that bAT in obese (normal and tumor-bearing) mice contained hypertrophic adipocytes compared with their corresponding samples in lean mice; higher numbers of macrophages and crown-like structures were observed in obese tumor bearers compared to obese normal mice. BAT from normal obese mice revealed higher concentrations of phosphatidylethanolamines. Furthermore, bAT from tumor-bearing mice expressed higher phosphatidylcholines than that from non-tumor bearing mice, suggesting the presence of the tumor is associated with phosphatidylcholines. Conversion of phosphatidylethanolamines to phosphatidylcholines will be investigated in E0771 cells. Additional studies are projected to investigate macrophage activation by these specific classes of phospholipids

  4. Phospholipid makeup of the breast adipose tissue is impacted by obesity and mammary cancer in the mouse: Results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Michael; Perez, Osvaldo; Martinez, Mitchell; Santander, Ana M; Mendez, Armando J; Nadji, Mehrdad; Nayer, Ali; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy; Torroella-Kouri, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Obesity, an established risk factor for breast cancer (BC), is associated with systemic inflammation. The breast contains adipose tissue (bAT), yet whether it plays a role in BC progression in obese females is being intensively studied. There is scarce knowledge on the lipid composition of bAT in health and disease. The purpose of this pilot study was: 1) to determine whether obesity and BC are associated with inflammatory changes in bAT 2) to analyze for the first time the lipid profile of bAT in obese and lean mammary tumor-bearing and normal mice. Syngeneic E0771 mammary tumor cells were implanted into the mammary fat pad of lean and diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice. BATs were analyzed four weeks after tumor cell inoculation by immunohistochemistry and mass spectrometry. Phospholipids were identified and subjected to ratiometric quantification using a TSQ Quantum Access Max triple quadrupole mass spectrometer utilizing precursor ion scan or neutral ion loss scan employing appropriate class specific lipid standards in a two step quantification process. Four main classes of phospholipids were analyzed: phosphatidylcholines phosphatidylserines, phosphatidylethanolamines and phosphatidylinositols. Our results showed that bAT in obese (normal and tumor-bearing) mice contained hypertrophic adipocytes compared with their corresponding samples in lean mice; higher numbers of macrophages and crown-like structures were observed in obese tumor bearers compared to obese normal mice. BAT from normal obese mice revealed higher concentrations of phosphatidylethanolamines. Furthermore, bAT from tumor-bearing mice expressed higher phosphatidylcholines than that from non-tumor bearing mice, suggesting the presence of the tumor is associated with phosphatidylcholines. Conversion of phosphatidylethanolamines to phosphatidylcholines will be investigated in E0771 cells. Additional studies are projected to investigate macrophage activation by these specific classes of phospholipids

  5. Prospective Pilot Study of Consolidation Chemotherapy With Docetaxel and Cisplatin After Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kyun Chan; Lee, Seok Ho; Lee, Yuna; Park, Se Hoon Park, Jinny; Cho, Eun Kyung; Shin, Dong Bok; Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Seon Tae

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: With the improvement concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in the management of patients with locoregionally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), distant failures have become a more relevant problem in terms of survival. The primary objective of this Phase II study is to assess the feasibility of docetaxel and cisplatin consolidation after primary CCRT for patients with HNSCC. Methods and Materials: Patients with locoregionally advanced HNSCC received chemotherapy with three cycles of cisplatin, 100 mg/m{sup 2}, on Days 1, 22, and 43. Concurrent radiotherapy to the primary tumor and neck was given in a daily dose of 2 Gy to a total dose of 70-70.2 Gy over 7 weeks. After completion of CCRT, patients without evidence of disease progression received an additional four cycles of consolidation chemotherapy with docetaxel, 75 mg/m{sup 2}, and cisplatin, 75 mg/m{sup 2}, every 3 weeks. Results: Of 33 patients, 27 (81%) completed CCRT. After CCRT, three complete and 19 partial responses were recorded, giving an overall response rate of 67%. Of 19 patients who went to the consolidation phase, only 4 (21%) received all four cycles of docetaxel and cisplatin. Causes of failure of consolidation chemotherapy were toxicity in 11 patients, including three treatment-related deaths, and progression in 4 patients. Three patients died of sepsis during the consolidation phase. Median survival was 11 months for all patients and 8 months for those treated with consolidation chemotherapy. Conclusion: The poor compliance and high incidence of severe toxicities prompted no further evaluation of this consolidation chemotherapy after CCRT.

  6. BIMOMASS GASIFICATION PILOT PLANT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a gasification pilot program using two biomass feedstocks: bagasse pellets and wood chips. he object of the program was to determine the properties of biomass product gas and its suitability as a fuel for gas-turbine-based power generation cycles. he f...

  7. Cancer incidence among male military and civil pilots and flight attendants: an analysis on published data.

    PubMed

    Buja, Alessandra; Lange, John H; Perissinotto, Egle; Rausa, Giuseppe; Grigoletto, Francesco; Canova, Cristina; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe

    2005-11-01

    Flight personnel are exposed to cosmic ionizing radiation, chemicals (fuel, jet engine exhausts, cabin air pollutants), electromagnetic fields from cockpit instruments, and disrupted sleep patterns. Only recently has cancer risk among these workers been investigated. With the aim of increasing the precision of risk estimates of cancer incidence, follow-up studies reporting a standardized incidence ratio for cancer among male flight attendants, civil and military pilots were obtained from online databases and analysed. A meta-analysis was performed by applying a random effect model, obtaining a meta-standardized incidence ratio (SIR), and 95% confidence interval (CI). In male cabin attendants, and civil and military pilots, meta-SIRs were 3.42 (CI = 1.94-6.06), 2.18 (1.69-2.80), 1.43 (1.09-1.87) for melanoma; and 7.46 (3.52-15.89), 1.88 (1.23-2.88), 1.80 (1.25-2.58) for other skin cancer, respectively. These tumors share as risk factors, ionizing radiation, recreational sun exposure and socioeconomic status. The meta-SIRs are not adjusted for confounding; the magnitude of risk for melanoma decreased when we corrected for socioeconomic status. In civil pilots, meta-SIR was 1.47 (1.06-2.05) for prostate cancer. Age (civil pilots are older than military pilots and cabin attendants) and disrupted sleep pattern (entailing hyposecretion of melatonin, which has been reported to suppress proliferative effects of androgen on prostate cancer cells) might be involved. In male cabin attendants, meta-SIR was 21.5 (2.25-205.8) for Kaposi's sarcoma and 2.49 (1.03-6.03) for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. AIDS, which was the most frequent single cause of death in this occupational category, likely explains the excess of the latter two tumors. PMID:16463960

  8. Pilot Study of the Use of Hybrid Multidimensional T2-Weighted Imaging–DWI for the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer and Evaluation of Gleason Score

    PubMed Central

    Sadinski, Meredith; Karczmar, Gregory; Peng, Yahui; Wang, Shiyang; Jiang, Yulei; Medved, Milica; Yousuf, Ambereen; Antic, Tatjana; Oto, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of our study was to evaluate the role of a hybrid T2-weighted imaging–DWI sequence for prostate cancer diagnosis and differentiation of aggressive prostate cancer from nonaggressive prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty-one patients with prostate cancer who underwent preoperative 3-T MRI and prostatectomy were included in this study. Patients underwent a hybrid T2-weighted imaging–DWI examination consisting of DW images acquired with TEs of 47, 75, and 100 ms and b values of 0 and 750 s/mm2. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and T2 were calculated for cancer and normal prostate ROIs at each TE and b value. Changes in ADC and T2 as a function of increasing the TE and b value, respectively, were analyzed. A new metric termed “PQ4” was defined as the percentage of voxels within an ROI that has increasing T2 with increasing b value and has decreasing ADC with increasing TE. RESULTS ADC values were significantly higher in normal ROIs than in cancer ROIs at all TEs (p < 0.0001). With increasing TE, the mean ADC increased 3% in cancer ROIs and increased 12% in normal ROIs. T2 was significantly higher in normal ROIs than in cancer ROIs at both b values (p ≤ 0.0002). The mean T2 decreased with increasing b value in cancer ROIs (ΔT2 = −17 ms) and normal ROIs (ΔT2 = −52 ms). PQ4 clearly differentiated normal ROIs from prostate cancer ROIs (p = 0.0004) and showed significant correlation with Gleason score (ρ = 0.508, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION Hybrid MRI measures the response of ADC and T2 to changing TEs and b values, respectively. This approach shows promise for detecting prostate cancer and determining its aggressiveness noninvasively. PMID:27352026

  9. A pilot study of nimotuzumab plus single agent chemotherapy as second- or third-line treatment or more in patients with recurrent, persistent or metastatic cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cetina, Lucely; Crombet, Tania; Jiménez-Lima, Roberto; Zapata, Sergio; Ramos, Mayra; Avila, Sandra; Coronel, Jaime; Charco, Eduardo; Bojalil, Rafael; Astudillo, Horacio; Bazán, Blanca; Dueñas-González, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Nimotuzumab is a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody against the EGFR extracellular domain that has been evaluated in solid tumors as a single agent or in combination with chemotherapy and radiation. Cervical cancer patients who are refractory or progressive to first-line chemotherapy have a dismal prognosis, and no second- or third-line chemotherapy is considered standard. This pilot trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of nimotuzumab in 17 patients with pre-treated advanced refractory or progressive cervical cancer. Nimotuzumab was administered weekly at 200 mg/m2 as single agent for 4 weeks (induction phase), then concurrent with 6 21-day cycles of gemcitabine (800 mg/m2) or cisplatin (50 mg/m2) for 18 weeks (concurrent phase) and then once every 2 weeks (maintenance phase). Nimotuzumab could be continued beyond disease progression. Seventeen patients were accrued and evaluated for safety and efficacy. The median number of nimotuzumab applications was 20 (5–96). The median number of chemotherapy cycles administered was 6 (1-6). No toxicity occurred during induction and maintenance phases (single agent nimotuzumab). In the concurrent phase, grade 3 toxicity events observed were leucopenia, anemia and diarrhea in 11.7%, 5.8% and 11.7% respectively. No complete or partial responses were observed. The stable disease (SD) rate was 35%. The median PFS and OS rates were163 days (95% CI, 104 to 222), and 299 days (95% IC, 177 to 421) respectively. Nimotuzumab is well tolerated and may have a role in the treatment of advanced cervical cancer. PMID:25802932

  10. Feasibility, acceptability and findings from a pilot randomized controlled intervention study on the impact of a book designed to inform patients about cancer clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Carney, Patricia A; Tucker, Erin K; Newby, Timothy A; Beer, Tomasz M

    2014-03-01

    This study was conducted to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and changes in knowledge among cancer patients assigned to receive a 160-page book on experimental cancer therapies and clinical trials. We enrolled 20 patients with cancer who had never participated in a clinical trial and randomly assigned them to receive the book either during week 1 or week 4 of the study. We collected baseline patient demographic and cancer-related information as well as knowledge about cancer clinical trials at week 0. Follow-up surveys were administered at weeks 3 and 6 for both study groups. Comparisons were made within and between groups randomized to receive the book early (at week 1) to those who received it later (at week 4). One hundred percent of data were captured in both groups at baseline, which decreased to 77.8% by week 6. The vast majority of participants found the book moderately or very useful (89% in the Early Group at week 3 and 95.5% in the Late Group at week 6). Within group pairwise comparisons found significant difference between baseline and week 6 in content-specific knowledge scores among participants in the Late Group [79% versus 92.1%, p = 0.01). Global knowledge scores increased significantly for variables reflecting knowledge that promotes decisions to participate in clinical trials. Providing published reading material to patients with cancer is both feasible and acceptable. Offering information to patients about cancer clinical trials, using a book designed for patients with cancer may influence knowledge related to decision to participate in clinical trials.

  11. Impact of Elimination or Reduction of Dietary Animal Proteins on Cancer Progression and Survival: Protocol of an Online Pilot Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Catany Ritter, Anna; Egger, Annarita Sabrina; Machacek, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Background Current evidence suggests that the incidence of cancer is low in vegan populations, and experimental studies have revealed a significant role of dietary proteins in cancer development and progression. However, little data currently exists regarding the effect of a plant-based diet on the progression of diagnosed cancer. Objective The main objective of this study is to determine if a reduction or total elimination of animal protein from the diet can positively influence the outcome of an existing cancer and, in addition to standard oncological therapies, increase remission rates. Methods The primary aim of this online study is to test the effect on remission rates in cancer patients (primary outcome) with distinct self-selected dietary patterns (omnivore, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, vegan), and allow for an estimation of the effect size. Secondary outcomes are tumor behavior, relapse-free interval, therapies, therapy tolerability and side-effects, comorbidities, medication, quality of life, acceptance, and feasibility of the selected diet. Safety concerns exist for vegan diets (especially in cancer patients) and the study will carefully monitor for deterioration of health, tumor progression, or malnutrition. Furthermore, the study will evaluate the online portal as a study platform (technical and safety aspects, and sequence of displayed questionnaires) as well as the validity of self-reported and online-generated data. Results The study was performed between April, 2015 and June, 2016, and a preliminary evaluation of safety aspects was undertaken after June, 2016. Primary and secondary outcomes will be evaluated when the final patients complete the study in December, 2016. Conclusions This study will reveal information about the effects of dietary patterns on cancer disease and progression. The methodology of the study addresses several aspects and limitations of nutrition studies in cancer patients, such as precision of nutrition data, acceptance criteria

  12. Pilot Study on Conflict Management. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeigler, Harmon; And Others

    This extensive survey pretest utilized in-depth interviews with school superintendents and city managers in selected cities throughout Oregon and in Los Angeles. The purpose of the pilot study was to explore the similarities and differences in conflict management between the two professions. The study reveals that superintendents and city managers…

  13. PILOT STUDY: THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY (TACS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot research study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools for children in the age range of 1-5 years old. The pilot study focused on (a) simple, cost-...

  14. Conducting a pilot study: case study of a novice researcher.

    PubMed

    Doody, Owen; Doody, Catriona M

    Pilot studies play a vital role in health research, but are often misused, mistreated and misrepresented. A well-conducted pilot study with clear aims and objectives within a formal framework ensures methodological rigour, can lead to higher-quality research and scientifically valid work that is publishable and can benefit patients and health service delivery. A pilot study contributes valuable information to assist researchers in the conduct of their study. Conducting a pilot study provides the researcher with the opportunity to develop and enhance the skills necessary before commencing the larger study. By conducting a pilot the researcher obtains preliminary data, can evaluate their data-analysis method and clarify the financial and human resources required. This article presents an overview of pilot studies, why they are conducted, what to consider when reporting pilot studies and the authors' experience of conducting a pilot study. To conduct a successful study, researchers need to develop their skills, choose the right methods and carefully plan for all aspects of the process. PMID:26618678

  15. Psychological wellness and health-related stigma: a pilot study of an acceptance-focused cognitive behavioural intervention for people with lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, SK; Morris, BA; Clutton, S; Foley, E; Giles, L; Schofield, P; O'Connell, D; Dunn, J

    2015-01-01

    People with lung cancer experience health-related stigma that is related to poorer psychosocial and quality of life outcomes. The present Phase 1 study applied mixed methods to test the acceptability of an acceptance-focused cognitive behavioural intervention targeting stigma for this patient group. Fourteen lung cancer patients completed a 6-week Psychological Wellness intervention with pre- and post-test outcome measures of psychological and cancer-specific distress, depression, health-related stigma and quality of life. In-depth interviews applying interpretative phenomenological analysis assessed participants' experiences of the intervention. Moderate to large improvements were observed in psychological (ηp2 = 0.182) and cancer-specific distress (ηp2 = 0.056); depression (ηp2 = 0.621); health-related stigma (ηp2 = 0.139). In contrast, quality of life declined (ηp2 = 0.023). The therapeutic relationship; self-management of distress; and relationship support were highly valued aspects of the intervention. Barriers to intervention included avoidance and practical issues. The lung cancer patients who completed the Psychological Wellness intervention reported improvements in psychological outcomes and decreases in stigma in the face of declining quality of life with patients reporting personal benefit from their own perspectives. A randomised controlled trial is warranted to establish the effectiveness of this approach. PMID:25053458

  16. Psychological wellness and health-related stigma: a pilot study of an acceptance-focused cognitive behavioural intervention for people with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chambers, S K; Morris, B A; Clutton, S; Foley, E; Giles, L; Schofield, P; O'Connell, D; Dunn, J

    2015-01-01

    People with lung cancer experience health-related stigma that is related to poorer psychosocial and quality of life outcomes. The present Phase 1 study applied mixed methods to test the acceptability of an acceptance-focused cognitive behavioural intervention targeting stigma for this patient group. Fourteen lung cancer patients completed a 6-week Psychological Wellness intervention with pre- and post-test outcome measures of psychological and cancer-specific distress, depression, health-related stigma and quality of life. In-depth interviews applying interpretative phenomenological analysis assessed participants' experiences of the intervention. Moderate to large improvements were observed in psychological (ηp (2)  = 0.182) and cancer-specific distress (ηp (2)  = 0.056); depression (ηp (2)  = 0.621); health-related stigma (ηp (2)  = 0.139). In contrast, quality of life declined (ηp (2)  = 0.023). The therapeutic relationship; self-management of distress; and relationship support were highly valued aspects of the intervention. Barriers to intervention included avoidance and practical issues. The lung cancer patients who completed the Psychological Wellness intervention reported improvements in psychological outcomes and decreases in stigma in the face of declining quality of life with patients reporting personal benefit from their own perspectives. A randomised controlled trial is warranted to establish the effectiveness of this approach.

  17. The SunWise Policy Intervention for School-Based Sun Protection: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmons, Karen M.; Geller, Alan C.; Viswanath, Vish; Rutsch, Linda; Zwirn, Jodie; Gorham, Sue; Puleo, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    Skin cancer is highly preventable, but clearly there is a critical need to focus on better ways to disseminate information about known skin cancer prevention. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) SunWise Program is one channel for reaching children, teachers, and school nurses. In a pilot study designed to increase adoption of…

  18. Efficacy of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Xerostomia and Quality of Life during Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer: A Prospective Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Pei-Yu; Yang, Sien-Hung; Tsang, Ngan-Ming; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Hsieh, Chia-Hsun; Lin, Jr-Rung; Hong, Ji-Hong; Lin, Yung-Chang; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Yang, Cheng-Tao; Yang, Ching-Wei; Chen, Jiun-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Xerostomia is one of the most common acute and late complications of radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, and it affects quality of life. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in toxicities and quality of life during radiotherapy. Head and neck cancer patients who were scheduled for radiotherapy were checked for inclusion/exclusion criteria before enrollment. Patients in the study group (inpatients) were hospitalized in a Chinese medicine ward and received concomitant TCM intervention during radiotherapy, while those in the control group (outpatients) received only conventional cancer treatments at the Western outpatient department. The primary end point was amelioration of postradiotherapy side effects. The secondary end points were quality of life during the cancer therapy and occurrence of adverse events following the TCM treatments. Thirty inpatients and 50 outpatients completed the study. Compared to the control group, those in the TCM group had decreased severity of xerostomia. There was no treatment-related impairment of renal or hepatic function among TCM group. Although better outcomes of social contact, dyspnea, physical and emotional function, and financial problems were found in the TCM group, we need further confirmation about the impact of hospitalization itself on these results. PMID:27642359

  19. Efficacy of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Xerostomia and Quality of Life during Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer: A Prospective Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Ngan-Ming; Lin, Jr-Rung; Lin, Yung-Chang; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Yang, Ching-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Xerostomia is one of the most common acute and late complications of radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, and it affects quality of life. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in toxicities and quality of life during radiotherapy. Head and neck cancer patients who were scheduled for radiotherapy were checked for inclusion/exclusion criteria before enrollment. Patients in the study group (inpatients) were hospitalized in a Chinese medicine ward and received concomitant TCM intervention during radiotherapy, while those in the control group (outpatients) received only conventional cancer treatments at the Western outpatient department. The primary end point was amelioration of postradiotherapy side effects. The secondary end points were quality of life during the cancer therapy and occurrence of adverse events following the TCM treatments. Thirty inpatients and 50 outpatients completed the study. Compared to the control group, those in the TCM group had decreased severity of xerostomia. There was no treatment-related impairment of renal or hepatic function among TCM group. Although better outcomes of social contact, dyspnea, physical and emotional function, and financial problems were found in the TCM group, we need further confirmation about the impact of hospitalization itself on these results.

  20. Efficacy of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Xerostomia and Quality of Life during Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer: A Prospective Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Ngan-Ming; Lin, Jr-Rung; Lin, Yung-Chang; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Yang, Ching-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Xerostomia is one of the most common acute and late complications of radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, and it affects quality of life. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in toxicities and quality of life during radiotherapy. Head and neck cancer patients who were scheduled for radiotherapy were checked for inclusion/exclusion criteria before enrollment. Patients in the study group (inpatients) were hospitalized in a Chinese medicine ward and received concomitant TCM intervention during radiotherapy, while those in the control group (outpatients) received only conventional cancer treatments at the Western outpatient department. The primary end point was amelioration of postradiotherapy side effects. The secondary end points were quality of life during the cancer therapy and occurrence of adverse events following the TCM treatments. Thirty inpatients and 50 outpatients completed the study. Compared to the control group, those in the TCM group had decreased severity of xerostomia. There was no treatment-related impairment of renal or hepatic function among TCM group. Although better outcomes of social contact, dyspnea, physical and emotional function, and financial problems were found in the TCM group, we need further confirmation about the impact of hospitalization itself on these results. PMID:27642359

  1. Tests of Reading Comprehension (TORCH) Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgon, J. R.

    A New Zealand pilot study examined Tests of Reading Comprehension (TORCH) scores compared to PAT: Reading Comprehension scores and compared with teacher ratings. TORCH is a reading test package published in 1987 by the Australian Council for Educational Research. It consists of 14 untimed passages intended to assess the extent to which readers in…

  2. Handwashing Programme in Kindergarten: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, W. H.; Suen, L. K. P.; Kwok, Y. L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of a structured programme on handwashing which has taken into account of the developmental stage of children. Design/methodology/approach: This is a pilot study using a structured handwashing programme as intervention. The intervention group (n=15) receives the structured…

  3. Microbial field pilot study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Coates, J.D.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    A multi-well microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot has been performed in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit in Payne County, Oklahoma. The primary emphasis of the experiment was preferential plugging of high permeability zones for the purpose of improving waterflood sweep efficiency. Studies were performed to determine reservoir chemistry, ecology, and indigenous bacteria populations. Growth experiments were used to select a nutrient system compatible with the reservoir that encouraged growth of a group of indigenous nitrate-using bacteria and inhibit growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. A specific field pilot area behind an active line drive waterflood was selected. Surface facilities were designed and installed. Injection protocols of bulk nutrient materials were prepared to facilitate uniform distribution of nutrients within the pilot area. By the end of December, 1991, 82.5 tons (75.0 tonnes) of nutrients had been injected in the field. A tracer test identified significant heterogeneity in the SEVVSU and made it necessary to monitor additional production wells in the field. The tracer tests and changes in production behavior indicate the additional production wells monitored during the field trial were also affected. Eighty two and one half barrels (13.1 m{sup 3}) of tertiary oil have been recovered. Microbial activity has increased CO{sub 2} content as indicated by increased alkalinity. A temporary rise in sulfide concentration was experienced. These indicate an active microbial community was generated in the field by the nutrient injection. Pilot area interwell pressure interference test results showed that significant permeability reduction occurred. The interwell permeabilities in the pilot area between the injector and the three pilot production wells were made more uniform which indicates a successful preferential plugging enhanced oil recovery project.

  4. Identifying Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Using Background Parenchymal Enhancement Heterogeneity on Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI: A Pilot Radiomics Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jeff; Kato, Fumi; Oyama-Manabe, Noriko; Li, Ruijiang; Cui, Yi; Tha, Khin Khin; Yamashita, Hiroko; Kudo, Kohsuke; Shirato, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the added discriminative value of detailed quantitative characterization of background parenchymal enhancement in addition to the tumor itself on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI at 3.0 Tesla in identifying “triple-negative" breast cancers. Materials and Methods In this Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective study, DCE-MRI of 84 women presenting 88 invasive carcinomas were evaluated by a radiologist and analyzed using quantitative computer-aided techniques. Each tumor and its surrounding parenchyma were segmented semi-automatically in 3-D. A total of 85 imaging features were extracted from the two regions, including morphologic, densitometric, and statistical texture measures of enhancement. A small subset of optimal features was selected using an efficient sequential forward floating search algorithm. To distinguish triple-negative cancers from other subtypes, we built predictive models based on support vector machines. Their classification performance was assessed with the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) using cross-validation. Results Imaging features based on the tumor region achieved an AUC of 0.782 in differentiating triple-negative cancers from others, in line with the current state of the art. When background parenchymal enhancement features were included, the AUC increased significantly to 0.878 (p<0.01). Similar improvements were seen in nearly all subtype classification tasks undertaken. Notably, amongst the most discriminating features for predicting triple-negative cancers were textures of background parenchymal enhancement. Conclusions Considering the tumor as well as its surrounding parenchyma on DCE-MRI for radiomic image phenotyping provides useful information for identifying triple-negative breast cancers. Heterogeneity of background parenchymal enhancement, characterized by quantitative texture features on DCE-MRI, adds value to such differentiation models as they are strongly

  5. Serum Proteome Signature of Radiation Response: Upregulation of Inflammation-Related Factors and Downregulation of Apolipoproteins and Coagulation Factors in Cancer Patients Treated With Radiation Therapy—A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Widlak, Piotr; Jelonek, Karol; Wojakowska, Anna; Pietrowska, Monika; Polanska, Joanna; Marczak, Łukasz; Miszczyk, Leszek; Składowski, Krzysztof

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: Ionizing radiation affects the proteome of irradiated cells and tissue, yet data concerning changes induced during radiation therapy (RT) in human blood are fragmentary and inconclusive. We aimed to identify features of serum proteome and associated processes involved in response to partial body irradiation during cancer treatment. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) and 20 patients with prostate cancer received definitive intensity modulated RT. Blood samples were collected before RT, just after RT, and 1 month after the end of RT. Complete serum proteome was analyzed in individual samples, using a shotgun liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry approach which allowed identification of approximately 450 proteins. Approximately 100 unique proteins were quantified in all samples after exclusion of immunoglobulins, and statistical significance of differences among consecutive samples was assessed. Processes associated with quantified proteins and their functional interactions were predicted using gene ontology tools. Results: RT-induced changes were marked in the HNSCC patient group: 22 upregulated and 33 downregulated proteins were detected in post-RT sera. Most of the changes reversed during follow-up, yet levels of some proteins remained affected 1 month after the end of RT. RT-upregulated proteins were associated with acute phase, inflammatory response, and complement activation. RT-downregulated proteins were associated with transport and metabolism of lipids (plasma apolipoproteins) and blood coagulation. RT-induced changes were much weaker in prostate cancer patients, which corresponded to differences in acute radiation toxicity observed in both groups. Nevertheless, general patterns of RT-induced sera proteome changes were similar in both of the groups of cancer patients. Conclusions: In this pilot study, we proposed to identify a molecular signature of radiation response, based on specific

  6. Communication, Coping, and Quality of Life of Breast Cancer Survivors and Family/Friend Dyads: A Pilot Study of Chinese- and Korean-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jung-won

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to understand the dyadic relationships between family communication and quality of life (QOL) and between coping and QOL in Chinese- and Korean-American breast cancer survivor (BCS)-family member dyads. Methods A cross-sectional survey design was used. A total of 32 Chinese- and Korean-American BCS-family member dyads were recruited from the California Cancer Surveillance Program and area hospitals in Los Angeles County, California, United States. The dyadic data were analyzed using a pooled regression actor-partner interdependence model. Results The study findings demonstrated that the survivors’ general communication and use of reframing coping positively predicted their own QOL. The survivors’ and family members’ general communication was also a strong predictor of the family members’ physical-related QOL score specifically. Meanwhile, each person’s use of mobilizing coping negatively predicted his or her partner’s QOL. Conclusions The study findings add important information to the scarce literature on the QOL of Asian-American survivors of breast cancer. The findings suggest that Chinese- and Korean-American BCS and their family members may benefit from interventions that enhance communication and coping within the family unit. PMID:24700695

  7. A Pilot Study of Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Knowledge Among a Multiethnic Group of Hispanic Women with a Personal or Family History of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Small, Brent J.; McIntyre, Jessica; Loi, Claudia Aguado; Closser, Zuheily; Gwede, Clement K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine knowledge about hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) among Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban women. Methods: Women (age range, 18–65 years) with a personal or family history of breast or ovarian cancer were recruited to a mixed methods study using community-based approaches. Fifty-three women participated in the study: 16 Mexicans, 20 Puerto Ricans, and 17 Cubans. The majority of women (64.2%) were born outside the United States. All questions were interviewer administered in Spanish or English. HBOC knowledge was measured using an 11-item instrument developed by the National Center for Human Genome Research. We evaluated whether differences in knowledge varied as a function of Hispanic subethnicity, demographic characteristics, and medical and acculturation characteristics using a series of one-way analysis of variances. Results: The percentage of correct responses on the knowledge instrument ranged from 9.4% to 73.6% (median number of correct responses = 45%). Knowledge did not significantly differ by Hispanic subethnicity (p = 0.51). Exploratory analysis revealed lower knowledge in women with a personal history of cancer (p = 0.03). Conclusion: Our study provides important information about characteristics associated with lower levels of knowledge and specific areas related to HBOC where additional education may be warranted in the Hispanic community. PMID:19929403

  8. Image processing of angiograms: A pilot study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, L. E.; Evans, R. A.; Roehm, J. O., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The technology transfer application this report describes is the result of a pilot study of image-processing methods applied to the image enhancement, coding, and analysis of arteriograms. Angiography is a subspecialty of radiology that employs the introduction of media with high X-ray absorption into arteries in order to study vessel pathology as well as to infer disease of the organs supplied by the vessel in question.

  9. The effects of the CLIMB® program on psychobehavioral functioning and emotion regulation in children with a parent or caregiver with cancer: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Shallcross, Amanda J; Visvanathan, Pallavi D; McCauley, Rochelle; Clay, Alex; van Dernoot, Peter R

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychobehavioral benefits of the Children's Lives Include Moments of Bravery (CLIMB®) intervention in 45 children (aged 6-11) with a parent/caregiver with cancer. Parent/caregiver reports of psychobehavioral functioning indicated signi-ficant decreases in children's emotional symptoms and marginally significant reductions in conduct problems. Child reports of emotion regulation indicated significant increases in emotion awareness, significant decreases in emotion suppression, and nonsignificant increases in emotion-focused coping and dysregulated expression. Parents/caregivers and children reported high satisfaction with CLIMB®. Results suggest CLIMB® is a promising intervention for improving psychobehavioral functioning and emotion regulation in children with a parent/caregiver with cancer. PMID:27355243

  10. Evaluation of the Utility of a Transition Workbook in Preparing Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors for Transition to Adult Services: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Bashore, Lisa; Bender, Joyce

    2016-01-01

    Transition to adult care for adolescent and young adult survivors is challenging and is inclusive of several factors like knowledge and developmental, emotional, and social status of survivors and parents. This pilot study addressed the feasibility of a transition workbook, a method of preparing adolescent and young adults to transition to adult care. Using a mixed methods design, investigators also measured transition worry and readiness in 30 survivors. Support was provided throughout a 6-month period as survivors and parents completed the workbook. The workbook included sections about the treatment history of survivors, when and who to call for worrisome symptoms, prescriptions and insurance, educational goals for health practices and how to get there, and independent living. Twenty survivors completed the study and reported greater worry about leaving pediatric oncology but indicated the need to make changes to transition to adult care. Ambiguity and intimidation about transitioning to adult providers and comfort in pediatric setting were themes expressed by survivors. Results indicate the need for adult/pediatric collaborative transition programs using various standardized methods of addressing transition readiness and evaluation.

  11. The role of a clinician-led reflective interview on improving self-efficacy in breast cancer survivors: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wiljer, David; Urowitz, Sara; Frasca, Erika; Nyhof-Young, Joyce; Secord, Scott; Walton, Tara; Catton, Pamela

    2010-09-01

    Breast cancer survivors experience a wide range of survivorship issues that are not always adequately addressed. This study is an assessment of the Survivorship Consult (SC), a one-to-one clinician-led reflective interview used to capture a comprehensive summary of the survivor experience, to determine its impact on self-efficacy and the perceived likelihood that it initiates behavior change. Using a pre-test/post-test design, data were collected from participants (N = 40) using validated instruments and opened-ended questions to evaluate the SC. Participants found the SC to be a useful tool for planning and goal setting and improved self-efficacy as measured by the Cancer Behavior Inventory with an increase of 2.0 (p = 0.03). The SC demonstrates promise in improving the ability and confidence of breast cancer survivors to manage their care, but further research is required to understand the optimal implementation of this intervention and its impact on the delivery of survivorship services. PMID:20383675

  12. Seaside, Oregon, Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Varner, J.

    2006-12-01

    The results of a pilot study to assess the risk from tsunamis for the Seaside-Gearhart, Oregon region will be presented. To determine the risk from tsunamis, it is first necessary to establish the hazard or probability that a tsunami of a particular magnitude will occur within a certain period of time. Tsunami inundation maps that provide 100-year and 500-year probabilistic tsunami wave height contours for the Seaside-Gearhart, Oregon, region were developed as part of an interagency Tsunami Pilot Study(1). These maps provided the probability of the tsunami hazard. The next step in determining risk is to determine the vulnerability or degree of loss resulting from the occurrence of tsunamis due to exposure and fragility. The tsunami vulnerability assessment methodology used in this study was developed by M. Papathoma and others(2). This model incorporates multiple factors (e.g. parameters related to the natural and built environments and socio-demographics) that contribute to tsunami vulnerability. Data provided with FEMA's HAZUS loss estimation software and Clatsop County, Oregon, tax assessment data were used as input to the model. The results, presented within a geographic information system, reveal the percentage of buildings in need of reinforcement and the population density in different inundation depth zones. These results can be used for tsunami mitigation, local planning, and for determining post-tsunami disaster response by emergency services. (1)Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group, Seaside, Oregon Tsunami Pilot Study--Modernization of FEMA Flood Hazard Maps, Joint NOAA/USGS/FEMA Special Report, U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2006, Final Draft. (2)Papathoma, M., D. Dominey-Howes, D.,Y. Zong, D. Smith, Assessing Tsunami Vulnerability, an example from Herakleio, Crete, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 3, 2003, p. 377-389.

  13. USGS Tampa Bay Pilot Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, K.K.; Cronin, T. M.; Crane, M.; Hansen, M.; Nayeghandi, A.; Swarzenski, P.; Edgar, T.; Brooks, G.R.; Suthard, B.; Hine, A.; Locker, S.; Willard, D.A.; Hastings, D.; Flower, B.; Hollander, D.; Larson, R.A.; Smith, K.

    2007-01-01

    Providing a web-based digital information management system of information for scientists and the public, including a system that supports the work of those officials who must make decisions that affect the state of the bay. The Tampa Bay Study is in its sixth year and will continue through September 2007. This paper presents a non-inclusive summary of key findings associated with the six primary project components listed above. Component 4 (above) is described in detail in the following chapter 13. More information on the Tampa Bay Study is available from our on-line digital information system for the Tampa Bay Study at http://gulfsci.usgs.gov.

  14. Learner Intonation -- A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backman, Nancy

    This study is concerned with problems in language learners' intonation of English. Ten intonation problems were found in the learner speech of two adult Spanish-speaking males: (1) range of pitch, (2) initial rise, (3) final fall, (4) rise to final stressed syllable, (5) placement of prominence, (6) final rise for questions, (7) total question…

  15. New DNA Methylation Markers for Pancreatic Cancer: Discovery, Tissue Validation, and Pilot Testing in Pancreatic Juice

    PubMed Central

    Kisiel, John B.; Raimondo, Massimo; Taylor, William R.; Yab, Tracy C.; Mahoney, Douglas W.; Sun, Zhifu; Middha, Sumit; Baheti, Saurabh; Zou, Hongzhi; Smyrk, Thomas C.; Boardman, Lisa A.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Ahlquist, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Discriminant markers for pancreatic cancer detection are needed. We sought to identify and validate methylated DNA markers for pancreatic cancer using next-generation sequencing unbiased by known targets. Experimental Design At a referral center, we conducted four sequential case-control studies: discovery, technical validation, biological validation, and clinical piloting. Candidate markers were identified using variance inflated logistic regression on reduced-representation bisulfite DNA sequencing results from matched pancreatic cancers, benign pancreas, and normal colon tissues. Markers were validated technically on replicate discovery study DNA and biologically on independent, matched, blinded tissues by methylation specific PCR. Clinical testing of 6 methylation candidates and mutant KRAS was performed on secretin-stimulated pancreatic juice samples from 61 pancreatic cancer patients, 22 with chronic pancreatitis and 19 with normal pancreas on endoscopic ultrasound. Areas under receiver operating characteristics curves (AUC) for markers were calculated. Results Sequencing identified >500 differentially hyper-methylated regions. On independent tissues, AUC on 19 selected markers ranged between 0.73 – 0.97. Pancreatic juice AUC values for CD1D, KCNK12, CLEC11A, NDRG4, IKZF1, PKRCB and KRAS were 0.92*, 0.88, 0.85, 0.85, 0.84, 0.83 and 0.75, respectively, for pancreatic cancer compared to normal pancreas and 0.92*, 0.73, 0.76, 0.85*, 0.73, 0.77 and 0.62 for pancreatic cancer compared to chronic pancreatitis (*p=0.001 vs KRAS). Conclusion We identified and validated novel DNA methylation markers strongly associated with pancreatic cancer. On pilot testing in pancreatic juice, best markers (especially CD1D) highly discriminated pancreatic cases from controls. PMID:26023084

  16. Pilot test of a cervical cancer prevention video developed for Alaska Native women.

    PubMed

    Stillwater, B; Echavarria, V A; Lanier, A P

    1995-01-01

    Cancer of the cervix is twice as likely to occur among Alaska Native women than among Caucasian women in the United State. To understand some of the factors associated with this high incidence, a random sample of 528 Alaska Native women were surveyed about their knowledge, attitudes, and behavior regarding cervical cancer and its risk factors. From the results of the Alaska Native Women's Health Project study, the need for more public education related to cervical cancer prevention was identified. A review of existing educational resources revealed that no culturally appropriate materials related to cervical cancer had been developed for Alaska Native women. To increase Native women's knowledge about cervical cancer and to motivate them to obtain annual Papanicolaou tests, a 12-minute videotape presentation was developed specifically for this population. The videotape portrayed Alaska Native women as role models from the community discussing cervical cancer and Papanicolaou tests and engaging in healthy lifestyles. The videotape was pilot tested with several groups of Alaska Native women. The women were surveyed before and after watching the video and were asked to rate the tape and make comments about it. The results of the posttest demonstrated a significant increase in the knowledge level of the participants. The videotape was well received because of its cultural sensitivity and appropriateness. On the basis of this study, the development of additional culturally appropriate educational materials related to cancer prevention of Alaska Native women is recommended. PMID:7631000

  17. Pilot test of a cervical cancer prevention video developed for Alaska Native women.

    PubMed Central

    Stillwater, B; Echavarria, V A; Lanier, A P

    1995-01-01

    Cancer of the cervix is twice as likely to occur among Alaska Native women than among Caucasian women in the United State. To understand some of the factors associated with this high incidence, a random sample of 528 Alaska Native women were surveyed about their knowledge, attitudes, and behavior regarding cervical cancer and its risk factors. From the results of the Alaska Native Women's Health Project study, the need for more public education related to cervical cancer prevention was identified. A review of existing educational resources revealed that no culturally appropriate materials related to cervical cancer had been developed for Alaska Native women. To increase Native women's knowledge about cervical cancer and to motivate them to obtain annual Papanicolaou tests, a 12-minute videotape presentation was developed specifically for this population. The videotape portrayed Alaska Native women as role models from the community discussing cervical cancer and Papanicolaou tests and engaging in healthy lifestyles. The videotape was pilot tested with several groups of Alaska Native women. The women were surveyed before and after watching the video and were asked to rate the tape and make comments about it. The results of the posttest demonstrated a significant increase in the knowledge level of the participants. The videotape was well received because of its cultural sensitivity and appropriateness. On the basis of this study, the development of additional culturally appropriate educational materials related to cancer prevention of Alaska Native women is recommended. Images p213-a PMID:7631000

  18. Centrifuge Study of Pilot Tolerance to Acceleration and the Effects of Acceleration on Pilot Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creer, Brent Y.; Smedal, Harald A.; Wingrove, Rodney C.

    1960-01-01

    A research program the general objective of which was to measure the effects of various sustained accelerations on the control performance of pilots, was carried out on the Aviation Medical Acceleration Laboratory centrifuge, U.S. Naval Air Development Center, Johnsville, PA. The experimental setup consisted of a flight simulator with the centrifuge in the control loop. The pilot performed his control tasks while being subjected to acceleration fields such as might be encountered by a forward-facing pilot flying an atmosphere entry vehicle. The study was divided into three phases. In one phase of the program, the pilots were subjected to a variety of sustained linear acceleration forces while controlling vehicles with several different sets of longitudinal dynamics. Here, a randomly moving target was displayed to the pilot on a cathode-ray tube. For each combination of acceleration field and vehicle dynamics, pilot tracking accuracy was measured and pilot opinion of the stability and control characteristics was recorded. Thus, information was obtained on the combined effects of complexity of control task and magnitude and direction of acceleration forces on pilot performance. These tests showed that the pilot's tracking performance deteriorated markedly at accelerations greater than about 4g when controlling a lightly damped vehicle. The tentative conclusion was also reached that regardless of the airframe dynamics involved, the pilot feels that in order to have the same level of control over the vehicle, an increase in the vehicle dynamic stability was required with increases in the magnitudes of the acceleration impressed upon the pilot. In another phase, boundaries of human tolerance of acceleration were established for acceleration fields such as might be encountered by a pilot flying an orbital vehicle. A special pilot restraint system was developed to increase human tolerance to longitudinal decelerations. The results of the tests showed that human tolerance

  19. The Efficacy and Safety of Jaungo, a Traditional Medicinal Ointment, in Preventing Radiation Dermatitis in Patients with Breast Cancer: A Prospective, Single-Blinded, Randomized Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Moonkyoo; Hwang, Deok-Sang; Lee, Jee Young; Yoon, Seong Woo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Jaungo in preventing radiation dermatitis in patients with breast cancer. Methods. Thirty patients were prospectively enrolled and randomly assigned to receive Jaungo or general supportive skin care. Radiation dermatitis and pain were examined at daily intervals from the start of radiotherapy until 4 weeks after its completion. The primary endpoint of this study was the incidence of radiation dermatitis. The secondary endpoints were time to onset of radiation dermatitis, duration of radiation dermatitis, and maximum pain score. Results. Jaungo reduced the incidence of grade ≥2 (46.7% versus 78.6%) and grade 3 radiation dermatitis (20.0% versus 50.0%) in comparison with general supportive skin care. Jaungo also delayed the onset of grade 2 dermatitis (35 days versus 30 days). In terms of time to onset of grade 3 dermatitis, duration of dermatitis, and maximum pain score, Jaungo showed results comparable to those achieved with general supportive skin care. No patients experienced adverse effects caused by Jaungo administration. Conclusions. Jaungo minimized radiation dermatitis in patients with breast cancer without causing adverse effects. Further randomized studies with a larger sample size are required to assess clinical use of Jaungo. PMID:27066103

  20. Ear identification: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cameriere, Roberto; DeAngelis, Danilo; Ferrante, Luigi

    2011-07-01

    Although several papers have recently been devoted to establishing the validity of identification using the ear, this part of the human body still remains underexploited in forensic science. The perfect overlap of two images of the same ear is not really possible, but photographs of the ears as a reliable means of inferring the identity of an individual are poorly treated in the literature. In this study, we illustrate a simple, reproducible method, which divides the photograph of an ear into four parts-helix, antihelix, concha, and lobe-by means of a suitable grid of four straight lines. Although the division does not follow exact anatomical features, their edges do join anatomical points which are more easily identifiable. Measurement of certain areas of these parts can be combined to produce a code allowing personal identification. This method produces false-positive identifications of <0.2%. Last, the repeatability and reproducibility aspects of the method are tested.

  1. Molecular and Clinical Responses in a Pilot Study of Gefitinib with Paclitaxel and Radiation in Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Van Waes, Carter; Allen, Clint T.; Citrin, Deborah; Gius, David; Colevas, A. Dimetrios; Harold, Nancy A.; Rudy, Susan; Nottingham, Liesl; Muir, Christine; Chen, Zhong; Singh, Anurag K.; Dancey, Janet; Morris, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) stimulates tumor cell proliferation, inhibits apoptosis, and increases chemotherapy and radiation resistance. We examined the toxicity, safety and the effects on EGFR signaling in tumor biopsies from patients with locally advanced HNSCC treated with the EGFR signaling inhibitor gefitinib (GEF) combined with weekly intravenous paclitaxel (PAC) and radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials A pilot phase I dose-escalation study. Eligibility included stage III-IVB HNSCC, age ≥18 years, no prior RT or chemotherapy, adequate organ function and informed consent. Endpoints included determination of maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and analysis of treatment effect on EGFR signaling, tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis in biopsies. Results Ten patients were treated. The MTD of this combination was GEF 250 mg/d with PAC 36 mg/m2 I.V. weekly × 6 with concurrent RT. Grade 3/4 toxicities included prolonged (>8 weeks) stomatitis (7 patients), infection (1), and interstitial pneumonitis (1). There were five complete responses (CR) and two partial responses (PR). Of 7 patients undergoing serial biopsies, only one demonstrated a reduction in phosphorylated-EGFR, decreased downstream signaling and reduced cellular proliferation after initiating GEF. Conclusions GEF inhibition of EGFR was observed in only one of seven tumors studied. The addition of GEF to PAC and RT did not appear to improve the response of locally advanced HNSCC compared to our prior experience with PAC and RT alone. This treatment appeared to delay recovery from stomatitis. PMID:19879702

  2. Molecular and Clinical Responses in a Pilot Study of Gefitinib With Paclitaxel and Radiation in Locally Advanced Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Van Waes, Carter; Allen, Clint T.; Citrin, Deborah; Gius, David; Colevas, A. Dimetrios; Harold, Nancy A.; Rudy, Susan; Nottingham, Liesl; Muir, Christine; Chen, Zhong; Singh, Anurag K.; Dancey, Janet; Morris, John C.

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression in head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) stimulates tumor cell proliferation, inhibits apoptosis, and increases chemotherapy and radiation resistance. We examined the toxicity, safety and the effects on EGFR signaling in tumor biopsy samples from patients with locally advanced HNSCC treated with the EGFR signaling inhibitor gefitinib (GEF) combined with weekly intravenous paclitaxel (PAC) and radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: This was a pilot Phase I dose-escalation study. Eligibility included Stage III to IVB HNSCC, age >=18 years, no prior RT or chemotherapy, adequate organ function, and informed consent. Endpoints included determination of maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and analysis of treatment effect on EGFR signaling, tumor cell proliferation, and apoptosis in biopsy samples. Results: Ten patients were treated. The MTD of this combination was GEF 250 mg/d with PAC 36 mg/m{sup 2} intravenously weekly x 6 with concurrent RT. Grade 3/4 toxicities included prolonged (>8 weeks) stomatitis (7 patients), infection (2 patients), and interstitial pneumonitis (1 patient). There were five complete responses (CR) and two partial responses (PR). Of 7 patients undergoing serial biopsies, only 1 patient demonstrated a reduction in phosphorylated EGFR, decreased downstream signaling, and reduced cellular proliferation after initiating GEF. Conclusions: Inhibition of EGFR by GEF was observed in only one of seven tumors studied. The addition of GEF to PAC and RT did not appear to improve the response of locally advanced HNSCC compared with our prior experience with PAC and RT alone. This treatment appeared to delay recovery from stomatitis.

  3. Review of complementary and alternative medicine and selected nutraceuticals: background for a pilot study on nutrigenomic intervention in patients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Varker, Kimberly A; Ansel, Adam; Aukerman, Glen; Carson, William E

    2012-01-01

    As commonly defined, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a broad category that includes biologically based practices, mind-body medicine, manipulative and bodybased practices, and energy medicine as well as complete medical systems such as naturopathy, homeopathy, Ayurvedic medicine, and traditional Chinese medicine. Several CAM methodologies show promise for the treatment of chronic conditions such as depression and pain disorders or have demonstrated effects upon the immune response in experimental studies. There is growing interest in the use of integrative medicine the combination of CAM methodologies with a conventional medical approach-for the optimization of treatment of various cancers. The Ohio State University Center for Integrative Medicine has developed a specialized nutrigenomic protocol for integrative cancer care. The center uses a comprehensive nutritional and medical evaluation, including a panel of proinflammatory molecules and physiologic parameters, to guide a program of individualized dietary interventions. Dietary supplementation is a current focus of study, including: (1) Omega-3 fatty acids and B vitamins, which are thought to play important roles in immunomodulation; (2) Magnesium oxide, which has been shown to decrease inflammation and improve insulin resistance and lipid profiles; and (3) Cinnamon extract, which reportedly decreases serum glucose levels. This article presents a brief overview of CAM and integrative medicine and a discussion of the relevant nutraceuticals.

  4. Review of complementary and alternative medicine and selected nutraceuticals: background for a pilot study on nutrigenomic intervention in patients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Varker, Kimberly A; Ansel, Adam; Aukerman, Glen; Carson, William E

    2012-01-01

    As commonly defined, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a broad category that includes biologically based practices, mind-body medicine, manipulative and bodybased practices, and energy medicine as well as complete medical systems such as naturopathy, homeopathy, Ayurvedic medicine, and traditional Chinese medicine. Several CAM methodologies show promise for the treatment of chronic conditions such as depression and pain disorders or have demonstrated effects upon the immune response in experimental studies. There is growing interest in the use of integrative medicine the combination of CAM methodologies with a conventional medical approach-for the optimization of treatment of various cancers. The Ohio State University Center for Integrative Medicine has developed a specialized nutrigenomic protocol for integrative cancer care. The center uses a comprehensive nutritional and medical evaluation, including a panel of proinflammatory molecules and physiologic parameters, to guide a program of individualized dietary interventions. Dietary supplementation is a current focus of study, including: (1) Omega-3 fatty acids and B vitamins, which are thought to play important roles in immunomodulation; (2) Magnesium oxide, which has been shown to decrease inflammation and improve insulin resistance and lipid profiles; and (3) Cinnamon extract, which reportedly decreases serum glucose levels. This article presents a brief overview of CAM and integrative medicine and a discussion of the relevant nutraceuticals. PMID:22516882

  5. Hypofractionated Boost With High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and Open Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Implants for Locally Aggressive Prostate Cancer: A Sequential Dose-Escalation Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Ares, Carmen; Popowski, Youri; Pampallona, Sandro; Nouet, Philippe; Dipasquale, Giovanna; Bieri, Sabine; Ozsoy, Orhan; Rouzaud, Michel; Khan, Haleem; Miralbell, Raymond

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility, tolerance, and preliminary outcome of an open MRI-guided prostate partial-volume high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) schedule in a group of selected patients with nonmetastatic, locally aggressive prostatic tumors. Methods and Materials: After conventional fractionated three-dimensional conformal external radiotherapy to 64-64.4 Gy, 77 patients with nonmetastatic, locally aggressive (e.g., perineural invasion and/or Gleason score 8-10) prostate cancer were treated from June 2000 to August 2004, with HDR-BT using temporary open MRI-guided {sup 192}Ir implants, to escalate the dose in the boost region. Nineteen, 21, and 37 patients were sequentially treated with 2 fractions of 6 Gy, 7 Gy, and 8 Gy each, respectively. Neoadjuvant androgen deprivation was given to 62 patients for 6-24 months. Acute and late toxicity were scored according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer scoring system. Results: All 77 patients completed treatment as planned. Only 2 patients presented with Grade >=3 acute urinary toxicity. The 3-year probability of Grade >=2 late urinary and low gastrointestinal toxicity-free survival was 91.4% +- 3.4% and 94.4% +- 2.7%, respectively. Rates of 3-year biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS) and disease-specific survival were 87.1% +- 4.1% and 100%, respectively. Conclusions: Boosting a partial volume of the prostate with hypofractionated HDR-BT for aggressive prostate cancer was feasible and showed limited long-term toxicity, which compared favorably with other dose-escalation methods in the literature. Preliminary bDFS was encouraging if one considers the negatively selected population of high-risk patients in this study.

  6. Cosmic radiation and mortality from cancer among male German airline pilots: extended cohort follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Gaël Paul; Blettner, Maria; Langner, Ingo; Zeeb, Hajo

    2012-06-01

    Commercial airline pilots are exposed to cosmic radiation and other specific occupational factors, potentially leading to increased cancer mortality. This was analysed in a cohort of 6,000 German cockpit crew members. A mortality follow-up for the years 1960-2004 was performed and occupational and dosimetry data were collected for this period. 405 deaths, including 127 cancer deaths, occurred in the cohort. The mortality from all causes and all cancers was significantly lower than in the German population. Total mortality decreased with increasing radiation doses (rate ratio (RR) per 10 mSv: 0.85, 95 % CI: 0.79, 0.93), contrasting with a non-significant increase of cancer mortality (RR per 10 mSv: 1.05, 95 % CI: 0.91, 1.20), which was restricted to the group of cancers not categorized as radiogenic in categorical analyses. While the total and cancer mortality of cockpit crew is low, a positive trend of all cancer with radiation dose is observed. Incomplete adjustment for age, other exposures correlated with duration of employment and a healthy worker survivor effect may contribute to this finding. More information is expected from a pooled analysis of updated international aircrew studies.

  7. Cosmic radiation and mortality from cancer among male German airline pilots: extended cohort follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Gaël Paul; Blettner, Maria; Langner, Ingo; Zeeb, Hajo

    2012-06-01

    Commercial airline pilots are exposed to cosmic radiation and other specific occupational factors, potentially leading to increased cancer mortality. This was analysed in a cohort of 6,000 German cockpit crew members. A mortality follow-up for the years 1960-2004 was performed and occupational and dosimetry data were collected for this period. 405 deaths, including 127 cancer deaths, occurred in the cohort. The mortality from all causes and all cancers was significantly lower than in the German population. Total mortality decreased with increasing radiation doses (rate ratio (RR) per 10 mSv: 0.85, 95 % CI: 0.79, 0.93), contrasting with a non-significant increase of cancer mortality (RR per 10 mSv: 1.05, 95 % CI: 0.91, 1.20), which was restricted to the group of cancers not categorized as radiogenic in categorical analyses. While the total and cancer mortality of cockpit crew is low, a positive trend of all cancer with radiation dose is observed. Incomplete adjustment for age, other exposures correlated with duration of employment and a healthy worker survivor effect may contribute to this finding. More information is expected from a pooled analysis of updated international aircrew studies. PMID:22678613

  8. A pilot study of JI-101, an inhibitor of VEGFR-2, PDGFR-β, and EphB4 receptors, in combination with everolimus and as a single agent in an ovarian cancer expansion cohort.

    PubMed

    Werner, Theresa L; Wade, Mark L; Agarwal, Neeraj; Boucher, Kenneth; Patel, Jesal; Luebke, Aaron; Sharma, Sunil

    2015-12-01

    JI-101 is an oral multi-kinase inhibitor that targets vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2 (VEGFR-2), platelet derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFR-β), and ephrin type-B receptor 4 (EphB4). None of the currently approved angiogenesis inhibitors have been reported to inhibit EphB4, and therefore, JI-101 has a novel mechanism of action. We conducted a pilot trial to assess the pharmacokinetics (PK), tolerability, and efficacy of JI-101 in combination with everolimus in advanced cancers, and pharmacodynamics (PD), tolerability, and efficacy of JI-101 in ovarian cancer. This was the first clinical study assessing anti-tumor activity of JI-101 in a combinatorial regimen. In the PK cohort, four patients received single agent 10 mg everolimus on day 1, 10 mg everolimus and 200 mg JI-101 combination on day 8, and single agent 200 mg JI-101 on day 15. In the PD cohort, eleven patients received single agent JI-101 at 200 mg twice daily for 28 day treatment cycles. JI-101 was well tolerated as a single agent and in combination with everolimus. No serious adverse events were observed. Common adverse events were hypertension, nausea, and abdominal pain. JI-101 increased exposure of everolimus by approximately 22%, suggestive of drug-drug interaction. The majority of patients had stable disease at their first set of restaging scans (two months), although no patients demonstrated a response to the drug per RECIST criteria. The novel mechanism of action of JI-101 is promising in ovarian cancer treatment and further prospective studies of this agent may be pursued in a less refractory patient population or in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy.

  9. Spaceborne synthetic aperture radar pilot study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A pilot study of a spaceborne sidelooking radar is summarized. The results of the system trade studies are given along with the electrical parameters for the proposed subsystems. The mechanical aspects, packaging, thermal control and dynamics of the proposed design are presented. Details of the data processor are given. A system is described that allows the data from a pass over the U. S. to be in hard copy form within two hours. Also included are the proposed schedule, work breakdown structure, and cost estimate.

  10. Topical application of a sandal wood oil and turmeric based cream prevents radiodermatitis in head and neck cancer patients undergoing external beam radiotherapy: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Palatty, P L; Azmidah, A; Rao, S; Jayachander, D; Thilakchand, K R; Rai, M P; Haniadka, R; Simon, P; Ravi, R; Jimmy, R; D'souza, P F; Fayad, R

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The study objective was to assess the effectiveness of a turmeric- and sandal wood oil-containing cream [Vicco® turmeric cream (VTC); Vicco Laboratories, Parel, India] on radiodermatitis in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy. Methods: A total of 50 patients with head and neck cancer requiring >60 Gy of curative radiotherapy/chemoradiotherapy were enrolled in the study. The volunteers were randomly divided into two groups of 25 patients. Group 1 was assigned to a topical application of Johnson's® baby oil (Johnson & Johnson Ltd, Baddi, India) and Group 2 for VTC. Prophylactic application of the cream was initiated on Day 1 and continued every day until 2 weeks after the end of treatment. Both agents were symmetrically applied within the irradiated field five times a day, and the acute skin reactions were assessed twice weekly in accordance with the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scores by an investigator who was unaware of the details. Results: The incidence of radiodermatitis increased with the exposure to radiation and was the highest in both groups at Week 7. However, a significant reduction in grades of dermatitis were seen in cohorts applying VTC at all time points, including 2 weeks post radiotherapy (p < 0.015 to p < 0.001). The occurrence of Grade 3 dermatitis was lower in the cohorts using VTC and was statistically significant (p < 0.01). Additionally, follow-up observations 2 weeks after the completion of radiotherapy also showed a reduced degree of radiodermatitis in cohorts applying VTC, which was significant (p = 0.015). Conclusion: VTC is shown to be effective in preventing radiodermatitis and needs to be validated in larger double-blind trials. Advances in knowledge: For the first time, this study shows that the turmeric- and sandal oil-based cream was effective in preventing radiation-induced dermatitis. PMID:24694358

  11. NORTHWEST ORGEON PILOT STUDY AREA (USA): THE USE OF LANDSCAPE SCIENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Northwest Oregon Pilot Study Area encompasses approximately 59,167 km2 and varies in elevation from sea level to 3,200 m. Annual precipitation varies with elevation and meridian and ranges from 25 - 460cm. The study area comprises a mixture of federal, state, and privately ow...

  12. Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1) is decreased in lung cancer patients showing progression: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Yilmaztepe, A; Ulukaya, E; Zik, B; Yagci, A; Sevimli, A; Yilmaz, M; Erdogan, B Bahadir; Koc, M; Akgoz, S; Karadag, M; Tokullugil, A

    2007-08-01

    Tumor growth and metastasis depend on angiogenesis, and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to be one of the most important angiogenic factors although the knowledge about its receptors is limited. We, therefore, investigated the treatment-related changes both in the level of the soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1) in the serum by ELISA and the expression of VEGFR-1 in cancer tissues by immunohistochemistry. The serum levels were studied in 38 lung cancer patients, and 55 control subjects (21 benign disease and 34 healthy subjects) before the chemotherapy. The treatment-related changes in serum sVEGFR-1 were evaluated in 15 patients 24 and 48 hours after treatment. In addition to serum analysis, the tissue expressions were evaluated in 32 patients before treatment. The treatment-related changes in tissue VEGFR-1 expressions were evaluated in only 12 patients 24 hours after treatment. We observed no significant difference in terms of serum sVEGFR-1 levels between malignant and nonmalignant groups (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences in the levels of sVEGFR-1 before and after treatment (p > 0.05). However, there was a significant difference between sVEGFR-1 levels in the groups (regressive, stable, progressive) classified according to the response to therapy (p = 0.043). A significant difference also was present between the expression levels of tissue VEGFR-1 in the same groups (p = 0.037). As a conclusion, we suggest that prechemotherapy sVEGFR-1 can be helpful for prediction of long-term response to therapy, but it should be studied in larger groups to elucidate its benefit in clinics.

  13. [Familial coping with cancer in childhood and adolescence. Possibilities for standardized assessment with a self-assessment method: results of an empirical pilot study].

    PubMed

    Goldbeck, L

    1998-10-01

    44 parents of pediatric oncology patients answered mailed questionnaires about their own coping and about their sick children's coping and bodily complaints during oncological therapy. Most of the families coped well from parents' view. The dominant coping style of the parents consisted of active, problem-focused coping strategies in combination with an optimistic basic attitude, maintainance of family cohesion and belief in god or search for a meaning of the illness. The children and adolescents used predominantly adaptive coping strategies. The parental problem-group with a predominantly maladaptive coping-style reported low family cohesion, high depression, high wishful thinking and minimization. The maladaptive children and adolescents were rated as more socially withdrawing, more irritable, less optimistic and competent as well as less compliant. Strong correlations were found between parents' and their children's coping. Problem families with a special need for psychosocial support can early be identified by the coping questionnaires used in this study. Prospective longitudinal studies with multi-methodal and multi-perspective designs should be conducted to reach a better understanding of the family coping process in case of childhood and adolescence cancer.

  14. Treatment of advanced stage ovarian carcinoma with a combination of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and radiosensitizer: report of a pilot study from the National Cancer Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Lichter, A.S.; Ozols, R.F.; Myers, C.C.; Ostechega, Y.; Young, R.C.

    1987-08-01

    Twenty-eight patients with Stage III or IV ovarian carcinoma were treated with combined chemotherapy-radiotherapy employing a unique protocol. Four cycles of cyclophosphamide and hexamethylmelamine alternated with four cycles of concurrent cisplatin, whole abdominal radiotherapy, and intraperitoneal misonidazole. The entire treatment program lasted six months. Clinical complete responses were seen in 50% of the patients with an overall response rate of 61%. Pathologic complete response (PCR) confirmed at second look surgery occurred in 18% of the group (5 patients). Median survival of the entire group was 15.2 months with all PCR's alive NED. This outcome was no different than our previous experience with combination chemotherapy alone. Toxicities seen included leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. However, these side effects were manageable. Two non-tumor deaths occurred. This study demonstrates the feasibility of combining drug and radiation therapy concurrently in the treatment of ovarian cancer; further research is needed to explore different sequencing and dose levels that could improve the outcome.

  15. Improving Understanding about Tanning Behaviors in College Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Basch, Charles E.; Neugut, Alfred I.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Melanoma is the second most common cancer diagnosed among 15- to 29-year-olds. This pilot study assessed behaviors, barriers, and beliefs relevant to sun exposure and protective behaviors. Participants: The sample comprised 153 undergraduate students at a large state university in western New York. Methods: Participants completed an…

  16. Thermoacoustic CT of the breast: pilot study observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruger, Robert A.; Kiser, William L., Jr.; Romilly, A. P.; Scmidt, Phyllis

    2001-06-01

    In order to assess the potential clinical utility of using thermoacoustic computer tomography (TCT) to image the breast, we conducted a retrospective pilot study of 78 patients. We recruited patients in three age groups (<40,40-50,>50 years). The study population was further segregated into normal and suspicious based on the results of the previous x-ray mammography and ultrasound. Image quality was evaluated qualitatively by consensus of two trained mammographers using a 4-point scale. The appearance of normal anatomy, cysts, benign disease and cancer was noted. Patients were also asked to rate the comfort of the TCT exam and to indicate a personal preference for x-ray mammography or TCT. Analysis of the data indicated that TCT image quality was dependent upon both patient age and breast density, improving with both increasing breast density and decreasing patient age. Fibrocystic disease was well seen, cysts appearing as areas of low RF absorption. Fibroadenomas did not demonstrate contrast enhancement with the exception of one patient with associated atypical hyperplasia. Cancer displayed higher RF absorption than surrounding tissues in 4/7 patients in whom cancer was confirmed, including one patient with a 7-mm ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).

  17. DU-AGG pilot plant design study

    SciTech Connect

    Lessing, P.A.; Gillman, H.

    1996-07-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is developing new methods to produce high-density aggregate (artificial rock) primarily consisting of depleted uranium oxide. The objective is to develop a low-cost method whereby uranium oxide powder (UO[sub 2], U[sub 3]O[sub ]8, or UO[sub 3]) can be processed to produce high-density aggregate pieces (DU-AGG) having physical properties suitable for disposal in low-level radioactive disposal facilities or for use as a component of high-density concrete used as shielding for radioactive materials. A commercial company, G-M Systems, conducted a design study for a manufacturing pilot plant to process DU-AGG. The results of that study are included and summarized in this report. Also explained are design considerations, equipment capacities, the equipment list, system operation, layout of equipment in the plant, cost estimates, and the proposed plan and schedule.

  18. Location Independent Professional Project: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, J.A.; Long, J.P.; Miller, M.M.

    1999-02-01

    This pilot study project explored the problem of providing access to the nomadic worker who desires to connect a computer through network access points at a number of different locations within the SNL/NM campus as well as outside the campus. The design and prototype development gathered knowledge that may allow a design to be developed that could be extended to a larger number of SNL/NM network drop boxes. The focus was to provide a capability for a worker to access the SNL IRN from a network drop box (e.g. in a conference room) as easily as when accessing the computer network from the office normally used by the worker. Additional study was done on new methods to authenticate the off campus worker, and protect and control access to data.

  19. Effectiveness of a Pilot Mindfulness Program in Volunteers of a Breast Cancer Association.

    PubMed

    Cucarella, Sheila Pintado; Giannini, Marina Chiba

    2016-10-01

    It has been usually observed that medical and health personnel, volunteers, and social workers who work with cancer and chronic patients may have higher rates of compassion fatigue and symptoms of anxiety and depression. The purpose of this study was to examine the benefits of a pilot mindfulness program in a sample of 7 volunteers of a foundation that supports women with breast cancer. The variables analyzed were depression, anxiety, compassion fatigue, work stress, and negative and positive affect. The results showed that the mindfulness program had a positive impact, reducing the symptoms of anxiety and depression and increasing emotional well-being. Participants also reported that the program helped them be more relaxed, identify their emotions, enjoy their time and environment better, increasing the value of life, and facilitate communication among the volunteers. The program produced positive changes in participants, powering personal areas and increasing emotional well-being.

  20. Prostate Cancer in Elderly Croatian Men: 5-HT Genetic Polymorphisms and the Influence of Androgen Deprivation Therapy on Osteopenia—A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Pauković, Paulina; Cvijetić, Selma; Pizent, Alica; Jurasović, Jasna; Milković-Kraus, Sanja; Dodig, Slavica; Mück-Šeler, Dorotea; Mustapić, Maja; Pivac, Nela; Lana-Feher-Turković; Pavlović, Mladen

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between body mass index, biochemical parameters, and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) genetic polymorphisms and prostate dysfunction in an elderly general male population. Results: One hundred and seventeen elderly male subjects [60 men without symptoms of prostate hyperplasia, 42 men with untreated benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and 15 men with prostate cancer (PCa)] treated with finasteride or flutamide were included. Multiple comparisons showed significant difference in age, T-score, concentration of phosphorus, calcium, C-reactive protein, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) between the groups. T-score was the lowest and phosphorus concentration was the highest in the PCa group. Highest PSA, proteins, calcium, and Hekal's formula score were found in the BPH group. Patients with PCa were more frequent GG+GA carriers of 5-HT1B 1997A/G gene polymorphism (p=0.035). Univariate regression analysis showed association of PCa-treated subjects with age (p=0.010) and 5-HT1B genetic polymorphism (p=0.018). Antiandrogen therapy affects T-score (p=0.017), serum phosphorus (p=0.008), glucose (p=0.036), and total proteins (p=0.050). Multivariate-stepwise logistic regression analysis showed the significant association of treated PCa with age (p=0.028) and inorganic phosphorus (p=0.005), and a marginal association with ultrasonographic T-score (p=0.052). Conclusions: Antiandrogen therapy might induce bone mineral loss in elderly PCa patients. Preliminary data imply that the genetic variants of the 5-HT1B receptor might be associated with PCa. PMID:22420486

  1. Pilot Clinical Study of the Effects of Ginger Root Extract on Eicosanoids in Colonic Mucosa of Subjects at Increased Risk for Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zick, Suzanna M.; Turgeon, D. Kim; Ren, Jianwei; Ruffin, Mack T.; Wright, Benjamin D.; Sen, Ananda; Djuric, Zora; Brenner, Dean E.

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a significant cause of mortality. Inhibitors of cyclooxygenase (COX) and thus prostaglandin E2, are promising CRC preventives, but have significant toxicities. Ginger has been shown to inhibit COX, to decrease the incidence and multiplicity of adenomas, and decrease PGE2 concentrations in subjects at normal risk for CRC. This study was conducted to determine the effects of 2.0 g/d of ginger given orally on the levels of PGE2, leukotriene B4 (LTB4), 13-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids, and 5-, 12-, & 15-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid, in the colonic mucosa of subjects at increased risk for CRC. We randomized 20 subjects to 2.0 g/d ginger or placebo for 28 d. At baseline and Day 28, a flexible sigmoidoscopy was used to obtain colon biopsies. A liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method was used to determine eicosanoid levels in the biopsies, and levels were expressed per amount of protein or free arachidonic acid (AA). There was a significant decrease in AA between baseline and Day 28 (P = 0.05) and significant increase in LTB4 (P = 0.04) when normalized to protein, in subjects treated with ginger versus placebo. No other changes in eicosanoids were observed. There was no difference between the groups in total adverse events (AE; P = 0.06). Ginger lacks the ability to decrease eicosanoid levels in people at increased risk for CRC. Ginger did appear to be both tolerable and safe; and could have chemopreventive effects through other mechanisms. Further investigation should focus on other markers of CRC risk in those at increased CRC risk. PMID:24760534

  2. Pilot clinical study of the effects of ginger root extract on eicosanoids in colonic mucosa of subjects at increased risk for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zick, Suzanna M; Turgeon, D Kim; Ren, Jianwei; Ruffin, Mack T; Wright, Benjamin D; Sen, Ananda; Djuric, Zora; Brenner, Dean E

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a significant cause of mortality. Inhibitors of cyclooxygenase (COX) and thus prostaglandin E2, are promising CRC preventives, but have significant toxicities. Ginger has been shown to inhibit COX, to decrease the incidence and multiplicity of adenomas, and decrease PGE2 concentrations in subjects at normal risk for CRC. This study was conducted to determine the effects of 2.0 g/d of ginger given orally on the levels of PGE2, leukotriene B4 (LTB4), 13-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids, and 5-, 12-, & 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, in the colonic mucosa of subjects at increased risk for CRC. We randomized 20 subjects to 2.0 g/d ginger or placebo for 28 d. At baseline and Day 28, a flexible sigmoidoscopy was used to obtain colon biopsies. A liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method was used to determine eicosanoid levels in the biopsies, and levels were expressed per amount of protein or free arachidonic acid (AA). There was a significant decrease in AA between baseline and Day 28 (P = 0.05) and significant increase in LTB4 (P = 0.04) when normalized to protein, in subjects treated with ginger versus placebo. No other changes in eicosanoids were observed. There was no difference between the groups in total adverse events (AE; P = 0.06). Ginger lacks the ability to decrease eicosanoid levels in people at increased risk for CRC. Ginger did appear to be both tolerable and safe; and could have chemopreventive effects through other mechanisms. Further investigation should focus on other markers of CRC risk in those at increased CRC risk.

  3. Perfusion Estimated With Rapid Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Correlates Inversely With Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression and Pimonidazole Staining in Head-and-Neck Cancer: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, Stephanie B.; Betts, Guy; Bonington, Suzanne C.; Homer, Jarrod J.; Slevin, Nick J.; Kershaw, Lucy E.; Valentine, Helen; West, Catharine M.L.; Buckley, David L.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To analyze, in a pilot study, rapidly acquired dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI data with a general two-compartment exchange tracer kinetic model and correlate parameters obtained with measurements of hypoxia and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: Eight patients were scanned before surgery. The DCE-MRI data were acquired with 1.5-s temporal resolution and analyzed using the two-compartment exchange tracer kinetic model to obtain estimates of parameters including perfusion and permeability surface area. Twelve to 16 h before surgery, patients received an intravenous injection of pimonidazole. Samples taken during surgery were used to determine the level of pimonidazole staining using immunohistochemistry and VEGF expression using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Correlations between the biological and imaging data were examined. Results: Of the seven tumors fully analyzed, those that were poorly perfused tended to have high levels of pimonidazole staining (r = -0.79, p = 0.03) and VEGF expression (r = -0.82, p = 0.02). Tumors with low permeability surface area also tended to have high levels of hypoxia (r = -0.75, p = 0.05). Hypoxic tumors also expressed higher levels of VEGF (r = 0.82, p = 0.02). Conclusions: Estimates of perfusion obtained with rapid DCE-MRI data in patients with head-and-neck cancer correlate inversely with pimonidazole staining and VEGF expression.

  4. Pilot-Testing a Cancer Education Curriculum for Grades K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonfeld, David J.; Bases, Hugh; Quackenbush, Marcia; Mayne, Susan; Morra, Marion; Cicchetti, Domenic

    2001-01-01

    Pilot-tested a developmentally appropriate cancer prevention education curriculum for grades K-6, assessing its feasibility and acceptance. Pretesting and posttesting of students who participated in the program indicated that students made significant gains in conceptual understanding for cancer causality and prevention. They also made significant…

  5. [Pilot study on compulsory vaccination coverage].

    PubMed

    Grandolfo, M E; Lauria, L; Medda, E; Bucciarelli, M; Andreozzi, S; Salinetti, S; Sitzia, G; Bernacchia, R

    1999-01-01

    The disappearance of diphtheria and poliomyelitis is the best evidence of the efficacy of the vaccination strategies adopted in Italy. The active offer of the prophylaxis, reinforced by law, has characterised the operational aspects of the strategy. The active surveillance system is the main tool to take under control the effectiveness of health services responsible for vaccination. This system could be more easily implemented if the health services will be given a specific software aiming to handle and evaluate vaccination registers. The present pilot study, performed in the regions Marche and Sardegna, is an example of active surveillance and it is based on the ARVA software produced by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità. The results show a good level of coverage (> 95%) within the second year of life. Unsatisfactory results were obtained on the timing of vaccinations, as recommended by the vaccination schedule, mostly for the third doses.

  6. Epidemiological studies of cancer in aircrew.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Gaël P; Blettner, Maria; Zeeb, Hajo

    2009-10-01

    Exposure to cosmic ionising radiation, in addition to other specific occupational risks, is of concern to aircrew members. Epidemiological studies provide an objective way to assess the health of this occupational group. We systematically reviewed the epidemiological literature on health of aircrew members since 1990, focusing on cancer as the endpoint of interest. Sixty-five relevant publications were identified and reviewed. Whereas overall cancer incidence and mortality was generally lower than in the comparison population, consistently elevated risks were reported for breast cancer incidence in female aircrew members and for melanoma in both male and female aircrew members. Brain cancer was increased in some studies among pilots. Occasionally trends of increasing cancer mortality or incidence with increasing estimated radiation dose were reported. Ionising radiation is considered to contribute little if at all to the elevated risks for cancers among aircrew, whereas excess ultraviolet radiation is a probable cause of the increased melanoma risk. PMID:19608578

  7. School Nurses' Support for Bereaved Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohan, Janet A.

    2006-01-01

    Children may have difficulty with schoolwork because of grief over the death of an important person in their lives. School nurses provide support to these children. This pilot study consisted of a Web-based survey completed by 6 school nurses in a 3-county area in Washington state. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the need for…

  8. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT METHODS DEVELOPMENT PILOTS FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate exposure classification tools are needed to link exposure with health effects. EPA began methods development pilot studies in 2000 to address general questions about exposures and outcome measures. Selected pilot studies are highlighted in this poster. The “Literature Re...

  9. Prospective Randomized Double-Blind Pilot Study of Site-Specific Consensus Atlas Implementation for Rectal Cancer Target Volume Delineation in the Cooperative Group Setting

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Clifton D.; Nijkamp, Jasper; Duppen, Joop C.; Rasch, Coen R.N.; Thomas, Charles R.; Wang, Samuel J.; Okunieff, Paul; Jones, William E.; Baseman, Daniel; Patel, Shilpen; Demandante, Carlo G.N.; Harris, Anna M.; Smith, Benjamin D.; Katz, Alan W.; McGann, Camille

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: Variations in target volume delineation represent a significant hurdle in clinical trials involving conformal radiotherapy. We sought to determine the effect of a consensus guideline-based visual atlas on contouring the target volumes. Methods and Materials: A representative case was contoured (Scan 1) by 14 physician observers and a reference expert with and without target volume delineation instructions derived from a proposed rectal cancer clinical trial involving conformal radiotherapy. The gross tumor volume (GTV), and two clinical target volumes (CTVA, including the internal iliac, presacral, and perirectal nodes, and CTVB, which included the external iliac nodes) were contoured. The observers were randomly assigned to receipt (Group A) or nonreceipt (Group B) of a consensus guideline and atlas for anorectal cancers and then instructed to recontour the same case/images (Scan 2). Observer variation was analyzed volumetrically using the conformation number (CN, where CN = 1 equals total agreement). Results: Of 14 evaluable contour sets (1 expert and 7 Group A and 6 Group B observers), greater agreement was found for the GTV (mean CN, 0.75) than for the CTVs (mean CN, 0.46-0.65). Atlas exposure for Group A led to significantly increased interobserver agreement for CTVA (mean initial CN, 0.68, after atlas use, 0.76; p = .03) and increased agreement with the expert reference (initial mean CN, 0.58; after atlas use, 0.69; p = .02). For the GTV and CTVB, neither the interobserver nor the expert agreement was altered after atlas exposure. Conclusion: Consensus guideline atlas implementation resulted in a detectable difference in interobserver agreement and a greater approximation of expert volumes for the CTVA but not for the GTV or CTVB in the specified case. Visual atlas inclusion should be considered as a feature in future clinical trials incorporating conformal RT.

  10. Imaging Cellular Proliferation During Chemo-Radiotherapy: A Pilot Study of Serial {sup 18}F-FLT Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Imaging for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Everitt, Sarah; Hicks, Rodney J.; Ball, David; Kron, Tomas; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal; Walter, Tania; Binns, David; Mac Manus, Michael

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To establish whether {sup 18}F-3'-deoxy-3'-fluoro-L-thymidine ({sup 18}F-FLT) can monitor changes in cellular proliferation of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) during radical chemo-radiotherapy (chemo-RT). Methods and Materials: As part of a prospective pilot study, 5 patients with locally advanced NSCLC underwent serial {sup 18}F-FLT positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scans during treatment. Baseline {sup 18}F-FLT PET/CT scans were compared with routine staging {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans. Two on-treatment {sup 18}F-FLT scans were performed for each patient on Days 2, 8, 15 or 29, providing a range of time points for response assessment. Results: In all 5 patients, baseline lesional uptake of {sup 18}F-FLT on PET/CT corresponded to staging {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT abnormalities. {sup 18}F-FLT uptake in tumor was observed on five of nine (55%) on-treatment scans, on Days 2, 8 and 29, but not Day 15. A 'flare' of {sup 18}F-FLT uptake in the primary tumor of one case was observed after 2 Gy of radiation (1.22 x baseline). The remaining eight on-treatment scans demonstrated a mean reduction in {sup 18}F-FLT tumor uptake of 0.58 x baseline. A marked reduction of {sup 18}F-FLT uptake in irradiated bone marrow was observed for all cases. This reduction was observed even after only 2 Gy, and all patients demonstrated a complete absence of proliferating marrow after 10 Gy. Conclusions: This proof of concept study indicates that {sup 18}F-FLT uptake can monitor the distinctive biologic responses of epithelial cancers and highly radiosensitive normal tissue changes during radical chemo-RT. Further studies of {sup 18}F-FLT PET/CT imaging during therapy may suggest that this tracer is useful in developing response-adapted RT for NSCLC.

  11. The DOE Water Cycle Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.L.; King, A.W.; Miller, M.A.; Springer, E.P.; Wesely, M.L.; Bashford, K.E.; Conrad, M.E.; Costigan, K.; Foster, P.N.; Gibbs, H.K.; Jin, J.; Klazura, J.; Lesht, B.M.; Machavaram, M.V.; Pan, F.; Song, J.; Troyan, D.; Washington-Allen, R.A.

    2003-09-20

    A Department of Energy (DOE) multi-laboratory Water Cycle Pilot Study (WCPS) investigated components of the local water budget at the Walnut River Watershed in Kansas to study the relative importance of various processes and to determine the feasibility of observational water budget closure. An extensive database of local meteorological time series and land surface characteristics was compiled. Numerical simulations of water budget components were generated and, to the extent possible, validated for three nested domains within the Southern Great Plains; the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement/Cloud Atmospheric Radiation Testbed (ARM/CART), the Walnut River Watershed (WRW), and the Whitewater Watershed (WW), Kansas A 2-month Intensive Observation Period (IOP) was conducted to gather detailed observations relevant to specific details of the water budget, including fine-scale precipitation, streamflow, and soil moisture measurements not made routinely by other programs. Event and season al water isotope (delta 18O, delta D) sampling in rainwater, streams, soils, lakes, and wells provided a means of tracing sources and sinks within and external to the WW, WRW, and the ARM/CART domains. The WCPS measured changes in leaf area index for several vegetation types, deep groundwater variations at two wells, and meteorological variables at a number of sites in the WRW. Additional activities of the WCPS include code development toward a regional climate model with water isotope processes, soil moisture transect measurements, and water level measurements in ground water wells.

  12. The intramuscular administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor as an adjunct to chemotherapy in pretreated ovarian cancer patients: an Italian Trials in Medical Oncology (ITMO) Group pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Di Leo, A.; Bajetta, E.; Nolè, F.; Biganzoli, L.; Ferrari, L.; Oriana, S.; Riboldi, G.; Bohm, S.; Spatti, G.; Raspagliesi, F.

    1994-01-01

    No published data are available concerning the activity and tolerability of intramuscularly administered granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in humans. To fill this gap, 19 patients with advanced ovarian cancer previously treated with at least one first-line chemotherapy cycle received the following myelosuppressive regimen: mitoxantrone (DHAD) 12 mg m-2 i.v. on day 1; ifosfamide (IFO) 4 g m-2 i.v. on days 1 and 2; mesna 800 mg m-2 i.v. t.i.d. on days 1 and 2. G-CSF (Filgrastim) was given at a dose of 5 micrograms/kg/day i.m. from day 6 to day 19, its pharmacokinetics being assessed in five patients. The neutrophil nadir was observed after a mean period of 8 days, and the neutrophil count was < 1.0 x 10(3) mm-3 for a mean of 6 days during the cycle of chemotherapy. The neutrophil count fell after the withdrawal of G-CSF on the 19th day of treatment. The difference in absolute neutrophil count between day 19 and day 21 was statistically significant (P = 0.0001); nevertheless, at day 21 no WHO grade 3-4 neutropenia was reported. DHAD and IFO were respectively given at 95% and 93% of the planned dose. The pharmacokinetics of G-CSF i.m. seems to be similar to that of the drug given subcutaneously. No evidence of cumulative myelosuppression was observed. G-CSF was well tolerated and no complications were observed at the injection sites. In conclusion, if the results obtained in this pilot study regarding the activity of i.m. G-CSF are confirmed by a randomised trial, the intramuscular administration of G-CSF could become a valid alternative for patients who dislike the subcutaneous route and who are being treated with chemotherapy that does not induce profound thrombocytopenia. PMID:7514030

  13. High-Resolution Scintimammography: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel F. Brem; Joelle M. Schoonjans; Douglas A. Kieper; Stan Majewski; Steven Goodman; Cahid Civelek

    2002-07-01

    This study evaluated a novel high-resolution breast-specific gamma camera (HRBGC) for the detection of suggestive breast lesions. Methods: Fifty patients (with 58 breast lesions) for whom a scintimammogram was clinically indicated were prospectively evaluated with a general-purpose gamma camera and a novel HRBGC prototype. The results of conventional and high-resolution nuclear studies were prospectively classified as negative (normal or benign) or positive (suggestive or malignant) by 2 radiologists who were unaware of the mammographic and histologic results. All of the included lesions were confirmed by pathology. Results: There were 30 benign and 28 malignant lesions. The sensitivity for detection of breast cancer was 64.3% (18/28) with the conventional camera and 78.6% (22/28) with the HRBGC. The specificity with both systems was 93.3% (28/30). For the 18 nonpalpable lesions, sensitivity was 55.5% (10/18) and 72.2% (13/18) with the general-purpose camera and the HRBGC, respectively. For lesions 1 cm, 7 of 15 were detected with the general-purpose camera and 10 of 15 with the HRBGC. Four lesions (median size, 8.5 mm) were detected only with the HRBGC and were missed by the conventional camera. Conclusion: Evaluation of indeterminate breast lesions with an HRBGC results in improved sensitivity for the detection of cancer, with greater improvement shown for nonpalpable and 1-cm lesions.

  14. Evaluation of a Pilot Communication Skills Training Intervention for Minority Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bylund, Carma L.; Goytia, Elliott J.; D'Agostino, Thomas A.; Bulone, Linda; Horner, Jennifer; Li, Yuelin; Kemeny, Margaret; Ostroff, Jamie S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to pilot test in a minority cancer patient population a communication workshop to improve doctor-patient communication skills. Thirty-two patients participated. Eighteen evaluated a face-to-face workshop, while 14 completed surveys only. Participants in the workshop group completed the Patient Report of Communication Behavior (PRCB) before and after the workshop and a course evaluation. Participants did not differ on baseline PRCB scores. Post-test scores were significantly higher than pre-test scores (p<.01). All participants agreed or strongly agreed that they would use the communication skills; 93% agreed or strongly agreed that the skills would improve their healthcare. PMID:21966720

  15. 1999 ANNUAL REPORT NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This annual report present the proceedings of the second annual NATO/CCMS pilot study meeting in Belfast, UK in March 1999. Guest speakers focused on efforts in the research arena of clean products, clean processes, and pollution prevention tools.

  16. Cancers Selected for Study - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Genome Atlas researchers are mapping the genetic changes in 33 cancers. Find out which cancers have been selected for study, the criteria for selection and the scientific questions being asked about each cancer.

  17. PILOT STUDY: CCQM-P32 pilot study. Anion calibration solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Michael; Wüthrich, Jürg

    2003-01-01

    In the CCQM-P32 pilot study two gravimetrically prepared anion calibration solutions of chloride and phosphate each of about 1 g/kg mass fraction were investigated. The comparison was an activity of the Inorganic Analysis Working Group of CCQM in 2002 and was piloted by the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA). The following institutes participated in this study (in alphabetical order): BAM (Germany), CENAM (Mexico), EMPA (Switzerland), GUM (Poland), KRISS (South Korea), LNE (France), NIST (United States of America), NMIJ (Japan), NRCCRM (China), PTB (Germany), SMU (Slovakia). For the chloride calibration solution 11 participants provided 16 results by the following analytical techniques: coulometry (7), titrimetry (5) and ion chromatography (4). The phosphate amount content was determined by 9 NMIs and 11 results were reported. Phosphate ion chromatography was the most applied technique (4), followed by titrimetry (2), ICP-OES (2), gravimetry (1) and ion-exchange coulometry (1). All results were found within a range of +/-0.5% with respect to the gravimetric value. The variability (RSD) of the results is 0.13% for chloride and 0.26% for phosphate. The reported results of all participants are also graphically displayed in this report. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM Working Group on Inorganic Analysis, according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  18. A pilot study to evaluate gaze behavior in aircraft simulations.

    PubMed

    Russi-Vigoya, Maria Natalia; Patterson, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Pilots encounter dynamic situations in which there are drastic changes in weather or where their primary equipment fails. The glass cockpit interface, a computerized system, is often used in today?s aircraft to integrate information about aircraft status onto a visual display. When adverse, life-threatening, situations occur, pilots have to make decisions, with or without their primary equipment. One of the most important tools that pilots have to prepare for adverse situations is simulation training. This study evaluated the link between situational awareness and eye behavior while using a flight simulator to present different adverse situations.

  19. Protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial of an online intervention for post-treatment cancer survivors with persistent fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, Teresa; Walsh, Jane C; Groarke, AnnMarie; Moss-Morris, Rona; McGuire, Brian E

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Many post-treatment cancer survivors experience persistent fatigue that can disrupt attempts to resume normal everyday activities after treatment. Theoretical models that aim to explain contributory factors that initiate and sustain fatigue symptoms, or that influence the efficacy of interventions for cancer-related fatigue (CrF) require testing. Adjustment to fatigue is likely to be influenced by coping behaviours that are guided by the representations of the symptom. Objectives This paper describes the protocol for a pilot trial of a systematically and theoretically designed online intervention to enable self-management of CrF after cancer treatment. Methods and analysis This 2-armed randomised controlled pilot trial will study the feasibility and potential effectiveness of an online intervention. Participants will be allocated to either the online intervention (REFRESH (Recovery from Cancer-Related Fatigue)), or a leaflet comparator. Participants 80 post-treatment cancer survivors will be recruited for the study. Interventions An 8-week online intervention based on cognitive–behavioural therapy. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome is a change in fatigue as measured by the Piper Fatigue Scale (revised). Quality of life will be measured using the Quality of Life in Adult Survivors of Cancer Scale. Outcome measures will be collected at baseline, and at completion of intervention. Results The feasibility of trial procedures will be tested, as well as the effect of the intervention on the outcomes. Conclusions This study may lead to the development of a supportive resource to target representations and coping strategies of cancer survivors with CrF post-treatment. Setting Recruitment from general public in Ireland. Ethics and dissemination This trial was approved by the Research Ethics Committee at National University of Ireland Galway in January 2013. Trial results will be communicated in a peer-reviewed journal. Trial

  20. A pilot trial of spirituality counseling for weight loss maintenance in African American breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Djuric, Zora; Mirasolo, Josephine; Kimbrough, LaVern; Brown, Diane R; Heilbrun, Lance K; Canar, Lisa; Venkatranamamoorthy, Raghu; Simon, Michael S

    2009-06-01

    A continuing challenge in weight loss treatment is attaining maintenance of weight loss. The goal of this study was to develop a counseling method that would assist African American breast cancer survivors with weight loss maintenance. In this pilot study, 31 obese breast cancer survivors were recruited. Individualized, dietitian-led counseling by telephone and free Weight Watchers coupons were provided to all participants for 18 months. At the 6-month time point, women were randomized to receive spirituality counseling or not in addition to the standard program. The spirituality counseling was delivered via telephone using an 8-step framework. Subjects were asked to utilize daily meditation or prayer, daily readings, and the recording of thoughts in a journal. Mean weight loss from baseline to 6 months was a modest 2.0% of baseline weight. From 6 to 18 months, there was no further weight change in the spirituality arm and a gain of 0.7% in the dietitian-only arm. Despite little effect on weight loss, it did appear that spirituality counseling positively affected spiritual well-being (FACIT-Sp) scores and dietary quality. The spirituality counseling framework therefore may be further refined and useful for other health promotion studies with African American populations.

  1. Pilot-testing a cancer education curriculum for grades K-6.

    PubMed

    Schonfeld, D J; Bases, H; Quackenbush, M; Mayne, S; Morra, M; Cicchetti, D

    2001-02-01

    Risk behaviors established during childhood including tobacco use, sunning, and eating habits contribute to most adult cancers. This project pilot-tested a developmentally appropriate cancer prevention curriculum for grades K-6, using a treatment group only design with pretesting and posttesting using a standardized, semistructured interview and involving 67 students (77% of eligible students) attending mixed grade classes. A seven-unit curriculum based on cognitive development, social cognitive, and social influence theories was taught by classroom teachers. Students showed a significant (p < .0001) gain in conceptual understanding for causality and prevention of cancer; the gain for causality of cancer was comparable to the baseline difference between kindergarten and the highest (5-6) grade. Significant gains in factual knowledge and decreases in misconceptions about casual contact also were documented. A developmentally based elementary school cancer prevention curriculum can enhance young children's conceptual understanding and factual knowledge of common contributors to adult cancers.

  2. Recommendations for planning pilot studies in clinical and translational research.

    PubMed

    Moore, Charity G; Carter, Rickey E; Nietert, Paul J; Stewart, Paul W

    2011-10-01

    Advances in clinical and translation science are facilitated by building on prior knowledge gained through experimentation and observation. In the context of drug development, preclinical studies are followed by a progression of phase I through phase IV clinical trials. At each step, the study design and statistical strategies are framed around research questions that are prerequisites for the next phase. In other types of biomedical research, pilot studies are used for gathering preliminary support for the next research step. However, the phrase "pilot study" is liberally applied to projects with little or no funding, characteristic of studies with poorly developed research proposals, and usually conducted with no detailed thought of the subsequent study. In this article, we present a rigorous definition of a pilot study, offer recommendations for the design, analysis and sample size justification of pilot studies in clinical and translational research, and emphasize the important role that well-designed pilot studies play in the advancement of science and scientific careers. PMID:22029804

  3. Health Care Delivery Meets Hospitality: A Pilot Study in Radiology.

    PubMed

    Steele, Joseph Rodgers; Jones, A Kyle; Clarke, Ryan K; Shoemaker, Stowe

    2015-06-01

    The patient experience has moved to the forefront of health care-delivery research. The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Department of Diagnostic Radiology began collaborating in 2011 with the University of Houston Conrad N. Hilton College of Hotel and Restaurant Management, and in 2013 with the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, William F. Harrah College of Hotel Administration, to explore the application of service science to improving the patient experience. A collaborative pilot study was undertaken by these 3 institutions to identify and rank the specific needs and expectations of patients undergoing imaging procedures in the MD Anderson Department of Diagnostic Radiology. We first conducted interviews with patients, providers, and staff to identify factors perceived to affect the patient experience. Next, to confirm these factors and determine their relative importance, we surveyed more than 6,000 patients by e-mail. All factors considered important in the interviews were confirmed as important in the surveys. The surveys showed that the most important factors were acknowledgment of the patient's concerns, being treated with respect, and being treated like a person, not a "number"; these factors were more important than privacy, short waiting times, being able to meet with a radiologist, and being approached by a staff member versus having one's name called out in the waiting room. Our work shows that it is possible to identify and rank factors affecting patient satisfaction using techniques employed by the hospitality industry. Such factors can be used to measure and improve the patient experience.

  4. Health Care Delivery Meets Hospitality: A Pilot Study in Radiology.

    PubMed

    Steele, Joseph Rodgers; Jones, A Kyle; Clarke, Ryan K; Shoemaker, Stowe

    2015-06-01

    The patient experience has moved to the forefront of health care-delivery research. The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Department of Diagnostic Radiology began collaborating in 2011 with the University of Houston Conrad N. Hilton College of Hotel and Restaurant Management, and in 2013 with the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, William F. Harrah College of Hotel Administration, to explore the application of service science to improving the patient experience. A collaborative pilot study was undertaken by these 3 institutions to identify and rank the specific needs and expectations of patients undergoing imaging procedures in the MD Anderson Department of Diagnostic Radiology. We first conducted interviews with patients, providers, and staff to identify factors perceived to affect the patient experience. Next, to confirm these factors and determine their relative importance, we surveyed more than 6,000 patients by e-mail. All factors considered important in the interviews were confirmed as important in the surveys. The surveys showed that the most important factors were acknowledgment of the patient's concerns, being treated with respect, and being treated like a person, not a "number"; these factors were more important than privacy, short waiting times, being able to meet with a radiologist, and being approached by a staff member versus having one's name called out in the waiting room. Our work shows that it is possible to identify and rank factors affecting patient satisfaction using techniques employed by the hospitality industry. Such factors can be used to measure and improve the patient experience. PMID:25533732

  5. Sensitivity of Noncommercial Computer-aided Detection System for Mammographic Breast Cancer Detection: Pilot Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Helvie, Mark A.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Makariou, Erini; Chan, Heang-Ping; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman; Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Freedman, Matthew; Adler, Dorit; Bailey, Janet; Blane, Caroline; Hoff, Donna; Hunt, Karen; Joynt, Lynn; Klein, Katherine; Paramagul, Chintana; Patterson, Stephanie K.; Roubidoux, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate a noncommercial computer-aided detection (CAD) program for breast cancer detection with screening mammography. MATERIALS AND METHODS A CAD program was developed for mammographic breast cancer detection. The program was applied to 2,389 patients’ screening mammograms at two geographically remote academic institutions (institutions A and B). Thirteen radiologists who specialized in breast imaging participated in this pilot study. For each case, the individual radiologist performed a prospective Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) assessment after viewing of the screening mammogram. Subsequently, the radiologist was shown CAD results and rendered a second BI-RADS assessment by using knowledge of both mammographic appearance and CAD results. Outcome analysis of results of examination in patients recalled for a repeat examination, of biopsy, and of 1-year follow-up examination was recorded. Correct detection with CAD included a computer-generated mark indicating a possible malignancy on craniocaudal or mediolateral oblique views or both. RESULTS Eleven (0.46%) of 2,389 patients had mammographically detected nonpalpable breast cancers. Ten (91%) of 11 (95% CI: 74%, 100%) cancers were correctly identified with CAD. Radiologist sensitivity without CAD was 91% (10 of 11; 95% CI: 74%, 100%). In 1,077 patients, follow-up findings were documented at 1 year. Five (0.46%) patients developed cancers, which were found on subsequent screening mammograms. The area where the cancers developed in two (40%) of these five patients was marked (true-positive finding) by the computer in the preceding year. Because of CAD results, a 9.7% increase in recall rate from 14.4% (344 of 2,389) to 15.8% (378 of 2,389) occurred. Radiologists’ recall rate of study patients prior to use of CAD was 31% higher than the average rate for nonstudy cases (10.3%) during the same time period at institution A. CONCLUSION Performance of the CAD program had a very high

  6. Piloted simulation study of two tilt-wing control concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birckelbaw, Lourdes G.; Corliss, Lloyd D.

    1994-01-01

    A two-phase piloted simulation study was conducted to investigate alternative wing and flap controls for tilt-wing aircraft. The initial phase of the study compared the flying qualities of both a conventional (programmed) flap and an innovative geared flap. The second phase of the study introduced an alternate method of pilot control for the geared flap and further studied the flying qualities of the programmed flap, and two geared flap configurations. In general, the pilot rating showed little variation between the programmed flap and the geared flap control concepts. Some differences between the two concepts were noticed and are discussed in this paper. The addition of pitch attitude stabilization in the second phase of the study greatly enhanced the aircraft flying qualities. This paper describes the simulated tilt-wing aircraft and the flap control concepts and presents the results of both phases of the simulation study.

  7. Long-term mortality in miners with coal workers' pneumoconiosis in The Netherlands: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Meijers, J.M.; Swaen, G.M.; Slangen, J.J.; van Vliet, K.; Sturmans, F. )

    1991-01-01

    In order to investigate whether the prolonged exposure to coal mine dust increases the cancer risk for coal miners, a pilot study in a selected cohort of 334 Dutch miners with coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), followed from 1956 until 1983, was conducted. In total, 165 miners had died (49.4%); for 162 (98.2%) the cause of death was traced. In comparison to the general Dutch male population, total mortality in the cohort was statistically significantly increased (SMR: 153). This was in general due to the significantly higher than expected cancer mortality (SMR: 163), cancer of stomach and small intestine (SMR: 401) and nonmalignant respiratory disease (SMR: 426). The lung cancer mortality was within the expected range.

  8. Pilot initiative in India to explore the gonadal function and fertility outcomes of a cohort of childhood cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Puneet Rana; Misra, Ruchira; Mehrotra, Sumit; Mittal, Charu; Sharma, Sonal; Bagai, Poonam; Arora, Ramandeep Singh

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Steady improvement in childhood cancer outcomes has led to a growing number of survivors, many of who develop long-term sequelae. There is limited data about these sequelae (including those related to fertility) on childhood cancer survivors from India. AIMS: We undertook a prospective pilot study on childhood cancer survivors from India to assess their gonadal function and fertility. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A pediatric oncologist and a reproductive medicine specialist assessed 21 childhood cancer survivors. The risk of infertility was established using disease and treatment variables. Current status of puberty, sexuality, and fertility were assessed using clinical and biochemical parameters. Outcomes were correlated with risk group of infertility. Information was also ascertained on counseling with regards to risk of infertility. RESULTS: The cohort included 21 survivors (71% males) with a median age of 18 years who were off treatment for a median age of 7 years. Ten (48%) survivors were at low risk for infertility, 9 (43%) at medium risk and 2 (9%) at high risk. Gonadal dysfunction was seen in 3 (14%) survivors: 0/10 (0%) low risk, 1/9 (11%) medium risk, and 2/2 (100%) high risk. None of the survivors, who are at high risk or medium risk of infertility, received any counseling before treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective pilot study of a cohort of childhood cancer survivors from India demonstrates a deficiency in the information provided and counseling of patients/families at the time of diagnosis with regards to the risk of infertility. Fertility outcomes of childhood cancer survivors were congruent with recognized risk groups for infertility. Future action points have been identified. PMID:27382233

  9. THE EFFECT OF THERMAL ENVIRONMENT ON LEARNING, A PILOT STUDY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PECCOLO, CHARLES

    THIS IS A REPORT OF A FIRST PILOT STUDY WHICH PRECEDES A SERIES OF STUDIES BEING CONDUCTED BY THE IOWA CENTER FOR RESEARCH IN SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION AND LENNOX INDUSTRIES INC., MARSHALLTOWN, IOWA. IT IS A DIGEST OF A THESIS BY DR. CHARLES PECCOLO WHO SERVED AS RESEARCHER ON THIS FIRST STUDY. THE STUDY AIMED AT MEASURING THE EFFECTS OF THERMAL…

  10. Pilot Biofeedback Training in the Cognitive Awareness Training Study (CATS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uenking, M.

    2000-01-01

    One of the ongoing problems that pilots face today is a diminished state of awareness such as boredom, sleepiness, or fatigue during cruise conditions that could result in various pilot errors. This study utilized a cognitive training exercise to sharpen the pilot's awareness during simulated flight thereby providing them with a means to overcome these diminished states of awareness. This study utilizes psychophysiological methods in an attempt to assess a pilot's state of awareness more directly. In turn, the pilots will be able to train themselves to recognize these states of awareness and be more mentally sharp during mundane tasks such as those experienced in cruise conditions. The use of these measurement tools may be beneficial for researchers working within the NASA Aviation Safety Program. This paper will provide the reader with some background information concerning the motivation for the study, a brief description of the experimental setup and design matrix, the dependent and independent variables that were employed, and some preliminary findings based on some of the subjective and objective data that was collected. These preliminary findings are of part of an ongoing study being conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia.

  11. Automatic Generation of Test Oracles - From Pilot Studies to Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, Martin S.; Smith, Ben

    1998-01-01

    There is a trend towards the increased use of automation in V&V. Automation can yield savings in time and effort. For critical systems, where thorough V&V is required, these savings can be substantial. We describe a progression from pilot studies to development and use of V&V automation. We used pilot studies to ascertain opportunities for, and suitability of, automating various analyses whose results would contribute to V&V. These studies culminated in the development of an automatic generator of automated test oracles. This was then applied and extended in the course of testing an Al planning system that is a key component of an autonomous spacecraft.

  12. Combined aerobic and resistance training in breast cancer survivors: A randomized, controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Herrero, F; San Juan, A F; Fleck, S J; Balmer, J; Pérez, M; Cañete, S; Earnest, C P; Foster, C; Lucía, A

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of a combined cardiorespiratory and resistance exercise training program of short duration on the cardiorespiratory fitness, strength endurance, task specific functional muscle capacity, body composition and quality of life (QOL) in women breast cancer survivors. Sixteen subjects were randomly assigned to either a training (n = 8; age: 50 +/- 5 yrs) or control non-exercising group (n = 8; age: 51 +/- 10 yrs). The training group followed an 8-week exercise program consisting of 3 weekly sessions of 90-min duration, supervised by an experienced investigator and divided into resistance exercises and aerobic training. Before and after the intervention period, all of the subjects performed a cardiorespiratory test to measure peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), a dynamic strength endurance test (maximum number of repetitions for chest and leg press exercise at 30 - 35 % and 100 - 110 % of body mass, respectively) and a sit-stand test. Quality of life was assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 (EORTC-C30) questionnaire. In response to training, QOL, VO2peak (mean 3.9 ml/kg/min; 95 % CI, 0.93, 6.90) performance in leg press (17.9 kg; 95 % CI, 12.8, 22.4) and sit-stand test (- 0.67 s; 95 % CI, - 0.52, - 1.2) improved (p < or = 0.05). We observed no significant changes in the control group. Combined cardiorespiratory and resistance training, even of very brief duration, improves the QOL and the overall physical fitness of women breast cancer survivors.

  13. PILOT STUDY: CCQM-P13 pilot study. Metals in artificial food digest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff Briche, C. S. J.

    2003-01-01

    The accuracy of elemental analyses in complex matrices is usually assessed by analysis of a suitable matrix reference material. The reference value is ascribed by consensus mean and by application of primary methods of analysis. However, the quality of this value will be affected by problems such as matrix-induced interferences, moisture corrections and heterogeneity. Pilot study CCQM-P13 was undertaken to assess the capabilities of National Metrology Institutes to analyse Ca, Cu and Cd in an acidic solution that simulates the digest of a food sample. This study filled the gap between the analysis of a gravimetrically prepared calibration solution and the analysis of an unknown in a complex matrix requiring extensive sample preparation. Having an independent reference value, with a small uncertainty, allowed a more rigorous estimation of the reliability of the institutes' analysis and uncertainty estimates, without including issues around sample digestion. The reference values were: 1.6617 +/- 0.0020 µmol/g for Ca, 7.037 +/- 0.012 nmol/g for Cu and 45.57 +/- 0.10 pmol/g for Cd (expanded uncertainties are quoted with coverage factor of 2). The other elements in the matrix were: Na (~25 µg/g), K (~90 µg/g), Cl (~120 µg/g), Fe (~100 ng/g), Mg (~5 µg/g), P (~5 µg/g), Sn (~80 ng/g) and Zn (~200 ng/g). Twelve international laboratories, representing eight countries, determined the amount content of the analytes. A range of techniques that include ID-ICP-MS (high resolution and collision cell), ICP-MS, ICP-OES, AAS, voltametry and potentiometry were used. The results for this pilot study averaged: 1.654 +/- 0.058 µmol/g for Ca (n = 10), 7.26 +/- 0.53 nmol/g for Cu (n = 12) and 45.2 +/- 5.1 pmol/g for Cd (n = 11) where the values associated with the averages are the standard deviations of n participants. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database

  14. Attitudes Toward Guarani and Spanish: A Pilot Study in Paraguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Nancy C.

    This study analyzes the language attitudes of the Paraguayan people toward their two languages, Guarani and Spanish. To study the bilingual situation in the South American country, a pilot survey was carried out in the capital city addressing the major topics of language attitudes, language usage, and language varieties. The goals of the survey…

  15. Measuring the Immeasurable: A Pilot Study of Museum Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borun, Minda

    The report describes a one-year pilot study of museum effectiveness conducted at the Franklin Institute Science Museum and Planetarium in Philadelphia. The study was intended to develop models for testing visitor response, provide useable information to museum staff, and test the feasibility of a large-scale investigation of science museums.…

  16. Behavioral Activation for Depressed Teens: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritschel, Lorie A.; Ramirez, Cynthia L.; Jones, Meredith; Craighead, W. Edward

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral activation (BA) is a psychosocial intervention that has shown promising treatment outcome results with depressed adults. The current pilot study evaluated a version of BA adapted for depressed adolescents. Six teens (3 male, 3 female, ages 14-17) who met criteria for major depressive disorder participated in the study. Participants were…

  17. An open access pilot freely sharing cancer genomic data from participants in Texas

    PubMed Central

    Becnel, Lauren B.; Pereira, Stacey; Drummond, Jennifer A.; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Covington, Kyle R.; Kovar, Christie L.; Doddapaneni, Harsha Vardhan; Hu, Jianhong; Muzny, Donna; McGuire, Amy L.; Wheeler, David A.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Genomic data sharing in cancer has been restricted to aggregate or controlled-access initiatives to protect the privacy of research participants. By limiting access to these data, it has been argued that the autonomy of individuals who decide to participate in data sharing efforts has been superseded and the utility of the data as research and educational tools reduced. In a pilot Open Access (OA) project from the CPRIT-funded Texas Cancer Research Biobank, many Texas cancer patients were willing to openly share genomic data from tumor and normal matched pair specimens. For the first time, genetic data from 7 human cancer cases with matched normal are freely available without requirement for data use agreements nor any major restriction except that end users cannot attempt to re-identify the participants (http://txcrb.org/open.html). PMID:26882539

  18. An open access pilot freely sharing cancer genomic data from participants in Texas.

    PubMed

    Becnel, Lauren B; Pereira, Stacey; Drummond, Jennifer A; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Covington, Kyle R; Kovar, Christie L; Doddapaneni, Harsha Vardhan; Hu, Jianhong; Muzny, Donna; McGuire, Amy L; Wheeler, David A; Gibbs, Richard A

    2016-02-16

    Genomic data sharing in cancer has been restricted to aggregate or controlled-access initiatives to protect the privacy of research participants. By limiting access to these data, it has been argued that the autonomy of individuals who decide to participate in data sharing efforts has been superseded and the utility of the data as research and educational tools reduced. In a pilot Open Access (OA) project from the CPRIT-funded Texas Cancer Research Biobank, many Texas cancer patients were willing to openly share genomic data from tumor and normal matched pair specimens. For the first time, genetic data from 7 human cancer cases with matched normal are freely available without requirement for data use agreements nor any major restriction except that end users cannot attempt to re-identify the participants (http://txcrb.org/open.html).

  19. Alkaline flood prediction studies, Ranger VII pilot, Wilmington Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, E.H.; Breit, V.S.

    1982-01-01

    The paper discusses: (1) The design of a simulator to model alkaline displacement mechanisms and the current state-of-the-art understanding of in-situ caustic consumption. (2) Assimilation of laboratory core flood and rock consumption data. Use of this data in 1-D and 2-D limited area simulations, and a 3-D model of the entire pilot project. (3) Simulation studies of alkaline flood behavior in a small 2-D area of the field for various concentrations, slug sizes, long term consumption functions and two relative permeability adjustment mechanisms. (4) Scale up of 2-D simulation results, and their use in a 271 acre 1.097 x 10/sup 6/m/sup 2/), 7 layered 3-D model of the pilot. (5) Comparison of 3-D simulator results with initial field alkaline flood performance. (6) Recommended additional application of the simulator methods developed in this pilot and in other alkaline floods. 10 refs.

  20. Preventing Addiction Related Suicide: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Voss, William D.; Kaufman, Erin; O’Connor, Stephen S.; Comtois, Katherine Anne; Connor, Kenneth R.; Ries, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    Persons addicted to alcohol and drugs are at 5–10 times higher risk for suicide as compared to the general population. To address the need for improved suicide prevention strategies in this population, the Preventing Addiction Related Suicide (PARS) module was developed. Pilot testing of 78 patients demonstrated significant post-treatment changes in knowledge (t (66) = 12.07, p= .000) and attitudes (t (75) = 6.82, p = .000) toward suicide prevention issues. Significant gains were maintained at one-month follow-up for changes in knowledge (t (55) = 6.33, p= .000) and attitudes (t (61) = 3.37, p= .0001), with changes in positive help seeking behaviors in dealing with suicidal issues in friends (χ2 (1) =10.49, p = .007), family (χ2 (1) = 9.81, p = .015), and self (χ2 (1) = 19.62, p= .008) also observed. The PARS was also highly rated by treatment staff as feasible within their standard clinical practice. PMID:23375569

  1. A Pilot Study of Abuse among Vietnamese Amerasians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvey, Robert S.; Webb, John A.

    1995-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the prevalence of physical and sexual abuse, and current levels of psychological distress correlated with a history of abuse, in 102 Vietnamese Amerasian adults bound for the United States. A history of abuse was reported by 22% of males and 18% of females. Significant psychological distress was reported by abused…

  2. Elderly Homosexual Women and Men: Report on a Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnigerode, Fred A.; Adelman, Marcy R.

    1978-01-01

    A pilot study is described in which four- to five-hour tape-recorded interviews were conducted with 11 homosexual women and men, 60-77 years of age. Areas examined included: physical change and physical health; work, retirement and leisure time; social behavior; psychological functioning; sexual behavior; and personal perspectives on the life…

  3. Human Exposures to PAHs: an Eastern United States Pilot Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal exposure monitoring for select polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was performed as part of the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) Pilot Study in Baltimore, MD and in four surrounding counties (NHEXAS-Maryland). An objective of this effort was to esta...

  4. Job Rotation at Cardiff University Library Service: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earney, Sally; Martins, Ana

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents case study research of a job rotation pilot involving six library assistants in Cardiff University Library Service (ULS). Firstly, it investigates whether job rotation improves motivation and secondly, whether there is an improvement in skills, both technical and "soft". Following a review of the literature, semi-structured…

  5. Causes of Mortality among American College Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, James C.; Leno, E. Victor; Keller, Adrienne

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study from self-selected institutions of higher education provides an estimate of the causes and rates of mortality among college students between the ages of 18 and 24 years old. One hundred fifty-seven 4-year colleges participated in an online survey of student deaths during one academic year. A total of 254 deaths were reported. The…

  6. Assessing Student Engagement: HSSSE Pilot Study with Independent Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    NAIS and the NAIS Commission on Accreditation recently launched a three-year pilot study on the use of the High School Survey of Student Engagement (HSSSE) among independent schools. HSSSE, administered by Indiana University, is a survey designed to investigate the attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs of high school students about their work. This…

  7. Initial Scale Development: Sample Size for Pilot Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johanson, George A.; Brooks, Gordon P.

    2010-01-01

    Pilot studies are often recommended by scholars and consultants to address a variety of issues, including preliminary scale or instrument development. Specific concerns such as item difficulty, item discrimination, internal consistency, response rates, and parameter estimation in general are all relevant. Unfortunately, there is little discussion…

  8. Tai Chi for People with Visual Impairments: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miszko, Tanya A.; Ramsey, Vincent K.; Blasch, Bruce B.

    2004-01-01

    This pilot study assessed the physical and psychological outcomes of a tai chi exercise program for eight adults with visual impairments. It found that after eight weeks of orientation and mobility training and tai chi practice, the participants' single leg-stance time and total knee flexion work and power improved, as did their frequency of,…

  9. Danish Health Professionals' Experiences of Being Coached: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammentorp, Jette; Jensen, Hanne Irene; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, coaching, as a supplement to professional development, has received increased attention, especially in nursing. Still, only little is known about how health professionals experience participating in coaching sessions. The purpose of this pilot study was to describe and analyze health professionals' experiences from…

  10. Outcome evaluation of a pilot study using "nudges"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Every school day, over 31 million U.S. children eat school lunches. Unfortunately, students often do not choose the healthy options in the school cafeteria. This paper describes outcome results of a pilot study using "nudges" to improve elementary school students' fruits and vegetables selections. A...

  11. Nutrition education program for food bank clients: A pilot study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many low income families depend on foods from food banks. The objective of the study was to determine program content and examine feasibility of a pilot nutrition education program for food bank clients. Formative research was conducted with staff at a local food bank and its pantries and adult clie...

  12. Consumer Understanding of Nutrition Marketing Terms: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haroldson, Amber; Yen, Chih-Lun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the validity of a questionnaire developed to assess adult consumer understanding of nutrition marketing terms and the resulting impact on consumer behavior. Participants (n = 40) completed an electronic questionnaire. Efforts to establish validity and reliability suggest that the questionnaire is a…

  13. The Effect of Background Music on Bullying: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Naomi; Dolev, Einat

    2013-01-01

    School bullying is a source of growing concern. A number of intervention programs emphasize the importance of a positive school climate in preventing bullying behavior. The aim of the presented pilot study was to examine whether calming background music, through its effect on arousal and mood, could create a pleasant atmosphere and reduce bullying…

  14. Minesweeper and Hypothetical Thinking Action Research & Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    This Action Research project and Pilot Study was designed and implemented to improve students' hypothetical thinking abilities by exploring the possibility that learning and playing the computer game Minesweeper may inherently help improve hypothetical thinking. One objective was to use educational tools to make it easier for students to learn the…

  15. Assessing the Flipped Classroom in Operations Management: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prashar, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    The author delved into the results of a flipped classroom pilot conducted for an operations management course module. It assessed students' perception of a flipped learning environment after making them experience it in real time. The classroom environment was construed using a case research approach and students' perceptions were studied using…

  16. [Treatment of spasticity with a transcutaneous neurostimulator. A pilot study].

    PubMed

    Kirkeby, R; Jordt, M; Hansen, E

    1995-04-24

    In this pilot study the neurostimulator KDC 5000 is used with efficacy on seven out of 11 patients with spastic palsy, and treatment was given without any side-effects. No other treatment has sufficiently helped these patients, and we therefore conclude that such treatment with a neuro-stimulator could be beneficial for selected patients with spastic palsy of extremities. PMID:7762102

  17. CSO DISINFECTION PILOT STUDY: SPRING CREEK CSO STORAGE FACILITY UPGRADE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research summary presents the results of a pilot-scale disinfection study performed for the New York City Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) under a contract to Camp Dresser & McKee of Woodbury, New York. The main ob...

  18. Pilot interaction with cockpit automation 2: An experimental study of pilots' model and awareness of the Flight Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarter, Nadine B.; Woods, David D.

    1994-01-01

    Technological developments have made it possible to automate more and more functions on the commercial aviation flight deck and in other dynamic high-consequence domains. This increase in the degrees of freedom in design has shifted questions away from narrow technological feasibility. Many concerned groups, from designers and operators to regulators and researchers, have begun to ask questions about how we should use the possibilities afforded by technology skillfully to support and expand human performance. In this article, we report on an experimental study that addressed these questions by examining pilot interaction with the current generation of flight deck automation. Previous results on pilot-automation interaction derived from pilot surveys, incident reports, and training observations have produced a corpus of features and contexts in which human-machine coordination is likely to break down (e.g., automation surprises). We used these data to design a simulated flight scenario that contained a variety of probes designed to reveal pilots' mental model of one major component of flight deck automation: the Flight Management System (FMS). The events within the scenario were also designed to probe pilots' ability to apply their knowledge and understanding in specific flight contexts and to examine their ability to track the status and behavior of the automated system (mode awareness). Although pilots were able to 'make the system work' in standard situations, the results reveal a variety of latent problems in pilot-FMS interaction that can affect pilot performance in nonnormal time critical situations.

  19. Functional Radionuclide Imaging, In-Vitro Radioiodine Uptake Estimation and RT-PCR in the Evaluation of Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) Expression and Functionality in Breast Cancer: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Joseph, J K; Patel, R B; Damle, A A; Nair, N; Badwe, R A; Basu, S

    2013-03-01

    Breast cancer is a common malignancy in females, which is considered as a systemic disease, whose treatment involves combined modality including systemic as well as local treatment. Recent studies have shown that breast cancer also expresses Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) gene, like in the thyroid, which is the factor responsible for the uptake of iodide by the thyroid, enabling radioiodine therapy of thyroid disorders. This study aimed to evaluate various radionuclide imaging characteristics, in vitro radioiodine uptake (RAIU) and evaluation of NIS expression by using Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) to explore sodium iodide symporter (NIS) expression and iodine uptake in breast cancer and to explor e whether radioiodine can be used for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Ways of differential regulation of NIS expression in breast cancer has also been explored. Female patients with palpable breast lump and histologically proven infiltrating duct carcinoma were taken up for the study, which included 50 females of mean age 49 years. (range: 23-73 years). The patients were categorized into different groups, depending on the type of the study performed. The uptake patterns in various imaging modalities were analyzed and compared with invitro and RT-PCR studies. 68 % of breast cancer cases showed (99m)Tc-pertechnetate uptake at the initial images. This finding could partly be due to tumor vascularity, which is usually higher compared to the normal tissues. The uptake in the delayed imaging could be related to that due to NIS in the breast. Use of perchlorate or stable iodine did not alter the pertechnetate uptake pattern in breast tumor. Good correlation between (99m)Tc-pertechnetate and (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin uptake in breast cancer was demonstrated. In vitro radioactive iodine uptake in the breast tumor was significantly higher than that in the normal breast tissue. Only 42 % of breast tumor samples studied using RT-PCR showed NIS

  20. Estimation of thyroglobulin in lymph node aspirates: Pilot experience from a tertiary referral cancer center

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Subramanian; Chauhan, Subhra; Naveen; Latha, B. S.; Raju, Nalini; Chandrasekhar, Naveen Hedne; Kekatpure, Vikram; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham; Manjunath, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Assessment of cervical lymph node involvement in patients with thyroid cancer either during preoperative surgical mapping or detection of recurrences during follow-up is a crucial step in the management of differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs). In most patients, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) confirms the presence of metastasis in lymph node. However, in cases of paucicellular lymph node aspirate or discordant sonogram and cytology results, thyroglobulin (Tg) measurement in the lymph node aspirate (FNA-Tg) is useful and a value >1 ng/ml is considered consistent with metastatic disease. Context: The addition of FNAC to the US improves the specificity, but 5–10% are nondiagnostic and 6–8% rate of false-negative results. Several studies have reported that the detection of Tg in FNA-needle washes improves the evaluation of suspicious lymph nodes in patients with DTC.Data from Indian centers on FNA-Tg are limited. Aims: We piloted the utility of FNA-Tg in patients with sonographically suspicious cervical lymph node enlargement in the setting of suspicious thyroid nodule or in the follow-up of thyroid cancer. Settings and Design: Prospective data collection. Results: We measured Tg in 13 lymph node aspirates (12 patients, 10 females) among whom 4 patients had a total thyroidectomy and 1 had a hemithyroidectomy. Eight of the 13 lymph node aspirates had FNA-Tg values >150 ng/ml, all of them had unequivocal malignant cytology and four among them had proven metastatic DTC on surgical pathology. The median FNA-Tg of the patients with malignant cytology was 7550 ng/ml with a range of 162–30,000 ng/ml. Among the remaining 5 lymph node aspirate, 2 lymph nodes showed cytological features suggestive of reactive lymphadenitis (FNA-Tg <0.2 ng/ml) and were not operated, 1 had a high-grade malignancy consistent with anaplastic thyroid cancer (FNA-Tg <0.2 ng/ml), and 2 had nondiagnostic cytology (one had non-caseating granuloma on surgical pathology [FNA-Tg 1

  1. [Pilot-testing of the Japanese version of the EORTC QLQ-STO22 gastric cancer module].

    PubMed

    Morita, Satoshi; Shimozuma, Kojiro; Sato, Atsushi; Nakamachi, Masatoshi; Blazeby, Jane; West, Karen; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Sakamoto, Junichi

    2004-08-01

    The pilot testing of the Japanese translation of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) gastric cancer module (QLQ-STO22) was done for 10 patients (6 men; 4 women) with gastric cancer. Age ranged from 23 to 73. Five patients had a performance status (PS) of 0, 4 had a PS of 2, and 1 had a PS of 4. Five had stage IV gastric cancer. It took 20 to 40 minutes for the patients to complete the questionnaire. All stated that it did not take long a time to complete, and that each question was easy to understand as a whole. They also mentioned that the questionnaire appropriately described and represented their health condition. However, it was revealed that some linguistic revisions should be made for 5 of the 22 questions to clarify their meanings by adding examples or replacing unclear words with clearer ones. The Japanese version of the QLQ-STO22 was finalized via those revisions. We are waiting for the result of the validation study in an international field (EORTC protocol number 15001/40003) with a larger number of gastric cancer patients using standardized psychometric testing.

  2. Southeastern Cancer Study Group: breast cancer studies

    SciTech Connect

    Smalley, R.V.; Bartolucci, A.A.; Moore, M.

    1983-12-01

    During the past 10 years, the Southeastern Cancer Study Group (SECSG) has been engaged in one major adjuvant study and three major advanced disease studies for patients with adenocarcinoma of the breast. The adjuvant study is demonstrating that six months of adjuvant CMF is the therapeutic equivalent of 12 months and that post-operative irradiation is of no added therapeutic benefit. In patients with advanced disease, a low dose 5 drug combination of CMFVP induces more objective responses than single agent 5FU, but improves survival only for those patients with liver metastases when compared to the sequential use of the same 5 single agents. The three drug combination, CAF, utilizing doxorubicin, induces more objective responses than low dose CMFVP, but it does not improve overall survival. The addition of a phase active combination, CAMELEON, (i.e., sequentially alternating therapy) of CAF has not improved the duration of disease control and survival for patients with liver metastases, lymphangitic and nodular lung metastases compared to CAF. Aggressive combination chemotherapeutic approaches to patients with advanced disease provide better and longer disease and tumor control but only marginal improvements in overall survival. Adding additional agents to a maximally tolerable regimen has not improved the therapeutic outcome.

  3. Criminal recidivism in mentally ill offenders: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Harris, V; Koepsell, T D

    1996-01-01

    Criminal recidivism in mentally ill offenders, In the context of a county jail, has not been extensively studied. This study compares the rate of criminal recidivism between those who suffered from a mental illness at the time of arrest and those who did not. In addition, the length of incarceration between these two groups was compared. Using survival analysis, a risk assessment model describing the key features involved in criminal recidivism among the mentally ill may be built. To our knowledge, this study is the first of its kind and will suggest areas of intervention that could prevent criminal recidivism among mentally ill offenders. Due to the lack of literature on the subject, this pilot study provides estimates of key parameters, such as types of crimes and frequency of incarceration, needed to undertake a definitive study. Furthermore, the pilot study provides an opportunity to develop and field test a data abstraction form and computer matching methods.

  4. Nursing Student Perceptions of Digital Textbooks: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Mennenga, Heidi A

    2016-01-01

    Digital textbooks are increasing in popularity, often resulting from the perception that students demand the use of technology in academics. However, few studies have been done on student perceptions of digital textbooks. A pilot study was conducted with students enrolled in a nursing research course; 123 nursing students participated. This study found that students overwhelmingly preferred print textbooks over digital textbooks. More research needs to be done before assuming students would prefer digital textbooks over print.

  5. Nursing Student Perceptions of Digital Textbooks: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Mennenga, Heidi A

    2016-01-01

    Digital textbooks are increasing in popularity, often resulting from the perception that students demand the use of technology in academics. However, few studies have been done on student perceptions of digital textbooks. A pilot study was conducted with students enrolled in a nursing research course; 123 nursing students participated. This study found that students overwhelmingly preferred print textbooks over digital textbooks. More research needs to be done before assuming students would prefer digital textbooks over print. PMID:27209871

  6. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy hyperthermia (HIPEC) for peritoneal carcinomatosis of ovarian cancer origin by fluid and CO2 recirculation using the closed abdomen technique (PRS-1.0 Combat): A clinical pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, Susana; Villarejo-Campos, Pedro; Padilla-Valverde, David; Amo-Salas, Mariano; Martín-Fernández, Jesús

    2016-08-01

    Background This paper reports a study of 21 patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis from ovarian cancer who underwent cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC by means of PRS-1.0 Combat®, a new model for closed abdomen HIPEC aimed at improving fluid distribution with assistance from a CO2 recirculation system. This new technology has been previously shown to be successful in an experimental study (pig model) performed by our group, and has been approved for use in our hospital. Methods Twenty-one patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis of ovarian cancer origin were included in the study. Cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC were performed by a closed abdomen fluid and CO2 recirculation technique using the PRS-1.0 Combat(®) model. We analysed the intraoperative safety tolerance and post-operative morbidity and mortality during the first 30 days. Results Between November 2011 and March 2014 21 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage II-IV, were included in the study. During the procedure there were no significant haemodynamic or analytical disturbances. Complication rates were 38.1% and 57.14% for grade III/IV and minor (grade I/II) complications, respectively. Post-operative mortality was 4.76% (one patient). Complete cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy improved overall survival and disease-free survival in women with advanced ovarian cancer. The association of intra-abdominal hyperthermia with chemotherapy (HIPEC) increased the therapeutic benefit. Conclusions This study has shown that closed abdomen intraperitoneal chemohyperthermia by a fluid and CO2 recirculation system (PRS-1.0 Combat(®)) can be a safe and feasible model for the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis of ovarian cancer origin. PMID:27056558

  7. Structural Differences in Gray Matter between Glider Pilots and Non-Pilots. A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahamed, Tosif; Kawanabe, Motoaki; Ishii, Shin; Callan, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    Glider flying is a unique skill that requires pilots to control an aircraft at high speeds in three dimensions and amidst frequent full-body rotations. In the present study, we investigated the neural correlates of flying a glider using voxel-based morphometry. The comparison between gray matter densities of 15 glider pilots and a control group of 15 non-pilots exhibited significant gray matter density increases in left ventral premotor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and the supplementary eye field. We posit that the identified regions might be associated with cognitive and motor processes related to flying, such as joystick control, visuo-vestibular interaction, and oculomotor control. PMID:25506339

  8. Farmers' loss due to Guinea worm disease: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Brieger, W R; Guyer, J

    1990-04-01

    Guinea worm disease has been blamed for much disability and loss of productivity among farmers in Africa and South Asia. Many studies have tried to equate days lost in illness to monetary values. These attempts often overlook the process of disability in relation to farming patterns. This pilot effort uses a qualitative case study approach to learn about how Guinea worm can cause loss to farmers. Twenty in-depth interviews with affected farmers showed that their losses are related to the time of year they are affected by Guinea worm. Some crops with flexible planting times, e.g. cassava, may not be as affected. Duration of disability is another determining factor. Insights from this pilot study can be used to design more appropriate large-scale survey instruments and guide development of longitudinal research.

  9. Support for Students Exposed to Trauma: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Jaycox, Lisa H.; Langley, Audra K.; Stein, Bradley D.; Wong, Marleen; Sharma, Priya; Scott, Molly; Schonlau, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    With high rates of trauma exposure among students, the need for intervention programs is clear. Delivery of such programs in the school setting eliminates key barriers to access, but there are few programs that demonstrate efficacy in this setting. Programs to date have been designed for delivery by clinicians, who are a scarce resource in many schools. This study describes preliminary feasibility and acceptability data from a pilot study of a new program, Support for Students Exposed to Trauma, adapted from the Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS) program. Because of its “pilot” nature, all results from the study should be viewed as preliminary. Results show that the program can be implemented successfully by teachers and school counselors, with good satisfaction among students and parents. Pilot data show small reductions in symptoms among the students in the SSET program, suggesting that this program shows promise that warrants a full evaluation of effectiveness. PMID:20811511

  10. Life and Microgravity Sciences Spacelab Mission: Human Research Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Sara B. (Editor); Walker, Karen R. (Editor); Hargens, Alan (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The Life Sciences, Microgravity Science and Spacelab Mission contains a number of human experiments directed toward identifying the functional, metabolic and neurological characteristics of muscle weakness and atrophy during space flight. To ensure the successful completion of the flight experiments, a ground-based pilot study, designed to mimic the flight protocols as closely as possible, was carried out in the head-down tilt bed rest model. This report records the rationales, procedures, preliminary results and estimated value of the pilot study, the first of its kind, for 12 of the 13 planned experiments in human research. The bed rest study was conducted in the Human Research Facility at Ames Research Center from July 11 - August 28, 1995. Eight healthy male volunteers performed the experiments before, during and after 17 days bed rest. The immediate purposes of this simulation were to integrate the experiments, provide data in a large enough sample for publication of results, enable investigators to review individual experiments in the framework of a multi-disciplinary study and relay the experience of the pilot study to the mission specialists prior to launch.

  11. Quality assurance results from a breast screening pilot study.

    PubMed

    Thiele, D L

    1991-09-01

    A mammography quality assurance programme has been established as part of the breast cancer screening pilot project based in south-east Queensland. Prospective radiology clinics are required to participate in the quality assurance programme as part of the project's accreditation requirements. The programme follows the ACPSEM position paper on quality assurance in mammography and is divided into radiographer and physicist tests. Radiographer tests include film processor sensitometry (daily), image quality (weekly) and focal spot measurements (monthly). Physicist tests occur annually. The programme has been running successfully for 12 months on 17 machines from 6 manufacturers. Of the radiographer tests, sensitometry has proved the most beneficial with a number of chemistry problems detected early. Physicist tests have found x-ray/light field misalignment and poor automatic exposure control performance as the most common machine problems. Results also show that our kVp measuring system requires recalibration. PMID:1953503

  12. Mapping tissue chromophore changes in cerebral ischemia: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abookasis, David; Mathews, Marlon S.; Lay, Christopher; Cuccia, David J.; Frostig, Ron D.; Linskey, Mark E.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2007-02-01

    We describe the projection of spatially modulated light for quantitatively mapping changes in oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and oxygen saturation in two pilot studies in the rat barrel cortex during both permanent and temporary cerebral ischemia. The approach is based on the projection of spatial modulation of white light onto the brain. The reflected light is captured on a CCD camera, which is then processed to obtain the concentration and distribution of chromophores over a wide field. Preliminary results confirm a measurable and quantifiable increase in tissue molecular concentration of deoxy-hemoglobin and decrease in hemoglobin oxygen concentration in both experimental settings. Our preliminary data from our pilot studies demonstrate that spatial modulation of light can provide quantitative chromophore mapping of the brain and has a potential role in monitoring the course and severity of cerebral ischemia in cerebrovascular disease patients.

  13. A pilot study of energy efficient air cleaning for ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Gundel, Lara A.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Katsapov, Gregory Y.; Fisk, William J.

    2002-11-01

    A laboratory pilot study has been undertaken with the material that showed the most promise (high capacity and low pressure drop) based on the literature review and associated calculations. The best-performing air cleaner was a commercially available pleated filter that contained a thin layer of small activated carbon particles between two sheets of non-woven fibrous webbing. We will refer to this unit as the ''ozone filter'' although it is marketed for removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from automobile passenger compartments. This pilot study strongly suggests that ozone air cleaning can be practical in commercial air handling systems; however, further tests are needed to assess air cleaner performance under a wider range of conditions.

  14. [Toxoplasmosis in goats in the Netherlands: a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Antonis, A F; van Knapen, F; Dercksen, D P; Jager, P M

    1998-10-01

    A pilot-study was carried out on ten Dutch goat farms to see whether there is a relationship between farm management factors and the occurrence of toxoplasmosis. Questionnaires were used to collect information about farm management factors and blood samples were taken to determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis on these farms. The mean prevalence was 47% (range 5-90%). The presence of kittens on a farm was a risk factor for a higher prevalence of toxoplasmosis. PMID:9793169

  15. Risk factors for hidradenitis suppurativa: a pilot study*

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde; Bombonatto, Giovana; Martin, Manoela; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2012-01-01

    The hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic debilitating inflammatory disease whose etiology is not fully understood. We conducted a pilot case-control study matched by sex and age with other dermatological patients to analyze possible risk factors associated with this disease. We included 15 cases and 45 controls, 67% were women. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis identified significant association with smoking, higher body mass index and family history. The use of hormonal contraceptives was less frequent in women with hidradenitis. PMID:23197222

  16. Caution regarding the use of pilot studies to guide power calculations for study proposals.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Helena Chmura; Mintz, Jim; Noda, Art; Tinklenberg, Jared; Yesavage, Jerome A

    2006-05-01

    Clinical researchers often propose (or review committees demand) pilot studies to determine whether a study is worth performing and to guide power calculations. The most likely outcomes are that (1) studies worth performing are aborted and (2) studies that are not aborted are underpowered. There are many excellent reasons for performing pilot studies. The argument herein is not meant to discourage clinical researchers from performing pilot studies (or review committees from requiring them) but simply to caution against their use for the objective of guiding power calculations.

  17. Low-Cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, William B.; Francisco, Paul W.; Merrin, Zachary

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the research was to conduct a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation-living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity the foundation was improved. However, this improved isolation did not lead to significant reductions in radon concentration in the living space. Other factors such as outdoor temperature were shown to have an impact on radon concentration.

  18. Motivation in the Classroom: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Deanna E.

    Purposes of this study were to (1) investigate the validity of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs as it applies to young children; (2) determine developmental shifts in expressed motivational needs; (3) gather information concerning the worries and fears of young children, particularly those of low socioeconomic status; and (4) gather data regarding…

  19. THE NORTH CAROLINA HERALD PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory



    The sampling design for the National Children's Study (NCS) calls for a population-based, multi-stage, clustered household sampling approach. The full sample is designed to be representative of both urban and rural births in the United States, 2007-2011. While other sur...

  20. Assessing Learning with Logo: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Jane; Ryba, Ken

    1986-01-01

    This study used the Model for Assessing Learning with Logo (Nolan and Ryba) to examine effects of Logo programming on junior high school students' thinking skills. The model addresses both student acquisition of Logo-related thinking skills and the extent to which they transfer skills to noncomputer problem solving tasks. (MBR)

  1. Educational Optimism among Parents: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Räty, Hannu; Kasanen, Kati

    2016-01-01

    This study explored parents' (N = 351) educational optimism in terms of their trust in the possibilities of school to develop children's intelligence. It was found that educational optimism could be depicted as a bipolar factor with optimism and pessimism on the opposing ends of the same dimension. Optimistic parents indicated more satisfaction…

  2. Personalization in Science: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Marcia C.; And Others

    Presented is a study of a science program for upper elementary and middle school children encouraging the development of logical thinking skills, describing variables, interpreting and criticizing experiments, and understanding experiment design. To provide a basis for the program, the students suggested projects to be done and developed…

  3. Commercial conspiracy theories: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    There are many ways to categorise conspiracy theories. In the present study, we examined individual and demographic predictors of beliefs in commercial conspiracy theories among a British sample of over 300 women and men. Results showed many people were cynical and sceptical with regard to advertising tricks, as well as the tactics of organisations like banks and alcohol, drug and tobacco companies. Beliefs sorted into four identifiable clusters, labelled sneakiness, manipulative, change-the-rules and suppression/prevention. The high alpha for the overall scale suggested general beliefs in commercial conspiracy. Regressions suggested that those people who were less religious, more left-wing, more pessimistic, less (self-defined as) wealthy, less Neurotic and less Open-to-Experience believed there was more commercial conspiracy. Overall the individual difference variables explained relatively little of the variance in these beliefs. The implications of these findings for the literature on conspiracy theories are discussed. Limitations of the study are also discussed. PMID:23818886

  4. Commercial conspiracy theories: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    There are many ways to categorise conspiracy theories. In the present study, we examined individual and demographic predictors of beliefs in commercial conspiracy theories among a British sample of over 300 women and men. Results showed many people were cynical and sceptical with regard to advertising tricks, as well as the tactics of organisations like banks and alcohol, drug and tobacco companies. Beliefs sorted into four identifiable clusters, labelled sneakiness, manipulative, change-the-rules and suppression/prevention. The high alpha for the overall scale suggested general beliefs in commercial conspiracy. Regressions suggested that those people who were less religious, more left-wing, more pessimistic, less (self-defined as) wealthy, less Neurotic and less Open-to-Experience believed there was more commercial conspiracy. Overall the individual difference variables explained relatively little of the variance in these beliefs. The implications of these findings for the literature on conspiracy theories are discussed. Limitations of the study are also discussed. PMID:23818886

  5. Cavity wounds management: a multicentre pilot study.

    PubMed

    Meaume, Sylvie; Facy, Olivier; Munoz-Bongrand, Nicolas; Ribemont, Annie-Claude; Sigal, Michele-Lea; Couffinhal, Jean-Claude; Trial, Chloe; Tacca, Olivier; Bohbot, Serge

    The objective of this study was to assess acceptability (based on pain at removal), efficacy and tolerance of an absorbent and cohesive rope(UrgoClean Rope, Laboratoires Urgo) in the local management of deep cavity wounds. This study was a prospective, multicentre (13), non comparative clinical study. Patients presenting with an acute or chronic non-infected cavity wound were followed up for four weeks and assessed weekly with a physical examination, in addition to volumetric,planimetric and photographic evaluations. Pain at removal was the primary criterion, assessed on a Visual Analogic Scale. The percentage of the wound surface area reduction and volumetric reduction were considered as secondary efficacy criteria. Forty three patients were included in this study. After one week of treatment dressing removal was painless and continued to be so throughout the period of the trial(four weeks). Median surface area at baseline was 7.74 cm2 and was reduced by 54.5% at week 4 (relative area reduction). Median wound volumetric value was noted 12 ml at baseline and was reduced by 72.7% by the end of treatment. The cohesiveness of the new rope was considered very good by health professionals. No residue was observed on the wound bed during the dressing change with the new rope. There were no adverse events related to the tested rope, during this trial.Pain-free removal associated with good efficacy and tolerance were observed with this new cohesive rope in the healing process of deep cavity wounds and could represent a therapeutic alternative to the usual ropes used in such indications. PMID:24180023

  6. Pilot study of closing volume in byssinosis.

    PubMed Central

    Fairman, R P; Hankinson, J; Imbus, H; Lapp, N L; Morgan, W K

    1975-01-01

    A study of the relative sensitivities of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMF), and closing volume (CV) in the detection of subjects with byssinosis was carried out in a North Carolina cotton mill. Altogether 35 workers participated in the study. Of these, nine showed a decline in FEV1 of 10% or more during the first work shift that followed the weekend break. Twelve subjects showed a decrease in MMF of 15% or more. In contrast only six workers exhibited a 10% increase in closing capacity, while ten showed a 10% increase in CV. Recent evidence of the magnitude of variability in closing volume manoeuvres suggests that our chosen level of change was too low, A 40% change in CV would have identified only five subjects. CV is a more complex manoeuvre for the subject being tested and for the technician to perform, is more time consuming, and is subject to greater variation. To have any advantage over spirometry, CV would have to be appreciably more sensitive. Our study suggests that it is not. However, the MMF may prove to be more sensitive than the FEV1 in the detection of byssinosis. PMID:1156572

  7. Pilot study of closing volume in byssinosis.

    PubMed

    Fairman, R P; Hankinson, J; Imbus, H; Lapp, N L; Morgan, W K

    1975-08-01

    A study of the relative sensitivities of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMF), and closing volume (CV) in the detection of subjects with byssinosis was carried out in a North Carolina cotton mill. Altogether 35 workers participated in the study. Of these, nine showed a decline in FEV1 of 10% or more during the first work shift that followed the weekend break. Twelve subjects showed a decrease in MMF of 15% or more. In contrast only six workers exhibited a 10% increase in closing capacity, while ten showed a 10% increase in CV. Recent evidence of the magnitude of variability in closing volume manoeuvres suggests that our chosen level of change was too low, A 40% change in CV would have identified only five subjects. CV is a more complex manoeuvre for the subject being tested and for the technician to perform, is more time consuming, and is subject to greater variation. To have any advantage over spirometry, CV would have to be appreciably more sensitive. Our study suggests that it is not. However, the MMF may prove to be more sensitive than the FEV1 in the detection of byssinosis.

  8. Airflow Hazard Visualization for Helicopter Pilots: Flight Simulation Study Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Long, Kurtis R.

    2005-01-01

    Airflow hazards such as vortices or low level wind shear have been identified as a primary contributing factor in many helicopter accidents. US Navy ships generate airwakes over their decks, creating potentially hazardous conditions for shipboard rotorcraft launch and recovery. Recent sensor developments may enable the delivery of airwake data to the cockpit, where visualizing the hazard data may improve safety and possibly extend ship/helicopter operational envelopes. A prototype flight-deck airflow hazard visualization system was implemented on a high-fidelity rotorcraft flight dynamics simulator. Experienced helicopter pilots, including pilots from all five branches of the military, participated in a usability study of the system. Data was collected both objectively from the simulator and subjectively from post-test questionnaires. Results of the data analysis are presented, demonstrating a reduction in crash rate and other trends that illustrate the potential of airflow hazard visualization to improve flight safety.

  9. Piloted Simulation Study of Rudder Pedal Force/Feel Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Ronald A.

    2007-01-01

    A piloted, fixed-base simulation was conducted in 2006 to determine optimum rudder pedal force/feel characteristics for transport aircraft. As part of this research, an evaluation of four metrics for assessing rudder pedal characteristics previously presented in the literature was conducted. This evaluation was based upon the numerical handling qualities ratings assigned to a variety of pedal force/feel systems used in the simulation study. It is shown that, with the inclusion of a fifth metric, most of the rudder pedal force/feel system designs that were rated poorly by the evaluation pilots could be identified. It is suggested that these metrics form the basis of a certification requirement for transport aircraft.

  10. Tri-county pilot study. [Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, C. A. (Principal Investigator); Austin, T. W.; Kerber, A. G.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An area inventory was performed for three southeast Texas counties (Montgomery, Walker, and San Jacinto) totaling 0.65 million hectares. The inventory was performed using a two level hierarchy. Level 1 was divided into forestland, rangeland, and other land. Forestland was separated into Level 2 categories: pine, hardwood, and mixed; rangeland was not separated further. Results consisted of area statistics for each county and for the entire study site for pine, hardwood, mixed, rangeland, and other land. Color coded county classification maps were produced for the May data set, and procedures were developed and tested.

  11. Low-cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, William B.; Francisco, Paul W.; Merrin, Zachary

    2015-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Building America research team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofits conducted a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation and living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois, area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity measurements. Blower door and zone pressure diagnostics were conducted at each house. The treatments consisted of using air-sealing foams at the underside of the floor that separated the living space from the foundation and providing duct sealing on the ductwork that is situated in the foundation area. The hypothesis was that air sealing the floor system that separated the foundation from the living space should better isolate the living space from the foundation; this isolation should lead to less radon entering the living space from the foundation. If the hypothesis had been proven, retrofit energy-efficiency programs may have chosen to adopt these isolation methods for enhanced radon protection to the living space.

  12. Pilot study of MK-462 in migraine.

    PubMed

    Cutler, N R; Claghorn, J; Sramek, J J; Block, G; Panebianco, D; Cheng, H; Olah, T V; Reines, S A

    1996-04-01

    MK-462 is a potent, selective 5HT1D receptor agonist which may be useful in treating acute migraine. We conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled inpatient study to assess the preliminary efficacy and safety of oral doses of MK-462 20 mg (n = 8) and 40 mg (n = 36) vs placebo (n = 21), administered to 65 male and post-menopausal female migraine patients aged 22-51 with moderate or severe migraine headache. Headache severity and functional disability were measured at 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 h post-dose. The 20 mg dose was well tolerated and 4/8 patients obtained relief in headache severity at the 2 h time point. The 40 mg dose was well tolerated and was significantly (p < 0.05) superior to placebo at the 1.5 and 2 h time points (with 27/36 or 75% obtaining relief at 2 h compared to 7/21 or 33% for placebo). Adverse events occurred in 50% of patients on 20 mg MK-462, 72% of those on 40 mg MK-462, and in 52% of placebo-treated subjects. The most common adverse events associated with MK-462 were drowsiness (20 mg 12%; 40 mg 44%; placebo 24%), dry mouth (40 mg 36%; placebo 19%), and lightheadedness/dizziness (40 mg 17%; placebo 10%). Based on these preliminary results, MK-462 appears worthy of continued study for the treatment of acute migraine. PMID:8665577

  13. Marketing dentistry: a pilot study in Dudley.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R J; Morgan, J D

    1992-12-01

    This study was an attempt to persuade non-users or irregular users of dental services to change their behaviour and visit the dentist more regularly. The task was divided into two main parts. One was a promotion campaign undertaken in the Borough of Dudley in the West Midlands and the other a professional development programme for the dentists practising in the same area. The professional development campaign was designed to make the practitioners aware of the barriers to dental care which are perceived by patients. It was undertaken through a series of workshops on various aspects of practice development and promotion to which the staff of all the dental practices in Dudley were invited. Thirty-nine out of a total of forty-one accepted the invitation and attended some or all of the programme. In addition to the workshops members of the research team visited each of the participating practices regularly to discuss aspects of the programme and to record progress. The practitioners had varied attitudes to marketing and varied learning styles, and therefore they had different expectations of the nature and purpose of professional development. The majority attended solely to learn about the promotion campaign. There were also varying perceptions of patient recruitment and retention. None saw this as a serious problem. However, even before the new National Health Service contract for general dental practitioners there was the growing realisation that in the future there would be competition between practices and that this could be a reason for considering recruitment and the retention of patients more carefully. This was considered by many of the dentists, but not all, to be a problem of patient behaviour, linked with a degree of fatalism, and that nothing much could be done about it. There was a reluctance to change and the fear of the risks involved led a number of the general dental practitioners to identify and emphasise the difficulties in making new developments

  14. SERDP munition disposal source characterization pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R.C.; Couch, R.G.; Fried, L.E.

    1995-09-01

    The Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) is supporting studies to develop and implement technologies for the safe, efficient, and environmentally sound disposal of obsolete munitions and propellants which are stored at various locations across the country. One proposed disposal technique is the open-air burning or detonation (OB/OD) of this material. Although OB/OD is viewed as an efficient and cost-effective method for reducing the inventory of unwanted munitions and propellants, questions regarding its safety and environmental impacts must be addressed. Since very large amounts of munitions and propellants must be consumed inexpensively in relatively short time periods and with the very restrictive Federal and State regulations on environmental issues, it is clear that traditional OB/OD procedures will not be acceptable and that it is necessary to develop modified or advanced OB/OD technology. The effectiveness and environmental impact of the OB/OD technology must be verified by experimental data and with validated numerical models for acceptance by Federal and State regulators. Specifically, technology must be developed and tested that minimizes toxic bum and detonation products the noise (peak pressure) and destructive effect (impulse) of the explosive blast generation and travel distance of shrapnel, and entrainment of dust. Three explosion attenuation scenarios are analyzed: Contained water, aqueous foams, and wet sand.

  15. Telemedicine and Plastic Surgery: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Denis Souto; Silveira Eifler, Luciano; Carvalho, Lauro Aita; Filho, Gustavo Azambuja Pereira; Ribeiro, Vinicius Weissheimer; Padoin, Alexandre Vontobel

    2015-01-01

    Background. Telemedicine can be defined as the use of electronic media for transmission of information and medical data from one site to another. The objective of this study is to demonstrate an experience of telemedicine in plastic surgery. Methods. 32 plastic surgeons received a link with password for real-time streaming of a surgery. At the end of the procedure, the surgeons attending the procedure by the Internet answered five questions. The results were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Results. 27 plastic surgeons attended the online procedure in real-time. 96.3% considered the access to the website as good or excellent and 3.7% considered it bad. 14.8% reported that the transmission was bad and 85.2% considered the quality of transmission as good or excellent. 96.3% classified the live broadcasting as a good or excellent learning experience and 3.7% considered it a bad experience. 92.6% reported feeling able to perform this surgery after watching the demo and 7.4% did not feel able. 100% of participants said they would like to participate in other surgical demonstrations over the Internet. Conclusion. We conclude that the use of telemedicine can provide more access to education and medical research, for plastic surgeons looking for medical education from distant regions. PMID:26609429

  16. Better exercise adherence after treatment for cancer (BEAT Cancer) study: Rationale, design, and methods

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Laura Q.; McAuley, Edward; Anton, Philip M.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Vicari, Sandra; Hopkins-Price, Patricia; Verhulst, Steven; Mocharnuk, Robert; Hoelzer, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Most breast cancer survivors do not engage in regular physical activity. Our physical activity behavior change intervention for breast cancer survivors significantly improved physical activity and health outcomes post-intervention during a pilot, feasibility study. Testing in additional sites with a larger sample and longer follow-up is warranted to confirm program effectiveness short and longer term. Importantly, the pilot intervention resulted in changes in physical activity and social cognitive theory constructs, enhancing our potential for testing mechanisms mediating physical activity behavior change. Here, we report the rationale, design, and methods for a two-site, randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of the BEAT Cancer physical activity behavior change intervention to usual care on short and longer term physical activity adherence among breast cancer survivors. Secondary aims include examining social cognitive theory mechanisms of physical activity behavior change and health benefits of the intervention. Study recruitment goal is 256 breast cancer survivors with a history of ductal carcinoma in situ or Stage I, II, or IIIA disease who have completed primary cancer treatment. Outcome measures are obtained at baseline, 3 months (i.e., immediately post-intervention), 6 months, and 12 months and include physical activity, psychosocial factors, fatigue, sleep quality, lower extremity joint dysfunction, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, and waist-to-hip ratio. Confirming behavior change effectiveness, health effects, and underlying mechanisms of physical activity behavior change interventions will facilitate translation to community settings for improving the health and well-being of breast cancer survivors. PMID:21983625

  17. The Pilot Training Study: A Cost-Estimating Model for Advanced Pilot Training (APT).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knollmeyer, L. E.

    The Advanced Pilot Training Cost Model is a statement of relationships that may be used, given the necessary inputs, for estimating the resources required and the costs to train pilots in the Air Force formal flying training schools. Resources and costs are computed by weapon system on an annual basis for use in long-range planning or sensitivity…

  18. Evaluating a Community-Partnered Cancer Clinical Trials Pilot Intervention with African American Communities

    PubMed Central

    Green, Melissa A.; Michaels, Margo; Blakeney, Natasha; Odulana, Adebowale A.; Isler, Malika Roman; Richmond, Alan; Long, Debra G.; Robinson, William S.; Taylor, Yhenneko J.; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Cancer Clinical Trial (CCT) accrual and retention rates remain disproportionately low among African Americans. Awareness and access to trials are crucial facilitators of trial participation. Strategies developed within a community-based participatory framework (CBPR) are potential solutions to increase awareness and access to CCTs. In this study, we describe the pilot phase of three innovative community-centered modules to improve basic CCT knowledge, awareness of locations to access CCT information, and opportunities to participate in CCTs. Design Four community organizations completed Community Bridges to CCTs training-of-the trainer and recruited adult African American volunteers to participate in one of three CCT education modules: a workshop about CCTs; a role-play describing one person's experience with CCTs; or a call and response session reviewing myths and facts about CCTs. Pre- and post-test surveys were collected and analyzed using McNemar agreement statistic to evaluate changes in knowledge and attitudes regarding trials. Results Trainers enrolled 125 participants in the Call and Response (n=22), Role-play (n=60), and Workshop (n=43) modules. Module participants were mostly African American, female, and mean age of 53 years. Comparison of pre and post-test responses demonstrates favorable changes in awareness of CCTs and where to access to CCTs across the sample. Analysis by module type indicates significant increases for participants in the Call and Response (p < 0.01) and Role-Play modules (p < 0.001), but not the Workshop module. Conclusion Despite measures taken to increase the participation and retention rate of African Americans in clinical trials, little advancement has been made. Developing tailored community education modules on CCTs within the CBPR framework is a promising innovation to increase knowledge about CCTs and favorable attitudes about participation that are known precursors to trial enrollment. PMID:25564207

  19. Evaluating a community-partnered cancer clinical trials pilot intervention with African American communities.

    PubMed

    Green, Melissa A; Michaels, Margo; Blakeney, Natasha; Odulana, Adebowale A; Isler, Malika Roman; Richmond, Alan; Long, Debra G; Robinson, William S; Taylor, Yhenneko J; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2015-03-01

    Cancer clinical trial (CCT) accrual and retention rates remain disproportionately low among African Americans. Awarenesss and access to trials are crucial facilitators of trial participation. Strategies developed within a community-based participatory framework (CBPR) are potential solutions to increase awareness and access to CCTs. In this study, we describe the pilot phase of three innovative community-centered modules to improve basic CCT knowledge, awareness of locations to access CCT information, and opportunities to participate in CCTs. Four community organizations completed Community Bridges to CCT training-of-the-trainer and recruited adult African American volunteers to participate in one of three CCT education modules: a workshop about CCTs, a role play describing one person's experience with CCTs, or a call and response session reviewing myths and facts about CCTs. Pre- and post-test surveys were collected and analyzed using McNemar agreement statistic to evaluate changes in knowledge and attitudes regarding trials. Trainers enrolled 125 participants in the call and response (n = 22), role play (n = 60), and workshop (n = 43) modules. Module participants were mostly African American, female, and with a mean age of 53 years. Comparison of pre- and post-test responses demonstrates favorable changes in awareness of CCTs and where to access CCTs across the sample. Analysis by module type indicates significant increases for participants in the call and response (p < 0.01) and role play modules (p < 0.001), but not the workshop module. Despite measures taken to increase the participation and retention rate of African Americans in clinical trials, little advancement has been made. Developing tailored community education modules on CCTs within the CBPR framework is a promising innovation to increase knowledge about CCTs and favorable attitudes about participation that are known precursors to trial enrollment.

  20. Alkaline flood prediction studies, Ranger VII pilot, Wilmington Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, E.H.; Breit, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the design of a simulator to model alkaline displacement mechanisms, along with the current understanding of in-situ caustic consumption. Assimilation of laboratory coreflood and rock consumption data, and their use in one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) limited area simulations and in three-dimensional (3D) models of the entire pilot project are given. This paper also reports simulation studies of alkaline flood behavior in a small 2D area of a field for various concentrations, slug sizes, long-term consumption functions, and two relative-permeability adjustment mechanisms. The scale-up of 2D simulation results and their use in a 271-acre (1096.7-ha), seven-layered, 3D model of the pilot are also discussed and 3D simulator results are compared with initial field alkaline flood performance. Finally, recommended additional applications of the simulator methods developed in this pilot and in other alkaline floods are discussed.

  1. Early and Intensive Dietary Counseling in Lung Cancer Patients Receiving (Chemo)Radiotherapy-A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Nicole; Isenring, Elisabeth; Gough, Karla; Wheeler, Greg; Wirth, Andrew; Campbell, Belinda A; Krishnasamy, Meinir

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is prevalent in patients undergoing (chemo)radiotherapy (RT) for lung cancer. This pilot study tested the feasibility and acceptability of delivering an intensive nutrition intervention for lung cancer patients receiving RT. Twenty-four patients with lung cancer were randomized to receive the intervention which employed a care pathway to guide intensive dietary counseling from pretreatment until 6-wk posttreatment or usual care. Nutritional, fatigue, and functional outcomes were assessed using valid and reliable questionnaires before randomization, at the start and end of RT and 1- and 3-mo post-RT. Consent rate was 57% with an overall attrition of 37%. Subject compliance with the completion of study questionnaires was 100%. A clinically important mean difference indicated greater overall satisfaction with nutritional care in the intervention group (5.00, interquartile range [IQR] 4.50-5.00; 4.00, IQR 4.00-4.00). Clinically important differences favoring the intervention were observed for weight (3.0 kg; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.8, 6.8), fat-free mass (0.6 kg; 95% CI -2.1, 3.3), physical well-being (2.1; 95% CI -2.3, 6.5), and functional well-being (5.1; 95% CI 1.6, 8.6), but all 95% CIs were wide and most included zero. Recruitment feasibility and acceptability of the intervention were demonstrated, which suggest larger trials using an intensive nutrition intervention would be achievable. PMID:27348253

  2. Preliminary Hydrogeologic Characterization Results from the Wallula Basalt Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    B.P. McGrail; E. C. Sullivan; F. A. Spane; D. H. Bacon; G. Hund; P. D. Thorne; C. J. Thompson; S. P. Reidel; F. S. Colwell

    2009-12-01

    The DOE's Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership has completed drilling the first continental flood basalt sequestration pilot borehole to a total depth (TD) of 4,110 feet on the Boise White Paper Mill property at Wallula, Washington. Site suitability was assessed prior to drilling by the 2007-2008 acquisition, processing and analysis of a four-mile, five-line three component seismic swath, which was processed as a single data-dense line. Analysis of the seismic survey data indicated a composite basalt formation thickness of {approx}8,000 feet and absence of major geologic structures (i.e., faults) along the line imaged by the seismic swath. Drilling of Wallula pilot borehole was initiated on January 13, 2009 and reached TD on April 6, 2009. Based on characterization results obtained during drilling, three basalt breccia zones were identified between the depth interval of 2,716 and 2,910 feet, as being suitable injection reservoir for a subsequent CO2 injection pilot study. The targeted injection reservoir lies stratigraphically below the massive Umtanum Member of the Grande Ronde Basalt, whose flow-interior section possesses regionally recognized low-permeability characteristics. The identified composite injection zone reservoir provides a unique and attractive opportunity to scientifically study the reservoir behavior of three inter-connected reservoir intervals below primary and secondary caprock confining zones. Drill cuttings, wireline geophysical logs, and 31one-inch diameter rotary sidewall cores provided geologic data for characterization of rock properties. XRF analyses of selected rock samples provided geochemical characterizations of the rocks and stratigraphic control for the basalt flows encountered by the Wallula pilot borehole. Based on the geochemical results, the pilot borehole was terminated in the Wapshilla Ridge 1 flow of the Grande Ronde Basalt Formation. Detailed hydrologic test characterizations of 12 basalt interflow reservoir

  3. My mind is as clear as it used to be: A pilot study illustrating the difficulties of employing a single-item subjective screen to detect cognitive impairment in outpatients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Kibiger, Gail; Kirsh, Kenneth L; Wall, Jacqueline R; Passik, Steven D

    2003-08-01

    Oncology patients often complain that their "mind does not seem to be clear." This subjective perception, sometimes referred to as "chemo brain," may be due to situational stressors, psychological disorders, organic factors, or effects of neurotoxic medications. Cognitive decline cannot only diminish quality of life, but can also interfere with a patient's ability to make decisions regarding complex treatment issues. The current study investigated the utility of using item 11 of the Zung Self-Rating Depression Screen (ZSDS) as a cognitive screen. A sample of 61 ambulatory cancer patients completed this study. Participants were recruited from four sites of Community Cancer Care, Inc., in Indiana. A battery of cognitive instruments and psychosocial inventories was administered in a standardized order. The sample had a mean age of 58.6 years and comprised 57.4% (n=35) women and 42.6% (n=26) men. Item 11 of the ZSDS was not significantly correlated to the cognitive measures. Correlates of the perception of cognitive impairment were the Dementia Rating Scale (DRS) Attention Scale (r=-0.26, P<0.05) and the ZSDS total score (r=-0.29, P<0.05). Patients' perceptions of having a cognitive impairment determined by item 11 of the ZSDS was predicted by total score on the ZSDS (F=42.5, P<0.001), age (F=26.0, P<0.001), and score on the Stroop test (F=19.8, P<0.001). Analysis of sensitivity and specificity indicated that the single-item screen used in this study is not an accurate means for identifying oncology patients with actual cognitive impairment. We conclude that while the perception of cognitive impairment is common in cancer patients, there may be problems in interpreting the nature of these complaints, particularly in separating them from depressive preoccupation. PMID:12906955

  4. An ET-CURE pilot project supporting undergraduate training in cancer research, emerging technology, and health disparities.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Danyell S; Fang, Bin; Dalton, William S; Meade, Cathy D; Koomen, John M

    2012-06-01

    The National Cancer Institute's Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities has created pilot training opportunities under the "Continuing Umbrella of Research Experiences" program that focus on emerging technologies. In this pilot project, an 18-month cancer biology research internship was reinforced with: instruction in an emerging technology (proteomics), a transition from the undergraduate laboratory to a research setting, education in cancer health disparities, and community outreach activities. A major goal was to provide underrepresented undergraduates with hands-on research experiences that are rarely encountered at the undergraduate level, including mentoring, research presentations, and participation in local and national meetings. These opportunities provided education and career development for the undergraduates, and they have given each student the opportunity to transition from learning to sharing their knowledge and from being mentored to mentoring others. Here, we present the concepts, curriculum, infrastructure, and challenges for this training program along with evaluations by both the students and their mentors. PMID:22528637

  5. Determining overdiagnosis by screening with DRE/TRUS or PSA (Florence pilot studies, 1991-1994).

    PubMed

    Ciatto, Stefano; Gervasi, Ginetta; Bonardi, Rita; Frullini, Paola; Zendron, Paola; Lombardi, Claudio; Crocetti, Emanuele; Zappa, Marco

    2005-02-01

    The rate of overdiagnosis of prostate carcinoma was assessed by following 6890 participants in pilot screening studies from 1991 to 1994. Observed/expected incidence and mortality were determined using data from the Cancer and Mortality Registry. The cancer detection rate (1.75%) and observed/expected ratio (12.5:1) were high at the first screening, and substantially lower at the second screening (0.65% or 4.10:1). According to the registry follow-up, prostate cancer occurred in 225 subjects in the whole study cohort, while 178.2 were expected with 50652 men/years at risk. The standardised incidence rate was 1.66 in the screened (95%CI=1.4-2.0), 0.97 in the non-responders (95%CI=0.8-1.2) and 1.23 in subjects excluded from invitation due to previous cancer or major illness (95%CI=0.8-1.5). A 66% excess incidence rate was observed in the screened subjects over a 9-year period, confirming previous estimates of overdiagnosis.

  6. Development and Pilot Evaluation of Native CREST – a Cancer Research Experience and Student Training Program for Navajo Undergraduate Students

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Christine A.; Bauer, Mark C.; Horazdovsky, Bruce F.; Garrison, Edward R.; Patten, Christi A.; Petersen, Wesley O.; Bowman, Clarissa N.; Vierkant, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    The Mayo Clinic Cancer Center and Diné College received funding for a 4-year collaborative P20 planning grant from the National Cancer Institute in 2006. The goal of the partnership was to increase Navajo undergraduates’ interest in and commitment to biomedical coursework and careers, especially in cancer research. This paper describes the development, pilot testing and evaluation of Native CREST (Cancer Research Experience & Student Training), a 10-week cancer research training program providing mentorship in a Mayo Clinic basic science or behavioral cancer research lab for Navajo undergraduate students. Seven Native American undergraduate students (5 females, 2 males) were enrolled during the summers of 2008 - 2011. Students reported the program influenced their career goals and was valuable to their education and development. These efforts may increase the number of Native American career scientists developing and implementing cancer research, which will ultimately benefit the health of Native American people. PMID:23001889

  7. Development and pilot evaluation of Native CREST-a Cancer Research Experience and Student Training program for Navajo undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Christine A; Bauer, Mark C; Horazdovsky, Bruce F; Garrison, Edward R; Patten, Christi A; Petersen, Wesley O; Bowman, Clarissa N; Vierkant, Robert A

    2013-03-01

    The Mayo Clinic Cancer Center and Diné College received funding for a 4-year collaborative P20 planning grant from the National Cancer Institute in 2006. The goal of the partnership was to increase Navajo undergraduates' interest in and commitment to biomedical coursework and careers, especially in cancer research. This paper describes the development, pilot testing, and evaluation of Native CREST (Cancer Research Experience and Student Training), a 10-week cancer research training program providing mentorship in a Mayo Clinic basic science or behavioral cancer research lab for Navajo undergraduate students. Seven Native American undergraduate students (five females, two males) were enrolled during the summers of 2008-2011. Students reported the program influenced their career goals and was valuable to their education and development. These efforts may increase the number of Native American career scientists developing and implementing cancer research, which will ultimately benefit the health of Native American people. PMID:23001889

  8. Exfiltration from gravity sewers: a pilot scale study.

    PubMed

    Vollertsen, J; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T

    2003-01-01

    Pilot-scale experiments were conducted on exfiltration of wastewater from gravity sewers. The effect of storm events, flushing of pipes and alternating infiltration/exfiltration were simulated. Exfiltration through different types of sewer leaks and into different soils were studied. It was found that the exfiltration rate became constant after some days of exfiltration. It stayed constant for the duration of the experiments, which typically spanned over some weeks. The exfiltration was governed by the development of a clogging zone at the sewer leak and could be characterized by a leakage factor. The leakage factor may then be used to estimate the risk of groundwater pollution from a sewer network.

  9. Chest infection following head and neck surgery: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Morton, R P; Mellow, C G; Dorman, E B

    1990-08-01

    This paper reports the results of a pilot study which examined factors associated with chest infection following head and neck surgery. The overall rate of chest infection was 11%, but was 20% in those patients having a tracheotomy. No infection developed in patients with an intact airway. Other factors which emerged as possibly important were the duration of surgery and heavy regular alcohol intake. We recommend that prophylactic antibiotics be continued for at least 48 h in patients requiring a tracheotomy as part of their head and neck surgery. This is against the trend of shorter antibiotic regimens recommended for prevention of wound infections.

  10. Nursing Students' Clinical Experience With Death: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Heise, Barbara A; Gilpin, Laura C

    2016-01-01

    Although debriefing in simulation settings is routine in nursing education, debriefing does not routinely take place in clinical settings with nursing students after a patient has died. This pilot study sought to explore nursing students' perceptions of their first experience with the death of a patient. Students reported emotional distress and feelings of inadequacy with regard to communicating with and supporting the family of the dying patient. Only half the students sampled reported debriefing by their clinical instructor or staff. Nurse educators must include debriefing and student support following a patient death in the clinical setting. PMID:27209870

  11. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) as a biomarker for trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity in HER2-positive early-stage breast cancer: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Onitilo, Adedayo A; Engel, Jessica M; Stankowski, Rachel V; Liang, Hong; Berg, Richard L; Doi, Suhail A R

    2012-07-01

    Monitoring of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is the current standard for detection of trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity; however, time-to-diagnosis and cost of assessment are suboptimal in women with early-stage breast cancer. We assessed the utility of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) as serum biomarkers for early detection of trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity. Fifty-four women with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive early-stage breast cancer were prospectively enrolled, and the relationship between elevated serum BNP, hs-CRP, and cTnI levels and clinically significant decreases in LVEF was examined. LVEF was monitored at 3-4 month intervals during trastuzumab treatment. Laboratory testing for candidate biomarkers was repeated every 3 weeks with each cycle of trastuzumab. Trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity was defined as a decrease in LVEF of ≥15% or to a value below 50%. A clinically significant decrease in LVEF was observed in 28.6% of women. Abnormal hs-CRP (≥3 mg/L) predicted decreased LVEF with a sensitivity of 92.9% (95% CI 66.1-99.8) and specificity of 45.7% (95% CI 28.8-63.4), and subjects with normal hs-CRP levels (<3 mg/L) have 94.1% negative predictive 94.1% (95% CI 70.3-99.9) suggesting that normal hs-CRP levels may be associated with low future risk for decreased LVEF; however, no association with BNP or cTnI was observed. A false positive would have a relatively low associated cost in breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant trastuzumab therapy and would indicate continuation of routine observation during treatment through traditional means. The maximum hs-CRP value was observed a median of 78 days prior to detection of cardiotoxicity by decreased LVEF, and those with normal levels were at lower risk for cardiotoxicity. Regular monitoring of hs-CRP holds promise as a biomarker for identifying women with early-stage breast cancer at

  12. Faecal immunochemical test-based colorectal cancer screening programme SVIT in Slovenia: pilot phase.

    PubMed

    Tepeš, Bojan; Stabuc, Borut; Stefanovič, Milan; Bračko, Matej; Frkovič Grazio, Snežana; Novak Mlakar, Dominika; Maučec Zakotnik, Jožica

    2014-07-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer in Slovenia. The 5-year survival of patients depends on the clinical stage at presentation. More than 70% of patients with CRC are diagnosed as being in stage III or IV, with a 5-year survival rate of 52.7%. To improve the detection rate of CRC and to detect CRC in its early and more curable stage, a national screening programme is needed. In the year 2008, we started a pilot phase of the National CRC screening programme. We invited 9091 Slovene residents aged 64-68 years from Ljubljana, Kranj, and Celje regions, of whom 3807 responded to our invitation (41.9%). Two kits of the faecal immune test were sent to 3117 participants who met the inclusion criteria, and 2829 (90.7%) tests were returned. The compliance rate in our pilot programme was 32.9%. Among the patients who responded positively, 7.5% were positive. Until February 2009, 193 colonoscopies had been performed at DC Bled, DC Lipa and AM DC Rogaška. Intubation to the caecum was carried out in 99.4% of colonoscopies. Histology specimens were taken from 135 patients (70%). The adenoma detection rate was 53.8% (59.8% for men and 47.9% for women; P<0.05). We detected 1-17 adenomas per patient (2.4 on average). Advanced adenomas were detected in 60 patients (31%; 35.1% of men and 27.1% of women; P<0.05). Invasive carcinoma was detected in 15 patients (7.7%; 12.4% of men and 3.1% of women; P<0.05). Ten of them (73.3%) were in clinical stage I or II. In the pilot phase of the CRC screening programme the majority of CRCs were detected at early clinical stages. Invasive cancers were detected in 7.7% of patients. In almost all patients adenomas were resected at screening colonoscopy, thus reducing the possibility of later development of CRC in those patients.

  13. Development of a Burn Escharotomy Assessment Tool: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Ur, Rebecca; Holmes, James H; Johnson, James E; Molnar, Joseph A; Carter, Jeffrey E

    2016-01-01

    Severe burn injuries can require escharotomies which are urgent, infrequent, and relatively high-risk procedures necessary to preserve limb perfusion and sometimes ventilation. The American Burn Association Advanced Burn Life Support© course educates surgeons and emergency providers about escharotomy incisions but lacks a biomimetic trainer to demonstrate, practice, or provide assessment. The goal was to build an affordable biomimetic trainer with discrete points of failure and pilot a validation study. Fellowship-trained burn and plastic surgeons worked with special effect artists and anatomists to develop a biomimetic trainer with three discrete points of failure: median or ulnar nerve injury, fasciotomy, and failure to check distal pulse. Participants were divided between experienced and inexperienced, survey pre- and post-procedure on a biomimetic model while being timed. The trainer total cost per participant was less than $35. Eighteen participants were involved in the study. The inexperienced (0-1 prior escharotomies performed) had significantly more violations at the discrete points of failure relative to more experienced participants (P = .036). Face validity was assessed with 100% of participants agreement that the model appeared similar to real life and was valuable in their training. Given the advancements in biomimetic models and the need to train surgeons in how to perform infrequent, emergent surgical procedures, an escharotomy trainer is needed today. The authors developed an affordable model with a successful pilot study demonstrating discrimination between experienced and inexperienced surgeons. Additional research is needed to increase the reliability and assessment metrics.

  14. Pilot walnut intervention study of urolithin bioavailability in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Pfundstein, Beate; Haubner, Roswitha; Würtele, Gerd; Gehres, Nicole; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Owen, Robert W

    2014-10-22

    A pilot intervention study was conducted in human volunteers (n = 4) to establish the bioavailability of urolithins, which are the terminal end-products of ellagitannin metabolism by the gastrointestinal microflora. Biospecimens (blood, feces, and urine) along with urolithins purified therefrom were analyzed for their antioxidant capacity in a range of in vitro assays. Urolithin metabolites were identified and quantitated in the biospecimens by negative ion mode HPLC-ESI-MS analysis. The data in this pilot study show that the metabolism of ellagitannins in the four volunteers gave rise to a diverse profile and a highly variable concentration of urolithins in urine. The concentration of glucuronidated urolithins in blood and urine did not correlate with antioxidant capacity. However, the antioxidant capacity of urine, but not plasma biospecimens, was highly correlated with uric acid concentration. The antioxidant capacity of fecal extracts correlated positively with the concentration of urolithin D in both the DPPH and FRAP assays, but not in the ORAC assay, which was entirely consistent with the in vitro assays for pure urolithin D.

  15. Quality assurance project plan: 1991 EMAP wetlands southeastern pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, E.M.; Lee, J.M.; Turner, R.E.

    1992-12-01

    The goal of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program - Wetlands (EMAP-Wetlands) Southeastern Pilot Study is to develop field indicators of salt marsh condition. These indicators are of four general types: (1) vegetation; (2) hydrology; (3) soil parameters; and (4) soil constituents. Field measurements and samples will be collected during late summer/early fall in 1991 and will be analyzed to identify which indicators and measurements best delineate salt marsh in good condition from that in impaired condition. Thus the project will involve field work, laboratory analysis, and data analysis. Results from this project will be used to establish criteria and parameters for long-term monitoring and assessment of salt marshes, particularly those parameters that may serve as indicators of healthy salt marsh and deteriorated salt marsh. Since EMAP-Wetlands-Southeastern is a pilot study, the measurement criteria will be evaluated as one of the project goals. Of concern will be how well the standardized sampling methods performed in actual field conditions, and which of these methods can be used to assess and characterize salt marshes.

  16. Feasibility Pilot Study: Training Soft Skills in Virtual Worlds.

    PubMed

    Abshier, Patricia

    2012-04-01

    In a world where funding is limited, training for healthcare professionals is turning more and more to distance learning in an effort to maintain a knowledgeable and skilled work force. In 2010, Cicatelli Associates, Inc. began exploring the feasibility of using games and virtual worlds as an alternative means to teach skills-training in a distance-learning environment. The pilot study was conducted with six individuals familiar with general counseling and communication skills used by the healthcare industry to promote behavior change. Participants reported that the venue, although challenging at first, showed great potential for use with healthcare providers, as it allowed for more interaction and activities than traditional Webinars. However, there are significant limitations that must be overcome in order for this healthcare training modality to be utilized on a large scale. These limitations included a lack of microgestures and issues regarding the technology being used. In spite of the limitations, however, the potential use of virtual worlds for the training of healthcare providers exists and should be researched further. This article discusses the need and intended benefits of virtual world training as well as the results and conclusions of the pilot study. PMID:26193192

  17. Feasibility Pilot Study: Training Soft Skills in Virtual Worlds.

    PubMed

    Abshier, Patricia

    2012-04-01

    In a world where funding is limited, training for healthcare professionals is turning more and more to distance learning in an effort to maintain a knowledgeable and skilled work force. In 2010, Cicatelli Associates, Inc. began exploring the feasibility of using games and virtual worlds as an alternative means to teach skills-training in a distance-learning environment. The pilot study was conducted with six individuals familiar with general counseling and communication skills used by the healthcare industry to promote behavior change. Participants reported that the venue, although challenging at first, showed great potential for use with healthcare providers, as it allowed for more interaction and activities than traditional Webinars. However, there are significant limitations that must be overcome in order for this healthcare training modality to be utilized on a large scale. These limitations included a lack of microgestures and issues regarding the technology being used. In spite of the limitations, however, the potential use of virtual worlds for the training of healthcare providers exists and should be researched further. This article discusses the need and intended benefits of virtual world training as well as the results and conclusions of the pilot study.

  18. Educating low-SES and LEP survivors about breast cancer research: pilot test of the Health Research Engagement Intervention.

    PubMed

    Nickell, Alyssa; Burke, Nancy J; Cohen, Elly; Caprio, Maria; Joseph, Galen

    2014-12-01

    The Health Research Engagement Intervention (HREI) aims to reduce information and access disparities for breast cancer research opportunities among low-socioeconomic status (SES) and limited English proficient (LEP) breast cancer survivors by providing neutral, non-trial-specific information about health research via a trusted patient navigator. Qualitative methods in the context of a community-based participatory research design were used to iteratively design the HREI in collaboration with community-based care navigators from a trusted community organization, Shanti Project, and to locate appropriate research studies in collaboration with a web-based trial-matching service, BreastCancerTrials.org (BCT). Navigators were first trained in clinical trials and health research and then to deliver the HREI, providing feedback that was incorporated into both the HREI design and BCT's interface. Our intervention pilot with low SES and LEP survivors (n = 12) demonstrated interest in learning about "health research." All 12 participants opted to obtain more information when offered the opportunity. Post-intervention questionnaires showed that three of 11 (27 %) participants independently pursued additional information about research opportunities either online or by phone in the week following the intervention. Post-intervention navigator questionnaires indicated that navigators could confidently and efficiently deliver the intervention. LEP patients who pursued information independently faced language barriers. The HREI is a promising and potentially scalable intervention to increase access to neutral information about breast cancer research opportunities for low-SES and LEP individuals. However, in order for it to be effective, systems barriers to participation such as language accessibility at sources of health research information must be addressed.

  19. Educating Low-SES and LEP Survivors About Breast Cancer Research: Pilot Test of the Health Research Engagement Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Nickell, Alyssa; Burke, Nancy J.; Cohen, Elly; Caprio, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The Health Research Engagement Intervention (HREI) aims to reduce information and access disparities for breast cancer research opportunities among low-socioeconomic status (SES) and limited English proficient (LEP) breast cancer survivors by providing neutral, non-trial-specific information about health research via a trusted patient navigator. Qualitative methods in the context of a community-based participatory research design were used to iteratively design the HREI in collaboration with community-based care navigators from a trusted community organization, Shanti Project, and to locate appropriate research studies in collaboration with a web-based trial-matching service, BreastCancerTrials.org (BCT). Navigators were first trained in clinical trials and health research and then to deliver the HREI, providing feedback that was incorporated into both the HREI design and BCT's interface. Our intervention pilot with low SES and LEP survivors (n=12) demonstrated interest in learning about “health research.” All 12 participants opted to obtain more information when offered the opportunity. Post-intervention questionnaires showed that three of 11 (27 %) participants independently pursued additional information about research opportunities either online or by phone in the week following the intervention. Post-intervention navigator questionnaires indicated that navigators could confidently and efficiently deliver the intervention. LEP patients who pursued information independently faced language barriers. The HREI is a promising and potentially scalable intervention to increase access to neutral information about breast cancer research opportunities for low-SES and LEP individuals. However, in order for it to be effective, systems barriers to participation such as language accessibility at sources of health research information must be addressed. PMID:24744119

  20. A pilot study examining the effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training and continuous low to moderate intensity training on quality of life, functional capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Pumpa, Kate L.; Arnolda, Leonard; Cooke, Julie; Yip, Desmond; Craft, Paul S.; Semple, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training and continuous low to moderate intensity training on quality of life, functional capacity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in cancer survivors. Methods Cancer survivors within 24 months post-diagnosis were randomly assigned into the low-volume high-intensity interval training group (n = 8) or the continuous low to moderate intensity training group (n = 8) group for 36 sessions (12 weeks) of supervised exercise. The low-volume high-intensity interval training (LVHIIT) group performed 7 × 30 s intervals (≥85% maximal heart rate) and the continuous low to moderate intensity training (CLMIT) group performed continuous aerobic training for 20 min (≤55% maximal heart rate) on a stationary bike or treadmill. Results Significant improvements (time) were observed for 13 of the 23 dependent variables (ES 0.05–0.61, p ≤ 0.05). An interaction effect was observed for six minute walk test (18.53% [32.43–4.63] ES 0.50, p ≤ 0.01) with the LVHIIT group demonstrating greater improvements. Conclusion These preliminary findings suggest that both interventions can induce improvements in quality of life, functional capacity and selected cardiovascular disease risk factors. The LVHIIT program was well tolerated by the participants and our results suggest that LVHIIT is the preferred modality to improve fitness (6MWT); it remains to be seen which intervention elicits the most clinically relevant outcomes for patients. A larger sample size with a control group is required to confirm the significance of these findings. PMID:27781180

  1. Connecting Primary Health Care: A Comprehensive Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Maghsoudloo, Mehran; Abolhassani, Farid; Lotfibakhshaiesh, Nasrin

    2016-07-01

    The collection of data within the primary health care facilities in Iran is essentially paper-based. It is focused on family's health, monitoring of non-infectious and infectious diseases. Clearly due to the paper-based nature of the tasks, timely decision making at most can be difficult if not impossible. As part of an on-going electronic health record implementation project at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, for the first time in the region, based on a comprehensive pilot project, four urban healthcare facilities are connected to their headquarters and beyond, covering all aspects of primary health care, for the last four years. Without delving into the technical aspects of its software engineering processes, the progress of the implementation is reported, selection of summarized data is presented, and experience gained thus far are discussed. Four years passed and if time is any important reason to go by, then it is safe to accept that the software architecture and electronic health record structural model implemented are robust and yet extensible. Aims and duration of a pilot study should be clearly defined prior to start and managed till its completion. Resistance to change and particularly to information technology, apart from its technical aspects, is also based on human factors. PMID:27424015

  2. A piloted simulation study of data link ATC message exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Marvin C.; Lohr, Gary W.

    1989-01-01

    Data link Air Traffic Control (ATC) and Air Traffic Service (ATS) message and data exchange offers the potential benefits of increased flight safety and efficiency by reducing communication errors and allowing more information to be transferred between aircraft and ground facilities. Digital communication also presents an opportunity to relieve the overloading of ATC radio frequencies which hampers message exchange during peak traffic hours in many busy terminal areas. A piloted simulation study to develop pilot factor guidelines and assess potential flight crew benefits and liabilities from using data link ATC message exchange was completed. The data link ATC message exchange concept, implemented on an existing navigation computer Control Display Unit (CDU) required maintaining a voice radio telephone link with an appropriate ATC facility. Flight crew comments, scanning behavior, and measurements of time spent in ATC communication activities for data link ATC message exchange were compared to similar measures for simulated conventional voice radio operations. The results show crew preference for the quieter flight deck environment and a perception of lower communication workload.

  3. Using singing to nurture children's hearing? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Welch, Graham F; Saunders, Jo; Edwards, Sian; Palmer, Zoe; Himonides, Evangelos; Knight, Julian; Mahon, Merle; Griffin, Susanna; Vickers, Deborah A

    2015-09-01

    This article reports a pilot study of the potential benefits of a sustained programme of singing activities on the musical behaviours and hearing acuity of young children with hearing impairment (HI). Twenty-nine children (n=12 HI and n=17 NH) aged between 5 and 7 years from an inner-city primary school in London participated, following appropriate ethical approval. The predominantly classroom-based programme was designed by colleagues from the UCL Institute of Education and UCL Ear Institute in collaboration with a multi-arts charity Creative Futures and delivered by an experienced early years music specialist weekly across two school terms. There was a particular emphasis on building a repertoire of simple songs with actions and allied vocal exploration. Musical learning was also supported by activities that drew on visual imagery for sound and that included simple notation and physical gesture. An overall impact assessment of the pilot programme embraced pre- and post-intervention measures of pitch discrimination, speech perception in noise and singing competency. Subsequent statistical data analyses suggest that the programme had a positive impact on participant children's singing range, particularly (but not only) for HI children with hearing aids, and also in their singing skills. HI children's pitch perception also improved measurably over time. Findings imply that all children, including those with HI, can benefit from regular and sustained access to age-appropriate musical activities.

  4. Using singing to nurture children's hearing? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Welch, Graham F; Saunders, Jo; Edwards, Sian; Palmer, Zoe; Himonides, Evangelos; Knight, Julian; Mahon, Merle; Griffin, Susanna; Vickers, Deborah A

    2015-09-01

    This article reports a pilot study of the potential benefits of a sustained programme of singing activities on the musical behaviours and hearing acuity of young children with hearing impairment (HI). Twenty-nine children (n=12 HI and n=17 NH) aged between 5 and 7 years from an inner-city primary school in London participated, following appropriate ethical approval. The predominantly classroom-based programme was designed by colleagues from the UCL Institute of Education and UCL Ear Institute in collaboration with a multi-arts charity Creative Futures and delivered by an experienced early years music specialist weekly across two school terms. There was a particular emphasis on building a repertoire of simple songs with actions and allied vocal exploration. Musical learning was also supported by activities that drew on visual imagery for sound and that included simple notation and physical gesture. An overall impact assessment of the pilot programme embraced pre- and post-intervention measures of pitch discrimination, speech perception in noise and singing competency. Subsequent statistical data analyses suggest that the programme had a positive impact on participant children's singing range, particularly (but not only) for HI children with hearing aids, and also in their singing skills. HI children's pitch perception also improved measurably over time. Findings imply that all children, including those with HI, can benefit from regular and sustained access to age-appropriate musical activities. PMID:26561889

  5. Caffeine Awareness in Children: Insights from a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Thakre, Tushar P.; Deoras, Ketan; Griffin, Catherine; Vemana, Aarthi; Podmore, Petra; Krishna, Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Caffeine, a commonly consumed psychoactive substance, can have significant effects on sleep. Caffeine intake among children is increasing, mainly in the form of sodas. However, adolescent caffeine consumers may lack knowledge about the caffeine content in common beverages. If true, this very fact may hamper the assessment of the effects of caffeine consumption on sleep in children if such assessments are a priori dependent on responders being able to reliably distinguish between caffeinated and noncaffeinated beverages. This preliminary study investigated adolescents' caffeine knowledge and intake at a Cleveland-area public middle school. Methods: Seventh- and eighth-grade students were surveyed using: (1) the Caffeine Literacy and Sleep Study (CLASS), a 15-question pilot instrument designed to assess caffeine knowledge and intake by type, quantity and timing, as well as sleep habits; and (2) the Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire (CASQ), a validated survey measuring excessive daytime sleepiness in adolescents. These questionnaires were distributed and collected during a specified class period. Results: Of the 635 seventh- and eighth-grade students who attended school on the day of the study, 555 (87%) participated. Lack of knowledge about caffeine content of particular drinks was noted in seventh and eighth graders of both sexes with nearly 29% unaware that their favorite drinks contain caffeine and more than 50% unable to correctly identify the drinks with the most caffeine. A low percentage of students correctly identified light-colored sodas lacking caffeine: 7-Up (24.1%), Sierra Mist (38.9%), ginger ale (39.8%), Sprite (39.8%), and Fresca (53.7%). The percentages of students correctly identifying caffeinated light-colored beverages were: Arizona Green Tea (43.5%), Mello Yellow (50.9%), and A&W cream soda (67.6%). However, Mountain Dew was correctly identified by most (93.5%) as caffeinated. Conclusions: Students were not

  6. Enhancing Patient Safety Using Clinical Nursing Data: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeeyae; Choi, Jeungok E

    2016-01-01

    To enhance patient safety from falls, many hospital information systems have been implemented to collect clinical data from the bedside and have used the information to improve fall prevention care. However, most of them use administrative data not clinical nursing data. This necessitated the development of a web-based Nursing Practice and Research Information Management System (NPRIMS) that processes clinical nursing data to measure nurses' delivery of fall prevention care and its impact on patient outcomes. This pilot study developed computer algorithms based on a falls prevention protocol and programmed the prototype NPRIMS. It successfully measured the performance of nursing care delivered and its impact on patient outcomes using clinical nursing data from the study site. Results of the study revealed that NPRIMS has the potential to pinpoint components of nursing processes that are in need of improvement for preventing patient from falls. PMID:27332171

  7. Pilot study of "miracle fruit" to improve food palatability for patients receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wilken, Marlene K; Satiroff, Bernadette A

    2012-10-01

    Taste changes in patients undergoing chemotherapy are common and can be of long duration, are associated with poor nutrition, and can reduce quality of life. A pilot study of the fruit Synsepalum dulcificum-known as "miracle fruit"-as a novel supportive intervention was conducted with eight patients with cancer who were being treated with chemotherapy and reporting taste changes. Miraculin, a naturally occurring protein in miracle fruit, has the unusual ability to transduce a sweet signal in an acidic environment, profoundly changing food taste profiles for a short duration, masking unpleasant tastes, and increasing the palatability of certain foods. This pilot study was designed to determine whether consumption of the Miracle Fruit™ supplement would improve chemotherapy-associated taste changes, thereby improving the taste of food and ultimately leading to better nutrition. Four of the participants were given a two-week supply of the supplement and the other four were given a two-week supply of a placebo. After two weeks, the supplement group received a two-week supply of the placebo and the placebo group received a two-week supply of the supplement. Participants recorded food and drink intake in daily food dairies and rated taste changes with each food as better, worse, or no change. All study participants reported positive taste changes with the supplement. PMID:23022943

  8. Epidemiological studies of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Pindborg, J J

    1977-06-01

    The FDI has shown considerable interest in the oral cancer and has in recent years arranged three symposia on the subject. The incidence of oral cancer shows marked geographic differences mostly depending upon environmental factors. In the present paper the epidemiology of oral cancer is illustrated by the relative frequency to total number of cancers and incidence rates from a number of countries. Canada has the highest rate of cancer of the vermilion border, which is extremely rare among dark-skinned people. Even within one country differences may be found, a fact which is illustrated by findings from Czechoslovakia and India. In most of the studies dealing with the etiology of oral cancer tobacco usage in its various forms is shown to be the outstanding factor.

  9. A human laboratory pilot study with baclofen in alcoholic individuals

    PubMed Central

    Leggio, Lorenzo; Zywiak, William H.; McGeary, John E.; Edwards, Steven; Fricchione, Samuel R.; Shoaff, Jessica R.; Addolorato, Giovanni; Swift, Robert M.; Kenna, George A.

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies show that the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen may represent a pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence (AD). However, the mechanisms by which baclofen affects drinking are not well characterized; thus this pilot study investigated possible baclofen’s biobehavioral mechanisms. The design was a double-blind controlled randomized human laboratory pilot study. Fourteen non-treatment seeking alcohol-dependent heavy drinking subjects received either baclofen 10 mg t.i.d. or an active placebo (cyproheptadine 2 mg t.i.d., to control for sedation) for a 7-day period. At day 8, participants performed an alcohol cue-reactivity (CR) followed by an alcohol self-administration (ASA). Additionally, we explored possible moderators that might guide future larger studies, i.e. anxiety, family history and onset of alcoholism, and D4 dopamine receptor (DRD4) and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms. The main results were a significant effect of baclofen for increasing stimulation (p=.001) and sedation (p<.01). Furthermore, when drinking during the ASA and the 2 days before was analyzed as a composite variable, there was a significant effect of baclofen to reduce alcohol consumption (p<.01). As for the exploratory analyses, baclofen’s effects to increase alcohol sedation and to reduce alcohol consumption were limited to those individuals with DRD4 ≥7 repeats (DRD4L). Yet, baclofen’s effects on alcohol consumption were also moderated by 5-HTTLPR LL genotype. In conclusion, baclofen’s ability to reduce alcohol drinking may be related to its effects on the biphasic effects of alcohol, but larger studies are needed to confirm these preliminary findings. PMID:23262301

  10. Pilot study on agricultural pesticide poisoning in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ouedraogo, Mustapha; Ouedraogo, Richard; Ilboudo, Sylvain; Guissou, Pierre I.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic data related to agricultural pesticide poisoning cases in Burkina Faso were collected. The study was carried out using retrospective (from January 2002 to June 2010) surveys conducted among farmers and healthcare centers. One hundred and fifty-three (153) pest control products were recorded during the survey and 56 active ingredients were identified. Out of the 153 pest control products, 49 (i.e. 32%) were authorized for sale in Burkina Faso. The main risk factors are socio-demographic characteristics of farmers, their low education level, and some attitudes and practices on using agricultural pesticides. Pesticide poisonings are relatively frequent and their management was not always efficacious. Actions are needed to reduce pesticide poisoning as a global public health problem and to improve management of pesticide poisoning. To this purpose, advanced investigations should be carried out over a longer period of time to complement the present pilot study. PMID:24678256

  11. Physiologic Pressure and Flow Changes During Parabolic Flight (Pilot Study)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pantalos, George; Sharp, M. Keith; Mathias, John R.; Hargens, Alan R.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Buckey, Jay C.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain measurement of cutaneous tissue perfusion central and peripheral venous pressure, and esophageal and abdominal pressure in human test subjects during parabolic flight. Hemodynamic data recorded during SLS-I and SLS-2 missions have resulted in the paradoxical finding of increased cardiac stroke volume in the presence of a decreased central venous pressure (CVP) following entry in weightlessness. The investigators have proposed that in the absence of gravity, acceleration-induced peripheral vascular compression is relieved, increasing peripheral vascular capacity and flow while reducing central and peripheral venous pressure, This pilot study seeks to measure blood pressure and flow in human test subjects during parabolic flight for different postures.

  12. Frequency of Mia antigen: A pilot study among blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Makroo, Raj Nath; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Chowdhry, Mohit; Rosamma, N.L.; Karna, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    The Miltenberger (Mi) classes represent a group of phenotypes for red cells that carry low frequency antigens associated with the MNSs blood group system. This pilot study was aimed at determining the Mia antigen positivity in the blood donor population in a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India. The study was performed between June to August 2014 on eligible blood donors willing to participate. Antigen typing was performed using monoclonal anti-Mia antiserum by tube technique. Only one of the 1000 blood donors (0.1%) tested was found to be Mia antigen positive. The Mia antigen can, therefore, be considered as being rare in the Indian blood donor population. PMID:27488007

  13. Research participation among Asian American women at risk for cervical cancer: exploratory pilot of barriers and enhancers.

    PubMed

    Giarelli, Ellen; Bruner, Deborah Watkins; Nguyen, Ethan; Basham, Sarah; Marathe, Priya; Dao, Diane; Huynh, To Nhu; Cappella, Joseph; Nguyen, Giang

    2011-12-01

    The purposes of this exploratory pilot were to describe perceived barriers to participation in cervical cancer prevention research, and identify culturally-appropriate communication strategies to recruit Asian women into cancer prevention research. This thematic analysis of transcripts, from focus groups and in-depth interviews, was conducted in English, Vietnamese, and Mandarin Chinese, at a community clinic in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Thirty participants were either Vietnamese (35%) or Chinese (65%). Mean age was 36.8 (SD 9.9 years). Reasons for non-participation were: lack of time, inconvenience, mistrust of institutions and negative experiences, lack of translated materials, feeling intimidated by English, and the lack of translation of key words or terms. Enhancers of participation were: endorsement by a spouse, monetary compensation, and a personalized approach that offers a benefit for Asian women. To increase participation, first one must remove language barriers and, preferably, use specific dialects. Second, one must specify if benefits are indirectly or directly related to the family or cultural group. Asian research participants in our study consistently expressed that a significant motivator was their desire to be of help, in some way, to a family member or to the Asian community in general.

  14. Pilot study of irreversible electroporation for intracranial surgery.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Paulo A; Rossmeisl, John H; Robertson, John; Ellis, Thomas L; Davalos, Rafael V

    2009-01-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a new minimally invasive technique to treat cancer using intense but short electric pulses. This technique is unique because of its non-thermal mechanism of tissue ablation. Furthermore it can be predicted with numerical models and can be confirmed with ultrasound and MRI. We present some preliminary results on the safety of using irreversible electroporation for canine brain surgery. We also present the electric field (460 V/cm - 560 V/cm) necessary for focal ablation of canine brain tissue and provide some guidelines for treatment planning and execution. This preliminary study is the first step towards using irreversible electroporation as a brain cancer treatment. PMID:19964170

  15. Study to determine the IFR operational profile and problems of the general aviation single pilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weislogel, G. S.

    1983-01-01

    General aviation single pilot operating under instrument flight rules (GA SPIFR) was studied. The objectives of the study were to (1) develop a GA SPIFR operational profile, (2) identify problems experienced by the GA SPIFR pilot, and (3) identify research tasks which have the potential for eliminating or reducing the severity of the problems. To obtain the information necessary to accomplish these objectives, a mail questionnaire survey of instrument rated pilots was conducted. The general aviation IFR single pilot operational profile and selected data analysis examples are presented.

  16. Social Media in Adolescent Health Literacy Education: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Carrie KW; Srinivasan, Divya Parthasarathy; Cheng, Brenda SS

    2015-01-01

    Background While health literacy has gained notice on a global stage, the initial focus on seeking associations with medical conditions may have overlooked its impact across generations. Adolescent health literacy, specifically in dentistry, is an underexplored area despite the significance of this formative stage on an individual’s approach to healthy lifestyles and behaviors. Objective The aim is to conduct a pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of three major social media outlets - Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube - in supporting adolescents’ oral health literacy (OHL) education. Methods A random sample of 22 adolescents (aged 14-16 years) from an English-medium international school in Hong Kong provided informed consent. Sociodemographic information, including English language background, social media usage, and dental experience were collected via a questionnaire. A pre- and post-test of OHL (REALD-30) was administered by two trained, calibrated examiners. Following pre-test, participants were randomly assigned to one of three social media outlets: Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube. Participants received alerts posted daily for 5 consecutive days requiring online accessing of modified and original OHL education materials. One-way ANOVA ( analysis of variance) was used to compare the mean difference between the pre- and the post-test results among the three social media. Results No associations were found between the social media allocated and participants’ sociodemographics, including English language background, social media usage, and dental experience. Of the three social media, significant differences in literacy assessment scores were evident for participants who received oral health education messages via Facebook (P=.02) and YouTube (P=.005). Conclusions Based on the results of the pilot study, Facebook and YouTube may be more efficient media outlets for OHL promotion and education among adolescent school children when compared to Twitter. Further

  17. Pilot study of a submerged membrane bioreactor for water reclamation.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jian-Jun; Oo, Maung Htun; Tao, Guihe; Kekre, Kiran A; Hashimoto, Tomotaka

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the operational conditions of newly developed MBR modules for water reclamation under tropical conditions. MUDC-620A MBR modules with hollow fibre PVDF membranes from Asahi-Kasei Chemicals were used in the study. The pilot plant with capacity of 50 m(3)/d was operated continuously (24-hour) over four months on site of Ulu Pandan Water Reclamation Plant (UPWRP) in Singapore. During the study, the MLSS in membrane tank was in the range of 6,840 approximately 9,540 mg/L. Filtration operation mode of the membrane unit was 9 minutes on production and 1 minute backwash. The air scouring for the membranes was 0.18-0.30 Nm(3)/h per m(2) membrane area all of the time. Trials on different membrane fluxes were conducted to obtain the sustainable flux. The analytical results showed that COD, TOC, T-N and NH4-N of the treated water were <30 mg/L, 5-7 mg/L, <13 mg/L and <0.1 mg/L, respectively, which met the requirement of Industrial Water for reuse. TMP was in the range of 12-40 kPa and could be recovered after cleaning with 2,000 mg/L sodium hypochlorite solution. Sludge clogging could be a challenge for long-term operation with the current module design. It was concluded that it was feasible for MUDC-620A MBR to operate at a net flux of 25-29 LMH (or 0.6-0.7 m/d) for treating the municipal wastewater at UPWRP.

  18. Study Skills Analysis: A Pilot Study Linking a Success and Psychology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urciuoli, Jannette Alejandra; Bluestone, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    This study explored a concept that learning study skills in the context of the content area under study may transfer across courses, multiplying the benefits towards academic success. Methods that have been reported to influence academic growth at the community college level include success courses and applied study skills. In this pilot project…

  19. Fighter Pilot Ejection Study as an Educational Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Garry; Jovanoski, Zlatko

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we apply the well-known equations of projectile motion to the case of a fighter pilot ejecting from an aircraft, the aim being to establish under what conditions there is danger of impact with the rear vertical stabilizer. The drag force on the pilot after ejection is assumed to vary as the velocity squared and the aircraft motion…

  20. Shared Decision Making for Routine Infant Circumcision: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Teri M.; Beal, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT It is important that expectant parents receive accurate information about the benefits and risks of circumcision as well as the benefits and risks of having an intact foreskin when making a decision about routine infant circumcision (RIC). A pilot study was conducted using the shared decision making (SDM) conceptual model to guide expectant parents through a 3-phase decision-making program about RIC as part of their childbirth education class. The participants showed a high level of preparedness following each of the 3 phases. Preparedness score were highest for those who decided to keep their expected sons’ penises natural. This SDM program was an effective way of guiding expectant parents through the decision-making process for RIC. PMID:26834440

  1. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in anorexia nervosa: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Van den Eynde, F; Guillaume, S; Broadbent, H; Campbell, I C; Schmidt, U

    2013-02-01

    The search for new treatments to improve outcome in people with anorexia nervosa continues. This pilot study investigated whether one session of high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) delivered to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex reduces eating disorder related symptoms following exposure to visual and real food stimuli. Safety and tolerability were also assessed. Ten right-handed people with anorexia nervosa underwent one session of rTMS. Subjective experiences related to the eating disorder (e.g. urge to restrict, feeling full etc.) were assessed before and after rTMS. Non-parametric repeated measures tests were used. rTMS was safe and well-tolerated, and resulted in reduced levels of feeling full, feeling fat and feeling anxious. Thus, rTMS may reduce core symptoms of anorexia nervosa. Future research should establish the therapeutic potential of rTMS in anorexia nervosa. PMID:21880470

  2. Familial Paraphilia: A Pilot Study with the Construction of Genograms

    PubMed Central

    Labelle, Alain; Bourget, Dominique; Bradford, John M. W.; Alda, Martin; Tessier, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Biological factors are likely predisposing and modulating elements in sexually deviant behavior. The observation that paraphilic behavior tends to cluster in some families is intriguing and potentially raises questions as to whether shared genetic factors may play a role in the transmission of paraphilia. This pilot study introduces five families in which we found presence of paraphilia over generations. We constructed genograms on the basis of a standardized family history. Results document the aggregation of sexual deviations within the sample of families and support a clinical/phenomenological heterogeneity of sexual deviation. The concept of paraphilia in relation to phenotypic expressions and the likelihood of a spectrum of related disorders must be clarified before conclusions can be reached as to family aggregation of paraphilia based on biological factors. PMID:23738209

  3. A pilot binational study of health behaviors and immigration.

    PubMed

    Hennessy-Burt, Tamara E; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T; Meneses-González, Fernando; Schenker, Marc B

    2011-12-01

    In the US, Mexican immigrant women often have better health outcomes than non-Hispanic white women despite a greater health risk profile. This cross-sectional pilot study compared women living in Chavinda, Michoacán (n = 102) to women who had migrated from Mexico to Madera, California (n = 93). The interview gathered information on acculturation and risk behaviors including smoking, alcohol use and number of sexual partners. The results suggest that more acculturated women living in the US are more likely to consume alcohol. US residence and higher acculturation level was marginally associated with having more than one sexual partner. There were no differences between odds of smoking among Chavinda and Madera women. While results with acculturation are not consistently significant due to small sample sizes, the results are suggestive that acculturation among immigrant Hispanic women in the US may be associated with adverse health behaviors, and selective migration seems less likely to account for these differences.

  4. Impact of nutrition messages on children's food choice: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bannon, Katie; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2006-03-01

    This pilot study tested the influence of nutrition message framing on snack choice among kindergarteners. Three classrooms were randomly assigned to watch one of the following 60s videos: (a) a gain-framed nutrition message (i.e. the positive benefits of eating apples) (n=14); (b) a loss-framed message (i.e. the negative consequences of not eating apples) (n=18); or (c) a control scene (children playing a game) (n=18). Following this, the children were offered a choice between animal crackers and an apple for their snack. Among the children who saw one of the nutrition message videos, 56% chose apples rather than animal crackers; in the control condition only 33% chose apples. This difference was statistically significant (chi2=7.56, p<0.01). These results suggest that videos containing nutritional messages may have a positive influence on children's short-term food choices.

  5. Land use mapping in Erie County, Pennsylvania: A pilot study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator); May, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A pilot study was conducted to determine the feasibility of mapping land use in the Great Lakes Basin area utilizing ERTS-1 data. Small streams were clearly defined by the presence of trees along their length in predominantly agricultural country. Field patterns were easily differentiated from forested areas; dairy and beef farms were differentiated from other farmlands, but no attempt was made to identify crops. Large railroad lines and major highway systems were identified. The city of Erie and several smaller towns were identified, as well as residential areas between these towns, and docks along the shoreline in Erie. Marshes, forests, and beaches within Presque Isle State Park were correctly identified, using the DCLUS program. Bay water was differentiated from lake water, with a small amount of misclassification.

  6. Effects of aquajogging in obese adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Eveline J M; Van Nunen, Annemieke M A; Geenen, Rinie; Kolotkin, Ronette L; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2010-01-01

    Aim and Method. To examine in obese people the potential effectiveness of a six-week, two times weekly aquajogging program on body composition, fitness, health-related quality of life, and exercise beliefs. Fifteen otherwise healthy obese persons participated in a pilot study. Results. Total fat mass and waist circumference decreased 1.4 kg (P = .03) and 3.1 cm (P = .005), respectively. The distance in the Six-Minute Walk Test increased 41 meters (P = .001). Three scales of the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite questionnaire improved: physical function (P = .008), self-esteem (P = .004), and public distress (P = .04). Increased perceived exercise benefits (P = .02) and decreased embarrassment (P = .03) were observed. Conclusions. Aquajogging was associated with reduced body fat and waist circumference and improved aerobic fitness and quality of life. These findings suggest the usefulness of conducting a randomized controlled trial with long-term outcome assessments.

  7. Pilot study of a compassion meditation intervention in chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Chapin, Heather L; Darnall, Beth D; Seppala, Emma M; Doty, James R; Hah, Jennifer M; Mackey, Sean C

    2016-01-01

    Background The emergence of anger as an important predictor of chronic pain outcomes suggests that treatments that target anger may be particularly useful within the context of chronic pain. Eastern traditions prescribe compassion cultivation to treat persistent anger. Compassion cultivation has been shown to influence emotional processing and reduce negativity bias in the contexts of emotional and physical discomfort, thus suggesting it may be beneficial as a dual treatment for pain and anger. Our objective was to conduct a pilot study of a 9-week group compassion cultivation intervention in chronic pain to examine its effect on pain severity, anger, pain acceptance and pain-related interference. We also aimed to describe observer ratings provided by patients’ significant others and secondary effects of the intervention. Methods Pilot clinical trial with repeated measures design that included a within-subjects wait-list control period. Twelve chronic pain patients completed the intervention (F= 10). Data were collected from patients at enrollment, treatment baseline and post-treatment; participant significant others contributed data at the enrollment and post-treatment time points. Results In this predominantly female sample, patients had significantly reduced pain severity and anger and increased pain acceptance at post-treatment compared to treatment baseline. Significant other qualitative data corroborated patient reports for reductions in pain severity and anger. Conclusions Compassion meditation may be a useful adjunctive treatment for reducing pain severity and anger, and for increasing chronic pain acceptance. Patient reported reductions in anger were corroborated by their significant others. The significant other corroborations offer a novel contribution to the literature and highlight the observable emotional and behavioral changes in the patient participants that occurred following the compassion intervention. Future studies may further examine how

  8. Systematic Endobronchial Ultrasound-guided Mediastinal Staging Versus Positron Emission Tomography for Comprehensive Mediastinal Staging in NSCLC Before Radical Radiotherapy of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Steinfort, Daniel P; Siva, Shankar; Leong, Tracy L; Rose, Morgan; Herath, Dishan; Antippa, Phillip; Ball, David L; Irving, Louis B

    2016-02-01

    Despite known limitations of positron emission tomography (PET) for mediastinal staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), radiation treatment fields are generally based on PET-identified disease extent. However, no studies have examined the accuracy of FDG-PET/CT on a per-node basis in patients being considered for curative-intent radiotherapy in NSCLC.In a prospective trial, patients with NSCLC being considered for definitive thoracic radiotherapy (± systemic chemotherapy) underwent minimally invasive systematic mediastinal evaluation with endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) following noninvasive staging with integrated PET-CT.Thirty patients underwent EBUS-TBNA, with TBNA performed from a mean 2.5 lymph node (LN) stations per patient (median 3, range 1-5). Discordant findings between PET-CT and EBUS-TBNA were observed in 10 patients (33%, 95% CI 19%-51%). PET-occult LN metastases were demonstrated by EBUS in 4 patients, whereas a lesser extent of mediastinal involvement, compared with FDG-PET, was demonstrated by EBUS in 6 patients, including 2 patients downstaged from cN3 to pN2. LNs upstaged by EBUS were significantly smaller than nodes downstaged by EBUS, 7.5 mm (range 7-9) versus 12 mm (range 6-21), P = 0.005.A significant proportion of patients considered for definitive radiotherapy (+/-chemotherapy) undergoing systematic mediastinal evaluation with EBUS-TBNA in this study have an extent of mediastinal NSCLC involvement discordant with that indicated by PET-CT. Systematic EBUS-TBNA may aid in defining the extent of mediastinal involvement in NSCLC patients undergoing radiotherapy. Systematic EBUS-TBNA has the potential to contribute significantly to radiotherapy planning and delivery, by either identifying occult nodal metastases, or demonstrating FDG-avid LNs to be disease-free. PMID:26937894

  9. The Internet and Some International Regulatory Issues Relating to Content: A Pilot Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Broadcasting Authority.

    In December 1996 UNESCO commissioned the Australian Broadcasting Authority to conduct a pilot study which considered a range of online issues; this report outlines the findings of the pilot study, based on data collected between February and May 1997 and updated in July 1997. The objective is to identify the main types of Internet content which…

  10. Cancer genetics in rural primary care: a pilot nurse-led service using a new mobile IT system.

    PubMed

    Tozer, Debbie; Lugton, Cameron

    2007-01-01

    Somerset has a relatively high incidence of cancer. The county is very rural with pockets of deprivation and sizeable areas of poor access to services. The Cancer Plan advocates early identification of cancer and identified the genetic revolution as having the potential to predict risk, and detect and diagnose cancer early. This innovative Public Health led pilot takes specialist cancer genetics services into primary care. It explores a new service model that is patient focused, provides services close to home and reduces hospital visits and pressure on genetics departments. People who believe they are at increased risk of developing cancer, due to family history, are assessed by nurse specialists at their local surgery and triaged into population, medium and high risk groups. Patient pathways have been streamlined for breast, ovarian and colorectal cancers, which are known to have a genetic link and there may be advantage in increased surveillance and/or genetic testing. People are given the opportunity to understand their personal level of risk and make choices about lifestyles and interventions. To support the delivery of cancer genetics services in primary care a bespoke software package has been developed building on a commercial programme already established in many genetics departments. Electronic transmission of pedigrees from primary to tertiary care assists the lean pathways and the incorporation of a new risk calculator based on NICE guidelines for familial breast cancer is being assessed.

  11. UK Lung Cancer RCT Pilot Screening Trial: baseline findings from the screening arm provide evidence for the potential implementation of lung cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Field, J K; Duffy, S W; Baldwin, D R; Whynes, D K; Devaraj, A; Brain, K E; Eisen, T; Gosney, J; Green, B A; Holemans, J A; Kavanagh, T; Kerr, K M; Ledson, M; Lifford, K J; McRonald, F E; Nair, A; Page, R D; Parmar, M K B; Rassl, D M; Rintoul, R C; Screaton, N J; Wald, N J; Weller, D; Williamson, P R; Yadegarfar, G; Hansell, D M

    2016-01-01

    Background Lung cancer screening using low-dose CT (LDCT) was shown to reduce lung cancer mortality by 20% in the National Lung Screening Trial. Methods The pilot UK Lung Cancer Screening (UKLS) is a randomised controlled trial of LDCT screening for lung cancer versus usual care. A population-based questionnaire was used to identify high-risk individuals. CT screen-detected nodules were managed by a pre-specified protocol. Cost effectiveness was modelled with reference to the National Lung Cancer Screening Trial mortality reduction. Results 247 354 individuals aged 50–75 years were approached; 30.7% expressed an interest, 8729 (11.5%) were eligible and 4055 were randomised, 2028 into the CT arm (1994 underwent a CT). Forty-two participants (2.1%) had confirmed lung cancer, 34 (1.7%) at baseline and 8 (0.4%) at the 12-month scan. 28/42 (66.7%) had stage I disease, 36/42 (85.7%) had stage I or II disease. 35/42 (83.3%) had surgical resection. 536 subjects had nodules greater than 50 mm3 or 5 mm diameter and 41/536 were found to have lung cancer. One further cancer was detected by follow-up of nodules between 15 and 50 mm3 at 12 months. The baseline estimate for the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of once-only CT screening, under the UKLS protocol, was £8466 per quality adjusted life year gained (CI £5542 to £12 569). Conclusions The UKLS pilot trial demonstrated that it is possible to detect lung cancer at an early stage and deliver potentially curative treatment in over 80% of cases. Health economic analysis suggests that the intervention would be cost effective—this needs to be confirmed using data on observed lung cancer mortality reduction. Trial registration ISRCTN 78513845. PMID:26645413

  12. What to Consider Before Beginning Graduate Education: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Imus, F Scott; Burns, Shari

    2015-10-01

    The literature supports a general theme that college students lack metacognitive awareness about learning, which leads to poor examination performance and ultimately high attrition rates. However, the literature emphasizes that when college students receive instruction about learning, examination performance goes up and attrition goes down. This pilot study focused on a specific subset of learners: graduate students in a nurse anesthesia program. Given new evidence-based wellness approaches to learning, the nurse anesthesia program conducted a descriptive study aimed at exploring student perceptions. The study goals were to provide students with evidence-based information about wellness factors that influence learning. The book The New Science of Learning by Doyle and Zakrajsek (Stylus Publishing, 2013) was used to provide students with neuroscience evidence about learning that might assist their transition to graduate school. The book was mailed to 34 student registered nurse anesthetists before matriculation. An 8-item Likert-style online survey evaluated the students' perceptions of the book along with identifying any changes the students made in anticipation of starting the rigorous nurse anesthesia program. The study demonstrated that student registered nurse anesthetists could benefit from instruction about wellness approaches that enhance learning before matriculation. Additionally, the study provided the framework for future research. PMID:26638456

  13. Cancer cervix -- a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Kamaluddin, M

    1999-06-01

    This retrospective study determined the proportion of cervical cancer among female cancer patients attending the radiotherapy department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH), Bangladesh, and explored some of the predisposing factors relating to a high proportion of this disease. The study was conducted among 242 patients suffering from cervical cancer drawn from the 964 female patients managed at MMCH. The proportion of cervical cancer was quite high, mostly among women of low socioeconomic status. The majority of the patients was aged 15-44 years; 64% were married before 20 years of age, experiencing sexual activity and becoming pregnant earlier. About 58% of respondents had more than 4 pregnancies and 57% were of low socioeconomic class. About 65% of the cases presented with an advanced stage of cervical cancer and were managed palliatively, while 35% of the cases were at an early stage and treatment was intended to cure. The proportion of cervical cancer was higher in Hindu women than in Muslim women. In summary, factors such as early sexual activity, having the first child at a young age, multiple pregnancies, multiple sex partners, and poor genital hygiene were commonly the predisposing factors for cervical cancer. Recommended interventions are aimed at addressing these predisposing factors.

  14. Mental Health Services in Pilot Study Areas: Report on a European Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    The World Health Organization (WHO) conducted a study to collect data on mental health resources of pilot areas within several European countries. This report presents data from the study and provides a detailed and reliable description of the development of mental health services within the WHO European Region. Part I of the report describes the…

  15. 77 FR 13343 - Pilot Program for Early Feasibility Study Investigational Device Exemption Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... November 10, 2011 (76 FR 70150), FDA announced the availability of a draft guidance entitled... Pilot Program (76 FR 70152, November 10, 2011) intended to collect ] information and experience on the... Study Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) Applications pilot program. This program allowed...

  16. Evaluation of the pseudo pilot effect on baseline controller study data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomb, Linda C.

    1988-01-01

    The Baseline Controller Study requires the support of pseudo pilots who input computer commands in response to air data in a simulated environment. Errors committed either by pseudo pilots, or by the computer's failure to accept commands, can result in data that is not representative of controller capabilities. Therefore, it became necessary to evaluate the actions of the pseudo pilots and determine what effect, if any, those actions had upon a given set of baseline data. The Pseudo Pilot Stations (PPS) associated with the Baseline Controller Study are user unfriendly. This fact, coupled with the human factor of the pilots themselves, required exploration of the degree the pseudo pilot's actions affected the subject air traffic controller actions during the collection of baseline data. Examination of the preliminary data collected by the Basline Controller Study subjectively determined that pseudo pilot actions do, indeed, affect the the research data. Further study is needed to quantify that affect and, perhaps, assign a value to the pseudo pilot factor rather than merely decide which simulations are valid and which are not.

  17. Ancillary Pilot Study for the Educational Policy Research Center Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson Inst., Croton-on-Hudson, NY.

    The role of the Hudson Institute in the policy research center program was to build on and adapt current studies of the future for the purpose of assisting the Office of Education and its five pilot centers. Part 1 of this report comments briefly on some methodological and substantive issues that arose during the pilot phase and suggests how…

  18. Development and pilot evaluation of a cancer-focused summer research education program for [corrected] Navajo undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Garrison, Edward R; Bauer, Mark C; Hosley, Brenda L; Patten, Christi A; Hughes, Christine A; Trapp, Mary A; Petersen, Wesley O; Austin-Garrison, Martha A; Bowman, Clarissa N; Vierkant, Robert A

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes the development and pilot testing of a 10-week cancer research education program for Navajo undergraduate students. The program was piloted at Diné College with 22 undergraduates (7 men, 15 women) in 2007 and 2008. Students completed a pre-post program survey assessing attitudes, opinions, and knowledge about research and about cancer. The program was found to be culturally acceptable and resulted in statistically significant changes in some of the attitudes and opinions about research and cancer. Combining all 13 knowledge items, there was a significant (p = 0.002) change in the mean total correct percent from baseline [70.3 (SD = 15.9)] to post-program [82.1 (SD = 13.1)]. The curriculum was adapted for a new cancer prevention and control course now offered at Diné College, enhancing sustainability. Ultimately, these efforts may serve to build capacity in communities by developing a cadre of future Native American scientists to develop and implement cancer research. PMID:20411446

  19. Effects of a ketogenic diet on the quality of life in 16 patients with advanced cancer: A pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tumor patients exhibit an increased peripheral demand of fatty acids and protein. Contrarily, tumors utilize glucose as their main source of energy supply. Thus, a diet supplying the cancer patient with sufficient fat and protein for his demands while restricting the carbohydrates (CHO) tumors thrive on, could be a helpful strategy in improving the patients' situation. A ketogenic diet (KD) fulfills these requirements. Therefore, we performed a pilot study to investigate the feasibility of a KD and its influence on the quality of life of patients with advanced metastatic tumors. Methods Sixteen patients with advanced metastatic tumors and no conventional therapeutic options participated in the study. The patients were instructed to follow a KD (less than 70 g CHO per day) with normal groceries and were provided with a supply of food additives to mix a protein/fat shake to simplify the 3-month intervention period. Quality of life [assessed by EORTC QLQ-C30 (version 2)], serum and general health parameters were determined at baseline, after every two weeks of follow-up, or after drop out. The effect of dietary change on metabolism was monitored daily by measuring urinary ketone bodies. Results One patient did not tolerate the diet and dropped out within 3 days. Among those who tolerated the diet, two patients died early, one stopped after 2 weeks due to personal reasons, one felt unable to stick to the diet after 4 weeks, one stopped after 6 and two stopped after 7 and 8 weeks due to progress of the disease, one had to discontinue after 6 weeks to resume chemotherapy and five completed the 3 month intervention period. These five and the one who resumed chemotherapy after 6 weeks report an improved emotional functioning and less insomnia, while several other parameters of quality of life remained stable or worsened, reflecting their very advanced disease. Except for temporary constipation and fatigue, we found no severe adverse side effects, especially no

  20. Corrosion coupon studies at coal liquefaction pilot plants

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, J.R.; Baylor, V.B.; Howell, M.; Newsome, J.F.

    1983-09-01

    As part of the Fossil Energy Materials Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, we have supplied corrosion coupons to coal-liquefaction pilot plants for exposure in selected vessels. These vessels were chosen on the basis of previous corrosion experience, anticipated corrosion behavior (especially important when operating conditions were changed), accessibility, and availability. Alloys exposed were selected to give a series with a corrosion resistance ranging from less than to greater than that thought to be needed for each application. Corrosion rates calculated from weight changes of the exposed coupons provide information useful in selecting materials for coal-liquefaction plants. The results presented are from coupons exposed in the Wilsonville, Alabama, and Fort Lewis, Washington, Solvent Refined Coal pilot plants; the Catlettsburg, Kentucky, H-Coal Pilot Plant; and the Baytown, Texas, Exxon Coal Liquefaction Pilot Plant.

  1. Study of the use of a nonlinear, rate limited, filter on pilot control signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    The use of a filter on the pilot's control output could improve the performance of the pilot-aircraft system. What is needed is a filter with a sharp high frequency cut-off, no resonance peak, and a minimum of lag at low frequencies. The present investigation studies the usefulness of a nonlinear, rate limited, filter in performing the needed function. The nonlinear filter is compared with a linear, first order filter, and no filter. An analytical study using pilot models and a simulation study using experienced test pilots was performed. The results showed that the nonlinear filter does promote quick, steady maneuvering. It is shown that the nonlinear filter attenuates the high frequency remnant and adds less phase lag to the low frequency signal than does the linear filter. It is also shown that the rate limit in the nonlinear filter can be set to be too restrictive, causing an unstable pilot-aircraft system response.

  2. A randomized pilot trial of a telephone-based couples intervention for physical intimacy and sexual concerns in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Jennifer Barsky; Porter, Laura S.; Regan, Katelyn R.; Keefe, Francis J.; Azad, Nilofer S.; Diaz, Luis A.; Herman, Joseph M.; Haythomthwaite, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Background We previously developed and piloted a telephone-based intimacy enhancement (IE) intervention addressing sexual concerns of colorectal cancer patients and their partners in an uncontrolled study. The current study tested the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of the IE intervention in a randomized, controlled trial. Methods Twenty-three couples were randomized to either the four-session IE condition or to a wait list control condition and completed sexual and relationship outcomes measures. The IE intervention teaches skills for coping with sexual concerns and improving intimacy. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed through enrollment and post-treatment program evaluations, respectively. Effect sizes were calculated by comparing differences in average pre/post change scores across completers in the two groups (n = 18 couples). Results Recruitment and attrition data supported feasibility. Program evaluations for process (e.g., ease of participation) and content (e.g., relevance) demonstrated acceptability. Engaging in intimacy-building activities and communication were the skills rated as most commonly practiced and most helpful. For patients, positive effects of the IE intervention were found for female and male sexual function, medical impact on sexual function, and self-efficacy for enjoying intimacy (≥.58); no effects were found on sexual distress or intimacy and small negative effects for sexual communication, and two self-efficacy items. For partners, positive IE effects were found for all outcomes; the largest were for sexual distress (.69), male sexual function (1.76), communication (.97), and two self-efficacy items (≥.87). Conclusions The telephone-based IE intervention shows promise for couples facing colorectal cancer. Larger multi-site intervention studies are necessary to replicate findings. PMID:24615831

  3. A pilot study on mindfulness based stress reduction for smokers

    PubMed Central

    Davis, James M; Fleming, Michael F; Bonus, Katherine A; Baker, Timothy B

    2007-01-01

    Background Mindfulness means paying attention in the present moment, non-judgmentally, without commentary or decision-making. We report results of a pilot study designed to test the feasibility of using Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) (with minor modifications) as a smoking intervention. Methods MBSR instructors provided instructions in mindfulness in eight weekly group sessions. Subjects attempted smoking cessation during week seven without pharmacotherapy. Smoking abstinence was tested six weeks after the smoking quit day with carbon monoxide breath test and 7-day smoking calendars. Questionnaires were administered to evaluate changes in stress and affective distress. Results 18 subjects enrolled in the intervention with an average smoking history of 19.9 cigarettes per day for 26.4 years. At the 6-week post-quit visit, 10 of 18 subjects (56%) achieved biologically confirmed 7-day point-prevalent smoking abstinence. Compliance with meditation was positively associated with smoking abstinence and decreases in stress and affective distress. Discussions and conclusion The results of this study suggest that mindfulness training may show promise for smoking cessation and warrants additional study in a larger comparative trial. PMID:17254362

  4. Microcirculation and atherothrombotic parameters in prolactinoma patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Reuwer, Anne Q; Sondermeijer, Brigitte M; Battjes, Suzanne; van Zijderveld, Rogier; Stuijver, Danka J F; Bisschop, Peter H; Twickler, Marcel Th B; Meijers, Joost C M; Schlingemann, Reinier O; Stroes, Erik S

    2012-12-01

    Atherothrombosis is a multifactorial process, governed by an interaction between the vessel wall, hemodynamic factors and systemic atherothrombotic risk factors. Recent in vitro, human ex vivo and animal studies have implicated the hormone prolactin as an atherothrombotic mediator. To address this issue, we evaluated the anatomy and function of various microvascular beds as well as plasma atherothrombosis markers in patients with elevated prolactin levels. In this pilot study, involving 10 prolactinoma patients and 10 control subjects, sidestream dark field (SDF) imaging revealed a marked perturbation of the sublingual microcirculation in prolactinoma patients compared to control subjects, as attested to by significant changes in microvascular flow index (2.74 ± 0.12 vs. 2.91 ± 0.05, respectively; P = 0.0006), in heterogeneity index (0.28 [IQR 0.18-0.31] vs. 0.09 [IQR 0.08-0.17], respectively; P = 0.002) and lower proportion of perfused vessels (90 ± 4.0% vs. 95 ± 3.0%, respectively; P = 0.016). In the retina, fluorescein angiography (FAG) confirmed these data, since prolactinoma patients more often have dilatated perifoveal capillaries. In plasma, prolactinoma patients displayed several pro-atherogenic disturbances, including a higher endogenous thrombin potential and prothrombin levels as well as decreased HDL-cholesterol levels. Prolactinoma patients are characterized by microvascular dysfunction as well as plasma markers indicating a pro-atherothrombotic state. Further studies are required to assess if prolactin is causally involved in atherothrombotic disease.

  5. Endothelin-1 Levels in Scleroderma Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Cozzani, Emanuele; Javor, Sanja; Drosera, Massimo; Parodi, Aurora

    2013-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent endogenous vasoconstrictor, which mediates vascular wall cells proliferation, fibrosis, and inflammation through two types of ET-1 receptors (ET-A and ET-B). In our retrospective study the serum levels of ET-1 in 18 systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients with and without digital ulcers (DUs) were assessed to observe possible correlation between the levels of ET-1, the evolution of SSc, and the therapy with an ET-1 antagonist (bosentan). In all our patients, the levels of ET-1 were found higher than normal range and correlate with the severity of the disease. Furthermore we also observed that in patients without DUs the levels of ET-1 were higher and did not correlate with new DUs development. In conclusion, the levels of ET-1 in our studied patients do not correlate with the possible development of DUs. The reduction of ET-1 levels in DUs patients in therapy with bosentan confirms the efficacy of this molecule both for treatment and prevention of digital ulcers. The inhibition of ET-A receptor by its antagonist may activate the opposite ET-B receptors, with well-known function ET-1 degradation and reducing of ET-1 serum level as confirmed in our pilot study. PMID:23984086

  6. Prevention of Pleural Adhesions by Bioactive Polypeptides - A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Åkerberg, D.; Posaric-Bauden, M.; Isaksson, K.; Andersson, R.; Tingstedt, B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Postoperative pleural adhesions lead to major problems in repeated thoracic surgery. To date, no antiadhesive product has been proven clinically effective. Previous studies of differently charged polypeptides, poly-L-lysine (PL) and poly-L-glutamate (PG) have shown promising results reducing postoperative abdominal adhesions in experimental settings. This pilot study examined the possible pleural adhesion prevention by using the PL+PG concept after pleural surgery and its possible effect on key parameters; plasmin activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and tissue growth factor beta 1 (TGFb) in the fibrinolytic process. Methods: A total of 22 male rats were used in the study, one control group (n=10) and one experimental group (n=12). All animals underwent primary pleural surgery, the controls receiving saline in the pleural cavity and the experimental group the PL+PG solution administered by spray. The animals were evaluated on day 7. Macroscopic appearance of adhesions was evaluated by a scoring system. Histology slides of the adhesions and pleural biopsies for evaluation of PAI-1 and TGFb1 were taken on day 7. Results: A significant reduction of adhesions in the PL+PG group (p<0.05) was noted at day 7 both regarding the length and severity of adhesions. There were no significant differences in the concentration of PAI-1 and TGFb1 when comparing the two groups. Conclusions: PL+PG may be used to prevent pleural adhesions. The process of fibrinolysis, and fibrosis was though not affected after PLPG administration. PMID:24151443

  7. Diesel exposure and mortality among railway workers: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Schenker, M B; Smith, T; Muñoz, A; Woskie, S; Speizer, F E

    1984-01-01

    A pilot study of the mortality of railway workers was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of studying the association of exposure to diesel exhaust and cause specific mortality. The cohort consisted of 2519 white male subjects aged 45-64 with at least 10 years of railway service by 1967. Subjects were selected on the basis of job classification, and cause specific mortality was ascertained for subjects who died (n = 501) up to 1979. The total follow up period was 28.4 (X 1000) person-years. The standardised mortality ratio (SMR) for the cohort, based on United States national rates, was 87 (95% confidence limits 80, 95), and there were no significant differences from expected number of deaths for any specific neoplasm. The directly standardised rate ratio for respiratory cancer among diesel exposed subjects relative to unexposed subjects was 1.42 +/- 0.50 (means +/- SE). A proportional hazards model was consistent with the findings of the standardised rate ratio, but in neither analysis was the increased risk of respiratory cancer in diesel exposed subjects statistically significant. PMID:6743578

  8. Patterns of federal Internet offenders: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ann W; Carretta, Carrie M; Burgess, Allen G

    2012-09-01

    Internet-facilitated sexual offending is receiving increased forensic and clinical attention. Two issues confront this field. First, studies are equivocal as to whether (or not) the possession of Internet pornography can escalate to contact sexual offenses against a child, and second, federal judges have been questioning the length of sentences for users only of child pornography. The findings of this pilot study of 101 federal Internet offenders revealed over half of the men at the time of arrest were employed, educated, were in (or had been in) a relationship, had children, and did not have a prior criminal offense, suggesting a changing profile of a convicted sex offender. Forensic and psychiatric nurses who evaluate users of child pornography contraband need to be knowledgeable of Internet file transfer technology and the various types of contraband viewed specifically for the age of the preferred child, extreme acts to the child (e.g., bondage, S&M), and whether the user prefers images of adults with children or images of children only. PMID:22925126

  9. Cognitive behavior therapy for night eating syndrome: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Allison, Kelly C; Lundgren, Jennifer D; Moore, Reneé H; O'Reardon, John P; Stunkard, Albert J

    2010-01-01

    Because no studies of psychotherapy treatments for night eating syndrome (NES) have been published, we conducted a pilot study of a 10-session cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for NES. Twenty-five patients (19 female, 6 male) were screened and comprehensively assessed before being enrolled. At each visit, patients completed the Night Eating Symptom Scale (NESS), were weighed, and number of awakenings and the number of nocturnal ingestions and daily caloric intake were calculated from weekly food and sleep records. Mixed model regression analyses [of the data] showed significant decreases in caloric intake after dinner (35.0% to 24.9%); number of nocturnal ingestions (8.7 to 2.6 per week); weight (82.5 to 79.4 kg); and NESS score (28.7 to 16.3; all p values <0.0001). Number of awakenings per week, depressed mood, and quality of life also improved significantly (p values <.02). This first clinical trial of CBT for NES shows significant improvements in the core aspects of NES and weight reduction, suggesting the need for a controlled treatment trial.

  10. Patterns of Sweet Taste Liking: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Asao, Keiko; Miller, Jason; Arcori, Leann; Lumeng, Julie C; Han-Markey, Theresa; Herman, William H

    2015-08-31

    Two distinct patterns of sweet taste liking have been described: one showing a peak liking response in the mid-range of sucrose concentrations and the other showing a monotonic liking response at progressively higher sucrose concentrations. Classification of these patterns has been somewhat arbitrary. In this report, we analyzed patterns of sweet taste liking in a pilot study with 26 adults including 14 women and 12 men, 32.6 ± 14.5 years of age with body mass index 26.4 ± 5.1 kg/m² (mean ± SD). Sweet taste liking was measured for 10 levels of sucrose solutions (0.035 M to 1.346 M). Participants rated their liking of each solution using a visual analog scale with 0 indicating strongly disliking and 100 strongly liking. The cluster analysis demonstrated two distinct groups: 13 liked relatively low sucrose concentrations and liked high sucrose concentrations less, and 13 liked high sucrose concentrations greatly. If we use the 0.598 M sucrose solution alone and a cutoff liking score of 50, we can distinguish the two clusters with high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%). If validated in additional studies, this simple tool may help us to better understand eating behaviors and the impact of sweet taste liking on nutrition-related disorders.

  11. Cognitive behavior therapy for night eating syndrome: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Allison, Kelly C; Lundgren, Jennifer D; Moore, Reneé H; O'Reardon, John P; Stunkard, Albert J

    2010-01-01

    Because no studies of psychotherapy treatments for night eating syndrome (NES) have been published, we conducted a pilot study of a 10-session cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for NES. Twenty-five patients (19 female, 6 male) were screened and comprehensively assessed before being enrolled. At each visit, patients completed the Night Eating Symptom Scale (NESS), were weighed, and number of awakenings and the number of nocturnal ingestions and daily caloric intake were calculated from weekly food and sleep records. Mixed model regression analyses [of the data] showed significant decreases in caloric intake after dinner (35.0% to 24.9%); number of nocturnal ingestions (8.7 to 2.6 per week); weight (82.5 to 79.4 kg); and NESS score (28.7 to 16.3; all p values <0.0001). Number of awakenings per week, depressed mood, and quality of life also improved significantly (p values <.02). This first clinical trial of CBT for NES shows significant improvements in the core aspects of NES and weight reduction, suggesting the need for a controlled treatment trial. PMID:20405767

  12. Acupuncture and burning mouth syndrome: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sardella, Andrea; Lodi, Giovanni; Tarozzi, Marco; Varoni, Elena; Franchini, Roberto; Carrassi, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic condition most common in middle-aged and elderly women, with prevalence rates in the general population ranging from 0.5% to 5%. Defined by the International Headache Society as "an intraoral burning sensation for which no medical or dental cause can be found," BMS is considered a form of neuropathic pain. The management of BMS remains unsatisfactory. In this pilot study, we investigated the use of acupuncture in a small group of BMS patients. The study group, after 4 refusals, was composed of 10 BMS patients (9 females and 1 male; mean age, 65.2 years; range, from 48 to 80 years; mean duration of BMS, 2.6 years; SD ± 0.8 years). Oral pain/burning sensation (primary outcome) was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Health-related quality of life (secondary outcome) was measured using the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Acupuncture treatment lasted 8 weeks and consisted of 20 sessions. Patients reported a mean reduction in pain of 0.99 points on the VAS (max 2.1-min 0.1), which, although slight, was statistically significant (Wilcoxon test P < 0.009). No significant improvement in the overall score for quality of life was observed, although subjects receiving acupuncture treatment seemed better able cope with their oral symptoms. PMID:23336607

  13. Daily personal exposure to black carbon: A pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ryan D.; Knibbs, Luke D.

    2016-05-01

    Continuous personal monitoring is the benchmark for air pollution exposure assessment. Black carbon (BC) is a strong marker of primary combustion like vehicle and biomass emissions. There have been few studies that quantified daily personal BC exposure and the contribution that different microenvironments make to it. In this pilot study, we used a portable aethalometer to measure BC concentrations in an individual's breathing zone at 30-s intervals while he performed his usual daily activities. We used a GPS and time-activity diary to track where he spent his time. We performed twenty 24-h measurements, and observed an arithmetic mean daily exposure concentration of 603 ng/m3. We estimated that changing commute modes from bus to train reduced the 24-h mean BC exposure concentration by 29%. Switching from open windows to closed windows and recirculated air in a car led to a reduction of 32%. Living in a home without a wood-fired heater caused a reduction of 50% compared with a wood-heated home. Our preliminary findings highlight the potential utility of simple approaches to reduce a person's daily BC exposure.

  14. A Pilot Study of Neurofeedback for Chronic PTSD.

    PubMed

    Gapen, Mark; van der Kolk, Bessel A; Hamlin, Ed; Hirshberg, Laurence; Suvak, Michael; Spinazzola, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    EEG Biofeedback (also known as neurofeedback) has been in use as a clinical intervention for well over 30 years; however, it has made very little impact on clinical care. One reason for this has been the difficulty in designing research to measure clinical change in the real world. While substantial evidence exists for its efficacy in treating attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, relatively little evidence exists for its utility in other disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current study represents a "proof-of-concept" pilot for the use of neurofeedback with multiply-traumatized individuals with treatment-resistant PTSD. Participants completed 40 sessions of neurofeedback training two times per week with sensors randomly assigned (by the study coordinator, who was not blind to condition) to sensor placements of either T4-P4 or T3-T4. We found that neurofeedback significantly reduced PTSD symptoms (Davidson Trauma Scale scores averaged 69.14 at baseline to 49.26 at termination), and preceded gains in affect regulation (Inventory of Altered Self-Capacities-Affect Dysregulation scores averaged 23.63 at baseline to 17.20 at termination). We discuss a roadmap for future research. PMID:26782083

  15. TENS effects on salivary stress markers: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ortu, E; Pietropaoli, D; Mazzei, G; Cattaneo, R; Giannoni, M; Monaco, A

    2015-03-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is extensively used as pain relief through endorphins release. Moreover, recent findings showed a role in the activation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS); it was evidenced by modification in the heart rate variability and ANS-related marker. The objective of this pilot study is to evaluate salivary alpha amylase (sAA) as a marker of stress in two groups of healthy subjects, one receiving ultra-low frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (ULF-TENS) and one without stimulation. Sixty healthy people were enrolled. The test group consisted of 30 participants (15 men, 15 women). The control group consisted of 30 participants (15 men, 15 women). Statistical analysis showed that sAA levels were statistically different between men and women independently from TENS; we hypothesize that treatment could influence sAA levels because it is thought to activate μ opioid receptors. The results of this study seem to indicate that the analysis of sAA, through a non-invasive saliva sample, could be an efficient aid for understanding the functions of the autonomic nervous system. PMID:25816413

  16. Leading teams during simulated pediatric emergencies: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Coolen, Ester H; Draaisma, Jos M; den Hamer, Sabien; Loeffen, Jan L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Leadership has been identified as a key variable for the functioning of teams and as one of the main reasons for success or failure of team-based work systems. Pediatricians often function as team leaders in the resuscitation of a critically ill child. However, pediatric residents often report having little opportunity to perform in the role of team leader during residency. In order to gain more insight into leadership skills and behaviors, we classified leadership styles of pediatric residents during simulated emergencies. Methods We conducted a prospective quantitative study to investigate leadership styles used by pediatric residents during simulated emergencies with clinical deterioration of a child at a pediatric ward. Using videotaped scenarios of 48 simulated critical events among 12 residents, we were able to classify verbal and nonverbal communication into different leadership styles according to the situational leadership theory. Results The coaching style (mean 54.5%, SD 7.8) is the most frequently applied by residents, followed by the directing style (mean 35.6%, SD 4.1). This pattern conforms to the task- and role-related requirements in our scenarios and it also conforms to the concept of situational leadership. We did not find any significant differences in leadership style according to the postgraduate year or scenario content. Conclusion The model used in this pilot study helps us to gain a better understanding of the development of effective leadership behavior and supports the applicability of situational leadership theory in training leadership skills during residency. PMID:25610010

  17. Impact of healing touch on pediatric oncology outpatients: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Kathi J; Fletcher, Nancy B; Hamilton, Craig A; McLean, Thomas W

    2009-01-01

    Healing Touch (HT) is a biofield therapy used to enhance well-being. We conducted a pilot study to assess its effects in pediatric oncology patients. We enrolled patients in the continuation or consolidation phase of therapy. Patients or their parent completed simple visual analogue scales (VASs; 0-10) for relaxation, vitality, overall well-being, stress, anxiety, and depression before and after a 20-minute period of rest and a standardized HT treatment. Patients' heart rates were monitored and later analyzed for heart rate variability (HRV) characteristics. Of the nine patients, all completed VASs and six had usable HRV data. The average age was 9 years. VAS scores for stress decreased significantly more for HT treatment than for rest (HT: 4.4-1.7; rest: 2.3-2.3; p = .03). The HRV characteristic of total power was significantly lower during HT than for rest (HT 599 +/- 221; rest: 857 +/- 155; p = .048), and sympathetic activity was somewhat but not significantly lower (HT: 312 +/- 158; rest: 555 +/- 193; p = .06). HT is associated with lowered stress and changes in HRV. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms of these effects in larger samples and to explore the impact on additional clinically relevant measures.

  18. Effect of caffeine on the vocal folds: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, S; Wood, G; Rubin, J S; O'Flynn, P E; Ratcliffe, P

    1999-04-01

    Caffeine is considered to be a dehydrating agent with detrimental effects on the quality of voice of persons ingesting it. This has led medical personnel dealing with voice disorders, especially in the case of professional voice users, to give advice against the use of caffeine. Yet this is an anecdotal truth as an extensive Medline literature search did not reveal any scientific evidence of caffeine being proven to have adverse effects on the vocal folds. We, therefore, initiated this pilot study to ascertain the connection between caffeine and voice quality on a laboratory basis. Two hundred and fifty mg of caffeine were provided to eight volunteers in tablet form, and blood levels along with laryngograph readings were recorded to document the changes produced. Analysing the irregularities of frequencies in a) free speech b) a reading passage and c) singing 'Happy Birthday', substantial changes were seen to authenticate the fact that caffeine does produce alterations in voice quality but these alterations have considerable intra-subject variability. A full study with wider parameters is to be performed on this subject as we consider it to be of importance in the management of voice disorders. PMID:10474669

  19. Patterns of Sweet Taste Liking: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Asao, Keiko; Miller, Jason; Arcori, Leann; Lumeng, Julie C.; Han-Markey, Theresa; Herman, William H.

    2015-01-01

    Two distinct patterns of sweet taste liking have been described: one showing a peak liking response in the mid-range of sucrose concentrations and the other showing a monotonic liking response at progressively higher sucrose concentrations. Classification of these patterns has been somewhat arbitrary. In this report, we analyzed patterns of sweet taste liking in a pilot study with 26 adults including 14 women and 12 men, 32.6 ± 14.5 years of age with body mass index 26.4 ± 5.1 kg/m2 (mean ± SD). Sweet taste liking was measured for 10 levels of sucrose solutions (0.035 M to 1.346 M). Participants rated their liking of each solution using a visual analog scale with 0 indicating strongly disliking and 100 strongly liking. The cluster analysis demonstrated two distinct groups: 13 liked relatively low sucrose concentrations and liked high sucrose concentrations less, and 13 liked high sucrose concentrations greatly. If we use the 0.598 M sucrose solution alone and a cutoff liking score of 50, we can distinguish the two clusters with high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%). If validated in additional studies, this simple tool may help us to better understand eating behaviors and the impact of sweet taste liking on nutrition-related disorders. PMID:26404363

  20. Pre-training assessment tool (JPAT)--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chow, J; Bennett, L

    2001-01-01

    A tool for assessing the suitability of candidates for home dialysis (Jo-Pre-training Assessment Tool--JPAT) was developed. JPAT acts as a screening instrument to identify suitable candidates for the home dialysis programme, and therefore increases a patient's chance of learning to manage the programme. JPAT is in the form of an interview questionnaire consisting of 38 assessment items in six domains: physical stability, nutritional status, communication, ability to maintain self-care, psychological suitability and social support. A pilot study was conducted (n = 20, 1996-1997) using a descriptive study design, with subjects randomly selected from an existing dialysis programme. Pearson correlation and 2-tailed tests were employed to explore the relationship between the assessment outcome (i.e. the initial JPAT scores) and the follow up data (i.e. data collected within the seven days following the initial JPAT assessment). Many of the variables attained statistical significance (p < 0.05). The inter-rater reliability was calculated at an average Kappa value of 0.909. Overall, results suggest that JPAT is sufficiently reliable to be used as a tool for assessing patients who suffer from ESRD. PMID:12603073

  1. Nutrition education for postpartum women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Falciglia, Grace; Piazza, Julia; Ritcher, Erika; Reinerman, Christina; Lee, Seung Yeon

    2014-10-01

    This pilot study examined the effectiveness of a 4-month clinic-based dietary intervention emphasizing the intake of deep yellow and dark green vegetables versus usual care on improving diet quality in postpartum women. The intervention group (n = 31) received 1 face-to-face nutrition education session with a registered dietitian, 2 follow-up phone calls, and 3 pamphlets distributed by mail. The usual care group (n = 25) received handouts with guidelines on healthy eating. Dietary outcomes were assessed from 3-day food recalls and evaluated using paired and independent t tests. Intervention women exhibited a significant increase in total vegetable intake (P < .001) and in dark green and deep yellow vegetables (P < .001). In comparison, the control group increased the intake of total vegetables (P < .001), but did not increase the consumption of dark green and deep yellow vegetables. When comparing the change in intake between study groups for both types of vegetables, the difference was not significant. Furthermore, 61% of the intervention women met the goals for total vegetable intake compared with 12% for the usual care group (P < .001). The intervention group also had a greater percentage of women (25.8%) that met the goal for deep yellow and dark green vegetable intake when compared with the usual care group (8%; P < .08). These results suggest that postpartum women are receptive to nutrition education and that nutrition education can influence vegetable intake.

  2. Accessibility of outpatient healthcare providers for wheelchair users: Pilot study.

    PubMed

    Frost, Karen L; Bertocci, Gina; Stillman, Michael D; Smalley, Craig; Williams, Steve

    2015-01-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requires full and equal access to healthcare services and facilities, yet studies indicate individuals with mobility disabilities receive less than thorough care as a result of ADA noncompliance. The objective of our pilot study was to assess ADA compliance within a convenience sample of healthcare clinics affiliated with a statewide healthcare network. Site assessments based on the ADA Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities were performed at 30 primary care and specialty care clinics. Clinical managers completed a questionnaire on standard practices for examining and treating patients whose primary means of mobility is a wheelchair. We found a majority of restrooms (83%) and examination rooms (93%) were noncompliant with one or more ADA requirements. Seventy percent of clinical managers reported not owning a height-adjustable examination table or wheelchair accessible weight scale. Furthermore, patients were examined in their wheelchairs (70%-87%), asked to bring someone to assist with transfers (30%), or referred elsewhere due to an inaccessible clinic (6%). These methods of accommodation are not compliant with the ADA. We recommend clinics conduct ADA self-assessments and provide training for clinical staff on the ADA and requirements for accommodating individuals with mobility disabilities.

  3. A Pilot Study of Neurofeedback for Chronic PTSD.

    PubMed

    Gapen, Mark; van der Kolk, Bessel A; Hamlin, Ed; Hirshberg, Laurence; Suvak, Michael; Spinazzola, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    EEG Biofeedback (also known as neurofeedback) has been in use as a clinical intervention for well over 30 years; however, it has made very little impact on clinical care. One reason for this has been the difficulty in designing research to measure clinical change in the real world. While substantial evidence exists for its efficacy in treating attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, relatively little evidence exists for its utility in other disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current study represents a "proof-of-concept" pilot for the use of neurofeedback with multiply-traumatized individuals with treatment-resistant PTSD. Participants completed 40 sessions of neurofeedback training two times per week with sensors randomly assigned (by the study coordinator, who was not blind to condition) to sensor placements of either T4-P4 or T3-T4. We found that neurofeedback significantly reduced PTSD symptoms (Davidson Trauma Scale scores averaged 69.14 at baseline to 49.26 at termination), and preceded gains in affect regulation (Inventory of Altered Self-Capacities-Affect Dysregulation scores averaged 23.63 at baseline to 17.20 at termination). We discuss a roadmap for future research.

  4. Patterns of federal Internet offenders: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ann W; Carretta, Carrie M; Burgess, Allen G

    2012-09-01

    Internet-facilitated sexual offending is receiving increased forensic and clinical attention. Two issues confront this field. First, studies are equivocal as to whether (or not) the possession of Internet pornography can escalate to contact sexual offenses against a child, and second, federal judges have been questioning the length of sentences for users only of child pornography. The findings of this pilot study of 101 federal Internet offenders revealed over half of the men at the time of arrest were employed, educated, were in (or had been in) a relationship, had children, and did not have a prior criminal offense, suggesting a changing profile of a convicted sex offender. Forensic and psychiatric nurses who evaluate users of child pornography contraband need to be knowledgeable of Internet file transfer technology and the various types of contraband viewed specifically for the age of the preferred child, extreme acts to the child (e.g., bondage, S&M), and whether the user prefers images of adults with children or images of children only.

  5. Pre-training assessment tool (JPAT)--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chow, J; Bennett, L

    2001-01-01

    A tool for assessing the suitability of candidates for home dialysis (Jo-Pre-training Assessment Tool--JPAT) was developed. JPAT acts as a screening instrument to identify suitable candidates for the home dialysis programme, and therefore increases a patient's chance of learning to manage the programme. JPAT is in the form of an interview questionnaire consisting of 38 assessment items in six domains: physical stability, nutritional status, communication, ability to maintain self-care, psychological suitability and social support. A pilot study was conducted (n = 20, 1996-1997) using a descriptive study design, with subjects randomly selected from an existing dialysis programme. Pearson correlation and 2-tailed tests were employed to explore the relationship between the assessment outcome (i.e. the initial JPAT scores) and the follow up data (i.e. data collected within the seven days following the initial JPAT assessment). Many of the variables attained statistical significance (p < 0.05). The inter-rater reliability was calculated at an average Kappa value of 0.909. Overall, results suggest that JPAT is sufficiently reliable to be used as a tool for assessing patients who suffer from ESRD.

  6. A simple formula for the calculation of sample size in pilot studies.

    PubMed

    Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Smits, Luc; Kotz, Daniel; Budé, Luc; Spigt, Mark; Serroyen, Jan; Crutzen, Rik

    2015-11-01

    One of the goals of a pilot study is to identify unforeseen problems, such as ambiguous inclusion or exclusion criteria or misinterpretations of questionnaire items. Although sample size calculation methods for pilot studies have been proposed, none of them are directed at the goal of problem detection. In this article, we present a simple formula to calculate the sample size needed to be able to identify, with a chosen level of confidence, problems that may arise with a given probability. If a problem exists with 5% probability in a potential study participant, the problem will almost certainly be identified (with 95% confidence) in a pilot study including 59 participants. PMID:26146089

  7. Oral mucosal immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Suurna, Maria V.; Rochlin, Kate; Bremberg, Maria G.; Tropper, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Background: The sublingual mucosa has been used for many years to apply allergenic extracts for the purpose of specific immunotherapy (IT). Although sublingual IT (SLIT) is both safe and efficacious, the density of antigen-presenting cells is higher in other regions of the oral cavity and vestibule, which make them a potentially desirable target for IT. Objective: To present the concept of oral mucosal IT (OMIT) and to provide pilot data for this extended application of SLIT. Methods: An open-label, 12-month, prospective study was undertaken as a preliminary step before a full-scale clinical investigation. Twenty-four individuals with allergic rhinitis received IT by applying allergenic extracts daily to either the oral vestibule plus oral cavity mucosa by using a glycerin-based toothpaste or to the sublingual mucosa by using 50% glycerin liquid drops. Adverse events, adherence rates, total combined scores, rhinoconjunctivitis quality-of-life questionnaire scores, changes in skin reactivity, and changes in serum antibody levels were measured for each participant. Results: No severe adverse events occurred in either group. The adherence rate was 80% for the OMIT group and 62% for the SLIT group (p = 0.61). Decreased total combined scores were demonstrated for both the OMIT group (15.6%) and the SLIT group (22.3%), although this decrease did not reach statistical significance in either group. Both groups achieved a meaningful clinical improvement of at least 0.5 points on rhinoconjunctivitis quality-of-life questionnaire. A statistically significant rise in specific immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) was seen in both groups over the first 6 months of treatment. Conclusion: OMIT and SLIT demonstrated similar safety profiles and adherence rates. Measurements of clinical efficacy improved for both groups, but only changes in IgG4 achieved statistical significance. These pilot data provide enough evidence to proceed with a full-scale investigation to explore the role of OMIT in

  8. A pilot randomised controlled trial of personalised care after treatment for prostate cancer (TOPCAT-P): nurse-led holistic-needs assessment and individualised psychoeducational intervention: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Stanciu, Marian Andrei; Morris, Caroline; Makin, Matt; Watson, Eila; Bulger, Jenna; Evans, Richard; Hiscock, Julia; Hoare, Zoë; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Neal, Richard David; Wilkinson, Clare

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Prostate cancer is common and the incidence is increasing, but more men are living longer after diagnosis, and die with their disease rather than of it. Nonetheless, specific and substantial physical, sexual, emotional and mental health problems often lead to a poor quality of life. Urology services increasingly struggle to cope with the demands of follow-up care, and primary care is likely to play the central role in long-term follow-up. The present phase II trial will evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a nurse-led, person-centred psychoeducational intervention, delivered in community or primary care settings. Methods and analysis Prostate cancer survivors diagnosed in the past 9–48 months and currently biochemically stable will be identified from hospital records by their treating clinician. Eligible men would have either completed radical treatment, or would be followed up with prostate specific antigen monitoring and symptom reporting. We will recruit 120 patients who will be randomised to receive either an augmented form of usual care, or an additional nurse-led intervention for a period of 36 weeks. Following the health policy in Wales, the intervention is offered by a key worker, is promoting prudent healthcare and is using a holistic needs assessment. Outcome measures will assess physical symptoms, psychological well-being, confidence in managing own health and quality of life. Healthcare service use will be measured over 36 weeks. Feedback interviews with patients and clinicians will further inform the acceptability of the intervention. Recruitment, attrition, questionnaire completion rates and outcome measures variability will be assessed, and results will inform the design of a future phase III trial and accompanying economic evaluation. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was granted by Bangor University and North Wales REC (13/WA/0291). Results will be reported in peer-reviewed publications, at scientific

  9. Cytotoxicity induced by exposure to natural and synthetic tremolite asbestos: an in vitro pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pugnaloni, Armanda; Giantomassi, Federica; Lucarini, Guendalina; Capella, Silvana; Bloise, Andrea; Di Primio, Roberto; Belluso, Elena

    2013-03-01

    Mineral fibers are potential carcinogens to humans. In order to help clarify the etiology of the pathological effects of asbestos, cellular reactions to natural and synthetic asbestos fibers were compared using a lung alveolar cancer cell line (A549 epithelial cells), considered the first target of inhaled micro-environmental contaminants. Natural asbestos tremolite (NAT) fibers were collected from rocks in NW Italy. Synthetic asbestos tremolite (SAT) was iron-free and therefore considered as standard tremolite. Both fibers, subjected to mineralogical characterization by X-ray powder diffractometry, electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry, fell within the definition of respirable and potentially carcinogenic fibers. Several signs of functional and structural cell damage were found after treatment with both fibers, documented by viability, motility, and morphological perturbations. Phalloidin labeling showed irregular distribution of cytoskeletal F-actin, whereas immunohistochemical investigations showed abnormal expression of VEGF, Cdc42, β-catenin, assessed as risks indicators for cancer development. Both fibers caused significant loss of viability, even compared to UICC crocidolite, but, while SAT fibers exerted a more direct cytotoxic effect, survival of damaged cells expressing high VEGF levels was detected after NAT contact. This in vitro pilot study outlines potential health risks of NAT fibers in vivo related to their iron content, which could trigger signaling networks connected with cell proliferation and neoplastic transformation. PMID:22578742

  10. EMAP WESTERN UNITED STATES LANDSCAPE CHARACTERIZATION NORTHWEST OREGON PILOT STUDY AREA DATA AND PRODUCT BROWSER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is conducting a pilot study in the western United States. This study will advance the science of ecological monitoring and demonstrate techniques for regional-scale assessme...

  11. EMAP WESTERN UNITED STATES LANDSCAPE CHARACTERIZATION SOUTHERN ROCKIES PILOT STUDY AREA DATA AND PRODUCT BROWSER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is conducting a pilot study in the western United States. This study will advance the science of ecological monitoring and demonstrate techniques for regional-scale assessme...

  12. Effect of motion cues during complex curved approach and landing tasks: A piloted simulation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scanlon, Charles H.

    1987-01-01

    A piloted simulation study was conducted to examine the effect of motion cues using a high fidelity simulation of commercial aircraft during the performance of complex approach and landing tasks in the Microwave Landing System (MLS) signal environment. The data from these tests indicate that in a high complexity MLS approach task with moderate turbulence and wind, the pilot uses motion cues to improve path tracking performance. No significant differences in tracking accuracy were noted for the low and medium complexity tasks, regardless of the presence of motion cues. Higher control input rates were measured for all tasks when motion was used. Pilot eye scan, as measured by instrument dwell time, was faster when motion cues were used regardless of the complexity of the approach tasks. Pilot comments indicated a preference for motion. With motion cues, pilots appeared to work harder in all levels of task complexity and to improve tracking performance in the most complex approach task.

  13. Metastability in plyometric training on unstable surfaces: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the past, plyometric training (PT) has been predominantly performed on stable surfaces. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine effects of a 7-week lower body PT on stable vs. unstable surfaces. This type of exercise condition may be denoted as metastable equilibrium. Methods Thirty-three physically active male sport science students (age: 24.1 ± 3.8 years) were randomly assigned to a PT group (n = 13) exercising on stable (STAB) and a PT group (n = 20) on unstable surfaces (INST). Both groups trained countermovement jumps, drop jumps, and practiced a hurdle jump course. In addition, high bar squats were performed. Physical fitness tests on stable surfaces (hexagonal obstacle test, countermovement jump, hurdle drop jump, left-right hop, dynamic and static balance tests, and leg extension strength) were used to examine the training effects. Results Significant main effects of time (ANOVA) were found for the countermovement jump, hurdle drop jump, hexagonal test, dynamic balance, and leg extension strength. A significant interaction of time and training mode was detected for the countermovement jump in favor of the INST group. No significant improvements were evident for either group in the left-right hop and in the static balance test. Conclusions These results show that lower body PT on unstable surfaces is a safe and efficient way to improve physical performance on stable surfaces. PMID:25089202

  14. Microwave Imaging of Human Forearms: Pilot Study and Image Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Colin; Zakaria, Amer; Pistorius, Stephen; LoVetri, Joe

    2013-01-01

    We present a pilot study using a microwave tomography system in which we image the forearms of 5 adult male and female volunteers between the ages of 30 and 48. Microwave scattering data were collected at 0.8 to 1.2 GHz with 24 transmitting and receiving antennas located in a matching fluid of deionized water and table salt. Inversion of the microwave data was performed with a balanced version of the multiplicative-regularized contrast source inversion algorithm formulated using the finite-element method (FEM-CSI). T1-weighted MRI images of each volunteer's forearm were also collected in the same plane as the microwave scattering experiment. Initial “blind” imaging results from the utilized inversion algorithm show that the image quality is dependent on the thickness of the arm's peripheral adipose tissue layer; thicker layers of adipose tissue lead to poorer overall image quality. Due to the exible nature of the FEM-CSI algorithm used, prior information can be readily incorporated into the microwave imaging inversion process. We show that by introducing prior information into the FEM-CSI algorithm the internal anatomical features of all the arms are resolved, significantly improving the images. The prior information was estimated manually from the blind inversions using an ad hoc procedure. PMID:24023539

  15. Adjustable recessions in horizontal comitant strabismus: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Siddharth; Singh, Vinita; Singh, Priyanka

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the surgical outcome of adjustable with the conventional recession in patients with horizontal comitant strabismus. Patients and Methods: A prospective comparative nonrandomized interventional pilot study was performed on patients with horizontal comitant strabismus. Fifty-four patients (27 in each group) were allocated into 2 groups to undergo either adjustable suture (AS) recession or non-AS (NAS) recession along with conventional resection. The patients were followed up for 6 months. A successful outcome was defined as deviation ±10 prism diopters at 6 months. The results were statistically analyzed by Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and Student's t-test. Results: A successful outcome was found in 24 (88.8%) patients in AS and 17 (62.9%) in NAS group (P = 0.02). The postoperative adjustment was done in 13 (48.1%) patients in AS group. There was one complication (tenon's cyst) in AS group. Conclusion: AS recession may be considered in all cooperative patients undergoing strabismus surgery for comitant deviations. PMID:26458480

  16. GLOBE Aerosol Field Campaign - U.S. Pilot Study 2016

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippin, Margaret; Marentette, Christina; Bujosa, Robert; Taylor, Jessica; Lewis, Preston

    2016-01-01

    During the spring of 2016, from April 4 - May 27, sixteen GLOBE schools participated in the GLOBE Aerosol Field Campaign - U.S. Pilot Study. Thirteen teachers from these schools had previously participated in the NASA LEARN program (Long-term Experience in Authentic Research with NASA) where they were GLOBE trained in Atmosphere protocols, and engaged in 1-3 years of research under the mentorship of NASA scientists. Each school was loaned two aerosol instruments for the Campaign duration, either 2 GLOBE sun photometers, 2 Calitoo sun photometers, or 1 of each. This allowed for students to make measurements side-by-side and in the case of the Calitoos, to compare AOT results immediately with each other for better consistency in data collection. Additionally, as part of the Field Campaign evaluation, multiple instruments allow for an assessment of the ease of use of each instrument for grade level of students, whether in middle school or high school. Before the Campaign, all GLOBE and Calitoo instruments were 'checked out' against an AERONET, then checked again upon return after the Campaign. By examining all data, before, during and after the Campaign, this gives an indication of instrument performance and proficiency obtained by the students. Support was provided to each teacher and their students at the level requested, via email, phone or video conferencing.

  17. Skin and plasma autofluorescence during hemodialysis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Graaff, Reindert; Arsov, Stefan; Ramsauer, Bernd; Koetsier, Marten; Sundvall, Nils; Engels, Gerwin E; Sikole, Aleksandar; Lundberg, Lennart; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Stegmayr, Bernd

    2014-06-01

    Skin autofluorescence (AF) is related to the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and is one of the strongest prognostic markers of mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether changes in skin AF appear after a single HD session and if they might be related to changes in plasma AF. Skin and plasma AF were measured before and after HD in 35 patients on maintenance HD therapy (nine women and 26 men, median age 68 years, range 33-83). Median dialysis time was 4 h (range 3-5.5). Skin AF was measured noninvasively with an AGE Reader, and plasma AF was measured before and after HD at 460 nm after excitation at 370 nm. The HD patients had on average a 65% higher skin AF value than age-matched healthy persons (P < 0.001). Plasma AF was reduced by 14% (P < 0.001), whereas skin AF was not changed after a single HD treatment. No significant influence of the reduced plasma AF on skin AF levels was found. This suggests that the measurement of skin AF can be performed during the whole dialysis period and is not directly influenced by the changes in plasma AF during HD.

  18. Postnatal Foot Length to Determine Gestational Age: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Wyk, Lizelle Van; Smith, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Gestational age is a critical factor in the management, decision-making, prognostication and follow-up of newborn infants. It is also essential for research and epidemiology. In the absence of an early assessment of fetal gestation by abdominal ultrasound, many neonatal units in developing countries determine gestational age by neonatal scores and last menstrual period-both of which are highly inaccurate. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether postnatal foot length measurement could accurately determine gestational age in a specified South African hospitalized neonatal population. Foot length was measured with a plastic Verniere's caliper. Foot length was shown to correlate well with gestational age (r = 0.919,p < 0.001). Intra-observer and inter-observer variability of foot length measurements was low. Foot length can therefore be used with high accuracy to determine the gestational age in a population where there is poor access to or utilization of antenatal sonar. PMID:26758249

  19. Skin and plasma autofluorescence during hemodialysis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Graaff, Reindert; Arsov, Stefan; Ramsauer, Bernd; Koetsier, Marten; Sundvall, Nils; Engels, Gerwin E; Sikole, Aleksandar; Lundberg, Lennart; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Stegmayr, Bernd

    2014-06-01

    Skin autofluorescence (AF) is related to the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and is one of the strongest prognostic markers of mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether changes in skin AF appear after a single HD session and if they might be related to changes in plasma AF. Skin and plasma AF were measured before and after HD in 35 patients on maintenance HD therapy (nine women and 26 men, median age 68 years, range 33-83). Median dialysis time was 4 h (range 3-5.5). Skin AF was measured noninvasively with an AGE Reader, and plasma AF was measured before and after HD at 460 nm after excitation at 370 nm. The HD patients had on average a 65% higher skin AF value than age-matched healthy persons (P < 0.001). Plasma AF was reduced by 14% (P < 0.001), whereas skin AF was not changed after a single HD treatment. No significant influence of the reduced plasma AF on skin AF levels was found. This suggests that the measurement of skin AF can be performed during the whole dialysis period and is not directly influenced by the changes in plasma AF during HD. PMID:24164288

  20. Postnatal Foot Length to Determine Gestational Age: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Wyk, Lizelle Van; Smith, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Gestational age is a critical factor in the management, decision-making, prognostication and follow-up of newborn infants. It is also essential for research and epidemiology. In the absence of an early assessment of fetal gestation by abdominal ultrasound, many neonatal units in developing countries determine gestational age by neonatal scores and last menstrual period-both of which are highly inaccurate. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether postnatal foot length measurement could accurately determine gestational age in a specified South African hospitalized neonatal population. Foot length was measured with a plastic Verniere's caliper. Foot length was shown to correlate well with gestational age (r = 0.919,p < 0.001). Intra-observer and inter-observer variability of foot length measurements was low. Foot length can therefore be used with high accuracy to determine the gestational age in a population where there is poor access to or utilization of antenatal sonar.

  1. Fertility after Intrauterine Device Removal: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Stoddard, Amy M.; Xu, Hanna; Madden, Tessa; Allsworth, Jenifer E.; Peipert, Jeffrey F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite high efficacy, only 7.7% of women in the United States currently using contraception use an IUD. There is little published contemporary data about fertility rates after IUD use, especially in nulliparous women and women using the hormonal IUD. Study Design We recruited sexually active women 18–35 years of age enrolled in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project who had discontinued a contraceptive method and desired pregnancy. Results In this pilot project, we enrolled 69 former IUD users (50 copper and 19 levonorgestrel) and 42 former non-IUD users. Pregnancy rates at 12-months were similar between the two groups; 81% of IUD users became pregnant compared to 70% of non-IUD users (p=0.18). In the Cox model, there was no difference in the time to pregnancy in IUD users compared to non-IUD users (HRadj 1.19, 95% CI 0.74–1.92). African American race was the only variable associated with reduced fertility (HRadj 0.40, 95% CI 0.24–0.67). Conclusions We found no difference in 12-month pregnancy rates or time to pregnancy between former IUD users and users of other contraceptive methods. However, there was a clinically and statistically significant reduction in fertility in African American women. PMID:25751567

  2. Ambulance clinical placements – A pilot study of students' experience

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Malcolm J; Williams, Brett; Cooper, Jennifer; Adams, Bridget; Alford, Kassie

    2008-01-01

    Background Undergraduate paramedic students undertake clinical placements in a variety of locations. These placements are considered an essential element for paramedic pre-employment education. However, anecdotal evidence suggests some students have not had positive experiences on their emergency ambulance placements. The objective of this study was to identify the type of experiences had by students during ambulance clinical placements and to provide feedback to the ambulance services. Methods In this pilot study we employed a cross-sectional study methodology, using a convenience sample of undergraduate paramedic students available in semester one of 2007 to ascertain the students' views on their reception by on-road paramedics and their overall experience on emergency ambulance clinical placements. Ethics approval was granted. Results There were 77 students who participated in the survey, 64% were females, with 92% of students < 25 years of age and 55% < 65 Kg in weight. There was a statistically significant difference in average height between the genders (Male 179 cm vs Female 168 cm, p < 0.001). Clinical instructors were available to 44% of students with 30% of students excluded from patient management. Thirty percent of students felt there was a lot of unproductive down time during the placement. Paramedics remarked to 40% of students that they doubted their ability to perform the physical role of a paramedic, of this group 36% were advised this more than once. Conclusion This study demonstrates that for a small group of students, emergency ambulance clinical placements were not a positive experience clinically or educationally. Some qualified paramedics doubt if a number of female students can perform the physical role of a paramedic. PMID:18400111

  3. An Aerobic Weight-Loaded Pilot Exercise Intervention for Breast Cancer Survivors: Bone Remodeling and Body Composition Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Knobf, M. Tish; Insogna, Karl; DiPietro, Loretta; Fennie, Kristopher; Thompson, A. Siobhan

    2012-01-01

    Objective Weight gain and bone loss are commonly reported in breast cancer survivors. The purpose of this pilot study is to assess feasibility and explore the effect of an aerobic weight-loaded exercise intervention on bone remodeling, weight, and body composition. Design A one-group pre-posttest design was used to test a 16–24-week supervised walking exercise intervention among women within 2 years of menopause. Through Weeks 1–4, time and weight were progressively increased. By Week 5 and through the end of the intervention, a waist belt was loaded with 5 lb and participants spent 45 min on the treadmill 3 times/week. Bone remodeling was measured by serum biomarkers (N-terminal propeptides of type I collagen [NTX] and serum osteocalcin). Dual-energy absorptiometry scans assessed body composition. Data were collected at baseline and 16 and 24 weeks. Results The majority of the 26 participants were married, well educated, and employed, with a mean age of 51.3 years (SD = 6.2). The high adherence (M = 88.2%, SD = 6.8) demonstrated feasiblity. There were no significant changes in serum osteocalcin (p = .67), serum NTX (p = .31), lean muscle mass (p = .08), or percent fat mass for the group as a whole (p = .14), but fat mass increased for women on adjuvant endocrine therapy (p = .04). The women maintained their weight. Conclusions This novel exercise intervention for breast cancer survivors was feasible, and women otherwise at high risk for weight gain and bone loss maintained their weight and bone mass. PMID:18705153

  4. [The contribution of cancer registries in environmental health studies].

    PubMed

    Comba, P; Fazzo, L; Fusco, M; Benedetti, M; Pirastu, R; Ricci, P

    2011-01-01

    Cancer incidence is an outcome of interest in studies assessing the health impact of polluted sites, for which an example is represented by SENTIERI Project. Incidence data are characterized by better diagnostic quality and are not influenced by survival factors, furthermore they allow the investigation of high-survival neoplasms (i.e. childhood cancer) and rare malignancies. Furthermore, the study of incidence is more informative than mortality for non-lethal tumours, therefore it represents an advancement in respect to the study of mortality completed in SENTIERI Project. In the last decade in Italy some environmental epidemiology studies used cancer register data, for example the Biancavilla (Sicily) investigation on fluoro-edenite related mesothelioma and the study in an area of Naples Province where hazardous waste was extensively dumped. In this frame, ISS planned some collaborative studies with Siracusa, Mantua and Ferrara cancer Registries, where three major polluted sites are located. Following these pilot studies an ISS-AIRTUM (Italian Association of Cancer Registries) collaborative study has been planned. For a description of SENTIERI, refer to the 2010 supplement of Epidemiology & Prevention, devoted to the Project.

  5. Defining Feasibility and Pilot Studies in Preparation for Randomised Controlled Trials: Development of a Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, Sandra M; Lancaster, Gillian A; Campbell, Michael J; Thabane, Lehana; Hopewell, Sally; Coleman, Claire L; Bond, Christine M

    2016-01-01

    We describe a framework for defining pilot and feasibility studies focusing on studies conducted in preparation for a randomised controlled trial. To develop the framework, we undertook a Delphi survey; ran an open meeting at a trial methodology conference; conducted a review of definitions outside the health research context; consulted experts at an international consensus meeting; and reviewed 27 empirical pilot or feasibility studies. We initially adopted mutually exclusive definitions of pilot and feasibility studies. However, some Delphi survey respondents and the majority of open meeting attendees disagreed with the idea of mutually exclusive definitions. Their viewpoint was supported by definitions outside the health research context, the use of the terms 'pilot' and 'feasibility' in the literature, and participants at the international consensus meeting. In our framework, pilot studies are a subset of feasibility studies, rather than the two being mutually exclusive. A feasibility study asks whether something can be done, should we proceed with it, and if so, how. A pilot study asks the same questions but also has a specific design feature: in a pilot study a future study, or part of a future study, is conducted on a smaller scale. We suggest that to facilitate their identification, these studies should be clearly identified using the terms 'feasibility' or 'pilot' as appropriate. This should include feasibility studies that are largely qualitative; we found these difficult to identify in electronic searches because researchers rarely used the term 'feasibility' in the title or abstract of such studies. Investigators should also report appropriate objectives and methods related to feasibility; and give clear confirmation that their study is in preparation for a future randomised controlled trial designed to assess the effect of an intervention.

  6. Multiparametric [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose/ [18F]Fluoromisonidazole Positron Emission Tomography/ Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer for the Non-Invasive Detection of Tumor Heterogeneity: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Andrzejewski, Piotr; Baltzer, Pascal; Polanec, Stephan H.; Sturdza, Alina; Georg, Dietmar; Helbich, Thomas H.; Karanikas, Georgios; Grimm, Christoph; Polterauer, Stephan; Poetter, Richard; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Mitterhauser, Markus; Georg, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate fused multiparametric positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (MP PET/MRI) at 3T in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, using high-resolution T2-weighted, contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and the radiotracers [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) and [18F]fluoromisonidazol ([18F]FMISO) for the non-invasive detection of tumor heterogeneity for an improved planning of chemo-radiation therapy (CRT). Materials and Methods Sixteen patients with locally advanced cervix were enrolled in this IRB approved and were examined with fused MP [18F]FDG/ [18F]FMISO PET/MRI and in eleven patients complete data sets were acquired. MP PET/MRI was assessed for tumor volume, enhancement (EH)-kinetics, diffusivity, and [18F]FDG/ [18F]FMISO-avidity. Descriptive statistics and voxel-by-voxel analysis of MRI and PET parameters were performed. Correlations were assessed using multiple correlation analysis. Results All tumors displayed imaging parameters concordant with cervix cancer, i.e. type II/III EH-kinetics, restricted diffusivity (median ADC 0.80x10-3mm2/sec), [18F]FDG- (median SUVmax16.2) and [18F]FMISO-avidity (median SUVmax3.1). In all patients, [18F]FMISO PET identified the hypoxic tumor subvolume, which was independent of tumor volume. A voxel-by-voxel analysis revealed only weak correlations between the MRI and PET parameters (0.05–0.22), indicating that each individual parameter yields independent information and the presence of tumor heterogeneity. Conclusion MP [18F]FDG/ [18F]FMISO PET/MRI in patients with cervical cancer facilitates the acquisition of independent predictive and prognostic imaging parameters. MP [18F]FDG/ [18F]FMISO PET/MRI enables insights into tumor biology on multiple levels and provides information on tumor heterogeneity, which has the potential to improve the planning of CRT. PMID:27167829

  7. Learning the 'SMART' way... results from a pilot study evaluating an interprofessional acute care study day.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Robin

    2011-01-01

    A significant number of patients requiring critical care are now being managed outside of critical care facilities. There is evidence that staff looking after these patients lack the necessary knowledge and skills to care for them safely, and that effective pre-registration education can play a significant role in addressing these shortfalls in nurses' knowledge and skills. A team from Sheffield Hallam University, in collaboration with the University of Sheffield, developed a pilot one day interprofessional acute illness programme which was called SMART® (Student Management of Acute illness - Recognition and Treatment). To evaluate the pilot programme, 16 student doctors and 72 student nurses were recruited. A pre- and post-course questionnaire based on the Featherstone et al. (2005) evaluation of ALERT was used to ascertain the students' general level of knowledge of the deteriorating patient, their experiences of and confidence in caring for an acutely unwell patient, and their level of comfort with interprofessional working. The results from the pilot study indicate that the students' levels of knowledge, their levels of confidence and their comfort with interprofessional working all rose after undertaking the programme. The pilot study has a number of implications for the future teaching and learning of acute care clinical skills, within a theoretically based curriculum.

  8. UV disinfection pilot plant study at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Huffines, R.L.; Beavers, B.A.

    1993-01-01

    An ultraviolet light disinfection system pilot plant was operated at the Savannah River Site Central Shops sanitary wastewater treatment package plant July 14, 1992 through August 13, 1992. The purpose was to determine the effectiveness of ultraviolet light disinfection on the effluent from the small package-type wastewater treatment plants currently used on-site. This pilot plant consisted of a rack of UV lights suspended in a stainless steel channel through which a sidestream of effluent from the treatment plant clarifier was pumped. Fecal coliform analyses were performed on the influent to and effluent from the pilot unit to verify the disinfection process. UV disinfection was highly effective in reducing fecal coliform colonies within NPDES permit limitations even under process upset conditions. The average fecal coliform reduction exceeded 99.7% using ultraviolet light disinfection under normal operating conditions at the package treatment plants.

  9. UV disinfection pilot plant study at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Huffines, R.L.; Beavers, B.A.

    1993-05-01

    An ultraviolet light disinfection system pilot plant was operated at the Savannah River Site Central Shops sanitary wastewater treatment package plant July 14, 1992 through August 13, 1992. The purpose was to determine the effectiveness of ultraviolet light disinfection on the effluent from the small package-type wastewater treatment plants currently used on-site. This pilot plant consisted of a rack of UV lights suspended in a stainless steel channel through which a sidestream of effluent from the treatment plant clarifier was pumped. Fecal coliform analyses were performed on the influent to and effluent from the pilot unit to verify the disinfection process. UV disinfection was highly effective in reducing fecal coliform colonies within NPDES permit limitations even under process upset conditions. The average fecal coliform reduction exceeded 99.7% using ultraviolet light disinfection under normal operating conditions at the package treatment plants.

  10. An experimental study of human pilot's scanning behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washizu, K.; Tanaka, K.; Osawa, T.

    1982-01-01

    The scanning behavior and the control behavior of the pilot who manually controls the two-variable system, which is the most basic one of multi-variable systems are investigated. Two control tasks which simulate the actual airplane attitude and airspeed control were set up. In order to simulate the change of the situation where the pilot is placed, such as changes of flight phase, mission and others, the subject was requested to vary the weightings, as his control strategy, upon each task. Changes of human control dynamics and his canning properties caused by the modification of the situation were investigated. By making use of the experimental results, the optimal model of the control behavior and the scanning behavior of the pilot in the two-variable system is proposed from the standpoint of making the performance index minimal.

  11. Intramedullary cement osteosynthesis (IMCO): a pilot study in sheep.

    PubMed

    Mirzasadeghi, Alireza; Narayanan, Sri Subanesh; Ng, Min Hwei; Sanaei, Reza; Cheng, Chen Hui; Bajuri, Mohd Yazid; Shukur, Mohammad Hassan

    2014-01-01

    The application of bone substitutes and cements has a long standing history in augmenting fractures as a complement to routine fracture fixation techniques. Nevertheless, such use is almost always in conjunction with definite means of fracture fixation such as intramedullary pins or bone plates. The idea of using biomaterials as the primary fixation bears the possibility of simultaneous fixation and bone enhancement. Intramedullary recruitment of bone cements is suggested in this study to achieve this goal. However, as the method needs primary testings in animal models before human implementation, and since the degree of ambulation is not predictable in animals, this pilot study only evaluates the outcomes regarding the feasibility and safety of this method in the presence of primary bone fixators. A number of two sheep were used in this study. Tibial transverse osteotomies were performed in both animals followed by external skeletal fixation. The medullary canals, which have already been prepared by removing the marrow through proximal and distal drill holes, were then injected with calcium phosphate cement (CPC). The outcomes were evaluated postoperatively by standard survey radiographs, morphology, histology and biomechanical testings. Healing processes appeared uncomplicated until week four where one bone fracture recurred due to external fixator failure. The results showed 56% and 48% cortical thickening, compared to the opposite site, in the fracture site and proximal and distal diaphyses respectively. This bone augmentative effect resulted in 264% increase in bending strength of the fracture site and 148% increase of the same value in the adjacent areas of diaphyses. In conclusion, IMCO, using CPC in tibia of sheep, is safe and biocompatible with bone physiology and healing. It possibly can carry the osteopromotive effect of the CPCs to provide a sustained source of bone augmentation throughout the diaphysis. Although the results must be considered

  12. Complementary and alternative medicine use among long-term lymphoma survivors: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Habermann, Thomas M; Thompson, Carrie A; LaPlant, Betsy R; Bauer, Brent A; Janney, Carol A; Clark, Matthew M; Rummans, Teresa A; Maurer, Matthew J; Sloan, Jeff A; Geyer, Susan M; Cerhan, James R

    2009-12-01

    No published survey has specifically addressed the beliefs, knowledge, and usage of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in long-term (5-20 years) lymphoma survivors alone. In this pilot project, 95 subjects were randomly selected from a population of 2,475 long-term lymphoma survivors and mailed a questionnaire. The median time from lymphoma diagnosis to completion of the questionnaire was 11 years (range 6-20). Overall, 68% (95% CI: 54-80%) of the long-term lymphoma survivors reported that they have used CAM, a rate higher than the estimated usage rate reported for the general population The most commonly used modalities were chiropractic (39%, 95% CI: 27-53%) and massage therapy (21%, 95% CI: 12-34%). Less than 10% used meditation (5%, 95% CI: 1-15%) and relaxation (7%, 95% CI: 2-17%). In terms of common herbal usage, 5% (95% CI: 1-15%) had used St. John's Wort and 7% (95% CI: 2-17%) had used shark cartilage. Although none of the patients reported that CAM usage was directed specifically towards treating their lymphoma, 4% (95% CI: 0-12%) of patients reported that CAM could cure cancer, and 14% (95% CI: 6-26%) reported that CAM could increase their feeling of control over their health. This pilot study suggests that long-term lymphoma survivors appear to use CAM at a rate higher than the general population. The use of potential agents of risk by the survivors and the lack of access to potentially beneficial modalities highlights the need for further study of CAM in this population.

  13. Managing ethical issues in sexual violence research using a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Duma, S E; Khanyile, T D; Daniels, F

    2009-03-01

    Conducting research in the area of sexual violence has complex ethical and practical challenges for the researcher. Managing ethical issues in sexual violence is important and can be achieved through the use of pilot studies. The primary purpose of the pilot study was to identify and manage potential ethical and practical problems that could jeopardise the main study or violate the ethical and human rights of participants in the main study on women's journey of recovery from sexual assault. The secondary purpose was to collect preliminary data in order to determine the human, financial and time resources needed for a planned study. The methods and processes used in conducting the pilot study in the study on women's journey of recovery are discussed according to each of the objectives of the pilot study, methods used to achieve the objective, observations or findings made during the pilot study, and implications for the main study. This article aims to demonstrate how a pilot study was used to manage identified potential ethical and practical research issues during the recruitment of participants and data collection for the research that was conducted by the first author to investigate women's journey of recovery from sexual assault trauma within the first week following sexual assault.

  14. Development and pilot study findings of the Delta Garden Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to explore how school–based gardening programs can affect health and related behaviors and to assess how such programs can be sustainable over time and replicated to more settings. Across the world, there has been a recent revitalization and reinvention of gardening eff...

  15. A pilot study of a wearable apnoea detection device

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther; Chen, Gwangwei; Radcliffe, Jeremy; Duncan, John

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Current techniques for monitoring patients for apnoea suffer from significant limitations. These include insufficient availability to meet diagnostic needs, cost, accuracy of results in the presence of artefacts and difficulty of use in unsupervised conditions. Objectives We created and clinically tested a novel miniature medical device that targets overcoming these limitations. Methods We studied 20 healthy control participants and 10 patients who had been referred for sleep apnoea diagnosis. The performances of the new system and also of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved SOMNO clinical system, conventionally used for sleep apnoea diagnosis were evaluated under the same conditions. Both systems were tested during a normal night of sleep in controls and patients. Their performances were quantified in terms of detection of apnoea and hypopnoea in individual 10 s epochs, which were compared with scoring of signals by a blinded clinician. Main results For spontaneous apnoeas during natural sleep and considering the clinician scorer as the gold standard, the new wearable apnoea detection device had 88.6% sensitivity and 99.6% specificity. In comparison the SOMNO system had 14.3% sensitivity and 99.3% specificity. The novel device had been specifically designed to detect apnoea, but if apnoea and hypopnoea during sleep were both considered in the assessment, the sensitivity and specificity were 77.1% and 99.7%, respectively, versus 54% and 98.5%, respectively, for the SOMNO. Conclusions The performance of the novel device compares very well to the scoring by an experienced clinician even in the presence of breathing artefacts, in this small pilot study. This can potentially make it a real solution for apnoea home monitoring. PMID:25280802

  16. Changing mothers' perception of infant emotion: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Carnegie, R; Shepherd, C; Pearson, R.M.; Button, K. S; Munafò, M. R; Evans, J; Penton-Voak, I.S.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) techniques, which experimentally retrain abnormal processing of affective stimuli, are becoming established for various psychiatric disorders. Such techniques have not yet been applied to maternal processing of infant emotion, which is affected by various psychiatric disorders. Materials and Methods In a pilot study, mothers of children under 3 years old (n = 32) were recruited and randomly allocated to one of three training exercises, aiming either to increase or decrease their threshold of perceiving distress in a morphed continuum of 15 infant facial images. Differences between pre- and post-training threshold were analysed between and within subjects. Results Compared to baseline thresholds, the threshold for perceiving infant distress decreased in the lowered threshold group (mean difference -1.7 frames, 95% confidence intervals (CI) -3.1 to -0.3 p=0.02), increased in the raised threshold group (1.3 frames, 95% CI 0.6 to 2.1 p<0.01), and was unchanged in the control group (0.1 frames, 95% CI -0.8 to 1.1 p=0.80). Between group differences were similarly robust in regression models, and were not attenuated by potential confounders. Conclusions The findings suggest that it is possible to change the threshold at which mothers perceive ambiguous infant faces as distressed, either to increase or decrease sensitivity to distress. This small study was intended to provide proof of concept (i.e., that it is possible to alter a mother’s perception of infant distress.) Questions remain as to whether the effects persist beyond the immediate experimental session, have an impact on maternal behaviour, and could be used in clinical samples to improve maternal sensitivity and child outcomes. PMID:26260038

  17. Feasibility of the Dutch ICF Activity Inventory: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Demographic ageing will lead to increasing pressure on visual rehabilitation services, which need to be efficiently organised in the near future. The Dutch ICF Activity Inventory (D-AI) was developed to assess the rehabilitation needs of visually impaired persons. This pilot study tests the feasibility of the D-AI using a computer-assisted telephone interview. Methods In addition to the regular intake, the first version of the D-AI was assessed in 20 patients. Subsequently, patients and intake assessors were asked to fill in an evaluation form. Based on these evaluations, a new version of the D-AI was developed. Results Mean administration time of the D-AI was 88.8 (± 41.0) minutes. Overall, patients and assessors were positive about the D-AI assessment. However, professionals and 60% of the patients found the administration time to be too long. All included items were considered relevant and only minor adjustments were recommended. Conclusion The systematic character of the revised D-AI will prevent topics from being overlooked and indicate which needs have the highest priority from a patient-centred perspective. Moreover, ongoing assessment of the D-AI will enhance evaluation of the rehabilitation process. To decrease administration time, in the revised D-AI only the top priority goals will be fully assessed. Using the D-AI, a rehabilitation plan based on individual needs can be developed for each patient. Moreover, it enables better evaluation of the effects of rehabilitation. A larger validation study is planned. PMID:21110871

  18. Problematic internet usage in US college students: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Internet addiction among US college students remains a concern, but robust estimates of its prevalence are lacking. Methods We conducted a pilot survey of 307 college students at two US universities. Participants completed the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) as well as the Patient Health Questionnaire. Both are validated measures of problematic Internet usage and depression, respectively. We assessed the association between problematic Internet usage and moderate to severe depression using a modified Poisson regression approach. In addition, we examined the associations between individual items in the IAT and depression. Results A total of 224 eligible respondents completed the survey (73% response rate). Overall, 4% of students scored in the occasionally problematic or addicted range on the IAT, and 12% had moderate to severe depression. Endorsement of individual problematic usage items ranged from 1% to 70%. In the regression analysis, depressive symptoms were significantly associated with several individual items. Relative risk could not be estimated for three of the twenty items because of small cell sizes. Of the remaining 17 items, depressive symptoms were significantly associated with 13 of them, and three others had P values less than 0.10. There was also a significant association between problematic Internet usage overall and moderate to severe depression (relative risk 24.07, 95% confidence interval 3.95 to 146.69; P = 0.001). Conclusion The prevalence of problematic Internet usage among US college students is a cause for concern, and potentially requires intervention and treatment amongst the most vulnerable groups. The prevalence reported in this study is lower than that which has been reported in other studies, however the at-risk population is very high and preventative measures are also recommended. PMID:21696582

  19. Family Planning for Inner-City Adolescent Males: Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Janet; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes a pilot family planning program in an inner-city pediatric practice. Male adolescents were more likely to accept contraceptives if the provider first raised the topic of birth control to them. Identified a desire for anonymity/confidentiality and embarrassment or discomfort as the key reasons for not seeking contraceptives. Emphasizes…

  20. NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY - CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proposed objective of the NATO/CCMS Pilot on clean products and processes is to facilitate further gains in pollution prevention, waste minimization, and design for the environment. It is anticipated that the free exchange of knowledge, experience, data, and models will fost...

  1. Research Note-Testing for Gerontological Competencies: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Colleen; Curl, Angela L.; Woodbury, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the pilot delivery of an evaluation method to gauge student learning of gerontological competencies. Using a pretest and posttest design, data were collected on 46 students over 3 classes. Results indicated significant improvement in how students rated or perceived their competencies skill level between pretest and posttest…

  2. Pilot Study of Extraneous Paperwork in a Parole/Probation Field Office.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Herbert R.; Libonate, DeAnna

    1990-01-01

    Discusses history of parole and probation and the special problems surrounding its paperwork. Presents results of a pilot study that measured extraneous paperwork of a parole/probation field office with preliminary recommendations. (Author/ABL)

  3. PILOT STUDY OF TARGETING ELEVATED BLOOD-LEVEL LEVELS IN CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    THIS PILOT STUDY SEEKS TO DEVELOP STATISTICAL MODELS TO PREDICT RISK OF CHILDHOOD LEAD POISONING WITHIN SPECIFIED GEOGRAPHIC AREAS BASED ON A COMBINATION OF DEMOGRAPHIC, ENVIRONMENTAL, AND PROGRAMMATIC INFORMATION SOURCES.

  4. A PILOT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S TOTAL EXPOSURE TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (CTEPP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pilot Study of Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants (CTEPP) investigated the aggregate exposures of 257 preschool children and their primary adult caregivers to pollutants commonly detected in their everyday environments. ...

  5. Circadian Rhythms in Acute Intermittent Porphyria—a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Larion, Sebastian; Caballes, F. Ryan; Hwang, Sun-Il; Lee, Jin-Gyun; Rossman, Whitney Ellefson; Parsons, Judy; Steuerwald, Nury; Li, Ting; Maddukuri, Vinaya; Groseclose, Gale; Finkielstein, Carla V.; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.

    2013-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an inherited disorder of heme synthesis wherein a partial deficiency of porphobilinogen [PBG] deaminase [PBGD], with other factors may give rise to biochemical and clinical manifestations of disease. The biochemical hallmarks of active AIP are relative hepatic heme deficiency and uncontrolled up-regulation of hepatic 5-aminolevulinic acid [ALA] synthase-1 [ALAS1] with overproduction of ALA and PBG. The treatment of choice is intravenous heme, which restores the deficient regulatory heme pool of the liver and represses ALAS1. Recently, heme has been shown to influence circadian rhythms by controlling their negative feedback loops. We evaluated whether subjects with AIP exhibited an altered circadian profile. Over a 21 h period, we measured levels of serum cortisol, melatonin, ALA, PBG, and mRNA levels [in peripheral blood mononuclear cells] of selected clock-controlled genes and genes involved in heme synthesis in 10 Caucasian [European-American] women who were either post-menopausal or had been receiving female hormone therapy, 6 of whom have AIP and 4 do not and are considered controls. Four AIP subjects with biochemical activity exhibited higher levels of PBG and lower levels and dampened oscillation of serum cortisol, and a trend for lower levels of serum melatonin, than controls or AIP subjects without biochemical activity. Levels of clock-controlled gene mRNAs showed significant increases over baseline in all subjects at 5 am and 11 pm, whereas mRNA levels of ALAS1, ALAS2, and PBGD were increased only at 11 pm in subjects with active AIP. This pilot study provides evidence for disturbances of circadian markers in women with active AIP that may trigger or sustain some common clinical features of AIP. PMID:23650938

  6. Pilot Study: A Pediatric Pedestrian Safety Curriculum for Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Bovis, Stephanie E; Harden, Taijha; Hotz, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate and implement the WalkSafe Pre-Kindergarten Pedestrian Safety Curriculum. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design without a control group was used to measure children's pedestrian safety knowledge. Knowledge assessments consisting of multiple-choice and short-answer questions were administered pre- and post-curriculum implementation by classroom teachers. Knowledge assessments gauged prekindergarten students' knowledge of pedestrian safety activities prior to safety curriculum implementation and, again, after the students received the curriculum. A total of 605 children (aged 3- to 5-year) from 38 prekindergarten classrooms in 16 randomly selected elementary schools participated in the pedestrian safety education pilot program. Subjects were of multiethnic and diverse backgrounds from the Miami-Dade County Public School District. Of the 605 educated subjects, 454 children completed both pre- and posttests. A statistically significant difference was found between pretest knowledge (M = 5.49, SD = 1.54) and posttest knowledge (M = 6.64, SD = 1.35) assessment scores across all 454 subjects, t(452) = -16.22, p < .001, 95% CI [-1.29, -1.01]. Previous studies have shown that classroom-based training of children as young as 4 years old can yield significant improvements in traffic safety knowledge. The statistical findings of the WalkSafe Pre-Kindergarten Pedestrian Safety Curriculum revealed statistically significant improvements in pedestrian safety knowledge of these young children. Future research efforts will focus on longitudinal behavioral changes in these students and an increase in pedestrian safety behaviors (e.g., utilization of crosswalks or sidewalks). PMID:27618373

  7. New registered nurses' personal responses to professional practice: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ashton, Kathleen S

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study employed a qualitative description design to inquire into new registered nurses' (RNs') personal responses to being a "new nurse." Six new RNs participated in semistructured interviews. The findings of this pilot study can be used to guide educational activities for nurse leaders and others who work with new RNs. Several strategies are discussed, which may ease new RNs' transition into professional practice.

  8. Exploring spatial overlap of high-uptake regions derived from dual tracer positron emission tomography-computer tomography imaging using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and 18F-fluorodeoxythymidine in nonsmall cell lung cancer patients: a prospective pilot study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Li, Chengqiang; Hu, Man; Lu, Jie; Shi, Xiaorong; Xing, Ligang; Sun, Xindong; Fu, Zheng; Yu, Jinming; Meng, Xue

    2015-05-01

    Interest is growing in radiotherapy to nonuniformly boost radioresistant regions within nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using molecular imaging techniques. The complexity of tumor behavior is beyond the ability of any single radiotracer to reveal. We hold dual tracer positron emission tomography-computer tomography (PET/CT) imaging with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and fluorodeoxythymidine (FLT) for NSCLC patients to offer an integrated overlook of tumor biological behaviors quantitatively and localizationally, which may help biological target volume delineation and subvolume boost.Pathological confirmed that NSCLC patients were eligible. FDG and FLT PET/CT were performed for each patient before anticancer treatment and coregistrated for analysis. Maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUVmax and SUVmean) were calculated automatically. Metabolic volumes (MVs) were delineated by a fixed 50% of SUVmax in FDG PET/CT and proliferative volumes (PVs) were delineated by 50% to 90% of SUVmax with 10% interval in FLT PET/CT. Overlap ratio (OR) were determined as overlapped volume between MV and PV divided PV. Conventional contrast-enhanced CT-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans with and without additional PET/CT-guided subtarget boost were made for each of the 5 typical NSCLC patients. Dosimetric parameters derived from dose-volume histogram, tumor control probability (TCP), and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) of lung, esophagus, heart, and spinal cord were calculated and compared.Thirty-one patients were prospectively included and 23 were selected for analysis. Totally, 23 primary diseases, 41 metastatic lymph nodes, and 15 metastatic lesions were positive in dual PET/CTs and included for analysis. Median ORs increased from 58.61% to 93.12% under thresholds of 50% of SUVmax in FDG PET/CT and increased thresholds from 50% to 90% of SUVmax in FLT PET/CT. Based on conventional IMRT, additional boost to union of high FDG (determined by 50

  9. A Pilot Study of Bar Codes in a Canadian Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Brisseau, Lionel; Chiveri, Andrei; Lebel, Denis; Bussières, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    Background: In 2004, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a new rule requiring most prescription and some over-the-counter pharmaceutical products to carry bar codes down to the level of individual doses, with the intent of reducing the number of medication errors. Despite these regulatory changes in the United States, Health Canada has not yet adopted any mandatory bar-coding of drugs. Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of using commercial bar codes for receipt and preparation of drug products and to evaluate the readability of the bar codes printed on various levels of drug packaging. Methods: This cross-sectional observational pilot study was conducted in the Pharmacy Department of a Canadian mother–child university hospital centre in July 2010. For the purposes of the study, research drugs and cytotoxic drugs in various storage areas, as well as locally compounded medications with bar codes generated in house, were excluded. For all other drug products, the presence or absence of bar codes was documented for each level of packaging, along with the trade and generic names, content (i.e., drug product), quantity of doses or level of packaging, therapeutic class (if applicable), type of bar code (1- or 2-dimensional symbology), alphanumeric value contained in the bar code, standard of reference used to generate the alphanumeric value (Universal Product Code [UPC], Global Trade Item Number [GTIN], or unknown), and readability of the bar codes by 2 scanners. Results: Only 33 (1.9%) of the 1734 products evaluated had no bar codes on any level of packaging. Of the 2875 levels of packaging evaluated, 2021 (70.3%) had at least one bar code. Of the 2384 bar codes evaluated, 2353 (98.7%) were linear (1-dimensional) and 31 (1.3%) were 2-dimensional. Well over three-quarters (2112 or 88.6%) of the evaluated bar codes were readable by at least 1 of the 2 scanners used in the study. Conclusions: On the basis of these results, bar-coding could be used for receipt

  10. Using Smartphones to Monitor Bipolar Disorder Symptoms: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kindermann, Sally; Maier, Andreas; Kerl, Christopher; Moock, Jörn; Barbian, Guido; Rössler, Wulf

    2016-01-01

    Background Relapse prevention in bipolar disorder can be improved by monitoring symptoms in patients' daily life. Smartphone apps are easy-to-use, low-cost tools that can be used to assess this information. To date, few studies have examined the usefulness of smartphone data for monitoring symptoms in bipolar disorder. Objective We present results from a pilot test of a smartphone-based monitoring system, Social Information Monitoring for Patients with Bipolar Affective Disorder (SIMBA), that tracked daily mood, physical activity, and social communication in 13 patients. The objective of this study was to investigate whether smartphone measurements predicted clinical symptoms levels and clinical symptom change. The hypotheses that smartphone measurements are (1) negatively related to clinical depressive symptoms and (2) positively related to clinical manic symptoms were tested. Methods Clinical rating scales were administered to assess clinical depressive and manic symptoms. Patients used a smartphone with the monitoring app for up to 12 months. Random-coefficient multilevel models were computed to analyze the relationship between smartphone data and externally rated manic and depressive symptoms. Overall clinical symptom levels and clinical symptom changes were predicted by separating between-patient and within-patient effects. Using established clinical thresholds from the literature, marginal effect plots displayed clinical relevance of smartphone data. Results Overall symptom levels and change in clinical symptoms were related to smartphone measures. Higher overall levels of clinical depressive symptoms were predicted by lower self-reported mood measured by the smartphone (beta=-.56, P<.001). An increase in clinical depressive symptoms was predicted by a decline in social communication (ie, outgoing text messages: beta=-.28, P<.001) and a decline in physical activity as measured by the smartphone (ie, cell tower movements: beta=-.11, P=.03). Higher overall

  11. [Psychological and neurologic long-term consequences of brain tumors in children. A pilot study].

    PubMed

    Fossen, A; Skjeldal, O H; Storm-Mathisen, I

    1989-11-30

    Brain tumor is one of the most common forms of cancer in children. The therapy includes surgical interventions, radiation of the central nervous system and chemotherapy. Combining these methods of treatment has remarkably improved the survival of children with certain brain tumours (e.g. medulloblastoma). However, long-term studies have revealed serious psychological and somatic consequences of the disease and the treatment. This paper presents the results of a pilot study of nine children with brain tumor. The patients were examined using a battery of neuropsychological methods (Luria's Neuropsychological Investigation, WISC-R), a semi-structured interview (Child Assessment Schedule), a parent report form (Achenbach Child Behaviour Checklist) and a clinical neurological examination. The most striking finding from this investigation was in the psychosocial field. Except for one child, all the patients showed an introvert reaction pattern with a tendency towards anxiety, depression and social withdrawal. All the children showed some neurological and neuropsychological deficits. Except in the case of two mentally retarded children, cognitive functions were within the lower normal range. Specific learning, memory and fine-motor disabilities were found in more than half of the patients. The investigation suggested that both fine-motor and mental performance was detrimentally affected by increased speed. This seems to be an area of special interest for further studies.

  12. Bilingual Text4Walking Food Service Employee Intervention Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Diana; Wilbur, JoEllen; Fogg, Louis; Sandi, Giselle; Moss, Angela; Ocampo, Edith V

    2016-01-01

    Background Half of all adults in the United States do not meet the level of recommended aerobic physical activity. Physical activity interventions are now being conducted in the workplace. Accessible technology, in the form of widespread usage of cell phones and text messaging, is available for promoting physical activity. Objective The purposes of this study, which was conducted in the workplace, were to determine (1) the feasibility of implementing a bilingual 12-week Text4Walking intervention and (2) the effect of the Text4Walking intervention on change in physical activity and health status in a food service employee population. Methods Before conducting the study reported here, the Text4Walking research team developed a database of motivational physical activity text messages in English. Because Hispanic or Latino adults compose one-quarter of all adults employed in the food service industry, the Text4Walking team translated the physical activity text messages into Spanish. This pilot study was guided by the Physical Activity Health Promotion Framework and used a 1-group 12-week pre- and posttest design with food service employees who self-reported as being sedentary. The aim of the study was to increase the number of daily steps over the baseline by 3000 steps. Three physical activity text messages were delivered weekly. In addition, participants received 3 motivational calls during the study. Results SPSS version 19.0 and R 3.0 were used to perform the data analysis. There were 33 employees who participated in the study (57.6% female), with a mean age of 43.7 years (SD 8.4). The study included 11 Hispanic or Latino participants, 8 of whom requested that the study be delivered in Spanish. There was a 100% retention rate in the study. At baseline, the participants walked 102 (SD 138) minutes/day (per self-report). This rate increased significantly (P=.008) to 182 (SD 219) minutes/day over the course of the study. The participants had a baseline mean of 10

  13. Mortality among British Columbia pilots.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, D A; Band, P R; Threlfall, W J; Gallagher, R P

    1991-04-01

    We studied the mortality experience of all pilots who died in the province of British Columbia between 1950 and 1984, using proportional mortality ratios (PMR) and proportional cancer mortality ratios (PCMR). There were 341 deaths during that time in males whose usual occupation was listed as pilot. The PMR for aircraft accidents was significantly elevated (PMR = 3196, 95% C.I. 2810, 3634), and the PMR for atherosclerotic heart disease was significantly depressed (PMR = 47, 95% C.I. 30, 70). Although based on small numbers of deaths, and not statistically significant, elevated PCMRs were seen for cancers of the colon, brain, and nervous system, as well as for Hodgkin's disease. These findings suggest the need for further epidemiologic studies of commercial airline pilots. PMID:2031640

  14. Treatment of Palmar Plantar Erythrodysesthesia (PPE) with Topical Sildenafil: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Meadows, Kellen L.; Rushing, Christel; Honeycutt, Wanda; Latta, Kenneth; Howard, Leigh; Arrowood, Christy A.; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Hurwitz, Herbert I.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Palmar-plantar erythrodysethesia (PPE) is a common chemotherapy and anti-VEGF multi-kinase inhibitor class-related toxicity that often results in debilitating skin changes and often limits the use of active anti-cancer regimens. Mechanistic and anecdotal clinical evidence suggested that topical application of sildenafil cream may help reduce the severity of PPE. Therefore, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study to evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of topical sildenafil cream for the treatment of PPE. Methods Eligible subjects were required to have grade 1–3 PPE associated with either capecitabine or sunitinib. Subjects were randomized to receive 1% topical sildenafil cream to the left extremities or right extremities and placebo cream on the opposite extremity. 0.5 mL of cream was applied to each affected hand/foot two times per day. The primary endpoint was improvement in PPE grading at any point on study. Clinical assessments were evaluated by NCI-CTC 4.0 grading and patient self-reported pain. Results Ten subjects were enrolled; 9 were evaluable for safety and efficacy. Five of nine subjects reported some improvement in foot pain and 3 of 8 subjects for hand pain improvement. One of these subjects noted specific improvement in tactile function. No treatment-related toxicities were observed. Conclusions In this limited, single center study, topical cream containing 1% sildenafil is feasible to administer, is well-tolerated, and may mitigate PPE-related symptoms due to anti-cancer therapeutic agents. Further validation is necessary. PMID:25341548

  15. [Cancer treatment and death studies].

    PubMed

    Shimazono, Susumu

    2009-10-01

    In the West, death studies has become a new academic area since around 1970. The driving force is the hospice movement. People now ask questions such as how to care for dying people and their relatives. Because the main clients in hospice and palliative care are cancer patients, cancer treatment and death studies are closely linked to each other. The rise of death studies is connected with the awareness of the limits of modern medicine. Medical staffs are forced to learn how to care for those patients facing death. But modern medicine has put exclusive emphasis on biomedical treatment to cure. Contemporary medicine is becoming more and more aware of the psychological and spiritual needs of the patient. Today medicine and medical education have to incorporate the perspectives from death studies, learning how human beings facing death can live a better life not only in physical terms but also in psychological, social and spiritual terms.

  16. Clinicopathologic study in uterine cancer.

    PubMed

    Vandenput, I

    2011-01-01

    Patients with primary advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer are relatively uncommon and deserve better treatment options. Current treatment options are surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapy. Since the outcome is still poor, there is a need to improve our knowledge on molecular markers in order to personalize treatment. In addition, we need to continue the search for new treatment strategies with a better balance between efficacy and toxicity. In this doctoral thesis, we documented that among molecular and histological markers, blood vessel space involvement and chemotherapy induced regressive changes are new prognostic markers in endometrial cancer. We demonstrated that the tumour biology changes during tumour evolution. The optimal moment to decide on tumour biology is therefore the recurrent setting. A biopsy of the recurrent tumour is the best guarantee to characterize the tumour correctly. Furthermore, this study showed that neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by interval debulking is a valuable treatment option for endometrial cancer with transperitoneal spread since optimal cytoreduction was achieved in 78% with a low morbidity. Future studies should look into new biomarkers that predict antitumoral activity and should search for mutations in endometrial cancer and analyse which mutation is sensitive for therapy. PMID:24753865

  17. Pilot In-Trail Procedure Validation Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bussink, Frank J. L.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Chamberlain, James P.; Chartrand, Ryan; Jones, Kenneth M.

    2008-01-01

    A Human-In-The-Loop experiment was conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) to investigate the viability of the In-Trail Procedure (ITP) concept from a flight crew perspective, by placing participating airline pilots in a simulated oceanic flight environment. The test subject pilots used new onboard avionics equipment that provided improved information about nearby traffic and enabled them, when specific criteria were met, to request an ITP flight level change referencing one or two nearby aircraft that might otherwise block the flight level change. The subject pilots subjective assessments of ITP validity and acceptability were measured via questionnaires and discussions, and their objective performance in appropriately selecting, requesting, and performing ITP flight level changes was evaluated for each simulated flight scenario. Objective performance and subjective workload assessment data from the experiment s test conditions were analyzed for statistical and operational significance and are reported in the paper. Based on these results, suggestions are made to further improve the ITP.

  18. Coal resources available for development; a methodology and pilot study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggleston, Jane R.; Carter, M. Devereux; Cobb, James C.

    1990-01-01

    Coal accounts for a major portion of our Nation's energy supply in projections for the future. A demonstrated reserve base of more than 475 billion short tons, as the Department of Energy currently estimates, indicates that, on the basis of today's rate of consumption, the United States has enough coal to meet projected energy needs for almost 200 years. However, the traditional procedures used for estimating the demonstrated reserve base do not account for many environmental and technological restrictions placed on coal mining. A new methodology has been developed to determine the quantity of coal that might actually be available for mining under current and foreseeable conditions. This methodology is unique in its approach, because it applies restrictions to the coal resource before it is mined. Previous methodologies incorporated restrictions into the recovery factor (a percentage), which was then globally applied to the reserve (minable coal) tonnage to derive a recoverable coal tonnage. None of the previous methodologies define the restrictions and their area and amount of impact specifically. Because these restrictions and their impacts are defined in this new methodology, it is possible to achieve more accurate and specific assessments of available resources. This methodology has been tested in a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Kentucky Geological Survey on the Matewan 7.5-minute quadrangle in eastern Kentucky. Pertinent geologic, mining, land-use, and technological data were collected, assimilated, and plotted. The National Coal Resources Data System was used as the repository for data, and its geographic information system software was applied to these data to eliminate restricted coal and quantify that which is available for mining. This methodology does not consider recovery factors or the economic factors that would be considered by a company before mining. Results of the pilot study indicate that, of the estimated

  19. Pilot Study of Exercise Therapy on Painful Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Min; D’Silva, Linda; Martin, Katherine; Sharma, Neena; Pasnoor, Mamatha; LeMaster, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Objective Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common complication of diabetes. While the beneficial effect of exercise on diabetes is well established, its effect specifically on painful DPN has not been thoroughly explored. The objective of this pilot study was to examine the effect of aerobic exercise on pain in people with DPN. Methods Fourteen sedentary individuals (mean age 57±5.11 years) with painful DPN were enrolled in a 16-week, supervised aerobic exercise program. The Brief Pain Inventory-Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (BPI-DPN) was used to assess pain intensity (worst, least, average, now) and pain interference with daily life (activity, mood, walk, normal work, relationship, sleep, enjoyment of life) pre- and post -intervention. Body mass index (BMI), maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and blood pressure were also measured pre-and post-intervention as secondary outcomes of interest. Results Significant reductions in pain interference were observed with walking (4.93±3.03 pre to 3.29±2.89 post, p=0.016), normal work (5.39±3.32 pre to 3.79±3.04 post, p=0.032), relationship with others (3.96±3.53 pre to 1.29±1.27 post, p=0.006), sleep (5.11±3.04 pre to 3.5±3.03 post, p=0.02), and the overall pain interference (4.65±2.70 pre to 2.97±2.22 post, p=0.013) following the intervention; however, there was no change in pain intensity. VO2max increased significantly post-intervention (16.02±3.84ml/kg/min pre to 17.18±4.19ml/kg/min, p=0.028), while BMI, HbA1c, and blood pressure remained unchanged. Conclusion These preliminary results suggest that perceived pain interference may be reduced following an aerobic exercise intervention among people with painful DPN, without a change in pain intensity. Further validation by a RCT is needed. PMID:25800666

  20. Fixation time does not affect expression of HER2/neu: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Julio A; Rogers, Lowell W

    2010-10-01

    It is said that HER2/neu expression by immunohistochemical analysis varies with the time of fixation. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the impact of the length of fixation in 10% buffered formalin on the expression of HER2/neu by immunohistochemical analysis. We studied tissue samples from 10 invasive breast cancer cases after fixation for 3, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours. The tissue was processed immediately after fixation, resembling routine practice. The 50 resulting blocks were then batch stained with PATHWAY HER2/neu clone 4B5 rabbit monoclonal antibody using the Ventana Ultraview DAB detection kit in a Ventana BenchMark XT processor (Ventana, Tucson, AZ). The stained slides were reviewed and scored. We found no significant difference in the intensity of the stain or the percentage of cells stained regardless of the time in fixation. Fixation times between 3 and 120 hours in 10% buffered formalin do not appear to have an impact on the expression of HER2/neu by immunohistochemical analysis.

  1. Physical activity for an ethnically diverse sample of endometrial cancer survivors: a needs assessment and pilot intervention

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Amerigo; Moadel-Robblee, Alyson; Garber, Carol Ewing; Kuo, Dennis; Goldberg, Gary; Einstein, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the physical activity (PA) behavior, needs and preferences for underserved, ethnically diverse women with a history of endometrial cancer (EC). Methods Women with a history of EC (41 non-Hispanic black, 40 non-Hispanic white, and 18 Hispanic) completed a needs assessment during their regular follow-up appointments at Montefiore Medical Center in Bronx, NY, USA. An 8-week pilot PA intervention based on the results of the needs assessment was conducted with 5 EC survivors. Results Mean body mass index (BMI) among the 99 respondents was 34.1±7.6 kg/m2, and 66% did not exercise regularly. Self-described weight status was significantly lower than actual BMI category (p<0.001). Of the 86% who were interested in joining an exercise program, 95% were willing to attend at least once weekly. The primary motivations were improving health, losing weight, and feeling better physically. Despite the high interest in participation, volunteer rate was very low (8%). However, adherence to the 8-week pilot PA intervention was high (83%), and there were no adverse events. Body weight decreased in all pilot participants. Conclusion These data show that ethnically diverse EC survivors have a great need for, and are highly interested in, PA interventions. However, greater care needs to be taken to assess and identify barriers to increase participation in such programs. PMID:25872894

  2. The UK Lung Cancer Screening Trial: a pilot randomised controlled trial of low-dose computed tomography screening for the early detection of lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Field, John K; Duffy, Stephen W; Baldwin, David R; Brain, Kate E; Devaraj, Anand; Eisen, Tim; Green, Beverley A; Holemans, John A; Kavanagh, Terry; Kerr, Keith M; Ledson, Martin; Lifford, Kate J; McRonald, Fiona E; Nair, Arjun; Page, Richard D; Parmar, Mahesh Kb; Rintoul, Robert C; Screaton, Nicholas; Wald, Nicholas J; Weller, David; Whynes, David K; Williamson, Paula R; Yadegarfar, Ghasem; Hansell, David M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lung cancer kills more people than any other cancer in the UK (5-year survival < 13%). Early diagnosis can save lives. The USA-based National Lung Cancer Screening Trial reported a 20% relative reduction in lung cancer mortality and 6.7% all-cause mortality in low-dose computed tomography (LDCT)-screened subjects. OBJECTIVES To (1) analyse LDCT lung cancer screening in a high-risk UK population, determine optimum recruitment, screening, reading and care pathway strategies; and (2) assess the psychological consequences and the health-economic implications of screening. DESIGN A pilot randomised controlled trial comparing intervention with usual care. A population-based risk questionnaire identified individuals who were at high risk of developing lung cancer (≥ 5% over 5 years). SETTING Thoracic centres with expertise in lung cancer imaging, respiratory medicine, pathology and surgery: Liverpool Heart & Chest Hospital, Merseyside, and Papworth Hospital, Cambridgeshire. PARTICIPANTS Individuals aged 50-75 years, at high risk of lung cancer, in the primary care trusts adjacent to the centres. INTERVENTIONS A thoracic LDCT scan. Follow-up computed tomography (CT) scans as per protocol. Referral to multidisciplinary team clinics was determined by nodule size criteria. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Population-based recruitment based on risk stratification; management of the trial through web-based database; optimal characteristics of CT scan readers (radiologists vs. radiographers); characterisation of CT-detected nodules utilising volumetric analysis; prevalence of lung cancer at baseline; sociodemographic factors affecting participation; psychosocial measures (cancer distress, anxiety, depression, decision satisfaction); and cost-effectiveness modelling. RESULTS A total of 247,354 individuals were approached to take part in the trial; 30.7% responded positively to the screening invitation. Recruitment of participants resulted in 2028 in the CT arm and 2027 in

  3. [Functional Neuroimaging Pilot Study of Borderline Personality Disorder in Adolescents].

    PubMed

    LeBoeuf, Amélie; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Labelle, Réal; Luck, David

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is being increasingly recognized by clinicians working with adolescents, and the reliability and validity of the diagnosis have been established in the adolescent population. Adolescence is known to be a period of high risk for BPD development as most patients identify the onset of their symptoms to be in the adolescent period. As with other mental health disorders, personality disorder, are thought to result from the interaction between biological and environmental factors. Functional neuroimaging studies are reporting an increasing amount of data on abnormal neuronal functions in BPD adult patients. However, no functional neuroimaging studies have been conducted in adolescents with BPD.Objectives This pilot project aims to evaluate the feasibility of a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study coupled with clinical and psychological measures in adolescent girls with a diagnosis of BPD. It also aims to identify neuronal regions of interest (ROI) for the study of BPD in adolescent girls.Method Six female adolescents meeting DSM-IV criteria for BPD and 6 female adolescents without psychiatric disorder were recruited. Both groups were evaluated for BPD symptoms, depressive symptoms, impulsivity, affective lability, and other potential psychiatric comorbidities. We used fMRI to compare patterns of regional brain activation between these two groups as they viewed 20 positive, 20 negative and 20 neutral emotion-inducing pictures, which were presented in random order.Results Participants were recruited over a period of 22 months. The protocol was well tolerated by participants. Mean age of the BPD group and control group was 15.8 ± 0.9 years-old and 15.5 ± 1.2 years-old respectively. Psychiatric comorbidity and use of medication was common among participants in the BPD group. This group showed higher impulsivity and affective lability scores. For the fMRI task, BPD patients demonstrated greater differences in activation

  4. ASPREE Cancer Endpoints Study | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The ASPREE Cancer Endpoint Study (ACES), an ancillary study of the ASPirin in the Prevention of Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) Study, will allow for the examination of the effect of daily low-dose aspirin (100 mg) compared to placebo, on specific DNA biomarkers and selected specific incident and recurrent cancer and metastases. The establishment of this ACES biobank will allow for the exploration of DNA-related molecular mechanisms of aspirin's protective effect against cancer, cancer associated mortality and metastases, using blood or saliva DNA specimens, urine, and tumor tissue. |

  5. Candidate gene polymorphisms and risk of psoriasis: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    VILLARREAL-MARTÍNEZ, ALEJANDRA; GALLARDO-BLANCO, HUGO; CERDA-FLORES, RICARDO; TORRES-MUÑOZ, IRIS; GÓMEZ-FLORES, MINERVA; SALAS-ALANÍS, JULIO; OCAMPO-CANDIANI, JORGE; MARTÍNEZ-GARZA, LAURA

    2016-01-01

    6125829 (allele G: OR 1.98). Fisher's exact test detected statistical significance; however, following false discovery rate and Bonferroni correction, this association was no longer significant (threshold for genome-wide significance, P<1.56×10−3). SNPs that were associated with an increased risk of psoriasis in the present study have previously been associated with psoriasis in European, American, and Asian populations. In order to establish genome-wide significance, future studies must analyze a greater sample size. To the best of our knowledge, the present pilot study is the first to investigate the association between these 32 SNPs and psoriasis in a Mexican Mestizo population. PMID:27073425

  6. A pilot study—is there a role for mitoxantrone pleurodesis in the management of pleural effusion due to lung cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Sreter, Katherina-Bernadette; Jakopovic, Marko; Janevski, Zoran; Samarzija, Miroslav; Kioumis, Ioannis; Mparmpetakis, Nikolaos; Pataka, Athanasia; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Kosmidis, Christoforos; Mpaka, Sofia; Huang, Haidong; Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Charalampidis, Charalampos; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Zaric, Bojan; Milovancev, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of malignant pleural effusion (MPE). Management of MPEs remains a clinical challenge due to recurrence and poor quality of life. An ideal sclerosing agent has yet to be found. The aim of this cohort pilot study was to evaluate the role of mitoxantrone pleurodesis (MP) as an alternative to talc sclerotherapy for managing MPEs in lung cancer patients. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted on consecutively admitted patients with MPE to the Department of Post-Intensive Care at the Clinic for Respiratory Diseases “Jordanovac”, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, in Croatia. Results Of 34 patients with MPE, twenty-one (64.8±9.46 years; 47–84 years) with primary lung carcinoma who received MP (30 mg of mitoxantrone) between December 2003 and February 2009 were included in this study. Chest radiographs taken prior to sclerotherapy and at 1-, 2-, and 3-month follow-up were compared. At the post-sclerotherapy evaluation periods, overall success (OS) rates of MP were 88.2% [17.6%, complete response (CR); 70.6%, partial response (PR)], 53.9% (7.7% CR; 46.2% PR), and 45.5% (PR), respectively. Kaplan-Meier median survival from MP until death was 5.2 months, while that from diagnosis of primary lung cancer was 12.3 months. Conclusions MP may be a safe and effective method of managing MPE due to lung cancer. Future randomized controlled studies comparing mitoxantrone and talc pleurodesis in lung cancer patients are warranted to elucidate whether a significant difference exists between these agents. Factors affecting success, survival probability, and quality of life also require further investigation. PMID:27275475

  7. Pilot Interactions in an Over-Constrained Conflict Scenario as Studied in a Piloted Simulation of Autonomous Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.; Barhydt, Richard; Barmore, Bryan; Krishnamurthy, Karthik

    2003-01-01

    Feasibility and safety of autonomous aircraft operations were studied in a multi-piloted simulation of overconstrained traffic conflicts to determine the need for, and utility of, priority flight rules to maintain safety in this extraordinary and potentially hazardous situation. An overconstrained traffic conflict is one in which the separation assurance objective is incompatible with other objectives. In addition, a proposed scheme for implementing priority flight rules by staggering the alerting time between the two aircraft in conflict was tested for effectiveness. The feasibility study was conducted through a simulation in the Air Traffic Operations Laboratory at the NASA Langley Research Center. This research activity is a continuation of the Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management feasibility analysis reported in the 4th USA/Europe Air Traffic Management R&D Seminar in December 2001 (paper #48). The over-constrained conflict scenario studied here consisted of two piloted aircraft that were assigned an identical en-route waypoint arrival time and altitude crossing restriction. The simulation results indicated that the pilots safely resolved the conflict without the need for a priority flight rule system. Occurrences of unnecessary maneuvering near the common waypoint were traced to false conflict alerts, generated as the result of including waypoint constraint information in the broadcast data link message issued from each aircraft. This result suggests that, in the conservative interests of safety, broadcast intent information should be based on the commanded trajectory and not on the Flight Management System flight plan, to which the aircraft may not actually adhere. The use of priority flight rules had no effect on the percentage of the aircraft population meeting completely predictable which aircraft in a given pair would meet the constraints and which aircraft would make the first maneuver to yield right-of-way. Therefore, the proposed scheme for

  8. Impact of chemical warfare with agent orange on women's reproductive lives in Vietnam: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Le, T N; Johansson, A

    2001-11-01

    During the American war in Vietnam, huge quantities of the highly toxic herbicide dioxin ('Agent Orange'), were sprayed over large areas of central and south Vietnam. In addition to polluting the environment and causing cancers and other diseases in those directly exposed to it, dioxin has caused high rates of pregnancy loss, congenital birth defects and other health problems in their children. This paper reports the findings of a pilot study in the year 2000 among 30 Vietnamese women whose husbands and/or who themselves were exposed to Agent Orange. The aim was to develop research in order to explore the impact of chemical warfare on people's lives. Using the reproductive lifeline and semi-structured interviews, information was gathered on both partners' periods of exposure to Agent Orange, pregnancy outcomes, perceived health problems of children and experiences of living with handicapped children. The women had had a high number of miscarriages and premature births. About two-thirds of their children had congenital malformations or developed disabilities within the first years of life. Most of the families were poor, aggravated by impaired health in the men, the burden of caring for disabled children, and feelings of guilt and inferiority. The plight of 'Agent Orange families' is special and should be placed in its historical and political context.

  9. An intergenerational approach to prostate cancer education: findings from a pilot project in the southeastern USA.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Dawnyea D; Owens, Otis L; Friedman, Daniela B; Hebert, James R

    2014-12-01

    African Americans (AA) are more likely to develop and die from cancer than any other racial or ethnic group. This study assessed older and younger/middle-aged African-American (AA) men's (1) knowledge and attitudes about prostate cancer (PrCA) and PrCA screening, (2) participation in clinical research, and (3) health and cancer-related decision making. Twenty-eight AA men (14 older, mean age 59.8; 14 younger/middle age, mean age 30.4) received a PrCA education program and completed pre/post-education program surveys, as well as qualitative post-education interviews. Younger/middle-aged men were more knowledgeable about PrCA and PrCA screening than older men. Older men reported being invited to participate in a clinical trial more often than younger men but were more likely to report that participation in clinical trials was risky and they did not plan to participate in medical research in the future. Younger/middle-aged men were more willing to participate in a clinical trial in the future and reported fewer barriers to participation in clinical research. There is potential for using intergenerational communication strategies with older/younger AA male dyads in PrCA interventions. PMID:24557505

  10. Evaluating priority setting success in healthcare: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In healthcare today, decisions are made in the face of serious resource constraints. Healthcare managers are struggling to provide high quality care, manage resources effectively, and meet changing patient needs. Healthcare managers who are constantly making difficult resource decisions desire a way to improve their priority setting processes. Despite the wealth of existing priority setting literature (for example, program budgeting and marginal analysis, accountability for reasonableness, the 'describe-evaluate-improve' strategy) there are still no tools to evaluate how healthcare resources are prioritised. This paper describes the development and piloting of a process to evaluate priority setting in health institutions. The evaluation process was designed to examine the procedural and substantive dimensions of priority setting using a multi-methods approach, including a staff survey, decision-maker interviews, and document analysis. Methods The evaluation process was piloted in a mid-size community hospital in Ontario, Canada while its leaders worked through their annual budgeting process. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to analyze the data. Results The evaluation process was both applicable to the context and it captured the budgeting process. In general, the pilot test provided support for our evaluation process and our definition of success, (i.e., our conceptual framework). Conclusions The purpose of the evaluation process is to provide a simple, practical way for an organization to better understand what it means to achieve success in its priority setting activities and identify areas for improvement. In order for the process to be used by healthcare managers today, modification and contextualization of the process are anticipated. As the evaluation process is applied in more health care organizations or applied repeatedly in an organization, it may become more streamlined. PMID:20482843

  11. Defining Feasibility and Pilot Studies in Preparation for Randomised Controlled Trials: Development of a Conceptual Framework

    PubMed Central

    Eldridge, Sandra M.; Lancaster, Gillian A.; Campbell, Michael J.; Thabane, Lehana; Hopewell, Sally; Coleman, Claire L.; Bond, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a framework for defining pilot and feasibility studies focusing on studies conducted in preparation for a randomised controlled trial. To develop the framework, we undertook a Delphi survey; ran an open meeting at a trial methodology conference; conducted a review of definitions outside the health research context; consulted experts at an international consensus meeting; and reviewed 27 empirical pilot or feasibility studies. We initially adopted mutually exclusive definitions of pilot and feasibility studies. However, some Delphi survey respondents and the majority of open meeting attendees disagreed with the idea of mutually exclusive definitions. Their viewpoint was supported by definitions outside the health research context, the use of the terms ‘pilot’ and ‘feasibility’ in the literature, and participants at the international consensus meeting. In our framework, pilot studies are a subset of feasibility studies, rather than the two being mutually exclusive. A feasibility study asks whether something can be done, should we proceed with it, and if so, how. A pilot study asks the same questions but also has a specific design feature: in a pilot study a future study, or part of a future study, is conducted on a smaller scale. We suggest that to facilitate their identification, these studies should be clearly identified using the terms ‘feasibility’ or ‘pilot’ as appropriate. This should include feasibility studies that are largely qualitative; we found these difficult to identify in electronic searches because researchers rarely used the term ‘feasibility’ in the title or abstract of such studies. Investigators should also report appropriate objectives and methods related to feasibility; and give clear confirmation that their study is in preparation for a future randomised controlled trial designed to assess the effect of an intervention. PMID:26978655

  12. Phase I-II pilot study on the efficacy and tolerability of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (Rescue M-VEC) and preoperative radiation therapy for infiltrating bladder cancer: results of an 18-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Voce, S; Montanari, F; Arnone, S; Dal Pozzo, C; Suprani, G; Cerullo, G; Fornarola, V

    1992-06-01

    In spite of the improvement of surgical techniques used alone or in combination with preoperative radiation therapy, more than 50% of the patients with infiltrating transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder die of distant metastases. Systemic antiblastic polychemotherapy has been reported to achieve a complete remission rate of approximately 30% in patients with infiltrating bladder TCC, although there are still doubts relative to the duration of such complete remissions. This study investigated the efficacy and tolerability of a preoperative chemo- and radiotherapeutic treatment modality and the possibility of performing preservative surgery. Thirty-seven patients with bladder TCC stage T2-T4, N0, M0, have been subjected to neoadjuvant chemotherapy according to the "Rescue M-VEC" scheme of methotrexate 30 mg/m2 +folinic acid 15 mg. after 24 hours on days 1, 15, 22; vinblastine 3 mg/m2 on days 1, 15, 22; epidoxorubicin 30 mg/m2 on day 1 and cisplatin 70 mg/m2 on day 1. The course was repeated from day 29. After 2 "Rescue M-VEC" courses, the patients received pelvic cobalt tele-therapy (CTT) combined with cisplatin 24 mg/m2/week. The patients were then restaged. Those with complete remission (CR) received consolidation radiotherapeutic boost combined with cisplatin 24 mg/m2/week, avoiding radical cystectomy. Such treatment was also given to patients with significant partial remission (PR) who had undergone TUR or partial cystectomy. In all the remaining cases we carried out radical cystectomy. We obtained 45.7% CR, 31.4% PR and 22.8% were non-responders (NR), of 35 patients who were evaluable at restaging. Only 9 radical cystectomies were performed in this series. The overall survival rate was 80.6% at a mean follow-up of 18.1 months.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. In vivo modulation of 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) phosphorylation by watercress: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Syed Alwi, Sharifah S; Cavell, Breeze E; Telang, Urvi; Morris, Marilyn E; Parry, Barbara M; Packham, Graham

    2010-11-01

    Dietary intake of isothiocyanates (ITC) has been associated with reduced cancer risk. The dietary phenethyl ITC (PEITC) has previously been shown to decrease the phosphorylation of the translation regulator 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). Decreased 4E-BP1 phosphorylation has been linked to the inhibition of cancer cell survival and decreased activity of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), a key positive regulator of angiogenesis, and may therefore contribute to potential anti-cancer effects of PEITC. In the present study, we have investigated the in vitro and in vivo effects of watercress, which is a rich source of PEITC. We first demonstrated that, similar to PEITC, crude watercress extracts inhibited cancer cell growth and HIF activity in vitro. To examine the effects of dietary intake of watercress, we obtained plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells following the ingestion of an 80 g portion of watercress from healthy participants who had previously been treated for breast cancer. Analysis of PEITC in plasma samples from nine participants demonstrated a mean maximum plasma concentration of 297 nm following the ingestion of watercress. Flow cytometric analysis of 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in peripheral blood cells from four participants demonstrated significantly reduced 4E-BP1 phosphorylation at 6 and 8 h following the ingestion of watercress. Although further investigations with larger numbers of participants are required to confirm these findings, this pilot study suggests that flow cytometry may be a suitable approach to measure changes in 4E-BP1 phosphorylation following the ingestion of watercress, and that dietary intake of watercress may be sufficient to modulate this potential anti-cancer pathway.

  14. CANCER INCIDENCE IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite low mortality and cancer incidence rates overall, farmers may experience excess risk of several cancers. These excesses have been observed in some, but not all, retrospective epidemiological studies of agricultural workers in several countries. Excess risk has been ob...

  15. Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: An Overview

    Cancer.gov

    Health problems that develop years later as a result of a cancer treatment are known as late effects. The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) was started in 1994 to better understand these late effects.

  16. Massage Therapy for Patients with Metastatic Cancer: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Maria; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Davis, Roger B.; Walton, Tracy; Kahn, Janet R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The study objectives were to determine the feasibility and effects of providing therapeutic massage at home for patients with metastatic cancer. Design This was a randomized controlled trial. Settings/location Patients were enrolled at Oncology Clinics at a large urban academic medical center; massage therapy was provided in patients' homes. Subjects Subjects were patients with metastatic cancer. Interventions There were three interventions: massage therapy, no-touch intervention, and usual care. Outcome measures Primary outcomes were pain, anxiety, and alertness; secondary outcomes were quality of life and sleep. Results In this study, it was possible to provide interventions for all patients at home by professional massage therapists. The mean number of massage therapy sessions per patient was 2.8. A significant improvement was found in the quality of life of the patients who received massage therapy after 1-week follow-up, which was not observed in either the No Touch control or the Usual Care control groups, but the difference was not sustained at 1 month. There were trends toward improvement in pain and sleep of the patients after therapeutic massage but not in patients in the control groups. There were no serious adverse events related to the interventions. Conclusions The study results showed that it is feasible to provide therapeutic massage at home for patients with advanced cancer, and to randomize patients to a no-touch intervention. Providing therapeutic massage improves the quality of life at the end of life for patients and may be associated with further beneficial effects, such as improvement in pain and sleep quality. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to substantiate these findings. PMID:23368724

  17. Circadian Gene Variants and Susceptibility to Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, M. Ann; Rees, Simon D.; Hydrie, M. Zafar I.; Shera, A. Samad; Bellary, Srikanth; O’Hare, J. Paul; Kumar, Sudhesh; Taheri, Shahrad; Basit, Abdul; Barnett, Anthony H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Disruption of endogenous circadian rhythms has been shown to increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, suggesting that circadian genes might play a role in determining disease susceptibility. We present the results of a pilot study investigating the association between type 2 diabetes and selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in/near nine circadian genes. The variants were chosen based on their previously reported association with prostate cancer, a disease that has been suggested to have a genetic link with type 2 diabetes through a number of shared inherited risk determinants. Methodology/Principal Findings The pilot study was performed using two genetically homogeneous Punjabi cohorts, one resident in the United Kingdom and one indigenous to Pakistan. Subjects with (N = 1732) and without (N = 1780) type 2 diabetes were genotyped for thirteen circadian variants using a competitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction method. Associations between the SNPs and type 2 diabetes were investigated using logistic regression. The results were also combined with in silico data from other South Asian datasets (SAT2D consortium) and white European cohorts (DIAGRAM+) using meta-analysis. The rs7602358G allele near PER2 was negatively associated with type 2 diabetes in our Punjabi cohorts (combined odds ratio [OR] = 0.75 [0.66–0.86], p = 3.18×10−5), while the BMAL1 rs11022775T allele was associated with an increased risk of the disease (combined OR = 1.22 [1.07–1.39], p = 0.003). Neither of these associations was replicated in the SAT2D or DIAGRAM+ datasets, however. Meta-analysis of all the cohorts identified disease associations with two variants, rs2292912 in CRY2 and rs12315175 near CRY1, although statistical significance was nominal (combined OR = 1.05 [1.01–1.08], p = 0.008 and OR = 0.95 [0.91–0.99], p = 0.015 respectively). Conclusions/significance None of the selected circadian gene

  18. CYCLE pilot: a protocol for a pilot randomised study of early cycle ergometry versus routine physiotherapy in mechanically ventilated patients

    PubMed Central

    Molloy, Alexander J; Clarke, France; Herridge, Margaret S; Koo, Karen K Y; Rudkowski, Jill; Seely, Andrew J E; Pellizzari, Joseph R; Tarride, Jean-Eric; Mourtzakis, Marina; Karachi, Timothy; Cook, Deborah J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Early exercise with in-bed cycling