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Sample records for cancer research network

  1. Research Networks Map | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than 100 sites across the United States. Seven Major Programs' sites are shown on this map. | The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than 100 sites across the United States.

  2. Consumer involvement in cancer research: example from a Cancer Network.

    PubMed

    Arain, Mubashir; Pyne, Sarah; Thornton, Nigel; Palmer, Susan; Sharma, Ricky A

    2015-10-01

    The involvement of consumers and the general public in improving cancer services is an important component of health services. However, consumer involvement in cancer research is relatively unexplored. The objective of this study was to explore different ways of involving consumers in cancer research in one regional network. Thames Valley Cancer Network Consumer Research Partnership (CRP) group was formed in 2009. The group consists of consumers and professionals to help in promoting consumer involvement in Cancer Research in the Thames Valley. This study evaluated the project of consumer involvement in cancer research in the Thames Valley from March 2010 to March 2011. We used different indices to judge the level of consumer involvement: number of projects involving consumers through the group, types of projects, level of involvement (ranged from consultation on research documents to collaborating in preparing grant applications) and the methods of involving consumers in cancer research. Fifteen projects were submitted to the CRP group during the 12-month period studied. Of these, eight projects were clinical trials, three were qualitative research projects, two were patients' surveys and two were non-randomized interventional studies. Seven projects requested consumer involvement on patient information sheets for clinical trials. Of these seven applications, three also requested consumers' help in designing research questionnaires and another three requested that consumers should be involved in their project management group. In addition, four projects involved consumers in the proposal development phase and another four projects asked for advice on how to increase trial recruitment, conduct patient interviews or help with grant applications. The creation of the CRP and this audit of its activity have documented consumer involvement in cancer research in the Thames Valley. We have clearly shown that consumers can be involved in designing and managing cancer

  3. Network for Translational Research - Cancer Imaging Program

    Cancer.gov

    Cooperative agreement (U54) awards to establish Specialized Research Resource Centers that will participate as members of a network of inter-disciplinary, inter-institutional research teams for the purpose of supporting translational research in optical imaging and/or spectroscopy in vivo, with an emphasis on multiple modalities.

  4. Cancer research network: using integrated healthcare delivery systems as platforms for cancer survivorship research.

    PubMed

    Nekhlyudov, Larissa; Greene, Sarah M; Chubak, Jessica; Rabin, Borsika; Tuzzio, Leah; Rolnick, Sharon; Field, Terry S

    2013-03-01

    Much progress has been made in cancer survivorship research, but there are still many unanswered questions that can and need to be addressed by collaborative research consortia. Since 1999, the National Cancer Institute-funded HMO Cancer Research Network (CRN) has engaged in a wide variety of research focusing on cancer survivorship. With a focus on thematic topics in cancer survivorship, we describe how the CRN has contributed to research in cancer survivorship and the resources it offers for future collaborations. We identified the following areas of cancer survivorship research: surveillance for and predictors of recurrences, health care delivery and care coordination, health care utilization and costs, psychosocial outcomes, cancer communication and decision making, late effects of cancer and its treatment, use of and adherence to adjuvant therapies, and lifestyle and behavioral interventions following cancer treatment. With over a decade of experience using cancer data in community-based settings, the CRN investigators and their collaborators are poised to generate evidence in cancer survivorship research. Collaborative research within these settings can improve the quality of care for cancer survivors within and beyond integrated health care delivery systems.

  5. Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... Grants Bladder Cancer Think Tank Bladder Cancer Research Network Bladder Cancer Genomics Consortium Get Involved Ways to ... RESEARCHERS Research Grants Bladder Cancer Think Tank Research Network Explore all research programs View all stories NEWSLETTER ...

  6. Impact of the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network: Accelerating the Translation of Research Into Practice.

    PubMed

    Ribisl, Kurt M; Fernandez, Maria E; Friedman, Daniela B; Hannon, Peggy A; Leeman, Jennifer; Moore, Alexis; Olson, Lindsay; Ory, Marcia; Risendal, Betsy; Sheble, Laura; Taylor, Vicky M; Williams, Rebecca S; Weiner, Bryan J

    2017-03-01

    The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network (CPCRN) is a thematic network dedicated to accelerating the adoption of evidence-based cancer prevention and control practices in communities by advancing dissemination and implementation science. Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Cancer Institute, CPCRN has operated at two levels: Each participating network center conducts research projects with primarily local partners as well as multicenter collaborative research projects with state and national partners. Through multicenter collaboration, thematic networks leverage the expertise, resources, and partnerships of participating centers to conduct research projects collectively that might not be feasible individually. Although multicenter collaboration is often advocated, it is challenging to promote and assess. Using bibliometric network analysis and other graphical methods, this paper describes CPCRN's multicenter publication progression from 2004 to 2014. Searching PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science in 2014 identified 249 peer-reviewed CPCRN publications involving two or more centers out of 6,534 total. The research and public health impact of these multicenter collaborative projects initiated by CPCRN during that 10-year period were then examined. CPCRN established numerous workgroups around topics such as: 2-1-1, training and technical assistance, colorectal cancer control, federally qualified health centers, cancer survivorship, and human papillomavirus. This paper discusses the challenges that arise in promoting multicenter collaboration and the strategies that CPCRN uses to address those challenges. The lessons learned should broadly interest those seeking to promote multisite collaboration to address public health problems, such as cancer prevention and control.

  7. Differential Regulatory Analysis Based on Coexpression Network in Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    With rapid development of high-throughput techniques and accumulation of big transcriptomic data, plenty of computational methods and algorithms such as differential analysis and network analysis have been proposed to explore genome-wide gene expression characteristics. These efforts are aiming to transform underlying genomic information into valuable knowledges in biological and medical research fields. Recently, tremendous integrative research methods are dedicated to interpret the development and progress of neoplastic diseases, whereas differential regulatory analysis (DRA) based on gene coexpression network (GCN) increasingly plays a robust complement to regular differential expression analysis in revealing regulatory functions of cancer related genes such as evading growth suppressors and resisting cell death. Differential regulatory analysis based on GCN is prospective and shows its essential role in discovering the system properties of carcinogenesis features. Here we briefly review the paradigm of differential regulatory analysis based on GCN. We also focus on the applications of differential regulatory analysis based on GCN in cancer research and point out that DRA is necessary and extraordinary to reveal underlying molecular mechanism in large-scale carcinogenesis studies. PMID:27597964

  8. Differential Regulatory Analysis Based on Coexpression Network in Cancer Research.

    PubMed

    Li, Junyi; Li, Yi-Xue; Li, Yuan-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    With rapid development of high-throughput techniques and accumulation of big transcriptomic data, plenty of computational methods and algorithms such as differential analysis and network analysis have been proposed to explore genome-wide gene expression characteristics. These efforts are aiming to transform underlying genomic information into valuable knowledges in biological and medical research fields. Recently, tremendous integrative research methods are dedicated to interpret the development and progress of neoplastic diseases, whereas differential regulatory analysis (DRA) based on gene coexpression network (GCN) increasingly plays a robust complement to regular differential expression analysis in revealing regulatory functions of cancer related genes such as evading growth suppressors and resisting cell death. Differential regulatory analysis based on GCN is prospective and shows its essential role in discovering the system properties of carcinogenesis features. Here we briefly review the paradigm of differential regulatory analysis based on GCN. We also focus on the applications of differential regulatory analysis based on GCN in cancer research and point out that DRA is necessary and extraordinary to reveal underlying molecular mechanism in large-scale carcinogenesis studies.

  9. Active Early Detection Research Network Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Alliance Against Cancer, the network of Italian cancer centers bridging research and care.

    PubMed

    De Paoli, Paolo; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Ferrarini, Manlio; Pelicci, PierGiuseppe; Dellabona, Paolo; De Lorenzo, Francesco; Mantovani, Alberto; Musto, Pellegrino; Opocher, Giuseppe; Picci, Piero; Ricciardi, Walter; De Maria, Ruggero

    2015-11-14

    Alliance Against Cancer (ACC) was established in Rome in 2002 as a consortium of six Italian comprehensive cancer centers (Founders). The aims of ACC were to promote a network among Italian oncologic institutions in order to develop specific, advanced projects in clinical and translational research. During the following years, many additional full and associate members joined ACC, that presently includes the National Institute of Health, 17 research-oriented hospitals, scientific and patient organizations. Furthermore, in the last three years ACC underwent a reorganization process that redesigned the structure, governance and major activities. The present goal of ACC is to achieve high standards of care across Italy, to implement and harmonize principles of modern personalized and precision medicine, by developing cost effective processes and to provide tailored information to cancer patients. We herein summarize some of the major initiatives that ACC is currently developing to reach its goal, including tumor genetic screening programs, establishment of clinical trial programs for cancer patients treated in Italian cancer centers, facilitate their access to innovative drugs under development, improve quality through an European accreditation process (European Organization of Cancer Institutes), and develop international partnerships. In conclusion, ACC is a growing organization, trying to respond to the need of networking in Italy and may contribute significantly to improve the way we face cancer in Europe.

  11. Frederick National Lab and the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network Award Fellowships for KRAS Research | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) recently formed a partnership with the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network (PanCAN) to award a one-year fellowship to two scientists whose research will help lead to new therapies for pancreatic cancer. The scientists will focus on KRAS, a gene in the RAS family that is mutated in 95 percent of pancreatic cancers, according to the National Cancer Institute (NCI).

  12. Frederick National Lab and the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network Award Fellowships for KRAS Research | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) recently formed a partnership with the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network (PanCAN) to award a one-year fellowship to two scientists whose research will help lead to new therapies for pancreatic cancer. The scientists will focus on KRAS, a gene in the RAS family that is mutated in 95 percent of pancreatic cancers, according to the National Cancer Institute (NCI).

  13. Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    http://edrn.nci.nih.gov/EDRN is a collaborative network that maintains comprehensive infrastructure and resources critical to the discovery, development and validation of biomarkers for cancer risk and early detection. The program comprises a public/private sector consortium to accelerate the development of biomarkers that will change medical practice, ensure data reproducibility, and adapt to the changing landscape of biomarker science. | Comprehensive infrastructure and resources critical to discovery, development and validation of biomarkers for cancer risk and early detection.

  14. A Federated Network for Translational Cancer Research Using Clinical Data and Biospecimens.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Rebecca S; Becich, Michael J; Bollag, Roni J; Chavan, Girish; Corrigan, Julia; Dhir, Rajiv; Feldman, Michael D; Gaudioso, Carmelo; Legowski, Elizabeth; Maihle, Nita J; Mitchell, Kevin; Murphy, Monica; Sakthivel, Mayurapriyan; Tseytlin, Eugene; Weaver, JoEllen

    2015-12-15

    Advances in cancer research and personalized medicine will require significant new bridging infrastructures, including more robust biorepositories that link human tissue to clinical phenotypes and outcomes. In order to meet that challenge, four cancer centers formed the Text Information Extraction System (TIES) Cancer Research Network, a federated network that facilitates data and biospecimen sharing among member institutions. Member sites can access pathology data that are de-identified and processed with the TIES natural language processing system, which creates a repository of rich phenotype data linked to clinical biospecimens. TIES incorporates multiple security and privacy best practices that, combined with legal agreements, network policies, and procedures, enable regulatory compliance. The TIES Cancer Research Network now provides integrated access to investigators at all member institutions, where multiple investigator-driven pilot projects are underway. Examples of federated search across the network illustrate the potential impact on translational research, particularly for studies involving rare cancers, rare phenotypes, and specific biologic behaviors. The network satisfies several key desiderata including local control of data and credentialing, inclusion of rich phenotype information, and applicability to diverse research objectives. The TIES Cancer Research Network presents a model for a national data and biospecimen network.

  15. A Federated Network for Translational Cancer Research Using Clinical Data and Biospecimens

    PubMed Central

    Becich, Michael J.; Bollag, Roni J.; Chavan, Girish; Corrigan, Julia; Dhir, Rajiv; Feldman, Michael D.; Gaudioso, Carmelo; Legowski, Elizabeth; Maihle, Nita J.; Mitchell, Kevin; Murphy, Monica; Sakthivel, Mayur; Tseytlin, Eugene; Weaver, JoEllen

    2015-01-01

    Advances in cancer research and personalized medicine will require significant new bridging infrastructures, including more robust biorepositories that link human tissue to clinical phenotypes and outcomes. In order to meet that challenge, four cancer centers formed the TIES Cancer Research Network, a federated network that facilitates data and biospecimen sharing among member institutions. Member sites can access pathology data that is de-identified and processed with the TIES natural language processing system, which creates a repository of rich phenotype data linked to clinical biospecimens. TIES incorporates multiple security and privacy best practices that, combined with legal agreements, network policies and procedures, enable regulatory compliance. The TIES Cancer Research Network now provides integrated access to investigators at all member institutions, where multiple investigator-driven pilot projects are underway. Examples of federated search across the network illustrate the potential impact on translational research, particularly for studies involving rare cancers, rare phenotypes, and specific biologic behaviors. The network satisfies several key desiderata including local control of data and credentialing, inclusion of rich phenotype information, and applicability to diverse research objectives. The TIES Cancer Research Network presents a model for a national data and biospecimen network. PMID:26670560

  16. Building capacity for clinical research in developing countries: the INDOX Cancer Research Network experience.

    PubMed

    Ali, Raghib; Finlayson, Alexander; Indox Cancer Research Network

    2012-01-01

    Transnational Organisations increasingly prioritise the need to support local research capacity in low and middle income countries in order that local priorities are addressed with due consideration of contextual issues. There remains limited evidence on the best way in which this should be done or the ways in which external agencies can support this process.We present an analysis of the learning from the INDOX Research Network, established in 2005 as a partnership between the Institute of Cancer Medicine at the University of Oxford and India's top nine comprehensive cancer centres. INDOX aims to enable Indian centres to conduct clinical research to the highest international standards; to ensure that trials are developed to address the specific needs of Indian patients by involving Indian investigators from the outset; and to provide the training to enable them to design and conduct their own studies. We report on the implementation, outputs and challenges of simultaneously trying to build capacity and deliver meaningful research output.

  17. History of the rare cancer network and past research.

    PubMed

    Mirimanoff, René-Olivier; Ozsahin, Mahmut; Thariat, Juliette; Ozyar, Enis; Schick, Ulrike; Pehlivan, Berrin; Krengli, Marco; Pellanda, Alessandra Franzetti; Vees, Hansjörg; Cai, Ling; Scandolaro, Luciano; Belkacemi, Yazid; Villà, Salvador; Igdem, Sefik; Lutsyk, Myroslav; Miller, Robert C

    2014-07-30

    Approximately, twenty years ago, the Rare Cancer Network (RCN) was formed in Lausanne, Switzerland, to support the study of rare malignancies. The RCN has grown over the years and now includes 130 investigators from twenty-four nations on six continents. The network held its first international symposium in Nice, France, on March 21-22, 2014. The proceedings of that meeting are presented in two companion papers. This manuscript reviews the history of the growth of the RCN and contains the abstracts of fourteen oral presentations made at the meeting of prior RCN studies. From 1993 to 2014, 74 RCN studies have been initiated, of which 54 were completed, 10 are in progress or under analysis, and 9 were stopped due to poor accrual. Forty-four peer reviewed publications have been written on behalf of the RCN.

  18. The Northern Appalachia Cancer Network: Changing Cancer Research, Changing People's Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengerich, Eugene J.; Kluhsman, Brenda C.; Bencivenga, Marcyann M.; Lesko, Samuel M.; Garcia-Dominic, Oralia; Aumiller, Betsy B.; Anderson, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    The Northern Appalachia Cancer Network (NACN) is a community-academic partnership to develop, implement, and evaluate evidence-based interventions intended to reduce the burden of cancer in Appalachian Pennsylvania and New York. The NACN began in 1992 as a loose network of community coalitions intended to implement local programs for cancer…

  19. 2009 Biospecimen research network symposium: advancing cancer research through biospecimen science.

    PubMed

    Moore, Helen M; Compton, Carolyn C; Lim, Mark D; Vaught, Jimmie; Christiansen, Katerina N; Alper, Joe

    2009-09-01

    This report details the proceedings of the 2009 Biospecimen Research Network (BRN) Symposium that took place on March 16 to 18, 2009, the second in a series of annual symposia sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Office of Biorepositories and Biospecimen Research. The BRN Symposium is a public forum addressing the relevance of biospecimen quality to progress in cancer research and the systematic investigation needed to understand how different methods of collection, processing, and storage of human biospecimens affect subsequent molecular research results. More than 300 participants from industry, academia, and government attended the symposium, which featured both formal presentations and a day of workshops aimed at addressing several key issues in biospecimen science. An additional 100 individuals participated via a live webcast (archived at http://brnsymposium.com). The BRN Symposium is part of a larger program designed as a networked, multidisciplinary research approach to increase the knowledge base for biospecimen science. Biospecimens are generally understood to represent an accurate representation of a patient's disease biology, but can instead reflect a combination of disease biology and the biospecimen's response to a wide range of biological stresses. The molecular signatures of disease can thus be confounded by the signatures of biospecimen biological stress, with the potential to affect clinical and research outcomes through incorrect diagnosis of disease, improper use of a given therapy, and irreproducible research results that can lead to misinterpretation of artifacts as biomarkers. Biospecimen research represents the kind of bricks-and-mortar research that provides a solid scientific foundation for future advances that will directly help patients.

  20. Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The goal of BETRNet is to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of esophageal adenocarcinoma by answering key questions related to the progression of the disease, especially in the premalignant stage. In partnership with NCI’s Division of Cancer Biology, multidisciplinary translational research centers collaborate to better understand the biology of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma to improve risk stratification and develop prevention strategies. | Multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration to enhance understanding of Barrett's esophagus and to prevent esophageal adenocarcinoma.

  1. The cancer prevention and control research network: An interactive systems approach to advancing cancer control implementation research and practice.

    PubMed

    Fernández, María E; Melvin, Cathy L; Leeman, Jennifer; Ribisl, Kurt M; Allen, Jennifer D; Kegler, Michelle C; Bastani, Roshan; Ory, Marcia G; Risendal, Betsy C; Hannon, Peggy A; Kreuter, Matthew W; Hebert, James R

    2014-11-01

    Although cancer research has advanced at a rapid pace, a gap remains between what is known about how to improve cancer prevention and control (CPC) and what is implemented as best practices within health care systems and communities. The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network (CPCRN), with more than 10 years of dissemination and implementation research experience, aims to accelerate the uptake and use of evidence-based CPC interventions. The collective work of the CPCRN has facilitated the analysis and categorization of research and implementation efforts according to the Interactive Systems Framework for Dissemination and Implementation (ISF), providing a useful heuristic for bridging the gap between prevention research and practice. The ISF authors have called for examples of its application as input to help refine the model. We provide examples of how the collaborative activities supported by the CPCRN, using community-engaged processes, accelerated the synthesis and translation of evidence, built both general and innovation-specific capacity, and worked with delivery systems to advance cancer control research and practice. The work of the CPCRN has provided real-world examples of the application of the ISF and demonstrated that synthesizing and translating evidence can increase the potential that evidence-based CPC programs will be used and that capacity building for both the support system and the delivery system is crucial for the successful implementation and maintenance of evidence-based cancer control. Adoption and implementation of CPC can be enhanced by better understanding ISF systems and intervening to improve them. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. The Appalachia Cancer Network: Cancer Control Research Among a Rural, Medically Underserved Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengerich, Eugene J.; Wyatt, Stephen W.; Rubio, Angel; Beaulieu, Joyce E.; Coyne, Cathy A.; Fleisher, Linda; Ward, Ann J.; Brown, Pamela K.

    2004-01-01

    Residents of Appalachia, especially those in rural Appalachia, are generally considered to be medically underserved. In fact, cancer mortality in Appalachia, especially in rural Appalachia, is higher than it is in the remainder of the United States. Developing from the Appalachia Leadership Initiative on Cancer, the Appalachia Cancer Network (ACN)…

  3. The Appalachia Cancer Network: Cancer Control Research Among a Rural, Medically Underserved Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengerich, Eugene J.; Wyatt, Stephen W.; Rubio, Angel; Beaulieu, Joyce E.; Coyne, Cathy A.; Fleisher, Linda; Ward, Ann J.; Brown, Pamela K.

    2004-01-01

    Residents of Appalachia, especially those in rural Appalachia, are generally considered to be medically underserved. In fact, cancer mortality in Appalachia, especially in rural Appalachia, is higher than it is in the remainder of the United States. Developing from the Appalachia Leadership Initiative on Cancer, the Appalachia Cancer Network (ACN)…

  4. Maryland's Special Populations Network. A model for cancer disparities research, education, and training.

    PubMed

    Baquet, Claudia R; Mack, Kelly M; Mishra, Shiraz I; Bramble, Joy; Deshields, Mary; Datcher, Delores; Savoy, Mervin; Brooks, Sandra E; Boykin-Brown, Stephanie; Hummel, Kery

    2006-10-15

    The unequal burden of cancer in minority and underserved communities nationally and in Maryland is a compelling crisis. The Maryland Special Populations Cancer Research Network (MSPN) developed an infrastructure covering Maryland's 23 jurisdictions and Baltimore City through formal partnerships between the University of Maryland School of Medicine, University of Maryland Statewide Health Network, University of Maryland Eastern Shore, and community partners in Baltimore City, rural Eastern Shore, rural Western Maryland, rural Southern Maryland, and Piscataway Conoy Tribe and statewide American Indians. Guided by the community-based participatory framework, the MSPN undertook a comprehensive assessment (of needs, strengths, and resources available) that laid the foundation for programmatic efforts in community-initiated cancer awareness and education, research, and training. The MSPN infrastructure was used to implement successful and innovative community-based cancer education interventions and technological solutions; conduct education and promotion of clinical trials, cancer health disparities research, and minority faculty cancer research career development; and leverage additional resources for sustainability. MSPN engaged in informed advocacy among decision- and policymakers at state and national levels, and its community-based clinical trials program was recognized by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services as a Best Practice Award. The solutions to reduce and eliminate cancer health disparities are complex and require comprehensive and focused multidisciplinary cancer health disparities research, training, and education strategies implemented through robust community-academic partnerships. Cancer 2006. (c) American Cancer Society.

  5. Asian American Network for Cancer Awareness, Research, and Training's legacy. The first 5 years.

    PubMed

    Chen, Moon S; Shinagawa, Susan M; Bal, Dileep G; Bastani, Roshan; Chow, Edward A; Ho, Reginald C S; Jones, Lovell; McPhee, Stephen J; Senie, Ruby; Taylor, Vicky; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Stewart, Susan; Koh, Howard K; Li, Frederick P

    2006-10-15

    The Asian American Network for Cancer Awareness, Research, and Training (AANCART) is the first special populations network for Asian Americans on a national basis and includes collaborating organizations from Boston, New York, Houston, Seattle, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Hawaii, and Sacramento (where it is headquartered at the University of California, Davis). NCI funding of AANCART in 2000 brought together investigators and leaders from 9 cities across 6 states to establish an infrastructure for addressing cancer awareness, research, and training. Since 2000, AANCART has conducted needs assessments, held community awareness activities and trainings, trained trainees, sponsored National Asian American Cancer Control Academies, and produced presentations, publications, and grants. All specific aims have been attained, including the establishment of an infrastructure to promote Asian American cancer awareness, research, and training in 4 targeted regions; the establishment of partnerships to promote accrual to clinical trials, training, and pilot studies; and the formulation and successful implementation of grant-funded research to reduce the cancer burden among Asian Americans. AANCART's first 5 years have increased cancer awareness, trained special populations scientists, and advanced the field of Asian American cancer control research. Cancer 2006. (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.

  6. The intellectual property management for data sharing in a German liver cancer research network.

    PubMed

    He, Shan; Ganzinger, Matthias; Knaup, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Sharing data in biomedical research networks has great potential benefits including efficient use of resources, avoiding duplicate experiments and promoting collaboration. However, concerns from data producers about difficulties of getting proper acknowledgement for their contributions are becoming obstacles for efficient and network wide data sharing in reality. Effective and convenient ways of intellectual property management and acknowledging contributions to the data producers are required. This paper analyzed the system requirements for intellectual property management in a German liver cancer research network and proposed solutions for facilitating acknowledgement of data contributors using informatics tools instead of pure policy level strategies.

  7. Social Networking Site Usage Among Childhood Cancer Survivors - A Potential Tool for Research Recruitment?

    PubMed Central

    Seltzer, Erica D.; Stolley, Melinda R.; Mensah, Edward K.; Sharp, Lisa K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The recent and rapid growth of social networking site (SNS) use presents a unique public health opportunity to develop effective strategies for the recruitment of hard-to-reach participants for cancer research studies. This survey investigated childhood cancer survivors’ reported use of SNS such as facebook or MySpace and their perceptions of using SNS, for recruitment into survivorship research. Methods Sixty White, Black and Hispanic, adult childhood cancer survivors (range 18 – 48 years of age) that were randomly selected from a larger childhood cancer study, the Chicago Healthy Living Study (CHLS), participated in this pilot survey. Telephone surveys were conducted to understand current SNS activity and attitudes towards using SNS as a cancer research recruitment tool. Results Seventy percent of participants reported SNS usage of which 80% were at least weekly users and 79 % reported positive attitudes towards the use of SNS as a recruitment tool for survivorship research. Conclusions and implications for cancer survivors The results of this pilot study revealed that SNS use was high and regular among the childhood cancer survivors sampled. Most had positive attitudes towards using SNS for recruitment of research. The results of this pilot survey suggest that SNS may offer an alternative approach for recruitment of childhood cancer survivors into research. PMID:24532046

  8. The role of organizational affiliations and research networks in the diffusion of breast cancer treatment innovation.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, William R; Reeder-Hayes, Katherine; Bainbridge, John; Meyer, Anne-Marie; Amos, Keith D; Weiner, Bryan J; Godley, Paul A

    2011-02-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) sees provider-based research networks and other organizational linkages between academic researchers and community practitioners as promising vehicles for accelerating the translation of research into practice. This study examines whether organizational research affiliations and teaching affiliations are associated with accelerated diffusion of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), an innovation in the treatment of early-stage breast cancer. Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare data were used to examine the diffusion of SLNB for treatment of early-stage breast cancer among women aged 65 years and older diagnosed between 2000 and 2002, shortly after Medicare approved and began reimbursing for the procedure. In this population, patients treated at an organization affiliated with a research network--the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG) or other National Cancer Institute (NCI) cooperative groups--were more likely to receive the innovative treatment (SLNB) than patients treated at unaffiliated organizations (odds ratio: 2.70, 95% confidence interval: 1.77-4.12; odds ratio: 1.84, 95% confidence interval: 1.26-2.69, respectively). Neither hospital teaching status nor surgical volume was significantly associated with differences in SLNB use. Patients who receive cancer treatment at organizations affiliated with cancer research networks have an enhanced probability of receiving SLNB, an innovative procedure that offers the promise of improved patient outcomes. Study findings support the NIH Roadmap and programs such as the NCI's Community Clinical Oncology Program, as they seek to accelerate the translation of research into practice by simultaneously accelerating and broadening cancer research in the community.

  9. Social networking site usage among childhood cancer survivors--a potential tool for research recruitment?

    PubMed

    Seltzer, Erica D; Stolley, Melinda R; Mensah, Edward K; Sharp, Lisa K

    2014-09-01

    The recent and rapid growth of social networking site (SNS) use presents a unique public health opportunity to develop effective strategies for the recruitment of hard-to-reach participants for cancer research studies. This survey investigated childhood cancer survivors' reported use of SNS such as Facebook or MySpace and their perceptions of using SNS, for recruitment into survivorship research. Sixty White, Black, and Hispanic adult childhood cancer survivors (range 18-48 years of age) that were randomly selected from a larger childhood cancer study, the Chicago Healthy Living Study, participated in this pilot survey. Telephone surveys were conducted to understand current SNS activity and attitudes towards using SNS as a cancer research recruitment tool. Seventy percent of participants reported SNS usage of which 80 % were at least weekly users and 79 % reported positive attitudes towards the use of SNS as a recruitment tool for survivorship research. The results of this pilot study revealed that SNS use was high and regular among the childhood cancer survivors sampled. Most had positive attitudes towards using SNS for recruitment of research. The results of this pilot survey suggest that SNS may offer an alternative approach for recruitment of childhood cancer survivors into research.

  10. APOLLO Network | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The Applied Proteogenomics OrganizationaL Learning and Outcomes (APOLLO) network is a collaboration between NCI, the Department of Defense (DoD), and the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) to incorporate proteogenomics into patient care as a way of looking beyond the genome, to the activity and expression of the proteins that the genome encodes.

  11. Optimizing Social Network Support to Families Living With Parental Cancer: Research Protocol for the Cancer-PEPSONE Study.

    PubMed

    Hauken, May Aasebø; Senneseth, Mette; Dyregrov, Atle; Dyregrov, Kari

    2015-12-30

    by November 2015. To our knowledge, this will be the first RCT study to optimize social network support through a psycho-educational program for families living with parental cancer and their network members, as well as provide an evidence basis for social network support. The results may provide important knowledge that is useful for clinical practice and further research. The trial is reported according to the CONSORT checklist. International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 15982171; http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN15982171/15982171 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6cg9zunS0).

  12. Optimizing Social Network Support to Families Living With Parental Cancer: Research Protocol for the Cancer-PEPSONE Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    first results are anticipated to be finished by November 2015. Conclusions To our knowledge, this will be the first RCT study to optimize social network support through a psycho-educational program for families living with parental cancer and their network members, as well as provide an evidence basis for social network support. The results may provide important knowledge that is useful for clinical practice and further research. The trial is reported according to the CONSORT checklist. ClinicalTrial International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 15982171; http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN15982171/15982171 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6cg9zunS0) PMID:26733339

  13. [Clinical research activity of the French cancer cooperative network: Overview and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Dubois, Claire; Morin, Franck; Moro-Sibilot, Denis; Langlais, Alexandra; Seitz, Jean-François; Girault, Cécile; Salles, Gilles; Haioun, Corinne; Deschaseaux, Pascal; Casassus, Philippe; Mathiot, Claire; Pujade-Lauraine, Éric; Votan, Bénédicte; Louvet, Christophe; Delpeut, Christine; Bardet, Étienne; Vintonenko, Nadejda; Hoang Xuan, Khê; Vo, Maryline; Michon, Jean; Milleron, Bernard

    The French Cancer Plan 2014-2019 stresses the importance of strengthening collaboration between all stakeholders involved in the fight against cancer, including cancer cooperative groups and intergroups. This survey aimed to describe the basics characteristics and clinical research activity among the Cancer Cooperative Groups (Groupes coopérateurs en oncologie). The second objective was to identify facilitators and barriers to their research activity. A questionnaire was sent to all the clinicians involved in 2014 as investigators in a clinical trial sponsored by one of the ten members of the Cancer Cooperative Groups network. The questions were related to their profile, research activity and the infrastructure existing within their healthcare center to support clinical research and related compliance activities. In total, 366 investigators responded to our survey. The academic clinical trials sponsored by the Cancer Cooperative Groups represented an important part of the research activity of the investigators in France in 2014. These academic groups contributed to the opening of many research sites throughout all regions in France. Factors associated with a higher participation of investigators (more than 10 patients enrolled in a trial over a year) include the existing support of healthcare professionals (more than 2 clinical research associate (CRA) OR=11.16 [3.82-32.6] compared to none) and the practice of their research activity in a University Hospital Center (CHU) rather than a Hospital Center (CH) (OR=2.15 [1.20-3.83]). This study highlighted factors that can strengthen investigator clinical research activities and subsequently improve patient access to evidence-based new cancer therapies in France. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. The greater Denver Latino Cancer Prevention/Control Network. Prevention and research through a community-based approach.

    PubMed

    Flores, Estevan; Espinoza, Paula; Jacobellis, Jillian; Bakemeier, Richard; Press, Norma

    2006-10-15

    The Latino/a Research & Policy Center (LRPC), at the University of Colorado (UC) at Denver and Health Sciences Center built the Greater Denver Latino Cancer Prevention Network, a successful cancer prevention network, in 6 Denver metro area counties. The Network consisted of 23 Latino community-based organizations, health clinics, social service agencies, faith-based groups, and employee-based organizations; 2 migrant health clinics; and 14 scientific partners including the UC Comprehensive Cancer Center, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, and the American Cancer Society. The Network focused on 5 significant cancers: breast, cervical, lung, colorectal, and prostate cancer. The Steering Committee initiated a review process for junior researchers that resulted in 5 NCI-funded pilot projects. Pilot projects were conducted with various Latino populations. The Network developed community education and health promotion projects including the bilingual outreach play The Cancer Monologues. The Network's partnership also started and held 2 annual health fairs, Dia de la Mujer Latina/Day of the Latina Woman, and annual health prevention summits. The Special Population Network (SPN) adapted and revised a clinical trials education outreach module that reached Network community partners. SPN partners recruited Latino/a students to cancer research through a6-week NCI training program held yearly at the UCHSC campus. The Network methodology of bringing together the Latino community with the scientific community increased the level of awareness of cancer in the Latino community and increased cancer research and the level of engagement of the scientific partners with the Latino community. Cancer 2006. (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.

  15. Leadership in complex networks: the importance of network position and strategic action in a translational cancer research network

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Leadership behaviour in complex networks is under-researched, and little has been written concerning leadership of translational research networks (TRNs) that take discoveries made ‘at the bench’ and translate them into practices used ‘at the bedside.’ Understanding leaders’ opportunities and behaviours within TRNs working to solve this key problem in implementing evidence into clinical practice is therefore important. This study explored the network position of governing body members and perceptions of their role in a new TRN in Sydney, Australia. The paper asks three questions: Firstly, do the formal, mandated leaders of this TRN hold key positions of centrality or brokerage in the informal social network of collaborative ties? Secondly, if so, do they recognise the leadership opportunities that their network positions afford them? Thirdly, what activities associated with these key roles do they believe will maximise the TRN’s success? Methods Semi-structured interviews of all 14 governing body members conducted in early 2012 explored perceptions of their roles and sought comments on a list of activities drawn from review of successful transdisciplinary collaboratives combined with central and brokerage roles. An on-line, whole network survey of all 68 TRN members sought to understand and map existing collaborative connections. Leaders’ positions in the network were assessed using UCInet, and graphs were generated in NetDraw. Results Social network analysis identified that governing body members had high centrality and high brokerage potential in the informal network of work-related ties. Interviews showed perceived challenges including ‘silos’ and the mismatch between academic and clinical goals of research. Governing body members recognised their central positions, which would facilitate the leadership roles of leading, making decisions, and providing expert advice necessary for the co-ordination of effort and relevant input across

  16. Leadership in complex networks: the importance of network position and strategic action in a translational cancer research network.

    PubMed

    Long, Janet C; Cunningham, Frances C; Wiley, Janice; Carswell, Peter; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2013-10-11

    Leadership behaviour in complex networks is under-researched, and little has been written concerning leadership of translational research networks (TRNs) that take discoveries made 'at the bench' and translate them into practices used 'at the bedside.' Understanding leaders' opportunities and behaviours within TRNs working to solve this key problem in implementing evidence into clinical practice is therefore important. This study explored the network position of governing body members and perceptions of their role in a new TRN in Sydney, Australia. The paper asks three questions: Firstly, do the formal, mandated leaders of this TRN hold key positions of centrality or brokerage in the informal social network of collaborative ties? Secondly, if so, do they recognise the leadership opportunities that their network positions afford them? Thirdly, what activities associated with these key roles do they believe will maximise the TRN's success? Semi-structured interviews of all 14 governing body members conducted in early 2012 explored perceptions of their roles and sought comments on a list of activities drawn from review of successful transdisciplinary collaboratives combined with central and brokerage roles. An on-line, whole network survey of all 68 TRN members sought to understand and map existing collaborative connections. Leaders' positions in the network were assessed using UCInet, and graphs were generated in NetDraw. Social network analysis identified that governing body members had high centrality and high brokerage potential in the informal network of work-related ties. Interviews showed perceived challenges including 'silos' and the mismatch between academic and clinical goals of research. Governing body members recognised their central positions, which would facilitate the leadership roles of leading, making decisions, and providing expert advice necessary for the co-ordination of effort and relevant input across domains. Brokerage potential was recognised

  17. Accreditation for excellence of cancer research institutes: recommendations from the Italian Network of Comprehensive Cancer Centers.

    PubMed

    Deriu, Pier Luigi; La Pietra, Leonardo; Pierotti, Marco; Collazzo, Raffaele; Paradiso, Angelo; Belardelli, Filippo; De Paoli, Paolo; Nigro, Aldo; Lacalamita, Rosanna; Ferrarini, Manlio; Pelicci, Piergiuseppe; Pierotti, Marco; Roli, Anna; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Scala, Stefania; Amadori, Alberto; Chiusole, Daniela; Musto, Pellegrino; Fusco, Vincenzo; Storto, Giovanni; De Maria, Ruggero; Canitano, Stefano; Apolone, Giovanni; Ravelli, Maria; Mazzini, Elisa; Amadori, Dino; Bernabini, Marna; Ancarani, Valentina; Lombardo, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    A panel of experts from Italian Comprehensive Cancer Centers defines the recommendations for external quality control programs aimed to accreditation to excellence of these institutes. After definition of the process as a systematic, periodic evaluation performed by an external agency to verify whether a health organization possesses certain prerequisites regarding structural, organizational and operational conditions that are thought to affect health care quality, the panel reviews models internationally available and makes final recommendations on aspects considered of main interest. This position paper has been produced within a special project of the Ministry of Health of the Italian Government aimed to accredit, according to OECI model, 11 Italian cancer centers in the period 2012-2014. The Project represents the effort undertaken by this network of Comprehensive Cancer Centers to find a common denominator for the experience of all Institutes in external quality control programs. Fourteen shared "statements" are put forth, designed to offer some indications on the main aspects of this subject, based on literature evidence or expert opinions. They deal with the need for "accountability" and involvement of the entire organization, the effectiveness of self-evaluation, the temporal continuity and the educational value of the experience, the use of indicators and measurement tools, additionally for intra- and inter-organization comparison, the system of evaluation models used, the provision for specific requisites for oncology, and the opportunity for mutual exchange of evaluation experiences.

  18. The Children's Oncology Group Childhood Cancer Research Network (CCRN): case catchment in the United States.

    PubMed

    Musselman, Jessica R B; Spector, Logan G; Krailo, Mark D; Reaman, Gregory H; Linabery, Amy M; Poynter, Jenny N; Stork, Susan K; Adamson, Peter C; Ross, Julie A

    2014-10-01

    The Childhood Cancer Research Network (CCRN) was established within the Children's Oncology Group (COG) in July 2008 to provide a centralized pediatric cancer research registry for investigators conducting approved etiologic and survivorship studies. The authors conducted an ecological analysis to characterize CCRN catchment at >200 COG institutions by demographic characteristics, diagnosis, and geographic location to determine whether the CCRN can serve as a population-based registry for childhood cancer. During 2009 to 2011, 18,580 US children newly diagnosed with cancer were registered in the CCRN. These observed cases were compared with age-specific, sex-specific, and race/ethnicity-specific expected numbers calculated from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program cancer incidence rates and 2010 US Census data. Overall, 42% of children (18,580 observed/44,267 expected) who were diagnosed with cancer at age <20 years were registered in the CCRN, including 45%, 57%, 51%, 44%, and 24% of those diagnosed at birth, ages 1 to 4 years, ages 5 to 9 years, ages 10 to 14 years, and ages 15 to 19 years, respectively. Some malignancies were better represented in the CCRN (leukemia, 59%; renal tumors, 67%) than others (retinoblastoma, 34%). There was little evidence of differences by sex or race/ethnicity, although rates in nonwhites were somewhat lower than rates in whites. Given the low observed-to-expected ratio, it will be important to identify challenges and barriers to registration to improve case ascertainment, especially for rarer diagnoses and older age groups; however, it is encouraging that some diagnoses in younger children are fairly representative of the population. Overall, the CCRN is providing centralized, real-time access to cases for research and could be used as a model for other national cooperative groups. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  19. Follicular cell thyroid neoplasia: insights from genomics and The Cancer Genome Atlas research network.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    The present review is focused on the recently published study on the genomics of papillary thyroid carcinoma performed by The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network and its implications for the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma. The Cancer Genome Atlas study of papillary thyroid carcinoma comprehensively examined the cancer genome of nearly 500 primary tumors. Using a highly integrated bioinformatic analysis, papillary carcinoma was shown at the genomic level to consist of two highly distinct classes that reflected both tumor histology and underlying genotype. Tumors with true papillary architecture were dominated by BRAF(V600E) mutations and RET kinase fusions and were designated as BRAF(V600E)-like. Tumors with follicular architecture were conversely dominated by RAS mutations and were designated as RAS-like. Given the strong genotype:phenotype correlation known to be present in thyroid cancer, the separation of BRAF(V600E)-like and RAS-like tumors has profound implications for its classification, especially the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma. The recent genomic characterization of papillary thyroid carcinoma is challenging the established pathological classification of thyroid cancer with significance for the care of patients.

  20. Provider-based research networks demonstrate greater hospice use for minority patients with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Penn, Dolly C; Stitzenberg, Karyn B; Cobran, Ewan K; Godley, Paul A

    2014-07-01

    The Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) and Minority-Based Community Clinical Oncology Program (MBCCOP) are provider-based research networks (PBRN) that improve minority enrollment in cancer-focused clinical trials. We hypothesized that affiliation with a PBRN may also mitigate racial differences in hospice enrollment for patients with lung cancer. We used the SEER-Medicare data, linked to the National Cancer Institute's CCOP program data, to identify all patients (≥ age 65 years) with lung cancer, diagnosed from 2001 to 2007. We defined clinical treatment settings as CCOP, MBCCOP, academic, or community-affiliated and used multivariable logistic regression analysis to determine factors associated with hospice enrollment. Forty-one thousand eight hundred eighty-five (55.1%) patients with lung cancer enrolled in hospice before death. Approximately 55% of CCOP, 57% of MBCCOP, 57% of academic, and 52% of community patients enrolled. Patients who were more likely to enroll were female (odds ratio [OR], 1.36; 95% CI, 1.31 to 1.40); ≥ age 79 years (OR, 1.11; 95%CI, 1.06 to 1.16); white; lived in more educated areas; had minimal comorbidities; and had distant disease. Asian and black patients in academic (41.1% and 50.4%, respectively) and community practices (35.2% and 43.4%, respectively) were less likely to enroll in hospice compared with white patients (academic, 58.8%; community, 53.1%). However, hospice enrollment was equivalent for black and white patients in MBCCOP (59.5% v 57.2%) and CCOP (52.2% v 56.3%) practices. Minority patients with lung cancer receiving treatment in cancer-focused PBRN- affiliated practices have greater hospice enrollment than those treated in academic and community practices. Copyright © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  1. Colon polyp model use for educating about colorectal cancer screening in the Iowa Research Network.

    PubMed

    Daly, Jeanette M; Xu, Yinghui; Levy, Barcey T

    2014-06-01

    Providing a model of a colon segment with an adenomatous polyp and cancer can help to educate patients about the adenoma to carcinoma sequence and how this sequence can be interrupted with appropriate testing. The purpose of this study was to assess the use of a three-dimensional colon model with polyps and cancer provided to family physicians or nurses in some Iowa Research Network family physician offices. Colon models were provided to 117 family medicine healthcare providers interested in colorectal cancer screening. Using a mailed survey and follow-up telephone calls to non-responders, 81 (69%) questionnaires were returned. Thirty-six (44%) of the respondents reported they had used the model, 33 (41%) reported they used the model for a mean 16% of their patients in a month's time, 31 (38%) reported using the model to teach patients about the colon and polyps prior to a colonoscopy. Other model use described by respondents included educating staff to promote patient willingness for colonoscopies, demonstrating the need for colon cancer screening, and teaching patients about annual fecal occult blood tests. Respondents agreed that anatomical models are helpful for patient education, the design of the colon model was good, and that it facilitated demonstration of colon polyps. Possible recommendations for an office-wide adoption of an anatomical model would be an in-service for all employees and a standard location for finding the model.

  2. Selective detection of histologically aggressive prostate cancer: an Early Detection Research Network Prediction model to reduce unnecessary prostate biopsies with validation in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.

    PubMed

    Williams, Stephen B; Salami, Simpa; Regan, Meredith M; Ankerst, Donna P; Wei, John T; Rubin, Mark A; Thompson, Ian M; Sanda, Martin G

    2012-05-15

    Limited survival benefit and excess treatment because of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in randomized trials suggests a need for more restricted selection of prostate biopsy candidates by discerning risk of histologically aggressive versus indolent cancer before biopsy. Subjects undergoing first prostate biopsy enrolled in a multicenter, prospective cohort of the National Cancer Institute Early Detection Research Network (N = 635) were analyzed to develop a model for predicting histologically aggressive prostate cancers. The control arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (N = 3833) was used to validate the generalization of the predictive model. The Early Detection Research Network cohort was comprised of men among whom 57% had no cancer, 14% had indolent cancer, and 29% had aggressive cancer. Age, body mass index, family history of prostate cancer, abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE), and PSA density (PSAD) were associated with aggressive cancer (all P < .001). The Early Detection Research Network model outperformed PSA alone in predicting aggressive cancer (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.81 vs 0.71, P < .01). Model validation in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial cohort accurately identified men at low (<10%) risk of aggressive cancer for whom biopsy could be averted (AUC = 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.80). Under criteria from the Early Detection Research Network model, prostate biopsy can be restricted to men with PSAD >0.1 ng/mL/cc or abnormal DRE. When PSAD is <0.1 ng/mL/cc, family history or obesity can identify biopsy candidates. A predictive model incorporating age, family history, obesity, PSAD, and DRE elucidates criteria whereby ¼ of prostate biopsies can be averted while retaining high sensitivity in detecting aggressive prostate cancer. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  3. Innovative and community-driven communication practices of the South Carolina cancer prevention and control research network.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Daniela B; Brandt, Heather M; Freedman, Darcy A; Adams, Swann Arp; Young, Vicki M; Ureda, John R; McCracken, James Lyndon; Hébert, James R

    2014-07-24

    The South Carolina Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network (SC-CPCRN) is 1 of 10 networks funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) that works to reduce cancer-related health disparities. In partnership with federally qualified health centers and community stakeholders, the SC-CPCRN uses evidence-based approaches (eg, NCI Research-tested Intervention Programs) to disseminate and implement cancer prevention and control messages, programs, and interventions. We describe the innovative stakeholder- and community-driven communication efforts conducted by the SC-CPCRN to improve overall health and reduce cancer-related health disparities among high-risk and disparate populations in South Carolina. We describe how our communication efforts are aligned with 5 core values recommended for dissemination and implementation science: 1) rigor and relevance, 2) efficiency and speed, 3) collaboration, 4) improved capacity, and 5) cumulative knowledge.

  4. Innovative and Community-Driven Communication Practices of the South Carolina Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Heather M.; Freedman, Darcy A.; Adams, Swann Arp; Young, Vicki M.; Ureda, John R.; McCracken, James Lyndon; Hébert, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The South Carolina Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network (SC-CPCRN) is 1 of 10 networks funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) that works to reduce cancer-related health disparities. In partnership with federally qualified health centers and community stakeholders, the SC-CPCRN uses evidence-based approaches (eg, NCI Research-tested Intervention Programs) to disseminate and implement cancer prevention and control messages, programs, and interventions. We describe the innovative stakeholder- and community-driven communication efforts conducted by the SC-CPCRN to improve overall health and reduce cancer-related health disparities among high-risk and disparate populations in South Carolina. We describe how our communication efforts are aligned with 5 core values recommended for dissemination and implementation science: 1) rigor and relevance, 2) efficiency and speed, 3) collaboration, 4) improved capacity, and 5) cumulative knowledge. PMID:25058673

  5. Active Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. The Cancer Research Network: a platform for epidemiologic and health services research on cancer prevention, care, and outcomes in large, stable populations.

    PubMed

    Chubak, Jessica; Ziebell, Rebecca; Greenlee, Robert T; Honda, Stacey; Hornbrook, Mark C; Epstein, Mara; Nekhlyudov, Larissa; Pawloski, Pamala A; Ritzwoller, Debra P; Ghai, Nirupa R; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Clancy, Heather A; Doria-Rose, V Paul; Kushi, Lawrence H

    2016-11-01

    The ability to collect data on patients for long periods prior to, during, and after a cancer diagnosis is critical for studies of cancer etiology, prevention, treatment, outcomes, and costs. We describe such data capacities within the Cancer Research Network (CRN), a cooperative agreement between the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and organized health care systems across the United States. Data were extracted from each CRN site's virtual data warehouse using a centrally written and locally executed program. We computed the percent of patients continuously enrolled ≥1, ≥5, and ≥10 years before cancer diagnosis in 2012-2015 (year varied by CRN site). To describe retention after diagnosis, we computed the cumulative percentages enrolled, deceased, and disenrolled each year after the diagnosis for patients diagnosed in 2000. Approximately 8 million people were enrolled in ten CRN health plans on December 31, 2014 or 2015 (year varied by CRN site). Among more than 30,000 recent cancer diagnoses, 70 % were enrolled for ≥5 years and 56 % for ≥10 years before diagnosis. Among 25,274 cancers diagnosed in 2000, 28 % were still enrolled in 2010, 45 % had died, and 27 % had disenrolled from CRN health systems. Health plan enrollment before cancer diagnosis was generally long in the CRN, and the proportion of patients lost to follow-up after diagnosis was low. With long enrollment histories among cancer patients pre-diagnosis and low post-diagnosis disenrollment, the CRN provides an excellent platform for epidemiologic and health services research on cancer incidence, outcomes, and costs.

  7. Reducing Cancer Disparities Through Innovative Partnerships: A Collaboration of the South Carolina Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network and Federally Qualified Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Young, Vicki M.; Freedman, Darcy A.; Adams, Swann Arp; Brandt, Heather M.; Xirasagar, Sudha; Felder, Tisha M.; Ureda, John R.; Hurley, Thomas; Khang, Leepao; Campbell, Dayna; Hébert, James R.

    2011-01-01

    The South Carolina Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network, in partnership with the South Carolina Primary Health Care Association, and Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs), aims to promote evidence-based cancer interventions in community-based primary care settings. Partnership activities include (1) examining FQHCs’ readiness and capacity for conducting research, (2) developing a cancer-focused data sharing network, and (3) integrating a farmers’ market within an FQHC. These activities identify unique opportunities for public health and primary care collaborations. PMID:21932143

  8. NCI Awards 18 Grants to Continue the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Biomarkers Effort | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI has awarded 18 grants to continue the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN), a national infrastructure that supports the integrated development, validation, and clinical application of biomarkers for the early detection of cancer. The awards fund 7 Biomarker Developmental Laboratories, 8 Clinical Validation Centers, 2 Biomarker Reference Laboratories, and a Data Management and Coordinating Center (DMCC). |

  9. Improving colorectal cancer screening in family medicine: an Oklahoma Physicians Resource/Research Network (OKPRN) study.

    PubMed

    Scheid, Dewey C; Hamm, Robert M; Ramakrishnan, Kalyanakrishnan; McCarthy, Laine H; Mold, James W

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) practices across a variety of primary care clinics and identify the methods used by primary care physicians (PCPs) with higher rates of CRCS ("exemplars"). Physician questionnaires, structured interviews, medical record abstractions, and practice observations were conducted for 48 PCPs in 25 practices within a regional practice-based research network followed by secondary in-depth interviews to further investigate the practices of PCPs in the top quartile of CRCS rates ("exemplars"). We abstracted 3596 medical records (mean of 75 records per PCP). Overall, exemplars had higher CRCS rates (median, 57.2% vs. 27.6%; P < .001). Patients of exemplars had higher screening rates for fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) and colonoscopy but not for flexible sigmoidoscopy or double-contrast barium enemas. Exemplars adopted few of the system-based innovations proposed by researchers to improve CRCS. Colonoscopy was promoted as the preferred CRCS method. FOBT was recommended for patients who could not afford or did not want colonoscopy. Flexible sigmoidoscopy or barium enemas were rarely recommended. Exemplars used brief CRCS promotion scripts that informally paralleled theory-driven counseling techniques. Experienced PCPs use brief CRCS promotion scripts including counseling techniques that improve CRCS performance. Future research should be directed toward whether these techniques can be used to create an intervention aimed at PCPs to improve CRCS.

  10. [Networks in cognitive research].

    PubMed

    Pléh, Csaba

    2012-01-01

    This review paper starts from discussing two models of network research: one starting from general networks, the other starting from the Ego. Ego based researches are characterized starting form the model of Dunbar as presenting networks of different size and intimacy, both in real and virtual networks. Researches into the personality determinants of networks mainly shows the effects of extroversion. The future of network research indicates a trend towards relating personal, conceptual, and neural networks.

  11. Research from the Early Detection Research Network on New Methods to Detect Prostate Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed non-skin cancer in men in the United States. In 2010 there were 218,000 men diagnosed with prostate cancer. The prevalence of the diagnosis makes the disease a major health burden. While the majority of the diagnosed men will survive the disease, about 15% will die from it, a rate that is affected by over-diagnosis and the consequent over-treatment. |

  12. Classification and diagnostic prediction of cancers using gene expression profiling and artificial neural networks | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method of classifying cancers to specific diagnostic categories based on their gene expression signatures using artificial neural networks (ANNs). We trained the ANNs using the small, round blue-cell tumors (SRBCTs) as a model. These cancers belong to four distinct diagnostic categories and often present diagnostic dilemmas in clinical practice. The ANNs correctly classified all samples and identified the genes most relevant to the classification.

  13. A research about breast cancer detection using different neural networks and K-MICA algorithm.

    PubMed

    Kalteh, A A; Zarbakhsh, Payam; Jirabadi, Meysam; Addeh, Jalil

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death for women all over the world. The correct diagnosis of breast cancer is one of the major problems in the medical field. From the literature it has been found that different pattern recognition techniques can help them to improve in this domain. This paper presents a novel hybrid intelligent method for detection of breast cancer. The proposed method includes two main modules: Clustering module and the classifier module. In the clustering module, first the input data will be clustered by a new technique. This technique is a suitable combination of the modified imperialist competitive algorithm (MICA) and K-means algorithm. Then the Euclidean distance of each pattern is computed from the determined clusters. The classifier module determines the membership of the patterns using the computed distance. In this module, several neural networks, such as the multilayer perceptron, probabilistic neural networks and the radial basis function neural networks are investigated. Using the experimental study, we choose the best classifier in order to recognize the breast cancer. The proposed system is tested on Wisconsin Breast Cancer (WBC) database and the simulation results show that the recommended system has high accuracy.

  14. Provider-based research networks and diffusion of surgical technologies among patients with early-stage kidney cancer.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hung-Jui; Meyer, Anne-Marie; Kuo, Tzy-Mey; Smith, Angela B; Wheeler, Stephanie B; Carpenter, William R; Nielsen, Matthew E

    2015-03-15

    Provider-based research networks such as the National Cancer Institute's Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) have been shown to facilitate the translation of evidence-based cancer care into clinical practice. This study compared the utilization of laparoscopy and partial nephrectomy among patients with early-stage kidney cancer according to their exposure to CCOP-affiliated providers. With linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare data, patients with T1aN0M0 kidney cancer who had been treated with nephrectomy from 2000 to 2007 were identified. For each patient, the receipt of care from a CCOP physician or hospital and treatment with laparoscopy or partial nephrectomy were determined. Adjusted for patient characteristics (eg, age, sex, and marital status) and other organizational features (eg, community hospital and National Cancer Institute-designated cancer center), multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the association between each surgical innovation and CCOP affiliation. During the study interval, 1578 patients (26.8%) were treated by a provider with a CCOP affiliation. Trends in the utilization of laparoscopy and partial nephrectomy remained similar between affiliated and nonaffiliated providers (P ≥ .05). With adjustments for patient characteristics, organizational features, and clustering, no association was noted between CCOP affiliation and the use of laparoscopy (odds ratio [OR], 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81-1.53) or partial nephrectomy (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.82-1.32) despite the more frequent receipt of these treatments in academic settings (P < .05). At a population level, patients treated by providers affiliated with CCOP were no more likely to receive at least 1 of 2 surgical innovations for treatment of their kidney cancer, indicating perhaps a more limited scope to provider-based research networks as they pertain to translational efforts in cancer care. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  15. Comparative Effectiveness of Adjunctive Bevacizumab for Advanced Lung Cancer: The Cancer Research Network Experience

    PubMed Central

    Ritzwoller, Debra P.; Carroll, Nikki M.; Delate, Thomas; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Kushi, Lawrence; Aiello Bowles, Erin J.; Loggers, Elizabeth T.; Menter, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bevacizumab plus carboplatin-paclitaxel (BCP) chemotherapy has FDA approval for advanced non-squamous, non-small cell lung cancer (NS-NSCLC) based upon improved survival in a clinical trial. However, sub-group analyses of this and other studies have suggested variable results by age and gender. Methods 1,605 HMO NS-NSCLC patients aged ≥ 21 years, diagnosed 2002–2010, who received carboplatin-paclitaxel (CP), with and without bevacizumab for first-line treatment of stage IIIB/IV disease were identified. Patients were categorized into three groups based on year of diagnosis and regimen during 120 days post-diagnosis: 1) diagnosed 2005–2010 and received BCP; 2) 2005–2010, CP (CP2005), and 3) 2002–2004, CP (CP2002). Survival differences between groups were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models with several propensity score adjustments for demographic, comorbidity, and tumor characteristics. Multi-variable sub-analyses were also estimated. Results Median survival was 12.3 months (inter quartile range [IQR] 6.0–29.1) for BCP patients versus 8.8 months (IQR 3.7–21.3) for CP2005 patients, and 7.5 months (IQR 3.8–15.6) for CP2002 patients. In the propensity score adjusted models, BCP demonstrated a significant survival benefit with a hazard ratio of BCP relative to CP2005 and CP2002 patients of 0.79 (95% CI 0.66–0.94) and 0.63 (95% CI 0.52–0.75) respectively. In the multivariable-adjusted sub-analyses, relative to the CP2005 cohort, the BCP hazard ratios for patients age <65 years, age ≥65 years, and females were 0.78 (95% CI 0.62–1.00), 0.74 (95% CI 0.54–1.00) and 0.77 (95% CI 0.58–1.00). Conclusions In this community-based, comparative effectiveness analysis, we found an overall survival benefit for adults receiving BCP compared to CP. PMID:24633407

  16. Types of Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    An infographic from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) describing the four broad categories of cancer research: basic research, clinical research, population-based research, and translational research.

  17. [Network Research on Human Papillomavirus].

    PubMed

    Almeida-Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Paniagua, Ramón; Furuya, María ElenaYuriko

    2015-01-01

    In order to increase the research in important health questions at a national and institutional levels, the Human Papillomavirus Research Network of the Health Research Coordination of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social offers this supplement with the purpose of assisting patients that daily look for attention due to the human papillomavirus or to cervical cancer.

  18. Highlights/Best Practices of San Francisco’s Asian American Network for Cancer Awareness, Research, and Training (AANCART)

    PubMed Central

    McPhee, Stephen J.; Nguyen, Tung T.; Mock, Jeremiah; Nguyen, Thoa; Lam, Hy

    2006-01-01

    The Asian American Network for Cancer Awareness, Research, and Training in San Francisco (AANCART-SF) consists of two distinct entities, working in cooperation to advance cancer awareness, research, and training among Asian Americans: a university-based group with expertise in the Vietnamese community and a community-based health plan with expertise in the Chinese community. In addition to the goals shared with other AANCART sites, AANCART-SF is a unique effort in capacity building in that it aims to expand and export community-academic research expertise from one Asian population, the Vietnamese, to other Asian populations. It also aims to build the research capability of those serving the Chinese community through a health plan. PMID:16270324

  19. Lymphatic Education & Research Network

    MedlinePlus

    Lymphatic Education & Research Network Donate Now Become a Supporting Member X Living with LYMPHEDEMA AND Lymphatic Disease FAQs About ... 261 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016 | Lymphatic Education & Research Network is a 501(c)(3) under ...

  20. Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    annotated with the biospecimens. Specialized processing consists of tissue microarray design and construction. Biospecimens (mainly tissue ...provide much sought after biospecimens for prostate cancer research. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate Cancer, Biorepository, tissue microarrays, tissue ...and harmonizing a set of common data elements (CDEs): Completed in 1st quarter (October 2014) Task 3. Submit SOPs currently in use to Coordinating

  1. Effective recruitment strategies and community-based participatory research: community networks program centers' recruitment in cancer prevention studies.

    PubMed

    Greiner, K Allen; Friedman, Daniela B; Adams, Swann Arp; Gwede, Clement K; Cupertino, Paula; Engelman, Kimberly K; Meade, Cathy D; Hébert, James R

    2014-03-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches that involve community and academic partners in activities ranging from protocol design through dissemination of study findings can increase recruitment of medically underserved and underrepresented racial/ethnic minority populations into biomedical research. Five cancer screening and prevention trials in three National Cancer Institute (Bethesda, MD)-funded Community Networks Program Centers (CNPC), in Florida, Kansas, and South Carolina, were conducted across diverse populations. Data were collected on total time period of recruitment, ratios of participants enrolled over potential participants approached, selected CBPR strategies, capacity-building development, and systematic procedures for community stakeholder involvement. Community-engaged approaches used included establishing colearning opportunities, participatory procedures for community-academic involvement, and community and clinical capacity building. A relatively large proportion of individuals identified for recruitment was actually approached (between 50% and 100%). The proportion of subjects who were eligible among all those approached ranged from 25% to more than 70% (in the community setting). Recruitment rates were very high (78%-100% of eligible individuals approached) and the proportion who refused or who were not interested among those approached was very low (5%-11%). Recruitment strategies used by the CNPCs were associated with low refusal and high enrollment ratios of potential subjects. Adherence to CBPR principles in the spectrum of research activities, from strategic planning to project implementation, has significant potential to increase involvement in biomedical research and improve our ability to make appropriate recommendations for cancer prevention and control programming in underrepresented diverse populations. CBPR strategies should be more widely implemented to enhance study recruitment. ©2014 AACR.

  2. Applied Proteogenomics OrganizationaL Learning and Outcomes (APOLLO) Network | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    July 11, 2016 — In the spirit of collaboration inspired by the Vice President’s Cancer Moonshot, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), the Department of Defense (DoD), and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) are proud to announce a new tri-agency coalition that will help cancer patients by enabling their oncologists to more rapidly and accurately identify effective drugs to treat cancer based on a patient’s unique proteogenomic profile.

  3. Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program supports a multidisciplinary network of scientists, clinicians, and community partners to examine the effects of environmental exposures that may predispose a woman to breast cancer throughout her life.

  4. Operationalization of community-based participatory research principles: assessment of the national cancer institute's community network programs.

    PubMed

    Braun, Kathryn L; Nguyen, Tung T; Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Campbell, Janis; Heiney, Sue P; Brandt, Heather M; Smith, Selina A; Blumenthal, Daniel S; Hargreaves, Margaret; Coe, Kathryn; Ma, Grace X; Kenerson, Donna; Patel, Kushal; Tsark, JoAnn; Hébert, James R

    2012-06-01

    We examined how National Cancer Institute-funded Community Network Programs (CNPs) operationalized principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). We reviewed the literature and extant CBPR measurement tools. On the basis of that review, we developed a 27-item questionnaire for CNPs to self-assess their operationalization of 9 CBPR principles. Our team comprised representatives of 9 of the National Cancer Institute's 25 CNPs. Of the 25 CNPs, 22 (88%) completed the questionnaire. Most scored well on CBPR principles of recognizing community as a unit of identity, building on community strengths, facilitating colearning, embracing iterative processes in developing community capacity, and achieving a balance between data generation and intervention. CNPs varied in the extent to which they employed CBPR principles of addressing determinants of health, sharing power among partners, engaging the community in research dissemination, and striving for sustainability. Although the development of assessment tools in this field is in its infancy, our findings suggest that fidelity to CBPR processes can be assessed in a variety of settings.

  5. Applied Proteogenomics OrganizationaL Learning and Outcomes (APOLLO) Network - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    In the spirit of collaboration inspired by the Vice President’s Cancer Moonshot, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), the Department of Defense (DoD), and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) are proud to announce a new tri-agency coalition (APOLLO Network — Applied Proteogenomics OrganizationaL Learning and Outcomes) that will help cancer patients by enabling their oncologists to more rapidly and accurately identify effective drugs to treat cancer based on a patient’s unique proteogenomic profile.

  6. Applied Proteogenomics OrganizationaL Learning and Outcomes (APOLLO) Network - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    In the spirit of collaboration inspired by the Vice President’s Cancer Moonshot, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), the Department of Defense (DoD), and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) are proud to announce a new tri-agency coalition (APOLLO Network — Applied Proteogenomics OrganizationaL Learning and Outcomes) that will help cancer patients by enabling their oncologists to more rapidly and accurately identify effective drugs to treat cancer based on a patient’s unique proteogenomic profile.

  7. Translating research into practice: the role of provider-based research networks in the diffusion of an evidence-based colon cancer treatment innovation.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, William R; Meyer, Anne-Marie; Wu, Yang; Qaqish, Bahjat; Sanoff, Hanna K; Goldberg, Richard M; Weiner, Bryan J

    2012-08-01

    Provider-based research networks (PBRNs)--collaborative research partnerships between academic centers and community-based practitioners--are a promising model for accelerating the translation of research into practice; however, empirical evidence of accelerated translation is limited. Oxaliplatin in adjuvant combination chemotherapy is an innovation with clinical trial-proven survival benefit compared with prior therapies. The goal of this study is to examine the diffusion of oxaliplatin into community practice, and whether affiliation with the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP)--a nationwide cancer-focused PBRN--is associated with accelerated innovation adoption. This retrospective observational study used linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare and NCI CCOP data to examine Medicare participants with stage III colon cancer initiating treatment in 2003 through 2006, the years surrounding oxaliplatin's Food and Drug Administration approval. A fixed-effects analysis examined chemotherapy use among patients treated outside academic centers at CCOP-affiliated practices compared with non-CCOP practices. Two-group modeling controlled for multiple levels of clustering, year of chemotherapy initiation, tumor characteristics, patient age, race, comorbidity, Medicaid dual-eligibility status, and education. Of 4055 community patients, 35% received 5-fluoruracil, 20% received oxaliplatin, 7% received another chemotherapy, and 38% received no chemotherapy. Twenty-five percent of CCOP patients received oxaliplatin, compared with 19% of non-CCOP patients. In multivariable analysis, CCOP exposure was associated with higher odds of receiving guideline-concordant treatment in general, and oxaliplatin specifically. These findings contribute to a growing set of evidence linking PBRNs with a greater probability of receiving treatment innovations and high-quality cancer care, with implications for clinical and research

  8. Effective recruitment strategies and community-based participatory research: Community Networks Program Centers’ recruitment in cancer prevention studies

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, K. Allen; Friedman, Daniela B.; Adams, Swann Arp; Gwede, Clement K.; Cupertino, Paula; Engelman, Kimberly K.; Meade, Cathy D.; Hébert, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches that involve community and academic partners in activities ranging from protocol design through dissemination of study findings can increase recruitment of medically underserved and underrepresented racial/ethnic minority populations into biomedical research. Settings/Methods Five cancer screening and prevention trials in three NCI-funded Community Networks Program Centers (CNPCs); in Florida, Kansas and South Carolina, were conducted across diverse populations. Data were collected on total time period of recruitment, ratios of participants enrolled over potential participants approached, selected CBPR strategies, capacity-building development, and systematic procedures for community stakeholder involvement. Findings Community-engaged approaches employed included establishing co-learning opportunities, participatory procedures for community-academic involvement, and community and clinical capacity building. A relatively large proportion of individuals identified for recruitment were actually approached (between 50% and 100%). The proportion of subjects who were eligible among all those approached ranged from 25% to over 70% (in the community setting). Recruitment rates were very high (78%–100% of eligible individuals approached) and the proportion who refused or who were not interested among those approached was very low (5%–11%). Conclusions Recruitment strategies used by the CNPCs were associated with low refusal and high enrollment ratios of potential subjects. Adherence to CBPR principles in the spectrum of research activities; from strategic planning to project implementation has significant potential to increase involvement in biomedical research and improve our ability to make appropriate recommendations for cancer prevention and control programming in underrepresented diverse populations. Impact CBPR strategies should be more widely implemented to enhance study recruitment. PMID

  9. Characteristics of cancer patients presenting to an integrative medicine practice-based research network.

    PubMed

    Edman, Joel S; Roberts, Rhonda S; Dusek, Jeffery A; Dolor, Rowena; Wolever, Ruth Q; Abrams, Donald I

    2014-09-01

    To assess psychosocial characteristics, symptoms and reasons for seeking integrative medicine (IM) care in cancer patients presenting to IM clinical practices. A survey of 3940 patients was conducted at 8 IM sites. Patient reported outcome measures were collected and clinicians provided health status data. This analysis compares 353 participants self-identified as cancer patients with the larger noncancer cohort. Mean age of the cancer cohort was 55.0 years. Participants were predominantly white (85.9%), female (76.4%), and well educated (80.5% completed college). For 15.2% of cancer patients, depression scores were consistent with depressive symptoms, and average scores for perceived stress were higher than normal, but neither were significantly different from noncancer patients. The most prevalent comorbid symptoms were chronic pain (39.8%), fatigue (33.5%), and insomnia (23.3%). In the cancer cohort, perceived stress was significantly associated with depression, fatigue, insomnia, pain, and QOL. Cancer patients who chose an IM clinical practice "seeking healthcare settings that address spirituality as an aspect of care" had significantly higher levels of perceived stress, depression, and pain than those not selecting this reason. Demographic characteristics, depression scores, perceived stress scores, and reasons for seeking integrative cancer care were not significantly different between cancer patients and noncancer patients. Perceived stress may be an important indicator of QOL. The association of perceived stress, depression and pain with seeking spirituality suggests that providing IM interventions, such as effective stress management techniques and pastoral or spiritual counseling, may be helpful to patients living with cancer. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. TCGA researchers identify 4 subtypes of stomach cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Stomach cancers fall into four distinct molecular subtypes, researchers with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Network have found. Scientists report that this discovery could change how researchers think about developing treatments for stomach cancer, also c

  11. Global Gene Expression Profiles Identify Metastasis Regulatory Networks | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Metastasis is a systemic disease in which cancer cells break away from a tumor and migrate to other parts of the body, usually via the blood or lymphatic systems, to form new tumors. Metastatic tumors are difficult to treat and account for the majority of cancer-related deaths. Susceptibility to metastasis is known to have a genetic component, with some individuals more predisposed than others. However, because of the complex interchange between random genomic and epigenetic events that contribute to the disease, characterization of individual genes or small numbers of genes is not sufficient to understand the processes leading up to metastasis.

  12. Early Detection Research Network Registry for Hereditary Cancer — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    The EDRN High Risk Registry (HRR)recruits individuals that carry germline mutations for hereditary cancer syndromes, who are willing to participate in biomarker studies. Recruitment is pursued through distribution of recruitment packets. The recruitment packet includes a cover letter, EDRN HRR brochure, consent form, HIPAA authorization, and baseline questionnaire. Upon completion of enrollment materials, each Registry member is provided a Certificate of Confidentiality, which has been issued by the NCI for the EDRN HRR. The EDRN HRR has a website (http://medicine2.creighton.edu/EDRN-Registry). It provides eligibilty, enrollment educational information for individuals who are at high risk of developing hereditary cancer. The EDRN HRR newsletter is published twice each year. These are distributed to EDRN HRR members on an annual basis. Follow-up questionnaires are sent to Registry participants each year. An EDRN HRR database has been established to store demographic data, personal and family history of cancer diagnoses, personal smoking history, female specific history, as well as cancer prevention, detection and treatment information collected on questionnaires. All EDRN HRR questionnaires and database use the EDRN CDEs.

  13. Pharmacodynamic Assay Panel for Monitoring Phospho-Signaling Networks | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The DNA damage response (DDR) is a highly regulated signal transduction network that orchestrates the temporal and spatial organization of protein complexes required to repair (or tolerate) DNA damage (e.g., nucleotide excision repair, base excision repair, homologous recombination, non-homologous end joining, post-replication repair).

  14. Controlling Directed Protein Interaction Networks in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kanhaiya, Krishna; Czeizler, Eugen; Gratie, Cristian; Petre, Ion

    2017-09-04

    Control theory is a well-established approach in network science, with applications in bio-medicine and cancer research. We build on recent results for structural controllability of directed networks, which identifies a set of driver nodes able to control an a-priori defined part of the network. We develop a novel and efficient approach for the (targeted) structural controllability of cancer networks and demonstrate it for the analysis of breast, pancreatic, and ovarian cancer. We build in each case a protein-protein interaction network and focus on the survivability-essential proteins specific to each cancer type. We show that these essential proteins are efficiently controllable from a relatively small computable set of driver nodes. Moreover, we adjust the method to find the driver nodes among FDA-approved drug-target nodes. We find that, while many of the drugs acting on the driver nodes are part of known cancer therapies, some of them are not used for the cancer types analyzed here; some drug-target driver nodes identified by our algorithms are not known to be used in any cancer therapy. Overall we show that a better understanding of the control dynamics of cancer through computational modelling can pave the way for new efficient therapeutic approaches and personalized medicine.

  15. The European Cancer and Work Network: CANWON.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Angela G E M

    2014-09-01

    The number of cancer survivors is rapidly growing due to improved treatment and ageing population. Almost half of cancer patients will experience a cancer diagnosis during working age when career and work-related issues play an important role. Many cancer survivors are at risk for unemployment which greatly affects their quality of life and financial situation. Research on cancer and work is therefore of great importance but scattered over Europe and lacking appropriate dissemination. Moreover, interventions supporting employment of cancer survivors are urgently required but scarcely developed. The European Cancer and Work Network (CANWON) aims to combine knowledge on: (1) prognostic factors of unemployment in cancer survivors including gender- and country-specific differences; (2) work-related costs of survivorship for both patients and society; (3) the role of employers; and (4) development and evaluation of innovative, interdisciplinary interventions which effectively support employment. Furthermore, it aims at disseminating research knowledge and best practice worldwide. CANWON currently unites 23 teams from 15 countries across different stakeholders and research areas. The expected benefits are rapid exchange of research knowledge, standardised methods and techniques, innovative interventions, future guidelines on cancer and work and the improvement of quality of life of cancer patients. Understanding prognostic factors, work-related costs, role of the employer and innovative interventions in relation to work in cancer survivors might progress the understanding of other patients with long-term conditions therefore the knowledge resulting from CANWON will benefit a wide range of patient groups.

  16. Reducing disparities in breast cancer survival: a Columbia University and Avon Breast Cancer Research and Care Network Symposium.

    PubMed

    Antman, Karen; Abraido-Lanza, Ana F; Blum, Diane; Brownfield, Erica; Cicatelli, Barbara; Debor, Mary Dale; Emmons, Karen; Fitzgibbon, Marian; Gapstur, Susan M; Gradishar, William; Hiatt, Robert A; Hubbell, F Allan; Joe, Andrew K; Klassen, Ann C; Lee, Nancy C; Linden, Hannah M; McMullin, Juliet; Mishra, Shiraz I; Neuhaus, Charlotte; Olopade, Funmi I; Walas, Kathleen

    2002-10-01

    On November 8th, 2001, faculty from Universities, government and non-profit community organizations met to determine how, separately and together, they could address disparities in survival of women with breast cancer in the diverse patient populations served by their institutions. Studies and initiatives directed at increasing access had to date met modest success. The day was divided into three sections, defining the issues, model programs, government initiatives and finally potential collaborations. By publishing these proceedings, interested readers will be aware of the ongoing programs and studies and can contact the investigators for more information. The Avon Foundation funded this symposium to bring together interested investigators to share programmatic experiences, data and innovative approaches to the problem.

  17. ‘Imi Hale – The Native Hawaiian Cancer Awareness, Research, and Training Network: Second-Year Status Report

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Kathryn L.; Tsark, JoAnn; Ann Santos, Lorrie; Abrigo, Lehua

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe ‘Imi Hale, a program developed and managed by Native Hawaiians to increase cancer awareness and research capacity among Native Hawaiians. This US subgroup of indigenous people of the Hawaiian islands has disproportionately high rates of cancer mortality and low rates of participation in health and research careers. Methods As a community-based research project, ‘Imi Hale spent its first year gathering data from Native Hawaiians about their cancer awareness and research priorities. These findings guide ‘Imi Hale’s community and scientific advisors, a community-based Institutional Review Board, Na Liko Noelo (budding researchers), and staff in developing and carrying out projects that address these priority areas. Emphasis is placed on transferring skills and resources to Native Hawaiians through training, technical assistance, and mentorship. A biennial survey assesses the extent to which community-based participatory research principles are being followed. Principal Findings By the end of the second year, statewide and island-specific awareness plans were produced, and 9 funded awareness projects are supporting the development and dissemination of Hawaiian health education materials. Research accomplishments include the enrollment of 42 Native Hawaiian Na Liko Noelo (budding researchers), 22 of which are involved in 14 funded research projects. The biennial evaluation survey found that 92% of our advisors felt that ‘Imi Hale was promoting scientifically rigorous research that was culturally appropriate and respectful of Native Hawaiian beliefs, and 96% felt that ‘Imi Hale was following its own principles of community-based participatory research. Conclusion ‘Imi Hale’s community-based approach to promoting cancer awareness will result in a sustainable infrastructure for reducing the cancer burden on Native Hawaiians. PMID:15352771

  18. Introduction: Cancer Gene Networks.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Constructing, evaluating, and interpreting gene networks generally sits within the broader field of systems biology, which continues to emerge rapidly, particular with respect to its application to understanding the complexity of signaling in the context of cancer biology. For the purposes of this volume, we take a broad definition of systems biology. Considering an organism or disease within an organism as a system, systems biology is the study of the integrated and coordinated interactions of the network(s) of genes, their variants both natural and mutated (e.g., polymorphisms, rearrangements, alternate splicing, mutations), their proteins and isoforms, and the organic and inorganic molecules with which they interact, to execute the biochemical reactions (e.g., as enzymes, substrates, products) that reflect the function of that system. Central to systems biology, and perhaps the only approach that can effectively manage the complexity of such systems, is the building of quantitative multiscale predictive models. The predictions of the models can vary substantially depending on the nature of the model and its inputoutput relationships. For example, a model may predict the outcome of a specific molecular reaction(s), a cellular phenotype (e.g., alive, dead, growth arrest, proliferation, and motility), a change in the respective prevalence of cell or subpopulations, a patient or patient subgroup outcome(s). Such models necessarily require computers. Computational modeling can be thought of as using machine learning and related tools to integrate the very high dimensional data generated from modern, high throughput omics technologies including genomics (next generation sequencing), transcriptomics (gene expression microarrays; RNAseq), metabolomics and proteomics (ultra high performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry), and "subomic" technologies to study the kinome, methylome, and others. Mathematical modeling can be thought of as the use of ordinary

  19. Drawbacks and benefits associated with inter-organizational collaboration along the discovery-development-delivery continuum: a cancer research network case study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The scientific process around cancer research begins with scientific discovery, followed by development of interventions, and finally delivery of needed interventions to people with cancer. Numerous studies have identified substantial gaps between discovery and delivery in health research. Team science has been identified as a possible solution for closing the discovery to delivery gap; however, little is known about effective ways of collaborating within teams and across organizations. The purpose of this study was to determine benefits and drawbacks associated with organizational collaboration across the discovery-development-delivery research continuum. Methods Representatives of organizations working on cancer research across a state answered a survey about how they collaborated with other cancer research organizations in the state and what benefits and drawbacks they experienced while collaborating. We used exponential random graph modeling to determine the association between these benefits and drawbacks and the presence of a collaboration tie between any two network members. Results Different drawbacks and benefits were associated with discovery, development, and delivery collaborations. The only consistent association across all three was with the drawback of difficulty due to geographic differences, which was negatively associated with collaboration, indicating that those organizations that had collaborated were less likely to perceive a barrier related to geography. The benefit, enhanced access to other knowledge, was positive and significant in the development and delivery networks, indicating that collaborating organizations viewed improved knowledge exchange as a benefit of collaboration. ‘Acquisition of additional funding or other resources’ and ‘development of new tools and methods’ were negatively significantly related to collaboration in these networks. So, although improved knowledge access was an outcome of collaboration, more

  20. Drawbacks and benefits associated with inter-organizational collaboration along the discovery-development-delivery continuum: a cancer research network case study.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jenine K; Provan, Keith G; Johnson, Kimberly J; Leischow, Scott J

    2012-07-25

    The scientific process around cancer research begins with scientific discovery, followed by development of interventions, and finally delivery of needed interventions to people with cancer. Numerous studies have identified substantial gaps between discovery and delivery in health research. Team science has been identified as a possible solution for closing the discovery to delivery gap; however, little is known about effective ways of collaborating within teams and across organizations. The purpose of this study was to determine benefits and drawbacks associated with organizational collaboration across the discovery-development-delivery research continuum. Representatives of organizations working on cancer research across a state answered a survey about how they collaborated with other cancer research organizations in the state and what benefits and drawbacks they experienced while collaborating. We used exponential random graph modeling to determine the association between these benefits and drawbacks and the presence of a collaboration tie between any two network members. Different drawbacks and benefits were associated with discovery, development, and delivery collaborations. The only consistent association across all three was with the drawback of difficulty due to geographic differences, which was negatively associated with collaboration, indicating that those organizations that had collaborated were less likely to perceive a barrier related to geography. The benefit, enhanced access to other knowledge, was positive and significant in the development and delivery networks, indicating that collaborating organizations viewed improved knowledge exchange as a benefit of collaboration. 'Acquisition of additional funding or other resources' and 'development of new tools and methods' were negatively significantly related to collaboration in these networks. So, although improved knowledge access was an outcome of collaboration, more tangible outcomes were not being

  1. [Sex- and gender-sensitive research in epidemiology and medicine: how can this be achieved? Aims and first results of the network "Sex-/Gender-Sensitive Research in Epidemiology, Neurosciences and Genetics/Cancer Research"].

    PubMed

    Jahn, I; Gansefort, D; Kindler-Röhrborn, A; Pfleiderer, B

    2014-09-01

    It is considered general knowledge among physicians and epidemiologists that biological and social aspects associated with being male or female have a strong influence on health and disease. Integrating these aspects into research is necessary to counteract the problems--including ethical problems--resulting from a different evidence basis for men and women. From January 2011 to June 2014 the Federal Ministry of Education and Research supported the network "Sex-/Gender-Sensitive Research in Epidemiology, Neuroscience and Genetics/Cancer Research" with three subprojects, which aimed to promote gender-sensitive research practices. The concepts and results are presented in this article. The subproject gathered data (literature analyses, questionnaires) and offered programs for young scientists. Experiences and results were collected and generalized, for instance, in the form of definitions of terms. 50 young scientists have taken part in the training program, identifying associations and barriers in sex-/gender-sensitive research. Among others, a working definition for "sex-/gender-sensitive research" was developed, as well as definitions for the terms "sex-specific" (for biological characteristics that are specific to men or women) and "sex-/gender-dependent" or "sex-/gender-associated" (for biological and social factors, for which the extent of occurrence differs between the sexes). The concepts realized by the network are well suited to stimulate further development and discussions. The definition of terms is an important base for a productive and high-yielding interdisciplinary collaboration.

  2. A Generic Data Harmonization Process for Cross-linked Research and Network Interaction. Construction and Application for the Lung Cancer Phenotype Database of the German Center for Lung Research.

    PubMed

    Firnkorn, D; Ganzinger, M; Muley, T; Thomas, M; Knaup, P

    2015-01-01

    Joint data analysis is a key requirement in medical research networks. Data are available in heterogeneous formats at each network partner and their harmonization is often rather complex. The objective of our paper is to provide a generic approach for the harmonization process in research networks. We applied the process when harmonizing data from three sites for the Lung Cancer Phenotype Database within the German Center for Lung Research. We developed a spreadsheet-based solution as tool to support the harmonization process for lung cancer data and a data integration procedure based on Talend Open Studio. The harmonization process consists of eight steps describing a systematic approach for defining and reviewing source data elements and standardizing common data elements. The steps for defining common data elements and harmonizing them with local data definitions are repeated until consensus is reached. Application of this process for building the phenotype database led to a common basic data set on lung cancer with 285 structured parameters. The Lung Cancer Phenotype Database was realized as an i2b2 research data warehouse. Data harmonization is a challenging task requiring informatics skills as well as domain knowledge. Our approach facilitates data harmonization by providing guidance through a uniform process that can be applied in a wide range of projects.

  3. How to research cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... wonder where to start. What are the most up-to-date, reliable sources for information about cancer? The guidelines ... sources and medical associations. They provide research-based, up-to-date information about all types of cancer. Here are ...

  4. Profiles in Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    These articles put a face to some of the thousands of individuals who contribute to NCI’s cancer research efforts. The profiles highlight the work of scientists and clinicians and describe the circumstances and motivation behind their work.

  5. Nanotechnology in Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Office of Cancer Nanotechnology Research has had a major impact on bringing novel nano-enabled solutions through the pre-clinical space. The strategic framework of this effort is presented here.

  6. Prostate Cancer Pathology Resource Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    researchers. Specimens include prostatectomy tissues (frozen, paraffin embedded, and tissue microarrays (TMAs), serum, plasma, buffy coat, prostatic fluid...Prostate Cancer, biorepository, biomarkers, tissue microarrays 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a...usage by the prostate cancer research community. The specimens in the PCBN include tissues from prostatectomies, serum, plasma, buffy coat, prostatic

  7. Reconstructing the Prostate Cancer Transcriptional Regulatory Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    TITLE: Reconstructing the prostate cancer transcriptional regulatory network PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Keyan Salari...CONTRACT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Reconstructing the prostate cancer transcriptional regulatory network 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-09-1...of this study is to reconstruct the prostate cancer transcriptional regulatory network and to experimentally validate novel, clinically-relevant

  8. Global cancer research initiative

    PubMed Central

    Love, Richard R

    2010-01-01

    Cancer is an increasing problem for low- and middle-income countries undergoing an epidemiologic transition from dominantly acute communicable disease to more frequent chronic disease with increased public health successes in the former domain. Progress against cancer in high-income countries has been modest and has come at enormous expense. There are several well-conceived global policy and planning initiatives which, with adequate political will, can favorably impact the growing global cancer challenges. Most financial resources for cancer, however, are spent on diagnosis and management of patients with disease in circumstances where specific knowledge about effective approaches is significantly limited, and the majority of interventions, other than surgery, are not cost-effective in resource-limited countries by global standards. In summary, how to intervene effectively on a global scale for the majority of citizens who develop cancer is poorly defined. In contrast to technology-transfer approaches, markedly increased clinical research activities are more likely to benefit cancer sufferers. In these contexts, a global cancer research initiative is proposed, and mechanisms for realizing such an effort are suggested. PMID:21188101

  9. Research Studies & Networks

    Cancer.gov

    These epidemiological studies may assist in evaluating associations between certain pharmaceuticals and disease risk and contain detailed information on pharmaceutical use and disease risk, including cancer.

  10. [The National Genome Research Network. Genome research in Germany].

    PubMed

    Bickeböller, Heike

    2007-02-01

    In 2001 Germany's Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMFM) initiated the National Genome Research Network (NGFN). The goals of the NGFN are the investigation of the molecular basis of common diseases to improve new methods for prevention, diagnosis and therapy. The disease-oriented genome networks investigate cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diseases of the nervous system, diseases due to environmental factors and infection, and inflammation. They are supported by technological platforms and a component for technology transfer. The explicit aims include better integration of public health research and economy in order to gain an efficient economical and technological utilisation and application in community health. This article describes the creation of the NGFN in the context of international and national genome research, shows the structure and content of the NGFN and gives examples for NGFN research in networks on a highly, internationally recognised level.

  11. Maryland's Special Populations Cancer Network: cancer health disparities reduction model.

    PubMed

    Baquet, Claudia R; Mack, Kelly M; Bramble, Joy; DeShields, Mary; Datcher, Delores; Savoy, Mervin; Hummel, Kery; Mishra, Shiraz I; Brooks, Sandra E; Boykin-Brown, Stephanie

    2005-05-01

    Cancer in Maryland is a serious health concern for minority and underserved populations in rural and urban areas. This report describes the National Cancer Institute (NCI) supported Maryland Special Populations Cancer Network (MSPN), a community-academic partnership. The MSPN's priority populations include African Americans, Native Americans, and other medically underserved residents of rural and urban areas. The MSPN has established a community infrastructure through formal collaborations with several community partners located in Baltimore City, the rural Eastern Shore, and Southern and Western Maryland, and among the Piscataway Conoy Tribe and the other 27 Native American Tribes in Maryland. Key partners also include the University of Maryland Eastern Shore and the University of Maryland Statewide Health Network. The MSPN has implemented innovative and successful programs in cancer health disparities research, outreach, and training; clinical trials education, health disparities policy, and resource leveraging. The MSPN addresses the goal of the NCI and the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) to reduce and eventually eliminate cancer health disparities. Community-academic partnerships are the foundation of this successful network.

  12. Identifying Network Perturbation in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Logsdon, Benjamin A.; Gentles, Andrew J.; Lee, Su-In

    2016-01-01

    We present a computational framework, called DISCERN (DIfferential SparsE Regulatory Network), to identify informative topological changes in gene-regulator dependence networks inferred on the basis of mRNA expression datasets within distinct biological states. DISCERN takes two expression datasets as input: an expression dataset of diseased tissues from patients with a disease of interest and another expression dataset from matching normal tissues. DISCERN estimates the extent to which each gene is perturbed—having distinct regulator connectivity in the inferred gene-regulator dependencies between the disease and normal conditions. This approach has distinct advantages over existing methods. First, DISCERN infers conditional dependencies between candidate regulators and genes, where conditional dependence relationships discriminate the evidence for direct interactions from indirect interactions more precisely than pairwise correlation. Second, DISCERN uses a new likelihood-based scoring function to alleviate concerns about accuracy of the specific edges inferred in a particular network. DISCERN identifies perturbed genes more accurately in synthetic data than existing methods to identify perturbed genes between distinct states. In expression datasets from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), breast cancer and lung cancer, genes with high DISCERN scores in each cancer are enriched for known tumor drivers, genes associated with the biological processes known to be important in the disease, and genes associated with patient prognosis, in the respective cancer. Finally, we show that DISCERN can uncover potential mechanisms underlying network perturbation by explaining observed epigenomic activity patterns in cancer and normal tissue types more accurately than alternative methods, based on the available epigenomic data from the ENCODE project. PMID:27145341

  13. Network Topologies Decoding Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jalan, Sarika; Kanhaiya, Krishna; Rai, Aparna; Bandapalli, Obul Reddy; Yadav, Alok

    2015-01-01

    According to the GLOBOCAN statistics, cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of death among women worldwide. It is found to be gradually increasing in the younger population, specifically in the developing countries. We analyzed the protein-protein interaction networks of the uterine cervix cells for the normal and disease states. It was found that the disease network was less random than the normal one, providing an insight into the change in complexity of the underlying network in disease state. The study also portrayed that, the disease state has faster signal processing as the diameter of the underlying network was very close to its corresponding random control. This may be a reason for the normal cells to change into malignant state. Further, the analysis revealed VEGFA and IL-6 proteins as the distinctly high degree nodes in the disease network, which are known to manifest a major contribution in promoting cervical cancer. Our analysis, being time proficient and cost effective, provides a direction for developing novel drugs, therapeutic targets and biomarkers by identifying specific interaction patterns, that have structural importance. PMID:26308848

  14. Cancer Survivors Day | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    CCR Celebrates Cancer Survivors #NCSD2016 At the Center for Cancer Research, we are home to an extraordinary group of practicing physicians and scientists who passionately explore the boundaries of research to unlock the mysteries of cancer, a disease that touches nearly every American.

  15. Critical analysis of contemporary clinical research in muscle-invasive and metastatic urothelial cancer: a report from the Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network Clinical Trials Working Group.

    PubMed

    Galsky, Matthew D; Hendricks, Ryan; Svatek, Robert; Bangs, Rick; Hoffman-Censits, Jean; Clement, Jessica; Dreicer, Robert; Guancial, Elizabeth; Hahn, Noah; Lerner, Seth P; O'Donnell, Peter H; Quale, Diane Zipursky; Siefker-Radtke, Arlene; Shipley, William; Sonpavde, Guru; Vaena, Daniel; Vinson, Jacob; Rosenberg, Jonathan

    2013-06-01

    There have been no improvements in the treatment of metastatic urothelial cancer in the past several decades. A census of contemporary clinical research in this disease was performed to identify potential barriers and opportunities. These authors performed a search for clinical trials exploring interventions in muscle-invasive and metastatic urothelial cancer, using the ClinicalTrials.gov registry. Data extracted from the registry included title, recruitment status, interventions, sponsor, phase, enrollment, study design, and study sites. Among 120 eligible trials exploring interventions in muscle-invasive and metastatic urothelial cancer, 73% were phase 2 and 73% were nonrandomized. The majority (63%) involved treatment in the metastatic disease state. The median planned enrollment size per trial was 45 patients (interquartile range, 47 patients). The majority of trials (55%) involved ≤ 3 study sites. Trials most commonly explored interventions in the first-line metastatic (30%) or second-line metastatic (37%) settings. Targeted therapeutics were studied in 58% of the trials. Among 56 trials that completed enrollment, the median time to complete accrual was 50 months (range, 10-109 months), and these trials enrolled a median of 40 patients per trial (interquartile range, 44 patients). The majority of contemporary clinical trials in muscle-invasive and metastatic urothelial cancer are small, nonrandomized, phase 2 trials involving 1 to 3 study sites. Enhanced communication and collaboration among the urothelial cancer community, and other stakeholders, is needed to facilitate the design and conduct of trials capable of expediting progress in this disease. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  16. National Comprehensive Cancer Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... NCCN Oncology Research Program (ORP) Informed Consent Language Database Points to Consider on the Best Practices for Biorepositories, Registries and Databases NCCN Shared Resources (Members Only) NCCN Patient and ...

  17. Biological Networks for Cancer Candidate Biomarkers Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Wenying; Xue, Wenjin; Chen, Jiajia; Hu, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Due to its extraordinary heterogeneity and complexity, cancer is often proposed as a model case of a systems biology disease or network disease. There is a critical need of effective biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and/or outcome prediction from system level analyses. Methods based on integrating omics data into networks have the potential to revolutionize the identification of cancer biomarkers. Deciphering the biological networks underlying cancer is undoubtedly important for understanding the molecular mechanisms of the disease and identifying effective biomarkers. In this review, the networks constructed for cancer biomarker discovery based on different omics level data are described and illustrated from recent advances in the field. PMID:27625573

  18. A method for analyzing the business case for provider participation in the National Cancer Institute's Community Clinical Oncology Program and similar federally funded, provider-based research networks.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Kristin L; Song, Paula H; Minasian, Lori; Good, Marjorie; Weiner, Bryan J; McAlearney, Ann Scheck

    2012-09-01

    The Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) plays an essential role in the efforts of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to increase enrollment in clinical trials. Currently, there is little practical guidance in the literature to assist provider organizations in analyzing the return on investment (ROI), or business case, for establishing and operating a provider-based research network (PBRN) such as the CCOP. In this article, the authors present a conceptual model of the business case for PBRN participation, a spreadsheet-based tool and advice for evaluating the business case for provider participation in a CCOP organization. A comparative, case-study approach was used to identify key components of the business case for hospitals attempting to support a CCOP research infrastructure. Semistructured interviews were conducted with providers and administrators. Key themes were identified and used to develop the financial analysis tool. Key components of the business case included CCOP start-up costs, direct revenue from the NCI CCOP grant, direct expenses required to maintain the CCOP research infrastructure, and incidental benefits, most notably downstream revenues from CCOP patients. The authors recognized the value of incidental benefits as an important contributor to the business case for CCOP participation; however, currently, this component is not calculated. The current results indicated that providing a method for documenting the business case for CCOP or other PBRN involvement will contribute to the long-term sustainability and expansion of these programs by improving providers' understanding of the financial implications of participation. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  19. MBCP - Patients - Support Groups | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Support Groups Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network (BCAN) – a community of advocates, survivors, medical and research professionals united in support of people touched by bladder cancer. American Bladder Cancer Society (ABCS) – ABCS features a bladder cancer forum, treatment center finder, blog, and more . . .

  20. Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    questionnaires , and surveys , etc. Nothing to report Organization Name: The Brooklyn Hospital Location of Organization: Brooklyn, New York Partner’s...University New York, NY 10016 REPORT DATE: October 2016 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command...unless so designated by other documentation. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection

  1. Computer Network Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-12-31

    munication (both satellite and ground radio channels) provides a solution. 4\\^ ;o is a multi-access broadcast medium. A signal generated by a radio...transmit signals over the same channel. (This is the multi-access capability.) Hence, a single ground radio channel provides a completely connected...network topology for a large number However, if two signals (packet transmissions) at the same carrier frequency overlap in time at a radio receiver, we

  2. Training and mobility: a priority for the Organisation of the European Cancer Institutes. How a national mobility initiative could enhance EU cooperation in cancer research contributing to the development of an European Research Area: the example of The Italian Comprehensive Cancer Centers' Network "Alleanza Contro il Cancro".

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Claudio; Albanese, Daniela; Belardelli, Filippo; d'Alessandro, Francesca; Giacomini, Mauro; Rondanina, Tania; Spagnoli, Luigi G

    2008-01-01

    It is widely recognized that productivity gains, sustained economic growth and employment are largely determined by technological progress, innovation and human capital. The 2000 Lisbon strategy to make Europe a competitive knowledge-based economy by 2010 and, more specifically, the Barcelona objectives agreed upon in 2002 to increase R&D investment in the EU to approach 3% of GDP, ensuring that there are sufficient human resources for research, are a preliminary step in this direction. If we want to reach this goal we have to succeed in retaining the best researchers, creating the right environment where they can perform their activities and develop their careers. To this aim the Organization of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) has set up a working group on Education and Training with the mandate to encourage continuing education in cancer research and applications and to verify the feasibility to promote mobility programs inside the network and in association with industries. Until now only few OECI training programs have been launched and a full mobility program has not been developed yet due to limited budget resources. The Italian Network of Comprehensive Cancer Centers, Alleanza Contro il Cancro, has planned the launch of a mobility program awarding 70 annual fellowships over a period of 36 months. This program, which will be open to the world research community, could represent a first interaction through mobility among the members of the OECI network also involving industries. The program is a tangible approach to sustain the translational process needed for the development of an European Research Area in the field of cancer and its related biomedical disciplines, thus providing a practical answer to the 2005 renewed Lisbon Strategy.

  3. Integrated Cancer Repository for Cancer Research

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-05

    Pancreatic Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Lung Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Thymus Cancer; Colon Cancer; Rectal Cancer; GIST; Anal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Liver Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer; Peritoneal Surface Malignancies; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Lynch Syndrome; Bladder Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Penile Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Cancer; Ureter Cancer; Urethral Cancer; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Laryngeal Cancer; Lip Cancer; Oral Cavity Cancer; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Nasal Cavity Cancer; Salivary Gland Cancer; Skin Cancer; CNS Tumor; CNS Cancer; Mesothelioma; Breastcancer; Leukemia; Melanoma; Sarcoma; Unknown Primary Tumor; Multiple Myeloma; Ovarian Cancer; Endometrial Cancer; Vaginal Cancer

  4. Network Oncology (NO)--a clinical cancer register for health services research and the evaluation of integrative therapeutic interventions in anthroposophic medicine.

    PubMed

    Schad, Friedemann; Axtner, Jan; Happe, Antje; Breitkreuz, Thomas; Paxino, Constantin; Gutsch, Johannes; Matthes, Burkhard; Debus, Marion; Kröz, Matthias; Spahn, Günther; Riess, Hartmut; von Laue, Hans-Broder; Matthes, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Concepts of integrative oncology (IO), as have been offered by anthroposophic medicine (AM) for decades, are gaining increasing interest and acceptance. Central aspects are multimodal therapeutic interventions, health-related quality of live, and patients' preference as well as therapeutic relationship and clinical outcome. Despite its broad application, IO lacks evaluation in clinical practice and complementary therapies are not monitored by any cancer registries. To close this gap we established 'Network Oncology' (NO), a conjoint registry of German outpatient AM practitioners and AM hospitals. In this paper we present the project and a first data overview and compare it to epidemiological registers and current literature. NO has collected 10,405 cancer patients' records in 6 years. Compared to epidemiological registers our data show minor differences in disease entity distribution, age, and gender. There is an overproportional amount of young breast cancer patients in NO institutions indicating a demand for integrative therapies in this group. There is no difference between the UICC (Union for International Cancer Control) stages at first diagnosis and at admission to a NO facility. According to our data conventional therapies were less frequently administered after admission to a NO facility. Nevertheless, one third of the patients received their first conventional therapy in a NO facility. 80% of the patients received mistletoe preparations and 63% had nonpharmacotherapeutic, complementary interventions. Integrative oncological approaches attract a great number of patients visiting AM institutions. The NO provides an infrastructure to evaluate integrative interventions in AM, allows comparison to other clinical registers, and thus can contribute to health service research in this field. © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  5. Evaluating primary care research networks.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Evelyn; Harvey, Janet; Sturt, Jackie

    2007-08-01

    This paper presents a conceptual framework and tool kit, generated from the evaluation of five primary care research networks (PCRNs) funded by the then London, National Health Service (NHS) Executive. We employed qualitative methods designed to match the most important characteristics of PCRNs, conducting five contextualized case studies covering the five networks. A conceptual evaluation framework based on a review of the organization science literature was developed and comprised the broad, but inter-related organizational dimensions of structure, processes, boundaries and network self-evaluation as input factors and strategic emphasis as epitomized by network objectives. These dimensions were comprised of more detailed subdimensions designed to capture the potential of the networks to create ideas and knowledge, or intellectual capital, the key construct upon which our evaluation tool kit was based. We considered the congruence, or fit, between network objectives and input factors: greater congruence implied greater ability to achieve implicit and overt objectives. We conclude that network evaluation must take place, over time, recognizing stage of development and potential for long-term viability, but within a generic framework of inputs and outputs. If there is a good fit or congruence between their input factors and network objectives, networks will be internally coherent and able to operate at optimum effectiveness.

  6. Predictors of Colorectal Screening in Rural Colorado: Testing to Prevent Colon Cancer in the High Plains Research Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Walter F.; McGloin, Joe; Zittleman, Linda; West, David R.; Westfall, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States, yet screening rates are well below target levels. Rural communities may face common and unique barriers to health care, particularly preventive health care. Purpose: To establish baseline attitudinal, knowledge, belief, and behavior measures on colorectal…

  7. Predictors of Colorectal Screening in Rural Colorado: Testing to Prevent Colon Cancer in the High Plains Research Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Walter F.; McGloin, Joe; Zittleman, Linda; West, David R.; Westfall, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States, yet screening rates are well below target levels. Rural communities may face common and unique barriers to health care, particularly preventive health care. Purpose: To establish baseline attitudinal, knowledge, belief, and behavior measures on colorectal…

  8. Open Research Networking Gadgets (ORNG).

    PubMed

    Meeks, Eric; Turner, Brian; Chatterjee, Anirvan; Yuan, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, UCSF embarked on a journey to utilize industry-backed application standards to extend our research networking tool of choice, Profiles, into a software platform. The goal of this work was to bring extended data and functionality to our researchers' online environment and make it easier to share independently-developed software innovations with others. We used the OpenSocial standard to achieve these ends. In 2012 we extended the OpenSocial standard to support RDF and the VIVO Ontology in an effort titled "Open Research Network Gadgets" or ORNG. Our work has been adopted by two major academic open source research networking tools - Harvard Catalyst Profiles and VIVO, and the ORNG standard is now available for use by the 50+ institutions that use recent versions of the two software products.

  9. Fostering Cooperation in Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Thursday, June 25, 2015 Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between US National Cancer Institute and three agencies of the Indian government - the Department of Biotechnology, the Indian Council of Medical Research, and the Indian National Cancer Institute, a part of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences to foster cooperation in cancer research.

  10. Transcription factor and microRNA-regulated network motifs for cancer and signal transduction networks.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Wen-Tsong; Tzeng, Ke-Rung; Ciou, Jin-Shuei; Tsai, Jeffrey Jp; Kurubanjerdjit, Nilubon; Huang, Chien-Hung; Ng, Ka-Lok

    2015-01-01

    Molecular networks are the basis of biological processes. Such networks can be decomposed into smaller modules, also known as network motifs. These motifs show interesting dynamical behaviors, in which co-operativity effects between the motif components play a critical role in human diseases. We have developed a motif-searching algorithm, which is able to identify common motif types from the cancer networks and signal transduction networks (STNs). Some of the network motifs are interconnected which can be merged together and form more complex structures, the so-called coupled motif structures (CMS). These structures exhibit mixed dynamical behavior, which may lead biological organisms to perform specific functions. In this study, we integrate transcription factors (TFs), microRNAs (miRNAs), miRNA targets and network motifs information to build the cancer-related TF-miRNA-motif networks (TMMN). This allows us to examine the role of network motifs in cancer formation at different levels of regulation, i.e. transcription initiation (TF → miRNA), gene-gene interaction (CMS), and post-transcriptional regulation (miRNA → target genes). Among the cancer networks and STNs we considered, it is found that there is a substantial amount of crosstalking through motif interconnections, in particular, the crosstalk between prostate cancer network and PI3K-Akt STN.To validate the role of network motifs in cancer formation, several examples are presented which demonstrated the effectiveness of the present approach. A web-based platform has been set up which can be accessed at: http://ppi.bioinfo.asia.edu.tw/pathway/. It is very likely that our results can supply very specific CMS missing information for certain cancer types, it is an indispensable tool for cancer biology research.

  11. Transcription factor and microRNA-regulated network motifs for cancer and signal transduction networks

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Molecular networks are the basis of biological processes. Such networks can be decomposed into smaller modules, also known as network motifs. These motifs show interesting dynamical behaviors, in which co-operativity effects between the motif components play a critical role in human diseases. We have developed a motif-searching algorithm, which is able to identify common motif types from the cancer networks and signal transduction networks (STNs). Some of the network motifs are interconnected which can be merged together and form more complex structures, the so-called coupled motif structures (CMS). These structures exhibit mixed dynamical behavior, which may lead biological organisms to perform specific functions. Results In this study, we integrate transcription factors (TFs), microRNAs (miRNAs), miRNA targets and network motifs information to build the cancer-related TF-miRNA-motif networks (TMMN). This allows us to examine the role of network motifs in cancer formation at different levels of regulation, i.e. transcription initiation (TF → miRNA), gene-gene interaction (CMS), and post-transcriptional regulation (miRNA → target genes). Among the cancer networks and STNs we considered, it is found that there is a substantial amount of crosstalking through motif interconnections, in particular, the crosstalk between prostate cancer network and PI3K-Akt STN. Conclusions To validate the role of network motifs in cancer formation, several examples are presented which demonstrated the effectiveness of the present approach. A web-based platform has been set up which can be accessed at: http://ppi.bioinfo.asia.edu.tw/pathway/. It is very likely that our results can supply very specific CMS missing information for certain cancer types, it is an indispensable tool for cancer biology research. PMID:25707690

  12. Why I Do Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    World Cancer Research Day is recognized on September 24, 2017. This day presents an opportunity for all of us to remind the world of the critically important roles research and cancer researchers play in reducing the global burden of cancer. Together with ten other global partners, NCI participated in the planning and launch of this initiative, highlighting the amplified impact of international cooperation in the clinical research arena.

  13. NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) is a national network of cancer care investigators, providers, academia, and other organizations that care for diverse populations in health systems. View the list of publications from NCORP. | Clinical Trials network of cancer care professionals who care for diverse populations across the U.S.

  14. Establishing a multicentre clinical research network: lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, N.A.; Stiles, C.R.; Biondo, P.D.; Cummings, G.G.; Fainsinger, R.L.; Moulin, D.E.; Pereira, J.L.; Spice, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Within many health care disciplines, research networks have emerged to connect researchers who are physically separated, to facilitate sharing of expertise and resources, and to exchange valuable skills. A multicentre research network committed to studying difficult cancer pain problems was launched in 2004 as part of a Canadian initiative to increase palliative and end-of-life care research capacity. Funding was received for 5 years to support network activities. Methods Mid-way through the 5-year granting period, an external review panel provided a formal mid-grant evaluation. Concurrently, an internal evaluation of the network by survey of its members was conducted. Based on feedback from both evaluations and on a review of the literature, we identified several components believed to be relevant to the development of a successful clinical cancer research network. Results These common elements of successful clinical cancer research networks were identified: shared vision, formal governance policies and terms of reference, infrastructure support, regular and effective communication, an accountability framework, a succession planning strategy to address membership change over time, multiple strategies to engage network members, regular review of goals and timelines, and a balance between structure and creativity. Conclusions In establishing and conducting a multi-year, multicentre clinical cancer research network, network members were led to reflect on the factors that contributed most to the achievement of network goals. Several specific factors were identified that seemed to be highly relevant in promoting success. These observations are presented to foster further discussion on the successful design and operation of research networks. PMID:21980256

  15. A SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS APPROACH TO UNDERSTAND CHANGES IN A CANCER DISPARITIES COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIP NETWORK.

    PubMed

    Luque, John S; Tyson, Dinorah Martinez; Bynum, Shalanda A; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Wells, Kristen J; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Gwede, Clement K; Meade, Cathy D

    2011-11-01

    The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) is one of the Community Network Program sites funded (2005-10) by the National Cancer Institute's Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities. TBCCN was tasked to form a sustainable, community-based partnership network focused on the goal of reducing cancer health disparities among racial-ethnic minority and medically underserved populations. This article reports evaluation outcome results from a social network analysis and discusses the varying TBCCN partner roles-in education, training, and research-over a span of three years (2007-09). The network analysis included 20 local community partner organizations covering a tricounty area in Southwest Florida. In addition, multiple externally funded, community-based participatory research pilot projects with community-academic partners have either been completed or are currently in progress, covering research topics including culturally targeted colorectal and prostate cancer screening education, patient navigation focused on preventing cervical cancer in rural Latinas, and community perceptions of biobanking. The social network analysis identified a trend toward increased network decentralization based on betweenness centrality and overall increase in number of linkages, suggesting network sustainability. Degree centrality, trust, and multiplexity exhibited stability over the three-year time period. These results suggest increased interaction and interdependence among partner organizations and less dependence on the cancer center. Social network analysis enabled us to quantitatively evaluate partnership network functioning of TBCCN in terms of network structure and information and resources flows, which are integral to understanding effective coalition practice based on Community Coalition Action Theory ( Butterfoss and Kegler 2009). Sharing the results of the social network analysis with the partnership network is an important component of our coalition building efforts. A

  16. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Harry Mahtani analyzes the gas content of nutrient media from Bioreactor used in research on human breast cancer. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  17. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Harry Mahtani analyzes the gas content of nutrient media from Bioreactor used in research on human breast cancer. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  18. Cancer Prevention Research in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Siwang; Yang, Chung S; Li, Junyao; You, Weicheng; Chen, Jianguo; Cao, Ya; Dong, Zigang; Qiao, Youlin

    2015-08-01

    Although cancer incidence and mortality rates in the United States and some European countries have started to decrease, those in developing countries are increasing. China, the most populous developing country, is facing a serious challenge from cancer. Cancer incidence has been increasing for decades, and cancer is the leading cause of death in China. In 2012, the cancer incidence was 174.0 per 100,000, and the cancer mortality was 122.2 per 100,000 in China. In addition to the still-prevalent traditional Chinese cancers of the stomach, liver, esophagus, cervix, and nasopharynx, the incidence of "Western" cancers such those of the lung, breast, and colorectum has increased alarmingly in recent years. These increases are likely due to the lifestyle and environmental changes associated with rapid economic development and population aging. More importantly, a large portion of these cancers are preventable. Researchers in China have made important contributions to cancer prevention research, especially in the traditional Chinese cancers. More cancer prevention research and measures, especially on the major emerging cancers, are urgently needed. This review article highlights some of the past achievements and present needs in cancer prevention research in China and suggests important areas for future studies.

  19. A SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS APPROACH TO UNDERSTAND CHANGES IN A CANCER DISPARITIES COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIP NETWORK

    PubMed Central

    Luque, John S.; Tyson, Dinorah Martinez; Bynum, Shalanda A.; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Wells, Kristen J.; Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Gwede, Clement K.; Meade, Cathy D.

    2013-01-01

    The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) is one of the Community Network Program sites funded (2005–10) by the National Cancer Institute’s Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities. TBCCN was tasked to form a sustainable, community-based partnership network focused on the goal of reducing cancer health disparities among racial–ethnic minority and medically underserved populations. This article reports evaluation outcome results from a social network analysis and discusses the varying TBCCN partner roles—in education, training, and research—over a span of three years (2007–09). The network analysis included 20 local community partner organizations covering a tricounty area in Southwest Florida. In addition, multiple externally funded, community-based participatory research pilot projects with community–academic partners have either been completed or are currently in progress, covering research topics including culturally targeted colorectal and prostate cancer screening education, patient navigation focused on preventing cervical cancer in rural Latinas, and community perceptions of biobanking. The social network analysis identified a trend toward increased network decentralization based on betweenness centrality and overall increase in number of linkages, suggesting network sustainability. Degree centrality, trust, and multiplexity exhibited stability over the three-year time period. These results suggest increased interaction and interdependence among partner organizations and less dependence on the cancer center. Social network analysis enabled us to quantitatively evaluate partnership network functioning of TBCCN in terms of network structure and information and resources flows, which are integral to understanding effective coalition practice based on Community Coalition Action Theory ( Butterfoss and Kegler 2009). Sharing the results of the social network analysis with the partnership network is an important component of our coalition

  20. Uses of cancer registries for public health and clinical research in Europe: Results of the European Network of Cancer Registries survey among 161 population-based cancer registries during 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Siesling, S; Louwman, W J; Kwast, A; van den Hurk, C; O'Callaghan, M; Rosso, S; Zanetti, R; Storm, H; Comber, H; Steliarova-Foucher, E; Coebergh, J W

    2015-06-01

    To provide insight into cancer registration coverage, data access and use in Europe. This contributes to data and infrastructure harmonisation and will foster a more prominent role of cancer registries (CRs) within public health, clinical policy and cancer research, whether within or outside the European Research Area. During 2010-12 an extensive survey of cancer registration practices and data use was conducted among 161 population-based CRs across Europe. Responding registries (66%) operated in 33 countries, including 23 with national coverage. Population-based oncological surveillance started during the 1940-50s in the northwest of Europe and from the 1970s to 1990s in other regions. The European Union (EU) protection regulations affected data access, especially in Germany and France, but less in the Netherlands or Belgium. Regular reports were produced by CRs on incidence rates (95%), survival (60%) and stage for selected tumours (80%). Evaluation of cancer control and quality of care remained modest except in a few dedicated CRs. Variables evaluated were support of clinical audits, monitoring adherence to clinical guidelines, improvement of cancer care and evaluation of mass cancer screening. Evaluation of diagnostic imaging tools was only occasional. Most population-based CRs are well equipped for strengthening cancer surveillance across Europe. Data quality and intensity of use depend on the role the cancer registry plays in the politico, oncomedical and public health setting within the country. Standard registration methodology could therefore not be translated to equivalent advances in cancer prevention and mass screening, quality of care, translational research of prognosis and survivorship across Europe. Further European collaboration remains essential to ensure access to data and comparability of the results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Research@ARL: Network Sciences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Bruce J. West Social Sciences Distributed Algorithms for Learning and Cognitive Medium Access with Logarithmic Regret...the traditional physical sciences, social sciences, life sciences, and information sciences. No one discipline or collection of disciplines can...pathologies encountered by the Warfighter. Exploration of cooperative behavior of social networks, such as swarms, is a significant research

  2. Network Penetration Testing and Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Brandon F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper will focus the on research and testing done on penetrating a network for security purposes. This research will provide the IT security office new methods of attacks across and against a company's network as well as introduce them to new platforms and software that can be used to better assist with protecting against such attacks. Throughout this paper testing and research has been done on two different Linux based operating systems, for attacking and compromising a Windows based host computer. Backtrack 5 and BlackBuntu (Linux based penetration testing operating systems) are two different "attacker'' computers that will attempt to plant viruses and or NASA USRP - Internship Final Report exploits on a host Windows 7 operating system, as well as try to retrieve information from the host. On each Linux OS (Backtrack 5 and BlackBuntu) there is penetration testing software which provides the necessary tools to create exploits that can compromise a windows system as well as other operating systems. This paper will focus on two main methods of deploying exploits 1 onto a host computer in order to retrieve information from a compromised system. One method of deployment for an exploit that was tested is known as a "social engineering" exploit. This type of method requires interaction from unsuspecting user. With this user interaction, a deployed exploit may allow a malicious user to gain access to the unsuspecting user's computer as well as the network that such computer is connected to. Due to more advance security setting and antivirus protection and detection, this method is easily identified and defended against. The second method of exploit deployment is the method mainly focused upon within this paper. This method required extensive research on the best way to compromise a security enabled protected network. Once a network has been compromised, then any and all devices connected to such network has the potential to be compromised as well. With a compromised

  3. LTAR linkages with other research networks: Capitalizing on network interconnections

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA ARS Research Unit based at the Jornada Experimental Range outside of Las Cruces, NM, is a member of the USDA’s Long Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) Network, the National Science Foundation’s Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network, the National Ecological Observation Network (NEON)...

  4. Differential network entropy reveals cancer system hallmarks

    PubMed Central

    West, James; Bianconi, Ginestra; Severini, Simone; Teschendorff, Andrew E.

    2012-01-01

    The cellular phenotype is described by a complex network of molecular interactions. Elucidating network properties that distinguish disease from the healthy cellular state is therefore of critical importance for gaining systems-level insights into disease mechanisms and ultimately for developing improved therapies. By integrating gene expression data with a protein interaction network we here demonstrate that cancer cells are characterised by an increase in network entropy. In addition, we formally demonstrate that gene expression differences between normal and cancer tissue are anticorrelated with local network entropy changes, thus providing a systemic link between gene expression changes at the nodes and their local correlation patterns. In particular, we find that genes which drive cell-proliferation in cancer cells and which often encode oncogenes are associated with reductions in network entropy. These findings may have potential implications for identifying novel drug targets. PMID:23150773

  5. Canopy Research Network seeks input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In July 1993, the Canopy Research Network was established with a 2-year planning grant from the National Science Foundation to bring together forest canopy researchers, quantitative scientists, and computer specialists to establish methods for collecting, storing, analyzing, interpreting, and displaying three-dimensional data that relate to tree crowns and forest canopies. The CRN is now soliciting input from scientists in other fields who may have developed techniques and software to help obtain answers to questions that concern the complex three-dimensional structure of tree crowns and forest canopies. Over the next 3 years, the CRN plans to compile an array of research questions and issues requiring information on canopy structure, examine useful information models and software tools already in use in allied fields, and develop conceptual models and recommendations for the types and format of information and analyses necessary to answer research questions posed by canopy researchers.

  6. US-LA CRN Clinical Cancer Research in Latin America

    Cancer.gov

    The United States – Latin America Cancer Research Network (US-LA CRN) convened its Annual Meeting, in coordination with the Ministry of Health of Chile to discuss the Network’s first multilateral clinical research study: Molecular Profiling of Breast Cancer (MPBC).

  7. Development of the Meharry Medical College Prostate Cancer Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    viable community network ties. One project will investigate health care seeking behavior of AA, another will investigate the role of lycopene in PCa risk...SUBJECT TERMS Prostate cancer, Dietary risk factors, Lycopene , Genetic predisposition, African-Americans, Cancer research training, Prostate cancer...The PI awaits comments from the HSRRB. Project 1: (Dr. Ukoli, PI / Dr. Dittus, Mentor) “ Lycopene in Prostate Cancer Risk among African-Americans

  8. Reconstructing the Prostate Cancer Transcriptional Regulatory Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    TITLE: Reconstructing the prostate cancer transcriptional regulatory network PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Keyan Salari...2009 – 30 Sep 2010 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-09-1-0414 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Reconstructing the prostate cancer transcriptional regulatory...to novel diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic strategies in the future. The overall objective of this study was to reconstruct the prostate

  9. Prevalence and Type of BRCA Mutations in Hispanics Undergoing Genetic Cancer Risk Assessment in the Southwestern United States: A Report From the Clinical Cancer Genetics Community Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Clague, Jessica; Martir-Negron, Arelis; Ogaz, Raquel; Herzog, Josef; Ricker, Charité; Jungbluth, Chelsy; Cina, Cheryl; Duncan, Paul; Unzeitig, Gary; Saldivar, J. Salvador; Beattie, Mary; Feldman, Nancy; Sand, Sharon; Port, Danielle; Barragan, Deborah I.; John, Esther M.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Larson, Garrett P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence and type of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) mutations among Hispanics in the Southwestern United States and their potential impact on genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA). Patients and Methods Hispanics (n = 746) with a personal or family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer were enrolled in an institutional review board–approved registry and received GCRA and BRCA testing within a consortium of 14 clinics. Population-based Hispanic breast cancer cases (n = 492) enrolled in the Northern California Breast Cancer Family Registry, negative by sequencing for BRCA mutations, were analyzed for the presence of the BRCA1 ex9-12del large rearrangement. Results Deleterious BRCA mutations were detected in 189 (25%) of 746 familial clinic patients (124 BRCA1, 65 BRCA2); 21 (11%) of 189 were large rearrangement mutations, of which 62% (13 of 21) were BRCA1 ex9-12del. Nine recurrent mutations accounted for 53% of the total. Among these, BRCA1 ex9-12del seems to be a Mexican founder mutation and represents 10% to 12% of all BRCA1 mutations in clinic- and population-based cohorts in the United States. Conclusion BRCA mutations were prevalent in the largest study of Hispanic breast and/or ovarian cancer families in the United States to date, and a significant proportion were large rearrangement mutations. The high frequency of large rearrangement mutations warrants screening in every case. We document the first Mexican founder mutation (BRCA1 ex9-12del), which, along with other recurrent mutations, suggests the potential for a cost-effective panel approach to ancestry-informed GCRA. PMID:23233716

  10. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Robert Richmond extracts breast cell tissue from one of two liquid nitrogen dewars. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  11. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Breast tissue specimens in traditional sample dishes. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  12. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Time-lapse exposure depicts Bioreactor rotation. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  13. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Breast tissue specimens in traditional sample dishes. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  14. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Time-lapse exposure depicts Bioreactor rotation. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  15. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Robert Richmond extracts breast cell tissue from one of two liquid nitrogen dewars. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  16. Randomness and preserved patterns in cancer network

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Aparna; Menon, A. Vipin; Jalan, Sarika

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer has been reported to account for the maximum cases among all female cancers till date. In order to gain a deeper insight into the complexities of the disease, we analyze the breast cancer network and its normal counterpart at the proteomic level. While the short range correlations in the eigenvalues exhibiting universality provide an evidence towards the importance of random connections in the underlying networks, the long range correlations along with the localization properties reveal insightful structural patterns involving functionally important proteins. The analysis provides a benchmark for designing drugs which can target a subgraph instead of individual proteins. PMID:25220184

  17. Accomplishments in cancer research. 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Fortner, J.G. . Medical Coll.); Rhoads, J.E. . School of Medicine)

    1987-01-01

    This book contains several papers on cancer research. Some of the titles are: Controlled DNA Replication Once and Only Once Per Cell Cycle; Tumor Growth Factors; Improvement in Radiotherapy Through Innovative Dose Fractionation; The Role of Surgery in the Treatment of Cancer Metastase; Tumor Promotion; and Molecular Cloning of Protein Kinase C and the Role of PKC in Signal Transduction and Tumor Promotion.

  18. National research and education network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villasenor, Tony

    1991-01-01

    Some goals of this network are as follows: Extend U.S. technological leadership in high performance computing and computer communications; Provide wide dissemination and application of the technologies both to the speed and the pace of innovation and to serve the national economy, national security, education, and the global environment; and Spur gains in the U.S. productivity and industrial competitiveness by making high performance computing and networking technologies an integral part of the design and production process. Strategies for achieving these goals are as follows: Support solutions to important scientific and technical challenges through a vigorous R and D effort; Reduce the uncertainties to industry for R and D and use of this technology through increased cooperation between government, industry, and universities and by the continued use of government and government funded facilities as a prototype user for early commercial HPCC products; and Support underlying research, network, and computational infrastructures on which U.S. high performance computing technology is based.

  19. Integrative Network Biology: Graph Prototyping for Co-Expression Cancer Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kugler, Karl G.; Mueller, Laurin A. J.; Graber, Armin; Dehmer, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Network-based analysis has been proven useful in biologically-oriented areas, e.g., to explore the dynamics and complexity of biological networks. Investigating a set of networks allows deriving general knowledge about the underlying topological and functional properties. The integrative analysis of networks typically combines networks from different studies that investigate the same or similar research questions. In order to perform an integrative analysis it is often necessary to compare the properties of matching edges across the data set. This identification of common edges is often burdensome and computational intensive. Here, we present an approach that is different from inferring a new network based on common features. Instead, we select one network as a graph prototype, which then represents a set of comparable network objects, as it has the least average distance to all other networks in the same set. We demonstrate the usefulness of the graph prototyping approach on a set of prostate cancer networks and a set of corresponding benign networks. We further show that the distances within the cancer group and the benign group are statistically different depending on the utilized distance measure. PMID:21829532

  20. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    High magnification view of human primary breast tumor cells after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. The arrow points to bead surface indicating breast cancer cells (as noted by the staining of tumor cell intermediate filaments). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida

  1. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    High magnification view of human primary breast tumor cells after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. The arrow points to bead surface indicating breast cancer cells (as noted by the staining of tumor cell intermediate filaments). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida

  2. Collaborating to Move Research Forward: Proceedings of the 10th Annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Ashish M; Agarwal, Piyush; Bivalacqua, Trinity; Chisolm, Stephanie; Daneshmand, Sia; Doroshow, James H; Efstathiou, Jason A; Galsky, Matthew; Iyer, Gopa; Kassouf, Wassim; Shah, Jay; Taylor, John; Williams, Stephen B; Quale, Diane Zipursky; Rosenberg, Jonathan E

    2016-04-27

    The 10th Annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank was hosted by the Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network and brought together a multidisciplinary group of clinicians, researchers, representatives and Industry to advance bladder cancer research efforts. Think Tank expert panels, group discussions, and networking opportunities helped generate ideas and strengthen collaborations between researchers and physicians across disciplines and between institutions. Interactive panel discussions addressed a variety of timely issues: 1) data sharing, privacy and social media; 2) improving patient navigation through therapy; 3) promising developments in immunotherapy; 4) and moving bladder cancer research from bench to bedside. Lastly, early career researchers presented their bladder cancer studies and had opportunities to network with leading experts.

  3. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    Expression in Prostate Cancer Cells Exposed to Heavy Metal Carcinogen. UNMC Summer Undergraduate Research Program, August 2010. • Keidra A. Bryant...Joseph R. Wheeler, Michelle A. Montgomery, and Richard G. MacDonald. (2010). Effect of Metal Ion Chelators on Mannose 6-Phosphate/Insulin-like... Effect of 4’-Bis-Thiosemicarbazide, a New Ribonucleotide Reductase Inhibitor, on Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation. UNMC Summer Undergraduate Research

  4. Medical education practice-based research networks: Facilitating collaborative research

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Alan; Young, Robin; Hicks, Patricia J.; APPD LEARN, For

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Research networks formalize and institutionalize multi-site collaborations by establishing an infrastructure that enables network members to participate in research, propose new studies, and exploit study data to move the field forward. Although practice-based clinical research networks are now widespread, medical education research networks are rapidly emerging. Aims: In this article, we offer a definition of the medical education practice-based research network, a brief description of networks in existence in July 2014 and their features, and a more detailed case study of the emergence and early growth of one such network, the Association of Pediatric Program Directors Longitudinal Educational Assessment Research Network (APPD LEARN). Methods: We searched for extant networks through peer-reviewed literature and the world-wide web. Results: We identified 15 research networks in medical education founded since 2002 with membership ranging from 8 to 120 programs. Most focus on graduate medical education in primary care or emergency medicine specialties. Conclusions: We offer four recommendations for the further development and spread of medical education research networks: increasing faculty development, obtaining central resources, studying networks themselves, and developing networks of networks. PMID:25319404

  5. Medical education practice-based research networks: Facilitating collaborative research.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Alan; Young, Robin; Hicks, Patricia J

    2016-01-01

    Research networks formalize and institutionalize multi-site collaborations by establishing an infrastructure that enables network members to participate in research, propose new studies, and exploit study data to move the field forward. Although practice-based clinical research networks are now widespread, medical education research networks are rapidly emerging. In this article, we offer a definition of the medical education practice-based research network, a brief description of networks in existence in July 2014 and their features, and a more detailed case study of the emergence and early growth of one such network, the Association of Pediatric Program Directors Longitudinal Educational Assessment Research Network (APPD LEARN). We searched for extant networks through peer-reviewed literature and the world-wide web. We identified 15 research networks in medical education founded since 2002 with membership ranging from 8 to 120 programs. Most focus on graduate medical education in primary care or emergency medicine specialties. We offer four recommendations for the further development and spread of medical education research networks: increasing faculty development, obtaining central resources, studying networks themselves, and developing networks of networks.

  6. About Foregut Cancers | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    About Foregut Cancers The foregut is the section of the upper gastrointestinal tract that includes the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver and bile ducts. The focus of the NIH Foregut Team is clinical research and care of patients with tumors of the foregut, including:

  7. Research Priorities in Networking and Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    A workshop focused on major research issues in networking and communications. This report defines the context for research priorities and initiatives and deals with issues in networking and communications. Fifteen major research priorities and four research specific initiatives were identified by participants as areas that should be pursued over…

  8. Microrheology of keratin networks in cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paust, T.; Paschke, S.; Beil, M.; Marti, O.

    2013-12-01

    Microrheology is a valuable tool to determine viscoelastic properties of polymer networks. For this purpose measurements with embedded tracer beads inside the extracted network of pancreatic cancer cells were performed. Observing the beads motion with a CCD-high-speed-camera leads to the dynamic shear modulus. The complex shear modulus is divided into real and imaginary parts which give insight into the mechanical properties of the cell. The dependency on the distance of the embedded beads to the rim of the nucleus shows a tendency for a deceasing storage modulus. We draw conclusions on the network topology of the keratin network types based on the mechanical behavior.

  9. Graph Curvature for Differentiating Cancer Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Romeil; Georgiou, Tryphon; Reznik, Ed; Zhu, Liangjia; Kolesov, Ivan; Senbabaoglu, Yasin; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Cellular interactions can be modeled as complex dynamical systems represented by weighted graphs. The functionality of such networks, including measures of robustness, reliability, performance, and efficiency, are intrinsically tied to the topology and geometry of the underlying graph. Utilizing recently proposed geometric notions of curvature on weighted graphs, we investigate the features of gene co-expression networks derived from large-scale genomic studies of cancer. We find that the curvature of these networks reliably distinguishes between cancer and normal samples, with cancer networks exhibiting higher curvature than their normal counterparts. We establish a quantitative relationship between our findings and prior investigations of network entropy. Furthermore, we demonstrate how our approach yields additional, non-trivial pair-wise (i.e. gene-gene) interactions which may be disrupted in cancer samples. The mathematical formulation of our approach yields an exact solution to calculating pair-wise changes in curvature which was computationally infeasible using prior methods. As such, our findings lay the foundation for an analytical approach to studying complex biological networks. PMID:26169480

  10. Microarrays in cancer research.

    PubMed

    Grant, Geraldine M; Fortney, Amanda; Gorreta, Francesco; Estep, Michael; Del Giacco, Luca; Van Meter, Amy; Christensen, Alan; Appalla, Lakshmi; Naouar, Chahla; Jamison, Curtis; Al-Timimi, Ali; Donovan, Jean; Cooper, James; Garrett, Carleton; Chandhoke, Vikas

    2004-01-01

    Microarray technology has presented the scientific community with a compelling approach that allows for simultaneous evaluation of all cellular processes at once. Cancer, being one of the most challenging diseases due to its polygenic nature, presents itself as a perfect candidate for evaluation by this approach. Several recent articles have provided significant insight into the strengths and limitations of microarrays. Nevertheless, there are strong indications that this approach will provide new molecular markers that could be used in diagnosis and prognosis of cancers. To achieve these goals it is essential that there is a seamless integration of clinical and molecular biological data that allows us to elucidate genes and pathways involved in various cancers. To this effect we are currently evaluating gene expression profiles in human brain, ovarian, breast and hematopoetic, lung, colorectal, head and neck and biliary tract cancers. To address the issues we have a joint team of scientists, doctors and computer scientists from two Virginia Universities and a major healthcare provider. The study has been divided into several focus groups that include; Tissue Bank Clinical & Pathology Laboratory Data, Chip Fabrication, QA/QC, Tissue Devitalization, Database Design and Data Analysis, using multiple microarray platforms. Currently over 300 consenting patients have been enrolled in the study with the largest number being that of breast cancer patients. Clinical data on each patient is being compiled into a secure and interactive relational database and integration of these data elements will be accomplished by a common programming interface. This clinical database contains several key parameters on each patient including demographic (risk factors, nutrition, co-morbidity, familial history), histopathology (non genetic predictors), tumor, treatment and follow-up information. Gene expression data derived from the tissue samples will be linked to this database, which

  11. Research on the model of home networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Xiang; Feng, Xiancheng

    2007-11-01

    It is the research hotspot of current broadband network to combine voice service, data service and broadband audio-video service by IP protocol to transport various real time and mutual services to terminal users (home). Home Networking is a new kind of network and application technology which can provide various services. Home networking is called as Digital Home Network. It means that PC, home entertainment equipment, home appliances, Home wirings, security, illumination system were communicated with each other by some composing network technology, constitute a networking internal home, and connect with WAN by home gateway. It is a new network technology and application technology, and can provide many kinds of services inside home or between homes. Currently, home networking can be divided into three kinds: Information equipment, Home appliances, Communication equipment. Equipment inside home networking can exchange information with outer networking by home gateway, this information communication is bidirectional, user can get information and service which provided by public networking by using home networking internal equipment through home gateway connecting public network, meantime, also can get information and resource to control the internal equipment which provided by home networking internal equipment. Based on the general network model of home networking, there are four functional entities inside home networking: HA, HB, HC, and HD. (1) HA (Home Access) - home networking connects function entity; (2) HB (Home Bridge) Home networking bridge connects function entity; (3) HC (Home Client) - Home networking client function entity; (4) HD (Home Device) - decoder function entity. There are many physical ways to implement four function entities. Based on theses four functional entities, there are reference model of physical layer, reference model of link layer, reference model of IP layer and application reference model of high layer. In the future home network

  12. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Human primary breast tumor cells after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. A cross-section of a construct, grown from surgical specimens of brease cancer, stained for microscopic examination, reveals areas of tumor cells dispersed throughout the non-epithelial cell background. The arrow denotes the foci of breast cancer cells. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida

  13. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Human primary breast tumor cells after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. A cross-section of a construct, grown from surgical specimens of brease cancer, stained for microscopic examination, reveals areas of tumor cells dispersed throughout the non-epithelial cell background. The arrow denotes the foci of breast cancer cells. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida

  14. Cancer Research Center Hotline

    PubMed Central

    Cassel, Kevin D

    2010-01-01

    The rates of melanomas and skin cancers are increasing in the United States. Children attending elementary schools are in the most danger of acquiring these diseases later in life, and elementary school children in Hawai‘i have the greatest risk of all children in the United States. The parents and educators of Hawai‘i's elementary school age children are unaware of the potential risks for cancer that young children experience every day at school. Effective sun protection policies have been implemented in other jurisdictions, including Australia, that have similar risks for over-exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation in children. These proven policy models can inform sun protection practices in Hawai‘i. A simple policy whereby public elementary schools require that children wear ordinary long sleeves shirts and hats during the school's outdoor activities will protect Hawai‘i's children from overexposure to sun's ultraviolet radiation. Establishment of a state law codifying the implementation of this simple, yet scientifically proven strategy into the policies of Hawai‘i's public elementary schools can significantly reduce the incidence and deaths from melanoma and skin cancer in the state. PMID:21218379

  15. The National Cancer Institute's Physical Sciences - Oncology Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espey, Michael Graham

    In 2009, the NCI launched the Physical Sciences - Oncology Centers (PS-OC) initiative with 12 Centers (U54) funded through 2014. The current phase of the Program includes U54 funded Centers with the added feature of soliciting new Physical Science - Oncology Projects (PS-OP) U01 grant applications through 2017; see NCI PAR-15-021. The PS-OPs, individually and along with other PS-OPs and the Physical Sciences-Oncology Centers (PS-OCs), comprise the Physical Sciences-Oncology Network (PS-ON). The foundation of the Physical Sciences-Oncology initiative is a high-risk, high-reward program that promotes a `physical sciences perspective' of cancer and fosters the convergence of physical science and cancer research by forming transdisciplinary teams of physical scientists (e.g., physicists, mathematicians, chemists, engineers, computer scientists) and cancer researchers (e.g., cancer biologists, oncologists, pathologists) who work closely together to advance our understanding of cancer. The collaborative PS-ON structure catalyzes transformative science through increased exchange of people, ideas, and approaches. PS-ON resources are leveraged to fund Trans-Network pilot projects to enable synergy and cross-testing of experimental and/or theoretical concepts. This session will include a brief PS-ON overview followed by a strategic discussion with the APS community to exchange perspectives on the progression of trans-disciplinary physical sciences in cancer research.

  16. Breast Cancer Detection Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    for the detec tion of targets of interest. The technique uses an advanced neural network�a computational processor inspired by biology�to learn con...tumors. An advantage of the neural network approach is that, after the system has learned the task, the net work can be analyzed to discover the specific...radiologists. They were unhappy with the 14-inch-square monitor identified by the reconnais sance imagery analysts, preferring a 14-inch x 17-inch monitor

  17. International Cancer Proteogenome Consortium | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The International Cancer Proteogenome Consortium (ICPC), is a voluntary scientific organization that provides a forum for collaboration among some of the world's leading cancer and proteogenomic research centers.

  18. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Human primary breast tumor cells after 49 days of growth in a NASA Bioreactor. Tumor cells aggregate on microcarrier beads (indicated by arrow). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida

  19. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    High magnification of view of tumor cells aggregate on microcarrier beads, illustrting breast cells with intercellular boundaires on bead surface and aggregates of cells achieving 3-deminstional growth outward from bead after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida.

  20. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    High magnification of view of tumor cells aggregate on microcarrier beads, illustrting breast cells with intercellular boundaires on bead surface and aggregates of cells achieving 3-deminstional growth outward from bead after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida.

  1. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Human primary breast tumor cells after 49 days of growth in a NASA Bioreactor. Tumor cells aggregate on microcarrier beads (indicated by arrow). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida

  2. The Future of Prostate Cancer Research and Treatment

    Cancer.gov

    On January 12, 2017 prostate cancer experts William Dahut, M.D. of the National Cancer Institute and Dr. Heather Cheng, M.D. of the University of Washington had a vibrant discussion about current and future research areas and treatment options for prostate cancer. The panel was moderated by Ana Fadich, MPH, CHES Vice President at Men’s Health of the Men's Health Network.

  3. Transcriptional Networks Inferred from Molecular Signatures of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tongbai, Ron; Idelman, Gila; Nordgard, Silje H.; Cui, Wenwu; Jacobs, Jonathan L.; Haggerty, Cynthia M.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Livingston, Gary; Shaunessy, Patrick; Chiang, Chih-Hung; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Bilke, Sven; Gardner, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Global genomic approaches in cancer research have provided new and innovative strategies for the identification of signatures that differentiate various types of human cancers. Computational analysis of the promoter composition of the genes within these signatures may provide a powerful method for deducing the regulatory transcriptional networks that mediate their collective function. In this study we have systematically analyzed the promoter composition of gene classes derived from previously established genetic signatures that recently have been shown to reliably and reproducibly distinguish five molecular subtypes of breast cancer associated with distinct clinical outcomes. Inferences made from the trends of transcription factor binding site enrichment in the promoters of these gene groups led to the identification of regulatory pathways that implicate discrete transcriptional networks associated with specific molecular subtypes of breast cancer. One of these inferred pathways predicted a role for nuclear factor-κB in a novel feed-forward, self-amplifying, autoregulatory module regulated by the ERBB family of growth factor receptors. The existence of this pathway was verified in vivo by chromatin immunoprecipitation and shown to be deregulated in breast cancer cells overexpressing ERBB2. This analysis indicates that approaches of this type can provide unique insights into the differential regulatory molecular programs associated with breast cancer and will aid in identifying specific transcriptional networks and pathways as potential targets for tumor subtype-specific therapeutic intervention. PMID:18187569

  4. Transcriptional networks inferred from molecular signatures of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tongbai, Ron; Idelman, Gila; Nordgard, Silje H; Cui, Wenwu; Jacobs, Jonathan L; Haggerty, Cynthia M; Chanock, Stephen J; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Livingston, Gary; Shaunessy, Patrick; Chiang, Chih-Hung; Kristensen, Vessela N; Bilke, Sven; Gardner, Kevin

    2008-02-01

    Global genomic approaches in cancer research have provided new and innovative strategies for the identification of signatures that differentiate various types of human cancers. Computational analysis of the promoter composition of the genes within these signatures may provide a powerful method for deducing the regulatory transcriptional networks that mediate their collective function. In this study we have systematically analyzed the promoter composition of gene classes derived from previously established genetic signatures that recently have been shown to reliably and reproducibly distinguish five molecular subtypes of breast cancer associated with distinct clinical outcomes. Inferences made from the trends of transcription factor binding site enrichment in the promoters of these gene groups led to the identification of regulatory pathways that implicate discrete transcriptional networks associated with specific molecular subtypes of breast cancer. One of these inferred pathways predicted a role for nuclear factor-kappaB in a novel feed-forward, self-amplifying, autoregulatory module regulated by the ERBB family of growth factor receptors. The existence of this pathway was verified in vivo by chromatin immunoprecipitation and shown to be deregulated in breast cancer cells overexpressing ERBB2. This analysis indicates that approaches of this type can provide unique insights into the differential regulatory molecular programs associated with breast cancer and will aid in identifying specific transcriptional networks and pathways as potential targets for tumor subtype-specific therapeutic intervention.

  5. The productivity of primary care research networks.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, F; Wild, A; Harvey, J; Fenton, E

    2000-01-01

    Primary care research networks are being publicly funded in the United Kingdom to promote a culture of research and development in primary care. This paper discusses the organisational form of these networks and how their productivity can be evaluated, drawing on evidence from management science. An evaluation of a research network has to take account of the complexity of the organisation, the influence of its local context, and its stage of development. Output measures, such as number of research papers, and process measures, such as number of research meetings, may contribute to an evaluation. However, as networking relies on the development of informal, trust-based relationships, the quality of interactions within a network is of paramount importance for its success. Networks can audit and reflect on their success in promoting such relationships and a more formal qualitative evaluation by an independent observer can document their success to those responsible for funding. PMID:11141879

  6. What's New in Research and Treatment of Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Melanoma Skin Cancer About Melanoma Skin Cancer What’s New in Melanoma Skin Cancer Research? Research into the ... Cancer? Key Statistics for Melanoma Skin Cancer What’s New in Melanoma Skin Cancer Research? More In Melanoma ...

  7. BGRMI: A method for inferring gene regulatory networks from time-course gene expression data and its application in breast cancer research

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias-Martinez, Luis F.; Kolch, Walter; Santra, Tapesh

    2016-01-01

    Reconstructing gene regulatory networks (GRNs) from gene expression data is a challenging problem. Existing GRN reconstruction algorithms can be broadly divided into model-free and model–based methods. Typically, model-free methods have high accuracy but are computation intensive whereas model-based methods are fast but less accurate. We propose Bayesian Gene Regulation Model Inference (BGRMI), a model-based method for inferring GRNs from time-course gene expression data. BGRMI uses a Bayesian framework to calculate the probability of different models of GRNs and a heuristic search strategy to scan the model space efficiently. Using benchmark datasets, we show that BGRMI has higher/comparable accuracy at a fraction of the computational cost of competing algorithms. Additionally, it can incorporate prior knowledge of potential gene regulation mechanisms and TF hetero-dimerization processes in the GRN reconstruction process. We incorporated existing ChIP-seq data and known protein interactions between TFs in BGRMI as sources of prior knowledge to reconstruct transcription regulatory networks of proliferating and differentiating breast cancer (BC) cells from time-course gene expression data. The reconstructed networks revealed key driver genes of proliferation and differentiation in BC cells. Some of these genes were not previously studied in the context of BC, but may have clinical relevance in BC treatment. PMID:27876826

  8. A Review of the Accomplishments of the CTD² Network | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    The Office of Cancer Genomics (OCG) Cancer Target Discovery and Development or CTD2 initiative was established by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to accelerate the “translation” of high-throughput, high-content genomic data to the bedside through functional genomics. The CTD2 initiative is a collaborative network of 13 different research teams, or Centers.

  9. Regulation patterns in signaling networks of cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Formation of cellular malignancy results from the disruption of fine tuned signaling homeostasis for proliferation, accompanied by mal-functional signals for differentiation, cell cycle and apoptosis. We wanted to observe central signaling characteristics on a global view of malignant cells which have evolved to selfishness and independence in comparison to their non-malignant counterparts that fulfill well defined tasks in their sample. Results We investigated the regulation of signaling networks with twenty microarray datasets from eleven different tumor types and their corresponding non-malignant tissue samples. Proteins were represented by their coding genes and regulatory distances were defined by correlating the gene-regulation between neighboring proteins in the network (high correlation = small distance). In cancer cells we observed shorter pathways, larger extension of the networks, a lower signaling frequency of central proteins and links and a higher information content of the network. Proteins of high signaling frequency were enriched with cancer mutations. These proteins showed motifs of regulatory integration in normal cells which was disrupted in tumor cells. Conclusion Our global analysis revealed a distinct formation of signaling-regulation in cancer cells when compared to cells of normal samples. From these cancer-specific regulation patterns novel signaling motifs are proposed. PMID:21110851

  10. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Same long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC), but after 3 weeks in concinuous culture. Note attempts to reform duct elements, but this time in two dimensions in a dish rather that in three demensions in tissue. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  11. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Isolate of long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from outgrowth of duct element; cells shown soon after isolation and early in culture in a dish. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  12. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Outgrowth of cells from duct element in upper right corner cultured in a standard dish; most cells spontaneously die during early cell divisions, but a few will establish long-term growth. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  13. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Outgrowth of cells from duct element in upper right corner cultured in a standard dish; most cells spontaneously die during early cell divisions, but a few will establish long-term growth. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  14. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Same long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC), but after 3 weeks in concinuous culture. Note attempts to reform duct elements, but this time in two dimensions in a dish rather that in three demensions in tissue. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  15. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Isolate of long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from outgrowth of duct element; cells shown soon after isolation and early in culture in a dish. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  16. Research of ad hoc network based on SINCGARS network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Hao; Cai, Xiaoxia; Chen, Hong; Chen, Jian; Weng, Pengfei

    2016-03-01

    In today's world, science and technology make a spurt of progress, so society has entered the era of information technology, network. Only the comprehensive use of electronic warfare and network warfare means can we maximize their access to information and maintain the information superiority. Combined with the specific combat mission and operational requirements, the research design and construction in accordance with the actual military which are Suitable for the future of information technology needs of the tactical Adhoc network, tactical internet, will greatly improve the operational efficiency of the command of the army. Through the study of the network of the U.S. military SINCGARS network, it can explore the routing protocol and mobile model, to provide a reference for the research of our army network.

  17. The Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network (PCBN)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    embedded material and tissue microarrays (TMAs)), prostate cancer patient derived xenografts (PDX) and derived specimens ( DNA and RNA) from prostate...derived RNA and DNA where required. Specimens were made available to prostate cancer researchers through the PCBN. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Biorepository...and derived specimens ( DNA and RNA) from prostate cancer patients; these specimens are linked to clinical and outcome data and supported by an

  18. Comprehensive Oncologic Emergencies Research Network (CONCERN)

    Cancer.gov

    The Comprehensive Oncologic Emergencies Research Network (CONCERN) was established in March 2015 with the goal to accelerate knowledge generation, synthesis and translation of oncologic emergency medicine research through multi-center collaborations.

  19. LTAR Linkages with Other Research Networks: Capitalizing on Network Interconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havstad, K.

    2015-12-01

    The USDA ARS Research Unit based at the Jornada Experimental Range outside of Las Cruces, NM, is a member of the USDA's Long Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) Network, the National Science Foundation's Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network, the National Ecological Observation Network (NEON), and the USDA's Climate Hub Network. Each of these networks has distinct functions, missions, operational characteristics, and distinct scientific and management sub-cultures (though some are fairly new and developing). Some are a fairly independent collection of research sites functioning as a network in name only, and others are truly working to develop a research synergy that could be holistic and uniquely productive. All have real scientific value, and collectively represent an investment in US research infrastructure in biology and agriculture in excess of $3B. To effectively utilize and exploit this unique research infrastructure will require a concerted effort to meld attributes of each to the benefits of their common stakeholders. Real opportunities exist to collectively utilize this infrastructure to address grand research challenges.

  20. Detroit Research on Cancer Survivors Study

    Cancer.gov

    An NCI press release about the launch of the Detroit Research on Cancer Survivors (ROCS) study, which will look at factors affecting cancer progression, recurrence, mortality, and quality of life among African-American cancer survivors.

  1. What's New in Prostate Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Research? Prostate Cancer About Prostate Cancer What’s New in Prostate Cancer Research? Research into the causes, ... in many medical centers throughout the world. Genetics New research on gene changes linked to prostate cancer ...

  2. A Communication Network for Educational Researchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Jean; Cooley, William W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses application of microcomputer technology to educational research and describes the possible uses of computer networking for communication with colleagues. Focuses on the organization and structure of the Education Research Forum on CompuServe. Considers advantages and costs of networking in general and for the American Educational…

  3. The Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Centers: Transdisciplinary Research on the Role of the Environment in Breast Cancer Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Hiatt, Robert A.; Haslam, Sandra Z.; Osuch, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Objectives We introduce and describe the Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Centers (BCERC), a research network with a transdisciplinary approach to elucidating the role of environmental factors in pubertal development as a window on breast cancer etiology. We describe the organization of four national centers integrated into the BCERC network. Data sources Investigators use a common conceptual framework based on multiple levels of biologic, behavioral, and social organization across the life span. The approach connects basic biologic studies with rodent models and tissue culture systems, a coordinated multicenter epidemiologic cohort study of prepubertal girls, and the integration of community members of breast cancer advocates as key members of the research team to comprise the network. Data extraction Relevant literature is reviewed that describes current knowledge across levels of organization. Individual research questions and hypotheses in BCERC are driven by gaps in our knowledge that are presented at genetic, metabolic, cellular, individual, and environmental (physical and social) levels. Data synthesis As data collection on the cohort, animal experiments, and analyses proceed, results will be synthesized through a transdisciplinary approach. Conclusion Center investigators are addressing a large number of specific research questions related to early pubertal onset, which is an established risk factor for breast cancer. BCERC research findings aimed at the primary prevention of breast cancer will be disseminated to the scientific community and to the public by breast cancer advocates, who have been integral members of the research process from its inception. PMID:20049199

  4. The breast cancer and the environment research centers: transdisciplinary research on the role of the environment in breast cancer etiology.

    PubMed

    Hiatt, Robert A; Haslam, Sandra Z; Osuch, Janet

    2009-12-01

    We introduce and describe the Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Centers (BCERC), a research network with a transdisciplinary approach to elucidating the role of environmental factors in pubertal development as a window on breast cancer etiology. We describe the organization of four national centers integrated into the BCERC network. Investigators use a common conceptual framework based on multiple levels of biologic, behavioral, and social organization across the life span. The approach connects basic biologic studies with rodent models and tissue culture systems, a coordinated multicenter epidemiologic cohort study of prepubertal girls, and the integration of community members of breast cancer advocates as key members of the research team to comprise the network. Relevant literature is reviewed that describes current knowledge across levels of organization. Individual research questions and hypotheses in BCERC are driven by gaps in our knowledge that are presented at genetic, metabolic, cellular, individual, and environmental (physical and social) levels. As data collection on the cohort, animal experiments, and analyses proceed, results will be synthesized through a transdisciplinary approach. Center investigators are addressing a large number of specific research questions related to early pubertal onset, which is an established risk factor for breast cancer. BCERC research findings aimed at the primary prevention of breast cancer will be disseminated to the scientific community and to the public by breast cancer advocates, who have been integral members of the research process from its inception.

  5. Addressing cancer disparities via community network mobilization and intersectoral partnerships: a social network analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramanadhan, Shoba; Salhi, Carmel; Achille, Erline; Baril, Nashira; D'Entremont, Kerrie; Grullon, Milagro; Judge, Christine; Oppenheimer, Sarah; Reeves, Chrasandra; Savage, Clara; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2012-01-01

    Community mobilization and collaboration among diverse partners are vital components of the effort to reduce and eliminate cancer disparities in the United States. We studied the development and impact of intersectoral connections among the members of the Massachusetts Community Network for Cancer Education, Research, and Training (MassCONECT). As one of the Community Network Program sites funded by the National Cancer Institute, this infrastructure-building initiative utilized principles of Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR) to unite community coalitions, researchers, policymakers, and other important stakeholders to address cancer disparities in three Massachusetts communities: Boston, Lawrence, and Worcester. We conducted a cross-sectional, sociometric network analysis four years after the network was formed. A total of 38 of 55 members participated in the study (69% response rate). Over four years of collaboration, the number of intersectoral connections reported by members (intersectoral out-degree) increased, as did the extent to which such connections were reported reciprocally (intersectoral reciprocity). We assessed relationships between these markers of intersectoral collaboration and three intermediate outcomes in the effort to reduce and eliminate cancer disparities: delivery of community activities, policy engagement, and grants/publications. We found a positive and statistically significant relationship between intersectoral out-degree and community activities and policy engagement (the relationship was borderline significant for grants/publications). We found a positive and statistically significant relationship between intersectoral reciprocity and community activities and grants/publications (the relationship was borderline significant for policy engagement). The study suggests that intersectoral connections may be important drivers of diverse intermediate outcomes in the effort to reduce and eliminate cancer disparities. The findings

  6. Collaborative knowledge in catchment research networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macleod, Christopher Kit

    2015-04-01

    There is a need to improve the production, sharing and use of collaborative knowledge of catchment systems through networks of researchers, policy makers and practitioners. This requires greater levels of systems based integrative research. In parallel to the growing realization that greater levels of collaborative knowledge in scientific research networks are required, a digital revolution has been taking place. This has been driven primarily by the emergence of distributed networks of computers and standards-based interoperability. The objective of this paper is to present the status and research needs for greater levels of systems based integrative research for the production, sharing and use of collaborative knowledge in catchment research networks. To enable increased levels of integrative research depends on development and application of digital technologies to improve collection, use and sharing of data and devise new knowledge infrastructures. This paper focuses on the requirements for catchment observatories that integrate existing and novel physical, social and digital networks of knowledge infrastructures. To support this focus, I present three leading international examples of collaborative networks of catchment researchers and their development of catchment observatories. In particular, the digital infrastructures they have developed to support collaborative knowledge in catchment research networks. These examples are from North America (NSF funded CUAHSI HIS) and from Europe (UK NERC funded EVOp and the German Helmholtz Association Centers funded TERENO/TEODOOR). These exemplars all supported advancing collaborative knowledge in catchment research networks through the development of catchment observatories. I will conclude by discussing the future research directions required for greater levels of production, sharing and use of collaborative knowledge in catchment research networks based on catchment systems science.

  7. Network science and oral health research.

    PubMed

    Maupome, Gerardo; McCranie, Ann

    2015-01-01

    The present overview of research methods describes a scientific enquiry paradigm that is well established in other disciplines, including health research, but that is fairly new to oral health research. Social networks analysis (SNA) or network science research is a set of relational methods purporting to identify and characterize the connections between members of a system or network, as well as the structure of the network. Persons and communities making up the members of networks have commonly been the focus of SNA studies but corporations or living organisms might just as well be organized in networks. SNA is grounded in both graphic imagery and computational models. SNA is based on the assumptions that features and structure of networks are amenable to characterization, that such information sheds light on the ways members of the network relate to each other (sharing information, diseases, norms, and so on), and that through these connections between members the overall network structure and characteristics are shaped. The overview resorts to examples specific to oral health themes and proposes a few general avenues for population-based research.

  8. Network-based reading system for lung cancer screening CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujino, Yuichi; Fujimura, Kaori; Nomura, Shin-ichiro; Kawashima, Harumi; Tsuchikawa, Megumu; Matsumoto, Toru; Nagao, Kei-ichi; Uruma, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Shinji; Takizawa, Hotaka; Kuroda, Chikazumi; Nakayama, Tomio

    2006-03-01

    This research aims to support chest computed tomography (CT) medical checkups to decrease the death rate by lung cancer. We have developed a remote cooperative reading system for lung cancer screening over the Internet, a secure transmission function, and a cooperative reading environment. It is called the Network-based Reading System. A telemedicine system involves many issues, such as network costs and data security if we use it over the Internet, which is an open network. In Japan, broadband access is widespread and its cost is the lowest in the world. We developed our system considering human machine interface and security. It consists of data entry terminals, a database server, a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system, and some reading terminals. It uses a secure Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) encrypting method and Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) based secure DICOM image data distribution. We carried out an experimental trial over the Japan Gigabit Network (JGN), which is the testbed for the Japanese next-generation network, and conducted verification experiments of secure screening image distribution, some kinds of data addition, and remote cooperative reading. We found that network bandwidth of about 1.5 Mbps enabled distribution of screening images and cooperative reading and that the encryption and image distribution methods we proposed were applicable to the encryption and distribution of general DICOM images via the Internet.

  9. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues. Here, two High-Aspect Ratio Vessels turn at about 12 rmp to keep breast tissue constructs suspended inside the culture media. Syringes allow scientists to pull for analysis during growth sequences. The tube in the center is a water bubbler that dehumidifies the air to prevent evaporation of the media and thus the appearance of destructive bubbles in the bioreactor.

  10. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues. Here, two High-Aspect Ratio Vessels turn at about 12 rmp to keep breast tissue constructs suspended inside the culture media. Syringes allow scientists to pull for analysis during growth sequences. The tube in the center is a water bubbler that dehumidifies the air to prevent evaporation of the media and thus the appearance of destructive bubbles in the bioreactor.

  11. Prediction of oncogenic interactions and cancer-related signaling networks based on network topology.

    PubMed

    Acencio, Marcio Luis; Bovolenta, Luiz Augusto; Camilo, Esther; Lemke, Ney

    2013-01-01

    Cancer has been increasingly recognized as a systems biology disease since many investigators have demonstrated that this malignant phenotype emerges from abnormal protein-protein, regulatory and metabolic interactions induced by simultaneous structural and regulatory changes in multiple genes and pathways. Therefore, the identification of oncogenic interactions and cancer-related signaling networks is crucial for better understanding cancer. As experimental techniques for determining such interactions and signaling networks are labor-intensive and time-consuming, the development of a computational approach capable to accomplish this task would be of great value. For this purpose, we present here a novel computational approach based on network topology and machine learning capable to predict oncogenic interactions and extract relevant cancer-related signaling subnetworks from an integrated network of human genes interactions (INHGI). This approach, called graph2sig, is twofold: first, it assigns oncogenic scores to all interactions in the INHGI and then these oncogenic scores are used as edge weights to extract oncogenic signaling subnetworks from INHGI. Regarding the prediction of oncogenic interactions, we showed that graph2sig is able to recover 89% of known oncogenic interactions with a precision of 77%. Moreover, the interactions that received high oncogenic scores are enriched in genes for which mutations have been causally implicated in cancer. We also demonstrated that graph2sig is potentially useful in extracting oncogenic signaling subnetworks: more than 80% of constructed subnetworks contain more than 50% of original interactions in their corresponding oncogenic linear pathways present in the KEGG PATHWAY database. In addition, the potential oncogenic signaling subnetworks discovered by graph2sig are supported by experimental evidence. Taken together, these results suggest that graph2sig can be a useful tool for investigators involved in cancer research

  12. Basic Research and Progress against Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    An infographic about the importance of basic research for making progress against cancer. The graphic shows the research milestones that led to the development and approval of crizotinib (Xalkori®) to treat certain non-small cell lung cancers.

  13. Gene-Environment Research and Cancer Epidemiology

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program supports extramural research that investigates both genetic and environmental factors that may contribute to the etiology of cancer and/or impact cancer outcomes.

  14. Media | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR) is committed to providing the media with timely and accurate information.  This section offers key resources for patients, cancer researchers, physicians, and media professionals.

  15. Strengthening the Cancer Research Enterprise - Annual Plan

    Cancer.gov

    NCI's expanding infrastructure, support for scientists at every career stage, and funding of small business innovation enables discoveries that advance cancer research. Read more about how NCI is strenghtening the cancer research enterprise.

  16. About the Cancer Biomarkers Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Biomarkers Research Group promotes research to identify, develop, and validate biological markers for early cancer detection and cancer risk assessment. Activities include development and validation of promising cancer biomarkers, collaborative databases and informatics systems, and new technologies or the refinement of existing technologies. NCI DCP News Note Consortium on Imaging and Biomarkers (CIB) Created: Eight Grants Awarded to Improve Accuracy of Cancer Screening, Detection, and Diagnosis |

  17. Basic research in kidney cancer.

    PubMed

    Oosterwijk, Egbert; Rathmell, W Kimryn; Junker, Kerstin; Brannon, A Rose; Pouliot, Frédéric; Finley, David S; Mulders, Peter F A; Kirkali, Ziya; Uemura, Hirotsugo; Belldegrun, Arie

    2011-10-01

    Advances in basic research will enhance prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment of renal cancer patients. To discuss advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of renal cancer, targeted therapies, renal cancer and immunity, and genetic factors and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Data on recently published (2005-2011) basic science papers were reviewed. Advances in basic research have shown that renal cancers can be subdivided based on specific genetic profiles. Now that this molecular basis has been established, it is becoming clear that additional events play a major role in the development of renal cancer. For example, aberrant chromatin remodelling appears to be a main driving force behind tumour progression in clear cell RCC. A large number of potential biomarkers have emerged using various high-throughput platforms, but adequate biomarkers for RCC are still lacking. To bring the potential biomarkers and biomarker profiles to the clinical arena is a major challenge for the field. The introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) for therapy has shifted the interest away from immunologic approaches. Nevertheless, a wealth of evidence supports immunotherapy for RCC. Interestingly, studies are now appearing that suggest a combination of TKI and immunotherapy may be beneficial. Thus far, little attention has been paid to patient-specific differences. With high-throughput methods becoming cheaper and with the advances in sequencing possibilities, this situation is expected to change rapidly. Great strides have been made in the understanding of molecular mechanisms of RCC. This has led this field to the enviable position of having a range of molecularly targeted therapies. Large sequencing efforts are now revealing more and more genes responsible for tumour development and progression, offering new targets for therapy. It is foreseen that through integration of high-throughput platforms, personalised cancer treatment for RCC patients will become possible

  18. Latin American Cancer Research Coalition. Community primary care/academic partnership model for cancer control.

    PubMed

    Kreling, Barbara A; Cañar, Janet; Catipon, Ericson; Goodman, Michelle; Pallesen, Nancy; Pomeroy, Jyl; Rodriguez, Yosselyn; Romagoza, Juan; Sheppard, Vanessa B; Mandelblatt, Jeanne; Huerta, Elmer E

    2006-10-15

    The Latin American Cancer Research Coalition (LACRC) was funded by NCI as a Special Populations Network to 1) provide training to clinic staff in cancer control and foster development of Latino faculty training, 2) conduct a needs assessment with the community clinics, 3) enhance the ability of the clinics to promote healthy lifestyles, 4) collaborate on research projects to improve use of early detection, and 5) explore partnerships to increase access to culturally competent cancer care. The LACRC developed a model for cancer control focused on community-based clinics as the focal point for in-reach and community outreach targeted to Latinos to reduce cancer disparities. This framework was designed to link the community to local hospitals and academic centers, build capacity, and promote diffusion of innovations directly into delivery systems. Eight research projects submitted by junior investigator/clinic teams have been funded by NCI. These research projects range from recruiting for clinical trials to prevention to survivorship. The LACRC has trained 6 cancer control coordinators from partner sites and educated 59 undergraduate minority student interns in aspects of cancer control research. Central to LACRC's success to date has been the creation and maintenance of an infrastructure of trusting relationships, especially those developed between clinician/investigators and individuals within the greater Latino community. Community clinics can be effective agents for cancer control among Latinos. Latinos are likely to participate in research conducted by culturally representative teams of researchers using culturally appropriate recruiting strategies. Cancer 2006. (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.

  19. Towards meeting the research needs of Australian cancer consumers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a growing amount of literature to support the view that active involvement in research by consumers, especially informed and networked consumers, benefits the quality and direction of research itself, the research process and, most importantly, people affected by cancer. Our exploratory project focuses on identifying their priorities and developing a process to assess the research needs of Australian cancer consumers which may be useful beyond the cancer scenario. Methods This project was consumer initiated, developed and implemented, with the assistance of a leading Australian cancer consumer advocacy group, Cancer Voices NSW (CVN). Such direct involvement is unusual and ensures that the priorities identified, and the process itself, are not influenced by other interests, regardless how well-intentioned they may be. The processes established, and data collection via a workshop, followed by a questionnaire to confirm and prioritise findings, and comparison with a similar UK exercise, are detailed in this paper. Results Needs across five topic areas reflecting cancer control domains (prevention and risk; screening and diagnosis; treatment; survivorship; and end of life) were identified. Cancer consumers high priority research needs were found to be: earlier diagnosis of metastatic cancers; the extent of use of best practice palliative care guidelines; identifying barriers to cancer risk behaviour change; and environmental, nutrition and lifestyle risk factors for people with cancer. A process for identifying consumers’ research priorities was developed and applied; this may be useful for further investigation in this under-studied area. Conclusion The findings provide a model for developing a consumer derived research agenda in Australia which can be used to inform the strategic direction of cancer research. Consumers have been seeking a workable method to achieve this and have worked in collaboration with a major cancer charity, which funds

  20. Research and Development Trends of Car Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wei; Li, Zhixiong; Xie, Guotao

    With the rapid development of the world economy, road transport has become increasingly busy. An unexpected incident would cause serious traffic disaster due to traffic accidents. To solve this problem, the intelligent transportation system (ITS), which is important for the health developments of the city transportation, has become a hot topic. The car networking provides a new way for intelligent transportation system. It can ensure intelligent control and monitoring of urban road with high performance. This paper described the concept of car networking and related technology both in oversea and domestic. The importance of car networking to achieve vehicle and details of the car networking related technologies were illustrated firstly. Then, attentions focus on the research nodus of the car networking. Lastly, the development trend of car networking research was discussed.

  1. What's New in Colorectal Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Research? Colorectal Cancer About Colorectal Cancer What’s New in Colorectal Cancer Research? Research is always going ... ways to find colorectal cancer early by studying new types of screening tests and improving the ones ...

  2. Research Challenges for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melodia, Tommaso; Akyildiz, Ian F.

    This chapter discusses the state of the art and the major research challenges in architectures, algorithms, and protocols, for wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs). These are networks of wirelessly interconnected smart devices designed and deployed to retrieve video and audio streams, still images, and scalar sensor data. First, applications and key factors influencing the design of WMSNs are discussed. Then, the existing solutions at the application, transport, network, link, and physical layers of the communication protocol stack are investigated. Finally, fundamental open research issues are discussed and future research trends in this area are outlined.

  3. Cancer Transcriptome Dataset Analysis: Comparing Methods of Pathway and Gene Regulatory Network-Based Cluster Identification.

    PubMed

    Nam, Seungyoon

    2017-04-01

    Cancer transcriptome analysis is one of the leading areas of Big Data science, biomarker, and pharmaceutical discovery, not to forget personalized medicine. Yet, cancer transcriptomics and postgenomic medicine require innovation in bioinformatics as well as comparison of the performance of available algorithms. In this data analytics context, the value of network generation and algorithms has been widely underscored for addressing the salient questions in cancer pathogenesis. Analysis of cancer trancriptome often results in complicated networks where identification of network modularity remains critical, for example, in delineating the "druggable" molecular targets. Network clustering is useful, but depends on the network topology in and of itself. Notably, the performance of different network-generating tools for network cluster (NC) identification has been little investigated to date. Hence, using gastric cancer (GC) transcriptomic datasets, we compared two algorithms for generating pathway versus gene regulatory network-based NCs, showing that the pathway-based approach better agrees with a reference set of cancer-functional contexts. Finally, by applying pathway-based NC identification to GC transcriptome datasets, we describe cancer NCs that associate with candidate therapeutic targets and biomarkers in GC. These observations collectively inform future research on cancer transcriptomics, drug discovery, and rational development of new analysis tools for optimal harnessing of omics data.

  4. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    this laboratory concentrates on the area of tumor immunology with an emphasis on immunotherapy. We have constructed microbial vaccines to be used...to the transgene product induced by the vaccine are underway. Additionally, we are carrying our "translational" research in the form of clinical...trials of our adenovirus vaccine in men with prostate cancer. Important in these trials is the safety of the vaccine and its ability to induce anti

  5. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    i mmunology with an emphasis on immunotherapy. We ha ve constructed microbial vaccines to be used for the investigation of gene and immunotherapy... vaccine are underway. Additionally, we are carrying our "translational" research in the fo rm of clinical trials of our adenovirus vaccine in men with...prostate cancer. Important in thes e trials is the safety of the vaccine and its ability to in duce anti-tumor immunity. We have recently completed

  6. microRNA and gene networks in human laryngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengyu; Xu, Zhiwen; Wang, Kunhao; Sun, Linlin; Liu, Genghe; Han, Baixu

    2015-12-01

    Genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) are considered to be key biological factors in human carcinogenesis. To date, considerable data have been obtained regarding genes and miRNAs in cancer; however, the regulatory mechanisms associated with the genes and miRNAs in cancer have yet to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to use the key genes and miRNAs associated with laryngeal cancer (LC) to construct three regulatory networks (differentially expressed, LC-related and global). A network topology of the development of LC, involving 10 differentially expressed miRNAs and 55 differentially expressed genes, was obtained. These genes exhibited multiple identities, including target genes of miRNA, transcription factors (TFs) and host genes. The key regulatory interactions were determined by comparing the similarities and differences among the three networks. The nodes and pathways in LC, as well as the association between each pair of factors within the networks, such as TFs and miRNA, miRNA and target genes and miRNA and its host gene, were discussed. The mechanisms of LC involved certain key pathways featuring self-adaptation regulation and nodes without direct predecessors or successors. The findings of the present study have further elucidated the pathogenesis of LC and are likely to be beneficial for future research into LC.

  7. microRNA and gene networks in human laryngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, FENGYU; XU, ZHIWEN; WANG, KUNHAO; SUN, LINLIN; LIU, GENGHE; HAN, BAIXU

    2015-01-01

    Genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) are considered to be key biological factors in human carcinogenesis. To date, considerable data have been obtained regarding genes and miRNAs in cancer; however, the regulatory mechanisms associated with the genes and miRNAs in cancer have yet to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to use the key genes and miRNAs associated with laryngeal cancer (LC) to construct three regulatory networks (differentially expressed, LC-related and global). A network topology of the development of LC, involving 10 differentially expressed miRNAs and 55 differentially expressed genes, was obtained. These genes exhibited multiple identities, including target genes of miRNA, transcription factors (TFs) and host genes. The key regulatory interactions were determined by comparing the similarities and differences among the three networks. The nodes and pathways in LC, as well as the association between each pair of factors within the networks, such as TFs and miRNA, miRNA and target genes and miRNA and its host gene, were discussed. The mechanisms of LC involved certain key pathways featuring self-adaptation regulation and nodes without direct predecessors or successors. The findings of the present study have further elucidated the pathogenesis of LC and are likely to be beneficial for future research into LC. PMID:26668624

  8. Research Networks, Mentorship and Sustainability Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafle, A.; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Nepal, M.; Shyamsundar, P.

    2015-12-01

    In South Asia, a majority of institutions are ill-equipped to undertake research on multi-disciplinary environmental problems, though these problems are increasing at a fast rate and connected to the region's poverty and growth objectives. In this context, the South Asian Network for Development and Environmental Economics (SANDEE) tries to fill a research, training and knowledge gap by building skills in the area of Environment and Development Economics. In this paper, the authors argue that research networks contribute to the growth of sustainability knowledge through (a) knowledge creation, (b) knowledge transfer and (c) knowledge deepening. The paper tries to show the relationship between capacity building, mentorship and research scholarship. It demonstrates that researchers, by associating with the network and its multiple training and mentoring processes, are able to build skills, change curricula and deliver useful knowledge products. The paper discusses the need for interdisciplinary research and the challenges of bridging the gap between research outputs and policy reforms.

  9. Targeting tumor suppressor networks for cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuning Emily; Ngo, Bryan; Modrek, Aram Sandaldjian; Lee, Wen-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a consequence of mutations in genes that control cell proliferation, differentiation and cellular homeostasis. These genes are classified into two categories: oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Together, overexpression of oncogenes and loss of tumor suppressors are the dominant driving forces for tumorigenesis. Hence, targeting oncogenes and tumor suppressors hold tremendous therapeutic potential for cancer treatment. In the last decade, the predominant cancer drug discovery strategy has relied on a traditional reductionist approach of dissecting molecular signaling pathways and designing inhibitors for the selected oncogenic targets. Remarkable therapies have been developed using this approach; however, targeting oncogenes is only part of the picture. Our understanding of the importance of tumor suppressors in preventing tumorigenesis has also advanced significantly and provides a new therapeutic window of opportunity. Given that tumor suppressors are frequently mutated, deleted, or silenced with loss-of-function, restoring their normal functions to treat cancer holds tremendous therapeutic potential. With the rapid expansion in our knowledge of cancer over the last several decades, developing effective anticancer regimens against tumor suppressor pathways has never been more promising. In this article, we will review the concept of tumor suppression, and outline the major therapeutic strategies and challenges of targeting tumor suppressor networks for cancer therapeutics.

  10. Teacher Appraisal Research Networks 1980-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Helen M.

    2001-01-01

    Legislation requiring site-based performance management in British schools gave rise to the development of practitioner research networks, in which instrumental performance appraisal has predominated over humanist and critical approaches. Even marginalized networks have involved important collaborations among teachers, higher education…

  11. Social Networks Across Common Cancer Types: The Evidence, Gaps, and Areas of Potential Impact.

    PubMed

    Rice, L J; Halbert, C H

    2017-01-01

    Although the association between social context and health has been demonstrated previously, much less is known about network interactions by gender, race/ethnicity, and sociodemographic characteristics. Given the variability in cancer outcomes among groups, research on these relationships may have important implications for addressing cancer health disparities. We examined the literature on social networks and cancer across the cancer continuum among adults. Relevant studies (N=16) were identified using two common databases: PubMed and Google Scholar. Most studies used a prospective cohort study design (n=9), included women only (n=11), and were located in the United States (n=14). Seventy-five percent of the studies reviewed used a validated scale or validated items to measure social networks (n=12). Only one study examined social network differences by race, 57.1% (n=8) focused on breast cancer alone, 14.3% (n=2) explored colorectal cancer or multiple cancers simultaneously, and 7.1% (n=1) only prostate cancer. More than half of the studies included multiple ethnicities in the sample, while one study included only low-income subjects. Despite findings of associations between social networks and cancer survival, risk, and screening, none of the studies utilized social networks as a mechanism for reducing health disparities; however, such an approach has been utilized for infectious disease control. Social networks and the support provided within these networks have important implications for health behaviors and ultimately cancer disparities. This review serves as the first step toward dialog on social networks as a missing component in the social determinants of cancer disparities literature that could move the needle upstream to target adverse cancer outcomes among vulnerable populations. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. VELA Network Evaluation and Automatic Processing Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-31

    VELA NETWORK EVALUATION AND AUTOMATIC PROCESSING RESEARCH William H. Swindell Texas Instruments, Incorporated Prepared for: Air Force Technical...Incorporated Equipment Group Dallas, Texas 75222 CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS Advanced Research Projects Agency Nuclear Monitor mg... RESEARCH 1. D D TEXAS INSTRUMENTS INCORPORATED Equipment Group Post Office Box 6015 Dallas, Texas 75222 Prepared for AIR FORCE TECHNICAL

  13. Strengthening clinical cancer research in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Stead, M; Cameron, D; Lester, N; Parmar, M; Haward, R; Kaplan, R; Maughan, T; Wilson, R; Campbell, H; Hamilton, R; Stewart, D; O'Toole, L; Kerr, D; Potts, V; Moser, R; Darbyshire, J; Selby, P

    2011-01-01

    Background: In 1999, 270 000 cases of cancer were registered in the United Kingdom, placing a large burden on the NHS. Cancer outcome data in 1999 suggested that UK survival rates were poorer than most other European countries. In the same year, a Department of Health review noted that clinical trials accrual was poor (<3.5% of incident cases) and hypothesised that increasing research activity might improve outcomes and reduce the variability of outcomes across England. Thus, the National Cancer Research Network (NCRN) was established to increase participation in cancer clinical research. Methods: The NCRN was established in 2001 to provide a robust infrastructure for cancer clinical research and improvements in patient care. Remit of NCRN is to coordinate, support and deliver cancer clinical research through the provision of research support staff across England. The NCRN works closely with similar networks in Scotland, Wales and the Northern Ireland. A key aim of NCRN is to improve the speed of research and this was also assessed by comparing the speed of study delivery of a subset of cancer studies opening before and after NCRN was established. Results: Patient recruitment increased through NCRN, with almost 32 000 (12% of annual incident cases) cancer patients being recruited each year. Study delivery has improved, with more studies meeting the recruitment target – 74% compared with 39% before NCRN was established. Conclusion: The coordinated approach to cancer clinical research has demonstrated increased accrual, wide participation and successful trial delivery, which should lead to improved outcomes and care. PMID:21364584

  14. The Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN).

    PubMed

    Ringsberg, Karin C

    2015-08-01

    The Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN) was established in 2007 at the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV). This article aims to describe the foundation of the NHPRN, the development and the present status of the work of NHPRN. The NHPRN consists of about 50 senior and junior researchers from all Nordic countries. It is a working network that aims to develop the theoretical understanding of health promotion, to create research cooperation in health promotion from a Nordic perspective and to extend the scope of health promotion through education. Network members meet biannually to discuss and further develop research within the field and are also responsible for the Nordic conference on Health Promotion, organized every 3 years. The NHV hosted the network between 2007 and 2014; and the World Health Organisation (WHO) will assume this role in 2015. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  15. Advances in neural networks research: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Robert; Bressler, Steven; Perlovsky, Leonid; Venayagamoorthy, Ganesh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    The present Special Issue "Advances in Neural Networks Research: IJCNN2009" provides a state-of-art overview of the field of neural networks. It includes 39 papers from selected areas of the 2009 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN2009). IJCNN2009 took place on June 14-19, 2009 in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and it represents an exemplary collaboration between the International Neural Networks Society and the IEEE Computational Intelligence Society. Topics in this issue include neuroscience and cognitive science, computational intelligence and machine learning, hybrid techniques, nonlinear dynamics and chaos, various soft computing technologies, intelligent signal processing and pattern recognition, bioinformatics and biomedicine, and engineering applications.

  16. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue; A: Duct element recovered from breast tissue digest. B: Outgrowth of cells from duct element in upper right corner cultured in a standard dish; most cells spontaneousely die during early cell divisions, but a few will establish long-term growth. C: Isolate of long-term frowth HMEC from outgrowth of duct element; cells shown soon after isolation and in early full-cell contact growth in culture in a dish. D: same long-term growth HMEC, but after 3 weeks in late full-cell contact growth in a continuous culture in a dish. Note attempts to reform duct elements but this in two demensions in a dish rather than in three dimensions in tissue. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Richmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  17. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue; A: Duct element recovered from breast tissue digest. B: Outgrowth of cells from duct element in upper right corner cultured in a standard dish; most cells spontaneousely die during early cell divisions, but a few will establish long-term growth. C: Isolate of long-term frowth HMEC from outgrowth of duct element; cells shown soon after isolation and in early full-cell contact growth in culture in a dish. D: same long-term growth HMEC, but after 3 weeks in late full-cell contact growth in a continuous culture in a dish. Note attempts to reform duct elements but this in two demensions in a dish rather than in three dimensions in tissue. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Richmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  18. The cancer translational research informatics platform

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, Patrick; Dash, Rajesh C; Chilukuri, Ram; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Johnson, Kimberly; Annechiarico, Robert; Cuticchia, A Jamie

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite the pressing need for the creation of applications that facilitate the aggregation of clinical and molecular data, most current applications are proprietary and lack the necessary compliance with standards that would allow for cross-institutional data exchange. In line with its mission of accelerating research discoveries and improving patient outcomes by linking networks of researchers, physicians, and patients focused on cancer research, caBIG (cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid™) has sponsored the creation of the caTRIP (Cancer Translational Research Informatics Platform) tool, with the purpose of aggregating clinical and molecular data in a repository that is user-friendly, easily accessible, as well as compliant with regulatory requirements of privacy and security. Results caTRIP has been developed as an N-tier architecture, with three primary tiers: domain services, the distributed query engine, and the graphical user interface, primarily making use of the caGrid infrastructure to ensure compatibility with other tools currently developed by caBIG. The application interface was designed so that users can construct queries using either the Simple Interface via drop-down menus or the Advanced Interface for more sophisticated searching strategies to using drag-and-drop. Furthermore, the application addresses the security concerns of authentication, authorization, and delegation, as well as an automated honest broker service for deidentifying data. Conclusion Currently being deployed at Duke University and a few other centers, we expect that caTRIP will make a significant contribution to further the development of translational research through the facilitation of its data exchange and storage processes. PMID:19108734

  19. Prostate Cancer Pathology Resource Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Research 63, 4196-4203 (2003). 8. Xu, J., Stolk, J.A., Zhang, X., Silva, S.J., Houghton, R.L., Matsumura, M., Vedvick, T.S., Leslie , K.B., Badaro, R...American Journal of Pathology 178, 1824-1834 (2010). 12. Koh, C.M., Iwata, T., Zheng, Q., Bethel , C., Yegnasubramanian, S. & De Marzo, A.M. Myc enforces

  20. Ontologies for cancer nanotechnology research.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Dennis G; Pappu, Rohit V; Baker, Nathan A

    2009-01-01

    Cancer nanotechnology research data are diverse. Ontologies that provide a unifying knowledge framework for annotation of data are necessary to facilitate the sharing and semantic integration of data for advancing the research via informatics methods. In this work, we report the development of NanoParticle Ontology (NPO) to support the terminological and informatics needs of cancer nanotechnology. The NPO is developed within the framework of the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) using well-defined principles, and implemented in the Ontology Web Language (OWL). The NPO currently represents entities related to physical, chemical and functional descriptions of nanoparticles that are formulated and tested for applications in cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. Public releases of the NPO are available through the BioPortal web site, maintained by the National Center for Biomedical Ontology. Expansion of the scope and application of the NPO will depend on the needs of and feedback from the user community, and its adoption in nanoparticle database applications. As the NPO continues to grow, it will require a governance structure and well-organized community effort for the maintenance, review and development of the NPO.

  1. Research into Queueing Network Theory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-01

    aspects. Kleinrock [33] comments on this result, for example. In 1976, Burke [6] provided the first proof of some of what was occurring in the flow...server first passes through other servers (as for example in Jackson networks with loops) that item is delayed on its return. All current knowledge about...system simplification. A simplification is an operation on the system such that a new system is obtained subject to two requirements. First , the

  2. Evolving Research Data Sharing Networks to Clinical App Sharing Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wagholikar, Kavishwar B.; Jain, Rahul; Oliveira, Eliel; Mandel, Joshua; Klann, Jeffery; Colas, Ricardo; Patil, Prasad; Yadav, Kuladip; Mandl, Kenneth D.; Carton, Thomas; Murphy, Shawn N.

    2017-01-01

    Research networks for data sharing are growing into a large platform for pragmatic clinical trials to generate quality evidence for shared medical decision-making. Institutions partnering in the networks have made large investments in developing the infrastructure for sharing data. We investigate whether institutions partnering on Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute’s (PCORI) network can share clinical apps. At two different sites, we imported patient data in PCORI’s clinical data model (CDM) format into i2b2 repositories, and adapted the SMART-on-FHIR cell to perform CDM-to-FHIR translation, serving demographics, laboratory results and diagnoses. We performed manual validations and tested the platform using four apps from the SMART app gallery. Our study demonstrates an approach to extend the research infrastructure to allow the partnering institutions to run shared clinical apps, and highlights the involved challenges. Our results, tooling and publically accessible data service can potentially transform research networks into clinical app sharing networks and pave the way towards a learning health system. PMID:28815145

  3. Evolving Research Data Sharing Networks to Clinical App Sharing Networks.

    PubMed

    Wagholikar, Kavishwar B; Jain, Rahul; Oliveira, Eliel; Mandel, Joshua; Klann, Jeffery; Colas, Ricardo; Patil, Prasad; Yadav, Kuladip; Mandl, Kenneth D; Carton, Thomas; Murphy, Shawn N

    2017-01-01

    Research networks for data sharing are growing into a large platform for pragmatic clinical trials to generate quality evidence for shared medical decision-making. Institutions partnering in the networks have made large investments in developing the infrastructure for sharing data. We investigate whether institutions partnering on Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute's (PCORI) network can share clinical apps. At two different sites, we imported patient data in PCORI's clinical data model (CDM) format into i2b2 repositories, and adapted the SMART-on-FHIR cell to perform CDM-to-FHIR translation, serving demographics, laboratory results and diagnoses. We performed manual validations and tested the platform using four apps from the SMART app gallery. Our study demonstrates an approach to extend the research infrastructure to allow the partnering institutions to run shared clinical apps, and highlights the involved challenges. Our results, tooling and publically accessible data service can potentially transform research networks into clinical app sharing networks and pave the way towards a learning health system.

  4. A proposed international watershed research network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterkamp, W.R.; Gray, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    An “International Watershed Research Network” is to be an initial project of the Sino-U. S. Centers for Soil and Water Conservation and Environmental Protection. The Network will provide a fundamental database for research personnel of the Centers, as well as of the global research community, and is viewed as an important resource for their successful operation. Efforts are under way to (a) identify and select candidate watersheds, (b) develop standards and protocols for data collection and dissemination, and (c) specify other data sources on erosion, sediment transport, hydrology, and ancillary information of probable interest and use to participants of the Centers. The initial focus of the Network will be on water-deficient areas. Candidate watersheds for the Network are yet to be determined although likely selections include the Ansai Research Station, northern China, and the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, Arizona, USA. The Network is to be patterned after the Vigil Network, an open-ended group of global sites and small drainage basins for which Internet-accessible geomorphic, hydrologic, and biological data are periodically collected or updated. Some types of data, using similar instruments and observation methods, will be collected at all watersheds selected for the Network. Other data from the watersheds that may reflect individual watershed characteristics and research objectives will be collected as well.

  5. Creatiing a Collaborative Research Network for Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunn, W.

    2012-12-01

    This abstract proposes a discussion of how professional science communication and scientific cooperation can become more efficient through the use of modern social network technology, using the example of Mendeley. Mendeley is a research workflow and collaboration tool which crowdsources real-time research trend information and semantic annotations of research papers in a central data store, thereby creating a "social research network" that is emergent from the research data added to the platform. We describe how Mendeley's model can overcome barriers for collaboration by turning research papers into social objects, making academic data publicly available via an open API, and promoting more efficient collaboration. Central to the success of Mendeley has been the creation of a tool that works for the researcher without the requirement of being part of an explicit social network. Mendeley automatically extracts metadata from research papers, and allows a researcher to annotate, tag and organize their research collection. The tool integrates with the paper writing workflow and provides advanced collaboration options, thus significantly improving researchers' productivity. By anonymously aggregating usage data, Mendeley enables the emergence of social metrics and real-time usage stats on top of the articles' abstract metadata. In this way a social network of collaborators, and people genuinely interested in content, emerges. By building this research network around the article as the social object, a social layer of direct relevance to academia emerges. As science, particularly Earth sciences with their large shared resources, become more and more global, the management and coordination of research is more and more dependent on technology to support these distributed collaborations.

  6. Characterizing mutation-expression network relationships in multiple cancers.

    PubMed

    Ghazanfar, Shila; Yang, Jean Yee Hwa

    2016-08-01

    Data made available through large cancer consortia like The Cancer Genome Atlas make for a rich source of information to be studied across and between cancers. In recent years, network approaches have been applied to such data in uncovering the complex interrelationships between mutational and expression profiles, but lack direct testing for expression changes via mutation. In this pan-cancer study we analyze mutation and gene expression information in an integrative manner by considering the networks generated by testing for differences in expression in direct association with specific mutations. We relate our findings among the 19 cancers examined to identify commonalities and differences as well as their characteristics. Using somatic mutation and gene expression information across 19 cancers, we generated mutation-expression networks per cancer. On evaluation we found that our generated networks were significantly enriched for known cancer-related genes, such as skin cutaneous melanoma (p<0.01 using Network of Cancer Genes 4.0). Our framework identified that while different cancers contained commonly mutated genes, there was little concordance between associated gene expression changes among cancers. Comparison between cancers showed a greater overlap of network nodes for cancers with higher overall non-silent mutation load, compared to those with a lower overall non-silent mutation load. This study offers a framework that explores network information through co-analysis of somatic mutations and gene expression profiles. Our pan-cancer application of this approach suggests that while mutations are frequently common among cancer types, the impact they have on the surrounding networks via gene expression changes varies. Despite this finding, there are some cancers for which mutation-associated network behaviour appears to be similar: suggesting a potential framework for uncovering related cancers for which similar therapeutic strategies may be applicable. Our

  7. Transcriptional Network Architecture of Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes.

    PubMed

    de Anda-Jáuregui, Guillermo; Velázquez-Caldelas, Tadeo E; Espinal-Enríquez, Jesús; Hernández-Lemus, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer heterogeneity is evident at the clinical, histological and molecular level. High throughput technologies allowed the identification of intrinsic subtypes that capture transcriptional differences among tumors. A remaining question is whether said differences are associated to a particular transcriptional program which involves different connections between the same molecules. In other words, whether particular transcriptional network architectures can be linked to specific phenotypes. In this work we infer, construct and analyze transcriptional networks from whole-genome gene expression microarrays, by using an information theory approach. We use 493 samples of primary breast cancer tissue classified in four molecular subtypes: Luminal A, Luminal B, Basal and HER2-enriched. For comparison, a network for non-tumoral mammary tissue (61 samples) is also inferred and analyzed. Transcriptional networks present particular architectures in each breast cancer subtype as well as in the non-tumor breast tissue. We find substantial differences between the non-tumor network and those networks inferred from cancer samples, in both structure and gene composition. More importantly, we find specific network architectural features associated to each breast cancer subtype. Based on breast cancer networks' centrality, we identify genes previously associated to the disease, either, generally (i.e., CNR2) or to a particular subtype (such as LCK). Similarly, we identify LUZP4, a gene barely explored in breast cancer, playing a role in transcriptional networks with subtype-specific relevance. With this approach we observe architectural differences between cancer and non-cancer at network level, as well as differences between cancer subtype networks which might be associated with breast cancer heterogeneity. The centrality measures of these networks allow us to identify genes with potential biomedical implications to breast cancer.

  8. Transcriptional Network Architecture of Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    de Anda-Jáuregui, Guillermo; Velázquez-Caldelas, Tadeo E.; Espinal-Enríquez, Jesús; Hernández-Lemus, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer heterogeneity is evident at the clinical, histological and molecular level. High throughput technologies allowed the identification of intrinsic subtypes that capture transcriptional differences among tumors. A remaining question is whether said differences are associated to a particular transcriptional program which involves different connections between the same molecules. In other words, whether particular transcriptional network architectures can be linked to specific phenotypes. In this work we infer, construct and analyze transcriptional networks from whole-genome gene expression microarrays, by using an information theory approach. We use 493 samples of primary breast cancer tissue classified in four molecular subtypes: Luminal A, Luminal B, Basal and HER2-enriched. For comparison, a network for non-tumoral mammary tissue (61 samples) is also inferred and analyzed. Transcriptional networks present particular architectures in each breast cancer subtype as well as in the non-tumor breast tissue. We find substantial differences between the non-tumor network and those networks inferred from cancer samples, in both structure and gene composition. More importantly, we find specific network architectural features associated to each breast cancer subtype. Based on breast cancer networks' centrality, we identify genes previously associated to the disease, either, generally (i.e., CNR2) or to a particular subtype (such as LCK). Similarly, we identify LUZP4, a gene barely explored in breast cancer, playing a role in transcriptional networks with subtype-specific relevance. With this approach we observe architectural differences between cancer and non-cancer at network level, as well as differences between cancer subtype networks which might be associated with breast cancer heterogeneity. The centrality measures of these networks allow us to identify genes with potential biomedical implications to breast cancer. PMID:27920729

  9. Signaling, Gene Regulation and Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Although there have been tremendous progress in cancer research and treatment, the mortality caused by this disease is still very high. Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide and second leading cause of death in the United States of America. Signaling, Gene Regulation and Cancer covers topics including the role of various signaling pathways in development, regulation of cell fate, tumor angiogenesis, duodenal neoplasias, breast, colorectal and prostate cancer, cancer development and progression, microRNA in cancer and epigenetic regulation of cancer.

  10. Biological and Environmental Research Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Balaji, V.; Boden, Tom; Cowley, Dave; Dart, Eli; Dattoria, Vince; Desai, Narayan; Egan, Rob; Foster, Ian; Goldstone, Robin; Gregurick, Susan; Houghton, John; Izaurralde, Cesar; Johnston, Bill; Joseph, Renu; Kleese-van Dam, Kerstin; Lipton, Mary; Monga, Inder; Pritchard, Matt; Rotman, Lauren; Strand, Gary; Stuart, Cory; Tatusova, Tatiana; Tierney, Brian; Thomas, Brian; Williams, Dean N.; Zurawski, Jason

    2013-09-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In November 2012, ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the DOE SC organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the BER program office. Several key findings resulted from the review. Among them: 1) The scale of data sets available to science collaborations continues to increase exponentially. This has broad impact, both on the network and on the computational and storage systems connected to the network. 2) Many science collaborations require assistance to cope with the systems and network engineering challenges inherent in managing the rapid growth in data scale. 3) Several science domains operate distributed facilities that rely on high-performance networking for success. Key examples illustrated in this report include the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) and the Systems Biology Knowledgebase (KBase). This report expands on these points, and addresses others as well. The report contains a findings section as well as the text of the case studies discussed at the review.

  11. A Review of Barriers to Minorities' Participation in Cancer Clinical Trials: Implications for Future Cancer Research.

    PubMed

    Salman, Ali; Nguyen, Claire; Lee, Yi-Hui; Cooksey-James, Tawna

    2016-04-01

    To enhance nurses' awareness and competencies in practice and research by reporting the common barriers to participation of minorities in cancer clinical trials and discussing facilitators and useful strategies for recruitment. Several databases were searched for articles published in peer reviewed journals. Some of the barriers to minorities' participation in clinical trials were identified within the cultural social-context of cancer patients. The involvement of community networking was suggested as the most effective strategy for the recruitment of minorities in cancer clinical trials. Using culturally sensitive approaches to enhance ethnic minorities' participation is important for advancing cancer care and eliminating health disparities. Awareness of barriers and potential facilitators to the enrollment of ethnic minority cancer patients may contribute to enhancing nurses' competencies of recruiting ethnic minorities in nursing research, playing efficient roles in cancer clinical trials team, and providing culturally competent quality care.

  12. Collaborations in Proteomics Research - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI), through the Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR), has signed two Memorandums of Understanding (MOUs) in the sharing of proteomics reagents and protocols

  13. Clinical Research: A Globalized Network

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Trevor A.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical research has become increasingly globalized, but the extent of globalization has not been assessed. To describe the globalization of clinical research, we used all (n = 13,208) multinational trials registered at ClinicalTrials.gov to analyzed geographic connections among individual countries. Our findings indicate that 95% (n = 185) of all countries worldwide have participated in multinational clinical research. Growth in the globalization of clinical research peaked in 2009, suggesting that the global infrastructure that supports clinical research might have reached its maximum capacity. Growth in the globalization of clinical research is attributable to increased involvement of non-traditional markets, particularly in South America and Asia. Nevertheless, Europe is the most highly interconnected geographic region (60.64% of global connections), and collectively, Europe, North America, and Asia comprise more than 85% of all global connections. Therefore, while the expansion of clinical trials into non-traditional markets has increased over the last 20 years and connects countries across the globe, traditional markets still dominate multinational clinical research, which appears to have reached a maximum global capacity. PMID:25517976

  14. Using Social Network Analysis to Evaluate Community Capacity Building of a Regional Community Cancer Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luque, John; Tyson, Dinorah Martinez; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Gwede, Clement; Vadaparampil, Susan; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Meade, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) is one of 25 Community Network Programs funded by the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities with the objectives to create a collaborative infrastructure of academic and community based organizations and to develop effective and sustainable interventions to…

  15. Using Social Network Analysis to Evaluate Community Capacity Building of a Regional Community Cancer Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luque, John; Tyson, Dinorah Martinez; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Gwede, Clement; Vadaparampil, Susan; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Meade, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) is one of 25 Community Network Programs funded by the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities with the objectives to create a collaborative infrastructure of academic and community based organizations and to develop effective and sustainable interventions to…

  16. Training Postbac JHU | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The Johns Hopkins University and the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) have partnered to create a new concentration in the Master of Science in Biotechnology program, called

  17. Skin Cancer: NIH Research to Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer NIH Research to Results Past Issues / Summer 2013 ... making a person immune to his or her skin cancer cells. Another method is to train a person's ...

  18. Basic Research and Progress against Pediatric Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    An infographic about the importance of basic research for making progress against childhood cancers. Shows the milestones that led to development and approval of dinutuximab (Unituxin®) to treat neuroblastoma, a cancer seen mainly in children.

  19. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Epithelial and fibroblast cell coculture: Long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) admixed in coculture with fibroblast from the same initial breast tissue grown as 3-dimenstional constructions in the presence of attachment beads in the NASA Bioreactor. A: A typical constrct about 2.0 mm in diameter without beads on the surface. The center of these constrcts is hollow, and beads are organized about the irner surface. Although the coculture provides smaller constructs than the monoculture, the metabolic of the organized cells is about the same. B, C, D: Closer views of cells showing that the shape of cells and cell-to-cell interactions apprear different in the coculture than in the monoculture constructs. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Richmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  20. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Epithelial cell monoculture: Long-term growth of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) grown in monoculture as 3-dimensional constructions in the presence of attachment beads in the NASA Bioreactor. A: A typical construct about 3.5 mm (less than 1/8th inch) in diameter with slightly dehydrted, crinkled beads contained on the surface as well as within the 3-dimensional structure. B: The center of these constructs is hollow. Crinkling of the beads causes a few to fall out, leaving crater-like impressiions in the construct. The central impression shows a small hole that accesses the hollow center of the construct. C: A closeup view of the cells and the hole the central impression. D: Closer views of cells in the construct showing sell-to-cell interactions. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Richmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  1. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Epithelial cell monoculture: Long-term growth of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) grown in monoculture as 3-dimensional constructions in the presence of attachment beads in the NASA Bioreactor. A: A typical construct about 3.5 mm (less than 1/8th inch) in diameter with slightly dehydrted, crinkled beads contained on the surface as well as within the 3-dimensional structure. B: The center of these constructs is hollow. Crinkling of the beads causes a few to fall out, leaving crater-like impressiions in the construct. The central impression shows a small hole that accesses the hollow center of the construct. C: A closeup view of the cells and the hole the central impression. D: Closer views of cells in the construct showing sell-to-cell interactions. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Richmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  2. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Epithelial and fibroblast cell coculture: Long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) admixed in coculture with fibroblast from the same initial breast tissue grown as 3-dimenstional constructions in the presence of attachment beads in the NASA Bioreactor. A: A typical constrct about 2.0 mm in diameter without beads on the surface. The center of these constrcts is hollow, and beads are organized about the irner surface. Although the coculture provides smaller constructs than the monoculture, the metabolic of the organized cells is about the same. B, C, D: Closer views of cells showing that the shape of cells and cell-to-cell interactions apprear different in the coculture than in the monoculture constructs. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Richmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  3. Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... participate in research! Register Today For Patients and Families Find Patient Advocacy Groups The RDCRN Coalition of Patient Advocacy Groups (RDCRN-CPAG) represents the perspective and interests of all patient advocacy organizations associated ...

  4. Transcription Factor Networks as Targets for Therapeutic Intervention of Cancer: The Breast Cancer Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Karamouzis, Michalis V; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G

    2011-01-01

    It has long been shown that many of the presently used anticancer drugs exert their effects partly through modulating the activity of vital transcription factors. The intricacy of transcriptional regulation still represents the main obstacle for the design of transcription factor–directed agents. Systematic mapping of tumor-specific transcriptional networks and application of new molecular tools have reinforced research interest and efforts in this venue. The case of breast cancer is discussed as a representative example. PMID:21912809

  5. Analyzing Online Teacher Networks: Cyber Networks Require Cyber Research Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlager, Mark S.; Farooq, Umer; Fusco, Judith; Schank, Patricia; Dwyer, Nathan

    2009-01-01

    The authors argue that conceptual and methodological limitations in existing research approaches severely hamper theory building and empirical exploration of teacher learning and collaboration through cyber-enabled networks. They conclude that new frameworks, tools, and techniques are needed to understand and maximize the benefits of teacher…

  6. Analyzing Online Teacher Networks: Cyber Networks Require Cyber Research Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlager, Mark S.; Farooq, Umer; Fusco, Judith; Schank, Patricia; Dwyer, Nathan

    2009-01-01

    The authors argue that conceptual and methodological limitations in existing research approaches severely hamper theory building and empirical exploration of teacher learning and collaboration through cyber-enabled networks. They conclude that new frameworks, tools, and techniques are needed to understand and maximize the benefits of teacher…

  7. Collaborative networks for both improvement and research.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Carolyn M; Margolis, Peter A; Miller, Marlene

    2013-06-01

    Moving significant therapeutic discoveries beyond early biomedical translation or T1 science and into practice involves: (1) T2 science, identifying "the right treatment for the right patient in the right way at the right time" (eg, patient-centered outcomes research) and tools to implement this knowledge (eg, guidelines, registries); and (2) T3 studies addressing how to achieve health care delivery change. Collaborative improvement networks can serve as large-scale, health system laboratories to engage clinicians, researchers, patients, and parents in testing approaches to translate research into practice. Improvement networks are of particular importance for pediatric T2 and T3 research, as evidence to establish safety and efficacy of therapeutic interventions in children is often lacking. Networks for improvement and research are also consistent with the Institute of Medicine's Learning Healthcare Systems model in which learning networks provide a system for improving care and outcomes and generate new knowledge in near real-time. Creation of total population registries in collaborative network sites provides large, representative study samples with high-quality data that can be used to generate evidence and to inform clinical decision-making. Networks use collaboration, data, and quality-improvement methods to standardize practice. Therefore, variation in outcomes due to unreliable and unnecessary care delivery is reduced, increasing statistical power, and allowing a consistent baseline from which to test new strategies. In addition, collaborative networks for improvement and research offer the opportunity to not only make improvements but also to study improvements to determine which interventions and combination of strategies work best in what settings.

  8. Sustaining Research Networks: the Twenty-Year Experience of the HMO Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, John F.; Paolino, Andrea R.; Thompson, Ella E.; Larson, Eric B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: As multi-institutional research networks assume a central role in clinical research, they must address the challenge of sustainability. Despite its importance, the concept of network sustainability has received little attention in the literature, and the sustainability strategies of durable scientific networks have not been described. Innovation: The Health Maintenance Organization Research Network (HMORN) is a consortium of 18 research departments in integrated health care delivery systems with over 15 million members in the United States and Israel. The HMORN has coordinated federally funded scientific networks and studies since 1994. This case study describes the HMORN approach to sustainability, proposes an operational definition of network sustainability, and identifies 10 essential elements that can enhance sustainability. Credibility: The sustainability framework proposed here is drawn from prior publications on organizational issues by HMORN investigators and from the experience of recent HMORN leaders and senior staff. Conclusion and Discussion: Network sustainability can be defined as (1) the development and enhancement of shared research assets to facilitate a sequence of research studies in a specific content area or multiple areas, and (2) a community of researchers and other stakeholders who reuse and develop those assets. Essential elements needed to develop the shared assets of a network include: network governance; trustworthy data and processes for sharing data; shared knowledge about research tools; administrative efficiency; physical infrastructure; and infrastructure funding. The community of researchers within a network is enhanced by: a clearly defined mission, vision and values; protection of human subjects; a culture of collaboration; and strong relationships with host organizations. While the importance of these elements varies based on the membership and goals of a network, this framework for sustainability can enhance strategic

  9. The FIMP Medicines for Children Research Network

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The European Paediatric Regulation (EUPR) calls for the fostering of high quality ethical research and medicinal products to be used in children. The EUPR provides the background, goals, and requirements for paediatric clinical trials. Paediatric clinical trials in children are mandatory to generate data on new drugs as well as on drugs used off-label or for unlicensed indications. The Family Paediatricians Medicines for Children Research Network (FIMP-MCRN) was established in 2003 with the aim of developing competence, infrastructure, networking and education for paediatric clinical trials. The network, consisting of twenty Paediatric Regional Networks has progressed very well and has achieved valuable improvements concerning the conduct of paediatric clinical trials. Furthermore, ad hoc training programs have incremented knowledge about clinical trials in Family Paediatrician Investigators (FPI) and have made medical professionals as well as the public aware of the need and advantages of trials in children. PMID:20591168

  10. What's New in Pancreatic Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Research? Pancreatic Cancer About Pancreatic Cancer What’s New in Pancreatic Cancer Research? Research into the causes , ... KRAS oncogene, which affects regulation of cell growth. New diagnostic tests are often able to recognize this ...

  11. What's New in Esophageal Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Research? Esophagus Cancer About Esophagus Cancer What’s New in Esophageal Cancer Research? Research into the causes, ... people with Barrett’s esophagus. This may lead to new tests for finding the people who are likely ...

  12. What's New in Breast Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Research? Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer What’s New in Breast Cancer Research? Researchers around the world ... she considers most important in choosing a treatment. New lab tests Tests for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) ...

  13. What's New in Thyroid Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer What’s New in Thyroid Cancer Research and Treatment? Important research ... RAI) therapy. Doctors and researchers are looking for new ways to treat thyroid cancer that are more ...

  14. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Elucidation of proteomic instability in cancer and characterization of tumor-associated amyloids. Dr. Chengkai Dai’s laboratory at the Mouse Cancer Genetics Program (MCGP) has an open post-doctoral position. The position is available immediately to participate in projects that elucidate proteomic instability of cancer and tumor-associated amyloids, exciting new phenomena in cancer biology, and explore novel anti-cancer therapeutic strategy---disrupting cancer proteome homeostasis, or proteostasis. Detailed information about Dr. Dai’s research and publications can be found at:  https://ccr.cancer.gov/Mouse-Cancer-Genetics-Program/chengkai-dai. Dr. Dai’s laboratory is conducting interdisciplinary cutting-edge research and is a pioneer in the emerging field of proteomic instability of cancer (J Clin Invest. 2012, 122:3742-54; EMBO J. 2015, 34:275-93; Cell. 2015, 160:729-44; Nature Cell Biology. 2016, 18:527-39).  

  15. A pan-cancer modular regulatory network analysis to identify common and cancer-specific network components.

    PubMed

    Knaack, Sara A; Siahpirani, Alireza Fotuhi; Roy, Sushmita

    2014-01-01

    Many human diseases including cancer are the result of perturbations to transcriptional regulatory networks that control context-specific expression of genes. A comparative approach across multiple cancer types is a powerful approach to illuminate the common and specific network features of this family of diseases. Recent efforts from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) have generated large collections of functional genomic data sets for multiple types of cancers. An emerging challenge is to devise computational approaches that systematically compare these genomic data sets across different cancer types that identify common and cancer-specific network components. We present a module- and network-based characterization of transcriptional patterns in six different cancers being studied in TCGA: breast, colon, rectal, kidney, ovarian, and endometrial. Our approach uses a recently developed regulatory network reconstruction algorithm, modular regulatory network learning with per gene information (MERLIN), within a stability selection framework to predict regulators for individual genes and gene modules. Our module-based analysis identifies a common theme of immune system processes in each cancer study, with modules statistically enriched for immune response processes as well as targets of key immune response regulators from the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) families. Comparison of the inferred regulatory networks from each cancer type identified a core regulatory network that included genes involved in chromatin remodeling, cell cycle, and immune response. Regulatory network hubs included genes with known roles in specific cancer types as well as genes with potentially novel roles in different cancer types. Overall, our integrated module and network analysis recapitulated known themes in cancer biology and additionally revealed novel regulatory hubs that suggest a complex interplay of immune response, cell

  16. China's landscape in oncology drug research: perspectives from research collaboration networks.

    PubMed

    You, Han; Ni, Jingyun; Barber, Michael; Scherngell, Thomas; Hu, Yuanjia

    2015-04-01

    Better understanding of China's landscape in oncology drug research is of great significance for discovering anti-cancer drugs in future. This article differs from previous studies by focusing on Chinese oncology drug research communities in co-publication networks at the institutional level. Moreover, this research aims to explore structures and behaviors of relevant research units by thematic community analysis and to address policy recommendations. This research used social network analysis to define an institutions network and to identify a community network which is characterized by thematic content. A total of 675 sample articles from 2008 through 2012 were retrieved from the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) database of Web of Science, and top institutions and institutional pairs are highlighted for further discussion. Meanwhile, this study revealed that institutions based in the Chinese mainland are located in a relatively central position, Taiwan's institutions are closely assembled on the side, and Hong Kong's units located in the middle of the Chinese mainland's and Taiwan's. Spatial division and institutional hierarchy are still critical barriers to research collaboration in the field of anti-cancer drugs in China. In addition, the communities focusing on hot research areas show the higher nodal degree, whereas communities giving more attention to rare research subjects are relatively marginalized to the periphery of network. This paper offers policy recommendations to accelerate cross-regional cooperation, such as through developing information technology and increasing investment. The brokers should focus more on outreach to other institutions. Finally, participation in topics of common interest is conducive to improved efficiency in research and development (R&D) resource allocation.

  17. China’s landscape in oncology drug research: perspectives from research collaboration networks

    PubMed Central

    You, Han; Ni, Jingyun; Barber, Michael; Scherngell, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Objective Better understanding of China’s landscape in oncology drug research is of great significance for discovering anti-cancer drugs in future. This article differs from previous studies by focusing on Chinese oncology drug research communities in co-publication networks at the institutional level. Moreover, this research aims to explore structures and behaviors of relevant research units by thematic community analysis and to address policy recommendations. Methods This research used social network analysis to define an institutions network and to identify a community network which is characterized by thematic content. Results A total of 675 sample articles from 2008 through 2012 were retrieved from the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) database of Web of Science, and top institutions and institutional pairs are highlighted for further discussion. Meanwhile, this study revealed that institutions based in the Chinese mainland are located in a relatively central position, Taiwan’s institutions are closely assembled on the side, and Hong Kong’s units located in the middle of the Chinese mainland’s and Taiwan’s. Spatial division and institutional hierarchy are still critical barriers to research collaboration in the field of anti-cancer drugs in China. In addition, the communities focusing on hot research areas show the higher nodal degree, whereas communities giving more attention to rare research subjects are relatively marginalized to the periphery of network. Conclusions This paper offers policy recommendations to accelerate cross-regional cooperation, such as through developing information technology and increasing investment. The brokers should focus more on outreach to other institutions. Finally, participation in topics of common interest is conducive to improved efficiency in research and development (R&D) resource allocation. PMID:25937775

  18. Redes En Acción. Increasing Hispanic participation in cancer research, training, and awareness.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Amelie G; Talavera, Gregory A; Marti, Jose; Penedo, Frank J; Medrano, Martha A; Giachello, Aida L; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2006-10-15

    Hispanics are affected by many health care disparities. The National Cancer Institute (NCI), through its Special Populations Branch, is supporting networking and capacity-building activities designed to increase Hispanic participation and leadership in cancer research. Redes En Acción established a national network of cancer research centers, community-based organizations, and federal partners to facilitate opportunities for junior Hispanic scientists to participate in training and research projects on cancer control. Since 2000, Redes En Acción has established a network of more than 1800 Hispanic leaders involved in cancer research and education. The project has sustained 131 training positions and submitted 29 pilot projects to NCI for review, with 16 awards for a total of $800,000, plus an additional $8.8 million in competing grant funding based on pilot study results to date. Independent research has leveraged an additional $32 million in non-Redes funding, and together the national and regional network sites have participated in more than 1400 community and professional awareness events. In addition, the program conducted extensive national survey research that provided the basis for the Redes En Acción Latino Cancer Report, a national agenda on Hispanic cancer issues. Redes En Acción has increased participation in cancer control research, training, and awareness among Hispanic scientists and within Hispanic communities. Cancer 2006. (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.

  19. Asian Network of Research Resource Centers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunhee; Nam, Seungjoo; Jung, Paul E; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Lee, Yeonhee

    2016-10-01

    With the enactment of the Nagoya Protocol, biological resources are now increasingly considered as assets of an individual country, instead of as the common property of mankind. As worldwide interest for securing biological resources intensifies, research resource centers (RRCs), which collect, preserve, and provide resources and their information to academia and industries, are gathering more attention. The Asian Network of Research Resource Centers (ANRRC) strives for conservation and effective use of bioresources and their data by connecting resource centers of Asia, a continent with the greatest diversity of life. Since its foundation in 2009, the Network has significantly expanded to encompass 103 RRCs of 14 countries. Through the Network, member countries discuss opportunities for resource exchange and research collaboration and share biobanking information and regulations of different countries for international harmonization of resource management. ANRRC also contributes to developing of International Standards of biobanks and biological resources as a liaison to the International Organization for Standardization technical committee 276 Biotechnology.

  20. Review of metabolic pathways activated in cancer cells as determined through isotopic labeling and network analysis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wentao; Keibler, Mark A; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2017-02-10

    Cancer metabolism has emerged as an indispensable part of contemporary cancer research. During the past 10 years, the use of stable isotopic tracers and network analysis have unveiled a number of metabolic pathways activated in cancer cells. Here, we review such pathways along with the particular tracers and labeling observations that led to the discovery of their rewiring in cancer cells. The list of such pathways comprises the reductive metabolism of glutamine, altered glycolysis, serine and glycine metabolism, mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) induced reprogramming and the onset of acetate metabolism. Additionally, we demonstrate the critical role of isotopic labeling and network analysis in identifying these pathways. The alterations described in this review do not constitute a complete list, and future research using these powerful tools is likely to discover other cancer-related pathways and new metabolic targets for cancer therapy.

  1. Singapore Cancer Network (SCAN) Guidelines for Systemic Therapy of Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    The SCAN colorectal cancer systemic therapy workgroup aimed to develop Singapore Cancer Network (SCAN) clinical practice guidelines for systemic therapy for colorectal cancer in Singapore. The workgroup utilised a modified ADAPTE process to calibrate high quality international evidence-based clinical practice guidelines to our local setting. Five international guidelines were evaluated-those developed by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network for colon (2014) and rectal (2014) cancer, the European Society of Medical Oncology for advanced (2012) and early (2013) cancer and the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (2011). Recommendations on systemic therapy in colorectal cancer were produced. These adapted guidelines form the SCAN Guidelines 2015 for systemic therapy of colorectal cancer.

  2. Creating a national home visiting research network.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Anne; Minkovitz, Cynthia S; Chaffin, Mark; Korfmacher, Jon; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Crowne, Sarah; Filene, Jill; Gonsalves, Kay; Landsverk, John; Harwood, Robin

    2013-11-01

    Home visiting can play a key role in the early childhood system of services. For home visiting to achieve its potential, decision-makers must make informed choices regarding adoption, adaptation, coordination, scale-up, and sustainment. We need a coordinated, focused, and theory-based home visiting research infrastructure to inform such decisions. The transdisciplinary Home Visiting Research Network (HVRN) was established in July 2012 with funding from the Health Resources and Services Administration. Its goal is to promote the translation of research findings into policy and practice. Its objectives are to (1) develop a national home visiting research agenda, (2) advance the use of innovative research methods; and (3) provide a research environment that is supportive of the professional development of emerging researchers interested in home visiting. A Management Team designs and directs activities to achieve these objectives through Work Teams. A Steering Committee of national leaders representing stakeholder groups oversees progress. HVRN's Coordinating Center supports the Work Teams and HVRN's Home visiting Applied Research Collaborative, a practice-based research network of home visiting programs. This article describes HVRN's rationale, approach, and anticipated products. We use home visiting-primary care coordination as an illustration, noting potential roles for pediatric practices and pediatric researchers and research educators in HVRN activities. HVRN creates the infrastructure for a rigorous program of research to inform policy and practice on home visiting as part of the system of services to improve family functioning, parenting, and child outcomes.

  3. Lysyl oxidase in cancer research.

    PubMed

    Perryman, Lara; Erler, Janine T

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis is the main reason for cancer-associated deaths and therapies are desperately needed to target the progression of cancer. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) plays a pivotal role in cancer progression, including metastasis, and is therefore is an attractive therapeutic target. In this review we will breakdown the process of cancer progression and the various roles that LOX plays has in the advancement of cancer. We will highlight why LOX is an exciting therapeutic target for the future.

  4. [A Study on the Knowledge Structure of Cancer Survivors based on Social Network Analysis].

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sun Young; Bae, Ka Ryeong

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the knowledge structure of cancer survivors. For data, 1099 articles were collected, with 365 keywords as a Noun phrase extracted from the articles and standardized for analyzing. Co-occurrence matrix were generated via a cosine similarity measure, and then the network analysis and visualization using PFNet and NodeXL were applied to visualize intellectual interchanges among keywords. According to the result of the content analysis and the cluster analysis of author keywords from cancer survivors articles, keywords such as 'quality of life', 'breast neoplasms', 'cancer survivors', 'neoplasms', 'exercise' had a high degree centrality. The 9 most important research topics concerning cancer survivors were 'cancer-related symptoms and nursing', 'cancer treatment-related issues', 'late effects', 'psychosocial issues', 'healthy living managements', 'social supports', 'palliative cares', 'research methodology', and 'research participants'. Through this study, the knowledge structure of cancer survivors was identified. The 9 topics identified in this study can provide useful research direction for the development of nursing in cancer survivor research areas. The Network analysis used in this study will be useful for identifying the knowledge structure and identifying general views and current cancer survivor research trends.

  5. Controllability in cancer metabolic networks according to drug targets as driver nodes.

    PubMed

    Asgari, Yazdan; Salehzadeh-Yazdi, Ali; Schreiber, Falk; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Networks are employed to represent many nonlinear complex systems in the real world. The topological aspects and relationships between the structure and function of biological networks have been widely studied in the past few decades. However dynamic and control features of complex networks have not been widely researched, in comparison to topological network features. In this study, we explore the relationship between network controllability, topological parameters, and network medicine (metabolic drug targets). Considering the assumption that targets of approved anticancer metabolic drugs are driver nodes (which control cancer metabolic networks), we have applied topological analysis to genome-scale metabolic models of 15 normal and corresponding cancer cell types. The results show that besides primary network parameters, more complex network metrics such as motifs and clusters may also be appropriate for controlling the systems providing the controllability relationship between topological parameters and drug targets. Consequently, this study reveals the possibilities of following a set of driver nodes in network clusters instead of considering them individually according to their centralities. This outcome suggests considering distributed control systems instead of nodal control for cancer metabolic networks, leading to a new strategy in the field of network medicine.

  6. Controllability in Cancer Metabolic Networks According to Drug Targets as Driver Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Asgari, Yazdan; Salehzadeh-Yazdi, Ali; Schreiber, Falk; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Networks are employed to represent many nonlinear complex systems in the real world. The topological aspects and relationships between the structure and function of biological networks have been widely studied in the past few decades. However dynamic and control features of complex networks have not been widely researched, in comparison to topological network features. In this study, we explore the relationship between network controllability, topological parameters, and network medicine (metabolic drug targets). Considering the assumption that targets of approved anticancer metabolic drugs are driver nodes (which control cancer metabolic networks), we have applied topological analysis to genome-scale metabolic models of 15 normal and corresponding cancer cell types. The results show that besides primary network parameters, more complex network metrics such as motifs and clusters may also be appropriate for controlling the systems providing the controllability relationship between topological parameters and drug targets. Consequently, this study reveals the possibilities of following a set of driver nodes in network clusters instead of considering them individually according to their centralities. This outcome suggests considering distributed control systems instead of nodal control for cancer metabolic networks, leading to a new strategy in the field of network medicine. PMID:24282504

  7. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer and Developmental Biology Laboratory, Center for Cancer Research (CCR), National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Department of Health and Human Services, has an immediate opening for a Postdoctoral Fellow to study lipid signaling in a mammalian model system using a combination of genetic, molecular, biochemical and cell biological methodologies.

  8. Advances in cancer research. Volume 54

    SciTech Connect

    Vande Woude, G.F. ); Klein, G. )

    1990-01-01

    This book contains articles pertaining to Advances in Cancer Research. Included are the following groups: (1) The Role of DNA Methylation in Cancer, (2) Genetic and Epigenetic Losses of Heterozygosity in Cancer Predisposition and Progression, (3) Genetic and Molecular Studies of Cellular Immortalization.

  9. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    A postdoctoral position is available in the Endocrine Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute in Bethesda, MD. The laboratory investigates the key genetic and genomic changes involved in endocrine cancer initiation and progression with the goal of identifying diagnostic/prognostic markers and therapeutic targets.

  10. Clinical trials in cancer research.

    PubMed Central

    Gehan, E A

    1979-01-01

    This is a review paper which gives a discussion of various aspects of clinical trials in cancer research. Since the conduct of the first randomized controlled clinical trial in cancer patients in the mid-1950's, substantial progress has been made in the utilization of the clinical trial technique for the evaluation of therapeutic efficiacy. The important elements of a protocol are given with some discussion of items to be considered in designing a protocol. The types of clinical trial (phase I, II, III) are defined, and the place of each phase of study in the context of the search for new treatments is delineated. A comprehensive discussion is given of the elements in the comparative clinical trial (phase III), including objectives, consierations in planning (comparability of treatment groups stratification of patients, feasibility and size of study, and prospective versus retrospective studies). Brief descriptions are given of designs for comparative clinical trials and a trial in oat cell lung carcinoma is discussed in some detail. Finally, some comments and references are given concerning the analysis of clinical trials. PMID:232043

  11. [The German research network for mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Bauer, M; Banaschewski, T; Heinz, A; Kamp-Becker, I; Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Padberg, F; Rapp, M A; Rupprecht, R; Schneider, F; Schulze, T G; Wittchen, H-U

    2016-09-01

    Mental disorders are among the greatest medical and social challenges facing us. They can occur at all stages of life and are among the most important commonly occurring diseases. In Germany 28 % of the population suffer from a mental disorder every year, while the lifetime risk of suffering from a mental disorder is almost 50 %. Mental disorders cause great suffering for those affected and their social network. Quantitatively speaking, they can be considered to be among those diseases creating the greatest burden for society due to reduced productivity, absence from work and premature retirement. The Federal Ministry of Education and Research is funding a new research network from 2015 to 2019 with up to 35 million euros to investigate mental disorders in order to devise and develop better therapeutic measures and strategies for this population by means of basic and translational clinical research. This is the result of a competitive call for research proposals entitled research network for mental diseases. It is a nationwide network of nine consortia with up to ten psychiatric and clinical psychology partner institutions from largely university-based research facilities for adults and/or children and adolescents. Furthermore, three cross-consortia platform projects will seek to identify shared causes of diseases and new diagnostic modalities for anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHS), autism, bipolar disorders, depression, schizophrenia and psychotic disorders as well as substance-related and addictive disorders. The spectrum of therapeutic approaches to be examined ranges from innovative pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatment to novel brain stimulation procedures. In light of the enormous burden such diseases represent for society as a whole, a sustainable improvement in the financial support for those researching mental disorders seems essential. This network aims to become a nucleus for long overdue and sustained

  12. Registers for Networked Medical Research in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Stausberg, J.; Altmann, U.; Antony, G.; Drepper, J.; Sax, U.; Schütt, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several disease specific registers are operated by members of the ‘TMF – Technology, Methods, and Infrastructure for Networked Medical Research’, an umbrella organization of research networks in Germany. Objective To describe the coverage and the current state as well as financial and organizational issues of registers operated by member networks of the TMF, to identify their requirements and needs, and to recommend best practice models. Methods A survey with a self-completion questionnaire including all 55 TMF member networks was carried out in winter 2007/2008. Interviews focusing on technological issues were conducted and analyzed in summer 2009 with a convenience sample of 10 registers. Results From 55 TMF member networks, 11 provided information about 14 registers. Six registers address diseases of the circulatory system with more than 150,000 registered patients. The interviews revealed a typical setting of “research registers”. Research registers are an important mean to generate hypotheses for clinical research, to identify eligible patients, and to share data with clinical trials. Concerning technical solutions, we found a remarkable heterogeneity. The analysis of the most efficient registers revealed a structure with five levels as best practice model of register management: executive, operations, IT-management, software, hardware. Conclusion In the last ten years, the TMF member networks established disease specific registers in Germany mainly to support clinical research. The heterogeneity of organizational and technical solutions as well as deficits in register planning motivated the development of respective recommendations. The TMF will continue to assist the registers in quality improvement. PMID:23616850

  13. Selected National Cancer Institute Breast Cancer Research Topics | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast Cancer Selected National Cancer Institute Breast Cancer Research Topics Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents ... cancer.gov/clinicaltrials/Taking-Part-in-Cancer-Treatment-Research-Studies NIH Senior Health http://nihseniorhealth.gov/breastcancer/ ...

  14. Fighting liver cancer with combination immunotherapies | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    A new clinical trial testing the effectiveness of immunotherapy treatment combinations against liver cancer is enrolling patients at the NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda, Maryland. Individually, immunotherapy drugs harness the power of the human immune system to better identify and kill cancer cells. Now, researchers at the NIH’s Center for Cancer Research have begun to find evidence that the drugs may work far more effectively when taken in combination with other therapies and with each other than when taken alone.

  15. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Postdoctoral position is available in the Cancer Molecular Pathology section headed by Frederic G. Barr, MD PhD in the Laboratory of Pathology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD. This research laboratory uses a multidisciplinary approach involving genomics and bioinformatics along with cell culture and animal models to study recurrent genetic and epigenetic alterations in cancer. By focusing on specific cancer types, such as the rhabdomyosarcoma family of myogenic soft tissue cancers, this research laboratory is investigating the molecular basis and biological consequences of chromosomal translocations, amplification events, and methylation changes in these cancers. In addition, the section works closely with clinicians to investigate the utility of these recurrent changes as biomarkers for diagnosis and management.

  16. Use of fecal immunochemical tests in the Iowa Research Network.

    PubMed

    Daly, Jeanette M; Bay, Camden; Levy, Barcey T

    2013-09-01

    Although the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) has recently emerged as an effective and affordable colorectal cancer screening option, many family physician offices continue to use guaiac-based tests. The purpose of this study was to assess the use of FITs in the Iowa Research Network and to assess physicians' knowledge about FITs. A cover letter and questionnaire were faxed twice to the 291 physician members followed up by a mailing. One hundred and seven (37%) questionnaires were returned. Participants' mean age was 55 years with 78 male responders. Fifty-two (49%) of the physician's offices were in a nonmetro area. Fifty-one (49%) reported using guaiac-based tests and 39 (39%) reported using FITs. Many physicians were unsure of the answers for the FIT knowledge questions. FIT use is not widespread in Iowa Research Network physician offices, and not all physicians are aware of the type of fecal occult blood test being conducted in their office.

  17. Collaborating to Move Research Forward: Proceedings of the 10th Annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank

    PubMed Central

    Kamat, Ashish M.; Agarwal, Piyush; Bivalacqua, Trinity; Chisolm, Stephanie; Daneshmand, Sia; Doroshow, James H.; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Galsky, Matthew; Iyer, Gopa; Kassouf, Wassim; Shah, Jay; Taylor, John; Williams, Stephen B.; Quale, Diane Zipursky; Rosenberg, Jonathan E.

    2016-01-01

    The 10th Annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank was hosted by the Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network and brought together a multidisciplinary group of clinicians, researchers, representatives and Industry to advance bladder cancer research efforts. Think Tank expert panels, group discussions, and networking opportunities helped generate ideas and strengthen collaborations between researchers and physicians across disciplines and between institutions. Interactive panel discussions addressed a variety of timely issues: 1) data sharing, privacy and social media; 2) improving patient navigation through therapy; 3) promising developments in immunotherapy; 4) and moving bladder cancer research from bench to bedside. Lastly, early career researchers presented their bladder cancer studies and had opportunities to network with leading experts. PMID:27376139

  18. Alleanza Contro il Cancro: the accreditation system of the Excellence Network of Italian Cancer Centers in the precision medicine era.

    PubMed

    Palombo, Fabio; De Paoli, Paolo; De Maria, Ruggero

    2015-01-01

    Alleanza Contro il Cancro (Alliance Against Cancer (ACC)) is a network of excellence comprising cancer centers with high standard patient care and research supervised by the Italian Ministry of Health. Founded in 2002, ACC has recently entered a renovation process in order to further increase quality procedures and international standing of the network. The Organization of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) accreditation system contributes significantly to this renovation process, which is generally directed towards all the main activities of cancer care and research, but has a particular attention to the treatment of advanced cancers that cannot be cured by standard procedures in conventional hospitals.

  19. Summer Student Breast Cancer Research Training Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    research training; breast cancer; fatty acids and prevention ; nutrition and prevention ; alternative prevention 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...Asian mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, upon highly invasive breast cancer cells, on the role of omega-3 fatty acids in preventing and treating breast...role in inhibiting or preventing cancer. Epidemiologic evidence strongly links fish oil with low incidences of several cancers.1–4 The anticancer

  20. Synergies in Research | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    In 1981, the NCI intramural program enrolled its first patient with AIDS. Given our expertise in epidemiology, cancer, retroviruses, cell biology, immunology, and drug development, our responsibility in the face of this public health crisis seemed obvious.

  1. [Cooperative Cardiovascular Disease Research Network (RECAVA)].

    PubMed

    García-Dorado, David; Castro-Beiras, Alfonso; Díez, Javier; Gabriel, Rafael; Gimeno-Blanes, Juan R; Ortiz de Landázuri, Manuel; Sánchez, Pedro L; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Today, cardiovascular disease is the principal cause of death and hospitalization in Spain, and accounts for an annual healthcare budget of more than 4000 million euros. Consequently, early diagnosis, effective prevention, and the optimum treatment of cardiovascular disease present a significant social and healthcare challenge for the country. In this context, combining all available resources to increase the efficacy and healthcare benefits of scientific research is a priority. This rationale prompted the establishment of the Spanish Cooperative Cardiovascular Disease Research Network, or RECAVA (Red Temática de Investigación Cooperativa en Enfermedades Cardiovasculares), 5 years ago. Since its foundation, RECAVA's activities have focused on achieving four objectives: a) to facilitate contacts between basic, clinical and epidemiological researchers; b) to promote the shared use of advanced technological facilities; c) to apply research results to clinical practice, and d) to train a new generation of translational cardiovascular researchers in Spain. At present, RECAVA consists of 41 research groups and seven shared technological facilities. RECAVA's research strategy is based on a scientific design matrix centered on the most important cardiovascular processes. The level of RECAVA's research activity is reflected in the fact that 28 co-authored articles were published in international journals during the first six months of 2007, with each involving contributions from at least two groups in the network. Finally, RECAVA also participates in the work of the Spanish National Center for Cardiovascular Research, or CNIC (Centro Nacional de Investigación Cardiovascular), and some established Biomedical Research Network Centers, or CIBER (Centros de Investigación Biomédica en RED), with the aim of consolidating the development of a dynamic multidisciplinary research framework that is capable of meeting the growing challenge that cardiovascular disease will present

  2. Genomic Datasets for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    A variety of datasets from genome-wide association studies of cancer and other genotype-phenotype studies, including sequencing and molecular diagnostic assays, are available to approved investigators through the Extramural National Cancer Institute Data Access Committee.

  3. Research and comprehensive cancer control coalitions.

    PubMed

    Vinson, Cynthia; La Porta, Madeline; Todd, William; Palafox, Neal A; Wilson, Katherine M; Fairley, Temeika

    2010-12-01

    The goal of cancer control research is "to generate basic knowledge about how to monitor and change individual and collective behavior and to ensure that knowledge is translated into practice and policy rapidly, effectively, and efficiently" (Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences in Cancer control framework and synthese rationale, 2010). Research activities span the cancer control continuum from prevention to early detection and diagnosis through treatment and survivorship (Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences in Cancer control framework and synthese rationale, 2010). While significant advancements have been made in understanding, preventing and treating cancer in the past few decades, these benefits have yielded disproportionate results in cancer morbidity and mortality across various socioeconomic and racial/ethnic subgroups (Ozols et al in J Clin Oncol, 25(1):146-1622, 2007). It has been a high priority since the beginning of the Comprehensive Cancer Control (CCC) movement to utilize research in the development and implementation of cancer plans in the states, tribes and tribal organizations, territories and US Pacific Island Jurisdictions. Nevertheless, dissemination and implementation of research in coalition activities has been challenging for many programs. Lessons learned from programs and coalitions in the implementation and evaluation of CCC activities, as well as resources provided by national partners, can assist coalitions with the translation of research into practice.

  4. Proteogenomic convergence for understanding cancer pathways and networks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    During the past several decades, the understanding of cancer at the molecular level has been primarily focused on mechanisms on how signaling molecules transform homeostatically balanced cells into malignant ones within an individual pathway. However, it is becoming more apparent that pathways are dynamic and crosstalk at different control points of the signaling cascades, making the traditional linear signaling models inadequate to interpret complex biological systems. Recent technological advances in high throughput, deep sequencing for the human genomes and proteomic technologies to comprehensively characterize the human proteomes in conjunction with multiplexed targeted proteomic assays to measure panels of proteins involved in biologically relevant pathways have made significant progress in understanding cancer at the molecular level. It is undeniable that proteomic profiling of differentially expressed proteins under many perturbation conditions, or between normal and “diseased” states is important to capture a first glance at the overall proteomic landscape, which has been a main focus of proteomics research during the past 15-20 years. However, the research community is gradually shifting its heavy focus from that initial discovery step to protein target verification using multiplexed quantitative proteomic assays, capable of measuring changes in proteins and their interacting partners, isoforms, and post-translational modifications (PTMs) in response to stimuli in the context of signaling pathways and protein networks. With a critical link to genotypes (i.e., high throughput genomics and transcriptomics data), new and complementary information can be gleaned from multi-dimensional omics data to (1) assess the effect of genomic and transcriptomic aberrations on such complex molecular machinery in the context of cell signaling architectures associated with pathological diseases such as cancer (i.e., from genotype to proteotype to phenotype); and (2

  5. Proteogenomic convergence for understanding cancer pathways and networks.

    PubMed

    Boja, Emily S; Rodriguez, Henry

    2014-01-01

    During the past several decades, the understanding of cancer at the molecular level has been primarily focused on mechanisms on how signaling molecules transform homeostatically balanced cells into malignant ones within an individual pathway. However, it is becoming more apparent that pathways are dynamic and crosstalk at different control points of the signaling cascades, making the traditional linear signaling models inadequate to interpret complex biological systems. Recent technological advances in high throughput, deep sequencing for the human genomes and proteomic technologies to comprehensively characterize the human proteomes in conjunction with multiplexed targeted proteomic assays to measure panels of proteins involved in biologically relevant pathways have made significant progress in understanding cancer at the molecular level. It is undeniable that proteomic profiling of differentially expressed proteins under many perturbation conditions, or between normal and "diseased" states is important to capture a first glance at the overall proteomic landscape, which has been a main focus of proteomics research during the past 15-20 years. However, the research community is gradually shifting its heavy focus from that initial discovery step to protein target verification using multiplexed quantitative proteomic assays, capable of measuring changes in proteins and their interacting partners, isoforms, and post-translational modifications (PTMs) in response to stimuli in the context of signaling pathways and protein networks. With a critical link to genotypes (i.e., high throughput genomics and transcriptomics data), new and complementary information can be gleaned from multi-dimensional omics data to (1) assess the effect of genomic and transcriptomic aberrations on such complex molecular machinery in the context of cell signaling architectures associated with pathological diseases such as cancer (i.e., from genotype to proteotype to phenotype); and (2) target

  6. Exploring Practice-Research Networks for Critical Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleby, Yvon; Hillier, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the contribution that practice-research networks can make to support critical professional development in the Learning and Skills sector in England. By practice-research networks we mean groups or networks which maintain a connection between research and professional practice. These networks stem from the philosophy of…

  7. Enhancing cancer control programmatic and research opportunities for African-Americans through technical assistance training.

    PubMed

    Satcher, David; Sullivan, Louis W; Douglas, Harry E; Mason, Terry; Phillips, Rogsbert F; Sheats, Joyce Q; Smith, Selina A

    2006-10-15

    African-Americans remain severely underrepresented in cancer control program delivery and research. Community-based organizational leaders and minority junior investigators have received little attention as representatives of target populations, or as agents to deliver and evaluate efforts to eliminate cancer health disparities. This paper describes activities of the National Black Leadership Initiative on Cancer II: Network Project, which has sought to address these issues. Community leaders and junior investigators received technical assistance (TA) and mentoring to develop applications for cancer education and community-based participatory research (CBPR) projects. TA was provided to 35 community leaders and 32 junior investigators. Twenty-nine community leaders won funding through the Community Partners for Cancer Education Program. Three pilot research applications were funded. Technical assistance may improve minority recruitment/retention in CBPR cancer control research and enhance understanding and elimination of cancer health disparities among African-Americans. Cancer 2006. (c) American Cancer Society.

  8. What's New in Nasopharyngeal Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Nasopharyngeal Cancer About Nasopharyngeal Cancer What's New in Nasopharyngeal Cancer Research and Treatment? Research into ... the world where this cancer is common. Treatment New surgical techniques Advances in the field of skull ...

  9. What's New in Liver Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Research? Liver Cancer About Liver Cancer What's New in Liver Cancer Research? Because there are only ... being made in treating chronic hepatitis. Screening Several new blood tests are being studied to see if ...

  10. What's New in Testicular Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer What’s New in Testicular Cancer Research and Treatment? Important research ... findings may help individualize treatment and help find new drugs to treat testicular cancer that can target ...

  11. What's New in Research and Treatment for Thymus Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thymus Cancer? Thymus Cancer About Thymus Cancer What’s New in Research and Treatment for Thymus Cancer? There ... treating thymomas is still being explored. In addition, new treatments are being developed and tested. Researchers are ...

  12. What's New in Anal Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Anal Cancer About Anal Cancer What’s New in Anal Cancer Research and Treatment? Important research ... cancer cells is expected to help scientists develop new drugs to fight this disease. Early detection Ongoing ...

  13. A social network analysis of treatment discoveries in cancer.

    PubMed

    Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Barnes, Laura; Hozo, Iztok; Skvoretz, John; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2011-03-28

    Controlled clinical trials are widely considered to be the vehicle to treatment discovery in cancer that leads to significant improvements in health outcomes including an increase in life expectancy. We have previously shown that the pattern of therapeutic discovery in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) can be described by a power law distribution. However, the mechanism generating this pattern is unknown. Here, we propose an explanation in terms of the social relations between researchers in RCTs. We use social network analysis to study the impact of interactions between RCTs on treatment success. Our dataset consists of 280 phase III RCTs conducted by the NCI from 1955 to 2006. The RCT networks are formed through trial interactions formed i) at random, ii) based on common characteristics, or iii) based on treatment success. We analyze treatment success in terms of survival hazard ratio as a function of the network structures. Our results show that the discovery process displays power law if there are preferential interactions between trials that may stem from researchers' tendency to interact selectively with established and successful peers. Furthermore, the RCT networks are "small worlds": trials are connected through a small number of ties, yet there is much clustering among subsets of trials. We also find that treatment success (improved survival) is proportional to the network centrality measures of closeness and betweenness. Negative correlation exists between survival and the extent to which trials operate within a limited scope of information. Finally, the trials testing curative treatments in solid tumors showed the highest centrality and the most influential group was the ECOG. We conclude that the chances of discovering life-saving treatments are directly related to the richness of social interactions between researchers inherent in a preferential interaction model.

  14. A Social Network Analysis of Treatment Discoveries in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Barnes, Laura; Hozo, Iztok; Skvoretz, John; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Controlled clinical trials are widely considered to be the vehicle to treatment discovery in cancer that leads to significant improvements in health outcomes including an increase in life expectancy. We have previously shown that the pattern of therapeutic discovery in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) can be described by a power law distribution. However, the mechanism generating this pattern is unknown. Here, we propose an explanation in terms of the social relations between researchers in RCTs. We use social network analysis to study the impact of interactions between RCTs on treatment success. Our dataset consists of 280 phase III RCTs conducted by the NCI from 1955 to 2006. The RCT networks are formed through trial interactions formed i) at random, ii) based on common characteristics, or iii) based on treatment success. We analyze treatment success in terms of survival hazard ratio as a function of the network structures. Our results show that the discovery process displays power law if there are preferential interactions between trials that may stem from researchers' tendency to interact selectively with established and successful peers. Furthermore, the RCT networks are “small worlds”: trials are connected through a small number of ties, yet there is much clustering among subsets of trials. We also find that treatment success (improved survival) is proportional to the network centrality measures of closeness and betweenness. Negative correlation exists between survival and the extent to which trials operate within a limited scope of information. Finally, the trials testing curative treatments in solid tumors showed the highest centrality and the most influential group was the ECOG. We conclude that the chances of discovering life-saving treatments are directly related to the richness of social interactions between researchers inherent in a preferential interaction model. PMID:21464896

  15. Noncoding RNAs in gastric cancer: Research progress and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meng; Du, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have attracted much attention in cancer research field. They are involved in cellular development, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The dysregulation of ncRNAs has been reported in tumor initiation, progression, invasion and metastasis in various cancers, including gastric cancer (GC). In the past few years, an accumulating body of evidence has deepened our understanding of ncRNAs, and several emerging ncRNAs have been identified, such as PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and circular RNAs (circRNAs). The competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) networks include mRNAs, microRNAs, long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) and circRNAs, which play critical roles in the tumorigenesis of GC. This review summarizes the recent hotspots of ncRNAs involved in GC pathobiology and their potential applications in GC. Finally, we briefly discuss the advances in the ceRNA network in GC. PMID:27547004

  16. Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. This one-week intense learning session provides specialized instruction in the role of diet and bioactive food components as modifiers of cancer incidence and tumor behavior. |

  17. Poland-AOD aerosol research network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Jacek W.; Struzewska, Joanna; Markowicz, Krzysztof

    2017-04-01

    Poland-AOD research network (www.polandaod.pl) was formed in 2011. It is a consortium of Polish institutions that are involved in studies of the atmospheric aerosol impact on the climate system. In 2016 the Poland-AOD network comprised of five stations: Radiative Transfer Laboratory, University of Warsaw (urban station), the research station of the Institute of Oceanology, in Sopot (coastal station), Radiative Transfer Station SolarAOT in Strzyzow (background station in the Carpathian mountains), Meteorology and Climatology Observatory at the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun (urban station), and the Research station in Rzecin at Poznan University of Life Sciences (rural station). The primary goal of the network is to carry out measurements of aerosol single scattering properties, radiation budget, simulate radiative transfer and aerosol transport, validate aerosol transport and transformation models such as NAAPS and GEM-AQ, as well as carry out instrument calibration and intercomparison. We will present observations of aerosol properties collected by the network as well as results from the GEM-AQ model simulations for selected episodes of biomass burning and urban aerosol.

  18. Conceptualizing and Advancing Research Networking Systems

    PubMed Central

    SCHLEYER, TITUS; BUTLER, BRIAN S.; SONG, MEI; SPALLEK, HEIKO

    2013-01-01

    Science in general, and biomedical research in particular, is becoming more collaborative. As a result, collaboration with the right individuals, teams, and institutions is increasingly crucial for scientific progress. We propose Research Networking Systems (RNS) as a new type of system designed to help scientists identify and choose collaborators, and suggest a corresponding research agenda. The research agenda covers four areas: foundations, presentation, architecture, and evaluation. Foundations includes project-, institution- and discipline-specific motivational factors; the role of social networks; and impression formation based on information beyond expertise and interests. Presentation addresses representing expertise in a comprehensive and up-to-date manner; the role of controlled vocabularies and folksonomies; the tension between seekers’ need for comprehensive information and potential collaborators’ desire to control how they are seen by others; and the need to support serendipitous discovery of collaborative opportunities. Architecture considers aggregation and synthesis of information from multiple sources, social system interoperability, and integration with the user’s primary work context. Lastly, evaluation focuses on assessment of collaboration decisions, measurement of user-specific costs and benefits, and how the large-scale impact of RNS could be evaluated with longitudinal and naturalistic methods. We hope that this article stimulates the human-computer interaction, computer-supported cooperative work, and related communities to pursue a broad and comprehensive agenda for developing research networking systems. PMID:24376309

  19. Background | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The term "proteomics" refers to a large-scale comprehensive study of a specific proteome resulting from its genome, including abundances of proteins, their variations and modifications, and interacting partners and networks in order to understand cellular processes involved.  Similarly, “Cancer proteomics” refers to comprehensive analyses of proteins and their derivatives translated from a specific cancer genome using a human biospecimen or a preclinical model (e.g., cultured cell or animal model).

  20. The long term agroecosystem research network - shared research strategy

    Treesearch

    Jean L. Steiner; Timothy Strickland; Peter J.A. Kleinman; Kris Havstad; Thomas B. Moorman; M.Susan Moran; Phil Hellman; Ray B. Bryant; David Huggins; Greg McCarty

    2016-01-01

    While current weather patterns and rapidly accelerated changes in technology often focus attention on short-term trends in agriculture, the fundamental demands on modern agriculture to meet society food, feed, fuel and fiber production while providing the foundation for a healthy environment requires long-term perspective. The Long- Term Agroecoystem Research Network...

  1. Gene transcriptional networks integrate microenvironmental signals in human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ren; Mao, Jian-Hua

    2011-04-01

    A significant amount of evidence shows that microenvironmental signals generated from extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules, soluble factors, and cell-cell adhesion complexes cooperate at the extra- and intracellular level. This synergetic action of microenvironmental cues is crucial for normal mammary gland development and breast malignancy. To explore how the microenvironmental genes coordinate in human breast cancer at the genome level, we have performed gene co-expression network analysis in three independent microarray datasets and identified two microenvironment networks in human breast cancer tissues. Network I represents crosstalk and cooperation of ECM microenvironment and soluble factors during breast malignancy. The correlated expression of cytokines, chemokines, and cell adhesion proteins in Network II implicates the coordinated action of these molecules in modulating the immune response in breast cancer tissues. These results suggest that microenvironmental cues are integrated with gene transcriptional networks to promote breast cancer development.

  2. Cancer Biotechnology | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Biotechnology advances continue to underscore the need to educate NCI fellows in new methodologies. The Cancer Biotechnology course will be held on the NCI-Frederick campus on January 29, 2016 (Bldg. 549, Main Auditorium) and the course will be repeated on the Bethesda campus on February 9, 2016 (Natcher Balcony C). The latest advances in DNA, protein and image analysis will be presented. Clinical and postdoctoral fellows who want to learn about new biotechnology advances are encouraged to attend this course.

  3. A computational model for cancer growth by using complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvão, Viviane; Miranda, José G. V.

    2008-09-01

    In this work we propose a computational model to investigate the proliferation of cancerous cell by using complex networks. In our model the network represents the structure of available space in the cancer propagation. The computational scheme considers a cancerous cell randomly included in the complex network. When the system evolves the cells can assume three states: proliferative, non-proliferative, and necrotic. Our results were compared with experimental data obtained from three human lung carcinoma cell lines. The computational simulations show that the cancerous cells have a Gompertzian growth. Also, our model simulates the formation of necrosis, increase of density, and resources diffusion to regions of lower nutrient concentration. We obtain that the cancer growth is very similar in random and small-world networks. On the other hand, the topological structure of the small-world network is more affected. The scale-free network has the largest rates of cancer growth due to hub formation. Finally, our results indicate that for different average degrees the rate of cancer growth is related to the available space in the network.

  4. Customizing Therapies for Lung Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in both men and women. Although there have been modest improvements in short-term survival over the last few decades, five-year survival rates for lung cancer remain low at only 16 percent. Treatment for lung cancer depends on the stage of the disease at diagnosis, but generally consists of some combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Increasing attention has been paid in recent years to customizing therapies based on the molecular characteristics of patients’ tumors. Some of these targeted regimens have already been integrated into the treatment arsenal for lung cancer and others are still being studied in clinical trials, including several being conducted by researchers at NCI’s Center for Cancer Research.

  5. Cancer Genetics and Signaling | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer, Genetics, and Signaling (CGS) Group at the National Cancer Institute at Frederick  offers a competitive postdoctoral training and mentoring program focusing on molecular and genetic aspects of cancer. The CGS Fellows Program is designed to attract and train exceptional postdoctoral fellows interested in pursuing independent research career tracks. CGS Fellows participate in a structured mentoring program designed for scientific and career development and transition to independent positions.

  6. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    institutions. A major project in the lab is targeted therapy of prostate cancer using PSMA-guided aptamers. Prabhat Goswami, PhD; Professor...derived dendritic cell (DC) and T cell functional deficiencies. Long-term goals are to develop novel, immune-based therapies for advanced solid tumors...and radiolabeling of peptides and small molecules for small molecule cancer therapy , molecular imaging, and radionuclide therapy for cancer. He

  7. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    autophagy in cancer. Additionally she is interested in investigating novel combined modality therapies that target the EGFR/PI3K/Akt pathway and...how one can predict sensitivity to these therapies in cancer disease sites. Elaine Smith, PhD; Professor, Department of Epidemiology, College of...efficacy of monoclonal antibody therapy of cancer. Preclinical and clinical studies are exploring the relative role of various effector cells in

  8. Proteomics in prostate cancer research.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Magnus; Lexander, Helena; Franzén, Bo; Egevad, Lars

    2007-02-01

    The incidence of early prostate cancer (PCa) among middle-aged men has increased rapidly. For many of these men, curatively intended treatment does more harm than good. Established prognostic factors are tumor stage and grade. As a result of earlier detection a majority of patients now have nonpalpable tumors (T1c) of intermediate grade (Gleason score 6). Prostate specific antigen in serum in such cases is generally at a low level and not a reliable predictor of prognosis. Altogether there is an urgent need for adjunctive prognostic indicators. In the search for relevant tumor markers for improved patient selection an exploration of the proteome (the human proteins) could be fruitful. This paper critically reviews the use of 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) for proteome research. Additional steps such as image analysis and mass spectrometry are described. Techniques based on non-2-DE platforms: surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization (SELDI), isotope coded affinity tags (ICAT) and array-based technologies are also summarized. Although labor-intensive and time-consuming, 2-DE is presently the most powerful method for analysis of cellular protein phenotype and may potentially reveal gene regulations that cannot be detected on a genetic level.

  9. National Research Networks Facilitate Mutually Beneficial Research at ARS Locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfried, M. S.; Holbrook, W. S.; Fellows, A.; Kormos, P.; Lohse, K. A.; Marks, D. G.; Flerchinger, G. N.

    2015-12-01

    A major benefit of participation in research networks such as the Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network is that multidisciplinary research on a broad range of topics is facilitated. The interaction between the Agricultural Research Service long-term experimental watersheds and LTAR exemplifies this. At the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW), this is further enhanced by participation in the Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) network. The RCEW has a long history (55 years) of experimentation, modeling and monitoring emphasizing hydrologic processes, which are inevitably related to biogeochemical processes, but rarely linked directly in RCEW research. New research with the Reynolds Creek CZO (RC CZO) emphasizes biogeochemistry. The background research and infrastructure at the RCEW provides an ideal platform for that research. At the same time, RC CZO products are enabling ARS to extend its research activities. We highlight three examples: (i) forcing data sets used to facilitate physical modeling of hydrologic and biogeochemical processes, (ii) linkage of hydrology and geophyscis to extend our understanding of subsurface processes, and (iii) climate/elevation linkages to ecosystem productivity, which are closely related in water limited environments such as the RCEW. The addition of the RCEW to the LTAR is further extended ARS capabilities. For example, the RCEW is now monitoring net carbon balance and productivity at sites along an elevation/climatic gradient. The addition of LTAR research enhances that work by extending the climate gradient and introducing management and land surface change effects. We anticipate that these interactions will grow and that cross-site experiments will be initiated as the results begin to accumulate.

  10. Researching the experience of kidney cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Taylor, K

    2002-09-01

    The author's personal experience as a kidney cancer patient, researcher and founder of a kidney cancer support group forms the basis for consideration of the challenges involved in researching patients' experiences. The researcher needs to understand the variability of those experiences in both clinical and psychological-emotional terms, and in relation to the personal, familial and social contexts of the patient. It is also essential to define the purpose of the research and to show how an understanding of personal experiences of cancer can be used to enhance the quality of care for cancer patients. The research encounter with a patient is also in some respects a therapeutic encounter requiring a considerable degree of sensitivity on the part of the researcher. The person-centred approach of Carl Rogers is of value in supporting such an encounter.

  11. Drug Repositioning through Systematic Mining of Gene Coexpression Networks in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ivliev, Alexander E.; ‘t Hoen, Peter A. C.; Borisevich, Dmitrii; Nikolsky, Yuri; Sergeeva, Marina G.

    2016-01-01

    Gene coexpression network analysis is a powerful “data-driven” approach essential for understanding cancer biology and mechanisms of tumor development. Yet, despite the completion of thousands of studies on cancer gene expression, there have been few attempts to normalize and integrate co-expression data from scattered sources in a concise “meta-analysis” framework. We generated such a resource by exploring gene coexpression networks in 82 microarray datasets from 9 major human cancer types. The analysis was conducted using an elaborate weighted gene coexpression network (WGCNA) methodology and identified over 3,000 robust gene coexpression modules. The modules covered a range of known tumor features, such as proliferation, extracellular matrix remodeling, hypoxia, inflammation, angiogenesis, tumor differentiation programs, specific signaling pathways, genomic alterations, and biomarkers of individual tumor subtypes. To prioritize genes with respect to those tumor features, we ranked genes within each module by connectivity, leading to identification of module-specific functionally prominent hub genes. To showcase the utility of this network information, we positioned known cancer drug targets within the coexpression networks and predicted that Anakinra, an anti-rheumatoid therapeutic agent, may be promising for development in colorectal cancer. We offer a comprehensive, normalized and well documented collection of >3000 gene coexpression modules in a variety of cancers as a rich data resource to facilitate further progress in cancer research. PMID:27824868

  12. Drug Repositioning through Systematic Mining of Gene Coexpression Networks in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ivliev, Alexander E; 't Hoen, Peter A C; Borisevich, Dmitrii; Nikolsky, Yuri; Sergeeva, Marina G

    2016-01-01

    Gene coexpression network analysis is a powerful "data-driven" approach essential for understanding cancer biology and mechanisms of tumor development. Yet, despite the completion of thousands of studies on cancer gene expression, there have been few attempts to normalize and integrate co-expression data from scattered sources in a concise "meta-analysis" framework. We generated such a resource by exploring gene coexpression networks in 82 microarray datasets from 9 major human cancer types. The analysis was conducted using an elaborate weighted gene coexpression network (WGCNA) methodology and identified over 3,000 robust gene coexpression modules. The modules covered a range of known tumor features, such as proliferation, extracellular matrix remodeling, hypoxia, inflammation, angiogenesis, tumor differentiation programs, specific signaling pathways, genomic alterations, and biomarkers of individual tumor subtypes. To prioritize genes with respect to those tumor features, we ranked genes within each module by connectivity, leading to identification of module-specific functionally prominent hub genes. To showcase the utility of this network information, we positioned known cancer drug targets within the coexpression networks and predicted that Anakinra, an anti-rheumatoid therapeutic agent, may be promising for development in colorectal cancer. We offer a comprehensive, normalized and well documented collection of >3000 gene coexpression modules in a variety of cancers as a rich data resource to facilitate further progress in cancer research.

  13. African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer: position and vision for cancer research on the African Continent.

    PubMed

    Ogunbiyi, J Olufemi; Stefan, D Cristina; Rebbeck, Timothy R

    2016-01-01

    The African Organization for Research and training in Cancer (AORTIC) bases the following position statements on a critical appraisal of the state on cancer research and cancer care in Africa including information on the availability of data on cancer burden, screening and prevention for cancer in Africa, cancer care personnel, treatment modalities, and access to cancer care.

  14. Cytokine networks in animal models of colitis-associated cancer.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Efstathios; Margonis, Georgios Antonios; Angelou, Anastasios; Zografos, George C; Pikoulis, Emmanouil

    2015-01-01

    It is well-known that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) poses an increased, yet not definitely estimated, risk of colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC), which is considered a more aggressive and distinct in both genetic and molecular levels clinical entity compared to sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). The present review discusses the cytokine networks involved in CAC-based translational findings from suitable animal models of the disease. Moreover, we summarize the most prominent data concerning the role of Th1, Th2, Th17 and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of CAC. Last, we briefly address the controversies between basic science findings in IBD and CAC and suggest further directions regarding research on cytokines. This review should serve as a primer for clinicians and surgeons to understand the rapidly evolving field of cytokines in the context of CAC. The MEDLINE database was thoroughly searched using the keywords: cytokines, colitis-associated cancer, animal models, carcinogenesis. Additional articles were gathered and evaluated. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  15. Sequencing the transcriptional network of androgen receptor in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Chng, Kern Rei; Cheung, Edwin

    2013-11-01

    The progression of prostate cancer is largely dependent on the activity of the androgen receptor (AR), which in turn, correlates with the net output of the AR transcriptional regulatory network. A detailed and thorough understanding of the AR transcriptional regulatory network is therefore critical in the strategic manipulation of AR activity for the targeted eradication of prostate cancer cells. In this mini-review, we highlight some of the novel and unexpected mechanistic and functional insights of the AR transcriptional network derived from recent targeted sequencing (ChIP-Seq) studies of AR and its coregulatory factors in prostate cancer cells.

  16. TP53 mutations, expression and interaction networks in human cancers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaosheng; Sun, Qingrong

    2017-01-01

    Although the associations of p53 dysfunction, p53 interaction networks and oncogenesis have been widely explored, a systematic analysis of TP53 mutations and its related interaction networks in various types of human cancers is lacking. Our study explored the associations of TP53 mutations, gene expression, clinical outcomes, and TP53 interaction networks across 33 cancer types using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We show that TP53 is the most frequently mutated gene in a number of cancers, and its mutations appear to be early events in cancer initiation. We identified genes potentially repressed by p53, and genes whose expression correlates significantly with TP53 expression. These gene products may be especially important nodes in p53 interaction networks in human cancers. This study shows that while TP53-truncating mutations often result in decreased TP53 expression, other non-truncating TP53 mutations result in increased TP53 expression in some cancers. Survival analyses in a number of cancers show that patients with TP53 mutations are more likely to have worse prognoses than TP53-wildtype patients, and that elevated TP53 expression often leads to poor clinical outcomes. We identified a set of candidate synthetic lethal (SL) genes for TP53, and validated some of these SL interactions using data from the Cancer Cell Line Project. These predicted SL genes are promising candidates for experimental validation and the development of personalized therapeutics for patients with TP53-mutated cancers. PMID:27880943

  17. TP53 mutations, expression and interaction networks in human cancers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaosheng; Sun, Qingrong

    2017-01-03

    Although the associations of p53 dysfunction, p53 interaction networks and oncogenesis have been widely explored, a systematic analysis of TP53 mutations and its related interaction networks in various types of human cancers is lacking. Our study explored the associations of TP53 mutations, gene expression, clinical outcomes, and TP53 interaction networks across 33 cancer types using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We show that TP53 is the most frequently mutated gene in a number of cancers, and its mutations appear to be early events in cancer initiation. We identified genes potentially repressed by p53, and genes whose expression correlates significantly with TP53 expression. These gene products may be especially important nodes in p53 interaction networks in human cancers. This study shows that while TP53-truncating mutations often result in decreased TP53 expression, other non-truncating TP53 mutations result in increased TP53 expression in some cancers. Survival analyses in a number of cancers show that patients with TP53 mutations are more likely to have worse prognoses than TP53-wildtype patients, and that elevated TP53 expression often leads to poor clinical outcomes. We identified a set of candidate synthetic lethal (SL) genes for TP53, and validated some of these SL interactions using data from the Cancer Cell Line Project. These predicted SL genes are promising candidates for experimental validation and the development of personalized therapeutics for patients with TP53-mutated cancers.

  18. What's New in Gallbladder Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Gallbladder Cancer About Gallbladder Cancer What’s New in Gallbladder Cancer Research and Treatment? Research into ... Chemotherapy and radiation therapy Researchers are looking at new ways of increasing the effectiveness of radiation therapy . ...

  19. The value of research collaborations and consortia in rare cancers.

    PubMed

    Blay, Jean-Yves; Coindre, Jean-Michel; Ducimetière, Françoise; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle

    2016-02-01

    Rare cancers are defined by an incidence of less than six per 100,000 people per year. They represent roughly 20% of all human cancers and are associated with worse survival than are so-called frequent tumours, because of delays to accurate diagnosis, inadequate treatments, and fewer opportunities to participate in clinical trials (because of a paucity of dedicated trials from both academic and industrial sponsors). In this Series paper, we discuss how these challenges can be addressed by research consortia and suggest the integration of these consortia with reference networks, which gather multidisciplinary expert centres, for management of rare tumours.

  20. Research Networks and Technology Migration (RESNETSII)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    Angeles (California) ucsc University of California at Santa Cruz (California) udel University of Delaware (Delaware) Some of the research...UC Santa Cruz , UCLA Multicast-based Inference of Network-internal Characteristics (MINC) multicast-based estimators of the origins of...Measurements by Laser Techniques," Italian Assn. for Laser Velocimetry, Ancona , Italy, 18-21 June 2002 7 Yima: A Second Generation Continuous Media

  1. The Evolution of the Personal Networks of Novice Librarian Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Marie R.; Kennedy, David P.; Brancolini, Kristine R.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes for the first time the composition and structure of the personal networks of novice librarian researchers. We used social network analysis to observe if participating in the Institute for Research Design in Librarianship (IRDL) affected the development of the librarians' personal networks and how the networks changed over…

  2. The Evolution of the Personal Networks of Novice Librarian Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Marie R.; Kennedy, David P.; Brancolini, Kristine R.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes for the first time the composition and structure of the personal networks of novice librarian researchers. We used social network analysis to observe if participating in the Institute for Research Design in Librarianship (IRDL) affected the development of the librarians' personal networks and how the networks changed over…

  3. Investigating cellular network heterogeneity and modularity in cancer: a network entropy and unbalanced motif approach.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feixiong; Liu, Chuang; Shen, Bairong; Zhao, Zhongming

    2016-08-26

    Cancer is increasingly recognized as a cellular system phenomenon that is attributed to the accumulation of genetic or epigenetic alterations leading to the perturbation of the molecular network architecture. Elucidation of network properties that can characterize tumor initiation and progression, or pinpoint the molecular targets related to the drug sensitivity or resistance, is therefore of critical importance for providing systems-level insights into tumorigenesis and clinical outcome in the molecularly targeted cancer therapy. In this study, we developed a network-based framework to quantitatively examine cellular network heterogeneity and modularity in cancer. Specifically, we constructed gene co-expressed protein interaction networks derived from large-scale RNA-Seq data across 8 cancer types generated in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. We performed gene network entropy and balanced versus unbalanced motif analysis to investigate cellular network heterogeneity and modularity in tumor versus normal tissues, different stages of progression, and drug resistant versus sensitive cancer cell lines. We found that tumorigenesis could be characterized by a significant increase of gene network entropy in all of the 8 cancer types. The ratio of the balanced motifs in normal tissues is higher than that of tumors, while the ratio of unbalanced motifs in tumors is higher than that of normal tissues in all of the 8 cancer types. Furthermore, we showed that network entropy could be used to characterize tumor progression and anticancer drug responses. For example, we found that kinase inhibitor resistant cancer cell lines had higher entropy compared to that of sensitive cell lines using the integrative analysis of microarray gene expression and drug pharmacological data collected from the Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer database. In addition, we provided potential network-level evidence that smoking might increase cancer cellular network heterogeneity and

  4. Information theoretic sub-network mining characterizes breast cancer subtypes in terms of cancer core mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinwoo; Hur, Benjamin; Rhee, Sungmin; Lim, Sangsoo; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Kwangsoo; Han, Wonshik; Kim, Sun

    2016-10-01

    A breast cancer subtype classification scheme, PAM50, based on genetic information is widely accepted for clinical applications. On the other hands, experimental cancer biology studies have been successful in revealing the mechanisms of breast cancer and now the hallmarks of cancer have been determined to explain the core mechanisms of tumorigenesis. Thus, it is important to understand how the breast cancer subtypes are related to the cancer core mechanisms, but multiple studies are yet to address the hallmarks of breast cancer subtypes. Therefore, a new approach that can explain the differences among breast cancer subtypes in terms of cancer hallmarks is needed. We developed an information theoretic sub-network mining algorithm, differentially expressed sub-network and pathway analysis (DeSPA), that retrieves tumor-related genes by mining a gene regulatory network (GRN) of transcription factors and miRNAs. With extensive experiments of the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) breast cancer sequencing data, we showed that our approach was able to select genes that belong to cancer core pathways such as DNA replication, cell cycle, p53 pathways while keeping the accuracy of breast cancer subtype classification comparable to that of PAM50. In addition, our method produces a regulatory network of TF, miRNA, and their target genes that distinguish breast cancer subtypes, which is confirmed by experimental studies in the literature.

  5. Puerto Rico NCI Community Oncology Research Program Minority/Underserved | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The Puerto Rico NCI Community Oncology Research Program (PRNCORP) will be the principal organization in the island that promotes cancer prevention, control and screening/post-treatment surveillance clinical trials. It will conduct cancer care delivery research and will provide access to treatment and imaging clinical trials conducted under the reorganization of the National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN). It will evaluate disparity issues and outcomes in cancer care delivery and treatments. |

  6. Behavioral Research in Cancer Prevention and Control

    PubMed Central

    Klein, William M. P.; Bloch, Michele; Hesse, Bradford W.; McDonald, Paige G.; Nebeling, Linda; O’Connell, Mary E.; Riley, William T.; Taplin, Stephen H.; Tesauro, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Human behavior is central to the etiology and management of cancer outcomes and presents several avenues for targeted and sustained intervention. Psychosocial experiences such as stress and health behaviors including tobacco use, sun exposure, poor diet, and a sedentary lifestyle increase the risk of some cancers yet are often quite resistant to change. Cancer screening and other health services are misunderstood and over-utilized, and vaccination underutilized, in part because of the avalanche of information about cancer prevention. Coordination of cancer care is suboptimal, and only a small fraction of cancer patients enroll in clinical trials essential to the development of new cancer treatments. A growing population of cancer survivors has necessitated a fresh view of cancer as a chronic rather than acute disease. Fortunately, behavioral research can address a wide variety of key processes and outcomes across the cancer controbiol continuum from prevention to end-of-life care. Here we consider effects at the biobehavioral and psychological, social and organizational, and environmental levels. We challenge the research community to address key behavioral targets across all levels of influence, while taking into account the many new methodological tools that can facilitate this important work. PMID:24512871

  7. RANK-mediated signaling network and cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Chu, Gina Chia-Yi; Chung, Leland W K

    2014-09-01

    Cancer metastasis is highly inefficient and complex. Common features of metastatic cancer cells have been observed using cancer cell lines and genetically reconstituted mouse and human tumor xenograft models. These include cancer cell interaction with the tumor microenvironment and the ability of cancer cells to sense extracellular stimuli and adapt to adverse growth conditions. This review summarizes the coordinated response of cancer cells to soluble growth factors, such as RANKL, by a unique feed forward mechanism employing coordinated upregulation of RANKL and c-Met with downregulation of androgen receptor. The RANK-mediated signal network was found to drive epithelial to mesenchymal transition in prostate cancer cells, promote osteomimicry and the ability of prostate cancer cells to assume stem cell and neuroendocrine phenotypes, and confer the ability of prostate cancer cells to home to bone. Prostate cancer cells with activated RANK-mediated signal network were observed to recruit and even transform the non-tumorigenic prostate cancer cells to participate in bone and soft tissue colonization. The coordinated regulation of cancer cell invasion and metastasis by the feed forward mechanism involving RANKL, c-Met, transcription factors, and VEGF-neuropilin could offer new therapeutic opportunities to target prostate cancer bone and soft tissue metastases.

  8. RANK-mediated signaling network and cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chia-Yi Gina; Chung, Leland W. K.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer metastasis is highly inefficient and complex. Common features of metastatic cancer cells have been observed using cancer cell lines and genetically reconstituted mouse and human tumor xenograft models. These include cancer cell interaction with the tumor microenvironment, and the ability of cancer cells to sense extracellular stimuli and adapt to adverse growth conditions. This review summarizes the coordinated response of cancer cells to soluble growth factors, such as RANKL, by a unique forward feedback mechanism employing coordinated upregulation of RANKL and c-Met with downregulation of androgen receptor. The RANK-mediated signal network was found to drive epithelial to mesenchymal transition in prostate cancer cells, promote osteomimicry and the ability of prostate cancer cells to assume stem cell and neuroendocrine phenotypes, and confer the ability of prostate cancer cells to home to bone. Prostate cancer cells with activated RANK-mediated signal network were observed to recruit and even transform the non-tumorigenic prostate cancer cells to participate in bone and soft tissue colonization. The coordinated regulation of cancer cell invasion and metastasis by the forward feedback mechanism involving RANKL, c-Met, transcription factors and VEGF-neuropilin could offer new therapeutic opportunities to target prostate cancer bone and soft tissue metastases. PMID:24398859

  9. About BTTC | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    About Combined Forces Drive BTTC The Brain Tumor Trials Collaborative (BTTC) was created in 2003 - a combined effort of many professionals, entities and organizations to help those suffering from brain tumors. The National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Center for Cancer Research serves as the lead institution and provides the administrative infrastructure, clinical database and oversight for the collaborative.

  10. Milestones in Cancer Research and Discovery

    Cancer.gov

    During the past 250 years, we have witnessed many landmark discoveries in our efforts to make progress against cancer, an affliction known to humanity for thousands of years. This timeline shows a few key milestones in the history of cancer research.

  11. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Research will involve peptide, peptide mimetic and small molecule organic synthesis directed at biological targets related to the etiology and treatment of cancers and AIDS. Salary and benefit package are highly competitive. The Chemical Biology Laboratory (CBL) is equipped with state-of-the-art instrumentation and is located on the campus of the National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD.

  12. $540 million gift boosts cancer research.

    PubMed

    2014-03-01

    Ludwig Cancer Research, based in New York, NY, announced that it will disburse $540 million from the estate of Daniel K. Ludwig equally to Ludwig Centers at Harvard University, Johns Hopkins University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Stanford University, and the University of Chicago.

  13. The importance of biobanking in cancer research.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Pelayo, Tania; Babinszky, Sindy; LeBlanc, Jodi; Watson, Peter H

    2015-06-01

    Establishing the importance of biobanking in cancer research is important for research funders and for planning health research infrastructure. This study delineates the importance of biobanking to the cancer research landscape in Canada and relative to other forms of health research infrastructure. The Cancer Research Society (CRS) is a Canadian organization with a broad mission and national portfolio that funds studies across the spectrum of cancer research. We selected all 35 investigators who received CRS grants in the 2010/11 competition and then analyzed their publications from 2010 to 2014. Articles were categorized by overall research area, acknowledged source of funding, specific scientific focus, and the presence of any data that involved an 'indicator' (human biospecimens, cell lines, animal models, advanced microscopy, flow cell sorters, and next generation sequencing) of dependence on different kinds of health research infrastructures. Publications involving biobanking and utilizing biospecimens were further classified by biospecimen provenance and type of biospecimen used. These investigators generated 502 (from a total of 749) papers that were related to the field of cancer research. Amongst 445 papers that contained primary data, we found no significant differences between CRS funded and 'other funded' papers in terms of biospecimen use, which occurred in 38% of articles. Overall biospecimens were mostly obtained directly from patients (17%), or indirectly from biorepositories (31%) and hospitals (46%). The proportions of studies using other tools was as follows: 54% cell lines, 32% animal models, 14% advanced microscopy, 14% flow sorters, and 8% next generation sequencing. The spectrum of research was very similar to the overall profile of cancer research in Canada in 2010. This study suggests that biorepositories that coordinate the activity of biobanking rank amongst the most important of established health research infrastructures as

  14. Research Areas: Causes of Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Understanding the exposures and risk factors that cause cancer, as well as the genetic abnormalities associated with the disease, has helped us to reduce certain exposures and to ameliorate their harmful effects.

  15. NCI Cancer Research Data Ecosystem

    Cancer.gov

    An infographic explaining NCI’s present and future efforts to promote a culture of sharing data—clinical, genomic, proteomic, imaging, patient histories, and outcomes data—among stakeholders to impact cancer care.

  16. American Institute for Cancer Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... that manages everything from our own appetite to metabolism. Learn More » From Our Blog: AICR ... Updates: CRU: Women Drinking Increasing Amounts of Alcohol, More Cancer Risk 35 Years of Fast Food ...

  17. Research Areas: Causes of Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Understanding the exposures and risk factors that cause cancer, as well as the genetic abnormalities associated with the disease, has helped us to reduce certain exposures and to ameliorate their harmful effects.

  18. Dynamics and pattern formation in a cancer network with diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Qianqian; Shen, Jianwei

    2015-10-01

    Diffusion is ubiquitous inside cells, and it is capable of inducing spontaneous pattern formation in reaction-diffusion systems on a spatially homogeneous domain. In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of a diffusive cancer network regulated by microRNA and obtain the condition that the network undergoes a Hopf bifurcation and a Turing pattern bifurcation. In addition, we also develop the amplitude equation of the network model by using Taylor series expansion, multi-scaling and further expansion in powers of a small parameter. As a result of these analyses, we obtain the explicit condition on how the dynamics of the diffusive cancer network evolve. These results reveal that this system has rich dynamics, such as spotted stripe and hexagon patterns. The bifurcation diagram helps us understand the biological mechanism in the cancer network. Finally, numerical simulations confirm our analytical results.

  19. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    Effect of Metal Ion Chelators on Mannose 6-Phosphate/ Insulin -like Growth Factor II Receptor in DU145 Prostate Cancer Cells. UNMC Summer Undergraduate...Lynnette Lefall Date Published: Friday, August 6, 2010 Keidra Bryant – Abstract Effect of Metal Ion Chelators on Mannose 6-Phosphate/ Insulin ...chelators would inhibit this process in the insulin -like growth factor-responsive human prostate cancer cell line DU145. Cells were grown to 70-80

  20. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    Oncology Departments at the University of Iowa and other institutions. A major project in the lab is targeted therapy of prostate cancer using PSMA...develop novel, immune-based therapies for advanced solid tumors, using the knowledge we gain from our pre-clinical studies. Because her goal is to...in the molecular design, organic synthesis, characterization, and radiolabeling of peptides and small molecules for small molecule cancer therapy

  1. Reprogramming of miRNA networks in cancer and leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Volinia, Stefano; Galasso, Marco; Costinean, Stefan; Tagliavini, Luca; Gamberoni, Giacomo; Drusco, Alessandra; Marchesini, Jlenia; Mascellani, Nicoletta; Sana, Maria Elena; Abu Jarour, Ramzey; Desponts, Caroline; Teitell, Michael; Baffa, Raffaele; Aqeilan, Rami; Iorio, Marilena V.; Taccioli, Cristian; Garzon, Ramiro; Di Leva, Gianpiero; Fabbri, Muller; Catozzi, Marco; Previati, Maurizio; Ambs, Stefan; Palumbo, Tiziana; Garofalo, Michela; Veronese, Angelo; Bottoni, Arianna; Gasparini, Pierluigi; Harris, Curtis C.; Visone, Rosa; Pekarsky, Yuri; de la Chapelle, Albert; Bloomston, Mark; Dillhoff, Mary; Rassenti, Laura Z.; Kipps, Thomas J.; Huebner, Kay; Pichiorri, Flavia; Lenze, Dido; Cairo, Stefano; Buendia, Marie-Annick; Pineau, Pascal; Dejean, Anne; Zanesi, Nicola; Rossi, Simona; Calin, George A.; Liu, Chang-Gong; Palatini, Jeff; Negrini, Massimo; Vecchione, Andrea; Rosenberg, Anne; Croce, Carlo M.

    2010-01-01

    We studied miRNA profiles in 4419 human samples (3312 neoplastic, 1107 nonmalignant), corresponding to 50 normal tissues and 51 cancer types. The complexity of our database enabled us to perform a detailed analysis of microRNA (miRNA) activities. We inferred genetic networks from miRNA expression in normal tissues and cancer. We also built, for the first time, specialized miRNA networks for solid tumors and leukemias. Nonmalignant tissues and cancer networks displayed a change in hubs, the most connected miRNAs. hsa-miR-103/106 were downgraded in cancer, whereas hsa-miR-30 became most prominent. Cancer networks appeared as built from disjointed subnetworks, as opposed to normal tissues. A comparison of these nets allowed us to identify key miRNA cliques in cancer. We also investigated miRNA copy number alterations in 744 cancer samples, at a resolution of 150 kb. Members of miRNA families should be similarly deleted or amplified, since they repress the same cellular targets and are thus expected to have similar impacts on oncogenesis. We correctly identified hsa-miR-17/92 family as amplified and the hsa-miR-143/145 cluster as deleted. Other miRNAs, such as hsa-miR-30 and hsa-miR-204, were found to be physically altered at the DNA copy number level as well. By combining differential expression, genetic networks, and DNA copy number alterations, we confirmed, or discovered, miRNAs with comprehensive roles in cancer. Finally, we experimentally validated the miRNA network with acute lymphocytic leukemia originated in Mir155 transgenic mice. Most of miRNAs deregulated in these transgenic mice were located close to hsa-miR-155 in the cancer network. PMID:20439436

  2. Reprogramming of miRNA networks in cancer and leukemia.

    PubMed

    Volinia, Stefano; Galasso, Marco; Costinean, Stefan; Tagliavini, Luca; Gamberoni, Giacomo; Drusco, Alessandra; Marchesini, Jlenia; Mascellani, Nicoletta; Sana, Maria Elena; Abu Jarour, Ramzey; Desponts, Caroline; Teitell, Michael; Baffa, Raffaele; Aqeilan, Rami; Iorio, Marilena V; Taccioli, Cristian; Garzon, Ramiro; Di Leva, Gianpiero; Fabbri, Muller; Catozzi, Marco; Previati, Maurizio; Ambs, Stefan; Palumbo, Tiziana; Garofalo, Michela; Veronese, Angelo; Bottoni, Arianna; Gasparini, Pierluigi; Harris, Curtis C; Visone, Rosa; Pekarsky, Yuri; de la Chapelle, Albert; Bloomston, Mark; Dillhoff, Mary; Rassenti, Laura Z; Kipps, Thomas J; Huebner, Kay; Pichiorri, Flavia; Lenze, Dido; Cairo, Stefano; Buendia, Marie-Annick; Pineau, Pascal; Dejean, Anne; Zanesi, Nicola; Rossi, Simona; Calin, George A; Liu, Chang-Gong; Palatini, Jeff; Negrini, Massimo; Vecchione, Andrea; Rosenberg, Anne; Croce, Carlo M

    2010-05-01

    We studied miRNA profiles in 4419 human samples (3312 neoplastic, 1107 nonmalignant), corresponding to 50 normal tissues and 51 cancer types. The complexity of our database enabled us to perform a detailed analysis of microRNA (miRNA) activities. We inferred genetic networks from miRNA expression in normal tissues and cancer. We also built, for the first time, specialized miRNA networks for solid tumors and leukemias. Nonmalignant tissues and cancer networks displayed a change in hubs, the most connected miRNAs. hsa-miR-103/106 were downgraded in cancer, whereas hsa-miR-30 became most prominent. Cancer networks appeared as built from disjointed subnetworks, as opposed to normal tissues. A comparison of these nets allowed us to identify key miRNA cliques in cancer. We also investigated miRNA copy number alterations in 744 cancer samples, at a resolution of 150 kb. Members of miRNA families should be similarly deleted or amplified, since they repress the same cellular targets and are thus expected to have similar impacts on oncogenesis. We correctly identified hsa-miR-17/92 family as amplified and the hsa-miR-143/145 cluster as deleted. Other miRNAs, such as hsa-miR-30 and hsa-miR-204, were found to be physically altered at the DNA copy number level as well. By combining differential expression, genetic networks, and DNA copy number alterations, we confirmed, or discovered, miRNAs with comprehensive roles in cancer. Finally, we experimentally validated the miRNA network with acute lymphocytic leukemia originated in Mir155 transgenic mice. Most of miRNAs deregulated in these transgenic mice were located close to hsa-miR-155 in the cancer network.

  3. DCB - Cancer Immunology, Hematology, and Etiology Research

    Cancer.gov

    Part of NCI’s Division of Cancer Biology’s research portfolio, studies supported include the characterization of basic mechanisms relevant to anti-tumor immune responses and hematologic malignancies.

  4. Researchers Identify Early Sign of Pancreatic Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... study with Matthew Vander Heiden, MD, PhD , of MIT and Dana-Farber. “Detecting the disease earlier in ... the Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research at MIT. Their experiments showed that mice with newly formed ...

  5. NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Douglas Lowy (left) and John Schiller developed the vaccine to prevent HPV infection in women, the cause ...

  6. Completed | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    Prior to the current Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC), previously funded initiatives associated with clinical proteomics research included: Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC 2.0) Clinical Proteomic Technologies for Cancer Initiative (CPTC) Mouse Proteomic Technologies Initiative

  7. Translating cancer research into targeted therapeutics.

    PubMed

    de Bono, J S; Ashworth, Alan

    2010-09-30

    The emphasis in cancer drug development has shifted from cytotoxic, non-specific chemotherapies to molecularly targeted, rationally designed drugs promising greater efficacy and less side effects. Nevertheless, despite some successes drug development remains painfully slow. Here, we highlight the issues involved and suggest ways in which this process can be improved and expedited. We envision an increasing shift to integrated cancer research and biomarker-driven adaptive and hypothesis testing clinical trials. The goal is the development of specific cancer medicines to treat the individual patient, with treatment selection being driven by a detailed understanding of the genetics and biology of the patient and their cancer.

  8. A Multi-Method Approach for Proteomic Network Inference in 11 Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Şenbabaoğlu, Yasin; Sümer, Selçuk Onur; Sánchez-Vega, Francisco; Bemis, Debra; Ciriello, Giovanni; Schultz, Nikolaus; Sander, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Protein expression and post-translational modification levels are tightly regulated in neoplastic cells to maintain cellular processes known as ‘cancer hallmarks’. The first Pan-Cancer initiative of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network has aggregated protein expression profiles for 3,467 patient samples from 11 tumor types using the antibody based reverse phase protein array (RPPA) technology. The resultant proteomic data can be utilized to computationally infer protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks and to study the commonalities and differences across tumor types. In this study, we compare the performance of 13 established network inference methods in their capacity to retrieve the curated Pathway Commons interactions from RPPA data. We observe that no single method has the best performance in all tumor types, but a group of six methods, including diverse techniques such as correlation, mutual information, and regression, consistently rank highly among the tested methods. We utilize the high performing methods to obtain a consensus network; and identify four robust and densely connected modules that reveal biological processes as well as suggest antibody–related technical biases. Mapping the consensus network interactions to Reactome gene lists confirms the pan-cancer importance of signal transduction pathways, innate and adaptive immune signaling, cell cycle, metabolism, and DNA repair; and also suggests several biological processes that may be specific to a subset of tumor types. Our results illustrate the utility of the RPPA platform as a tool to study proteomic networks in cancer. PMID:26928298

  9. Network of Cancer Genes (NCG 3.0): integration and analysis of genetic and network properties of cancer genes.

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, Matteo; Pendino, Vera; Sinha, Shruti; Ciccarelli, Francesca D

    2012-01-01

    The identification of a constantly increasing number of genes whose mutations are causally implicated in tumor initiation and progression (cancer genes) requires the development of tools to store and analyze them. The Network of Cancer Genes (NCG 3.0) collects information on 1494 cancer genes that have been found mutated in 16 different cancer types. These genes were collected from the Cancer Gene Census as well as from 18 whole exome and 11 whole-genome screenings of cancer samples. For each cancer gene, NCG 3.0 provides a summary of the gene features and the cross-reference to other databases. In addition, it describes duplicability, evolutionary origin, orthology, network properties, interaction partners, microRNA regulation and functional roles of cancer genes and of all genes that are related to them. This integrated network of information can be used to better characterize cancer genes in the context of the system in which they act. The data can also be used to identify novel candidates that share the same properties of known cancer genes and may therefore play a similar role in cancer. NCG 3.0 is freely available at http://bio.ifom-ieo-campus.it/ncg.

  10. Incorporating the Patient into Urologic Cancer Research.

    PubMed

    Gore, John L

    2017-09-01

    Patient engagement in research has been increasingly prioritized by funders and adopted by health researchers. In this Seminars issue, we explore several different mechanisms of engagement in the reciprocal relationship between patients and researchers. This includes the generation of understandable patient health information, how patients engage in treatment decision-making for urologic cancers, patient involvement in the development of research ideas and research design, and patient engagement in their personalized survivorship care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Atlas of Cancer Signalling Network: a systems biology resource for integrative analysis of cancer data with Google Maps

    PubMed Central

    Kuperstein, I; Bonnet, E; Nguyen, H-A; Cohen, D; Viara, E; Grieco, L; Fourquet, S; Calzone, L; Russo, C; Kondratova, M; Dutreix, M; Barillot, E; Zinovyev, A

    2015-01-01

    Cancerogenesis is driven by mutations leading to aberrant functioning of a complex network of molecular interactions and simultaneously affecting multiple cellular functions. Therefore, the successful application of bioinformatics and systems biology methods for analysis of high-throughput data in cancer research heavily depends on availability of global and detailed reconstructions of signalling networks amenable for computational analysis. We present here the Atlas of Cancer Signalling Network (ACSN), an interactive and comprehensive map of molecular mechanisms implicated in cancer. The resource includes tools for map navigation, visualization and analysis of molecular data in the context of signalling network maps. Constructing and updating ACSN involves careful manual curation of molecular biology literature and participation of experts in the corresponding fields. The cancer-oriented content of ACSN is completely original and covers major mechanisms involved in cancer progression, including DNA repair, cell survival, apoptosis, cell cycle, EMT and cell motility. Cell signalling mechanisms are depicted in detail, together creating a seamless ‘geographic-like' map of molecular interactions frequently deregulated in cancer. The map is browsable using NaviCell web interface using the Google Maps engine and semantic zooming principle. The associated web-blog provides a forum for commenting and curating the ACSN content. ACSN allows uploading heterogeneous omics data from users on top of the maps for visualization and performing functional analyses. We suggest several scenarios for ACSN application in cancer research, particularly for visualizing high-throughput data, starting from small interfering RNA-based screening results or mutation frequencies to innovative ways of exploring transcriptomes and phosphoproteomes. Integration and analysis of these data in the context of ACSN may help interpret their biological significance and formulate mechanistic hypotheses

  12. Atlas of Cancer Signalling Network: a systems biology resource for integrative analysis of cancer data with Google Maps.

    PubMed

    Kuperstein, I; Bonnet, E; Nguyen, H-A; Cohen, D; Viara, E; Grieco, L; Fourquet, S; Calzone, L; Russo, C; Kondratova, M; Dutreix, M; Barillot, E; Zinovyev, A

    2015-07-20

    Cancerogenesis is driven by mutations leading to aberrant functioning of a complex network of molecular interactions and simultaneously affecting multiple cellular functions. Therefore, the successful application of bioinformatics and systems biology methods for analysis of high-throughput data in cancer research heavily depends on availability of global and detailed reconstructions of signalling networks amenable for computational analysis. We present here the Atlas of Cancer Signalling Network (ACSN), an interactive and comprehensive map of molecular mechanisms implicated in cancer. The resource includes tools for map navigation, visualization and analysis of molecular data in the context of signalling network maps. Constructing and updating ACSN involves careful manual curation of molecular biology literature and participation of experts in the corresponding fields. The cancer-oriented content of ACSN is completely original and covers major mechanisms involved in cancer progression, including DNA repair, cell survival, apoptosis, cell cycle, EMT and cell motility. Cell signalling mechanisms are depicted in detail, together creating a seamless 'geographic-like' map of molecular interactions frequently deregulated in cancer. The map is browsable using NaviCell web interface using the Google Maps engine and semantic zooming principle. The associated web-blog provides a forum for commenting and curating the ACSN content. ACSN allows uploading heterogeneous omics data from users on top of the maps for visualization and performing functional analyses. We suggest several scenarios for ACSN application in cancer research, particularly for visualizing high-throughput data, starting from small interfering RNA-based screening results or mutation frequencies to innovative ways of exploring transcriptomes and phosphoproteomes. Integration and analysis of these data in the context of ACSN may help interpret their biological significance and formulate mechanistic hypotheses

  13. Reaching Out: IDRC-HDFS Research Network (India). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saraswathi, T. S.; And Others

    This report documents the activities of the Research Network, a coordinated effort of the International Development Research Center (IDRC) and the Human Development and Family Studies (HDFS) Department of Baroda University (India) during the period January 1990 to June 1993. The Research Network aimed to establish a network of consultative…

  14. Research challenges in adolescent and young adult cancer survivor research.

    PubMed

    Tonorezos, Emily S; Oeffinger, Kevin C

    2011-05-15

    Every year in Canada and the United States, about 26,000 adolescent and young adults (AYA) between ages 15 and 29 years are diagnosed with cancer. Although the majority of AYA cancer patients will survive their primary cancer, many will develop serious health problems or die prematurely secondary to their curative cancer therapy. Much is known about the long-term health outcomes after adolescent cancer. In contrast, there remain substantial gaps in our understanding of the long-term outcomes after most young adult cancers. To optimize the health and quality of life of AYA cancer survivors and improve upon curative cancer therapy, it is essential to further investigate the long-term outcomes of this population. Before embarking upon this endeavor, it is important for the investigator and the funding agency to be cognizant about some of the unique challenges in research of AYA cancer survivors. To this end, the authors present a brief overview of some of the key research challenges, discuss the strengths and limitations of using available AYA cohorts and databases, and highlight potential future directions.

  15. Cancer communication and informatics research across the cancer continuum.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Bradford W; Beckjord, Ellen; Rutten, Lila J Finney; Fagerlin, Angela; Cameron, Linda D

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, dramatic changes brought about by a rapid diffusion of Internet technologies, cellular telephones, mobile devices, personal digital assistants, electronic health records, and data visualization have helped to create a revolution in health communication. To understand the implications of this communication revolution for cancer care, the National Cancer Institute launched an ambitious set of research priorities under its "extraordinary opportunities" program. We present an overview of some of the relevant behavioral research being conducted within the perspective of this extraordinary opportunity in cancer communication research. We begin by tracing the implications of this research for behavioral scientists across the continuum of cancer care from primary prevention (e.g., tobacco control, diet, exercise, sun protection, and immunization against human papilloma virus), to secondary prevention (e.g., screening for polyps, lesions, and early stage neoplasms), to diagnosis and treatment, posttreatment survivorship, and end of life. Along each point of the continuum, we describe a natural evolution of knowledge from studies on the traditional role of media to research on the changing role of new media and informatics, and we carefully highlight the role that psychological research has played in improving communication- and health-related outcomes along the way. We conclude with an appeal to psychologists of many different backgrounds to join with biomedical researchers, engineers, clinical practitioners, and others to accelerate progress against cancer.

  16. CCR Interns | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Research Interns (CRI) Summer Program was inaugurated in 2004 to increase the diversity of trainee applicants to the Center for Cancer Research (CCR). We have placed 339 students from 2004 to 2017, in labs and branches across the CCR. The Division provides the training dollars, some Service & Supply funds, and travel support for those students who meet the financial eligibility criteria (View and/or print the 2018 flier).

  17. Next Generation Distributed Computing for Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Pankaj; Owzar, Kouros

    2014-01-01

    Advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) and mass spectrometry (MS) technologies have provided many new opportunities and angles for extending the scope of translational cancer research while creating tremendous challenges in data management and analysis. The resulting informatics challenge is invariably not amenable to the use of traditional computing models. Recent advances in scalable computing and associated infrastructure, particularly distributed computing for Big Data, can provide solutions for addressing these challenges. In this review, the next generation of distributed computing technologies that can address these informatics problems is described from the perspective of three key components of a computational platform, namely computing, data storage and management, and networking. A broad overview of scalable computing is provided to set the context for a detailed description of Hadoop, a technology that is being rapidly adopted for large-scale distributed computing. A proof-of-concept Hadoop cluster, set up for performance benchmarking of NGS read alignment, is described as an example of how to work with Hadoop. Finally, Hadoop is compared with a number of other current technologies for distributed computing. PMID:25983539

  18. Next generation distributed computing for cancer research.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Pankaj; Owzar, Kouros

    2014-01-01

    Advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) and mass spectrometry (MS) technologies have provided many new opportunities and angles for extending the scope of translational cancer research while creating tremendous challenges in data management and analysis. The resulting informatics challenge is invariably not amenable to the use of traditional computing models. Recent advances in scalable computing and associated infrastructure, particularly distributed computing for Big Data, can provide solutions for addressing these challenges. In this review, the next generation of distributed computing technologies that can address these informatics problems is described from the perspective of three key components of a computational platform, namely computing, data storage and management, and networking. A broad overview of scalable computing is provided to set the context for a detailed description of Hadoop, a technology that is being rapidly adopted for large-scale distributed computing. A proof-of-concept Hadoop cluster, set up for performance benchmarking of NGS read alignment, is described as an example of how to work with Hadoop. Finally, Hadoop is compared with a number of other current technologies for distributed computing.

  19. Parenclitic Network Analysis of Methylation Data for Cancer Identification

    PubMed Central

    Karsakov, Alexander; Bartlett, Thomas; Ryblov, Artem; Meyerov, Iosif; Ivanchenko, Mikhail; Zaikin, Alexey

    2017-01-01

    We make use of ideas from the theory of complex networks to implement a machine learning classification of human DNA methylation data, that carry signatures of cancer development. The data were obtained from patients with various kinds of cancers and represented as parenclictic networks, wherein nodes correspond to genes, and edges are weighted according to pairwise variation from control group subjects. We demonstrate that for the 10 types of cancer under study, it is possible to obtain a high performance of binary classification between cancer-positive and negative samples based on network measures. Remarkably, an accuracy as high as 93−99% is achieved with only 12 network topology indices, in a dramatic reduction of complexity from the original 15295 gene methylation levels. Moreover, it was found that the parenclictic networks are scale-free in cancer-negative subjects, and deviate from the power-law node degree distribution in cancer. The node centrality ranking and arising modular structure could provide insights into the systems biology of cancer. PMID:28107365

  20. Cancer metastasis networks and the prediction of progression patterns

    PubMed Central

    Chen, L L; Blumm, N; Christakis, N A; Barabási, A-L; Deisboeck, T S

    2009-01-01

    Background: Metastasis patterns in cancer vary both spatially and temporally. Network modelling may allow the incorporation of the temporal dimension in the analysis of these patterns. Methods: We used Medicare claims of 2 265 167 elderly patients aged ⩾65 years to study the large-scale clinical pattern of metastases. We introduce the concept of a cancer metastasis network, in which nodes represent the primary cancer site and the sites of subsequent metastases, connected by links that measure the strength of co-occurrence. Results: These cancer metastasis networks capture both temporal and subtle relational information, the dynamics of which differ between cancer types. Using these networks as entities on which the metastatic disease of individual patients may evolve, we show that they may be used, for certain cancer types, to make retrograde predictions of a primary cancer type given a sequence of metastases, as well as anterograde predictions of future sites of metastasis. Conclusion: Improvements over traditional techniques show that such a network-based modelling approach may be suitable for studying metastasis patterns. PMID:19707203

  1. What's New in Ovarian Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Ovarian Cancer About Ovarian Cancer What's New in Ovarian Cancer Research and Treatment? Risk factors ... This information eventually is expected to lead to new drugs for preventing and treating familial ovarian cancer. ...

  2. What's New In Eye Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Eye Cancer About Eye Cancer What’s New in Eye Cancer Research and Treatment? Many medical ... high risk group. Using genes to help find new treatments Identifying gene changes in eye cancer cells ...

  3. A subset polynomial neural networks approach for breast cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, T J; Penm, Jack; Penm, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Breast cancer is a very common and serious cancer for women that is diagnosed in one of every eight Australian women before the age of 85. The conventional method of breast cancer diagnosis is mammography. However, mammography has been reported to have poor diagnostic capability. In this paper we have used subset polynomial neural network techniques in conjunction with fine needle aspiration cytology to undertake this difficult task of predicting breast cancer. The successful findings indicate that adoption of NNs is likely to lead to increased survival of women with breast cancer, improved electronic healthcare, and enhanced quality of life.

  4. Breast cancer prognosis predicted by nuclear receptor-coregulator networks.

    PubMed

    Doan, Tram B; Eriksson, Natalie A; Graham, Dinny; Funder, John W; Simpson, Evan R; Kuczek, Elizabeth S; Clyne, Colin; Leedman, Peter J; Tilley, Wayne D; Fuller, Peter J; Muscat, George E O; Clarke, Christine L

    2014-07-01

    Although molecular signatures based on transcript expression in breast cancer samples have provided new insights into breast cancer classification and prognosis, there are acknowledged limitations in current signatures. To provide rational, pathway-based signatures of disrupted physiology in cancer tissues that may be relevant to prognosis, this study has directly quantitated changed gene expression, between normal breast and cancer tissue, as a basis for signature development. The nuclear receptor (NR) family of transcription factors, and their coregulators, are fundamental regulators of every aspect of metazoan life, and were rigorously quantified in normal breast tissues and ERα positive and ERα negative breast cancers. Coregulator expression was highly correlated with that of selected NR in normal breast, particularly from postmenopausal women. These associations were markedly decreased in breast cancer, and the expression of the majority of coregulators was down-regulated in cancer tissues compared with normal. While in cancer the loss of NR-coregulator associations observed in normal breast was common, a small number of NR (Rev-ERBβ, GR, NOR1, LRH-1 and PGR) acquired new associations with coregulators in cancer tissues. Elevated expression of these NR in cancers was associated with poorer outcome in large clinical cohorts, as well as suggesting the activation of ERα -related, but ERα-independent, pathways in ERα negative cancers. In addition, the combined expression of small numbers of NR and coregulators in breast cancer was identified as a signature predicting outcome in ERα negative breast cancer patients, not linked to proliferation and with predictive power superior to existing signatures containing many more genes. These findings highlight the power of predictive signatures derived from the quantitative determination of altered gene expression between normal breast and breast cancers. Taken together, the findings of this study identify networks

  5. Commentary on: "Comprehensive molecular characterization of papillary renal-cell carcinoma." Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network.: N Engl J Med. 2016 Jan 14;374(2):135-45.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byron H

    2017-09-01

    Papillary renal-cell carcinoma, which accounts for 15%-20% of renal-cell carcinomas, is a heterogeneous disease that consists of various types of renal cancer, including tumors with indolent, multifocal presentation, and solitary tumors with an aggressive, highly lethal phenotype. Little is known about the genetic basis of sporadic papillary renal-cell carcinoma, and no effective forms of therapy for advanced disease exist. We performed comprehensive molecular characterization of 161 primary papillary renal-cell carcinomas, using whole-exome sequencing, copy-number analysis, messenger RNA and microRNA sequencing, DNA-methylation analysis, and proteomic analysis. Types 1 and 2 papillary renal-cell carcinomas were shown to be different types of renal cancer characterized by specific genetic alterations, with type 2 further classified into 3 individual subgroups on the basis of molecular differences associated with patient survival. Type 1 tumors were associated with MET alterations, whereas type 2 tumors were characterized by CDKN2A silencing, SETD2 mutations, TFE3 fusions, and increased expression of the NRF2-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway. A CpG island methylator phenotype was observed in a distinct subgroup of type 2 papillary renal-cell carcinomas that was characterized by poor survival and mutation of the gene encoding fumarate hydratase. Types 1 and 2 papillary renal-cell carcinomas were shown to be clinically and biologically distinct. Alterations in the MET pathway were associated with type 1, and activation of the NRF2-ARE pathway was associated with type 2; CDKN2A loss and CpG island methylator phenotype in type 2 conveyed a poor prognosis. Furthermore, type 2 papillary renal-cell carcinoma consisted of at least 3 subtypes based on molecular and phenotypic features. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Joining Forces to Overcome Cancer: The Kenya Cancer Research and Control Stakeholder Program

    PubMed Central

    Topazian, Hillary; Cira, Mishka; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Kibachio, Joseph; Kocholla, Lillian; Wangai, Mary; Welch, Jack; Williams, Makeda J.; Duncan, Kalina; Galassi, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer is the third leading cause of mortality in Kenya, accounting for 7% of annual deaths. The Kenyan Ministry of Health (MOH) is committed to reducing cancer mortality, as evidenced by policies such as the National Cancer Control Strategy (2011-2016). There are many Kenyan and international organizations devoted to this task; however, coordination is lacking among stakeholders, resulting in inefficient and overlapping expenditure of resources. Methods The MOH and the NCI Center for Global Health collaboratively executed a two day workshop to improve coordination among government, NGO, and private organizations. Over 80 stakeholders participated from leading cancer research and control institutions in Kenya and the international sphere. Findings Actionable recommendations include: establishment of a nationally representative population-based cancer registry; enhanced training for community health workers, nurses, researchers, pathologists, and oncology specialists; a reconfigured referral process, including leveraging of existing resources to improve access to cancer care; and coordinated community outreach and education. The MOH is in the process of forming a Technical Working Group (TWG) and has elected a Board of Directors for the newly established Kenyan National Cancer Institute (KNCI), with both entities committed to advancing the cancer control work of the MOH. Interpretation This stakeholder meeting enhanced in-country networks, identified priority needs and developed actionable proposals for coordinated improvement of cancer research and control. Active, persistent follow-up by the TWG, KNCI, and other partners will be needed to turn proposals into reality and ensure that partners' investments are integrated into larger cancer control efforts prioritized by MOH. PMID:26942109

  7. Recruiting young adult cancer survivors for behavioral research.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Carolyn; Horowitz, Santina; Marcus, Bess

    2013-03-01

    Young adults have been dramatically underrepresented in cancer survivorship research. One contributing factor is the difficulty recruiting this population. To identify effective recruitment strategies, the current study assessed the yield of strategies used to recruit young survivors for an exercise intervention including: clinic-based recruitment, recruitment at cancer-related events, mailings, telephone-based recruitment, advertising on the internet, radio, television and social networking media, distributing brochures and word-of-mouth referrals. When taking into account the strategies for which we could track the number of survivors approached, recruitment at an oncology clinic was the most productive: 38 % of those approached were screened and 8 % enrolled. When evaluating which strategy yielded the greatest percentage of the sample, however, mailings were the most productive. Given widespread use of the internet and social networking by young adults, investigators should also consider these low-cost recruitment strategies.

  8. Research on 6R Military Logistics Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jie, Wan; Wen, Wang

    The building of military logistics network is an important issue for the construction of new forces. This paper has thrown out a concept model of 6R military logistics network model based on JIT. Then we conceive of axis spoke y logistics centers network, flexible 6R organizational network, lean 6R military information network based grid. And then the strategy and proposal for the construction of the three sub networks of 6Rmilitary logistics network are given.

  9. Cancer systems biology: signal processing for cancer research.

    PubMed

    Yli-Harja, Olli; Ylipää, Antti; Nykter, Matti; Zhang, Wei

    2011-04-01

    In this editorial we introduce the research paradigms of signal processing in the era of systems biology. Signal processing is a field of science traditionally focused on modeling electronic and communications systems, but recently it has turned to biological applications with astounding results. The essence of signal processing is to describe the natural world by mathematical models and then, based on these models, develop efficient computational tools for solving engineering problems. Here, we underline, with examples, the endless possibilities which arise when the battle-hardened tools of engineering are applied to solve the problems that have tormented cancer researchers. Based on this approach, a new field has emerged, called cancer systems biology. Despite its short history, cancer systems biology has already produced several success stories tackling previously impracticable problems. Perhaps most importantly, it has been accepted as an integral part of the major endeavors of cancer research, such as analyzing the genomic and epigenomic data produced by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. Finally, we show that signal processing and cancer research, two fields that are seemingly distant from each other, have merged into a field that is indeed more than the sum of its parts.

  10. Lipid Biomarkers Identified for Liver Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive cancer of the liver with poor prognosis and growing incidence in developed countries. Pathology and genetic profiles of HCC are heterogeneous, suggesting that it can begin growing in different cell types. Although human tumors such as HCC have been profiled in-depth by genomics-based studies, not much is known about their overall metabolite modifications and how these changes can form a network that leads to aggressive disease and poor outcome.

  11. A Surgeon's View of Prostate Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Robert Reiter, M.D., M.B.A., is a Professor of Urology and Molecular Biology, Director of the Prostate Cancer Treatment and Research Program, and Director of Urologic Research at the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).

  12. Occupational cancer research in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed Central

    Kjaerheim, K

    1999-01-01

    Occupational cancer research in the Nordic countries benefits from certain structural advantages, including the existence of computerized population registries, national cancer registries with high-quality data on cancer incidence, and a personal identification number for each inhabitant. This article outlines the utilization of this research infrastructure in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, together with research examples from the different countries. Future research on occupational cancer in this region requires that national legislation on electronic handling of sensitive personal information should not be stricter than the European Union Directive on individual protection with regard to personal data. A personal identification number is essential both for keeping up the high quality of data of the registers and for the high quality of the process of linking the different data sources together. Although previous occupational research has focused on male workers, a broader approach is needed in the future, including a study of how cancer risk in women may be affected by occupational activity and the question of possible cancer risk in offspring of men and women exposed to workplace carcinogens. PMID:10350505

  13. Prostate Cancer Stem-Like Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death among men, killing an estimated 27,000 men each year in the United States. Men with advanced prostate cancer often become resistant to conventional therapies. Many researchers speculate that the emergence of resistance is due to the presence of cancer stem cells, which are believed to be a small subpopulation of tumor cells that can self-renew and give rise to more differentiated tumor cells. It is thought that these stem cells survive initial therapies (such as chemotherapy and hormone therapy) and then generate new tumor cells that are resistant to these standard treatments. If prostate cancer stem cells could be identified and characterized, it might be possible to design treatments that prevent resistance.

  14. What's New in Kidney Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Kidney Cancer About Kidney Cancer What’s New in Kidney Cancer Research and Treatment? Research on ... can also be used to develop new treatments. New approaches to local treatment High-intensity focused ultrasound ( ...

  15. Infectious Agents and Cancer Epidemiology Research Webinar Series

    Cancer.gov

    Infectious Agents and Cancer Epidemiology Research Webinar Series highlights emerging and cutting-edge research related to infection-associated cancers, shares scientific knowledge about technologies and methods, and fosters cross-disciplinary discussions on infectious agents and cancer epidemiology.

  16. What's New in Bone Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Bone Cancer About Bone Cancer What’s New in Bone Cancer Research and Treatment? Research on ... from growing for a time. Some are testing new chemo drugs. Targeted therapy Targeted therapy drugs work ...

  17. Tenure Track Investigators | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (LBMB), Center of Cancer Research (CCR), National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health (NIH) invites applications for a Tenure Track Investigator position. We seek candidates who have demonstrated excellence, originality, and productivity in research, and whose research programs use innovative approaches to address basic biological problems in areas of chromosome or chromatin biology, RNA biology, and/or cell biology with a general relevance to cancer biology. The successful candidate will perform independent research funded by the NCI Intramural Research Program and will join an interdisciplinary group within the LBMB, which fosters a highly interactive and collaborative research environment, in which the methods of biochemistry, genetics, genomics, cell biology and biophysics are used to solve fundamental problems in the broader area of chromosome biology. Current LBMB research programs (http://1.usa.gov/1OaVSK3) are integrated into the NCI Center of Excellence in Chromosome Biology (https://ccrod.cancer.gov/confluence/display/CECB/Home), and the research environment at the NIH Bethesda campus affords ample opportunities for intellectual interactions and collaborations with basic and clinical scientists. Research is supported by a wide array of resources, including animal facilities and dedicated, high quality technology cores in areas such as imaging/microscopy, mass spectrometry, flow cytometry, genomics/DNA sequencing, transgenics and knock out mice, and human genetics/bioinformatics.

  18. Tenure Track Investigator | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (LBMB), Center of Cancer Research (CCR), National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health (NIH) invites applications for a Tenure Track Investigator position. We seek candidates who have demonstrated excellence, originality, and productivity in research, and whose research programs use innovative approaches to address basic biological problems in areas of chromosome or chromatin biology, RNA biology, and/or cell biology with a general relevance to cancer biology. The successful candidate will perform independent research funded by the NCI Intramural Research Program and will join an interdisciplinary group within the LBMB, which fosters a highly interactive and collaborative research environment, in which the methods of biochemistry, genetics, genomics, cell biology and biophysics are used to solve fundamental problems in the broader area of chromosome biology. Current LBMB research programs (http://1.usa.gov/1OaVSK3) are integrated into the NCI Center of Excellence in Chromosome Biology (https://ccrod.cancer.gov/confluence/display/CECB/Home), and the research environment at the NIH Bethesda campus affords ample opportunities for intellectual interactions and collaborations with basic and clinical scientists. Research is supported by a wide array of resources, including animal facilities and dedicated, high quality technology cores in areas such as imaging/microscopy, mass spectrometry, flow cytometry, genomics/DNA sequencing, transgenics and knock out mice, and human genetics/bioinformatics.

  19. Cancer research priorities and gaps in Iran: the influence of cancer burden on cancer research outputs between 1997 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Majidi, A; Salimzadeh, H; Beiki, O; Delavari, F; Majidi, S; Delavari, A; Malekzadeh, R

    2017-03-01

    As a developing country, Iran is experiencing the increasing burden of cancers, which are currently the third leading cause of mortality in Iran. This study aims to demonstrate that cancer research in Iran concentrates on the cancer research priorities based on the global burden of disease (GBD) reports. Descriptive evaluation of all cancers disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) was performed using GBD data. Also a comprehensive search was conducted using cancer-associated keywords to obtain all cancer-related publications from Iran, indexed in Web of Science. Multiple regression analysis and correlation coefficients (R(2)) were used to evaluate the possible associations between cancer research publications and GBD. During 1996-2014, the majority of cancer-related publications in Iran focused on breast cancer, leukaemia and stomach cancer, respectively. This study found hypothetical correlations between cancer publications in Iran in line with the burden of cancer as reported by GBD. Particularly, correlations between years lived with disability (YLD) and cancer-related publications were more obvious. This study introduces a new outline in setting cancer research priorities in the region. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The National Cancer Institute's Community Networks Program Initiative to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities: Outcomes and Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Braun, Kathryn L; Stewart, Susan; Baquet, Claudia; Berry-Bobovski, Lisa; Blumenthal, Daniel; Brandt, Heather M; Buchwald, Dedra S; Campbell, Janis E; Coe, Kathryn; Cooper, Leslie C; Espinoza, Paula; Henry-Tillman, Ronda; Hargreaves, Margaret; James, Aimee; Salmon Kaur, Judith; Viswanath, K; Ma, Grace X; Mandelblatt, Jeanne; Meade, Cathy; Ramirez, Amelie; Scarinci, Isabel; Park Tanjasiri, Sora; Thompson, Beti; Vines, Anissa I; Dignan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We describe reach, partnerships, products, benefits, and lessons learned of the 25 Community Network Programs (CNPs) that applied community-based participatory research (CBPR) to reduce cancer health disparities. Quantitative and qualitative data were abstracted from CNP final reports. Qualitative data were grouped by theme. Together, the 25 CNPs worked with more than 2,000 academic, clinical, community, government, faith-based, and other partners. They completed 211 needs assessments, leveraged funds for 328 research and service projects, trained 719 new investigators, educated almost 55,000 community members, and published 991 articles. Qualitative data illustrated how use of CBPR improved research methods and participation; improved knowledge, interventions, and outcomes; and built community capacity. Lessons learned related to the need for time to nurture partnerships and the need to attend to community demand for sustained improvements in cancer services. Findings demonstrate the value of government-supported, community-academic, CBPR partnerships in cancer prevention and control research.

  1. Assessing excellence in translational cancer research: a consensus based framework

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It takes several years on average to translate basic research findings into clinical research and eventually deliver patient benefits. An expert-based excellence assessment can help improve this process by: identifying high performing Comprehensive Cancer Centres; best practices in translational cancer research; improving the quality and efficiency of the translational cancer research process. This can help build networks of excellent Centres by aiding focused partnerships. In this paper we report on a consensus building exercise that was undertaken to construct an excellence assessment framework for translational cancer research in Europe. Methods We used mixed methods to reach consensus: a systematic review of existing translational research models critically appraised for suitability in performance assessment of Cancer Centres; a survey among European stakeholders (researchers, clinicians, patient representatives and managers) to score a list of potential excellence criteria, a focus group with selected representatives of survey participants to review and rescore the excellence criteria; an expert group meeting to refine the list; an open validation round with stakeholders and a critical review of the emerging framework by an independent body: a committee formed by the European Academy of Cancer Sciences. Results The resulting excellence assessment framework has 18 criteria categorized in 6 themes. Each criterion has a number of questions/sub-criteria. Stakeholders favoured using qualitative excellence criteria to evaluate the translational research “process” rather than quantitative criteria or judging only the outputs. Examples of criteria include checking if the Centre has mechanisms that can be rated as excellent for: involvement of basic researchers and clinicians in translational research (quality of supervision and incentives provided to clinicians to do a PhD in translational research) and well designed clinical trials based on ground

  2. Rethinking cancer: current challenges and opportunities in cancer research.

    PubMed

    Cagan, Ross; Meyer, Pablo

    2017-04-01

    Cancer therapeutics currently have the lowest clinical trial success rate of all major diseases. Partly as a result of the paucity of successful anti-cancer drugs, cancer will soon be the leading cause of mortality in developed countries. As a disease embedded in the fundamentals of our biology, cancer presents difficult challenges that would benefit from uniting experts from a broad cross-section of related and unrelated fields. Combining extant approaches with novel ones could help in tackling this challenging health problem, enabling the development of therapeutics to stop disease progression and prolong patient lives. This goal provided the inspiration for a recent workshop titled 'Rethinking Cancer', which brought together a group of cancer scientists who work in the academic and pharmaceutical sectors of Europe, America and Asia. In this Editorial, we discuss the main themes emerging from the workshop, with the aim of providing a snapshot of key challenges faced by the cancer research community today. We also outline potential strategies for addressing some of these challenges, from understanding the basic evolution of cancer and improving its early detection to streamlining the thorny process of moving promising drug targets into clinical trials. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Disparate companions: tissue engineering meets cancer research.

    PubMed

    Tilkorn, Daniel J; Lokmic, Zerina; Chaffer, Christine L; Mitchell, Geraldine M; Morrison, Wayne A; Thompson, Erik W

    2010-01-01

    Recreating an environment that supports and promotes fundamental homeostatic mechanisms is a significant challenge in tissue engineering. Optimizing cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and angiogenesis, and providing suitable stromal support and signalling cues are keys to successfully generating clinically useful tissues. Interestingly, those components are often subverted in the cancer setting, where aberrant angiogenesis, cellular proliferation, cell signalling and resistance to apoptosis drive malignant growth. In contrast to tissue engineering, identifying and inhibiting those pathways is a major challenge in cancer research. The recent discovery of adult tissue-specific stem cells has had a major impact on both tissue engineering and cancer research. The unique properties of these cells and their role in tissue and organ repair and regeneration hold great potential for engineering tissue-specific constructs. The emerging body of evidence implicating stem cells and progenitor cells as the source of oncogenic transformation prompts caution when using these cells for tissue-engineering purposes. While tissue engineering and cancer research may be considered as opposed fields of research with regard to their proclaimed goals, the compelling overlap in fundamental pathways underlying these processes suggests that cross-disciplinary research will benefit both fields. In this review article, tissue engineering and cancer research are brought together and explored with regard to discoveries that may be of mutual benefit.

  4. Social networks of old people in India: research and policy.

    PubMed

    van Willigen, John; Chadha, N K

    2003-01-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of the available research on the social networks of older persons in India. Most of this research has been done in North Indian cities. The research foci of the available studies include network size, core networks and beyond, life course changes in networks, impacts of residency in old-age homes, gender differences, and joint and nuclear family residence. This research is discussed in terms of its policy implications. Because the research demonstrates that social networks are important for the welfare of older Indians, one can conclude that social policy that encourages the maintenance of robust networks throughout the life course may be worth pursuing. One aspect of policy is discussed. The analysis of the relationship between social network and gender suggests that current policies that can be seen as supporting gender inequality in terms of property may have a negative impact on the networks of older women.

  5. Benchmarks in Clinical Productivity: A National Comprehensive Cancer Network Survey

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, F. Marc; Wasserman, Robert L.; Bloomfield, Clara D.; Petersdorf, Stephen; Witherspoon, Robert P.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Ziskind, Andrew; McKenna, Brian; Dodson, Jennifer M.; Weeks, Jane; Vaughan, William P.; Storer, Barry; Perkel, Sara; Waldinger, Marcy

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Oncologists in academic cancer centers usually generate professional fees that are insufficient to cover salaries and other expenses, despite significant clinical activity; therefore, supplemental funding is frequently required in order to support competitive levels of physician compensation. Relative value units (RVUs) allow comparisons of productivity across institutions and practice locations and provide a reasonable point of reference on which funding decisions can be based. Methods We reviewed the clinical productivity and other characteristics of oncology physicians practicing in 13 major academic cancer institutions with membership or shared membership in the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN). The objectives of this study were to develop tools that would lead to better-informed decision making regarding practice management and physician deployment in comprehensive cancer centers and to determine benchmarks of productivity using RVUs accrued by physicians at each institution. Three hundred fifty-three individual physician practices across the 13 NCCN institutions in the survey provided data describing adult hematology/medical oncology and bone marrow/stem-cell transplantation programs. Data from the member institutions participating in the survey included all American Medical Association Current Procedural Terminology (CPT®) codes generated (billed) by each physician during each organization's fiscal year 2003 as a measure of actual clinical productivity. Physician characteristic data included specialty, clinical full-time equivalent (CFTE) status, faculty rank, faculty track, number of years of experience, and total salary by funding source. The average adult hematologist/medical oncologist in our sample would produce 3,745 RVUs if he/she worked full-time as a clinician (100% CFTE), compared with 4,506 RVUs for a 100% CFTE transplant oncologist. Results and Conclusion Our results suggest specific clinical productivity targets for academic

  6. Cancer Research by the Numbers - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    Biostatistician Dr. Jill Barnholtz-Sloan strives to make a difference in the field of cancer research while inspiring her students at the same time. Learn more about how she uses TCGA data in her career in this TCGA in Action Researcher Profile.

  7. A novel meta-analysis approach of cancer transcriptomes reveals prevailing transcriptional networks in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Niida, Atsushi; Imoto, Seiya; Nagasaki, Masao; Yamaguchi, Rui; Miyano, Satoru

    2010-01-01

    Although microarray technology has revealed transcriptomic diversities underlining various cancer phenotypes, transcriptional programs controlling them have not been well elucidated. To decode transcriptional programs governing cancer transcriptomes, we have recently developed a computational method termed EEM, which searches for expression modules from prescribed gene sets defined by prior biological knowledge like TF binding motifs. In this paper, we extend our EEM approach to predict cancer transcriptional networks. Starting from functional TF binding motifs and expression modules identified by EEM, we predict cancer transcriptional networks containing regulatory TFs, associated GO terms, and interactions between TF binding motifs. To systematically analyze transcriptional programs in broad types of cancer, we applied our EEM-based network prediction method to 122 microarray datasets collected from public databases. The data sets contain about 15000 experiments for tumor samples of various tissue origins including breast, colon, lung etc. This EEM based meta-analysis successfully revealed a prevailing cancer transcriptional network which functions in a large fraction of cancer transcriptomes; they include cell-cycle and immune related sub-networks. This study demonstrates broad applicability of EEM, and opens a way to comprehensive understanding of transcriptional networks in cancer cells.

  8. The network of pluripotency, epithelial–mesenchymal transition, and prognosis of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Voutsadakis, Ioannis A

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading female cancer in terms of prevalence. Progress in molecular biology has brought forward a better understanding of its pathogenesis that has led to better prognostication and treatment. Subtypes of breast cancer have been identified at the genomic level and guide therapeutic decisions based on their biology and the expected benefit from various interventions. Despite this progress, a significant percentage of patients die from their disease and further improvements are needed. The cancer stem cell theory and the epithelial–mesenchymal transition are two comparatively novel concepts that have been introduced in the area of cancer research and are actively investigated. Both processes have their physiologic roots in normal development and common mediators have begun to surface. This review discusses the associations of these networks as a prognostic framework in breast cancer. PMID:26379447

  9. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The Wolin laboratory has recently moved to the National Cancer Institute as part of a new initiative in RNA Biology. A fully funded postdoctoral position is available in the areas of noncoding RNA function, RNA surveillance pathways, and the mechanisms by which defects in RNA decay pathways contribute to diseases such as cancer and autoimmunity. We use mammalian cells and bacteria as complementary systems, and projects in both systems are available. Our group is part of the newly formed RNA Biology Laboratory in the Center for Cancer Research. We are part of the Center of Cancer Research’s RNA Initiative, which includes more than 50 laboratories evenly split between the Frederick and Bethesda campuses of the National Cancer Institute. The environment is highly collaborative and collegial, with the ability to interact with a wide range of scientists. The position is ideal for motivated candidates who are seeking additional training in RNA biology.

  10. Fall 2014 SEI Research Review: Malware Distribution Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    2014 Carnegie Mellon University Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Malware Distribution Networks Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon...DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Malware Distribution Networks 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Project Description Create an approach to graph the topological structure of a domain name based malware distribution network (MDN) by leveraging

  11. Induction into Educational Research Networks: The Striated and the Smooth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Naomi; Standish, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Educational research as an academic field can be understood as a network or group of networks and, therefore, to consist of interconnected nodes that structure the way the field operates and understands its purpose. This paper deals with the nature of the induction of postgraduate students into the network of educational research that takes place…

  12. International network of cancer genome projects

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) was launched to coordinate large-scale cancer genome studies in tumors from 50 different cancer types and/or subtypes that are of clinical and societal importance across the globe. Systematic studies of over 25,000 cancer genomes at the genomic, epigenomic, and transcriptomic levels will reveal the repertoire of oncogenic mutations, uncover traces of the mutagenic influences, define clinically-relevant subtypes for prognosis and therapeutic management, and enable the development of new cancer therapies. PMID:20393554

  13. International network of cancer genome projects.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Thomas J; Anderson, Warwick; Artez, Axel; Barker, Anna D; Bell, Cindy; Bernabé, Rosa R; Bhan, M K; Calvo, Fabien; Eerola, Iiro; Gerhard, Daniela S; Guttmacher, Alan; Guyer, Mark; Hemsley, Fiona M; Jennings, Jennifer L; Kerr, David; Klatt, Peter; Kolar, Patrik; Kusada, Jun; Lane, David P; Laplace, Frank; Youyong, Lu; Nettekoven, Gerd; Ozenberger, Brad; Peterson, Jane; Rao, T S; Remacle, Jacques; Schafer, Alan J; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Stratton, Michael R; Vockley, Joseph G; Watanabe, Koichi; Yang, Huanming; Yuen, Matthew M F; Knoppers, Bartha M; Bobrow, Martin; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; Dressler, Lynn G; Dyke, Stephanie O M; Joly, Yann; Kato, Kazuto; Kennedy, Karen L; Nicolás, Pilar; Parker, Michael J; Rial-Sebbag, Emmanuelle; Romeo-Casabona, Carlos M; Shaw, Kenna M; Wallace, Susan; Wiesner, Georgia L; Zeps, Nikolajs; Lichter, Peter; Biankin, Andrew V; Chabannon, Christian; Chin, Lynda; Clément, Bruno; de Alava, Enrique; Degos, Françoise; Ferguson, Martin L; Geary, Peter; Hayes, D Neil; Hudson, Thomas J; Johns, Amber L; Kasprzyk, Arek; Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Penny, Robert; Piris, Miguel A; Sarin, Rajiv; Scarpa, Aldo; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; van de Vijver, Marc; Futreal, P Andrew; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Bayés, Mónica; Botwell, David D L; Campbell, Peter J; Estivill, Xavier; Gerhard, Daniela S; Grimmond, Sean M; Gut, Ivo; Hirst, Martin; López-Otín, Carlos; Majumder, Partha; Marra, Marco; McPherson, John D; Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Ning, Zemin; Puente, Xose S; Ruan, Yijun; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Stratton, Michael R; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Swerdlow, Harold; Velculescu, Victor E; Wilson, Richard K; Xue, Hong H; Yang, Liu; Spellman, Paul T; Bader, Gary D; Boutros, Paul C; Campbell, Peter J; Flicek, Paul; Getz, Gad; Guigó, Roderic; Guo, Guangwu; Haussler, David; Heath, Simon; Hubbard, Tim J; Jiang, Tao; Jones, Steven M; Li, Qibin; López-Bigas, Nuria; Luo, Ruibang; Muthuswamy, Lakshmi; Ouellette, B F Francis; Pearson, John V; Puente, Xose S; Quesada, Victor; Raphael, Benjamin J; Sander, Chris; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Speed, Terence P; Stein, Lincoln D; Stuart, Joshua M; Teague, Jon W; Totoki, Yasushi; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Valencia, Alfonso; Wheeler, David A; Wu, Honglong; Zhao, Shancen; Zhou, Guangyu; Stein, Lincoln D; Guigó, Roderic; Hubbard, Tim J; Joly, Yann; Jones, Steven M; Kasprzyk, Arek; Lathrop, Mark; López-Bigas, Nuria; Ouellette, B F Francis; Spellman, Paul T; Teague, Jon W; Thomas, Gilles; Valencia, Alfonso; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Kennedy, Karen L; Axton, Myles; Dyke, Stephanie O M; Futreal, P Andrew; Gerhard, Daniela S; Gunter, Chris; Guyer, Mark; Hudson, Thomas J; McPherson, John D; Miller, Linda J; Ozenberger, Brad; Shaw, Kenna M; Kasprzyk, Arek; Stein, Lincoln D; Zhang, Junjun; Haider, Syed A; Wang, Jianxin; Yung, Christina K; Cros, Anthony; Cross, Anthony; Liang, Yong; Gnaneshan, Saravanamuttu; Guberman, Jonathan; Hsu, Jack; Bobrow, Martin; Chalmers, Don R C; Hasel, Karl W; Joly, Yann; Kaan, Terry S H; Kennedy, Karen L; Knoppers, Bartha M; Lowrance, William W; Masui, Tohru; Nicolás, Pilar; Rial-Sebbag, Emmanuelle; Rodriguez, Laura Lyman; Vergely, Catherine; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Grimmond, Sean M; Biankin, Andrew V; Bowtell, David D L; Cloonan, Nicole; deFazio, Anna; Eshleman, James R; Etemadmoghadam, Dariush; Gardiner, Brooke B; Gardiner, Brooke A; Kench, James G; Scarpa, Aldo; Sutherland, Robert L; Tempero, Margaret A; Waddell, Nicola J; Wilson, Peter J; McPherson, John D; Gallinger, Steve; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Shaw, Patricia A; Petersen, Gloria M; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Chin, Lynda; DePinho, Ronald A; Thayer, Sarah; Muthuswamy, Lakshmi; Shazand, Kamran; Beck, Timothy; Sam, Michelle; Timms, Lee; Ballin, Vanessa; Lu, Youyong; Ji, Jiafu; Zhang, Xiuqing; Chen, Feng; Hu, Xueda; Zhou, Guangyu; Yang, Qi; Tian, Geng; Zhang, Lianhai; Xing, Xiaofang; Li, Xianghong; Zhu, Zhenggang; Yu, Yingyan; Yu, Jun; Yang, Huanming; Lathrop, Mark; Tost, Jörg; Brennan, Paul; Holcatova, Ivana; Zaridze, David; Brazma, Alvis; Egevard, Lars; Prokhortchouk, Egor; Banks, Rosamonde Elizabeth; Uhlén, Mathias; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; Viksna, Juris; Ponten, Fredrik; Skryabin, Konstantin; Stratton, Michael R; Futreal, P Andrew; Birney, Ewan; Borg, Ake; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Caldas, Carlos; Foekens, John A; Martin, Sancha; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Richardson, Andrea L; Sotiriou, Christos; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Thoms, Giles; van de Vijver, Marc; van't Veer, Laura; Calvo, Fabien; Birnbaum, Daniel; Blanche, Hélène; Boucher, Pascal; Boyault, Sandrine; Chabannon, Christian; Gut, Ivo; Masson-Jacquemier, Jocelyne D; Lathrop, Mark; Pauporté, Iris; Pivot, Xavier; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Tabone, Eric; Theillet, Charles; Thomas, Gilles; Tost, Jörg; Treilleux, Isabelle; Calvo, Fabien; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette; Clément, Bruno; Decaens, Thomas; Degos, Françoise; Franco, Dominique; Gut, Ivo; Gut, Marta; Heath, Simon; Lathrop, Mark; Samuel, Didier; Thomas, Gilles; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Lichter, Peter; Eils, Roland; Brors, Benedikt; Korbel, Jan O; Korshunov, Andrey; Landgraf, Pablo; Lehrach, Hans; Pfister, Stefan; Radlwimmer, Bernhard; Reifenberger, Guido; Taylor, Michael D; von Kalle, Christof; Majumder, Partha P; Sarin, Rajiv; Rao, T S; Bhan, M K; Scarpa, Aldo; Pederzoli, Paolo; Lawlor, Rita A; Delledonne, Massimo; Bardelli, Alberto; Biankin, Andrew V; Grimmond, Sean M; Gress, Thomas; Klimstra, David; Zamboni, Giuseppe; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Nakamura, Yusuke; Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Kusada, Jun; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Miyano, Satoru; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Kato, Kazuto; Fujimoto, Akihiro; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Campo, Elias; López-Otín, Carlos; Estivill, Xavier; Guigó, Roderic; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Piris, Miguel A; Montserrat, Emili; González-Díaz, Marcos; Puente, Xose S; Jares, Pedro; Valencia, Alfonso; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Himmelbaue, Heinz; Quesada, Victor; Bea, Silvia; Stratton, Michael R; Futreal, P Andrew; Campbell, Peter J; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Richardson, Andrea L; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; van de Vijver, Marc; Thomas, Gilles; Masson-Jacquemier, Jocelyne D; Aparicio, Samuel; Borg, Ake; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Caldas, Carlos; Foekens, John A; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; van't Veer, Laura; Easton, Douglas F; Spellman, Paul T; Martin, Sancha; Barker, Anna D; Chin, Lynda; Collins, Francis S; Compton, Carolyn C; Ferguson, Martin L; Gerhard, Daniela S; Getz, Gad; Gunter, Chris; Guttmacher, Alan; Guyer, Mark; Hayes, D Neil; Lander, Eric S; Ozenberger, Brad; Penny, Robert; Peterson, Jane; Sander, Chris; Shaw, Kenna M; Speed, Terence P; Spellman, Paul T; Vockley, Joseph G; Wheeler, David A; Wilson, Richard K; Hudson, Thomas J; Chin, Lynda; Knoppers, Bartha M; Lander, Eric S; Lichter, Peter; Stein, Lincoln D; Stratton, Michael R; Anderson, Warwick; Barker, Anna D; Bell, Cindy; Bobrow, Martin; Burke, Wylie; Collins, Francis S; Compton, Carolyn C; DePinho, Ronald A; Easton, Douglas F; Futreal, P Andrew; Gerhard, Daniela S; Green, Anthony R; Guyer, Mark; Hamilton, Stanley R; Hubbard, Tim J; Kallioniemi, Olli P; Kennedy, Karen L; Ley, Timothy J; Liu, Edison T; Lu, Youyong; Majumder, Partha; Marra, Marco; Ozenberger, Brad; Peterson, Jane; Schafer, Alan J; Spellman, Paul T; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Wainwright, Brandon J; Wilson, Richard K; Yang, Huanming

    2010-04-15

    The International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) was launched to coordinate large-scale cancer genome studies in tumours from 50 different cancer types and/or subtypes that are of clinical and societal importance across the globe. Systematic studies of more than 25,000 cancer genomes at the genomic, epigenomic and transcriptomic levels will reveal the repertoire of oncogenic mutations, uncover traces of the mutagenic influences, define clinically relevant subtypes for prognosis and therapeutic management, and enable the development of new cancer therapies.

  14. Evaluation of a community-academic partnership: lessons from Latinos in a network for cancer control.

    PubMed

    Corbin, J Hope; Fernandez, Maria E; Mullen, Patricia D

    2015-05-01

    Established in 2002, Latinos in a Network for Cancer Control is a community-academic network supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute. The network includes >130 individuals from 65 community and academic organizations committed to reducing cancer-related health disparities. Using an empirically derived systems model--the Bergen Model of Collaborative Functioning--as the analytic frame, we interviewed 19 partners to identify challenges and successful processes. Findings indicated that sustained partner interaction created "meaningful relationships" that were routinely called on for collaboration. The leadership was regarded positively on vision, charisma, and capacity. Limitations included overreliance on a single leader. Suggestions supported more delegation of decision making, consistent communication, and more equitable resource distribution. The study highlighted new insights into dynamics of collaboration: Greater inclusiveness of inputs (partners, finances, mission) and loosely defined roles and structure produced strong connections but less network-wide productivity (output). Still, this profile enabled the creation of more tightly defined and highly productive subgroups, with clear goals and roles but less inclusive of inputs than the larger network. Important network outputs included practice-based research publications, cancer control intervention materials, and training to enhance the use of evidence-based interventions, as well as continued and diversified funding.

  15. About the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group conducts and fosters the development of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, endometrial cancers, ovarian cancers, and precursor conditions related to these cancers. |

  16. Transgenic Rat Models for Breast Cancer Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    Introduction 6 6. Body 9 7. Key Research Accomplishments 15 8. Reportable Outcomes 15 9. Conclusions 16 10. References 17 11. Bibliography 20 12. Personnel 20...seen in human breast cancer (2-4). Third, a high percentage of the resulting rat mammary cancers are hormonally responsiveness, closely mimicking that...13, 17), activated c-neu (18-20), wild type c-neu (21), deregulated growth hormone (22), and deregulated transforming growth factor a (23-25) has

  17. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    A postdoctoral position is available in the lab of Dr. Steven A. Feldman, Surgery Branch of the National Cancer Institute for a highly-motivated individual to carry out translational research studies aimed at developing and improving novel adoptive T cell therapies for solid cancers. A major focus of the position will utilize gene editing strategies (ZFN and Crispr) to enhance T cell function and/or re-direct T cells by TCR insertion for development of novel personalized cancer therapies based on identifying and targeting immunogenic mutations expressed by a patient’s tumor. 

  18. Research Training Program in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-06-30

    AD GRANT NO: DAMD17-94-J-4204 TITLE: Research Training Program in Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Daniel Medina CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Program in Breast Cancer DAMD17-94-J-4204 Dr. Daniel Medina S-:* , LiNG ORGANI-ZA FiON ;8A•E(Sj -’ r.,DE53(25) . :ERFOGMJNG ORGANIZATION Baylor: College...program is to produce highly qualified scientists for careers as independent investigators in the field of breast cancer . In the last 20 years, there has

  19. NCI Approves Funding Plan for NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    On June 24, 2014, the Scientific Program Leaders (SPL) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) approved the funding plan for the NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP), a national network of investigators, cancer care providers, academic institutions, and other organizations. NCORP will conduct multi-site cancer clinical trials and studies in diverse populations in community-based healthcare systems across the United States. The program will receive $93 million a year for five years. |

  20. Computational cell fate modelling for discovery of rewiring in apoptotic network for enhanced cancer drug sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing cancer research has shown that malignant tumour cells have highly disrupted signalling transduction pathways. In cancer cells, signalling pathways are altered to satisfy the demands of continuous proliferation and survival. The changes in signalling pathways supporting uncontrolled cell growth, termed as rewiring, can lead to dysregulation of cell fates e.g. apoptosis. Hence comparative analysis of normal and oncogenic signal transduction pathways may provide insights into mechanisms of cancer drug-resistance and facilitate the discovery of novel and effective anti-cancer therapies. Here we propose a hybrid modelling approach based on ordinary differential equation (ODE) and machine learning to map network rewiring in the apoptotic pathways that may be responsible for the increase of drug sensitivity of tumour cells in triple-negative breast cancer. Our method employs Genetic Algorithm to search for the most likely network topologies by iteratively generating simulated protein phosphorylation data using ODEs and the rewired network and then fitting the simulated data with real data of cancer signalling and cell fate. Most of our predictions are consistent with experimental evidence from literature. Combining the strengths of knowledge-driven and data-driven approaches, our hybrid model can help uncover molecular mechanisms of cancer cell fate at systems level. PMID:25707537

  1. Computational cell fate modelling for discovery of rewiring in apoptotic network for enhanced cancer drug sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Shital K; Bhowmick, Sourav S; Chua, Huey; Zhang, Fan; Zheng, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing cancer research has shown that malignant tumour cells have highly disrupted signalling transduction pathways. In cancer cells, signalling pathways are altered to satisfy the demands of continuous proliferation and survival. The changes in signalling pathways supporting uncontrolled cell growth, termed as rewiring, can lead to dysregulation of cell fates e.g. apoptosis. Hence comparative analysis of normal and oncogenic signal transduction pathways may provide insights into mechanisms of cancer drug-resistance and facilitate the discovery of novel and effective anti-cancer therapies. Here we propose a hybrid modelling approach based on ordinary differential equation (ODE) and machine learning to map network rewiring in the apoptotic pathways that may be responsible for the increase of drug sensitivity of tumour cells in triple-negative breast cancer. Our method employs Genetic Algorithm to search for the most likely network topologies by iteratively generating simulated protein phosphorylation data using ODEs and the rewired network and then fitting the simulated data with real data of cancer signalling and cell fate. Most of our predictions are consistent with experimental evidence from literature. Combining the strengths of knowledge-driven and data-driven approaches, our hybrid model can help uncover molecular mechanisms of cancer cell fate at systems level.

  2. Modern International Research Groups: Networks and Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katehi, Linda

    2009-05-01

    In a globalized economy, education and research are becoming increasing international in content and context. Academic and research institutions worldwide try to internationalize their programs by setting formal or informal collaborations. An education that is enhanced by international experiences leads to mobility of the science and technology workforce. Existing academic cultures and research structures are at odds with efforts to internationalize education. For the past 20-30 years, the US has recognized the need to improve the abroad experience of our scientists and technologists: however progress has been slow. Despite a number of both federally and privately supported programs, efforts to scale up the numbers of participants have not been satisfactory. The exchange is imbalanced as more foreign scientists and researchers move to the US than the other way around. There are a number of issues that contribute to this imbalance but we could consider the US academic career system, as defined by its policies and practices, as a barrier to internationalizing the early career faculty experience. Strict curricula, pre-tenure policies and financial commitments discourage students, post doctoral fellows and pre-tenure faculty from taking international leaves to participate in research abroad experiences. Specifically, achieving an international experience requires funding that is not provided by the universities. Furthermore, intellectual property requirements and constraints in pre-tenure probationary periods may discourage students and faculty from collaborations with peers across the Atlantic or Pacific or across the American continent. Environments that support early career networking are not available. This presentation will discuss the increasing need for international collaborations and will explore the need for additional programs, more integration, better conditions and improved infrastructures that can encourage and support mobility of scientists. In addition

  3. Rethinking cancer: current challenges and opportunities in cancer research

    PubMed Central

    Cagan, Ross; Meyer, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cancer therapeutics currently have the lowest clinical trial success rate of all major diseases. Partly as a result of the paucity of successful anti-cancer drugs, cancer will soon be the leading cause of mortality in developed countries. As a disease embedded in the fundamentals of our biology, cancer presents difficult challenges that would benefit from uniting experts from a broad cross-section of related and unrelated fields. Combining extant approaches with novel ones could help in tackling this challenging health problem, enabling the development of therapeutics to stop disease progression and prolong patient lives. This goal provided the inspiration for a recent workshop titled ‘Rethinking Cancer’, which brought together a group of cancer scientists who work in the academic and pharmaceutical sectors of Europe, America and Asia. In this Editorial, we discuss the main themes emerging from the workshop, with the aim of providing a snapshot of key challenges faced by the cancer research community today. We also outline potential strategies for addressing some of these challenges, from understanding the basic evolution of cancer and improving its early detection to streamlining the thorny process of moving promising drug targets into clinical trials. PMID:28381596

  4. Connecting the Dots: Understanding the Flow of Research Knowledge within a Research Brokering Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodway, Joelle

    2015-01-01

    Networks are frequently cited as an important knowledge mobilization strategy; however, there is little empirical research that considers how they connect research and practice. Taking a social network perspective, I explore how central office personnel find, understand and share research knowledge within a research brokering network. This mixed…

  5. Vulnerability of Permafrost Carbon Research Coordination Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuur, E. A.; McGuire, A. D.; Canadell, J.; Harden, J. W.; Kuhry, P.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Turetsky, M. R.; Schädel, C.

    2011-12-01

    Approximately 1700 Pg (billion tons) of soil carbon are stored in the northern circumpolar permafrost zone, more than twice as much carbon than currently contained in the atmosphere. Permafrost thaw, and the microbial decomposition of previously frozen organic carbon, is considered one of the most likely positive feedbacks from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere in a warmer world. Yet, the rate and form of release is highly uncertain but crucial for predicting the strength and timing of this carbon cycle feedback this century and beyond. Here we report on the formation of a new research coordination network (RCN) whose objective is to link biological C cycle research with well-developed networks in the physical sciences focused on the thermal state of permafrost. We found that published literature in the Science Citation Index identified with the search terms 'permafrost' and 'carbon' have increased dramatically in the last decade. Of total publications including those keywords, 86% were published since 2000, 65% since 2005, and 36% since 2008. Interconnection through this RCN is designed to produce new knowledge through research synthesis that can be used to quantify the role of permafrost carbon in driving climate change in the 21st century and beyond. An expert elicitation conducted as part of the RCN activities revealed that the total effect of carbon release from permafrost zone soils on climate is expected to be up to 30-46 Pg C over the next three decades, reaching 242-324 Pg C by 2100 and potentially up to 551-710 Pg C over the next several centuries under the strongest warming scenario presented to the group. These values, expressed in billions of tons of C in CO2 equivalents, combine the effect of C released both as CO2 and as CH4 by accounting for the greater heat-trapping capacity of CH4. Much of the actual C release by weight is expected to be in the form of CO2, with only about 3.5% of that in the form of CH4. However, the higher global warming

  6. Statistical Tutorial | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Recent advances in cancer biology have resulted in the need for increased statistical analysis of research data. The Statistical Tutorial course is designed as a follow-up to the Statistical Analysis of Research Data (SARD) course, which was held in April 2017. The tutorial will apply the general principles of statistical analysis of research data, including descriptive statistics, z- and t-tests of means and mean differences, simple and multiple linear regression, ANOVA tests, and Chi-Squared distribution.

  7. Guidelines | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    CCR Animal Resource Program: Guidelines for Importation of Research Animals DVR and LASP monitor the health status of rodents and rabbits from various commonly used vendors of research animals. These vendors are considered "Approved Sources." Animals from these sources are generally shipped directly to NIH animal facilities for immediate investigator accessibility.

  8. The APA and the rise of pediatric generalist network research.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Richard; Serwint, Janet R; Kuppermann, Nathan; Srivastava, Rajendu; Dreyer, Benard

    2011-01-01

    The Academic Pediatric Association (APA, formerly the Ambulatory Pediatric Association) first encouraged multi-institutional collaborative research among its members over 30 years ago. Individual APA members subsequently went on to figure prominently in establishing formal research networks. These enduring collaborations have been established to conduct investigations in a variety of generalist contexts. At present, 4 generalist networks--Pediatric Research in Office Settings (PROS), the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN), the COntinuity Research NETwork (CORNET), and Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings (PRIS)--have a track record of extensive achievement in generating new knowledge aimed at improving the health and health care of children. This review details the history, accomplishments, and future directions of these networks and summarizes the common themes, strengths, challenges, and opportunities inherent in pediatric generalist network research. Copyright © 2011 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Requirements for data integration platforms in biomedical research networks: a reference model

    PubMed Central

    Knaup, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical research networks need to integrate research data among their members and with external partners. To support such data sharing activities, an adequate information technology infrastructure is necessary. To facilitate the establishment of such an infrastructure, we developed a reference model for the requirements. The reference model consists of five reference goals and 15 reference requirements. Using the Unified Modeling Language, the goals and requirements are set into relation to each other. In addition, all goals and requirements are described textually in tables. This reference model can be used by research networks as a basis for a resource efficient acquisition of their project specific requirements. Furthermore, a concrete instance of the reference model is described for a research network on liver cancer. The reference model is transferred into a requirements model of the specific network. Based on this concrete requirements model, a service-oriented information technology architecture is derived and also described in this paper. PMID:25699205

  10. Requirements for data integration platforms in biomedical research networks: a reference model.

    PubMed

    Ganzinger, Matthias; Knaup, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical research networks need to integrate research data among their members and with external partners. To support such data sharing activities, an adequate information technology infrastructure is necessary. To facilitate the establishment of such an infrastructure, we developed a reference model for the requirements. The reference model consists of five reference goals and 15 reference requirements. Using the Unified Modeling Language, the goals and requirements are set into relation to each other. In addition, all goals and requirements are described textually in tables. This reference model can be used by research networks as a basis for a resource efficient acquisition of their project specific requirements. Furthermore, a concrete instance of the reference model is described for a research network on liver cancer. The reference model is transferred into a requirements model of the specific network. Based on this concrete requirements model, a service-oriented information technology architecture is derived and also described in this paper.

  11. Recent Themes in Social Networking Service Research

    PubMed Central

    Liu, John S.; Ho, Mei Hsiu-Ching; Lu, Louis Y. Y.

    2017-01-01

    The body of literature addressing the phenomenon related to social networking services (SNSs) has grown rather fast recently. Through a systematic and quantitative approach, this study identifies the recent SNS research themes, which are the issues discussed by a coherent and growing subset of this literature. A set of academic articles retrieved from the Web of Science database is used as the basis for uncovering the recent themes. We begin the analysis by constructing a citation network which is further separated into groups after applying a widely used clustering method. The resulting clusters all consist of articles coherent in citation relationships. This study suggests eight fast growing recent themes. They span widely encompassing politics, romantic relationships, public relations, journalism, and health. Among them, four focus their issues largely on Twitter, three on Facebook, and one generally on both. While discussions on traditional issues in SNSs such as personality, motivations, self-disclosure, narcissism, etc. continue to lead the pack, the proliferation of the highlighted recent themes in the near future is very likely to happen. PMID:28107541

  12. Automation of Technology for Cancer Research.

    PubMed

    van der Ent, Wietske; Veneman, Wouter J; Groenewoud, Arwin; Chen, Lanpeng; Tulotta, Claudia; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Spaink, Herman P; Snaar-Jagalska, B Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish embryos can be obtained for research purposes in large numbers at low cost and embryos develop externally in limited space, making them highly suitable for high-throughput cancer studies and drug screens. Non-invasive live imaging of various processes within the larvae is possible due to their transparency during development, and a multitude of available fluorescent transgenic reporter lines.To perform high-throughput studies, handling large amounts of embryos and larvae is required. With such high number of individuals, even minute tasks may become time-consuming and arduous. In this chapter, an overview is given of the developments in the automation of various steps of large scale zebrafish cancer research for discovering important cancer pathways and drugs for the treatment of human disease. The focus lies on various tools developed for cancer cell implantation, embryo handling and sorting, microfluidic systems for imaging and drug treatment, and image acquisition and analysis. Examples will be given of employment of these technologies within the fields of toxicology research and cancer research.

  13. The Greater Plains Collaborative: a PCORnet Clinical Research Data Network.

    PubMed

    Waitman, Lemuel R; Aaronson, Lauren S; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Connolly, Daniel W; Campbell, James R

    2014-01-01

    The Greater Plains Collaborative (GPC) is composed of 10 leading medical centers repurposing the research programs and informatics infrastructures developed through Clinical and Translational Science Award initiatives. Partners are the University of Kansas Medical Center, Children's Mercy Hospital, University of Iowa Healthcare, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the Medical College of Wisconsin and Marshfield Clinic, the University of Minnesota Academic Health Center, the University of Nebraska Medical Center, the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. The GPC network brings together a diverse population of 10 million people across 1300 miles covering seven states with a combined area of 679 159 square miles. Using input from community members, breast cancer was selected as a focus for cohort building activities. In addition to a high-prevalence disorder, we also selected a rare disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  14. The immune network in thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Galdiero, Maria Rosaria; Varricchi, Gilda; Marone, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The immune system plays critical roles in tumor prevention, but also in its initiation and progression. Tumors are subjected to immunosurveillance, but cancer cells generate an immunosuppressive microenvironment that favors their escape from immune-mediated elimination. During chronic inflammation, immune cells can contribute to the formation and progression of tumors by producing mitogenic, prosurvival, proangiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors. Thyroid cancer is the most frequent type of endocrine neoplasia and is the most rapidly increasing cancer in the US. In this review, we discuss recent findings on how different immune cells and mediators can contribute to thyroid cancer development and progression. PMID:27471646

  15. A basis for translational cancer research on aetiology, pathogenesis and prognosis: Guideline for standardised and population-based linkages of biobanks to cancer registries.

    PubMed

    Dillner, Joakim

    2015-06-01

    Population-based cancer research is paramount for controlling cancer. Cancer research is increasingly dependent on access to biospecimens from subjects that have been followed-up for future health outcomes. This is achieved using longitudinal follow-up of cohorts and biobanks using cancer registry linkages. All over the world, more and more large population-based cohorts and advanced biobanking facilities are established. International standardisation and networking in the linkage of cohorts and biobanks to cancer registries is required in order to enable international cancer research and comparability of research results. An international operating procedure and standard minimum dataset for linkages of biobanks, cohorts and cancer registries is proposed. An internationally comparable provision of well characterised study bases for molecular cancer research will be an essential prerequisite for the success of translational medicine.

  16. Action Research Networks: Role and Purpose in the Evaluation of Research Outcomes and Impacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zornes, Deborah; Ferkins, Lesley; Piggot-Irvine, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to share thinking about networks in action research (AR) and to consider their role, purpose, and how networks' outcomes and impacts might be evaluated. Networks are often a by-product of AR projects, yet research focused on the network itself as part of a project is rare. The paper is one of several associated with the…

  17. Action Research Networks: Role and Purpose in the Evaluation of Research Outcomes and Impacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zornes, Deborah; Ferkins, Lesley; Piggot-Irvine, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to share thinking about networks in action research (AR) and to consider their role, purpose, and how networks' outcomes and impacts might be evaluated. Networks are often a by-product of AR projects, yet research focused on the network itself as part of a project is rare. The paper is one of several associated with the…

  18. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    A fully-funded postdoctoral position is available in the Women’s Malignancies Branch in the laboratory of Patricia S. Steeg, Ph.D. The laboratory focuses on molecular and cellular aspects of cancer metastasis, and translation of experimental data to the clinic. The research project will center on suppression of metastasis via tumor-derived vesicles using in vitro and in vivo breast cancer model systems and analysis of human tissues. The goal of the research is to move promising findings toward clinical application. 

  19. Innovative Approaches to Reducing Cancer Health Disparities: The Moffitt Cancer Center Patient Navigator Research Program

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Kristen J.; Meade, Cathy D.; Calcano, Ercilia; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Rivers, Desiree; Roetzheim, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    The Moffitt Cancer Center Patient Navigation Research Program (Moffitt PNRP) is evaluating the efficacy of patient navigation in reducing delays from screening abnormality to diagnostic resolution of a breast or colorectal abnormality. The Moffitt PNRP was conducted in three phases: (1) developing an acceptable, appealing, and culturally appropriate patient navigation program; (2) conducting a group randomized controlled trial to evaluate the patient navigation program; and (3) disseminating research findings and Moffitt PNRP intervention model. The patient navigation program was developed through significant formative research, input from the Moffitt PNRP Community Advisory Board, and through a close collaboration with the Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network. 1367 patients are enrolled in the Phase 2 group randomized trial of the Moffitt PNRP. Most Moffitt PNRP group randomized trial participants are Hispanic, female, and Spanish speaking, with minimal education and income. The intervention is being disseminated in primary care clinics in west central Florida. PMID:21573740

  20. About the Gastrointestinal and Other Cancers Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Gastrointestinal and Other Cancers Research Group conducts and supports prevention and early detection research on colorectal, esophageal, liver, pancreatic, and hematolymphoid cancers, as well as new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention. |

  1. New targets for immunotherapy-based treatment of HPV-related cancers | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists at the Center for Cancer Research and three other cancer research institutions show that immunotherapy treatments that resulted in complete regression of metastatic cervical cancer largely targeted two non-viral antigens. Read more…  

  2. Vulnerability of permafrost carbon research coordination network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schädel, C.; Schuur, E. A. G.; McGuire, A. D.; Canadell, J. G.; Harden, J.; Kuhry, P.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Turetsky, M. R.

    2012-04-01

    Approximately 1700 Pg of soil carbon are stored in the northern circumpolar permafrost zone, more than twice as much carbon than currently contained in the atmosphere. Permafrost thaw, and the microbial decomposition of previously frozen organic carbon, is considered one of the most likely positive feedbacks from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere in a warmer world. Yet, the rate and form of release is highly uncertain but crucial for predicting the strength and timing of this carbon cycle feedback this century and beyond. Here we report on the first products of a new research coordination network (RCN) whose objective is to link biological C cycle research with well-developed networks in the physical sciences focused on the thermal state of permafrost. We found that published literature in the Science Citation Index identified with the search terms 'permafrost' and 'carbon' have increased dramatically in the last decade. Of total publications including those keywords, 86% were published since 2000, 65% since 2005, and 36% since 2008. The first RCN activity consisted of an expert elicitation that revealed the total effect of carbon release from permafrost zone soils in climate is expected to be up to 30-46 Pg C over the next three decades, reaching 242-324 Pg C by 2100 and potentially up to 551-710 Pg C over the next several centuries under the strongest warming scenario presented to the group. These values, expressed in billions of tons of C in CO2 equivalents, combine the effect of C released both as CO2 and as CH4 by accounting for the greater heat-trapping capacity of CH4. However, the higher global warming potential of CH4 means that almost half of the effect of future permafrost zone carbon emissions on climate forcing was expected by this group to be a result of CH4 emissions from wetlands, lakes, and other oxygen-limited environments where organic matter will be decomposing. These results demonstrate the vulnerability of organic C stored in near

  3. Functional and genetic analysis of the colon cancer network.

    PubMed

    Emmert-Streib, Frank; de Matos Simoes, Ricardo; Glazko, Galina; McDade, Simon; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Holzinger, Andreas; Dehmer, Matthias; Campbell, Frederick

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease that has proven to be difficult to understand on the single-gene level. For this reason a functional elucidation needs to take interactions among genes on a systems-level into account. In this study, we infer a colon cancer network from a large-scale gene expression data set by using the method BC3Net. We provide a structural and a functional analysis of this network and also connect its molecular interaction structure with the chromosomal locations of the genes enabling the definition of cis- and trans-interactions. Furthermore, we investigate the interaction of genes that can be found in close neighborhoods on the chromosomes to gain insight into regulatory mechanisms. To our knowledge this is the first study analyzing the genome-scale colon cancer network.

  4. The APA and the Rise of Pediatric Generalist Network Research

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, Richard; Serwint, Janet R.; Kuppermann, Nathan; Srivastava, Rajendu; Dreyer, Benard

    2010-01-01

    The Academic Pediatric Association (APA – formerly the Ambulatory Pediatric Association) first encouraged multi-institutional collaborative research among its members over thirty years ago. Individual APA members went on subsequently to figure prominently in establishing formal research networks. These enduring collaborations have been established to conduct investigations in a variety of generalist contexts. At present, four generalist networks – Pediatric Research in Office Settings (PROS), the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Network (PECARN), the COntinuity Research NETwork (CORNET), and Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings (PRIS) – have a track record of extensive achievement in generating new knowledge aimed at improving the health and health care of children. This review details the history, accomplishments, and future directions of these networks and summarizes the common themes, strengths, challenges and opportunities inherent in pediatric generalist network research. PMID:21282083

  5. A Distributed Network for Intensive Longitudinal Monitoring in Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Blau, C Anthony; Ramirez, Arturo B; Blau, Sibel; Pritchard, Colin C; Dorschner, Michael O; Schmechel, Stephen C; Martins, Timothy J; Mahen, Elisabeth M; Burton, Kimberly A; Komashko, Vitalina M; Radenbaugh, Amie J; Dougherty, Katy; Thomas, Anju; Miller, Christopher P; Annis, James; Fromm, Jonathan R; Song, Chaozhong; Chang, Elizabeth; Howard, Kellie; Austin, Sharon; Schmidt, Rodney A; Linenberger, Michael L; Becker, Pamela S; Senecal, Francis M; Mecham, Brigham H; Lee, Su-In; Madan, Anup; Ronen, Roy; Dutkowski, Janusz; Heimfeld, Shelly; Wood, Brent L; Stilwell, Jackie L; Kaldjian, Eric P; Haussler, David; Zhu, Jingchun

    2016-01-01

    Accelerating cancer research is expected to require new types of clinical trials. This report describes the Intensive Trial of OMics in Cancer (ITOMIC) and a participant with triple-negative breast cancer metastatic to bone, who had markedly elevated circulating tumor cells (CTCs) that were monitored 48 times over 9 months. A total of 32 researchers from 14 institutions were engaged in the patient's evaluation; 20 researchers had no prior involvement in patient care and 18 were recruited specifically for this patient. Whole-exome sequencing of 3 bone marrow samples demonstrated a novel ROS1 variant that was estimated to be present in most or all tumor cells. After an initial response to cisplatin, a hypothesis of crizotinib sensitivity was disproven. Leukapheresis followed by partial CTC enrichment allowed for the development of a differential high-throughput drug screen and demonstrated sensitivity to investigational BH3-mimetic inhibitors of BCL-2 that could not be tested in the patient because requests to the pharmaceutical sponsors were denied. The number and size of CTC clusters correlated with clinical status and eventually death. Focusing the expertise of a distributed network of investigators on an intensively monitored patient with cancer can generate high-resolution views of the natural history of cancer and suggest new opportunities for therapy. Optimization requires access to investigational drugs. Copyright © 2016 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  6. A Social Network Analysis of Cancer Provider Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Steitz, Bryan D.; Levy, Mia A.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer treatment often consists of multiple therapeutic modalities delivered by specialists. As changing reimbursement paradigms move towards quality outcomes and bundled payments, extensive care coordination between healthcare providers is imperative. We developed an approach to quantify care coordination relationships among providers treating breast cancer patients at the Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Our cohort of 1285 providers treated 3924 breast cancer patients, and had 1758 unique provider-provider relationships. Providers treating stage III breast cancer patients had the highest ratio of providers to patients, indicating a more tightly connected network than providers treating stage I or II patients. Network analysis can provide quantitative approaches to understanding the relationships of multi-specialty providers and may inform approaches to measuring the impact of care coordination on outcomes. PMID:28269958

  7. Translational Research and Plasma Proteomic in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Santini, Annamaria Chiara; Giovane, Giancarlo; Auletta, Adelaide; Di Carlo, Angelina; Fiorelli, Alfonso; Cito, Letizia; Astarita, Carlo; Giordano, Antonio; Alfano, Roberto; Feola, Antonia; Di Domenico, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Proteomics is a recent field of research in molecular biology that can help in the fight against cancer through the search for biomarkers that can detect this disease in the early stages of its development. Proteomic is a speedily growing technology, also thanks to the development of even more sensitive and fast mass spectrometry analysis. Although this technique is the most widespread for the discovery of new cancer biomarkers, it still suffers of a poor sensitivity and insufficient reproducibility, essentially due to the tumor heterogeneity. Common technical shortcomings include limitations in the sensitivity of detecting low abundant biomarkers and possible systematic biases in the observed data. Current research attempts are trying to develop high-resolution proteomic instrumentation for high-throughput monitoring of protein changes that occur in cancer. In this review, we describe the basic features of the proteomic tools which have proven to be useful in cancer research, showing their advantages and disadvantages. The application of these proteomic tools could provide early biomarkers detection in various cancer types and could improve the understanding the mechanisms of tumor growth and dissemination.

  8. Facility Head | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Facility HeadConfocal Microscopy Core FacilityLaboratory of Cancer Biology and Genetics The Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Genetics (LCBG), Center for Cancer Research (CCR), NCI, NIH, HHS is looking for a motivated and skilled microscopist to fill a Facility Head position to lead its Confocal Microscopy Core Facility. The CCR Microscopy Core provides microscopy equipment and support to approximately 150 active users representing over 20 NCI laboratories. The Core places an emphasis on training independent users, but the staff is available to assist in all phases of experiments. This includes experimental design, data acquisition, and data analysis. The Core provides state-of-the-art microscopic analyses to better understand critical biological structures and cellular processes involved in cancer. The Facility Head will also be expected to participate in the CCR Microscopy Core meetings and to interact extensively with the other microscopy facilities in CCR. Light microscopic techniques and analytic methods currently used in this facility include, but are not limited to: 1) co-localization of fluorescent fusion proteins with organelles; 2) demonstration of membrane ruffling, cytoskeletal organization, focal adhesions and other cell morphology; 3) live time-lapse translocation of fluorescent fusion proteins; 4) fluorescent indicators of oxidative stress in live cells; 5) 4D imaging of cell division; 6) Super-Resolution imaging; 7) tiling; 8) Fluorescent Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) and Fluorescent Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET); 9) Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS); 10) Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging (FLIM); and, 11) Second Harmonic Generation imaging (SHG) of whole live tissue/organ. The Facility's equipment includes a Zeiss LSM 710 NLO for two-photon imaging, a Zeiss LSM 780 for higher sensitivity imaging, a Zeiss LSM 780/ELYRA for super-resolution imaging of fixed cells, and the Zeiss LSM 880/Airyscan for super-resolution imaging of live and

  9. Assessing Needs and Assets for Building a Regional Network Infrastructure to Reduce Cancer Related Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Kristen J.; Lima, Diana S.; Meade, Cathy D.; Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Scarinci, Isabel; McGuire, Allison; Gwede, Clement K.; Pledger, W. Jack; Partridge, Edward; Lipscomb, Joseph; Matthews, Roland; Matta, Jaime; Flores, Idhaliz; Weiner, Roy; Turner, Timothy; Miele, Lucio; Wiese, Thomas E.; Fouad, Mona; Moreno, Carlos S.; Lacey, Michelle; Christie, Debra W.; Price-Haywood, Eboni G.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Coppola, Domenico; Sodeke, Stephen O.; Green, B. Lee; Lichtveld, Maureen Y.

    2015-01-01

    Significant cancer health disparities exist in the United States and Puerto Rico. While numerous initiatives have been implemented to reduce cancer disparities, regional coordination of these efforts between institutions is often limited. To address cancer health disparities nationwide, a series of regional transdisciplinary networks through the Geographic Management Program (GMaP) and the Minority Biospecimen/Biobanking Geographic Management Program (BMaP) were established in six regions across the country. This paper describes the development of the Region 3 GMaP/BMaP network composed of over 100 investigators from nine institutions in five Southeastern states and Puerto Rico to develop a state-of-the-art network for cancer health disparities research and training. We describe a series of partnership activities that led to the formation of the infrastructure for this network, recount the participatory processes utilized to develop and implement a needs and assets assessment and implementation plan, and describe our approach to data collection. Completion, by all nine institutions, of the needs and assets assessment resulted in several beneficial outcomes for Region 3 GMaP/BMaP. This network entails ongoing commitment from the institutions and institutional leaders, continuous participatory and engagement activities, and effective coordination and communication centered on team science goals. PMID:24486917

  10. Assessing needs and assets for building a regional network infrastructure to reduce cancer related health disparities.

    PubMed

    Wells, Kristen J; Lima, Diana S; Meade, Cathy D; Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Scarinci, Isabel; McGuire, Allison; Gwede, Clement K; Pledger, W Jack; Partridge, Edward; Lipscomb, Joseph; Matthews, Roland; Matta, Jaime; Flores, Idhaliz; Weiner, Roy; Turner, Timothy; Miele, Lucio; Wiese, Thomas E; Fouad, Mona; Moreno, Carlos S; Lacey, Michelle; Christie, Debra W; Price-Haywood, Eboni G; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Coppola, Domenico; Sodeke, Stephen O; Green, B Lee; Lichtveld, Maureen Y

    2014-06-01

    Significant cancer health disparities exist in the United States and Puerto Rico. While numerous initiatives have been implemented to reduce cancer disparities, regional coordination of these efforts between institutions is often limited. To address cancer health disparities nation-wide, a series of regional transdisciplinary networks through the Geographic Management Program (GMaP) and the Minority Biospecimen/Biobanking Geographic Management Program (BMaP) were established in six regions across the country. This paper describes the development of the Region 3 GMaP/BMaP network composed of over 100 investigators from nine institutions in five Southeastern states and Puerto Rico to develop a state-of-the-art network for cancer health disparities research and training. We describe a series of partnership activities that led to the formation of the infrastructure for this network, recount the participatory processes utilized to develop and implement a needs and assets assessment and implementation plan, and describe our approach to data collection. Completion, by all nine institutions, of the needs and assets assessment resulted in several beneficial outcomes for Region 3 GMaP/BMaP. This network entails ongoing commitment from the institutions and institutional leaders, continuous participatory and engagement activities, and effective coordination and communication centered on team science goals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research.

    PubMed

    De Paoli, Paolo

    2009-06-29

    The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology.In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization supporting clinical trial recruitment

  12. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research

    PubMed Central

    De Paoli, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology. In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization supporting clinical trial recruitment

  13. Prediction of oral cancer recurrence using dynamic Bayesian networks.

    PubMed

    Kourou, Konstantina; Rigas, George; Exarchos, Konstantinos P; Papaloukas, Costas; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2016-08-01

    We propose a methodology for predicting oral cancer recurrence using Dynamic Bayesian Networks. The methodology takes into consideration time series gene expression data collected at the follow-up study of patients that had or had not suffered a disease relapse. Based on that knowledge, our aim is to infer the corresponding dynamic Bayesian networks and subsequently conjecture about the causal relationships among genes within the same time-slice and between consecutive time-slices. Moreover, the proposed methodology aims to (i) assess the prognosis of patients regarding oral cancer recurrence and at the same time, (ii) provide important information about the underlying biological processes of the disease.

  14. Gene regulatory network inference: evaluation and application to ovarian cancer allows the prioritization of drug targets

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    of proteins encoded by the 10 highest-confidence target genes, and by 15 genes with differential regulation in normal and cancer conditions, reveals 75% to be potential drug targets. Conclusions Our study represents a concrete application of gene regulatory network inference to ovarian cancer, demonstrating the complete cycle of computational systems biology research, from genome-scale data analysis via network inference, evaluation of methods, to the generation of novel testable hypotheses, their prioritization for experimental validation, and discovery of potential drug targets. PMID:22548828

  15. Cancer Core Europe: a consortium to address the cancer care-cancer research continuum challenge.

    PubMed

    Eggermont, Alexander M M; Caldas, Carlos; Ringborg, Ulrik; Medema, René; Tabernero, Josep; Wiestler, Otmar

    2014-11-01

    European cancer research for a transformative initiative by creating a consortium of six leading excellent comprehensive cancer centres that will work together to address the cancer care-cancer research continuum. Prerequisites for joint translational and clinical research programs are very demanding. These require the creation of a virtual single 'e-hospital' and a powerful translational platform, inter-compatible clinical molecular profiling laboratories with a robust underlying computational biology pipeline, standardised functional and molecular imaging, commonly agreed Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for liquid and tissue biopsy procurement, storage and processing, for molecular diagnostics, 'omics', functional genetics, immune-monitoring and other assessments. Importantly also it requires a culture of data collection and data storage that provides complete longitudinal data sets to allow for: effective data sharing and common database building, and to achieve a level of completeness of data that is required for conducting outcome research, taking into account our current understanding of cancers as communities of evolving clones. Cutting edge basic research and technology development serve as an important driving force for innovative translational and clinical studies. Given the excellent track records of the six participants in these areas, Cancer Core Europe will be able to support the full spectrum of research required to address the cancer research- cancer care continuum. Cancer Core Europe also constitutes a unique environment to train the next generation of talents in innovative translational and clinical oncology.

  16. Visualizing research themes in radiological applications for breast cancer detection, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Guisu; McCain, Katherine W

    2008-11-06

    We present a visualization of basic and clinical research in radiological detection, diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer based on an analysis of almost 14,000 articles indexed in the Web of Science from 1997 to 2006. Using bibliometric and network visualization software, we identified highly cited key papers linked to seven visible, persistent research themes spanning detection, diagnosis, and radiotherapy for breast cancer.

  17. Network medicine strikes a blow against breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Erler, Janine T; Linding, Rune

    2012-05-11

    Drug development for complex diseases is shifting from targeting individual proteins or genes to systems-based attacks targeting dynamic network states. Lee et al. now reveal how the progressive rewiring of a signaling network over time following EGF receptor inhibition leaves triple-negative breast tumors vulnerable to a second, later hit with DNA-damaging drugs, demonstrating that time- and order-dependent drug combinations can be more efficacious in killing cancer cells.

  18. The gene regulatory network for breast cancer: integrated regulatory landscape of cancer hallmarks.

    PubMed

    Emmert-Streib, Frank; de Matos Simoes, Ricardo; Mullan, Paul; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Dehmer, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we infer the breast cancer gene regulatory network from gene expression data. This network is obtained from the application of the BC3Net inference algorithm to a large-scale gene expression data set consisting of 351 patient samples. In order to elucidate the functional relevance of the inferred network, we are performing a Gene Ontology (GO) analysis for its structural components. Our analysis reveals that most significant GO-terms we find for the breast cancer network represent functional modules of biological processes that are described by known cancer hallmarks, including translation, immune response, cell cycle, organelle fission, mitosis, cell adhesion, RNA processing, RNA splicing and response to wounding. Furthermore, by using a curated list of census cancer genes, we find an enrichment in these functional modules. Finally, we study cooperative effects of chromosomes based on information of interacting genes in the beast cancer network. We find that chromosome 21 is most coactive with other chromosomes. To our knowledge this is the first study investigating the genome-scale breast cancer network.

  19. The Healthy Aging Research Network: Modeling Collaboration for Community Impact.

    PubMed

    Belza, Basia; Altpeter, Mary; Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G

    2017-03-01

    As the first Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Prevention Research Centers Program thematic network, the Healthy Aging Research Network was established to better understand the determinants of healthy aging within older adult populations, identify interventions that promote healthy aging, and assist in translating research into sustainable community-based programs throughout the nation. To achieve these goals requires concerted efforts of a collaborative network of academic, community, and public health organizational partnerships. For the 2001-2014 Prevention Research Center funding cycles, the Healthy Aging Research Network conducted prevention research and promoted the wide use of practices known to foster optimal health. Organized around components necessary for successful collaborations (i.e., governance and infrastructure, shaping focus, community involvement, and evaluation and improvement), this commentary highlights exemplars that demonstrate the Healthy Aging Research Network's unique contributions to the field. The Healthy Aging Research Network's collaboration provided a means to collectively build capacity for practice and policy, reduce fragmentation and duplication in health promotion and aging research efforts, maximize the efficient use of existing resources and generate additional resources, and ultimately, create synergies for advancing the healthy aging agenda. This collaborative model was built upon a backbone organization (coordinating center); setting of common agendas and mutually reinforcing activities; and continuous communications. Given its successes, the Healthy Aging Research Network model could be used to create new and evaluate existing thematic networks to guide the translation of research into policy and practice.

  20. Breast Cancer Research Update | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Research Update Winter 2017 Table of Contents National ... sheet Extended Drug Therapy Benefits Some Women with Breast Cancer Results from a recent clinical trial showed that ...

  1. What's New in Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hypopharyngeal Cancer About Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Cancer What’s New in Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Cancers Research and Treatment? ... to better tests for early detection and to new targeted treatments. Chemoprevention Chemoprevention is the use of ...

  2. What's New in Salivary Gland Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Salivary Gland Cancer About Salivary Gland Cancer What’s New in Salivary Gland Cancer Research and Treatment? Medical ... they hope to use this information to develop new treatments that work better and cause fewer side ...

  3. What's New in Bile Duct Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bile Duct Cancer About Bile Duct Cancer What’s New in Bile Duct Cancer Research and Treatment? Bile ... is tumor blood vessels. Bile duct tumors need new blood vessels to grow beyond a certain size. ...

  4. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The Neuro-Oncology Branch (NOB), Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health is seeking outstanding postdoctoral candidates for laboratory research related to brain tumors.  NOB is comprised of a multidisciplinary team of physicians, healthcare providers, and scientists who are dedicated to developing new therapies and improving outcomes for patients with primary brain and spinal cord tumors. One postdoctoral position is available in the translational research program of NOB.  The position is focused on performing translational research studies on the interaction between gliomas and their microenvironments in glioblastoma.  Major laboratory efforts aim to better understand the genomic, immunologic, and metabolic pathogenic basis of malignant brain tumors with the overriding goal of translating findings to improve patient outcome.

  5. Profiling metabolic networks to study cancer metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Karsten; Metallo, Christian M

    2013-02-01

    Cancer is a disease of unregulated cell growth and survival, and tumors reprogram biochemical pathways to aid these processes. New capabilities in the computational and bioanalytical characterization of metabolism have now emerged, facilitating the identification of unique metabolic dependencies that arise in specific cancers. By understanding the metabolic phenotype of cancers as a function of their oncogenic profiles, metabolic engineering may be applied to design synthetically lethal therapies for some tumors. This process begins with accurate measurement of metabolic fluxes. Here we review advanced methods of quantifying pathway activity and highlight specific examples where these approaches have uncovered potential opportunities for therapeutic intervention.

  6. Transcriptional master regulator analysis in breast cancer genetic networks.

    PubMed

    Tovar, Hugo; García-Herrera, Rodrigo; Espinal-Enríquez, Jesús; Hernández-Lemus, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    Gene regulatory networks account for the delicate mechanisms that control gene expression. Under certain circumstances, gene regulatory programs may give rise to amplification cascades. Such transcriptional cascades are events in which activation of key-responsive transcription factors called master regulators trigger a series of gene expression events. The action of transcriptional master regulators is then important for the establishment of certain programs like cell development and differentiation. However, such cascades have also been related with the onset and maintenance of cancer phenotypes. Here we present a systematic implementation of a series of algorithms aimed at the inference of a gene regulatory network and analysis of transcriptional master regulators in the context of primary breast cancer cells. Such studies were performed in a highly curated database of 880 microarray gene expression experiments on biopsy-captured tissue corresponding to primary breast cancer and healthy controls. Biological function and biochemical pathway enrichment analyses were also performed to study the role that the processes controlled - at the transcriptional level - by such master regulators may have in relation to primary breast cancer. We found that transcription factors such as AGTR2, ZNF132, TFDP3 and others are master regulators in this gene regulatory network. Sets of genes controlled by these regulators are involved in processes that are well-known hallmarks of cancer. This kind of analyses may help to understand the most upstream events in the development of phenotypes, in particular, those regarding cancer biology.

  7. Isotope Cancer Treatment Research at LANL

    ScienceCinema

    Weidner, John; Nortier, Meiring

    2016-07-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has produced medical isotopes for diagnostic and imaging purposes for more than 30 years. Now LANL researchers have branched out into isotope cancer treatment studies. New results show that an accelerator-based approach can produce clinical trial quantities of actinium-225, an isotope that has promise as a way to kill tumors without damaging surrounding healthy cells.

  8. Isotope Cancer Treatment Research at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Weidner, John; Nortier, Meiring

    2012-04-11

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has produced medical isotopes for diagnostic and imaging purposes for more than 30 years. Now LANL researchers have branched out into isotope cancer treatment studies. New results show that an accelerator-based approach can produce clinical trial quantities of actinium-225, an isotope that has promise as a way to kill tumors without damaging surrounding healthy cells.

  9. Partners | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    Awardees and Affiliated Institutions Agilent Technologies, Inc., Cambridge, MA Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX Biomedical Hosting LLC, Arlington, MA Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Cambridge, MA Brown University, Providence, RI Cell Signaling Technology, Danvers, MA Chang Gung University, Molecular Medicine Research Center, Taoyuan City, Taiwan Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA Fluidigm Corp., Cambridge, MA

  10. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    A postdoctoral position is available for a candidate with interests in signal transduction and/or molecular and cellular biology in a NCI intramural research laboratory. Approaches include molecular, biochemical and cell-based assays in cell culture and in vivo mouse cancer models.

  11. SEER Cancer Registry Biospecimen Research: Yesterday and Tomorrow

    PubMed Central

    Altekruse, Sean F.; Rosenfeld, Gabriel E.; Carrick, Danielle M.; Pressman, Emilee J.; Schully, Sheri D.; Mechanic, Leah E.; Cronin, Kathleen A.; Hernandez, Brenda Y.; Lynch, Charles F.; Cozen, Wendy; Khoury, Muin J.; Penberthy, Lynne T.

    2014-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries have been a source of biospecimens for cancer research for decades. Recently, registry-based biospecimen studies have become more practical, with the expansion of electronic networks for pathology and medical record reporting. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens are now used for next-generation sequencing and other molecular techniques. These developments create new opportunities for SEER biospecimen research. We evaluated 31 research articles published during 2005–2013 based on author confirmation that these studies involved linkage of SEER data to biospecimens. Rather than providing an exhaustive review of all possible articles, our intent was to indicate the breadth of research made possible by such a resource. We also summarize responses to a 2012 questionnaire that was broadly distributed to the NCI intra- and extramural biospecimen research community. This included responses from 30 investigators who had used SEER biospecimens in their research. The survey was not intended to be a systematic sample, but instead to provide anecdotal insight on strengths, limitations, and the future of SEER biospecimen research. Identified strengths of this research resource include biospecimen availability, cost, and annotation of data, including demographic information, stage, and survival. Shortcomings include limited annotation of clinical attributes such as detailed chemotherapy history and recurrence, and timeliness of turnaround following biospecimen requests. A review of selected SEER biospecimen articles, investigator feedback, and technological advances reinforced our view that SEER biospecimen resources should be developed. This would advance cancer biology, etiology, and personalized therapy research. PMID:25472677

  12. USING SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS TO EVALUATE COMMUNITY CAPACITY BUILDING OF A REGIONAL COMMUNITY CANCER NETWORK

    PubMed Central

    Luque, John; Tyson, Dinorah Martinez; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Gwede, Clement; Vadaparampil, Susan; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Meade, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) is one of 25 Community Network Programs funded by the National Cancer Institute’s (NCI’s) Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities with the objectives to create a collaborative infrastructure of academic and community based organizations and to develop effective and sustainable interventions to reduce cancer health disparities. In order to describe the network characteristics of the TBCCN as part of our ongoing evaluation efforts, we conducted social network analysis surveys with our community partners in 2007 and 2008. One key finding showed that the mean trust value for the 20 community partners in the study increased from 1.8 to 2.1 (p<0.01), suggesting a trend toward increased trust in the network. These preliminary results suggest that TBCCN has led to greater collaboration among the community partners that were formed through its capacity-building and evidence-based dissemination activities for impacting cancer health disparities at the community level. PMID:24049217

  13. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    1. Brittany T. Jones, Poomy Pandey, Srustidhar Das and Surinder K. Batra. (2010) Therapeutic Potential of Curcumin : Inhibition of MIC-1/GDF-15...else has every thought. She’s currently working in Dr. Surinder K. Batra’s lab, where her research project is to monitor "What effect do Curcumin ...project is supported in part by DOD PC094594 and NCI CA88184.) Brittany Jones – Abstract Therapeutic Potential of Curcumin : Inhibition of MIC-1/GDF-15

  14. CPTAC-EDRN Joint Session - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)’s Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) and the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) will host a session during the 9th US-HUPO annual conference entitled “Highlights from NCI Proteomic Research Programs.”

  15. Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network (CISNET)

    Cancer.gov

    CISNET is a consortium of NCI-sponsored investigators that use statistical modeling to improve our understanding of cancer control interventions in prevention, screening, and treatment and their effects on population trends in incidence and mortality.

  16. Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network (CISNET)

    Cancer.gov

    CISNET is a consortium of NCI-sponsored investigators that use statistical modeling to improve our understanding of cancer control interventions in prevention, screening, and treatment and their effects on population trends in incidence and mortality.

  17. Learning contextual gene set interaction networks of cancer with condition specificity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Identifying similarities and differences in the molecular constitutions of various types of cancer is one of the key challenges in cancer research. The appearances of a cancer depend on complex molecular interactions, including gene regulatory networks and gene-environment interactions. This complexity makes it challenging to decipher the molecular origin of the cancer. In recent years, many studies reported methods to uncover heterogeneous depictions of complex cancers, which are often categorized into different subtypes. The challenge is to identify diverse molecular contexts within a cancer, to relate them to different subtypes, and to learn underlying molecular interactions specific to molecular contexts so that we can recommend context-specific treatment to patients. Results In this study, we describe a novel method to discern molecular interactions specific to certain molecular contexts. Unlike conventional approaches to build modular networks of individual genes, our focus is to identify cancer-generic and subtype-specific interactions between contextual gene sets, of which each gene set share coherent transcriptional patterns across a subset of samples, termed contextual gene set. We then apply a novel formulation for quantitating the effect of the samples from each subtype on the calculated strength of interactions observed. Two cancer data sets were analyzed to support the validity of condition-specificity of identified interactions. When compared to an existing approach, the proposed method was much more sensitive in identifying condition-specific interactions even in heterogeneous data set. The results also revealed that network components specific to different types of cancer are related to different biological functions than cancer-generic network components. We found not only the results that are consistent with previous studies, but also new hypotheses on the biological mechanisms specific to certain cancer types that warrant further

  18. Communication networks of men facing a diagnosis of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Brown, Dot; Oetzel, John; Henderson, Alison

    2016-11-01

    This study seeks to identify the factors that shape the communication networks of men who face a potential diagnosis of prostate cancer, and how these factors relate to their disclosure about their changing health status. Men facing a potential diagnosis of prostate cancer are in a challenging situation; the support benefits of disclosing their changing health status to others in their communication networks is set against a backdrop of the potential stigma and uncertainty of the diagnosis. All men on a prostate biopsy waiting list were eligible for inclusion in an exploratory and interpretive study. Semi-structured interviews with 40 men explored their network structures and disclosure of health information. Thematic analysis highlighted the factors which contributed to their network structures and their disclosure about their health status. Four network factors shaped men's perspectives about disclosing their health status: (1) tie strength, comprising both strong and weak ties; (2) knowledgeable others, with a focus on medical professionals in the family; (3) homophily, which included other individuals with a similar medical condition; and (4) geographical proximity, with a preference for face-to-face communication. Communication networks influence men's disclosure of their health status and in particular weak ties with medical knowledge have an important role. Men who use the potential for support in their networks may experience improved psychosocial outcomes. Using these four network factors-tie strength, knowledgeable others, homophily or geographical proximity-to forecast men's willingness to disclose helps identify men who lack potential support and so are at risk of poor psychosocial health. Those with few strong ties or knowledgeable others in their networks may be in the at-risk cohort. The support provided in communication networks complements formal medical care from nurses and other health professionals, and encouraging patients to use their

  19. Global Networking of Cancer and NCD professionals using internet technologies: the Supercourse and mHealth applications.

    PubMed

    Linkov, Faina; Padilla, Nicolas; Shubnikov, Eugene; Laporte, Ronald

    2010-11-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death around the world. Education is at the core of cancer prevention activities, especially programs targeting empowering existing public health workforce. In the past 10 years, researchers at the University of Pittsburgh have been building the Global Health Network Supercourse project, a library of over 4500 online lectures and a network of nearly 50000 public health professionals in 174 countries. As of November, 2010, the overall number of Supercourse participants from Asia exceeds 7000 participants. The Supercourse network has been investigating methods for Internet based recruitment of cancer prevention professionals in order to network cancer experts locally and globally, including the use of mHealth technologies for cancer research education and for NCD registries. Supercourse is a tool that can offer a solution to the challenges of information sharing, especially in the field of NCDs and cancer. In this paper, we highlight the need for the development of Cancer Supercourse with Satellite in Asia and encourage faculty members from Asia to join the network.

  20. Why is Physics Important to Cancer Research?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Anna D.

    Cancer is increasingly described as a ''disease of the genes'', and while the genome (in fact all of the ``omes'') are important information molecules that drive aspects of the initiation and progression of cancer, they are far from the whole story. Cancer is an extraordinarily complex system (in fact a complex of systems) that occurs in three-dimensional space, across multiple scales - and often over extended periods of time. The most challenging issues that plague the cancer field such as metastasis, cellular heterogeneity and resistance to therapy are in large part more rationally explained in the context of the physics of these systems vs. genomics. For example, the biology of metastasis has been studied extensively for decades with little progress. Metastatic disease depends on cells acquiring (or expressing innate information) new properties that enable and sustain their ability to migrate to distant sites. Developing a fundamental understanding of key cancer processes ranging from metastasis to immunotherapeutic responses requires that physicists (and mathematicians and engineers) be integrated into a new generation of cancer research - period! The presentation will focus on those areas where physics is essential - and the how's and whose of achieving the integration required.

  1. Imaging genome abnormalities in cancer research.

    PubMed

    Heng, Henry HQ; Stevens, Joshua B; Liu, Guo; Bremer, Steven W; Ye, Christine J

    2004-01-13

    Increasing attention is focusing on chromosomal and genome structure in cancer research due to the fact that genomic instability plays a principal role in cancer initiation, progression and response to chemotherapeutic agents. The integrity of the genome (including structural, behavioral and functional aspects) of normal and cancer cells can be monitored with direct visualization by using a variety of cutting edge molecular cytogenetic technologies that are now available in the field of cancer research. Examples are presented in this review by grouping these methodologies into four categories visualizing different yet closely related major levels of genome structures. An integrated discussion is also presented on several ongoing projects involving the illustration of mitotic and meiotic chromatin loops; the identification of defective mitotic figures (DMF), a new type of chromosomal aberration capable of monitoring condensation defects in cancer; the establishment of a method that uses Non-Clonal Chromosomal Aberrations (NCCAs) as an index to monitor genomic instability; and the characterization of apoptosis related chromosomal fragmentations caused by drug treatments.

  2. Hierarchical Decimal Classification of Information Related to Cancer Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, John H.

    The classification may be used (1) to identify cancer research efforts supported by NCI in selected areas of research (at any general or specific level desired), (2) to store information related to cancer research and retrieve this information on request, and (3) to match interests of cancer research scientists against information in published…

  3. Hierarchical Decimal Classification of Information Related to Cancer Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, John H.

    The classification may be used (1) to identify cancer research efforts supported by NCI in selected areas of research (at any general or specific level desired), (2) to store information related to cancer research and retrieve this information on request, and (3) to match interests of cancer research scientists against information in published…

  4. Testicular Cancer Survivorship: Research Strategies and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Clair; Allan, James M.; Dahl, Alv A.; Feldman, Darren R.; Oldenburg, Jan; Daugaard, Gedske; Kelly, Jennifer L.; Dolan, M. Eileen; Hannigan, Robyn; Constine, Louis S.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Okunieff, Paul; Armstrong, Greg; Wiljer, David; Miller, Robert C.; Gietema, Jourik A.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Nichols, Craig R.; Einhorn, Lawrence H.; Fossa, Sophie D.

    2010-01-01

    Testicular cancer represents the most curable solid tumor, with a 10-year survival rate of more than 95%. Given the young average age at diagnosis, it is estimated that effective treatment approaches, in particular, platinum-based chemotherapy, have resulted in an average gain of several decades of life. This success, however, is offset by the emergence of considerable long-term morbidity, including second malignant neoplasms, cardiovascular disease, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, pulmonary toxicity, hypogonadism, decreased fertility, and psychosocial problems. Data on underlying genetic or molecular factors that might identify those patients at highest risk for late sequelae are sparse. Genome-wide association studies and other translational molecular approaches now provide opportunities to identify testicular cancer survivors at greatest risk for therapy-related complications to develop evidence-based long-term follow-up guidelines and interventional strategies. We review research priorities identified during an international workshop devoted to testicular cancer survivors. Recommendations include 1) institution of lifelong follow-up of testicular cancer survivors within a large cohort setting to ascertain risks of emerging toxicities and the evolution of known late sequelae, 2) development of comprehensive risk prediction models that include treatment factors and genetic modifiers of late sequelae, 3) elucidation of the effect(s) of decades-long exposure to low serum levels of platinum, 4) assessment of the overall burden of medical and psychosocial morbidity, and 5) the eventual formulation of evidence-based long-term follow-up guidelines and interventions. Just as testicular cancer once served as the paradigm of a curable malignancy, comprehensive follow-up studies of testicular cancer survivors can pioneer new methodologies in survivorship research for all adult-onset cancer. PMID:20585105

  5. Functional genomics in translational cancer research: focus on breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yulug, Isik G; Gur-Dedeoglu, Bala

    2008-01-01

    Conventional molecular and genetic methods for studying cancer are limited to the analysis of one locus at a time. A cluster of genes that are regulated together can be identified by DNA microarray, and the functional relationships can uncover new aspects of cancer biology. Breast cancer can be used to provide a model to demonstrate the current approaches to the molecular analysis of cancer. Meta-analysis is an important tool for the identification and validation of differentially expressed genes to increase power in clinical and biological studies across different sets of data. Recently, meta-analysis approaches have been applied to large collections of microarray datasets to investigate molecular commonalities of multiple cancer types not only to find the common molecular pathways in tumour development but also to compare the individual datasets to other cancer datasets to identify new sets of genes. Several investigators agree that microarray results should be validated. One commonly used method is quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) to validate the expression profiles of the target genes obtained through microarray experiments. qRT-PCR is attractive for clinical use, since it can be automated and performed on fresh or archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples. The outcome of these analyses might accelerate the application of basic research findings into daily clinical practice through translational research and may have an impact on foreseeing the clinical outcome, predicting tumour response to specific therapy, identification of new prognostic biomarkers, discovering targets for the development of novel therapies and providing further insights into tumour biology.

  6. [Translation of knowledge on cervical cancer: is there a gap between research on causes and research on patient care?].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Ortiz, David; Ochoa, Héctor; García, Luis; Castaño, Víctor

    2014-02-01

    This article constructs a map on the translation of knowledge concerning cervical cancer, based on citation networks analysis and the use of Gene Ontology terms and Medical Subject Headings. We identified two areas of research that are poorly interconnected and differ in structure, content, and evolution. One focuses on causes of cancer and the other on patient care. The first research area showed a knowledge translation process where basic research and clinical research are communicated through a set of articles that consolidate human papillomavirus infection as the necessary cause of cervical cancer. The first area aims to prevent HPV infection and the development of cervical cancer, while the second aims to stage and treat the disease.

  7. Enabling collaborative research using the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN)

    PubMed Central

    Ambite, Jose Luis; Ames, Joseph; Ananthakrishnan, Rachana; Burns, Gully; Chervenak, Ann L; Foster, Ian; Liming, Lee; Keator, David; Macciardi, Fabio; Madduri, Ravi; Navarro, John-Paul; Potkin, Steven; Rosen, Bruce; Ruffins, Seth; Schuler, Robert; Turner, Jessica A; Toga, Arthur; Williams, Christina; Kesselman, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Objective As biomedical technology becomes increasingly sophisticated, researchers can probe ever more subtle effects with the added requirement that the investigation of small effects often requires the acquisition of large amounts of data. In biomedicine, these data are often acquired at, and later shared between, multiple sites. There are both technological and sociological hurdles to be overcome for data to be passed between researchers and later made accessible to the larger scientific community. The goal of the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN) is to address the challenges inherent in biomedical data sharing. Materials and methods BIRN tools are grouped into ‘capabilities’ and are available in the areas of data management, data security, information integration, and knowledge engineering. BIRN has a user-driven focus and employs a layered architectural approach that promotes reuse of infrastructure. BIRN tools are designed to be modular and therefore can work with pre-existing tools. BIRN users can choose the capabilities most useful for their application, while not having to ensure that their project conforms to a monolithic architecture. Results BIRN has implemented a new software-based data-sharing infrastructure that has been put to use in many different domains within biomedicine. BIRN is actively involved in outreach to the broader biomedical community to form working partnerships. Conclusion BIRN's mission is to provide capabilities and services related to data sharing to the biomedical research community. It does this by forming partnerships and solving specific, user-driven problems whose solutions are then available for use by other groups. PMID:21515543

  8. Researchers identify potential therapeutic targets for a rare childhood cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    CCR researchers have identified the mechanism behind a rare but extremely aggressive childhood cancer called alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) and have pinpointed a potential drug target for its treatment. Learn more...

  9. Ubiquitin proteasome system research in gastrointestinal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jia-Ling; Huang, Chang-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is important for the degradation of proteins in eukaryotic cells. It is involved in nearly every cellular process and plays an important role in maintaining body homeostasis. An increasing body of evidence has linked alterations in the UPS to gastrointestinal malignancies, including esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancers. Here, we summarize the current literature detailing the involvement of the UPS in gastrointestinal cancer, highlighting its role in tumor occurrence and development, providing information for therapeutic targets research and anti-gastrointestinal tumor drug design. PMID:26909134

  10. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Post-doctoral positions in cellular and molecular immunology are available in the lab of Dr. Chuan Wu, Experimental Immunology Branch, National Cancer Institute in Bethesda, MD. The laboratory's research interest focuses on the role of intestinal neuroimmune interactions in health and disease. Specifically, we seek to study cytokine regulation of intestinal peristalsis, reciprocal regulation of colonic Treg cells and enteric neuron, and human enteric neuron system lineages for cell therapy and drug discovery in humanized colitis model. More information on projects in the Wu lab can be found here: https://ccr.cancer.gov/Experimental-Immunology-Branch/chuan-wu.

  11. Ubiquitin proteasome system research in gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jia-Ling; Huang, Chang-Zhi

    2016-02-15

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is important for the degradation of proteins in eukaryotic cells. It is involved in nearly every cellular process and plays an important role in maintaining body homeostasis. An increasing body of evidence has linked alterations in the UPS to gastrointestinal malignancies, including esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancers. Here, we summarize the current literature detailing the involvement of the UPS in gastrointestinal cancer, highlighting its role in tumor occurrence and development, providing information for therapeutic targets research and anti-gastrointestinal tumor drug design.

  12. Senior Clinician | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The Center for Cancer Research (CCR), NCI, NIH, HHS is seeking to fill several Senior Clinician positions with outstanding oncologists with research experience and expertise in one of the following areas:  1) genitourinary malignancies, 2) thoracic malignancies; 3) gastrointestinal malignancies; 4) lymphomas; 5) pediatric cancers; or 6) genetic tumor predisposition syndromes. These positions are located at the NIH campus in Bethesda, Maryland. The NIH Clinical Center is the world’s largest research hospital which offers state-of-the-art facilities, collaborative opportunities, and core facilities for advanced technologies.  The Senior Clinician will have available resources including funding for clinical trials, nurse practitioners, research nurses, and patient care coordinators.  In addition, the senior clinician will have access to a robust clinical trials infrastructure including data management, training, protocol support office, regulatory support, information systems and technology, and data safety monitoring.  The CCR’s collaborative culture also offers research staff access to a wide array of intellectual and technological assets, including high-quality technology cores dedicated to pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics, protein chemistry, natural products chemistry, biophysics, mass spectrometry, imaging, microscopy, proteomics and genomics, bioinformatics/biostatistics, and flow cytometry.  For an overview of CCR, please visit http://ccr.cancer.gov/.  For more information contact Lori Holliday at hollidal@mail.nih.gov.

  13. A mixed-methods study of research dissemination across practice-based research networks.

    PubMed

    Lipman, Paula Darby; Lange, Carol J; Cohen, Rachel A; Peterson, Kevin A

    2014-01-01

    Practice-based research networks may be expanding beyond research into rapid learning systems. This mixed-methods study uses Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality registry data to identify networks currently engaged in dissemination of research findings and to select a sample to participate in qualitative semistructured interviews. An adapted Diffusion of Innovations framework was used to organize concepts by characteristics of networks, dissemination activities, and mechanisms for rapid learning. Six regional networks provided detailed information about dissemination strategies, organizational context, role of practice-based research network, member involvement, and practice incentives. Strategies compatible with current practices and learning innovations that generate observable improvements may increase effectiveness of rapid learning approaches.

  14. The Security Research of Digital Library Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Song, Ding-Li; Yan, Shu

    Digital library is a self-development needs for the modern library to meet the development requirements of the times, changing the way services and so on. digital library from the hardware, technology, management and other aspects to objective analysis of the factors of threats to digital library network security. We should face up the problems of digital library network security: digital library network hardware are "not hard", the technology of digital library is relatively lag, digital library management system is imperfect and other problems; the government should take active measures to ensure that the library funding, to enhance the level of network hardware, to upgrade LAN and prevention technology, to improve network control technology, network monitoring technology; to strengthen safety management concepts, to prefect the safety management system; and to improve the level of security management modernization for digital library.

  15. Integrative gene network construction to analyze cancer recurrence using semi-supervised learning.

    PubMed

    Park, Chihyun; Ahn, Jaegyoon; Kim, Hyunjin; Park, Sanghyun

    2014-01-01

    The prognosis of cancer recurrence is an important research area in bioinformatics and is challenging due to the small sample sizes compared to the vast number of genes. There have been several attempts to predict cancer recurrence. Most studies employed a supervised approach, which uses only a few labeled samples. Semi-supervised learning can be a great alternative to solve this problem. There have been few attempts based on manifold assumptions to reveal the detailed roles of identified cancer genes in recurrence. In order to predict cancer recurrence, we proposed a novel semi-supervised learning algorithm based on a graph regularization approach. We transformed the gene expression data into a graph structure for semi-supervised learning and integrated protein interaction data with the gene expression data to select functionally-related gene pairs. Then, we predicted the recurrence of cancer by applying a regularization approach to the constructed graph containing both labeled and unlabeled nodes. The average improvement rate of accuracy for three different cancer datasets was 24.9% compared to existing supervised and semi-supervised methods. We performed functional enrichment on the gene networks used for learning. We identified that those gene networks are significantly associated with cancer-recurrence-related biological functions. Our algorithm was developed with standard C++ and is available in Linux and MS Windows formats in the STL library. The executable program is freely available at: http://embio.yonsei.ac.kr/~Park/ssl.php.

  16. EARLINET: potential operationality of a research network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicard, M.; D'Amico, G.; Comerón, A.; Mona, L.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Amodeo, A.; Baars, H.; Baldasano, J. M.; Belegante, L.; Binietoglou, I.; Bravo-Aranda, J. A.; Fernández, A. J.; Fréville, P.; García-Vizcaíno, D.; Giunta, A.; Granados-Muñoz, M. J.; Guerrero-Rascado, J. L.; Hadjimitsis, D.; Haefele, A.; Hervo, M.; Iarlori, M.; Kokkalis, P.; Lange, D.; Mamouri, R. E.; Mattis, I.; Molero, F.; Montoux, N.; Muñoz, A.; Muñoz Porcar, C.; Navas-Guzmán, F.; Nicolae, D.; Nisantzi, A.; Papagiannopoulos, N.; Papayannis, A.; Pereira, S.; Preißler, J.; Pujadas, M.; Rizi, V.; Rocadenbosch, F.; Sellegri, K.; Simeonov, V.; Tsaknakis, G.; Wagner, F.; Pappalardo, G.

    2015-11-01

    In the framework of ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace Gases Research Infrastructure Network) summer 2012 measurement campaign (8 June-17 July 2012), EARLINET organized and performed a controlled exercise of feasibility to demonstrate its potential to perform operational, coordinated measurements and deliver products in near-real time. Eleven lidar stations participated in the exercise which started on 9 July 2012 at 06:00 UT and ended 72 h later on 12 July at 06:00 UT. For the first time, the single calculus chain (SCC) - the common calculus chain developed within EARLINET for the automatic evaluation of lidar data from raw signals up to the final products - was used. All stations sent in real-time measurements of a 1 h duration to the SCC server in a predefined netcdf file format. The pre-processing of the data was performed in real time by the SCC, while the optical processing was performed in near-real time after the exercise ended. 98 and 79 % of the files sent to SCC were successfully pre-processed and processed, respectively. Those percentages are quite large taking into account that no cloud screening was performed on the lidar data. The paper draws present and future SCC users' attention to the most critical parameters of the SCC product configuration and their possible optimal value but also to the limitations inherent to the raw data. The continuous use of SCC direct and derived products in heterogeneous conditions is used to demonstrate two potential applications of EARLINET infrastructure: the monitoring of a Saharan dust intrusion event and the evaluation of two dust transport models. The efforts made to define the measurements protocol and to configure properly the SCC pave the way for applying this protocol for specific applications such as the monitoring of special events, atmospheric modeling, climate research and calibration/validation activities of spaceborne observations.

  17. Statistical Analysis of Research Data | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Recent advances in cancer biology have resulted in the need for increased statistical analysis of research data. The Statistical Analysis of Research Data (SARD) course will be held on April 12-13, 2017 from 9:00 AM – 5:00 PM at the Natcher Conference Center, Balcony A on the Bethesda campus. SARD is designed to provide an overview of the general principles of statistical analysis of research data. The course will be taught by Paul W. Thurman of Columbia University.

  18. Creating Community–Academic Partnerships for Cancer Disparities Research and Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Meade, Cathy D.; Menard, Janelle M.; Luque, John S.; Martinez-Tyson, Dinorah; Gwede, Clement K.

    2010-01-01

    To effectively attenuate cancer disparities in multiethnic, medically underserved populations, interventions must be developed collaboratively through solid community–academic partnerships and driven by community-based participatory research (CBPR). The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) has been created to identify and implement interventions to address local cancer disparities in partnership with community-based nonprofit organizations, faith-based groups, community health centers, local media, and adult literacy and education organizations. TBCCN activities and research efforts are geared toward addressing critical information and access issues related to cancer control and prevention in diverse communities in the Tampa Bay area. Such efforts include cross-cultural health promotion, screening, and awareness activities in addition to applied research projects that are rooted in communities and guided by CBPR methods. This article describes these activities as examples of partnership building to positively affect cancer disparities, promote community health, and set the stage for community-based research partnerships. PMID:19822724

  19. Peer Reviewed Cancer Research Program Fiscal Year 2012 Report to Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-21

    kidney cancer, blood cancer, colorectal Peer Reviewed Cancer Research Program Fiscal Year 2012 Report to Congress 5 cancer, Listeria vaccine for cancer... Listeria vaccine for infectious disease and cancer, and radiation protection utilizing nanotechnology. This was later revised to remove Listeria ...genetic cancer, pancreatic cancer, kidney cancer, blood cancer, colorectal cancer, mesothelioma, and Listeria vaccine for infectious disease and cancer

  20. A National Network to Advance the Field of Cancer and Female Sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Goldfarb, Shari B.; Abramsohn, Emily; Andersen, Barbara L.; Baron, Shirley R.; Carter, Jeanne; Dickler, Maura; Florendo, Judith; Freeman, Leslie; Githens, Katherine; Kushner, David; Makelarski, Jennifer A.; Yamada, Diane; Lindau, Stacy Tessler

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Understanding sexual health issues in cancer patients is integral to care for the continuously growing cancer survivor population. Aim To create a national network of active clinicians and researchers focusing on the prevention and treatment of sexual problems in woman and girls with cancer. Methods Interdisciplinary teams from the University of Chicago and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center jointly developed the mission for a national conference to convene clinicians and researchers in the field of cancer and female sexuality. The invitee list was developed by both institutions and further iterated through suggestions from invitees. The conference agenda focused on three high-priority topics under the guidance of a professional facilitator. Breakout groups were led by attendees recognized by collaborators as experts in those topics. Conference costs were shared by both institutions. Main Outcome Measure Development of Scientific Working Groups (SWGs) Results One hundred two clinicians and researchers were invited to attend the 1st National Conference on Cancer and Female Sexuality. Forty-three individuals from 20 different institutions across 14 states attended, including representation from eight NCI-funded cancer centers. Attendees included PhD researchers (n=19), physicians (n=16), and other health care professionals (n=8). Breakout groups included: 1) Defining Key Life Course Sexuality Issues; 2) Building a Registry; and 3) Implementing Sexual Health Assessment. Breakout group summaries incorporated group consensus on key points and priorities. These generated six SWGs with volunteer leaders to accelerate future research and discovery: 1) Technology-Based Interventions; 2) Basic Science; 3) Clinical Trials; 4) Registries; 5) Measurement; and 6) Secondary Data Analysis. Most attendees volunteered for at least one SWG (n=35), and many volunteered for two (n=21). Conclusion This 1st National Conference demonstrated high motivation and broad

  1. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    One fully-funded postdoctoral position is available for a highly-motivated individual to study cancer immunotherapy at the National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Experimental Transplantation and Immunology Branch.  Projects will focus on translational research aimed at developing new chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies for cancer.  The overall goal of the group is improving chimeric antigen receptor therapies for hematological malignancies.  A wide variety of activities are carried out by the group including development of new chimeric antigen receptors, optimizing gene therapy technologies, cellular immunology including in vitro and ex vivo studies, murine models of hematological malignancies, and clinical trials of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapies. 

  2. Applications of genetic programming in cancer research.

    PubMed

    Worzel, William P; Yu, Jianjun; Almal, Arpit A; Chinnaiyan, Arul M

    2009-02-01

    The theory of Darwinian evolution is the fundamental keystones of modern biology. Late in the last century, computer scientists began adapting its principles, in particular natural selection, to complex computational challenges, leading to the emergence of evolutionary algorithms. The conceptual model of selective pressure and recombination in evolutionary algorithms allow scientists to efficiently search high dimensional space for solutions to complex problems. In the last decade, genetic programming has been developed and extensively applied for analysis of molecular data to classify cancer subtypes and characterize the mechanisms of cancer pathogenesis and development. This article reviews current successes using genetic programming and discusses its potential impact in cancer research and treatment in the near future.

  3. Applications of Genetic Programming in Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    Worzel, William P.; Yu, Jianjun; Almal, Arpit A.; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.

    2012-01-01

    The theory of Darwinian evolution is the fundamental keystones of modern biology. Late in the last century, computer scientists began adapting its principles, in particular natural selection, to complex computational challenges, leading to the emergence of evolutionary algorithms. The conceptual model of selective pressure and recombination in evolutionary algorithms allows scientists to efficiently search high dimensional space for solutions to complex problems. In the last decade, genetic programming has been developed and extensively applied for analysis of molecular data to classify cancer subtypes and characterize the mechanisms of cancer pathogenesis and development. This article reviews current successes using genetic programming and discusses its potential impact in cancer research and treatment in the near future. PMID:18929677

  4. Cranberries: ripe for more cancer research?

    PubMed

    Neto, Catherine C

    2011-10-01

    Berries have been recognized as a functional food with potential to protect against a variety of health conditions, including some cancers. Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) production and consumption have grown in recent years, warranting further evaluation of potential health benefits. Extracts and isolated constituents from cranberry fruit inhibit growth and proliferation of tumor cells in vitro, and recent data from animal studies lend further support to cranberry's reputation as a cancer fighter. Several likely mechanisms of action for cranberry against prostate and other cancers have been identified, including induction of apoptosis and inhibition of events linked to cellular invasion and migration. This article attempts to put into perspective what is known about cranberry's potential chemopreventive properties, what is yet to be determined, and some factors to consider as research moves forward. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. What`s New in Cervical Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Cervical Cancer What's New in Cervical Cancer Research and Treatment? New ways to prevent and treat ... This drug continues to be studied. Hyperthermia Some research indicates that adding hyperthermia to radiation may help ...

  6. Antibody Characterization Lab | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The Antibody Characterization Lab (ACL), an intramural reference laboratory located at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research in Frederick, Maryland, thoroughly characterizes monoclonal antibodies or other renewable affinity binding reagents for use in cancer related research.

  7. Applying community-based participatory research principles and approaches in clinical trials: forging a new model for cancer clinical research.

    PubMed

    Seifer, Sarena D; Michaels, Margo; Collins, Stacy

    2010-01-01

    Although an estimated 20% of adult cancer patients are medically eligible for a cancer treatment clinical trial (CCT), adult trial participation in the U.S. remains under 3%.- Participation rates are even lower among ethnic and racial minorities and the medically underserved, who tend to have higher cancer mortality rates than the population as a whole.- Given persistent cancer health disparities in these populations, cancer clinical trial participation is increasingly an issue of social justice. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches have been repeatedly recommended as a key strategy for increasing and diversifying cancer clinical trial participation and enhancing their relevance and quality. In 2006, Community-Campus Partnership for Health (CCPH) and the Education Network to Advance Cancer Clinical Trials (ENACCT) received funding from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), along with industry and nonprofit partners, to develop the first set of national recommendations to employ CBPR approaches in multisite, phase III cancer clinical trials. The Communities as Partners in Cancer Clinical Trials: Changing Research, Practice and Policy final report, developed through a national advisory committee, two stakeholder meetings and a public vetting process, makes more than fifty detailed recommendations to engage communities in specific and meaningful ways throughout the cancer clinical trial process.1 The report is the first to provide specific guidance as to how and why clinical trials should involve communities affected by cancer-from trial design to implementation to dissemination of results. This paper describes the background and rationale for the initiative, the process used to develop and disseminate the report, and the challenges and opportunities for implementing the report's community-based approaches to cancer clinical research.

  8. ALEPH: Israel's Research Library Network: Background, Evolution, and Implications for Networking in a Small Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazinger, Susan S.

    1991-01-01

    Describes ALEPH, the research library network in Israel, and analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of its decentralized structure. Highlights include comparisons between RLIN and ALEPH; centralized versus decentralized networks; the format of ALEPH; authority control in ALEPH; and non-Roman scripts in both networks. (16 references) (LRW)

  9. Contrast research of CDMA and GSM network optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yanwen; Liu, Zehong; Zhou, Guangyue

    2004-03-01

    With the development of mobile telecommunication network, users of CDMA advanced their request of network service quality. While the operators also change their network management object from signal coverage to performance improvement. In that case, reasonably layout & optimization of mobile telecommunication network, reasonably configuration of network resource, improvement of the service quality, and increase the enterprise's core competition ability, all those have been concerned by the operator companies. This paper firstly looked into the flow of CDMA network optimization. Then it dissertated to some keystones in the CDMA network optimization, like PN code assignment, calculation of soft handover, etc. As GSM is also the similar cellular mobile telecommunication system like CDMA, so this paper also made a contrast research of CDMA and GSM network optimization in details, including the similarity and the different. In conclusion, network optimization is a long time job; it will run through the whole process of network construct. By the adjustment of network hardware (like BTS equipments, RF systems, etc.) and network software (like parameter optimized, configuration optimized, capacity optimized, etc.), network optimization work can improve the performance and service quality of the network.

  10. Neural Network Research: A Personal Perspective,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    These vision preprocessor and ART autonomous classifier examples are just two of the many neural network architectures now being developed by...computational theories with natural realizations as real-time adaptive neural network architectures with promising properties for tackling some of the

  11. Variable Star Research With International Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querci, F. R.; Querci, M.

    1997-05-01

    Generally speaking, variable stars are monitored through observing campaigns which coordinate multi-site telescopes at various longitudes. A new practice is in progress: devoted networks involving robotic telescopes. We will review these two technologies and will emphasize the NORT (Network of Oriental Robotic Telescopes) project which we are promoting in North Africa, Middle-Eastern countries and Asia.

  12. Establishment of the Fox Chase Network Breast Cancer Risk Registry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-01

    basic, clinical, epidemiological, behavioral and bioethical research needs to be done. B. Purpose The ability to systematically study the diverse...sensitive to cultural , ethnic and racial differences which will promote positive outcomes to breast cancer risk information, including the results of...interventions which are sensitive to cultural , ethnic and racial differences, which will promote positive outcomes to breast cancer risk information

  13. Singapore Cancer Network (SCAN) Guidelines for Referral for Genetic Evaluation of Common Hereditary Cancer Syndromes.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    The SCAN cancer genetics workgroup aimed to develop Singapore Cancer Network (SCAN) clinical practice guidelines for referral for genetic evaluation of common hereditary cancer syndromes. The workgroup utilised a modified ADAPTE process to calibrate high quality international evidence-based clinical practice guidelines to our local setting. To formulate referral guidelines for the 3 most commonly encountered hereditary cancer syndromes to guide healthcare providers in Singapore who care for cancer patients and/or their family members, 7, 5, and 3 sets of international guidelines respectively for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome, Lynch syndrome (LS), and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) were evaluated. For each syndrome, the most applicable one was selected, with modifications made such that they would be appropriate to the local context. These adapted guidelines form the SCAN Guidelines 2015 for referral for genetic evaluation of common hereditary cancer syndromes.

  14. [Advances in Research on miR-21 and Breast Cancer].

    PubMed

    Zhang, He; Zhang, Yulong; Zou, Linglin

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer is a malignant tumor from normal breast epithelial. In recent years, many literature reports sought to determine the expression of predicted target genes of microRNA and their potential function, pathways and networks, which are involved in the tumorigenesis, metastasis and prognosis of breast cancer. The miR-21 has recently been found to be highly expressed in solid tumors than normal tissue, and it has exposed some layers of gene expression regulation that becomes a hot topic of breast cancer. This paper briefly reviews advances in research on miR-21 in breast cancer.

  15. Constrained inference of protein interaction networks for invadopodium formation in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haizhou; Leung, Ming; Wandinger-Ness, Angela; Hudson, Laurie G.; Song, Mingzhou

    2016-01-01

    Integrating prior molecular network knowledge into interpretation of new experimental data is routine practice in biology research. However, a dilemma for deciphering interactome using Bayes’ rule is the demotion of novel interactions with low prior probabilities. Here we present constrained generalized logical network (CGLN) inference to predict novel interactions in dynamic networks, respecting previously known interactions and observed temporal coherence. It encodes prior interactions as probabilistic logic rules called local constraints, and forms global constraints using observed dynamic patterns. CGLN finds constraint-satisfying trajectories by solving a k-stops problem in the state space of dynamic networks and then reconstructs candidate networks. We benchmarked CGLN on randomly generated networks, and CGLN outperformed its alternatives when 50% or more interactions in a network are given as local constraints. CGLN is then applied to infer dynamic protein interaction networks regulating invadopodium formation in motile cancer cells. CGLN predicted 134 novel protein interactions for their involvement in invadopodium formation. The most frequently predicted interactions center around focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and tyrosine kinase substrate TKS4, and 14 interactions are supported by literature in molecular contexts related to invadopodium formation. As an alternative to the Bayesian paradigm, the CGLN method offers constrained network inference without requiring prior probabilities and thus can promote novel interactions, consistent with the discovery process of scientific facts that are not yet in common beliefs. PMID:26997662

  16. [Markers of prostate cancer stem cells: research advances].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shun-Qi; Huang, Sheng-Song

    2013-12-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most seriously malignant diseases threatening men's health, and the mechanisms of its initiation and progression are not yet completely understood. Recent years have witnessed distinct advances in researches on prostate cancer stem cells in many aspects using different sources of materials, such as human prostate cancer tissues, human prostate cancer cell lines, and mouse models of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer stem cell study offers a new insight into the mechanisms of the initiation and progression of prostate cancer and contributes positively to its treatment. This article presents an overview on the prostate cancer stem cell markers utilized in the isolation and identification of prostate cancer stem cells.

  17. Cognitive radio wireless sensor networks: applications, challenges and research trends.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Gyanendra Prasad; Nam, Seung Yeob; Kim, Sung Won

    2013-08-22

    A cognitive radio wireless sensor network is one of the candidate areas where cognitive techniques can be used for opportunistic spectrum access. Research in this area is still in its infancy, but it is progressing rapidly. The aim of this study is to classify the existing literature of this fast emerging application area of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, highlight the key research that has already been undertaken, and indicate open problems. This paper describes the advantages of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, the difference between ad hoc cognitive radio networks, wireless sensor networks, and cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, potential application areas of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, challenges and research trend in cognitive radio wireless sensor networks. The sensing schemes suited for cognitive radio wireless sensor networks scenarios are discussed with an emphasis on cooperation and spectrum access methods that ensure the availability of the required QoS. Finally, this paper lists several open research challenges aimed at drawing the attention of the readers toward the important issues that need to be addressed before the vision of completely autonomous cognitive radio wireless sensor networks can be realized.

  18. Cognitive Radio Wireless Sensor Networks: Applications, Challenges and Research Trends

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Gyanendra Prasad; Nam, Seung Yeob; Kim, Sung Won

    2013-01-01

    A cognitive radio wireless sensor network is one of the candidate areas where cognitive techniques can be used for opportunistic spectrum access. Research in this area is still in its infancy, but it is progressing rapidly. The aim of this study is to classify the existing literature of this fast emerging application area of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, highlight the key research that has already been undertaken, and indicate open problems. This paper describes the advantages of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, the difference between ad hoc cognitive radio networks, wireless sensor networks, and cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, potential application areas of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, challenges and research trend in cognitive radio wireless sensor networks. The sensing schemes suited for cognitive radio wireless sensor networks scenarios are discussed with an emphasis on cooperation and spectrum access methods that ensure the availability of the required QoS. Finally, this paper lists several open research challenges aimed at drawing the attention of the readers toward the important issues that need to be addressed before the vision of completely autonomous cognitive radio wireless sensor networks can be realized. PMID:23974152

  19. Design The Cervical Cancer Detector Use The Artificial Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intan Af'idah, Dwi; Didik Widianto, Eko; Setyawan, Budi

    2013-06-01

    Cancer is one of the contagious diseases that become a public health issue, both in the world and in Indonesia. In the world, 12% of all deaths caused by cancer and is the second killer after cardiovascular disease. Early detection using the IVA is a practical and inexpensive (only requiring acetic acid). However, the accuracy of the method is quite low, as it can not detect the stage of the cancer. While other methods have a better sensitivity than the IVA method, is a method of PAP smear. However, this method is relatively expensive, and requires an experienced pathologist-cytologist. According to the case above, Considered important to make the cancer cervics detector that is used to detect the abnormality and cervical cancer stage and consists of a digital microscope, as well as a computer application based on artificial neural network. The use of cervical cancer detector software and hardware are integrated each other. After the specifications met, the steps to design the cervical cancer detection are: Modifying a conventional microscope by adding a lens, image recording, and the lights, Programming the tools, designing computer applications, Programming features abnormality detection and staging of cancer.

  20. Transcriptional network of androgen receptor in prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Ken-ichi; Inoue, Satoshi

    2013-08-01

    The androgen receptor belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily and functions as a ligand-dependent transcription factor. It binds to the androgen responsive element and recruits coregulatory factors to modulate gene transcription. In addition, the androgen receptor interacts with other transcription factors, such as forkhead box A1, and other oncogenic signaling pathway molecules that bind deoxyribonucleic acid and regulate transcription. Androgen receptor signaling plays an important role in the development of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer cells proliferate in an androgen-dependent manner, and androgen receptor blockade is effective in prostate cancer therapy. However, patients often progress to castration-resistant prostate cancer with elevated androgen receptor expression and hypersensitivity to androgen. Recently, comprehensive analysis tools, such as complementary DNA microarray, chromatin immunoprecipitation-on-chip and chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequence, have described the androgen-mediated diverse transcriptional program and gene networks in prostate cancer. Furthermore, functional and clinical studies have shown that some of the androgen receptor-regulated genes could be prognostic markers and potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of prostate cancer, particularly castration-resistant prostate cancer. Thus, identifying androgen receptor downstream signaling events and investigating the regulation of androgen receptor activity is critical for understanding the mechanism of carcinogenesis and progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer.