Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Kwon, Simona C; Sherman, Scott E
Background Despite high-quality evidence demonstrating that screening reduces mortality from breast, cervical, colorectal, and lung cancers, a substantial portion of the population remains inadequately screened. There is a critical need to identify interventions that increase the uptake and adoption of evidence-based screening guidelines for preventable cancers at the community practice level. Text messaging (short message service, SMS) has been effective in promoting behavioral change in various clinical settings, but the overall impact and reach of text messaging interventions on cancer screening are unknown. Objective The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effect of text messaging interventions on screening for breast, cervical, colorectal, and lung cancers. Methods We searched multiple databases for studies published between the years 2000 and 2017, including PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library, to identify controlled trials that measured the effect of text messaging on screening for breast, cervical, colorectal, or lung cancers. Study quality was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results Our search yielded 2238 citations, of which 31 underwent full review and 9 met inclusion criteria. Five studies examined screening for breast cancer, one for cervical cancer, and three for colorectal cancer. No studies were found for lung cancer screening. Absolute screening rates for individuals who received text message interventions were 0.6% to 15.0% higher than for controls. Unadjusted relative screening rates for text message recipients were 4% to 63% higher compared with controls. Conclusions Text messaging interventions appear to moderately increase screening rates for breast and cervical cancer and may have a small effect on colorectal cancer screening. Benefit was observed in various countries, including resource-poor and non-English-speaking populations. Given the paucity of data, additional research is needed to better quantify
Ma, Grace X; Yin, Lihong; Gao, Wanzhen; Tan, Yin; Liu, Ran; Fang, Carolyn; Ma, Xiang S
Breast cancer continues to be the primary cause of death among East and Southeast Asian women. Although China, the most populous country in the world, is experiencing unprecedented economic growth, its health care system has yet to benefit from the current economic prosperity. Indeed, studies have shown a consistent increase in breast cancer rates among Chinese women over the past two decades in the absence of breast cancer screening guidelines. The primary objective of this study was to examine the impact of a workplace intervention on increasing breast cancer screening rates. The study was implemented at eight worksites in Nanjing, four of which were assigned to the intervention group (n = 232) and four to the control group (n = 221). The intervention group received breast cancer education and screening navigation. The control group was provided with general cancer education and received a delayed intervention after completion of the study. Study measures were completed at pre- and postprogram and at 6-month follow-up to assess uptake of mammography. Baseline mammography use was low among both intervention and control groups. However, exposure to the workplace intervention dramatically increased the uptake of mammography from 10.3% at baseline to 72.6% at 6-month follow-up in the intervention group (P < 0.001). Findings provide preliminary evidence that the implementation of a comprehensive workplace breast cancer screening intervention program in China can lead to increased uptake of mammography. These data may help facilitate the development of theory-based workplace cancer prevention programs and screening guidelines in China. A workplace-based multifaceted intervention could have a strong impact in breast cancer prevention and early detection among women in China. ©2011 AACR.
Uy, Catherine; Lopez, Jennifer; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Kwon, Simona C; Sherman, Scott E; Liang, Peter S
Despite high-quality evidence demonstrating that screening reduces mortality from breast, cervical, colorectal, and lung cancers, a substantial portion of the population remains inadequately screened. There is a critical need to identify interventions that increase the uptake and adoption of evidence-based screening guidelines for preventable cancers at the community practice level. Text messaging (short message service, SMS) has been effective in promoting behavioral change in various clinical settings, but the overall impact and reach of text messaging interventions on cancer screening are unknown. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effect of text messaging interventions on screening for breast, cervical, colorectal, and lung cancers. We searched multiple databases for studies published between the years 2000 and 2017, including PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library, to identify controlled trials that measured the effect of text messaging on screening for breast, cervical, colorectal, or lung cancers. Study quality was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Our search yielded 2238 citations, of which 31 underwent full review and 9 met inclusion criteria. Five studies examined screening for breast cancer, one for cervical cancer, and three for colorectal cancer. No studies were found for lung cancer screening. Absolute screening rates for individuals who received text message interventions were 0.6% to 15.0% higher than for controls. Unadjusted relative screening rates for text message recipients were 4% to 63% higher compared with controls. Text messaging interventions appear to moderately increase screening rates for breast and cervical cancer and may have a small effect on colorectal cancer screening. Benefit was observed in various countries, including resource-poor and non-English-speaking populations. Given the paucity of data, additional research is needed to better quantify the effectiveness of this promising intervention
Benito, Llucia; Lluch, María Teresa; Falcó, Anna Marta; García, Montse; Puig, Montse
This study aimed to investigate which Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) labels correspond to specific nursing interventions provided during cancer screening to establish a nursing documentation system. This descriptive study was conducted to identify and classify the interventions that cancer screening nurses perform based on an initial list. The initial list was grouped into 15 interventions that corresponded to four domains and eight classes. The study found expert consensus regarding the duties of cancer screening nurses and identified 15 interventions that should be implemented in clinical practice for cancer screening care, according to the NIC taxonomy. This study is the first step in developing indicators to assess nursing performance in cancer screening, and it helps to establish the core competency requirements for cancer screening nurses. © 2015 NANDA International, Inc.
Rawl, Susan M.; Menon, Usha; Burness, Allison; Breslau, Erica S.
Behavior change interventions to promote colorectal cancer (CRC) screening have targeted people in community and primary care settings, health care providers, and health systems. Randomized controlled trials provide the strongest evidence of intervention efficacy. The purpose of this integrative review was to evaluate trials of CRC screening interventions published between 1997 and 2007 and to identify knowledge gaps and future directions for research. Thirty-three randomized trials that met inclusion criteria were evaluated using a modified version of the TREND criteria. Significant intervention effects were reported in six out of ten trials focused on increasing fecal occult blood testing, four of seven trials focused on sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy completion, and nine of 16 focused on completion of any screening test. Several effective interventions to promote CRC screening were identified. Future trials need to use theory to guide interventions, examine moderators and mediators, consistently report results, and use comparable outcome measures. PMID:22261002
Slyne, Tai C; Gautam, Ramraj; King, Valerie
Colorectal cancer screening aims to detect colorectal cancer at an early stage, when treatment is more likely to be curative. Lack of participation in such screening is a major issue in primary care practices, where nurse practitioners (NPs) often provide care. This study aimed to determine whether an educational intervention for NPs would increase their awareness of, and increase patients' participation in, colorectal cancer screening. .
Background Appropriate screening may reduce the mortality and morbidity of colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers. However, effective implementation strategies are warranted if the full benefits of screening are to be realized. As part of a larger agenda to create an implementation guideline, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate interventions designed to increase the rate of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. The interventions considered were: client reminders, client incentives, mass media, small media, group education, one-on-one education, reduction in structural barriers, reduction in out-of-pocket costs, provider assessment and feedback interventions, and provider incentives. Our primary outcome, screening completion, was calculated as the overall median post-intervention absolute percentage point (PP) change in completed screening tests. Methods Our first step was to conduct an iterative scoping review in the research area. This yielded three relevant high-quality systematic reviews. Serving as our evidentiary foundation, we conducted a formal update. Randomized controlled trials and cluster randomized controlled trials, published between 2004 and 2010, were searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE and PSYCHinfo. Results The update yielded 66 studies new eligible studies with 74 comparisons. The new studies ranged considerably in quality. Client reminders, small media, and provider audit and feedback appear to be effective interventions to increase the uptake of screening for three cancers. One-on-one education and reduction of structural barriers also appears effective, but their roles with CRC and cervical screening, respectively, are less established. More study is required to assess client incentives, mass media, group education, reduction of out-of-pocket costs, and provider incentive interventions. Conclusion The new evidence generally aligns with the evidence and conclusions from the original systematic reviews. This review served as
Dunn, Richard A; Tan, Andrew K G
This study examines the determinants of Papanicolaou Smear Test (PST) screening for cervical cancer among women in Malaysia. Attention is focused on the reasons different population subgroups give for non-screening. We find that Indian women are the least likely to have had a PST and also the least likely to know the reasons why one is screened. Malay women are less likely than Chinese women to have received a PST and are more likely to report embarrassment as the reason for not being tested. Urban women are less likely than rural women to have been tested and more likely to state lack of time as the reason. These results suggest targeted interventions may be necessary to increase screening rates in Malaysia. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Larkey, Linda K; Herman, Patricia M; Roe, Denise J; Garcia, Francisco; Lopez, A M; Gonzalez, J; Perera, Prasadini N; Saboda, Kathylynn
Inadequate screening adherence for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer among Latinas places them at greater risk for poor survival rates, once diagnosed. The purpose of this study was to examine two delivery methods of lay health educators (promotoras de salud) to increase screening behavior and evaluate costs. This community-based group randomized trial assigned Latinas due for breast, cervical, or colorectal cancer screening (n=1006) to promotora-taught cancer screening/prevention classes delivered individually (IND) or in social support groups (SSG) over 8 weeks. Screening behaviors were assessed immediately after and 3 and 15 months after intervention. Intervention costs per study arm were compared. Screening and maintenance behaviors were not significantly different between SSG and IND for any one type of cancer screening, but with a study entry requirement that participants were either never screened or due for screening, postintervention screening rates (that is, completing a screening that was due) were notable (39.4% and 45.5%, respectively). The cost of achieving any one screening was much higher for IND participants. SSG vs. IND delivery did not significantly affect cancer screening behaviors, but both interventions produced robust achievement of screenings for previously nonadherent participants. Group-based promotora-led interventions supporting social involvement are recommended as a more cost-effective approach to achieving cancer screening among Latina women.
Besharati, Fereshteh; Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Hazavehei, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi; Bashirian, Saeid; Bagheri, Fahimeh; Faradmal, Javad
Background: While the incidence rate of the colorectal cancer (CRC) has been increasing over the last three decades in Iran, very limited interventions to increase CRC screening have been developed for Iranian population. The purpose of this study was to describe the use of Intervention Mapping (IM) for applying theory and evidence and considering local contexts to develop a CRC screening program among adults in Iran. Materials and Methods: From April 2014 to July 2016 following the IM process, six steps were formulated and implemented. First a need assessment was conducted involving relevant stakeholders and using focus groups discussions (n=10), individual interviews (n=20), and a household survey (n= 480). Then a matrix of change objectives was developed for each behavioral outcome and theoretical methods and their practical applications were identified to guide intervention development and implementation. A multi-component intervention was developed and piloted. Decision on suitable parts of intervention was made based on feedback of pilot study. Finally, evaluation plan including process and outcome evaluation was generated and conducted to inform future scale up. Results: The needs assessment highlighted factors affecting CRC screening including knowledge, self efficacy, social support and perceived benefit and barriers (financial problems, fear of detection of cancer and etc). Results of needs assessment were used to develop next steps IM. The program utilized methods like information delivery, modeling, and persuasion. Practical applications included video presentation, group discussion, role playing and postcards.This program was assessed through a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Results showed that there were significant differences in CRC screening uptake between intervention groups and control (P<0.001). Conclusions: IM is a useful process in the design of a theory-based intervention addressing CRC screening among Iranian population. Creative
Byrd, Theresa L.; Wilson, Katherine M.; Smith, Judith Lee; Heckert, Andrea; Orians, Carlyn E.; Vernon, Sally W.; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria E.; Fernandez, Maria E.
Cervical cancer is preventable with treatment of precancerous lesions and treatable at early stages. Hispanics have higher rates of cervical cancer and lower rates of screening. "Ayndando a las Mujeres con Informaccion, Guia, y Amor para su Salud" (AMIGAS) is an intervention to increase cervical cancer screening in U.S. women of Mexican…
McFall, Angela M; Ryan, June E; Hager, Polly
Among cancers that affect both men and women, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in Michigan. The American Cancer Society estimates 4,730 new cases and 1,700 deaths due to colorectal cancer in Michigan for 2013. Screening can detect colorectal cancer earlier, when treatment is more successful. The Michigan Department of Community Health represents 1 of 25 states and 4 tribes to receive a multiyear grant from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to increase colorectal cancer screening rates through population health interventions and clinical services for the underserved. Michigan's Colorectal Cancer Control Program is implemented in partnership with its Comprehensive Cancer Control Program, which supports the Michigan's cancer control coalition composed of 114 partner organizations. This project had 2 primary objectives: 1) develop a collaborative partnership with 1 Michigan Cancer Consortium organization in which to pilot the intervention and 2) increase colorectal cancer screening rates by implementing a client reminder intervention and measuring the increase in screening rates. A partnership was established with HealthPlus of Michigan. Of the 95 HealthPlus employees and spouses who received the intervention, 15 completed screening, accounting for a 16% increase in the screening rate. The project was considered successful because both of its objectives were achieved. Translating evidence-based interventions into practice requires building a relationship with a partner organization, incorporating flexibility, and establishing a realistic timeline.
Mojica, Cynthia M; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Vernon, Sally
Colorectal cancer, the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States, is also among the most preventable cancers. However, Latino men are less likely than non-Latino men to engage in preventive screening. Compared with 60% of non-Latino white men and women, only 42% of Latino men are up to date with colorectal cancer screening guidelines, which may result in diagnosis at advanced disease stages and increased deaths. We evaluated the literature on colorectal cancer screening interventions among Latino men to characterize intervention components effective in increasing colorectal cancer screening. Two independent reviewers searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO to identify articles on intervention studies that promote colorectal cancer screening among Latino men. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled or comparative effectiveness trials, an outcome of any colorectal cancer screening test, published in English, US-based, results published from January 2004 through December 2016, Latino or Spanish-speaking male participants, and a minimum of one patient-level component. Two other reviewers independently assessed article quality and conducted data abstraction. Forty-four studies met the inclusion criteria; only 7 studies with 20% or more Latinos and 39% or more men were included in the final analyses. The most common intervention strategies included one-on-one interactions with a patient navigator and reducing structural barriers (eg, providing fecal occult blood tests). Interventions using small media produced mixed results. Although intervention studies focused on colorectal cancer screening among men of racial/ethnic minorities are scarce, our findings highlight promising strategies that were effective at increasing colorectal cancer screening among Latino men. Additional research in the area of Latino men's health is needed, especially to further develop and test theoretically grounded interventions that promote colorectal cancer screening with
Lairson, David R; DiCarlo, Melissa; Myers, Ronald E; Wolf, Thomas; Cocroft, James; Sifri, Randa; Rosenthal, Michael; Vernon, Sally W; Wender, Richard
Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is cost-effective but underused. The objective of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of targeted and tailored behavioral interventions to increase CRC screening use by conducting an economic analysis associated with a randomized trial among patients in a large, racially and ethnically diverse, urban family practice in Philadelphia. The incremental costs per unit increase were measured in individuals who were screened during the 24 months after intervention. Percent increase in screening was adjusted for baseline differences in the study groups. Each intervention arm received a targeted screening invitation letter, stool blood test (SBT) cards, informational booklet, and reminder letter. Tailored interventions incrementally added tailored messages and reminder telephone calls. Program costs of the targeted intervention were 42 dollars per participant. Additional costs of adding tailored print materials and of delivering a reminder telephone call were 150 dollars and 200 dollars per participant, respectively. The cost per additional individual screened was 319 dollars when comparing the no intervention group with the targeted intervention group. The targeted intervention was more effective and less costly than the tailored intervention. Although tailoring plus reminder telephone call was the most effective strategy, it was very costly per additional individual screened. Mailed SBT cards significantly boosted CRC screening use. However, going beyond the targeted intervention to include tailoring or tailoring plus reminder calls in the manner used in this study did not appear to be an economically attractive strategy. Cancer 2008. (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.
Patel, Kushal; Ukoli, Flora; Liu, Jianguo; Beech, Derrick; Beard, Katina; Brown, Byron; Sanderson, Maureen; Kenerson, Donna; Cooper, Leslie; Canto, Marie; Blot, Bill; Hargreaves, Margaret
The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of an educational intervention on prostate cancer screening behavior and knowledge. Participants were 104 African American men, 45 years and older, who had not been screened for prostate cancer with a prostate-specific antigen and/or digital rectal exam within the past year. All participants…
Misra, Swati; Chan, Wenyaw; Chang, Yu-Chia; Bartholomew, L. Kay; Greisinger, Anthony; McQueen, Amy; Vernon, Sally W.
Objectives Screening for colorectal cancer is considered cost effective, but is underutilized in the U.S. Information on the efficiency of "tailored interventions" to promote colorectal cancer screening in primary care settings is limited. The paper reports the results of a cost effectiveness analysis that compared a survey-only control group to a Centers for Disease Control (CDC) web-based intervention (screen for life) and to a tailored interactive computer-based intervention. Methods A randomized controlled trial of people 50 and over, was conducted to test the interventions. The sample was 1224 partcipants 50-70 years of age, recruited from Kelsey-Seybold Clinic, a large multi-specialty clinic in Houston, Texas. Screening status was obtained by medical chart review after a 12-month follow-up period. An "intention to treat" analysis and micro costing from the patient and provider perspectives were used to estimate the costs and effects. Analysis of statistical uncertainty was conducted using nonparametric bootstrapping. Results The estimated cost of implementing the web-based intervention was $40 per person and the cost of the tailored intervention was $45 per person. The additional cost per person screened for the web-based intervention compared to no intervention was $2602 and the tailored intervention was no more effective than the web-based strategy. Conclusions The tailored intervention was less cost-effective than the web-based intervention for colorectal cancer screening promotion. The web-based intervention was less cost-effective than previous studies of in-reach colorectal cancer screening promotion. Researchers need to continue developing and evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of interventions to increase colorectal cancer screening. PMID:21617335
Masi, Christopher M.; Blackman, Dionne J.; Peek, Monica E.
The authors conduct a systematic review of the literature to identify interventions designed to enhance breast cancer screening, diagnosis, and treatment among minority women. Most trials in this area have focused on breast cancer screening, while relatively few have addressed diagnostic testing or breast cancer treatment. Among patient-targeted screening interventions, those that are culturally tailored or addressed financial or logistical barriers are generally more effective than reminder-based interventions, especially among women with fewer financial resources and those without previous mammography. Chart-based reminders increase physician adherence to mammography guidelines but are less effective at increasing clinical breast examination. Several trials demonstrate that case management is an effective strategy for expediting diagnostic testing after screening abnormalities have been found. Additional support for these and other proven health care organization-based interventions appears justified and may be necessary to eliminate racial and ethnic breast cancer disparities. PMID:17881627
Background Cervical cancer poses a significant threat to Korean American women, who are reported to have one of the highest cervical cancer mortality rates in the United States. Studies consistently report that Korean American women have the lowest Pap test screening rates across US ethnic groups. Objective In response to the need to enhance cervical cancer screening in this vulnerable population, we developed and tested a 7-day mobile phone text message-based cervical cancer Screening (mScreening) intervention designed to promote the receipt of Pap tests by young Korean American women. Methods We developed and assessed the acceptability and feasibility of a 1-week mScreening intervention to increase knowledge of cervical cancer screening, intent to receive screening, and the receipt of a Pap test. Fogg’s Behavior Model was the conceptual framework that guided the development of the mScreening intervention. A series of focus groups were conducted to inform the development of the intervention. The messages were individually tailored for each participant and delivered to them for a 7-day period at each participant’s preferred time. A quasi-experimental research design of 30 Korean American women aged 21 to 29 years was utilized with baseline, post (1 week after the completion of mScreening), and follow-up (3 months after the completion of mScreening) testing. Results Findings revealed a significant increase in participants’ knowledge of cervical cancer (P<.001) and guidelines for cervical cancer screening (P=.006). A total of 23% (7/30) (95% CI 9.9-42.3) of the mScreening participants received a Pap test; 83% (25/30) of the participants expressed satisfaction with the intervention and 97% (29/30) reported that they would recommend the program to their friends, indicating excellent acceptability and feasibility of the intervention. Conclusions This study provides evidence of the effectiveness and feasibility of the mScreening intervention. Mobile technology is a
Lee, Hee Yun; Koopmeiners, Joseph S; Rhee, Taeho Greg; Raveis, Victoria H; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S
Cervical cancer poses a significant threat to Korean American women, who are reported to have one of the highest cervical cancer mortality rates in the United States. Studies consistently report that Korean American women have the lowest Pap test screening rates across US ethnic groups. In response to the need to enhance cervical cancer screening in this vulnerable population, we developed and tested a 7-day mobile phone text message-based cervical cancer Screening (mScreening) intervention designed to promote the receipt of Pap tests by young Korean American women. We developed and assessed the acceptability and feasibility of a 1-week mScreening intervention to increase knowledge of cervical cancer screening, intent to receive screening, and the receipt of a Pap test. Fogg's Behavior Model was the conceptual framework that guided the development of the mScreening intervention. A series of focus groups were conducted to inform the development of the intervention. The messages were individually tailored for each participant and delivered to them for a 7-day period at each participant's preferred time. A quasi-experimental research design of 30 Korean American women aged 21 to 29 years was utilized with baseline, post (1 week after the completion of mScreening), and follow-up (3 months after the completion of mScreening) testing. Findings revealed a significant increase in participants' knowledge of cervical cancer (P<.001) and guidelines for cervical cancer screening (P=.006). A total of 23% (7/30) (95% CI 9.9-42.3) of the mScreening participants received a Pap test; 83% (25/30) of the participants expressed satisfaction with the intervention and 97% (29/30) reported that they would recommend the program to their friends, indicating excellent acceptability and feasibility of the intervention. This study provides evidence of the effectiveness and feasibility of the mScreening intervention. Mobile technology is a promising tool to increase both knowledge and receipt
Corcoran, Jacqueline; Dattalo, Patrick; Crowley, Meghan
The high cervical cancer mortality rate among Latinas compared with other ethnic groups in the United States is of major concern. Latina women are almost twice as likely to die from cervical cancer as non-Hispanic white women. To improve Latina cervical cancer screening rates, interventions have been developed and tested. This systematic review…
Background The Asian population is one of the fastest growing ethnic minority groups in western countries. However, cancer screening uptake is consistently lower in this group than in the native-born populations. As a first step towards developing an effective cancer screening intervention program targeting Asian women, we conducted a comprehensive systematic review, without geographic, language or date limitations, to update current knowledge on the effectiveness of existing intervention strategies to enhance breast and cervical screening uptake in Asian women. Methods This study systematically reviewed studies published as of January 2010 to synthesize knowledge about effectiveness of cancer screening interventions targeting Asian women. Fifteen multidisciplinary peer-reviewed and grey literature databases were searched to identify relevant studies. Results The results of our systematic review were reported in accordance with the PRISMA Statement. Of 37 selected intervention studies, only 18 studies included valid outcome measures (i.e. self-reported or recorded receipt of mammograms or Pap smear). 11 of the 18 intervention studies with valid outcome measures used multiple intervention strategies to target individuals in a specific Asian ethnic group. This observed pattern of intervention design supports the hypothesis that employing a combination of multiple strategies is more likely to be successful than single interventions. The effectiveness of community-based or workplace-based group education programs increases when additional supports, such as assistance in scheduling/attending screening and mobile screening services are provided. Combining cultural awareness training for health care professionals with outreach workers who can help healthcare professionals overcome language and cultural barriers is likely to improve cancer screening uptake. Media campaigns and mailed culturally sensitive print materials alone may be ineffective in increasing screening
Lu, Mingshan; Moritz, Sabina; Lorenzetti, Diane; Sykes, Lindsay; Straus, Sharon; Quan, Hude
The Asian population is one of the fastest growing ethnic minority groups in western countries. However, cancer screening uptake is consistently lower in this group than in the native-born populations. As a first step towards developing an effective cancer screening intervention program targeting Asian women, we conducted a comprehensive systematic review, without geographic, language or date limitations, to update current knowledge on the effectiveness of existing intervention strategies to enhance breast and cervical screening uptake in Asian women. This study systematically reviewed studies published as of January 2010 to synthesize knowledge about effectiveness of cancer screening interventions targeting Asian women. Fifteen multidisciplinary peer-reviewed and grey literature databases were searched to identify relevant studies. The results of our systematic review were reported in accordance with the PRISMA Statement. Of 37 selected intervention studies, only 18 studies included valid outcome measures (i.e. self-reported or recorded receipt of mammograms or Pap smear). 11 of the 18 intervention studies with valid outcome measures used multiple intervention strategies to target individuals in a specific Asian ethnic group. This observed pattern of intervention design supports the hypothesis that employing a combination of multiple strategies is more likely to be successful than single interventions. The effectiveness of community-based or workplace-based group education programs increases when additional supports, such as assistance in scheduling/attending screening and mobile screening services are provided. Combining cultural awareness training for health care professionals with outreach workers who can help healthcare professionals overcome language and cultural barriers is likely to improve cancer screening uptake. Media campaigns and mailed culturally sensitive print materials alone may be ineffective in increasing screening uptake. Intervention
Myles, Jonathan P; Maroni, Roberta; Mohammad, Abeera
Objective Screening participation is spread differently across populations, according to factors such as ethnicity or socioeconomic status. We here review the current evidence on effects of interventions to improve cancer screening participation, focussing in particular on effects in underserved populations. Methods We selected studies to review based on their characteristics: focussing on population screening programmes, showing a quantitative estimate of the effect of the intervention, and published since 1990. To determine eligibility for our purposes, we first reviewed titles, then abstracts, and finally the full paper. We started with a narrow search and expanded this until the search yielded eligible papers on title review which were less than 1% of the total. We classified the eligible studies by intervention type and by the cancer for which they screened, while looking to identify effects in any inequality dimension. Results The 68 papers included in our review reported on 71 intervention studies. Of the interventions, 58 had significant positive effects on increasing participation, with increase rates of the order of 2%–20% (in absolute terms). Conclusions Across different countries and health systems, a number of interventions were found more consistently to improve participation in cancer screening, including in underserved populations: pre-screening reminders, general practitioner endorsement, more personalized reminders for non-participants, and more acceptable screening tests in bowel and cervical screening. PMID:27754937
Smith, Judith Lee; Wilson, Katherine M.; Orians, Carlyn E.; Byrd, Theresa L.
Background Many barriers to cervical cancer screening for Hispanic women have been documented, but few effective interventions exist. The Community Preventive Services Task Force recommends increasing cervical cancer screening through various methods. Building on this evidence, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded the research and testing phases for an evidence-based and theoretically grounded intervention designed to increase cervical cancer screening among never and rarely screened Hispanic women of Mexican descent. In this article, we describe the development process of the AMIGAS (Ayudando a las Mujeres con Información, Guía, y Amor para su Salud) intervention, highlight the integration of scientific evidence and community-based participatory research principles, and identify opportunities for dissemination, adaptation, and implementation of this intervention. Methods The AMIGAS team was a collaboration among researchers, promotoras (community health workers), and program administrators. The multiyear, multiphase project was conducted in Houston, Texas; El Paso, Texas; and Yakima, Washington. The team completed several rounds of formative research, designed intervention materials and methodology, conducted a randomized controlled trial, created a guide for program administrators, and developed an intervention dissemination plan. Results Trial results demonstrated that AMIGAS was successful in increasing cervical cancer screening among Hispanic women. Adaptation of AMIGAS showed minimal reduction of outcomes. Dissemination efforts are underway to make AMIGAS available in a downloadable format via the Internet. Conclusions Developing a community-based intervention that is evidence-based and theoretically grounded is challenging, time-intensive, and requires collaboration among multiple disciplines. Inclusion of key stakeholders—in particular program deliverers and administrators—and planning for dissemination and translation to practice are
Nguyen, Bang H; Vo, Phuong H; Doan, Hiep T; McPhee, Stephen J
Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in Vietnamese Americans. Their colorectal screening rates are lower than the rates of whites. Four focus groups were conducted to identify Vietnamese American sources and credibility of health information, media utilization, and intervention approaches. Vietnamese Americans trusted doctors and patient testimonials and had access to, and received most of their health information from, Vietnamese- language print and electronic media. Recommended intervention approaches include promoting doctors' recommendation of screening and using Vietnamese-language mass media, print materials, and oral presentations. Focus groups are useful in determining communication channels and intervention approaches.
Benito-Aracil, Llúcia; Binefa-Rodriguez, Gemma; Milà-Diaz, Núria; Lluch-Canut, M Teresa; Puig-Llobet, Montse; Garcia-Martinez, Montse
To evaluate the impact of an intervention in primary care professionals on their current knowledge about colorectal cancer screening, subsequent surveillance recommendations and referral strategies. Cluster randomized controlled trial. Primary Care Centers in L'Hospitalet de Llobregat (Barcelona). Primary Care Professionals (doctors and nurses). Training session in six of the 12 centers (randomly selected) about the colorrectal cancer screening program, and three emails with key messages. Professionals and centers characteristics and two contextual variables; involvement of professionals in the screening program; information about colorectal cancer knowledge, risk factors, screening procedures, surveillance recommendations and referral strategies. The total score mean on the first questionnaire was 8.07 (1.38) and the second 8.31 (1.39). No statistically significant differences between the intervention and control groups were found, however, in 9 out of 11 questions the percentage of correct responses was increased in the intervention group, mostly related to the surveillance after the diagnostic examination. The intervention improves the percentage of correct answers, especially in those in which worst score obtained in the first questionnaire. This study shows that professionals are familiar with colorectal cancer screening, but there's a need to maintain frequent communication in order to keep up to date the information related to the colorectal cancer screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Fernández-Feito, Ana; Lana, Alberto; Baldonedo-Cernuda, Ricardo; Mosteiro-Díaz, María Pilar
Anxiety experienced by women during their participation in breast cancer screening programs can condition their adherence to the program. The aim was to determine whether a brief nursing intervention could reduce anxiety before screening mammography. A randomized controlled trial carried out with 436 Spanish women aged between 50-69 years, who attended a population breast cancer screening program. The experimental group received an ad-hoc tailored intervention, which consisted of offering information about the screening program and the mammography exam, as well as of providing personal emotional support. Anxiety was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Fear of screening outcome and fear of breast cancer were also assessed. Women of the experimental group had 60% less probability of having a high anxiety state (OR = 0.40; 95%: CI [0.25, 0.65]), after adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical variables. Regarding trait anxiety, no differences were observed between groups. The stratified analysis showed that this positive impact was greater in women who did not fear the screening outcome (OR = 0.24; 95% CI [0.11, 0.52]) or breast cancer (OR = 0.07; 95% CI [0.01, 0.41]). A protocolized nursing intervention reduced the probability of being anxious when undergoing a screening mammography.
Rees, Imogen; Jones, Daniel; Chen, Hong; Macleod, Una
Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide. Screening can reduce both the incidence and mortality of the disease but is often not utilized by lower socioeconomic groups. A systematic review, including studies of interventions to improve breast and cervical cancer screening uptake, up to 2006, found targeted interventions could be effective. A formal update has been conducted on the effectiveness of interventions to improve the uptake of cervical cancer screening among lower socioeconomic groups. A systematic computerized literature search was undertaken in June 2016 for relevant papers published since 2006. Data was extracted on study participants, setting, intervention and control using a predefined extraction tool and a full quality assessment was undertaken using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. This update yielded 16 studies of mixed quality, in addition to the 13 studies from the original review. The interventions were categorized into local interventions including HPV self-testing, lay health advisors, inreach, outreach and mixed, and strategies enhancing attendance within an organized program. This review has found two large, randomized controlled trials for the use of HPV self-testing to increase cervical screening uptake. Both reviews have found varying success using lay health advisors, with the majority of included papers reporting a statistically significant increase in screening uptake. HPV self-testing can improve uptake of cervical cancer screening among lower socioeconomic groups. This is a relatively new method of cervical screening that was not included in the earlier review. The findings of this updated review largely support that of the 2006 review for the use of lay health advisors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Byrd, Theresa L; Wilson, Katherine M; Smith, Judith Lee; Heckert, Andrea; Orians, Carlyn E; Vernon, Sally W; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria E; Fernandez, Maria E
Cervical cancer is preventable with treatment of precancerous lesions and treatable at early stages. Hispanics have higher rates of cervical cancer and lower rates of screening. Ayudando a las Mujeres con Informacción, Guía, y Amor para su Salud (AMIGAS) is an intervention to increase cervical cancer screening in U.S. women of Mexican origin. AMIGAS was developed with the participation of the community using intervention mapping (IM). Following the IM process, the authors completed a needs assessment, development of program objectives, selection of intervention methods and strategies, and program design. A benefit of IM is its linkage with community-based participatory research as it includes engagement of community members to identify and refine priority areas. The success of this strategy suggests it a useful tool for other populations. The resulting intervention program is currently being tested for efficacy and cost-effectiveness in three sites: El Paso, Texas; Houston, Texas; and Yakima, Washington.
McKnight-Eily, Lela R.; Henley, S. Jane; Green, Patricia P.; Odom, Erika C.; Hungerford, Daniel W.
Excessive or risky alcohol use is a preventable cause of significant morbidity and mortality in the U.S. and worldwide. Alcohol use is a common preventable cancer risk factor among young adults; it is associated with increased risk of developing at least six types of cancer. Alcohol consumed during early adulthood may pose a higher risk of female breast cancer than alcohol consumed later in life. Reducing alcohol use may help prevent cancer. Alcohol misuse screening and brief counseling or intervention (also called alcohol screening and brief intervention among other designations) is known to reduce excessive alcohol use, and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends that it be implemented for all adults aged ≥ 18 years in primary healthcare settings. Because the prevalence of excessive alcohol use, particularly binge drinking, peaks among young adults, this time of life may present a unique window of opportunity to talk about the cancer risk associated with alcohol use and how to reduce that risk by reducing excessive drinking or misuse. This article briefly describes alcohol screening and brief intervention, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s recommended approach, and suggests a role for it in the context of cancer prevention. The article also briefly discusses how the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is working to make alcohol screening and brief intervention a routine element of health care in all primary care settings to identify and help young adults who drink too much. PMID:28818247
Copeland, Valire Carr; Kim, Yoo Jung; Eack, Shaun M
The purpose of this study was to report the results of a meta-analysis conducted on the effects of clinical trials in breast cancer screening for African American women between 1997 and 2017. Articles published in English and in the United States, between January 1997 and March 2017, were eligible for inclusion if they (1) conducted psychosocial, behavioral, or educational interventions designed to increase screening mammography rates in predominantly African American women of all ages; (2) utilized a randomized, controlled trial (RCT) design; and (3) reported quantitative screening rates following the intervention. Randomized clinical trials on breast cancer screening in African American women, published between January 1997 and March 2017, were selected from database searches. Data collected included effect size of screening versus comparison interventions, intervention characteristics, and a number of study characteristics to explore potential moderators. Search results yielded 327 articles, of which 14 met inclusion criteria and were included in analyses. Findings indicated that screening interventions for African American women were significantly more likely to result in mammography than control (OR = 1.56 [95 percent CI = 1.27-1.93], p < .0001). Although no patient or study characteristics significantly moderated screening efficacy, the most effective interventions were those specifically tailored to meet the perceived risk of African American women. Screening interventions are at least minimally effective for promoting mammography among African American women, but research in this area is limited to a small number of studies. More research is needed to enhance the efficacy of existing interventions and reduce the high morbidity and mortality rate of this underserved population. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Lee, Hee; Ghebre, Rahel; Le, Chap; Jang, Yoo Jeong; Sharratt, Monica; Yee, Douglas
Despite the increasing breast cancer incidence and mortality rates, Korean American immigrant women have one of the lowest rates of breast cancer screening across racial groups in the United States. Mobile health (mHealth), defined as the delivery of health care information or services through mobile communication devices, has been utilized to successfully improve a variety of health outcomes. This study adapted the principles of mHealth to advance breast cancer prevention efforts among Korean American immigrant women, an underserved community. Using a randomized controlled trial design, 120 Korean American women aged 40 to 77 years were recruited and randomly assigned to either the mMammogram intervention group (n=60) to receive culturally and personally tailored multilevel and multimedia messages through a mobile phone app along with health navigator services or the usual care control group (n=60) to receive a printed brochure. Outcome measures included knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about breast cancer screening, readiness for mammography, and mammogram receipt. The feasibility and acceptability of the mMammogram intervention was also assessed. The intervention group showed significantly greater change on scores of knowledge of breast cancer and screening guidelines (P=.01). The intervention group also showed significantly greater readiness for mammography use after the intervention compared with the control group. A significantly higher proportion of women who received the mMammogram intervention (75%, 45/60) completed mammograms by the 6-month follow-up compared with the control group (30%, 18/60; P<.001). In addition, the intervention group rated satisfaction with the intervention (P=.003), effectiveness of the intervention (P<.001), and increase of knowledge on breast cancer and screenings (P=.001) significantly higher than the control group. A mobile phone app-based intervention combined with health navigator service was a feasible, acceptable, and
Rohan, Elizabeth A; Slotman, Beth; DeGroff, Amy; Morrissey, Kerry Grace; Murillo, Jennifer; Schroy, Paul
Oncology patient navigators help individuals overcome barriers to increase access to cancer screening, diagnosis, and timely treatment. This study, part of a randomized intervention trial investigating the efficacy of patient navigation in increasing colonoscopy completion, examined navigators' activities to ameliorate barriers to colonoscopy screening in a medically disadvantaged population. This study was conducted from 2012 through 2014 at Boston Medical Center. We analyzed navigator service delivery and survey data collected on 420 participants who were navigated for colonoscopy screening after randomization to this intervention. Key variables under investigation included barriers to colonoscopy, activities navigators undertook to reduce barriers, time navigators spent on each activity and per contact, and patient satisfaction with navigation services. Descriptive analysis assessed how navigators spent their time and examined what aspects of patient navigation were most valued by patients. Navigators spent the most time assessing patient barriers/needs; facilitating appointment scheduling; reminding patients of appointments; educating patients about colorectal cancer, the importance of screening, and the colonoscopy preparation and procedures; and arranging transportation. Navigators spent an average of 44 minutes per patient. Patients valued the navigators, especially for providing emotional/peer support and explaining screening procedures and bowel preparation clearly. Our findings help clarify the role of the navigator in colonoscopy screening within a medically disadvantaged community. These findings may help further refine the navigator role in cancer screening and treatment programs as facilities strive to effectively and efficiently integrate navigation into their services. Copyright © 2016 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.
Lofters, Aisha K; Gozdyra, Piotr; Lobb, Rebecca
Literature suggests that South Asians in Ontario, Canada are under-screened for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer. Accordingly, we are involved in a community-engaged multi-phase study aimed at increasing cancer screening for this vulnerable group. In the work described in this manuscript, we aimed to use visual displays of spatial analyses to identify the most appropriate small geographic areas in which to pilot targeted cancer screening interventions for Ontario's South Asian community. We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS), including Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) using GeoDa software, and population-level administrative data to create multi-layered maps of: i) rates of appropriate cancer screening, ii) the percentage of residents of South Asian ethnicity, and iii) the locations of primary care practices and community health centres by census tract in the Peel Region of Ontario (population: 1.2 million). The maps were shared with partner health service and community service organizations at an intervention development workgroup meeting to examine face validity. The lowest rates of appropriate cancer screening for census tracts across the region were 51.1% for cervical cancer, 48.5% for breast cancer, and 42.5% for colorectal cancer. We found marked variation both in screening rates and in the proportion of South Asians residents by census tract but lower screening rates in the region were consistently associated with larger South Asian populations. The LISA analysis identified a high-risk area consisting of multiple neighbouring census tracts with relatively low screening rates for all three cancer types and with a relatively large South Asian population. Partner organizations recognized and validated the geographic location highlighted by the LISA analysis. Many primary care practices are located in this high-risk area, with one community health centre located very nearby. In this populous region of Ontario, South Asians are more
Reviews have assessed studies of breast and cervical cancer screening access and utilization for rural women, but none analyze interventions to increase screening rates. A mixed methods literature search identified studies of breast and/or cervical cancer prevention education and patient navigation interventions for rural women. Rural areas need greater implementation and evaluation of screening interventions as these services address the challenges of delivering patient-centered cancer care to un-/underserved communities. The lack of intervention studies on breast and cervical cancer education and patient navigation programs compared to urban studies highlights the need for validation of these programs among diverse, rural populations.
Rohan, Elizabeth A.; Slotman, Beth; DeGroff, Amy; Morrissey, Kerry Grace; Murillo, Jennifer; Schroy, Paul
Background Oncology patient navigators help individuals overcome barriers to increase access to cancer screening, diagnosis, and timely treatment. This study, part of a randomized intervention trial investigating the efficacy of patient navigation in increasing colonoscopy completion, examined navigators' activities to ameliorate barriers to colonoscopy screening in a medically disadvantaged population. Methods This study was conducted from 2012 through 2014 at Boston Medical Center. We analyzed navigator service delivery and survey data collected on 420 participants who were navigated for colonoscopy screening after randomization to this intervention. Key variables under investigation included barriers to colonoscopy, activities navigators undertook to reduce barriers, time navigators spent on each activity and per contact, and patient satisfaction with navigation services. Descriptive analysis assessed how navigators spent their time and examined what aspects of patient navigation were most valued by patients. Results Navigators spent the most time assessing patient barriers/needs; facilitating appointment scheduling; reminding patients of appointments; educating patients about colorectal cancer, the importance of screening, and the colonoscopy preparation and procedures; and arranging transportation. Navigators spent an average of 44 minutes per patient. Patients valued the navigators, especially for providing emotional/peer support and explaining screening procedures and bowel preparation clearly. Conclusions Our findings help clarify the role of the navigator in colonoscopy screening within a medically disadvantaged community. These findings may help further refine the navigator role in cancer screening and treatment programs as facilities strive to effectively and efficiently integrate navigation into their services. PMID:27799508
Lee, Myung Ha; Lee, Yoon Young; Jung, Da Won; Park, Boyoung; Yun, E Hwa; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Jun, Jae Kwan; Choi, Kui Son
This study assessed the effectiveness of three intervention strategies to improve the participation rate of gastric cancer screening among people who had never undergone such screening, and those who had been screened for the disease, but not recently. It was conducted in the Ilsandong-gu District of Goyang City, Korea. The population for the current study was restricted to male residents, aged 40-65 years, who received an invitation letter to undergo gastric cancer screening from the National Health Insurance (NHI) Corporation at the beginning of 2010. The subjects were divided into two categories according to their screening history: never-screened, and ever-screened. A total of 2,065 men were eligible: 803 never-screened and 1,262 ever-screened. In each screening category they were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups: 1) tailored telephone counseling; 2) tailored postcard reminder after tailored telephone counseling;and 3) tailored telephone counseling after tailored postcard reminder. At 3 months post-intervention, never- screened men with any intervention were more likely to undergo gastric cancer screening (OR=2.75, 95% CI: 1.22-6.18) compared to those in the reference group (no intervention). However, there was no statistically significant intervention effect in ever-screened men (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 0.65-2.27). Examination of the intervention effects by intervention group among never-screened men showed that those in the postcard reminder after telephone counseling group to be statistically significantly more likely to undergo gastric cancer screening (OR=4.49, 95% CI: 1.79-11.29) than the reference group (no intervention). Our results highlight that use of tailored postcard reminders after tailored telephone counseling is an effective method to increase participation in gastric cancer screening among men who had never been screened.
Background There are many differences in culture, community identity, community participation, and ownership between communities in Western and Asian countries; thus, it is difficult to adopt the results of community intervention studies from Western countries. In this study, we conducted a multicity, multicomponent community intervention trial to correct breast cancer myths and promote screening mammography for women living in an urban community in Korea. Methods A 6-month, 2-city community intervention trial was conducted. In the intervention city, 480 women were surveyed at baseline and 7 months later to evaluate the effects of the intervention program. Strategies implemented in the intervention city included community outreach and clinic and pharmacy-based in-reach strategies. Results This study showed a 20.4-percentage-point decrease in myths about the link between cancer and breast size, a 19.2-percentage-point decrease in myths concerning mammography costs, and a 14.1-percentage-point increase in intention to undergo screening mammography. We also saw a 23.4-percentage-point increase in the proportion of women at the action stage of the transtheoretical model in the intervention city. In the comparison city, smaller decreases and increases were observed. Conclusions Our study showed the value of an intervention study aimed at reducing belief in breast cancer myths in an urban community in Korea. The invention also made women more likely to undergo mammography in future. PMID:21669004
Sin, Mo-Kyung; Yip, Mei-Po; Kimura, Amanda; Tu, Shin-Ping
Little is published about the factors that facilitate and hinder the intervention implementation process. The aim of this study was to examine factors that facilitated and hindered the implementation of a culturally appropriate colorectal cancer screening intervention targeting Vietnamese Americans in a Federally Qualified Health Center located in the Puget Sound area of Washington. Three focus group discussions (2 during the implementation phase and 1 during the maintenance phase) with the medical assistants (N = 13) who were the intervention implementation agents were conducted at the Federally Qualified Health Center. Three research team members independently analyzed the data using content analysis and then compared for agreement. We reread and recoded the transcripts until consensus was reached. The themes were clustered by similar codes and categorized into 4 groups, each including facilitators and hindrances of implementation: identification of implementation agents, implementation environment, intervention recipients, and the colorectal cancer screening intervention. Facilitators included medical assistants' high motivation with a positive attitude toward the intervention, team approach, and simplicity of the intervention, whereas hindrances included lack of time, forgetfulness, staff turnover, and language barriers. The findings emphasized the importance of supporting implementation agents to ensure effective intervention program implementation. Oncology nurses need to particularly take into consideration the evidence-based findings when planning any intervention programs.
Luque, John S; Tarasenko, Yelena N; Reyes-Garcia, Claudia; Alfonso, Moya L; Suazo, Norma; Rebing, Laura; Ferris, Daron G
This study examined the feasibility and efficacy of Salud es Vida-a promotora-led, Spanish language educational group session on cervical cancer screening (Pap tests)-self-efficacy (belief in ability to schedule and complete a Pap test), and knowledge among immigrant Hispanic/Latina women from farmworker backgrounds. These women are disproportionately burdened with cervical cancer, with mortality rates significantly higher than non-Hispanic whites. The two-arm, quasi-experimental study was conducted in four rural counties of Southeast Georgia in 2014-2015. Hispanic/Latina immigrant women aged 21-65 years and overdue for a Pap test were included as intervention (N = 38) and control (N = 52) group participants. The intervention was developed in partnership with a group of promotoras to create the toolkit of materials which includes a curriculum guide, a brochure, a flipchart, a short animated video, and in-class activities. Twelve (32 %) intervention group participants received the Pap test compared to 10 (19 %) control group participants (p = 0.178). The intervention group scored significantly higher on both cervical cancer knowledge recall and retention than the control group (p < 0.001). While there was no statistically significant difference in cervical cancer screening self-efficacy scores between the group participants, both groups scored higher at follow-up, adjusting for the baseline scores. The group intervention approach was associated with increased cervical cancer knowledge but not uptake of Pap test. More intensive interventions using patient navigation approaches or promotoras who actively follow participants or conducting one-on-one rather than group sessions may be needed to achieve improved screening outcomes with this population.
Britton, Ben; Baker, Amanda L; Halpin, Sean A; Beck, Alison K; Carter, Gregory; Wratten, Chris; Bauer, Judith; Forbes, Erin; Booth, Debbie
Objectives The primary aim of the review was to determine the effectiveness of strategies to improve clinician provision of psychosocial distress screening and referral of patients with cancer. Design Systematic review. Data sources Electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL)) were searched until July 2016. Inclusion criteria Population: adult patients with cancer and clinical staff members. Intervention: any strategy that aimed to improve the rate of routine screening and referral for detected distress of patients with cancer. Comparison: no intervention controls, ‘usual’ practice or alternative interventions. Outcome: (primary) any measure of provision of screening and/or referral for distress, (secondary) psychosocial distress, unintended adverse effects. Design: trials with or without a temporal comparison group, including randomised and non-randomised trials, and uncontrolled pre–post studies. Data extraction and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data. Heterogeneity across studies precluded quantitative assessment via meta-analysis and so a narrative synthesis of the results is presented. Results Five studies met the inclusion criteria. All studies were set in oncology clinics or departments and used multiple implementation strategies. Using the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation, the overall rating of the certainty of the body of evidence reported in this review was assessed as very low. Three studies received a methodological quality rating of weak and two studies received a rating of moderate. Only one of the five studies reported a significant improvement in referrals. Conclusions The review identified five studies of predominantly poor quality examining the effectiveness of strategies to improve the routine implementation of distress screening and referral for patients with cancer
Lewis, Carmen L.; Brenner, Alison Tytell; Griffith, Jennifer M.; Moore, Charity G; Pignone, Michael P.
OBJECTIVE Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is underutilized. Effective and efficient interventions are needed to increase its utilization in primary care. METHODS We used UNC Internal Medicine electronic medical records to perform 2 effectiveness trials. Eligible patients had no documentation of recent CRC screening and were aged 50–75 years. The mailed intervention contained a letter documenting the need for screening signed by the attending physician in wave A and the practice director in wave B, a postcard to request a decision aid about CRC screening options, and information about how to obtain screening. RESULTS Three-hundred and forty patients of attending physicians in wave A, 944 patients of resident physicians in wave B, and 214 patients of attending physicians in wave B were included. The intervention increased screening compared with controls for attending physicians’ patients in wave A (13.1% vs. 4.1%, 95% CI, 3.1%–14.9%) but not for resident physicians’ patients in wave B (1.3% vs. 1.9%, 95% CI, −2.2% to 1.0%). A small increase in screening with the intervention was seen in attending physicians’ patients in wave B (6.9% vs. 2.4%, 95% CI, −1.4% to 10.5%). Requests for decision aids were uncommon in both waves (12.5% wave A and 7.8% wave B). LIMITATIONS The group assignments were not individually randomized, and covariate information to explain the differences in effect was limited. CONCLUSIONS The intervention increased CRC screening in attending physicians’ patients who received a letter from their physicians, but not resident physicians’ patients who received a letter signed by the practice director. PMID:22860316
Lee, Kwang-Sig; Park, Eun-Cheol
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening interventions with their effects on health disparity being considered. Markov cohort simulation was conducted with the cycle/duration of 1/40 year(s). Data came from the results of randomized trials and others. Participants were hypothetical cohorts aged 50 years as of year 2013 in 16 Korean provinces. The interventions until the age of 80 were annual organized fecal occult blood test (FOBT) (standard screening), annual FOBT with basic reminders for provinces with higher mortalities than the national average (targeted reminder) and annual FOBT with basic/enhanced reminders for all provinces (universal reminder 1 and 2). The comparison was non-screening, the outcome was quality-adjusted life years, and only medical costs for screening and treatment were considered from a societal perspective. The Atkinson incremental cost effectiveness ratio (Atkinson ICER), the incremental cost effectiveness ratio adjusted by the Atkinson Inequality Index, was used to evaluate the cost effectiveness of the four interventions with their impacts on regional health disparity being considered. Health disparity was smallest (or greatest) in non-screening (or the standard screening). The targeted reminder had smaller health disparity, and smaller Atkinson ICER with respect to standard screening, than did the universal reminder 1 and 2. The targeted reminder might be more cost effective than the universal reminders with their effects on health disparity being considered. This study helps to develop promotional effort for colorectal cancer screening with both the greatest cost effectiveness and the smallest health disparity.
Allen, Jennifer D.; Leyva, Bryan; Torres, María Idalí; Ospino, Hosffman; Tom, Laura; Rustan, Sarah; Bartholomew, Amanda
Although most U.S. Latinos identify as Catholic, few studies have focused on the influence of this religious tradition on health beliefs among this population. This study explores the role of Catholic religious teachings, practices, and ministry on cancer screening knowledge, attitudes and behaviors among Latinos. Eight focus groups were conducted with 67 Catholic Latino parishioners in Massachusetts. Qualitative analysis provided evidence of strong reliance on faith, God, and parish leaders for health concerns. Parishes were described as vital sources of health and social support, playing a central role in the community's health. Participants emphasized that their religious beliefs promote positive health behaviors and health care utilization, including the use of cancer screening services. In addition, they expressed willingness to participate in cancer education programs located at their parishes and provided practical recommendations for implementing health programs in parishes. Implications for culturally appropriate health communication and faith-based interventions are discussed. PMID:24858865
Fang, Carolyn Y; Ma, Grace X; Handorf, Elizabeth A; Feng, Ziding; Tan, Yin; Rhee, Joanne; Miller, Suzanne M; Kim, Charles; Koh, Han Seung
Korean American women have among the lowest rates of cervical cancer screening in the United States. The authors evaluated a multicomponent intervention combining community education with navigation services to reduce access barriers and increase screening rates in this underserved population. It was hypothesized that cervical cancer screening rates would be higher among women who received the intervention program compared with those in the control program. Korean American women (N = 705) were recruited from 22 churches. In this matched-pair, group-randomized design, 347 women received the intervention, which consisted of a culturally relevant cancer education program combined with provision of navigation services. The control group (N = 358) received general health education, including information about cervical cancer risk and screening and where to obtain low-cost or no-cost screening. Screening behavior was assessed 12 months after the program. Screening behavior data were obtained from 588 women 12 months after the program. In both site-level and participant-level analyses, the intervention program contributed to significantly higher screening rates compared with the control program (odds ratio [OR], 25.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10.1-66.1; P < .001). In sensitivity analysis, the treatment effect remained highly significant (OR, 16.7; 95% CI, 8.1-34.4; P < .001). A multicomponent intervention combining community cancer education with navigation services yielded significant increases in cervical cancer screening rates among underscreened Korean American women. Community-accessible programs that incorporate cancer education with the delivery of key navigation services can be highly effective in increasing cervical cancer screening rates in this underserved population. Cancer 2017;123:1018-26. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
Krok-Schoen, Jessica L.; Oliveri, Jill M.; Young, Gregory S.; Katz, Mira L.; Tatum, Cathy M.; Paskett, Electra D.
Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates are disproportionally high among women living in Ohio Appalachia. This study used the Transtheoretical Model to examine screening barriers before and after a lay health advisor (LHA) intervention (2005–2009) to increase cervical cancer screening rates. Ohio Appalachian women (n = 90) who were in need of a Pap test, based on risk-appropriate guidelines, and were randomized to a 10-month LHA intervention, received two in-person visits, two phone calls, and four mailed postcards targeted to the participant’s stage of change. Findings revealed that 63% had forward stage movement ten months after the intervention. The most frequently reported screening barriers were time constraints, forgetting to make an appointment, and cost. Women reporting the following barriers: doctor not recommending the test, unable to afford the test, and being embarrassed, nervous, or afraid of getting a Pap test were less likely to be in the action stage. Understanding the stages of change related to Pap testing and reported barriers among this underserved population may help inform researchers and clinicians of this population’s readiness for change and how to set realistic intervention goals. PMID:26479700
Lipkus, Isaac M; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Dement, John; Pompeii, Lisa; Moser, Barry; Samsa, Gregory P; Ransohoff, David
Individuals in the carpentry trade, due to lifestyle habits and occupational exposures, may be at above-average risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). Based on the literature which suggests that increasing perceived risk motivates behavior change, we report on the effectiveness of four risk-communication interventions targeted to increase initial, yearly and repeat fecal occult screening (FOBT) among carpenters (N = 860) over a 3-year period. Our 2 x 2 factorial design intervention study varied two dimensions of providing CRC risk factor information: (1) type of risk factor-one set of interventions emphasized three basic risk factors (age, family history and polyps); the other set emphasized a comprehensive set of risk factors including basic, lifestyle, and occupational factors, and (2) tailoring/not tailoring risk factor information. Participants were provided FOBTs. Outcomes were the proportion of returned FOBTs. Varying the amount and intensity of delivering CRC risk factors information affected neither risk perceptions nor initial, yearly, or repeat screening. However, yearly and repeat screening rates were greater among participants who received interventions addressing comprehensive set of risk factors, especially with increasing age. Tailoring on several CRC risk factors appears insufficient to increase and sustain elevated perceptions of CRC risks to promote screening.
Secginli, Selda; Nahcivan, Nursen O; Gunes, Gussun; Fernandez, Ritin
Breast cancer is a major health concern and remains the most common malignancy in women worldwide and in Turkey. Mammography, clinical breast examination (CBE), and breast self-examination (BSE) are recommended methods to detect early breast cancer in women. Many strategies have been developed to increase the rates of mammography, CBE, and BSE among Turkish women. Despite the benefits of breast cancer screening, these modalities are still underutilized by the majority of Turkish women. To systematically review the scientific evidence on the effectiveness of various strategies aimed at improving screening behaviors for breast cancer in Turkish women. A systematic review of the literature published between 2000 and 2015 was conducted, searching 10 databases of Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Google Scholar, ULAKBIM Turkish Medical Database, and Council of Higher Education Thesis Center. Twenty-three studies were included in the final review. The majority of the studies investigated the effects of multiple strategies to improve BSE. Group education comprised educational sessions, printed and audiovisual materials, which significantly improved BSE, CBE, and mammography screening rates at 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after the intervention. One-to-one education demonstrated no significant difference in BSE rates at 6-month and 12-month follow-up. However, one-to-one education demonstrated significant differences in CBE and mammography rates at the 3-month follow-up. The use of group education comprising a multicomponent intervention demonstrated an increase in breast-screening behaviors among Turkish women. Further research investigating the duration of educational interventions is needed in order to suggest a "dose response." © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Serra, Yolanda A; Colón-López, Vivian; Savas, Lara S; Vernon, Sally W; Fernández-Espada, Natalie; Vélez, Camille; Ayala, Alelí; Fernández, María E
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in Puerto Rico (PR). Although largely preventable through screening and treatment of precancerous polyps, CRC screening rates in PR remain low while CRC incidence and mortality continue to increase. We used intervention mapping (IM), a systematic framework using theory and evidence to plan a health promotion intervention to increase colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) among Puerto Rican adults 50 years and older who are patients of Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) in PR. To inform the development of a logic model of the problem during the needs assessment phase, we determined the CRC incidence and mortality rates in PR using recent data from the PR Cancer Registry, conducted a literature review to better understand behavioral and environmental factors influencing CRC among Hispanics in general and in Puerto Ricans, and collected new data. We conducted seven focus groups to identify community needs and resources, specific sub-behaviors related to CRCS (performance objectives) and the determinants of CRCS. We then developed matrices of change objectives that would guide the content, behavioral change method selection, and the practical applications that would be included in the program. We selected two overarching methods: entertainment education and behavioral journalism and developed practical applications, materials, and messages containing several other methods including modeling, persuasion, information, and tailoring. We developed and pretested a Tailored Interactive Multimedia Intervention, newsletter, an action plan, and supplemental print materials for patients. We also developed a patient mediated provider prompt to increase provider recommendation and improve patient provider communication. The use of IM for systematic planning produced a detailed coherent plan for the CRCS educational intervention. Guided by IM processes, steps, and tasks, we used community level information
Tokosi, Temitope O; Fortuin, Jill; Douglas, Tania S
Mobile health (mHealth) is the use of mobile communication technologies to promote health by supporting health care practices (eg, health data collection, delivery of health care information). mHealth technologies (such as mobile phones) can be used effectively by health care practitioners in the distribution of health information and have the potential to improve access to and quality of health care, as well as reduce the cost of health services. Current literature shows limited scientific evidence related to the benefits of mHealth interventions for breast cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide and contributes a large proportion of all cancer deaths, especially in developing countries. Women, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), are faced with low odds of surviving breast cancer. This finding is likely due to multiple factors related to health systems: low priority of women's health and cancer on national health agendas; lack of awareness that breast cancer can be effectively treated if detected early; and societal, cultural, and religious factors that are prevalent in LMICs. The proposed systematic review will examine the impact of mHealth interventions on breast cancer awareness and screening among women aged 18 years and older. The objectives of this study are to identify and describe the various mHealth intervention strategies that are used for breast cancer, and assess the impact of mHealth strategies on breast cancer awareness and screening. Literature from various databases such as MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials will be examined. Trial registers, reports, and unpublished theses will also be included. All mobile technologies such as cell phones, personal digital assistants, and tablets that have short message service, multimedia message service, video, and audio capabilities will be included. mHealth is the primary intervention. The search strategy will
Salimzadeh, Hamideh; Eftekhar, Hassan; Majdzadeh, Reza; Montazeri, Ali; Delavari, Alireza
Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth leading cause of death in the world. There are few published studies that have used theory-based interventions designed to increase colorectal cancer screening in community lay health organizations. The present study was guided by the theoretical concepts of the preventive health model. Twelve health clubs of a municipal district in Tehran were randomized to two study groups with equal ratio. The control group received usual services throughout the study while the intervention group also received a theory-based educational program on colorectal cancer screening plus a reminder call. Screening behavior, the main outcome, was assessed 4 months after randomization. A total of 360 members aged 50 and older from 12 health clubs completed a baseline survey. Participants in the intervention group reported increased knowledge of colorectal cancer and screening tests at 4 months follow-up (p's < .001). Moreover, exposure to the theory-based intervention significantly improved self-efficacy, perceived susceptibility, efficacy of screening, social support, and intention to be screened for colorectal cancer, from baseline to 4 months follow-up (p's < .001). The screening rate for colorectal cancer was significantly higher in the intervention group compared to the control group (odds ratio = 15.93, 95% CI = 5.57, 45.53). Our theory-based intervention was found to have a significant effect on colorectal cancer screening use as measured by self-report. The findings could have implications for colorectal cancer screening program development and implementation in primary health care settings and through other community organizations.
Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...
López-Torres Hidalgo, Jesús; Rabanales Sotos, Joseba; Simarro Herráez, María José; López-Torres López, Jaime; Campos Rosa, Monchi; López Verdejo, María Ángeles
Participation in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening varies widely among different countries and different socio-demographic groups. Our objective was to assess the effectiveness of three primary-care interventions to increase CRC screening participation among persons over the age of 50 years and to identify the health and socio-demographic-related factors that determine greater participation. We conducted a randomized experimental study with only one post-test control group. A total of 1,690 subjects were randomly distributed into four groups: written briefing; telephone briefing; an invitation to attend a group meeting; and no briefing. Subjects were evaluated 2 years post-intervention, with the outcome variable being participation in CRC screening. A total of 1,129 subjects were interviewed. Within the groups, homogeneity was tested in terms of socio-demographic characteristics and health-related variables. The proportion of subjects who participated in screening was: 15.4% in the written information group (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.2-19.7); 28.8% in the telephone information group (95% CI: 23.6-33.9); 8.1% in the face-to-face information group (95% CI: 4.5-11.7); and 5.9% in the control group (95% CI: 2.9-9.0), with this difference proving statistically significant (p < 0.001). Logistic regression showed that only interventions based on written or telephone briefing were effective. Apart from type of intervention, number of reported health problems and place of residence remained in the regression model. Both written and telephone information can serve to improve participation in CRC screening. This preventive activity could be optimized by means of simple interventions coming within the scope of primary health-care professionals.
Lairson, David R; Dicarlo, Melissa; Deshmuk, Ashish A; Fagan, Heather B; Sifri, Randa; Katurakes, Nora; Cocroft, James; Sendecki, Jocelyn; Swan, Heidi; Vernon, Sally W; Myers, Ronald E
Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is cost-effective but underused. The objective of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of a mailed standard intervention (SI) and tailored navigation interventions (TNIs) to increase CRC screening use in the context of a randomized trial among primary care patients. Participants (n = 945) were randomized either to a usual care control group (n = 317), to an SI group (n = 316), or to a TNI group (n = 312). The SI group was sent both colonoscopy instructions and stool blood tests irrespective of baseline preference. TNI group participants were sent instructions for scheduling a colonoscopy, a stool blood test, or both based on their test preference, as determined at baseline; then, they received a navigation telephone call. Activity cost estimation was used to determine the cost of each intervention and to compute incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Statistical uncertainty within the base case was assessed with 95% confidence intervals derived from net benefit regression analysis. The effects of uncertain parameters, such as the cost of planning, training, and involvement of those receiving "investigator salaries," were assessed with sensitivity analyses. Program costs of the SI were $167 per participant. The average cost of the TNI was $289 per participant. The TNI was more effective than the SI but substantially increased the cost per additional individual screened. Decision-makers need to consider cost structure, level of planning, and training required to implement these 2 intervention strategies and their willingness to pay for additional individuals screened to determine whether a tailored navigation would be justified and feasible. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
Christy, Shannon M; Schmidt, Alyssa; Wang, Hsiao-Lan; Sutton, Steven K; Davis, Stacy N; Chavarria, Enmanuel; Abdulla, Rania; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Schultz, Ida; Roetzheim, Richard; Shibata, David; Meade, Cathy D; Gwede, Clement K
To reduce colorectal cancer (CRC) screening disparities, it is important to understand correlates of different types of cancer worry among ethnically diverse individuals. The current study examined the prevalence of three types of cancer worry (i.e., general cancer worry, CRC-specific worry, and worry about CRC test results) as well as sociodemographic and health-related predictors for each type of cancer worry. Participants were aged 50-75, at average CRC risk, nonadherent to CRC screening guidelines, and enrolled in a randomized controlled trial to increase CRC screening. Participants completed a baseline questionnaire assessing sociodemographics, health beliefs, healthcare experiences, and three cancer worry measures. Associations between study variables were examined with separate univariate and multivariable logistic regression models. Responses from a total of 416 participants were used. Of these, 47% reported experiencing moderate-to-high levels of general cancer worry. Predictors of general cancer worry were salience and coherence (aOR = 1.1, 95% CI [1.0, 1.3]), perceived susceptibility (aOR = 1.2, 95% CI [1.1, 1.3), and social influence (aOR = 1.1, 95% CI [1.0, 0.1]). Fewer (23%) reported moderate-to-high levels of CRC-specific worry or CRC test worry (35%). Predictors of CRC worry were perceived susceptibility (aOR = 1.4, 95% CI [1.3, 1.6]) and social influence (aOR = 1.1, 95% CI [1.0, 1.2]); predictors of CRC test result worry were perceived susceptibility (aOR = 1.2, 95% CI [1.1, 1.3) and marital status (aOR = 2.0, 95% CI [1.1, 3.7] for married/partnered vs. single and aOR = 2.3, 95% CI [1.3, 4.1] for divorced/widowed vs. single). Perceived susceptibility consistently predicted the three types of cancer worry, whereas other predictors varied between cancer worry types and in magnitude of association. The three types of cancer worry were generally predicted by health beliefs, suggesting potential malleability. Future research should include multiple
Bastani, Roshan; Yabroff, K. Robin; Myers, Ronald E.; Glenn, Beth
The potential reduction in morbidity and mortality through cancer screening cannot be realized without receipt of appropriate follow-up care for abnormalities identified via screening. In this paper, the authors critically examine the existing literature on correlates of receipt of appropriate follow-up care for screen-detected abnormalities, as well as the literature on interventions designed to increase rates of receipt of follow-up care. Lessons learned describe what is known and not known about factors that are related to or predict receipt of follow-up care. Similarly, effective interventions to increase follow-up are described and gaps identified. A conceptual model is developed that categorizes the health care system in the United States as comprising four levels: policy, practice, provider, and patient. Some patient-level factors that influence follow-up receipt are identified, but the lack of data severely limit the understanding of provider, practice, and policy-level correlates. The majority of intervention studies to increase follow-up receipt have focused on patient-level factors and have targeted follow-up of abnormal Papanicolaou smears. Insufficient information is available regarding the effectiveness of provider, practice, or policy-level interventions. Standard definitions of what constitutes appropriate follow-up are lacking, which severely limit comparability of findings across studies. The validity of various methods of obtaining outcome data has not been clearly established. More research is needed on interventions targeting provider, system, and policy-level factors, particularly interventions focusing on follow-up of colorectal and breast abnormalities. Standardization of definitions and measures is needed to facilitate comparisons across studies. PMID:15316914
Cuaresma, Charlene F; Sy, Angela U; Nguyen, Tung T; Ho, Reginald C S; Gildengorin, Ginny L; Tsoh, Janice Y; Jo, Angela M; Tong, Elisa K; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Stewart, Susan L
Filipino colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates fall below Healthy People 2020 goals. In this study, the authors explore whether a lay health educator (LHE) approach can increase CRC screening among Filipino Americans ages 50 to 75 years in Hawai'i. A cluster randomized controlled trial from 2012 through 2015 compared an intervention, which consisted of LHEs delivering 2 education sessions and 2 telephone follow-up calls on CRC screening plus a CRC brochure versus an attention control, in which 2 lectures and 2 follow-up calls on nutrition and physical activity plus a CRC brochure were provided. The primary outcome was change in self-reported ever receipt of CRC screening at 6 months. Among 304 participants (77% women, 86% had > 10 years of residence in the United States), the proportion of participants who reported ever having received CRC screening increased significantly in the intervention group (from 80% to 89%; P = .0003), but not in the control group (from 73% to 74%; P = .60). After covariate adjustment, there was a significant intervention effect (odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-3.5). There was no intervention effect on up-to-date screening. This first randomized controlled trial for CRC screening among Hawai'i's Filipinos used an LHE intervention with mixed, but promising, results. Cancer 2018;124:1535-42. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.
Villanti, Andrea C.; Jiang, Yiding; Abrams, David B.; Pyenson, Bruce S.
Background A 2011 report from the National Lung Screening Trial indicates that three annual low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screenings for lung cancer reduced lung cancer mortality by 20% compared to chest X-ray among older individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Discussion has shifted from clinical proof to financial feasibility. The goal of this study was to determine whether LDCT screening for lung cancer in a commercially-insured population (aged 50–64) at high risk for lung cancer is cost-effective and to quantify the additional benefits of incorporating smoking cessation interventions in a lung cancer screening program. Methods and Findings The current study builds upon a previous simulation model to estimate the cost-utility of annual, repeated LDCT screenings over 15 years in a high risk hypothetical cohort of 18 million adults between age 50 and 64 with 30+ pack-years of smoking history. In the base case, the lung cancer screening intervention cost $27.8 billion over 15 years and yielded 985,284 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained for a cost-utility ratio of $28,240 per QALY gained. Adding smoking cessation to these annual screenings resulted in increases in both the costs and QALYs saved, reflected in cost-utility ratios ranging from $16,198 per QALY gained to $23,185 per QALY gained. Annual LDCT lung cancer screening in this high risk population remained cost-effective across all sensitivity analyses. Conclusions The findings of this study indicate that repeat annual lung cancer screening in a high risk cohort of adults aged 50–64 is highly cost-effective. Offering smoking cessation interventions with the annual screening program improved the cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening between 20% and 45%. The cost-utility ratios estimated in this study were in line with other accepted cancer screening interventions and support inclusion of annual LDCT screening for lung cancer in a high risk population in clinical recommendations. PMID
Ka'opua, Lana Sue I.; Park, Soon H.; Ward, Margaret E.; Braun, Kathryn L.
The authors report on the feasibility of delivering a church-based breast cancer screening intervention tailored on the cultural strengths of rural-dwelling Hawaiians. Native Hawaiian women are burdened by disproportionately high mortality from breast cancer, which is attributed to low participation in routine mammography. Mammography is proven to…
Holt, Cheryl L; Litaker, Mark S; Scarinci, Isabel C; Debnam, Katrina J; McDavid, Chastity; McNeal, Sandre F; Eloubeidi, Mohamad A; Crowther, Martha; Bolland, John; Martin, Michelle Y
Colorectal cancer screening has clear benefits in terms of mortality reduction; however, it is still underutilized and especially among medically underserved populations, including African Americans, who also suffer a disproportionate colorectal cancer burden. This study consisted of a theory-driven (health belief model) spiritually based intervention aimed at increasing screening among African Americans through a community health advisor-led educational series in 16 churches. Using a randomized design, churches were assigned to receive either the spiritually based intervention or a nonspiritual comparison, which was the same in every way except that it did not contain spiritual/religious content and themes. Trained and certified peer community health advisors in each church led a series of two group educational sessions on colorectal cancer and screening. Study enrollees completed a baseline, 1-month, and 12-month follow-up survey at their churches. The interventions had significant pre-post impact on awareness of all four screening modalities, and self-report receipt of fecal occult blood test, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy. There were no significant study group differences in study outcomes, with the exception of fecal occult blood test utilization, whereas those in the nonspiritual intervention reported significantly greater pre-post change. Both of these community-engaged, theory-driven, culturally relevant approaches to increasing colorectal cancer awareness and screening appeared to have an impact on study outcomes. Although adding spiritual/religious themes to the intervention was appealing to the audience, it may not result in increased intervention efficacy.
Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...
Allen, Jennifer D.; Pérez, John E.; Tom, Laura; Leyva, Bryan; Diaz, Daisy; Torres, Maria Idali
We assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and initial impact of a church-based educational program to promote breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening among Latinas ages 18 and over. We used a one-group pre/post evaluation within a low-income, Latino Baptist church in Boston, MA. Participants completed interviewer-administered assessments at baseline and at the end of the six-month intervention. Under the guidance of a patient navigator (PN), women from the church (peer health advisors, or PHAs) were trained to deliver evidence-based screening interventions, including one-to-one outreach, small group education, client reminders, and reduction of structural barriers to screening. The PN and PHAs also implemented a health fair and the pastor integrated health information into regular sermons. At pre-intervention, nearly half of the sample did not meet screening guidelines. The majority (97%, n = 35) of those who completed the post-intervention assessment participated in intervention activities. Two-thirds (67%) reported talking with the PN or PHAs about health issues. Participation in small group education sessions was highest (72%), with health fairs (61%), and goal setting (50%) also being popular activities. Fourteen percent also reported receiving help from the PN to access screening tests. This study supports the feasibility and acceptability of churches as a setting to promote cancer screening among Latinas. PMID:24132541
Yeary, Karen; Flowers, Eric; Ford, Gemessia; Burroughs, Desiree; Burton, Jackie; Woods, Delores; Stewart, Chara; Mehta, Paulette; Greene, Paul; Henry-Tillman, Ronda
The death rate from colorectal cancer is high and affects poor and medically underserved populations disproportionately. In the United States, health disparities are particularly acute in the Lower Mississippi River Delta region. Because many in the region have limited access to basic health care resources, they are not screened for cancer, even though screening is one of the most effective strategies to prevent colorectal cancer. Community-based participatory research is a promising approach to prevent colorectal cancer in this population. The Empowering Communities for Life program was implemented in 2 underserved counties in the Arkansas Lower Mississippi River Delta. The program arose from a 9-year partnership between the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and 9 cancer councils across Arkansas. Empowering Communities for Life is a community-based participatory intervention designed to increase colorectal cancer screening in rural, underserved communities through fecal occult blood testing. Community and academic partners collaborated to develop research infrastructure, intervention materials and methods, and the assessment instrument. Project outcomes were strengthened community-academic partnerships, certification of community partners in conducting human subjects research, development of a randomized controlled design to test the intervention's efficacy, an interactive PowerPoint presentation, an informational pamphlet, the certification of 6 lay health advisors and 22 role models to provide the intervention, and an assessment tool using an audience response system. Lessons learned in working collaboratively with diverse groups include the importance of meeting face to face and listening.
Cancer screening is checking for cancer in people who don't have symptoms. Screening tests can help doctors find and treat several types of cancer early, but cancer screening can have harms as well as benefits.
Prostate cancer screening - PSA; Prostate cancer screening - digital rectal exam; Prostate cancer screening - DRE ... level of PSA could mean you have prostate cancer. But other conditions can also cause a high ...
Saver, Barry G.; Mazor, Kathleen M.; Luckmann, Roger; Cutrona, Sarah L.; Hayes, Marcela; Gorodetsky, Tatyana; Esparza, Nancy; Bacigalupe, Gonzalo
PURPOSE We wanted to evaluate novel decision aids designed to help patients trust and accept the controversial, evidence-based, US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations about prostate cancer screening (from 2012) and mammography screening for women aged 40 to 49 years (from 2009). METHODS We created recorded vignettes of physician-patient discussions about prostate cancer screening and mammography, accompanied by illustrative slides, based on principles derived from preceding qualitative work and behavioral science literature. We conducted a randomized crossover study with repeated measures with 27 men aged 50 to 74 years and 35 women aged 40 to 49 years. All participants saw a video intervention and a more traditional, paper-based decision aid intervention in random order. At entry and after seeing each intervention, they were surveyed about screening intentions, perceptions of benefits and harm, and decisional conflict. RESULTS Changes in screening intentions were analyzed without regard to order of intervention after an initial analyses showed no evidence of an order effect. At baseline, 69% of men and 86% of women reported wanting screening, with 31% and 6%, respectively, unsure. Mean change on a 3-point, yes, unsure, no scale was −0.93 (P = <.001) for men and −0.50 (P = <.001) for women after seeing the video interventions vs 0.0 and −0.06 (P = .75) after seeing the print interventions. At the study end, 33% of men and 49% of women wanted screening, and 11% and 20%, respectively, were unsure. CONCLUSIONS Our novel, persuasive video interventions significantly changed the screening intentions of substantial proportions of viewers. Our approach needs further testing but may provide a model for helping patients to consider and accept evidence-based, counterintuitive recommendations. PMID:28376460
Since the single constitute 75% of African-American women aged 65 and older , and the incidence and mortality of cancer are especially high in elderly ...Breast Cancer Among Single African-American Women Aged 65 and Older PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kangmin Zhu, M.D., Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Meharry...to improve the breast screening behavior among single African-American women ages 65 and older . During the period, we (1) finished post-intervention
... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...
Lee, Eunice; Menon, Usha; Nandy, Karabi; Szalacha, Laura; Kviz, Frederick; Cho, Young; Miller, Arlene; Park, Hanjong
To assess the efficacy of Korean Immigrants and Mammography-Culture-Specific Health Intervention (KIM-CHI), an educational program for Korean American (KA) couples designed to improve mammography uptake among KA women. A two-group cluster randomized, longitudinal, controlled design. 50 KA religious organizations in the Chicago area. 428 married KA women 40 years of age or older who had not had a mammogram in the past year. The women and their husbands were recruited from 50 KA religious organizations. Couples were randomly assigned to intervention or attention control groups. Those in the KIM-CHI program (n = 211 couples) were compared to an attention control group (n = 217 couples) at baseline, as well as at 6 and 15 months postintervention on mammogram uptake. Sociodemographic variables and mammography uptake were measured. Level of acculturation was measured using the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale. Researchers asked questions about healthcare resources and use, health insurance status, usual source of care, physical examinations in the past two years, family history of breast cancer, and history of mammography. The KIM-CHI group showed statistically significant increases in mammography uptake compared to the attention control group at 6 months and 15 months postintervention. The culturally targeted KIM-CHI program was effective in increasing mammogram uptake among nonadherent KA women. Nurses and healthcare providers should consider specific health beliefs as well as inclusion of husbands or significant others. They also should target education to be culturally relevant for KA women to effectively improve frequency of breast cancer screening.
Morisada, Tohru; Teramoto, Katsuhiro; Takano, Hirokuni; Sakamoto, Ikuko; Nishio, Hiroshi; Iwata, Takashi; Hashi, Akihiko; Katoh, Ryohei; Okamoto, Aikou; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Eiji; Teramukai, Satoshi; Aoki, Daisuke
To assess the efficacy of screening with concurrent liquid-based cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for primary cervical cancer screening, we initiated a randomized trial entitled CervIcal cancer screening Trial by Randomization of HPV testing intervention for Upcoming Screening (CITRUS). Between June 2013 and March 2015, women aged 30-64 years of age who participated in a regular cervical cancer screening program (every 2 years) were invited to enrollment of our study. After giving their informed consent, 18,402 women were randomly assigned to liquid-based cytology as the control group (n=9145) or to HPV DNA testing with liquid-based cytology as the intervention group (n=9257). We subsequently compared the incidence rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), the rate of false positive tests and the rate of overdiagnosis, as well as assessing the risks and benefits of receiving screening for women in both groups. The primary outcome of our study was the incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) during the study period of around 6 years. In the control group, 97.9% of women were NILM, and 2.06% ASC-US or worse (ASC-US+). In the intervention group, 87.13% of women were NILM/HPV negative, 0.72% ASC-US/HPV negative, 10.34% NILM/HPV positive, 0.69% ASC-US/HPV positive, 0.90% worse than ASC-US/either HPV. Positive HPV testing was not linearly related to age in our study. Insights from CITRUS will provide future prospects for cervical cancer screening focused on the use of HPV testing in Japan. NCT01895517, UMIN000010843, TRIUC1312. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Park, Soon H.; Ward, Margaret E.; Braun, Kathryn L.
Native Hawaiian women are burdened by disproportionately high mortality from breast cancer, which is attributed to low participation in routine mammography. Mammography is proven to be an effective means for detecting disease at its earliest stages when treatments are most likely to be successful. Culturally-tailored screening programs may increase participation and Hawaiian initiatives call for screening innovations that integrate Hawaiian cultural strengths, including those related to spirituality and the extended family system. Before full-scale testing of tailored interventions, it is important to conduct feasibility studies that gauge community receptiveness to the proposed intervention and research methods. We report on the feasibility of delivering a church-based, breast cancer screening intervention tailored on the cultural strengths of rural-dwelling Hawaiians. Results establish the attractiveness and potential effectiveness of the intervention. Recruitment exceeded targets and retention rates were comparable to those of other randomized behavioral trials, confirming the value of reaching rural Hawaiian women through churches. Women appreciated the integrative approach of Hawaiian and faith-based values and positive outcomes are suggested. This article may be relevant to social workers interested in culturally-responsive, community-based interventions, as well to researchers conducting pilot studies and controlled trials of interventions adapted from evidence-based programs. PMID:21446609
May, Folasade P; Whitman, Cynthia B; Varlyguina, Ksenia; Bromley, Erica G; Spiegel, Brennan M R
African Americans have the highest burden of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the United States of America (USA) yet lower CRC screening rates than whites. Although poor screening has prompted efforts to increase screening uptake, there is a persistent need to develop public health interventions in partnership with the African American community. The aim of this study was to conduct focus groups with African Americans to determine preferences for the content and mode of dissemination of culturally tailored CRC screening interventions. In June 2013, 45-75-year-old African Americans were recruited through online advertisements and from an urban Veterans Affairs system to create four focus groups. A semi-structured interview script employing open-ended elicitation was used, and transcripts were analyzed using ATLAS.ti software to code and group data into a concept network. A total of 38 participants (mean age = 54) were enrolled, and 59 ATLAS.ti codes were generated. Commonly reported barriers to screening included perceived invasiveness of colonoscopy, fear of pain, and financial concerns. Facilitators included poor diet/health and desire to prevent CRC. Common sources of health information included media and medical providers. CRC screening information was commonly obtained from medical personnel or media. Participants suggested dissemination of CRC screening education through commercials, billboards, influential African American public figures, Internet, and radio. Participants suggested future interventions include culturally specific information, including details about increased risk, accessing care, and dispelling of myths. Public health interventions to improve CRC screening among African Americans should employ media outlets, emphasize increased risk among African Americans, and address race-specific barriers. Specific recommendations are presented for developing future interventions.
Metwally, Omar; Blumberg, Seth; Ladabaum, Uri
Background Although cancer screening reduces morbidity and mortality, millions of people worldwide remain unscreened. Social media provide a unique platform to understand public sentiment toward tools that are commonly used for cancer screening. Objective The objective of our study was to examine public sentiment toward colonoscopy, mammography, and Pap smear and how this sentiment spreads by analyzing discourse on Twitter. Methods In this observational study, we classified 32,847 tweets (online postings on Twitter) related to colonoscopy, mammography, or Pap smears using a naive Bayes algorithm as containing positive, negative, or neutral sentiment. Additionally, we characterized the spread of sentiment on Twitter using an established model to study contagion. Results Colonoscopy-related tweets were more likely to express negative than positive sentiment (negative to positive ratio 1.65, 95% CI 1.51-1.80, P<.001), in contrast to the more positive sentiment expressed regarding mammography (negative to positive ratio 0.43, 95% CI 0.39-0.47, P<.001). The proportions of negative versus positive tweets about Pap smear were not significantly different (negative to positive ratio 0.95, 95% CI 0.87-1.04, P=.18). Positive and negative tweets tended to share lexical features across screening modalities. Positive tweets expressed resonance with the benefits of early detection. Fear and pain were the principal lexical features seen in negative tweets. Negative sentiment for colonoscopy and mammography spread more than positive sentiment; no correlation with sentiment and spread was seen for Pap smear. Conclusions Analysis of social media data provides a unique, quantitative framework to better understand the public’s perception of medical interventions that are commonly used for cancer screening. Given the growing use of social media, public health interventions to improve cancer screening should use the health perceptions of the population as expressed in social network
Martin, Richard M; Donovan, Jenny L; Turner, Emma L; Metcalfe, Chris; Young, Grace J; Walsh, Eleanor I; Lane, J Athene; Noble, Sian; Oliver, Steven E; Evans, Simon; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Holding, Peter; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Brindle, Peter; Williams, Naomi J; Hill, Elizabeth M; Ng, Siaw Yein; Toole, Jessica; Tazewell, Marta K; Hughes, Laura J; Davies, Charlotte F; Thorn, Joanna C; Down, Elizabeth; Davey Smith, George; Neal, David E; Hamdy, Freddie C
Prostate cancer screening remains controversial because potential mortality or quality-of-life benefits may be outweighed by harms from overdetection and overtreatment. To evaluate the effect of a single prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening intervention and standardized diagnostic pathway on prostate cancer-specific mortality. The Cluster Randomized Trial of PSA Testing for Prostate Cancer (CAP) included 419 582 men aged 50 to 69 years and was conducted at 573 primary care practices across the United Kingdom. Randomization and recruitment of the practices occurred between 2001 and 2009; patient follow-up ended on March 31, 2016. An invitation to attend a PSA testing clinic and receive a single PSA test vs standard (unscreened) practice. Primary outcome: prostate cancer-specific mortality at a median follow-up of 10 years. Prespecified secondary outcomes: diagnostic cancer stage and Gleason grade (range, 2-10; higher scores indicate a poorer prognosis) of prostate cancers identified, all-cause mortality, and an instrumental variable analysis estimating the causal effect of attending the PSA screening clinic. Among 415 357 randomized men (mean [SD] age, 59.0 [5.6] years), 189 386 in the intervention group and 219 439 in the control group were included in the analysis (n = 408 825; 98%). In the intervention group, 75 707 (40%) attended the PSA testing clinic and 67 313 (36%) underwent PSA testing. Of 64 436 with a valid PSA test result, 6857 (11%) had a PSA level between 3 ng/mL and 19.9 ng/mL, of whom 5850 (85%) had a prostate biopsy. After a median follow-up of 10 years, 549 (0.30 per 1000 person-years) died of prostate cancer in the intervention group vs 647 (0.31 per 1000 person-years) in the control group (rate difference, -0.013 per 1000 person-years [95% CI, -0.047 to 0.022]; rate ratio [RR], 0.96 [95% CI, 0.85 to 1.08]; P = .50). The number diagnosed with prostate cancer was higher in the intervention group (n = 8054; 4
Conway, Ellie; Wyke, Sally; Sugden, Jacqui; Mutrie, Nanette; Anderson, Annie S
Around one third of breast cancers in post-menopausal women could be prevented by decreasing body fatness and alcohol intake and increasing physical activity. This study aimed to explore views and attitudes on lifestyle intervention approaches in order to inform the proposed content of a lifestyle intervention programme amongst women attending breast cancer screening. Women attending breast cancer screening clinics in Dundee and Glasgow, were invited to participate in focus group discussions (FGD) by clinic staff. The groups were convened out with the clinic setting and moderated by an experienced researcher who attained brief details on socio-demographic background and audio-recorded the discussions. Data analysis was guided by the framework approach. The main topics of enquiry were: Understanding of risk of breast cancer and its prevention, views on engaging with a lifestyle intervention programme offered through breast cancer screening and programme design and content. Thirty one women attended 5 focus groups. Participant ages ranged from 51 to 78 years and 38 % lived in the two most deprived quintiles of residential areas. Women were generally positive about being offered a programme at breast cancer screening but sceptical about lifestyle associated risk, citing genetics, bad luck and knowing women with breast cancer who led healthy lifestyles as reasons to query the importance of lifestyle. Engagement via clinic staff and delivery of the programme by lifestyle coaches out with the screening setting was viewed favourably. The importance of body weight, physical activity and alcohol consumption with disease was widely known although most were surprised at the association with breast cancer. They were particularly surprised about the role of alcohol and resistant to thinking about themselves having a problem. They expressed frustration that lifestyle guidance was often conflicting and divergent over time. The concept of focussing on small lifestyle changes
Kim, Hyuncheol Bryant; Lee, Sun-Mi
This study investigates the impact of and behavioral responses to cost sharing in Korea's National Cancer Screening Program, which provides free stomach and breast cancer screenings to those with an income below a certain cutoff. Free cancer screening substantially increases the screening take up rate, yielding more cancer detections. However, the increase in cancer detection is quickly crowded out by cancer detection through other channels such as diagnostic testing and private cancer screening. Further, compliers are much less likely to have cancer than never takers. Crowd-out and selection help explain why the program has been unable to reduce cancer mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hassinger, James P; Holubar, Stefan D; Pendlimari, Rajesh; Dozois, Eric J; Larson, David W; Cima, Robert R
Limited data exist regarding colon cancer literacy in screening colonoscopy patients. We aimed to prospectively assess baseline colon cancer literacy and to determine whether a multimedia educational intervention was associated with improved colon cancer literacy. Colon cancer literacy was assessed in a convenience sample of colonoscopy patients before and after educational intervention. Statistically significant associations with colon cancer literacy scores were assessed by use of multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results are frequency (proportion), mean +/- SD, and odds ratio (OR (95% CI)). Seventy-three subjects participated: mean age, 57 +/- 12 years, 35 (48%) were women, 41 (57%) had a college degree, 43 (59%) had prior colonoscopy, 21 (29%) were accompanying family, and 16 (22%) were health care employees. Multivariate factors associated with a higher baseline colon cancer literacy score included health care employee status (7.9 (95% CI, 1.6-63); P = .02) and family colon cancer history (5.3 (95% CI, 1.3-25); P = .02). After multimedia education, mean scores improved from 53% +/- 23% to 88% +/- 12% (Delta = 35%; P < .0001). On univariate analysis, college-educated subjects had higher final scores (91% vs 83%; P = .007), but this association was not significant on multivariate regression (P = .07). Only baseline score was associated with higher postintervention score (1.7 (95% CI, 1.2-2.6); P = .005). Sixty-two subjects (86%) were very satisfied, and 70 (97%) would recommend the module to friends and family. A knowledge deficit of colon cancer-related concepts is frequently observed in patients undergoing screening colonoscopy. Multimedia-based educational intervention was an effective, satisfying strategy for addressing cancer-specific knowledge deficit in laypersons.
Adams, Swann Arp; Rohweder, Catherine L; Leeman, Jennifer; Friedman, Daniela B; Gizlice, Ziya; Vanderpool, Robin C; Askelson, Natoshia; Best, Alicia; Flocke, Susan A; Glanz, Karen; Ko, Linda K; Kegler, Michelle
While colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates have been increasing in the general population, rates are considerably lower in Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs), which serve a large proportion of uninsured and medically vulnerable patients. Efforts to screen eligible patients must be accelerated if we are to reach the national screening goal of 80% by 2018 and beyond. To inform this work, we conducted a survey of key informants at FQHCs in eight states to determine which evidence-based interventions (EBIs) to promote CRC screening are currently being used, and which implementation strategies are being employed to ensure that the interventions are executed as intended. One hundred and forty-eight FQHCs were invited to participate in the study, and 56 completed surveys were received for a response rate of 38%. Results demonstrated that provider reminder and recall systems were the most commonly used EBIs (44.6%) while the most commonly used implementation strategy was the identification of barriers (84.0%). The mean number of EBIs that were fully implemented at the centers was 2.4 (range 0-7) out of seven. Almost one-quarter of respondents indicated that their FQHCs were not using any EBIs to increase CRC screening. Full implementation of EBIs was correlated with higher CRC screening rates. These findings identify gaps as well as the preferences and needs of FQHCs in selecting and implementing EBIs for CRC screening.
Background To accelerate the translation of research findings into practice for underserved populations, we investigated the adaptation of an evidence-based intervention (EBI), designed to increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in one limited English-proficient (LEP) population (Chinese), for another LEP group (Vietnamese) with overlapping cultural and health beliefs. Methods Guided by Diffusion of Innovations Theory, we adapted the EBI to achieve greater reach. Core elements of the adapted intervention included: small media (a DVD and pamphlet) translated into Vietnamese from Chinese; medical assistants distributing the small media instead of a health educator; and presentations on CRC screening to the medical assistants. A quasi-experimental study examined CRC screening adherence among eligible Vietnamese patients at the intervention and control clinics, before and after the 24-month intervention. The proportion of the adherence was assessed using generalized linear mixed models that account for clustering under primary care providers and also within-patient correlation between baseline and follow up. Results Our study included two cross-sectional samples: 1,016 at baseline (604 in the intervention clinic and 412 in the control clinic) and 1,260 post-intervention (746 in the intervention and 514 in the control clinic), including appreciable overlaps between the two time points. Pre-post change in CRC screening over time, expressed as an odds ratio (OR) of CRC screening adherence by time, showed a marginally-significant greater increase in CRC screening adherence at the intervention clinic compared to the control clinic (the ratio of the two ORs = 1.42; 95% CI 0.95, 2.15). In the sample of patients who were non-adherent to CRC screening at baseline, compared to the control clinic, the intervention clinic had marginally-significant greater increase in FOBT (adjusted OR = 1.77; 95% CI 0.98, 3.18) and a statistically-significantly greater increase in CRC
DeGroff, Amy; Carter, Aundrea; Kenney, Kristy; Myles, Zachary; Melillo, Stephanie; Royalty, Janet; Rice, Ketra; Gressard, Lindsay; Miller, Jacqueline W
The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides cancer screening to low-income, un-, and underinsured women through more than 11 000 primary care clinics. The program is well-positioned to work with health systems to implement evidence-based interventions (EBIs) to increase screening among all women. To collect baseline data on EBI use, evaluation of EBIs, and related training needs among NBCCEDP grantees. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted a Web-based survey in late 2013 among NBCCEDP grantees for the period July 2012 to June 2013. This was the first systematic assessment of EBIs among NBCCEDP grantees. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's NBCCEDP. Primarily program directors/coordinators for all 67 NBCCEDP grantees. Data captured were used to assess implementation of 5 EBIs, their evaluation, and related training needs. Frequencies and proportions were determined. Cluster analysis identified grantees with similar patterns of EBI use for NBCCEDP clients and providers. On average, 4.1 of 5 EBIs were implemented per grantee for NBCCEDP clients and providers. Four clusters were identified including "high overall EBI users," "high provider EBI users," "high EBI users with no provider assessment and feedback," and "high client EBI users." Only 1.8 EBIs were implemented, on average, with non-NBCCEDP clients and providers. Fewer than half (n = 32, 47.8%) of grantees conducted process or outcome evaluation of 1 or more EBIs. Overall, 47.6% of grantees reported high or medium training needs for client-oriented EBIs and 54.3% for provider-oriented EBIs. The NBCCEDP grantees are implementing EBIs extensively with clients and providers. Increased EBI use among non-NBCCEDP clients/providers is needed to extend the NBCCEDP's reach and impact. Grantee training and technical assistance is necessary across EBIs. In addition, grantees' use of process and outcome evaluation of EBI implementation must be increased
von Zuben, Marcus Vinicius; Derchain, Sophie Françoise; Sarian, Luis Otávio; Westin, Maria Cristina; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos
In the northern region of Brazil, cervical cancer is the most important cause of cancer-related deaths among women. There is considerable likelihood, however, that official incidence and mortality figures are greatly underestimated. The aim of this study was to estimate the repercussions from improvement in cervical cancer screening programs on the incidence of pre-invasive and invasive cervical lesions in a municipality in this region. This was a quasi-experimental study that assessed process dimensions relevant to the program objectives. The study comprised a sample of 2,226 women seen at primary healthcare units in Cruzeiro do Sul, a small city in the Brazilian Amazon region, from April 2003 to July 2004. Women were recruited through local radio advertisements and by oral communication from the investigators. The women answered a structured questionnaire and underwent pelvic examination, which included Papanicolaou (Pap) smears and naked-eye inspection of the cervix after applying diluted acetic acid. Women with positive Pap smears or abnormal gynecological examination were referred for colposcopy and possible biopsy, diathermic large loop excision of the transformation zone or conization. The results obtained were compared with historical official data retrieved from the Brazilian Ministry of Health's database. Intervention resulted in a 40% increase in positive Pap smears and detection of cancer was nine times higher than had been observed in routine screening. Detection of pre-invasive and invasive cervical lesions in the intervention group was remarkably higher than among women seen during routine screening.
... healthy people with a high risk of lung cancer. Lung cancer screening is recommended for older adults who ... last 15 years. What you can expect During lung cancer screening During an LDCT scan of the lungs, ...
Shokar, Navkiran K; Byrd, Theresa; Salaiz, Rebekah; Flores, Silvia; Chaparro, Maria; Calderon-Mora, Jessica; Reininger, Belinda; Dwivedi, Alok
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the USA. Screening is widely recommended but underutilized, particularly among the low income, the uninsured, recent immigrants and Hispanics. The study objective was to determine the effectiveness of a comprehensive community-wide, bilingual, CRC screening intervention among uninsured predominantly Hispanic individuals. This prospective study was embedded in a CRC screening program and utilized a quasi-experimental design. Recruitment occurred from Community and clinic sites. Inclusion criteria were aged 50-75years, uninsured, due for CRC screening, Texas address and exclusions were a history of CRC, or recent rectal bleeding. Eligible subjects were randomized to either promotora (P), video (V), or combined promotora and video (PV) education, and also received no-cost screening with fecal immunochemical testing or colonoscopy and navigation. The non-randomly allocated controls recruited from a similar county, received no intervention. The main outcome was 6month self-reported CRC screening. Per protocol and worst case scenario analyses, and logistic regression with covariate adjustment were performed. 784 subjects (467 in intervention group, 317 controls) were recruited; mean age was 56.8years; 78.4% were female, 98.7% were Hispanic and 90.0% were born in Mexico. In the worst case scenario analysis (n=784) screening uptake was 80.5% in the intervention group and 17.0% in the control group [relative risk 4.73, 95% CI: 3.69-6.05, P<0.001]. No educational group differences were observed. Covariate adjustment did not significantly alter the effect. A multicomponent community-wide, bilingual, CRC screening intervention significantly increased CRC screening in an uninsured predominantly Hispanic population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jensen, Jakob D; King, Andy J; Carcioppolo, Nicholas; Davis, LaShara
Past research has found that tailoring increases the persuasive effectiveness of a message. However, the observed effect has been small and the explanatory mechanism remains unknown. To address these shortcomings, a tailoring software program was created that personalized breast cancer screening pamphlets according to risk, health belief model constructs, and visual preference. Women aged 40 and older ( N = 119) participated in a 2 (tailored vs. stock message) × 2 (charts/graphs vs. illustrated visuals) × 3 (nested replications of the visuals) experiment. Participants provided with tailored illustrated pamphlets expressed greater breast cancer screening intentions than those provided with other pamphlets. In a test of 10 different mediators, perceived message relevance was found to fully mediate the tailoring × visual interaction.
Wee, Liang En; Koh, Gerald Choon-Huat; Chin, Run Ting; Yeo, Wei Xin; Seow, Branden; Chua, Darren
Inequalities in cancer screening are little studied in Asian societies. We determined whether area and individual measures of socio-economic status (SES) affected cancer screening participation in Singapore and prospectively evaluated an access-enhancing community-based intervention. The study population involved all residents aged >40 years in two housing estates comprising of owner-occupied (high-SES area) and rental (low-SES area) flats. From 2009 to 2011, non-adherents to regular screening for colorectal/breast/cervical cancer were offered free convenient screening over six months. Pre- and post-intervention screening rates were compared with McNemar's test. Multi-level logistic regression identified factors of regular screening at baseline; Cox regression analysis identified predictors of screening post-intervention. Participation was 78.2% (1081/1383). In the low-SES area, 7.7% (33/427), 20.4% (44/216), and 14.3% (46/321) had regular colorectal, cervical and breast cancer screening respectively. Post-intervention, screening rates in the low-SES area rose significantly to 19.0% (81/427), 25.4% (55/216), and 34.3% (74/216) respectively (p<0.001). Area SES was more consistently associated with screening than individual SES at baseline. Post-intervention, for colorectal cancer screening, those with higher education were more likely to attend (p=0.004); for female cancer screening, the higher-income were less likely to attend (p=0.032). Access-enhancing community-based interventions improve participation among disadvantaged strata of Asian societies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... decrease the risk of dying from cancer. Scientists study screening tests to find those with the fewest risks and ... or routine screening test for prostate cancer. Screening tests for prostate cancer are under study, and there are screening clinical trials taking place ...
... decrease the risk of dying from cancer. Scientists study screening tests to find those with the fewest risks and ... recovery. There is no standard or routine screening test for endometrial cancer. Screening for endometrial cancer is under study and there are screening clinical trials taking place ...
... decrease the risk of dying from cancer. Scientists study screening tests to find those with the fewest risks and ... stage . There is no standard or routine screening test for esophageal cancer. Screening for esophageal cancer is under study with screening clinical trials taking place in many ...
Interventions to increase recommendation and delivery of screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers by healthcare providers systematic reviews of provider assessment and feedback and provider incentives.
Sabatino, Susan A; Habarta, Nancy; Baron, Roy C; Coates, Ralph J; Rimer, Barbara K; Kerner, Jon; Coughlin, Steven S; Kalra, Geetika P; Chattopadhyay, Sajal
Most major medical organizations recommend routine screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers. Screening can lead to early detection of these cancers, resulting in reduced mortality. Yet not all people who should be screened are screened, either regularly or, in some cases, ever. This report presents results of systematic reviews of effectiveness, applicability, economic efficiency, barriers to implementation, and other harms or benefits of two provider-directed intervention approaches to increase screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers. These approaches, provider assessment and feedback, and provider incentives encourage providers to deliver screening services at appropriate intervals. Evidence in these reviews indicates that provider assessment and feedback interventions can effectively increase screening by mammography, Pap test, and fecal occult blood test. Health plans, healthcare systems, and cancer control coalitions should consider such evidence-based findings when implementing interventions to increase screening use. Evidence was insufficient to determine the effectiveness of provider incentives in increasing use of any of these tests. Specific areas for further research are suggested in this report, including the need for additional research to determine whether provider incentives are effective in increasing use of any of these screening tests, and whether assessment and feedback interventions are effective in increasing other tests for colorectal cancer (i.e., flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, or double-contrast barium enema).
Pinsky, Paul F
Cancer screening has long been an important component of the struggle to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality from cancer. Notwithstanding this history, many aspects of cancer screening remain poorly understood. This article presents a summary of basic principles of cancer screening that are relevant for researchers, clinicians, and public health officials alike. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Chan, Dorothy N S; So, Winnie K W
To examine the effect that breast and/or cervical cancer screening programmes for ethnic minority women have on their knowledge of and beliefs about breast or cervical cancer and screening, and on their screening intentions and uptake rates. Recommendations are also made for the format and content of such programmes, based on existing evidence. A comprehensive literature search was carried out both manually and by means of five electronic databases. The findings are summarised and synthesised in narrative fashion. The ten RCTs included here were conducted among ethnic minority women in the United States or Canada, where breast or cervical cancer screening programmes have led to improvements in screening intentions, knowledge of cervical cancer and pap test uptake. The Breast Cancer Screening Belief Scale and self-reporting were the methods commonly used to measure outcomes. The shared characteristics of both countries' programmes were that they were theory- and language-based, the instruction took place in a community setting, the materials were culturally relevant, the content highlighted key messages about breast or cervical cancer and screening measures, and there were multiple intervention strategies. Breast or cervical cancer screening programmes in Western countries have demonstrated improvements in knowledge of the disease, screening intentions and pap test uptake, although evidence on the effectiveness of the interventions has been limited. The common characteristics of programmes are identified, but a comprehensive model is still needed to link these characteristics with other factors and mediators influencing outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Metwally, Omar; Blumberg, Seth; Ladabaum, Uri; Sinha, Sidhartha R
Although cancer screening reduces morbidity and mortality, millions of people worldwide remain unscreened. Social media provide a unique platform to understand public sentiment toward tools that are commonly used for cancer screening. The objective of our study was to examine public sentiment toward colonoscopy, mammography, and Pap smear and how this sentiment spreads by analyzing discourse on Twitter. In this observational study, we classified 32,847 tweets (online postings on Twitter) related to colonoscopy, mammography, or Pap smears using a naive Bayes algorithm as containing positive, negative, or neutral sentiment. Additionally, we characterized the spread of sentiment on Twitter using an established model to study contagion. Colonoscopy-related tweets were more likely to express negative than positive sentiment (negative to positive ratio 1.65, 95% CI 1.51-1.80, P<.001), in contrast to the more positive sentiment expressed regarding mammography (negative to positive ratio 0.43, 95% CI 0.39-0.47, P<.001). The proportions of negative versus positive tweets about Pap smear were not significantly different (negative to positive ratio 0.95, 95% CI 0.87-1.04, P=.18). Positive and negative tweets tended to share lexical features across screening modalities. Positive tweets expressed resonance with the benefits of early detection. Fear and pain were the principal lexical features seen in negative tweets. Negative sentiment for colonoscopy and mammography spread more than positive sentiment; no correlation with sentiment and spread was seen for Pap smear. Analysis of social media data provides a unique, quantitative framework to better understand the public's perception of medical interventions that are commonly used for cancer screening. Given the growing use of social media, public health interventions to improve cancer screening should use the health perceptions of the population as expressed in social network postings about tests that are frequently used for
Maxwell, Annette E; Danao, Leda L; Cayetano, Reggie T; Crespi, Catherine M; Bastani, Roshan
The implementation of evidence-based strategies to promote colorectal cancer (CRC) screening remains challenging. The aim of this study is to evaluate two strategies to implement an evidence-based intervention to promote CRC screening in Filipino American community organizations. Twenty-two community organizations were randomized to either a basic or enhanced implementation strategy. In both arms, community health advisors recruited participants non-adherent to CRC screening guidelines, conducted educational sessions, distributed print materials and free fecal occult blood test kits, reminded participants to get screened, and mailed letters to participants' providers. In the enhanced arm, leaders of the organizations participated in implementation efforts. While the effectiveness was similar in both arms of the study (screening rate at 6-month follow-up was 53 % in the enhanced arm, 49 % in the basic arm), 223 participants were screened in the enhanced arm versus 122 in the basic arm. The enhanced implementation strategy reached 83 % more participants and achieved a higher public health impact. NCT01351220 (ClinicalTrials.gov).
Schwartz, Mark D.; Shah, Nirav R.; Gany, Francesca M.
BACKGROUND Latino immigrants face a higher burden of colorectal cancer (CRC) and screening rates are low. OBJECTIVE To assess the effectiveness of a multilevel intervention in increasing the rate of CRC screening among Latino immigrants. DESIGN A randomized controlled trial, with randomization at the physician level. PARTICIPANTS Pairs of 65 primary care physicians and 65 Latino immigrant patients participated, 31 in the intervention and 34 in the control group. INTERVENTION CRC educational video in Spanish on a portable personal digital video display device accompanied by a brochure with key information for the patient, and a patient-delivered paper-based reminder for their physician. MEASUREMENTS Completed CRC screening, physician recommendation for CRC screening, and patient adherence to physician recommended CRC screening. RESULTS The overall rate of completed screening for CRC was 55% for the intervention and 18% for the control group (p = 0.002). Physicians recommended CRC screening for 61% of patients in the intervention group versus 41% in the control group (p = 0.08). Of those that received a recommendation, 90% in the intervention group adhered to it versus 26% in the control group (p = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS The intervention was successful in increasing rates of completed CRC screening primarily through increasing adherence after screening was recommended. Additional efforts should focus on developing new strategies to increase physician recommendation for CRC screening, while employing effective patient adherence interventions. PMID:20213208
Fernández, Maria E; Gonzales, Alicia; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Partida, Sylvia; Bartholomew, L Kay
This article describes the development of the Cultivando La Salud program, an intervention to increase breast and cervical cancer screening for Hispanic farmworker women. Processes and findings of intervention mapping (IM), a planning process for development of theory and evidence-informed program are discussed. The six IM steps are presented: needs assessment, preparation of planning matrices, election of theoretic methods and practical strategies, program design, implementation planning, and evaluation. The article also describes how qualitative and quantitative findings informed intervention development. IM helped ensure that theory and evidence guided (a) the identification of behavioral and environmental factors related to a target health problem and (b) the selection of the most appropriate methods and strategies to address the identified determinants. IM also guided the development of program materials and implementation by lay health workers. Also reported are findings of the pilot study and effectiveness trial.
... blood test Sigmoidoscopy Colonoscopy Virtual colonoscopy DNA stool test Studies have shown that screening for colorectal cancer using ... decrease the risk of dying from cancer. Scientists study screening tests to find those with the fewest risks and ...
Mitchell, Sheona M; Pedersen, Heather N; Sekikubo, Musa; Biryabarema, Christine; Byamugisha, Josaphat J K; Mwesigwa, David; Steinberg, Malcolm; Money, Deborah M; Ogilvie, Gina S
Community engagement and education can improve acceptability and participation in clinical trials conducted in Kisenyi, Uganda. In preparation for a randomized controlled trial exploring different methods for cervical cancer screening, we explored optimal engagement strategies from the perspective of community members and health professionals. We conducted key informant interviews followed by serial community forums with purposeful sampling and compared the perspectives of women in Kisenyi (N = 26) to health-care workers (HCW) at the local and tertiary care center levels (N = 61) in a participatory, iterative process. Key themes identified included format, content, language, message delivery, and target population. Women in Kisenyi see demonstration as a key part of an educational intervention and not solely a didactic session, whereas health professionals emphasized the biomedical content and natural history of cervical cancer. Using local language and lay leaders with locally accessible terminology was more of a priority for women in Kisenyi than clinicians. Simple language with a clear message was essential for both groups. Localization of language and reciprocal communication using demonstration between community members and HCW was a key theme. Although perceptions of the format are similar between women and HCW, the content, language, and messaging that should be incorporated in a health education strategy differ markedly. The call for lay leaders to participate in health promotion is a clear step toward transforming this cervical cancer screening project to be a fully participatory process. This is important in scaling up cervical cancer screening programs in Kisenyi and will be central in developing health education interventions for this purpose.
Aragones, Abraham; Schwartz, Mark D; Shah, Nirav R; Gany, Francesca M
Latino immigrants face a higher burden of colorectal cancer (CRC) and screening rates are low. To assess the effectiveness of a multilevel intervention in increasing the rate of CRC screening among Latino immigrants. A randomized controlled trial, with randomization at the physician level. Pairs of 65 primary care physicians and 65 Latino immigrant patients participated, 31 in the intervention and 34 in the control group. CRC educational video in Spanish on a portable personal digital video display device accompanied by a brochure with key information for the patient, and a patient-delivered paper-based reminder for their physician. Completed CRC screening, physician recommendation for CRC screening, and patient adherence to physician recommended CRC screening. The overall rate of completed screening for CRC was 55% for the intervention and 18% for the control group (p = 0.002). Physicians recommended CRC screening for 61% of patients in the intervention group versus 41% in the control group (p = 0.08). Of those that received a recommendation, 90% in the intervention group adhered to it versus 26% in the control group (p = 0.007). The intervention was successful in increasing rates of completed CRC screening primarily through increasing adherence after screening was recommended. Additional efforts should focus on developing new strategies to increase physician recommendation for CRC screening, while employing effective patient adherence interventions.
Bartholomew, Leona K.; McQueen, Amy; Bettencourt, Judy L.; Greisinger, Anthony; Coan, Sharon P.; Lairson, David; Chan, Wenyaw; Hawley, S. T.; Myers, R. E.
Background There have been few studies of tailored interventions to promote colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Purpose We conducted a randomized trial of a tailored, interactive intervention to increase CRC screening. Methods Patients 50–70 years completed a baseline survey, were randomized to one of three groups, and attended a wellness exam after being exposed to a tailored intervention about CRC screening (tailored group), a public web site about CRC screening (web site group), or no intervention (survey-only group). The primary outcome was completion of any recommended CRC screening by 6 months. Results There was no statistically significant difference in screening by 6 months: 30%, 31%, and 28% of the survey-only, web site, and tailored groups were screened. Exposure to the tailored intervention was associated with increased knowledge and CRC screening self-efficacy at 2 weeks and 6 months. Family history, prior screening, stage of change, and physician recommendation moderated the intervention effects. Conclusions A tailored intervention was not more effective at increasing screening than a public web site or only being surveyed. PMID:21271365
Lairson, David; DiCarlo, Melissa; Deshmuk, Ashish A.; Fagan, Heather B.; Sifri, Randa; Katurakes, Nora; Cocroft, James; Sendecki, Jocelyn; Swan, Heidi; Vernon, Sally W.; Myers, Ronald E.
Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is cost-effective but underutilized. This study aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness of mailed standard intervention (SI) and tailored navigation interventions (TNI) to increase CRC screening use in the context of a randomized trial among primary care patients. Methods Participants (n=945) were randomized either to a usual care Control Group (n=317), SI Group (n=316), or TNI Group (n=312). The SI Group was sent both colonoscopy instructions and stool blood tests irrespective of baseline preference. TNI Group participants were sent instructions for scheduling a colonoscopy, a stool blood test, or both based on their test preference as determined at baseline, and then received a navigation telephone call. Activity cost estimation was used to determine the cost of each intervention and compute incremental cost-effectiveness ratios . Statistical uncertainty within the base case was assessed with 95 percent confidence intervals derived from net benefit regression analysis. Effects of uncertain parameters such as the cost of planning, training, and involvement of those receiving “investigator salaries” were assessed with sensitivity analyses. Results Program costs of the SI were $167 per participant. Average cost of the TNI was $289 per participant. Conclusion The TNI was more effective than the SI, but substantially increased the cost per additional person screened. Decision-makers need to consider cost structure, level of planning, and training required to implement these two intervention strategies, and their willingness to pay for additional persons screened, to determine whether tailored navigation would be justified and feasible. PMID:24435411
Niell, Bethany L; Freer, Phoebe E; Weinfurtner, Robert Jared; Arleo, Elizabeth Kagan; Drukteinis, Jennifer S
The goal of screening is to detect breast cancers when still curable to decrease breast cancer-specific mortality. Breast cancer screening in the United States is routinely performed with mammography, supplemental digital breast tomosynthesis, ultrasound, and/or MR imaging. This article aims to review the most commonly used breast imaging modalities for screening, discuss how often and when to begin screening with specific imaging modalities, and examine the pros and cons of screening. By the article's end, the reader will be better equipped to have informed discussions with patients and medical professionals regarding the benefits and disadvantages of breast cancer screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Christy, Shannon M; Davis, Stacy N; Williams, Kimberly R; Zhao, Xiuhua; Govindaraju, Swapomthi K; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Lin, Hui-Yi; Sutton, Steven K; Roethzeim, Richard R; Shibata, David; Meade, Cathy D; Gwede, Clement K
Intervention studies among individuals in diverse community settings are needed to reduce health disparities in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and mortality rates. The current study compared the efficacy of 2 intervention conditions promoting CRC screening among black individuals. Black individuals ages 50 to 75 years (N = 330) were recruited in community settings in 4 Tampa Bay counties. After obtaining consent and conducting a baseline interview to assess sociodemographic and health-related variables, participants received either a culturally targeted CRC photonovella booklet plus a fecal immunochemical test (FIT) kit or a standard CRC screening brochure plus an FIT kit. The primary outcome was FIT kit screening uptake. FIT screening uptake at 6 months was 86.7% overall (90.3% in the brochure group and 81.9% in the photonovella group). Controlling for baseline between-group differences, there was no influence of intervention on FIT kit uptake (P = .756). Significant predictors of not returning an FIT kit included being unable to work (P = .010), having higher religious belief scores (P = .015), and living farther from the cancer center (P = .015). Providing FIT kits and educational print materials to black individuals in community settings resulted in high rates of CRC screening. The study also identified subgroups of participants who were less likely to return an FIT kit and provides insight for future interventions. Cancer 2016;122:3288-3296. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
Zoorob, R; Anderson, R; Cefalu, C; Sidani, M
Numerous medical organizations have developed cancer screening guidelines. Faced with the broad, and sometimes conflicting, range of recommendations for cancer screening, family physicians must determine the most reasonable and up-to-date method of screening. Major medical organizations have generally achieved consensus on screening guidelines for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer. For breast cancer screening in women ages 50 to 70, clinical breast examination and mammography are generally recommended every one or two years, depending on the medical organization. For cervical cancer screening, most organizations recommend a Papanicolaou test and pelvic examination at least every three years in patients between 20 and 65 years of age. Annual fecal occult blood testing along with flexible sigmoidoscopy at five-year to 10-year intervals is the standard recommendation for colorectal cancer screening in patients older than 50 years. Screening for prostate cancer remains a matter of debate. Some organizations recommend digital rectal examination and a serum prostate-specific antigen test for men older than 50 years, while others do not. In the absence of compelling evidence to indicate a high risk of endometrial cancer, lung cancer, oral cancer and ovarian cancer, almost no medical organizations have developed cancer screening guidelines for these types of cancer.
Ross, C C
Efforts to decrease the number of deaths from colorectal cancer have focused on screening techniques, since no etiologic agent has been identified. Current screening regimens are designed to detect colorectal cancer in a large population in a cost-efficient manner and to minimize the risks associated with work-ups for false-positive tests. A two-part screening questionnaire for colorectal cancer helps identify patients who are at moderate risk for this cancer.
Lairson, David R.; Chang, Yu-Chia; Byrd, Theresa L.; Smith, Judith Lee; Fernandez, Maria E.; Wilson, Katherine M.
Background Hispanic women have a higher incidence of cervical cancer than all other races and ethnicities. In Hispanic subgroups, Mexican American women were among the least likely to have received cervical cancer screening. In a recent RCT, Ayudando a las Mujeres con Información, Guia, y Amor para su Salud (AMIGAS) was shown to increase cervical cancer screening rates among women of Mexican descent at 6 months in all intervention arms compared to the control arm. Limited information exists about the economics of interventions to increase cervical cancer screening rates among women of Mexican descent. Purpose This study aims to estimate the cost-effectiveness of the alternative AMIGAS intervention methods for increasing cervical cancer screening among low-income women of Mexican descent in three U.S. communities. Methods Cost data were collected from 2008 to 2011 alongside the AMIGAS study of 613 women. Receipt of Pap test within 6 months of intervention was the primary outcome measure in the cost-effectiveness analysis, conducted during 2012–2013. Results The cost per additional woman screened comparing the video-only intervention to usual care was $980. The cost increased to $1,309 with participant time cost included. With an additional cost per participant of $3.90 compared to flipchart only, the full AMIGAS program (video plus flipchart) yielded 6.8% additional women screened. Conclusions Results on the average and incremental cost-effectiveness of the AMIGAS program elements may assist health policymakers and program managers to select and appropriately budget for interventions shown to increase cervical cancer screening among low-income women of Mexican descent. PMID:24842738
Fernández, María E; Savas, Lara S; Carmack, Chakema C; Chan, Wenyaw; Lairson, David R; Byrd, Theresa L; Wilson, Katherine M; Arvey, Sarah R; Krasny, Sarah; Vernon, Sally W
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second and third leading cause of cancer death for Hispanic men and women, respectively. CRC can be prevented if precursors are detected early and removed and can be successfully treated if discovered early. While one-on-one interventions for increasing CRC screening (CRCS) are recommended, few studies specifically assess the effectiveness of lay health worker (LHW) approaches using different educational materials. To develop and evaluate the effectiveness of two LHW-delivered CRCS interventions known as Vale la Pena (VLP; "It's Worth It!") on increasing CRCS among Hispanics. The study design was a cluster randomized controlled trial with two treatment arms. Six hundred and sixty five Hispanics 50 years and older were recruited from 24 colonias (neighborhoods) in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of the Texas-Mexico border. The interventions were a small media print intervention (SMPI) (including DVD and flipchart), and a tailored interactive multimedia intervention (TIMI) delivered on tablet computers. A no intervention group served as the comparison group. Data were collected between 2007 and 2009 and analyzed between 2009 and 2013. Measures assessed CRCS behavior, self-efficacy, knowledge, and other psychosocial constructs related to CRCS and targeted through VLP. Among participants reached for follow-up, 18.9 % in the SMPI group, 13.3 % in the TIMI group, and 11.9 % in the comparison group completed CRCS. Intent-to-treat analysis showed that 13.6 % in the SMPI group, 10.2 % in the TIMI group, and 10.8 % in the comparison group completed CRCS. These differences were not statistically significant. Results indicated that there are no significant differences in CRCS uptake between groups.
Baron, Roy C; Melillo, Stephanie; Rimer, Barbara K; Coates, Ralph J; Kerner, Jon; Habarta, Nancy; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Sabatino, Susan A; Elder, Randy; Leeks, Kimberly Jackson
Most major medical organizations recommend routine screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers. Screening can lead to early detection of these cancers, resulting in reduced mortality. Yet, not all people who should be screened are screened regularly or, in some cases, ever. This report presents results of systematic reviews of effectiveness, applicability, economic efficiency, barriers to implementation, and other harms or benefits of provider reminder/recall interventions to increase screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers. These interventions involve using systems to inform healthcare providers when individual clients are due (reminder) or overdue (recall) for specific cancer screening tests. Evidence in this review of studies published from 1986 through 2004 indicates that reminder/recall systems can effectively increase screening with mammography, Pap, fecal occult blood tests, and flexible sigmoidoscopy. Additional research is needed to determine if provider reminder/recall systems are effective in increasing colorectal cancer screening by colonoscopy. Specific areas for further research are also suggested. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Machii, Ryoko; Saika, Kumiko; Higashi, Takahiro; Aoki, Ayako; Hamashima, Chisato; Saito, Hiroshi
The importance of quality assurance in cancer screening has recently gained increasing attention in Japan. To evaluate and improve quality, checklists and process indicators have been developed. To explore effective methods of enhancing quality in cancer screening, we started a randomized control study of the methods of evaluation and feedback for cancer control from 2009 to 2014. We randomly assigned 1270 municipal governments, equivalent to 71% of all Japanese municipal governments that performed screening programs, into three groups. The high-intensity intervention groups (n = 425) were individually evaluated using both checklist performance and process indicator values, while the low-intensity intervention groups (n= 421) were individually evaluated on the basis of only checklist performance. The control group (n = 424) received only a basic report that included the national average of checklist performance scores. We repeated the survey for each municipality's quality assurance activity performance using checklists and process indicators. In this paper, we report our study design and the result of the baseline survey. The checklist adherence rates were especially low in the checklist elements related to invitation of individuals, detailed monitoring of process indicators such as cancer detection rates according to screening histories and appropriate selection of screening facilities. Screening rate and percentage of examinees who underwent detailed examination tended to be lower for large cities when compared with smaller cities for all cancer sites. The performance of the Japanese cancer screening program in 2009 was identified for the first time.
Christy, Shannon M.; Perkins, Susan M.; Tong, Yan; Krier, Connie; Champion, Victoria L.; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Springston, Jeffrey K.; Imperiale, Thomas F.; Rawl, Susan M.
Background Provider recommendation is a predictor of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Purpose To compare the effects of two clinic-based interventions on patient–provider discussions about CRC screening. Design Two-group RCT with data collected at baseline and 1 week post-intervention. Participants/setting African-American patients that were non-adherent to CRC screening recommendations (n=693) with a primary care visit between 2008 and 2010 in one of 11 urban primary care clinics. Intervention Participants received either a computer-delivered tailored CRC screening intervention or a nontailored informational brochure about CRC screening immediately prior to their primary care visit. Main outcome measures Between-group differences in odds of having had a CRC screening discussion about a colon test, with and without adjusting for demographic, clinic, health literacy, health belief, and social support variables, were examined as predictors of a CRC screening discussion using logistic regression. Intervention effects on CRC screening test order by PCPs were examined using logistic regression. Analyses were conducted in 2011 and 2012. Results Compared to the brochure group, a greater proportions of those in the computer-delivered tailored intervention group reported having had a discussion with their provider about CRC screening (63% vs 48%, OR=1.81, p<0.001). Predictors of a discussion about CRC screening included computer group participation, younger age, reason for visit, being unmarried, colonoscopy self-efficacy, and family member/friend recommendation (all p-values <0.05). Conclusions The computer-delivered tailored intervention was more effective than a nontailored brochure at stimulating patient–provider discussions about CRC screening. Those who received the computer-delivered intervention also were more likely to have a CRC screening test (fecal occult blood test or colonoscopy) ordered by their PCP. Trial registration This study is registered at www
... decrease the risk of dying from cancer. Scientists study screening tests to find those with the fewest risks and ... website . There is no standard or routine screening test for oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer. No studies have shown that screening for oral cavity , pharyngeal , ...
The International Cancer Screening Network promotes evidence-based cancer screening implementation and evaluation with cooperation from multilateral organizations around the globe. Learn more about how ICSN aims to reduce the global burden of cancer by supporting research and international collaboration.
Han, Hae-Ra; Lee, H.; Kim, M. T.; Kim, K. B.
Despite rapidly increasing incidence rates of breast cancer, recent immigrants such as Korean-American (KA) women report disproportionately lower utilization of screening tests compared with other ethnic groups. Early screening of breast cancer for this population may be greatly facilitated by indigenous lay health workers (LHWs). We conducted an…
Taylor, Kathryn L; Hagerman, Charlotte J; Luta, George; Bellini, Paula G; Stanton, Cassandra; Abrams, David B; Kramer, Jenna A; Anderson, Eric; Regis, Shawn; McKee, Andrea; McKee, Brady; Niaura, Ray; Harper, Harry; Ramsaier, Michael
Incorporating effective smoking cessation interventions into lung cancer screening (LCS) programs will be essential to realizing the full benefit of screening. We conducted a pilot randomized trial to determine the feasibility and efficacy of a telephone-counseling (TC) smoking cessation intervention vs. usual care (UC) in the LCS setting. In collaboration with 3 geographically diverse LCS programs, we enrolled current smokers (61.5% participation rate) who were: registered to undergo LCS, 50-77 years old, and had a 20+ pack-year smoking history. Eligibility was not based on readiness to quit. Participants completed pre-LCS (T0) and post-LCS (T1) telephone assessments, were randomized to TC (N=46) vs. UC (N=46), and completed a final 3-month telephone assessment (T2). Both study arms received a list of evidence-based cessation resources. TC participants also received up to 6 brief counseling calls with a trained cessation counselor. Counseling calls incorporated motivational interviewing and utilized the screening result as a motivator for quitting. The outcome was biochemically verified 7-day point prevalence cessation at 3-months post-randomization. Participants (56.5% female) were 60.2 (SD=5.4) years old and reported 47.1 (SD=22.2) pack years; 30% were ready to stop smoking in the next 30 days. TC participants completed an average of 4.4 (SD=2.3) sessions. Using intent-to-treat analyses, biochemically verified quit rates were 17.4% (TC) vs. 4.3% (UC), p<.05. This study provides preliminary evidence that telephone-based cessation counseling is feasible and efficacious in the LCS setting. As millions of current smokers are now eligible for lung cancer screening, this setting represents an important opportunity to exert a large public health impact on cessation among smokers who are at very high risk for multiple tobacco-related diseases. If this evidence-based, brief, and scalable intervention is replicated, TC could help to improve the overall cost
Mazzone, Peter J.; Naidich, David P.; Bach, Peter B.
Background: Lung cancer is by far the major cause of cancer deaths largely because in the majority of patients it is at an advanced stage at the time it is discovered, when curative treatment is no longer feasible. This article examines the data regarding the ability of screening to decrease the number of lung cancer deaths. Methods: A systematic review was conducted of controlled studies that address the effectiveness of methods of screening for lung cancer. Results: Several large randomized controlled trials (RCTs), including a recent one, have demonstrated that screening for lung cancer using a chest radiograph does not reduce the number of deaths from lung cancer. One large RCT involving low-dose CT (LDCT) screening demonstrated a significant reduction in lung cancer deaths, with few harms to individuals at elevated risk when done in the context of a structured program of selection, screening, evaluation, and management of the relatively high number of benign abnormalities. Whether other RCTs involving LDCT screening are consistent is unclear because data are limited or not yet mature. Conclusions: Screening is a complex interplay of selection (a population with sufficient risk and few serious comorbidities), the value of the screening test, the interval between screening tests, the availability of effective treatment, the risk of complications or harms as a result of screening, and the degree with which the screened individuals comply with screening and treatment recommendations. Screening with LDCT of appropriate individuals in the context of a structured process is associated with a significant reduction in the number of lung cancer deaths in the screened population. Given the complex interplay of factors inherent in screening, many questions remain on how to effectively implement screening on a broader scale. PMID:23649455
Carey, Mariko; Sanson-Fisher, Robert; Macrae, Finlay; Cameron, Emilie; Hill, David; D'Este, Catherine; Simmons, Jody; Doran, Christopher
To test the effectiveness of a targeted print-based intervention to improve screening adherence in first degree relatives of people with colorectal cancer (CRC). People with CRC and their adult first degree relatives were identified through a population-based cancer registry and randomly allocated as a family unit to the intervention or control condition. The control group received general information about CRC screening. The intervention group received printed advice regarding screening that was targeted to their risk level. Screening adherence was assessed at baseline and at 12 months via self report. 752 (25%) index cases and 574 (34%) eligible first degree relatives consented to take part in the trial and completed baseline interviews. At 12 months, 58% of first degree relatives in the control group and 61% in the intervention group were adherent to screening guidelines (mixed effects logistic regression group by time interaction effect =2.7; 95%CI=1.2-5.9; P=0.013). Subgroup analysis indicated that the intervention was only effective for those with the lowest risk. Provision of personalised risk information may have a modest effect on adherence to CRC screening recommendations among first degree relatives of people diagnosed with CRC. Improved strategies for identifying and engaging first degree relatives are needed to maximise the population impact of the intervention. © 2016 The Authors.
Investigation to determine whether a telephone counseling intervention aimed at women who are known to underuse breast cancer screening can with, or without, an accompanying educational intervention for their physicians, increase use of breast cancer screening.
He, Jin; Efron, Jonathan E
March is national colorectal cancer awareness month. It is estimated that as many as 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented if all men and women aged 50 years or older were screened routinely. In 2000, Katie Couric's televised colonoscopy led to a 20% increase in screening colonoscopies across America, a stunning rise called the "Katie Couric Effect". This event demonstrated how celebrity endorsement affects health behavior. Currently, discussion is ongoing about the optimal strategy for CRC screening, particularly the costs of screening colonoscopy. The current CRC screening guidelines are summarized in Table 2. Debates over the optimum CRC screening test continue in the face of evidence that 22 million Americans aged 50 to 75 years are not screened for CRC by any modality and 25,000 of those lives may have been saved if they had been screened for CRC. It is clear that improving screening rates and reducing disparities in underscreened communities and population subgroups could further reduce colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality. National Institutes of Health consensus identified the following priority areas to enhance the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening: Eliminate financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening and appropriate follow-up of positive results of colorectal cancer screening. Develop systems to ensure the high quality of colorectal cancer screening programs. Conduct studies to determine the comparative effectiveness of the various colorectal cancer screening methods in usual practice settings. Encouraging population adherence to screening tests and allowing patients to select the tests they prefer may do more good (as long as they choose something) than whatever procedure is chosen by the medical profession as the preferred test.
White, Arica; Thompson, Trevor D; White, Mary C; Sabatino, Susan A; de Moor, Janet; Doria-Rose, Paul V; Geiger, Ann M; Richardson, Lisa C
Healthy People 2020 (HP2020) includes objectives to increase screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer (1) as recommended by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF).* Progress toward meeting these objectives is monitored by measuring cancer screening test use against national targets using data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (1). Analysis of 2015 NHIS data indicated that screening test use remains substantially below HP2020 targets for selected cancer screening tests. Although colorectal cancer screening test use increased from 2000 to 2015, no improvements in test use were observed for breast and cervical cancer screening. Disparities exist in screening test use by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and health care access indicators. Increased measures to implement evidence-based interventions and conduct targeted outreach are needed if the HP2020 targets for cancer screening are to be achieved and the disparities in screening test use are to be reduced.
Larkey, Linda K; McClain, Darya; Roe, Denise J; Hector, Richard D; Lopez, Ana Maria; Sillanpaa, Brian; Gonzalez, Julie
Screening rates for colorectal cancer (CRC) lag for low-income, minority populations, contributing to poorer survival rates. A model of storytelling as culture-centric health promotion was tested for promoting CRC screening. A two-group parallel randomized controlled trial. Primary care, safety-net clinics. Low-income patients due for CRC screening, ages 50 to 75 years, speaking English or Spanish. Patients were exposed to either a video created from personal stories composited into a drama about "Papa" receiving CRC screening, or an instrument estimating level of personal cancer risk. Patients received a health care provider referral for CRC screening and were followed up for 3 months to document adherence. Behavioral factors related to the narrative model (identification and engagement) and theory of planned behavior. Main effects of the interventions on screening were tested, controlling for attrition factors, and demographic factor associations were assessed. Path analysis with model variables was used to test the direct effects and multiple mediator models. Main effects on CRC screening (roughly half stool-based tests, half colonoscopy) did not indicate significant differences (37% and 42% screened for storytelling and risk-based messages, respectively; n = 539; 33.6% male; 62% Hispanic). Factors positively associated with CRC screening included being female, Hispanic, married or living with a partner, speaking Spanish, having a primary care provider, lower income, and no health insurance. Engagement, working through positive attitudes toward the behavior, predicted CRC screening. A storytelling and a personalized risk-tool intervention achieved similar levels of screening among unscreened/underscreened, low-income patients. Factors usually associated with lower rates of screening (e.g., no insurance, being Hispanic) were related to more adherence. Both interventions' engagement factor facilitated positive attitudes about CRC screening associated with behavior
Hoffman, Richard M; Sanchez, Rolando
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. More than 80% of these deaths are attributed to tobacco use, and primary prevention can effectively reduce the cancer burden. The National Lung Screening Trial showed that low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening could reduce lung cancer mortality in high-risk patients by 20% compared with chest radiography. The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends annual LDCT screening for persons aged 55 to 80 years with a 30-pack-year smoking history, either currently smoking or having quit within 15 years. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Drs. Sudha Sivaram and Steve Taplin speak at the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) Meeting, which brings together individuals involved in cancer screening research and cancer screening programs from the ICSN’s member countries.
Leone, Lucia A.; Allicock, Marlyn; Pignone, Michael P.; Walsh, Joan F.; Johnson, La-Shell; Armstrong-Brown, Janelle; Carr, Carol C.; Langford, Aisha; Ni, Andy; Resnicow, Ken; Campbell, Marci K.
Action Through Churches in Time to Save Lives (ACTS) of Wellness was a cluster randomized controlled trial developed to promote colorectal cancer screening and physical activity (PA) within urban African American churches. Churches were recruited from North Carolina (n = 12) and Michigan (n = 7) and were randomized to intervention (n = 10) or…
past diagnosis, and health literacy . Barriers identifi ed were different mindsets and healthcare systems in the Philippines in regard to early...a family history Past diagnosis of breast-related dis- ease Health literacy and knowledge about screening ONCOLOGY NURSING FORUM – VOL 33, NO 4... Health literacy . Knowledge of breast cancer screening played an important part in the women’s participation in some or all types of breast cancer
Hou, Su-I; Roberson, Kiersten
This study synthesized lessons learned from US-based community and clinic health navigator (CHN) interventions on cancer screening promotion to identify characteristics of models and approaches for addressing cancer disparities. The combination terms "cancer screening" and "community health workers or navigators" or "patient navigators" were used in searching Medline, CINAHL, and PsycInfo. A total of 27 articles published during January 2005∼April 2014 were included. Two CHN models were identified: community-based (15 studies) and clinic/hospital-based (12 studies). While both models used the term "navigators," most community-based programs referred them as community health workers/navigators/advisors, whereas clinic-based programs often called them patient navigators. Most community-based CHN interventions targeted specific racial/ethnic minority or rural groups, while clinic-based programs mostly targeted urban low income or mixed ethnic groups. Most community-based CHN programs outreached members from community networks, while clinic-based programs commonly worked with pre-identified in-service clients. Overall, regardless model type, CHNs had similar roles and responsibilities, and interventions demonstrated effective outcomes. Our review identified characteristics of CHN interventions with attention to different settings. Lessons learned have implication on the dissemination and implementation of CHN interventions for cancer screening promotion across setting and target groups.
Ceres, Marc; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Loscalzo, Matthew; Rice, David
To describe the current state of cancer screening and uptake for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons and to propose cancer screening considerations for LGBT persons. Current and historic published literature on cancer screening and LGBT cancer screening; published national guidelines. Despite known cancer risks for members of the LGBT community, cancer screening rates are often low, and there are gaps in screening recommendations for LGBT persons. We propose evidence-based cancer screening considerations derived from the current literature and extant cancer screening recommendations. The oncology nurse plays a key role in supporting patient preventive care and screening uptake through assessment, counseling, education, advocacy, and intervention. As oncology nurses become expert in the culturally competent care of LGBT persons, they can contribute to the improvement of quality of care and overall well-being of this health care disparity population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine ... can also help reduce your risk of getting HPV and cervical cancer: Always use condoms. But be aware that condoms ...
Fenton, Joshua J.; Cai, Yong; Weiss, Noel S.; Elmore, Joann G.; Pardee, Roy E.; Reid, Robert J.; Baldwin, Laura-Mae
Background Patients and physicians strongly endorse the importance of preventive or periodic health examinations (PHEs). However, the extent to which PHEs contribute to the delivery of cancer screening is uncertain. Methods In a retrospective cohort study, we determined the association between receipt of a PHE and cancer testing in a population-based sample of enrollees in a Washington State health plan who were aged 52 to 78 years and eligible for colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer screening in 2002–2003 (N = 64 288). Outcomes included completion of any colorectal cancer testing (fecal occult blood testing, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, or barium enema), screening mammography, and prostate-specific antigen testing. Results More than half (52.4%) of the enrollees received a PHE during the study period. After adjusting for demographics, comorbidity, number of outpatient visits, and historical preventive service use before January 1, 2002, receipt of a PHE was significantly associated with completion of colorectal cancer testing (incidence difference, 40.4% [95% confidence interval (CI), 39.4%–41.3%]; relative incidence, 3.47 [95% CI, 3.34–3.59]), screening mammography [incidence difference, 14.2% [95% CI, 12.7%–15.7%]; relative incidence, 1.23 [95% CI, 1.20–1.25]), and prostate-specific antigen testing (incidence difference, 39.4% [95% CI, 38.3%–40.5%]; relative incidence, 3.06 [95% CI, 2.95–3.18]). Conclusions Among managed care enrollees eligible for cancer screening, PHE receipt is associated with completion of colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer testing. In similar populations, the PHE may serve as a clinically important forum for the promotion of evidence-based colorectal cancer and breast cancer screening and of screening with relatively less empirical support, such as prostate cancer screening. PMID:17389289
Jitender, Solanki; Sarika, Gupta; Varada, Hiremath R; Omprakash, Yadav; Mohsin, Khan
Oral cancer is considered as a serious health problem resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Early detection and prevention play a key role in controlling the burden of oral cancer worldwide. The five-year survival rate of oral cancer still remains low and delayed diagnosis is considered as one of the major reasons. This increases the demand for oral screening. Currently, screening of oral cancer is largely based on visual examination. Various evidence strongly suggest the validity of visual inspection in reducing mortality in patients at risk for oral cancer. Simple visual examination is accompanied with adjunctive techniques for subjective interpretation of dysplastic changes. These include toluidine blue staining, brush biopsy, chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence. This review highlights the efficacy of various diagnostic methods in screening of oral cancer. © 2016 Old City Publishing, Inc.
Holt, Cheryl L.; Litaker, Mark S.; Scarinci, Isabel C.; Debnam, Katrina J.; McDavid, Chastity; McNeal, Sandre F.; Eloubeidi, Mohamad A.; Crowther, Martha; Bolland, John; Martin, Michelle Y.
Colorectal cancer screening has clear benefits in terms of mortality reduction; however, it is still underutilized and especially among medically underserved populations, including African Americans, who also suffer a disproportionate colorectal cancer burden. This study consisted of a theory-driven (health belief model) spiritually based…
Swaine, J. G.; Parish, S. L.; Luken, K.; Son, E.; Dickens, P.
Background: There is a critical need for evidence-based health education interventions for women with intellectual disabilities (IDs) to promote receipt of preventive health screenings. Previous research has established "Women Be Healthy," an 8-week classroom-style intervention designed to teach women with IDs about breast and cervical…
Rawl, Susan M.; Christy, Shannon M.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Ding, Yan; Krier, Connie; Champion, Victoria L.; Rex, Douglas
To compare the efficacy of two interventions to promote colorectal cancer screening participation and forward stage movement of colorectal cancer screening adoption among first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with adenomatous polyps. One hundred fifty-eight first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with adenomatous polyps were…
... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health checkup. There are two types of tests: the Pap test and the HPV test. For both, the doctor or nurse collects cells from the surface of the cervix. With the ...
... should have depend on your age and health history: • Women aged 21–29 years should have a Pap ... not follow routine cervical cancer screening guidelines? Yes. Women who have a history of cervical cancer, are infected with human immunodeficiency ...
Rawl, Susan M; Christy, Shannon M; Monahan, Patrick O; Ding, Yan; Krier, Connie; Champion, Victoria L; Rex, Douglas
To compare the efficacy of two interventions to promote colorectal cancer screening participation and forward stage movement of colorectal cancer screening adoption among first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with adenomatous polyps. One hundred fifty-eight first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with adenomatous polyps were randomly assigned to receive one of two interventions to promote colorectal cancer screening. Participants received either a tailored telephone counseling plus brochures intervention or a non-tailored print brochures intervention. Data were collected at baseline and 3 months post-baseline. Group differences and the effect of the interventions on adherence and stage movement for colorectal cancer screening were examined using t-tests, chi-square tests, and logistic regression. Individuals in the tailored telephone counseling plus brochures group were significantly more likely to complete colorectal cancer screening and to move forward on stage of change for fecal occult blood test, any colorectal cancer test stage and stage of the risk-appropriate test compared with individuals in the non-tailored brochure group at 3 months post-baseline. A tailored telephone counseling plus brochures intervention successfully promoted forward stage movement and colorectal cancer screening adherence among first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with adenomatous polyps. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Ritvo, Paul G; Myers, Ronald E; Paszat, Lawrence F; Tinmouth, Jill M; McColeman, Joshua; Mitchell, Brian; Serenity, Mardie; Rabeneck, Linda
Prior randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) indicate that patient navigation can boost colorectal cancer screening rates in primary care. The sparse literature on pragmatic trials of interventions designed to increase colorectal cancer screening adherence motivated this trial on the impact of a patient navigation intervention that included support for performance of the participants' preferred screening test (colonoscopy or stool blood testing). Primary care patients (n = 5,240), 50 to 74 years of age, with no prior diagnosis of bowel cancer and no record of a recent colorectal cancer screening test, were identified at the Group Health Centre in northern Ontario. These patients were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n = 2,629) or a usual care control group (n = 2,611). Intervention group participants were contacted by a trained nurse navigator by telephone to discuss colorectal cancer screening. Interested patients met with the navigator, who helped them identify and arrange for performance of the preferred screening test. Control group participants received usual care. Multivariate analyses were conducted using medical records data to assess intervention impact on screening adherence within 12 months after randomization. Mean patient age was 59 years, and 50% of participants were women. Colorectal cancer screening adherence was higher in the intervention group (35%) than in the control group (20%), a difference that was statistically significant (OR, 2.11; confidence interval, 1.87-2.39). Preference-based patient navigation increased screening uptake in a pragmatic RCT. Patient navigation increased colorectal cancer screening rates in a pragmatic RCT in proportions similar to those observed in explanatory RCTs. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.
Wheeler, Stephanie B; Leeman, Jennifer; Hassmiller Lich, Kristen; Tangka, Florence K L; Davis, Melinda M; Richardson, Lisa C
A robust evidence base supports the effectiveness of timely colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, follow-up of abnormal results, and referral to care in reducing CRC morbidity and mortality. However, only two-thirds of the US population is current with recommended screening, and rates are much lower for those who are vulnerable because of their race/ethnicity, insurance status, or rural location. Multiple, multilevel factors contribute to observed disparities, and these factors vary across different populations and contexts. As highlighted by the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel working groups focused on Prevention and Early Detection and Implementation Science inadequate CRC screening and follow-up represent an enormous missed opportunity in cancer prevention and control. To measurably reduce CRC morbidity and mortality, the evidence base must be strengthened to guide the identification of (1) multilevel factors that influence screening across different populations and contexts, (2) multilevel interventions and implementation strategies that will be most effective at targeting those factors, and (3) combinations of strategies that interact synergistically to improve outcomes. Systems thinking and simulation modeling (systems science) provide a set of approaches and techniques to aid decision makers in using the best available data and research evidence to guide implementation planning in the context of such complexity. This commentary summarizes current challenges in CRC prevention and control, discusses the status of the evidence base to guide the selection and implementation of multilevel CRC screening interventions, and describes a multi-institution project to showcase how systems science can be leveraged to optimize selection and implementation of CRC screening interventions in diverse populations and contexts.
Basch, Charles E; Zybert, Patricia; Wolf, Randi L; Basch, Corey H; Ullman, Ralph; Shmukler, Celia; King, Fionnuala; Neugut, Alfred I; Shea, Steven
This randomized controlled trial assessed different educational approaches for increasing colorectal cancer screening uptake in a sample of primarily non-US born urban minority individuals, over aged 50, with health insurance, and out of compliance with screening guidelines. In one group, participants were mailed printed educational material (n = 180); in a second, participants' primary care physicians received academic detailing to improve screening referral and follow-up practices (n = 185); in a third, physicians received academic detailing and participants received tailored telephone education (n = 199). Overall, 21.5% of participants (n = 121) received appropriate screening within one year of randomization. There were no statistically significant pairwise differences between groups in screening rate. Among those 60 years of age or older, however, the detailing plus telephone education group had a higher screening rate than the print group (27.3 vs. 7.7%, p = .02). Different kinds of interventions will be required to increase colorectal cancer screening among the increasingly small population segment that remains unscreened. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02392143.
... decrease the risk of dying from cancer. Scientists study screening tests to find those with the fewest risks and ... stage . There is no standard or routine screening test for esophageal cancer. Screening for esophageal cancer is under study with screening clinical trials taking place in many ...
... decrease the risk of dying from cancer. Scientists study screening tests to find those with the fewest risks and ... recovery. There is no standard or routine screening test for endometrial cancer. Screening for endometrial cancer is under study and there are screening clinical trials taking place ...
... decrease the risk of dying from cancer. Scientists study screening tests to find those with the fewest risks and ... or routine screening test for prostate cancer. Screening tests for prostate cancer are under study, and there are screening clinical trials taking place ...
Kopans, Daniel B
Unfortunately, a great deal of misinformation has accumulated in the breast cancer screening literature that is based on flawed analyses in an effort to reduce access to screening. Quite remarkably, much of this has come from publications in previously highly respected medical journals. In several papers the intervention (mammography screening) is faulted yet the analyses provided no data on who participated in mammography screening, and which cancers were detected by mammography screening. It is remarkable that a highly respected journal can fault an intervention with no data on the intervention. Claims of massive over diagnosis of invasive breast cancer due to breast cancer screening have been made using "guesses" that have no scientific basis. No one has ever seen a mammographically detected, invasive breast cancer, disappear on its own, yet analysts have claimed that this occurs thousands of times each year. In fact, the" miraculous" resolution, without intervention, of a handful of breast cancers have all been palpable cancers, yet there is no suggestion to stop treating palpable cancers. A review of several publications in the New England Journal of Medicine shows some of the flaws in these analyses. There is clearly a problem with peer review that is allowing scientifically unsupportable material, which is misleading women and their physicians, to be published in prestigious journals.
Unfortunately, a great deal of misinformation has accumulated in the breast cancer screening literature that is based on flawed analyses in an effort to reduce access to screening. Quite remarkably, much of this has come from publications in previously highly respected medical journals. In several papers the intervention (mammography screening) is faulted yet the analyses provided no data on who participated in mammography screening, and which cancers were detected by mammography screening. It is remarkable that a highly respected journal can fault an intervention with no data on the intervention. Claims of massive over diagnosis of invasive breast cancer due to breast cancer screening have been made using “guesses” that have no scientific basis. No one has ever seen a mammographically detected, invasive breast cancer, disappear on its own, yet analysts have claimed that this occurs thousands of times each year. In fact, the” miraculous” resolution, without intervention, of a handful of breast cancers have all been palpable cancers, yet there is no suggestion to stop treating palpable cancers. A review of several publications in the New England Journal of Medicine shows some of the flaws in these analyses. There is clearly a problem with peer review that is allowing scientifically unsupportable material, which is misleading women and their physicians, to be published in prestigious journals. PMID:28210564
Brand, Randall E.
Despite improvements in the clinical and surgical management of pancreatic cancer, limited strides have been made in the early detection of this highly lethal malignancy. The majority of localized pancreatic tumors are asymptomatic, and the recognized presenting symptoms of pancreatic adenocarcinoma are often vague and heterogeneous in nature. These factors, coupled with the lack of a sensitive and noninvasive screening method, have made population-based screening for pancreatic cancer impossible. Nevertheless, at least two large institutions have performed multimodality-screening protocols for individuals with high risk of pancreatic cancer based on genetic predisposition and strong family history. Abnormalities noted during these screening protocols prompted further investigation or surgery that resulted in the discovery of benign, potentially malignant, and malignant pancreatic lesions. In addition to ductal epithelial pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia, greater sensitivity has recently been achieved in the identification and characterization of precancerous mucinous pancreatic tumors. Advancements in proteomics and DNA microarray technology may confirm serum-based biomarkers that could be incorporated into future screening algorithms for pancreatic cancer. PMID:21960811
Sigel, Keith; Dubrow, Robert; Silverberg, Michael; Crothers, Kristina; Braithwaite, Scott; Justice, Amy
Non-AIDS-defining cancers are a rising health concern among HIV-infected patients. Cancer screening is now an important component of health maintenance in HIV clinical practice. The decision to screen an HIV-infected patient for cancer should include an assessment of individualized risk for the particular cancer, life expectancy, and the harms and benefits associated with the screening test and its potential outcome. HIV-infected patients are at enhanced risk of several cancers compared to the general population; anal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and lung cancer all have good evidence demonstrating an enhanced risk in HIV-infected persons. A number of cancer screening interventions have shown benefit for specific cancers in the general population, but data on the application of these tests to HIV-infected persons are limited. Here we review the epidemiology and background literature relating to cancer screening interventions in HIV-infected persons. We then use these data to inform a conceptual model for evaluating HIV-infected patients for cancer screening.
Lumpkins, Cy; Cupertino, P; Young, K; Daley, C; Yeh, Hw; Greiner, Ka
Ethnic and racial minority groups in the U.S. receive fewer colorectal cancer (CRC) screening tests and are less likely to be up-to-date with CRC screening than the population as a whole. Access, limited awareness of CRC and barriers may, in part, be responsible for inhibiting widespread adoption of CRC screening among racial and ethnic minority groups. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of self-efficacy, fatalism and CRC risk perception across racial and ethnic groups in a diverse sample. This study was a cross-sectional analysis from baseline measures gathered on a group of patients recruited into a trial to track colorectal cancer screening in underserved adults over 50. Out of 470 Participants, 42% were non-Hispanic; 27% Hispanic and 28% non-Hispanic White. Hispanic and non-Hispanic Blacks were more likely to have fatalistic beliefs about CRC than non-Hispanic Whites. Non-Hispanic Blacks perceived higher risk of getting colon cancer. Self-efficacy for completing CRC screening was higher among Non-Hispanic Blacks than among Hispanics. Racial and ethnic differences in risk perceptions, fatalism and self-efficacy should be taken into consideration in future CRC interventions with marginalized and uninsured populations.
Rouëssé, Jacques; Sancho-Garnier, Hélèn
Breast screening programs are increasingly controversial, especially regarding two points: the number of breast cancer deaths they avoid, and the problem of over-diagnosis and over-treatment. The French national breast cancer screening program was extended to cover the whole country in 2004. Ten years later it is time to examine the risk/benefit ratio of this program and to discuss the need for change. Like all forms of cancer management, screening must be regularly updated, taking into account the state of the art, new evidence, and uncertainties. All screening providers should keep themselves informed of the latest findings. In the French program, women aged 50-74 with no major individual or familial risk factors for breast cancer are offered screening mammography and clinical breast examination every two years. Images considered non suspicious of malignancy by a first reader are re-examined by a second reader. The devices and procedures are subjected to quality controls. Participating radiologists (both public and private) are required to read at least 500 mammographies per year. The program's national participation rate was 52.7 % in 2012. When individual screening outside of the national program is taken into account (nearly 15 % of women), coverage appears close to the European recommendation of 65 %. Breast cancer mortality has been falling in France by 0.6 % per year for over 30 years, starting before mass screening was implemented, and by 1.5 % since 2005. This decline can be attributed in part to earlier diagnosis and better treatment, so that the specific impact of screening cannot easily be measured. Over-treatment, defined as the detection and treatment of low-malignancy tumors that would otherwise not have been detected in a person's lifetime, is a major negative effect of screening, but its frequency is not precisely known (reported to range from 1 % to 30 %). In view of these uncertainties, it would be advisable to modify the program in order to
A randomized controlled trial of a multicomponent, targeted, low-literacy educational intervention compared with a nontargeted intervention to boost colorectal cancer screening with fecal immunochemical testing in community clinics.
Davis, Stacy N; Christy, Shannon M; Chavarria, Enmanuel A; Abdulla, Rania; Sutton, Steven K; Schmidt, Alyssa R; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Simmons, Vani N; Ufondu, Chukwudi B; Ravindra, Chitra; Schultz, Ida; Roetzheim, Richard G; Shibata, David; Meade, Cathy D; Gwede, Clement K
The objective of the current study was to improve colorectal cancer (CRC) screening uptake with the fecal immunochemical test (FIT). The current study investigated the differential impact of a multicomponent, targeted, low-literacy educational intervention compared with a standard, nontargeted educational intervention. Patients aged 50 to 75 years who were of average CRC risk and not up-to-date with CRC screening were recruited from either a federally qualified health center or a primary care community health clinic. Patients were randomized to the intervention condition (targeted photonovella booklet/DVD plus FIT kit) or comparison condition (standard Centers for Disease Control and Prevention brochure plus FIT kit). The main outcome was screening with FIT within 180 days of delivery of the intervention. Of the 416 participants, 54% were female; the participants were racially and ethnically diverse (66% white, 10% Hispanic, and 28% African American), predominantly of low income, and insured (the majority had county health insurance). Overall, the FIT completion rate was 81%, with 78.1% of participants in the intervention versus 83.5% of those in the comparison condition completing FIT (P = .17). In multivariate analysis, having health insurance was found to be the primary factor predicting a lack of FIT screening (adjusted odds ratio, 2.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-4.26 [P = .04]). The multicomponent, targeted, low-literacy materials were not found to be significantly different or more effective in increasing FIT uptake compared with the nontargeted materials. Provision of a FIT test plus education may provide a key impetus to improve the completion of CRC screening. The type of educational material (targeted vs nontargeted) may matter less. The findings of the current study provide a unique opportunity for clinics to adopt FIT and to choose the type of patient education materials based on clinic, provider, and patient preferences. Cancer 2017
Matthews, Alicia K.; Berrios, Nerida; Darnell, Julie S.; Calhoun, Elizabeth
This article presents a formative evaluation of a CDC Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010 faith-based breast and cervical cancer early detection and prevention intervention for African American women living in urban communities. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of women (N = 94) recruited from each church…
... for cervical cancer and your need for screening tests. Studies show that the number of cases of cervical ... with Pap tests. Many doctors recommend a Pap test be done every year. New studies have shown that after a woman has a ...
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Ibáñez, Raquel; Alejo, María; Combalia, Neus; Tarroch, Xavier; Autonell, Josefina; Codina, Laia; Culubret, Montserrat; Bosch, Francesc Xavier; de Sanjosé, Silvia
Audit of women with invasive cervical cancer (CC) is critical for quality control within screening activities. We analysed the screening history in the 10 years preceding the study entry in women with and without CC during 2000-2011. 323 women with CC from six pathology departments in Catalonia (Spain) and 23,782 women with negative cytology were compared. Age, previous history of cytologies, and histological type and FIGO stage were collected from the pathology registries. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI95%). History of cytology was registered in 26.2% of CC cases and in 78% of the control women (P < 0.0001) and its frequency decreased with increasing age. Compared to women with squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma cases were significantly more likely to have a cytology within the 3-year interval preceding cancer diagnosis (OR = 2.6 CI 95%: 1.2-5.6) and to have normal cytology results in previous screenings (OR = 2.4 CI 95%: 1.2-4.5). FIGO II-IV cases were more common among older women (older than 60 years). Absence of prior screening history was extremely common among CC cases compared to controls. Organized actions to reduce underscreened women and use of highly sensitive HPV-based tests could be important to reduce CC burden.
Alejo, María; Combalia, Neus; Tarroch, Xavier; Autonell, Josefina; Codina, Laia; Culubret, Montserrat; Bosch, Francesc Xavier; de Sanjosé, Silvia
Objective. Audit of women with invasive cervical cancer (CC) is critical for quality control within screening activities. We analysed the screening history in the 10 years preceding the study entry in women with and without CC during 2000–2011. Methods. 323 women with CC from six pathology departments in Catalonia (Spain) and 23,782 women with negative cytology were compared. Age, previous history of cytologies, and histological type and FIGO stage were collected from the pathology registries. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI95%). Results. History of cytology was registered in 26.2% of CC cases and in 78% of the control women (P < 0.0001) and its frequency decreased with increasing age. Compared to women with squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma cases were significantly more likely to have a cytology within the 3-year interval preceding cancer diagnosis (OR = 2.6 CI 95%: 1.2–5.6) and to have normal cytology results in previous screenings (OR = 2.4 CI 95%: 1.2–4.5). FIGO II–IV cases were more common among older women (older than 60 years). Conclusions. Absence of prior screening history was extremely common among CC cases compared to controls. Organized actions to reduce underscreened women and use of highly sensitive HPV-based tests could be important to reduce CC burden. PMID:26180804
Helfand, M; Mahon, S M; Eden, K B; Frame, P S; Orleans, C T
Malignant melanoma is often lethal, and its incidence in the United States has increased rapidly over the past 2 decades. Nonmelanoma skin cancer is seldom lethal, but, if advanced, can cause severe disfigurement and morbidity. Early detection and treatment of melanoma might reduce mortality, while early detection and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer might prevent major disfigurement and to a lesser extent prevent mortality. Current recommendations from professional societies regarding screening for skin cancer vary. To examine published data on the effectiveness of routine screening for skin cancer by a primary care provider, as part of an assessment for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. We searched the MEDLINE database for papers published between 1994 and June 1999, using search terms for screening, physical examination, morbidity, and skin neoplasms. For information on accuracy of screening tests, we used the search terms sensitivity and specificity. We identified the most important studies from before 1994 from the Guide to Clinical Preventive Services, second edition, and from high-quality reviews. We used reference lists and expert recommendations to locate additional articles. Two reviewers independently reviewed a subset of 500 abstracts. Once consistency was established, the remainder were reviewed by one reviewer. We included studies if they contained data on yield of screening, screening tests, risk factors, risk assessment, effectiveness of early detection, or cost effectiveness. We abstracted the following descriptive information from full-text published studies of screening and recorded it in an electronic database: type of screening study, study design, setting, population, patient recruitment, screening test description, examiner, advertising targeted at high-risk groups or not targeted, reported risk factors of participants, and procedure for referrals. We also abstracted the yield of screening data including probabilities and numbers
Matthews, Alicia K; Berrios, Nerida; Darnell, Julie S; Calhoun, Elizabeth
This article presents a formative evaluation of a CDC Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010 faith-based breast and cervical cancer early detection and prevention intervention for African American women living in urban communities. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of women (N=94) recruited from each church participating in the intervention. One focus group was conducted in each of the nine participating churches following completion of the 6-month REACH 2010 intervention. Transcribed data were coded to identify relevant themes. Key findings included (a) the acceptability of receiving cancer education within the context of a faith community, (b) the importance of pastoral input, (c) the effectiveness of personal testimonies and lay health advocates, (d) the saliency of biblical scripture in reinforcing health messages, (e) the effectiveness of multimodal learning aids, and (f) the relationship between cervical cancer and social stigma. Study findings have implications for enhancing faith-based breast and cervical cancer prevention efforts in African American communities.
Holt, Cheryl L; Wynn, Theresa A; Southward, Penny; Litaker, Mark S; Jeames, Sanford; Schulz, Emily
One way of developing culturally relevant health communication in the African American church setting is to develop spiritually based interventions, in which the health message is framed by relevant spiritual themes and scripture. In this article we describe the development of a community health advisor(CHA)-led intervention aimed at increasing informed decision making (IDM) for prostate cancer screening among church-attending African American men. Full-color print educational booklets were developed and pilot tested with extensive community participation of church-attending African American men age-eligible for screening. The intervention development phase consisted of ideas solicited from an advisory panel of African American men (N = 10), who identified core content and developed the spiritual themes. In the intervention pilot testing phase, prototypes of the intervention materials were pilot tested for graphic appeal in two focus groups (N = 16), and content was tested for acceptability and comprehension using individual cognitive response interviews (N = 10). Recommendations were made for project branding and logo and for use of graphics of real people in the educational materials. Significant feedback was obtained from the focus groups, on the graphics, colors, fonts, continuity, titles, and booklet size/shape. The importance of working closely with the community when developing interventions is discussed, as well as the importance of pilot testing of educational materials.
Sherman, Recinda L; Henry, Kevin A; Tannenbaum, Stacey L; Feaster, Daniel J; Kobetz, Erin; Lee, David J
Epidemiologists are gradually incorporating spatial analysis into health-related research as geocoded cases of disease become widely available and health-focused geospatial computer applications are developed. One health-focused application of spatial analysis is cluster detection. Using cluster detection to identify geographic areas with high-risk populations and then screening those populations for disease can improve cancer control. SaTScan is a free cluster-detection software application used by epidemiologists around the world to describe spatial clusters of infectious and chronic disease, as well as disease vectors and risk factors. The objectives of this article are to describe how spatial analysis can be used in cancer control to detect geographic areas in need of colorectal cancer screening intervention, identify issues commonly encountered by SaTScan users, detail how to select the appropriate methods for using SaTScan, and explain how method selection can affect results. As an example, we used various methods to detect areas in Florida where the population is at high risk for late-stage diagnosis of colorectal cancer. We found that much of our analysis was underpowered and that no single method detected all clusters of statistical or public health significance. However, all methods detected 1 area as high risk; this area is potentially a priority area for a screening intervention. Cluster detection can be incorporated into routine public health operations, but the challenge is to identify areas in which the burden of disease can be alleviated through public health intervention. Reliance on SaTScan's default settings does not always produce pertinent results.
Sohng, Hee Yon; Kuniyuki, Alan; Edelson, Jane; Weir, Rosy Chang; Song, Hui; Tu, Shin-Ping
Understanding and enhancing change capabilities, including Practice Adaptive Reserve (PAR), of Community Health Centers (CHCs) may mitigate cancer-related health disparities. Using stratified random sampling, we recruited 232 staff from seven CHCs serving Asian Pacific Islander communities to complete a self-administered survey. We performed multilevel regression analyses to examine PAR composite scores by CHC, position type, and number of years worked at their clinic. The mean PAR score was 0.7 (s.d. 0.14). Higher scores were associated with a greater perceived likelihood that clinic staff would participate in an evidence-based intervention (EBI). Constructs such as communication, clinic flow, sensemaking, change valence, and resource availability were positively associated with EBI implementation or trended toward significance. PAR scores are positively associated with perceived likelihood of clinic staff participation in cancer screening EBI. Future research is needed to determine PAR levels most conducive to implementing change and to developing interventions that enhance Adaptive Reserve.
CISNET is a consortium of NCI-sponsored investigators that use statistical modeling to improve our understanding of cancer control interventions in prevention, screening, and treatment and their effects on population trends in incidence and mortality.
Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Vargas-Aguilar, Víctor Manuel; Tovar-Rodríguez, José María
Cervico-uterine cancer screening with cytology decrease incidence by more than 50%. The cause of this cancer is the human papilloma virus high risk, and requires a sensitive test to provide sufficient sensitivity and specificity for early detection and greater interval period when the results are negative. The test of the human papilloma virus high risk, is effective and safe because of its excellent sensitivity, negative predictive value and optimal reproducibility, especially when combined with liquid-based cytology or biomarkers with viral load, with higher sensitivity and specificity, by reducing false positives for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or greater injury, with excellent clinical benefits to cervical cancer screening and related infection of human papilloma virus diseases, is currently the best test for early detection infection of human papillomavirus and the risk of carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Wender, Richard; Fontham, Elizabeth T H; Barrera, Ermilo; Colditz, Graham A; Church, Timothy R; Ettinger, David S; Etzioni, Ruth; Flowers, Christopher R; Gazelle, G Scott; Kelsey, Douglas K; LaMonte, Samuel J; Michaelson, James S; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Sullivan, Daniel C; Travis, William; Walter, Louise; Wolf, Andrew M D; Brawley, Otis W; Smith, Robert A
Findings from the National Cancer Institute's National Lung Screening Trial established that lung cancer mortality in specific high-risk groups can be reduced by annual screening with low-dose computed tomography. These findings indicate that the adoption of lung cancer screening could save many lives. Based on the results of the National Lung Screening Trial, the American Cancer Society is issuing an initial guideline for lung cancer screening. This guideline recommends that clinicians with access to high-volume, high-quality lung cancer screening and treatment centers should initiate a discussion about screening with apparently healthy patients aged 55 years to 74 years who have at least a 30-pack-year smoking history and who currently smoke or have quit within the past 15 years. A process of informed and shared decision-making with a clinician related to the potential benefits, limitations, and harms associated with screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography should occur before any decision is made to initiate lung cancer screening. Smoking cessation counseling remains a high priority for clinical attention in discussions with current smokers, who should be informed of their continuing risk of lung cancer. Screening should not be viewed as an alternative to smoking cessation. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society, Inc.
Wender, Richard; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.; Barrera, Ermilo; Colditz, Graham A.; Church, Timothy R.; Ettinger, David S.; Etzioni, Ruth; Flowers, Christopher R.; Gazelle, G. Scott; Kelsey, Douglas K.; LaMonte, Samuel J.; Michaelson, James S.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Sullivan, Daniel C.; Travis, William; Walter, Louise; Wolf, Andrew M. D.; Brawley, Otis W.; Smith, Robert A.
Findings from the National Cancer Institute’s National Lung Screening Trial established that lung cancer mortality in specific high-risk groups can be reduced by annual screening with low-dose computed tomography. These findings indicate that the adoption of lung cancer screening could save many lives. Based on the results of the National Lung Screening Trial, the American Cancer Society is issuing an initial guideline for lung cancer screening. This guideline recommends that clinicians with access to high-volume, high-quality lung cancer screening and treatment centers should initiate a discussion about screening with apparently healthy patients aged 55 years to 74 years who have at least a 30-pack-year smoking history and who currently smoke or have quit within the past 15 years. A process of informed and shared decision-making with a clinician related to the potential benefits, limitations, and harms associated with screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography should occur before any decision is made to initiate lung cancer screening. Smoking cessation counseling remains a high priority for clinical attention in discussions with current smokers, who should be informed of their continuing risk of lung cancer. Screening should not be viewed as an alternative to smoking cessation. PMID:23315954
Aragones, Abraham; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Gany, Francesca
Chinese immigrants in the United States are broadly affected by cancer health disparities. We examined the cancer screening attitudes and practices of physicians serving Chinese immigrants in the New York City (NYC) area by mailing a cancer screening survey, based on current guidelines, to a random sample of physicians serving this population. Fifty three physicians (44%) completed the survey. Seventy-two percent reported following the guidelines for breast cancer, 35% for cervical cancer screening, and 45% for all colorectal cancer screening tests. Sixty-eight percent of physicians were satisfied with their current rates of cancer screening with their Chinese immigrant patient population. Physicians serving the Chinese community in NYC follow cancer screening guidelines inadequately. Cancer screening rates in this population could likely be increased by interventions that target physicians and improve awareness of guidelines and recommended best practices. PMID:19202247
Chambers, Julie A; Gracie, Kerry; Millar, Rosemary; Cavanagh, Julie; Archibald, Debbie; Cook, Alan; O'Carroll, Ronan E
To determine whether a brief telephone support intervention could increase breast cancer screening uptake among lower socio-demographic women in Scotland, via eliciting and addressing barriers to screening attendance. In a pilot randomized controlled trial, participants receiving a reminder letter for a missed screening appointment (February-June 2014) were randomized to four arms: No telephone call (control), Simple telephone reminder (TEL), Telephone support (TEL-SUPP), or Telephone support plus anticipated regret (TEL-SUPP-AR). Primary outcomes were making an appointment and attending breast screening. Of 856 women randomized and analysed on intention-to-treat basis, compared with controls, more women in the telephone intervention groups made an appointment (control: 8.8%, TEL: 20.3%, TEL-SUPP: 14.1%; TEL-SUPP-AR: 16.8%, χ(2)(3) = 12.0, p = .007) and attended breast screening (control: 6.9%, TEL: 16.5%, TEL-SUPP: 11.3%; TEL-SUPP-AR: 13.1%, χ(2)(3) = 9.8, p = .020). Of 559 women randomized to the three telephone groups, 404 were successfully contacted and 247 participated in the intervention. Intervention participants (ie. per protocol analysis) were more likely to make (17% versus 10%, χ(2)(1) = 7.0, p = .008) and attend (13% versus 7%, χ(2)(1) = 5.5, p = .019) an appointment than non-participants, but there were no differences in attendance between the three telephone groups. A simple telephone reminder doubled attendance at breast screening in women from lower socio-demographic areas who had not attended their initial appointment, compared with a reminder letter only (odds ratio 2.12, 95% CI (1.2, 3.8)). However, contacting women proved problematic and there was no additional effect of telephone support or anticipated regret. © The Author(s) 2015.
Anderson, Annie S; Macleod, Maureen; Mutrie, Nanette; Sugden, Jacqueline; Dobson, Hilary; Treweek, Shaun; O'Carroll, Ronan E; Thompson, Alistair; Kirk, Alison; Brennan, Graham; Wyke, Sally
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second cause of cancer deaths amongst women in the UK. The incidence of the disease is increasing and is highest in women from least deprived areas. It is estimated that around 42% of the disease in post-menopausal women could be prevented by increased physical activity and reductions in alcohol intake and body fatness. Breast cancer control endeavours focus on national screening programmes but these do not include communications or interventions for risk reduction. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of delivery, indicative effects and acceptability of a lifestyle intervention programme initiated within the NHS Scottish Breast Screening Programme (NHSSBSP). A 1:1 randomised controlled trial (RCT) of the 3 month ActWell programme (focussing on body weight, physical activity and alcohol) versus usual care conducted in two NHSSBSP sites between June 2013 and January 2014. Feasibility assessments included recruitment, retention, and fidelity to protocol. Indicative outcomes were measured at baseline and 3 month follow-up (body weight, waist circumference, eating and alcohol habits and physical activity). At study end, a questionnaire assessed participant satisfaction and qualitative interviews elicited women's, coaches, and radiographers' experiences. Statistical analysis used Chi squared tests for comparisons in proportions and paired t tests for comparisons of means. Linear regression analyses were performed, adjusted for baseline values, with group allocation as a fixed effect. A pre-set recruitment target of 80 women was achieved within 12 weeks and 65 (81%) participants (29 intervention, 36 control) completed 3 month assessments. Mean age was 58 ± 5.6 years, mean BMI was 29.2 ± 7.0 kg/m(2) and many (44%) reported a family history of breast cancer. The primary analysis (baseline body weight adjusted) showed a significant between group difference favouring the intervention group of 2.04 kg
Prophylactic vaccination with human papillomavirus (HPV) virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines against HPV 16 and HPV 18, which are the cause of 70% or more of cervical cancers in women, has transformed our prospects for reducing the incidence of this disease on a global scale. HPV VLP vaccines are immunogenic, well tolerated and show remarkable efficacy, achieving >98% protection in randomised clinical trials against the obligate precursor lesions cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 (CIN2/3) and adenocarcinoma in situ. The implementation of these vaccines as a public health intervention is, however, complex. Cervical cancer screening can be a highly effective secondary intervention, but in the developing world these programmes are either not available or are ineffective. HPV vaccination represents the most effective intervention in that scenario. In countries with successful well-organised cervical cancer screening programmes, such as the UK, the cost-effectiveness of vaccination as opposed to screening is a major factor. Screening will have to continue, as only two of the 15 oncogenic HPV types are in the vaccines and for two to three decades at least unvaccinated sexually active women will remain at risk for the disease. However, if both vaccination and screening are combined then the virtual elimination of cervical cancer and the other HPV 16 and 18-associated cancers is possible.
Hirai, Kei; Ishikawa, Yoshiki; Fukuyoshi, Jun; Yonekura, Akio; Harada, Kazuhiro; Shibuya, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Mizota, Yuri; Hamashima, Chisato; Saito, Hiroshi
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness and cost-efficiency of a tailored message intervention compared with a non-tailored message intervention for increasing colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates among a non-adherent population, in a community-based client reminder program. After a baseline survey for psychological segmentation, 2140 eligible individuals were randomly assigned either to a group with a tailored matched-message condition (N = 356), a group with a non-tailored unmatched-message condition (N = 355), or to two control groups, one using a typical message with a professional design (N = 717) and one without a professional design (N = 712). The main outcome measure was attendance rates in a community-organized CRC screening program within five months of receiving a print reminder. There was a significant difference in fecal occult blood test (FOBT) attendance rates at follow-up assessments between the tailored matched-message condition (14.0 %) and the control (9.9 %; OR = 1.48, p = 0.026), while there was no significant difference between the unmatched-message condition (11.0 %) and the control (OR = 1.12, p = 0.558), and between the matched-message condition and the unmatched-message condition (OR = 1.32, p = 0.219). The cost of a one-person increase in FOBT screening was 3,740 JPY for the tailored matched-message condition, while it was 2,747 JPY for the control. A tailored-message intervention for segmented individuals designed to increase CRC screening rates in a community-based client reminder program was significantly effective compared to a usual reminder, but not more effective than an unmatched message in a randomized controlled trial, and was not sufficiently effective to highlight its value from a cost perspective. Therefore, the tailored intervention including target segmentation needs to be improved for future implementation in a CRC screening program for a non
Chiu, Han-Mo; Hsu, Wen-Feng; Chang, Li-Chun; Wu, Ming-Hsiang
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing in Asia, especially in regions with higher levels of economic development. Several Asian countries have launched population CRC screening programs to combat this devastating disease because previous studies have demonstrated that either fecal occult blood test or lower gastrointestinal endoscopy can effectively reduce CRC mortality. Screening includes engaging the population, testing, administering a confirmation examination, and treating screening-detected neoplasms; thus, monitoring the whole process using measurable indicators over time is of utmost importance. Only when the quality of every step is secured can the effectiveness of CRC screening be maximized. Screening and verification examination rates remain low in Asian countries, and important infrastructure, including cancer or death registry systems, colonoscopy capacity, and reasonable subsidization for screening, is lacking or insufficient. Future research should identify potential local barriers to screening. Good communication and dialog among screening organizers, clinicians, professional societies, and public health workers are indispensible for successful screening programs.
Ely, John W; Levy, Barcey T; Daly, Jeanette; Xu, Yinghui
Only about half of eligible individuals undergo colon cancer screening. We have limited knowledge about the patient beliefs that adversely affect screening decisions and about which beliefs might be amenable to change through education. As part of a clinical trial, 641 rural Iowans, aged 52 to 79 years, reported their beliefs about colon cancer screening in response to a mailed questionnaire. Consenting subjects were randomized into four groups, which were distinguished by four levels of increasingly intensive efforts to promote screening. Two of the groups received mailed educational materials and completed a follow-up questionnaire, which allowed us to determine whether their beliefs about screening changed following the education. We also completed a factor analysis to identify underlying (latent) factors that might explain the responses to 33 questions about readiness, attitudes, and perceived barriers related to colon cancer screening. The strongest predictors of a patient's stated readiness to be screened were a physician's recommendation to be screened (1 point difference on 10-point Likert scale, 95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.5 to 1.6 point difference), a family history of colon cancer (0.85-point Likert scale difference, 95 % CI, 0.1 to 1.6), and a belief that health-care decisions should be mostly left to physicians rather than patients (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.21, P < .001). Of the 33 questionnaire items about screening beliefs, 11 (33 %) changed favorably following the educational intervention. In the factor analysis, the 33 items were reduced to 8 underlying factors, such as being too busy to undergo screening and worries about screening procedures. We found a limited number of underlying factors that may help explain patient resistance to colon cancer screening.
Nuño, Tomas; Martinez, Maria Elena; Harris, Robin; García, Francisco
Breast cancer is the most common neoplasm among Hispanic women. Cervical cancer has a higher incidence and mortality among Hispanic women compared with non-Hispanic White women. To assess the effectiveness of a promotora-administered educational intervention to promote breast and cervical cancer screening among post-reproductive age, medically underserved Hispanic women residing along the U.S.-Mexico border. Women age 50 or older were eligible to participate in this intervention study. A total of 381 subjects agreed to participate. Women were randomly assigned into one of two groups, educational intervention or usual care. The primary outcomes were self-reported mammogram and Pap smear screening. Logistic regression analysis was used to compute odds ratios for comparisons between intervention and control groups. Women in the intervention group were 2.0 times more likely to report having had a mammogram within the last year when compared with the usual care group (95% CI = 1.3-3.1). Likewise, women in the intervention group were 1.5 times more likely to report having a Pap smear within the last year when compared with the usual care group, although this was not statistically significant (95% CI = 0.9-2.6). In a secondary analysis, the intervention suggests a stronger effect on those that had not had a mammogram or Pap smear within the past year at baseline. A promotora-based educational intervention can be used to increase breast and cervical cancer screening utilization among Hispanic women.
Pedersen, Kine; Sørbye, Sveinung Wergeland; Burger, Emily Annika; Lönnberg, Stefan; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø
Decision makers often need to simultaneously consider multiple criteria or outcomes when deciding whether to adopt new health interventions. Using decision analysis within the context of cervical cancer screening in Norway, we aimed to aid decision makers in identifying a subset of relevant strategies that are simultaneously efficient, feasible, and optimal. We developed an age-stratified probabilistic decision tree model following a cohort of women attending primary screening through one screening round. We enumerated detected precancers (i.e., cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or more severe (CIN2+)), colposcopies performed, and monetary costs associated with 10 alternative triage algorithms for women with abnormal cytology results. As efficiency metrics, we calculated incremental cost-effectiveness, and harm-benefit, ratios, defined as the additional costs, or the additional number of colposcopies, per additional CIN2+ detected. We estimated capacity requirements and uncertainty surrounding which strategy is optimal according to the decision rule, involving willingness to pay (monetary or resources consumed per added benefit). For ages 25 to 33 years, we eliminated four strategies that did not fall on either efficiency frontier, while one strategy was efficient with respect to both efficiency metrics. Compared with current practice in Norway, two strategies detected more precancers at lower monetary costs, but some required more colposcopies. Similar results were found for women aged 34 to 69 years. Improving the effectiveness and efficiency of cervical cancer screening may necessitate additional resources. Although efficient and feasible, both society and individuals must specify their willingness to accept the additional resources and perceived harms required to increase effectiveness before a strategy can be considered optimal. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Filippo, Lococo; Principe, Rosastella; Cesario, Alfredo; Apolone, Giovanni; Carleo, Francesco; Ialongo, Pasquale; Veronesi, Giulia; Cardillo, Giuseppe
Data coming from the literature investigating the effectiveness and interaction between smoking cessation (SC) and lung cancer screening (LCScr) are still sparse and inconsistent. Herein, we report the preliminary results from the ongoing lung cancer screening trial ("Cosmos-II") focusing our analysis on the inter-relationship between the SC program and the LCScr.
Wolf, Michael S; Satterlee, Melissa; Calhoun, Elizabeth A; Skripkauskas, Silvia; Fulwiler, Daniel; Diamond-Shapiro, Linda; Alvarez, Hugo; Eder, Mickey; Mukundan, Padmanabhan
Prevalence of physician recommendation and patient completion of colorectal cancer screening was investigated among Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHC) serving low-income neighborhoods in Chicago. Medical records of 3,416 patients receiving primary care services at 1 of 31 FQHCs were randomly chosen for review. In all, 642 patients were identified by age and family history as eligible for colorectal cancer screening and included in this study. Patient demographic information and colorectal cancer screening history were collected. The physician screening recommendation rate was 9.2% (n=59); 7.0% (n=45) of patients were determined to have been appropriately screened for colorectal cancer, primarily by Fecal Occult Blood Test (94.1%, n=43). Among patients who received a recommendation from their physician, 76.2% had completed a screening test. Older patients were more likely than their younger counterparts to have received a recommendation from their physician (p<.05) and to have been screened (p<.01). Organizational interventions are needed to support physicians in medically underserved areas and to promote recommended screening practices.
... about being screened for prostate cancer with a prostate specific antigen (PSA) test. Before making a decision, men should ... Task Force Prostate Cancer Screening Final Recommendation Understanding Prostate Changes: A Health ... Cancer Institute) What Is Screening? ...
... FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test results? • What is the difference between the terms cervical ...
Gruber, M; Lance, P
Colon cancer is a leading cause of death in the United States and is estimated to cause 56,500 deaths during 1998. Most cancers evolve from adenomatous polyps. Screening asymptomatic average-risk individuals is recommended to reduce colorectal cancer mortality by detection and removal of adenomatous polyps.
... may have serious side effects . False-negative test results can occur. Screening test results may appear to ... even if there are symptoms. False-positive test results can occur. Screening test results may appear to ...
Mingo, Alicea M.; Panozzo, Catherine A.; DiAngi, Yumi Taylor; Smith, Jennifer S.; Steenhoff, Andrew P.; Ramogola-Masire, Doreen; Brewer, Noel T.
Objective Cervical cancer remains a leading cause of death in many developing countries due to limited screening by Papanicolaou (Pap) smear. We sought to better understand women’s beliefs about cervical cancer and screening in Botswana, a middle income African country with high rates of cervical cancer. Methods We interviewed 289 women attending general medicine or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinics, where Pap testing was available, in Gaborone, Botswana in January 2009. Results About three-quarters (72%) of respondents reported having ever had a Pap smear. HIV-positive women were more likely to have had a Pap smear than HIV-negative women (80% vs. 64%, OR=1.97, 95% CI: 1.10, 3.55). Screening was also more common among women who were older, had higher incomes, or had heard of cervical cancer. Almost all participants reported a desire to have a Pap smear. Reasons included to determine cervical health (56%), to improve overall health (33%), and to obtain early treatment (34%). About half (54%) of respondents said they did not know what causes cervical cancer, and almost none attributed the disease to HPV infection. Conclusion Study findings can inform interventions that seek to increase cervical cancer awareness and uptake of screening as it becomes more widely available. PMID:22367370
Boniol, Mathieu; Smans, Michel; Sullivan, Richard; Boyle, Peter
Objectives We compared calculations of relative risks of cancer death in Swedish mammography trials and in other cancer screening trials. Participants Men and women from 30 to 74 years of age. Setting Randomised trials on cancer screening. Design For each trial, we identified the intervention period, when screening was offered to screening groups and not to control groups, and the post-intervention period, when screening (or absence of screening) was the same in screening and control groups. We then examined which cancer deaths had been used for the computation of relative risk of cancer death. Main outcome measures Relative risk of cancer death. Results In 17 non-breast screening trials, deaths due to cancers diagnosed during the intervention and post-intervention periods were used for relative risk calculations. In the five Swedish trials, relative risk calculations used deaths due to breast cancers found during intervention periods, but deaths due to breast cancer found at first screening of control groups were added to these groups. After reallocation of the added breast cancer deaths to post-intervention periods of control groups, relative risks of 0.86 (0.76; 0.97) were obtained for cancers found during intervention periods and 0.83 (0.71; 0.97) for cancers found during post-intervention periods, indicating constant reduction in the risk of breast cancer death during follow-up, irrespective of screening. Conclusions The use of unconventional statistical methods in Swedish trials has led to overestimation of risk reduction in breast cancer death attributable to mammography screening. The constant risk reduction observed in screening groups was probably due to the trial design that optimised awareness and medical management of women allocated to screening groups. PMID:26152677
A new modeling study suggests that individualized, risk-based selection of ever-smokers for lung cancer screening may prevent more lung cancer deaths and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening compared with current screening recommendations
Weirich, Stephen A.
Despite recent advances in both the survival and cure rates for many forms of cancer, unfortunately the same has not been true for prostate cancer. In fact, the age-adjusted death rate from prostate cancer has not significantly improved since 1949, and prostate cancer remains the most common cancer in American men, causing the second highest cancer mortality rate. Topics discussed include the following: serum testosterone levels; diagnosis; mortality statistics; prostate-sppecific antigen (PSA) tests; and the Occupational Medicine Services policy at LeRC.
Cervera Deval, J; Sentís Crivillé, M; Zulueta, J J
In screening programs, overdiagnosis is defined as the detection of a disease that would have gone undetected without screening when that disease would not have resulted in morbimortality and was treated unnecessarily. Overdiagnosis is a bias inherent in screening and an undesired effect of secondary prevention and improved sensitivity of diagnostic techniques. It is difficult to discriminate a priori between clinically relevant diagnoses and those in which treatment is unnecessary. To minimize the effects of overdiagnosis, screening should be done in patients at risk. Copyright © 2014 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
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Learn the results of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial, a large-scale clinical trial to determine whether certain cancer screening tests can help reduce deaths from prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer.
The PLCO Cancer Screening Trial was a population-based randomized trial to determine the effects of screening on cancer-related mortality and secondary endpoints in more than 150,000 men and women aged 55 to 74. The PLCO Biorepository, accessible by the Cancer Data Access System (CDAS) web portal, contains about 2.7 million biologic specimens from intervention participants
Chow, Ryan D; Chen, Sidi
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) screening is a powerful toolset for investigating diverse biological processes. Most CRISPR screens to date have been performed with in vitro cultures or cellular transplant models. To interrogate cancer in animal models that more closely recapitulate the human disease, autochthonous direct in vivo CRISPR screens have recently been developed that can identify causative drivers in the native tissue microenvironment. By empowering multiplexed mutagenesis in fully immunocompetent animals, direct in vivo CRISPR screens enable the rapid generation of patient-specific avatars that can guide precision medicine. This Opinion article discusses the current status of in vivo CRISPR screens in cancer and offers perspectives on future applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Davis, Terry; Arnold, Connie; Rademaker, Alfred; Bennett, Charles; Bailey, Stacy; Platt, Daci; Reynolds, Cristalyn; Liu, Dachao; Carias, Edson; Bass, Pat; Wolf, Michael
The authors evaluated the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of 2 interventions designed to promote colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in safety-net settings. A 3-arm, quasi-experimental evaluation was conducted among 8 clinics in Louisiana. Screening efforts included: 1) enhanced usual care, 2) literacy-informed education of patients, and 3) education plus nurse support. Overall, 961 average-risk patients ages 50 to 85 years were eligible for routine CRC screening and were recruited. Outcomes included CRC screening completion and incremental cost effectiveness using literacy-informed education of patients and education plus nurse support versus enhanced usual care. The baseline screening rate was <3%. After the interventions, the screening rate was 38.6% with enhanced usual care, 57.1% with education, and 60.6% with education that included additional nurse support. After adjusting for age, race, sex, and literacy, patients who received education alone were not more likely to complete screening than those who received enhanced usual care; and those who received additional nurse support were 1.60-fold more likely to complete screening than those who received enhanced usual care (95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.42; P = .024). The incremental cost per additional individual screened was $1337 for education plus nurse support over enhanced usual care. Fecal occult blood test rates were increased beyond enhanced usual care by providing brief education and nurse support but not by providing education alone. More cost-effective alternatives to nurse support need to be investigated. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
... decrease the risk of dying from cancer. Scientists study screening tests to find those with the fewest risks and ... recovery . There is no standard or routine screening test for bladder cancer. Screening for bladder cancer is under study and there are screening clinical trials taking place ...
Pox, Christian P
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and a good candidate for screening programmes. However, there is controversy concerning which of the available screening tests should be used. There is general agreement that screening for CRC in the asymptomatic population should begin at the age of 50. Several different screening methods are available which can be separated into those that mainly detect cancers: faecal occult blood tests [guaiac (FOBT) and immunochemical (FIT)], genetic stool tests, blood tests and the M2-pyruvate kinase (M2-PK) test. Methods that detect cancers and polyps are colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, CT-colonography (CT-C) and colon capsule endoscopy. The only tests for which a reduction in CRC mortality compared to no screening have been proven in randomized trials are FOBT and sigmoidoscopy. Several trials suggest that FIT are superior to FOBT in terms of detection rates of cancers and advanced adenomas and possibly compliance. There is indirect evidence suggesting efficacy of colonoscopy as a screening test. The role of CT-C is controversial. There is data suggesting a good sensitivity for neoplasia >9 mm with a lower sensitivity for smaller neoplasia. However, radiation exposure is considered a major limitation in some countries. Unresolved questions include the lesion cut-off for referral to colonoscopy and work-up of extracolonic findings. For other methods, like genetic stool testing using newer markers, blood tests, capsule endoscopy and M2-PK, there is currently insufficient data on screening of the asymptomatic population. Key Messages: Colorectal screening is recommended and should be performed in the form of an organized programme. If detection of early-stage cancers is the aim of a screening programme, FIT seem to be superior to FOBT. If detection and removal of adenomas is the aim of a screening programme, endoscopic methods seem to be good alternatives. Sigmoidoscopy is easier to perform but will likely only
Jun, Jungmi; Oh, Kyeung Mi
To explore fatalistic attributions of colon cancer development among Asian and Hispanic Americans in comparison with non-Hispanic whites; also to examine the impacts of fatalism on adherence to the colon cancer screening guideline. For the analysis, the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey data were employed. Both Asian and Hispanic Americans were more likely to make fatalistic attribution and were less likely to follow the guideline than whites. Particularly for Asians, fatalism was a significant predictor for not adhering to the guideline. These findings emphasize the need for cultural interventions to disrupt fatalistic attitudes towards colon cancer preventions.
... work the way it should. Having testicular carcinoma in situ . Being white. Having a personal or family history ... testicle that is not normal, or testicular carcinoma in situ have an increased risk of testicular cancer in ...
Conde, Francisco A; Landier, Wendy; Ishida, Dianne; Bell, Rose; Cuaresma, Charlene F; Misola, Jane
To examine perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs regarding barriers and facilitators to prostate cancer screening, and to identify potential interventional strategies to promote prostate cancer screening among Filipino men in Hawaii. Exploratory, qualitative. Community-based settings in Hawaii. 20 Filipino men age 40 years or older. Focus group discussions were tape recorded and transcribed, and content analysis was performed for emergent themes. Perceptions regarding prostate cancer, barriers and facilitators to prostate cancer screening, and culturally relevant interventional strategies. Perceptions of prostate cancer included fatalism, hopelessness, and dread. Misconceptions regarding causes of prostate cancer, such as frequency of sexual activity, were identified. Barriers to prostate cancer screening included lack of awareness of the need for screening, reticence to seek health care when feeling well, fear of cancer diagnosis, financial issues, time constraints, and embarrassment. Presence of urinary symptoms, personal experience with family or friends who had cancer, and receiving recommendations from a healthcare provider regarding screening were facilitators for screening. Potential culturally relevant interventional strategies to promote prostate cancer screening included screening recommendations from healthcare professionals and cancer survivors; radio or television commercials and newspaper articles targeting the Filipino community; informational brochures in Tagalog, Ilocano, or English; and interactive, educational forums facilitated by multilingual Filipino male healthcare professionals. Culturally relevant interventions are needed that address barriers to prostate cancer screening participation and misconceptions about causes of prostate cancer. Findings provide a foundation for future research regarding development of interventional strategies to promote prostate cancer screening among Filipino men.
The aim of this study is to describe the role of endoscopy in detection and treatment of neoplastic lesions of the digestive mucosa in asymptomatic persons. Esophageal squamous cell cancer occurs in relation to nutritional deficiency and alcohol or tobacco consumption. Esophageal adenocarcinoma develops in Barrett’s esophagus, and stomach cancer in chronic gastric atrophy with Helicobacter pylori infection. Colorectal cancer is favoured by a high intake in calories, excess weight, low physical activity. In opportunistic or individual screening endoscopy is the primary detection procedure offered to an asymptomatic individual. In organized or mass screening proposed by National Health Authorities to a population, endoscopy is performed only in persons found positive to a filter selection test. The indications of primary upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy in opportunistic screening are increasingly developing over the world. Organized screening trials are proposed in some regions of China at high risk for esophageal cancer; the selection test is cytology of a balloon or sponge scrapping; they are proposed in Japan for stomach cancer with photofluorography as a selection test; and in Europe, America and Japan; for colorectal cancer with the fecal occult blood test as a selection test. Organized screening trials in a country require an evaluation: the benefit of the intervention assessed by its impact on incidence and on the 5 year survival for the concerned tumor site; in addition a number of bias interfering with the evaluation have to be controlled. Drawbacks of screening are in the morbidity of the diagnostic and treatment procedures and in overdetection of none clinically relevant lesions. The strategy of endoscopic screening applies to early cancer and to benign adenomatous precursors of adenocarcinoma. Diagnostic endoscopy is conducted in 2 steps: at first detection of an abnormal area through changes in relief, in color or in the course of
Design of a randomized controlled trial to assess the comparative effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention to improve adherence to colorectal cancer screening among patients cared for in a community health center.
Baker, David W; Brown, Tiffany; Buchanan, David R; Weil, Jordan; Cameron, Kenzie A; Ranalli, Lauren; Ferreira, M Rosario; Stephens, Quinn; Balsley, Kate; Goldman, Shira N; Wolf, Michael S
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is common and leads to significant morbidity and mortality. Although screening with fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) or endoscopy has been shown to decrease CRC mortality, screening rates remain suboptimal. Screening rates are particularly low for people with low incomes and members of underrepresented minority groups. FOBT should be done annually to detect CRC early and to reduce CRC mortality, but this often does not occur. This paper describes the design of a multifaceted intervention to increase long-term adherence to FOBT among poor, predominantly Latino patients, and the design of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to test the efficacy of this intervention compared to usual care. In this RCT, patients who are due for repeat FOBT are identified in the electronic health record (EHR) and randomized to receive either usual care or a multifaceted intervention. The usual care group includes multiple point-of-care interventions (e.g., standing orders, EHR reminders), performance measurement, and financial incentives to improve CRC screening rates. The intervention augments usual care through mailed CRC screening test kits, low literacy patient education materials, automated phone and text message reminders, in-person follow up calls from a CRC Screening Coordinator, and communication of results to patients along with a reminder card highlighting when the patient is next due for screening. The primary outcome is completion of FOBT within 6 months of becoming due. The main goal of the study is to determine the comparative effectiveness of the intervention compared to usual care. Additionally, we want to assess whether or not it is possible to achieve high rates of adherence to CRC screening with annual FOBT, which is necessary for reducing CRC mortality. The intervention relies on technology that is increasingly widespread and declining in cost, including EHR systems, automated phone and text messaging, and FOBTs for CRC screening. We took
... français) Haitian Creole (Kreyol ayisyen) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Polish (polski) Portuguese (português) Russian ( ... Screening - हिन्दी (Hindi) PDF American Cancer Society Japanese (日本語) Expand Section Colposcopy - 日本語 (Japanese) Bilingual PDF ...
... for cervical cancer and your need for screening tests. Studies show that the number of cases of cervical ... with Pap tests. Many doctors recommend a Pap test be done every year. New studies have shown that after a woman has a ...
Griffin-Sobel, Joyce P
To present an overview of current practices in the screening and early detection of gastrointestinal cancers. Literature reviews. Screening for gastrointestinal cancers is less than desirable, particularly in underserved populations. There are inadequate methods of screening for early detection of esophageal and gastric cancers. Education of patients is needed to reinforce the importance of screening for gastrointestinal cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Menon, Usha; Belue, Rhonda; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Rothwell, B. Erin; Champion, Victoria
Colorectal cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. To fully realize the benefits of early detection of colorectal cancer, screening rates must improve. This study assessed differences in beliefs (from the Health Belief Model) by stage of screening behavior adoption (based on the Transtheoretical Model of Change) as a foundation for intervention development. More people were in the precontemplation stage (not thinking about having the screening test) for fecal occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy versus contemplation (thinking about having the test) or action (adherent with screening). Those in precontemplation stage for fecal occult blood test had lower perceived risk than those in contemplation, lower perceived benefits than those in action, and higher barriers than both those in contemplation and those in action. For sigmoidoscopy stage of readiness, again, precontemplators had lower perceived risk and self-efficacy than contemplators and higher barriers than both contemplators and actors. Given the popularity of the transtheoretical model and the success of stage-based interventions to increase other cancer screening, especially mammography, we should begin to translate such effective interventions to colorectal cancer screening. As such, this study is one of very few to quantify beliefs across stages of colorectal cancer and identify significant differences across stages, laying the foundation for the development and testing of stage-based interventions. PMID:17510580
Clark, Duncan B.; Gordon, Adam J.; Ettaro, Lorraine R.; Owens, Jill M.; Moss, Howard B.
In a 2007 report, the US Surgeon General called for health care professionals to renew efforts to reduce underage drinking. Focusing on the adolescent patient, this review provides health care professionals with recommendations for alcohol-related screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment. MEDLINE and published reviews were used to identify relevant literature. Several brief screening methods have been shown to effectively identify underage drinkers likely to have alcohol use disorders. After diagnostic assessment when germane, the initial intervention typically focuses on education, motivation for change, and consideration of treatment options. Internet-accessible resources providing effective brief interventions are available, along with supplemental suggestions for parents. Recent changes in federal and commercial insurance reimbursement policies provide some fiscal support for these services, although rate increases and expanded applicability may be required to prompt the participation of many practitioners. Nevertheless, advances in clinical methods and progress on reimbursement policies have made screening and brief intervention for underage drinking more feasible in general health care practice. PMID:20360296
Purnell, Jason Q; Thompson, Tess; Kreuter, Matthew W; McBride, Timothy D
Persistent disparities in cancer screening by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status require innovative prevention tools and techniques. Behavioral economics provides tools to potentially reduce disparities by informing strategies and systems to increase prevention of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers. With an emphasis on the predictable, but sometimes flawed, mental shortcuts (heuristics) people use to make decisions, behavioral economics offers insights that practitioners can use to enhance evidence-based cancer screening interventions that rely on judgments about the probability of developing and detecting cancer, decisions about competing screening options, and the optimal presentation of complex choices (choice architecture). In the area of judgment, we describe ways practitioners can use the availability and representativeness of heuristics and the tendency toward unrealistic optimism to increase perceptions of risk and highlight benefits of screening. We describe how several behavioral economic principles involved in decision-making can influence screening attitudes, including how framing and context effects can be manipulated to highlight personally salient features of cancer screening tests. Finally, we offer suggestions about ways practitioners can apply principles related to choice architecture to health care systems in which cancer screening takes place. These recommendations include the use of incentives to increase screening, introduction of default options, appropriate feedback throughout the decision-making and behavior completion process, and clear presentation of complex choices, particularly in the context of colorectal cancer screening. We conclude by noting gaps in knowledge and propose future research questions to guide this promising area of research and practice.
Pasechnikov, Victor; Chukov, Sergej; Fedorov, Evgeny; Kikuste, Ilze; Leja, Marcis
Gastric cancer continues to be an important healthcare problem from a global perspective. Most of the cases in the Western world are diagnosed at late stages when the treatment is largely ineffective. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a well-established carcinogen for gastric cancer. While lifestyle factors are important, the efficacy of interventions in their modification, as in the use of antioxidant supplements, is unconvincing. No organized screening programs can be found outside Asia (Japan and South Korea). Although several screening approaches have been proposed, including indirect atrophy detection by measuring pepsinogen in the circulation, none of them have so far been implemented, and more study data is required to justify any implementation. Mass eradication of H. pylori in high-risk areas tends to be cost-effective, but its adverse effects and resistance remain a concern. Searches for new screening biomarkers, including microRNA and cancer-autoantibody panels, as well as detection of volatile organic compounds in the breath, are in progress. Endoscopy with a proper biopsy follow-up remains the standard for early detection of cancer and related premalignant lesions. At the same time, new advanced high-resolution endoscopic technologies are showing promising results with respect to diagnosing mucosal lesions visually and targeting each biopsy. New histological risk stratifications (classifications), including OLGA and OLGIM, have recently been developed. This review addresses the current means for gastric cancer primary and secondary prevention, the available and emerging methods for screening, and new developments in endoscopic detection of early lesions of the stomach. PMID:25320521
da Costa Vieira, René Aloísio; Biller, Gabriele; Uemura, Gilberto; Ruiz, Carlos Alberto; Curado, Maria Paula
Developing countries have limited healthcare resources and use different strategies to diagnose breast cancer. Most of the population depends on the public healthcare system, which affects the diagnosis of the tumor. Thus, the indicators observed in developed countries cannot be directly compared with those observed in developing countries because the healthcare infrastructures in developing countries are deficient. The aim of this study was to evaluate breast cancer screening strategies and indicators in developing countries. A systematic review and the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes, Timing, and Setting methodology were performed to identify possible indicators of presentation at diagnosis and the methodologies used in developing countries. We searched PubMed for the terms “Breast Cancer” or “Breast Cancer Screening” and “Developing Country” or “Developing Countries”. In all, 1,149 articles were identified. Of these articles, 45 full articles were selected, which allowed us to identify indicators related to epidemiology, diagnostic intervention (diagnostic strategy, diagnostic infrastructure, percentage of women undergoing mammography), quality of intervention (presentation of symptoms at diagnosis, time to diagnosis, early stage disease), comparisons (trend curves, subpopulations at risk) and survival among different countries. The identification of these indicators will improve the reporting of methodologies used in developing countries and will allow us to evaluate improvements in public health related to breast cancer. PMID:28492725
Roncancio, Angelica M; Ward, Kristy K; Fernandez, Maria E
To develop effective interventions to increase cervical cancer screening among Latinas, we should understand the role of cultural factors, such as time perspective, in the decision to be screened. We examined the relation between present time orientation, future time orientation, and self-reported cervical cancer screening among Latinas. A group of 206 Latinas completed a survey measuring factors associated with screening. Logistic regression analyses revealed that future time orientation was significantly associated with self-reported screening. Understanding the influence of time orientation on cervical cancer screening will assist us in developing interventions that effectively target time perspective and screening. © The Author(s) 2013.
Buys, Saundra S; Partridge, Edward; Black, Amanda; Johnson, Christine C; Lamerato, Lois; Isaacs, Claudine; Reding, Douglas J; Greenlee, Robert T; Yokochi, Lance A; Kessel, Bruce; Crawford, E David; Church, Timothy R; Andriole, Gerald L; Weissfeld, Joel L; Fouad, Mona N; Chia, David; O'Brien, Barbara; Ragard, Lawrence R; Clapp, Jonathan D; Rathmell, Joshua M; Riley, Thomas L; Hartge, Patricia; Pinsky, Paul F; Zhu, Claire S; Izmirlian, Grant; Kramer, Barnett S; Miller, Anthony B; Xu, Jian-Lun; Prorok, Philip C; Gohagan, John K; Berg, Christine D
Screening for ovarian cancer with cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) and transvaginal ultrasound has an unknown effect on mortality. To evaluate the effect of screening for ovarian cancer on mortality in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. Randomized controlled trial of 78,216 women aged 55 to 74 years assigned to undergo either annual screening (n = 39,105) or usual care (n = 39,111) at 10 screening centers across the United States between November 1993 and July 2001. Intervention The intervention group was offered annual screening with CA-125 for 6 years and transvaginal ultrasound for 4 years. Participants and their health care practitioners received the screening test results and managed evaluation of abnormal results. The usual care group was not offered annual screening with CA-125 for 6 years or transvaginal ultrasound but received their usual medical care. Participants were followed up for a maximum of 13 years (median [range], 12.4 years [10.9-13.0 years]) for cancer diagnoses and death until February 28, 2010. Mortality from ovarian cancer, including primary peritoneal and fallopian tube cancers. Secondary outcomes included ovarian cancer incidence and complications associated with screening examinations and diagnostic procedures. Ovarian cancer was diagnosed in 212 women (5.7 per 10,000 person-years) in the intervention group and 176 (4.7 per 10,000 person-years) in the usual care group (rate ratio [RR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.99-1.48). There were 118 deaths caused by ovarian cancer (3.1 per 10,000 person-years) in the intervention group and 100 deaths (2.6 per 10,000 person-years) in the usual care group (mortality RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.82-1.71). Of 3285 women with false-positive results, 1080 underwent surgical follow-up; of whom, 163 women experienced at least 1 serious complication (15%). There were 2924 deaths due to other causes (excluding ovarian, colorectal, and lung cancer) (76.6 per 10,000 person
Elder, J. P.; Haughton, J.; Perez, L. G.; Martinez, M. E.; De la Torre, C. L.; Slymen, D. J.; Arredondo, E. M.
Abstract Cancer screening rates among Latinas are generally low, reducing the likelihood of early cancer detection in this population. This article examines the effects of a community intervention (Fe en Accion/Faith in Action) led by community health workers (promotoras) on promoting breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening among churchgoing Latinas. Sixteen churches were randomly assigned to a cancer screening or a physical activity intervention. We examined cancer knowledge, barriers to screening and self-reported mammography, clinical breast exam, Pap test, fecal occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy at baseline and 12 months follow-up. Participants were 436 adult Latinas, with 16 promotoras conducting a cancer screening intervention at 8 out of 16 churches. The cancer screening intervention had a significant positive impact on self-reported mammography (OR = 4.64, 95% CI: 2.00–10.75) and breast exams in the last year (OR= 2.82, 95% CI: 1.41–5.57) and corresponding reductions in perceived (87.6%) barriers to breast cancer screening (P < .008). Cervical and colorectal cancer screening did not improve with the intervention. These findings suggest Fe en Accion church-based promotoras had a significant impact on promoting breast cancer screening among Latinas. Colon cancer screening promotion, however, remains a challenge. PMID:28380627
Colorectal cancer screening reduces deaths from the disease, yet about one-third of Americans aren’t up to date with screening. In this Cancer Currents blog post, learn what happened when people waiting for routine checkups could order their own screening test using a computer app.
Larson, Robin J; Woloshin, Steven; Schwartz, Lisa M; Welch, H Gilbert
Celebrities often promote cancer screening by relating personal anecdotes about their own diagnosis or that of a loved one. We used data obtained from a random-digit dialing survey conducted in the United States from December 2001 through July 2002 to examine the extent to which adults of screening age without a history of cancer had seen or heard or been influenced by celebrity endorsements of screening mammography, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. The survey response rate was 72% among those known to be eligible and 51% among potentially eligible people accounting for those who could not be contacted. A total of 360 women aged 40 years or older and 140 men aged 50 years or older participated in the survey. Most respondents reported they "had seen or heard a celebrity talk about" mammography (73% of women aged 40 years or older), PSA testing (63% of men aged 50 years or older), or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (52% of adults aged 50 years or older). At least one-fourth of respondents who had seen or heard a celebrity endorsement said that the endorsement made them more likely to undergo mammography (25%), PSA testing (31%), or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (37%).
Hatcher, Jennifer; Studts, Christina R.; Dignan, Mark; Turner, Lisa M.; Schoenberg, Nancy E.
Background and Purpose Women who have not had a Papanicolaou test in five years or more have increased risk of developing invasive cervical cancer. This study compares Appalachian women whose last screening was more than one year ago but less than five years ago with those not screened for the previous five years or more. Methods Using PRECEDE/PROCEED as a guide, factors related to obtaining Pap tests were examined using cross-sectional data from 345 Appalachian Kentucky women. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify predictors of screening. Results Thirty-four percent of participants were rarely- or never-screened. In multiple logistic regression analyses, several factors increased those odds, including belief that cervical cancer has symptoms, and not having a regular source of medical care. Conclusion The findings from this study may lead to the development of effective intervention and policies that increase cervical cancer screening in this population. PMID:21317514
Zapka, Jane; Edwards, Heather; Taplin, Stephen H.
Cancer screening is a process of care consisting of several steps and interfaces. This article reviews what is known about the association between organizational factors and cancer screening rates and examines how organizational strategies can address the steps and interfaces of cancer screening in the context of both intraorganizational and interorganizational processes. We reviewed 79 studies assessing the relationship between organizational factors and cancer screening. Screening rates are largely driven by strategies to 1) limit the number of interfaces across organizational boundaries; 2) recruit patients, promote referrals, and facilitate appointment scheduling; and 3) promote continuous patient care. Optimal screening rates can be achieved when health-care organizations tailor strategies to the steps and interfaces in the cancer screening process that are most critical for their organizations, the providers who work within them, and the patients they serve. PMID:20386053
Anhang Price, Rebecca; Zapka, Jane; Edwards, Heather; Taplin, Stephen H
Cancer screening is a process of care consisting of several steps and interfaces. This article reviews what is known about the association between organizational factors and cancer screening rates and examines how organizational strategies can address the steps and interfaces of cancer screening in the context of both intraorganizational and interorganizational processes. We reviewed 79 studies assessing the relationship between organizational factors and cancer screening. Screening rates are largely driven by strategies to 1) limit the number of interfaces across organizational boundaries; 2) recruit patients, promote referrals, and facilitate appointment scheduling; and 3) promote continuous patient care. Optimal screening rates can be achieved when health-care organizations tailor strategies to the steps and interfaces in the cancer screening process that are most critical for their organizations, the providers who work within them, and the patients they serve.
An NCI research article about individualized approaches that could help identify those at risk of breast cancer who need to be screened and testing screening intervals that are appropriate for each person’s level of risk.
Experts are rethinking routine cancer screening. Genetic tests could be the answer. They may add upfront expense, but might eventually lead to savings by winnowing out unnecessary screening. Concern about false positives helps push this movement along.
Bostean, Georgiana; Crespi, Catherine M; McCarthy, William J
Some cancers are largely preventable through modification of certain behavioral risk factors and preventive screening, even among those with a family history of cancer. This study examined the associations between (1) family cancer history and cancer screening, (2) family history and cancer preventive lifestyle behaviors, and (3) cancer screening and lifestyle behaviors. Data were from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey (n = 12,603). Outcomes included screening for breast cancer (BC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) and six cancer preventive lifestyle behaviors, based on World Cancer Research Fund recommendations. Multivariate logistic regression analyses, stratified by gender and race-ethnicity, examined associations. Predicted probabilities of cancer screening by family cancer history, race-ethnicity, and sex were computed. Family history of site-specific cancer-CRC for men and women, and BC for women-was associated with higher probability of cancer screening for most groups, especially for CRC, but was largely unrelated to other lifestyle behaviors. In the few cases in which family history was significantly associated with lifestyle-for example, physical activity among White and Latino males, smoking among White and Asian females-individuals with a family history had lower odds of adherence to recommendations than those with no family history. Greater overall adherence to lifestyle recommendations was associated with higher odds of up-to-date CRC screening among White and Asian males, and lower odds among Asian females (no significant association with BC screening); this relationship did not vary by family cancer history. The fact that family history of cancer is not associated with better lifestyle behaviors may reflect shared behavioral risks within families, or the lack of knowledge about how certain lifestyle behaviors impact personal cancer risk. Findings can inform interventions aimed at lifestyle behavioral modification for individuals at increased
Ma, Grace X; Shive, Steve; Tan, Yin; Gao, Wanzhen; Rhee, Joanne; Park, Micah; Kim, Jaesool; Toubbeh, Jamil I
Despite evidence of a decline in both incidence and prevalence of colorectal cancer nationwide, it remains the second most commonly diagnosed cancer and the third highest cause of mortality among Asian Americans, including Korean Americans. This community-based and theoretically guided study evaluated a culturally appropriate intervention program that included a bilingual cancer educational program among Korean Americans including information on CRC risks, counseling to address psychosocial and access barriers, and patient navigation assistance. A two-group quasi-experimental design with baseline and post-intervention assessment and a 12-month follow-up on screening was used in the study. Korean Americans (N=167) were enrolled from six Korean churches. The intervention group received culturally appropriate intervention program addressing accessibility and psychosocial barriers, and navigation assistance for screening. The control group received general health education that included cancer-related health issues and screening. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) between the post-intervention and control groups in awareness of CRC risk factors. There was also a significant improvement in the pre-post across HBM measures in the intervention group for perceived susceptibility (p<0.05) and benefits and barriers to screening (p<0.001). At baseline, 13% of participants in the intervention group and 10% in control group reported having had a CRC cancer screening test in the previous year. At the 12-month post-intervention follow-up, 77.4% of participants in the intervention group had obtained screening compared to 10.8% in the control group. While health disparities result from numerous factors, a culturally appropriate and church-based intervention can be highly effective in increasing knowledge of and access to, and in reducing barriers to CRC screening among underserved Koreans.
Caplan, L S; Haynes, S G
There is currently an epidemic of breast cancer in women 65 years of age and older. The purposes of this paper are to explore the breast cancer screening behaviors of older women and to identify some of the determinants of screening in these women. Data were analyzed from the 1987 National Health Interview Survey, a continuous nationwide household interview survey of the U.S. civilian, noninstitutionalized population. As in other studies, the utilization of breast cancer screening by older women was less in older women than in younger women. This was true for both mammography and clinical breast examination. A number of determinants of screening in older women were identified here. Women with a usual source of care and/or no activity limitation, as well as high school graduates, were the ones most likely to have received a screening mammogram and/or a screening clinical breast exam during the past year. The failure of older women to receive adequate breast cancer screening is an important concern which should be reevaluated, given the breast cancer epidemic in this population. This study identified a number of determinants of breast cancer screening in older women. For the most part, these determinants point to the primary care physician as the key to breast cancer screening in these women. Therefore, the primary care physician must be informed of, and encouraged to follow, the recommendations for periodic breast cancer screening in older women.
Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo; Garcia, Diego Paim Carvalho; Coelho, Debora Lucciola; De Lima, David Correa Alves; Petroianu, Andy
Colorectal carcinoma is a common cause of death throughout the world and may be prevented by routine control, which can detect precancerous neoplasms and early cancers before they undergo malignant transformation or metastasis. Three strategies may improve colon cancer screening rates: convince the population about the importance of undergoing a screening test; achieve higher efficacy in standard screening tests and make them more available to the community and develop new more sensitive and efficacious screening methods and make them available as routine tests. In this light, the present study seeks to review these three means through which to increase colon cancer screening rates. PMID:26688708
Age Nutrition Chirugie (ANC) study: impact of a geriatric intervention on the screening and management of undernutrition in elderly patients operated on for colon cancer, a stepped wedge controlled trial.
Dupuis, Marine; Kuczewski, Elisabetta; Villeneuve, Laurent; Bin-Dorel, Sylvie; Haine, Max; Falandry, Claire; Gilbert, Thomas; Passot, Guillaume; Glehen, Olivier; Bonnefoy, Marc
Undernutrition prior to major abdominal surgery is frequent and increases morbidity and mortality, especially in older patients. The management of undernutrition reduces postoperative complications. Nutritional management should be a priority in patient care during the preoperative period. However undernutrition is rarely detected and the guidelines are infrequently followed. Preoperative undernutrition screening should allow a better implementation of the guidelines. The ANC ("Age Nutrition Chirurgie") study is an interventional, comparative, prospective, multicenter, randomized protocol based on the stepped wedge trial design. For the intervention, the surgeon will inform the patient of the establishment of a systematic preoperative geriatric assessment that will allow the preoperative diagnosis of the nutritional status and the implementation of an adjusted nutritional support in accordance with the nutritional guidelines. The primary outcome measure is to determine the impact of the geriatric intervention on the level of perioperative nutritional management, in accordance with the current European guidelines. The implementation of the intervention in the five participating centers will be rolled-out sequentially over six time periods (every six months). Investigators must recommend that all patients aged 70 years or over and who are consulting for a surgery for a colorectal cancer should consider participating in this study. The ANC study is based on an original methodology, the stepped wedge trial design, which is appropriate for evaluating the implementation of a geriatric and nutritional assessment during the perioperative period. We describe the purpose of this geriatric intervention, which is expected to apply the ESPEN and SFNEP recommendations through the establishment of an undernutrition screening and a management program for patients with cancer. This intervention should allow a decrease in patient morbidity and mortality due to undernutrition. This
Using the results of screening trials, the NCI Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network is trying to estimate the true benefit of cancer screening in the general population and identify the optimal way to implement screening within the health care system.
CGH is working with the International Agency for Research on CancerExit Disclaimer (IARC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) on the ESTAMPA Study, a multi-centric study of cervical cancer screening and triage with HPV testing.
techniques for evaluating the screening efficacy of mammography. Breast cancer growth rates, incidence rates, multiracial population demographics, death ... rates , breast cancer prognosis factors, breast density considerations, detection versus diameter probabilities, and other pertinent data have been
Wilkinson, Neal W; Loewen, Gregory M; Klippenstein, Donald L; Litwin, Alan M; Anderson, Timothy M
In the 1970s, four trials failed to demonstrate any mortality reduction using a combination of chest X-ray (CXR) and/or sputum cytology. The recent early lung cancer action project (ELCAP) demonstrated that modern screening is capable of detecting Stage I lung cancers. Bronchial epithelial changes leading up to cancers are now being understood to include histologic changes and genetic alterations. Emerging molecular markers detected in sputum and serum show promise in the future of lung cancer screening.
Becker, Elizabeth A.; Griffith, Derek M.; West, Brady T.; Janz, Nancy K.; Resnicow, Ken; Morris, Arden M.
Background Screening and post-symptomatic diagnostic testing are often conflated in cancer screening surveillance research. We examined the error in estimated colorectal cancer (CRC) screening prevalence due to the conflation of screening and diagnostic testing. Methods Using data from the 2008 National Health Interview Survey, we compared weighted prevalence estimates of the use of all testing (screening and diagnostic) and screening in at-risk adults, and calculated the overestimation of screening prevalence across socio-demographic groups. Results The population screening prevalence was overestimated by 23.3%, and the level of overestimation varied widely across socio-demographic groups (median 22.6%, mean 24.8%). The highest levels of overestimation were in non-Hispanic White females (27.4%), adults ages 50–54 (32.0%), and those with the highest socioeconomic vulnerability (low educational attainment (31.3%), low poverty ratio (32.5%), no usual source of health care (54.4%) and not insured (51.6%)) (all p-values < 0.001). Conclusions When the impetus for testing was not included, CRC screening prevalence was overestimated, and patterns of overestimation often aligned with social and economic vulnerability. These results are of concern to researchers who utilize survey data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to assess cancer screening behaviors, as it is currently not designed to distinguish diagnostic testing from screening. Impact Surveillance research in cancer screening that does not consider the impetus for testing risks measurement error of screening prevalence, impeding progress toward improving population health. Ultimately, in order to craft relevant screening benchmarks and interventions, we must look beyond ‘what’ and ‘when’ and include ‘why.’ PMID:26491056
Schoen, Robert E; Pinsky, Paul F; Weissfeld, Joel L; Yokochi, Lance A; Church, Timothy; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O; Bresalier, Robert; Andriole, Gerald L; Buys, Saundra S; Crawford, E David; Fouad, Mona N; Isaacs, Claudine; Johnson, Christine C; Reding, Douglas J; O'Brien, Barbara; Carrick, Danielle M; Wright, Patrick; Riley, Thomas L; Purdue, Mark P; Izmirlian, Grant; Kramer, Barnett S; Miller, Anthony B; Gohagan, John K; Prorok, Philip C; Berg, Christine D
The benefits of endoscopic testing for colorectal-cancer screening are uncertain. We evaluated the effect of screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy on colorectal-cancer incidence and mortality. From 1993 through 2001, we randomly assigned 154,900 men and women 55 to 74 years of age either to screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy, with a repeat screening at 3 or 5 years, or to usual care. Cases of colorectal cancer and deaths from the disease were ascertained. Of the 77,445 participants randomly assigned to screening (intervention group), 83.5% underwent baseline flexible sigmoidoscopy and 54.0% were screened at 3 or 5 years. The incidence of colorectal cancer after a median follow-up of 11.9 years was 11.9 cases per 10,000 person-years in the intervention group (1012 cases), as compared with 15.2 cases per 10,000 person-years in the usual-care group (1287 cases), which represents a 21% reduction (relative risk, 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 0.85; P<0.001). Significant reductions were observed in the incidence of both distal colorectal cancer (479 cases in the intervention group vs. 669 cases in the usual-care group; relative risk, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.80; P<0.001) and proximal colorectal cancer (512 cases vs. 595 cases; relative risk, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.97; P=0.01). There were 2.9 deaths from colorectal cancer per 10,000 person-years in the intervention group (252 deaths), as compared with 3.9 per 10,000 person-years in the usual-care group (341 deaths), which represents a 26% reduction (relative risk, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.87; P<0.001). Mortality from distal colorectal cancer was reduced by 50% (87 deaths in the intervention group vs. 175 in the usual-care group; relative risk, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.64; P<0.001); mortality from proximal colorectal cancer was unaffected (143 and 147 deaths, respectively; relative risk, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.77 to 1.22; P=0.81). Screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy was associated with a significant decrease in
Schoen, Robert E.; Pinsky, Paul F.; Weissfeld, Joel L.; Yokochi, Lance A.; Church, Timothy; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O.; Bresalier, Robert; Andriole, Gerald L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Crawford, E. David; Fouad, Mona N.; Isaacs, Claudine; Johnson, Christine C.; Reding, Douglas J.; O'Brien, Barbara; Carrick, Danielle M.; Wright, Patrick; Riley, Thomas L.; Purdue, Mark P.; Izmirlian, Grant; Kramer, Barnett S.; Miller, Anthony B.; Gohagan, John K.; Prorok, Philip C.; Berg, Christine D.
Background The benefits of endoscopic testing for colorectal-cancer screening are uncertain. We evaluated the effect of screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy on colorectal-cancer incidence and mortality. Methods From 1993 through 2001, we randomly assigned 154,900 men and women 55 to 74 years of age either to screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy, with a repeat screening at 3 or 5 years, or to usual care. Cases of colorectal cancer and deaths from the disease were ascertained. Results Of the 77,445 participants randomly assigned to screening (intervention group), 83.5% underwent baseline flexible sigmoidoscopy and 54.0% were screened at 3 or 5 years. The incidence of colorectal cancer after a median follow-up of 11.9 years was 11.9 cases per 10,000 person-years in the intervention group (1012 cases), as compared with 15.2 cases per 10,000 person-years in the usual-care group (1287 cases), which represents a 21% reduction (relative risk, 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 0.85; P<0.001). Significant reductions were observed in the incidence of both distal colorectal cancer (479 cases in the intervention group vs. 669 cases in the usual-care group; relative risk, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.80; P<0.001) and proximal colorectal cancer (512 cases vs. 595 cases; relative risk, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.97; P = 0.01). There were 2.9 deaths from colorectal cancer per 10,000 person-years in the intervention group (252 deaths), as compared with 3.9 per 10,000 person-years in the usual-care group (341 deaths), which represents a 26% reduction (relative risk, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.87; P<0.001). Mortality from distal colorectal cancer was reduced by 50% (87 deaths in the intervention group vs. 175 in the usual-care group; relative risk, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.64; P<0.001); mortality from proximal colorectal cancer was unaffected (143 and 147 deaths, respectively; relative risk, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.77 to 1.22; P = 0.81). Conclusions Screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy was
Kwak, Min-Son; Sung, Na-Young; Yang, Jeong Hee; Park, Eun-Cheol; Choi, KuiSon
The goal of this study is to measure women's willingness to pay for cancer screening and to identify those factors associated with this willingness to pay A population-based telephone survey was performed on 1,562 women (aged 30 years or over) for 2 weeks (9-23th, July, 2004). Data about sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, the intention of the cancer screenings and willingness to pay for cancer screening were collected. 1,400 respondents were included in the analysis. The women's willingness to pay for cancer screening and the factors associated with this willingness to pay were evaluated. The results show that 76% of all respondents have a willingness to pay for cancer screening. Among those who are willing to pay, the average and median amount of money for which the respondents are willing to pay are 126,636 (s.d.: 58,414) and 120,000 won, respectively. As the status of education & the income are higher, the average amount that women are willing to pay becomes much more. The amount of money women are willing to pay is the highest during the 'contemplation' stage. Being willing to pay or not is associated with a change of behavior (transtheoretical model), the income, the concern about the cancer risk, the family cancer history, the marital status, the general health exam, age and the place of residence. Income is associated with a greater willingness to pay. Old age was associated with a lower willingness to pay. According to the two-part model, income and TTM are the most important variables associated with the willingness to pay for cancer screening. The cancer screening participation rate is low compared with the willingness to pay for cancer screening. It is thought that we have to consider the participants' behavior that's associated with cancer screening and their willingness to pay in order to organize and manage cancer screening program.
Miller, A. B.
The author reviews the evidence for the efficacy of early detection and mass screening programs in reducing morbidity and mortality from cancer. In cancer of the cervix, although screening reduces morbidity, we still do not have evidence for reduction in mortality. In cancer of the breast, one study suggests a reduction in mortality in the 50-59 year age group following screening by clinical examination and mammography. In other sites, especially lung, there is no evidence at present to support the adoption of mass screening programs. It is important that such programs should be carefully evaluated in the population, preferably in controlled studies. PMID:20468806
for men from the neighborhoods. We also began recruitment and sessions to test the PCa educational intervention. Results: Focus group participants had...making about PCa screening Sub-aim 4: To observe the rates of PCa screening in the intervention and control groups 2. Keywords Prostate Cancer...mobilization of community health workers from high risk neighborhoods. Recruitment and conduct of “ control ” group educational sessions. Establishment of
Conde, Francisco A.; Landier, Wendy; Ishida, Dianne; Bell, Rose; Cuaresma, Charlene F.; Misola, Jane
Purpose/Objectives To examine perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs regarding barriers and facilitators to prostate cancer screening, and to identify potential interventional strategies to promote prostate cancer screening among Filipino men in Hawai’i. Design Exploratory, qualitative. Setting Community-based settings in Hawai’i. Sample 20 Filipino men, 40 years old or older Methods Focus group discussions were tape-recorded, transcribed, and content analysis performed for emergent themes. Main Research Variables Perceptions regarding prostate cancer, barriers and facilitators to prostate cancer screening, and culturally-relevant interventional strategies Findings Perceptions of prostate cancer included fatalism, hopelessness, and dread. Misconceptions regarding causes of prostate cancer, such as frequency of sexual activity, were identified. Barriers to prostate cancer screening included lack of awareness of the need for screening, reticence to seek healthcare when feeling well, fear of cancer diagnosis, financial issues, time constraints, and embarrassment. Presence of urinary symptoms, personal experience with family or friend who had cancer, and receiving recommendations from a healthcare provider regarding screening were facilitators for screening. Potential culturally-relevant interventional strategies to promote prostate cancer screening included screening recommendations from health professionals and cancer survivors; radio/television commercials and newspaper articles targeted to the Filipino community; informational brochures in Tagalog, Ilocano and/or English; and interactive, educational forums facilitated by Filipino multilingual, male healthcare professionals. Conclusions Culturally-relevant interventions are needed that address barriers to prostate cancer screening participation and misconceptions about causes of prostate cancer. Implications for Nursing Findings provide a foundation for future research regarding development of interventional
van Agt, Heleen M E; Korfage, Ida J; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise
Informed decision making about participation has become an explicit purpose in invitations for screening programmes in western countries. An informed choice is commonly defined as based on: (i) adequate levels of knowledge of the screening and (ii) agreement between the invitee's values towards own screening participation and actual (intention to) participation. We systematically reviewed published studies that empirically evaluated the effects of interventions aiming at enhancing informed decision making in screening programmes targeted at the general population. We focused on prenatal screening and neonatal screening for diseases of the foetus/new-born and screening for breast cancer, cervical cancer and colorectal cancer. The Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched for studies published till April 2012, using the terms 'informed choice', 'decision making' and 'mass screening' separately and in combination and terms referring to the specific screening programmes. Of the 2238 titles identified, 15 studies were included, which evaluated decision aids (DAs), information leaflets, film, video, counselling and a specific screening visit for informed decision making in prenatal screening, breast and colorectal cancer screening. Most of the included studies evaluated DAs and showed improved knowledge and informed decision making. Due to the limited number of studies the results could not be synthesized. The empirical evidence regarding interventions to improve informed decision making in screening is limited. It is unknown which strategies to enhance informed decision making are most effective, although DAs are promising. Systematic development of interventions to enhance informed choices in screening deserves priority, especially in disadvantaged groups. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Esophageal cancer screening is not currently recommended as a part of routine cancer screening. Get detailed information about risk factors and the possible benefits and harms related to screening for esophageal cancer in this clinician summary.
Kulasingam, Shalini; Havrilesky, Laura
In this chapter, we summarise findings from recent cost-effectiveness analyses of screening for cervical cancer and ovarian cancer. We begin with a brief summary of key issues that affect the cost-effectiveness of screening, including disease burden, and availability and type of screening tests. For cervical cancer, we discuss the potential effect of human papilloma virus vaccines on screening. Outstanding epidemiological and cost-effectiveness issues are included. For cervical cancer, this includes incorporating the long-term effect of treatment (including adverse birth outcomes in treated women who are of reproductive age) into cost-effectiveness models using newly available trial data to identify the best strategy for incorporating human papilloma virus tests. A second issue is the need for additional data on human papilloma virus vaccines, such as effectiveness of reduced cancer incidence and mortality, effectiveness in previously exposed women and coverage. Definitive data on these parameters will allow us to update model-based analyses to include more realistic estimates, and also potentially dramatically alter our approach to screening. For ovarian cancer, outstanding issues include confirming within the context of a trial that screening is effective for reducing mortality and incorporating tests with high specificity into screening into screening algorithms for ovarian cancer. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mosavel, Maghboeba; Genderson, Maureen Wilson
Youth-initiated health interventions may provide a much needed avenue for intergenerational dissemination of health information among families who bear the greatest burden from unequal distribution of morbidity and mortality. The findings presented in this paper are from a pilot study of the feasibility and impact of female youth-initiated messages (mostly daughters) encouraging adult female relatives (mostly mothers) to obtain cancer screening within low income African American families living in a Southern US state. Results are compared between an intervention and control group. Intervention group youth (n=22) were exposed to a 60-minute interactive workshop where they were assisted to prepare a factual and emotional appeal to their adult relative to obtain specific screening. The face-to-face workshops were guided by the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Control group girls (n=18) were only provided with a pamphlet with information about cancer screening and specific steps about how to encourage their relative to obtain screening. Intervention youth (86%) and adults (82%) reported that the message was shared while 71% in the control group reported sharing or receiving the message. Importantly, more women in the intervention group reported that they obtained a screen (e.g., mammogram, Pap smear) directly based on the youth's appeal. These findings can have major implications for youth-initiated health promotion efforts, especially among hard-to-reach populations. PMID:26590969
Mosavel, M; Genderson, M W
Youth-initiated health interventions may provide a much needed avenue for intergenerational dissemination of health information among families who bear the greatest burden from unequal distribution of morbidity and mortality. The findings presented in this paper are from a pilot study of the feasibility and impact of female youth-initiated messages (mostly daughters) encouraging adult female relatives (mostly mothers) to obtain cancer screening within low-income African American families living in a Southern US state. Results are compared between an intervention and control group. Intervention group youth (n = 22) were exposed to a 60-min interactive workshop where they were assisted to prepare a factual and emotional appeal to their adult relative to obtain specific screening. The face-to-face workshops were guided by the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Control group girls (n = 18) were only provided with a pamphlet with information about cancer screening and specific steps about how to encourage their relative to obtain screening. Intervention youth (86 %) and adults (82 %) reported that the message was shared while 71 % in the control group reported sharing or receiving the message. Importantly, more women in the intervention group reported that they obtained a screen (e.g., mammogram, Pap smear) directly based on the youth's appeal. These findings can have major implications for youth-initiated health promotion efforts, especially among hard-to-reach populations.
Sedentary Lifestyle; Stage III Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage III Prostate Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IV Prostate Cancer AJCC v7
Breitbart, Eckhard W; Waldmann, Annika; Nolte, Sandra; Capellaro, Marcus; Greinert, Ruediger; Volkmer, Beate; Katalinic, Alexander
The incidence of skin cancer is increasing worldwide. For decades, opportunistic melanoma screening has been carried out to respond to this burden. However, despite potential positive effects such as reduced morbidity and mortality, there is still a lack of evidence for feasibility and effectiveness of organized skin cancer screening. The main aim of the project was to evaluate the feasibility of systematic skin cancer screening. In 2003, the Association of Dermatological Prevention was contracted to implement the population-based SCREEN project (Skin Cancer Research to Provide Evidence for Effectiveness of Screening in Northern Germany) in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. A two-step program addressing malignant melanoma and nonmelanocytic skin cancer was implemented. Citizens (aged ≥ 20 years) with statutory health insurance were eligible for a standardized whole-body examination during the 12-month study period. Cancer registry and mortality data were used to assess first effects. Of 1.88 million eligible citizens, 360,288 participated in SCREEN. The overall population-based participation rate was 19%. A total of 3103 malignant skin tumors were found. On the population level, invasive melanoma incidence increased by 34% during SCREEN. Five years after SCREEN a substantial decrease in melanoma mortality was seen (men: observed 0.79/100,000 and expected 2.00/100,000; women: observed 0.66/100,000 and expected 1.30/100,000). Because of political reasons (resistance as well as lack of support from major German health care stakeholders), it was not possible to conduct a randomized controlled trial. The project showed that large-scale systematic skin cancer screening is feasible and has the potential to reduce skin cancer burden, including mortality. Based on the results of SCREEN, a national statutory skin cancer early detection program was implemented in Germany in 2008. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All
Dentists are at the forefront for screening oral cancer. In addition to the well known carcinogenic potential of tobacco and alcohol, betel nut chewing and human papilloma virus are important risk factors in the development of oral cancer. To aid in screening and decreasing morbidity and mortality from oral cancer, a variety of techniques have been developed. These techniques show promise but they require additional investigations to determine their usefulness in oral cancer detection. Dentists need to be well educated and vigilant when dealing with all patients they encounter. Early detection, diagnosis and treatment are critical for the effective management of oral cancers.
Fiorica, James V
This article is an overview of the modalities available for breast cancer screening. The modalities discussed include digital mammography, digital breast tomosynthesis, breast ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical breast examination. There is a review of pertinent randomized controlled trials, studies and meta-analyses which contributed to the evolution of screening guidelines. Ultimately, 5 major medical organizations formulated the current screening guidelines in the United States. The lack of consensus in these guidelines represents an ongoing controversy about the optimal timing and method for breast cancer screening in women. For mammography screening, the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon is explained which corresponds with recommended clinical management. The presentation and discussion of the data in this article are designed to help the clinician individualize breast cancer screening for each patient.
Saraste, D; Martling, A; Nilsson, P J; Blom, J; Törnberg, S; Janson, M
Objectives To compare preoperative staging, multidisciplinary team-assessment, and treatment in patients with screening detected and non-screening detected colorectal cancer. Methods Data on patient and tumour characteristics, staging, multidisciplinary team-assessment and treatment in patients with screening and non-screening detected colorectal cancer from 2008 to 2012 were collected from the Stockholm-Gotland screening register and the Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry. Results The screening group had a higher proportion of stage I disease (41 vs. 15%; p < 0.001), a more complete staging of primary tumour and metastases and were more frequently multidisciplinary team-assessed than the non-screening group ( p < 0.001). In both groups, patients with endoscopically resected cancers were less completely staged and multidisciplinary team-assessed than patients with surgically resected cancers ( p < 0.001). No statistically significant differences were observed between the screening and non-screening groups in the use of neoadjuvant treatment in rectal cancer (68 vs.76%), surgical treatment with local excision techniques in stage I rectal cancer (6 vs. 9%) or adjuvant chemotherapy in stages II and III disease (46 vs. 52%). Emergency interventions for colorectal cancer occurred in 4% of screening participants vs. 11% of non-compliers. Conclusions Screening detected cancer patients were staged and multidisciplinary team assessed more extensively than patients with non-screening detected cancers. Staging and multidisciplinary team assessment prior to endoscopic resection was less complete compared with surgical resection. Extensive surgical and (neo)adjuvant treatment was given in stage I disease. Participation in screening reduced the risk of emergency surgery for colorectal cancer.
Johnson, Stephanie; McDonald, J Ted; Corsten, Martin
To determine if awareness of oral cancer screening correlates with socioeconomic status (SES) and to determine if screening for oral cancer correlates with SES. Data were obtained from the 2008 American National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Our primary measure of SES was education; additional measures for SES included income, race, health insurance, and immigration status. We performed a logistic regression analysis, controlling for important demographic characteristics. Awareness of oral cancer screening increases with higher education levels (< grade 9 OR 0.37 [CI 0.29-0.48], grade 9-12 OR 0.53 [CI 0.44-0.65], high school OR 0.68 [CI 0.59-0.77], higher degree OR 1.13 [CI 0.96-1.34]). Similarly, screening for oral cancer increases with higher education levels (< grade 9 OR 0.31 [CI 0.23-0.42], grade 9-12 OR 0.34 [CI 0.26-0.43], high school OR 0.60 [CI 0.52-0.68], higher degree OR 1.41 [CI 1.18-1.67]). We found that race, income, immigration, and health insurance status were statistically significant correlates with oral cancer awareness and screening. Higher SES individuals are more likely to be aware of and screened for oral cancer. This is problematic because oral cancers are more prevalent in low SES groups. Future awareness and screening campaigns should be directed at vulnerable low SES populations.
Buchbinder, David; Mertens, Ann C.; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.; Leisenring, Wendy; Goodman, Pam; Lown, E. Anne; Alderfer, Melissa A.; Recklitis, Christopher; Oeffinger, Kevin; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Hudson, Melissa; Robison, Leslie L.; Casillas, Jacqueline
Objective To compare the skin and breast/cervical cancer prevention/screening practices of adult siblings of childhood cancer survivors with controls and to identify modifying factors for these practices. Methods Cross-sectional, self-report data from 2,588 adult siblings of 5+ year survivors of childhood cancer were analyzed to assess cancer prevention/screening practices. Two age, sex and race/ethnicity-matched samples (n=5,915 and n=37,789) of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System participants served as the comparison populations. Sociodemographic and cancer-related data were explored as modifying factors for sibling cancer prevention/screening practices through multivariable logistic regression. Results Compared to controls, siblings were more likely to practice skin cancer prevention behaviors: use of protective clothing (OR 2.85, 95% 2.39-3.39), use of shade (OR 2. 11, 95% 1.88-2.36), use of sunscreen (OR 1.27, 95% 1.14-1.40), and wearing a hat (OR 1.77, 95% 1.58-1.98). No differences were noted for breast/cervical cancer screening including mammography and Pap testing. Having less than a high school education and lack of health insurance were associated with diminished cancer prevention/screening behaviors. Survivor diagnosis, treatment intensity, adverse health, chronic health conditions, and second cancers were not associated with sibling cancer prevention/screening behaviors. Conclusions Siblings of cancer survivors report greater skin cancer prevention practices when compared with controls; however, no differences were noted for breast/cervical cancer screening practices. Access to care and lack of education may be associated with decreased cancer prevention/screening behaviors. Interventions are needed to address these barriers. Impact Research should be directed at understanding the impact of the cancer experience on sibling health behaviors. PMID:22576363
Ngoc Nguyen, Tu-Uyen; Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Tran, Jacqueline H; Foo, Mary Anne
In recent years, there has been a growing number of programs employing health navigators to assist underserved individuals in overcoming barriers to obtaining regular and quality health care. This article describes the perspectives and experiences of community-based health navigators in the Cambodian and Laotian communities involved in a REACH 2010 project to reduce health disparities in breast and cervical cancer among Pacific Islander and Southeast Asian communities in California. These community health navigators, who have extensive training and knowledge about the cultural, historical, and structural needs and resources of their communities, are well equipped to build trusting relationships with community members traditionally ignored by the mainstream medical system. By comparing the different social support roles and intervention strategies employed by community health navigators in diverse communities, we can better understand how these valuable change agents of the health workforce are effective in improving health access and healthy behaviors for underserved communities.
Hamashima, Chisato; Hamashima C, Chisato; Hattori, Masakazu; Honjo, Satoshi; Kasahara, Yoshio; Katayama, Takafumi; Nakai, Masahiro; Nakayama, Tomio; Morita, Takako; Ohta, Koji; Ohnuki, Koji; Sagawa, Motoyasu; Saito, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Seiju; Shimada, Tomoyuki; Sobue, Tomotaka; Suto, Akihiko
The incidence of breast cancer has progressively increased, making it the leading cause of cancer deaths in Japan. Breast cancer accounts for 20.4% of all new cancers with a reported age-standardized rate of 63.6 per 100 000 women. The Japanese guidelines for breast cancer screening were developed based on a previously established method. The efficacies of mammography with and without clinical breast examination, clinical breast examination and ultrasonography with and without mammography were evaluated. Based on the balance of the benefits and harms, recommendations for population-based and opportunistic screenings were formulated. Five randomized controlled trials of mammographic screening without clinical breast examination were identified for mortality reduction from breast cancer. The overall relative risk for women aged 40-74 years was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.67-0.83). Three randomized controlled trials of mammographic screening with clinical breast examination served as eligible evidence for mortality reduction from breast cancer. The overall relative risk for women aged 40-64 years was 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.77-0.98). The major harms of mammographic screening were radiation exposure, false-positive cases and overdiagnosis. Although two case-control studies evaluating mortality reduction from breast cancer were found for clinical breast examination, there was no study assessing the effectiveness of ultrasonography for breast cancer screening. Mammographic screening without clinical breast examination for women aged 40-74 years and with clinical breast examination for women aged 40-64 years is recommended for population-based and opportunistic screenings. Clinical breast examination and ultrasonography are not recommended for population-based screening because of insufficient evidence regarding their effectiveness. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Kaffenberger, Samuel D; Penson, David F
The controversial recent recommendation by the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) against prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for early-stage prostate cancer has caused much debate. Whereas USPSTF recommendations against routine screening mammography in younger women resulted in fierce public outcry and eventual alteration in the language of the recommendation, the same public and political response has not been seen with PSA screening for prostate cancer. It is of paramount importance to ensure improved efficiency and transparency of the USPSTF recommendation process, and resolution of concerns with the current USPSTF recommendation against PSA screening for all ages. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Oh, Kyeung Mi; Zhou, Qiuping Pearl; Kreps, Gary L; Ryu, Shin Kue
To compare the breast cancer screening practices and related factors between Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (PIs) and non-Hispanic whites. Using 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data, reported mammogram usage among women aged 40+ were compared. Covariates included demographics, risk behaviors, health perception, care access, and general health practice behavior. PIs had higher rates of screening mammogram usage than did Asian Americans. Most covariates had different levels of influence on mammogram screening for the 2 groups, with a few in opposite directions. Understanding the magnitude and predictors of these disparities for racial/ethnic groups can help inform targeted interventions.
Crawford, Joanne; Ahmad, Farah; Beaton, Dorcas; Bierman, Arlene S
South Asian (SA) immigrants settled in the United Kingdom (UK) and North America [United States (US) and Canada] have low screening rates for breast, cervical and colorectal cancers. Incidence rates of these cancers increase among SA immigrants after migration, becoming similar to rates in non-Asian native populations. However, there are disparities in cancer screening, with low cancer screening uptake in this population. We conducted a scoping study using Arksey & O'Malley's framework to examine cancer screening literature on SA immigrants residing in the UK, US and Canada. Eight electronic databases, key journals and reference lists were searched for English language studies and reports. Of 1465 identified references, 70 studies from 1994 to November 2014 were included: 63% on breast or cervical cancer screening or both; 10% examined colorectal cancer screening only; 16% explored health promotion/service provision; 8% studied breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening; and 3% examined breast and colorectal cancer screening. A thematic analysis uncovered four dominant themes: (i) beliefs and attitudes towards cancer and screening included centrality of family, holistic healthcare, fatalism, screening as unnecessary and emotion-laden perceptions; (ii) lack of knowledge of cancer and screening related to not having heard about cancer and its causes, or lack of awareness of screening, its rationale and/or how to access services; (iii) barriers to access including individual and structural barriers; and (iv) gender differences in screening uptake and their associated factors. Findings offer insights that can be used to develop culturally sensitive interventions to minimise barriers and increase cancer screening uptake in these communities, while recognising the diversity within the SA culture. Further research is required to address the gap in colorectal cancer screening literature to more fully understand SA immigrants' perspectives, as well as research to
Field, J K; Duffy, S W; Baldwin, D R; Whynes, D K; Devaraj, A; Brain, K E; Eisen, T; Gosney, J; Green, B A; Holemans, J A; Kavanagh, T; Kerr, K M; Ledson, M; Lifford, K J; McRonald, F E; Nair, A; Page, R D; Parmar, M K B; Rassl, D M; Rintoul, R C; Screaton, N J; Wald, N J; Weller, D; Williamson, P R; Yadegarfar, G; Hansell, D M
Background Lung cancer screening using low-dose CT (LDCT) was shown to reduce lung cancer mortality by 20% in the National Lung Screening Trial. Methods The pilot UK Lung Cancer Screening (UKLS) is a randomised controlled trial of LDCT screening for lung cancer versus usual care. A population-based questionnaire was used to identify high-risk individuals. CT screen-detected nodules were managed by a pre-specified protocol. Cost effectiveness was modelled with reference to the National Lung Cancer Screening Trial mortality reduction. Results 247 354 individuals aged 50–75 years were approached; 30.7% expressed an interest, 8729 (11.5%) were eligible and 4055 were randomised, 2028 into the CT arm (1994 underwent a CT). Forty-two participants (2.1%) had confirmed lung cancer, 34 (1.7%) at baseline and 8 (0.4%) at the 12-month scan. 28/42 (66.7%) had stage I disease, 36/42 (85.7%) had stage I or II disease. 35/42 (83.3%) had surgical resection. 536 subjects had nodules greater than 50 mm3 or 5 mm diameter and 41/536 were found to have lung cancer. One further cancer was detected by follow-up of nodules between 15 and 50 mm3 at 12 months. The baseline estimate for the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of once-only CT screening, under the UKLS protocol, was £8466 per quality adjusted life year gained (CI £5542 to £12 569). Conclusions The UKLS pilot trial demonstrated that it is possible to detect lung cancer at an early stage and deliver potentially curative treatment in over 80% of cases. Health economic analysis suggests that the intervention would be cost effective—this needs to be confirmed using data on observed lung cancer mortality reduction. Trial registration ISRCTN 78513845. PMID:26645413
Weinstein, Lara; Stefancic, Ana; Cummingham, Amy T.; Hurley, Katelyn E.; Cabassa, Leopodo; Wender, Richard
People with mental illness die decades earlier in our country when compared to the general public Most of this disparity is related to preventable and treatable chronic conditions, with many studies finding cancer as the second leading cause of death. Individual lifestyle factors, such as smoking or limited adherence to treatment, are often cited as highly significant issues in shaping risk among persons with mental illness. However, many contextual or systems-level factors exacerbate these individual factors and may fundamentally drive health disparities among people with mental illness. We conducted an integrative review in order to summarize the empirical literature on cancer prevention, screening, and treatment for people with mental illness. While multiple interventions are being developed and tested to address tobacco dependence and obesity in these populations, the evidence for effectiveness is quite limited, and essentially all prevention interventions focus at the individual level. This review was able to find only one published article describing evidence-based interventions to promote cancer screening and improve cancer treatment in people with mental illness. Based on our review of the literature and the experience and expertise of the authors, we conclude each section with suggestions at the individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and policy level that may improve cancer prevention, screening, and treatment in people with mental illness. PMID:26663383
Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Darragh, Teresa M.; Berry-Lawhorn, J. Michael; Roberts, Jennifer Margaret; Khan, Michelle J.; Boardman, Lori A.; Chiao, Elizabeth; Einstein, Mark H.; Goldstone, Stephen E.; Jay, Naomi; Likes, Wendy M.; Stier, Elizabeth A.; Welton, Mark Lane; Wiley, Dorothy J.; Palefsky, Joel M.
Objective The incidence of anal cancer is higher in women than men in the general population and has been increasing for several decades. Similar to cervical cancer, most anal cancers are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) and it is believed that anal cancers are preceded by anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). Our goal was to summarize the literature on anal cancer, HSIL and HPV infection in women, and provide screening recommendations in women. Methods A group of experts convened by the ASCCP and the International Anal Neoplasia Society reviewed the literature on anal HPV infection, anal SIL and anal cancer in women. Results Anal HPV infection is common in women but is relatively transient in most. The risk of anal HSIL and cancer varies considerably by risk group, with HIV-infected women and those with a history of lower genital tract neoplasia (LGTN) at highest risk compared with the general population. Conclusions While there are no data yet to demonstrate that identification and treatment of anal HSIL leads to reduced risk of anal cancer, women in groups at the highest risk should be queried for anal cancer symptoms and have digital anorectal examinations to detect anal cancers. HIV-infected women and women with LGTN, may be considered for screening with anal cytology with triage to treatment if HSIL is diagnosed. Healthy women with no known risk factors or anal cancer symptoms do not need to be routinely screened for anal cancer or anal HSIL. PMID:26103446
... may have serious side effects . False-negative test results can occur. Screening test results may appear to ... even if there are symptoms. False-positive test results can occur. Screening test results may appear to ...
Davis, Terry C; Arnold, Connie L; Wolf, Michael S; Bennett, Charles L; Liu, Dachao; Rademaker, Alfred
Background Breast and colon cancer screening in rural community clinics is underused. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of alternative interventions designed to promote simultaneous screening for breast and colon cancer in community clinics. Methods A 3-arm, quasi-experimental evaluation was conducted during May 2008-August 2011 in 8 federally qualifed health clinics in predominately rural Louisiana. Baseline screening rates reported by the clinics was <10% for breast cancer (using mammography) and 1%-2% for colon cancer (using the fecal occult blood test [FOBT]). 744 women aged 50 years or older who were eligible for routine mammography and an FOBT were recruited. The combined screening efforts included: enhanced care; health literacy-informed education (education alone), or health literacy-informed education with nurse support (nurse support). Results Postintervention screening rates for completing both tests were 28.1% with enhanced care, 23.7% with education alone, and 38.7% with nurse support. After adjusting for age, race, and literacy, patients who received nurse support were 2.21 times more likely to complete both screenings than were those who received the education alone (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-4.38; P = .023). The incremental cost per additional woman completing both screenings was $3,987 for education with nurse support over education alone, and $5,987 over enhanced care. Limitations There were differences between the 3 arms in sociodemographic characteristics, literacy, and previous screening history. Not all variables that were significantly different between arms were adjusted for, therefore adjustments for key variables (age, race, literacy) were made in statistical analyses. Other limitations related generalizability of results. Conclusions Although joint breast and colon cancer screening rates were increased substantially over existing baseline rates in all 3 arms, the completion rate for both tests was
To review the history, current status, and future trends related to breast cancer screening. Peer-reviewed articles, web sites, and textbooks. Breast cancer remains a complex, heterogeneous disease. Serial screening with mammography is the most effective method to detect early stage disease and decrease mortality. Although politics and economics may inhibit organized mammography screening programs in many countries, the judicious use of proficient clinical and self-breast examination can also identify small tumors leading to reduced morbidity. Oncology nurses have exciting opportunities to lead, facilitate, and advocate for delivery of high-quality screening services targeting individuals and communities. A practical approach is needed to translate the complexities and controversies surrounding breast cancer screening into improved care outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Most colon tumors develop via a multistep process involving a series of histological, morphological, and genetic changes that accumulate over time. This has allowed for screening and detection of early-stage precancerous polyps before they become cancerous in individuals at average risk for colorectal cancer (CRC), which may lead to substantial decreases in the incidence of CRC. Despite the known benefits of early screening, CRC remains the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Hence, it is important for health care providers to have an understanding of the risk factors for CRC and various stages of disease development in order to recommend appropriate screening strategies. This article provides an overview of the histological/molecular changes that characterize the development of CRC. It describes the available CRC screening methods and their advantages and limitations and highlights the stages of CRC development in which each screening method is most effective.
Most colon tumors develop via a multistep process involving a series of histological, morphological, and genetic changes that accumulate over time. This has allowed for screening and detection of early-stage precancerous polyps before they become cancerous in individuals at average risk for colorectal cancer (CRC), which may lead to substantial decreases in the incidence of CRC. Despite the known benefits of early screening, CRC remains the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Hence, it is important for health care providers to have an understanding of the risk factors for CRC and various stages of disease development in order to recommend appropriate screening strategies. This article provides an overview of the histological/molecular changes that characterize the development of CRC. It describes the available CRC screening methods and their advantages and limitations and highlights the stages of CRC development in which each screening method is most effective. PMID:27486317
... Likely to Have Received a Mammogram During the Past Two Years 1 Breast Cancer Screening Recommendations 2 If you ... of Age Who Received a Mammogram During the Past 2 Years, By Disability Status – 2010 National Household Interview Survey( ...
Tax, C L; Haslam, S Kim; Brillant, Mgs; Doucette, H J; Cameron, J E; Wade, S E
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether dental hygienists are transferring their knowledge of oral cancer screening into practice. This study also wanted to gain insight into the barriers that might prevent dental hygienists from performing these screenings. A 27-item survey instrument was constructed to study the oral cancer screening practices of licensed dental hygienists in Nova Scotia. A total of 623 practicing dental hygienists received the survey. The response rate was 34% (n = 212) yielding a maximum margin of error of 5.47 at a 95% confidence level. Descriptive statistics were calculated using IBM SPSS Statistics v21 software (Armonk, NY:IBM Corp). Qualitative thematic analysis was performed on any open-ended responses. This study revealed that while dental hygienists perceived themselves as being knowledgeable about oral cancer screening, they were not transferring this knowledge to actual practice. Only a small percentage (13%) of respondents were performing a comprehensive extra-oral examination, and 7% were performing a comprehensive intra-oral examination. The respondents identified several barriers that prevented them from completing a comprehensive oral cancer screening. Early detection of oral cancer reduces mortality rates so there is a professional responsibility to ensure that comprehensive oral cancer screenings are being performed on patients. Dental hygienists may not have the authority in a dental practice to overcome all of the barriers that are preventing them from performing these screenings. Public awareness about oral cancer screenings could increase the demand for screenings and thereby play a role in changing practice norms. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Warren, Johanna B; Gullett, Heidi; King, Valerie J
Cervical cancer and its dysplasia precursors account for significant morbidity and mortality in women worldwide. Human papillomavirus infection is common, preventable, and now widely accepted as the causative agent with oncogenic potential in the development of cervical cancer. Screening via Papanicolaou testing is critical, and interpretation of test results with knowledge of patient risk factors is imperative. Many evidence-based guidelines for screening, interpretation, and management have been developed and are widely available for use.
Ka'opua, Lana Sue I.; Diaz, Tressa P.; Park, Soon H.; Bowen, Talita; Patrick, Kevin; Tamang, Suresh; Braun, Kathryn L.
Background: The incidence of non-AIDS-defining cancers has increased significantly among persons living with HIV (PLHIV). Screening education is recommended. Purpose: Social learning, minority stress, and cultural safety theories informed this pilot to assess the feasibility of a colorectal cancer screening intervention targeted to PLHIV, with…
November 2009's announcement of the USPSTF's recommendations for screening for breast cancer raised a firestorm of objections. Chief among them were that the panel had insufficiently valued patients' lives or allowed cost considerations to influence recommendations. The publicity about the recommendations, however, often either simplified the actual content of the recommendations or bypassed significant methodological issues, which a philosophical examination of both the science behind screening recommendations and their import reveals. In this article, I discuss two of the leading ethical considerations at issue in screening recommendations: respect for patient autonomy and beneficence and then turn to the most significant methodological issues raised by cancer screening: the potential biases that may infect a trial of screening effectiveness, the problem of base rates in communicating risk, and the trade-offs involved in a judgment of screening effectiveness. These issues reach more broadly, into the use of "evidence-based" medicine generally, and have important implications for informed consent.
Merten, Julie Williams; Pomeranz, Jamie L; King, Jessica L; Moorhouse, Michael; Wynn, Richmond D
Over 50 million Americans are currently living with some form of disability. Studies have shown that people with disabilities are underinsured, have less access to health care, and are more likely to engage in risky health behavior. Routine preventive screenings for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer are recommended for all adults to improve early detection and treatment of cancer. Although early detection of cancer offers the best chances for treatment and survival, cancer screening has been limited for many people with disabilities. To present results of a scoping review of studies focused on barriers to cancer screening for people with disabilities. Online databases were searched for research articles on barriers to cancer screening (breast, cervical, prostate, and colorectal) in people with disabilities. Thirty-five peer-reviewed articles met inclusion criteria. Existing research on cancer screenings, particularly prostate cancer, among people with disabilities is limited. Current studies suggest that those with advanced disabilities are not being screened for cancer as often as the able-bodied population with the exception of military veterans. Education, income, age, employment, screening history, tobacco use, activity level, disability level, and geography affected screening rates. Barriers include cost, access, health care provider discomfort, and physical and cognitive restraints. Future interventions to improve routine preventive cancer screenings rates could include specialized health care provider training, community interventions, emphasis on the value of health promotion and the specific health care needs of people with disabilities. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Hester, C. M.; Born, W. K.; Yeh, H. W.; Young, K. L.; James, A. S.; Daley, C. M.; Greiner, K. A.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening uptake among minorities and those with lower incomes is suboptimal. Behavioral interventions specifically tailored to these populations can increase screening rates and save lives. The Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM) allows assignment of a decisional stage for adoption of a behavior such as CRC screening.…
The NCI CRCHD launches National Screen to Save Colorectal Cancer Outreach and Screening Initiative which aims to increase colorectal cancer screening rates among racially and ethnically diverse and rural communities.
Cancer screening studies have shown that more screening does not necessarily translate into fewer cancer deaths. This article explains how to interpret the statistics used to describe the results of screening studies.
Liver (hepatocellular) cancer screening, even in high risk individuals, has not been shown to be beneficial. Get detailed information about liver cancer screening, potential screening modalities, and research directions in this summary for clinicians.
Thyroid cancer screening has not been shown to decrease the chance of dying from the disease. Not all screening tests are helpful, and most have risks. Learn more about thyroid cancer risks and screening in this expert-reviewed summary.
Andersen, M Robyn; Urban, Nicole; Ramsey, Scott; Briss, Peter A
Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) can help to quantify the contribution of the promotion of a screening program to increased participation in screening. The cost-effectiveness (C/E) of screening promotion depends in large part on the endpoints of interest. At the most fundamental level, the C/E of a strategy for promoting screening would focus on the attendance rate, or cost per person screened, and the C/E would be influenced by the costs of promotion, as well as by the size and responsiveness of the target population. In addition, the costs of screening promotion (measured as the cost per additional participant in screening) can be included in a CEA estimate of the screening technology. In this case, depending on the efficacy of the screening test and the costs and influence of the promotion, the C/E of screening may improve or become poorer. In the current study, the authors reviewed the literature on the C/E of cancer screening promotion. The following lessons were learned regarding the C/E of screening and its promotion: 1) high-quality information on the C/E of screening is increasingly available; 2) cost-effective promotion of screening is dependent on cost-effective screening strategies; 3) quality-of-life effects may be important in assessing the overall C/E of screening programs; 4) research efforts aimed at identifying cost-effective approaches to screening promotion are useful but sparse; 5) C/E studies should be better incorporated into well designed effectiveness research efforts; 6) variations in C/E according to intervention characteristics, population characteristics, and context should be evaluated in greater depth; 7) the long-term effects of screening promotion are critical to assessing C/E; 8) the effects of promotion on costs of screening must be better understood; and 9) CEA must be interpreted in light of other information. The authors showed that CEA can be a valuable tool for understanding the merits of health promotion interventions and
Tsoh, Janice Y; Tong, Elisa K; Sy, Angela U; Stewart, Susan L; Gildengorin, Ginny L; Nguyen, Tung T
Nonadherence to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among Asian Americans is high but not well understood. This study examined correlates of screening intention among Filipino, Hmong, and Korean Americans who were nonadherent to CRC screening. Using cross-sectional, preintervention survey data from 504 Asian Americans (115 Filipinos, 185 Hmong, and 204 Koreans) aged 50-75 years who were enrolled in a multisite cluster randomized controlled trial of lay health educator intervention, we analyzed correlates of self-reported CRC screening nonadherence, which was defined as not being up-to-date for fecal occult blood test, sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy. Only 26.8% of participants indicated intention to obtain screening within 6 months (Hmong: 12.4%; Korean: 30.8%; and Filipino: 42.6%; P < .001). Only one third of participants had undergone a prior screening, and a majority did not know that screening is a method of CRC prevention method (61.3%) or had any knowledge of CRC screening guidelines (53.4%). Multivariable analyses revealed that patient-provider ethnicity concordance, provider's recommendation of screening, participants' prior CRC screening, perceived severity and susceptibility of CRC, and knowledge of guidelines were positively associated with screening intention. Specifically, knowing one or more screening guidelines doubled the odds of screening intention (adjusted odds ratio, 2.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-4.28). Hmong were less likely to have screening intention than Filipinos, which was unexplained by socio-demographics, health care factors, perceived needs for CRC screening, or knowledge of screening guidelines. CRC screening intention among nonadherent Filipino, Hmong, and Korean Americans was low. Targeting knowledge of CRC screening guidelines may be effective strategies for increasing CRC screening intention among nonadherent Asian Americans. Cancer 2018;124:1560-7. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.
Fedewa, Stacey A; Sauer, Ann Goding; DeSantis, Carol; Siegel, Rebecca L; Jemal, Ahmedin
Cancer screening patterns according to occupation characteristics in the United States are not well known, but could be used to help inform cancer control efforts. We examined cervical (CC), breast (BC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening prevalence and prevalence ratios (PR) by occupational characteristics in 2010, 2013 and 2015 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) among eligible US workers (CC women 21-65years; n=20,997), (BC women ≥40years; n=14,258) and (CRC men and women ≥50years; n=17,333). Cervical, breast and colorectal cancer screening prevalence among US workers was 84.0%, 68.9%, and 56.8%, respectively. Unadjusted prevalence ratios for cervical (PR=0.92, 95%CI 0.90, 0.94), breast (PR=0.86, 95%CI 0.83, 0.90) and colorectal cancer screening (PR=0.83, 95%CI 0.80, 0.87) were lower among workers in small (<25 employees) compared to large organizations (≥500 employees). People in food service, construction, production, and sales occupations were 13-26%, 17-28% and 9-30% less likely to be up to date with cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer screening, respectively, compared to healthcare professionals. Adjustment for socioeconomic factors and insurance status eliminated most associations. Disparities in cancer screening by occupational characteristics were mostly attributed to lower socioeconomic status and lack of insurance. These findings underscore the need for innovative public health strategies to improve cancer screening in vulnerable populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Baena-Cañada, José M; Rosado-Varela, Petra; Expósito-Álvarez, Inmaculada; González-Guerrero, Macarena; Nieto-Vera, Juan; Benítez-Rodríguez, Encarnación
Participants in breast cancer screening programmes may benefit from early detection but may also be exposed to the risks of overdiagnosis and false positives. We surveyed a sample of Spanish women to assess knowledge, information sources, attitudes and psychosocial impact. A total of 434 breast cancer screening programme participants aged 45-69 years were administered questionnaires regarding knowledge, information sources, attitudes and psychosocial impact. Scores of 5 or more (out of 10) and 12 or less (out of 24) were established as indicating adequate knowledge and a positive attitude, respectively. Psychosocial impact was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Cancer Worry Scale. Only 42 women (9.7%) had adequate knowledge. The mean (SD) knowledge score was 2.97 (1.16). Better educated women and women without previous false positives had higher scores. The main sources of information were television, press, Andalusian Health Service documentation and family and friends. Most participants (99.1%) had a positive attitude, with a mean (SD) score of 3.21 (2.66). Mean (SD) scores for anxiety, depression and cancer worry were 1.86 (3.26), 0.72 (1.99) and 9.4 (3.04), respectively. Women have a very positive attitude to breast cancer screening, but are poorly informed and use television as their main information source. They experience no negative psychosocial impact from participation in such programmes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kang, S H; Bloom, J R
Age-adjusted cancer mortality is 27% higher for Black Americans than for the general U.S. population, which may result from inappropriate use of cancer detection tests. Social support has been shown to affect adjustment to breast cancer and survival, but it has not been studied as a predictor of use of preventive health care services in the older population. Our hypothesis is that larger social networks are associated with greater utilization of cancer-screening tests in the older population. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between social support and use of cancer-screening tests among older Black Americans. Data for this study were obtained from a 1986 baseline survey evaluation of a community intervention program to increase cancer awareness and a 1991 end-point survey of use of cancer detection tests. Our study sample consisted of 617 Black Americans aged 55 years or older who lived in San Francisco (Calif.), the control community, and in Oakland (Calif.), the target community for intervention. The survey included measures of 1) social network characteristics, as determined by a modified version of Berkman and Syme's Social Network Index; 2) demographic characteristics; and 3) use of six cancer-screening tests--mammography, occult blood stool examination, cervical smear, clinical breast examination, digital rectal examination, and sigmoidoscopy. Multiple logistic regression analysis of the Social Network Index results indicated statistically significant positive associations of social support with the use of mammography and occult blood stool examination but not with the other cancer-screening tests. There were statistically significant associations between having HMO (Health Maintenance Organization) insurance and increased use of mammography and occult blood stool examination, compared with having Medi-Cal or other insurance. The interval between the surveys had a statistically significant positive association with use of
Sahu, Aditi K.; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S.; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C.
Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80% these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer.
Cancer screening means looking for cancer before symptoms appear, when cancer may be easier to treat. Screening tests can help reduce the risk of dying from some cancers, but all tests have potential risks, too. Learn more about cancer screening and available tests in this expert-reviewed summary.
Williams, M S; Amoateng, P
The age-standardized mortality rate for cervical cancer in Ghana, West Africa is more than three times the global cervical cancer mortality rate (27.6/100,000 vs. 7.8/100,000 respectively). The Pap test and visual inspection with acetic acid are available at public and private hospitals in Ghana. Approximately, 2.7% of Ghanaian women obtain cervical cancer screenings regularly. Men in middle-income countries play a key role in cervical cancer prevention. Increasing spousal support for cervical cancer screening may increase screening rates in Ghana. Five focus groups were conducted with Ghanaian men (N = 29) to assess their cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening knowledge and beliefs. The qualitative data was analyzed via indexed coding. Targets for education interventions were identified including inaccurate knowledge about cervical cancer and stigmatizing beliefs about cervical cancer risk factors. Cultural taboos regarding women's health care behaviours were also identified. Several participants indicated that they would be willing to provide spousal support for cervical cancer screening if they knew more about the disease and the screening methods. Men play a significant role in the health behaviours of some Ghanaian women. Cervical cancer education interventions targeting Ghanaian men are needed to correct misconceptions and increase spousal support for cervical cancer screening.
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Zehtab, Nooshin; Jafari, Mohammad; Barooni, Mohsen; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Goudarzi, Reza; Larry Zadeh, Mohammad Hassan
Although breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, economic evaluation of breast cancer screening is not fully addressed in developing countries. The main objective of the present study was to analyze the cost-effectiveness of breast cancer screening using mammography in 35-69 year old women in an Iranian setting. This was an economic evaluation study assessing the cost-effectiveness of a population-based screening program in 35-69 year old women residing in rural areas of South east Iran. The study was conducted from the perspective of policy-makers of insurance. The study population consisted of 35- to 69-year old women in rural areas of Kerman with a population of about 19,651 in 2013. The decision tree modeling and economic evaluation software were used for cost-effectiveness and sensitivity analyses of the interventions. The total cost of the screening program was 7,067.69 US$ and the total effectiveness for screening and no-screening interventions was 0.06171 and 0.00864 disability adjusted life years averted, respectively. The average cost-effectiveness ratio DALY averted US$ for screening intervention was 7,7082.5 US$ per DALY averted and 589,027 US $ for no-screening intervention. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio DALY averted was 6,264 US$ per DALY averted for screening intervention compared with no-screening intervention. Although the screening intervention is more cost-effective than the alternative (no- screening) strategy, it seems that including breast cancer screening program in health insurance package may not be recommended as long as the target group has a low participation rate.
Thyroid cancer screening usually involves neck palpation or ultrasound imaging, but does not result in a reduction in thyroid cancer mortality. Get detailed information about thyroid cancer risk factors and screening in this summary for clinicians.
Cancer screening can reduce some cancer mortality and morbidity, but potential harms must be weighed against any potential benefits. Get detailed, peer-reviewed and evidence-based information about cancer screening in this overview for clinicians.
Borrayo, Evelinn A.; Rosales, Monica; Gonzalez, Patricia
Background: The evidence is limited comparing the effects of entertainment-education (E-E) narrative versus nonnarrative interventions to educate and motivate Latinas to engage in mammography screening. Aims: This study compared an E-E narrative intervention to two nonnarrative interventions' effects among Latinas on breast cancer knowledge and…
Hammer, Turið; Lynge, Elsebeth; Djurhuus, Gisela W; Joensen, John E; Køtlum, Jóanis E; Hansen, Sæunn Ó; Sander, Bente B; Mogensen, Ole; Rebolj, Matejka
The Faroe Islands have had nationally organised cervical cancer screening since 1995. Women aged 25-60 years are invited every third year. Participation is free of charge. Although several European overviews on cervical screening are available, none have included the Faroe Islands. Our aim was to provide the first description of cervical cancer screening, and to determine the screening history of women diagnosed with cervical cancer in the Faroe Islands. Screening data from 1996 to 2012 were obtained from the Diagnostic Centre at the National Hospital of the Faroe Islands. They included information on cytology and HPV testing whereas information on histology was not registered consistently. Process indicators were calculated, including coverage rate, excess smears, proportion of abnormal cytological samples, and frequency of HPV testing. Data on cervical cancer cases were obtained from the Faroese Ministry of Health Affairs. The analysis of the screening history was undertaken for cases diagnosed in 2000-2010. A total of 52 457 samples were taken in 1996-2012. Coverage varied between 67% and 81% and was 71% in 2012. Excess smears decreased after 1999. At present, 7.0% of samples have abnormal cytology. Of all ASCUS samples, 76-95% were tested for HPV. A total of 58% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer did not participate in screening prior to their diagnosis, and 32% had normal cytology in the previous four years. Despite the difficult geographical setting, the organised cervical cancer screening programme in the Faroe Islands has achieved a relatively high coverage rate. Nevertheless, challenges, e.g. consistent histology registration and sending reminders, still exist.
Schoenberg, Nancy; Wilson, Tomorrow D.; Atkins, Elvonna; Dickinson, Stephanie; Paskett, Electra
Although many have sought to understand cervical cancer screening (CCS) behavior, little research has examined worry about cervical cancer and its relationship to CCS, particularly in the underserved, predominantly rural Appalachian region. Our mixed method investigation aimed to obtain a more complete and theoretically-informed understanding of the role of cancer worry in CCS among Appalachian women, using the Self-Regulation Model (SRM). Our quantitative analysis indicated that the perception of being at higher risk of cervical cancer and having greater distress about cancer were both associated with greater worry about cancer. In our qualitative analysis, we found that, consistent with the SRM, negative affect had a largely concrete-experiential component, with many women having first-hand experience of the physical consequences of cervical cancer. Based on the results of this manuscript, we describe a number of approaches to lessen the fear associated with CCS. Intervention in this elevated risk community is merited and may focus on decreasing feelings of worry about cervical cancer and increasing communication of objective risk and need for screening. From a policy perspective, increasing the quantity and quality of care may also improve CCS rates and decrease the burden of cancer in Appalachia. PMID:25416153
Hade, Erinn M; Murray, David M; Pennell, Michael L; Rhoda, Dale; Paskett, Electra D; Champion, Victoria L; Crabtree, Benjamin F; Dietrich, Allen; Dignan, Mark B; Farmer, Melissa; Fenton, Joshua J; Flocke, Susan; Hiatt, Robert A; Hudson, Shawna V; Mitchell, Michael; Monahan, Patrick; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Slone, Stacey L; Stange, Kurt; Stewart, Susan L; Strickland, Pamela A Ohman
Screening has become one of our best tools for early detection and prevention of cancer. The group-randomized trial is the most rigorous experimental design for evaluating multilevel interventions. However, identifying the proper sample size for a group-randomized trial requires reliable estimates of intraclass correlation (ICC) for screening outcomes, which are not available to researchers. We present crude and adjusted ICC estimates for cancer screening outcomes for various levels of aggregation (physician, clinic, and county) and provide an example of how these ICC estimates may be used in the design of a future trial. Investigators working in the area of cancer screening were contacted and asked to provide crude and adjusted ICC estimates using the analysis of variance method estimator. Of the 29 investigators identified, estimates were obtained from 10 investigators who had relevant data. ICC estimates were calculated from 13 different studies, with more than half of the studies collecting information on colorectal screening. In the majority of cases, ICC estimates could be adjusted for age, education, and other demographic characteristics, leading to a reduction in the ICC. ICC estimates varied considerably by cancer site and level of aggregation of the groups. Previously, only two articles had published ICCs for cancer screening outcomes. We have complied more than 130 crude and adjusted ICC estimates covering breast, cervical, colon, and prostate screening and have detailed them by level of aggregation, screening measure, and study characteristics. We have also demonstrated their use in planning a future trial and the need for the evaluation of the proposed interval estimator for binary outcomes under conditions typically seen in GRTs.
Roncancio, Angelica M; Ward, Kristy K; Sanchez, Ingrid A; Cano, Miguel A; Byrd, Theresa L; Vernon, Sally W; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria Eugenia; Fernandez, Maria E
To reduce the high incidence of cervical cancer among Latinas in the United States it is important to understand factors that predict screening behavior. The aim of this study was to test the utility of theory of planned behavior in predicting cervical cancer screening among a group of Latinas. A sample of Latinas (N = 614) completed a baseline survey about Pap test attitudes subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention to be screened for cervical cancer. At 6 months postbaseline, cervical cancer screening behavior was assessed. Structural equation modeling was used to test the theory. Model fit statistics indicated good model fit: χ(2)(48) = 54.32, p = .246; comparative fit index = .992; root mean square error of approximation = .015; weighted root mean square residual = .687. Subjective norms (p = .005) and perceived behavioral control (p < .0001) were positively associated with intention to be screened for cervical cancer, and the intention to be screened predicted actual cervical cancer screening (p < .0001). The proportion of variance (R2) in intention accounted for by the predictors was .276 and the R2 in cervical cancer screening accounted for was .130. This study provides support for the use of the theory of planned behavior in predicting cervical cancer screening among Latinas. This knowledge can be used to inform the development of a theory of planned behavior-based intervention to increase cervical cancer screening among Latinas and reduce the high incidence of cervical cancer in this group of women. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
Tilley, B C; Vernon, S W; Myers, R; Glanz, K; Lu, M; Hirst, K; Kristal, A R
The Next Step Trial was a randomized trial of worksite colorectal cancer screening promotion and nutrition interventions for automobile industry employees at increased risk of colorectal cancer. Interventions were tested at 28 worksites with 5,042 employees. This report describes results of the screening promotion intervention. Worksites randomized to the control group received a standard program including rectal examination, fecal occult blood testing, and flexible sigmoidoscopy. Intervention worksites received an enhanced program (i.e., standard program plus an educational booklet/telephone call). Compliance (i.e., completion of all recommended screening examinations) and coverage (i.e., completion of at least one screening examination), the primary and secondary outcomes, were measured over 2 years. In the 2 years prior to baseline, 61% of employees had been screened. After random assignment, baseline differences in several employee characteristics and worksite screening procedures were detected, including more past history of screening in control worksites. After adjusting for differences, we found modest, but higher, compliance and coverage in intervention compared with control worksites (odds ratio [95% confidence limits] = 1.46 [1.1-2.0] and 1.33 [1.1, 1.6], respectively). Adding a personally tailored behavioral intervention to a standard colorectal cancer screening program can promote continued employee participation in screening as measured by compliance. Further research is needed to assess intervention effects in other populations. Copyright 1999 American Health Foundation and Academic Press.
The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.
The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.
The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.
Smith, Robert A; Andrews, Kimberly S; Brooks, Durado; Fedewa, Stacey A; Manassaram-Baptiste, Deana; Saslow, Debbie; Brawley, Otis W; Wender, Richard C
Each year, the American Cancer Society publishes a summary of its guidelines for early cancer detection, data and trends in cancer screening rates from the National Health Interview Survey, and select issues related to cancer screening. In this 2018 update, we also summarize the new American Cancer Society colorectal cancer screening guideline and include a clarification in the language of the 2013 lung cancer screening guideline. CA Cancer J Clin 2018. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.
Elder, J. P.; Haughton, J.; Perez, L. G.; Martínez, M. E.; De la Torre, C. L.; Slymen, D. J.; Arredondo, E. M.
Cancer screening rates among Latinas are generally low, reducing the likelihood of early cancer detection in this population. This article examines the effects of a community intervention ("Fe en Acción"/Faith in Action) led by community health workers ("promotoras") on promoting breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening…
Tong, Elisa K; Nguyen, Tung T; Lo, Penny; Stewart, Susan L; Gildengorin, Ginny L; Tsoh, Janice Y; Jo, Angela M; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie L; Sy, Angela U; Cuaresma, Charlene; Lam, Hy T; Wong, Ching; Tran, Mi T; Chen, Moon S
Asian Americans have lower colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates than non-Hispanic white individuals. Hmong Americans have limited socioeconomic resources and literacy. The current randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine whether bilingual/bicultural lay health educator (LHE) education could increase CRC screening among Hmong Americans. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted among Hmong Americans in Sacramento, California. LHEs and recruited participants were randomized to intervention or control groups. The intervention group received CRC education over 3 months delivered by an LHE. The control group received education regarding nutrition and physical activity delivered by a health educator. The outcomes were changes in self-reported ever-screening and up-to-date CRC screening after 6 months. All 329 participants were foreign-born with mostly no formal education, limited English proficiency, and no employment. The majority of the participants were insured and had a regular source of health care. The intervention group experienced greater changes after the intervention than the control group for ever-screening (P = .068) and being up-to-date with screening (P<.0001). In multivariable regression analyses, the intervention group demonstrated a greater increase than the control group in reporting ever-screening (adjusted odds ratio, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.79) and being up-to-date with screening (adjusted odds ratio, 1.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-2.32). Individuals who had health insurance were found to have >4 times the odds of receiving screening, both ever-screening and up-to-date screening. A higher CRC knowledge score mediated the intervention effect for both screening outcomes. A culturally and linguistically appropriate educational intervention delivered by trained LHEs was found to increase CRC screening in an immigrant population with low levels of education, employment, English proficiency, and literacy
Manglona, Rosa Duenas; Robert, Suzanne; Isaacson, Lucy San Nicolas; Garrido, Marie; Henrich, Faye Babauta; Santos, Lola Sablan; Le, Daisy; Peters, Ruth
The largest Chamorro population outside of Guam and the Mariana Islands reside in California. Cancer health disparities disproportionally affect Pacific Islander communities, including the Chamorro, and breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting women. To address health concerns such as cancer, Pacific Islander women frequently utilize storytelling to initiate conversations about health and to address sensitive topics such as breast health and cancer. One form of storytelling used in San Diego is a play that conveys the message of breast cancer screening to the community in a culturally and linguistically appropriate way. This play, Nan Nena’s Mammogram, tells the story of an older woman in the community who learns about breast cancer screening from her young niece. The story builds upon the underpinnings of Chamorro culture - family, community, support, and humor - to portray discussing breast health, getting support for breast screening, and visiting the doctor. The story of Nan Nena’s Mammogram reflects the willingness of a few pioneering Chamorro women to use their personal experiences of cancer survivorship to promote screening for others. Through the support of a Chamorro community-based organization, these Chamorro breast cancer survivors have used the success of Nan Nena’s Mammogram to expand their education activities and to form a new cancer survivor organization for Chamorro women in San Diego. PMID:29805328
Rao, Jianyu; Escobar-Hoyos, Luisa; Shroyer, Kenneth R
Cancer rates worldwide are expected to increase disproportionally in coming decades relative to the projected increase in population, especially in the developing world. The general unavailability of the Pap test and the cost of the HPV test in the developing world have precluded the deployment of effective cervical cancer screening programs in many developing countries. Recent improvements in testing technology arise from a need to overcome the significant limitations of the Pap test and HPV test, but results require first-world technology and validation. Developing countries, where cervical cancer remains one of the most important causes of cancer death, have the greatest need for an affordable, easy-to-use, and highly reliable cancer screening method that can return a diagnosis through efficient laboratory analysis or, more easily, at a woman's point of care. While research, testing, and vaccine improvements in recent years continue to lower the incidence of cervical cancer in some developed countries such as the U.S., HPV testing research needs to do more than test for the presence of virus. The tests must determine the presence and progression of cervical disease. Tests should be more sensitive and specific than Pap tests and Pap-related tests, and should be accurate in more than 90 percent of cases. Tests also need to be low-cost, objective, and easy to perform so screening programs can be widely implemented in developing countries where the need for a better cervical cancer screening test is highest. Such tests may be available through the recent advances in specific biomarkers of cervical cancer and multiplex detection technologies. Development of the next generation of cervical cancer tests that are more specific, sensitive, and informative than the traditional Pap or HPV test will make a significant impact on the reduction of cervical cancer worldwide.
Dignan, M; Michielutte, R; Wells, H B; Bahnson, J
The Forsyth County Cervical Cancer Prevention Project was a 5 year National Cancer Institute-funded community-based public health education program implemented to address the problem of excess mortality from cervical cancer among black women in Forsyth County, North Carolina. The intervention was a community-based public health education program that included mass media, direct education workshops, and provision of education on cervical cancer and screening to health care providers. The intervention was implemented from November 1988 to September 1991. Evaluation of the community intervention used a quasi-experimental design, with Forsyth County, North Carolina, receiving the program and Durham County, North Carolina, serving as the control. Comparison of pre- and post-intervention telephone survey data revealed that, overall, awareness of cervical cancer and the Pap smear increased. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviors showed little change, considering those interviewed in aggregate. Among women defined as high-risk (elderly, low socioeconomic status, public health clinic patients and/or those who do not receive regular care), a significant trend toward greater participation in screening was detected for the 6 month period following the intervention. These results suggest that awareness of cervical cancer can be increased by public health education, but that the additional attention coming to patients through the actions of health care providers and health care delivery systems may supply the additional input needed to produce behavior change.
Ponce, Ninez A; Tsui, Jennifer; Knight, Sara J; Afable-Munsuz, Aimee; Ladabaum, Uri; Hiatt, Robert A; Haas, Jennifer S
Understanding racial/ethnic disparities in cancer screening by family history risk could identify critical opportunities for patient and provider interventions tailored to specific racial/ethnic groups. The authors evaluated whether breast cancer (BC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) disparities varied by family history risk using a large, multiethnic population-based survey. By using the 2005 California Health Interview Survey, BC and CRC screening were evaluated separately with weighted multivariate regression analyses, and stratified by family history risk. Screening was defined for BC as mammogram within the past 2 years for women aged 40 to 64 years; for CRC, screening was defined as annual fecal occult blood test, sigmoidoscopy within the past 5 years, or colonoscopy within the past 10 years for adults aged 50 to 64 years. The authors found no significant BC screening disparities by race/ethnicity or income in the family history risk groups. Racial/ethnic disparities were more evident in CRC screening, and the Latino-white gap widened among individuals with family history risk. Among adults with a family history for CRC, the magnitude of the Latino-white difference in CRC screening (odds ratio [OR], 0.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11-0.60) was more substantial than that for individuals with no family history (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.59-0.92). Knowledge of their family history widened the Latino-white gap in CRC screening among adults. More aggressive interventions that enhance the communication between Latinos and their physicians about family history and cancer risk could reduce the substantial Latino-white screening disparity in Latinos most susceptible to CRC. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.
Background Public health aims to provide universal safety and progressive opportunities to populations to realise their highest level of health through prevention of disease, its progression or transmission. Screening asymptomatic individuals to detect early unapparent conditions is an important public health intervention strategy. It may be designed to be compulsory or voluntary depending on the epidemiological characteristics of the disease. Integrated screening, including for both syphilis and cancer of the cervix, is a core component of the national reproductive health program in Kenya. Screening for syphilis is compulsory while it is voluntary for cervical cancer. Participants’ perspectives of either form of screening approach provide the necessary contextual information that clarifies mundane community concerns. Methods Focus group discussions with female clients screened for syphilis and cancer of the cervix were conducted to elicit their perspectives of compulsory and voluntary screening. The discussions were audiotaped, transcribed and thematic content analysis performed manually to explore emerging ethics issues. Results The results indicate that real ethical challenges exist in either of the approaches. Also, participants were more concerned about the benefits of the procedure and whether their dignity is respected than the compulsoriness of screening per se. The implication is for the policy makers to clarify in the guidelines how to manage ethical challenges, while at the operational level, providers need to be judicious to minimize potential harms participants and families when screening for disease in women. Conclusions The context for mounting screening as a public health intervention and attendant ethical issues may be more complex than hitherto perceived. Interpreting emerging ethics issues in screening requires more nuanced considerations of individuals’ contextual experiences since these may be contradictory to the policy position. In
Tabaac, Ariella R; Sutter, Megan E; Wall, Catherine S J; Baker, Kellan E
Transgender (trans) and gender-nonconforming adults have reported reduced access to health care because of discrimination and lack of knowledgeable care. This study aimed to contribute to the nascent cancer prevention literature among trans and gender-nonconforming individuals by ascertaining rates of breast, cervical, prostate, and colorectal cancer screening behaviors by gender identity. Publicly available de-identified data from the 2014-2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys were utilized to evaluate rates of cancer screenings by gender identity, while controlling for healthcare access, sociodemographics, and survey year. Analyses were conducted in 2017. Weighted chi-square tests identified significant differences in the proportion of cancer screening behaviors by gender identity among lifetime colorectal cancer screenings, Pap tests, prostate-specific antigen tests, discussing prostate-specific antigen test advantages/disadvantages with their healthcare provider, and up-to-date colorectal cancer screenings and Pap tests (p<0.036). Weighted logistic regressions found that although some differences based on gender identity were fully explained by covariates, trans women had reduced odds of having up-to-date colorectal cancer screenings compared to cisgender (cis) men (AOR=0.20) and cis women (AOR=0.24), whereas trans men were more likely to ever receive a sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy as compared to cis men (AOR=2.76) and cis women (AOR=2.65). Trans women were more likely than cis men to have up-to-date prostate-specific antigen tests (AOR=3.19). Finally, trans men and gender-nonconforming individuals had reduced odds of lifetime Pap tests versus cis women (AOR=0.14 and 0.08, respectively), and gender-nonconforming individuals had lower odds of discussing prostate-specific antigen tests than cis men (AOR=0.09; all p<0.05). The findings indicate that gender identity disparities in cancer screenings persist beyond known sociodemographic and healthcare
Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Studts, Christina R.; Hatcher-Keller, Jenna; Buelt, Eliza; Adams, Elwanda
Breast and cervical cancer account for nearly one-third of new cancer cases and one-sixth of cancer deaths. Cancer, the second leading cause of all deaths in the US, will claim the lives of nearly 800,000 women this year, which is particularly unfortunate because effective modes of early detection could significantly reduce mortality from breast and cervical cancer. We examined patterns of non-screening among Appalachian women. In-person interviews were conducted with 222 Appalachian women who fell outside of screening recommendations for timing of Pap tests and mammograms. These women, from six Appalachian counties, were participating in a group-randomized, multi-component trial aimed at increasing adherence to cancer screening recommendations. Results indicated that participants who were rarely or never screened for breast cancer were also likely to be rarely or never screened for cervical cancer. In addition, four key barriers were identified as independently and significantly associated with being rarely or never screened for both cervical and breast cancer. An improved understanding of cancer screening patterns plus the barriers underlying lack of screening may move us closer to developing effective interventions that facilitate women’s use of screening. PMID:23937729
Everett, Thomas; Bryant, Andrew; Griffin, Michelle F; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre PL; Forbes, Carol A; Jepson, Ruth G
Background World-wide, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women. Increasing the uptake of screening, alongside increasing informed choice is of great importance in controlling this disease through prevention and early detection. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions aimed at women, to increase the uptake, including informed uptake, of cervical cancer screening. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Issue 1, 2009. MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS databases up to March 2009. We also searched registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings, reference lists of included studies and contacted experts in the field. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions to increase uptake/informed uptake of cervical cancer screening. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently abstracted data and assessed risk of bias. Where possible the data were synthesised in a meta-analysis. Main results Thirty-eight trials met our inclusion criteria. These trials assessed the effectiveness of invitational and educational interventions, counselling, risk factor assessment and procedural interventions. Heterogeneity between trials limited statistical pooling of data. Overall, however, invitations appear to be effective methods of increasing uptake. In addition, there is limited evidence to support the use of educational materials. Secondary outcomes including cost data were incompletely documented so evidence was limited. Most trials were at moderate risk of bias. Informed uptake of cervical screening was not reported in any trials. Authors’ conclusions There is evidence to support the use of invitation letters to increase the uptake of cervical screening. There is limited evidence to support educational interventions but it is unclear what format is most effective. The majority of the studies are from
Andersen, Barbara L.; Golden-Kreutz, Deanna M.; Emery, Charles F.; Thiel, Debora L.
Trials testing the efficacy of psychological interventions for cancer patients had their beginnings in the 1970s. Since then, hundreds of trials have found interventions to be generally efficacious. In this article, we describe an intervention grounded in a conceptual model that includes psychological, behavioral, and biological components. It is…
Nguyen, Ly T; Withy, Kelley; Nguyen, Michelle M; Yamada, Seiji
To determine the extent of utilization of cancer screening services by Vietnamese in Hawaii, who had sought medical care from 1996 through 2000. A chart review of 952 adult Vietnamese patients was performed. Of all eligible women, 52% and 26% had Papanicolaou test and mammogram, respectively. Among men age 45 and over, 8.4% had prostate-specific antigen test and 3.4% had digital rectal exam. Flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy were not utilized by patients. This is the first study to examine the use of cancer screening tests by Vietnamese immigrants in Hawaii. Our findings of lower utilization rates in cancer screening by both male and female strongly support efforts to educate and promote preventive health for this population.
Williams, Karen Patricia; Mabiso, Athur; Todem, David; Hammad, Adnan; Hill-Ashford, Yolanda; Hamade, Hiam; Palamisono, Gloria; Robinson-Lockett, Murlisa; Zambrana, Ruth E
We examined differences in knowledge and socioeconomic factors associated with 3 types of breast cancer screening (breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, and mammogram) among African American, Arab, and Latina women. Community health workers used a community-based intervention to recruit 341 women (112 Arab, 113 Latina, and 116 African American) in southeastern Michigan to participate in a breast cancer prevention intervention from August through October 2006. Before and after the intervention, women responded to a previously validated 5-item multiple-choice test on breast cancer screening (possible score range: 0 to 5) in their language of preference (English, Spanish, or Arabic). We used generalized estimating equations to analyze data and to account for family-level and individual correlations. Although African American women knew more about breast cancer screening at the baseline (pretest median scores were 4 for African American, 3 for Arab and 3 for Latina women), all groups significantly increased their knowledge after participating in the breast cancer prevention intervention (posttest median scores were 5 for African American and 4 for Arab and Latina women). Generalized estimating equations models show that Arab and Latina women made the most significant gains in posttest scores (P < .001). Racial/ethnic differences in knowledge of breast cancer screening highlight the need for tailored information on breast cancer screening for African American, Arab, and Latina women to promote adherence to breast cancer screening guidelines.
Gudka, Sajni; Afuwape, Folasade E; Wong, Bessie; Yow, Xuan Li; Anderson, Claire; Clifford, Rhonda M
Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis) is the most commonly notified sexually transmissible infection in Australia. Increasing the number of people aged 16-25 years being tested for chlamydia has become a key objective. The strategy recommends that chlamydia screening sites should be easy to access. Community pharmacies are conveniently located and easily accessible. This review aimed to determine the different types of pharmacy-based chlamydia screening interventions, describe their uptake rates, and understand issues around the acceptability of and barriers to testing. Seven electronic databases were searched for peer-reviewed articles published up to 30 October 2011 for studies that reported chlamydia screening interventions from community pharmacies, or had qualitative evidence on acceptability or barriers linked with interventions. Of the 163 publications identified, 12 met the inclusion criteria. Nine reported chlamydia screening interventions in a pharmacy setting, whereas three focussed on perspectives on chlamydia screening. Pharmacists could offer a chlamydia test to consumers attending the pharmacy for a sexual health-related consultation, or consumers could request a chlamydia test as part of a population-based intervention. Participating consumers said pharmacies were accessible and convenient, and pharmacists were competent when offering a chlamydia test. Pharmacists reported selectively offering tests to women they thought would be most at risk, undermining the principles of opportunistic interventions. Chlamydia screening from community pharmacies is feasible, and can provide an accessible, convenient venue to get a test. Professional implementation support, alongside resources, education and training programs, and incentives may overcome the issue of pharmacists selectively offering the test.
Hadjiliadis, Denis; Khoruts, Alexander; Zauber, Ann G; Hempstead, Sarah E; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Lowenfels, Albert B
Improved therapy has substantially increased survival of persons with cystic fibrosis (CF). But the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in adults with CF is 5-10 times greater compared to the general population, and 25-30 times greater in CF patients after an organ transplantation. To address this risk, the CF Foundation convened a multi-stakeholder task force to develop CRC screening recommendations. The 18-member task force consisted of experts including pulmonologists, gastroenterologists, a social worker, nurse coordinator, surgeon, epidemiologist, statistician, CF adult, and a parent. The committee comprised 3 workgroups: Cancer Risk, Transplant, and Procedure and Preparation. A guidelines specialist at the CF Foundation conducted an evidence synthesis February-March 2016 based on PubMed literature searches. Task force members conducted additional independent searches. A total of 1159 articles were retrieved. After initial screening, the committee read 198 articles in full and analyzed 123 articles to develop recommendation statements. An independent decision analysis evaluating the benefits of screening relative to harms and resources required was conducted by the Department of Public Health at Erasmus Medical Center, Netherlands using the Microsimulation Screening Analysis model from the Cancer Innervation and Surveillance Modeling Network. The task force included recommendation statements in the final guideline only if they reached an 80% acceptance threshold. The task force makes 10 CRC screening recommendations that emphasize shared, individualized decision-making and familiarity with CF-specific gastrointestinal challenges. We recommend colonoscopy as the preferred screening method, initiation of screening at age 40 years, 5-year re-screening and 3-year surveillance intervals (unless shorter interval is indicated by individual findings), and a CF-specific intensive bowel preparation. Organ transplant recipients with CF should initiate CRC screening
Lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral CT scans has been shown to decrease the risk of dying from lung cancer in heavy smokers. Screening with chest x-ray or sputum cytology does not reduce lung cancer mortality. Get detailed information about lung cancer screening in this clinician summary.
Beaber, Elisabeth F; Kim, Jane J; Schapira, Marilyn M; Tosteson, Anna N A; Zauber, Ann G; Geiger, Ann M; Kamineni, Aruna; Weaver, Donald L; Tiro, Jasmin A
General frameworks of the cancer screening process are available, but none directly compare the process in detail across different organ sites. This limits the ability of medical and public health professionals to develop and evaluate coordinated screening programs that apply resources and population management strategies available for one cancer site to other sites. We present a trans-organ conceptual model that incorporates a single screening episode for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers into a unified framework based on clinical guidelines and protocols; the model concepts could be expanded to other organ sites. The model covers four types of care in the screening process: risk assessment, detection, diagnosis, and treatment. Interfaces between different provider teams (eg, primary care and specialty care), including communication and transfer of responsibility, may occur when transitioning between types of care. Our model highlights across each organ site similarities and differences in steps, interfaces, and transitions in the screening process and documents the conclusion of a screening episode. This model was developed within the National Cancer Institute-funded consortium Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR). PROSPR aims to optimize the screening process for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer and includes seven research centers and a statistical coordinating center. Given current health care reform initiatives in the United States, this conceptual model can facilitate the development of comprehensive quality metrics for cancer screening and promote trans-organ comparative cancer screening research. PROSPR findings will support the design of interventions that improve screening outcomes across multiple cancer sites. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Kim, Jane J.; Schapira, Marilyn M.; Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Zauber, Ann G.; Geiger, Ann M.; Kamineni, Aruna; Weaver, Donald L.; Tiro, Jasmin A.
General frameworks of the cancer screening process are available, but none directly compare the process in detail across different organ sites. This limits the ability of medical and public health professionals to develop and evaluate coordinated screening programs that apply resources and population management strategies available for one cancer site to other sites. We present a trans-organ conceptual model that incorporates a single screening episode for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers into a unified framework based on clinical guidelines and protocols; the model concepts could be expanded to other organ sites. The model covers four types of care in the screening process: risk assessment, detection, diagnosis, and treatment. Interfaces between different provider teams (eg, primary care and specialty care), including communication and transfer of responsibility, may occur when transitioning between types of care. Our model highlights across each organ site similarities and differences in steps, interfaces, and transitions in the screening process and documents the conclusion of a screening episode. This model was developed within the National Cancer Institute–funded consortium Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR). PROSPR aims to optimize the screening process for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer and includes seven research centers and a statistical coordinating center. Given current health care reform initiatives in the United States, this conceptual model can facilitate the development of comprehensive quality metrics for cancer screening and promote trans-organ comparative cancer screening research. PROSPR findings will support the design of interventions that improve screening outcomes across multiple cancer sites. PMID:25957378
Patel, Kushal; Kanu, Mohamed; Liu, Jianguo; Bond, Brea; Brown, Elizabeth; Williams, Elizabeth; Theriot, Rosemary; Bailey, Stephanie; Sanderson, Maureen; Hargreaves, Margaret
This study examined demographic and lifestyle factors that influenced decisions and obstacles to being screened for breast cancer in low-income African Americans in three urban Tennessee cities. As part of the Meharry Community Networks Program (CNP) needs assessment, a 123-item community survey was administered to assess demographic characteristics, health care access and utilization, and screening practices for various cancers in low-income African Americans. For this study, only African American women 40 years and older (n = 334) were selected from the Meharry CNP community survey database. There were several predictors of breast cancer screening such as marital status and having health insurance (P < .05). Additionally, there were associations between obstacles to screening and geographic region such as transportation and not having enough information about screenings (P < .05). Educational interventions aimed at improving breast cancer knowledge and screening rates should incorporate information about obstacles and predictors to screening.
Patel, Kushal; Kanu, Mohamed; Liu, Jianguo; Bond, Brea; Brown, Elizabeth; Williams, Elizabeth; Theriot, Rosemary; Bailey, Stephanie; Sanderson, Maureen; Hargreaves, Margaret
This study examined demographic and lifestyle factors that influenced decisions and obstacles to being screened for breast cancer in low-income African Americans in three urban Tennessee cities. As part of the Meharry Community Networks Program (CNP) needs assessment, a 123-item community survey was administered to assess demographic characteristics, health care access and utilization, and screening practices for various cancers in low-income African Americans. For this study, only African American women 40 years and older (n=334) were selected from the Meharry CNP community survey database. There were several predictors of breast cancer screening such as marital status and having health insurance (P< .05). Additionally, there were associations between obstacles to screening and geographic region such as transportation and not having enough information about screenings (P< .05). Educational interventions aimed at improving breast cancer knowledge and screening rates should incorporate information about obstacles and predictors to screening. PMID:24554393
Meester, Reinier G S; Peterse, Elisabeth F P; Knudsen, Amy B; de Weerdt, Anne C; Chen, Jennifer C; Lietz, Anna P; Dwyer, Andrea; Ahnen, Dennis J; Siegel, Rebecca L; Smith, Robert A; Zauber, Ann G; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris
Colorectal cancer (CRC) risk varies by race and sex. This study, 1 of 2 microsimulation analyses to inform the 2018 American Cancer Society CRC screening guideline, explored the influence of race and sex on optimal CRC screening strategies. Two Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network microsimulation models, informed by US incidence data, were used to evaluate a variety of screening methods, ages to start and stop, and intervals for 4 demographic subgroups (black and white males and females) under 2 scenarios for the projected lifetime CRC risk for 40-year-olds: 1) assuming that risk had remained stable since the early screening era and 2) assuming that risk had increased proportionally to observed incidence trends under the age of 40 years. Model-based screening recommendations were based on the predicted level of benefit (life-years gained) and burden (required number of colonoscopies), the incremental burden-to-benefit ratio, and the relative efficiency in comparison with strategies with similar burdens. When lifetime CRC risk was assumed to be stable over time, the models differed in the recommended age to start screening for whites (45 vs 50 years) but consistently recommended screening from the age of 45 years for blacks. When CRC risk was assumed to be increased, the models recommended starting at the age of 45 years, regardless of race and sex. Strategies recommended under both scenarios included colonoscopy every 10 or 15 years, annual fecal immunochemical testing, and computed tomographic colonography every 5 years through the age of 75 years. Microsimulation modeling suggests that CRC screening should be considered from the age of 45 years for blacks and for whites if the lifetime risk has increased proportionally to the incidence for younger adults. Cancer 2018. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of
Aim: For the first time, this article presents a cost-effectiveness comparison of a breast cancer screening programme with a possible health education programme with aspirin for vascular event primary prevention. Background: Breast cancer screening is a well established part of cancer control programmes yet recent evidence on this intervention has…
Ayash, Claudia; Axelrod, Deborah; Nejmeh-Khoury, Sana; Aziz, Arwa; Yusr, Afrah; Gany, Francesca M
Although the number of Arab Americans is growing in the United States, there is very little data available on this population's cancer incidence and screening practices. Moreover, there are few interventions addressing their unique needs. This study aims to determine effective strategies for increasing breast cancer screening in at-risk underserved Arab American women. AMBER utilizes a community based participatory approach to conduct formative research and program interventions, including culturally appropriate Arabic language breast cancer education, screening coordination, and cultural competency training for healthcare professionals in New York City. In 2 years, 597 women were educated, 189 underserved women were identified as being in need of assistance, 68 were screened, one new case of breast cancer was detected, and four active cases in need of follow-up reconnected with care. The AMBER model is an important intervention for breast cancer screening and care in the underserved Arab American community.
Abernethy, Alexis D; Houston, Tina R; Bjorck, Jeffrey P; Gorsuch, Richard L; Arnold, Harold L
This study was designed to examine the relationship between religiousness (organized, nonorganized, and intrinsic) and religious problem solving (collaborative, deferring, and self-directing) in prostate cancer screening (PCS) attitudes and behavior. Men (N = 481) of African descent between the ages of 40 and 70 participated. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that religiousness and self-directed problem solving were associated with PCS attitudes. Intrinsic religiousness was associated with PCS attitudes after controlling for health and organized religiousness. Religiousness was not associated with PCS behavior. Intrinsic religiousness may be an important dimension of religiousness to be considered in tailoring cancer interventions for individuals from faith-based communities.
Bou-Orm, I R; Sakr, R E; Adib, S M
Cervical cancer is a very common malignancy amongst women worldwide. Pap smear is an effective and inexpensive screening test in asymptomatic women. The aim of this paper was to assess the prevalence of Pap smear screening for cervical cancer among Lebanese women and to determine associated sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics. This national survey included 2255 women, selected by multi-stage random cluster sampling across Lebanon. A questionnaire about practices and perceptions related to cervical cancer screening was developed based on the "Health Belief Model". The weighted national prevalence of "ever-use" of the Pap smear for screening purposes was 35%. Most important determinants of screening behavior were: residence within Greater Beirut, higher socio-economic status and educational attainment, marriage status, presence of a health coverage, awareness of Pap smear usefulness, knowing someone who had already done it, and a balance between perceived benefits and perceived barriers to Pap smear screening. Regular information campaigns regarding the availability and effectiveness of the test should be devised, targeting in priority the sexually vulnerable women in Lebanon. Moreover, healthcare providers should be encouraged to discuss with their patients the opportunity of obtaining a Pap smear. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Paskett, E D; Case, L D; Masten, K B; Phillips, K C
This study examined the use of breast cancer screening education programs in 102 of the major workplaces in Forsyth County, North Carolina. Characteristics of workplaces that had sponsored such programs within the preceding three years were identified. Eighteen percent of the workplaces surveyed had offered breast cancer screening education programs. Factors that were directly related to having sponsored a program included the size of the workforce, the number of female employees, and the proportion of female employees over 40 years old. Characteristics related to health service activities in the workplace were also predictive. Neither the type of industry nor the insurance status of the workplace was significantly related to having sponsored a program.
Shin, Sangjin; Kim, Youn Hee; Hwang, Jin Sub; Lee, Yoon Jae; Lee, Sang Moo; Ahn, Jeonghoon
Prostate cancer is rapidly increasing in Korea and professional societies have requested adding prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing to the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP), but this started a controversy in Korea and neutral evidence on this issue is required more than ever. The purpose of this study was to provide economic evidence to the decision makers of the NCSP. A cost-utility analysis was performed on the adoption of PSA screening program among men aged 50-74-years in Korea from the healthcare system perspective. Several data sources were used for the cost-utility analysis, including general health screening data, the Korea Central Cancer Registry, national insurance claims data, and cause of mortality from the National Statistical Office. To solicit the utility index of prostate cancer, a face-to-face interview for typical men aged 40 to 69 was conducted using a Time-Trade Off method. As a result, the increase of effectiveness was estimated to be very low, when adopting PSA screening, and the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) was analyzed as about 94 million KRW. Sensitivity analyses were performed on the incidence rate, screening rate, cancer stage distribution, utility index, and treatment costs but the results were consistent with the base analysis. Under Korean circumstances with a relatively low incidence rate of prostate cancer, PSA screening is not cost-effective. Therefore, we conclude that adopting national prostate cancer screening would not be beneficial until further evidence is provided in the future.
Philip, Errol J; DuHamel, Katherine; Jandorf, Lina
Despite the acknowledged importance of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and its proven prognostic benefit, African American men and women simultaneously possess the highest rates of CRC-related incidence and mortality (Swan et al. in Cancer 97(6):1528-1540, 2003) and lowest screening rates in the United States (Polite et al. in Med Clin N Am 89(4):771-793, 2005). Effective, targeted interventions that promote CRC screening for this community are therefore critical. The current study evaluated the impact of a print-based educational intervention on screening behavior and associated patient-based factors, including cancer-related knowledge, fatalism, worry, and decisional balance (pros-cons). One hundred and eighteen individuals (mean age = 56.08, SD = 5.58) who had not undergone screening were recruited from two health clinics in New York City. Each participant received educational print materials regarding the need for screening, the process of undergoing screening, and the benefits of regular CRC screening. One in four individuals had undergone post-intervention screening at a three-month follow-up. Whereas all participants reported a decrease in cancer-related worry (p < .05), it was a decrease in fatalism (p < .05) and an increase in decisional balance (p < .05) that was associated with post-intervention screening behavior. These preliminary results suggest that fatalistic beliefs and an individual's assessment of the benefits and barriers of screening may be critical in the decision to undergo CRC screening. Future interventions to increase CRC-screening rates for this community may be improved by focusing on these patient-based factors.
Knottnerus, B J
In the cancer screening debate, arguments for and against screening are often based on statistics, whereas for individuals personal, non-statistical factors are at least as important when deciding whether to participate in screening. Health care professionals have a responsibility in helping individuals navigate in this complex field by identifying and clarifying the individuals' beliefs, fears and preferences while being aware of their own. Moreover, researchers should explore beliefs and motives that matter for individuals and not only report numbers that can be interpreted in different ways. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Giordano, Livia; Cogo, Carla; Patnick, Julietta; Paci, Eugenio
Despite the difficulties, there is a moral responsibility to provide the public with the best estimates of benefits and harms of breast cancer screening. In this paper we review the issues in communication of benefits and harms of medical interventions and discuss these in terms of the principles of the balance sheet proposed in this supplement. The balance sheet can be seen as a tool to convey estimates based on the best available evidence and addressed to a readership wider than just potential screening participants. It reflects a re-assessment of screening efficacy, showing again that screening is effective and brings more benefits than harms. It can be viewed as an opportunity to re-affirm some basic principles of good evidence-based communication. Further research is needed to improve communication strategy, to assess the impact of this communication on women's awareness and to evaluate its utility in the informed decision-making process. The balance sheet could be a starting point for a broader vision of informed decision-making in screening, which should also recognize the role played by 'non-numerical' factors on women's choice of participating in breast cancer screening.
Akbar, Fayyaz; Quyn, Aaron; Steele, Robert
Objectives Population-based colorectal (bowel) cancer screening using faecal occult blood tests leads to a reduction in cause-specific mortality. However, in people where the colon is defunctioned, the use of standard faecal occult blood test is not appropriate. The aim of this study was to examine the current trends of clinical practice for colorectal cancer screening in people with defunctioned colons. Methods An online survey was performed using SurveyMonkey. All members of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland were invited by email to participate. Reminders were sent to non-responders and partial responders till six weeks. All responses were included in our analysis. Results Of the 206 (34.59%) questionnaires completed, all questions were answered in 110 (55.8%). Among responders, 94 (85.4%) were colorectal consultant surgeons, 72% had worked in their current capacity for more than five years, and 105 (50.9%) had encountered colorectal cancer in defunctioned colons during their career. Some 72.2% of responders stated that a screening test for colorectal cancer in patients with defunctioned colons was currently not offered, or that they did not know whether or not it was offered in their area. Conclusions Bowel screening in the United Kingdom is currently not offered to 72.2% of the age appropriate population with defunctioned colons. Among responding colorectal surgeons, 50% had encountered colorectal cancer in such patients. There is considerable variability in clinical practice regarding the optimal age for onset of screening, time interval, and the optimal modality to offer for screening in such cases.
Abboud, Sarah; De Penning, Emily; Brawner, Bridgette M; Menon, Usha; Glanz, Karen; Sommers, Marilyn S
Arab American women are an ethnic minority and immigrant population in the United States with unique and nuanced sociocultural factors that influence preventive health behaviors. The aims of this article are to evaluate and synthesize the existing evidence on cervical cancer screening behaviors, as well as determine factors that influence these behaviors, among Arab American women. . Extensive literature searches were performed using PubMed, CINAHL®, Scopus, Embase, and Cochrane databases; articles published through October 2015 were sought. . Of 17 articles, 14 explicitly identified Arab and/or Muslim women and cervical cancer screening in either the title or the abstract; the remaining three focused on cancer attitudes and behaviors in Arab Americans in general but measured cervical cancer screening. Eleven articles reported different aspects of one intervention. Because of methodologic heterogeneity, the current authors synthesized results narratively. . Key factors influencing cervical cancer screening were identified as the following. Cervical cancer screening rates among Arab American women are comparable to other ethnic minorities and lower than non-Hispanic White women. Findings are inconsistent regarding factors influencing cervical cancer screening behaviors in this underrepresented group. . Significant need exists for more research to better understand cervical cancer prevention behaviors in this group to inform culturally relevant interventions. Healthcare providers play a crucial role in increasing cervical cancer screening awareness and recommendations for Arab American women.
Maida, Marcello; Macaluso, Fabio Salvatore; Ianiro, Gianluca; Mangiola, Francesca; Sinagra, Emanuele; Hold, Georgina; Maida, Carlo; Cammarota, Giovanni; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Scarpulla, Giuseppe
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in males and second in females, and the fourth most common cause of cancer death worldwide. Currently, about 60-70% of diagnosed cases in symptomatic patients are detected at an advanced stage of disease. Earlier stage detection through the use of screening strategies would allow for better outcomes in terms of reducing the disease burden. Areas covered: The aim of this paper is to review the current published evidence from literature which assesses the performance and effectiveness of different screening tests for the early detection of CRC. Expert commentary: Adequate screening strategies can reduce CRC incidence and mortality. In the last few decades, several tests have been proposed for CRC screening. To date, there is still insufficient evidence to identify which approach is definitively superior, and no screening strategy for CRC can therefore be defined as universally ideal. The best strategy would be the one that can be economically viable and to which the patient can adhere best to over time. The latest guidelines suggest colonoscopy every 10 years or annual fecal immuno-chemical test (FIT) for people with normal risk, while for individuals with high risk or hereditary syndromes specific recommendations are provided.
information technology have facilitated the Internet transmission and archival storage of digital images and other clinical information . The combination of...Phase included: 1) development of hardware, software, and interfaces between computerized scanning device and Internet - linked servers and reading...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-04-C-0083 TITLE: Internet -Based Cervical Cancer Screening
Howlett, Roberta I; Larsh, Susan; Dobi, Lorna; Mai, Verna
Cancer screening participation is typically low among newcomers to Canada. Consequently, mortality and morbidity rates are higher in ethno/cultural populations. There are inherent challenges in reaching these population groups to increase awareness and participation in cancer screening. Many reports have cited the need for culturally appropriate materials and multi-pronged strategies for effective outreach in the Chinese community. This paper outlines the consultation/development process and evaluation strategy for promoting cancer screening among Chinese women with limited English language skills. As Chinese is the third most commonly spoken language in Canada, this community education project focused on health promoters providing services to Chinese women 50 years and older. Ontario communities. Partners and stakeholders were consulted and engaged to define the best approach to develop and distribute culturally sensitive public education resources to assist communities in realizing greater awareness of and participation in cancer screening. Customized resource kits were developed and distributed to the target population over the course of two phases of this project. An evaluation strategy was designed and implemented to assess the impact of the project. The process to develop culturally sensitive and evidence-based materials for Chinese is detailed in this article. This multi-year project designed and distributed customized resource kits, through consultation with partners and stakeholders. Project outcomes will be further assessed one year after distribution of the kits. This project template may be useful for adaptation and use in other ethnocultural groups within and outside Ontario.
Whynes, David K.; Clarke, Katherine; Philips, Zoe; Avis, Mark
Purpose: To identify women's sources of information about cervical cancer screening, information which women report receiving during Pap consultations, information they would like to receive, and the relationships between perceived information needs, personal characteristics and information sources. Design/methodology/approach: Logistic regression…
Objective: To assess young women's breast health knowledge and explore its relation to the use of screening mammography. Methods: A convenience sample of 180 women aged 25-45 residing in Toronto, Canada, with no history of breast cancer and mammography received an information brochure and four questionnaires which assessed their knowledge of…
For testicular cancer, there is no standard or routine screening test. Review the limited evidence on the benefits and harms of screening for testicular cancer using ultrasound, physical examination, and self-examination in this expert-reviewed summary.
In this audio clip, Drs. Lisa Schwartz and Steven Woloshin of the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy discuss the benefits and harms of cancer screening and highlight popular misconceptions about cancer screening statistics.
Endometrial cancer screening by ultrasonography or tissue sampling is not supported by current evidence, but most cases are diagnosed at early stage. Get detailed information about potential harms of endometrial cancer screening in this summary for clinicians.
Breast cancer screening most often includes mammography but can also include ultrasound, MRI, and other tests. Get detailed information about the potential benefits and harms of the tests used to screen for breast cancer in this summary for clinicians.
Chetlen, Alison; Mack, Julie; Chan, Tiffany
Mammographic screening is effective in reducing mortality from breast cancer. The issue is not whether mammography is effective, but whether the false positive rate and false negative rates can be reduced. This review will discuss controversies including the reduction in breast cancer mortality, overdiagnosis, the ideal screening candidate, and the optimal imaging modality for breast cancer screening. The article will compare and contrast screening mammography, tomosynthesis, whole-breast screening ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and molecular breast imaging. Though supplemental imaging modalities are being utilized to improve breast cancer diagnosis, mammography still remains the gold standard for breast cancer screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
de Souza, Albert Schiaveto; de Souza, Taiana Gabriela Barbosa; Tsuha, Daniel Henrique; Barbieri, Ana Rita
Context and objective Incarcerated women are more vulnerable to developing cervical cancer than women in general; therefore, screening and intervention programs must be included in their healthcare provision. We therefore aimed to investigate the state of cervical cancer screening for imprisoned women in Mato Grosso do Sul, and to analyze the interventions geared toward the control of cervical cancer. Materials and methods This was a cross-sectional study with analysis of primary and secondary data. Interviews were held with 510 women in seven prisons in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul. The data for 352 medical records were analyzed statistically with the significance level set at 5%. Associations were assessed by the chi-squared test, adjusted by the Bonferroni correction. Results Most female prisoners had limited education, used tobacco, and had key risk factors for the development of cervical cancer. Half of the women interviewed (n = 255) stated that they had received a Papanicolaou (Pap) test in prison, but 134 (52.5%) of these did not know the result. Of those who had not received a Pap test, 149 (58.4%) stated that this was because of a lack of opportunity. There was no information regarding the provision of Pap tests or subsequent treatment in the medical records of 211 (59.9%) women. No protocols were in place for the provision of Pap tests in prison. There were statistical differences between prisons in terms of test frequency, the information provided to women, and how information was recorded in medical records. Conclusion The screening of cervical cancer in prisons is neither systematic nor regular, and the results are not communicated to women in a significant number of cases. It is necessary to organize health services within the prison environment, ensuring that tests are done and that there is investigation for human papillomavirus. This could increase the diagnosis of cervical cancer at less advanced stages of the disease. PMID:29252994
Nwobodo, Humphrey; Ba-Break, Maryam
Cervical cancer causes an estimated 266,000 deaths globally, 85% of which occurs in developing countries. It is a preventable disease, if detected and treated early via screen and treat , yet its burden is still huge in Nigeria. In 2012, 21.8% cases of cervical cancer and 20.3% deaths due to cervical cancer were recorded in Nigeria. This review, therefore, aims at indentifying the determinants of low cervical cancer screening in Nigeria in order to contribute in reducing the burden of the disease. Literature were obtained from Global Health, Popline and PubMed databases; WHO and other relevant websites using Eldis search engine; and from libraries in the University of Leeds and WHO in Geneva. Conceptual framework for analyzing the determinants of cervical cancer screening uptake among Nigerian women was formed by inserting service delivery component of the WHO health system framework into a modified Health Belief Model. Wrong perception of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening due to low level of knowledge about the disease and inadequate cervical cancer prevention were identified as the major determinants of low cervical cancer screening uptake in Nigeria. Among women, belief in being at risk and/or severity of cervical cancer was low just as belief on benefits of cervical cancer screening, unlike high belief in barriers to screening. Support from the community and screening skills among health-workers were inadequate. Improving uptake of cervical cancer screening will reduce the burden of the disease. Therefore, researchers and other stakeholders interested in prevention of cervical cancer should carryout studies to identify interventions that could address the key determinants of low cervical cancer screening among Nigerian women.
Jensen, Line Flytkjær; Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Andersen, Berit; Vedsted, Peter
Organised breast cancer screening is currently one of the best strategies for early-stage breast cancer detection. However, early detection has proven challenging for women with psychiatric disease. This study aims to investigate psychiatric morbidity and non-participation in breast cancer screening. We conducted an observational cohort study including women invited to the first organised screening round in the Central Denmark Region. Data on psychiatric diagnosis, psychoactive prescription medicine and consultation with private psychiatrists were obtained from Danish registries and assessed for a period of up to 10 years before the screening date. The cohort comprised 144,264 women whereof 33.0% were registered with an indication of psychiatric morbidity. We found elevated non-participation propensity among women with a psychiatric diagnosis especially for women with schizophrenia and substance abuse. Also milder psychiatric morbidity was associated with higher non-participation likelihood as women who had redeemed psychoactive prescription medicine or have had minimum one consultation with a private psychiatrist were more likely not to participate. Finally, we found that the chronicity of psychiatric morbidity was associated with non-participation and that woman who had a psychiatric morbidity defined as 'persistent' had higher likelihood of non-participation than women with recently active morbidity or inactive psychiatric morbidity. This study showed a strong association between psychiatric morbidity and an increased likelihood of non-participation in breast cancer screening in a health care system with universal and tax-funded health services. This knowledge may inform interventions targeting women with psychiatric morbidity as they have poorer breast cancer prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rosenthal, Adam N.; Fraser, Lindsay; Manchanda, Ranjit; Badman, Philip; Philpott, Susan; Mozersky, Jessica; Hadwin, Richard; Cafferty, Fay H.; Benjamin, Elizabeth; Singh, Naveena; Evans, D. Gareth; Eccles, Diana M.; Skates, Steven J.; Mackay, James; Menon, Usha; Jacobs, Ian J.
Purpose To establish the performance characteristics of annual transvaginal ultrasound and serum CA125 screening for women at high risk of ovarian/fallopian tube cancer (OC/FTC) and to investigate the impact of delayed screening interval and surgical intervention. Patients and Methods Between May 6, 2002, and January 5, 2008, 3,563 women at an estimated ≥ 10% lifetime risk of OC/FTC were recruited and screened by 37 centers in the United Kingdom. Participants were observed prospectively by centers, questionnaire, and national cancer registries. Results Sensitivity for detection of incident OC/FTC at 1 year after last annual screen was 81.3% (95% CI, 54.3% to 96.0%) if occult cancers were classified as false negatives and 87.5% (95% CI, 61.7% to 98.5%) if they were classified as true positives. Positive and negative predictive values of incident screening were 25.5% (95% CI, 14.3 to 40.0) and 99.9% (95% CI, 99.8 to 100) respectively. Four (30.8%) of 13 incident screen-detected OC/FTCs were stage I or II. Compared with women screened in the year before diagnosis, those not screened in the year before diagnosis were more likely to have ≥ stage IIIc disease (85.7% v 26.1%; P = .009). Screening interval was delayed by a median of 88 days before detection of incident OC/FTC. Median interval from detection screen to surgical intervention was 79 days in prevalent and incident OC/FTC. Conclusion These results in the high-risk population highlight the need for strict adherence to screening schedule. Screening more frequently than annually with prompt surgical intervention seems to offer a better chance of early-stage detection. PMID:23213100
Hannon, Peggy A; Vu, Thuy; Ogdon, Sara; Fleury, Emily M; Yette, Emily; Wittenberg, Reva; Celedonia, Megan; Bowen, Deborah J
Colorectal cancer screening is a life-saving intervention, but screening rates are low. The authors implemented and evaluated the Spokane Colorectal Cancer Screening Program-a novel worksite intervention to promote colorectal cancer screening that used a combination of evidence-based strategies recommended by the Guide to Community Preventive Services, as well as additional strategies. Over a period of approximately 3 months, participating worksites held one or more physician-led seminars about colorectal cancer screening for employees. They also distributed free fecal immunochemical tests at the worksite to employees 50 years and older, and they provided test results to employees and their primary care physician. The authors measured attendance at seminars, test kits taken and returned, employee awareness of the program, and colorectal cancer screening rates in participating and comparison worksites. It is estimated that 9% of eligible employees received kits at the worksite, and 4% were screened with these kits. The Spokane Colorectal Cancer Screening Program was a promising pilot test of an innovative worksite screening program that successfully translated evidence-based strategies into practical use in a brief period of time, and it merits a larger study to be able to test its effects more rigorously.
Pronk, Marieke; Kramer, Sophia E; Davis, Adrian C; Stephens, Dafydd; Smith, Pauline A; Thodi, Chryssoula; Anteunis, Lucien J C; Parazzini, Marta; Grandori, Ferdinando
Adult hearing screening may be a solution to the under-diagnosis and under-treatment of hearing loss in adults. Limited use and satisfaction with hearing aids indicate that consideration of alternative interventions following hearing screening may be needed. The primary aim of this study is to provide an overview of all intervention types that have been offered to adult (≥ 18 years) screen-failures. Systematic literature review. Articles were identified through systematic searches in PubMed, EMBASE, Cinahl, the Cochrane Library, private libraries, and through reference checking. Of the initial 3027 papers obtained from the searches, a total of 37 were found to be eligible. The great majority of the screening programmes (i.e. 26) referred screen-failures to a hearing specialist without further rehabilitation being specified. Most of the others (i.e. seven) led to the provision of hearing aids. Four studies offered alternative interventions comprising communication programme elements (e.g. speechreading, hearing tactics) or advice on environmental aids. Interventions following hearing screening generally comprised referral to a hearing specialist or hearing aid rehabilitation. Some programmes offered alternative rehabilitation options. These may be valuable as an addition to or replacement of hearing aid rehabilitation. It is recommended that this be addressed in future research.
Background Colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) is the only type of cancer screening where both genders reduce risks by similar proportions with identical procedures. It is an important context for examining gender differences in disease-prevention, as CRCS significantly reduces mortality via early detection and prevention. In efforts to increase screening adherence, there is increasing acknowledgment that obstructive attitudes prevent CRCS uptake. Precise identification of the gender differences in obstructive attitudes is necessary to improve uptake promotion. This study randomly sampled unscreened, screening - eligible individuals in Ontario, employing semi-structured interviews to elicit key differences in attitudinal obstructions towards colorectal cancer screening with the aim of deriving informative differences useful in planning promotions of screening uptake. Methods N = 81 participants (49 females, 32 males), 50 years and above, with no prior CRCS, were contacted via random-digit telephone dialing, and consented via phone-mail contact. Altogether, N = 4,459 calls were made to yield N = 85 participants (1.9% response rate) of which N = 4 participants did not complete interviews. All subjects were eligible for free-of-charge CRCS in Ontario, and each was classified, via standard interview by CRCS screening decision-stage. Telephone-based, semi-structured interviews (SSIs) were employed to investigate gender differences in CRCS attitudes, using questions focused on 5 attitudinal domains: 1) Screening experience at the time of interview; 2) Barriers to adherence; 3) Predictors of Adherence; 4) Pain-anxiety experiences related to CRCS; 5) Gender-specific experiences re: CRCS, addressing all three modalities accessible through Ontario’s program: a) fecal occult blood testing; b) flexible sigmoidoscopy; c) colonoscopy. Results Interview transcript analyses indicated divergent themes related to CRCS for each gender: 1) bodily intrusion, 2) perforation anxiety
Ritvo, Paul; Myers, Ronald E; Paszat, Lawrence; Serenity, Mardie; Perez, Daniel F; Rabeneck, Linda
Colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) is the only type of cancer screening where both genders reduce risks by similar proportions with identical procedures. It is an important context for examining gender differences in disease-prevention, as CRCS significantly reduces mortality via early detection and prevention. In efforts to increase screening adherence, there is increasing acknowledgment that obstructive attitudes prevent CRCS uptake. Precise identification of the gender differences in obstructive attitudes is necessary to improve uptake promotion. This study randomly sampled unscreened, screening - eligible individuals in Ontario, employing semi-structured interviews to elicit key differences in attitudinal obstructions towards colorectal cancer screening with the aim of deriving informative differences useful in planning promotions of screening uptake. N = 81 participants (49 females, 32 males), 50 years and above, with no prior CRCS, were contacted via random-digit telephone dialing, and consented via phone-mail contact. Altogether, N = 4,459 calls were made to yield N = 85 participants (1.9% response rate) of which N = 4 participants did not complete interviews. All subjects were eligible for free-of-charge CRCS in Ontario, and each was classified, via standard interview by CRCS screening decision-stage. Telephone-based, semi-structured interviews (SSIs) were employed to investigate gender differences in CRCS attitudes, using questions focused on 5 attitudinal domains: 1) Screening experience at the time of interview; 2) Barriers to adherence; 3) Predictors of Adherence; 4) Pain-anxiety experiences related to CRCS; 5) Gender-specific experiences re: CRCS, addressing all three modalities accessible through Ontario's program: a) fecal occult blood testing; b) flexible sigmoidoscopy; c) colonoscopy. Interview transcript analyses indicated divergent themes related to CRCS for each gender: 1) bodily intrusion, 2) perforation anxiety, and 3) embarrassment for
Yermolenko, S. B.; Voloshynskyy, D. I.; Fedoruk, O. S.
The aim of the study was to establish objective parameters of the field of laser and incoherent radiation of different spectral ranges (UV, visible, IR) as a non-invasive optical method of interaction with different samples of biological tissues and fluids of patients to determine the state of prostate cancer and choosing the best personal treatment. The objects of study were selected venous blood plasma of patient with prostate cancer, histological sections of rat prostate gland in the postoperative period. As diagnostic methods have been used ultraviolet spectrometry samples of blood plasma in the liquid state, infrared spectroscopy middle range (2,5-25 microns) dry residue of plasma by spectral diagnostic technique of thin histological sections of biological tissues.
Latimer, Kelly M; Mott, Timothy F
Lung cancer is classified histologically into small cell and non-small cell lung cancers. The most common symptoms of lung cancer are cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis, and systemic symptoms such as weight loss and anorexia. High-risk patients who present with symptoms should undergo chest radiography. If a likely alternative diagnosis is not identified, computed tomography and possibly positron emission tomography should be performed. If suspicion for lung cancer is high, a diagnostic evaluation is warranted. The diagnostic evaluation has three simultaneous steps (tissue diagnosis, staging, and functional evaluation), all of which affect treatment planning and determination of prognosis. The least invasive method possible should be used. The diagnostic evaluation and treatment of a patient with lung cancer require a team of specialists, including a pulmonologist, medical oncologist, radiation oncologist, pathologist, radiologist, and thoracic surgeon. Non-small cell lung cancer specimens are tested for various mutations, which, if present, can be treated with new targeted molecular therapies. The family physician should remain involved in the patient's care to ensure that the values and wishes of the patient and family are considered and, if necessary, to coordinate end-of-life care. Early palliative care improves quality of life and may prolong survival. Family physicians should concentrate on early recognition of lung cancer, as well as prevention by encouraging tobacco cessation at every visit. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends lung cancer screening using low-dose computed tomography in high-risk patients. However, the American Academy of Family Physicians concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against screening. Whether to screen high-risk patients should be a shared decision between the physician and patient.
Meijer, Anna; Roseman, Michelle; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Milette, Katherine; Levis, Brooke; Syamchandra, Achyuth; Stefanek, Michael E.; Stewart, Donna E.; de Jonge, Peter; Coyne, James C.; Thombs, Brett D.
Objective Several practice guidelines recommend routine screening for psychological distress in cancer care. The objective was to evaluate the effect of screening cancer patients for psychological distress by assessing the (1) effectiveness of interventions to reduce distress among patients identified as distressed; and (2) effects of screening for distress on distress outcomes. Methods CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, ISI, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS databases were searched through April 6, 2011 with manual searches of 45 relevant journals, reference list review, citation tracking of included articles, and trial registry reviews through June 30, 2012. Articles in any language on cancer patients were included if they (1) compared treatment for patients with psychological distress to placebo or usual care in a randomized controlled trial (RCT); or (2) assessed the effect of screening on psychological distress in a RCT. Results There were 14 eligible RCTs for treatment of distress, and 1 RCT on the effects of screening on patient distress. Pharmacological, psychotherapy and collaborative care interventions generally reduced distress with small to moderate effects. One study investigated effects of screening for distress on psychological outcomes, and it found no improvement. Conclusion Treatment studies reported modest improvement in distress symptoms, but only a single eligible study was found on the effects of screening cancer patients for distress, and distress did not improve in screened patients versus those receiving usual care. Because of the lack of evidence of beneficial effects of screening cancer patients for distress, it is premature to recommend or mandate implementation of routine screening. PMID:23751231
Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Foo, Mary Anne; Chao, Maichew; Linayao-Putman, Irene; Nguyen, John; Pirumyan, Georgi; Valdez, Annalyn
Cancer is the number one cause of death for Asian American women, yet they have the lowest rates of cancer screening. Contributing factors, particularly for Hmong women, include the lack of culturally and linguistically appropriate educational interventions. This study aimed to develop a culturally and linguistically appropriate intervention to…
Daniel, Casey L; Gilreath, Kelly; Keyes, Danielle
African Americans in the United States are more likely than their white counterparts to experience greater incidence and mortality due to colorectal cancer (CRC). Present for decades, these disparities have prompted researchers to investigate underlying causes and potential explanations. While some biological variations have been observed between races, evidence shows that approximately 50% of these disparities can be attributed to differences and disparities in CRC screening, resulting in reduced polyp removal for CRC prevention and/or early detection of CRC among African Americans. Other major contributors to CRC disparities are differences in treatment and access to care. Significant efforts are needed to increase CRC screening among African Americans through targeted interventions to reduce barriers such as increasing education, promoting physician recommendations, and providing affordable and quality care. Intervention is also needed to educate the medical community about these issues and to change health policy to provide a multilevel approach with the best chance of success in reducing racial disparities in CRC.
Schroy, Paul C.; Emmons, Karen M.; Peters, Ellen; Glick, Julie T.; Robinson, Patricia A.; Lydotes, Maria A.; Mylvaganam, Shamini R.; Coe, Alison M.; Chen, Clara A.; Chaisson, Christine E.; Pignone, Michael P.; Prout, Marianne N.; Davidson, Peter K.; Heeren, Timothy C.
Background Shared decision-making (SDM) is a widely recommended yet unproven strategy for increasing colorectal cancer (CRC) screening uptake. Previous trials of decision aids to increase SDM and CRC screening uptake have yielded mixed results. Purpose To assess the impact of decision aid–assisted SDM on CRC screening uptake. Design RCT. Setting/participants The study was conducted at an urban, academic safety-net hospital and community health center between 2005 and 2010. Participants were asymptomatic, average-risk patients aged 50–75 years due for CRC screening. Intervention Study participants (n=825) were randomized to one of two intervention arms (decision aid plus personalized risk assessment or decision aid alone) or control arm. The interventions took place just prior to a routine office visit with their primary care providers. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was completion of a CRC screening test within 12 months of the study visit. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of test completion and mediators of the intervention effect. Analysis was completed in 2011. Results Patients in the decision-aid group were more likely to complete a screening test than control patients (43.1% vs 34.8%; p=0.046) within 12 months of the study visit; conversely, test uptake for the decision aid and decision aid plus personalized risk assessment arms was similar (43.1% vs 37.1%; p=0.15). Assignment to the decision-aid arm (AOR 1.48; 95% CI=1.04, 2.10), black race (AOR 1.52, 95% CI=1.12, 2.06) and a preference for a patient-dominant decisionmaking approach (AOR, 1.55; 95% CI=1.02, 2.35) were independent determinants of test completion. Activation of the screening discussion and enhanced screening intentions mediated the intervention effect. Conclusions Decision aid–assisted SDM has a modest impact on CRC screening uptake. A decision aid plus personalized risk assessment tool is no more effective than a decision aid alone. PMID:23159252
Dickerson, Lisa; Varcak, Susan Combs
Recommended screening options for colorectal cancer are divided into noninvasive stool-based options, and invasive procedure-based options. Because multiple screening strategies are effective, efforts to reduce deaths from colorectal cancer should focus on maximizing the number of patients who are screened. This article reviews noninvasive stool-based screening options.
Esophageal cancer screening is not currently considered to be a routine part of cancer screening. Not all screening tests are helpful, and many have risks. Learn more about esophageal cancer risk factors and tests to detect it in this expert-reviewed summary.
Liver (hepatocellular) cancer screening is not currently recommended as a routine part of cancer screening. Not all screening tests are helpful, and many have risks. Learn more about liver cancer and the tests used to detect it in this expert-reviewed summary.
Pengchit, Watcharaporn; Walters, Scott T.; Simmons, Rebecca G.; Kohlmann, Wendy; Burt, Randall W.; Schwartz, Marc D.; Kinney, Anita Y.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates have been low despite effectiveness of screening in reducing CRC mortality. This article outlines the theoretical background and development of an innovative, telephone-based risk communication designed to promote screening among individuals at increased risk for familial CRC. This ongoing intervention integrates the Extended Parallel Process Model of fear management and the motivational interviewing counselling style. Tailoring and implementation intentions are incorporated. The primary outcome is self-reported colonoscopy within nine months following intervention. If proven effective, the remote intervention could be broadly disseminated to individuals at increased familial CRC risk, especially those in geographically underserved areas. PMID:21464114
Ferrante, Jeanne M.; Fyffe, Denise C.; Vega, Marielos L.; Piasecki, Alicja K.; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela A.; Crabtree, Benjamin F.
Extremely obese women are less likely than nonobese women to receive breast and cervical cancer screening examinations. Reasons for this disparity are unclear and may stem from patient and/or physician barriers. This sequential mixed-methods study used individual in-depth interviews of 15 family physicians followed by a mail survey of 255 family physicians (53% response rate) to understand the barriers they faced in performing cancer screening examinations in extremely obese women. Barriers fell into three main areas: (i) difficulty doing pelvic and breast exams; (ii) inadequate equipment; and (iii) challenges overcoming patient barriers and refusal. This led some physicians to avoid performing breast and pelvic examinations on extremely obese women. Having more knowledge about specific examination techniques was associated with less difficulty in palpating lumps on breast and pelvic examinations (P < 0.005). Physicians perceived that embarrassment, aversion to undressing, and avoidance of discussions related to their weight were the most frequent barriers extremely obese women had with getting physical examinations. Educating and/or motivating patients and addressing fears were strategies used most frequently when patients refused mammograms or Pap smears. Interventions focusing on physician barriers, such as educating them on specific examination techniques, obtaining adequate equipment and supplies, and providing resources to assist physicians in dealing with patient barriers and refusal, may be fruitful in increasing cancer screening rates in extremely obese patients. Future research studies testing the effectiveness of these strategies are needed to improve cancer outcomes in this high-risk population. PMID:20019676
Chen, Kun; Yu, Wei-Ping; Song, Liang; Zhu, Yi-Min
AIM: To set up a mathematic model for gastric cancer screening and to evaluate its function in mass screening for gastric cancer. METHODS: A case control study was carried on in 66 patients and 198 normal people, then the risk and protective factors of gastric cancer were determined, including heavy manual work, foods such as small yellow-fin tuna, dried small shrimps, squills, crabs, mothers suffering from gastric diseases, spouse alive, use of refrigerators and hot food, etc. According to some principles and methods of probability and fuzzy mathematics, a quantitative assessment model was established as follows: first, we selected some factors significant in statistics, and calculated weight coefficient for each one by two different methods; second, population space was divided into gastric cancer fuzzy subset and non gastric cancer fuzzy subset, then a mathematic model for each subset was established, we got a mathematic expression of attribute degree (AD). RESULTS: Based on the data of 63 patients and 693 normal people, AD of each subject was calculated. Considering the sensitivity and specificity, the thresholds of AD values calculated were configured with 0.20 and 0.17, respectively. According to these thresholds, the sensitivity and specificity of the quantitative model were about 69% and 63%. Moreover, statistical test showed that the identification outcomes of these two different calculation methods were identical (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: The validity of this method is satisfactory. It is convenient, feasible, economic and can be used to determine individual and population risks of gastric cancer. PMID:15655813
Cohen, Jennifer E; Wakefield, Claire E; Cohn, Richard J
Childhood cancer survivors are at a higher risk of developing health conditions such as osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease than their peers. Health-promoting behaviour, such as consuming a healthy diet, could lessen the impact of these chronic issues, yet the prevalence rate of health-protecting behaviour amongst survivors of childhood cancer is similar to that of the general population. Targeted nutritional interventions may prevent or reduce the incidence of these chronic diseases. The primary aim of this review was to assess the efficacy of a range of nutritional interventions designed to improve the nutritional intake of childhood cancer survivors, as compared to a control group of childhood cancer survivors who did not receive the intervention. Secondary objectives were to assess metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, measures of weight and body fat distribution, behavioural change, changes in knowledge regarding disease risk and nutritional intake, participants' views of the intervention, measures of health status and quality of life, measures of harm associated with the process or outcomes of the intervention, and cost-effectiveness of the intervention We searched the electronic databases of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2013, Issue 3), MEDLINE/PubMed (from 1945 to April 2013), and Embase/Ovid (from 1980 to April 2013). We ran the search again in August 2015; we have not yet fully assessed these results, but we have identified one ongoing trial. We conducted additional searching of ongoing trial registers - the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number register and the National Institutes of Health register (both screened in the first half of 2013) - reference lists of relevant articles and reviews, and conference proceedings of the International Society for Paediatric Oncology and the International Conference on Long-Term Complications of Treatment of Children and Adolescents for Cancer (both 2008 to
Hwang, Jasmine J; Donnelly, Tam T; Ewashen, Carol; McKiel, Elaine; Raffin, Shelley; Kinch, Janice
Breast cancer, the most common cancer among Arab women in Qatar, significantly affects the morbidity and mortality of Arab women largely because of low participation rates in breast cancer screening. We used a critical ethnographic approach to uncover and describe factors that influence Arab women's breast cancer screening practices. We conducted semistructured interviews with 15 health care practitioners in Qatar. Through thematic analysis of the data, we found three major factors influencing breast cancer screening practices: (a) beliefs, attitudes, and practices regarding women's bodies, health, and illness; (b) religious beliefs and a culturally sensitive health care structure; and (c) culturally specific gender relations and roles. Arab women's health practices cannot be understood in isolation from the sociocultural environment. The problem of low rates of breast cancer screening practices and supportive interventions must be addressed within the context and not be limited to the individual.
Rasul, V H; Cheraghi, M A; Behboodi Moqadam, Z
Aim: This study was aimed to explore and describe the Kurdish women's perception of cervical cancer screening. Methods: A qualitative design based on a conventional content analysis approach. Purposive sampling was applied to 19 women chosen, who had a Pap smear or refused to have one. The study was performed in the Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Semi-structure din-depth individual interviews were carried out to collect data. Results: Four main themes including conflict, belief, and awareness about cervical cancer screening and socio-cultural factors emerged during data analysis Conclusions: Cervical cancer has a high mortality rate in the developing countries. However, only a few Kurdish women participated in the cervical cancer screening in the Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Understanding the factors associated with the women's perception of cervical cancer could guide future educational planning and clinical interventions improve the cervical cancer screening.
Rasul, VH; Cheraghi, MA; Behboodi Moqadam, Z
Aim:This study was aimed to explore and describe the Kurdish women’s perception of cervical cancer screening. Methods: A qualitative design based on a conventional content analysis approach. Purposive sampling was applied to 19 women chosen, who had a Pap smear or refused to have one. The study was performed in the Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Semi-structure din-depth individual interviews were carried out to collect data. Results: Four main themes including conflict, belief, and awareness about cervical cancer screening and socio-cultural factors emerged during data analysis Conclusions: Cervical cancer has a high mortality rate in the developing countries. However, only a few Kurdish women participated in the cervical cancer screening in the Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Understanding the factors associated with the women’s perception of cervical cancer could guide future educational planning and clinical interventions improve the cervical cancer screening. PMID:28255397
Bhurgri, Hadi; Samiullah, Sami
The month of March is dedicated to Colon Cancer Awareness. Worldwide, colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence has been on the rise. It is currently the third most common cancer in men (746,000 cases, 10.0% of the total) and the second in women (614,000 cases, 9.2% of the total).1 Arecent meta-analysis reported a 61% risk reduction in CRC incidence with colonoscopy.2 Unlike screening programs for breast and prostate cancers, not only has CRC screening reduced mortality from colon cancer and detected early CRC, it has also decreased the incidence of CRC through detection and removal of pre-cancerous lesions. Studies have shown that screening for colorectal cancer provided 152 to 313 life-years-gained (LYG) per 1000 forty-year-old individuals.3 Anumber of modalities exist for CRC screening, which can broadly be categorized into stool-based tests and direct visualization tests. Stool-based tests include fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) and stool DNAtesting. Direct visualization tests include endoscopic procedures such as colonoscopy and flexible sigmoidoscopy; and radiographic tests such as CT colonography, which has largely replaced air contrast barium enemas.4 The only reported population-based data for CRC in Pakistan comes from Bhurgri et al. in 2011.5It described Pakistan as a low risk region with an age standardized incidence rate (ASR) world per 100,000 of 7.1 in males and 5.2 in females, but with a much younger age and advanced stage at diagnosis. The ratio for individuals diagnosed with CRC under the age of 40, as oppose to over 40 years, was 3:1, which is much higher than the international average. Noteworthy as well, is an increase in incidence especially among men, noted between the study periods of 1995-1997 and 1997-2002. It ranks 7th in incidence among males, and 8th among females, with tobacco related malignancies topping the list.6 There has since been additional cross-sectional data from Pakistan echoing these findings
Zhou, Jing; Enewold, Lindsey; Peoples, George E; Clifton, Guy T; Potter, John F; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Zhu, Kangmin
Hispanics are the largest and fastest growing ethnic group in the United States. Compared with white non-Hispanic women, however, Hispanic women have significantly lower cancer screening rates. Programs designed to increase cancer screening rates, including the national Screen for Life campaign, which specifically promoted colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, regional educational/research programs, and state cancer control programs, have been launched. Screen for Life and some of these other intervention programs have targeted Hispanic populations by providing educational materials in Spanish in addition to English. The objective of this study was to compare changes in colorectal, breast, and cervical cancer screening rates from 2000 to 2005 among Hispanic and white non-Hispanic women, using data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The age ranges of study subjects and the definitions of cancer screening were site specific and based on the American Cancer Society (ACS) screening recommendations. Although overall screening rates were found to be lower among Hispanic women, CRC screening increased about 1.5-fold among both Hispanic and white non-Hispanic women, mainly driven by endoscopic screening, which increased 2.1-fold and 2.9-fold, respectively, from 2000 to 2005 (p < 0.01). Fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) for CRC declined among white non-Hispanic women and remained stable among Hispanic women during the same period. Mammogram and Pap smear screening tended to decline during the study period for both ethnic groups, especially white non-Hispanic women. Although cancer screening rates may be affected by multiple factors, culturally sensitive and linguistically appropriate national educational programs may have contributed to the increase in endoscopic CRC screening compliance.
Elkin, Elena B; Marshall, Deborah A; Kulin, Nathalie A; Ferrusi, Ilia L; Hassett, Michael J; Ladabaum, Uri; Phillips, Kathryn A
Scientific advances have improved our ability to target cancer interventions to individuals who will benefit most and spare the risks and costs to those who will derive little benefit or even be harmed. Several approaches are currently used for targeting interventions for cancer risk reduction, screening, and treatment, including risk prediction algorithms for identifying high-risk subgroups and diagnostic tests for tumor markers and germline genetic mutations. Economic evaluation can inform decisions about the use of targeted interventions, which may be more costly than traditional strategies. However, assessing the impact of a targeted intervention on costs and health outcomes requires explicit consideration of the method of targeting. In this study, we describe the importance of this principle by reviewing published cost-effectiveness analyses of targeted interventions in breast cancer. Few studies we identified explicitly evaluated the relationships among the method of targeting, the accuracy of the targeting test, and outcomes of the targeted intervention. Those that did found that characteristics of targeting tests had a substantial impact on outcomes. We posit that the method of targeting and the outcomes of a targeted intervention are inextricably linked and recommend that cost-effectiveness analyses of targeted interventions explicitly consider costs and outcomes of the method of targeting.
Gany, Francesca; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Aragones, Abraham
Haitian immigrants, among the fastest growing immigrant communities in the United States, have low cancer screening rates. Several patient barriers have been identified and associated with low screening rates but little is known on provider barriers for cancer screening. To address this gap, we assessed the cancer screening practices, attitudes, and beliefs of primary care providers serving the Haitian community. We surveyed a random sample of physicians serving first generation Haitian immigrants in New York City, identified through their zip codes of practice. Participants completed a questionnaire to assess their beliefs, attitudes and practices surrounding cancer screening, and their perceptions of patient barriers to screening. 50 of 87 physicians (58%) consented to participate in the study. Cancer site-specific and overall cancer screening scores were created for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening. 75% of providers followed breast cancer screening guidelines, 16% for cervical cancer, and 30% for colorectal cancer. None of the providers in the sample were following guidelines for all three cancer sites. Additionally, 97% reported recommending digital rectal exam and PSA annually to patients 50 years or older with no family history, and 100% to patients over 50 years old with family history. The reported practices of providers serving the Haitian immigrant community in New York City are not fully consistent with practice guidelines. Efforts should be made to reinforce screening guideline knowledge in physicians serving the Haitian immigrant community, to increase the utilization of systems that increase cancer screening, and to implement strategies to overcome patient barriers.
Heijnsdijk, E A M; de Carvalho, T M; Auvinen, A; Zappa, M; Nelen, V; Kwiatkowski, M; Villers, A; Páez, A; Moss, S M; Tammela, T L J; Recker, F; Denis, L; Carlsson, S V; Wever, E M; Bangma, C H; Schröder, F H; Roobol, M J; Hugosson, J; de Koning, H J
The results of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) trial showed a statistically significant 29% prostate cancer mortality reduction for the men screened in the intervention arm and a 23% negative impact on the life-years gained because of quality of life. However, alternative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening strategies for the population may exist, optimizing the effects on mortality reduction, quality of life, overdiagnosis, and costs. Based on data of the ERSPC trial, we predicted the numbers of prostate cancers diagnosed, prostate cancer deaths averted, life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) gained, and cost-effectiveness of 68 screening strategies starting at age 55 years, with a PSA threshold of 3, using microsimulation modeling. The screening strategies varied by age to stop screening and screening interval (one to 14 years or once in a lifetime screens), and therefore number of tests. Screening at short intervals of three years or less was more cost-effective than using longer intervals. Screening at ages 55 to 59 years with two-year intervals had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $73000 per QALY gained and was considered optimal. With this strategy, lifetime prostate cancer mortality reduction was predicted as 13%, and 33% of the screen-detected cancers were overdiagnosed. When better quality of life for the post-treatment period could be achieved, an older age of 65 to 72 years for ending screening was obtained. Prostate cancer screening can be cost-effective when it is limited to two or three screens between ages 55 to 59 years. Screening above age 63 years is less cost-effective because of loss of QALYs because of overdiagnosis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Edwards, Brenda K.; Ward, Elizabeth; Kohler, Betsy A.; Eheman, Christie; Zauber, Ann G.; Anderson, Robert N.; Jemal, Ahmedin; Schymura, Maria J.; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Seeff, Laura C.; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Goede, S. Luuk; Ries, Lynn A. G.
Background The American Cancer Society (ACS), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) collaborate annually to provide updated information about cancer occurrence and trends in the United States (U.S.). This year’s report includes trends in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and death rates and highlights use of microsimulation modeling as a tool for interpreting past trends and projecting future trends to assist in cancer control planning and policy decisions. Methods Information on invasive cancers was obtained from the NCI, CDC, and NAACCR, and information on deaths from the CDC’s National Center for Health Statistics. Annual percentage changes in the age-standardized incidence and death rates (2000 U.S. population standard) for all cancers combined and for the top 15 cancers were estimated by joinpoint analysis of long-term (1975–2006) trends and short-term fixed interval (1997–2006) trends. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Both incidence and death rates from all cancers combined significantly declined (P < .05) in the most recent time period for men and women overall and for most racial and ethnic populations. These decreases were driven largely by declines in both incidence and death rates for the 3 most common cancers in men (i.e., lung and prostate cancers and CRC) and for two of the 3 leading cancers in women (i.e., breast cancer and CRC). The long-term trends for lung cancer mortality in women showed smaller and smaller increases until 2003 when there was a change to a non-significant decline. Microsimulation modeling shows that declines in CRC death rates are consistent with a relatively large contribution from screening and with a smaller but demonstrable impact of risk factor reductions and improved treatments. These declines are projected to continue if risk factor modification, screening, and treatment remain
Stahl, S M; Lawrie, T; Neill, P; Kelley, C
To evaluate different techniques intended to motivate community residents to have their blood pressures taken, five inner-city target areas with comparable, predominantly Black, populations were selected. A sample of about 200 households in each of four areas were subjected to different motivational interventions; in one of these four areas, households were approached in a series of four sequential steps. The fifth target area served as a control. Findings establish that home visits by community members trained to take blood pressure measurements (BPMs) in the home produces much larger yields of new (previously unknown) hypertensives than more passive techniques such as invitational letters and gift offers. Prior informational letters, including letters specifying time of visit, do not affect refusals or increase the yield. More "passive" motivational techniques yield a higher proportion of previously known hypertensives than the more "active" outreach efforts. PMID:848618
Stahl, S M; Lawrie, T; Neill, P; Kelley, C
To evaluate different techniques intended to motivate community residents to have their blood pressures taken, five inner-city target areas with comparable, predominantly Black, populations were selected. A sample of about 200 households in each of four areas were subjected to different motivational interventions; in one of these four areas, households were approached in a series of four sequential steps. The fifth target area served as a control. Findings establish that home visits by community members trained to take blood pressure measurements (BPMs) in the home produces much larger yields of new (previously unknown) hypertensives than more passive techniques such as invitational letters and gift offers. Prior informational letters, including letters specifying time of visit, do not affect refusals or increase the yield. More "passive" motivational techniques yield a higher proportion of previously known hypertensives than the more "active" outreach efforts.
Thompson, Tess; Kreuter, Matthew W.; McBride, Timothy D.
Persistent disparities in cancer screening by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status require innovative prevention tools and techniques. Behavioral economics provides tools to potentially reduce disparities by informing strategies and systems to increase prevention of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers. With an emphasis on the predictable, but sometimes flawed, mental shortcuts (heuristics) people use to make decisions, behavioral economics offers insights that practitioners can use to enhance evidence-based cancer screening interventions that rely on judgments about the probability of developing and detecting cancer, decisions about competing screening options, and the optimal presentation of complex choices (choice architecture). In the area of judgment, we describe ways practitioners can use the availability and representativeness of heuristics and the tendency toward unrealistic optimism to increase perceptions of risk and highlight benefits of screening. We describe how several behavioral economic principles involved in decision-making can influence screening attitudes, including how framing and context effects can be manipulated to highlight personally salient features of cancer screening tests. Finally, we offer suggestions about ways practitioners can apply principles related to choice architecture to health care systems in which cancer screening takes place. These recommendations include the use of incentives to increase screening, introduction of default options, appropriate feedback throughout the decision-making and behavior completion process, and clear presentation of complex choices, particularly in the context of colorectal cancer screening. We conclude by noting gaps in knowledge and propose future research questions to guide this promising area of research and practice. PMID:25590600
Taiwo, Oyebode A; Slade, Martin D; Cantley, Linda F; Tessier-Sherman, Baylah; Galusha, Deron; Kirsche, Sharon R; Donoghue, A Michael; Cullen, Mark R
To present results of a bladder cancer screening program conducted in 18 aluminum smelters in the United States from January 2000 to December 2010. Data were collected on a cohort of workers with a history of working in coal tar pitch volatile exposed areas including urine analysis for conventional cytology and ImmunoCyt/uCyt+ assay. ImmunoCyt/uCyt+ and cytology in combination showed a sensitivity of 62.30%, a specificity of 92.60%, a negative predictive value of 99.90%, and a positive predictive value of 2.96%. Fourteen cases of bladder cancer were detected, and the standardized incidence ratio of bladder cancer was 1.18 (95% confidence interval, 0.65 to 1.99). Individuals who tested positive on either test who were later determined to be cancer free had undergone expensive and invasive tests. Evidence to support continued surveillance of this cohort has not been demonstrated.
Van Dam, Jacques
Premalignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, such as Barrett's esophagus, long-standing ulcerative colitis, and adenomatous polyps, have a significantly increased risk for development of adenocarcinoma, most often through an intermediate stage of dysplasia. Adenocarcinoma of the colon is the second most common cancer in the United States. Because patients with colorectal cancer often present with advanced disease, the outcomes are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Effective methods of early detection are essential. As non-polypoid dysplasia is not visible using conventional endoscopy, surveillance of patients with Barrett's esophagus and ulcerative colitis is performed via a system in which multiple random biopsies are obtained at prescribed intervals. Sampling error and missed diagnoses occur frequently and render current screening methods inadequate. Also, the examination of a tissue biopsy is time consuming and costly, and significant intra- and inter-observer variation may occur. The newer methods discussed herein demonstrate the potential to solve these problems by early detection of disease with high sensitivity and specificity. Conventional endoscopy is based on the observation of white light reflected off the tissue surface. Subtle changes in color and shadow reveal structural changes. New developments in optical imaging go beyond white light, exploiting other properties of light. Several promising methods will be discussed at this meeting and shall be briefly discussed below. However, few such imaging modalities have arrived at our clinical practice. Some much more practical methods to improve colorectal cancer screening are currently being evaluated for their clinical impact. These methods seek to overcome limitations other than those of detecting dysplasia not visible under white light endoscopy. The current standard practice of colorectal cancer screening utilizes colonoscopy, an uncomfortable, sometimes difficult medical
Prostate cancer screening may help detect prostate cancer, but remains controversial as it has not been shown to reduce deaths from prostate cancer. Learn more about prostate cancer screening, including the potential benefits and harms, in this expert-reviewed information summary.
In both the absence and presence of screening, the R package lcrisks, calculates individual risks of lung cancer and lung cancer death based on covariates: age, education, sex, race, smoking intensity/duration/quit-years, Body Mass Index, family history of lung-cancer, and self-reported emphysema. In the presence of CT screening akin to the NLST (3 yearly screens, 5 years of follow-up), it uses the covariates to estimate risk of false-positive CT screen as well as the reduction in risk of lung cancer death and increase in risk of lung cancer screening.
Fujiwara, Hiroyuki; Shimoda, Akihiro; Ishikawa, Yoshiki; Taneichi, Akiyo; Ohashi, Mai; Takahashi, Yoshifumi; Koyanagi, Takahiro; Morisawa, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Suzuyo; Sato, Naoto; Machida, Shizuo; Takei, Yuji; Saga, Yasushi; Suzuki, Mitsuaki
In Japan, the cervical cancer screening rate is extremely low. Towards improving the cervical cancer screening rate, encouraging eligible people to make an informed choice, which is a decision-making process that relies on beliefs informed by adequate information about the possible benefits and risks of screening, has attracted increased attention in the public health domain. However, there is concern that providing information on possible risks of screening might prevent deter from participating. In total, 1,912 women aged 20-39 years who had not participated in screening in the fiscal year were selected from a Japanese urban community setting. Participants were randomly divided into 3 groups. Group A received a printed reminder with information about the possible benefits of screening, group B received a printed reminder with information about possible benefits and risks, and group C received a printed reminder with simple information only (control group). Out of 1,912 participants, 169 (8.8%) participated in cervical cancer screening. In the intervention groups, 137 (10.9%) participated in cervical cancer screening, compared to only 32 (4.9%) of the control group (p < 0.001). In addition, logistic regression analysis revealed that there was no significant difference in screening rate between group A and group B (p = 0.372). Providing information on the possible risks of screening may not prevent people from taking part in cervical cancer screening among a Japanese non-adherent population.
Schleis, Stephanie E
Cancer is increasingly more common. Several tests for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer in companion animals have been developed. Screening tests discussed include those for lymphoid neoplasia, hemangiosarcoma, and transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. None of these tests should be used in isolation for diagnosis. Vincristine and doxorubicin are mainstays in the treatment of canine lymphoma. However, it is important and accepted practice to test individuals of predisposed breeds for this mutation before administering these drugs in a lymphoma protocol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Isa Modibbo, Fatima; Dareng, Eileen; Bamisaye, Patience; Jedy-Agba, Elima; Adewole, Ayodele; Oyeneyin, Lawal; Olaniyan, Olayinka; Adebamowo, Clement
To explore the barriers to cervical cancer screening, focusing on religious and cultural factors, in order to inform group-specific interventions that may improve uptake of cervical cancer screening programmes. We conducted four focus group discussions among Muslim and Christian women in Nigeria. Discussions were conducted in two hospitals, one in the South West and the other in the North Central region of Nigeria. 27 Christian and 22 Muslim women over the age of 18, with no diagnosis of cancer. Most participants in the focus group discussions had heard about cervical cancer except Muslim women in the South Western region who had never heard about cervical cancer. Participants believed that wizardry, multiple sexual partners and inserting herbs into the vagina cause cervical cancer. Only one participant knew about the human papillomavirus. Among the Christian women, the majority of respondents had heard about cervical cancer screening and believed that it could be used to prevent cervical cancer. Participants mentioned religious and cultural obligations of modesty, gender of healthcare providers, fear of disclosure of results, fear of nosocomial infections, lack of awareness, discrimination at hospitals, and need for spousal approval as barriers to uptake of screening. These barriers varied by religion across the geographical regions. Barriers to cervical cancer screening vary by religious affiliations. Interventions to increase cervical cancer awareness and screening uptake in multicultural and multireligious communities need to take into consideration the varying cultural and religious beliefs in order to design and implement effective cervical cancer screening intervention programmes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Isa Modibbo, Fatima; Dareng, Eileen; Bamisaye, Patience; Jedy-Agba, Elima; Adewole, Ayodele; Oyeneyin, Lawal; Olaniyan, Olayinka; Adebamowo, Clement
Objectives To explore the barriers to cervical cancer screening, focusing on religious and cultural factors, in order to inform group-specific interventions that may improve uptake of cervical cancer screening programmes. Design We conducted four focus group discussions among Muslim and Christian women in Nigeria. Setting Discussions were conducted in two hospitals, one in the South West and the other in the North Central region of Nigeria. Participants 27 Christian and 22 Muslim women over the age of 18, with no diagnosis of cancer. Results Most participants in the focus group discussions had heard about cervical cancer except Muslim women in the South Western region who had never heard about cervical cancer. Participants believed that wizardry, multiple sexual partners and inserting herbs into the vagina cause cervical cancer. Only one participant knew about the human papillomavirus. Among the Christian women, the majority of respondents had heard about cervical cancer screening and believed that it could be used to prevent cervical cancer. Participants mentioned religious and cultural obligations of modesty, gender of healthcare providers, fear of disclosure of results, fear of nosocomial infections, lack of awareness, discrimination at hospitals, and need for spousal approval as barriers to uptake of screening. These barriers varied by religion across the geographical regions. Conclusions Barriers to cervical cancer screening vary by religious affiliations. Interventions to increase cervical cancer awareness and screening uptake in multicultural and multireligious communities need to take into consideration the varying cultural and religious beliefs in order to design and implement effective cervical cancer screening intervention programmes. PMID:26754174
Croswell, Jennifer Miller; Kramer, Barnett S.; Kreimer, Aimee R.; Prorok, Phil C.; Xu, Jian-Lun; Baker, Stuart G.; Fagerstrom, Richard; Riley, Thomas L.; Clapp, Jonathan D.; Berg, Christine D.; Gohagan, John K.; Andriole, Gerald L.; Chia, David; Church, Timothy R.; Crawford, E. David; Fouad, Mona N.; Gelmann, Edward P.; Lamerato, Lois; Reding, Douglas J.; Schoen, Robert E.
PURPOSE Multiple cancer screening tests have been advocated for the general population; however, clinicians and patients are not always well-informed of screening burdens. We sought to determine the cumulative risk of a false-positive screening result and the resulting risk of a diagnostic procedure for an individual participating in a multimodal cancer screening program. METHODS Data were analyzed from the intervention arm of the ongoing Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial, a randomized controlled trial to determine the effects of prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening on disease-specific mortality. The 68,436 participants, aged 55 to 74 years, were randomized to screening or usual care. Women received serial serum tests to detect cancer antigen 125 (CA-125), transvaginal sonograms, posteroanterior-view chest radiographs, and flexible sigmoidoscopies. Men received serial chest radiographs, flexible sigmoidoscopies, digital rectal examinations, and serum prostate-specific antigen tests. Fourteen screening examinations for each sex were possible during the 3-year screening period. RESULTS After 14 tests, the cumulative risk of having at least 1 false-positive screening test is 60.4% (95% CI, 59.8%–61.0%) for men, and 48.8% (95% CI, 48.1%–49.4%) for women. The cumulative risk after 14 tests of undergoing an invasive diagnostic procedure prompted by a false-positive test is 28.5% (CI, 27.8%–29.3%) for men and 22.1% (95% CI, 21.4%–22.7%) for women. CONCLUSIONS For an individual in a multimodal cancer screening trial, the risk of a false-positive finding is about 50% or greater by the 14th test. Physicians should educate patients about the likelihood of false positives and resulting diagnostic interventions when counseling about cancer screening. PMID:19433838
Lamort-Bouché, Marion; Sarnin, Philippe; Kok, Gerjo; Rouat, Sabrina; Péron, Julien; Letrilliart, Laurent; Fassier, Jean-Baptiste
The Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol provides a structured framework to develop, implement, and evaluate complex interventions. The main objective of this review was to identify and describe the content of the interventions developed in the field of cancer with the IM protocol. Secondary objectives were to assess their fidelity to the IM protocol and to review their theoretical frameworks. Medline, Web of Science, PsycINFO, PASCAL, FRANCIS, and BDSP databases were searched. All titles and abstracts were reviewed. A standardized extraction form was developed. All included studies were reviewed by 2 reviewers blinded to each other. Sixteen studies were identified, and these reported 15 interventions. The objectives were to increase cancer screening participation (n = 7), early consultation (n = 1), and aftercare/quality of life among cancer survivors (n = 7). Six reported a complete participatory planning group, and 7 described a complete logic model of the problem. Ten studies described a complete logic model of change. The main theoretical frameworks used were the theory of planned behaviour (n = 8), the transtheoretical model (n = 6), the health belief model (n = 6), and the social cognitive theory (n = 6). The environment was rarely integrated in the interventions (n = 4). Five interventions were reported as effective. Culturally relevant interventions were developed with the IM protocol that were effective to increase cancer screening and reduce social disparities, particularly when they were developed through a participative approach and integrated the environment. Stakeholders' involvement and the role of the environment were heterogeneously integrated in the interventions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Armstrong, Katrina; Kim, Jane J; Halm, Ethan A; Ballard, Rachel M; Schnall, Mitchell D
Multiple advisory groups now recommend that high-risk smokers be screened for lung cancer by low-dose computed tomography. Given that the development of lung cancer screening programs will face many of the same issues that have challenged other cancer screening programs, the National Cancer Institute-funded Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR) consortium was used to identify lessons learned from the implementation of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening that should inform the introduction of lung cancer screening. These lessons include the importance of developing systems for identifying and recruiting eligible individuals in primary care, ensuring that screening centers are qualified and performance is monitored, creating clear communication standards for reporting screening results to referring physicians and patients, ensuring follow-up is available for individuals with abnormal test results, avoiding overscreening, remembering primary prevention, and leveraging advances in cancer genetics and immunology. Overall, this experience emphasizes that effective cancer screening is a multistep activity that requires robust strategies to initiate, report, follow up, and track each step as well as a dynamic and ongoing oversight process to revise current screening practices as new evidence regarding screening is created, new screening technologies are developed, new biological markers are identified, and new approaches to health care delivery are disseminated. Cancer 2016;122:1338-1342. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
Gupta, Samir; Sussman, Daniel A; Doubeni, Chyke A; Anderson, Daniel S; Day, Lukejohn; Deshpande, Amar R; Elmunzer, B Joseph; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O; Mendez, Jeanette; Somsouk, Ma; Allison, James; Bhuket, Taft; Geng, Zhuo; Green, Beverly B; Itzkowitz, Steven H; Martinez, Maria Elena
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. CRC incidence and mortality can be reduced through screening. However, in the United States, screening participation remains suboptimal, particularly among underserved populations such as the uninsured, recent immigrants, and racial/ethnic minority groups. Increasing screening rates among underserved populations will reduce the US burden of CRC. In this commentary focusing on underserved populations, we highlight the public health impact of CRC screening, list key challenges to screening the underserved, and review promising approaches to boost screening rates. We identify four key policy and research priorities to increase screening among underserved populations: 1) actively promote the message, "the best test is the one that gets done"; 2) develop and implement methods to identify unscreened individuals within underserved population groups for screening interventions; 3) develop and implement approaches for organized screening delivery; and 4) fund and enhance programs and policies that provide access to screening, diagnostic follow-up, and CRC treatment for underserved populations. This commentary represents the consensus of a diverse group of experts in cancer control and prevention, epidemiology, gastroenterology, and primary care from across the country who formed the Coalition to Boost Screening among the Underserved in the United States. The group was organized and held its first annual working group meeting in conjunction with the World Endoscopy Organization's annual Colorectal Cancer Screening Committee meeting during Digestive Disease Week 2012 in San Diego, California.
Maxwell, Annette E; Danao, Leda L; Bastani, Roshan
Filipino Americans underutilize life-saving screening tests for colorectal cancer, resulting in late stage of diagnosis and poor survival relative to other racial/ethnic groups. Education regarding colorectal cancer screening and distribution of free fecal occult blood test (FOBT) kits are evidence-based interventions that can significantly increase screening. However, this community will only benefit if the intervention is broadly disseminated. We assessed the feasibility of promoting colorectal cancer screening in Filipino American community settings working with community health advisors, and the practicality of conducting one-on-one or small group education, in addition to passing out free FOBT kits. Twenty community health advisors from 4 organizations engaged in recruitment and education activities with 132 participants. Community health advisors consistently completed screening questionnaires to establish eligibility and kept logs of FOBT distribution. However, they did not consistently record eligible participants who did not consent to participate. Process checklists that indicated what information was covered in each educational session and postsession follow-up logs were partially completed. Almost all participants reported receipt of intervention components and receipt of screening at 4-month follow-up and reported high acceptability of the program. The pilot study established the feasibility of working with community health advisors to promote colorectal cancer screening in Filipino American community settings. Findings informed the design of a dissemination trial that is currently ongoing with regards to monitoring recruitment, intervention implementation and follow-up and allowing flexibility regarding one-on-one or small group education.
Miglioretti, Diana L.; Lange, Jane; van den Broek, Jeroen J.; Lee, Christoph I.; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T.; Ritley, Dominique; Kerlikowske, Karla; Fenton, Joshua J.; Melnikow, Joy; de Koning, Harry J.; Hubbard, Rebecca A.
Background Estimates of radiation-induced breast cancer risk from mammography screening have not previously considered dose exposure variation or diagnostic work-up after abnormal screening. Objective To estimate distributions of radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality from digital mammography screening, considering exposure from screening and diagnostic mammography and dose variation across women. Design Two simulation-modeling approaches using common data on screening mammography from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium and radiation dose from mammography from the Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial. Setting U.S. population. Patients Women aged 40–74 years. Interventions Annual or biennial digital mammography screening from age 40, 45, or 50 until 74. Measurements Lifetime breast cancer deaths averted (benefits) and radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality per 100,000 women screened (harms). Results On average, annual screening of 100,000 women aged 40 to 74 years was projected to induce 125 breast cancers (95% confidence interval [CI]=88–178) leading to 16 deaths (95% CI=11–23) relative to 968 breast cancer deaths averted by early detection from screening. Women exposed at the 95th percentile were projected to develop 246 radiation-induced breast cancers leading to 32 deaths per 100,000 women. Women with large breasts requiring extra views for complete breast examination (8% of population) were projected to have higher radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality (266 cancers, 35 deaths per 100,000 women), compared to women with small or average breasts (113 cancers, 15 deaths per 100,000 women). Biennial screening starting at age 50 reduced risk of radiation-induced cancers 5-fold. Limitations We were unable to estimate years of life lost from radiation-induced breast cancer. Conclusions Radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality from digital mammography screening are impacted by dose
Steinwachs, Donald; Allen, Jennifer Dacey; Barlow, William Eric; Duncan, R Paul; Egede, Leonard E; Friedman, Lawrence S; Keating, Nancy L; Kim, Paula; Lave, Judith R; LaVeist, Thomas A; Ness, Roberta B; Optican, Robert J; Virnig, Beth A
To provide health care providers, patients, and the general public with a responsible assessment of currently available data on enhancing use and quality of colorectal cancer screening. A non-DHHS, nonadvocate 13-member panel representing the fields of cancer surveillance, health services research, community-based research, informed decision-making, access to care, health care policy, health communication, health economics, health disparities, epidemiology, statistics, thoracic radiology, internal medicine, gastroenterology, public health, end-of-life care, and a public representative. In addition, 20 experts from pertinent fields presented data to the panel and conference audience. Presentations by experts and a systematic review of the literature prepared by the RTI International-University of North Carolina Evidence-based Practice Center, through the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Scientific evidence was given precedence over anecdotal experience. The panel drafted its statement based on scientific evidence presented in open forum and on published scientific literature. The draft statement was presented on the final day of the conference and circulated to the audience for comment. The panel released a revised statement later that day at http://consensus.nih.gov. This statement is an independent report of the panel and is not a policy statement of the NIH or the Federal Government. The panel found that despite substantial progress toward higher colorectal cancer screening rates nationally, screening rates fall short of desirable levels. Targeted initiatives to improve screening rates and reduce disparities in underscreened communities and population subgroups could further reduce colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality. This could be achieved by utilizing the full range of screening options and evidence-based interventions for increasing screening rates. With additional investments in quality monitoring, Americans could be assured that all
Hannon, Peggy A.; Escoffery, Cam; Vu, Thuy; Kohn, Marlana; Vernon, Sally W.; DeGroff, Amy
Introduction Since 2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has awarded nearly $95 million to 29 states and tribes through the Colorectal Cancer Control Program (CRCCP) to fund 2 program components: 1) providing colorectal cancer (CRC) screening to uninsured and underinsured low-income adults and 2) promoting population-wide CRC screening through evidence-based interventions identified in the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide). CRCCP is a new model for disseminating and promoting use of evidence-based interventions. If the program proves successful, CDC may adopt the model for future cancer control programs. The objective of our study was to compare the colorectal cancer screening practices of recipients of CRCCP funding (grantees) with those of nonrecipients (nongrantees). Methods We conducted parallel Web-based surveys in 2012 with CRCCP grantees (N = 29) and nongrantees (N = 24) to assess promotion and provision of CRC screening, including the use of evidence-based interventions. Results CRCCP grantees were significantly more likely than nongrantees to use Community Guide-recommended evidence-based interventions (mean, 3.14 interventions vs 1.25 interventions, P < .001) and to use patient navigation services (eg, transportion or language translation services) (72% vs 17%, P < .001) for promoting CRC screening. Both groups were equally likely to use other strategies. CRCCP grantees were significantly more likely to provide CRC screening than were nongrantees (100% versus 50%, P < .001). Conclusion Results suggest that CRCCP funding and support increases use of evidence-based interventions to promote CRC screening, indicating the program’s potential to increase population-wide CRC screening rates. PMID:25275807
Kanthan, Rani; Senger, Jenna-Lynn; Kanthan, Selliah Chandra
Despite multiple screening techniques, including colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, radiological imaging, and fecal occult blood testing, colorectal cancer remains a leading cause of death. As these techniques improve, their sensitivity to detect malignant lesions is increasing; however, detection of precursor lesions remains problematic and has generated a lack of general acceptance for their widespread usage. Early detection by an accurate, noninvasive, cost-effective, simple-to-use screening technique is central to decreasing the incidence and mortality of this disease. Recent advances in the development of molecular markers in faecal specimens are encouraging for its use as a screening tool. Genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations that result from the carcinogenetic process can be detected by coprocytobiology in the colonocytes exfoliated from the lesion into the fecal matter. These markers have shown promising sensitivity and specificity in the detection of both malignant and premalignant lesions and are gaining popularity as a noninvasive technique that is representative of the entire colon. In this paper, we summarize the genetic and epigenetic fecal molecular markers that have been identified as potential targets in the screening of colorectal cancer. PMID:22969796
Menon, Usha; Szalacha, Laura A; Belue, Rhonda; Rugen, Kathryn; Martin, Kelly R; Kinney, Anita Y
Increasing colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) can have a substantial positive impact on morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this report is to describe the development and feasibility testing of a computer-based, theory-guided educational program designed to increase CRCS. This mixed-methods study used focus groups and subsequent randomized controlled trial design. Participants (N = 199) were randomized to an intervention or control group; 75% were African American; mean age was 57.36 (SD = 6.8); 71% were male. Previously validated measures on knowledge, beliefs, and screening test adherence were used to establish pre- and post-intervention perceptions. Feasibility was measured by response and completion rates, and participants' perceptions of the program. Before feasibility testing, the program was presented to 2 focus groups. Changes were made to the program based on discussion, leading to a visually appealing, easy to understand and navigate, self-paced program. In the RCT pilot test that followed, of the participants in the intervention group, 80% said the education helped them decide to get CRCS; 49% agreed it helped them overcome barriers; 91% agreed it was useful, 68% thought it raised new concerns about cancer, but only 30% said it made them worry about CRC; 95% agreed their doctor's office should continue giving such education, and 99% said they would inform family about the program. The response rate of 83% demonstrated feasibility of conducting colorectal cancer education in the primary care setting; overall the program was well received; participants averaged 23 minutes to complete it. Participants sought no help from attending data collectors and navigated the revised touch screen program with ease. Computer-based education is feasible in primary care clinics.
Hamashima, Chisato; Ogoshi, Kazuei; Narisawa, Rintarou; Kishi, Tomoki; Kato, Toshiyuki; Fujita, Kazutaka; Sano, Masatoshi; Tsukioka, Satoshi
AIM: To investigate mortality reduction from gastric cancer based on the results of endoscopic screening. METHODS: The study population consisted of participants of gastric cancer screening by endoscopy, regular radiography, and photofluorography at Niigata city in 2005. The observed numbers of cumulative deaths from gastric cancers and other cancers were accumulated by linkage with the Niigata Prefectural Cancer Registry. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of gastric cancer and other cancer deaths in each screening group was calculated by applying the mortality rate of the reference population. RESULTS: Based on the results calculated from the mortality rate of the population of Niigata city, the SMRs of gastric cancer death were 0.43 (95%CI: 0.30-0.57) for the endoscopic screening group, 0.68 (95%CI: 0.55-0.79) for the regular radiographic screening group, and 0.85 (95%CI: 0.71-0.94) for the photofluorography screening group. The mortality reduction from gastric cancer was higher in the endoscopic screening group than in the regular radiographic screening group despite the nearly equal mortality rates of all cancers except gastric cancer. CONCLUSION: The 57% mortality reduction from gastric cancer might indicate the effectiveness of endoscopic screening for gastric cancer. Further studies and prudent interpretation of results are needed. PMID:25741155
Knight, Jennifer Redmond; Kanotra, Sarojini; Siameh, Seth; Jones, Jessica; Thompson, Becki; Thomas-Cox, Sue
Colorectal cancer screening rates have increased significantly in Kentucky, from 35% in 1999 to 66% in 2012. A continued improvement in screening requires identification of existing barriers and implementation of interventions to address barriers. The state of Kentucky added a question to the 2012 Kentucky Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey for respondents aged 50 years or older who answered no to ever having been screened for colorectal cancer by colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy to assess the reasons why respondents had not been screened. Combined responses constituted 4 categories: attitudes and beliefs, health care provider and health care systems barriers, cost, and other. Prevalence estimates for barriers were calculated by using raking weights and were stratified by race/ethnicity, sex, education, income, and health insurance coverage. Logistic regression estimated odds ratios for barriers to screening. The most common barriers in all areas were related to attitudes and beliefs, followed by health care provider and systems, and cost. Non-Hispanic whites and respondents with more than a high school education were more likely to choose attitudes and beliefs as a barrier than were non-Hispanic blacks and those with less than a high school education. Respondents with low incomes and with no insurance were significantly more likely to select cost as a barrier. No significant associations were observed between demographic variables and the selection of a health care provider and a health care system. Barriers related to education, race/ethnicity, income, and insurance coverage should be considered when designing interventions. Expansion of Medicaid and implementation of the Affordable Care Act in Kentucky could have an impact on reducing these barriers.
Babor, Thomas F.; Higgins-Biddle, John C.; Higgins, Pamela S.; Gassman, Ruth A.; Gould, Bruce E.
Although progress has been made in developing a scientific basis for alcohol screening and brief intervention (SBI), training packages are necessary for its widespread dissemination in primary care settings. This paper evaluates a training package developed for the Cutting Back[R] SBI program. Three groups of medical personnel were compared before…
The research literature on screening and brief intervention (SBI) for unhealthy alcohol use is large and diverse. More than 50 clinical trials and 9 systematic reviews have been published on SBI in a range of healthcare settings, and via a variety of delivery approaches, in general practice, hospital wards, emergency departments, addiction…
Wernli, Karen J.; Hubbard, Rebecca A.; Johnson, Eric; Chubak, Jessica; Kamineni, Aruna; Green, Beverly B.; Rutter, Carolyn M.
Background We describe patterns of colorectal cancer screening uptake in a U.S. insured population as individuals become newly-eligible for screening at age 50 and assess temporal trends and patient characteristics with screening uptake. Methods We identified a cohort of 81,223 men and women who were members of Group Health and turned 50 years old from 1996 – 2010. We ascertained receipt of colorectal cancer screening within five years. Time to screening was estimated by year of cohort entry using cumulative incidence curves and Cox proportional hazards models estimated patient characteristics associated with screening uptake. Results Stool-based screening tests were the most common, 72% of first screening tests. The proportion of individuals initiating colorectal cancer screening via colonoscopy increased from 8% in 1996–98 to 33% in 2008–10. Patient factors associated with increased colorectal cancer screening were: turning 50 more recently (2008–10) (p-trend<0.0001) or Asian race (HR=1.14, 95% CI 1.10–1.19). Patient factors associated with decreased screening were: being a woman (HR=0.70, 95% CI 0.68–0.72), Native American (HR=0.68, 95% CI 0.60–0.78) or Pacific Islander race (HR=0.82, 95% CI 0.72–0.95), and having prevalent diabetes (HR=0.78, 95% CI 0.75–0.82) and higher body mass index (p-trend<0.0001). Conclusions Patient characteristics associated with initiation of colorectal cancer screening in a newly-eligible population are similar to characteristics associated with overall screening participation in all age-eligible adults. Our results identify patient populations to target in outreach programs. Impact Disparities in receipt of colorectal cancer screening are evident from onset of an age-eligible cohort, identifying key groups for future interventions for screening. PMID:24793956
Ryan, Patricia Y; Graves, Kristi D; Pavlik, Edward J; Andrykowski, Michael A
Considerable effort has been devoted to the identification of cost-effective approaches to screening for ovarian cancer (OC). Transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) is one such screening approach. Approximately 5-7% of routine TVS screening tests yield abnormal results. Some women experience significant distress after receipt of an abnormal TVS screening test. Four focus groups provided in-depth, qualitative data regarding the informational, psychological, and practical needs of women after the receipt of an abnormal TVS result. Through question and content analytic procedures, we identified four themes: anticipation, emotional response, role of the screening technician, and impact of prior cancer experiences. Results provide initial guidance toward development of interventions to promote adaptive responses after receipt of an abnormal cancer screening test result.
Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Yoon Young; Yoon, Hyo Joong; Choi, Eunji; Suh, Mina; Park, Boyoung; Jun, Jae Kwan; Kim, Yeol; Choi, Kui Son
Communicating the harms and benefits of thyroid screening is necessary to help individuals decide on whether or not to undergo thyroid cancer screening. This study was conducted to assess changes in thyroid cancer screening intention in response to receiving information about overdiagnosis and to determine factors with the greatest influence thereon. Data were acquired from subjects included in the 2013 Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), a nationwide, population-based, cross-sectional survey. Of the 4,100 respondents in the 2013 KNCSS, women were randomly subsampled and an additional face-to-face interview was conducted. Finally, a total of 586 female subjects were included in this study. Intention to undergo thyroid cancer screening was assessed before and after receiving information on overdiagnosis. Prior awareness of overdiagnosis in thyroid cancer screening was 27.8%. The majority of subjects intended to undergo thyroid cancer screening before and after receiving information on overdiagnosis (87% and 74%, respectively). Only a small number of subjects changed their intention to undergo thyroid cancer screening from positive to negative after receiving information on overdiagnosis. Women of higher education level and Medical Aid Program recipients reported being significantly more likely to change their intention to undergo thyroid cancer screening afterreceiving information on overdiagnosis,whilewomen with stronger beliefs on the efficacy of cancer screening were less likely to change their intention. Women in Korea appeared to be less concerned about overdiagnosis when deciding whether or not to undergo thyroid cancer screening.
Timmers, Johanna M; den Heeten, Gerard J; Adang, Eddy M; Otten, Johannes D; Verbeek, André L; Broeders, Mireille J
In comparison to other European population-based breast cancer screening programmes, the Dutch programme has a low referral rate, similar breast cancer detection and a high breast cancer mortality reduction. The referral rate in the Netherlands has increased over time and is expected to rise further, mainly following nationwide introduction of digital mammography, completed in 2010. This study explores the consequences of the introduction of digital mammography on the balance between referral rate, detection of breast cancer, diagnostic work-up and associated costs. Detailed information on diagnostic work-up (chart review) was obtained from referred women (n = 988) in 2000-06 (100% analogue mammography) and 2007 (75% digital mammography) in Nijmegen, the Netherlands. The average referral rate increased from 15 (2000-06) to 34 (2007) per 1000 women screened. The number of breast cancers detected increased from 5.5 to 7.8 per 1000 screens, whereas the positive predictive value fell from 37% to 23%. A sharp rise in diagnostic work-up procedures and total diagnostic costs was seen. On the other hand, costs of a single work-up slightly decreased, as less surgical biopsies were performed. Our study shows that a low referral rate in combination with the introduction of digital mammography affects the balance between referral rate and detection rate and can substantially influence breast cancer care and associated costs. Referral rates in the Netherlands are now more comparable to other countries. This effect is therefore of value in countries where implementation of digital breast cancer screening has just started or is still under discussion.
Nguyen, Anh B; Clark, Trenette T
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of demographic variables and the interplay between collectivism and acculturation on breast and cervical cancer screening outcomes among Vietnamese American women. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 111 Vietnamese women from the Richmond, VA, metropolitan area, who participated in a larger cancer screening intervention. All participants completed measures on demographic variables, collectivism, acculturation, and cancer-screening-related variables (i.e., attitudes, self-efficacy, and screening behavior). Findings indicated that collectivism predicted both positive attitudes and higher levels of self-efficacy with regard to breast and cervical cancer screening. Collectivism also moderated the relationship between acculturation and attitudes toward breast cancer screening such that for women with low levels of collectivistic orientation, increasing acculturation predicted less positive attitudes towards breast cancer screening. This relationship was not found for women with high levels of collectivistic orientation. The current findings highlight the important roles that sociodemographic and cultural variables play in affecting health attitudes, self-efficacy, and behavior among Vietnamese women. The findings potentially inform screening programs that rely on culturally relevant values in helping increase Vietnamese women's motivation to screen.
NGUYEN, ANH B.; CLARK, TRENETTE T.
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of demographic variables and the interplay between collectivism and acculturation on breast and cervical cancer screening outcomes among Vietnamese American women. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 111 Vietnamese women from the Richmond, VA, metropolitan area, who participated in a larger cancer screening intervention. All participants completed measures on demographic variables, collectivism, acculturation, and cancer-screening-related variables (i.e., attitudes, self-efficacy, and screening behavior). Findings indicated that collectivism predicted both positive attitudes and higher levels of self-efficacy with regard to breast and cervical cancer screening. Collectivism also moderated the relationship between acculturation and attitudes toward breast cancer screening such that for women with low levels of collectivistic orientation, increasing acculturation predicted less positive attitudes towards breast cancer screening. This relationship was not found for women with high levels of collectivistic orientation. The current findings highlight the important roles that sociodemographic and cultural variables play in affecting health attitudes, self-efficacy, and behavior among Vietnamese women. The findings potentially inform screening programs that rely on culturally relevant values in helping increase Vietnamese women’s motivation to screen. PMID:24313445
Chacko, Lyssa; Macaron, Carole; Burke, Carol A
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading cancers and cause of cancer deaths in American women and men. Females and males share a similar lifetime cumulative risk of CRC however, substantial differences in risk factors, tumor biology, and effectiveness of cancer prevention services have been observed between them. This review distills the evidence documenting the unique variation observed between the genders relating to CRC risk factors, screening and prevention. Consistent evidence throughout the world demonstrates that women reach equivalent levels of adenomas and CRC as men but it occurs nearly a decade later in life than in their male counterparts. Women have a higher proportion of tumors which are hypermethylated, have microsatellite instability and located in the proximal colon suggesting the serrated pathway may be of greater consequence in them than in men. Other CRC risk factors such as smoking, diet and obesity have been shown to have disparate effects on women which may related to interactions between estrogen exposure, body fat distribution, and the biologic underpinnings of their tumors. There is data showing the uptake, choice, and efficacy of different CRC screening methods in women is dissimilar to that in men. The mortality benefit from FOBT, sigmoidoscopy, and protection from interval CRC by colonoscopy appears to be lower in women than men. A greater understanding of these gender idiosyncrasies will facilitate an personalized approach to CRC prevention and should ultimately lead to a reduced burden of disease.
Mann, Lilli; Foley, Kristie L.; Tanner, Amanda E.; Sun, Christina J.; Rhodes, Scott D.
Purpose Hispanic/Latina women experience the highest cervical cancer incidence rates of any racial/ethnic group in the United States (US), and tend to present with more severe cases and experience higher mortality compared to most other populations. The goal of this qualitative systematic review was to explore existing interventions to increase cervical cancer screening among US Hispanics/Latinas and to identify characteristics of effective interventions and research gaps. Materials and Methods Six online databases were searched from their inception through June 30, 2013, using designated search terms and keywords. Peer-reviewed articles that documented an intervention designed to improve screening for cervical cancer among Hispanics/Latinas ages 18 years and older living in the US were reviewed. Data were abstracted using a standardized form to document intervention characteristics and results. Results Forty-five articles, describing 32 unique interventions, met inclusion criteria. Identified interventions consisted primarily of educational programs and/or provision of screening. Interventions used lay health advisors (LHAs), clinic-based outreach/delivery strategies, partnerships with churches, and mass media campaigns. Twelve interventions resulted in significant increases in cervical cancer screening rates. Conclusions Interventions developed utilizing theory, applying community-based participatory research approaches, and using lay health advisors were identified as having the greatest potential for improving cervical cancer screening among Hispanics/Latinas. There continues to be a need for the development of interventions in geographic areas with new and emerging Hispanic/Latino populations and that are comprehensive, follow participants for longer periods of time, and broaden the roles and build the capacities of LHAs. PMID:25154515
Muñoz-Largacha, Juan A; Steiling, Katrina A; Kathuria, Hasmeena; Charlot, Marjory; Fitzgerald, Carmel; Suzuki, Kei; Litle, Virginia R
Safety net hospitals provide care mostly to low-income, uninsured, and vulnerable populations, in whom delays in cancer screening are established barriers. Socioeconomic barriers might pose important challenges to the success of a lung cancer screening program at a safety net hospital. We aimed to determine screening follow-up compliance, rates of diagnostic and treatment procedures, and the rate of cancer diagnosis in patients classified as category 4 by the Lung CT Screening Reporting and Data System (Lung-RADS 4). We conducted a retrospective review of all patients enrolled in our multidisciplinary lung cancer screening program between March 2015 and July 2016. Demographics, smoking status, Lung-RADS score, and number of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions and cancer diagnoses were captured. A total of 554 patients were screened over a 16-month period. The mean patient age was 63 years (range, 47-85 years), and 60% were male. The majority (92%; 512 of 554) were classified as Lung-RADS 1 to 3, and 8% (42 of 554) were classified as Lung-RADS 4. Among the Lung-RADS 4 patients, 98% (41 of 42) completed their recommended follow-up; 29% (12 of 42) underwent a diagnostic procedure, for an overall diagnostic intervention rate of 2% (12 of 554). Eleven of these 12 patients had cancer, and 1 patient had sarcoidosis. The overall rate of surgical resection was 0.9% (5 of 554), and the rate of diagnostic intervention for noncancer diagnosis was 0.1% (1 of 554). Implementation of a multidisciplinary lung cancer screening program at a safety net hospital is feasible. Compliance with follow-up and interventional recommendations in Lung-RADS 4 patients was high despite anticipated social challenges. Overall diagnostic and surgical resection rates and interventions for noncancer diagnosis were low in our initial experience. Copyright © 2018 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Koskan, Alexis M.; LeBlanc, Natalie; Rosa-Cunha, Isabella
Background The incidence of anal cancer is on the rise among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Given the increasing availability of screening, this study explored anal cancer screening awareness and behaviors among MSM infected with HIV. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 58 MSM infected with HIV. Results Other than 2 participants treated for anal cancer and 3 treated for precancerous anal lesions, the majority of participants had never heard of anal cancer. Men reported lack of awareness and recommendations from their health care professionals as the greatest barriers to screening. Upon learning about their risk for anal cancer and the availability of screening, the men were eager to discuss screening with their physicians. Participants provided numerous recommendations for future interventions, including training health care professionals to promote screening, disseminating information pertaining to anal cancer through social networks, and creating media campaigns to raise awareness about the need to screen for this type of cancer. Conclusions Future intervention work should focus on ensuring that health care professionals, particularly among HIV/primary care specialists, promote screening for anal dysplasia. It is critical that intervention methods use a community-based approach to raise awareness about the need to screen for anal cancer, especially among MSM infected with HIV. PMID:27009457
Honeycutt, Sally; Green, Rhonda; Ballard, Denise; Hermstad, April; Brueder, Alex; Haardörfer, Regine; Yam, Jennifer; Arriola, Kimberly J
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Early detection through recommended screening has been shown to have favorable treatment outcomes, yet screening rates among the medically underserved and uninsured are low, particularly for rural and minority populations. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a patient navigation program that addresses individual and systemic barriers to CRC screening for patients at rural, federally qualified community health centers. This quasi-experimental evaluation compared low-income patients at average risk for CRC (n = 809) from 4 intervention clinics and 9 comparison clinics. We abstracted medical chart data on patient demographics, CRC history and risk factors, and CRC screening referrals and examinations. Outcomes of interest were colonoscopy referral and examination during the study period and being compliant with recommended screening guidelines at the end of the study period. We conducted multilevel logistic analyses to evaluate the program's effectiveness. Patients at intervention clinics were significantly more likely than patients at comparison clinics to undergo colonoscopy screening (35% versus 7%, odds ratio = 7.9, P < .01) and be guideline-compliant on at least one CRC screening test (43% versus 11%, odds ratio = 5.9, P < .001). Patient navigation, delivered through the Community Cancer Screening Program, can be an effective approach to ensure that lifesaving, preventive health screenings are provided to low-income adults in a rural setting. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society.
Egawa-Takata, Tomomi; Ueda, Yutaka; Tanaka, Yusuke; Morimoto, Akiko; Kubota, Satoshi; Yagi, Asami; Terai, Yoshito; Ohmichi, Masahide; Ichimura, Tomoyuki; Sumi, Toshiyuki; Murata, Hiromi; Okada, Hidetaka; Nakai, Hidekatsu; Mandai, Masaki; Yoshino, Kiyoshi; Kimura, Tadashi; Saito, Junko; Kudo, Risa; Sekine, Masayuki; Enomoto, Takayuki; Horikoshi, Yorihiko; Takagi, Tetsu; Shimura, Kentaro
Cervical cancer and its precancerous lesions caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) are steadily increasing in women in Japan. In comparison with women in other resource-rich countries, young women in Japan have a dismally low screening rate for cervical cancer. Our preliminary research has shown that 20-year-old women in Japan usually ask their mothers for advice regarding their initial cervical cancer screening. The objective of our current research is to determine the social factors among mothers in Japan that are causing them to give advice to their daughters regarding the HPV vaccine and cervical cancer screening. The survey's targets were mothers who had 20-year-old daughters. We recruited respondents from the roster of a commercial internet survey panel. We analyzed for correlations between a mother's knowledge concerning cervical cancer, her recent cancer screening history, and the advice she gave to her daughter regarding cervical cancer screening. We obtained 618 valid answers to the survey. Compared with mothers who did not get screening, mothers who had cervical cancer screening had significantly more knowledge about cervical cancer and its screening (p < 0.05). The daughters of mothers with recent screening had received HPV vaccination more often than those of mothers without recent screening (p = 0.018). Mothers with recent screening histories tended more often to encourage their daughters to have cervical cancer screening (p < 0.05). When mothers were properly educated concerning cervical cancer and its screening, they were significantly more likely than before to recommend that their daughters have it (p < 0.0001). In young Japanese women, given the important role their mothers have in their lives, it is probable that we could improve their cervical cancer screening rate significantly by giving their mothers better medical information, and a chance to experience cervical cancer screening for themselves.
Pusateri-Vlach, Nancy F.; Moracco, John C.
Recounts the history of cancer treatment to illustrate the long-standing tradition of a holistic approach to the investigation and treatment of cancer, discusses the growing emphasis on holistic cancer treatment and the importance of counseling in such treatment. (Author)
Abboud, Sarah; De Penning, Emily; Brawner, Bridgette M.; Menon, Usha; Glanz, Karen; Sommers, Marilyn S.
Problem Identification Arab American women are an ethnic minority and immigrant population in the United States with unique and nuanced sociocultural factors that influence preventive health behaviors. The aims of this article are to evaluate and synthesize the existing evidence on cervical cancer screening behaviors, as well as determine factors that influence these behaviors, among Arab American women. Literature Search Extensive literature searches were performed using PubMed, CINAHL®, Scopus, Embase, and Cochrane databases; articles published through October 2015 were sought. Data Evaluation Of 17 articles, 14 explicitly identified Arab and/or Muslim women and cervical cancer screening in either the title or the abstract; the remaining three focused on cancer attitudes and behaviors in Arab Americans in general but measured cervical cancer screening. Eleven articles reported different aspects of one intervention. Because of methodologic heterogeneity, the current authors synthesized results narratively. Synthesis Key factors influencing cervical cancer screening were identified as the following: knowledge of cervical cancer screening and prevention; attitudes and beliefs; healthcare setting; education, marital status, income, and social support; and immigration and acculturation. Conclusions Cervical cancer screening rates among Arab American women are comparable to other ethnic minorities and lower than non-Hispanic White women. Findings are inconsistent regarding factors influencing cervical cancer screening behaviors in this underrepresented group. Implications for Research Significant need exists for more research to better understand cervical cancer prevention behaviors in this group to inform culturally relevant interventions. Healthcare providers play a crucial role in increasing cervical cancer screening awareness and recommendations for Arab American women. PMID:27991600
Bastani, Roshan; Danao, Leda L.; Antonio, Cynthia; Garcia, Gabriel M.; Crespi, Catherine M.
Objectives. We conducted 1 of the first community-based trials to develop a multicomponent intervention that would increase colorectal cancer screening among an Asian American population. Methods. Filipino Americans (n = 548) nonadherent to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening guidelines were randomized into an intervention group that received an education session on CRC screening and free fecal occult blood test (FOBT) kits; a second intervention group that received an education session but no free FOBT kits; and a control group that received an education session on the health benefits of physical activity. Results. Self-reported CRC screening rates during the 6-month follow-up period were 30%, 25%, and 9% for participants assigned to intervention with FOBT kit, intervention without the kit, and control group, respectively. Participants in either of the 2 intervention groups were significantly more likely to report screening at follow-up than were participants in the control group. Conclusions. A multicomponent intervention that includes an educational group session in a community setting can significantly increase CRC screening among Filipino Americans, even when no free FOBT kits are distributed. PMID:20864724
Objective To review the trends in and principles of cancer screening and early detection. Data Sources Journal articles, United States Preventive Services Task Force (U SPSTF) publications, professional organization position statements, evidence-based summaries Conclusion Cancer screening has contributed to decreasing the morbidity and mortality of cancer. Efforts to improve the selection of candidates for cancer screening, to understand the biological basis of carcinogenesis, and the development of new technologies for cancer screening will allow for improvements in the cancer screening over time. Implications for Nursing Practice Nurses are well-positioned to lead the implementation of cancer screening recommendations in the 21st Century through their practice, research, educational efforts and advocacy. PMID:28343835
DeGroff, Amy; Coa, Kisha; Morrissey, Kerry Grace; Rohan, Elizabeth; Slotman, Beth
Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer mortality among those cancers affecting both men and women. Screening is known to reduce mortality by detecting cancer early and through colonoscopy, removing precancerous polyps. Only 58.6% of adults are currently up-to-date with colorectal cancer screening by any method. Patient navigation shows promise in increasing adherence to colorectal cancer screening and reducing health disparities; however, it is a complex intervention that is operationalized differently across institutions. This article describes 10 key considerations in designing a patient navigation intervention for colorectal cancer screening based on a literature review and environmental scan. Factors include (1) identifying a theoretical framework and setting program goals, (2) specifying community characteristics, (3) establishing the point(s) of intervention within the cancer continuum, (4) determining the setting in which navigation services are provided, (5) identifying the range of services offered and patient navigator responsibilities, (6) determining the background and qualifications of navigators, (7) selecting the method of communications between patients and navigators, (8) designing the navigator training, (9) defining oversight and supervision for the navigators, and (10) evaluating patient navigation. Public health practitioners can benefit from the practical perspective offered here for designing patient navigation programs. © 2013 Society for Public Health Education.
Chad-Friedman, Emma; Coleman, Sarah; Traeger, Lara N; Pirl, William F; Goldman, Roberta; Atlas, Steven J; Park, Elyse R
Current national cancer screening recommendations include the potential risk of psychological harm related to screening. However, data on the relation of psychological distress to cancer screening is limited. The authors conducted a systematic review to assess psychological distress associated with cancer screening procedures. Studies that administered measures of psychological distress between 2 weeks before and 1 month after the screening procedure were included. In total, 22 eligible studies met criteria for review, including 13 observational trials and 9 randomized controlled trials. Eligible studies used a broad range of validated and unvalidated measures. Anxiety was the most commonly assessed construct and was measured using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory. Studies included breast, colorectal, prostate, lung, and cervical screening procedures. Distress was low across procedures, with the exception of colorectal screening. Distress did not vary according to the time at which distress was measured. None of the studies were conducted exclusively with the intention of assessing distress at the time of screening. Evidence of low distress during the time of cancer screening suggests that distress might not be a widespread barrier to screening among adults who undergo screening. However, more studies are needed using validated measures of distress to further understand the extent to which screening may elicit psychological distress and impede adherence to national screening recommendations. Cancer 2017;123:3882-94. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
McGregor, M; Hanley, J A; Boivin, J F; McLean, R G
BACKGROUND: No randomized controlled trial of prostate cancer screening has been reported and none is likely to be completed in the near future. In the absence of direct evidence, the decision to screen must therefore be based on estimates of benefits and risks. The main risk of screening is overdetection--the detection of cancer that, if left untreated, would not cause death. In this study the authors estimate the level of overdetection that might result from annual screening of men aged 50-70. METHODS: The annual rate of lethal screen-detectable cancer (detectable cancer that would prove fatal before age 85 if left untreated) was calculated from the observed prostate cancer mortality rate in Quebec; the annual rate of all cases of screen-detectable prostate cancer was calculated from 2 recent screening studies. RESULTS: The annual rate of lethal screen-detectable prostate cancer was estimated to be 1.3 per 1000 men. The annual rate of all cases of screen-detectable prostate cancer was estimated to be 8.0 per 1000 men. The estimated case-fatality rate among men up to 85 years of age was 16% (1.3/8.0) (sensitivity analysis 13% to 22%). INTERPRETATION: Of every 100 men with screen-detected prostate cancer, only 16 on average (13 to 22) could have their lives extended by surgery, since the prostate cancer would not cause death before age 85 in the remaining 84 (78 to 87). PMID:9861205
Oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer screening is not recommended as part of routine cancer screening. Get detailed information about screening, including the potential benefits and harms of screening for these cancers in this summary for clinicians.
Goulart, Bernardo H L
Hospitals have been gradually implementing new lung cancer CT screening programs following the release of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force grade B recommendation to screen individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Policy makers have legitimately questioned whether adoption of CT screening in the community will reproduce the mortality benefits seen in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) and whether the benefits of screening will justify the potentially high costs. Although three annual CT screening exams proved cost-effective for the patient population enrolled in the NLST, uncertainty still exists about whether CT screening will be cost-effective in practice. The value of CT screening will depend largely on the strategies used to implement it. This manuscript reviews the current reimbursement policies for CT screening and explains the relationship between implementation strategies and screening value on the basis of the NLST cost-effectiveness analysis and other published data. A subsequent discussion ensues about the potential implementation inefficiencies that can negatively affect the value of CT screening (e.g., selection of low-risk individuals for screening, inappropriate follow-up visits for screening-detected lung nodules, failure to offer smoking cessation interventions, and overuse of medical resources for clinically irrelevant incidental findings) and the actions that can be taken to mitigate these inefficiencies and increase the value of screening.
Saywell, Robert M; Champion, Victoria L; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Menon, Usha; Daggy, Joanne
Mammography is the primary method used for breast cancer screening. However, adherence to recommended screening practices is still below acceptable levels. This study examined the cost-effectiveness of three combinations of tailored telephone and mailed intervention strategies for increasing adherence to mammography. There were 1044 participants who were randomly assigned to one of four groups. A logistic regression model with adherence as the dependent variable and group as the independent variable was used to test for significant differences, and a ratio of cost/improvement in mammogram adherence evaluated the cost-effectiveness. All three of the interventions (tailored telephone, tailored mail, and tailored telephone and mail) had significantly better adherence rates compared with the control group (usual care). However, when also considering costs, one emerged as the superior strategy. The cost-effectiveness ratios for the three interventions show that the tailored mail (letter) was the most cost-effective strategy, achieving 43.3% mammography adherence at a marginal cost of dollar 0.39 per 1% increase in women screened. The tailored mail plus telephone achieved greater adherence (49.4%), but at a higher cost (dollar 0.56 per 1% increase in women screened). A tailored mail reminder is an effective and economical intervention to increase mammography adherence. Future research should confirm this finding and address its applicability to practice in other settings.
Dickinson, Brandon T.; Kisiel, John; Ahlquist, David A.; Grady, William M.
Colorectal cancer (CRC), although a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, has seen a declining incidence and mortality in countries with programmatic screening. Fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) and endoscopic approaches are the predominant screening methods currently. The discovery of the adenoma→carcinoma sequence and a greater understanding of the genetic and epigenetic changes that drive the formation of CRC have contributed to innovative research to identify molecular markers for highly accurate, non-invasive screening tests for CRC. DNA, proteins, messenger RNA, and micro-RNA have all been evaluated. The observation of tumor cell exfoliation into the mucocellular layer of the colonic epithelium and proven stability of DNA in a harsh stool environment make stool DNA a particularly promising marker. The development of a clinically useful stool DNA test has required numerous technical advances, including optimization in DNA stabilization, the development of assays with high analytical sensitivity, and the identification of specific and broadly informative molecular markers. A multi-target stool DNA (MT-sDNA) test, which combines both mutant and methylated DNA markers and a fecal immunochemical test (FIT), recently performed favorably in a large cross-sectional validation study and has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the screening of asymptomatic, average risk individuals. The ultimate way in which molecular marker screening assays will be used in clinical practice will require additional studies to determine optimal screening intervals, factors affecting compliance, management of false positive results, and the use of these assays in high-risk populations, as well as other considerations. PMID:25994221
37 REPORTABLE OUTCOMES ............................................................................................... 38 KEY RESEARCH...difference in outcome for prostate cancer, then a fatalistic attitude can develop and discourage screening behavior. Belief in one’s ability to...cancer screening among African American men and reduce racial disparities in prostate cancer outcomes . Specifically, the proposed project examines
People at the highest risk for lung cancer, based on a risk model, may be more likely to benefit from screening with low-dose CT, a new analysis suggests. The study authors believe the findings may better define who should undergo lung cancer screening, as this Cancer Currents blog post explains.
There is no standard or routine screening test for stomach (gastric) cancer. Stomach (gastric) cancer is not common in the U.S. Learn about tests that have been studied to detect or screen for stomach cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.
Having a skin exam to screen for skin cancer has not been shown to decrease your chance of dying from skin cancer. Learn about this and other tests that have been studied to detect or screen for skin cancer in this expert reviewed summary.
Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0323 TITLE: Advanced Lung Cancer Screening: An Individualized Molecular Nanotechnology Approach PRINCIPAL...SUBTITLE Advanced Lung Cancer Screening: An Individualized Molecular Nanotechnology Approach 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...increasing its sensitivity and specificity through nanotechnology . Hypothesis: Detection of DNA methylation from individuals with cancer can be used to
Prostate cancer screening with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test or digital rectal exams has not been shown to reduce prostate cancer deaths. Get detailed information about prostate cancer screening, including potential benefits and harms, in this summary for clinicians.
Cervical cancer screening tests (e.g., the Papanicolaou (Pap) Test, HPV DNA, Thin-prep) reduce mortality from cervical cancer. Get detailed information about the evidence behind, and the potential benefits and harms of cervical cancer screening in this summary for clinicians.
Skin cancer screening may be done by visual inspection, either by oneself or a clinician, but has not been shown to reduce mortality from skin cancer. Get detailed information about skin cancer risk factors and the benefits and harms of screening for it in this summary for clinicians.
... decrease the risk of dying from cancer. Scientists study screening tests to find those with the fewest risks and ... of cancer, including ovarian cancer, or other conditions. Studies have also shown that ... Screening tests have risks. The risks of ovarian, fallopian tube, ...
... decrease the risk of dying from cancer. Scientists study screening tests to find those with the fewest risks and ... of cancer, including ovarian cancer, or other conditions. Studies have also shown that ... Screening tests have risks. The risks of ovarian, fallopian tube, ...
Smith, Robert A; Andrews, Kimberly S; Brooks, Durado; Fedewa, Stacey A; Manassaram-Baptiste, Deana; Saslow, Debbie; Brawley, Otis W; Wender, Richard C
Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Each year, the American Cancer Society publishes a summary of its guidelines for early cancer detection, data and trends in cancer screening rates, and select issues related to cancer screening. In this issue of the journal, the authors summarize current American Cancer Society cancer screening guidelines, describe an update of their guideline for using human papillomavirus vaccination for cancer prevention, describe updates in US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations for breast and colorectal cancer screening, discuss interim findings from the UK Collaborative Trial on Ovarian Cancer Screening, and provide the latest data on utilization of cancer screening from the National Health Interview Survey. CA Cancer J Clin 2017;67:100-121. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
Nasiriani, Khadijeh; Motevasselian, Monireh; Farnia, Farahnaz; Shiryazdi, Seyed Mostafa; Khodayarian, Mahsa
Breast cancer is the most common form of malignancy among females. Family history is a key risk factor for breast cancer. Breast cancer screening practices are vital in patients with family history of breast cancer. Telephone counseling and education may be appropriate for improved breast cancer screening. This study was done to determine family caregiver patients' knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer and practice of breast cancer screening and also to assess the effect of telephone counseling and education on mammography screening. This study was a community-based trial. The participants of the study were 90 caregivers who were randomly divided into an experimental group, telephone counseling and education, and a control group. The intervention group received counseling and education phone calls. A three-section questionnaire was responded and filled out through telephone interviews with the participants. The collected data were analyzed with SPSS18, using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results showed that 88.9% of the participants did not know when to do breast self-exam (BSE). Mammography was performed by the participants before and after the telephone counseling in intervention group (P<0.00), which were 13.3% and 77.8% respectively). Moreover, the major cause of failure to participate in mammography was lack of enough knowledge in 73.3% of the participants. This study concluded that knowledge and practice on breast cancer screening in family caregiver of breast cancer patients was low. Telephone counseling and educating may provide a suitable technique for earlier detection of breast cancer in family caregivers of breast cancer patients and it can influence the decision making regarding mammography screening among 40-year-old or older women. Trial Registration Number: 2017052316870N3.
Despite the undisputed and impressive success which has been achieved since the 1960s by cervical cytology in the fight against cervical cancer and its precursor stages, during which the mortality rate in industrialized countries over the last 40 years has been reduced by two-thirds to three-quarters, a perfect and error-free screening procedure is still a long way off and will probably never be reached. There are two main reasons for this, the lack of adequate coverage and suboptimal quality and assessment of smears. Two screening procedures are in use Europe, an opportunistic and an organized system. Both systems have many advantages but also disadvantages. In organized programs the coverage is higher (up to 80%), although similar numbers are also achieved by non-organized programs over a 3-year cycle, even if they cannot be so exactly documented. The decision on which system is used depends on the health system of the country, public or non-public, and many other national circumstances. However, in both systems prerequisites for a satisfactory result is a high quality in the sampling technique, the processing and the assessment. Therefore, several guidelines have been introduced by state and medical societies for internal and external quality assurance. New technologies, such as thin-layer cytology or automation for replacement or support of conventional cytology liquid-based cytology proved not to be superior enough to justify the high costs of these systems. The recognition of the strong causal relationship between persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types and cervical cancer and its precursors has resulted in the development of comparably simple tests. Primary screening using HPV typing alone is not recommended in opportunistic screening due to the low specificity but high sensitivity because it leads to many clinically irrelevant results which place women under stress. In organized screening HPV testing is always and only possible
Kim, Sujin; Kwon, Soonman; Subramanian, S V
In 1999, the Korean government introduced the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) to increase the cancer-screening rate, particularly among the low-income population. This study investigates how the NCSP has decreased both relative and absolute income inequalities in the uptake of cancer screening in South Korea. A nationally representative cross-sectional repeated data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1998-2012, managed by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, was used to assess changes over time and the extent of discontinuity at the NCSP-recommended initiation age in the uptake of screening for breast, colorectal, and gastric cancers across income quartiles. Relative inequalities in the uptake of screening for all cancers decreased significantly over the policy period. Absolute inequalities did not change for most cancers, but marginally increased from 9 to 14% points in the uptake of screening for colorectal cancer among men. At the recommended initiation age, absolute inequalities did not change for breast and colorectal cancers but increased from 5 to 16% points for gastric cancer, for which relative inequality significantly decreased. The NCSP, which reduced out-of-pocket payment, may not decrease absolute gap although it leads to overall increases in the uptake of cancer screening and decreases in relative inequalities. Further investigations are needed to understand barriers that prevent the low-income population from attending cancer screening.
Yepes-Rios, Monica; Reimann, Joachim O F; Talavera, Ana C; Ruiz de Esparza, Antonio; Talavera, Gregory A
Mexican Americans tend to under-utilize colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention. Yet little is known about sociocultural factors associated with CRC screening. This study assessed predictors of three primary CRC tests among low-income Mexican Americans. From May to December 2003, an availability sample of 287 patients, aged 50 to 89 years, who presented for routine care at a community health center near the U.S.-Mexico border completed surveys on CRC knowledge, awareness, attitudes toward screening, logistic barriers, perceptions of health, locus of control, acculturation, whether their doctor discussed CRC screening, and sociodemographics. Participants also reported whether they had ever had a fecal occult blood test, flexible sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy. Logistic regression identified predictors of having had these tests. Overall, 41% reported having ever had any of the three tests; 34.1% had a fecal occult blood test; 6.6%, flexible sigmoidoscopy; and 11.8%, colonoscopy. Few respondents reported any clear knowledge about CRC, and only 41% said their doctor had ever discussed screening with them. Yet "doctor discussed screening" was the only consistent screening predictor across tests. CRC knowledge (p=0.006) and insurance coverage (p=0.009) predicted having had a flexible sigmoidoscopy. Perceptions of general poor health also predicted having had a flexible sigmoidoscopy or a colonoscopy (p=0.04). Being employed marginally predicted whether patient had ever had any of the three tests (p=0.05). Results show that even those in contact with community medical services exhibit low CRC screening rates. They further suggest that interventions focused on clinical settings are an important first step toward CRC prevention in this community.
Gastric cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. About half of the incidence of gastric cancer is observed in East Asian countries, which show a higher mortality than other countries. The effectiveness of 3 new gastric cancer screening techniques, namely, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, serological testing, and “screen and treat” method were extensively reviewed. Moreover, the phases of development for cancer screening were analyzed on the basis of the biomarker development road map. Several observational studies have reported the effectiveness of endoscopic screening in reducing mortality from gastric cancer. On the other hand, serologic testing has mainly been used for targeting the high-risk group for gastric cancer. To date, the effectiveness of new techniques for gastric cancer screening has remained limited. However, endoscopic screening is presently in the last trial phase of development before their introduction to population-based screening. To effectively introduce new techniques for gastric cancer screening in a community, incidence and mortality reduction from gastric cancer must be initially and thoroughly evaluated by conducting reliable studies. In addition to effectiveness evaluation, the balance of benefits and harms must be carefully assessed before introducing these new techniques for population-based screening. PMID:25320514
Thompson, Beti; Carosso, Elizabeth A; Jhingan, Esther; Wang, Lei; Holte, Sarah E; Byrd, Theresa L; Benavides, Maria C; Lopez, Cathy; Martinez-Gutierrez, Javiera; Ibarra, Genoveva; Gonzalez, Virginia J; Gonzalez, Nora E; Duggan, Catherine R
Latinas have the highest rates of cervical cancer in the United States and the second highest rate of cervical cancer mortality. One factor in the disparity is the relatively low rate of screening for cervical cancer in this population. Eligible women who were out of adherence with cervical cancer screening (>3 years since their last Papanicolaou [Pap] test) were identified via medical record review by a federally qualified local health center. The effects of a low-intensity intervention (video delivered to participants' homes; n = 150) and a high-intensity intervention (video plus a home-based educational session; n = 146) on cervical cancer screening uptake in comparison with a control arm (usual care; n = 147) were investigated. A cost-effectiveness analysis of the interventions was conducted: all intervention costs were calculated, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was computed. Finally, women with positive Pap tests were provided navigation by a community health educator to ensure that they received follow-up care. A total of 443 Latinas participated. Seven months after randomization, significantly more women in the high-intensity arm received a Pap test (53.4%) in comparison with the low-intensity arm (38.7%; P < .001) and the usual-care arm (34.0%; P < .01). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for high-intensity women versus the control group amounted to $4.24. Twelve women had positive Pap tests, which encompassed diagnoses ranging from atypical squamous cells of unknown significance to invasive cancer; these women received navigation for follow-up care. A culturally appropriate, in-home, promotora-led educational intervention was successful in increasing cervical cancer screening among Latinas. Cancer 2017;123:666-674. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
Tsodikov, Alex; Gulati, Roman; Heijnsdijk, Eveline AM; Pinsky, Paul F; Moss, Sue M; Qiu, Sheng; de Carvalho, Tiago M; Hugosson, Jonas; Berg, Christine D; Auvinen, Anssi; Andriole, Gerald L; Roobol, Monique J; Crawford, E David; Nelen, Vera; Kwiatkowski, Maciej; Zappa, Marco; Luján, Marcos; Villers, Arnauld; Feuer, Eric J; de Koning, Harry J; Mariotto, Angela B; Etzioni, Ruth
Background The European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) found screening reduced prostate cancer (PC) mortality, but the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian trial (PLCO) found no reduction. Objective To evaluate whether effects of screening on PC mortality relative to no screening differed between the ERSPC and PLCO. Design Cox regression of PC death in each trial arm adjusted for age and trial, and extended analyses that accounted for increased incidence due to screening and diagnostic workup on each arm via mean lead times (MLTs). MLTs were estimated empirically and using analytic or microsimulation models. Setting Randomized controlled trials in Europe and the US. Participants Men aged 55–69 (ERSPC) or 55–74 (PLCO) at randomization. Intervention Prostate cancer screening. Measurements PC incidence and survival from randomization; PC incidence in the US before screening began. Results Estimated MLTs were similar in the ERSPC and PLCO intervention arms but were longer in the PLCO control arm than the ERSPC control arm. Extended analyses found no evidence that effects of screening differed between trials (P=0.37–0.47, range across MLT estimation approaches) but strong evidence that benefit increased with MLT (P=0.0027–0.0032). Screening was estimated to confer a 7–9% reduction in PC death per year of MLT. This translated into an estimated 25–31% and 27–32% lower risk of PC death under screening as performed in the ERSPC and PLCO intervention arms, respectively, relative to no screening. Limitations MLT is a simple metric of screening and diagnostic workup. Conclusion After accounting for differences in implementation and settings, the ERSPC and PLCO provide compatible evidence that screening reduces PC mortality. PMID:28869989
Alema-Mensah, Ernest; Smith, Selina A; Claridy, Mechelle; Ede, Victor; Ansa, Benjamin; Blumenthal, Daniel S
Early detection can reduce colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality by 15%-33%, and screening is widely recommended for average-risk adults beginning at age 50 years. Colorectal cancer mortality rates are higher in African Americans than in whites, while screening rates are somewhat lower. Individual social networks can reduce emotional and/or logistical barriers to health-promoting but distasteful procedures such as CRC screening. The aim of this study was to examine social network interactions, and their impact on CRC screening among African Americans. We hypothesized a positive association between social network index (SNI) scores and CRC screening. In a community intervention trial with four arms, we previously demonstrated the efficacy of a small group educational intervention to promote CRC screening among African Americans. This intervention outperformed a one-on-one educational intervention, a reduced out-of-pocket expense intervention, and a control condition. In the present analysis, we compared the SNI scores for participants in the small group intervention cohort with a comparison group comprised of the other three cohorts. Social networks were assessed using the Social Network Index developed by Cohen. Small group participants had a significantly higher network diversity score (Mean difference 0.71; 95% CI, 0.12-1.31; p=0.0017) than the comparison group. In the second component of the SNI score - the number of people talked to over a two week period - the small group intervention cohort also scored significantly higher than the comparison group. (Mean difference, 9.29; 95% CI, 3.963-14.6266; p=0.0004). The findings suggest that social interaction and support was at least partially responsible for the relatively high post-intervention screening rate in the small group intervention participants. Education in small groups could foster strong social networks. Strong and positive network diversity and a large number of people in social networks may enhance CRC
Nguyen, Anh B.; Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of demographic variables and the interplay between gender roles and acculturation on breast and cervical cancer screening outcomes among Vietnamese American women. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 100 Vietnamese women from the Richmond, VA, metropolitan area. Women were recruited to participate in a larger cancer screening intervention. All participants completed measures on demographic variables, gender roles, acculturation, and cancer screening variables. Findings indicated that traditional masculine gender roles were associated with increased self-efficacy for breast and cervical cancer screening. Higher levels of acculturation were associated with higher probability of having had a Papanicolaou test. In addition, acculturation moderated the relationship between traditional female gender roles and cancer screening variables. For highly acculturated women, higher levels of feminine gender roles predicted higher probability of having had a previous clinical breast exam and higher levels of self-efficacy for cervical cancer screening, while the opposite was true for lower acculturated women. The findings of this study indicate the important roles that sociodemographic variables, gender roles, and acculturation play in affecting health attitudes and behaviors among Vietnamese women. These findings also help to identify a potentially high-risk subgroup and existing gaps that need to be targeted by preventive interventions. PMID:24491129
Nguyen, Anh B; Clark, Trenette T; Belgrave, Faye Z
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of demographic variables and the interplay between gender roles and acculturation on breast and cervical cancer screening outcomes among Vietnamese American women. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 100 Vietnamese women from the Richmond, VA, metropolitan area. Women were recruited to participate in a larger cancer screening intervention. All participants completed measures on demographic variables, gender roles, acculturation, and cancer screening variables. Findings indicated that traditional masculine gender roles were associated with increased self-efficacy for breast and cervical cancer screening. Higher levels of acculturation were associated with higher probability of having had a Papanicolaou test. In addition, acculturation moderated the relationship between traditional female gender roles and cancer screening variables. For highly acculturated women, higher levels of feminine gender roles predicted higher probability of having had a previous clinical breast exam and higher levels of self-efficacy for cervical cancer screening, while the opposite was true for lower acculturated women. The findings of this study indicate the important roles that sociodemographic variables, gender roles, and acculturation play in affecting health attitudes and behaviors among Vietnamese women. These findings also help to identify a potentially high-risk subgroup and existing gaps that need to be targeted by preventive interventions.
Angus, Jan; Seto, Lisa; Barry, Nancy; Cechetto, Naomi; Chandani, Samira; Devaney, Julie; Fernando, Sharmini; Muraca, Linda; Odette, Fran
Women with mobility disabilities are less likely to access cancer screening, even when they have a primary care provider. The Gateways to Cancer Screening project was initiated to document the challenges for women with disabilities in their access and experiences of screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer. The study followed the tenets of participatory action research. Five peer-led focus groups were held with 24 women with mobility disabilities. Study participants identified multiple and interacting institutional barriers to cancer screening. Their discussions highlighted the complex work of (1) arranging and attending health-related appointments, (2) confronting normative assumptions about women's bodies and (3) securing reliable health care and information. These overlapping, mutually reinforcing issues interact to shape how women with disabilities access and experience cancer screening. We explore implications for redesign of cancer screening services and education of health providers, providing specific recommendations suggested by our participants and the findings.
Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adán; Vargas-Aguilar, Víctor Manuel
Cancer screening programs have been successful in reducing the incidence and mortality due to cervical cancer. For more than a decade, the human papillomavirus test has been recommended as part of these programs, however, Pap tests is not currently recommended for women 65 years of age who participated adequately in screening programs, continuing with these screening programs is not needed. Screening programs will be different in special populations at greatest risk where tests are frequently needed or use of alternative methods.
Musa, Jonah; Achenbach, Chad J; O'Dwyer, Linda C; Evans, Charlesnika T; McHugh, Megan; Hou, Lifang; Simon, Melissa A; Murphy, Robert L; Jordan, Neil
Although cervical cancer is largely preventable through screening, detection and treatment of precancerous abnormalities, it remains one of the top causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality globally. The objective of this systematic review is to understand the evidence of the effect of cervical cancer education compared to control conditions on cervical cancer screening rates in eligible women population at risk of cervical cancer. We also sought to understand the effect of provider recommendations for screening to eligible women on cervical cancer screening (CCS) rates compared to control conditions in eligible women population at risk of cervical cancer. We used the PICO (Problem or Population, Interventions, Comparison and Outcome) framework as described in the Cochrane Collaboration Handbook to develop our search strategy. The details of our search strategy has been described in our systematic review protocol published in the International Prospective Register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO). The protocol registration number is CRD42016045605 available at: http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.asp?src=trip&ID=CRD42016045605. The search string was used in Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Systematic Reviews and Cochrane CENTRAL register of controlled trials to retrieve study reports that were screened for inclusion in this review. Our data synthesis and reporting was guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA). We did a qualitative synthesis of evidence and, where appropriate, individual study effects were pooled in meta-analyses using RevMan 5.3 Review Manager. The Higgins I2 was used to assess for heterogeneity in studies pooled together for overall summary effects. We did assessment of risk of bias of individual studies included and assessed risk of publication bias across studies pooled together in meta-analysis by Funnel plot. Out of 3072 study reports screened, 28 articles were found to be eligible
Achenbach, Chad J.; O’Dwyer, Linda C.; Evans, Charlesnika T.; McHugh, Megan; Hou, Lifang; Simon, Melissa A.; Murphy, Robert L.; Jordan, Neil
Background Although cervical cancer is largely preventable through screening, detection and treatment of precancerous abnormalities, it remains one of the top causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality globally. Objectives The objective of this systematic review is to understand the evidence of the effect of cervical cancer education compared to control conditions on cervical cancer screening rates in eligible women population at risk of cervical cancer. We also sought to understand the effect of provider recommendations for screening to eligible women on cervical cancer screening (CCS) rates compared to control conditions in eligible women population at risk of cervical cancer. Methods We used the PICO (Problem or Population, Interventions, Comparison and Outcome) framework as described in the Cochrane Collaboration Handbook to develop our search strategy. The details of our search strategy has been described in our systematic review protocol published in the International Prospective Register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO). The protocol registration number is CRD42016045605 available at: http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.asp?src=trip&ID=CRD42016045605. The search string was used in Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Systematic Reviews and Cochrane CENTRAL register of controlled trials to retrieve study reports that were screened for inclusion in this review. Our data synthesis and reporting was guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA). We did a qualitative synthesis of evidence and, where appropriate, individual study effects were pooled in meta-analyses using RevMan 5.3 Review Manager. The Higgins I2 was used to assess for heterogeneity in studies pooled together for overall summary effects. We did assessment of risk of bias of individual studies included and assessed risk of publication bias across studies pooled together in meta-analysis by Funnel plot. Results Out of 3072 study reports screened
Cuzick, Jack; Cafferty, Fay H; Edwards, Robert; Møller, Henrik; Duffy, Stephen W
Cancer screening is aimed primarily at reducing deaths. Thus, site-specific cancer mortality is the appropriate endpoint for evaluating screening interventions. However, it is also the most demanding endpoint, requiring follow-up and a large numbers of patients order to have adequate power. Therefore, it is highly desirable to have surrogate endpoints that can reliably predict mortality reductions many years earlier. We here review a range of surrogate markers in terms of their potential advantages and pitfalls, and argue that a measure which weights incident cancers according to their predicted mortality has many advantages over other measures and should be used more routinely. Application to the UK Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Screening Trial data suggests that predicted colorectal cancer mortality, based on stage-specific incidence, is a more powerful endpoint than actual mortality and could advance the analysis time by about three years. Total colorectal cancer incidence as a surrogate endpoint provides little advance in the analysis time over actual mortality. The approach requires reliable prognostic data, (e.g. stage), for both the study cohort and a representative sample of the whole population. The routine collection of such data should be a priority for cancer registries. Surrogate endpoints should not replace a long-term analysis based directly on mortality, but can provide reliable early indicators which can be useful both for monitoring ongoing screening programmes and for making policy decisions.
Taiwo, Oyebode A.; Slade, Martin D.; Cantley, Linda F.; Tessier-Sherman, Baylah; Galusha, Deron; Kirsche, Sharon R.; Donoghue, A. Michael
Objective: To present results of a bladder cancer screening program conducted in 18 aluminum smelters in the United States from January 2000 to December 2010. Methods: Data were collected on a cohort of workers with a history of working in coal tar pitch volatile exposed areas including urine analysis for conventional cytology and ImmunoCyt/uCyt+ assay. Results: ImmunoCyt/uCyt+ and cytology in combination showed a sensitivity of 62.30%, a specificity of 92.60%, a negative predictive value of 99.90%, and a positive predictive value of 2.96%. Fourteen cases of bladder cancer were detected, and the standardized incidence ratio of bladder cancer was 1.18 (95% confidence interval, 0.65 to 1.99). Individuals who tested positive on either test who were later determined to be cancer free had undergone expensive and invasive tests. Conclusions: Evidence to support continued surveillance of this cohort has not been demonstrated. PMID:25525927
Powell, Charles A.; Arenberg, Douglas; Detterbeck, Frank; Gould, Michael K.; Jaklitsch, Michael T.; Jett, James; Naidich, David; Vachani, Anil; Wiener, Renda Soylemez; Silvestri, Gerard
Lung cancer screening with a low-dose chest CT scan can result in more benefit than harm when performed in settings committed to developing and maintaining high-quality programs. This project aimed to identify the components of screening that should be a part of all lung cancer screening programs. To do so, committees with expertise in lung cancer screening were assembled by the Thoracic Oncology Network of the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) and the Thoracic Oncology Assembly of the American Thoracic Society (ATS). Lung cancer program components were derived from evidence-based reviews of lung cancer screening and supplemented by expert opinion. This statement was developed and modified based on iterative feedback of the committees. Nine essential components of a lung cancer screening program were identified. Within these components 21 Policy Statements were developed and translated into criteria that could be used to assess the qualification of a program as a screening facility. Two additional Policy Statements related to the need for multisociety governance of lung cancer screening were developed. High-quality lung cancer screening programs can be developed within the presented framework of nine essential program components outlined by our committees. The statement was developed, reviewed, and formally approved by the leadership of CHEST and the ATS. It was subsequently endorsed by the American Association of Throacic Surgery, American Cancer Society, and the American Society of Preventive Oncology. PMID:25356819
Ellis, Peter; Robinson, Paula; Ciliska, Donna; Armour, Tanya; Brouwers, Melissa; O'Brien, Mary Ann; Sussman, Jonathan; Raina, Parminder
With this review, the authors sought to determine what strategies have been evaluated (including the outcomes assessed) to disseminate cancer control interventions that promote the uptake of behavior change. Five topic areas along the cancer care continuum (smoking cessation, healthy diet, mammography, cervical cancer screening, and control of cancer pain) were selected to be representative. A systematic review was conducted of primary studies evaluating dissemination of a cancer control intervention. Thirty-one studies were identified that evaluated dissemination strategies in the 5 topic areas. No strong evidence currently exists to recommend any one dissemination strategy as effective in promoting the uptake of cancer control interventions. The authors conclude that there is a strong need for more research into dissemination of cancer control interventions. Future research should consider methodological issues such as the most appropriate study design and outcomes to be evaluated. (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved
Christy, Shannon M.; Mosher, Catherine E.; Rawl, Susan M.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer deaths among men in the United States. Although CRC screening has been found to reduce CRC incidence and mortality, current screening rates among men are suboptimal due to various practical and psychosocial barriers. One potential barrier to CRC screening identified in qualitative studies with men is the threat to masculinity that endoscopic screening methods pose. Indeed, beliefs about masculinity have been predictive of other preventive health behaviors among men. In this review paper, we propose a novel conceptual framework to explain men’s CRC screening behavior that integrates masculinity norms, gender role conflict, men’s health care experiences, behaviors, and beliefs, and social and background variables. This framework has the potential to guide future research on men’s CRC screening behaviors and other health behaviors and may inform gender-sensitive interventions which target masculinity beliefs to increase preventive health behaviors. PMID:23813927
Christy, Shannon M; Mosher, Catherine E; Rawl, Susan M
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer deaths among men in the United States. Although CRC screening has been found to reduce CRC incidence and mortality, current screening rates among men are suboptimal due to various practical and psychosocial barriers. One potential barrier to CRC screening identified in qualitative studies with men is the threat to masculinity that endoscopic screening methods pose. Indeed, beliefs about masculinity have been predictive of other preventive health behaviors among men. In this review article, we propose a novel conceptual framework to explain men's CRC screening behavior that integrates masculinity norms, gender role conflict, men's health care experiences, behaviors, and beliefs, and social and background variables. This framework has the potential to guide future research on men's CRC screening behaviors and other health behaviors and may inform gender-sensitive interventions that target masculinity beliefs to increase preventive health behaviors.
Russell, Kathleen M; Champion, Victoria L; Monahan, Patrick O; Millon-Underwood, Sandra; Zhao, Qianqian; Spacey, Nicole; Rush, Nathan L; Paskett, Electra D
Low-income African American women face numerous barriers to mammography screening. We tested the efficacy of a combined interactive computer program and lay health advisor intervention to increase mammography screening. In this randomized, single blind study, participants were 181 African American female health center patients of ages 41 to 75 years, at < or =250% of poverty level, with no breast cancer history, and with no screening mammogram in the past 15 months. They were assigned to either (a) a low-dose comparison group consisting of a culturally appropriate mammography screening pamphlet or (b) interactive, tailored computer instruction at baseline and four monthly lay health advisor counseling sessions. Self-reported screening data were collected at baseline and 6 months and verified by medical record. For intent-to-treat analysis of primary outcome (medical record-verified mammography screening, available on all but two participants), the intervention group had increased screening to 51% (45 of 89) compared with 18% (16 of 90) for the comparison group at 6 months. When adjusted for employment status, disability, first-degree relatives with breast cancer, health insurance, and previous breast biopsies, the intervention group was three times more likely (adjusted relative risk, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-3.7; P < 0.0001) to get screened than the low-dose comparison group. Similar results were found for self-reported mammography stage of screening adoption. The combined intervention was efficacious in improving mammography screening in low-income African American women, with an unadjusted effect size (relative risk, 2.84) significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that in previous studies of each intervention alone.
Petrik, Amanda F; Le, Thuy; Keast, Erin; Rivelli, Jennifer; Bigler, Keshia; Green, Beverly; Vollmer, William M; Coronado, Gloria
Colorectal cancer screening can prevent cancer deaths. Federally qualified health centers serve a unique patient population that often is not screened. Knowing who in this environment is getting screened via fecal testing and via colonoscopy can assist in tailoring intervention to raise rates of colorectal cancer screening. We examined patient-level and neighborhood-level characteristics associated with being up to date with colorectal cancer screening guidelines. We also examined associations between these factors and being screened with a fecal test. We observed an increase in colorectal cancer screening rates from 2010 to 2015. Adjusted analyses revealed that the following factors were significantly associated with colorectal cancer screening: aged 65 or older, having any type of insurance, previous outpatient visits, and current or other preventive screenings. Among adults aged 50-75 who were up to date with colorectal cancer screening, factors associated with use of fecal testing, as opposed to colonoscopy, were: being younger, speaking a non-English language, being uninsured, having prior office visits, and having had a flu shot in past year. Our findings may inform clinic-based effort to raise rates of colorectal cancer screening, especially in the community clinic setting. ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT01742065.
Munoz, Diego; Near, Aimee M.; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T.; Lee, Sandra J.; Schechter, Clyde B.; Alagoz, Oguzhan; Berry, Donald A.; Burnside, Elizabeth S.; Chang, Yaojen; Chisholm, Gary; de Koning, Harry J.; Ali Ergun, Mehmet; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A. M.; Huang, Hui; Stout, Natasha K.; Sprague, Brian L.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.
Background Molecular characterization of breast cancer allows subtype-directed interventions. Estrogen receptor (ER) is the longest-established molecular marker. Methods We used six established population models with ER-specific input parameters on age-specific incidence, disease natural history, mammography characteristics, and treatment effects to quantify the impact of screening and adjuvant therapy on age-adjusted US breast cancer mortality by ER status from 1975 to 2000. Outcomes included stage-shifts and absolute and relative reductions in mortality; sensitivity analyses evaluated the impact of varying screening frequency or accuracy. Results In the year 2000, actual screening and adjuvant treatment reduced breast cancer mortality by a median of 17 per 100000 women (model range = 13–21) and 5 per 100000 women (model range = 3–6) for ER-positive and ER-negative cases, respectively, relative to no screening and no adjuvant treatment. For ER-positive cases, adjuvant treatment made a higher relative contribution to breast cancer mortality reduction than screening, whereas for ER-negative cases the relative contributions were similar for screening and adjuvant treatment. ER-negative cases were less likely to be screen-detected than ER-positive cases (35.1% vs 51.2%), but when screen-detected yielded a greater survival gain (five-year breast cancer survival = 35.6% vs 30.7%). Screening biennially would have captured a lower proportion of mortality reduction than annual screening for ER-negative vs ER-positive cases (model range = 80.2%–87.8% vs 85.7%–96.5%). Conclusion As advances in risk assessment facilitate identification of women with increased risk of ER-negative breast cancer, additional mortality reductions could be realized through more frequent targeted screening, provided these benefits are balanced against screening harms. PMID:25255803
Chaudhry, Rajeev; Scheitel, Sidna M; McMurtry, Erin K; Leutink, Dorinda J; Cabanela, Rosa L; Naessens, James M; Rahman, Ahmed S; Davis, Lynn A; Stroebel, Robert J
Screening mammography is recommended for early detection of breast cancer but screening rates remain suboptimal. A primary care portal for a large academic primary practice was developed for all preventive services. Another Web-based system (PRECARES [PREventive CAre REminder System]) was developed for appointment secretaries to manage proactive breast cancer screening. Female patients aged 40 to 75 years were randomly assigned to a control group (usual care) and an intervention group. For the intervention group, 2 monthly letters inviting patients to undergo mammography were sent starting 3 months before they were due for annual screening, followed by a telephone call to nonresponding patients. A subgroup of women employees was further randomized to receive a reminder by either US mail or e-mail. Of the total eligible population of 6665 women identified as having consented to participate in research, 3339 were randomly assigned to the control group and 3326 to the intervention group. The screening rate for annual mammography was 64.3% for the intervention