Science.gov

Sample records for cancer specific mortality

  1. Dairy intake after prostate cancer diagnosis in relation to disease-specific and total mortality.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meng; Kenfield, Stacey A; Van Blarigan, Erin L; Wilson, Kathryn M; Batista, Julie L; Sesso, Howard D; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir J; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2015-11-15

    Information regarding postdiagnostic dairy intake and prostate cancer survival is limited. We evaluated intake of total, high-fat and low-fat dairy after prostate cancer diagnosis in relation to disease-specific and total mortality. We included 926 men from the Physicians' Health Study diagnosed with non-metastatic prostate cancer between 1982 and 2000 who completed a diet questionnaire a median of 5 years after diagnosis and were followed thereafter for a median of 10 years to assess mortality. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate associations between dairy intake and prostate cancer specific and all-cause mortality. During 8,903 person-years of follow-up, 333 men died, 56 due to prostate cancer. Men consuming ≥3 servings/day of total dairy products had a 76% higher risk of total mortality and a 141% higher risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality compared to men who consumed less than 1 dairy product/day (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.76, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21, 2.55, ptrend  < 0.001 for total mortality; HR = 2.41, 95% CI: 0.96, 6.02, ptrend  = 0.04 for prostate cancer-specific mortality). The association between high-fat dairy and mortality risk appeared to be stronger than that of low-fat dairy, but the difference between them was not statistically significant (p for difference = 0.57 for prostate cancer-specific mortality and 0.56 for total mortality). Among men without metastases when diagnosed, higher intake of dairy foods after prostate cancer diagnosis may be associated with increased prostate cancer-specific and all-cause mortality.

  2. Dietary patterns after prostate cancer diagnosis in relation to disease-specific and total mortality.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meng; Kenfield, Stacey A; Van Blarigan, Erin L; Batista, Julie L; Sesso, Howard D; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir J; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2015-06-01

    Men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer have a long life expectancy, and many die of unrelated causes. It is therefore important to know to what extent post-diagnostic diet may affect disease-specific and overall mortality. A total of 926 men participating in the Physicians' Health Study diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer completed diet questionnaires for a median of 5.1 years after diagnosis, and were followed thereafter to assess mortality for a median of 9.9 years since questionnaire completion. Two post-diagnostic dietary patterns were identified: a Prudent pattern, characterized by higher intake of vegetables, fruits, fish, legumes, and whole grains; and a Western pattern, characterized by higher intake of processed and red meats, high-fat dairy and refined grains. Cox regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). During 8,093 person-years of follow-up, 333 men died, 56 (17%) of prostate cancer. The Western pattern was significantly related to a higher risk of prostate cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. Comparing men in the highest versus the lowest quartile of the Western pattern, the HRs were 2.53 (95% CI, 1.00-6.42; Ptrend = 0.02) for prostate cancer-specific mortality and 1.67 (95% CI, 1.16-2.42; Ptrend = 0.01) for all-cause mortality. The Prudent pattern was associated with a significantly lower all-cause mortality (HRQuartile 4 vs. Quartile 1: 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44-0.93; Ptrend = 0.02); the relationship with prostate cancer-specific mortality was inverse but not statistically significant. A post-diagnostic Western dietary pattern was associated with higher prostate cancer-specific and all-cause mortality, whereas a Prudent dietary pattern was related to lower all-cause mortality after prostate cancer diagnosis.

  3. Dietary patterns after prostate cancer diagnosis in relation to disease-specific and total mortality

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Meng; Kenfield, Stacey A.; Van Blarigan, Erin L.; Batista, Julie L.; Sesso, Howard D.; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir J.; Chavarro, Jorge E.

    2015-01-01

    Men diagnosed with non-metastatic prostate cancer have a long life expectancy and many die of unrelated causes. It is therefore important to know to what extent post-diagnostic diet may impact disease-specific and overall mortality. 926 men participating in the Physicians' Health Study diagnosed with non-metastatic prostate cancer completed diet questionnaires a median of 5.1 years after diagnosis, and were followed thereafter to assess mortality for a median of 9.9 years since questionnaire completion. Two post-diagnostic dietary patterns were identified: a Prudent pattern, characterized by higher intake of vegetables, fruits, fish, legumes, and whole grains; and a Western pattern, characterized by higher intake of processed and red meats, high-fat dairy and refined grains. Cox regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During 8,093 person-years of follow-up, 333 men died, 56 (17%) of prostate cancer. The Western pattern was significantly related to a higher risk of prostate cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. Comparing men in the highest versus the lowest quartile of the Western pattern, the HRs were 2.53 (95%CI: 1.00-6.42; Ptrend=0.02) for prostate cancer-specific mortality and 1.67 (95%CI: 1.16-2.42; Ptrend=0.01) for all-cause mortality. The Prudent pattern was associated with a significantly lower all-cause mortality (HRQuartile 4 vs Quartile 1: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44-0.93; Ptrend=0.02); the relationship with prostate cancer-specific mortality was inverse but not statistically significant. Post-diagnostic Western dietary pattern was associated with higher prostate cancer-specific and all-cause mortality, whereas a Prudent dietary pattern was related to lower all-cause mortality after prostate cancer diagnosis. PMID:26031631

  4. Reduction of prostate cancer mortality in Tyrol, Austria, after introduction of prostate-specific antigen testing.

    PubMed

    Oberaigner, Willi; Horninger, Wolfgang; Klocker, Helmut; Schönitzer, Dieter; Stühlinger, Wolf; Bartsch, Georg

    2006-08-15

    The objective of this study was to analyze in detail the time trend in prostate cancer mortality in the population of Tyrol, Austria. In Tyrol, prostate-specific antigen tests were introduced in 1988-1989 and, since 1993, have been offered to all men aged 45-74 years free of charge. More than three quarters of all men in this age group had at least one such test in the last decade. The authors applied the age-period-cohort model by Poisson regression to mortality data covering more than three decades, from 1970 to 2003. For Tyrol, the full model with age and period and cohort terms fit fairly well. Period terms showed a significant reduction in prostate cancer mortality in the last 5 years, with a risk ratio of 0.81 (95% confidence interval: 0.68, 0.98) for Tyrol; for Austria without Tyrol, no effect was seen, with a risk ratio of 1.00 (95% confidence interval: 0.95, 1.05). Each was compared with the mortality rate in the period 1989-1993. Although the results of randomized screening trials are not expected until 2008-2010, these findings support the evidence that prostate-specific antigen testing offered to a population free of charge can reduce prostate cancer mortality.

  5. Symptomatic Atherosclerotic Disease and Decreased Risk of Cancer-Specific Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Benito-León, Julián; de la Aleja, Jesús González; Martínez-Salio, Antonio; Louis, Elan D.; Lichtman, Judith H.; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The few studies that have assessed the association between symptomatic atherosclerotic disease and risk of cancer have had conflicting results. In addition, these studies ascertained participants either from treatment settings (ie, service-based studies) or by using a records linkage system (ie, medical records of patients evaluated at clinics or hospitals) and, therefore, were prone to selection bias. Our purpose was to estimate the risk of cancer mortality in a large population-based sample of elderly people, comparing participants with symptomatic atherosclerotic disease (atherosclerotic stroke and coronary disease) to their counterparts without symptomatic atherosclerotic disease (ie, controls) in the same population. In this population-based, prospective study (Neurological Disorders of Central Spain, NEDICES), 5262 elderly community-dwelling participants with and without symptomatic atherosclerotic disease were identified and followed for a median of 12.1 years, after which the death certificates of those who died were reviewed. A total of 2701 (53.3%) of 5262 participants died, including 314 (68.6%) of 458 participants with symptomatic atherosclerotic disease and 2387 (49.7%) of 4804 controls. Cancer mortality was reported significantly less often in those with symptomatic atherosclerotic disease (15.6%) than in controls (25.6%) (P < 0.001). In an unadjusted Cox model, risk of cancer-specific mortality was decreased in participants with symptomatic atherosclerotic disease (HR = 0.74, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55−0.98, P = 0.04) vs. those without symptomatic atherosclerotic disease (reference group). In an adjusted Cox model, HR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.38−0.89; P = 0.01. This population-based, prospective study suggests that there is an inverse association between symptomatic atherosclerotic disease and risk of cancer mortality. PMID:26266364

  6. The Influence of the CHIEF Pathway on Colorectal Cancer-Specific Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Slattery, Martha L.; Lundgreen, Abbie

    2014-01-01

    Many components of the CHIEF (Convergence of Hormones, Inflammation, and Energy Related Factors) pathway could influence survival given their involvement in cell growth, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and tumor invasion stimulation. We used ARTP (Adaptive Rank Truncation Product) to test if genes in the pathway were associated with colorectal cancer-specific mortality. Colon cancer (n = 1555) and rectal cancer (n = 754) cases were followed over five years. Age, center, stage at diagnosis, and tumor molecular phenotype were considered when calculating ARTP p values. A polygenic risk score was used to summarize the magnitude of risk associated with this pathway. The JAK/STAT/SOC was significant for colon cancer survival (PARTP = 0.035). Fifteen genes (DUSP2, INFGR1, IL6, IRF2, JAK2, MAP3K10, MMP1, NFkB1A, NOS2A, PIK3CA, SEPX1, SMAD3, TLR2, TYK2, and VDR) were associated with colon cancer mortality (PARTP <0.05); JAK2 (PARTP  = 0.0086), PIK3CA (PARTP = 0.0098), and SMAD3 (PARTP = 0.0059) had the strongest associations. Over 40 SNPs were significantly associated with survival within the 15 significant genes (PARTP<0.05). SMAD3 had the strongest association with survival (HRGG 2.46 95% CI 1.44,4.21 PTtrnd = 0.0002). Seven genes (IL2RA, IL8RA, IL8RB, IRF2, RAF1, RUNX3, and SEPX1) were significantly associated with rectal cancer (PARTP<0.05). The HR for colorectal cancer-specific mortality among colon cancer cases in the upper at-risk alleles group was 11.81 (95% CI 7.07, 19. 74) and was 10.99 (95% CI 5.30, 22.78) for rectal cancer. These results suggest that several genes in the CHIEF pathway are important for colorectal cancer survival; the risk associated with the pathway merits validation in other studies. PMID:25541970

  7. Association of Metformin Use With Cancer-Specific Mortality in Hepatocellular Carcinoma After Curative Resection

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Young-Seok; Kim, Yun-Jung; Kim, Mi-Sook; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Kim, Sang Bum; Han, Chul Ju; Kim, Youn Joo; Jang, Won Il; Kang, Shin Hee; Tchoe, Ha Jin; Park, Chan Mi; Jo, Ae Jung; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Choi, Jin A; Choi, Hyung Jin; Polak, Michael N.; Ko, Min Jung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Many preclinical reports and retrospective population studies have shown an anticancer effect of metformin in patients with several types of cancer and comorbid type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this work, the anticancer effect of metformin was assessed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with T2DM who underwent curative resection. A population-based retrospective cohort design was used. Data were obtained from the National Health Insurance Service and Korea Center Cancer Registry in the Republic of Korea, identifying 5494 patients with newly diagnosed HCC who underwent curative resection between 2005 and 2011. Crude and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models to estimate effects. In the sensitivity analysis, we excluded patients who started metformin or other oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) after HCC diagnosis to control for immortal time bias. From the patient cohort, 751 diabetic patients who were prescribed an OHA were analyzed for HCC-specific mortality and retreatment upon recurrence, comparing 533 patients treated with metformin to 218 patients treated without metformin. In the fully adjusted analyses, metformin users showed a significantly lower risk of HCC-specific mortality (HR 0.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.30–0.49) and retreatment events (HR 0.41, 95% CI 0.33–0.52) compared with metformin nonusers. Risks for HCC-specific mortality were consistently lower among metformin-using groups, excluding patients who started metformin or OHAs after diagnosis. In this large population-based cohort of patients with comorbid HCC and T2DM, treated with curative hepatic resection, metformin use was associated with improvement of HCC-specific mortality and reduced occurrence of retreatment events. PMID:27124061

  8. Genetic markers associated with early cancer-specific mortality following prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wennuan; Xie, Chunmei C.; Thomas, Christopher Y.; Kim, Seong-Tae; Lindberg, Johan; Egevad, Lars; Wang, Zhong; Zhang, Zheng; Sun, Jishan; Sun, Jielin; Koty, Patrick P.; Kader, A. Karim; Cramer, Scott D.; Bova, G. Steve; Zheng, S. Lilly; Grönberg, Henrik; Isaacs, William B.; Xu, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND To identify novel effectors and markers of localized but potentially life-threatening prostate cancer (PCa), we evaluated chromosomal copy number alterations (CNAs) in tumors from patients who underwent prostatectomy and correlated these with clinicopathologic features and outcome. METHODS CNAs in tumor DNAs from 125 prostatectomy patients in the discovery cohort were assayed with high resolution Affymetrix 6.0 SNP microarrays and then analyzed using the Genomic Identification of Significant Targets in Cancer (GISTIC) algorithm. RESULTS The assays revealed twenty significant regions of CNAs, four of them novel, and identified the target genes of four of the alterations. By univariate analysis, seven CNAs were significantly associated with early PCa-specific mortality. These included gains of chromosomal regions that contain the genes MYC, ADAR, or TPD52 and losses of sequences that incorporate SERPINB5, USP10, PTEN, or TP53. On multivariate analysis, only the CNAs of PTEN and MYC contributed additional prognostic information independent of that provided by pathologic stage, Gleason score, and initial PSA level. Patients whose tumors had alterations of both genes had a markedly elevated risk of PCa-specific mortality (OR = 53; C.I.= 6.92–405, P = 1 × 10−4). Analyses of 333 tumors from three additional distinct patient cohorts confirmed the relationship between CNAs of PTEN and MYC and lethal PCa. CONCLUSION This study identified new CNAs and genes that likely contribute to the pathogenesis of localized PCa and suggests that patients whose tumors have acquired CNAs of PTEN, MYC, or both have an increased risk of early PCa-specific mortality. PMID:23609948

  9. Cause‐specific long‐term mortality in survivors of childhood cancer in Switzerland: A population‐based study

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, Matthias; Spycher, Ben D.; Ammann, Roland A.; Ansari, Marc; Michel, Gisela

    2016-01-01

    Survivors of childhood cancer have a higher mortality than the general population. We describe cause‐specific long‐term mortality in a population‐based cohort of childhood cancer survivors. We included all children diagnosed with cancer in Switzerland (1976–2007) at age 0–14 years, who survived ≥5 years after diagnosis and followed survivors until December 31, 2012. We obtained causes of death (COD) from the Swiss mortality statistics and used data from the Swiss general population to calculate age‐, calendar year‐, and sex‐standardized mortality ratios (SMR), and absolute excess risks (AER) for different COD, by Poisson regression. We included 3,965 survivors and 49,704 person years at risk. Of these, 246 (6.2%) died, which was 11 times higher than expected (SMR 11.0). Mortality was particularly high for diseases of the respiratory (SMR 14.8) and circulatory system (SMR 12.7), and for second cancers (SMR 11.6). The pattern of cause‐specific mortality differed by primary cancer diagnosis, and changed with time since diagnosis. In the first 10 years after 5‐year survival, 78.9% of excess deaths were caused by recurrence of the original cancer (AER 46.1). Twenty‐five years after diagnosis, only 36.5% (AER 9.1) were caused by recurrence, 21.3% by second cancers (AER 5.3) and 33.3% by circulatory diseases (AER 8.3). Our study confirms an elevated mortality in survivors of childhood cancer for at least 30 years after diagnosis with an increased proportion of deaths caused by late toxicities of the treatment. The results underline the importance of clinical follow‐up continuing years after the end of treatment for childhood cancer. PMID:26950898

  10. The association between metabolic syndrome and the risk of prostate cancer, high-grade prostate cancer, advanced prostate cancer, prostate cancer-specific mortality and biochemical recurrence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although a previous meta-analysis reported no association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and prostate cancer risk, a number of studies suggest that MetS may be associated with the aggressiveness and progression of prostate cancer. However, these results have been inconsistent. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the nature of this association. Methods We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and bibliographies of retrieved studies up to January 2013 using the keywords “metabolic syndrome” and “prostate cancer”. We assessed relative risks (RRs) of the prostate cancer, several parameters of prostate cancer aggressiveness and progression associated with MetS using 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results The literature search produced 547 hits from which 19 papers were extracted for the meta-analysis. In cancer-free population with and without MetS, the combined adjusted RR (95% CI) of prostate cancer risk and prostate cancer-specific mortality in longitudinal cohort studies is 0.96 (0.85 ~ 1.09) and 1.12 (1.02 ~ 1.23) respectively. In the prostate cancer patients with and without MetS, the combined unadjusted OR (95% CI) of high grade Gleason prostate cancer is 1.44 (1.20 ~ 1.72), the OR of advanced prostate cancer is 1.37 (1.12 ~ 1.68) and the OR of biochemical recurrence is 2.06 (1.43 ~ 2.96). Conclusions The overall analyses revealed no association between MetS and prostate cancer risk, although men with MetS appear more likely to have high-grade prostate cancer and more advanced disease, were at greater risk of progression after radical prostatectomy and were more likely to suffer prostate cancer-specific death. Further primary studies with adjustment for appropriate confounders and larger, prospective, multicenter investigations are required. PMID:23406686

  11. The Interval to Biochemical Failure Is Prognostic for Metastasis, Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality, and Overall Mortality After Salvage Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Skyler; Jackson, William; Li, Darren; Song, Yeohan; Foster, Corey; Foster, Ben; Zhou, Jessica; Vainshtein, Jeffrey; Feng, Felix; Hamstra, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the utility of the interval to biochemical failure (IBF) after salvage radiation therapy (SRT) after radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer as a surrogate endpoint for distant metastasis (DM), prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), and overall mortality (OM). Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of 575 patients treated with SRT after RP from a single institution. Of those, 250 patients experienced biochemical failure (BF), with the IBF defined as the time from commencement of SRT to BF. The IBF was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models for its association with DM, PCSM, and OM. Results: The median follow-up time was 85 (interquartile range [IQR] 49.8-121.1) months, with a median IBF of 16.8 (IQR, 8.5-37.1) months. With a cutoff time of 18 months, as previously used, 129 (52%) of patients had IBF ≤18 months. There were no differences among any clinical or pathologic features between those with IBF ≤ and those with IBF >18 months. On log–rank analysis, IBF ≤18 months was prognostic for increased DM (P<.0001, HR 4.9, 95% CI 3.2-7.4), PCSM (P<.0001, HR 4.1, 95% CI 2.4-7.1), and OM (P<.0001, HR 2.7, 95% CI 1.7-4.1). Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for other clinical variables demonstrated that IBF was independently prognostic for DM (P<.001, HR 4.9), PCSM (P<.0001, HR 4.0), and OM (P<.0001, HR 2.7). IBF showed minimal change in performance regardless of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) use. Conclusion: After SRT, a short IBF can be used for early identification of patients who are most likely to experience progression to DM, PCSM, and OM. IBF ≤18 months may be useful in clinical practice or as an endpoint for clinical trials.

  12. Breast Cancer-Specific Mortality Pattern and Its Changing Feature According to Estrogen Receptor Status in Two Time Periods

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yizhou; Shao, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether and how the patterns of breast cancer-specific mortality (BCSM) changed along with time periods. Methods We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results registry to identify 228209 female patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 1990 and 2000 (cohort 1 [C1], 112981) and between 2001 and 2005 (cohort 2 [C2], 115228). BCSM was compared in two cohorts using Cox proportional hazard regression models. We analysed the relative hazard ratios (HRs) and absolute BCSM rates by flexible parametric survival modelling. Results The patterns of BCSM were similar between the two cohorts, with the peak of mortality presenting in the first 2–3 years after diagnosis, and mortality rate significantly decreased in C2 in all cases. In C2, the annual BCSM rate of all cases was 9.64 (per 1000 persons per year) in year 10 with a peak rate of 23.34 in year 2. In ER-negative and high-risk patients, marked survival improvements were achieved mostly in the first 5 years, while in ER-positive and low-risk patients, survival improvements were less but constant up to 10 years. Conclusion There has been a significant improvement of BCSM with substantially decreased mortality within 5 years. The current pattern of BCSM and its changing feature differs according to ER status. Our findings have some clinical implications both for treatment decisions and adjuvant treatment trial design. PMID:27299729

  13. Cancer incidence and mortality patterns among specific Asian and Pacific Islander populations in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Kenneth C.; Hankey, Benjamin F.; Ries, Lynn A. G.

    2007-01-01

    notably high in several of the API groups and exceeded rates generally seen for non-Hispanic white men and women. Incidence rates were lowest among Asian Indian/Pakistani and Guamanian men and women and Kampuchean women. Asian Indian and Guamanian men and women also had the lowest cancer death rates. Selected API groups had less favorable distributions of stage at diagnosis for certain cancers than non-Hispanic whites. Conclusions Possible disparities in cancer incidence or mortality between specific API groups in our study and non-Hispanic whites (referent group) were identified for several cancers. Unfavorable patterns of stage at diagnosis for cancers of the colon and rectum, breast, cervix uteri, and prostate suggest a need for cancer control interventions in selected groups. The observed variation in cancer patterns among API groups indicates the importance of monitoring these groups separately, as these patterns may provide etiologic clues that could be investigated by analytic epidemiological studies. PMID:18066673

  14. Breast cancer-specific mortality in small-sized tumor with node-positive breast cancer: a nation-wide study in Korean breast cancer society.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jai Min; Lee, Hyouk Jin; Yoon, Tae In; Lee, Eun Sook; Lee, Soo Jung; Jung, Jin Hyang; Chae, Byung Joo; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Lee, Se Kyung; Bae, Soo Youn; Yu, Jonghan; Kim, Seok Won

    2016-10-01

    Tumor size and number of lymph node (LN) metastases are well known as the most important prognostic factors of breast cancer. We hypothesized that very small breast cancers with LN metastasis represent a progressive biologic behavior and evaluated tumor size stratified by LN metastasis. Data between 1990 and 2010 were obtained retrospectively from the Korean Breast Cancer Society Registry with inclusion criteria of female, non-metastatic, unilateral, and T1/2 breast cancer. We collected the following variables: age at surgery, tumor size, number of LN metastases, nuclear grade (NG), lymphovascular invasion (LVI), estrogen receptor status, progesterone receptor status, and epidermal growth factor receptor-2 status. Patient characteristics were compared by means of independent t-tests for continuous variables and the Chi-square or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. Kaplan-Meier curves, with corresponding results of log-rank tests, were constructed for breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS). Five- and eight-year breast cancer-specific mortality (BCSM) was obtained in groups of 300 patients, followed by smoothing according to the confidence interval using the lowess method. We identified 39,826 breast cancer patients who met the inclusion criteria. Among them, 1433 (3.6 %) patients died due to breast cancer. The median follow-up duration was 63.4 (3-255) months. In the multivariate analysis, age at surgery, NG, LVI, subtype, and tumor size-nodal interactions were independently associated with BCSM. The N1 group had lower BCSS for T1a than T1b. The N2+ group also had lower BCSS for T1b than T1c or T2. In the N1 group of tumors smaller than 10 mm, 5- and 8-year BCSM decreased with larger tumor size. Patients with very small tumors with LN metastasis have decreased BCSM according to increase tumor size. Small tumors with LN metastasis could have aggressive biological behavior. PMID:27590199

  15. Lycopene, tomato products and prostate cancer-specific mortality among men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Jacobs, Eric J; Newton, Christina C; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2016-06-15

    While dietary lycopene and tomato products have been inversely associated with prostate cancer incidence, there is limited evidence for an association between consumption of lycopene and tomato products and prostate-cancer specific mortality (PCSM). We examined the associations of prediagnosis and postdiagnosis dietary lycopene and tomato product intake with PCSM in a large prospective cohort. This analysis included men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer between enrollment in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort in 1992 or 1993 and June 2011. Prediagnosis dietary data, collected at baseline, were available for 8,898 men, of whom 526 died of prostate cancer through 2012. Postdiagnosis dietary data, collected on follow-up surveys in 1999 and/or 2003, were available for 5,643 men, of whom 363 died of prostate cancer through 2012. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for PCSM. Neither prediagnosis nor postdiagnosis dietary lycopene intake was associated with PCSM (fourth vs. first quartile HR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.78-1.28; HR = 1.22, 95% CI 0.91-1.64, respectively). Similarly, neither prediagnosis nor postdiagnosis consumption of tomato products was associated with PCSM. Among men with high-risk cancers (T3-T4 or Gleason score 8-10, or nodal involvement), consistently reporting lycopene intake ≥ median on both postdiagnosis surveys was associated with lower PCSM (HR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.17-0.99, based on ten PCSM cases consistently ≥ median intake) compared to consistently reporting intake < median. Future studies are needed to confirm the potential inverse association of consistently high lycopene intake with PCSM among men with high-risk prostate cancers.

  16. Risk of All-Cause and Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality After Brachytherapy in Men With Small Prostate Size

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Paul L.; Chen, Ming H.; Choueiri, Toni K.; Hoffman, Karen E.; Hu, Jim C.; Martin, Neil E.; Beard, Clair J.; Dosoretz, Daniel E.; Moran, Brian J.; Katin, Michael J.; Braccioforte, Michelle H.; Ross, Rudi; Salenius, Sharon A.; Kantoff, Philip W.; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2011-04-01

    Background: Brachytherapy for prostate cancer can be technically challenging in men with small prostates ({<=}20 cc), but it is unknown whether their outcomes are different than those of men with larger prostates. Methods and Materials: We studied 6,416 men treated with brachytherapy in one of 21 community-based practices. Cox regression and Fine and Gray's regression were used to determine whether volume {<=}20 cc was associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality (ACM) or prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), respectively, after adjustment for other known prognostic factors. Results: 443 patients (6.9%) had a prostate volume {<=}20 cc. After a median follow-up of 2.91 years (interquartile range, 1.06-4.79), volume {<=}20 cc was associated with a significantly higher risk of ACM (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.33 [95% CI 1.08-1.65], p = 0.0085) with 3-year estimates of ACM for {<=}20 cc vs. >20 cc of 13.0% vs. 6.9% (p = 0.028). Only 23 men (0.36%) have died of prostate cancer, and no difference was seen in PCSM by volume (p = 0.4). Conclusion: Men with small prostates at the time of implant had a 33% higher risk of ACM, and the underlying cause of this remains uncertain. No increase in PCSM was observed in men with volume {<=}20cc, suggesting that a small prostate should not in itself be a contraindication for brachytherapy, but inasmuch as absolute rates of PCSM were small, further follow-up will be needed to confirm this finding.

  17. High-Dose Conformal Radiotherapy Reduces Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality: Results of a Meta-analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Viani, Gustavo Arruda; Godoi Bernardes da Silva, Lucas; Stefano, Eduardo Jose

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To determine in a meta-analysis whether prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), biochemical or clinical failure (BCF), and overall mortality (OM) in men with localized prostate cancer treated with conformal high-dose radiotherapy (HDRT) are better than those in men treated with conventional-dose radiotherapy (CDRT). Methods and Materials: The MEDLINE, Embase, CANCERLIT, and Cochrane Library databases, as well as the proceedings of annual meetings, were systematically searched to identify randomized, controlled studies comparing conformal HDRT with CDRT for localized prostate cancer. Results: Five randomized, controlled trials (2508 patients) that met the study criteria were identified. Pooled results from these randomized, controlled trials showed a significant reduction in the incidence of PCSM and BCF rates at 5 years in patients treated with HDRT (p = 0.04 and p < 0.0001, respectively), with an absolute risk reduction (ARR) of PCSM and BCF at 5 years of 1.7% and 12.6%, respectively. Two trials evaluated PCSM with 10 years of follow up. The pooled results from these trials showed a statistical benefit for HDRT in terms of PCSM (p = 0.03). In the subgroup analysis, trials that used androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) showed an ARR for BCF of 12.9% (number needed to treat = 7.7, p < 0.00001), whereas trials without ADT had an ARR of 13.6% (number needed to treat = 7, p < 0.00001). There was no difference in the OM rate at 5 and 10 years (p = 0.99 and p = 0.11, respectively) between the groups receiving HDRT and CDRT. Conclusions: This meta-analysis is the first study to show that HDRT is superior to CDRT in preventing disease progression and prostate cancer-specific death in trials that used conformational technique to increase the total dose. Despite the limitations of our study in evaluating the role of ADT and HDRT, our data show no benefit for HDRT arms in terms of BCF in trials with or without ADT.

  18. Adjuvant therapy, not mammographic screening, accounts for most of the observed breast cancer specific mortality reductions in Australian women since the national screening program began in 1991.

    PubMed

    Burton, Robert C; Bell, Robin J; Thiagarajah, Geetha; Stevenson, Christopher

    2012-02-01

    There has been a 28% reduction in age-standardised breast cancer mortality in Australia since 1991 when the free national mammographic program (BreastScreen) began. Therefore, a comparative study between BreastScreen participation and breast cancer age specific mortality trends in Australia was undertaken for two time periods between 1991 and 2007, where women aged 50-59 and 60-69 years, who were invited to screen, were compared to women aged 40-49 and 70-79 years who were not invited, but who did have access to the program. There were mortality reductions in all four age groups between 1991-1992 and 2007, resulting in 5,849 (95% CI 4,979 to 6,718) fewer women dying of breast cancer than would have otherwise been the case. Women aged 40-49 years, who had the lowest BreastScreen participation (approximately 20%), had the largest mortality reduction: 44% (95% CI 34.8-51.2). Women aged 60-69 years, who had the highest BreastScreen participation (approximately 60%), had the smallest mortality reduction: 19% (95% CI 10.5-26.9). As BreastScreen participation by invited women aged 50-69 years only reached a maximum of about 55-60% in 1998-1999, a decline in mortality in Australian women cannot be attributed to BreastScreen prior to this time. Thus, almost 60% of the Australian decline in breast cancer mortality since 1991 cannot be attributed to BreastScreen. Therefore, mammographic screening cannot account for most of the reductions in breast cancer mortality that have occurred in Australian women since 1991 and may have contributed to over-diagnosis. Most, if not all, of the reductions can be attributed to the adjuvant hormonal and chemotherapy, which Australian women have increasingly received since 1986.

  19. Liver cancer mortality rate model in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriwattanapongse, Wattanavadee; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon

    2013-09-01

    Liver Cancer has been a leading cause of death in Thailand. The purpose of this study was to model and forecast liver cancer mortality rate in Thailand using death certificate reports. A retrospective analysis of the liver cancer mortality rate was conducted. Numbering of 123,280 liver cancer causes of death cases were obtained from the national vital registration database for the 10-year period from 2000 to 2009, provided by the Ministry of Interior and coded as cause-of-death using ICD-10 by the Ministry of Public Health. Multivariate regression model was used for modeling and forecasting age-specific liver cancer mortality rates in Thailand. Liver cancer mortality increased with increasing age for each sex and was also higher in the North East provinces. The trends of liver cancer mortality remained stable in most age groups with increases during ten-year period (2000 to 2009) in the Northern and Southern. Liver cancer mortality was higher in males and increase with increasing age. There is need of liver cancer control measures to remain on a sustained and long-term basis for the high liver cancer burden rate of Thailand.

  20. Whole Milk Intake Is Associated with Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality among U.S. Male Physicians1234

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yan; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Cao, Yin; Qiu, Weiliang; Mucci, Lorelei; Sesso, Howard D.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Giovannucci, Edward; Pollak, Michael; Liu, Simin; Ma, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have associated higher milk intake with greater prostate cancer (PCa) incidence, but little data are available concerning milk types and the relation between milk intake and risk of fatal PCa. We investigated the association between intake of dairy products and the incidence and survival of PCa during a 28-y follow-up. We conducted a cohort study in the Physicians’ Health Study (n = 21,660) and a survival analysis among the incident PCa cases (n = 2806). Information on dairy product consumption was collected at baseline. PCa cases and deaths (n = 305) were confirmed during follow-up. The intake of total dairy products was associated with increased PCa incidence [HR = 1.12 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.35); >2.5 servings/d vs. ≤0.5 servings/d]. Skim/low-fat milk intake was positively associated with risk of low-grade, early stage, and screen-detected cancers, whereas whole milk intake was associated only with fatal PCa [HR = 1.49 (95% CI: 0.97, 2.28); ≥237 mL/d (1 serving/d) vs. rarely consumed]. In the survival analysis, whole milk intake remained associated with risk of progression to fatal disease after diagnosis [HR = 2.17 (95% CI: 1.34, 3.51)]. In this prospective cohort, higher intake of skim/low-fat milk was associated with a greater risk of nonaggressive PCa. Most importantly, only whole milk was consistently associated with higher incidence of fatal PCa in the entire cohort and higher PCa-specific mortality among cases. These findings add further evidence to suggest the potential role of dairy products in the development and prognosis of PCa. PMID:23256145

  1. Cancer incidence and cause-specific mortality in patients with metal-on-metal hip replacements in Finland

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Metal-on-metal hip implants have been widely used, especially in the USA, Australia, England and Wales, and Finland. We assessed risk of death and updated data on the risk of cancer related to metal-on-metal hip replacements. Patients and methods A cohort of 10,728 metal-on-metal hip replacement patients and a reference cohort of 18,235 conventional total hip replacement patients were extracted from the Finnish Arthroplasty Register for the years 2001–2010. Data on incident cancer cases and causes of death until 2011 were obtained from the Finnish Cancer Registry and Statistics Finland. The relative risk of cancer and death were expressed as standardized incidence ratio (SIR) and standardized mortality ratio (SMR). SIR/SIR ratios and SMR/SMR ratios, and Poisson regression were used to compare the cancer risk and the risk of death between cohorts. Results The overall risk of cancer in the metal-on-metal cohort was not higher than that in the non-metal-on-metal cohort (RR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.82–1.02). The risk of soft-tissue sarcoma and basalioma in the metal-on-metal cohort was higher than in the non-metal-on-metal cohort (SIR/SIR ratio = 2.6, CI: 1.02–6.4 for soft-tissue sarcoma; SIR/SIR ratio = 1.3, CI: 1.1–1.5 for basalioma). The overall risk of death in the metal-on-metal cohort was less than that in the non-metal-on-metal cohort (RR = 0.78, CI: 0.69–0.88). Interpretation The overall risk of cancer or risk of death because of cancer is not increased after metal-on-metal hip replacement. The well-patient effect and selection bias contribute substantially to the findings concerning mortality. Arthrocobaltism does not increase mortality in patients with metal-on-metal hip implants in the short term. However, metal-on-metal hip implants should not be considered safe until data with longer follow-up time are available. PMID:24397743

  2. The Impact of Brachytherapy on Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality for Definitive Radiation Therapy of High-Grade Prostate Cancer: A Population-Based Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Xinglei; Keith, Scott W.; Mishra, Mark V.; Dicker, Adam P.; Showalter, Timothy N.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: This population-based analysis compared prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) in a cohort of patients with high-risk prostate cancer after nonsurgical treatment with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), brachytherapy (BT), or combination (BT + EBRT). Methods and Materials: We identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database patients diagnosed from 1988 through 2002 with T1-T3N0M0 prostate adenocarcinoma of poorly differentiated grade and treated with BT, EBRT, or BT + EBRT. During this time frame, the database defined high grade as prostate cancers with Gleason score 8-10, or Gleason grade 4-5 if the score was not recorded. This corresponds to a cohort primarily with high-risk prostate cancer, although some cases where only Gleason grade was recorded may have included intermediate-risk cancer. We used multivariate models to examine patient and tumor characteristics associated with the likelihood of treatment with each radiation modality and the effect of radiation modality on PCSM. Results: There were 12,745 patients treated with EBRT (73.5%), BT (7.1%), or BT + EBRT (19.4%) included in the analysis. The median follow-up time for all patients was 6.4 years. The use of BT or BT + EBRT increased from 5.1% in 1988-1992 to 31.4% in 1998-2002. Significant predictors of use of BT or BT + EBRT were younger age, later year of diagnosis, urban residence, and earlier T-stage. On multivariate analysis, treatment with either BT (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-0.86) or BT + EBRT (hazard ratio, 0.77; 95% confidence ratio, 0.66-0.90) was associated with significant reduction in PCSM compared with EBRT alone. Conclusion: In patients with high-grade prostate cancer, treatment with brachytherapy is associated with reduced PCSM compared with EBRT alone. Our results suggest that brachytherapy should be investigated as a component of definitive treatment strategies for patients with high-risk prostate cancer.

  3. Genetic variation in the JAK/STAT/SOCS signaling pathway influences breast cancer-specific mortality through interaction with cigarette smoking and use of aspirin/NSAIDs: the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Martha L; Lundgreen, Abbie; Hines, Lisa M; Torres-Mejia, Gabriela; Wolff, Roger K; Stern, Mariana C; John, Esther M

    2014-08-01

    The Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway is involved in immune function and cell growth; genetic variation in this pathway could influence breast cancer risk. We examined 12 genes in the JAK/STAT/SOCS signaling pathway with breast cancer risk and mortality in an admixed population of Hispanic (2,111 cases, 2,597 controls) and non-Hispanic white (1,481 cases, 1,585 controls) women. Associations were assessed by Indigenous American (IA) ancestry. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, JAK1 (three of ten SNPs) and JAK2 (4 of 11 SNPs) interacted with body mass index (BMI) among pre-menopausal women, while STAT3 (four of five SNPs) interacted significantly with BMI among post-menopausal women to alter breast cancer risk. STAT6 rs3024979 and TYK2 rs280519 altered breast cancer-specific mortality among all women. Associations with breast cancer-specific mortality differed by IA ancestry; SOCS1 rs193779, STAT3 rs1026916, and STAT4 rs11685878 associations were limited to women with low IA ancestry, and associations with JAK1 rs2780890, rs2254002, and rs310245 and STAT1 rs11887698 were observed among women with high IA ancestry. JAK2 (5 of 11 SNPs), SOCS2 (one of three SNPs), and STAT4 (2 of 20 SNPs) interacted with cigarette smoking status to alter breast cancer-specific mortality. SOCS2 (one of three SNPs) and all STAT3, STAT5A, and STAT5B SNPs significantly interacted with use of aspirin/NSAIDs to alter breast cancer-specific mortality. Genetic variation in the JAK/STAT/SOCS pathway was associated with breast cancer-specific mortality. The proportion of SNPs within a gene that significantly interacted with lifestyle factors lends support for the observed associations.

  4. Predictors of Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality in Elderly Men With Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer Treated With Brachytherapy With or Without External Beam Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nanda, Akash; Moran, Brian J.; Braccioforte, Michelle H.; Dosoretz, Daniel; Salenius, Sharon; Katin, Michael; Ross, Rudi; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: To identify clinical factors associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), adjusting for comorbidity, in elderly men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with brachytherapy alone or in conjunction with external beam radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The study cohort comprised 1,978 men of median age 71 (interquartile range, 66-75) years with intermediate-risk disease (Gleason score 7, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) 20 ng/mL or less, tumor category T2c or less). Fine and Gray's multivariable competing risks regression was used to assess whether prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD), age, treatment, year of brachytherapy, PSA level, or tumor category was associated with the risk of PCSM. Results: After a median follow-up of 3.2 (interquartile range, 1.7-5.4) years, the presence of CVD was significantly associated with a decreased risk of PCSM (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.20; 95% CI 0.04-0.99; p = 0.05), whereas an increasing PSA level was significantly associated with an increased risk of PCSM (adjusted hazard ratio 1.14; 95% CI 1.02-1.27; p = 0.02). In the absence of CVD, cumulative incidence estimates of PCSM were higher (p = 0.03) in men with PSA levels above as compared with the median PSA level (7.3 ng/mL) or less; however, in the setting of CVD there was no difference (p = 0.27) in these estimates stratified by the median PSA level (6.9 ng/mL). Conclusions: In elderly men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer, CVD status is a negative predictor of PCSM and affects the prognostic capacity of pretreatment PSA level. These observations support the potential utility of prerandomization stratification by comorbidity to more accurately assess prognostic factors and treatment effects within this population.

  5. Age- and Sex-Specific Trends in Lung Cancer Mortality over 62 Years in a Nation with a Low Effort in Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    John, Ulrich; Hanke, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Background: A decrease in lung cancer mortality among females below 50 years of age has been reported for countries with significant tobacco control efforts. The aim of this study was to describe the lung cancer deaths, including the mortality rates and proportions among total deaths, for females and males by age at death in a country with a high smoking prevalence (Germany) over a time period of 62 years. Methods: The vital statistics data were analyzed using a joinpoint regression analysis stratified by age and sex. An age-period-cohort analysis was used to estimate the potential effects of sex and school education on mortality. Results: After an increase, lung cancer mortality among women aged 35–44 years remained stable from 1989 to 2009 and decreased by 10.8% per year from 2009 to 2013. Conclusions: Lung cancer mortality among females aged 35–44 years has decreased. The potential reasons include an increase in the number of never smokers, following significant increases in school education since 1950, particularly among females. PMID:27023582

  6. Cancer mortality in merchant seamen.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, M

    1991-12-31

    Cancer mortality excess has been reported repeatedly over the past hundred years to occur in merchant seamen. More recently lung cancer has been found to account for some of this excess and the question of the contribution made by cigarette smoking raised. In the one study where there was some information on smoking habit, it did not appear that cigarettes would have accounted for all the excess cancer observed. In other mortality studies, where excess cancer mortality was observed, the other cigarette-linked causes of death were not prominent. In a preliminary mortality analysis of a small population of merchant seamen, two cases of malignant mesothelioma have so far been identified, and in a national mesothelioma register 28 cases have been reported in seamen: both instances constitute abnormal occurrences. The presence of substantial amounts of asbestos-containing materials in naval construction which are continuously subjected to vibration and intermittently disturbed during servicing, and the detection of radiological stigmata consistent with asbestos exposure, add plausibility to the hypothesis that occupational asbestos exposure contributes to the apparent excess cancer mortality in merchant seamen. Methodologic deficiencies in epidemiologic studies reported to date make for uncertainty. Properly designed studies will be needed to quantify disease excess and to identify potentially causal associations. Even in the absence of such data it would be prudent to contain the asbestos currently installed and to promote smoking cessation programs.

  7. Short-term Androgen-Deprivation Therapy Improves Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality in Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Dose-Escalated External Beam Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zumsteg, Zachary S.; Spratt, Daniel E.; Pei, Xin; Yamada, Yoshiya; Kalikstein, Abraham; Kuk, Deborah; Zhang, Zhigang; Zelefsky, Michael J.

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: We investigated the benefit of short-term androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) in patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PC) receiving dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The present retrospective study comprised 710 intermediate-risk PC patients receiving external beam radiation therapy with doses of ≥81 Gy at a single institution from 1992 to 2005, including 357 patients receiving neoadjuvant and concurrent ADT. Prostate-specific antigen recurrence-free survival (PSA-RFS) and distant metastasis (DM) were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models. PC-specific mortality (PCSM) was assessed using competing-risks analysis. Results: The median follow-up was 7.9 years. Despite being more likely to have higher PSA levels, Gleason score 4 + 3 = 7, multiple National Comprehensive Cancer Network intermediate-risk factors, and older age (P≤.001 for all comparisons), patients receiving ADT had improved PSA-RFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.598; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.435-0.841; P=.003), DM (HR, 0.424; 95% CI, 0.219-0.819; P=.011), and PCSM (HR, 0.380; 95% CI, 0.157-0.921; P=.032) on univariate analysis. Using multivariate analysis, ADT was an even stronger predictor of improved PSA-RFS (adjusted HR [AHR], 0.516; 95% CI, 0.360-0.739; P<.001), DM (AHR, 0.347; 95% CI, 0.176-0.685; P=.002), and PCSM (AHR, 0.297; 95% CI, 0.128-0.685; P=.004). Gleason score 4 + 3 = 7 and ≥50% positive biopsy cores were other independent predictors of PCSM. Conclusions: Short-term ADT improves PSA-RFS, DM, and PCSM in patients with intermediate-risk PC undergoing dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy.

  8. Smoking, fibrinogen and cancer mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Charles J.; Wells, Brian J.; Frithsen, Ivar L.; Koopman, Richelle J.

    2007-01-01

    Associations of race, smoking history and fibrinogen levels with cancer mortality were investigated prospectively using the ARIC study. Our cohort consisted of 14,320 participants aged 45-64 at baseline. In an adjusted Cox regression, black current heavy smokers (> or = 15 cigarettes per day) demonstrated higher risk of respiratory/intrathoracic organ cancer mortality than nonblack current heavy smokers. Black former heavy smokers were also found to be at an increased risk of respiratory/intrathoracic organ cancer mortality when compared to nonblack former heavy smokers. Elevated fibrinogen levels were associated with an increased risk of respiratory/intrathoracic organ cancer mortality. Compared to fibrinogen < 259 mg/dl, fibrinogen 294-335 mg/dl had an adjusted hazard ratio of 3.68 (95% CI: 1.80-7.55), and fibrinogen > or = 336 mg/dl had an adjusted hazard ratio of 3.78 (95% CI: 1.84-7.75). Fibrinogen was also a predictor of other types of cancer mortality among black participants, but not among nonblack participants. For 10 race/smoking history categories, fibrinogen levels ranged from a mean of 287 mg/dl for nonblack former light smokers to a mean of 338 mg/dl for black current heavy smokers. Smokers had higher fibrinogen levels than nonsmokers, and black smokers had higher fibrinogen levels than nonblack smokers. Smoking carries high risks of cancer mortality for African Americans. A factor that needs to be considered in the overall assessment of risk is fibrinogen level, which has been linked to angiogenesis and metastases of tumors. PMID:17444421

  9. Mortality and cancer morbidity among cement workers.

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsson, K; Horstmann, V; Welinder, H

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To explore associations between exposure to cement dust and cause specific mortality and tumour morbidity, especially gastrointestinal tumours. DESIGN--A retrospective cohort study. SUBJECTS AND SETTING--2400 men, employed for at least 12 months in two Swedish cement factories. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Cause specific morality from death certificates (1952-86). Cancer morbidity from tumour registry information (1958-86). Standardised mortality rates (SMRs; national reference rates) and standardised morbidity incidence rates (SIRs; regional reference rates) were calculated. RESULTS--An increased risk of colorectal cancer was found > or = 15 years since the start of employment (SIR 1.6, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.1-2.3), mainly due to an increased risk for tumours in the right part of the colon (SIR 2.7, 95% CI 1.4-4.8), but not in the left part (SIR 1.0, 95% CI 0.3-2.5). There was a numerical increase of rectal cancer (SIR 1.5, 95% CI 0.8-2.5). Exposure (duration of blue collar employment)-response relations were found for right sided colon cancer. After > or = 25 years of cement work, the risk was fourfold (SIR 4.3, 95% CI 1.7-8.9). There was no excess of stomach cancer or respiratory cancer. Neither total mortality nor cause specific mortality were significantly increased. CONCLUSIONS--Diverging risk patterns for tumours with different localisations within the large bowel were found in the morbidity study. Long term exposure to cement dust was a risk factor for right sided colon cancer. The mortality study did not show this risk. PMID:8457494

  10. Cell cycle progression score is a marker for five-year lung cancer-specific mortality risk in patients with resected stage I lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Eguchi, Takashi; Kadota, Kyuichi; Chaft, Jamie; Evans, Brent; Kidd, John; Tan, Kay See; Dycoco, Joe; Kolquist, Kathryn; Davis, Thaylon; Hamilton, Stephanie A.; Yager, Kraig; Jones, Joshua T.; Travis, William D.; Jones, David R.; Hartman, Anne-Renee; Adusumilli, Prasad S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The goals of our study were (a) to validate a molecular expression signature (cell cycle progression [CCP] score and molecular prognostic score [mPS; combination of CCP and pathological stage {IA or IB}]) that identifies stage I lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) patients with a higher risk of cancer-specific death following curative-intent surgical resection, and (b) to determine whether mPS stratifies prognosis within stage I lung ADC histological subtypes. Methods Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded stage I lung ADC tumor samples from 1200 patients were analyzed for 31 proliferation genes by quantitative RT-PCR. Prognostic discrimination of CCP score and mPS was assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression, using 5-year lung cancer–specific mortality as the primary outcome. Results In multivariable analysis, CCP score was a prognostic marker for 5-year lung cancer–specific mortality (HR=1.6 per interquartile range; 95% CI, 1.14–2.24; P=0.006). In a multivariable model that included mPS instead of CCP, mPS was a significant prognostic marker for 5-year lung cancer–specific mortality (HR=1.77; 95% CI, 1.18–2.66; P=0.006). Five-year lung cancer–specific survival differed between low-risk and high-risk mPS groups (96% vs 81%; P<0.001). In patients with intermediate-grade lung ADC of acinar and papillary subtypes, high mPS was associated with worse 5-year lung cancer–specific survival (P<0.001 and 0.015, respectively), compared with low mPS. Conclusion This study validates CCP score and mPS as independent prognostic markers for lung cancer–specific mortality and provides quantitative risk assessment, independent of known high-risk features, for stage I lung ADC patients treated with surgery alone. PMID:27153551

  11. Whole grain consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all cause and cause specific mortality: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies

    PubMed Central

    Keum, NaNa; Giovannucci, Edward; Fadnes, Lars T; Boffetta, Paolo; Greenwood, Darren C; Tonstad, Serena; Vatten, Lars J; Riboli, Elio; Norat, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To quantify the dose-response relation between consumption of whole grain and specific types of grains and the risk of cardiovascular disease, total cancer, and all cause and cause specific mortality. Data sources PubMed and Embase searched up to 3 April 2016. Study selection Prospective studies reporting adjusted relative risk estimates for the association between intake of whole grains or specific types of grains and cardiovascular disease, total cancer, all cause or cause specific mortality. Data synthesis Summary relative risks and 95% confidence intervals calculated with a random effects model. Results 45 studies (64 publications) were included. The summary relative risks per 90 g/day increase in whole grain intake (90 g is equivalent to three servings—for example, two slices of bread and one bowl of cereal or one and a half pieces of pita bread made from whole grains) was 0.81 (95% confidence interval 0.75 to 0.87; I2=9%, n=7 studies) for coronary heart disease, 0.88 (0.75 to 1.03; I2=56%, n=6) for stroke, and 0.78 (0.73 to 0.85; I2=40%, n=10) for cardiovascular disease, with similar results when studies were stratified by whether the outcome was incidence or mortality. The relative risks for morality were 0.85 (0.80 to 0.91; I2=37%, n=6) for total cancer, 0.83 (0.77 to 0.90; I2=83%, n=11) for all causes, 0.78 (0.70 to 0.87; I2=0%, n=4) for respiratory disease, 0.49 (0.23 to 1.05; I2=85%, n=4) for diabetes, 0.74 (0.56 to 0.96; I2=0%, n=3) for infectious diseases, 1.15 (0.66 to 2.02; I2=79%, n=2) for diseases of the nervous system disease, and 0.78 (0.75 to 0.82; I2=0%, n=5) for all non-cardiovascular, non-cancer causes. Reductions in risk were observed up to an intake of 210-225 g/day (seven to seven and a half servings per day) for most of the outcomes. Intakes of specific types of whole grains including whole grain bread, whole grain breakfast cereals, and added bran, as well as total bread and total breakfast cereals were also associated

  12. Cancer mortality of granite workers.

    PubMed

    Koskela, R S; Klockars, M; Järvinen, E; Kolari, P J; Rossi, A

    1987-02-01

    A retrospective cohort study was undertaken to investigate the cancer mortality of granite workers. The study comprised 1,026 workers hired between 1940 and 1971. The number of person-years was 20,165, and the number of deaths 235. During the total follow-up 46 tumors were observed and 44.9 were expected. An excess mortality from tumors was observed for the workers followed for 20 years or more, the greatest excess occurring during the follow-up period of 25-29 years (observed 11, expected 5.2). Of the 46 tumors, 22 were lung cancers (expected 17.1) and 15 were gastrointestinal cancers (expected 9.7), nine of which were cancers of the stomach (expected 6.0). Mortality from lung cancer was excessive for workers with at least 15 years since entry into granite work (latency) (21 observed and 9.5 expected), being highest during the follow-up period of 25-29 years (observed 8, expected 2.1). The results indicate that granite exposure per se may be an etiologic factor in the initiation or promotion of malignant neoplasms.

  13. Selenium Supplementation and Prostate Cancer Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Van Blarigan, Erin L.; DuPre, Natalie; Stampfer, Meir J.; L. Giovannucci, Edward; Chan, June M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few studies have evaluated the relation between selenium supplementation after diagnosis and prostate cancer outcomes. Methods: We prospectively followed 4459 men initially diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study from 1988 through 2010 and examined whether selenium supplement use (from selenium-specific supplements and multivitamins) after diagnosis was associated with risk of biochemical recurrence, prostate cancer mortality, and, secondarily, cardiovascular disease mortality and overall mortality, using Cox proportional hazards models. All P values were from two-sided tests. Results: We documented 965 deaths, 226 (23.4%) because of prostate cancer and 267 (27.7%) because of cardiovascular disease, during a median follow-up of 8.9 years. In the biochemical recurrence analysis, we documented 762 recurrences during a median follow-up of 7.8 years. Crude rates per 1000 person-years for prostate cancer death were 5.6 among selenium nonusers and 10.5 among men who consumed 140 or more μg/day. Crude rates per 1000 person-years were 28.2 vs 23.5 for all-cause mortality and 28.4 vs 29.3 for biochemical recurrence, for nonuse vs highest-dose categories, respectively. In multivariable analyses, men who consumed 1 to 24 μg/day, 25 to 139 μg/day, and 140 or more μg/day of supplemental selenium had a 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.73 to 1.91), 1.33 (95% CI = 0.77 to 2.30), and 2.60-fold (95% CI = 1.44 to 4.70) greater risk of prostate cancer mortality compared with nonusers, respectively, P trend = .001. There was no statistically significant association between selenium supplement use and biochemical recurrence, cardiovascular disease mortality, or overall mortality. Conclusion: Selenium supplementation of 140 or more μg/day after diagnosis of nonmetastatic prostate cancer may increase risk of prostate cancer mortality. Caution is warranted regarding usage of such supplements among men with prostate

  14. The racial disparity in breast cancer mortality.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Steven; Ansell, David; Orsi, Jennifer; Francois, Teena

    2011-08-01

    Black women die of breast cancer at a much higher rate than white women. Recent studies have suggested that this racial disparity might be even greater in Chicago than the country as a whole. When data describing this racial disparity are presented they are sometimes attributed in part to racial differences in tumor biology. Vital records data were employed to calculate age-adjusted breast cancer mortality rates for women in Chicago, New York City and the United States from 1980-2005. Race-specific rate ratios were used to measure the disparity in breast cancer mortality. Breast cancer mortality rates by race are the main outcome. In all three geographies the rate ratios were approximately equal in 1980 and stayed that way until the early 1990s, when the white rates started to decline while the black rates remained rather constant. By 2005 the black:white rate ratio was 1.36 in NYC, 1.38 in the US, and 1.98 in Chicago. In any number of ways these data are inconsistent with the notion that the disparity in black:white breast cancer mortality rates is a function of differential biology. Three societal hypotheses are posited that may explain this disparity. All three are actionable, beginning today.

  15. Cause-specific mortality and second cancer incidence after non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    PubMed Central

    Ronckers, Cécile; Hayashi, Robert J.; Neglia, Joseph P.; Mertens, Ann C.; Stovall, Marilyn; Meadows, Anna T.; Mitby, Pauline A.; Whitton, John A.; Hammond, Sue; Barker, Joseph D.; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Robison, Leslie L.; Inskip, Peter D.

    2008-01-01

    Second primary malignancies and premature death are a concern for patients surviving treatment for childhood lymphomas. We assessed mortality and second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) among 1082 5-year survivors of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, a multi-institutional North American retrospective cohort study of cancer survivors diagnosed from 1970 to 1986. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated using US population rates. Relative risks for death and solid tumor SMNs were calculated based on demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics using Poisson regression models. There were 87 observed deaths (SMR = 4.2; 95% CI, 1.8-4.1) with elevated rates of death from solid tumors, leukemia, cardiac disease, and pneumonia. Risk for death remained elevated beyond 20 years after NHL. Risk factors for death from causes other than NHL included female sex (rate ratio [RR] = 3.4) and cardiac radiation therapy exposure (RR = 1.9). There were 27 solid tumor SMNs (SIR = 3.9; 95% CI, 2.6-5.7) with 3% cumulative incidence between 5 and 20 years after NHL diagnosis. Risk factors were female sex (RR = 3.1), mediastinal NHL disease (RR = 5.2), and breast irradiation (RR = 4.3). Survivors of childhood NHL, particularly those treated with chest RT, are at continued increased risk of early mortality and solid tumor SMNs. PMID:18258798

  16. Proximity to mining industry and cancer mortality.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; García-Pérez, Javier; Ramis, Rebeca; Boldo, Elena; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2012-10-01

    Mining installations are releasing toxic substances into the environment which could pose a health problem to populations in their vicinity. We sought to investigate whether there might be excess cancer-related mortality in populations residing in towns lying in the vicinity of Spanish mining industries governed by the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive, and the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register Regulation, according to the type of extraction method used. An ecologic study was designed to examine municipal mortality due to 32 types of cancer, across the period 1997 through 2006. Population exposure to pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from town of residence to pollution source. Poisson regression models, using the Bayesian conditional autoregressive model proposed by Besag, York and Molliè and Integrated Nested Laplace Approximations for Bayesian inference, were used: to analyze risk of dying from cancer in a 5-kilometer zone around mining installations; effect of type of industrial activity; and to conduct individual analyses within a 50-kilometer radius of each installation. Excess mortality (relative risk, 95% credible interval) of colorectal cancer (1.097, 1.041-1.157), lung cancer (1.066, 1.009-1.126) specifically related with proximity to opencast coal mining, bladder cancer (1.106, 1.016-1.203) and leukemia (1.093, 1.003-1.191) related with other opencast mining installations, was detected among the overall population in the vicinity of mining installations. Other tumors also associated in the stratified analysis by type of mine, were: thyroid, gallbladder and liver cancers (underground coal installations); brain cancer (opencast coal mining); stomach cancer (coal and other opencast mining installations); and myeloma (underground mining installations). The results suggested an association between risk of dying due to digestive, respiratory, hematologic and thyroid cancers and proximity to Spanish mining

  17. Adherence to cancer prevention guidelines and cancer incidence, cancer mortality, and total mortality: a prospective cohort study1234

    PubMed Central

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Matthews, Charles E; Kamensky, Victor; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Rohan, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several health agencies have issued guidelines promoting behaviors to reduce chronic disease risk; however, little is known about the impact of such guidelines, particularly on cancer incidence. Objective: The objective was to determine whether greater adherence to the American Cancer Society (ACS) cancer prevention guidelines is associated with a reduction in cancer incidence, cancer mortality, and total mortality. Design: The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, a prospective cohort study of 566,401 adults aged 50–71 y at recruitment in 1995–1996, was followed for a median of 10.5 y for cancer incidence, 12.6 y for cancer mortality, and 13.6 y for total mortality. Participants who reported a history of cancer or who had missing data were excluded, yielding 476,396 subjects for analysis. We constructed a 5-level score measuring adherence to ACS guidelines, which included baseline body mass index, physical activity, alcohol intake, and several aspects of diet. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute HRs and 95% CIs for the association of the adherence score with cancer incidence, cancer mortality, and total mortality. All analyses included fine adjustment for cigarette smoking. Results: Among 476,396 participants, 73,784 incident first cancers, 16,193 cancer deaths, and 81,433 deaths from all causes were identified in the cohort. Adherence to ACS guidelines was associated with reduced risk of all cancers combined: HRs (95% CIs) for the highest compared with the lowest level of adherence were 0.90 (0.87, 0.93) in men and 0.81 (0.77, 0.84) in women. Fourteen of 25 specific cancer sites showed a reduction in risk associated with increased adherence. Adherence was also associated with reduced cancer mortality [HRs (95% CIs) were 0.75 (0.70, 0.80) in men and 0.76 (0.70, 0.83) in women] and reduced all-cause mortality [HRs (95% CIs) were 0.74 (0.72, 0.76) in men and 0.67 (0.65, 0.70) in women]. Conclusions: In both men and women, adherence to the

  18. Survival of patients with operable breast cancer (Stages I-III) at a Brazilian public hospital - a closer look into cause-specific mortality

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer incidence is increasing. The survival rate varies and is longer in high-income countries. In Brazil, lower-income populations rely on the Unified Public Health System (Sistema Único de Saude, SUS) for breast cancer care. The goal of our study is to evaluate the survival of patients with operable breast cancer stages I-III at a Brazilian public hospital that treats mostly patients from the SUS. Methods A cohort study of patients who underwent surgery for breast cancer treatment at the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Minas Gerais from 2001 to 2008 was performed, with a population of 897 cases. Information on tumor pathology and staging, as well as patients’ age and type of health coverage (SUS or private system) was collected. A probabilistic record linkage was performed with the database of the Mortality Information System to identify patients who died by December 31th, 2011. The basic cause of death was retrieved, and breast cancer-specific survival rates were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox proportional hazards model was used for univariate and multivariate analysis of factors related to survival. Results A total of 282 deaths occurred during the study’s period, 228 of them due to breast cancer. Five-year breast cancer-specific survival rates were 95.5% for stage I, 85.1% for stage II and 62.1% for stage III disease. Patients from the SUS had higher stages at diagnosis (42% was in stage III, and from the private system only 17.6% was in this stage), and in the univariate but not multivariate analysis, being treated by the SUS was associated with shorter survival (hazard ratio, HR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.24-3.98). In the multivariate analysis, larger tumor size, higher histologic grade, higher number of positive nodes and age older than 70 years were associated with a shorter breast cancer-specific survival. Conclusions Five-year breast cancer survival was comparable to other Brazilian cohorts. Patients

  19. Long term cause specific mortality among 34 489 five year survivors of childhood cancer in Great Britain: population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, Miranda M; Reulen, Raoul C; Winter, David L; Kelly, Julie; Jenkinson, Helen C; Skinner, Rod; Frobisher, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether modern treatments for cancer are associated with a net increased or decreased risk of death from neoplastic and non-neoplastic causes among survivors of childhood cancer. Design Population based cohort study. Setting British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Participants Nationwide population based cohort of 34 489 five year survivors of childhood cancer with a diagnosis from 1940 to 2006 and followed up until 28 February 2014. Main outcome measures Cause specific standardised mortality ratios and absolute excess risks are reported. Multivariable Poisson regression models were utilised to evaluate the simultaneous effect of risk factors. Likelihood ratio tests were used to test for heterogeneity or trend. Results Overall, 4475 deaths were observed, which was 9.1 (95% confidence interval 8.9 to 9.4) times that expected in the general population, corresponding to 64.2 (95% confidence interval 62.1 to 66.3) excess deaths per 10 000 person years. The number of excess deaths from all causes declined among those treated more recently; those treated during 1990-2006 experienced 30% of the excess number of deaths experienced by those treated before 1970. The corresponding percentages for the decline in excess deaths from recurrence or progression and non-neoplastic causes were 30% and 60%, respectively. Among survivors aged 50-59 years, 41% and 22% of excess deaths were attributable to subsequent primary neoplasms and circulatory conditions, respectively, whereas the corresponding percentages among those aged 60 years or more were 31% and 37%. Conclusions The net effects of changes in cancer treatments, and surveillance and management for late effects, over the period 1940 to 2006 was to reduce the excess number of deaths from both recurrence or progression and non-neoplastic causes among those treated more recently. Among survivors aged 60 years or more, the excess number of deaths from circulatory causes exceeds the excess number

  20. Model-based patterns in stomach cancer mortality worldwide.

    PubMed

    Peleteiro, Bárbara; Severo, Milton; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lunet, Nuno

    2014-11-01

    The decrease in stomach cancer mortality was not because of specific interventions, and is likely that different countries follow a similar model of variation. Here, we aimed to identify model-based patterns in the time trends of stomach cancer mortality worldwide. Stomach cancer mortality rates were retrieved for 62 countries from the WHO mortality database. Sex-specific mixed models were used to describe time trends in age-standardized rates between 1980 and 2010 (age group 35-74 years; World standard population). Three patterns, similar for men and women, were identified through model-based clustering. Pattern 1 presented the highest mortality rates in 1980 (median: men, 81.5/100 000; women, 34.4/100 000) and pattern 3 the lowest ones (median: men, 24.4/100 000; women, 12.4/100 000). The decrease in mortality rates was greater in 1980-1995 than during 1996-2010. Assuming that the patterns characterized by the highest rates precede temporally those with lower mortality, the overlap of model predictions supports a 20-year lag between adjacent patterns. We propose a model for the variation in stomach cancer mortality with three stages that develop sequentially through a period of ∼70 years. The countries with the lowest mortality had the highest proportional decrease in mortality rates.

  1. Epidemiology, Incidence and Mortality of Breast Cancer in Asia.

    PubMed

    Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Momenimovahed, Zohre; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women around the world. Information on the incidence and mortality of breast cancer is essential for planning health measures. This study aimed to investigate the incidence and mortality of breast cancer in the world using age-specific incidence and mortality rates for the year 2012 acquired from the global cancer project (GLOBOCAN 2012) as well as data about incidence and mortality of the cancer based on national reports. It was estimated that 1,671,149 new cases of breast cancer were identified and 521,907 cases of deaths due to breast cancer occurred in the world in 2012. According to GLOBOCAN, it is the most common cancer in women, accounting for 25.1% of all cancers. Breast cancer incidence in developed countries is higher, while relative mortality is greatest in less developed countries. Education of women is suggested in all countries for early detection and treatment. Plans for the control and prevention of this cancer must be a high priority for health policy makers; also, it is necessary to increase awareness of risk factors and early detection in less developed countries. PMID:27165207

  2. Cause-specific mortality among male chemical workers.

    PubMed

    Bond, G G; McLaren, E A; Cartmill, J B; Wymer, K T; Sobel, W; Lipps, T E; Cook, R R

    1987-01-01

    Cause specific mortality was surveyed among 37,682 male employees with three or more days of service between 1940 and 1982 at the Midland or Bay City, Michigan, locations of Dow Chemical USA. Vital status was ascertained through 1982 for 97.5% of the cohort members, and death certificates were obtained for 97.1% of the 7,751 decedents. Comparisons of observed mortality with expected levels based on any of three general population groups (US, Michigan, or seven local counties) consistently demonstrated lower mortality in the cohort from each of the major causes of death, including total malignant neoplasms. Unique among hourly employees was significant excess mortality in the categories of cancer of other lymphatic tissue, and motor vehicle accidents, and both hourly and salaried nonexempt employees experienced significantly higher mortality from other and ill-defined cancers. The influence of duration of employment and age at and period of hire were explored with the Mantel-Haenszel method as adapted for a cohort study. Results were evaluated both including and excluding the mortality experience of subsets of employees with past exposure to known human carcinogens (arsenic, asbestos, bis-chloromethyl ether, benzene, organic dyes, and vinyl chloride). The use of the general mortality survey in monitoring whether or not there are major health problems among the employees and in setting research priorities is emphasized.

  3. Radon and nonrespiratory mortality in the American Cancer Society cohort.

    PubMed

    Turner, Michelle C; Krewski, Daniel; Chen, Yue; Pope, C Arden; Gapstur, Susan M; Thun, Michael J

    2012-11-01

    Radon is a known cause of human lung cancer. Previously, the authors observed a significant positive association between mean county-level residential radon concentrations and lung cancer mortality in the Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II), a large prospective study of nearly 1.2 million participants recruited in 1982 by the American Cancer Society. There was also a significant positive association with mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Because it is unclear whether radon is associated with mortality from other malignant or nonmalignant disease, the authors examined the association between radon and nonrespiratory mortality in the CPS-II. Mean county-level residential radon concentrations (mean = 53.5 (standard deviation: 38.0) Bq/m(3)) were linked to participants by their zip code at enrollment. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all-cause (excluding lung cancer and respiratory mortality) and cause-specific mortality associated with radon concentrations. A total of 811,961 participants in 2,754 counties were analyzed, including 265,477 deaths through 2006. There were no clear associations between radon and nonrespiratory mortality in the CPS-II. These findings suggest that residential radon is not associated with any other mortality beyond lung cancer or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  4. Cancer mortality in Native Americans in North Carolina.

    PubMed Central

    Horner, R D

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes age-adjusted mortality from malignant neoplasms for Native Americans in North Carolina for 1968-72 and 1978-82. Sex-specific standardized mortality ratios were calculated from death certificate data, using the cancer mortality experience of White North Carolinians to obtain the number of expected deaths. For most categories and specific sites of cancer, mortality was at or below the expected level, but higher than expected mortality was found for genitourinary cancers in males (SMR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.15, 2.21) for the 1978-82 period; within this category, there was a higher than expected level of mortality from prostate cancer (SMR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.36, 2.83) and cancer of the penis and other male genital organs (SMR = 9.09; 95% CI = 1.10, 32.84). Female Native Americans had an elevated mortality from cervical cancer (SMR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.09, 4.17) for the 1968-72 period only. PMID:2368854

  5. Prediction of Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Korea, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyu-Won; Won, Young-Joo; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Lee, Joo Young; Park, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Jin-Soo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the current cancer burden in Korea, cancer incidence and mortality were projected for the year 2011. Materials and Methods The cancer incidence data from 1999-2008 were obtained from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database, and the cancer mortality data from 1993-2009 were obtained from the Korea National Statistics Office. Cancer incident cases and rates in 2011 were projected from fitting a linear regression model on observed age-specific cancer incidence rates against observed years, then multiplying the projected age-specific rates by the age-specific population. For cancer mortality, a similar procedure was applied for projection except that a Joinpoint regression model was used to determine at which year the linear trend significantly changed. Results A total of 216,809 new cancer cases and 71,036 cancer deaths are projected to occur in Korea in 2011. For all sites combined, the crude incidence rates are projected to be 437.9 and 420.5 and the age-standardized incidence rates are projected to be 336.5 and 279.7 per 100,000 for men and women, respectively. Conclusion Cancer has become an important public health concern in Korea, and as Korea becomes an aged society, the cancer burden will continue to increase. PMID:21509158

  6. Ki-67 Is an Independent Predictor of Metastasis and Cause-Specific Mortality for Prostate Cancer Patients Treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 94-08

    SciTech Connect

    Verhoven, Bret; Yan, Yan; Ritter, Mark; Khor, Li-Yan; Hammond, Elizabeth; Jones, Christopher; Amin, Mahul; Bahary, Jean-Paul; Zeitzer, Kenneth; Pollack, Alan

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: The association of Ki-67 staining index (Ki67-SI) with overall survival (OS), disease-specific mortality (DSM), distant metastasis (DM), and biochemical failure (BF) was examined in men with favorable- to intermediate-risk prostate cancer receiving radiation therapy (RT) alone or with short-term androgen deprivation (ADT) in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 94-08. Methods and Materials: 468 patients (23.6%) on RTOG 94-08 had sufficient tissue for Ki67-SI analysis. The median follow-up time was 7.9 years. Ki67-SI was determined by immunohistochemistry and quantified manually and by image analysis. Correlative analysis versus clinical outcome was performed using the third quartile (≥Q3) cutpoint. A proportional hazards multivariable analysis (MVA) dichotomized covariates in accordance with trial stratification and randomization criteria. Results: In MVAs adjusted for all treatment covariates, high Ki67-SI (≥Q3) was correlated with increased DSM (hazard ratio [HR] 2.48, P=.03), DM (HR 3.5, P=.002), and BF (HR 3.55, P<.0001). MVA revealed similar Ki67-associated hazard ratios in each separate treatment arm for DSM, DM, and BF; these reached significance only for DM in the RT-alone arm and for BF in both arms. Ki67-SI was not a significant predictor of intraprostatic recurrence assessed by repeated biopsy 2 years after treatment. Patients with a high or low Ki67-SI seemed to experience a similar relative benefit from the addition of ADT to radiation. Conclusions: High Ki67-SI independently predicts for increased DSM, DM, and protocol BF in primarily intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients treated with RT with or without ADT on RTOG 94-08 but does not predict for local recurrence or for increased relative benefit from ADT. This and prior studies lend support for the use of Ki67-SI as a stratification factor in future trials.

  7. Ovarian cancer mortality and industrial pollution.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Javier; Lope, Virginia; López-Abente, Gonzalo; González-Sánchez, Mario; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo

    2015-10-01

    We investigated whether there might be excess ovarian cancer mortality among women residing near Spanish industries, according to different categories of industrial groups and toxic substances. An ecologic study was designed to examine ovarian cancer mortality at a municipal level (period 1997-2006). Population exposure to pollution was estimated by means of distance from town to facility. Using Poisson regression models, we assessed the relative risk of dying from ovarian cancer in zones around installations, and analyzed the effect of industrial groups and pollutant substances. Excess ovarian cancer mortality was detected in the vicinity of all sectors combined, and, principally, near refineries, fertilizers plants, glass production, paper production, food/beverage sector, waste treatment plants, pharmaceutical industry and ceramic. Insofar as substances were concerned, statistically significant associations were observed for installations releasing metals and polycyclic aromatic chemicals. These results support that residing near industries could be a risk factor for ovarian cancer mortality.

  8. Estimated cancer incidence and mortality in Hebei province, 2012

    PubMed Central

    He, Yutong; Liang, Di; Li, Daojuan; Zhai, Jingbo; Zhu, Junqing; Jin, Jing; Wen, Denggui

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and cancer deaths in Hebei province using incidence and mortality data from 9 population-based cancer registries in 2012. Methods The data of new diagnosed cancer cases and cancer deaths in 2012 were collected from 9 population-based cancer registries of Hebei province in 2015. All the data met the National Central Cancer Registry of China (NCCR) criteria of data quality. The pooled data analysis was stratified by areas (urban/rural), gender, age group (0, 1.4, 5.9, 10.14, …, 85+) and cancer type. New cancer cases and deaths in Hebei province were estimated using age-specific rates and corresponding provincial population in 2012. The 10 most common cancers in different groups and the cumulative rates were calculated. Chinese population census in 2000 and Segi’s population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates. Results All cancer registries covered 4,986,847 populations, 6.84% of Hebei provincial population (2,098,547 in urban and 2,888,300 in rural areas). The percentage of cases morphologically verified (MV%) and death certificate-only cases (DCO%) were 76.40% and 4.72%, respectively. The mortality to incidence rate ratio (M/I) was 0.64. In 2012, it is estimated that there were about 187,900 new diagnosed cancer cases and 119,800 cancer deaths in Hebei province. The incidence rate of cancer was 258.12/100,000 (275.75/100,000 in males, 239.78/100,000 in females), and the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 210.65/100,000 and 208.50/100,000, with the cumulative incidence rates (0.74 years old) of 24.46%. The cancer incidence and ASIRC were 256.99/100,000 and 211.32/100,000 in urban areas and 258.94/100,000 and 209.99/100,000 in rural areas, respectively. The cancer mortality rate was 164.63/100,000 (201.85/100,000 in males, 125.92/100,000 in females). Agestandardized mortality rates by Chinese

  9. Sedentary behavior and residual-specific mortality

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Edwards, Meghan K.; Sng, Eveleen; Addoh, Ovuokerie

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of accelerometer-assessed sedentary behavior and residual-specific mortality. Methods: Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 5536), with follow-up through 2011. Sedentary behavior was objectively measured over 7 days via accelerometry. Results: When expressing sedentary behavior as a 60 min/day increase, the hazard ratio across the models ranged from 1.07-1.40 (P < 0.05). There was evidence of an interaction effect between sedentary behavior and total physical activity on residual-specific mortality (Hazard ratiointeraction [HR] = 0.9989; 95% CI: 0.9982-0.9997; P = 0.008). Conclusion: Sedentary behavior was independently associated with residual-specific mortality. However, there was evidence to suggest that residual-specific mortality risk was a function of sedentary behavior and total physical activity. These findings highlight the need for future work to not only examine the association between sedentary behavior and health independent of total physical activity, but evaluate whether there is a joint effect of these two parameters on health. PMID:27766237

  10. National cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wanqing; Zheng, Rongshou; Zuo, Tingting; Zeng, Hongmei; Zhang, Siwei

    2016-01-01

    Background Population-based cancer registration data in 2012 from all available cancer registries were collected by the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR). NCCR estimated the numbers of new cancer cases and cancer deaths in China with compiled cancer incidence and mortality rates. Methods In 2015, there were 261 cancer registries submitted cancer incidence and deaths occurred in 2012. All the data were checked and evaluated based on the NCCR criteria of data quality. Qualified data from 193 registries were used for cancer statistics analysis as national estimation. The pooled data were stratified by area (urban/rural), gender, age group [0, 1–4, 5–9, 10–14, …, 85+] and cancer type. New cancer cases and deaths were estimated using age-specific rates and corresponding national population in 2012. The Chinese census data in 2000 and Segi’s population were applied for age-standardized rates. All the rates were expressed per 100,000 person-year. Results Qualified 193 cancer registries (74 urban and 119 rural registries) covered 198,060,406 populations (100,450,109 in urban and 97,610,297 in rural areas). The percentage of cases morphologically verified (MV%) and death certificate-only cases (DCO%) were 69.13% and 2.38%, respectively, and the mortality to incidence rate ratio (M/I) was 0.62. A total of 3,586,200 new cancer cases and 2,186,600 cancer deaths were estimated in China in 2012. The incidence rate was 264.85/100,000 (289.30/100,000 in males, 239.15/100,000 in females), the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 191.89/100,000 and 187.83/100,000 with the cumulative incidence rate (0–74 age years old) of 21.82%. The cancer incidence, ASIRC and ASIRW in urban areas were 277.17/100,000, 195.56/100,000 and 190.88/100,000 compared to 251.20/100,000, 187.10/100,000 and 183.91/100,000 in rural areas, respectively. The cancer mortality was 161.49/100,000 (198.99/100,000 in

  11. The Number of High-Risk Factors and the Risk of Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality After Brachytherapy: Implications for Treatment Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Wattson, Daniel A.; Chen Minghui; Moul, Judd W.; Moran, Brian J.; Dosoretz, Daniel E.; Robertson, Cary N.; Polascik, Thomas J.; Braccioforte, Michelle H.; Salenius, Sharon A.; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To determine whether an increasing number of high-risk factors is associated with higher prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) among men treated with brachytherapy (BT)-based treatment, and whether supplemental therapy has an impact on this risk. Methods and Materials: We analyzed the cases of 2234 men with localized prostate cancer treated between 1991 and 2007 with low-dose rate BT monotherapy (n = 457) or BT with supplemental external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT, n = 229), androgen suppression therapy (AST, n = 424), or both (n = 1124). All men had at least one high-risk factor (prostate-specific antigen >20 ng/mL, biopsy Gleason score 8-10, or clinical stage {>=}T2c). Competing-risks multivariable regressions were performed to determine whether the presence of at least two high-risk factors was associated with an increased risk of PCSM, with adjustment for age, comorbidity, and the type of supplemental treatment. Results: The median follow-up time was 4.3 years. The number of men with at least two high-risk factors was highest in the group treated with BT, EBRT, and AST (21%), followed by BT plus EBRT or AST (13%), and BT alone (8%) (p{sub trend} < 0.001). The adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) for PCSM for those with at least two high-risk factors (as compared with one) was 4.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8-8.0; p < 0.001). The use of both supplemental EBRT and AST was associated with a decreased risk of PCSM (AHR 0.5; 95% CI, 0.2-0.9; p = 0.03) compared with BT alone. When the high-risk factors were analyzed separately, Gleason score 8-10 was most significantly associated with increased PCSM (AHR 6.2; 95% CI, 3.5-11.2; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Men with high-risk prostate adenocarcinoma treated with BT have decreased PCSM if they receive trimodailty therapy that includes EBRT and AST. This benefit is likely most important in men with multiple determinants of high risk.

  12. Nutrition and Physical Activity Cancer Prevention Guidelines, Cancer Risk, and Mortality in the Women's Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Cynthia A.; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Wertheim, Betsy C.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Martinez, Maria Elena; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Rohan, Thomas E.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Ockene, Judith; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Sarto, Gloria E.; Lane, Dorothy S.; Neuhouser, Marian L.

    2014-01-01

    Healthy lifestyle behaviors are recommended to reduce cancer risk and overall mortality. Adherence to cancer-preventive health behaviors and subsequent cancer risk has not been evaluated in a diverse sample of postmenopausal women. We examined the association between the American Cancer Society (ACS) Nutrition and Physical Activity Cancer Prevention Guidelines score and risk of incident cancer, cancer-specific mortality, and all-cause mortality in 65,838 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. ACS guidelines scores (0–8 points) were determined from a combined measure of diet, physical activity, body mass index (current and at age 18 years), and alcohol consumption. After a mean follow-up of 12.6 years, 8,632 incident cancers and 2,356 cancer deaths were identified. The highest ACS guidelines scores compared with the lowest were associated with a 17% lower risk of any cancer [HR, 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75–0.92], 22% lower risk of breast cancer (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.67–0.92), 52% lower risk of colorectal cancer (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.32–0.73), 27% lower risk of all-cause mortality, and 20% lower risk of cancer-specific mortality (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.71–0.90). Associations with lower cancer incidence and mortality were generally strongest among Asian, black, and Hispanic women and weakest among non-Hispanic whites. Behaviors concordant with Nutrition and Physical Activity Cancer Prevention Guidelines were associated with lower risk of total, breast, and colorectal cancers and lower cancer-specific mortality in postmenopausal women. PMID:24403289

  13. Municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Lope, Virginia; Pollán, Marina; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Aragonés, Nuria; Vidal, Enrique; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; Ramis, Rebeca; García-Pérez, Javier; Cabanes, Anna; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2008-01-01

    Background Spain was the country that registered the greatest increases in ovarian cancer mortality in Europe. This study describes the municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality in Spain using spatial models for small-area analysis. Methods Smoothed relative risks of ovarian cancer mortality were obtained, using the Besag, York and Molliè autoregressive spatial model. Standardised mortality ratios, smoothed relative risks, and distribution of the posterior probability of relative risks being greater than 1 were depicted on municipal maps. Results During the study period (1989–1998), 13,869 ovarian cancer deaths were registered in 2,718 Spanish towns, accounting for 4% of all cancer-related deaths among women. The highest relative risks were mainly concentrated in three areas, i.e., the interior of Barcelona and Gerona (north-east Spain), the north of Lugo and Asturias (north-west Spain) and along the Seville-Huelva boundary (in the south-west). Eivissa (Balearic Islands) and El Hierro (Canary Islands) also registered increased risks. Conclusion Well established ovarian cancer risk factors might not contribute significantly to the municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality. Environmental and occupational exposures possibly linked to this pattern and prevalent in specific regions, are discussed in this paper. Small-area geographical studies are effective instruments for detecting risk areas that may otherwise remain concealed on a more reduced scale. PMID:18789142

  14. Cancer mortality in a northeastern native American population.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, M C; Michalek, A M; Cummings, K M; Nasca, P C; Emrich, L J

    1989-07-01

    This study compared cancer mortality among the Seneca Nation of Indians (SNI) between 1955 and 1984 with cancer patterns exhibited by the general population of New York State (NYS), exclusive of New York City. Cancer mortality among the SNI was compared with cancer mortality in NYS using age and sex standardized mortality ratios (SMR). Deficits in overall cancer mortality were noted among both SNI males (SMR = 78) and females (SMR = 73). Results from this investigation will contribute to the understanding of patterns of malignant disease mortality among native peoples and may be of benefit for monitoring the impact of cancer mortality among the SNI and other Native American groups.

  15. Municipal pleural cancer mortality in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Abente, G; Hernandez-Barrera, V; Pollan, M; Aragones, N; Perez-Gomez, B

    2005-01-01

    Background: Pleural cancer is a recognised indicator of exposure to asbestos and mesothelioma mortality. Aims: To investigate the distribution of municipal mortality due to this tumour, using the autoregressive spatial model proposed by Besag, York, and Molliè. Methods: It was possible to compile and ascertain the posterior distribution of relative risk on the basis of a single Bayesian spatial model covering all of Spain's 8077 municipal areas. Maps were plotted depicting standardised mortality ratios, smoothed relative risk (RR) estimates, and the distribution of the posterior probability that RR >1. Results: There was a higher risk of death due to pleural cancer in well defined towns and areas, many of which correspond to municipalities where asbestos using industries once existed for many years, the prime example being the municipal pattern registered for Barcelona Province. The quality of mortality data, the suitability of the model used, and the usefulness of municipal atlases for environmental surveillance are discussed. PMID:15723885

  16. Cancer mortality patterns among Turkish immigrants in four European countries and in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Spallek, Jacob; Arnold, Melina; Razum, Oliver; Juel, Knud; Rey, Grégoire; Deboosere, Patrick; Mackenbach, Johan Pieter; Kunst, Anton Eduard

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study on cancer mortality among Turkish immigrants, for the first time, traditional comparisons in migrant health research have been extended simultaneously in two ways. First, comparisons were made to cancer mortality from the immigrants' country of origin and second, cancer mortality among Turkish immigrants across four host countries (Belgium, Denmark, France and the Netherlands) was compared. Population-based cancer mortality data from these countries were included. Age-standardized mortality rates were computed for the local-born and Turkish population of each country. Relative differences in cancer mortality were examined by fitting country-specific Poisson regression models. Globocan data on cancer mortality in Turkey from 2008 were used in order to compare mortality rates of Turkish immigrants with those from their country of origin. Turkish immigrants had lower all-cancer mortality than the local-born populations of their host countries, and mortality levels comparable to all-cancer mortality rates in Turkey. In the Netherlands and France breast cancer mortality was consistently lower in Turkish immigrants women than among local-born women. Lung cancer mortality was slightly lower in Turkish immigrants in the Netherlands and France but varied considerably between migrants in these two host countries. Stomach cancer mortality was significantly higher in Turkish immigrants when compared to local-born French and Dutch. Our findings indicate that exposures both in the country of origin and in the host country can have an effect on the cancer mortality of immigrants. Despite limitations affecting any cross-country comparison of mortality, the innovative multi-comparison approach is a promising way to gain further insights into determinants of trends in cancer mortality of immigrants.

  17. Cancer mortality in agricultural regions of Minnesota.

    PubMed Central

    Schreinemachers, D M; Creason, J P; Garry, V F

    1999-01-01

    Because of its unique geology, Minnesota can be divided into four agricultural regions: south-central region one (corn, soybeans); west-central region two (wheat, corn, soybeans); northwest region three (wheat, sugar beets, potatoes); and northeast region four (forested and urban in character). Cancer mortality (1980-1989) in agricultural regions one, two, and three was compared to region four. Using data compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics, cancer mortality was summarized by 5-year age groups, sex, race, and county. Age-standardized mortality rate ratios were calculated for white males and females for all ages combined, and for children aged 0-14. Increased mortality rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were observed for the following cancer sites: region one--lip (men), standardized rate ratio (SRR) = 2.70 (CI, 1.08-6.71); nasopharynx (women), SRR = 3.35 (CI, 1.20-9.31); region two--non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (women), SRR = 1.35 (CI, 1.09-1.66); and region three--prostate (men), SRR = 1.12 (CI, 1.00-1.26); thyroid (men), SRR = 2.95 (CI, 1.35-6.44); bone (men), SRR = 2.09 (CI, 1. 00-4.34); eye (women), SRR = 5.77 (CI, 1.90-17.50). Deficits of smoking-related cancers were noted. Excess cancers reported are consistent with earlier reports of agriculturally related cancers in the midwestern United States. However, reports on thyroid and bone cancer in association with agricultural pesticides are few in number. The highest use of fungicides occurs in region three. Ethylenebisdithiocarbamates, whose metabolite is a known cause of thyroid cancer in rats, are frequently applied. This report provides a rationale for evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of this suspect agent in humans. Images Figure 1 PMID:10064550

  18. Cancer mortality in the British rubber industry.

    PubMed Central

    Parkes, H G; Veys, C A; Waterhouse, J A; Peters, A

    1982-01-01

    Although it is over 30 years since an excess of bladder cancer was first identified in British rubber workers, the fear has persisted that this hazard could still be affecting men working in the industry today. Furthermore, suspicions have also arisen that other and hitherto unsuspected excesses of cancer might be occurring. For these reasons 33 815 men, who first started work in the industry between 1 January 1946 and 31 December 1960, have been followed up to 31 December 1975 to ascertain the number of deaths attributable to malignant disease and to compare these with the expected number calculated from the published mortality rates applicable to the male population of England and Wales and Scotland. The findings confirm the absence of any excess mortality from bladder cancer among men entering the industry after 1 January 1951 (the presumed bladder carcinogens were withdrawn from production processes in July 1949), but they confirm also a statistically significant excess of both lung and stomach cancer mortality. A small excess of oesophageal cancer was also observed in both the tyre and general rubber goods manufacturing sectors. American reports of an excess of leukaemia among rubber workers receive only limited support from the present study, where a small numerical excess of deaths from leukaemia is not statistically significant. A special feature of the study is the adoption of an analytical method that permits taking into account the long latent period of induction of occupational cancer. PMID:7093147

  19. Cancer mortality in the British rubber industry.

    PubMed

    Parkes, H G; Veys, C A; Waterhouse, J A; Peters, A

    1982-08-01

    Although it is over 30 years since an excess of bladder cancer was first identified in British rubber workers, the fear has persisted that this hazard could still be affecting men working in the industry today. Furthermore, suspicions have also arisen that other and hitherto unsuspected excesses of cancer might be occurring. For these reasons 33 815 men, who first started work in the industry between 1 January 1946 and 31 December 1960, have been followed up to 31 December 1975 to ascertain the number of deaths attributable to malignant disease and to compare these with the expected number calculated from the published mortality rates applicable to the male population of England and Wales and Scotland. The findings confirm the absence of any excess mortality from bladder cancer among men entering the industry after 1 January 1951 (the presumed bladder carcinogens were withdrawn from production processes in July 1949), but they confirm also a statistically significant excess of both lung and stomach cancer mortality. A small excess of oesophageal cancer was also observed in both the tyre and general rubber goods manufacturing sectors. American reports of an excess of leukaemia among rubber workers receive only limited support from the present study, where a small numerical excess of deaths from leukaemia is not statistically significant. A special feature of the study is the adoption of an analytical method that permits taking into account the long latent period of induction of occupational cancer. PMID:7093147

  20. Cause-specific mortality in a Chinese chrysotile textile worker cohort.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaorong; Lin, Sihao; Yu, Ignatius; Qiu, Hong; Lan, Yajia; Yano, Eiji

    2013-02-01

    Chrysotile asbestos has continued to be mined and used in China, but its health effects on exposed workers have not been well documented. This study was conducted to give a complete picture about cause-specific mortality in Chinese asbestos workers. A cohort of 586 males and 279 females from a chrysotile textile factory were prospectively followed for 37 years. Their vital status was identified, and the date and underlying cause of death were verified from death registry. Cause-specific standardized mortality ratios by gender were computed with nationwide gender- and cause-specific mortality rates as reference. Male workers were 11 years older, and had 6 years longer exposure duration than females; 79% in males and 1% in females smoked. In males, the mortality rate of all cancers doubled; both larynx and lung cancer were four-fold, and mesothelioma was 33-fold. In females, there was slightly excess mortality from lung cancer and all cancers, and significant increase in mesothelioma and ovarian cancer. Other significantly increased mortality was seen from cancers of thymus, small intestine and penis in males, and cancers of bone and bladder in females. In addition to asbestosis, mortality from pulmonary heart disease was significantly elevated in both genders. The data confirmed significantly excess mortality from mesothelioma in either gender, lung and larynx cancers in males, and ovarian cancer in females. A gender difference in mortality from lung cancer and all cancers could be mainly due to the discrepancies in age, exposure duration and smoking between the male and female workers.

  1. Trends of lung cancer mortality in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lazcano Ponce, E C; Tovar Guzman, V; Meneses Gonzalez, F; Rascon Pacheco, R A; Hernandez Avila, M

    1997-01-01

    Lung cancer (LC) is one of the most important public health problems in the world; 1,035,000 annual deaths are estimated each year and more than 80% of these are attributed to tobacco. The trend of lung cancer mortality in Mexico City from 1979 - 1993 was determined, as was the rate ratio of lung cancer mortality in 31 states in Mexico, taking Mexico City as a reference by means of a Poisson model. A strong linear regression model was used to evaluate the rate, where the dependent variable was LC mortality rate and the independent variable the year observed. In 15 years, 73,807 deaths from LC were reported, with an increase in mortality from 5.01 - 7.25 per 100,000 inhabitants. Mortality increases significantly after 60 years of age (B not equal to 0), p<.05) in men and in women. Mortality from LC was 70% in men, and more than 60% of deaths were reported after 65 years of age. Mortality risk is higher in the northern states of the country (e.g., Sonora, RR=2.40) than in the southern region (e.g., Oaxaca RR=0.40). In Mexico, almost 10,000 deaths by LC are estimated for the year 2010. Therefore, changes in lifestyle should be encouraged in order to decrease the smoking habit. The governmental tax on cigarettes should be increased, smoking restricted in squares and public spaces, and the risks should be announced on cigarette packages, among other measures. With respect to other emergent risk factors, the sources of industrial pollution and toxic emissions should be regulated.

  2. Fundamental Causes of Colorectal Cancer Mortality: The Implications of Informational Diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Andrew; Clouston, Sean AP; Rubin, Marcie S; Colen, Cynthia G; Link, Bruce G

    2012-01-01

    Context Colorectal cancer is a major cause of mortality in the United States, with 52,857 deaths estimated in 2012. To explore further the social inequalities in colorectal cancer mortality, we used fundamental cause theory to consider the role of societal diffusion of information and socioeconomic status. Methods We used the number of deaths from colorectal cancer in U.S. counties between 1968 and 2008. Through geographical mapping, we examined disparities in colorectal cancer mortality as a function of socioeconomic status and the rate of diffusion of information. In addition to providing year-specific trends in colorectal cancer mortality rates, we analyzed these data using negative binomial regression. Findings The impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on colorectal cancer mortality is substantial, and its protective impact increases over time. Equally important is the impact of informational diffusion on colorectal cancer mortality over time. However, while the impact of SES remains significant when concurrently considering the role of diffusion of information, the propensity for faster diffusion moderates its effect on colorectal cancer mortality. Conclusions The faster diffusion of information reduces both colorectal cancer mortality and inequalities in colorectal cancer mortality, although it was not sufficient to eliminate SES inequalities. These findings have important long-term implications for policymakers looking to reduce social inequalities in colorectal cancer mortality and other, related, preventable diseases. PMID:22985282

  3. Trends in inequalities in premature cancer mortality by educational level in Colombia, 1998–2007

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Esther; Arroyave, Ivan; Pardo, Constanza; Wiesner, Carolina; Murillo, Raul; Forman, David; Burdorf, Alex; Avendaño, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Background There is paucity of studies on socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality in developing countries. We examined trends in inequalities in cancer mortality by educational attainment in Colombia during a period of epidemiological transition and a rapid expansion of health insurance coverage. Methods Population mortality data (1998–2007) were linked to census data to obtain age-standardised cancer mortality rates by educational attainment at ages 25–64 years for stomach, cervical, prostate, lung, colorectal, breast and other cancers. We used Poisson regression to model mortality by educational attainment and estimated the contribution of specific cancers to the Slope Index of Inequality in cancer mortality. Results We observed large educational inequalities in cancer mortality, particularly for cancer of the cervix (RR primary versus tertiary groups=5.75, contributing 51% of cancer inequalities), stomach (RR=2.56 for males, contributing 49% of total cancer inequalities, and RR=1.98 for females, contributing 14% to total cancer inequalities), and lung (RR=1.64 for males contributing 17% of total cancer inequalities, and 1.32 for females contributing 5% to total cancer inequalities). Total cancer mortality rates declined faster among those with higher education, with the exception of mortality from cervical cancer, which declined more rapidly in the lower educational groups. Conclusion There are large socioeconomic inequalities in preventable cancer mortality in Colombia, which underscore the need for intensifying prevention efforts. Reducing cervical cancer through reducing HPV infection, early detection and improved access to treatment of preneoplasic lesions. Reinforcing anti-tobacco measures may be particularly important to curb inequalities in cancer mortality. PMID:25492898

  4. Mortality from stomach cancer in Ontario miners.

    PubMed Central

    Kusiak, R A; Ritchie, A C; Springer, J; Muller, J

    1993-01-01

    An excess of mortality from stomach cancer has been found in Ontario gold miners (observed (obs) 104, standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 152, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 125-185) and no excess of stomach cancer could be detected in other miners in Ontario (obs 74, SMR 102, 95% CI 80-128). The excess of stomach cancer appeared five to 19 years after the miners began gold mining in Ontario. In that interval, similar patterns of excess mortality from stomach cancer were found in miners born in north America (obs 14, SMR 268, CI 147-450) and in miners born outside north America (obs 12, SMR 280, 95% CI 145-489). Twenty or more years after the miners began mining gold, an excess of mortality from stomach cancer was found in gold miners born outside of north American (obs 41, SMR 160, 95% CI 115-218) but not in gold miners born in north America (obs 37, SMR 113, 95% CI 80-156). The excess of stomach cancer in gold miners under the age of 60 (obs 45, SMR 167, 95% CI 122-223) seems larger than the excess in gold miners between the ages of 60 and 74 (obs 59, SMR 143, 95% CI 109-184). Exposures to arsenic, chromium, mineral fibre, diesel emissions, and aluminium powder were considered as possible explanations of the excess of stomach cancer in Ontario gold miners. Exposure to diesel emissions and aluminium powder was rejected as gold miners and uranium miners were exposed to both agents but an excess of stomach cancer was noted only in gold miners. The association between the excess of stomach cancer and the time since the miner began mining gold suggested that duration of exposure to dust in gold mines ought to be weighted according to the time since the exposure to dust occurred and that an appropriate time weighting function would be one in the interval five to 19 years after each year of exposure to dust and zero otherwise. A statistically significant association between the relative risk of mortality from stomach cancer and the time weighted duration of exposure to

  5. Mortality and cancer incidence among Lithuanian cement producing workers

    PubMed Central

    Smailyte, G; Kurtinaitis, J; Andersen, A

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To investigate mortality and cancer incidence of cement producing workers. Methods: A total of 2498 cement workers who have been employed at Portland cement producing departments for at least one year from 1956 to 2000 were followed up from 1 January 1978 to 31 December 2000. The cohort contributed 43 490 person-years to the study. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) and standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated as ratios between observed and expected numbers of cancers and deaths. The expected numbers were based on sex specific incidence and mortality rates for the total Lithuanian population. Results: Significantly increased SMRs were found for all malignant neoplasms (SMR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.5) and for lung cancer (SMR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.9) among male cement workers. SIR for all cancer sites was 1.2 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.4). Excess risk was found for cancer of the lung (SIR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.1). The SIR for urinary bladder cancer was also increased (SIR 1.8, 95% CI 0.9 to 3.5). The overall cancer incidence was not increased among females (SIR 0.8, 95% CI 0.6 to 1.1). With increasing cumulated exposure to cement dust, there were indications of an increasing risk of lung and stomach cancers among males. Conclusions: This study supported the hypothesis that exposure to cement dust may increase the lung and bladder cancer risk. A dose related risk was found for stomach cancer, but no support was found for an increased risk of colorectal cancer. PMID:15150393

  6. Studies of the mortality of A-bomb survivors. 8. Cancer mortality, 1950-1982

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, D.L.; Kato, H.; Kopecky, K.; Fujita, S.

    1987-07-01

    This study extends an earlier one by 4 years (1979-1982) and includes mortality data on 11,393 additional Nagasaki survivors. Significant dose responses are observed for leukemia, multiple myeloma, and cancers of the lung, female breast, stomach, colon, esophagus, and urinary tract. Due to diagnostic difficulties, results for liver and ovarian cancers, while suggestive of significant dose responses, do not provide convincing evidence for radiogenic effects. No significant dose responses are seen for cancers of the gallbladder, prostate, rectum, pancreas, or uterus, or for lymphoma. For solid tumors, largely due to sex-specific differences in the background rates, the relative risk of radiation-induced mortality is greater for women than for men. For nonleukemic cancers the relative risk seen in those who were young when exposed has decreased with time, while the smaller risks for those who were older at exposure have tended to increase. While the absolute excess risks of radiation-induced mortality due to nonleukemic cancer have increased with time for all age-at-exposure groups, both excess and relative risks of leukemia have generally decreased with time. For leukemia, the rate of decrease in risk and the initial level of risk are inversely related to age at exposure.

  7. Mortality and cancer incidence in a cohort of meatworkers

    PubMed Central

    Fritschi, L; Fenwick, S; Bulsara, M

    2003-01-01

    Methods: In a retrospective cohort study, a list of members of a meatworkers union in Australia was matched with the national death and cancer registries. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR) and standardised incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated using Australian population rates. Exposure to animal viruses, animal blood, animal faeces, and plastic pyrolysis products was assigned according to job title. A nested case control analysis examined the risk of mortality and cancer incidence by each exposure. Results: There were approximately 20 000 subjects available for analysis. Male workers had increased risk of mortality from all causes (SMR 116, 95% CI 105 to 128) and from injury (SMR 131, 95% CI 108 to 157). Risk of incident lung cancer in males was non-significantly increased (SIR 164, 95% CI 97 to 259) and males had a raised risk of head and neck cancer (SIR 188, 95% CI 103 to 315). There were no significant associations with specific exposures. Conclusions: Compared to the general Australian population, meatworkers have increased risk of death from all causes, death from injury, and incident lung and head and neck cancer. Analysis by occupational exposures did not disclose any strong evidence of specific occupational risk factors, although this analysis was limited by small numbers of some outcomes and exposure assessment which was based on job titles only. PMID:12937200

  8. Female breast cancer mortality rates in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Nurhan; Toprak, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the mortality trends of female breast cancer in Turkey between the years 1987-2008. The rates per 100,000 age-standardized to the European standard population were assessed and time trends presented using joinpoint regression analysis. Average annual percent change (AAPC), anual percent change (APC) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Nearly 23,000 breast cancer deaths occurred in Turkey during the period 1987-2008, with the average annual age-standardized mortality rate (ASR) being 11.9 per 100,000 women. In the last five years, significant increases were observed in all age groups, but there was no significant change over the age of 65. In this period, the biggest significant increase was in the 45-54 age group (AAPC=4.3, 95%CI=2.6 to 6.0). PMID:25292030

  9. Lung cancer mortality among U. S. uranium miners: a reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Whittemore, A.S.; McMillan, A.

    1983-09-01

    This report examines lung cancer mortality among a cohort of white underground uranium miners in the Colorado plateau and is based on mortality follow-up through December 31, 1977. The analytic methods represent a miner's annual age-specific lung cancer mortality rate as the (unspecified) rate among nonsmoking men born at the same time and with no mining history, multiplied by the relative risk factor R. This factor depends on the miner's total exposures to radon daughters (in working level months (WLM) and to cigarettes (in packs), accumulated from start of exposure until 10 years before his current age. Among those examined, the relative risk function giving the highest likelihood of the data was R . (1 + 0.31 X 10(-/sup 2/) WLM)(1 + 0.51 X 10(-/sup 3/) packs). This multiplicative function specifies that ratios of mortality rates for miners versus nonminers with similar age and smoking characteristics do not depend on smoking status. By contrast, differences between miners' and nonminers' mortality rates are substantially higher for smokers than for nonsmokers. The data rejected (P . .01) several additive functions for R that specify relative risk as a sum of components due to radiation and to cigarette smoking. Cumulative exposures to both radiation and cigarettes gave better fits to the data than did average annual exposure rates. Age at start of underground mining had no effect on risk, after controlling for age at lung cancer death, year of birth, and cumulative radiation and smoking exposures.

  10. Anal Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Colón-López, Vivian; Ortiz, Ana P.; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Torres-Cintrón, Mariela; Mercado-Acosta, Juan José; Suárez, Erick

    2013-01-01

    Objective Anal cancer is a rare tumor that is associated with oncogenic HPV genotypes. This study aims to compare the age-standardized rates (ASRs) of anal cancer incidence and mortality in men and women living in Puerto Rico (PR) with those of non-Hispanic whites (NHW), non-Hispanic blacks (NHB), and Hispanics (USH) living in the continental United States (US). Methods ASRs were calculated based on cancer data that came from the PR Cancer Central Registry and from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. The age-specific relative risks (RR) and 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) were estimated using Poisson regression models. Results Comparing the period of 2001 to 2004 to that of 1992 to 1996, the incidence of anal cancer increased among NHW, NHB, and PR men. In females, an increase in the incidence was observed for all racial groups except for Puerto Rican women. When evaluating findings by age groups, Puerto Rican men younger than 60 years old had a 20% higher incidence of anal cancer than did USH men of the same age strata (RR: 2.20; 95% CI = 1.48–3.29). However, Puerto Rican females had a lower incidence of anal cancer than NHW and NHB women. An increased percent change in mortality was observed only in NHW and NHB men. A decreasing trend was observed in all racial/ethnic groups except for NHW women. Conclusion Our results support the notion that there are racial/ethnic differences in anal cancer incidence and mortality, with potential disparities among men and women in PR compared with USH men and women. Given the increasing incidence trends in anal cancer, particularly among PR, NHW, and NHB men, further investigation is needed to better elucidate screening practices that can aid in the prevention of anal cancer. PMID:23781623

  11. Cancer incidence and mortality in Shandong province, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zhentao; Lu, Zilong; Li, Yingmei; Zhang, Jiyu; Zhang, Gaohui; Chen, Xianxian; Chu, Jie; Ren, Jie; Liu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Population-based cancer registration data in 2012 from all available cancer registries in Shandong province were collected by Shandong Center for Disease Control and Prevention (SDCDC). SDCDC estimated the numbers of new cancer cases and cancer deaths in Shandong province with compiled cancer incidence and mortality rates. Methods In 2015, there were 21 cancer registries submitted data of cancer incidence and deaths occurred in 2012. All the data were checked and evaluated based on the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) criteria of data quality. Qualified data from 15 registries were used for cancer statistics analysis as provincial estimation. The pooled data were stratified by area (urban/rural), gender, age group (0, 1.4, 5.9, 10.14, …, 85+ years) and cancer type. New cancer cases and deaths were estimated using age-specific rates and corresponding provincial population in 2012. The Chinese census data in 2000 and Segi’s population were applied for age-standardized rates. All the rates were expressed per 100,000 person-year. Results Qualified 15 cancer registries (4 urban and 11 rural registries) covered 17,189,988 populations (7,486,039 in urban and 9,703,949 in rural areas). The percentage of cases morphologically verified (MV%) and death certificate-only cases (DCO%) were 66.12% and 2.93%, respectively, and the mortality to incidence rate ratio (M/I) was 0.60. A total of 253,060 new cancer cases and 157,750 cancer deaths were estimated in Shandong province in 2012. The incidence rate was 263.86/100,000 (303.29/100,000 in males, 223.23/100,000 in females), the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 192.42/100,000 and 189.50/100,000 with the cumulative incidence rate (0.74 years old) of 22.07%. The cancer incidence, ASIRC and ASIRW in urban areas were 267.64/100,000, 195.27/100,000 and 192.02/100,000 compared to 262.32/100,000, 191.26/100,000 and 188.48/100,000 in

  12. Prognostic significance of the 2004 WHO/ISUP classification for prediction of recurrence, progression, and cancer-specific mortality of non-muscle-invasive urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder: a clinicopathologic study of 1,515 cases.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chin-Chen; Chang, Yen-Hwa; Chen, Kuang-Kuo; Yu, Hui-Jung; Sun, Chih-Hao; Ho, Donald M T

    2010-05-01

    To verify prognostic significance of the 2004 World Health Organization (WHO)/International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grading systems, we retrospectively studied the tumors of 1,515 patients who underwent transurethral resection of primary non-muscle-invasive urothelial tumors (pTa, 1,006 patients; pT1, 509 patients) confined to the bladder. Cases were classified according to the 2004 WHO/ISUP systems as 212 cases of papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP), 706 low-grade papillary urothelial carcinomas (LPUCs), and 597 high-grade papillary urothelial carcinomas (HPUCs). PUNLMP showed the statistically significantly lowest recurrence cumulative incidence compared with the other tumor types. There were significant differences and trends for higher progression and cancer-specific mortality cumulative incidence in the following order: PUNLMP, LPUC, pTa HPUC, and pT1 HPUC. No differences of progression and cancer-specific mortality cumulative incidence were found between pTa and pT1 LPUC. Our study validates the usefulness of the 2004 WHO/ISUP system to classify urothelial tumors into prognostically distinct categories that would contribute to the design of therapeutic and monitoring strategies for patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder urothelial tumors.

  13. Cancer incidence and mortality in Manizales 2003-2007

    PubMed Central

    Arias Ortiz, Nelson; Arboleda Ruiz, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe cancer incidence and mortality in Manizales during the 2003-2007 period from population-based information. Methods: The information was obtained from the Manizales Cancer Registry and DANE. We analyzed new cases and cancer deaths of individuals residing in Manizales from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2007. Cases reported correspond to primary invasive malignant tumors, in all locations, except basal cell carcinoma of the skin. We checked the internal consistency of the data and applied quality indicators suggested by the IARC. The population at risk was obtained from population projections (1985 -- 2020, DANE). Specific rates were estimated by gender and age (18 quinquennial groups), and standardized to the world population directly referenced. Results: There were 3416 new cases and 1895 deaths from cancer. The age- standardized incidence rate (ASR) per 100,000 people-years for all primary locations (except skin) was 162.4 in women and 166.2 in men. Cancer accounted for 19.8% of mortality in Manizales with ASR per 100,000 people-years of 92.1 in men and 83.6 in women. Conclusions: The risk of developing cancer or dying from cancer in Manizales is intermediate and similar to national estimates. The information generated by the PCR-M meets international quality standards, so it is necessary to ensure sustainability and improvement. PMID:24893301

  14. Racial-Sex Disparities--A Challenging Battle Against Cancer Mortality in the USA.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wenjiang J

    2015-06-01

    Decline in US cancer mortality has recently been reported, based on either pooled mortality of all cancer sites or age-adjusted mortality rates of specific sites. While the former could be dominated by a few cancer sites and would not reflect that of other sites, the latter used the US 2000 Population as reference for age-standardization, which was lack of justification. This study aimed to examine US cancer mortality trend and disparities in sites, races, and sex. We studied cancer incidence-based mortality by race and sex from 1974 to 2008 of cervix, prostate, colon and rectum, lung, leukemia, liver, pancreas, and stomach in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. We developed a model-based mortality rate and examined rate ratio of each calendar period to the first period within each race-sex group. Cancer mortality of cervix, colon and rectum, leukemia, and stomach declined in all groups. Prostate cancer increased first in all racial groups and decreased thereafter at different pace. Lung cancer declined among males of all races but increased among females. Liver cancer increased steadily fast among white and black females, doubled in whites and black males, and climbed slowly in other races. Pancreas cancer declined among black males and females, and changed little among others. Cancer mortality trend presents heterogeneity across sites, races, and sex. Recently observed mortality decline may not reflect every cancer site or group. More effort needs to focus on specific race-sex groups that had increasing lung and liver cancer mortality.

  15. Adverse socioeconomic conditions in childhood and cause specific adult mortality: prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, George Davey; Hart, Carole; Blane, David; Hole, David

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between social circumstances in childhood and mortality from various causes of death in adulthood. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: 27 workplaces in the west of Scotland. Subjects: 5645 men aged 35-64 years at the time of examination. Main outcome measures: Death from various causes. Results: Men whose fathers had manual occupations when they were children were more likely as adults to have manual jobs and be living in deprived areas. Gradients in mortality from coronary heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, stomach cancer, and respiratory disease were seen (all P<0.05), generally increasing from men whose fathers had professional and managerial occupations (social class I and II) to those whose fathers had semiskilled and unskilled manual occupations (social class IV and V). Relative rates of mortality adjusted for age for men with fathers in manual versus non-manual occupations were 1.52 (95% confidence interval 1.24 to 1.87) for coronary heart disease, 1.83 (1.13 to 2.94) for stroke, 1.65 (1.12 to 2.43) for lung cancer, 2.06 (0.93 to 4.57) for stomach cancer, and 2.01 (1.17 to 3.48) for respiratory disease. Mortality from other cancers and accidental and violent death showed no association with fathers’ social class. Adjustment for adult socioeconomic circumstances and risk factors did not alter results for mortality from stroke and stomach cancer, attenuated the increased risk of coronary heart disease and respiratory disease, and essentially eliminated the association with lung cancer. Conclusions: Adverse socioeconomic circumstances in childhood have a specific influence on mortality from stroke and stomach cancer in adulthood, which is not due to the continuity of social disadvantage throughout life. Deprivation in childhood influences risk of mortality from coronary heart disease and respiratory disease in adulthood, although an additive influence of adulthood circumstances is seen in these cases

  16. Cancer mortality among Polish migrants to France.

    PubMed

    Tyczynski, J; Parkin, D; Zatonski, W; Tarkowski, W

    1992-01-01

    Cancer risk in the Polish-born population of France has been compared to that in Poland and in native French subjects (born in France), using mortality data from the period 1979-1985. The Polish-born community in France is a long-established one--most migration occurred during the 1920s--so that for many cancer sites the cancer pattern is closer to that of French natives than that in Poland (eg oral cavity, oesophagus, large bowel, gall bladder, uterus, leukaemia). Polish migrants, however, retain their characteristically high rates of cancer of the stomach and lung (in men), and low rates of breast and prostate cancer. The Polish-born community has a characteristic pattern of residence (living mainly in the Nord and the Pas-de-Calais) and occupational status (a higher proportion of 'workers' than the French-born); these are important confounding factors which can mask the true differences in risk for several sites (larynx, oesophagus, large bowel) if no adjustment is made during analysis. PMID:1467602

  17. Breast and prostate cancer mortality and industrial pollution.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Javier; Pérez-Abad, Natalia; Lope, Virginia; Castelló, Adela; Pollán, Marina; González-Sánchez, Mario; Valencia, José Luis; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo

    2016-07-01

    We investigated whether there might be an excess of breast and prostate cancer mortality among the population residing near Spanish industries, according to different categories of industrial groups. An ecologic study was designed to examine breast and prostate cancer mortality at a municipal level (period 1997-2006). Population exposure to pollution was estimated by means of distance from town of residence to industrial facilities. Using Besag-York-Mollié regression models with Integrated Nested Laplace approximations for Bayesian inference, we assessed the relative risk of dying from these tumors in 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-km zones around installations, and analyzed the effect of category of industrial group. For all sectors combined, no excess risk was detected. However, excess risk of breast cancer mortality (relative risk, 95% credible interval) was detected near mines (1.10, 1.00-1.21 at 4 km), ceramic industries (1.05, 1.00-1.09 at 5 km), and ship building (1.12, 1.00-1.26 at 5 km), and excess risk of prostate cancer was detected near aquaculture for all distances analyzed (from 2.42, 1.53-3.63 at 2 km to 1.63, 1.07-2.36 at 5 km). Our findings do not support that residing in the vicinity of pollutant industries as a whole (all industrial sectors combined) is a risk factor for breast and prostate cancer mortality. However, isolated statistical associations found in our study with respect to specific industrial groups warrant further investigation.

  18. Haematopoietic cancer mortality among vehicle mechanics.

    PubMed Central

    Hunting, K L; Longbottom, H; Kalavar, S S; Stern, F; Schwartz, E; Welch, L S

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND METHODS--This historical cohort study investigated causes of death among car and mobile equipment mechanics in the District of Columbia's Department of Public Works. Men who were employed for at least one year between 1977 and 1989 were eligible for inclusion in the cohort; follow up was up to the end of 1991. Three cases of leukaemia (index cases) had been reported among these workers before the inception of this study. This research was undertaken to estimate the relative risk of haematological cancer among mechanics working for the District of Columbia. RESULTS--Among the 335 male fleet maintenance workers, the all cause standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was 0.50 (33 observed deaths, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.35-0.70), and the all cancer SMR was 0.55 (nine deaths, 95% CI 0.25-1.05). Three deaths from lymphatic and haematopoietic cancer were observed; the SMR was 3.63 (95% CI 0.75-10.63). In the subgroup with highest potential for exposure to fuels and solvents, the SMR for leukaemia and aleukaemia was 9.26 (two deaths, 95% CI 1.12-33.43), and the SMR for other lymphatic and haematopoietic neoplasms was 2.57 (one death from malignant lymphoma, 95% CI 0.06-14.27). All three lymphatic and haematopoietic cancer deaths were among car and mobile equipment mechanics (one was an index case). The two additional index cases were a fourth mechanic who died of leukaemia in 1992, after mortality follow up ended, and a fifth mechanic who was diagnosed with leukaemia in 1988 and is still alive. CONCLUSION--Many garage mechanics in this cohort regularly used petrol to clean parts and to wash their hands; some workers would occasionally siphon petrol by mouth. Benzene, a recognised cause of haematological cancer, is a component of petrol. Previous research indicates that garage mechanics may be at risk of leukaemia and other haematological cancers, presumably due to exposure to petrol; this study supports those findings. PMID:7489058

  19. Cause-Specific Mortality in the Unionized U.S. Trucking Industry

    PubMed Central

    Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E.; Smith, Thomas J.; Davis, Mary E.; Garshick, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Background Occupational and population-based studies have related exposure to fine particulate air pollution, and specifically particulate matter from vehicle exhausts, to cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. Objectives We have established a large retrospective cohort to assess mortality in the unionized U.S. trucking industry. To provide insight into mortality patterns associated with job-specific exposures, we examined rates of cause-specific mortality compared with the general U.S. population. Methods We used records from four national trucking companies to identify 54,319 male employees employed in 1985. Cause-specific mortality was assessed through 2000 using the National Death Index. Expected numbers of all and cause-specific deaths were calculated stratifying by race, 10-year age group, and calendar period using U.S. national reference rates. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for the entire cohort and by job title. Results As expected in a working population, we found a deficit in overall and all-cancer mortality, likely due to the healthy worker effect. In contrast, compared with the general U.S. population, we observed elevated rates for lung cancer, ischemic heart disease, and transport-related accidents. Lung cancer rates were elevated among all drivers (SMR = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.02–1.19) and dockworkers (SMR = 1.10; 95% CI, 0.94–1.30); ischemic heart disease was also elevated among these groups of workers [drivers, SMR = 1.49 (95% CI, 1.40–1.59); dockworkers, SMR = 1.32 (95% CI, 1.15–1.52)], as well as among shop workers (SMR = 1.34; 95% CI, 1.05–1.72). Conclusions In this detailed assessment of specific job categories in the U.S. trucking industry, we found an excess of mortality due to lung cancer and ischemic heart disease, particularly among drivers. PMID:17687446

  20. Trends in colorectal cancer mortality in Europe: retrospective analysis of the WHO mortality database

    PubMed Central

    Ait Ouakrim, Driss; Pizot, Cécile; Boniol, Magali; Malvezzi, Matteo; Boniol, Mathieu; Negri, Eva; Bota, Maria; Jenkins, Mark A; Bleiberg, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine changes in colorectal cancer mortality in 34 European countries between 1970 and 2011. Design Retrospective trend analysis. Data source World Health Organization mortality database. Population Deaths from colorectal cancer between 1970 and 2011. Profound changes in screening and treatment efficiency took place after 1988; therefore, particular attention was paid to the evolution of colorectal cancer mortality in the subsequent period. Main outcomes measures Time trends in rates of colorectal cancer mortality, using joinpoint regression analysis. Rates were age adjusted using the standard European population. Results From 1989 to 2011, colorectal cancer mortality increased by a median of 6.0% for men and decreased by a median of 14.7% for women in the 34 European countries. Reductions in colorectal cancer mortality of more than 25% in men and 30% in women occurred in Austria, Switzerland, Germany, the United Kingdom, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Luxembourg, and Ireland. By contrast, mortality rates fell by less than 17% in the Netherlands and Sweden for both sexes. Over the same period, smaller or no declines occurred in most central European countries. Substantial mortality increases occurred in Croatia, the former Yugoslav republic of Macedonia, and Romania for both sexes and in most eastern European countries for men. In countries with decreasing mortality, reductions were more important for women of all ages and men younger than 65 years. In the 27 European Union member states, colorectal cancer mortality fell by 13.0% in men and 27.0% in women, compared with corresponding reductions of 39.8% and 38.8% in the United States. Conclusion Over the past 40 years, there has been considerable disparity in the level of colorectal cancer mortality between European countries, as well as between men and women and age categories. Countries with the largest reductions in colorectal cancer mortality are characterised by better accessibility to screening

  1. Estimating cause-specific mortality rates using recovered carcasses.

    PubMed

    Joly, Damien O; Heisey, Dennis M; Samuel, Michael D; Ribic, Christine A; Thomas, Nancy J; Wright, Scott D; Wright, Irene E

    2009-01-01

    Stranding networks, in which carcasses are recovered and sent to diagnostic laboratories for necropsy and determination of cause of death, have been developed to monitor the health of marine mammal and bird populations. These programs typically accumulate comprehensive, long-term datasets on causes of death that can be used to identify important sources of mortality or changes in mortality patterns that lead to management actions. However, the utility of these data in determining cause-specific mortality rates has not been explored. We present a maximum likelihood-based approach that partitions total mortality rate, estimated by independent sources, into cause-specific mortality rates. We also demonstrate how variance estimates are derived for these rates. We present examples of the method using mortality data for California sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) and Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). PMID:19204341

  2. Long-Term Trial Results Show No Mortality Benefit from Annual Prostate Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    Thirteen year follow-up data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial show higher incidence but similar mortality among men screened annually with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and digital rectal examination

  3. Model-based patterns in prostate cancer mortality worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Fontes, F; Severo, M; Castro, C; Lourenço, S; Gomes, S; Botelho, F; La Vecchia, C; Lunet, N

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer mortality has been decreasing in several high income countries and previous studies analysed the trends mostly according to geographical criteria. We aimed to identify patterns in the time trends of prostate cancer mortality across countries using a model-based approach. Methods: Model-based clustering was used to identify patterns of variation in prostate cancer mortality (1980–2010) across 37 European, five non-European high-income countries and four leading emerging economies. We characterised the patterns observed regarding the geographical distribution and gross national income of the countries, as well as the trends observed in mortality/incidence ratios. Results: We identified three clusters of countries with similar variation in prostate cancer mortality: pattern 1 (‘no mortality decline'), characterised by a continued increase throughout the whole period; patterns 2 (‘later mortality decline') and 3 (‘earlier mortality decline') depict mortality declines, starting in the late and early 1990s, respectively. These clusters are also homogeneous regarding the variation in the prostate cancer mortality/incidence ratios, while are heterogeneous with reference to the geographical region of the countries and distribution of the gross national income. Conclusion: We provide a general model for the description and interpretation of the trends in prostate cancer mortality worldwide, based on three main patterns. PMID:23660943

  4. Disparities in cervical and breast cancer mortality in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Girianelli, Vania Reis; Gamarra, Carmen Justina; Azevedo e Silva, Gulnar

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze cervical and breast cancer mortality in Brazil according to socioeconomic and welfare indicators. METHODS Data on breast and cervical cancer mortality covering a 30-year period (1980-2010) were analyzed. The data were obtained from the National Mortality Database, population data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics database, and socioeconomic and welfare information from the Institute of Applied Economic Research. Moving averages were calculated, disaggregated by capital city and municipality. The annual percent change in mortality rates was estimated by segmented linear regression using the joinpoint method. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were conducted between average mortality rate at the end of the three-year period and selected indicators in the state capital and each Brazilian state. RESULTS There was a decline in cervical cancer mortality rates throughout the period studied, except in municipalities outside of the capitals in the North and Northeast. There was a decrease in breast cancer mortality in the capitals from the end of the 1990s onwards. Favorable socioeconomic indicators were inversely correlated with cervical cancer mortality. A strong direct correlation was found with favorable indicators and an inverse correlation with fertility rate and breast cancer mortality in inner cities. CONCLUSIONS There is an ongoing dynamic process of increased risk of cervical and breast cancer and attenuation of mortality because of increased, albeit unequal, access to and provision of screening, diagnosis and treatment.  PMID:25119941

  5. Unemployment and prostate cancer mortality in the OECD, 1990–2009

    PubMed Central

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Watkins, Johnathan; Taylor, Abigail; Williams, Callum; Ali, Raghib; Zeltner, Thomas; Atun, Rifat

    2015-01-01

    The global economic downturn has been associated with increased unemployment in many countries. Insights into the impact of unemployment on specific health conditions remain limited. We determined the association between unemployment and prostate cancer mortality in members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). We used multivariate regression analysis to assess the association between changes in unemployment and prostate cancer mortality in OECD member states between 1990 and 2009. Country-specific differences in healthcare infrastructure, population structure, and population size were controlled for and lag analyses conducted. Several robustness checks were also performed. Time trend analyses were used to predict the number of excess deaths from prostate cancer following the 2008 global recession. Between 1990 and 2009, a 1% rise in unemployment was associated with an increase in prostate cancer mortality. Lag analysis showed a continued increase in mortality years after unemployment rises. The association between unemployment and prostate cancer mortality remained significant in robustness checks with 46 controls. Eight of the 21 OECD countries for which a time trend analysis was conducted, exhibited an estimated excess of prostate cancer deaths in at least one of 2008, 2009, or 2010, based on 2000–2007 trends. Rises in unemployment are associated with significant increases in prostate cancer mortality. Initiatives that bolster employment may help to minimise prostate cancer mortality during times of economic hardship. PMID:26045715

  6. Unemployment and prostate cancer mortality in the OECD, 1990-2009.

    PubMed

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Watkins, Johnathan; Taylor, Abigail; Williams, Callum; Ali, Raghib; Zeltner, Thomas; Atun, Rifat

    2015-01-01

    The global economic downturn has been associated with increased unemployment in many countries. Insights into the impact of unemployment on specific health conditions remain limited. We determined the association between unemployment and prostate cancer mortality in members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). We used multivariate regression analysis to assess the association between changes in unemployment and prostate cancer mortality in OECD member states between 1990 and 2009. Country-specific differences in healthcare infrastructure, population structure, and population size were controlled for and lag analyses conducted. Several robustness checks were also performed. Time trend analyses were used to predict the number of excess deaths from prostate cancer following the 2008 global recession. Between 1990 and 2009, a 1% rise in unemployment was associated with an increase in prostate cancer mortality. Lag analysis showed a continued increase in mortality years after unemployment rises. The association between unemployment and prostate cancer mortality remained significant in robustness checks with 46 controls. Eight of the 21 OECD countries for which a time trend analysis was conducted, exhibited an estimated excess of prostate cancer deaths in at least one of 2008, 2009, or 2010, based on 2000-2007 trends. Rises in unemployment are associated with significant increases in prostate cancer mortality. Initiatives that bolster employment may help to minimise prostate cancer mortality during times of economic hardship.

  7. Unemployment and prostate cancer mortality in the OECD, 1990-2009.

    PubMed

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Watkins, Johnathan; Taylor, Abigail; Williams, Callum; Ali, Raghib; Zeltner, Thomas; Atun, Rifat

    2015-01-01

    The global economic downturn has been associated with increased unemployment in many countries. Insights into the impact of unemployment on specific health conditions remain limited. We determined the association between unemployment and prostate cancer mortality in members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). We used multivariate regression analysis to assess the association between changes in unemployment and prostate cancer mortality in OECD member states between 1990 and 2009. Country-specific differences in healthcare infrastructure, population structure, and population size were controlled for and lag analyses conducted. Several robustness checks were also performed. Time trend analyses were used to predict the number of excess deaths from prostate cancer following the 2008 global recession. Between 1990 and 2009, a 1% rise in unemployment was associated with an increase in prostate cancer mortality. Lag analysis showed a continued increase in mortality years after unemployment rises. The association between unemployment and prostate cancer mortality remained significant in robustness checks with 46 controls. Eight of the 21 OECD countries for which a time trend analysis was conducted, exhibited an estimated excess of prostate cancer deaths in at least one of 2008, 2009, or 2010, based on 2000-2007 trends. Rises in unemployment are associated with significant increases in prostate cancer mortality. Initiatives that bolster employment may help to minimise prostate cancer mortality during times of economic hardship. PMID:26045715

  8. Cancer mortality by country of birth, sex, and socioeconomic position in Sweden, 1961-2009.

    PubMed

    Abdoli, Gholamreza; Bottai, Matteo; Moradi, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, cancer deaths accounted for more than 15% of all deaths worldwide, and this fraction is estimated to rise in the coming years. Increased cancer mortality has been observed in immigrant populations, but a comprehensive analysis by country of birth has not been conducted. We followed all individuals living in Sweden between 1961 and 2009 (7,109,327 men and 6,958,714 women), and calculated crude cancer mortality rates and age-standardized rates (ASRs) using the world population for standardization. We observed a downward trend in all-site ASRs over the past two decades in men regardless of country of birth but no such trend was found in women. All-site cancer mortality increased with decreasing levels of education regardless of sex and country of birth (p for trend <0.001). We also compared cancer mortality rates among foreign-born (13.9%) and Sweden-born (86.1%) individuals and determined the effect of education level and sex estimated by mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using multivariable Poisson regression. All-site cancer mortality was slightly higher among foreign-born than Sweden-born men (MRR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.07), but similar mortality risks was found among foreign-born and Sweden-born women. Men born in Angola, Laos, and Cambodia had the highest cancer mortality risk. Women born in all countries except Iceland, Denmark, and Mexico had a similar or smaller risk than women born in Sweden. Cancer-specific mortality analysis showed an increased risk for cervical and lung cancer in both sexes but a decreased risk for colon, breast, and prostate cancer mortality among foreign-born compared with Sweden-born individuals. Further studies are required to fully understand the causes of the observed inequalities in mortality across levels of education and countries of birth.

  9. Cancer Mortality by Country of Birth, Sex, and Socioeconomic Position in Sweden, 1961–2009

    PubMed Central

    Abdoli, Gholamreza; Bottai, Matteo; Moradi, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, cancer deaths accounted for more than 15% of all deaths worldwide, and this fraction is estimated to rise in the coming years. Increased cancer mortality has been observed in immigrant populations, but a comprehensive analysis by country of birth has not been conducted. We followed all individuals living in Sweden between 1961 and 2009 (7,109,327 men and 6,958,714 women), and calculated crude cancer mortality rates and age-standardized rates (ASRs) using the world population for standardization. We observed a downward trend in all-site ASRs over the past two decades in men regardless of country of birth but no such trend was found in women. All-site cancer mortality increased with decreasing levels of education regardless of sex and country of birth (p for trend <0.001). We also compared cancer mortality rates among foreign-born (13.9%) and Sweden-born (86.1%) individuals and determined the effect of education level and sex estimated by mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using multivariable Poisson regression. All-site cancer mortality was slightly higher among foreign-born than Sweden-born men (MRR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.04–1.07), but similar mortality risks was found among foreign-born and Sweden-born women. Men born in Angola, Laos, and Cambodia had the highest cancer mortality risk. Women born in all countries except Iceland, Denmark, and Mexico had a similar or smaller risk than women born in Sweden. Cancer-specific mortality analysis showed an increased risk for cervical and lung cancer in both sexes but a decreased risk for colon, breast, and prostate cancer mortality among foreign-born compared with Sweden-born individuals. Further studies are required to fully understand the causes of the observed inequalities in mortality across levels of education and countries of birth. PMID:24682217

  10. Predictors of mortality after prostate-specific antigen failure

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amico, Anthony V. . E-mail: adamico@lroc.harvard.edu; Kantoff, Phillip; Loffredo, Marian; Renshaw, Andrew A.; Loffredo, Brittany; Chen Minghui

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: We identified factors associated with the length of survival after prostate-specific antigen (PSA) failure. Methods and Materials: The study cohort comprised 81 of 206 men enrolled on a randomized trial evaluating external-beam radiation therapy (RT) with or without androgen suppression therapy (AST) and who experienced PSA failure. Salvage AST was administered at a PSA level of {approx}10 ng/mL as per protocol. Cox regression was used to determine factors associated with length of survival after PSA failure. Results: A PSA DT (doubling time) <6 months (p = 0.04) and age at the time of PSA failure (p = 0.009) were significantly associated with length of survival. By 5 years, 35% and 65% of all-cause mortality was from prostate cancer in men whose age at PSA failure was 75 or higher vs. <75, respectively. Across all ages, 0%, 4%, as compared with 63% of men, were estimated to die of prostate cancer within 5 years after PSA failure if their PSA DT was >12, 6-12, or <6 months, respectively. Conclusions: Advanced age and a PSA DT <6 months at the time of PSA failure are associated with a significantly shorter survival.

  11. Cancer Mortality Projections in Korea up to 2032.

    PubMed

    Son, Mia; Yun, Jae-Won

    2016-06-01

    Predicting cancer mortality is important to estimate the needs of cancer-related services and to prevent cancer. Despite its significance, a long-term future projection of cancer mortality has not been conducted; therefore, our objective was to estimate future cancer mortality in Korea by cancer site through 2032. The specially designed Nordpred software was used to estimate cancer mortality. The cancer death data from 1983 to 2012 and the population projection data from 1983 to 2032 were obtained from the Korean National Statistics Office. Based on our analysis, age-standardized rates with the world standard population of all cancer deaths were estimated to decline from 2008-2012 to 2028-2032 (men: -39.8%, women: -33.1%). However, the crude rates are predicted to rise (men: 29.8%, women: 24.4%), and the overall number of the cancer deaths is also estimated to increase (men: 35.5%, women: 32.3%). Several cancer deaths are projected to increase (lung, liver and gallbladder, colon and rectum, pancreas and leukemia in both sexes; prostate cancer in men; and breast and ovarian cancer in women), whereas other cancer deaths are expected to decrease (stomach, esophagus and larynx in both sexes and cervical cancer in women). The largest contribution to increasing cancer deaths is due to the aging of the Korean population. In conclusion, a strategy for primary prevention, early detection, and early treatment to cope with the rapidly increasing death of cancer due to population aging is urgently required.

  12. Global and regional estimates of cancer mortality and incidence by site: II. results for the global burden of disease 2000

    PubMed Central

    Shibuya, Kenji; Mathers, Colin D; Boschi-Pinto, Cynthia; Lopez, Alan D; Murray, Christopher JL

    2002-01-01

    Background Mortality estimates alone are not sufficient to understand the true magnitude of cancer burden. We present the detailed estimates of mortality and incidence by site as the basis for the future estimation of cancer burden for the Global Burden of Disease 2000 study. Methods Age- and sex- specific mortality envelope for all malignancies by region was derived from the analysis of country life-tables and cause of death. We estimated the site-specific cancer mortality distributions from vital records and cancer survival model. The regional cancer mortality by site is estimated by disaggregating the regional cancer mortality envelope based on the mortality distribution. Estimated incidence-to-mortality rate ratios were used to back calculate the final cancer incidence estimates by site. Results In 2000, cancer accounted for over 7 million deaths (13% of total mortality) and there were more than 10 million new cancer cases world wide in 2000. More than 60% of cancer deaths and approximately half of new cases occurred in developing regions. Lung cancer was the most common cancers in the world, followed by cancers of stomach, liver, colon and rectum, and breast. There was a significant variations in the distribution of site-specific cancer mortality and incidence by region. Conclusions Despite a regional variation, the most common cancers are potentially preventable. Cancer burden estimation by taking into account both mortality and morbidity is an essential step to set research priorities and policy formulation. Also it can used for setting priorities when combined with data on costs of interventions against cancers. PMID:12502432

  13. Effect of vitamin B supplementation on cancer incidence, death due to cancer, and total mortality

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sui-Liang; Chen, Ting-Song; Ma, Chen-Yun; Meng, Yong-Bin; Zhang, Yu-Fei; Chen, Yi-Wei; Zhou, Yu-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Observational studies have suggested that vitamin B supplementation is associated with cancer risk, but this association remains controversial. A pooled data-based meta-analysis was conducted to summarize the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effects of vitamin B supplementation on cancer incidence, death due to cancer, and total mortality. Methods: PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane Library databases were searched to identify trials to fit our analysis through August 2015. Relative risk (RR) was used to measure the effect of vitamin B supplementation on the risk of cancer incidence, death due to cancer, and total mortality using a random-effect model. Cumulative meta-analysis, sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis, heterogeneity tests, and tests for publication bias were also conducted. Results: Eighteen RCTs reporting the data on 74,498 individuals were included in the meta-analysis. Sixteen of these trials included 4103 cases of cancer; in 6 trials, 731 cancer-related deaths occurred; and in 15 trials, 7046 deaths occurred. Vitamin B supplementation had little or no effect on the incidence of cancer (RR: 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.98–1.10; P = 0.216), death due to cancer (RR, 1.05; 95% CI: 0.90–1.22; P = 0.521), and total mortality (RR, 1.00; 95% CI: 0.94–1.06; P = 0.952). Upon performing a cumulative meta-analysis for cancer incidence, death due to cancer, and total mortality, the nonsignificance of the effect of vitamin B persisted. With respect to specific types of cancer, vitamin B supplementation significantly reduced the risk of skin melanoma (RR, 0.47; 95% CI: 0.23–0.94; P = 0.032). Conclusion: Vitamin B supplementation does not have an effect on cancer incidence, death due to cancer, or total mortality. It is associated with a lower risk of skin melanoma, but has no effect on other cancers. PMID:27495015

  14. Urbanization and cancer: changing mortality patterns?

    PubMed

    Greenberg, M R

    1983-10-01

    "Analysis of the relationship between cancer rates and urbanization for United States counties for the period 1950-54 reveals the expected urban/rural differences for many digestive, urinary and respiratory organ cancers and for female breast cancer. Similar urban/rural differences existed in many other Western countries. By 1970-75, however, urban/rural differences in the United States had substantially narrowed." It is noted that "available data do not allow formal tests of the relationship between these changes and specific etiological factors, but the data suggest that the spatial convergence is related to the changing geography of such risk factors as smoking, alcohol consumption, manufacturing, and socioeconomic status and to the diminished size and role of the white foreign-born population, as well as to such confounding factors as medical practices and population migration."

  15. Standardized Thyroid Cancer Mortality in Korea between 1985 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun Mi; Jang, Eun Kyung; Kwon, Hyemi; Jeon, Min Ji; Kim, Won Gu; Shong, Young Kee; Kim, Won Bae

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of thyroid cancer has increased very rapidly in Korea. However, there is no published report focusing on thyroid cancer mortality in Korea. In this study, we aimed to evaluate standardized thyroid cancer mortality using data from Statistics Korea (the Statistical Office of Korea). Methods Population and mortality data from 1985 to 2010 were obtained from Statistics Korea. Age-standardized rates of thyroid cancer mortality were calculated according to the standard population of Korea, as well as World Health Organization (WHO) standard population and International Cancer Survival Standard (ICSS) population weights. Results The crude thyroid cancer mortality rate increased from 0.1 to 0.7 per 100,000 between 1985 and 2010. The pattern was the same for both sexes. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) for thyroid cancer for Korean resident registration population increased from 0.19 to 0.67 between 1985 and 2000. However, it decreased slightly, from 0.67 to 0.55, between 2000 and 2010. When mortality was adjusted using the WHO standard population and ICSS population weights, the ASMR similarly increased until 2000, and then decreased between 2000 and 2010. Conclusion Thyroid cancer mortality increased until 2000 in Korea. It started to decrease from 2000. PMID:25559576

  16. [Complications and mortality of surgery for bronchogenic cancers].

    PubMed

    Roeslin, N; Morand, G

    1992-01-01

    Resection surgery for lung cancer is beset with specific or non-specific complications which often darken the prognosis for life. The specific complications, related to surgical dissections, are mainly per- and postoperative haemorrhages of various origins and, less frequently, disturbances in respiration, nerve wound or chylothorax. Soon after pneumonectomy a bronchial fistula encouraged by different factors may appear (3.3% of the cases) and empyema, usually caused by staphylococci, may develop (3%). Non-specific complications may disturb the post-resection period, involving the lungs (atelectasia, parenchymal infections, acute respiratory failure) or the cardiovascular system (pulmonary embolism, dysarrhythmia). The overall perioperative mortality rate has decreased with time owing to advances in anaesthesia and intensive care: in the hands of certain medico-surgical teams it does not exceed 3%. It is significantly lower in lobar (mean: 4.5%) than in pulmonary (mean: 8.4%) resections. Enlarged resections and lymph node dissections are aggravating factors. Patients aged 70 or more do not tolerate these operations so well: their mean overall mortality rate is twice that observed in younger patients (8% on average and up to 20%). Resection surgery for lung cancer remains a necessarily hazardous procedure but is the only treatment that can cure the patient. Its success is directly conditioned by a good preoperative risk evaluation. PMID:1303584

  17. Cosmic radiation and cancer mortality among airline pilots: results from a European cohort study (ESCAPE).

    PubMed

    Langner, I; Blettner, M; Gundestrup, M; Storm, H; Aspholm, R; Auvinen, A; Pukkala, E; Hammer, G P; Zeeb, H; Hrafnkelsson, J; Rafnsson, V; Tulinius, H; De Angelis, G; Verdecchia, A; Haldorsen, T; Tveten, U; Eliasch, H; Hammar, N; Linnersjö, A

    2004-02-01

    Cosmic radiation is an occupational risk factor for commercial aircrews. In this large European cohort study (ESCAPE) its association with cancer mortality was investigated on the basis of individual effective dose estimates for 19,184 male pilots. Mean annual doses were in the range of 2-5 mSv and cumulative lifetime doses did not exceed 80 mSv. All-cause and all-cancer mortality was low for all exposure categories. A significant negative risk trend for all-cause mortality was seen with increasing dose. Neither external and internal comparisons nor nested case-control analyses showed any substantially increased risks for cancer mortality due to ionizing radiation. However, the number of deaths for specific types of cancer was low and the confidence intervals of the risk estimates were rather wide. Difficulties in interpreting mortality risk estimates for time-dependent exposures are discussed. PMID:14648170

  18. Cosmic radiation and cancer mortality among airline pilots: results from a European cohort study (ESCAPE).

    PubMed

    Langner, I; Blettner, M; Gundestrup, M; Storm, H; Aspholm, R; Auvinen, A; Pukkala, E; Hammer, G P; Zeeb, H; Hrafnkelsson, J; Rafnsson, V; Tulinius, H; De Angelis, G; Verdecchia, A; Haldorsen, T; Tveten, U; Eliasch, H; Hammar, N; Linnersjö, A

    2004-02-01

    Cosmic radiation is an occupational risk factor for commercial aircrews. In this large European cohort study (ESCAPE) its association with cancer mortality was investigated on the basis of individual effective dose estimates for 19,184 male pilots. Mean annual doses were in the range of 2-5 mSv and cumulative lifetime doses did not exceed 80 mSv. All-cause and all-cancer mortality was low for all exposure categories. A significant negative risk trend for all-cause mortality was seen with increasing dose. Neither external and internal comparisons nor nested case-control analyses showed any substantially increased risks for cancer mortality due to ionizing radiation. However, the number of deaths for specific types of cancer was low and the confidence intervals of the risk estimates were rather wide. Difficulties in interpreting mortality risk estimates for time-dependent exposures are discussed.

  19. Mortality study of beryllium industry workers' occupational lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Mancuso, T.F.

    1980-02-01

    A cohort of 3685 white males employed during 1937 to 1948 in two major industries manufacturing beryllium was followed to the end of 1976 to evaluate lung cancer mortality experience. Lung cancer mortality among beryllium-exposed workers was contrasted with that of workers employed in the viscose rayon industry. Study results demonstrated that lung cancer mortality among berylliumm-exposed workers was significantly greater than that expected on the basis of lung cancer mortality experience of workers in the viscose rayon industry having similar employment patterns. The results of the present study are consistent with earlier animal bioassay studies and recent epidemiologic studies indicating that beryllium is carcinogenic. The results of the present study are not consistent with speculation attributing the excessive lung cancer mortality among beryllium-exposed workers to personal characteristics of individuals having unstable employment patterns.

  20. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and overall and Cause-specific Mortality: A Prospective Study of 50000 Individuals.

    PubMed

    Islami, Farhad; Pourshams, Akram; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Khademi, Hooman; Poutschi, Hossein; Khoshnia, Masoud; Norouzi, Alireza; Amiriani, Taghi; Sohrabpour, Amir Ali; Aliasgari, Ali; Jafari, Elham; Semnani, Shahryar; Abnet, Christian C; Pharaoh, Paul D; Brennan, Paul; Kamangar, Farin; Dawsey, Sanford M; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-04-01

    BACKGROUND Only a few studies in Western countries have investigated the association between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and mortality at the general population level and they have shown mixed results. This study investigated the association between GERD symptoms and overall and cause-specific mortality in a large prospective population-based study in Golestan Province, Iran. METHODS Baseline data on frequency, onset time, and patient-perceived severity of GERD symptoms were available for 50001 participants in the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS). We identified 3107 deaths (including 1146 circulatory and 470 cancer-related) with an average follow-up of 6.4 years and calculated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for multiple potential confounders. RESULTS Severe daily symptoms (defined as symptoms interfering with daily work or causing nighttime awakenings on a daily bases, reported by 4.3% of participants) were associated with cancer mortality (HR 1.48, 95% CI: 1.04-2.05). This increase was too small to noticeably affect overall mortality. Mortality was not associated with onset time or frequency of GERD and was not increased with mild to moderate symptoms. CONCLUSION We have observed an association with GERD and increased cancer mortality in a small group of individuals that had severe symptoms. Most patients with mild to moderate GERD can be re-assured that their symptoms are not associated with increased mortality. PMID:24872865

  1. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and overall and Cause-specific Mortality: A Prospective Study of 50000 Individuals.

    PubMed

    Islami, Farhad; Pourshams, Akram; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Khademi, Hooman; Poutschi, Hossein; Khoshnia, Masoud; Norouzi, Alireza; Amiriani, Taghi; Sohrabpour, Amir Ali; Aliasgari, Ali; Jafari, Elham; Semnani, Shahryar; Abnet, Christian C; Pharaoh, Paul D; Brennan, Paul; Kamangar, Farin; Dawsey, Sanford M; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-04-01

    BACKGROUND Only a few studies in Western countries have investigated the association between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and mortality at the general population level and they have shown mixed results. This study investigated the association between GERD symptoms and overall and cause-specific mortality in a large prospective population-based study in Golestan Province, Iran. METHODS Baseline data on frequency, onset time, and patient-perceived severity of GERD symptoms were available for 50001 participants in the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS). We identified 3107 deaths (including 1146 circulatory and 470 cancer-related) with an average follow-up of 6.4 years and calculated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for multiple potential confounders. RESULTS Severe daily symptoms (defined as symptoms interfering with daily work or causing nighttime awakenings on a daily bases, reported by 4.3% of participants) were associated with cancer mortality (HR 1.48, 95% CI: 1.04-2.05). This increase was too small to noticeably affect overall mortality. Mortality was not associated with onset time or frequency of GERD and was not increased with mild to moderate symptoms. CONCLUSION We have observed an association with GERD and increased cancer mortality in a small group of individuals that had severe symptoms. Most patients with mild to moderate GERD can be re-assured that their symptoms are not associated with increased mortality.

  2. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and overall and Cause-specific Mortality: A Prospective Study of 50000 Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Islami, Farhad; Pourshams, Akram; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Khademi, Hooman; Poutschi, Hossein; Khoshnia, Masoud; Norouzi, Alireza; Amiriani, Taghi; Sohrabpour, Amir Ali; Aliasgari, Ali; Jafari, Elham; Semnani, Shahryar; Abnet, Christian C.; Pharaoh, Paul D.; Brennan, Paul; Kamangar, Farin; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Only a few studies in Western countries have investigated the association between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and mortality at the general population level and they have shown mixed results. This study investigated the association between GERD symptoms and overall and cause-specific mortality in a large prospective population-based study in Golestan Province, Iran. METHODS Baseline data on frequency, onset time, and patient-perceived severity of GERD symptoms were available for 50001 participants in the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS). We identified 3107 deaths (including 1146 circulatory and 470 cancer-related) with an average follow-up of 6.4 years and calculated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for multiple potential confounders. RESULTS Severe daily symptoms (defined as symptoms interfering with daily work or causing nighttime awakenings on a daily bases, reported by 4.3% of participants) were associated with cancer mortality (HR 1.48, 95% CI: 1.04-2.05). This increase was too small to noticeably affect overall mortality. Mortality was not associated with onset time or frequency of GERD and was not increased with mild to moderate symptoms. CONCLUSION We have observed an association with GERD and increased cancer mortality in a small group of individuals that had severe symptoms. Most patients with mild to moderate GERD can be re-assured that their symptoms are not associated with increased mortality. PMID:24872865

  3. Ecological integrity of streams related to human cancer mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Hitt, Nathaniel P; Hendryx, Michael

    2010-08-01

    Assessments of ecological integrity have become commonplace for biological conservation, but their role for public health analysis remains largely unexplored. We tested the prediction that the ecological integrity of streams would provide an indicator of human cancer mortality rates in West Virginia, USA. We characterized ecological integrity using an index of benthic macroinvertebrate community structure (West Virginia Stream Condition Index, SCI) and quantified human cancer mortality rates using county-level data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Regression and spatial analyses revealed significant associations between ecological integrity and public health. SCI was negatively related to age-adjusted total cancer mortality per 100,000 people. Respiratory, digestive, urinary, and breast cancer rates increased with ecological disintegrity, but genital and oral cancer rates did not. Smoking, poverty, and urbanization were significantly related to total cancer mortality, but did not explain the observed relationships between ecological integrity and cancer. Coal mining was significantly associated with ecological disintegrity and higher cancer mortality. Spatial analyses also revealed cancer clusters that corresponded to areas of high coal mining intensity. Our results demonstrated significant relationships between ecological integrity and human cancer mortality in West Virginia, and suggested important effects of coal mining on ecological communities and public health. Assessments of ecological integrity therefore may contribute not only to monitoring goals for aquatic life, but also may provide valuable insights for human health and safety.

  4. Incidence and Mortality and Epidemiology of Breast Cancer in the World.

    PubMed

    Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Pournamdar, Zahra; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women around the world. Information on the incidence and mortality of breast cancer is essential for planning health measures. This study aimed to investigate the incidence and mortality of breast cancer in the world using age-specific incidence and mortality rates for the year 2012 acquired from the global cancer project (GLOBOCAN 2012) as well as data about incidence and mortality of the cancer based on national reports. It was estimated that 1,671,149 new cases of breast cancer were identified and 521,907 cases of deaths due to breast cancer occurred in the world in 2012. According to GLOBOCAN, it is the most common cancer in women, accounting for 25.1% of all cancers. Breast cancer incidence in developed countries is higher, while relative mortality is greatest in less developed countries. Education of women is suggested in all countries for early detection and treatment. Plans for the control and prevention of this cancer must be a high priority for health policy makers; also, it is necessary to increase awareness of risk factors and early detection in less developed countries.

  5. Incidence and Mortality and Epidemiology of Breast Cancer in the World.

    PubMed

    Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Pournamdar, Zahra; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women around the world. Information on the incidence and mortality of breast cancer is essential for planning health measures. This study aimed to investigate the incidence and mortality of breast cancer in the world using age-specific incidence and mortality rates for the year 2012 acquired from the global cancer project (GLOBOCAN 2012) as well as data about incidence and mortality of the cancer based on national reports. It was estimated that 1,671,149 new cases of breast cancer were identified and 521,907 cases of deaths due to breast cancer occurred in the world in 2012. According to GLOBOCAN, it is the most common cancer in women, accounting for 25.1% of all cancers. Breast cancer incidence in developed countries is higher, while relative mortality is greatest in less developed countries. Education of women is suggested in all countries for early detection and treatment. Plans for the control and prevention of this cancer must be a high priority for health policy makers; also, it is necessary to increase awareness of risk factors and early detection in less developed countries. PMID:27165206

  6. Estimating cancer mortality rates from SEER incidence and survival data.

    PubMed Central

    Chu, K C; Horm, J W; Smart, C R

    1990-01-01

    A method to estimate site-specific cancer mortality rates using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program incidence and survival data is proposed, calculated, and validated. This measure, the life table-derived mortality rate (LTM), is the sum of the product of the probability of being alive at the beginning of an interval times the probability of dying of the cancer of interest during the interval times the annual age-adjusted incidence rate for each year that data have been collected. When the LTM is compared to death certificate mortality rates (DCM) for organ sites with no known misclassification problems, the LTM was within 10 percent of the death certificate rates for 13 of 14 organ sites. In the sites that have problems with the death certificate rates, there were major disagreements between the LTM and DCM. The LTM was systematically lower than the DCM for sites if there was overreporting on the death certificates, and the LTM was higher than the DCM for sites if there was underreporting. The limitations and applications of the LTM are detailed. PMID:2106703

  7. Mortality from lung cancer among workers employed in formaldehyde industries.

    PubMed

    Blair, A; Stewart, P A; Hoover, R N

    1990-01-01

    A historical cohort of 26,561 workers employed in ten facilities was assembled to evaluate cancer risks associated with exposure to formaldehyde. Historical exposures to formaldehyde by job, work area, plant, and calendar time were estimated using monitoring data available from participating plants, comments from long-term workers and company officials, exposure evaluations from walk-through surveys conducted by project industrial hygienists, and results from monitoring specifically performed for this project. A previous report of findings from this study noted a 30% excess mortality from lung cancer among wage workers. The relative risk for lung cancer (whether estimated by SMRs or SRRs) 20 or more years after first exposure did not generally rise with increasing exposure to formaldehyde. Various estimates of exposure were investigated including duration, intensity, peak, cumulative, and average, and by exposures lagged by 5, 10, 20, and 30 years. The excess did not appear to arise gradually, but emerged suddenly among workers whose total cumulative exposure was less than 0.1 ppm-years. Slightly positive, but nonsignificant, exposure-response associations between lung cancer and level of formaldehyde occurred in only a few out of a large number of comparisons (e.g., for persons hired before the start dates for the study and for workers also exposed to particulates). There was a lack of consistency among the various plants for risk of lung cancer, with six plants having elevated SMRs and four plants having deficits. Mortality from lung cancer was more strongly associated with exposure to other substances including phenol, melamine, urea, and wood dust than with exposure to formaldehyde. Workers exposed to formaldehyde without exposure to these substances did not experience an elevated mortality from lung cancer. The risk did not increase with cumulative levels of formaldehyde among those exposed to other substances and there was a slightly negative trend for those

  8. Mortality from lung cancer among Sardinian patients with silicosis.

    PubMed Central

    Carta, P; Cocco, P L; Casula, D

    1991-01-01

    The mortality of 724 subjects with silicosis, first diagnosed in 1964-70 in the Sardinia region of Italy, was followed up through to 31 December 1987. Smoking, occupational history, chest x ray films, and data on lung function were available from clinical records for each member of the cohort. The overall cohort accounted for 10,956.5 person-years. The standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for selected causes of death (International Classification of Diseases (ICD) eighth revision) were based on the age specific regional death rates for each calendar year. An excess of deaths for all causes (SMR = 1.40) was found, mainly due to chronic obstructive lung disease, silicosis, and tuberculosis with an upward trend of the SMR with increasing severity of the International Labour Office (ILO) radiological categories. Twenty two subjects died from lung cancer (SMR = 1.29, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.8-2.0). The risk increased after a 10 and 15 year latency but the SMR never reached statistical significance. No correlation was found between lung cancer and severity of the radiological category, the type of silica (coal or metalliferous mines, quarries etc), or the degree of exposure to silica dust. A significant excess of deaths from lung cancer was found among heavy smokers (SMR = 4.11) and subjects with airflow obstruction (SMR = 2.83). A nested case-control study was planned to investigate whether the association between lung cancer and airway obstruction was due to confounding by smoking. No association was found with the ILO categories of silicosis or the estimated cumulative exposure to silica. The risk estimate for lung cancer by airflow obstruction after adjusting by cigarette consumption was 2.86 for a mild impairment and 7.23 for a severe obstruction. The results do not show any clear association between exposure to silica, severity of silicosis, and mortality from lung cancer. Other environmental or individual factors may act as confounders in the

  9. Quantifying Cancer Absolute Risk and Cancer Mortality in the Presence of Competing Events after a Myotonic Dystrophy Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Gadalla, Shahinaz M.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y.; Björkholm, Magnus; Hilbert, James E.; Moxley, Richard T.; Landgren, Ola; Greene, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies show that patients with myotonic dystrophy (DM) have an increased risk of specific malignancies, but estimates of absolute cancer risk accounting for competing events are lacking. Using the Swedish Patient Registry, we identified 1,081 patients with an inpatient and/or outpatient diagnosis of DM between 1987 and 2007. Date and cause of death and date of cancer diagnosis were extracted from the Swedish Cause of Death and Cancer Registries. We calculated non-parametric estimates of absolute cancer risk and cancer mortality accounting for the high non-cancer competing mortality associated with DM. Absolute cancer risk after DM diagnosis was 1.6% (95% CI=0.4-4%), 5% (95% CI=3-9%) and 9% (95% CI=6-13%) at ages 40, 50 and 60 years, respectively. Females had a higher absolute risk of all cancers combined than males: 9% (95% CI=4-14), and 13% (95% CI=9-20) vs. 2% (95%CI= 0.7-6) and 4% (95%CI=2-8) by ages 50 and 60 years, respectively) and developed cancer at younger ages (median age =51 years, range=22-74 vs. 57, range=43-84, respectively, p=0.02). Cancer deaths accounted for 10% of all deaths, with an absolute cancer mortality risk of 2% (95%CI=1-4.5%), 4% (95%CI=2-6%), and 6% (95%CI=4-9%) by ages 50, 60, and 70 years, respectively. No gender difference in cancer-specific mortality was observed (p=0.6). In conclusion, cancer significantly contributes to morbidity and mortality in DM patients, even after accounting for high competing DM mortality from non-neoplastic causes. It is important to apply population-appropriate, validated cancer screening strategies in DM patients. PMID:24236163

  10. Cancer mortality in Native Americans in North Carolina.

    PubMed Central

    Horner, R D

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes age-adjusted mortality from malignant neoplasms for Native Americans in North Carolina for 1968-72 and 1978-82. Sex-specific standardized mortality ratios were calculated from death certificate data, using the cancer mortality experience of White North Carolinians to obtain the number of expected deaths. For most categories and specific sites of cancer, mortality was at or below the expected level, but higher than expected mortality was found for genitourinary cancers in males (SMR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.15, 2.21) for the 1978-82 period; within this category, there was a higher than expected level of mortality from prostate cancer (SMR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.36, 2.83) and cancer of the penis and other male genital organs (SMR = 9.09; 95% CI = 1.10, 32.84). Female Native Americans had an elevated mortality from cervical cancer (SMR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.09, 4.17) for the 1968-72 period only. PMID:2368854

  11. Lung, liver and bone cancer mortality after plutonium exposure in beagle dogs and nuclear workers.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Dulaney A; Mohr, Lawrence C; Frey, G Donald; Lackland, Daniel; Hoel, David G

    2010-01-01

    The Mayak Production Association (MPA) worker registry has shown evidence of plutonium-induced health effects. Workers were potentially exposed to plutonium nitrate [(239)Pu(NO(3))(4)] and plutonium dioxide ((239)PuO(2)). Studies of plutonium-induced health effects in animal models can complement human studies by providing more specific data than is possible in human observational studies. Lung, liver, and bone cancer mortality rate ratios in the MPA worker cohort were compared to those seen in beagle dogs, and models of the excess relative risk of lung, liver, and bone cancer mortality from the MPA worker cohort were applied to data from life-span studies of beagle dogs. The lung cancer mortality rate ratios in beagle dogs are similar to those seen in the MPA worker cohort. At cumulative doses less than 3 Gy, the liver cancer mortality rate ratios in the MPA worker cohort are statistically similar to those in beagle dogs. Bone cancer mortality only occurred in MPA workers with doses over 10 Gy. In dogs given (239)Pu, the adjusted excess relative risk of lung cancer mortality per Gy was 1.32 (95% CI 0.56-3.22). The liver cancer mortality adjusted excess relative risk per Gy was 55.3 (95% CI 23.0-133.1). The adjusted excess relative risk of bone cancer mortality per Gy(2) was 1,482 (95% CI 566.0-5686). Models of lung cancer mortality based on MPA worker data with additional covariates adequately described the beagle dog data, while the liver and bone cancer models were less successful.

  12. Beverage-Specific Alcohol Sale and Cardiovascular Mortality in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Razvodovsky, Y. E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. Recent research evidence suggests that the consumption of different types of alcoholic beverage may have a differential effect on cardiovascular diseases (CVD) mortality rates. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between the consumption of different beverage types and CVD mortality rates in Russia across the later-Soviet and post-Soviet periods. Method. Age-standardized male and female CVD mortality data for the period 1970–2005 and data on beverage-specific alcohol sales were obtained Russian State Statistical Committee (Rosstat). Time-series analytical modeling techniques (ARIMA) were used to examine the relation between the sales of different alcoholic beverages and CVD mortality rates. Results. Vodka consumption as measured by sales was significantly associated with both male and female CVD mortality rates: a 1 liter increase in vodka sales would result in a 5.3% increase in the male CVD mortality rate and a 3.7% increase in the female rate. The consumption of beer and wine were not associated with CVD mortality rates. Conclusions. The findings from this study suggest that public health efforts should focus on both reducing overall consumption and changing beverage preference away from distilled spirits in order to reduce cardiovascular mortality rates in Russia. PMID:21318145

  13. Increase in cervical cancer mortality in Spain, 1951-1991

    PubMed Central

    Llorca, J.; Prieto, M. D.; Delgado-Rodriguez, M.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The trend in cervical cancer mortality in Spain from 1951 to 1991 is examined. METHODS: Analysis of national mortality statistics calculating age standardised mortality rates and an age-period cohort analysis. A fit to the Gompertz function was made to estimate the influence of the environmental factors on the mortality rates evolution. MAIN RESULTS: The age standardised mortality rate in Spain is lower than in other developed countries (USA or Estonia) and equal to Norwegian and Finland rates; but whereas in these countries the trend is to decrease, the Spanish rate has increased during this period, because of a cohort effect. A misclassification bias could be responsible for the trend in women aged 40 and older but the increasing trend in younger women could not be interpreted as espurious. The Gompertzian analysis suggests an increase in environmental factors causing cervical cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Cervical cancer mortality rates are increasing in Spain because of environmental factors.   PMID:10492733

  14. Multi-state relative survival modelling of colorectal cancer progression and mortality.

    PubMed

    Gilard-Pioc, Séverine; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Mahboubi, Amel; Bouvier, Anne-Marie; Dejardin, Olivier; Huszti, Ella; Binquet, Christine; Quantin, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    Accurate identification of factors associated with progression of colorectal cancer remains a challenge. In particular, it is unclear which statistical methods are most suitable to separate the effects of putative prognostic factors on cancer progression vs cancer-specific and other cause mortality. To address these challenges, we analyzed 10 year follow-up data for patients who underwent curative surgery for colorectal cancer in 1985-2000. Separate analyses were performed in two French cancer registries. Results of three multivariable models were compared: Cox model with recurrence as a time-dependent variable, and two multi-state models, which separated prognostic factor effects on recurrence vs death, with or without recurrence. Conventional multi-state model analyzed all-cause mortality while new relative survival multi-state model focused on cancer-specific mortality. Among the 2517 and 2677 patients in the two registries, about 50% died without a recurrence, and 28% had a recurrence, of whom almost 90% died. In both multi-state models men had significantly increased risk of cancer recurrence in both registries (HR=0.79; 95% CI: 0.68-0.92 and HR=0.83; 95% CI: 0.71-0.96). However, the two multi-state models identified different prognostic factors for mortality without recurrence. In contrast to the conventional model, in the relative survival analyses gender had no independent association with cancer-specific mortality whereas patients diagnosed with stage III cancer had significantly higher risks in both registries (HR=1.67; 95% CI: 1.27-2.22 and HR=2.38; 95% CI: 1.29-3.27). In conclusion, relative survival multi-state model revealed that different factors may be associated with cancer recurrence vs cancer-specific mortality either after or without a recurrence.

  15. Obesity and Mortality After Breast Cancer by Race/Ethnicity: The California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Marilyn L.; John, Esther M.; Caan, Bette J.; Lee, Valerie S.; Bernstein, Leslie; Cheng, Iona; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Henderson, Brian E.; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Kurian, Allison W.; Lu, Yani; Monroe, Kristine R.; Roh, Janise M.; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Sposto, Richard; Vigen, Cheryl; Wu, Anna H.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated body size and survival by race/ethnicity in 11,351 breast cancer patients diagnosed from 1993 to 2007 with follow-up through 2009 by using data from questionnaires and the California Cancer Registry. We calculated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals from multivariable Cox proportional hazard model–estimated associations of body size (body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)2) and waist-hip ratio (WHR)) with breast cancer–specific and all-cause mortality. Among 2,744 ascertained deaths, 1,445 were related to breast cancer. Being underweight (BMI <18.5) was associated with increased risk of breast cancer mortality compared with being normal weight in non-Latina whites (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 3.20), whereas morbid obesity (BMI ≥40) was suggestive of increased risk (HR = 1.43, 95% CI: 0.84, 2.43). In Latinas, only the morbidly obese were at high risk of death (HR = 2.26, 95% CI: 1.23, 4.15). No BMI–mortality associations were apparent in African Americans and Asian Americans. High WHR (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1) was associated with breast cancer mortality in Asian Americans (HR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.21, 4.03; P for trend = 0.01), whereas no associations were found in African Americans, Latinas, or non-Latina whites. For all-cause mortality, even stronger BMI and WHR associations were observed. The impact of obesity and body fat distribution on breast cancer patients' risk of death may vary across racial/ethnic groups. PMID:24107615

  16. Why have ovarian cancer mortality rates declined? Part I. Incidence.

    PubMed

    Sopik, Victoria; Iqbal, Javaid; Rosen, Barry; Narod, Steven A

    2015-09-01

    The age-adjusted mortality rate from ovarian cancer in the United States has declined over the past several decades. The decline in mortality might be the consequence of a reduced number of cases (incidence) or a reduction in the proportion of patients who die from their cancer (case-fatality). In part I of this three-part series, we examine rates of ovarian cancer incidence and mortality from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registry database and we explore to what extent the observed decline in mortality can be explained by a downward shift in the stage distribution of ovarian cancer (i.e. due to early detection) or by fewer cases of ovarian cancer (i.e. due to a change in risk factors). The proportion of localized ovarian cancers did not increase, suggesting that a stage-shift did not contribute to the decline in mortality. The observed decline in mortality paralleled a decline in incidence. The trends in ovarian cancer incidence coincided with temporal changes in the exposure of women from different birth cohorts to various reproductive risk factors, in particular, to changes in the use of the oral contraceptive pill and to declining parity. Based on recent changes in risk factor propensity, we predict that the trend of the declining age-adjusted incidence rate of ovarian cancer in the United States will reverse and rates will increase in coming years. PMID:26080287

  17. Cancer Incidence, Survival, and Mortality among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horm, John W.; Burhansstipanov, Linda

    1992-01-01

    Overall cancer incidence among southwestern American Indians is less than half that of U.S. whites; Alaska Native and white rates are similar. However, both native groups have elevated rates for specific cancers (stomach, liver, and gallbladder), and Indians have low five-year survival rates. Data tables outline incidence, mortality, and survival…

  18. Workplace risk factors for cancer in the German rubber industry: Part 1. Mortality from respiratory cancers

    PubMed Central

    Weiland, S. K.; Straif, K.; Chambless, L.; Werner, B.; Mundt, K. A.; Bucher, A.; Birk, T.; Keil, U.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the cancer specific mortality by work area among active and retired male workers in the German rubber industry. METHODS: A cohort of 11,663 male German workers was followed up for mortality from 1 January 1981 to 31 December 1991. Cohort members were classified as active (n = 7536) or retired (n = 4127) as of 1 January 1981 and had been employed for at least one year in one of five study plants producing tyres or technical rubber goods. Work histories were reconstructed with routinely documented "cost centre codes" which were classified into six categories: I preparation of materials; II production of technical rubber goods; III production of tyres; IV storage and dispatch; V maintenance; and VI others. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) adjusted for age and calendar year and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), stratified by work area (employment in respective work area for at least one year) and time related variables (year of hire, lagged years of employment in work area), were calculated from national reference rates. RESULTS: SMRs for laryngeal cancer were highest in work area I (SMR 253; 95% CI 93 to 551) and were significant among workers who were employed for > 10 years in this work area (SMR 330; 95% CI 107 to 779). Increased mortality rates from lung cancer were identified in work areas I (SMR 162; 95% CI 129 to 202), II (SMR 134; 95% CI 109 to 163), and V (SMR 131; 95% CI 102 to 167). Mortality from pleural cancer was increased in all six work areas, and significant excesses were found in work areas I (SMR 448; 95% CI 122 to 1146), II (SMR 505; 95% CI 202 to 1040), and V (SMR 554; 95% CI 179 to 1290). CONCLUSION: A causal relation between the excess of pleural cancer and exposure to asbestos among rubber workers is plausible and likely. In this study, the pattern of excess of lung cancer parallels the pattern of excess of pleural cancer. This points to asbestos as one risk factor for the excess deaths from lung cancer among

  19. The association between glucose-lowering drug use and mortality among breast cancer patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Vissers, Pauline A J; Cardwell, Chris R; van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke V; Young, Ian S; Pouwer, Frans; Murray, Liam J

    2015-04-01

    This study assessed the association between glucose-lowering drug (GLD) use, including metformin, sulphonylurea derivatives and insulin, after breast cancer diagnosis and breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. 1763 breast cancer patients, diagnosed between 1998 and 2010, with type 2 diabetes were included. Cancer information was retrieved from English cancer registries, prescription data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink and mortality data from the Office of National Statistics (up to January 2012). Time-varying Cox regression models were used to calculate HRs and 95 % CIs for the association between GLD use and breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. In 1057 patients with diabetes before breast cancer, there was some evidence that breast cancer-specific mortality decreased with each year of metformin use (adjusted HR 0.88; 95 % CI 0.75-1.04), with a strong association seen with over 2 years of use (adjusted HR 0.47; 95 % CI 0.26-0.82). Sulphonylurea derivative use for less than 2 years was associated with increased breast cancer-specific mortality (adjusted HR 1.70; 95 % CI 1.18-2.46), but longer use was not (adjusted HR 0.94; 95 % CI 0.54-1.66). In 706 patients who developed diabetes after breast cancer, similar patterns were seen for metformin, but sulphonylurea derivative use was strongly associated with cancer-specific mortality (adjusted HR 3.64; 95 % CI 2.16-6.16), with similar estimates for short- and long-term users. This study provides some support for an inverse association between, mainly long-term, metformin use and (breast cancer-specific) mortality. In addition, sulphonylurea derivative use was associated with increased breast cancer-specific mortality, but this should be interpreted cautiously, as it could reflect selective prescribing in advanced cancer patients. PMID:25762476

  20. Bayesian spatio-temporal modelling of tobacco-related cancer mortality in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Jürgens, Verena; Ess, Silvia; Phuleria, Harish C; Früh, Martin; Schwenkglenks, Matthias; Frick, Harald; Cerny, Thomas; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2013-05-01

    Tobacco smoking is a main cause of disease in Switzerland; lung cancer being the most common cancer mortality in men and the second most common in women. Although disease-specific mortality is decreasing in men, it is steadily increasing in women. The four language regions in this country might play a role in this context as they are influenced in different ways by the cultural and social behaviour of neighbouring countries. Bayesian hierarchical spatio-temporal, negative binomial models were fitted on subgroup-specific death rates indirectly standardized by national references to explore age- and gender-specific spatio-temporal patterns of mortality due to lung cancer and other tobacco-related cancers in Switzerland for the time period 1969-2002. Differences influenced by linguistic region and life in rural or urban areas were also accounted for. Male lung cancer mortality was found to be rather homogeneous in space, whereas women were confirmed to be more affected in urban regions. Compared to the German-speaking part, female mortality was higher in the French-speaking part of the country, a result contradicting other reports of similar comparisons between France and Germany. The spatio-temporal patterns of mortality were similar for lung cancer and other tobacco-related cancers. The estimated mortality maps can support the planning in health care services and evaluation of a national tobacco control programme. Better understanding of spatial and temporal variation of cancer of the lung and other tobacco-related cancers may help in allocating resources for more effective screening, diagnosis and therapy. The methodology can be applied to similar studies in other settings.

  1. Temporal trend of mortality from major cancers in Xuanwei, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hualiang; Ning, Bofu; Li, Jihua; Zhao, Guangqiang; Huang, Yunchao; Tian, Linwei

    2015-12-01

    Although a number of studies have examined the etiology of lung cancer in Xuanwei County, China, other types of cancer in this county have not been reported systematically. This study aimed to investigate the temporal trend of eight major cancers in Xuanwei County using data from three mortality surveys (1973-1975, 1990-1992, and 2004-2005). The Chinese population in 1990 was used as a standard population to calculate agestandardized mortality rates. Cancers of lung, liver, breast, brain, esophagus, leukemia, rectum, and stomach were identified as the leading cancers in this county in terms of mortality rate. During the three time periods, lung cancer remained as the most common type of cancer. The mortality rates for all other types of cancer were lower than those of the national average, but an increasing trend was observed for all the cancers, particularly from 1990-1992 to 2004-2005. The temporal trend could be partly explained by changes in risk factors, but it also may be due to the improvement in cancer diagnosis and screening. Further epidemiological studies are warranted to systematically examine the underlying reasons for the temporal trend of the major cancers in Xuanwei County.

  2. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality in Barcelona: 1992–2003

    PubMed Central

    Puigpinós, Rosa; Borrell, Carme; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Azlor, Enric; Pasarín, M Isabel; Serral, Gemma; Pons-Vigués, Mariona; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Fernández, Esteve

    2009-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to assess trends in cancer mortality by educational level in Barcelona from 1992 to 2003. Methods The study population comprised Barcelona inhabitants aged 20 years or older. Data on cancer deaths were supplied by the system of information on mortality. Educational level was obtained from the municipal census. Age-standardized rates by educational level were calculated. We also fitted Poisson regression models to estimate the relative index of inequality (RII) and the Slope Index of Inequalities (SII). All were calculated for each sex and period (1992–1994, 1995–1997, 1998–2000, and 2001–2003). Results Cancer mortality was higher in men and women with lower educational level throughout the study period. Less-schooled men had higher mortality by stomach, mouth and pharynx, oesophagus, larynx and lung cancer. In women, there were educational inequalities for cervix uteri, liver and colon cancer. Inequalities of overall and specific types of cancer mortality remained stable in Barcelona; although a slight reduction was observed for some cancers. Conclusion This study has identified those cancer types presenting the greatest inequalities between men and women in recent years and shown that in Barcelona there is a stable trend in inequalities in the burden of cancer. PMID:19166582

  3. Cancer Mortality Projections in Korea up to 2032

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Predicting cancer mortality is important to estimate the needs of cancer-related services and to prevent cancer. Despite its significance, a long-term future projection of cancer mortality has not been conducted; therefore, our objective was to estimate future cancer mortality in Korea by cancer site through 2032. The specially designed Nordpred software was used to estimate cancer mortality. The cancer death data from 1983 to 2012 and the population projection data from 1983 to 2032 were obtained from the Korean National Statistics Office. Based on our analysis, age-standardized rates with the world standard population of all cancer deaths were estimated to decline from 2008-2012 to 2028-2032 (men: -39.8%, women: -33.1%). However, the crude rates are predicted to rise (men: 29.8%, women: 24.4%), and the overall number of the cancer deaths is also estimated to increase (men: 35.5%, women: 32.3%). Several cancer deaths are projected to increase (lung, liver and gallbladder, colon and rectum, pancreas and leukemia in both sexes; prostate cancer in men; and breast and ovarian cancer in women), whereas other cancer deaths are expected to decrease (stomach, esophagus and larynx in both sexes and cervical cancer in women). The largest contribution to increasing cancer deaths is due to the aging of the Korean population. In conclusion, a strategy for primary prevention, early detection, and early treatment to cope with the rapidly increasing death of cancer due to population aging is urgently required. PMID:27247498

  4. Cancer Mortality Projections in Korea up to 2032.

    PubMed

    Son, Mia; Yun, Jae-Won

    2016-06-01

    Predicting cancer mortality is important to estimate the needs of cancer-related services and to prevent cancer. Despite its significance, a long-term future projection of cancer mortality has not been conducted; therefore, our objective was to estimate future cancer mortality in Korea by cancer site through 2032. The specially designed Nordpred software was used to estimate cancer mortality. The cancer death data from 1983 to 2012 and the population projection data from 1983 to 2032 were obtained from the Korean National Statistics Office. Based on our analysis, age-standardized rates with the world standard population of all cancer deaths were estimated to decline from 2008-2012 to 2028-2032 (men: -39.8%, women: -33.1%). However, the crude rates are predicted to rise (men: 29.8%, women: 24.4%), and the overall number of the cancer deaths is also estimated to increase (men: 35.5%, women: 32.3%). Several cancer deaths are projected to increase (lung, liver and gallbladder, colon and rectum, pancreas and leukemia in both sexes; prostate cancer in men; and breast and ovarian cancer in women), whereas other cancer deaths are expected to decrease (stomach, esophagus and larynx in both sexes and cervical cancer in women). The largest contribution to increasing cancer deaths is due to the aging of the Korean population. In conclusion, a strategy for primary prevention, early detection, and early treatment to cope with the rapidly increasing death of cancer due to population aging is urgently required. PMID:27247498

  5. Mortality and survival of lung cancer in Denmark: Results from the Danish Lung Cancer Group 2000-2012.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Erik; Rasmussen, Torben Riis; Green, Anders

    2016-06-01

    Background In the 1990s outcomes in Danish lung cancer patients were poor compared with the other Nordic countries. The five-year survival was only about 5%, only 10% of patients were operated on and less than 60% received active surgical or oncologic treatment. This paper describes trends in mortality and survival of lung cancer in Denmark from 2000 to 2012. Methods The study population comprised 52 435 patients with a diagnosis of cancer of the trachea and the lung, primarily ascertained from the Danish Lung Cancer Register and grouped into three cohorts by year of diagnosis. The outcome measures covered the first year as well as the first full five-year period after diagnosis and comprised absolute mortality rate (per 100 patient years), absolute survival, and the relative survival. All outcomes were estimated for the overall patient population as well as after stratification by covariates. Results Overall, the mortality rates have declined significantly over time from 117 per 100 patient years to 88 for the one-year mortality and from 75 to 65 for the five-year mortality rates, respectively. With the exception of patients with advanced stage, declining mortality was observed for all strata by gender, comorbidity, stage and surgery status and was accompanied by corresponding improvements in both absolute and relative survival. Conclusions The mortality has been significantly declining and the prognosis correspondingly improving in lung cancer in Denmark since the turn of the millennium. As of today, survival after lung cancer in Denmark is probably in line with the international standard. Based on our results we recommend introducing mortality indicators based on all-cause mortality within the patient population in international benchmarking studies as comparisons based on cancer-specific mortality relative to the total general population may be misleading when interpreted in the context of outcomes and quality of care. PMID:27056247

  6. Cosmic radiation and mortality from cancer among male German airline pilots: extended cohort follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Gaël Paul; Blettner, Maria; Langner, Ingo; Zeeb, Hajo

    2012-06-01

    Commercial airline pilots are exposed to cosmic radiation and other specific occupational factors, potentially leading to increased cancer mortality. This was analysed in a cohort of 6,000 German cockpit crew members. A mortality follow-up for the years 1960-2004 was performed and occupational and dosimetry data were collected for this period. 405 deaths, including 127 cancer deaths, occurred in the cohort. The mortality from all causes and all cancers was significantly lower than in the German population. Total mortality decreased with increasing radiation doses (rate ratio (RR) per 10 mSv: 0.85, 95 % CI: 0.79, 0.93), contrasting with a non-significant increase of cancer mortality (RR per 10 mSv: 1.05, 95 % CI: 0.91, 1.20), which was restricted to the group of cancers not categorized as radiogenic in categorical analyses. While the total and cancer mortality of cockpit crew is low, a positive trend of all cancer with radiation dose is observed. Incomplete adjustment for age, other exposures correlated with duration of employment and a healthy worker survivor effect may contribute to this finding. More information is expected from a pooled analysis of updated international aircrew studies.

  7. Cosmic radiation and mortality from cancer among male German airline pilots: extended cohort follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Gaël Paul; Blettner, Maria; Langner, Ingo; Zeeb, Hajo

    2012-06-01

    Commercial airline pilots are exposed to cosmic radiation and other specific occupational factors, potentially leading to increased cancer mortality. This was analysed in a cohort of 6,000 German cockpit crew members. A mortality follow-up for the years 1960-2004 was performed and occupational and dosimetry data were collected for this period. 405 deaths, including 127 cancer deaths, occurred in the cohort. The mortality from all causes and all cancers was significantly lower than in the German population. Total mortality decreased with increasing radiation doses (rate ratio (RR) per 10 mSv: 0.85, 95 % CI: 0.79, 0.93), contrasting with a non-significant increase of cancer mortality (RR per 10 mSv: 1.05, 95 % CI: 0.91, 1.20), which was restricted to the group of cancers not categorized as radiogenic in categorical analyses. While the total and cancer mortality of cockpit crew is low, a positive trend of all cancer with radiation dose is observed. Incomplete adjustment for age, other exposures correlated with duration of employment and a healthy worker survivor effect may contribute to this finding. More information is expected from a pooled analysis of updated international aircrew studies. PMID:22678613

  8. All-cause and cause-specific mortality of different migrant populations in Europe.

    PubMed

    Ikram, Umar Z; Mackenbach, Johan P; Harding, Seeromanie; Rey, Grégoire; Bhopal, Raj S; Regidor, Enrique; Rosato, Michael; Juel, Knud; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to examine differences in all-cause mortality and main causes of death across different migrant and local-born populations living in six European countries. We used data from population and mortality registers from Denmark, England & Wales, France, Netherlands, Scotland, and Spain. We calculated age-standardized mortality rates for men and women aged 0-69 years. Country-specific data were pooled to assess weighted mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using Poisson regression. Analyses were stratified by age group, country of destination, and main cause of death. In six countries combined, all-cause mortality was lower for men and women from East Asia (MRRs 0.66; 95 % confidence interval 0.62-0.71 and 0.76; 0.69-0.82, respectively), and Other Latin America (0.44; 0.42-0.46 and 0.56; 0.54-0.59, respectively) than local-born populations. Mortality rates were similar for those from Turkey. All-cause mortality was higher in men and women from North Africa (1.09; 1.08-1.11 and 1.19; 1.17-1.22, respectively) and Eastern Europe (1.30; 1.27-1.33 and 1.05; 1.01-1.08, respectively), and women from Sub-Saharan Africa (1.34; 1.30-1.38). The pattern differed by age group and country of destination. Most migrants had higher mortality due to infectious diseases and homicide while cancer mortality and suicide were lower. CVD mortality differed by migrant population. To conclude, mortality patterns varied across migrant populations in European countries. Future research should focus both on migrant populations with favourable and less favourable mortality pattern, in order to understand this heterogeneity and to drive policy at the European level. PMID:26362812

  9. Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cause-specific Mortality: A Primer for Clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Kassam, Zain; Belga, Sara; Roifman, Idan; Hirota, Simon; Jijon, Humberto; Kaplan, Gilaad G.; Ghosh, Subrata

    2014-01-01

    Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) is perceived to harbor significant morbidity but limited excess mortality, thought to be driven by colon cancer, compared with the general population. Recent studies suggest mortality rates seem higher than previously understood, and there are emerging threats to mortality. Clinicians must be up to date and able to clearly convey the causes of mortality to arm individual patients with information to meaningfully participate in decisions regarding IBD treatment and maintenance of health. Methods: A MEDLINE search was conducted to capture all relevant articles. Keyword search included: “inflammatory bowel disease,” “Crohn's disease,” “ulcerative colitis,” and “mortality.” Results: CD and UC have slightly different causes of mortality; however, malignancy and colorectal cancer–associated mortality remains controversial in IBD. CD mortality seems to be driven by gastrointestinal disease, infection, and respiratory diseases. UC mortality was primarily attributable to gastrointestinal disease and infection. Clostridium difficile infection is an emerging cause of mortality in IBD. UC and CD patients have a marked increase in risk of thromboembolic disease. With advances in medical and surgical interventions, the exploration of treatment-associated mortality must continue to be evaluated. Conclusions: Clinicians should be aware that conventional causes of death such as malignancy do not seem to be as significant a burden as originally perceived. However, emerging threats such as infection including C. difficile are noteworthy. Although CD and UC share similar causes of death, there seems to be some differences in cause-specific mortality. PMID:25185685

  10. All-cause and cause-specific mortality of different migrant populations in Europe.

    PubMed

    Ikram, Umar Z; Mackenbach, Johan P; Harding, Seeromanie; Rey, Grégoire; Bhopal, Raj S; Regidor, Enrique; Rosato, Michael; Juel, Knud; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to examine differences in all-cause mortality and main causes of death across different migrant and local-born populations living in six European countries. We used data from population and mortality registers from Denmark, England & Wales, France, Netherlands, Scotland, and Spain. We calculated age-standardized mortality rates for men and women aged 0-69 years. Country-specific data were pooled to assess weighted mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using Poisson regression. Analyses were stratified by age group, country of destination, and main cause of death. In six countries combined, all-cause mortality was lower for men and women from East Asia (MRRs 0.66; 95 % confidence interval 0.62-0.71 and 0.76; 0.69-0.82, respectively), and Other Latin America (0.44; 0.42-0.46 and 0.56; 0.54-0.59, respectively) than local-born populations. Mortality rates were similar for those from Turkey. All-cause mortality was higher in men and women from North Africa (1.09; 1.08-1.11 and 1.19; 1.17-1.22, respectively) and Eastern Europe (1.30; 1.27-1.33 and 1.05; 1.01-1.08, respectively), and women from Sub-Saharan Africa (1.34; 1.30-1.38). The pattern differed by age group and country of destination. Most migrants had higher mortality due to infectious diseases and homicide while cancer mortality and suicide were lower. CVD mortality differed by migrant population. To conclude, mortality patterns varied across migrant populations in European countries. Future research should focus both on migrant populations with favourable and less favourable mortality pattern, in order to understand this heterogeneity and to drive policy at the European level.

  11. Regional, disease specific patterns of smoking-attributable mortality in 2000

    PubMed Central

    Ezzati, M; Lopez, A

    2004-01-01

    Background: Smoking has been causally associated with increased mortality from several diseases, and has increased considerably in many developing countries in the past few decades. Mortality attributable to smoking in the year 2000 was estimated for adult males and females, including estimates by age and for specific diseases in 14 epidemiological subregions of the world. Methods: Lung cancer mortality was used as an indirect marker of the accumulated hazard of smoking. Never-smoker lung cancer mortality was estimated based on the household use of coal with poor ventilation. Estimates of mortality caused by smoking were made for lung cancer, upper aerodigestive cancer, all other cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), other respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and selected other medical causes. Estimates were limited to ages 30 years and above. Results: In 2000, an estimated 4.83 million premature deaths in the world were attributable to smoking, 2.41 million in developing countries and 2.43 million in industrialised countries. There were 3.84 million male deaths and 1.00 million female deaths attributable to smoking. 2.69 million smoking attributable deaths were between the ages of 30–69 years, and 2.14 million were 70 years of age and above. The leading causes of death from smoking in industrialised regions were cardiovascular diseases (1.02 million deaths), lung cancer (0.52 million deaths), and COPD (0.31 million deaths), and in the developing world cardiovascular diseases (0.67 million deaths), COPD (0.65 million deaths), and lung cancer (0.33 million deaths). The share of male and female deaths and younger and older adult deaths, and of various diseases in total smoking attributable deaths exhibited large inter-regional heterogeneity, especially in the developing world. Conclusions: Smoking was an important cause of global mortality in 2000, affecting a large number of diseases. Age, sex, and disease patterns of smoking

  12. Do childhood vaccines have non-specific effects on mortality?

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, William O.; Boyce, Thomas G.; Wright, Peter F.; Griffin, Marie R.

    2003-01-01

    A recent article by Kristensen et al. suggested that measles vaccine and bacille Calmette-Gu rin (BCG) vaccine might reduce mortality beyond what is expected simply from protection against measles and tuberculosis. Previous reviews of the potential effects of childhood vaccines on mortality have not considered methodological features of reviewed studies. Methodological considerations play an especially important role in observational assessments, in which selection factors for vaccination may be difficult to ascertain. We reviewed 782 English language articles on vaccines and childhood mortality and found only a few whose design met the criteria for methodological rigor. The data reviewed suggest that measles vaccine delivers its promised reduction in mortality, but there is insufficient evidence to suggest a mortality benefit above that caused by its effect on measles disease and its sequelae. Our review of the available data in the literature reinforces how difficult answering these considerations has been and how important study design will be in determining the effect of specific vaccines on all-cause mortality. PMID:14758409

  13. Mortality reduction from gastric cancer by endoscopic and radiographic screening.

    PubMed

    Hamashima, Chisato; Shabana, Michiko; Okada, Katsuo; Okamoto, Mikizo; Osaki, Yoneatsu

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate mortality reduction from gastric cancer by endoscopic screening, we undertook a population-based cohort study in which both radiographic and endoscopic screenings for gastric cancer have been carried out. The subjects were selected from the participants of gastric cancer screening in two cities in Japan, Tottori and Yonago, from 2007 to 2008. The subjects were defined as participants aged 40-79 years who had no gastric cancer screening in the previous year. Follow-up of mortality was continued from the date of the first screening to the date of death or up to December 31, 2013. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of gastric cancer incidence, gastric cancer death, all cancer deaths except gastric cancer death, and all-causes death except gastric cancer death. The number of subjects selected for endoscopic screening was 9950 and that for radiographic screening was 4324. The subjects screened by endoscopy showed a 67% reduction of gastric cancer compared with the subjects screened by radiography (adjusted RR by sex, age group, and resident city = 0.327; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.118-0.908). The adjusted RR of endoscopic screening was 0.968 (95%CI, 0.675-1.387) for all cancer deaths except gastric cancer death, and 0.929 (95%CI, 0.740-1.168) for all-causes death except gastric cancer death. This study indicates that endoscopic screening can reduce gastric cancer mortality by 67% compared with radiographic screening. This is consistent with previous studies showing that endoscopic screening reduces gastric cancer mortality.

  14. Cancer mortality of granite workers 1940-1985.

    PubMed

    Koskela, R S; Klockars, M; Järvinen, E; Rossi, A; Kolari, P J

    1990-01-01

    A retrospective cohort study was undertaken to investigate the cancer mortality of granite workers. The study comprised 1026 workers who took up such work between 1940 and 1971. The number of person-years was 23,434, and the number of deaths was 296. During the total follow-up period, 59 tumours were observed as compared with 54.4 expected. An excess mortality from tumours was observed in workers followed up for 20 years or more. Of the 59 tumours, 31 were lung cancers (expected 19.9), and 18 gastrointestinal cancers (expected 11.6), nine of which were stomach cancers (expected 7.1). Mortality from lung cancer was excessive for workers followed up for at least 15 years (28 observed, 12.7 expected). The results indicate that granite exposure per se may be an etiological factor in the initiation or promotion of malignant neoplasms.

  15. Cancer mortality in four northern wheat-producing states.

    PubMed Central

    Schreinemachers, D M

    2000-01-01

    Chlorophenoxy herbicides are used both in cereal grain agriculture and in nonagricultural settings such as right-of-ways, lawns, and parks. Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana grow most of the spring and durum wheat produced in the United States. More than 90% of spring and durum wheat is treated with chlorophenoxy herbicides, in contrast to treatment of approximately 30% of winter wheat. In this ecologic study I used wheat acreage as a surrogate for exposure to chlorophenoxy herbicides. I investigated the association of chlorophenoxy herbicides with cancer mortality during 1980-1989 for selected counties based on level of agriculture ([greater and equal to] 20%) and rural population ([greater and equal to] 50%). Age-standardized cancer mortality rates were determined for grouped counties based on tertiles of wheat acreage per county or for individual counties for frequently occurring cancers. The cancer sites that showed positive trends of increasing cancer mortality with increasing wheat acreage were esophagus, stomach, rectum, pancreas, larynx, prostate, kidney and ureter, brain, thyroid, bone, and all cancers (men) and oral cavity and tongue, esophagus, stomach, liver and gall bladder and bile ducts, pancreas, cervix, ovary, bladder, and other urinary organs, and all cancers (women). Rare cancers in men and women and cancers in boys and girls were studied by comparing counties above and below the median of wheat acreage per county. There was increased mortality for cancer of the nose and eye in both men and women, brain and leukemia in both boys and girls, and all cancers in boys. These results suggest an association between cancer mortality and wheat acreage in counties of these four states. PMID:11017893

  16. Cancer mortality in four northern wheat-producing states.

    PubMed

    Schreinemachers, D M

    2000-09-01

    Chlorophenoxy herbicides are used both in cereal grain agriculture and in nonagricultural settings such as right-of-ways, lawns, and parks. Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana grow most of the spring and durum wheat produced in the United States. More than 90% of spring and durum wheat is treated with chlorophenoxy herbicides, in contrast to treatment of approximately 30% of winter wheat. In this ecologic study I used wheat acreage as a surrogate for exposure to chlorophenoxy herbicides. I investigated the association of chlorophenoxy herbicides with cancer mortality during 1980-1989 for selected counties based on level of agriculture ([greater and equal to] 20%) and rural population ([greater and equal to] 50%). Age-standardized cancer mortality rates were determined for grouped counties based on tertiles of wheat acreage per county or for individual counties for frequently occurring cancers. The cancer sites that showed positive trends of increasing cancer mortality with increasing wheat acreage were esophagus, stomach, rectum, pancreas, larynx, prostate, kidney and ureter, brain, thyroid, bone, and all cancers (men) and oral cavity and tongue, esophagus, stomach, liver and gall bladder and bile ducts, pancreas, cervix, ovary, bladder, and other urinary organs, and all cancers (women). Rare cancers in men and women and cancers in boys and girls were studied by comparing counties above and below the median of wheat acreage per county. There was increased mortality for cancer of the nose and eye in both men and women, brain and leukemia in both boys and girls, and all cancers in boys. These results suggest an association between cancer mortality and wheat acreage in counties of these four states.

  17. Statin Use Reduces Prostate Cancer All-Cause Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li-Min; Lin, Ming-Chia; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chang, Shih-Ni; Liang, Ji-An; Lin, I-Ching; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Studies have suggested that statin use is related to cancer risk and prostate cancer mortality. We conducted a population-based cohort study to determine whether using statins in prostate cancer patients is associated with reduced all-cause mortality rates. Data were obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The study cohort comprised 5179 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer who used statins for at least 6 months between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2010. To form a comparison group, each patient was randomly frequency-matched (according to age and index date) with a prostate cancer patient who did not use any type of statin-based drugs during the study period. The study endpoint was mortality. The hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using Cox regression models. Among prostate cancer patients, statin use was associated with significantly decreased all-cause mortality (adjusted HR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.60–0.71). This phenomenon was observed among various types of statin, age groups, and treatment methods. Analyzing the defined daily dose of statins indicated that both low- and high-dose groups exhibited significantly decreased death rates compared with nonusers, suggesting a dose–response relationship. The results of this population-based cohort study suggest that using statins reduces all-cause mortality among prostate cancer patients, and a dose–response relationship may exist. PMID:26426656

  18. Resting heart rate as a prognostic factor for mortality in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Park, Seho; Lim, Sung Mook; Lee, Mi Kyung; Giovannucci, Edward L; Kim, Joo Heung; Kim, Seung Il; Jeon, Justin Y

    2016-09-01

    Although elevated resting heart rate (RHR) has been shown to be associated with mortality in the general population and patients with certain diseases, no study has examined this association in patients with breast cancer. A total of 4786 patients with stage I-III breast cancer were retrospectively selected from the Severance hospital breast cancer registry in Seoul, Korea. RHR was measured at baseline and the mean follow-up time for all patients was 5.0 ± 2.5 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox regression models. After adjustment for prognostic factors, patients in the highest quintile of RHR (≥85 beat per minute (bpm)) had a significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 1.57; 95 %CI 1.05-2.35), breast cancer-specific mortality (HR: 1.69; 95 %CI 1.07-2.68), and cancer recurrence (HR: 1.49; 95 %CI 0.99-2.25), compared to those in the lowest quintile (≤67 bpm). Moreover, every 10 bpm increase in RHR was associated with 15, 22, and 6 % increased risk of all-cause mortality, breast cancer-specific mortality, and cancer recurrence, respectively. However, the association between RHR and cancer recurrence was not statistically significant (p = 0.26). Elevated RHR was associated with an increased risk of mortality in patients with breast cancer. The findings from this study suggest that RHR may be used as a prognostic factor for patients with breast cancer in clinical settings. PMID:27544225

  19. Cancer incidence and mortality in Chukotka, 1997–2010

    PubMed Central

    Dudarev, Alexey A.; Chupakhin, Valery S.; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The general aim was to assess cancer incidence and mortality among the general population of Chukotka in 1997–2010 and to compare it with the population of Russia. Methods Cancer data were abstracted from the annual statistical reports of the P.A. Hertzen Research Institute of Oncology in Moscow. The annual number and percent of cases, crude and age-standardized cancer incidence (ASIR) and mortality (ASMR) rates per 100,000 among men and women in the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug were determined for the period 1997–2010 for incidence and 1999–2010 for mortality. Two years’ data were aggregated to generate temporal trends during the period. In age-standardization, the Segi-Doll world standard population used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer was used. Results The higher incidence and mortality rate of cancer (all sites combined) among men compared to women, which was observed in Russia nationally, was reflected also in Chukotka, although the difference between men and women was not statistically significant. Overall, the patterns of cancer sites are similar between Chukotka and Russia, with cancer of the lung/trachea/bronchus and stomach occupying the top ranks among men. Oesophageal cancer is common in Chukotka but not in Russia, whereas prostate cancer is common in Russia but not in Chukotka. Among women, breast cancer is either the commonest or second commonest cancer in terms of incidence or mortality in both Chukotka and Russia. Cancer of the lung/trachea/bronchi ranks higher in Chukotka than in Russia. The rate of cancer incidence and mortality for all sites combined during the 13-year period was relatively stable in Russia. Dividing the period into two halves, an increase among both men and women was observed in Chukotka for all sites combined, and also for colorectal cancer. Conclusions This paper presents previously unavailable cancer epidemiological data on Chukotka. They provide a basis for comparative studies across

  20. Increased cancer mortality in Taiwanese inter-island migrants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meng-Kan; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi

    2013-05-01

    Higher mortality due to various forms of cancer was observed in emigrants, who had moved from the isolated and impoverished Taiwanese island of Matsu to the more affluent main island. A total of 13,691 ethnic Matsunese aged 30 years and above were enrolled in a study comparing cumulative and standardised mortality rates between emigrants to the main island of Taiwan and those who stayed behind. Poisson regression modelling was used to analyse the effects of migration. For all causes of mortality, the adjusted relative risk was 1.24 with a confidence interval (CI) at the 95% level of 1.08-1.42 for emigrants compared to Matsunese non-emigrants. Deaths from cancer and diabetes in emigrants showed similar results, i.e. an adjusted relative risk of 1.25 (95% CI, 1.00-1.57) and 1.93 (95% CI, 1.20-3.11), respectively. Higher cumulative incidence rates for all cancers and the three leading cancer forms (hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric cancer and lung cancer) in emigrants were also observed. However, no significant difference in the survival time of most of the cancer forms was noted between the two groups. The finding that moving to a more affluent area paradoxically leads to incidence of cancer and higher mortality might be explained by adoption of various forms of unhealthy behaviour, psycho-social factors and the general risks related to life in urbanized environments.

  1. Colorectal cancer mortality and incidence in Campbell County, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, R.E.; Rickabaugh, J.; Huffman, J.; Epperly, N.

    1987-08-01

    Previous publications have reported an unusually high colon cancer mortality rate for several Kentucky counties. We investigated these high rates by examining incidence of colorectal cancer in one county with a high mortality. The objective was to determine whether the incidence of colorectal cancer was as high as mortality rates indicated and, if so, to look for possible etiologic factors for the high rates. We found the incidence of colon cancer to be significantly higher in Campbell County than expected. While we expected 162 cases of colon cancer, we actually observed 192 (P less than .01). The number of rectal cancers was no higher than expected (52 expected and 62 observed), in agreement with previously reported mortality figures. A geographic plot of cases by home residence showed a significantly higher rate of colon cancer for urban county regions than for rural regions. In fact, the population of rural Campbell County had a colon cancer rate significantly lower than either the county rate or the national rate. Several factors were analyzed to explain these rate differences. The only consistently associated factor was source of residential drinking water.

  2. A cohort study on mortality from cancer and other causes among workers at a metal refinery.

    PubMed

    Tokudome, S; Kuratsune, M

    1976-03-15

    A non-concurrent prospective study was made on deaths from cancer and other causes occurring among 2,675 male workers at a metal refinery from 1949 to 1971. The expected number of deaths computed by applying age- and cause-specific death rates of Japanese males to these workers was compared with the observed number of deaths. Among 839 copper smelters, significantly increased mortalities were noted for lung cancer (SMR = 1,189) and colon cancer, but nor for cancer of the stomach, liver (primary) and biliary passages, pancreas and skin or for leukemia, tuberculosis, cerebrovascular diseases, heart diseases and liver cirrhosis. A dose-response relationship was demonstrated between the mortality from lung cancer and the degree of exposure. A very high excess mortality from lung cancer (SMR = 2,500) was seen among copper smelters who were considered to have been most heavily exposed to arsenic or workers who had engaged in sintering and blast furnace operations for 15 years of more before 1949. The latent period of lung cancer was 37.6 years on average, and not related to level of exposure. Twenty-six of 29 deaths from lung cancer among copper smelters occurred after they had left the refinery. Other production workers and clerical workers showed no significant excess mortality from any kind of cancer. PMID:1254355

  3. Thyroid cancer mortality and incidence: a global overview.

    PubMed

    La Vecchia, Carlo; Malvezzi, Matteo; Bosetti, Cristina; Garavello, Werner; Bertuccio, Paola; Levi, Fabio; Negri, Eva

    2015-05-01

    In most areas of the world, thyroid cancer incidence has been appreciably increasing over the last few decades, whereas mortality has steadily declined. We updated global trends in thyroid cancer mortality and incidence using official mortality data from the World Health Organization (1970-2012) and incidence data from the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (1960-2007). Male mortality declined in all the major countries considered, with annual percent changes around -2/-3% over the last decades. Only in the United States mortality declined up to the mid 1980s and increased thereafter. Similarly, in women mortality declined in most countries considered, with APCs around -2/-5% over the last decades, with the exception of the UK, the United States and Australia, where mortality has been declining up to the late 1980s/late 1990s to level off (or increase) thereafter. In 2008-2012, most countries had mortality rates (age-standardized, world population) between 0.20 and 0.40/100,000 men and 0.20 and 0.60/100,000 women, the highest rates being in Latvia, Hungary, the Republic of Moldova and Israel (over 0.40/100,000) for men and in Ecuador, Colombia and Israel (over 0.60/100,000) for women. In most countries, a steady increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer (mainly papillary carcinomas) was observed in both sexes. The declines in thyroid cancer mortality reflect both variations in risk factor exposure and changes in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease, while the increases in the incidence are likely due to the increase in the detection of this neoplasm over the last few decades.

  4. Mortality and cancer incidence in a copper-zinc cohort.

    PubMed

    Lightfoot, Nancy E; Berriault, Colin J

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies of copper-zinc workers have primarily observed significant increases in lung and other respiratory cancers. This study concurrently examined cancer incidence and cause-specific mortality for a cohort of workers at a copper-zinc producer in Ontario, Canada, from 1964 to 2005. Significant elevations in lung cancer incidence were observed for males in the overall cohort (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] = 124, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 102-150) and for surface mine (SIR = 272, 95% CI = 124-517), concentrator (SIR = 191, 95% CI = 102-327), and central maintenance (SIR = 214, 95% CI = 125-343) employees. Significant elevations of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma incidence were observed for male underground mine employees (SIR = 232, 95% CI = 111-426). Occupational etiology cannot be ascertained with the current exploratory study design. Future studies could (1) incorporate exposure assessment for subgroups within the existing cohort and (2) determine the efficacy of wellness programs in partnership with the local health unit.

  5. Prostate cancer in South Africa: pathology based national cancer registry data (1986-2006) and mortality rates (1997-2009).

    PubMed

    Babb, Chantal; Urban, Margaret; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kellett, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA) from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986-2006) and data on mortality (1997-2009) from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR) using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma). There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA. PMID:24955252

  6. Prostate Cancer in South Africa: Pathology Based National Cancer Registry Data (1986–2006) and Mortality Rates (1997–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Babb, Chantal; Urban, Margaret; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kellett, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA) from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986–2006) and data on mortality (1997–2009) from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR) using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma). There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA. PMID:24955252

  7. Prostate cancer in South Africa: pathology based national cancer registry data (1986-2006) and mortality rates (1997-2009).

    PubMed

    Babb, Chantal; Urban, Margaret; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kellett, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA) from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986-2006) and data on mortality (1997-2009) from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR) using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma). There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA.

  8. [Geographical difference of mortality of digestive cancers and food consumption].

    PubMed

    Hara, N; Sakata, K; Nagai, M; Fujita, Y; Hashimoto, T; Yanagawa, H

    1984-10-01

    The geographical differences in mortality from cancer of seven sites of the digestive organs and consumption of foods in 46 of the prefectures, excluding Okinawa and their capital cities were statistically observed. The groups of foods statistically associated with cancer death are: pork, cooking oil and shochu (low class distilled spirits) for esophageal cancer; fresh fish, salted fish, vegetables and alcoholic beverages for stomach cancer; alcoholic beverages, salted or dried fish, vegetables, bread, milk, butter, margarine, ketchup, beer and fresh fish for colonic cancer; fresh fish, salted or dried fish, salt and popular grade sake for rectal cancer; pork, popular grade sake and green tea for cancer of the biliary passages; salted or dried fish, vegetables, alcoholic beverages, oil and fresh fish for pancreatic cancer; beef, poultry, eggs and vinegar for liver cancer. Further epidemiological analyses are required to find the biological causal relationships. PMID:6513019

  9. Arsenic and chromium topsoil levels and cancer mortality in Spain.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Olivier; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; Martín-Méndez, Iván; Bel-Lan, Alejandro; Locutura, Juan F; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2016-09-01

    Spatio-temporal cancer mortality studies in Spain have revealed patterns for some tumours which display a distribution that is similar across the sexes and persists over time. Such characteristics would be common to tumours that shared risk factors, including the chemical soil composition. The objective of the present study is to assess the association between levels of chromium and arsenic in soil and the cancer mortality. This is an ecological cancer mortality study at municipal level, covering 861,440 cancer deaths in 7917 Spanish mainland towns from 1999 to 2008. Chromium and arsenic topsoil levels (partial extraction) were determined by ICP-MS at 13,317 sampling points. To estimate the effect of these concentrations on mortality, we fitted Besag, York and Mollié models, which included, as explanatory variables, each town's chromium and arsenic soil levels, estimated by kriging. In addition, we also fitted geostatistical-spatial models including sample locations and town centroids (non-aligned data), using the integrated nested Laplace approximation (INLA) and stochastic partial differential equations (SPDE). All results were adjusted for socio-demographic variables and proximity to industrial emissions. The results showed a statistical association in men and women alike, between arsenic soil levels and mortality due to cancers of the stomach, pancreas, lung and brain and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL). Among men, an association was observed with cancers of the prostate, buccal cavity and pharynx, oesophagus, colorectal and kidney. Chromium topsoil levels were associated with mortality among women alone, in cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract, breast and NHL. Our results suggest that chronic exposure arising from low levels of arsenic and chromium in topsoil could be a potential risk factor for developing cancer. PMID:27239676

  10. Arsenic and chromium topsoil levels and cancer mortality in Spain.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Olivier; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; Martín-Méndez, Iván; Bel-Lan, Alejandro; Locutura, Juan F; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2016-09-01

    Spatio-temporal cancer mortality studies in Spain have revealed patterns for some tumours which display a distribution that is similar across the sexes and persists over time. Such characteristics would be common to tumours that shared risk factors, including the chemical soil composition. The objective of the present study is to assess the association between levels of chromium and arsenic in soil and the cancer mortality. This is an ecological cancer mortality study at municipal level, covering 861,440 cancer deaths in 7917 Spanish mainland towns from 1999 to 2008. Chromium and arsenic topsoil levels (partial extraction) were determined by ICP-MS at 13,317 sampling points. To estimate the effect of these concentrations on mortality, we fitted Besag, York and Mollié models, which included, as explanatory variables, each town's chromium and arsenic soil levels, estimated by kriging. In addition, we also fitted geostatistical-spatial models including sample locations and town centroids (non-aligned data), using the integrated nested Laplace approximation (INLA) and stochastic partial differential equations (SPDE). All results were adjusted for socio-demographic variables and proximity to industrial emissions. The results showed a statistical association in men and women alike, between arsenic soil levels and mortality due to cancers of the stomach, pancreas, lung and brain and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL). Among men, an association was observed with cancers of the prostate, buccal cavity and pharynx, oesophagus, colorectal and kidney. Chromium topsoil levels were associated with mortality among women alone, in cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract, breast and NHL. Our results suggest that chronic exposure arising from low levels of arsenic and chromium in topsoil could be a potential risk factor for developing cancer.

  11. The Cancer Mortality in High Natural Radiation Areas in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Fornalski, Krzysztof Wojciech; Dobrzyński, Ludwik

    2012-01-01

    The cancer mortality ratios (CMRs) in Poland in high and low level radiation areas were analyzed based on information from national cancer registry. Presented ecological study concerned six regions, extending from the largest administration areas (a group of voivodeships), to the smallest regions (single counties). The data show that the relative risk of cancer deaths is lower in the higher radiation level areas. The decrease by 1.17%/mSv/year (p = 0.02) of all cancer deaths and by 0.82%/mSv/year (p = 0.2) of lung cancers only are observed. Tribute to Prof. Zbigniew Jaworowski (1927–2011) PMID:23304104

  12. Smoking and mortality after breast cancer diagnosis: the health and functioning in women study.

    PubMed

    Izano, Monika; Satariano, William A; Hiatt, Robert A; Braithwaite, Dejana

    2015-02-01

    We examined the effect of smoking on long-term mortality from breast cancer and other causes among a cohort of women with breast cancer. A total of 975 women diagnosed with breast cancer and aged 40-84 years were followed for a median follow-up of 11 years in the U.S. Health and Functioning in Women (HFW) study. The impact of the individual smoking status and smoking intensity reported in the first few months following breast cancer diagnosis on the risk of mortality from breast cancer and other causes was examined using Cox proportional hazards models. In this study, former smoking was associated with increased risk of other-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13-1.90), and the risk doubled with increased intensity (HR for <50 pack-years [py]: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.03-1.79; HR for ≥50 py: 2.45, 95% CI: 1.41-4.23). Current smoking (HR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.81-3.32) and each additional 10 py smoked (HR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.11-1.22) were associated with statistically significant increases in the risk of other-cause mortality. The effect of current smoking on other-cause mortality decreased with advancing stage and increasing body mass index (BMI). Breast cancer-specific mortality was associated with current smoking of ≥50 py (HR = 2.36, 95% CI: 1.26-4.44), and each additional 10 py smoked (HR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.01-1. 14). Current smoking, but not former smoking, was associated with increased risk of breast cancer-specific mortality in women with local disease (HR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.32-4.09), but not in those with regional and distant disease (HR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.73-1.68). Our findings suggest that current smoking at the time of breast cancer diagnosis may be associated with increased risk of breast-cancer specific and other-cause mortality, whereas former smoking is associated with increased risk of other-cause mortality. Smoking cessation at the time of diagnosis may lead to better prognosis among women with breast cancer.

  13. Lung Cancer Mortality and Topography: A Xuanwei Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hongyan; Cao, Wei; Chen, Gongbo; Yang, Junxing; Liu, Liqun; Wan, Xia; Yang, Gonghuan

    2016-01-01

    The epidemic of lung cancer in Xuanwei City, China, remains serious despite the reduction of the risk of indoor air pollution through citywide stove improvement. The main objective of this study was to characterize the influences of topography on the spatiotemporal variations of lung cancer mortality in Xuanwei during 1990–2013. Using the spatially empirical Bayes method, the smoothed mortality rate of lung cancer was obtained according to the mortality data and population data collected from the retrospective survey (1990–2005) and online registration data (2011–2013). Spatial variations of the village-level mortality rate and topographic factors, including the relief degree of land surface (RDLS) and dwelling conditions (VDC), were characterized through spatial autocorrelation and hotspot analysis. The relationship between topographic factors and the epidemic of lung cancer was explored using correlation analysis and geographically weighted regression (GWR). There is a pocket-like area (PLA) in Xuanwei, covering the clustered villages with lower RDLS and higher VDC. Although the villages with higher mortality rate (>80 per 105) geographically expanded from the center to the northeast of Xuanwei during 1990–2013, the village-level mortality rate was spatially clustered, which yielded a persistent hotspot area in the upward part of the PLA. In particular, the epidemic of lung cancer was closely correlated with both RDLS and VDC at the village scale, and its spatial heterogeneity could be greatly explained by the village-level VDC in the GWR model. Spatiotemporally featured lung cancer mortality in Xuanwei was potentially influenced by topographic conditions at the village scale. PMID:27164122

  14. Lung Cancer Mortality and Topography: A Xuanwei Case Study.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hongyan; Cao, Wei; Chen, Gongbo; Yang, Junxing; Liu, Liqun; Wan, Xia; Yang, Gonghuan

    2016-01-01

    The epidemic of lung cancer in Xuanwei City, China, remains serious despite the reduction of the risk of indoor air pollution through citywide stove improvement. The main objective of this study was to characterize the influences of topography on the spatiotemporal variations of lung cancer mortality in Xuanwei during 1990-2013. Using the spatially empirical Bayes method, the smoothed mortality rate of lung cancer was obtained according to the mortality data and population data collected from the retrospective survey (1990-2005) and online registration data (2011-2013). Spatial variations of the village-level mortality rate and topographic factors, including the relief degree of land surface (RDLS) and dwelling conditions (VDC), were characterized through spatial autocorrelation and hotspot analysis. The relationship between topographic factors and the epidemic of lung cancer was explored using correlation analysis and geographically weighted regression (GWR). There is a pocket-like area (PLA) in Xuanwei, covering the clustered villages with lower RDLS and higher VDC. Although the villages with higher mortality rate (>80 per 10⁵) geographically expanded from the center to the northeast of Xuanwei during 1990-2013, the village-level mortality rate was spatially clustered, which yielded a persistent hotspot area in the upward part of the PLA. In particular, the epidemic of lung cancer was closely correlated with both RDLS and VDC at the village scale, and its spatial heterogeneity could be greatly explained by the village-level VDC in the GWR model. Spatiotemporally featured lung cancer mortality in Xuanwei was potentially influenced by topographic conditions at the village scale. PMID:27164122

  15. Radiation, work experience, and cause specific mortality among workers at an energy research laboratory.

    PubMed Central

    Checkoway, H; Mathew, R M; Shy, C M; Watson, J E; Tankersley, W G; Wolf, S H; Smith, J C; Fry, S A

    1985-01-01

    A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted among 8375 white male employees who had worked at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for at least one month between 1943 and 1972. This plant has been the site of energy related research, including uranium and plutonium reactor technology and radioisotope production. Radiation doses, primarily from gamma rays, were generally low; the median cumulative exposure for workers was 0.16 rems. Historical follow up was conducted for the years 1943-77 and ascertainment of vital status was achieved for 92.3% of the cohort. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed to contrast the subjects' cause specific mortality experience with that of the United States white male population. The observed number of 966 deaths from all causes was 73% of the number expected. Mortality deficits were also seen for arteriosclerotic heart disease (SMR = 0.75; 344 observed) and all cancers (SMR = 0.78; 194 observed). These results are indicative of the healthy worker effect and the favourable influence on health of the cohort's relatively high socioeconomic status. Non-statistically significant raised SMRs were seen for all leukaemias (SMR = 1.49, 16 observed), cancer of the prostate (SMR = 1.16, 14 observed), and Hodgkin's disease (SMR = 1.10, 5 observed). Internal comparisons of mortality (standardised rate ratios, SRRs) were made between subgroups of the cohort according to radiation dose level and duration of employment in various job categories. No consistent gradients of cause specific mortality were detected for radiation exposure. Leukaemia mortality was highest among workers with greater than or equal to 10 years employment in engineering (SRR = 2.40) and maintenance (SRR = 3.12) jobs. The association of leukaemia with employment in engineering was unexpected; maintenance jobs entail potential exposures to radiation and to a wide range of organic chemicals; metals, and other substances. PMID:4016003

  16. Cadmium and lung cancer mortality accounting for simultaneous arsenic exposure

    PubMed Central

    Park, Robert M; Stayner, Leslie T; Petersen, Martin R; Finley-Couch, Melissa; Hornung, Richard; Rice, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Prior investigations identified an association between airborne cadmium and lung cancer but questions remain regarding confounding by arsenic, a well-established lung carcinogen. Methods A cadmium smelter population exhibiting excess lung cancer was re-analysed using a retrospective exposure assessment for arsenic (As), updated mortality (1940–2002), a revised cadmium (Cd) exposure matrix and improved work history information. Results Cumulative exposure metrics for both cadmium and arsenic were strongly associated making estimation of their independent effects difficult. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were modelled with Poisson regression with the contribution of arsenic to lung cancer risk constrained by exposure–response estimates previously reported. The results demonstrate (1) a statistically significant effect of Cd independent of As (SMR=3.2 for 10 mg-year/m3 Cd, p=0.012), (2) a substantial healthy worker effect for lung cancer (for unexposed workers, SMR=0.69) and (3) a large deficit in lung cancer mortality among Hispanic workers (SMR=0.27, p=0.009), known to have low lung cancer rates. A supralinear dose-rate effect was observed (contribution to risk with increasing exposure intensity has declining positive slope). Lung cancer mortality was somewhat better predicted using a cadmium burden metric with a half-life of about 20–25 years. Conclusions These findings support an independent effect for cadmium in risk of lung cancer mortality. 1/1000 excess lifetime risk of lung cancer death is predicted from an airborne exposure of about 2.4 μg/m3 Cd. PMID:22271639

  17. Solar ultraviolet irradiance and cancer incidence and mortality.

    PubMed

    Grant, William B

    2014-01-01

    The solar ultraviolet-B (UVB)/vitamin D/cancer hypothesis was proposed by the brothers Cedric and Frank Garland in 1980. In 2002, the list was increased to 15 types of cancer using data in the 1999 version of the atlas of cancer mortality rates in the United States. Ecological studies of cancer incidence and/or mortality rates with respect to indices of solar UVB doses have also been reported for Australia, China, France, Japan, and Spain with largely similar findings. In addition, several studies using nonmelanoma skin cancer as the index of solar UVB dose have found reduced internal cancer incidence and/or mortality rates, especially in sunny countries. A study of cancer incidence with respect to 54 categories of occupation in five Nordic countries, using lip cancer less lung cancer as the UVB index, found this index inversely correlated with 14 types of internal cancers for males and four for females. Observational studies with respect to UVB doses and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations also support the hypothesis. Hill's criteria for causality in a biological system to assess whether solar UVB and vitamin D can be considered causal in reducing risk of cancer. The primary criteria for this analysis include strength of association, consistent findings in different populations, biological gradient, plausibility (e.g., mechanisms), and experimental verification (e.g., randomized controlled trials). The totality of evidence is judged to satisfy the criteria very well for breast and colorectal cancer, and moderately well for several other types of cancer.

  18. Environmental factors and cancer mortality in Italy: correlational exercise.

    PubMed

    Decarli, A; La Vecchia, C

    1986-01-01

    Mortality rates for 21 cancer sites in 20 Italian regions have been correlated with several economic and dietary variables (including alcohol and coffee consumption), patterns of cigarette smoking and reproductive habits. In both sexes, a large number of strong correlations emerged, the most notable ones being the strong positive coefficients between cigarettes sold in the early 1950s and lung cancer mortality in middle-aged males in the early 1970s, between gross internal product or meat consumption and cancer of the intestines in both sexes, between total per caput consumption and cancer of the prostate and between mean age at first birth, gross internal product and milk consumption and cancer of the breast. Cancer of the ovary was positively correlated with mean age at the first birth, and negatively with average number of births. Among the unexpected correlations observed, the most remarkable ones were the strong positive coefficient between skin cancer mortality and latitude (which can however be explained in terms of different constitutional characteristics of skin color in various Italian regions), and the pattern of coefficients emerging for gastric cancer, showing positive correlations with gross internal product or meat and negative ones with bread, pasta or fish. These and other results (including the analysis of several first-order partial correlation coefficients) are discussed with regard to their limitations and major points of interest, and in comparison with similar studies conducted on different populations. PMID:3951786

  19. Measuring the societal burden of cancer: the cost of lost productivity due to premature cancer-related mortality in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hanly, Paul; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Sharp, Linda

    2015-02-15

    Every cancer-related death in someone of working age represents an economic loss to society. To inform priorities for cancer control, we estimated costs of lost productivity due to premature cancer-related mortality across Europe, for all cancers and by site, gender, region and country. Cancer deaths in 2008 were obtained from GLOBOCAN for 30 European countries across four regions. Costs were valued using the human capital approach. Years of productive life lost (YPLL) were computed by multiplying deaths between 15 and 64 years by working-life expectancy, then by country-, age- and gender-specific annual wages, corrected for workforce participation and unemployment. Lost productivity costs due to premature cancer-related mortality in Europe in 2008 were €75 billion. Male costs (€49 billion) were almost twice female costs (€26 billion). The most costly sites were lung (€17 billion; 23% of total costs), breast (€7 billion; 9%) and colorectum (€6 billion; 8%). Stomach cancer (in Southern and Central-Eastern Europe) and pancreatic cancer (in Northern and Western Europe) were also among the most costly sites. The average lost productivity cost per cancer death was €219,241. Melanoma had the highest cost per death (€312,798), followed by Hodgkin disease (€306,628) and brain and CNS cancer (€288,850). Premature mortality costs were 0.58% of 2008 European gross domestic product, highest in Central-Eastern Europe (0.81%) and lowest in Northern Europe (0.51%). Premature cancer-related mortality costs in Europe are significant. These results provide a novel perspective on the societal cancer burden and may be used to inform priority setting for cancer control.

  20. Gastric cancer mortality trends in Spain, 1976-2005, differences by autonomous region and sex

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of oncologic death worldwide. One of the most noteworthy characteristics of this tumor's epidemiology is the marked decline reported in its incidence and mortality in almost every part of the globe in recent decades. This study sought to describe gastric cancer mortality time trends in Spain's regions for both sexes. Methods Mortality data for the period 1976 through 2005 were obtained from the Spanish National Statistics Institute. Cases were identified using the International Classification of Diseases 9th and 10th revision (codes 151 and C16, respectively). Crude and standardized mortality rates were calculated by geographic area, sex, and five-year period. Joinpoint regression analyses were performed to ascertain whether changes in gastric cancer mortality trends had occurred, and to estimate the annual percent change by sex and geographic area. Results Gastric cancer mortality decreased across the study period, with the downward trend being most pronounced in women and in certain regions situated in the interior and north of mainland Spain. Across the study period, there was an overall decrease of 2.90% per annum among men and 3.65% per annum among women. Generally, regions in which the rate of decline was sharpest were those that had initially registered the highest rates. However, the rate of decline was not constant throughout the study period: joinpoint analysis detected a shift in trend for both sexes in the early 1980s. Conclusion Gastric cancer mortality displayed in both sexes a downward trend during the study period, both nationally and regionally. The different trend in rates in the respective geographic areas translated as greater regional homogeneity in gastric cancer mortality by the end of the study period. In contrast, rates in women fell more than did those in men. The increasing differences between the sexes could indicate that some risk factors may be modifying the sex-specific pattern of

  1. Body Mass Index and Cancer Mortality Among Korean Older Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae-Seok; Yi, Sang-Wook; Yi, Jee-Jeon; Hong, Seri; Ohrr, Heechoul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The association of body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) with overall and site-specific cancer mortality in Asians is not well understood. A total of 113,478 men from the Korean Veterans Health Study who returned a postal survey in 2004 were followed up until 2010. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of cancer mortality were calculated using a Cox model. During 6.4 years of follow-up, 3478 men died from cancer. A reverse J-curve association with a nadir at 25.0 to 27.4 kg/m2 was observed. Below 25 kg/m2, the HRs of death for each 5 kg/m2 decrease in BMI were 1.72 (95% confidence interval = 1.57–1.90) for overall cancer; 3.63 (2.57–5.12) for upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers, including oral cavity and larynx [HR = 4.21 (2.18–8.12)] and esophagus [HR = 2.96 (1.82–4.81)] cancers; 1.52 (1.35–1.71) for non-UADT and non-lung cancers, including stomach [HR = 2.72 (2.13–3.48)] and large intestine [HR = 1.68 (1.20–2.36)] cancers; and 1.93 (1.59–2.34) for lung cancer. In the range of 25 to 47 kg/m2, the HRs for each 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI were 1.27 (1.03–1.56) for overall cancer mortality and 1.57 (1.02–2.43) for lung cancer mortality. In individuals <25 kg/m2, inverse associations with mortality from overall cancer and non-UADT and non-lung cancer were stronger in never-smokers than in current smokers. Both low and high BMI were strong predictors of mortality from overall and several site-specific cancers in Korean men. Further research is needed to evaluate whether interventions involving weight change (loss or gain) reduce the risk of cancer or improve the survival. PMID:27227928

  2. Trends and predictions for gastric cancer mortality in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Giusti, Angela Carolina Brandão; de Oliveira Salvador, Pétala Tuani Candido; dos Santos, Juliano; Meira, Karina Cardoso; Camacho, Amanda Rodrigues; Guimarães, Raphael Mendonça; Souza, Dyego L B

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the effect of age-period and birth cohort on gastric cancer mortality, in Brazil and across its five geographic regions, by sex, in the population over 20 years of age, as well as make projections for the period 2010-2029. METHODS: An ecological study is presented herein, which distributed gastric cancer-related deaths in Brazil and its geographic regions. The effects of age-period and birth cohort were calculated by the Poisson regression model and projections were made with the age-period-cohort model in the statistical program R. RESULTS: Progressive reduction of mortality rates was observed in the 1980’s, and then higher and lower mortality rates were verified in the 2000’s, for both sexes, in Brazil and for the South, Southeast and Midwest regions. A progressive decrease in mortality rates was observed for the Northeast (both sexes) and North (men only) regions within the period 1995-1999, followed by rising rates. CONCLUSION: Regional differences were demonstrated in the mortality rates for gastric cancer in Brazil, and the least developed regions of the country will present increases in projected mortality rates.

  3. Trends and predictions for gastric cancer mortality in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Giusti, Angela Carolina Brandão; de Oliveira Salvador, Pétala Tuani Candido; dos Santos, Juliano; Meira, Karina Cardoso; Camacho, Amanda Rodrigues; Guimarães, Raphael Mendonça; Souza, Dyego L B

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the effect of age-period and birth cohort on gastric cancer mortality, in Brazil and across its five geographic regions, by sex, in the population over 20 years of age, as well as make projections for the period 2010-2029. METHODS: An ecological study is presented herein, which distributed gastric cancer-related deaths in Brazil and its geographic regions. The effects of age-period and birth cohort were calculated by the Poisson regression model and projections were made with the age-period-cohort model in the statistical program R. RESULTS: Progressive reduction of mortality rates was observed in the 1980’s, and then higher and lower mortality rates were verified in the 2000’s, for both sexes, in Brazil and for the South, Southeast and Midwest regions. A progressive decrease in mortality rates was observed for the Northeast (both sexes) and North (men only) regions within the period 1995-1999, followed by rising rates. CONCLUSION: Regional differences were demonstrated in the mortality rates for gastric cancer in Brazil, and the least developed regions of the country will present increases in projected mortality rates. PMID:27605887

  4. Comparative treatment planning using secondary cancer mortality calculations.

    PubMed

    Schneider, U; Lomax, A; Lombriser, N

    2001-01-01

    Calculations of mortality due to secondary cancer have been investigated for its use in comparative treatment planning. A patient with Hodgkin's disease has been chosen as an example and has been planned with different radiation treatment modalities using photons and protons. The ICRP calculation scheme has been used to calculate mortality from dose distributions. To this purpose target volumes as well as critical structures have been outlined in the CT set of a patient with Hodgkin's disease. Dose distributions have been calculated using conventional as well as intensity modulated treatment techniques using photon and proton radiation. From the mean doses of each organ the mortality has been derived. Our work suggests that calculations of mortality can be useful in comparative treatment planning. Such mortality calculations can be helpful to find decisions between radiotherapy treatment techniques (intensity modulated or conventional treatment) or between different types of radiation (photons, electrons, protons, neutrons). PMID:11770547

  5. Mortality and cancer incidence in ammonium perfluorooctanoate production workers

    PubMed Central

    Raleigh, Katherine K; Alexander, Bruce H; Olsen, Geary W; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Morey, Sandy Z; Church, Timothy R; Logan, Perry W; Scott, Laura L F; Allen, Elizabeth M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate mortality and cancer incidence in a cohort of ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO) exposed workers. Methods We linked a combined cohort (n=9027) of employees from APFO and non-APFO production facilities in Minnesota to the National Death Index and to cancer registries of Minnesota and Wisconsin. Industrial hygiene data and expert evaluation were used to create a task-based job exposure matrix to estimate APFO exposure. Standardised mortality ratios were estimated using Minnesota population rates. HRs and 95% CIs for time-dependent cumulative APFO exposure were estimated with an extended Cox model. A priori outcomes of interest included cancers of the liver, pancreas, testes, kidney, prostate and breast, and mortality from cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and chronic renal diseases. Results Mortality rates in the APFO-exposed cohort were at or below the expected, compared with Minnesota. The HR for dying from the cancer and non-cancer outcomes of interest did not show an association with APFO exposure. Similarly, there was little evidence that the incident cancers were associated with APFO exposure. Compared to the non-exposed population, modestly elevated, but quite imprecise HRs were observed in the higher-exposure quartiles for bladder cancer (HR=1.66, 95% CI 0.86 to 3.18) and pancreatic cancer (HR=1.36, 95% CI 0.59 to 3.11). No association was observed between APFO exposure and kidney, prostate or breast cancers. Conclusions This analysis did not support an association between occupational APFO exposure and the evaluated health endpoints, however, the study had limited power to evaluate some conditions of interest. PMID:24832944

  6. Cancer mortality in a northern Italian cohort of rubber workers.

    PubMed

    Negri, E; Piolatto, G; Pira, E; Decarli, A; Kaldor, J; La Vecchia, C

    1989-09-01

    An analysis of the mortality of a cohort of 6629 workers employed from 1906 to 1981 in a rubber tyre factory in northern Italy (978 deaths and over 133,000 man-years at risk) showed that the all cause mortality ratio was slightly lower than expected (0.91). Overall cancer mortality was close to expected (275 v 259.4) but there were significant excess rates for two cancer sites: pleura (9 observed v 0.8 expected, which may be due to the use of fibre containing talc) and bladder (16 observed v 8.8 expected). Death rates were not raised for other sites previously associated with employment in the rubber industry, such as cancers of the lung and brain, leukaemias, or lymphomas. The substantially reduced relative risk of pleural cancer among workers first employed after 1940 (RR = 0.05 compared with before 1940) probably reflected improvements in working conditions over more recent periods. For cancer of the bladder, the relative risk was also lower for workers first engaged after 1940. Thus no appreciable risk for any disease was apparent for workers employed over the past four decades. Analysis for each of the 27 job categories showed a substantial excess for cancer of the pleura in the mechanical maintenance workers (4 observed v 0.17 expected); an excess of cancer of the lung (21 v 13.48) was also present in this job category. PMID:2789965

  7. Brain cancer mortality at a manufacturer of aerospace electromechanical systems.

    PubMed

    Park, R M; Silverstein, M A; Green, M A; Mirer, F E

    1990-01-01

    Standardized proportional mortality ratios and mortality odds ratios were calculated for 583 deaths between 1950 and 1986 among employees who had worked for at least 10 years at a facility manufacturing missile and aircraft guidance systems. There was a statistically significant excess of brain cancer proportional mortality (PMR = 16/3.8 = 4.2, p = .0001). Among hourly employees, 12 brain cancer deaths occurred for 2.7 expected (PMR = 4.4, p = .00005). The PMR for brain cancer increased from 1.8 (p = .45) among hourly workers with less than 20 years to 8.7 (p = .000003) in those with more than 20 years employment. Work in "clean rooms," where gyroscopes were assembled, was associated with the brain cancer excess but did not fully account for it. Among 105 deceased hourly women, all three brain cancer deaths occurred among gyro assemblers working in clean rooms, and the risk increased with duration in clean rooms. Although the proportion of brain cancer deaths among hourly men with clean-room experience was similar to that for women, only three of the seven male brain cancer deaths occurred in this group. The suspect agents include gyro fluids and chlorofluorocarbon solvents.

  8. Fat intake after prostate cancer diagnosis and mortality in the Physicians’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Van Blarigan, Erin L.; Kenfield, Stacey A.; Yang, Meng; Sesso, Howard D.; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir J.; Chan, June M.; Chavarro, Jorge E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Diet after prostate cancer diagnosis may impact disease progression. We hypothesized that consuming saturated fat after prostate cancer diagnosis would increase risk of mortality, and consuming vegetable fat after diagnosis would be lower risk of mortality. Methods This was a prospective study among 926 men with non-metastatic prostate cancer in the Physicians’ Health Study who completed a food frequency questionnaire a median of five years after diagnosis and were followed a median of 10 years after the questionnaire. We examined post-diagnostic saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and trans fat, as well as animal and vegetable fat, intake in relation to all-cause and prostate cancer-specific mortality. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariate Cox Proportional Hazards regression. Results We observed 333 deaths (56 prostate cancer deaths) during follow-up. Men who obtained 5% more of their daily calories from saturated fat and 5% less of their daily calories from carbohydrate after diagnosis had a 1.8-fold increased risk of all cause mortality (HR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.20, 2.74; p-value: 0.005) and a 2.8-fold increase risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality (HR: 2.78; 95% CI: 1.01, 7.64; p-value: 0.05). Men who obtained 10% more of their daily calories from vegetable fats and 10% less of their daily calories from carbohydrates had a 33% lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.96; p-value: 0.03). Conclusions Among men with non-metastatic prostate cancer, saturated fat intake may increase risk of death and vegetable fat intake may lower risk of death. PMID:26047644

  9. Evaluation of mortality and cancer incidence among alachlor manufacturing workers.

    PubMed Central

    Acquavella, J F; Riordan, S G; Anne, M; Lynch, C F; Collins, J J; Ireland, B K; Heydens, W F

    1996-01-01

    Alachlor is the active ingredient in a family of preemergence herbicides. We assessed mortality rates from 1968 to 1993 and cancer incidence rates from 1969 to 1993 for manufacturing workers with potential alachlor exposure. For workers judged to have high alachlor exposure, mortality from all causes combined was lower than expected [23 observed, standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 0.7, 95% CI, 0.4-1.0], cancer mortality was similar to expected (6 observed, SMR = 0.7, 95% CI, 0.3-1.6), and there were no cancer deaths among workers with 5 or more years high exposure and 15 or more years since first exposure (2.3 expected, SMR = 0, 95% CI, 0-1.6). Cancer incidence for workers with high exposure potential was similar to the state rate [18 observed, standardized incidence ratio (SIR) = 1.2, 95% CI, 0.7-2.0], especially for workers exposed for 5 or more years and with at least 15 years since first exposure (4 observed, SIR = 1.0, 95% CI, 0.3-2.7). The most common cancer for these latter workers was colorectal cancer (2 observed, SIR 3.9, 95% CI, 0.5-14.2 among workers). Despite the limitations of this study with respect to small size and exposure estimating, the findings are useful for evaluating potential alachlor-related health risks because past manufacturing exposures greatly exceeded those characteristic of agricultural operations. These findings suggest no appreciable effect of alachlor exposure on worker mortality or cancer incidence rates during the study period. PMID:8841758

  10. Cancer mortality following radium treatment for uterine bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Inskip, P.D.; Monson, R.R.; Wagoner, J.K.; Stovall, M.; Davis, F.G.; Kleinerman, R.A.; Boice, J.D. Jr. )

    1990-09-01

    Cancer mortality in relation to radiation dose was evaluated among 4153 women treated with intrauterine radium (226Ra) capsules for benign gynecologic bleeding disorders between 1925 and 1965. Average follow up was 26.5 years (maximum = 59.9 years). Overall, 2763 deaths were observed versus 2687 expected based on U.S. mortality rates (standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 1.03). Deaths due to cancer, however, were increased (SMR = 1.30), especially cancers of organs close to the radiation source. For organs receiving greater than 5 Gy, excess mortality of 100 to 110% was noted for cancers of the uterus and bladder 10 or more years following irradiation, while a deficit was seen for cancer of the cervix, one of the few malignancies not previously shown to be caused by ionizing radiation. Part of the excess of uterine cancer, however, may have been due to the underlying gynecologic disorders being treated. Among cancers of organs receiving average or local doses of 1 to 4 Gy, excesses of 30 to 100% were found for leukemia and cancers of the colon and genital organs other than uterus; no excess was seen for rectal or bone cancer. Among organs typically receiving 0.1 to 0.3 Gy, a deficit was recorded for cancers of the liver, gall bladder, and bile ducts combined, death due to stomach cancer occurred at close to the expected rate, a 30% excess was noted for kidney cancer (based on eight deaths), and there was a 60% excess of pancreatic cancer among 10-year survivors, but little evidence of dose-response. Estimates of the excess relative risk per Gray were 0.006 for uterus, 0.4 for other genital organs, 0.5 for colon, 0.2 for bladder, and 1.9 for leukemia. Contrary to findings for other populations treated by pelvic irradiation, a deficit of breast cancer was not observed (SMR = 1.0). Dose to the ovaries may have been insufficient to protect against breast cancer.

  11. Body mass index before and after breast cancer diagnosis: Associations with all-cause, breast cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Hazel B.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Egan, Kathleen M.; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Holmes, Michelle D.; Bersch, Andrew J.; Holick, Crystal N.; Hampton, John M.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Willett, Walter C.; Newcomb, Polly A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Factors related to improving outcomes in breast cancer survivors are of increasing public health significance. We examined post-diagnosis weight change in relation to mortality risk in a cohort of breast cancer survivors. Methods We analyzed data from a cohort of 3,993 women aged 20−79 living in New Hampshire, Massachusetts or Wisconsin with invasive, nonmetastatic breast cancers diagnosed in 1988−1999 identified through state registries. Participants completed a structured telephone interview 1−2 years after diagnosis and returned a mailed follow-up questionnaire in 1998−2001 that addressed post-diagnosis weight and other factors. Vital status information was obtained from the National Death Index through December 2005. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from Cox proportional hazards models and adjusted for pre-diagnosis weight, age, stage, smoking, physical activity and other important covariates. Results During an average 6.3 years of follow-up from the post-diagnosis questionnaire, we identified 421 total deaths, including 121 deaths from breast cancer and 95 deaths from cardiovascular disease. Increasing post-diagnosis weight gain and weight loss were each associated with greater all-cause mortality. Among women who gained weight after breast cancer diagnosis, each 5 kg gain was associated with a 12% increase in all-cause mortality (p=0.004), a 13% increase in breast cancer-specific mortality (p=0.01), and a 19% increase in cardiovascular disease mortality (p=0.04). Associations with breast cancer mortality were not modified by pre-diagnosis menopausal status, cigarette smoking, or body mass index. Conclusion These findings suggest that efforts to minimize weight gain after a breast cancer diagnosis may improve survival. PMID:19366908

  12. Cancer mortality in the British rubber industry: 1946-80.

    PubMed Central

    Sorahan, T; Parkes, H G; Veys, C A; Waterhouse, J A

    1986-01-01

    The mortality experienced by a cohort of 36445 rubber workers during 1946-80 has been investigated. These workers were all male operatives first employed in any one of the 13 participating factories in 1946-60; all had worked continuously in the industry for a minimum period of one year. Compared with the general population, statistically significant excesses relating to cancer mortality were found for cancer of the stomach (E = 245.9, O = 282, SMR = 115), primary cancer of the liver (E = 12.8, O = 22, SMR = 172), cancer of the lung (E = 892.7, O = 1191, SMR = 133), and all neoplasms (E = 2165.2, O = 2487, SMR = 115). Statistically significant deficits were found for cancer of the prostate (E = 79.7, O = 59, SMR = 74) and cancer of the testis (E = 10.3, O = 4, SMR = 39). The method of regression models in life tables (RMLT) was used to compare the duration of employment in the industry, the duration in "dust exposed" jobs, and the duration in "fume and/or solvent exposed" jobs of those dying from causes of interest with those of all matching survivors. Significant positive associations were found only for cancer of the stomach and cancer of the lung. The results of the RMLT analysis are independent of those from the SMR analysis, and the study has provided further evidence of a causal association between the risks of lung and stomach cancer and certain occupational exposures in the rubber industry. PMID:3718880

  13. Ecological study of solar radiation and cancer mortality in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2004-11-01

    Geographic observation of the increased mortality of some cancers at higher latitudes has led to a hypothesis that vitamin D produced after exposure to solar radiation has anti-carcinogenic effects. However, it is unclear whether such association would be observed in countries like Japan, where fish consumption, and therefore dietary vitamin D intake, is high. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between averaged annual solar radiation levels for the period from 1961 through 1990 and cancer mortality in the year 2000 in 47 prefectures in Japan, with adjustments for regional per capita income and dietary factors. A moderate, inverse correlation with solar radiation was observed for cancers of the esophagus, stomach, colon, rectum, pancreas, and gallbladder and bile ducts in both sexes (correlation coefficient, ranging from -0.6 to -0.3). The results of this study support the hypothesis that increased exposure to solar radiation reduces the risk of cancers of the digestive organs. PMID:15551791

  14. Cancer mortality among Techa River residents and their offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Kossenko, M.M.

    1996-07-01

    This paper analyzes the data on leukemia and solid cancers of all types among 28,000 people exposed due to discharges of radioactive waste into the Techa River in the South Urals. Cancer mortality rates for the 33-y period since the beginning of the exposure have been estimated. In addition, the paper discusses malignancy cases among the first generation offspring of the exposed people. In comparison with matched control groups, an increased incidence of malignant neoplasms was observed among the exposed population. The leukemia risk, estimated on the basis of the linear model of absolute risk, was 0.85 per 10,000 person-y Gy of the dose accumulated in red bone marrow. Solid cancer risk (except osteosarcoma), estimated using linear model of relative risk, was 0.65 per Gy of dose accumulated in soft tissues. No increase in cancer mortality has been documented for the offspring of the exposed individuals. 10 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Lung cancer mortality among nonsmoking uranium miners exposed to radon daughters

    SciTech Connect

    Roscoe, R.J.; Steenland, K.; Halperin, W.E.; Beaumont, J.J.; Waxweiler, R.J.

    1989-08-04

    Radon daughters, both in the workplace and in the household, are a continuing cause for concern because of the well-documented association between exposure to radon daughters and lung cancer. To estimate the risk of lung cancer mortality among nonsmokers exposed to varying levels of radon daughters, 516 white men who never smoked cigarettes, pipes, or cigars were selected from the US Public Health Service cohort of Colorado Plateau uranium miners and followed up from 1950 through 1984. Age-specific mortality rates for nonsmokers from a study of US veterans were used for comparison. Fourteen deaths from lung cancer were observed among the nonsmoking miners, while 1.1 deaths were expected, yielding a standardized mortality ratio of 12.7 with 95% confidence limits of 8.0 and 20.1. These results confirm that exposure to radon daughters in the absence of cigarette smoking is a potent carcinogen that should be strictly controlled.

  16. Intersection of Race/Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status in Mortality After Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shariff-Marco, Salma; Yang, Juan; John, Esther M; Kurian, Allison W; Cheng, Iona; Leung, Rita; Koo, Jocelyn; Monroe, Kristine R; Henderson, Brian E; Bernstein, Leslie; Lu, Yani; Kwan, Marilyn L; Sposto, Richard; Vigen, Cheryl L P; Wu, Anna H; Keegan, Theresa H M; Gomez, Scarlett Lin

    2015-12-01

    We investigated social disparities in breast cancer (BC) mortality, leveraging data from the California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium. The associations of race/ethnicity, education, and neighborhood SES (nSES) with all-cause and BC-specific mortality were assessed among 9372 women with BC (diagnosed 1993-2007 in California with follow-up through 2010) from four racial/ethnic groups [African American, Asian American, Latina, and non-Latina (NL) White] using Cox proportional hazards models. Compared to NL White women with high-education/high-nSES, higher all-cause mortality was observed among NL White women with high-education/low-nSES [hazard ratio (HR) (95 % confidence interval) 1.24 (1.08-1.43)], and African American women with low-nSES, regardless of education [high education HR 1.24 (1.03-1.49); low-education HR 1.19 (0.99-1.44)]. Latina women with low-education/high-nSES had lower all-cause mortality [HR 0.70 (0.54-0.90)] and non-significant lower mortality was observed for Asian American women, regardless of their education and nSES. Similar patterns were seen for BC-specific mortality. Individual- and neighborhood-level measures of SES interact with race/ethnicity to impact mortality after BC diagnosis. Considering the joint impacts of these social factors may offer insights to understanding inequalities by multiple social determinants of health. PMID:26072260

  17. Radon and COPD mortality in the American Cancer Society Cohort.

    PubMed

    Turner, Michelle C; Krewski, Daniel; Chen, Yue; Pope, C Arden; Gapstur, Susan M; Thun, Michael J

    2012-05-01

    Although radon gas is a known cause of lung cancer, the association between residential radon and mortality from non-malignant respiratory disease has not been well characterised. The Cancer Prevention Study-II is a large prospective cohort study of nearly 1.2 million Americans recruited in 1982. Mean county-level residential radon concentrations were linked to study participants' residential address based on their ZIP code at enrolment (mean ± SD 53.5 ± 38.0 Bq · m(-3)). Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for non-malignant respiratory disease mortality associated with radon concentrations. After necessary exclusions, a total of 811,961 participants in 2,754 counties were included in the analysis. Throughout 2006, there were a total of 28,300 non-malignant respiratory disease deaths. Radon was significantly associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality (HR per 100 Bq · m(-3) 1.13, 95% CI 1.05-1.21). There was a significant positive linear trend in COPD mortality with increasing categories of radon concentrations (p<0.05). Findings suggest residential radon may increase COPD mortality. Further research is needed to confirm this finding and to better understand possible complex inter-relationships between radon, COPD and lung cancer.

  18. Radon and COPD mortality in the American Cancer Society Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Michelle C.; Krewski, Daniel; Chen, Yue; Pope, C. Arden; Gapstur, Susan M.; Thun, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Although radon gas is a known cause of lung cancer, the association between residential radon and mortality from non-malignant respiratory disease has not been well characterised. The Cancer Prevention Study-II is a large prospective cohort study of nearly 1.2 million Americans recruited in 1982. Mean county-level residential radon concentrations were linked to study participants' residential address based on their ZIP code at enrolment (mean±sd 53.5±38.0 Bq·m−3). Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for non-malignant respiratory disease mortality associated with radon concentrations. After necessary exclusions, a total of 811,961 participants in 2,754 counties were included in the analysis. Throughout 2006, there were a total of 28,300 non-malignant respiratory disease deaths. Radon was significantly associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality (HR per 100 Bq·m−3 1.13, 95% CI 1.05–1.21). There was a significant positive linear trend in COPD mortality with increasing categories of radon concentrations (p<0.05). Findings suggest residential radon may increase COPD mortality. Further research is needed to confirm this finding and to better understand possible complex inter-relationships between radon, COPD and lung cancer. PMID:22005921

  19. Does birth history account for educational differences in breast cancer mortality? A comparison of premenopausal and postmenopausal women in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Gadeyne, Sylvie; Deboosere, Patrick; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Neels, Karel

    2012-12-15

    This study investigates the impact of reproductive factors on the association between education and breast cancer mortality in Belgium. The role of reproductive factors has been investigated in several studies, with mixed results. Reproductive factors are either completely or partially responsible for the association between education and breast cancer mortality. The data consist of the 1991 census linked to registration data on cause-specific mortality during the period 1991-1995, including all breast cancer deaths in Belgium during the observation period. The study population includes all women aged 35-79 at time of the census. Age-standardized mortality rates and mortality rate ratios (Poisson regression) are computed for educational groups with and without control for reproductive factors. The population is stratified according to age (women aged 35-49 and 50-79) and according to nulliparity. The relationship between education and breast cancer is significant among postmenopausal women. Breast cancer mortality is higher among the higher educated women. These results are consistent with international findings, the gradient not being negative as in most other causes of death, but positive. Statistical control for parity and age at first birth reduces the association largely. In addition, among nonparous women, differences in breast cancer mortality by education are not consistent and generally not significant. Reproductive factors are largely responsible for the positive association between education and breast cancer mortality among postmenopausal women in Belgium. Among premenopausal women, the relation is not significant, a pattern consistent with international studies.

  20. Impact of beta-blockers on prostate cancer mortality: a meta-analysis of 16,825 patients

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hua; Liu, Xingjie; Guo, Fengfu; Tan, Shanfeng; Wang, Guangjian; Liu, Hongjun; Wang, Jianming; He, Xiangfei; Mo, Yanshuai; Shi, Benkang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Increasing evidence suggests that beta-blocker use might be associated with reduced mortality in prostate cancer patients. To provide a quantitative assessment of this association, we pooled data available to examine the association between beta-blocker use and mortality of prostate cancer. Methods We identified studies by a literature search of MEDLINE (from 1 January 1966) and EMBASE (from 1 January 1974), through 10 September 2014, and by searching the reference lists of pertinent articles. Two authors independently screened and reviewed the eligibility of each study. The primary outcomes were prostate cancer-specific mortality and all-cause mortality. Results A total of four studies including 16,825 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Analysis of all studies showed that beta-blocker use was associated with reduced prostate cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio =0.85, 95% confidence interval =0.77–0.94), without any heterogeneity between studies (Q=3.59, I 2=16.5%, P=0.309). However, we observed no association with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio =0.97, 95% confidence interval =0.90–1.04). There was also no evidence of the presence of significant heterogeneity between the four studies (Q=2.48, I 2=0.0%, P=0.480). Conclusion These findings indicate that beta-blocker use was associated with reduced cancer-specific mortality among prostate cancer patients taking beta-blockers. PMID:25995645

  1. Cancer mortality among electric utility workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, D; Browning, S R; Schenck, A P; Gregory, E; Savitz, D A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess whether excess mortality from cancer, malignant melanoma of the skin, and cancers of the brain and liver in particular, is associated with long term occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). METHODS: An epidemiological study of mortality was conducted among 138,905 men employed for at least six months between 1950 and 1986 at five electrical power companies in the United States. Exposures were assessed by panels composed of workers, hygienists, and managers at each company, who considered tasks performed by workers in 28 job categories and estimated weekly exposures in hours for each job. Poisson regression was used to examine mortality in relation to exposure to electrical insulating fluids containing PCBs, controlling for demographic and occupational factors. RESULTS: Neither all cause nor total cancer mortality was related to cumulative exposure to PCB insulating fluids. Mortality from malignant melanoma increased with exposure; rate ratios (RRs) relative to unexposed men for melanoma were 1.23 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.56 to 2.52), 1.71 (0.68 to 4.28) and 1.93 (0.52 to 7.14) for men with < 2000, > 2000-10,000, and > 10,000 hours of cumulative exposure to PCB insulating fluids, respectively, without consideration of latency. Lagging exposure by 20 years yielded RRs of 1.29 (0.76 to 2.18), 2.56 (1.09 to 5.97), and 4.81 (1.49 to 15.50) for the same exposure levels. Mortality from brain cancer was modestly increased among men with < 2000 hours (RR 1.61, 95% CI 0.86 to 3.01) and > 2000-10,000 hours exposure (RR 1.79, 95% CI 0.81 to 3.95), but there were no deaths from brain cancer among the most highly exposed men. A lag of five years yielded slightly increased RRs. Mortality from liver cancer was not associated with exposure to PCB insulating fluids. CONCLUSIONS: This study was larger and provided more detailed information on exposure than past investigations of workers exposed to PCBs. The results suggest that PCBs

  2. Renal cancer paradox: higher incidence but not higher mortality among African-Americans.

    PubMed

    Lipworth, Loren; McLaughlin, Joseph K; Tarone, Robert E; Blot, William J

    2011-07-01

    To compare temporal trends in the incidence and mortality of renal cell cancer among blacks and whites for clues to etiologic differences. We examined trends in age-adjusted and age-specific Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results incidence and US mortality rates for renal cancer for 1973 through 2007, as well as nephrectomy rates from surgery codes for kidney cancer for 2000 through 2007. For nearly four decades, incidence rates for renal cell cancer have been rising more rapidly among blacks than whites, leading to a shift in excess from among whites to among blacks, almost entirely accounted for by an excess of localized disease. The incidence patterns are puzzling, as localized renal cell cancer is primarily detected incidentally by imaging, to which blacks have historically had less access. In contrast to the incidence patterns, there has been an unexpected convergence of renal cancer mortality rates, which have been virtually identical among blacks and whites since the early 1990 s. Nephrectomy rates, regardless of stage, were lower among blacks than among whites, despite almost identical cause-specific survival rates in both races. The identical mortality patterns, combined with higher and more rapidly increasing incidence and lower rates of nephrectomies among blacks, suggest that renal cell cancer may tend to be a less aggressive tumor in blacks. This hypothesis is supported by the favorable stage distribution among blacks and their higher survival for distant and unstaged cancer. Further research into the enigmatic descriptive epidemiology and the biology and natural history of renal cell cancer may shed light on the etiology of this malignancy and its more frequent occurrence among black Americans.

  3. Workplace risk factors for cancer in the German rubber industry: Part 2. Mortality from non-respiratory cancers

    PubMed Central

    Straif, K.; Weiland, S. K.; Werner, B.; Chambless, L.; Mundt, K. A.; Keil, U.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the mortality from non-respiratory cancers by work area among active and retired male workers of the German rubber industry. METHODS: A cohort of 11,633 male German workers was followed up for mortality from 1 January 1981 to 31 December 1991. Cohort members were active (n = 7536) or retired (n = 4127) on 1 January 1981 and had been employed for at least one year in one of five study plants producing tyres or technical rubber goods. Work histories were reconstructed from routinely documented "cost centre codes" and classified into six categories: I preparation of materials; II production of technical rubber goods; III production of tyres; IV storage and dispatch; V general service; VI others. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), controlling for age and calendar year and stratified by work area (employment in respective work area for at least one year) and time related variables (year of hire, lagged years of employment in work area) were calculated from national mortality rates as the reference. RESULTS: Significant increases in mortality were found for pharyngeal cancer in work area IV (three deaths, SMR 486, 95% CI 101 to 1419), oesophageal cancer in work area III (11 deaths, SMR 227, 95% CI 114 to 407), and leukaemia in work areas I (11 deaths, SMR 216; 95% CI 108 to 387) and II (14 deaths, SMR 187; 95% CI 102 to 213). Furthermore, increased SMRs were found for stomach cancer in work area I (22 deaths, SMR 134; 95% CI 84 to 203), colon cancer in work area II (27 deaths, SMR 131, 95% CI 86 to 191), prostatic cancer in work area V (27 deaths, SMR 152, 95% CI 99 to 221), and bladder cancer in work areas IV (six deaths, SMR 253; 95% CI 93 to 551) and V (12 deaths, SMR 159, 95% CI 82 to 279). Mortality from cancer of the liver or gall bladder, pancreas and kidney, and from lymphomas was not substantially increased in any of the work areas. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality from cancer of several sites was

  4. Mortality and incidence of cancer among Swedish gas workers.

    PubMed Central

    Gustavsson, P; Reuterwall, C

    1990-01-01

    The mortality and incidence of cancer was studied among 295 workers at a Swedish gas production company. All men employed for at least one year between 1965 and 1972 were included in the study. The follow up period for mortality was 1966 to 1986, and the incidence of cancer was followed up from 1966 to 1983. Expected numbers of deaths were based on local death rates among occupationally active men, the expected numbers of cancer were based on national statistics. The total mortality was increased, mainly due to an excess of deaths from circulatory diseases. The excess was larger after long follow up and after long employment periods. Two cases of cancer in the nose and nasal sinuses were found; there was no excess of lung cancer. Smoking habits were investigated for a subset of the cohort and did not differ from the average for men in large cities. The findings are discussed in relation to other studies of soot and combustion exposed workers. PMID:2328224

  5. Cancer mortality among man-made vitreous fiber production workers.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, P; Saracci, R; Andersen, A; Bertazzi, P A; Chang-Claude, J; Cherrie, J; Ferro, G; Frentzel-Beyme, R; Hansen, J; Olsen, J; Plato, N; Teppo, L; Westerholm, P; Winter, P D; Zocchetti, C

    1997-05-01

    We have updated the follow-up of cancer mortality for a cohort study of man-made vitreous fiber production workers from Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy, from 1982 to 1990. In the mortality analysis, 22,002 production workers contributed 489,551 person-years, during which there were 4,521 deaths. Workers with less than 1 year of employment had an increased mortality [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.37-1.53]. Workers with 1 year or more of employment, contributing 65% of person-years, had an SMR of 1.05 (95% CI = 1.02-1.09). The SMR for lung cancer was 1.34 (95% CI = 1.08-1.63, 97 deaths) among rock/slag wool workers and 1.27 (95% CI = 1.07-1.50, 140 deaths) among glass wool workers. In the latter group, no increase was present when local mortality rates were used. Among rock/slag wool workers, the risk of lung cancer increased with time-since-first-employment and duration of employment. The trend in lung cancer mortality according to technologic phase at first employment was less marked than in the previous follow-up. We obtained similar results from a Poisson regression analysis limited to rock/slag wool workers. Five deaths from pleural mesothelioma were reported, which may not represent an excess. There was no apparent excess for other categories of neoplasm. Tobacco smoking and other factors linked to social class, as well as exposures in other industries, appear unlikely to explain the whole increase in lung cancer mortality among rock/slag wool workers. Limited data on other agents do not indicate an important role of asbestos, slag, or bitumen. These results are not sufficient to conclude that the increased lung cancer risk is the result of exposure to rock/slag wool; however, insofar as respirable fibers were an important component of the ambient pollution of the working environment, they may have contributed to the increased risk.

  6. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Cancer Mortality in the NHANES III Study (1988–2006)

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, D. Michal; Looker, Anne C.; Abnet, Christian C.; Linet, Martha S.; Graubard, Barry I.

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D has been hypothesized to protect against cancer. We followed 16,819 participants in NHANES III from 1988 through 2006, expanding upon an earlier NHANES III study (1988–2000). Using Cox proportional hazard regression models, we examined risk related to baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) for total cancer mortality, in both sexes, and by racial/ethnic groups, as well as for site-specific cancers. Because serum was collected in the south in cooler months and the north in warmer months, we examined associations by collection season (“summer/higher latitude” and “winter/lower latitude”). We identified 884 cancer deaths during 225,212 person-years. Overall cancer mortality risks were unrelated to baseline 25(OH)D status in both season/latitude groups, and in non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Mexican-Americans. In men, risks were elevated at higher levels (e.g., for ≥100 nmol/L, RR=1.85 (95% CI=1.02–3.35) compared to <37.5 nmol/L). Athough risks were unrelated to 25(OH)D in all women combined, risks significantly decreased with increasing 25(OH)D in the summer/higher latitude group (for ≥100 nmol/L, RR= 0.52 (95% CI=0.25–1.15) compared to <37.5 nmol/L, P-trend=0.03, based on continuous values). We also observed a suggestion of an inverse association with colorectal cancer mortality(P-trend=0.09) and a positive association with lung cancer mortality among males (P-trend=0.03). Our results do not support a the hypothesis that 25(OH)D is associated with reduced cancer mortality. Although cancer mortality in females was inversely associated with 25(OH)D in the summer/higher latitude group, cancer mortality at some sites was increased among men with higher 25(OH)D. These findings argue for caution before increasing 25(OH)D levels to prevent cancer. PMID:20847342

  7. Meeting the Healthy People 2020 Objectives to Reduce Cancer Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Trevor D.; Soman, Ashwini; Møller, Bjorn; Leadbetter, Steven; White, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Healthy People 2020 (HP2020) calls for a 10% to 15% reduction in death rates from 2007 to 2020 for selected cancers. Trends in death rates can be used to predict progress toward meeting HP2020 targets. Methods We used mortality data from 1975 through 2009 and population estimates and projections to predict deaths for all cancers and the top 23 cancers among men and women by race. We apportioned changes in deaths from population risk and population growth and aging. Results From 1975 to 2009, the number of cancer deaths increased among white and black Americans primarily because of an aging white population and a growing black population. Overall, age-standardized cancer death rates (risk) declined in all groups. From 2007 to 2020, rates are predicted to continue to decrease while counts of deaths are predicted to increase among men (15%) and stabilize among women (increase <10%). Declining death rates are predicted to meet HP2020 targets for cancers of the female breast, lung and bronchus, cervix and uterus, colon and rectum, oral cavity and pharynx, and prostate, but not for melanoma. Conclusion Cancer deaths among women overall are predicted to increase by less than 10%, because of, in part, declines in breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer deaths among white women. Increased efforts to promote cancer prevention and improve survival are needed to counter the impact of a growing and aging population on the cancer burden and to meet melanoma target death rates. PMID:26133647

  8. Elevated mortality from lung cancer associated with arsenic exposure for a limited duration.

    PubMed

    Nakadaira, Hiroto; Endoh, Kazuo; Katagiri, Mikio; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2002-03-01

    In 1959, arsenic poisoning was detected in the town of Nakajo in Japan. The cause was exposure to inorganic arsenic in well water during 1954 to 1959. To examine the long-term effects of limited-duration arsenic exposure, we conducted mortality and survival studies for patients with chronic arsenic exposure and for control subjects from 1959 to 1992. The ratio of observed deaths to expected deaths from lung cancer was significantly high (7:0.64) for male patients. The lung cancer mortality rate was elevated markedly in subgroups with higher clinical severities of symptoms. Small cell carcinoma was specific to the exposed patients. The cumulative change of survival declined significantly in the exposed patients compared with the controls. The decline disappeared when lung cancer deaths were treated as lost to follow-up. The results showed that a 5-year period of arsenic exposure was associated with risk of lung cancer.

  9. Cancer incidence and mortality trends in Northeastern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Lightfoot, N E; Fehringer, G M; Bissett, R J; McChesney, D C; White, J J

    1996-01-01

    Over 629,000 people reside in the catchment area for the Northeastern Ontario Regional Cancer Centre. Historically, the area was renowned for employment in mining, forestry and lumbering, agriculture, the railway, and pulp and paper. At present, it is known for mining; community, business, and personal services; trade; manufacturing; and construction. Comparison of cancer incidence and mortality trends for two decades (1971-1980 and 1981-1990) with those of Ontario has revealed statistically significant excesses, at the 5% level or better, of trachea, bronchus, and lung cancer cases (SIR = 123 for 1971-1980 and 125 for 1981-1990) and deaths in men (SMR = 116 and 125, respectively); for women, excesses were observed for trachea, bronchus and lung cancer case (SIR = 114 and 118), and cervical cancer cases (SIR = 142 and 115) and deaths (SMR = 133 and 128). Enhanced recruitment strategies and early educational interventions are identified as priorities.

  10. Cancer Mortality in People Treated with Antidepressants before Cancer Diagnosis: A Population Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuelian; Vedsted, Peter; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Wu, Chun Sen; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Olsen, Jørn; Benros, Michael Eriksen; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression is common after a cancer diagnosis and is associated with an increased mortality, but it is unclear whether depression occurring before the cancer diagnosis affects cancer mortality. We aimed to study cancer mortality of people treated with antidepressants before cancer diagnosis. Methods and Findings We conducted a population based cohort study of all adults diagnosed with cancer between January 2003 and December 2010 in Denmark (N = 201,662). We obtained information on cancer from the Danish Cancer Registry, on the day of death from the Danish Civil Registry, and on redeemed antidepressants from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Current users of antidepressants were defined as those who redeemed the latest prescription of antidepressant 0–4 months before cancer diagnosis (irrespective of earlier prescriptions), and former users as those who redeemed the latest prescription five or more months before cancer diagnosis. We estimated an all-cause one-year mortality rate ratio (MRR) and a conditional five-year MRR for patients who survived the first year after cancer diagnosis and confidence interval (CI) using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Overall, 33,111 (16.4%) patients redeemed at least one antidepressant prescription in the three years before cancer diagnosis of whom 21,851 (10.8%) were current users at the time of cancer diagnosis. Current antidepressant users had a 32% higher one-year mortality (MRR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.29–1.35) and a 22% higher conditional five-year mortality (MRR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.17–1.26) if patients survived the first year after the cancer diagnosis than patients not redeeming antidepressants. The one-year mortality was particularly high for patients who initiated antidepressant treatment within four months before cancer diagnosis (MRR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.47–1.61). Former users had no increased cancer mortality. Conclusions Initiation of antidepressive treatment prior to cancer diagnosis is

  11. Cancer and Noncancer Mortality Among American Seafood Workers

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Eric S.; Faramawi, Mohammed F; Sall, Macodu; Choi, Kyung-Mee

    2011-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated mortality in seafood workers worldwide, and no such study has been conducted in the United States. The objective of this study was to investigate mortality in American seafood workers. Methods The study population was derived from 4 states and consisted of 4116 subjects who worked mainly in seafood processing plants. They were followed up from 1966 to 2003. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and proportional mortality ratios (PMRs) were estimated, using the US general population for comparison. Results About 45% of the cohort was born after 1949. A total of 788 deaths were recorded; 53% of the decedents were female, and 88% were white. The SMRs for stomach cancer and disorders of the thyroid gland in the cohort as a whole were 2.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–3.8) and 6.1 (95% CI 1.3–18.0), respectively. The SMRs for breast cancer, and occlusion/stenosis of the pre-cerebral/cerebral arteries in the cohort as a whole were 0.5 (95% CI, 0.3–0.9) and 0.5 (95% CI, 0.2–0.8), respectively. The SMR for ischemic heart disease in white females was 0.8 (95% CI, 0.6–0.9). Conclusions This cohort had excess deaths from stomach cancer and disorders of the thyroid gland, and deficit of deaths from breast cancer, stroke and ischemic heart disease. The significance of these findings is unknown, especially as less than 20% of the cohort were deceased. Nevertheless, the cohort is unique and important, and further follow-up may shed more light on mortality patterns in this occupational group. PMID:21467730

  12. Kidney cancer mortality in Spain: geographic patterns and possible hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    López-Abente, Gonzalo; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Ramis, Rebeca; Vidal, Enrique; García-Pérez, Javier; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; Pollán, Marina

    2008-01-01

    Background Since the second half of the 1990s, kidney cancer mortality has tended to stabilize and decline in many European countries, due to the decrease in the prevalence of smokers. Nevertheless, incidence of kidney cancer is rising across the sexes in some of these countries, a trend which may possibly reflect the fact that improvements in diagnostic techniques are being outweighed by the increased prevalence of some of this tumor's risk factors. This study sought to: examine the geographic pattern of kidney cancer mortality in Spain; suggest possible hypotheses that would help explain these patterns; and enhance existing knowledge about the large proportion of kidney tumors whose cause remains unknown. Methods Smoothed municipal relative risks (RRs) for kidney cancer mortality were calculated in men and women, using the conditional autoregressive model proposed by Besag, York and Molliè. Maps were plotted depicting smoothed relative risk estimates, and the distribution of the posterior probability of RR>1 by sex. Results Municipal maps displayed a marked geographic pattern, with excess mortality in both sexes, mainly in towns along the Bay of Biscay, including areas of Asturias, the Basque Country and, to a lesser extent, Cantabria. Among women, the geographic pattern was strikingly singular, not in evidence for any other tumors, and marked by excess risk in towns situated in the Salamanca area and Extremaduran Autonomous Region. This difference would lead one to postulate the existence of different exposures of environmental origin in the various regions. Conclusion The reasons for this pattern of distribution are not clear, and it would thus be of interest if the effect of industrial emissions on this disease could be studied. The excess mortality observed among women in towns situated in areas with a high degree of natural radiation could reflect the influence of exposures which derive from the geologic composition of the terrain and then become manifest

  13. Global trends of lung cancer mortality and smoking prevalence.

    PubMed

    Islami, Farhad; Torre, Lindsey A; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2015-08-01

    Lung cancer killed approximately 1,590,000 persons in 2012 and currently is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. There is large variation in mortality rates across the world in both males and females. This variation follows trend of smoking, as tobacco smoking is responsible for the majority of lung cancer cases. In this article, we present estimated worldwide lung cancer mortality rates in 2012 using the World Health Organization (WHO) GLOBOCAN 2012 and changes in the rates during recent decades in select countries using WHO Mortality Database. We also show smoking prevalence and trends globally and at the regional level. By region, the highest lung cancer mortality rates (per 100,000) in 2012 were in Central and Eastern Europe (47.6) and Eastern Asia (44.8) among males and in Northern America (23.5) and Northern Europe (19.1) among females; the lowest rates were in sub-Saharan Africa in both males (4.4) and females (2.2). The highest smoking prevalence among males is generally in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia and Eastern Europe, and among females is in European countries, followed by Oceania and Northern and Southern America. Many countries, notably high-income countries, have seen a considerable decrease in smoking prevalence in both males and females, but in many other countries there has been little decrease or even an increase in smoking prevalence. Consequently, depending on whether or when smoking prevalence has started to decline, the lung cancer mortality trend is a mixture of decreasing, stable, or increasing. Despite major achievements in tobacco control, with current smoking patterns lung cancer will remain a major cause of death worldwide for several decades. The main priority to reduce the burden of lung cancer is to implement or enforce effective tobacco control policies in order to reduce smoking prevalence in all countries and prevent an increase in smoking in sub-Saharan Africa and women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).

  14. Global trends of lung cancer mortality and smoking prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Torre, Lindsey A.; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer killed approximately 1,590,000 persons in 2012 and currently is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. There is large variation in mortality rates across the world in both males and females. This variation follows trend of smoking, as tobacco smoking is responsible for the majority of lung cancer cases. In this article, we present estimated worldwide lung cancer mortality rates in 2012 using the World Health Organization (WHO) GLOBOCAN 2012 and changes in the rates during recent decades in select countries using WHO Mortality Database. We also show smoking prevalence and trends globally and at the regional level. By region, the highest lung cancer mortality rates (per 100,000) in 2012 were in Central and Eastern Europe (47.6) and Eastern Asia (44.8) among males and in Northern America (23.5) and Northern Europe (19.1) among females; the lowest rates were in sub-Saharan Africa in both males (4.4) and females (2.2). The highest smoking prevalence among males is generally in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia and Eastern Europe, and among females is in European countries, followed by Oceania and Northern and Southern America. Many countries, notably high-income countries, have seen a considerable decrease in smoking prevalence in both males and females, but in many other countries there has been little decrease or even an increase in smoking prevalence. Consequently, depending on whether or when smoking prevalence has started to decline, the lung cancer mortality trend is a mixture of decreasing, stable, or increasing. Despite major achievements in tobacco control, with current smoking patterns lung cancer will remain a major cause of death worldwide for several decades. The main priority to reduce the burden of lung cancer is to implement or enforce effective tobacco control policies in order to reduce smoking prevalence in all countries and prevent an increase in smoking in sub-Saharan Africa and women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). PMID

  15. Consumption of spicy foods and total and cause specific mortality: population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jun; Qi, Lu; Yu, Canqing; Yang, Ling; Guo, Yu; Chen, Yiping; Bian, Zheng; Sun, Dianjianyi; Du, Jianwei; Ge, Pengfei; Tang, Zhenzhu; Hou, Wei; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations between the regular consumption of spicy foods and total and cause specific mortality. Design Population based prospective cohort study. Setting China Kadoorie Biobank in which participants from 10 geographically diverse areas across China were enrolled between 2004 and 2008. Participants 199 293 men and 288 082 women aged 30 to 79 years at baseline after excluding participants with cancer, heart disease, and stroke at baseline. Main exposure measures Consumption frequency of spicy foods, self reported once at baseline. Main outcome measures Total and cause specific mortality. Results During 3 500 004 person years of follow-up between 2004 and 2013 (median 7.2 years), a total of 11 820 men and 8404 women died. Absolute mortality rates according to spicy food consumption categories were 6.1, 4.4, 4.3, and 5.8 deaths per 1000 person years for participants who ate spicy foods less than once a week, 1 or 2, 3 to 5, and 6 or 7 days a week, respectively. Spicy food consumption showed highly consistent inverse associations with total mortality among both men and women after adjustment for other known or potential risk factors. In the whole cohort, compared with those who ate spicy foods less than once a week, the adjusted hazard ratios for death were 0.90 (95% confidence interval 0.84 to 0.96), 0.86 (0.80 to 0.92), and 0.86 (0.82 to 0.90) for those who ate spicy food 1 or 2, 3 to 5, and 6 or 7 days a week, respectively. Compared with those who ate spicy foods less than once a week, those who consumed spicy foods 6 or 7 days a week showed a 14% relative risk reduction in total mortality. The inverse association between spicy food consumption and total mortality was stronger in those who did not consume alcohol than those who did (P=0.033 for interaction). Inverse associations were also observed for deaths due to cancer, ischemic heart diseases, and respiratory diseases. Conclusion In this large prospective study, the habitual

  16. Age at exposure to ionising radiation and cancer mortality among Hanford workers: follow up through 1994

    PubMed Central

    Wing, S; Richardson, D

    2005-01-01

    Background: Studies of workers at the plutonium production factory in Hanford, WA have led to conflicting conclusions about the role of age at exposure as a modifier of associations between ionising radiation and cancer. Aims: To evaluate the influence of age at exposure on radiation risk estimates in an updated follow up of Hanford workers. Methods: A cohort of 26 389 workers hired between 1944 and 1978 was followed through 1994 to ascertain vital status and causes of death. External radiation dose estimates were derived from personal dosimeters. Poisson regression was used to estimate associations between mortality and cumulative external radiation dose at all ages, and in specific age ranges. Results: A total of 8153 deaths were identified, 2265 of which included cancer as an underlying or contributory cause. Estimates of the excess relative risk per Sievert (ERR/Sv) for cumulative radiation doses at all ages combined were negative for all cause and leukaemia and positive for all cancer and lung cancer. Cumulative doses accrued at ages below 35, 35–44, and 45–54 showed little association with mortality. For cumulative dose accrued at ages 55 and above (10 year lag), the estimated ERR/Sv for all cancers was 3.24 (90% CI: 0.80 to 6.17), primarily due to an association with lung cancer (ERR/Sv: 9.05, 90% CI: 2.96 to 17.92). Conclusions: Associations between radiation and cancer mortality in this cohort are primarily a function of doses at older ages and deaths from lung cancer. The association of older age radiation exposures and cancer mortality is similar to observations from several other occupational studies. PMID:15961623

  17. Cancer mortality in the indigenous population of coastal Chukotka, 1961–1990

    PubMed Central

    Dudarev, Alexey A.; Chupakhin, Valery S.; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The general aim was to assess the pattern and trend in cancer mortality among the indigenous people of coastal Chukotka during the period 1961–1990. Methods All cases of cancer deaths of indigenous residents of the Chukotsky district in the north-easternmost coast of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug were copied from personal death certificates. There were a total of 219 cancer deaths during the study period. The average annual number of cases, percent, crude, and age-standardized cancer mortality rates (ASMR) per 100,000 among men and women for all sites combined and selected sites were calculated. Data were aggregated into six 5-year periods to assess temporal trends. Direct age-standardization was performed with the Segi-Doll world standard population used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Results The indigenous Chukchi and Eskimo people living in Chukotsky district were at higher risk of death from cancer during the 30-year period between 1961 and 1990, with ASMR among men twice that of Russia, and among women 3.5 times higher. The excess can be attributed to the extremely high mortality from oesophageal cancer and lung cancer. Conclusions The indigenous people of coastal Chukotka were at very high risk of death from cancer relative to the Russian population nationally. The mortality data from this study correspond to the pattern of incidence reported among other indigenous people of the Russian Arctic. Little information is available since 1990, and the feasibility of ethnic-specific health data is now severely limited. PMID:23519821

  18. Cancer mortality among workers in the German rubber industry: 1981-91.

    PubMed Central

    Weiland, S K; Mundt, K A; Keil, U; Kraemer, B; Birk, T; Person, M; Bucher, A M; Straif, K; Schumann, J; Chambless, L

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the cancer specific mortality of active and retired workers of the German rubber industry with emphasis on cancer sites which have been associated with the rubber industry in previous studies. METHODS: A cohort of 11,663 German men was followed up for mortality from 1 January 1981 to 31 December 1991. Cohort members were active (n = 7536) or retired (n = 4127) at the beginning of the study, and had been employed for at least one year in one of five study plants producing types or general rubber goods. Vital status was ascertained for 99.7% of the cohort members, and cause of death found for 96.8% of the 2719 decedents. Age and calendar year adjusted standardised mortality ratios (SMR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated overall from national reference rates and stratified by year of hire and by years since hire. RESULTS: Mortalities from all causes (SMR 108; 95% CI 104-112) and all cancers (SMR 111; 95% CI 103-119) were significantly increased in the study cohort. Significant excesses in the mortalities from lung cancer (SMR 130; 95% CI 115-147) and pleural cancer (SMR 401; 95% CI 234-642) were identified. SMRs higher than 100 were found for cancers of the pharynx (SMR 144; 95% CI 76-246), oesophagus (SMR 120; 95% CI 74-183), stomach (SMR 110; 95% CI 86-139), rectum (SMR 123; 95% CI 86-170), larynx (SMR 129; 95% CI 69-221), prostate (SMR 108; 95% CI 84-136), and bladder (SMR 124; 95% CI 86-172), as well as for leukaemia (SMR 148; 95% CI 99-213). Mortalities from liver cancer, brain cancer, and lymphoma were lower than expected. CONCLUSIONS: Mortalities from cancer of several sites previously associated with the rubber industry were also increased among workers of the German rubber industry. Results of the stratified analyses are consistent with a role of occupational exposure in the aetiology of some of these cancers. PMID:8673175

  19. Cancer incidence and mortality attributable to alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Praud, Delphine; Rota, Matteo; Rehm, Jürgen; Shield, Kevin; Zatoński, Witold; Hashibe, Mia; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boffetta, Paolo

    2016-03-15

    Alcohol consumption is a major cause of disease and death. In a previous study, we reported that in 2002, 3.6% of all cases of cancer and a similar proportion of cancer deaths were attributable to the consumption of alcohol. We aimed to update these figures to 2012 using global estimates of cancer cases and cancer deaths, data on the prevalence of drinkers from the World Health Organization (WHO) global survey on alcohol and health, and relative risks for alcohol-related neoplasms from a recent meta-analysis. Over the 10-year period considered, the total number of alcohol-attributable cancer cases increased to approximately 770,000 worldwide (5.5% of the total number of cancer cases)-540,000 men (7.2%) and 230,000 women (3.5%). Corresponding figures for cancer deaths attributable to alcohol consumption increased to approximately 480,000 (5.8% of the total number of cancer deaths) in both sexes combined-360,000 (7.8%) men and 120,000 (3.3%) women. These proportions were particularly high in the WHO Western Pacific region, the WHO European region and the WHO South-East Asia region. A high burden of cancer mortality and morbidity is attributable to alcohol, and public health measures should be adopted in order to limit excessive alcohol consumption.

  20. A decrease in lung cancer mortality following the introduction of low-dose chest CT screening in Hitachi, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nawa, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Tohru; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kusano, Suzushi; Chonan, Tatsuya; Hayashihara, Kenji; Suito, Tetsushi; Endo, Katsuyuki

    2012-12-01

    Recent US clinical trial demonstrated that CT screening prevents lung cancer death among high risk individuals. However, it remains unclear whether wide implementation of low-dose CT screening for lung cancer can decrease mortality in the community. Among residents in Hitachi City (Japan), where nearly 40% of inhabitants aged 50-69 years were estimated to have participated in the screening at least once from 1998 through 2009, the trend of lung cancer mortality was described in relation to the timing of implementation of the CT screening. Cancer mortality data were obtained from regional cancer registry and standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of lung cancer was calculated for each 5-year period during 1995-2009. In both men and women aged 60 years or older, age-specific lung cancer mortality rates were generally lower during 2005-2009 as compared with those during 1995-2004. For combined men and women aged 50-79 years, SMR was nearly unity prior to or during introductory phase of CT screening and during early period of implementation; however, it was significantly decreased during 2005-2009, well after the implementation of CT screening, with SMR (95% confidence interval) being 0.76 (0.67-0.86). Results suggest that wide implementation of low-dose chest CT screening may decrease lung cancer mortality in the community 4-8 years after introduction of the screening.

  1. Adherence to the healthy Nordic food index and total and cause-specific mortality among Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Roswall, Nina; Sandin, Sven; Löf, Marie; Skeie, Guri; Olsen, Anja; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2015-06-01

    Several healthy dietary patterns have been linked to longevity. Recently, a Nordic dietary pattern was associated with a lower overall mortality. No study has, however, investigated this dietary pattern in relation to cause-specific mortality. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between adherence to a healthy Nordic food index (consisting of wholegrain bread, oatmeal, apples/pears, root vegetables, cabbages and fish/shellfish) and overall mortality, and death by cardiovascular disease, cancer, injuries/suicide and other causes. We conducted a prospective analysis in the Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort, including 44,961 women, aged 29-49 years, who completed a food frequency questionnaire between 1991-1992, and have been followed up for mortality ever since, through Swedish registries. The median follow-up time is 21.3 years, and mortality rate ratios (MRR) were calculated using Cox Proportional Hazards Models. Compared to women with the lowest index score (0-1 points), those with the highest score (4-6 points) had an 18% lower overall mortality (MRR 0.82; 0.71-0.93, p < 0.0004). A 1-point increment in the healthy Nordic food index was associated with a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality: 6% (3-9%), cancer mortality: 5% (1-9%) and mortality from other causes: 16% (8-22%). When examining the diet components individually, only wholegrain bread and apples/pears were significantly inversely associated with all-cause mortality. We observed no effect-modification by smoking status, BMI or age at baseline. The present study encourages adherence to a healthy Nordic food index, and warrants further investigation of the strong association with non-cancer, non-cardiovascular and non-injury/suicide deaths. PMID:25784368

  2. Adherence to the healthy Nordic food index and total and cause-specific mortality among Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Roswall, Nina; Sandin, Sven; Löf, Marie; Skeie, Guri; Olsen, Anja; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2015-06-01

    Several healthy dietary patterns have been linked to longevity. Recently, a Nordic dietary pattern was associated with a lower overall mortality. No study has, however, investigated this dietary pattern in relation to cause-specific mortality. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between adherence to a healthy Nordic food index (consisting of wholegrain bread, oatmeal, apples/pears, root vegetables, cabbages and fish/shellfish) and overall mortality, and death by cardiovascular disease, cancer, injuries/suicide and other causes. We conducted a prospective analysis in the Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort, including 44,961 women, aged 29-49 years, who completed a food frequency questionnaire between 1991-1992, and have been followed up for mortality ever since, through Swedish registries. The median follow-up time is 21.3 years, and mortality rate ratios (MRR) were calculated using Cox Proportional Hazards Models. Compared to women with the lowest index score (0-1 points), those with the highest score (4-6 points) had an 18% lower overall mortality (MRR 0.82; 0.71-0.93, p < 0.0004). A 1-point increment in the healthy Nordic food index was associated with a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality: 6% (3-9%), cancer mortality: 5% (1-9%) and mortality from other causes: 16% (8-22%). When examining the diet components individually, only wholegrain bread and apples/pears were significantly inversely associated with all-cause mortality. We observed no effect-modification by smoking status, BMI or age at baseline. The present study encourages adherence to a healthy Nordic food index, and warrants further investigation of the strong association with non-cancer, non-cardiovascular and non-injury/suicide deaths.

  3. Cancer mortality by educational level in the city of Barcelona

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, E; Borrell, C

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between educational level and mortality from cancer in the city of Barcelona. The data were derived from a record linkage between the Barcelona Mortality Registry and the Municipal Census. The relative risks (RR) of death and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) according to level of education were derived from Poisson regression models. For all malignancies, men in the lowest educational level had a RR of death of 1.21 (95% CI 1.13–1.29) compared with men with a university degree, whereas for women a significant decreasing in risk was observed (RR 0.81; 95% CI 0.74–0.90). Among men, significant negative trends of increasing risk according to level of education were present for cancer of the mouth and pharynx (RR 1.70 for lowest vs. highest level of education), oesophagus (RR 2.14), stomach (RR 1.99), larynx (RR 2.56) and lung (RR 1.35). Among women, cervical cancer was negatively related to education (RR 2.62), whereas a positive trend was present for cancers of the colon (RR 0.76), pancreas (RR 0.59), lung (RR 0.55) and breast (RR 0.65). The present study confirms for the first time, at an individual level, the existence of socioeconomic differences in mortality for several cancer sites in Barcelona, Spain. There is a need to implement health programmes and public health policies to reduce these inequities. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10027350

  4. Cancer mortality and residence near petrochemical industries in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chun-Yuh; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Chiu, Jeng-Fen

    1997-02-21

    An ecologic study design was used to investigate the relationship between cancer risks and residence in communities adjacent to petrochemical industrial counties (PICs). Directly age-adjusted mortality rates for cancer during 1982-1991 among 16 counties characterized by a heavy concentration of petrochemical industries were compared to rates among 16 matched counties with similar concentration of nonpetrochemical manufacturing industries, urbanization level, and demographic characteristics. An excess rate for liver cancer among males was found in the so-called PICs. The correlation could not be explained by confounding variables such as urbanization, socioeconomic class, or employment in nonpetrochemical industries. No other increased cancer risks were found to be associated with residence near petrochemical industries. 30 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. Cancer mortality in a cohort of asbestos textile workers.

    PubMed

    Pira, E; Pelucchi, C; Buffoni, L; Palmas, A; Turbiglio, M; Negri, E; Piolatto, P G; La Vecchia, C

    2005-02-14

    A cohort of 889 men and 1077 women employed for at least 1 month between 1946 and 1984 by a former Italian leading asbestos (mainly textile) company, characterised by extremely heavy exposures often for short durations, was followed up to 1996, for a total of 53,024 person-years of observation. Employment data were obtained from factory personnel records, while vital status and causes of death were ascertained through municipality registers and local health units. We observed 222 cancer deaths compared with 116.4 expected (standardized mortality ratio, SMR=191). The highest ratios were found for pleural (SMR=4105), peritoneal (SMR=1817) and lung (SMR=282) cancers. We observed direct relationships with duration of employment for lung and peritoneal cancer, and with time since first employment for lung cancer and mesothelioma. Pleural cancer risk was independent from duration (SMR=3428 for employment <1 year, 7659 for 1-4 years, 2979 for 5-9 years and 2130 for > or =10 years). Corresponding SMRs for lung cancer were 139, 251, 233 and 531. Nonsignificantly increased ratios were found for ovarian (SMR=261), laryngeal (SMR=238) and oro-pharyngeal (SMR=226) cancers. This study confirms and further quantifies the central role of latency in pleural mesothelioma and of cumulative exposure in lung cancer.

  6. Cancer mortality in a cohort of asbestos textile workers

    PubMed Central

    Pira, E; Pelucchi, C; Buffoni, L; Palmas, A; Turbiglio, M; Negri, E; Piolatto, P G; La Vecchia, C

    2005-01-01

    A cohort of 889 men and 1077 women employed for at least 1 month between 1946 and 1984 by a former Italian leading asbestos (mainly textile) company, characterised by extremely heavy exposures often for short durations, was followed up to 1996, for a total of 53 024 person-years of observation. Employment data were obtained from factory personnel records, while vital status and causes of death were ascertained through municipality registers and local health units. We observed 222 cancer deaths compared with 116.4 expected (standardized mortality ratio, SMR=191). The highest ratios were found for pleural (SMR=4105), peritoneal (SMR=1817) and lung (SMR=282) cancers. We observed direct relationships with duration of employment for lung and peritoneal cancer, and with time since first employment for lung cancer and mesothelioma. Pleural cancer risk was independent from duration (SMR=3428 for employment <1 year, 7659 for 1–4 years, 2979 for 5–9 years and 2130 for ⩾10 years). Corresponding SMRs for lung cancer were 139, 251, 233 and 531. Nonsignificantly increased ratios were found for ovarian (SMR=261), laryngeal (SMR=238) and oro-pharyngeal (SMR=226) cancers. This study confirms and further quantifies the central role of latency in pleural mesothelioma and of cumulative exposure in lung cancer. PMID:15702125

  7. F2RL3 methylation, lung cancer incidence and mortality.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Schöttker, Ben; Ordóñez-Mena, José; Holleczek, Bernd; Yang, Rongxi; Burwinkel, Barbara; Butterbach, Katja; Brenner, Hermann

    2015-10-01

    Smoking accounts for a large share of lung cancer. F2RL3 methylation was recently identified as a biomarker closely reflecting both current and past smoking exposure. We aimed to assess the associations of F2RL3 methylation with lung cancer incidence and mortality. In a large population-based cohort study, F2RL3 methylation was measured in baseline blood samples of 4,987 participants by MassARRAY. Associations of F2RL3 methylation and smoking with lung cancer incidence/mortality during a median follow-up of 10.9 years were assessed by Cox regression, controlling for potential confounders. The ability of F2RL3 methylation to predict lung cancer was examined by Harrell's C statistics. Hypomethylation at F2RL3 was strongly associated with both lung cancer incidence and mortality, with age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratios (HR; 95% CI) of 9.99 (5.61-17.79) and 16.86 (8.53-33.34), respectively, for participants whose methylation intensity were ≤0.54 compared with whose methylation intensity were ≥0.75. Strongly elevated HRs of 2.88 (1.42-5.84) and 5.17 (2.28-11.70) persisted even after controlling for multiple covariates including smoking status and pack-years. With fully adjusted HRs of 9.92 (2.88-34.12) and 16.48 (4.10-66.15), the associations between methylation and the two outcomes were particularly strong among participants≥65 years. Combination of F2RL3 methylation and pack-years predicted lung cancer incidence with high accuracy (optimism-corrected Harrell's C statistics = 0.86 for participants≥65 years). These findings suggested that F2RL3 methylation is a very strong predictor of lung cancer risk and mortality, particularly at older age. The potential implications of F2RL3 methylation for early detection, risk stratification and prevention of lung cancer warrant further exploration.

  8. Municipal mortality due to thyroid cancer in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Lope, Virginia; Pollán, Marina; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Aragonés, Nuria; Ramis, Rebeca; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2006-01-01

    Background Thyroid cancer is a tumor with a low but growing incidence in Spain. This study sought to depict its spatial municipal mortality pattern, using the classic model proposed by Besag, York and Mollié. Methods It was possible to compile and ascertain the posterior distribution of relative risk on the basis of a single Bayesian spatial model covering all of Spain's 8077 municipal areas. Maps were plotted depicting standardized mortality ratios, smoothed relative risk (RR) estimates, and the posterior probability that RR > 1. Results From 1989 to 1998 a total of 2,538 thyroid cancer deaths were registered in 1,041 municipalities. The highest relative risks were mostly situated in the Canary Islands, the province of Lugo, the east of La Coruña (Corunna) and western areas of Asturias and Orense. Conclusion The observed mortality pattern coincides with areas in Spain where goiter has been declared endemic. The higher frequency in these same areas of undifferentiated, more aggressive carcinomas could be reflected in the mortality figures. Other unknown genetic or environmental factors could also play a role in the etiology of this tumor. PMID:17173668

  9. [Mortality due to bronchopulmonary cancers in workers of 2 foundries].

    PubMed

    Moulin, J J; Lafontaine, M; Mantout, B; Belanger, A; Michel, M; Wild, P; Clavel, T; Fournier, M; Fontana, J M

    1995-01-01

    A mortality study was carried out in two factories producing stainless steel in order to assess lung cancer risk among workers employed in coke oven, blast and open hearth furnaces, foundry, electric furnace, hot and cold rolling mills and pickling areas. Occupational exposures of interest were chromium compounds, nickel compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), silica and asbestos. All male workers having at least one year of employment between 01.01.1960 and 31.12.1990 were followed up for mortality. The vital status was assessed from birth place registries. Complete job histories since date of first employment were abstracted from the company files. The smoking habits of 50% of the cohort members were known from medical records. The observed number of deaths (obs) were compared with the expected ones based on regional rates with adjustment for age, sex and calendar time (Standardized Mortality Ratio, SMR). The cohorts included 6324 (factory 1) and 5270 (factory 2) workers. The overall mortality did not differ markedly from that expected in both factories: SMR = 0.95 (obs = 1540, p = 0.05) in factory 1 and SMR = 1.06 (obs = 916, non-significant) in factory 2. SMRs for lung cancer did not differ from unity, respectively 0.99 (obs = 105) and 1.00 (obs = 54), in whole cohorts. Non-significant lung cancer excesses were observed among workers of some workshops where exposures of interest might have occurred: coke oven (SMR = 2.04), blast furnace (SMR = 1.36), open hearth furnace (SMR = 1.75), hot rolling mills (SMR = 1.29). These processes, however, are no longer involved in the study factories. Furthermore, no lung cancer excess was observed among workers employed in current workshops: electric furnaces and cold rolling mills. PMID:7732197

  10. [Mortality due to bronchopulmonary cancers in workers of 2 foundries].

    PubMed

    Moulin, J J; Lafontaine, M; Mantout, B; Belanger, A; Michel, M; Wild, P; Clavel, T; Fournier, M; Fontana, J M

    1995-01-01

    A mortality study was carried out in two factories producing stainless steel in order to assess lung cancer risk among workers employed in coke oven, blast and open hearth furnaces, foundry, electric furnace, hot and cold rolling mills and pickling areas. Occupational exposures of interest were chromium compounds, nickel compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), silica and asbestos. All male workers having at least one year of employment between 01.01.1960 and 31.12.1990 were followed up for mortality. The vital status was assessed from birth place registries. Complete job histories since date of first employment were abstracted from the company files. The smoking habits of 50% of the cohort members were known from medical records. The observed number of deaths (obs) were compared with the expected ones based on regional rates with adjustment for age, sex and calendar time (Standardized Mortality Ratio, SMR). The cohorts included 6324 (factory 1) and 5270 (factory 2) workers. The overall mortality did not differ markedly from that expected in both factories: SMR = 0.95 (obs = 1540, p = 0.05) in factory 1 and SMR = 1.06 (obs = 916, non-significant) in factory 2. SMRs for lung cancer did not differ from unity, respectively 0.99 (obs = 105) and 1.00 (obs = 54), in whole cohorts. Non-significant lung cancer excesses were observed among workers of some workshops where exposures of interest might have occurred: coke oven (SMR = 2.04), blast furnace (SMR = 1.36), open hearth furnace (SMR = 1.75), hot rolling mills (SMR = 1.29). These processes, however, are no longer involved in the study factories. Furthermore, no lung cancer excess was observed among workers employed in current workshops: electric furnaces and cold rolling mills.

  11. Forecasting Cause-Specific Mortality in Korea up to Year 2032.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jae-Won; Son, Mia

    2016-08-01

    Forecasting cause-specific mortality can help estimate the future burden of diseases and provide a clue for preventing diseases. Our objective was to forecast the mortality for causes of death in the future (2013-2032) based on the past trends (1983-2012) in Korea. The death data consisted of 12 major causes of death from 1983 to 2012 and the population data consisted of the observed and estimated populations (1983-2032) in Korea. The modified age-period-cohort model with an R-based program, nordpred software, was used to forecast future mortality. Although the age-standardized rates for the world standard population for both sexes are expected to decrease from 2008-2012 to 2028-2032 (males: -31.4%, females: -32.3%), the crude rates are expected to increase (males: 46.3%, females: 33.4%). The total number of deaths is also estimated to increase (males: 52.7%, females: 41.9%). Additionally, the largest contribution to the overall change in deaths was the change in the age structures. Several causes of death are projected to increase in both sexes (cancer, suicide, heart diseases, pneumonia and Alzheimer's disease), while others are projected to decrease (cerebrovascular diseases, liver diseases, diabetes mellitus, traffic accidents, chronic lower respiratory diseases, and pulmonary tuberculosis). Cancer is expected to be the highest cause of death for both the 2008-2012 and 2028-2032 time periods in Korea. To reduce the disease burden, projections of the future cause-specific mortality should be used as fundamental data for developing public health policies. PMID:27478326

  12. Forecasting Cause-Specific Mortality in Korea up to Year 2032.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jae-Won; Son, Mia

    2016-08-01

    Forecasting cause-specific mortality can help estimate the future burden of diseases and provide a clue for preventing diseases. Our objective was to forecast the mortality for causes of death in the future (2013-2032) based on the past trends (1983-2012) in Korea. The death data consisted of 12 major causes of death from 1983 to 2012 and the population data consisted of the observed and estimated populations (1983-2032) in Korea. The modified age-period-cohort model with an R-based program, nordpred software, was used to forecast future mortality. Although the age-standardized rates for the world standard population for both sexes are expected to decrease from 2008-2012 to 2028-2032 (males: -31.4%, females: -32.3%), the crude rates are expected to increase (males: 46.3%, females: 33.4%). The total number of deaths is also estimated to increase (males: 52.7%, females: 41.9%). Additionally, the largest contribution to the overall change in deaths was the change in the age structures. Several causes of death are projected to increase in both sexes (cancer, suicide, heart diseases, pneumonia and Alzheimer's disease), while others are projected to decrease (cerebrovascular diseases, liver diseases, diabetes mellitus, traffic accidents, chronic lower respiratory diseases, and pulmonary tuberculosis). Cancer is expected to be the highest cause of death for both the 2008-2012 and 2028-2032 time periods in Korea. To reduce the disease burden, projections of the future cause-specific mortality should be used as fundamental data for developing public health policies.

  13. Forecasting Cause-Specific Mortality in Korea up to Year 2032

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Forecasting cause-specific mortality can help estimate the future burden of diseases and provide a clue for preventing diseases. Our objective was to forecast the mortality for causes of death in the future (2013-2032) based on the past trends (1983-2012) in Korea. The death data consisted of 12 major causes of death from 1983 to 2012 and the population data consisted of the observed and estimated populations (1983-2032) in Korea. The modified age-period-cohort model with an R-based program, nordpred software, was used to forecast future mortality. Although the age-standardized rates for the world standard population for both sexes are expected to decrease from 2008-2012 to 2028-2032 (males: -31.4%, females: -32.3%), the crude rates are expected to increase (males: 46.3%, females: 33.4%). The total number of deaths is also estimated to increase (males: 52.7%, females: 41.9%). Additionally, the largest contribution to the overall change in deaths was the change in the age structures. Several causes of death are projected to increase in both sexes (cancer, suicide, heart diseases, pneumonia and Alzheimer’s disease), while others are projected to decrease (cerebrovascular diseases, liver diseases, diabetes mellitus, traffic accidents, chronic lower respiratory diseases, and pulmonary tuberculosis). Cancer is expected to be the highest cause of death for both the 2008-2012 and 2028-2032 time periods in Korea. To reduce the disease burden, projections of the future cause-specific mortality should be used as fundamental data for developing public health policies. PMID:27478326

  14. ICD coding changes and discontinuities in trends in cause-specific mortality in six European countries, 1950-99.

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Fanny; Kunst, Anton E.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how often coding changes between and within revisions of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) complicate the description of long-term trends in cause-specific mortality. METHODS: Data on cause-specific mortality between 1950 and 1999 for men and women aged 60 and older were obtained from Denmark, England and Wales, Finland, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden. Data were obtained by five-year age groups. We constructed a concordance table using three-digit ICD codes. In addition we evaluated the occurrence of mortality discontinuities by visually inspecting cause-specific trends and country-specific background information. Evaluation was also based on quantification of the discontinuities using a Poisson regression model (including period splines). We compared the observed trends in cause-specific mortality with the trends after adjustment for the discontinuities caused by changes to coding. FINDINGS: In 45 out of 416 (10.8 %) instances of ICD revisions to cause-specific mortality codes, significant discontinuities that were regarded as being due to ICD revisions remained. The revisions from ICD-6 and ICD-7 to ICD-8 and a wide range of causes of death, with the exception of the specific cancers, were especially affected. Incidental changes in coding rules were also important causes of discontinuities in trends in cause-specific mortality, especially in England and Wales, Finland and Sweden. Adjusting for these discontinuities can lead to significant changes in trends, although these primarily affect only limited periods of time. CONCLUSION: Despite using a carefully constructed concordance table based on three-digit ICD codes, mortality discontinuities arising as a result of coding changes (both between and within revisions) can lead to substantial changes in long-term trends in cause-specific mortality. Coding changes should therefore be evaluated by researchers and, where necessary, controlled for. PMID:15654404

  15. Trends in gastric cancer mortality and in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Morais, Samantha; Ferro, Ana; Bastos, Ana; Castro, Clara; Lunet, Nuno; Peleteiro, Bárbara

    2016-07-01

    Portugal has the highest gastric cancer mortality rates in Western Europe, along with high prevalences of Helicobacter pylori infection. Monitoring their trends is essential to predict the burden of this cancer. We aimed to quantify time trends in gastric cancer mortality in Portugal and in each administrative region, and to compute short-term predictions, as well as to describe the prevalence of H. pylori infection, through a systematic review. Joinpoint analyses were used to identify significant changes in sex-specific trends in gastric cancer age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) and to estimate annual percent changes (APC). The most recent trends were considered to compute estimates up to 2020 by adjusting Poisson regression models. We searched PubMed and IndexRMP to identify studies carried out in Portugal reporting the prevalence of H. pylori. Gastric cancer mortality has been decreasing in Portugal since 1971 in men (from ASMR=55.3/100 000; APC=-2.4, 95% confidence interval: -2.5 to -2.3) and since 1970 in women (from ASMR=28.0/100 000; APC=-2.8, 95% confidence interval: -2.9 to -2.7), although large regional differences were observed. Predicted ASMR for 2015 and 2020 were 18.8/100 000 and 16.7/100 000 for men and 8.5/100 000 and 7.4/100 000 for women, respectively. The prevalence of H. pylori varied from almost 5% at 0.5-2 years to just over 90% at 70 years or more. No consistent variation was observed since the 1990s. The downward trends in mortality rates are expected to remain in the next decades. The high prevalence of H. pylori infection across age groups and studies from different periods shows a large potential for decrease in the burden of gastric cancer in Portugal. PMID:26186469

  16. Trends in gastric cancer mortality and in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Morais, Samantha; Ferro, Ana; Bastos, Ana; Castro, Clara; Lunet, Nuno; Peleteiro, Bárbara

    2016-07-01

    Portugal has the highest gastric cancer mortality rates in Western Europe, along with high prevalences of Helicobacter pylori infection. Monitoring their trends is essential to predict the burden of this cancer. We aimed to quantify time trends in gastric cancer mortality in Portugal and in each administrative region, and to compute short-term predictions, as well as to describe the prevalence of H. pylori infection, through a systematic review. Joinpoint analyses were used to identify significant changes in sex-specific trends in gastric cancer age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) and to estimate annual percent changes (APC). The most recent trends were considered to compute estimates up to 2020 by adjusting Poisson regression models. We searched PubMed and IndexRMP to identify studies carried out in Portugal reporting the prevalence of H. pylori. Gastric cancer mortality has been decreasing in Portugal since 1971 in men (from ASMR=55.3/100 000; APC=-2.4, 95% confidence interval: -2.5 to -2.3) and since 1970 in women (from ASMR=28.0/100 000; APC=-2.8, 95% confidence interval: -2.9 to -2.7), although large regional differences were observed. Predicted ASMR for 2015 and 2020 were 18.8/100 000 and 16.7/100 000 for men and 8.5/100 000 and 7.4/100 000 for women, respectively. The prevalence of H. pylori varied from almost 5% at 0.5-2 years to just over 90% at 70 years or more. No consistent variation was observed since the 1990s. The downward trends in mortality rates are expected to remain in the next decades. The high prevalence of H. pylori infection across age groups and studies from different periods shows a large potential for decrease in the burden of gastric cancer in Portugal.

  17. Mortality and cancer incidence among secondary lead smelter workers.

    PubMed Central

    Gerhardsson, L; Hagmar, L; Rylander, L; Skerfving, S

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To examine the mortality pattern and the cancer incidence in a cohort of long term smelter workers exposed to lead. METHODS--The cohort consists of 664 male lead battery workers, employed for at least three months in 1942-87. From 1969 the values of all blood lead samples repeatedly obtained from these workers every two to three months, have been collected in a database. The expected mortality and morbidity 1969-89 was estimated from the county rates, specified for cause, sex, five-year age groups, and calendar year. Individual exposure matrices have been calculated and used for dose-response analyses. RESULTS--The total cohort showed an increased overall mortality (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 1.44; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.16-1.79), an increased mortality from ischaemic heart diseases (SMR 1.72; 95% CI 1.20-2.42) and all malignant neoplasms (SMR 1.65; 95% CI 1.09-2.44). These risk estimates were unaffected or slightly decreased when applying a latency period of 15 years, and no dose-response pattern was shown. The non-significantly raised cancer incidence in the gastrointestinal tract (11 malignancies) in the total cohort, increased to a barely significant level in the quartile with the highest cumulative lead exposure (standardised incidence ratio (SIR) 2.34, 95% CI 1.07-4.45). No clear dose response pattern was evident when further subdividing the data into those first employed up to 1969 v those first employed after 1969 when the blood lead monitoring programme started. The risk estimate for malignancies in the gastrointestinal tract was not related to latency time. The cancer incidence was not increased at other sites. CONCLUSIONS--A slightly increased incidence of gastrointestinal cancers was found in workers exposed to lead and employed before 1970. The lead cohort also showed an increased mortality from ischaemic heart diseases. These risk estimates did not show a dose-response pattern and were not associated with latency time

  18. Cancer mortality in relation to monitoring for radionuclide exposure in three UK nuclear industry workforces.

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, L. M.; Higgins, C. D.; Douglas, A. J.; Maconochie, N. E.; Omar, R. Z.; Fraser, P.; Beral, V.; Smith, P. G.

    1998-01-01

    Cancer mortality in 40,761 employees of three UK nuclear industry facilities who had been monitored for external radiation exposure was examined according to whether they had also been monitored for possible internal exposure to tritium, plutonium or other radionuclides (uranium, polonium, actinium or other unspecified). Death rates from cancer were compared both with national rates and with rates in radiation workers not monitored for exposure to any radionuclides. Among workers monitored for tritium exposure, overall cancer mortality was significantly below national rates [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 83, 165 deaths; 2P = 0.02] and none of the cancer-specific death rates was significantly above either the national average or rates in non-monitored workers. Although the overall death rate from cancer in workers monitored for plutonium exposure was also significantly low relative to national rates (SMR = 89, 581 deaths; 2P = 0.005), mortality from pleural cancer was significantly raised (SMR = 357, nine deaths; 2P = 0.002); none of the rates differed significantly from those of non-monitored workers. Workers monitored for radionuclides other than tritium or plutonium also had a death rate from all cancers combined that was below the national average (SMR = 86, 418 deaths; 2P = 0.002) but prostatic cancer mortality was raised both in relation to death rates in the general population (SMR = 153, 37 deaths; 2P = 0.02) and to death rates in radiation workers who had not been monitored for exposure to any radionuclide [rate ratio (RR) = 1.65; 2P = 0.03]. Mortality from cancer of the lung was also significantly increased in workers monitored for other radionuclides compared with those of radiation workers not monitored for exposure to radionuclides (RR = 1.31, 164 deaths; 2P = 0.01). For cancers of the lung, prostate and all cancers combined, death rates in monitored workers were examined according to the timing and duration of monitoring for radionuclide

  19. Tuberculosis, smoking and risk for lung cancer incidence and mortality.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seri; Mok, Yejin; Jeon, Christina; Jee, Sun Ha; Samet, Jonathan M

    2016-12-01

    Among the exposures associated with risk for lung cancer, a history of tuberculosis (TB) is one potentially important factor, given the high prevalence of TB worldwide. A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the associations of preexisting pulmonary TB with lung cancer incidence and mortality. The cohort consisted of 1,607,710 Korean adults covered by the National Health Insurance System who had a biennial national medical examination during 1997-2000. During up to 16 years of follow-up, there were 12,819 incident cases of lung cancer and 9,562 lung cancer deaths. Using Cox proportional hazards models and controlling for age, cigarette smoking and other covariates, the presence of underlying TB was significantly associated with increased risk for lung cancer incidence (HR 1.37 in men with 95% CI 1.29-1.45; HR 1.49 in women with 95% CI 1.28-1.74) and mortality (HR 1.43 in men with 95% CI 1.34-1.52; HR 1.53 in women with 95% CI 1.28-1.83). We also observed a dose-response relationship between number of cigarettes smoked daily and lung cancer risk. There was no evidence for synergism between a history of TB and smoking. The elevation in risk is relatively modest, particularly in comparison to that from smoking, and a prior history of TB is not likely to be useful risk indicator for clinical purposes. In populations with high prevalence of TB, it can be considered for incorporation into models for lung cancer risk prediction. PMID:27521774

  20. Trend Analysis of Cancer Mortality and Incidence in Panama, Using Joinpoint Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Politis, Michael; Higuera, Gladys; Chang, Lissette Raquel; Gomez, Beatriz; Bares, Juan; Motta, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and its incidence is expected to increase in the future. In Panama, cancer is also one of the leading causes of death. In 1964, a nationwide cancer registry was started and it was restructured and improved in 2012. The aim of this study is to utilize Joinpoint regression analysis to study the trends of the incidence and mortality of cancer in Panama in the last decade. Cancer mortality was estimated from the Panamanian National Institute of Census and Statistics Registry for the period 2001 to 2011. Cancer incidence was estimated from the Panamanian National Cancer Registry for the period 2000 to 2009. The Joinpoint Regression Analysis program, version 4.0.4, was used to calculate trends by age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for selected cancers. Overall, the trend of age-adjusted cancer mortality in Panama has declined over the last 10 years (−1.12% per year). The cancers for which there was a significant increase in the trend of mortality were female breast cancer and ovarian cancer; while the highest increases in incidence were shown for breast cancer, liver cancer, and prostate cancer. Significant decrease in the trend of mortality was evidenced for the following: prostate cancer, lung and bronchus cancer, and cervical cancer; with respect to incidence, only oral and pharynx cancer in both sexes had a significant decrease. Some cancers showed no significant trends in incidence or mortality. This study reveals contrasting trends in cancer incidence and mortality in Panama in the last decade. Although Panama is considered an upper middle income nation, this study demonstrates that some cancer mortality trends, like the ones seen in cervical and lung cancer, behave similarly to the ones seen in high income countries. In contrast, other types, like breast cancer, follow a pattern seen in countries undergoing a transition to a developed economy with its associated lifestyle, nutrition, and

  1. Trend Analysis of Cancer Mortality and Incidence in Panama, Using Joinpoint Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Politis, Michael; Higuera, Gladys; Chang, Lissette Raquel; Gomez, Beatriz; Bares, Juan; Motta, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and its incidence is expected to increase in the future. In Panama, cancer is also one of the leading causes of death. In 1964, a nationwide cancer registry was started and it was restructured and improved in 2012. The aim of this study is to utilize Joinpoint regression analysis to study the trends of the incidence and mortality of cancer in Panama in the last decade. Cancer mortality was estimated from the Panamanian National Institute of Census and Statistics Registry for the period 2001 to 2011. Cancer incidence was estimated from the Panamanian National Cancer Registry for the period 2000 to 2009. The Joinpoint Regression Analysis program, version 4.0.4, was used to calculate trends by age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for selected cancers. Overall, the trend of age-adjusted cancer mortality in Panama has declined over the last 10 years (−1.12% per year). The cancers for which there was a significant increase in the trend of mortality were female breast cancer and ovarian cancer; while the highest increases in incidence were shown for breast cancer, liver cancer, and prostate cancer. Significant decrease in the trend of mortality was evidenced for the following: prostate cancer, lung and bronchus cancer, and cervical cancer; with respect to incidence, only oral and pharynx cancer in both sexes had a significant decrease. Some cancers showed no significant trends in incidence or mortality. This study reveals contrasting trends in cancer incidence and mortality in Panama in the last decade. Although Panama is considered an upper middle income nation, this study demonstrates that some cancer mortality trends, like the ones seen in cervical and lung cancer, behave similarly to the ones seen in high income countries. In contrast, other types, like breast cancer, follow a pattern seen in countries undergoing a transition to a developed economy with its associated lifestyle, nutrition, and

  2. Melatonin influences sex-specific prenatal mortality in meadow voles.

    PubMed

    Gorman, M R; Ferkin, M H; Dark, J

    1994-11-01

    Meadow voles exhibit seasonal changes in litter size, ovulation rates, and prenatal mortality. To investigate the proximate bases of seasonal changes in reproductive effort, adult female voles, maintained in long photoperiods (14 h of light/day), were injected daily with 10 micrograms melatonin 2 h before light offset to extend the duration of the nighttime melatonin pulse. At parturition the number, sex, and weight of offspring were assessed. The number of ovarian corpora lutea (CL), an index of potential litter size, was used to calculate rates of prenatal survival (i.e., pups per CL). Prenatal survival rates were reduced in female but not male pups of dams that had been injected before blastocyst implantation (Days 1-6 of pregnancy) with melatonin as compared with saline. Melatonin injections initiated after blastocyst implantation (Days 7-21 of pregnancy) did not affect prenatal survival, nor were birth weights of pups affected by either pre- or postimplantation melatonin treatment. We conclude that sex-specific prenatal survival is a labile feature of vole reproduction that may be under proximate control of photoperiod and melatonin before blastocyst implantation. PMID:7849189

  3. Update of a prospective study of mortality and cancer incidence in the Australian petroleum industry

    PubMed Central

    Gun, R; Pratt, N; Griffith, E; Adams, G; Bisby, J; Robinson, K

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To update the analysis of the cohort mortality and cancer incidence study of employees in the Australian petroleum industry. Methods: Employees from 1981 to 1996 were traced through the Australian National Death Index and the National Cancer Statistics Clearing House. Cause specific mortality and cancer incidence were compared with those of the Australian population by means of standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and standardised incidence ratios (SIRs). Associations between increased incidence of specific cancers and employment in the petroleum industry were tested by trends according to period of first employment, duration of employment, latency, and hydrocarbon exposure, adjusting for personal smoking history where appropriate. Total follow up time was 176 598 person-years for males and 10 253 person-years for females. Results: A total of 692 of the 15 957 male subjects, and 16 of the 1206 female subjects had died by the cut off date, 31 December 1996. In males, the all-cause SMR and the SMRs for all major disease categories were significantly below unity. There was a non-significant increase of the all-cancer SIR (1.04, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.11). There was a significant increase of the incidence of melanoma (SIR 1.54, 95% CI 1.30 to 1.81), bladder cancer (SIR 1.37, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.83), and prostate cancer (SIR 1.19, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.40), and a marginally significant excess of pleural mesothelioma (SIR 1.80, 95% CI 0.90 to 3.22), leukaemia (SIR 1.39, 95%CI 0.91 to 2.02), and multiple myeloma (SIR 1.72, 95% CI 0.96 to 2.84). Conclusions: Most cases of mesothelioma are probably related to past exposure to asbestos in refineries. The melanoma excess may be the result of early diagnosis. The excess bladder cancer has not been observed previously in this industry and is not readily explained. The divergence between cancer incidence and cancer mortality suggests that the "healthy worker effect" may be related to early reporting of curable cancers, leading to

  4. Mortality from cancer and other causes among airline cabin attendants in Germany, 1960-1997.

    PubMed

    Blettner, Maria; Zeeb, Hajo; Langner, Ingo; Hammer, Gaël P; Schafft, Thomas

    2002-09-15

    Airline cabin attendants are exposed to several potential occupational hazards, including cosmic radiation. Little is known about the mortality pattern and cancer risk of these persons. The authors conducted a historical cohort study among cabin attendants who had been employed by two German airlines in 1953 or later. Mortality follow-up was completed through December 31, 1997. The authors computed standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for specific causes of death using German population rates. The effect of duration of employment was evaluated with Poisson regression. The cohort included 16,014 women and 4,537 men (approximately 250,000 person-years of follow-up). Among women, the total number of deaths (n = 141) was lower than expected (SMR = 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67, 0.94). The SMR for all cancers (n = 44) was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.54, 1.17), and the SMR for breast cancer (n = 19) was 1.28 (95% CI: 0.72, 2.20). The SMR did not increase with duration of employment. Among men, 170 deaths were observed (SMR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.94, 1.28). The SMR for all cancers (n = 21) was 0.71 (95% CI: 0.41, 1.18). The authors found a high number of deaths from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (SMR = 40; 95% CI: 28.9, 55.8) and from aircraft accidents among the men. In this cohort, ionizing radiation probably contributed less to the small excess in breast cancer mortality than reproductive risk factors. Occupational causes seem not to contribute strongly to the mortality of airline cabin attendants. PMID:12226003

  5. Studies of the mortality of A-bomb survivors - 7. Mortality, 1950-1978: part 1. Cancer mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, H.; Schull, W.J.

    1982-05-01

    The present study extends an earlier one by 4 years, 1975-1978. Leukemia as a cause of death among survivors has continued to decrease and now differs from the control group only in Hiroshima. For cancer other than leukemia the increase in absolute risk has become more marked as the cohort has aged and especially so in Nagasaki where it is now statistically significant for the first time. In addition to previously demonstrated sites, i.e., lung, breast, stomach, esophagus, and urinary tract, colon cancers and multiple myeloma can now be shown to be related to exposure. No significant relationship to radiation can as yet be established for malignant lymphoma, rectum, pancrease, and uterine cancer. The time from exposure to death is shortened for leukemia depending on dose but not for other cancers, and radiation-induced cancers other than leukemia seem to develop proportionally to the natural cancer rate for the attained age. For specific age-at-death intervals, both relative and absolute risk tend to be higher for younger age at time of bombing individuals.

  6. Mortality and cancer morbidity in a cohort of Canadian petroleum workers

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, R; Schnatter, A; Drummond, I; Murray, N; Thompson, F; Katz, A; Jorgensen, G; Nicolich, M; Dahlman, D; Theriault, G

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To assess mortality and cancer morbidity in Canadian petroleum workers and explore exposure-response relations for specific petroleum agents. Methods: A total of 25 292 employees hired between 1964 and 1994 were linked to the Canadian tumour registry and national mortality database. Exposure-response trends were assessed for hydrocarbon solvents/fuels, hydrocarbon lubricants, petroleum coke/spent catalyst, and hydrogen sulphide (H2S). Results: External comparison analyses (mortality and incidence) showed deficits for all causes and all malignant neoplasms combined and were consistent with expectation for most malignant and non-malignant sites analysed. Gall bladder cancer mortality was increased among males based on four deaths, but cases had no common job assignments and the increase was focused in workers employed <10 years. Mesothelioma incidence was increased. Most exposure-specific analyses were compromised by small numbers. Statistically significant increases were observed for H2S exposure and a subgroup of accidental deaths as well as for petroleum coke/spent catalyst exposure and lung cancer. While both findings have a degree of biologic plausibility, the H2S association, which exhibited a clearer exposure-response pattern, could be subject to unmeasured confounders. Additionally, interpretation was complicated by the high correlation between hydrocarbon and H2S exposures. With regard to lung cancer, the analysis could not adequately control for smoking, was based on small numbers, and exhibited a tenuous exposure-response pattern. Conclusion: The findings for mesothelioma suggest the need for continued attention to asbestos in the petroleum industry. The relation between accidental deaths and H2S exposure deserves closer scrutiny in similarly exposed populations. Further analyses of lung cancer are underway and will be reported separately. PMID:14634182

  7. Cohort analysis of fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer mortality in European men.

    PubMed

    Jansen, M C; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Räsänen, L; Fidanza, F; Nissinen, A M; Menotti, A; Kok, F J; Kromhout, D

    2001-06-15

    Our aim was to examine the relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer mortality in a cohort of European males. Around 1970, dietary intake of Finnish, Italian and Dutch middle-aged men was assessed using a cross-check dietary history. Complete baseline information was available for 3,108 men, of whom 1,578 were baseline smokers. We used Cox proportional hazard analyses to calculate risk estimates for the consumption in country-specific tertiles on lung cancer in smokers. During 25 years of follow-up, 149 lung cancer deaths occurred in the smokers. Fruit consumption was inversely associated with lung cancer mortality among smokers; compared with the lowest, adjusted RRs for the intermediate and highest tertiles were 0.56 (0.37-0.84) and 0.69 (0.46-1.02), p-trend 0.05. Only in the Dutch cohort was this association statistically significant [adjusted relative risks (RRs) 1.00, 0.33 (0.16-0.70) and 0.35 (0.16-0.74), p-trend 0.004]. In Finland lung cancer risk was lower with higher fruit intake but not significantly, whereas in Italy no association was observed. Stratifying on cigarette smoking intensity (non, light and heavy) revealed an inverse association in the heavy smokers only [adjusted RRs (95% confidence intervals [CI]) 1; 0.47 (0.26-0.84); 0.40 (0.20-0.78)). Vegetable consumption was not related to lung cancer risk in smokers. However, analyses stratified on cigarette smoking intensity gave some indication for a lower lung cancer risk with higher intake. In conclusion, in this prospective analysis among European smoking men, fruit intake was inversely related to lung cancer mortality. This association was confined to heavy cigarette smokers.

  8. Statins and breast cancer stage and mortality in the Women’s Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Pinkal; Lehman, Amy; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Kwan, Marilyn L.; Arun, Monica; Manson, JoAnn E.; Lavasani, Sayeh; Wasswertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Sarto, Gloria E.; LeBoff, Meryl; Cauley, Jane; Cote, Michele; Beebe-Dimmer, Jennifer; Jay, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the association between statins and breast cancer stage and mortality in the Women’s Health Initiative. Methods The study population included 128,675 post-menopausal women aged 50–79 years, out of which there were 7,883 newly diagnosed cases of in situ (19 %), local (61 %)-, regional (19 %)- and distant (1 %)-stage breast cancer and 401 deaths due to breast cancer after an average of 11.5 (SD = 3.7) years of follow-up. Stage was coded using SEER criteria and was stratified into early (in situ and local)- versus late (regional and distant)-stage disease. Information on statins and other risk factors were collected by self- and interviewer-administered questionnaires. Cause of death was based on medical record review. Multivariable-adjusted hazards ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) evaluating the relationship between statin use (at baseline only and in a time-dependent manner) and diagnosis of late-stage breast cancer and breast cancer-specific mortality were computed from Cox proportional hazards analyses after adjusting for appropriate confounders. Results Statins were used by 10,474 women (8 %) at baseline. In the multivariable-adjusted time-dependent model, use of lipophilic statins was associated with a reduction in diagnosis of late-stage breast cancer (HR 0.80, 95 % CI 0.64–0.98, p = 0.035) which was also significant among women with estrogen receptor-positive disease (HR 0.72, 95 % CI 0.56–0.93, p = 0.012). Breast cancer mortality was marginally lower in statin users compared with nonusers (HR 0.59, 95 % CI 0.32–1.06, p = 0.075). Conclusions Prior statin use is associated with lower breast cancer stage at diagnosis. PMID:25736184

  9. Area-level socioeconomic context, total mortality and cause-specific mortality in Spain: Heterogeneous findings depending on the level of geographic aggregation.

    PubMed

    Regidor, Enrique; Vallejo, Fernando; Reques, Laura; Cea, Lucía; Miqueleiz, Estrella; Barrio, Gregorio

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the association between area-level socioeconomic context and mortality in Spain, using two different geographic aggregations. Nation-wide prospective study covering all persons living in Spain in 2001. Mortality was analysed in Spanish citizens by province of residence and in citizens of Madrid by neighbourhood of residence. Provinces and neighbourhoods were grouped into quartiles according to two socioeconomic indicators: percentage of the population with university education and unemployment rate. The measure of association was the rate ratio for total mortality and cause-specific mortality, by each socioeconomic indicator in two age groups, 25-64 years (adult population) and 65 years and over (elderly population). After adjustment for all individual socioeconomic variables, the rate ratio for total mortality among residents in the provinces with the worst versus best socioeconomic context was 0.92 (95% CI 0.88-0.97) when the indicator was percentage of university population and 0.89 (0.85-0.93) when it was unemployment rate in the adult population, and 1.05 (1.00-1.11) and 1.08 (1.03-1.13), respectively, in the elderly population. No significant differences in mortality were observed between adults residing in neighbourhoods with the worst versus best socioeconomic context, but in the elderly population the mortality rate ratios for the two socioeconomic indicators were 1.04 (1.01-1.07) and 1.06 (1.03-1.09), respectively. Residents in provinces with the worst socioeconomic context had the lowest mortality from cancer and external causes and the highest mortality from cardiovascular diseases, while residents in neighbourhoods with the worst socioeconomic context had the highest mortality from respiratory and digestive diseases. Further research should find out the reasons for the lower total mortality in adult population residing in the Spanish provinces with the most adverse socioeconomic context and the reasons for

  10. Solar radiation and the incidence and mortality of leading invasive cancers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Alan B; Fleischer, Sarah E

    2016-01-01

    Invasive cancer risk is inversely related to ultraviolet light exposure. This study explores relationships between cancer and the satellite-derived sunlight energy. We obtained the North America Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) daily average sunlight for the continental United States from 1999-2011. US Cancer Statistics age-adjusted-incidence and mortality was also obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). We found that cancer incidence for all invasive cancers and for 11 of 22 leading cancers significantly decreased with increased solar radiation. Cancer mortality for all invasive cancers was not significantly associated with solar radiation, but for 7 of 22 leading cancers, including cancers of the uterus, leukemias, lung, ovary, and urinary bladder, increased solar radiation predicted decreased mortality. With increasing solar radiation, increased incidence and cancer mortality was observed for liver cancer and increased incidence but not mortality was observed for cervical cancer. The current study confirms studies relating UV radiation to the incidence and mortality of a variety of cancer types. We find associations between solar radiation energy and the incidence and mortality of a number of types of cancers.

  11. Solar radiation and the incidence and mortality of leading invasive cancers in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fleischer, Alan B.; Fleischer, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Invasive cancer risk is inversely related to ultraviolet light exposure. This study explores relationships between cancer and the satellite-derived sunlight energy. We obtained the North America Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) daily average sunlight for the continental United States from 1999–2011. US Cancer Statistics age-adjusted-incidence and mortality was also obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). We found that cancer incidence for all invasive cancers and for 11 of 22 leading cancers significantly decreased with increased solar radiation. Cancer mortality for all invasive cancers was not significantly associated with solar radiation, but for 7 of 22 leading cancers, including cancers of the uterus, leukemias, lung, ovary, and urinary bladder, increased solar radiation predicted decreased mortality. With increasing solar radiation, increased incidence and cancer mortality was observed for liver cancer and increased incidence but not mortality was observed for cervical cancer. The current study confirms studies relating UV radiation to the incidence and mortality of a variety of cancer types. We find associations between solar radiation energy and the incidence and mortality of a number of types of cancers. PMID:27195056

  12. Solar radiation and the incidence and mortality of leading invasive cancers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Alan B; Fleischer, Sarah E

    2016-01-01

    Invasive cancer risk is inversely related to ultraviolet light exposure. This study explores relationships between cancer and the satellite-derived sunlight energy. We obtained the North America Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) daily average sunlight for the continental United States from 1999-2011. US Cancer Statistics age-adjusted-incidence and mortality was also obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). We found that cancer incidence for all invasive cancers and for 11 of 22 leading cancers significantly decreased with increased solar radiation. Cancer mortality for all invasive cancers was not significantly associated with solar radiation, but for 7 of 22 leading cancers, including cancers of the uterus, leukemias, lung, ovary, and urinary bladder, increased solar radiation predicted decreased mortality. With increasing solar radiation, increased incidence and cancer mortality was observed for liver cancer and increased incidence but not mortality was observed for cervical cancer. The current study confirms studies relating UV radiation to the incidence and mortality of a variety of cancer types. We find associations between solar radiation energy and the incidence and mortality of a number of types of cancers. PMID:27195056

  13. Association of Kidney Disease Measures with Cause-Specific Mortality: The Korean Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Yejin; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Sang, Yingying; Ballew, Shoshana H.; Grams, Morgan; Shin, Sang Yop; Jee, Sun Ha; Coresh, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Background The link of low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and high proteinuria to cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is well known. However, its link to mortality due to other causes is less clear. Methods We studied 367,932 adults (20–93 years old) in the Korean Heart Study (baseline between 1996–2004 and follow-up until 2011) and assessed the associations of creatinine-based eGFR and dipstick proteinuria with mortality due to CVD (1,608 cases), cancer (4,035 cases), and other (non-CVD/non-cancer) causes (3,152 cases) after adjusting for potential confounders. Results Although cancer was overall the most common cause of mortality, in participants with chronic kidney disease (CKD), non-CVD/non-cancer mortality accounted for approximately half of cause of death (47.0%for eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2 and 54.3% for proteinuria ≥1+). Lower eGFR (<60 vs. ≥60 ml/min/1.73m2) was significantly associated with mortality due to CVD (adjusted hazard ratio 1.49 [95% CI, 1.24–1.78]) and non-CVD/non-cancer causes (1.78 [1.54–2.05]). The risk of cancer mortality only reached significance at eGFR <45 ml/min/1.73m2 when eGFR 45–59 ml/min/1.73m2 was set as a reference (1.62 [1.10–2.39]). High proteinuria (dipstick ≥1+ vs. negative/trace) was consistently associated with mortality due to CVD (1.93 [1.66–2.25]), cancer (1.49 [1.32–1.68]), and other causes (2.19 [1.96–2.45]). Examining finer mortality causes, low eGFR and high proteinuria were commonly associated with mortality due to coronary heart disease, any infectious disease, diabetes, and renal failure. In addition, proteinuria was also related to death from stroke, cancers of stomach, liver, pancreas, and lung, myeloma, pneumonia, and viral hepatitis. Conclusion Low eGFR was associated with CVD and non-CVD/non-cancer mortality, whereas higher proteinuria was consistently related to mortality due to CVD, cancer, and other causes. These findings suggest the need for multidisciplinary prevention

  14. Obesity and Diabetes: The Increased Risk of Cancer and Cancer-Related Mortality

    PubMed Central

    LeRoith, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide, and both are associated with an increased incidence and mortality from many cancers. The metabolic abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes develop many years before the onset of diabetes and, therefore, may be contributing to cancer risk before individuals are aware that they are at risk. Multiple factors potentially contribute to the progression of cancer in obesity and type 2 diabetes, including hyperinsulinemia and insulin-like growth factor I, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, adipokines and cytokines, and the gut microbiome. These metabolic changes may contribute directly or indirectly to cancer progression. Intentional weight loss may protect against cancer development, and therapies for diabetes may prove to be effective adjuvant agents in reducing cancer progression. In this review we discuss the current epidemiology, basic science, and clinical data that link obesity, diabetes, and cancer and how treating obesity and type 2 diabetes could also reduce cancer risk and improve outcomes. PMID:26084689

  15. Obesity and Diabetes: The Increased Risk of Cancer and Cancer-Related Mortality.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Emily Jane; LeRoith, Derek

    2015-07-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide, and both are associated with an increased incidence and mortality from many cancers. The metabolic abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes develop many years before the onset of diabetes and, therefore, may be contributing to cancer risk before individuals are aware that they are at risk. Multiple factors potentially contribute to the progression of cancer in obesity and type 2 diabetes, including hyperinsulinemia and insulin-like growth factor I, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, adipokines and cytokines, and the gut microbiome. These metabolic changes may contribute directly or indirectly to cancer progression. Intentional weight loss may protect against cancer development, and therapies for diabetes may prove to be effective adjuvant agents in reducing cancer progression. In this review we discuss the current epidemiology, basic science, and clinical data that link obesity, diabetes, and cancer and how treating obesity and type 2 diabetes could also reduce cancer risk and improve outcomes. PMID:26084689

  16. Mortality and cancer morbidity of production workers in the United Kingdom flexible polyurethane foam industry.

    PubMed Central

    Sorahan, T; Pope, D

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To describe cause specific mortality and site specific cancer morbidity among workers employed in factories that produce polyurethane foams, and to determine if any part of the experience may be due to occupation, and in particular to exposure to diisocyanates. DESIGN--Historical prospective cohort study. SETTING--11 factories in England and Wales. SUBJECTS--8288 male and female production employees with some employment in the period 1958-79, and with a minimum period of employment of six months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Observed and expected numbers of deaths for the period 1958-88, and corresponding figures for cancer registrations for the period 1971-86. RESULTS--Compared with the general population of England and Wales, standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for all causes and all neoplasms were 97 (observed deaths (Obs) 816) and 88 (Obs 221) respectively. Statistically significant excesses were found among women for cancer of the pancreas (expected deaths (Exp) 2.2, Obs 6, SMR 271, 95% CI 100-595) and cancer of the lung (Exp 9.1, Obs 16, SMR 176, 95% CI 100-285). Similar excesses were not found among male employees, and the SMRs for cancers of the lung and pancreas among the total study population were 100 (Obs 81) and 136 (Obs 14) respectively. Overall incidence of cancer was also below expectation (SRR 94, Obs 277), although statistically significant excesses among women were found for cancers of the larynx and kidney, based on three and four cases respectively. Incident cancers of the lung and pancreas among women were also in excess, although these findings were not independent of the findings for mortality. Poison regression did not indicate that ever having been employed in jobs attracting either higher or lower exposure to isocyanates was a risk factor for the mentioned cancers. A nested case-control design was used to investigate any associations with nine other occupational exposures. No statistically significant association was found

  17. Industrial pollution and pleural cancer mortality in Spain.

    PubMed

    López-Abente, Gonzalo; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; Boldo, Elena; Ramis, Rebeca; García-Pérez, Javier

    2012-05-01

    Pleural cancer mortality is an acknowledged indicator of exposure to asbestos and mesothelioma mortality but in 15%-20% of cases no exposure can be recalled. In the past, asbestos was used in many industries and it is still found in many installations. Our objective was to ascertain whether there might be excess pleural cancer mortality among populations residing in the vicinity of Spanish industrial installations that are governed by the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Directive and the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register Regulation and report their emissions to air. An ecological study was designed to examine pleural cancer mortality at a municipal level (8098 Spanish towns) over the period 1997-2006, during which 2146 deaths were registered. We conducted an exploratory "near vs. far" analysis to estimate the relative risks (RRs) of towns situated at a distance of <2 km from installations. This analysis was repeated for each of the 24 industrial groups. RR and their 95% credible intervals (95% CIs) were estimated on the basis of a Poisson conditional autoregressive Bayesian model with explanatory variables. Integrated nested Laplace approximations were used as a Bayesian inference tool. Analysis showed statistically significant RRs in both sexes in the vicinity of 7 of the 24 industrial groups studied (RR, 95% CI), namely, biocide facilities (2.595, 1.459-4.621), ship-building (2.321, 1.379-3.918), glass and mineral fibre production (1.667, 1.041-2.665), non-hazardous waste treatment (1.737, 1.077-2.799), galvanising (1.637, 1.139-2.347), organic chemical plants (1.386, 1.075-1.782) and the food and beverage sector (1.255, 1.006-1.562). In the proximity of sources pertaining to the biocide, organic chemical and galvanising sectors, the risk was seen to be rising among men and women, a finding that could indicate airborne environmental exposure. These results support that residing in the vicinity of IPPC-registered industries that

  18. Cancer prevention: assessing causes, exposures, and recent trends in mortality for U. S. males, 1968-1978

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.L.; Bridbord, K.; Schneiderman, M.

    1983-01-01

    This paper addresses some enduring issues concerning prevention of environmental and occupational cancer. The first part reviews methodological problems of estimating cancer risks and outlines some research priorities. The second part documents countervailing trends in chemical production during the past two decades, noting the doubling of some synthetic organic human carcinogens and the leveling off of some heavy metal carcinogens. The final section details recent increases in site-specific causes of cancer mortality for men old enough to have developed workplace cancers (ages 35 to 84), considering those cancers that have been linked with exposures to toxic chemicals and to cigarette smoking. This paper points out that Doll and Peto's (1981) analysis of U.S. cancer trends does not indicate some important increases in older males; they conclude that apart from cigarette smoking, there is no generalized increase in cancer for persons up to age 64. In fact, there has been a sharp reduction in cancer mortality for those under age 45. This reduction more than offsets increases in some cancers for those ages 45 to 65. Men ages 55 to 84 have experienced major increases in mortality for certain cancers plausibly associated with occupational exposures, including cancers of the brain, lung, and multiple myeloma. These older age groups have potentially sustained longer workplace exposures to carcinogens, some of which have 25-year or greater latencies. Changes in infectious diseases, workplace exposures, diagnostic trends, environment, and nutrition require further study.

  19. Predicting mortality from burns: the need for age-group specific models.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sandra L; Lawless, MaryBeth; Curri, Terese; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2014-09-01

    Traditional burn mortality models are derived using all age groups. We hypothesized that age variably impacts mortality after burn and that age-specific models for children, adults, and seniors will more accurately predict mortality than an all-ages model. We audited data from the American Burn Association (ABA) National Burn Repository (NBR) from 2000 to 2009 and used mixed effect logistic regression models to assess the influence of age, total body surface area (TBSA) burn, and inhalation injury on mortality. Mortality models were constructed for all ages and age-specific models: children (<18 years), adults (18-60 years), and seniors (>60 years). Model performance was assessed by area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Main effect and two-way interactions were used to construct age-group specific mortality models. Each age-specific model was compared to the All Ages model. Of 286,293 records 100,051 had complete data. Overall mortality was 4% but varied by age (17% seniors, <1% children). Age, TBSA, and inhalation injury were significant mortality predictors for all models (p<0.05). Differences in predicted mortality between the All Ages model and the age-specific models occurred in children and seniors. In the age-specific pediatric model, predicted mortality decreased with age; inhalation injury had greater effect on mortality than in the All Ages model. In the senior model mortality increased with age. Seniors had greater increase in mortality per 1% increment in burn size and 1 year increase in age than other ages. The predicted mortality in seniors using the senior-specific model was higher than in the All Ages model. "One size fits all" models for predicting burn outcomes do not accurately reflect the outcomes for seniors and children. Age-specific models for children and seniors may be advisable. PMID:24846014

  20. Predicting Mortality from Burn Injuries: The need for age-group specific models

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Sandra L.; Lawless, MaryBeth; Curri, Terese; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G.; Palmieri, Tina L.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional burn mortality models are derived using all age groups. We hypothesized that age variably impacts mortality after burn and that age-specific models for children, adults, and seniors will more accurately predict mortality than an all-ages model. We audited data from the American Burn Association (ABA) National Burn Repository (NBR) from 2000-2009 and used mixed effect logistic regression models to assess the influence of age, total body surface area (TBSA) burn, and inhalation injury on mortality. Mortality models were constructed for all ages and age-specific models: children (<18 years), adults (18-60 years), and seniors (>60 years). Model performance was assessed by area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Main effect and two-way interactions were used to construct age-group specific mortality models. Each age-specific model was compared to the All Ages model. Of 286,293 records 100,051 had complete data. Overall mortality was 4% but varied by age (17% seniors, <1% children). Age, TBSA, and inhalation injury were significant mortality predictors for all models (p<0.05). Differences in predicted mortality between the All Ages model and the age-specific models occurred in children and seniors. In the age-specific pediatric model, predicted mortality decreased with age; inhalation injury had greater effect on mortality than in the All Ages model. In the senior model mortality increased with age. Seniors had greater increase in mortality per 1% increment in burn size and 1 year increase in age than other ages. The predicted mortality in seniors using the senior-specific model was higher than in the All Ages model. “One size fits all” models for predicting burn outcomes do not accurately reflect the outcomes for seniors and children. Age-specific models for children and seniors may be advisable. PMID:24846014

  1. Treatment-Related Mortality With Everolimus in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wesolowski, Robert; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Lustberg, Maryam; Paskell, Maria; Shapiro, Charles L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The overall incidence and odds of fatal adverse events (FAEs) after exposure to everolimus are not well defined. We performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the role of everolimus in treatment-related mortality in patients with cancer. Methods. PubMed databases and abstracts from the proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium were searched for RCTs of everolimus either alone or in combination with another agent compared with the control arm without everolimus and that reported deaths from an adverse event from January 1966 to July 2013. The primary objective was to determine the difference of FAEs between everolimus-treated patients and control group patients. Results. In total, 2,997 patients with multiple solid tumors from nine RCTs were included. The overall incidence of FAEs in cancer patients treated with everolimus was 0.7% (95% CI 0.3%–1.1%) compared with 0.4% (95% CI 0.0%–0.7%) in cancer patients who did not receive everolimus. The odds ratio of FAEs was greater in everolimus-treated patients (Peto odds ratio = 3.80, 95% CI 1.59–9.07, p = .003). In subgroup analyses, no significant difference was found in the incidence or odds of FAEs by everolimus administration (alone or in combination) or tumor type (breast cancer vs. nonbreast cancer; p = .63). Conclusion. In patients with cancer, everolimus is associated with a small but significant increase in the odds of a treatment-related fatal events. PMID:24794158

  2. Apple intake is inversely associated with all-cause and disease-specific mortality in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Jonathan M; Prince, Richard L; Woodman, Richard J; Bondonno, Catherine P; Ivey, Kerry L; Bondonno, Nicola; Rimm, Eric B; Ward, Natalie C; Croft, Kevin D; Lewis, Joshua R

    2016-03-14

    Higher fruit intake is associated with lower risk of all-cause and disease-specific mortality. However, data on individual fruits are limited, and the generalisability of these findings to the elderly remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to examine the association of apple intake with all-cause and disease-specific mortality over 15 years in a cohort of women aged over 70 years. Secondary analyses explored relationships of other fruits with mortality outcomes. Usual fruit intake was assessed in 1456 women using a FFQ. Incidence of all-cause and disease-specific mortality over 15 years was determined through the Western Australian Hospital Morbidity Data system. Cox regression was used to determine the hazard ratios (HR) for mortality. During 15 years of follow-up, 607 (41·7%) women died from any cause. In the multivariable-adjusted analysis, the HR for all-cause mortality was 0·89 (95% CI 0·81, 0·97) per sd (53 g/d) increase in apple intake, HR 0·80 (95% CI 0·65, 0·98) for consumption of 5-100 g/d and HR 0·65 (95% CI 0·48, 0·89) for consumption of >100 g/d (an apple a day), compared with apple intake of <5 g/d (P for trend=0·03). Our analysis also found that higher apple intake was associated with lower risk for cancer mortality, and that higher total fruit and banana intakes were associated lower risk of CVD mortality (P<0·05). Our results support the view that regular apple consumption may contribute to lower risk of mortality. PMID:26787402

  3. Apple intake is inversely associated with all-cause and disease-specific mortality in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Jonathan M; Prince, Richard L; Woodman, Richard J; Bondonno, Catherine P; Ivey, Kerry L; Bondonno, Nicola; Rimm, Eric B; Ward, Natalie C; Croft, Kevin D; Lewis, Joshua R

    2016-03-14

    Higher fruit intake is associated with lower risk of all-cause and disease-specific mortality. However, data on individual fruits are limited, and the generalisability of these findings to the elderly remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to examine the association of apple intake with all-cause and disease-specific mortality over 15 years in a cohort of women aged over 70 years. Secondary analyses explored relationships of other fruits with mortality outcomes. Usual fruit intake was assessed in 1456 women using a FFQ. Incidence of all-cause and disease-specific mortality over 15 years was determined through the Western Australian Hospital Morbidity Data system. Cox regression was used to determine the hazard ratios (HR) for mortality. During 15 years of follow-up, 607 (41·7%) women died from any cause. In the multivariable-adjusted analysis, the HR for all-cause mortality was 0·89 (95% CI 0·81, 0·97) per sd (53 g/d) increase in apple intake, HR 0·80 (95% CI 0·65, 0·98) for consumption of 5-100 g/d and HR 0·65 (95% CI 0·48, 0·89) for consumption of >100 g/d (an apple a day), compared with apple intake of <5 g/d (P for trend=0·03). Our analysis also found that higher apple intake was associated with lower risk for cancer mortality, and that higher total fruit and banana intakes were associated lower risk of CVD mortality (P<0·05). Our results support the view that regular apple consumption may contribute to lower risk of mortality.

  4. Incidence, mortality and survival of female breast cancer during 2003-2011 in Jiangsu province, China

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xinran; Han, Renqiang; Zhou, Jinyi; Yu, Hao; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the incidence, mortality and survival status of female breast cancer in Jiangsu province of China. Methods Population-based cancer registry data in Jiangsu province were collected during 2003-2011. Crude rates, age-specific rates, age-standardized rates and annual percent changes of incidence and mortality were calculated to describe the epidemiologic characteristics and time trends. Patients diagnosed from 2003 to 2005 were chosen for analyzing the survival status of breast cancer. Results From 2003 to 2011, 17,605 females were diagnosed with breast cancer and 4,883 died in selected registry areas in Jiangsu province. The crude incidence rate was 25.18/100,000, and the age-standardized rates by Chinese population (ASRC) and by world population (ASRW) were 19.03/100,000 and 17.92/100,000, respectively. During the same period, the crude mortality rate was 6.98/100,000 and the ASRC and ASRW were 4.93/100,000 and 4.80/100,000, respectively. From 2003 to 2011, the incidence and mortality increased with annual percent change of 11.37% and 5.78%, respectively. For survival analysis, 1,392 patients in 7 areas were identified in 2003-2005 and finished 5 years of follow-up. Survival rates were found to decrease with survival years, the 5-year observed survival rate was 45.9% and the relative survival rate was 52.0%. We also found that the survival rate varied across the province, which was lower in the north and higher in the south of Jiangsu province. Conclusions Breast cancer has become a significant public health problem in Jiangsu province and China. More resources should be invested in primary prevention, earlier diagnosis and better health services in order to increase survival rates among Chinese females. PMID:27478317

  5. Colorectal cancer mortality and industrial pollution in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Records kept as a result of the implementation of Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) and the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR) constitute a public inventory of industries, created by the European Commission, which is a valuable resource for monitoring industrial pollution. Our objective is to ascertain whether there might be excess colorectal cancer mortality among populations residing in the vicinity of Spanish industrial installations that are governed by the IPPC Directive and E-PRTR Regulation and report their emissions to air. Methods An ecological study was designed to examine colorectal cancer mortality at a municipal level (8098 Spanish towns), over the period 1997–2006. We conducted an exploratory "near vs. far" analysis to estimate the relative risks (RR) of towns situated at a distance of less than 2 km from industrial installations. The analysis was repeated for each of the 24 industrial groups. RR and their 95% credible/confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated on the basis of Poisson regression models, using two types of modelling: a) the conditional autoregressive Bayesian model proposed by Besag, York and Mollié, with explanatory variables; and b) a mixed regression model. Integrated nested Laplace approximations were used as a Bayesian inference tool. Results Statistically significant RRs were detected in the vicinity of mining industry (RR 1.258; 95%CI 1.082 - 1.463), paper and wood production (RR 1.071; 95%CI 1.007 – 1.140), food and beverage sector (RR 1.069; 95%CI 1.029 - 1.111), metal production and processing installations (RR 1.065; 95% CI 1.011 – 1.123) and ceramics (RR 1.050 ; 95%CI 1.004 – 1.099). Conclusions Given the exploratory nature of this study, it would seem advisable to check in other countries or with other designs, if the proximity of industries that emit pollutants into the air could be an added risk factor for colorectal cancer mortality. Nevertheless, some of

  6. Cause-specific mortality in diabetes: recent changes in trend mortality.

    PubMed

    Abi Khalil, Charbel; Roussel, Ronan; Mohammedi, Kamel; Danchin, Nicolas; Marre, Michel

    2012-06-01

    Diabetes is one of the most chronic diseases in Western populations. Mortality rates in diabetic patients are higher than in the general population and their prognosis following any cardiovascular event is generally worse. Type 1 diabetic patients' acute complications-related mortality decreases with time and the interval free from the diagnosis of diabetes until the development of chronic complications is larger although global mortality is still higher than that of sex- and age matched healthy individuals. As a consequence of better primary and secondary prevention, recent data in the general population show that there is a trend towards decreased cardiovascular events and increased life expectancy. The same thing applies for type 2 diabetic patients. However, increased survival in the general population associated to epidemic bursts of obesity and sedentary lifestyle all over the globe, leads to a higher incidence of type 2 diabetes worldwide. This counteracts the diminution of diabetes-related mortality that would move forward on an ascending slope in the next decades.

  7. Cancer and non-cancer mortality among French uranium cycle workers: the TRACY cohort

    PubMed Central

    Samson, Eric; Piot, Irwin; Zhivin, Sergey; Richardson, David B; Laroche, Pierre; Serond, Ana-Paula; Laurier, Dominique; Laurent, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The health effects of internal contamination by radionuclides, and notably by uranium, are poorly characterised. New cohorts of uranium workers are needed to better examine these effects. This paper analyses for the first time the mortality profile of the French cohort of uranium cycle workers. It considers mortality from cancer and non-cancer causes. Methods The cohort includes workers employed at least 6 months between 1958 and 2006 in French companies involved in the production of nuclear fuel. Vital status and causes of death were collected from French national registries. Workers were followed-up from 1 January 1968 to 31 December 2008. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed based on mortality rates for the French general population. Results The cohort includes 12 649 workers (88% men). The average length of follow-up is 27 years and the mean age at the end of the study is 60 years. Large mortality deficits are observed for non-cancer causes of death such as non-cancer respiratory diseases (SMR=0.51 (0.41 to 0.63)) and circulatory diseases (SMR=0.68 (0.62 to 0.74)). A mortality deficit of lower magnitude is also observed for all cancers combined (SMR (95% CI): 0.76 (0.71 to 0.81)). Pleural mesothelioma is elevated (SMR=2.04 (1.19 to 3.27)). Conclusions A healthy worker effect is observed in this new cohort of workers involved in the uranium cycle. Collection of individual information on internal uranium exposure as well as other risk factors is underway, to allow for the investigation of uranium-related risks. PMID:27048635

  8. Tendencies of mortality by prostate cancer in the states of the Central-West Region of Brazil, 1980-2011.

    PubMed

    da Silva, João Francisco Santos; Mattos, Inês Echenique; Aydos, Ricardo Dutra

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing the pattern of prostate cancer mortality in the Central-West Region, in the period 1980 - 2011. The quadrennial and annual mortality rates, age-standardized by the world population, were calculated. Polynomial regression models were estimated to analyze trends of mortality in Brazilian regions and in the states of the Central-West Region. Throughout Brazil there was an increase in the magnitude of mortality rates during the study's period. In the Central-West Region, mortality rates from prostate cancer increased from 7.65/100,000 in the period 1980 - 1983, to 14.36/100,000 in the last four years, exceeding the national average. For Mato Grosso do Sul, an increased trend, although not constant, was observed for prostate mortality rates, while those rates showed stability for Mato Grosso and presented a constant trend of increment for Goiás along the studied period. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between mortality rates from prostate cancer and the proportional mortality from ill-defined causes of death in the three states, but no correlations were observed between these rates and the ratios of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) tests realized. Difficulties in the access to the health services network, better quality of death records with reduction of ill-defined causes and increased use of PSA may have contributed to the mortality pattern observed in the Central-West Region. Further studies are needed to investigate these relationships in order, to better understand the patterns of mortality from this cancer in the Central-West population.

  9. Disparities in race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status: risk of mortality of breast cancer patients in the California Cancer Registry, 2000–2010

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Racial disparities in breast cancer survival have been well documented. This study examines the association of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) on breast cancer-specific mortality in a large population of women with invasive breast cancer. Methods We identified 179,143 cases of stages 1–3 first primary female invasive breast cancer from the California Cancer Registry from January, 2000 through December, 2010. Cox regression, adjusted for age, year of diagnosis, grade, and ER/PR/HER2 subtype, was used to assess the association of race/ethnicity on breast cancer-specific mortality within strata of stage and SES. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals were reported. Results Stage 1: There was no increased risk of mortality for any race/ethnicity when compared with whites within all SES strata. Stage 2: Hispanics (HR = 0.85; 0.75, 0.97) in the lowest SES category had a reduced risk of mortality.. Blacks had the same risk of mortality as whites in the lowest SES category but an increased risk of mortality in the intermediate (HR = 1.66; 1.34, 2.06) and highest (HR = 1.41; 1.15, 1.73) SES categories. Stage 3: Hispanics (HR = 0.74; 0.64, 0.85) and APIs (HR = 0.64; 0.50, 0.82) in the lowest SES category had a reduced risk while blacks had similar mortality as whites. Blacks had an increased risk of mortality in the intermediate (HR = 1.52; 1.20, 1.92) and highest (HR = 1.53; 1.22, 1.92) SES categories. Conclusions When analysis of breast cancer-specific mortality is adjusted for age and year of diagnosis, ER/PR/HER2 subtype, and tumor grade and cases compared within stage and SES strata, much of the black/white disparity disappears. SES plays a prominent role in breast cancer-specific mortality but it does not fully explain the racial/ethnic disparities and continued research in genetic, societal, and lifestyle factors is warranted. PMID:24083624

  10. An updated report on the trends in cancer incidence and mortality in Japan, 1958-2013.

    PubMed

    Katanoda, Kota; Hori, Megumi; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Hattori, Masakazu; Soda, Midori; Ioka, Akiko; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of cancer trends in Japan requires periodic updating. Herein, we present a comprehensive report on the trends in cancer incidence and mortality in Japan using recent population-based data. National cancer mortality data between 1958 and 2013 were obtained from published vital statistics. Cancer incidence data between 1985 and 2010 were obtained from high-quality population-based cancer registries of three prefectures (Yamagata, Fukui and Nagasaki). Joinpoint regression analysis was performed to examine the trends in age-standardized rates of cancer incidence and mortality. All-cancer mortality decreased from the mid-1990s, with an annual percent change of -1.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.4, -1.3). During the most recent 10 years, over 60% of the decrease in cancer mortality was accounted for by a decrease in stomach and liver cancers (63% for males and 66% for females). The long-term increase in female breast cancer mortality, beginning in the 1960s, plateaued in 2008. All-cancer incidence continuously increased, with annual percent changes of 0.6% (95% CI: 0.5, 0.8) between 1985 and 2005, and 1.8% (95% CI: 0.6, 2.9) between 2005 and 2010. During the most recent 10 years, almost half of the increase in cancer incidence was accounted for by an increase in prostate cancer (60%) in males and breast cancer (46%) in females. The cancer registry quality indices also began to increase from ∼2005. Decreases in stomach and liver cancers observed for incidence and mortality reflect the reduced attribution of infection-related factors (i.e. Helicobacter pylori and hepatitis virus). However, it should be noted that cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates began to increase from ∼1990.

  11. Cancer mortality among local authority pest control officers in England and Wales.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, H F; Winter, P D; Donaldson, L J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine cancer mortality by tumour site among local authority pest control officers. METHODS: Prospective mortality study, and follow up to the end of 1994, of 1485 male pest control officers aged between 17 and 69 and employed in 296 local authorities in England and Wales for at least six months between January 1980 and April 1984. Observed numbers of deaths were compared with those expected on the basis of the rates for relevant calendar year, cause, sex, and age specific groups for England and Wales. RESULTS: 200 deaths occurred during the follow up period of which 65 were certified as due to malignant neoplasms. No tumour type showed significantly more deaths than expected. Total all cause, lung cancer, and respiratory disease mortality were significantly lower than expected. CONCLUSIONS: 15 year follow up of a group of men handling a wide range of pesticides did not show any significant risk of cancer. This may be partially explained by the healthy worker effect and also the limited power of the study to detect significant increases in the less common tumours. Further long term follow up of this cohort will continue. Chemical control of pests that can cause human disease and can contaminate food and water has been, and will continue to be, a major public health measure. It is important to ensure that the health of those applying pesticides is not at excess risk. Negative results are important. PMID:9038805

  12. Salivary Immunoglobulin A Secretion Rate Is Negatively Associated with Cancer Mortality: The West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Anna C; Carroll, Douglas; Drayson, Mark T; Der, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulins are essential for combating infectious disease although very high levels can indicate underlying pathology. The present study examined associations between secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in saliva and mortality rates in the general population. Participants were 639 adults from the eldest cohort of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study aged 63 years at the time of saliva sampling in 1995. From unstimulated 2-minute saliva samples, saliva volume and S-IgA concentration were measured, and S-IgA secretion rate determined as their product. Mortality data were tracked for 19 years. Cox proportional hazard models were applied to compute hazard ratios (HR) for all-cause mortality from sIgA secretion rate. Associations were adjusted for gender, assay batch, household occupational group, smoking, medication usage, and self-reported health. There was a negative association between log sIgA secretion rate and all-cause mortality, HR = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.73-0.91, p < .001. Further analysis of specific causes of mortality revealed that the all-cause association was due to an underlying association with cancer mortality and in particular with cancers other than lung cancer. The HR for non-lung cancer was 0.68 (95%CI = 0.54 to 0.85) implying a 32% reduction in mortality risk per standard deviation rise in log sIgA secretion rate. Effects were stronger for men than women. For deaths from respiratory diseases, sIgA secretion had a non-linear relationship with mortality risk whereby only the very lowest levels of secretion were associated with elevated risk. SIgA concentration revealed a similar but weaker pattern of association. In the present study, higher secretion rates of sIgA were associated with a decreased risk of death from cancer, specifically non-lung cancer, as well as from respiratory disease. Thus, it appears that sIgA plays a protective role among older adults, and could serve as a marker of mortality risk, specifically cancer mortality. PMID:26699127

  13. Salivary Immunoglobulin A Secretion Rate Is Negatively Associated with Cancer Mortality: The West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Douglas; Drayson, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulins are essential for combating infectious disease although very high levels can indicate underlying pathology. The present study examined associations between secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in saliva and mortality rates in the general population. Participants were 639 adults from the eldest cohort of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study aged 63 years at the time of saliva sampling in 1995. From unstimulated 2-minute saliva samples, saliva volume and S-IgA concentration were measured, and S-IgA secretion rate determined as their product. Mortality data were tracked for 19 years. Cox proportional hazard models were applied to compute hazard ratios (HR) for all-cause mortality from sIgA secretion rate. Associations were adjusted for gender, assay batch, household occupational group, smoking, medication usage, and self-reported health. There was a negative association between log sIgA secretion rate and all-cause mortality, HR = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.73–0.91, p < .001. Further analysis of specific causes of mortality revealed that the all-cause association was due to an underlying association with cancer mortality and in particular with cancers other than lung cancer. The HR for non-lung cancer was 0.68 (95%CI = 0.54 to 0.85) implying a 32% reduction in mortality risk per standard deviation rise in log sIgA secretion rate. Effects were stronger for men than women. For deaths from respiratory diseases, sIgA secretion had a non-linear relationship with mortality risk whereby only the very lowest levels of secretion were associated with elevated risk. SIgA concentration revealed a similar but weaker pattern of association. In the present study, higher secretion rates of sIgA were associated with a decreased risk of death from cancer, specifically non-lung cancer, as well as from respiratory disease. Thus, it appears that sIgA plays a protective role among older adults, and could serve as a marker of mortality risk, specifically cancer mortality. PMID:26699127

  14. Cause-Specific Mortality and Death Certificate Reporting in Adults with Moderate to Profound Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyrer, F.; McGrother, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The study of premature deaths in people with intellectual disability (ID) has become the focus of recent policy initiatives in England. This is the first UK population-based study to explore cause-specific mortality in adults with ID compared with the general population. Methods: Cause-specific standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and…

  15. The American Cancer Society challenge goal to reduce US cancer mortality by 50% between 1990 and 2015: Results and reflections.

    PubMed

    Byers, Tim; Wender, Richard C; Jemal, Ahmedin; Baskies, Arnold M; Ward, Elizabeth E; Brawley, Otis W

    2016-09-01

    In 1996, the Board of Directors of the American Cancer Society (ACS) challenged the United States to reduce what looked to be possible peak cancer mortality in 1990 by 50% by the year 2015. This analysis examines the trends in cancer mortality across this 25-year challenge period from 1990 to 2015. In 2015, cancer death rates were 26% lower than in 1990 (32% lower among men and 22% lower among women). The 50% reduction goal was more fully met for the cancer sites for which there was enactment of effective approaches for prevention, early detection, and/or treatment. Among men, mortality rates dropped for lung cancer by 45%, for colorectal cancer by 47%, and for prostate cancer by 53%. Among women, mortality rates dropped for lung cancer by 8%, for colorectal cancer by 44%, and for breast cancer by 39%. Declines in the death rates of all other cancer sites were substantially smaller (13% among men and 17% among women). The major factors that accounted for these favorable trends were progress in tobacco control and improvements in early detection and treatment. As we embark on new national cancer goals, this recent past experience should teach us that curing the cancer problem will require 2 sets of actions: making new discoveries in cancer therapeutics and more completely applying those discoveries in cancer prevention we have already made. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:359-369. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:27175568

  16. The American Cancer Society challenge goal to reduce US cancer mortality by 50% between 1990 and 2015: Results and reflections.

    PubMed

    Byers, Tim; Wender, Richard C; Jemal, Ahmedin; Baskies, Arnold M; Ward, Elizabeth E; Brawley, Otis W

    2016-09-01

    In 1996, the Board of Directors of the American Cancer Society (ACS) challenged the United States to reduce what looked to be possible peak cancer mortality in 1990 by 50% by the year 2015. This analysis examines the trends in cancer mortality across this 25-year challenge period from 1990 to 2015. In 2015, cancer death rates were 26% lower than in 1990 (32% lower among men and 22% lower among women). The 50% reduction goal was more fully met for the cancer sites for which there was enactment of effective approaches for prevention, early detection, and/or treatment. Among men, mortality rates dropped for lung cancer by 45%, for colorectal cancer by 47%, and for prostate cancer by 53%. Among women, mortality rates dropped for lung cancer by 8%, for colorectal cancer by 44%, and for breast cancer by 39%. Declines in the death rates of all other cancer sites were substantially smaller (13% among men and 17% among women). The major factors that accounted for these favorable trends were progress in tobacco control and improvements in early detection and treatment. As we embark on new national cancer goals, this recent past experience should teach us that curing the cancer problem will require 2 sets of actions: making new discoveries in cancer therapeutics and more completely applying those discoveries in cancer prevention we have already made. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:359-369. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  17. All-cause and cause-specific mortality among Black and White North Carolina state prisoners, 1995-2005

    PubMed Central

    Wohl, David A.; Schoenbach, Victor J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We compared mortality rates among state prisoners and other state residents to identify prisoners’ healthcare needs Methods We linked North Carolina prison records with state death records for 1995-2005 to estimate all-cause and cause-specific death rates among Black and White male prisoners aged 20-79 years, and used standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) to compare these observed deaths with the expected number based on death rates among state residents Results The all-cause SMR of Black prisoners was 0.52 (95%CI: 0.48 0.57), with fewer deaths than expected from accidents, homicides, cardiovascular disease and cancer. The all-cause SMR of White prisoners was 1.12 (95%CI: 1.01, 1.25) with fewer deaths than expected for accidents, but more deaths than expected from viral hepatitis, liver disease, cancer, chronic lower respiratory disease, and HIV. Conclusions Mortality of Black prisoners was lower than that of Black state residents for both traumatic and chronic causes of death. Mortality of White prisoners was lower than that of White state residents for accidents, but higher for several chronic causes of death. Future studies should investigate the effect of prisoners’ pre-incarceration and in-prison morbidity, the prison environment, and prison healthcare on prisoners’ patterns of mortality. PMID:21737304

  18. Height and risk of death among men and women: aetiological implications of associations with cardiorespiratory disease and cancer mortality

    PubMed Central

    Smith, G. D.; Hart, C.; Upton, M.; Hole, D.; Gillis, C.; Watt, G.; Hawthorne, V.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Height is inversely associated with cardiovascular disease mortality risk and has shown variable associations with cancer incidence and mortality. The interpretation of findings from previous studies has been constrained by data limitations. Associations between height and specific causes of death were investigated in a large general population cohort of men and women from the West of Scotland.
DESIGN—Prospective observational study.
SETTING—Renfrew and Paisley, in the West of Scotland.
SUBJECTS—7052 men and 8354 women aged 45-64 were recruited into a study in Renfrew and Paisley, in the West of Scotland, between 1972 and 1976. Detailed assessments of cardiovascular disease risk factors, morbidity and socioeconomic circumstances were made at baseline.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Deaths during 20 years of follow up classified into specific causes.
RESULTS—Over the follow up period 3347 men and 2638 women died. Height is inversely associated with all cause, coronary heart disease, stroke, and respiratory disease mortality among men and women. Adjustment for socioeconomic position and cardiovascular risk factors had little influence on these associations. Height is strongly associated with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and adjustment for FEV1 considerably attenuated the association between height and cardiorespiratory mortality. Smoking related cancer mortality is not associated with height. The risk of deaths from cancer unrelated to smoking tended to increase with height, particularly for haematopoietic, colorectal and prostate cancers. Stomach cancer mortality was inversely associated with height. Adjustment for socioeconomic position had little influence on these associations.
CONCLUSION—Height serves partly as an indicator of socioeconomic circumstances and nutritional status in childhood and this may underlie the inverse associations between height and adulthood cardiorespiratory mortality. Much of the

  19. Cancer Statistics in Korea: Incidence, Mortality, Survival, and Prevalence in 2008

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyu-Won; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Won, Young-Joo; Lee, Joo Young; Park, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Jin-Soo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This paper overviews the nationwide cancer statistics including incidence, mortality, survival and prevalence, and their trends in Korea based on the year 2008 cancer incidence data. Materials and Methods Incidence data from 1993 to 2008 were obtained from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database, and the vital status was followed through December 31, 2009. Mortality data from 1983 to 2008 were obtained from the Korea National Statistics Office. Crude rates and age-standardized rates for incidence, mortality, prevalence and relative survival were calculated. Results There were 178,816 cancer cases and 68,912 cancer deaths observed during year 2008 and 724,663 10-year cancer prevalent cases as of January 1, 2009 in Korea. The incidence rate for all cancer combined showed an annual increase of 3.1% from 1999 to 2008. Conclusion With significantly increasing cancer incidence, Korea faces a large cancer burden and efficient cancer control programs are essential. PMID:21509157

  20. The mortality and cancer experience of New Zealand Vietnam war veterans: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    McBride, David; Cox, Brian; Broughton, John; Tong, Darryl

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to observe the patterns of mortality and cancer incidence in New Zealand Vietnam veterans. The objectives were to assess whether the patterns of disease observed were consistent with those associated with military service in Vietnam, and similar to the patterns identified in other groups of Vietnam veterans. Design A historical cohort study. Setting Veterans, identified from service records, with Vietnam service between 1964 and 1972. Participants Of the 3322 survivors of Vietnam service, we followed up 2783 (84%). Outcome measures Standardised mortality and incidence ratios (SMRs and SIRs, respectively) were calculated based on the number of deaths and cancer registrations observed, those expected being based on New Zealand national rates. Results All cause mortality was significantly reduced (SMR 0.85, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.94) and cancer incidence non-significantly increased (SIR 1.06, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.16). The risk of mortality from cancers of the head and neck (SMR 2.20, 95% CI 1.09 to 3.93); oral cavity pharynx and larynx (SMR 2.13, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.81) and the incidence of chronic lymphatic leukaemia (CLL) (SIR 1.91, 95% CI 1.04 to 3.20) were, however, significantly increased. Other lymphohaematopoietic disorders, specifically multiple myeloma and Hodgkin disease, showed non-significant mortality excesses, reflected by a similar increase in incidence. Conclusions Service in the Vietnam war was associated with defoliant herbicide exposure, including 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, picloram and cacodylic acid. Subsequent reviews of mechanistic, animal and epidemiological evidence led to certain conditions being deemed compensable. The pattern of mortality and cancer incidence is not at odds with the list of compensable conditions and consistent with that found in Australian veterans serving in the same area of Vietnam, but also consistent with smoking and the healthy soldier effect. In common with the

  1. Gastrointestinal cancer mortality of workers in occupations with high asbestos exposures.

    PubMed

    Kang, S K; Burnett, C A; Freund, E; Walker, J; Lalich, N; Sestito, J

    1997-06-01

    Asbestos, which is a well-known risk factor for lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma, has also been suggested as a gastrointestinal (GI) carcinogen. This study was conducted to assess the relationship between high asbestos exposure occupations and the occurrence of G1 cancer. Death certificate data were analyzed from 4,943,566 decedents with information on occupation and industry from 28 states from 1979 through 1990. Elevated proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) for mesothelioma were used to identify occupations potentially having many workers exposed to asbestos. All PMRs were age-adjusted and sex- and race-specific. The PMRs for GI cancers in white males were then calculated for these occupations after excluding mesothelioma, lung cancer, and non-malignant respiratory disease from all deaths. We identified 15,524 cases of GI cancer in the 12 occupations with elevated PMRs for mesothelioma. When these occupations were combined, the PMRs for esophageal, gastric, and colorectal cancer were significantly elevated at 108 (95% confidence interval = 107-110), 110 (106-113), and 109 (107-110), respectively. Esophageal cancer was elevated in sheet metal workers and mechanical workers. Gastric cancer was elevated in supervisors in production and managers. Colorectal cancer was elevated in mechanical and electrical and electronic engineers. However, high exposure occupations like insulation, construction painter supervisors, plumbers, furnace operators, and construction electricians showed no elevations of GI cancers. In conclusion, this death certificate study supports an association between asbestos exposure and some GI cancer, however the magnitude of this effect is very small.

  2. Cause-Specific Mortality in HIV-Positive Patients Who Survived Ten Years after Starting Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    May, Margaret T.; Vehreschild, Janne; Obel, Niels; Gill, Michael John; Crane, Heidi; Boesecke, Christoph; Samji, Hasina; Grabar, Sophie; Cazanave, Charles; Cavassini, Matthias; Shepherd, Leah; d’Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Smit, Colette; Saag, Michael; Lampe, Fiona; Hernando, Vicky; Montero, Marta; Zangerle, Robert; Justice, Amy C.; Sterling, Timothy; Miro, Jose; Ingle, Suzanne; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate mortality rates and prognostic factors in HIV-positive patients who started combination antiretroviral therapy between 1996–1999 and survived for more than ten years. Methods We used data from 18 European and North American HIV cohort studies contributing to the Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration. We followed up patients from ten years after start of combination antiretroviral therapy. We estimated overall and cause-specific mortality rate ratios for age, sex, transmission through injection drug use, AIDS, CD4 count and HIV-1 RNA. Results During 50,593 person years 656/13,011 (5%) patients died. Older age, male sex, injecting drug use transmission, AIDS, and low CD4 count and detectable viral replication ten years after starting combination antiretroviral therapy were associated with higher subsequent mortality. CD4 count at ART start did not predict mortality in models adjusted for patient characteristics ten years after start of antiretroviral therapy. The most frequent causes of death (among 340 classified) were non-AIDS cancer, AIDS, cardiovascular, and liver-related disease. Older age was strongly associated with cardiovascular mortality, injecting drug use transmission with non-AIDS infection and liver-related mortality, and low CD4 and detectable viral replication ten years after starting antiretroviral therapy with AIDS mortality. Five-year mortality risk was <5% in 60% of all patients, and in 30% of those aged over 60 years. Conclusions Viral replication, lower CD4 count, prior AIDS, and transmission via injecting drug use continue to predict higher all-cause and AIDS-related mortality in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy for over a decade. Deaths from AIDS and non-AIDS infection are less frequent than deaths from other non-AIDS causes. PMID:27525413

  3. Studies of the mortality of atomic bomb survivors. Report 12, Part I. Cancer: 1950-1990

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, D.A.; Shimizu, Y.; Preston, D.L.

    1996-07-01

    This continues the series of periodic general reports on cancer mortality in the cohort of A-bomb survivors followed by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. The follow-up is extended by the 5 years 1986-1990, and analysis includes an additional 10,500 survivors with recently estimated radiation doses. Together these extensions add about 550,000 person-years of follow-up. The cohort analyzed consists of 86,572 subjects, of which about 60% have dose estimates of at least 0.005 Sv. During 1950-1990 there have been 3086 and 4741 cancer deaths for the less than and greater than 0.005 Sv groups, respectively. It is estimated that among these there have been approximately 420 excess cancer deaths during 19509-1990, of which about 85 were due to leukemia, For cancers other than leukemia (solid cancers), about 25% of the excess deaths in 1950-1990 occurred during the last 5 years; for those exposed as children this figure is nearly 50%. For leukemia only about 3% of the excess deaths in 1950-1990 occurred in th last 5 years. Whereas most of the excess for leukemia occurred in the first 15 years after exposure, for solid cancers the pattern of excess risk in apparently more like alife-long elevation of the natural age-specific cancer risk. 29 refs., 8 figs., 19 tabs.

  4. Tissue Specific Promoters in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rama, A. R.; Aguilera, A.; Melguizo, C.; Caba, O.; Prados, J.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is the third most prevalent cancer in the world. In the most advanced stages, the use of chemotherapy induces a poor response and is usually accompanied by other tissue damage. Significant progress based on suicide gene therapy has demonstrated that it may potentiate the classical cytotoxic effects in colorectal cancer. The inconvenience still rests with the targeting and the specificity efficiency. The main target of gene therapy is to achieve an effective vehicle to hand over therapeutic genes safely into specific cells. One possibility is the use of tumor-specific promoters overexpressed in cancers. They could induce a specific expression of therapeutic genes in a given tumor, increasing their localized activity. Several promoters have been assayed into direct suicide genes to cancer cells. This review discusses the current status of specific tumor-promoters and their great potential in colorectal carcinoma treatment. PMID:26648599

  5. Investigation of mortality from cancer and other causes of death among workers employed at an east Texas chemical plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, M.H.; Beaumont, J.J.; Waxweiler, R.J.; Halperin, W.E.

    1984-10-01

    A historical prospective mortality study of chemical workers was conducted. The purpose of the study was to evaluate a suspected increase in deaths due to brain cancer and multiple myeloma. The cohort consisted of 2510 males who worked for at least 1 day at a chemical factory in East Texas between January 1, 1952 and December 31, 1977. The facility's major product was tetraethyllead. The cohort was traced through company, union, Social Security Administration, Internal Revenue Service, and state records. Death certificates were obtained from state vital statistics offices. The observed mortality was compared with predicted rates for all United States males. The authors conclude that no statistically significant increase in site specific mortality from cancer occurred. The small excess observed for brain and other cancers may have been due to chance associations.

  6. Exposure to asbestos and lung and pleural cancer mortality among pulp and paper industry workers.

    PubMed

    Carel, Rafael; Boffetta, Paolo; Kauppinen, Timo; Teschke, Kay; Andersen, Aage; Jäppinen, Paavo; Pearce, Neil; Rix, Bo Andreassen; Bergeret, Alain; Coggon, David; Persson, Bodil; Szadkowska-Stanczyk, Irena; Kielkowski, Danuta; Henneberger, Paul; Kishi, Reiko; Facchini, Luiz Augusto; Sala, Maria; Colin, Didier; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2002-06-01

    We studied the mortality from lung and pleural cancers in a cohort of 62,937 male workers employed for at least 1 year in the pulp and paper industry in 13 countries during 1945 to 1996. Mill departments were classified according to probability and level of exposure to asbestos on the basis of available dust measurements and mill-specific information on exposure circumstances. Thirty-six percent of workers were classified as ever exposed to asbestos. Standardized mortality ratios of lung cancer were 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90 to 1.08) among unexposed and 1.00 (95% CI, 0.90 to 1.11) among ever exposed workers. The number of pleural cancer deaths among unexposed workers was 10; that among exposed workers was 14, most of which occurred among maintenance workers. In internal analyses, a trend in mortality from either neoplasm was suggested for estimated cumulative exposure to asbestos, weighted for the individual probability of exposure within the department and for duration of exposure (relative risk for lung cancer for 0.78+ f/cc-years, as compared with < or = 0.01 f/cc-years: 1.44; 95% CI, 0.85 to 2.45; corresponding relative risk for pleural cancer: 2.43; 95% CI, 0.43 to 13.63). Despite a possible nondifferential misclassification of exposure and outcome, this study suggests that the carcinogenic effect of asbestos can be detected among workers employed in industries such as the pulp and paper industry, in which it is not considered to be a major hazard.

  7. All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality among Users of Basal Insulins NPH, Detemir, and Glargine

    PubMed Central

    Strandberg, Timo E.; Christopher, Solomon; Haukka, Jari; Korhonen, Pasi

    2016-01-01

    Background Insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes may increase mortality and cancer incidence, but the impact of different types of basal insulins on these endpoints is unclear. Compared to the traditional NPH insulin, the newer, longer-acting insulin analogues detemir and glargine have shown benefits in randomized controlled trials. Whether these advantages translate into lower mortality among users in real life is unknown. Objective To estimate the differences in all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates between new users of basal insulins in a population-based study in Finland. Methods 23 751 individuals aged ≥40 with type 2 diabetes, who initiated basal insulin therapy in 2006–2009 were identified from national registers, with comprehensive data for mortality, causes of death, and background variables. Propensity score matching was performed on characteristics. Follow-up time was up to 4 years (median 1.7 years). Results 2078 deaths incurred. With NPH as reference, the adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality were 0.39 (95% CI, 0.30–0.50) for detemir, and 0.55 (95% CI, 0.44–0.69) for glargine. As compared to glargine, the HR was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.54–0.93) among detemir users. Compared to NPH, the mortality risk for both cardiovascular causes as well as cancer were also significantly lower for glargine, and especially for detemir in adjusted analysis. Furthermore, the results were robust in various sensitivity analyses. Conclusion In real clinical practice, mortality was substantially higher among users of NPH insulin as compared to insulins detemir or glargine. Considering the large number of patients who require insulin therapy, this difference in risk may have major clinical and public health implications. Due to limitations of the observational study design, further investigation using an interventional study design is warranted. PMID:27031113

  8. Association of cancer mortality with postdiagnosis overweight and obesity using body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xinsen; Zhou, Lei; Miao, Runchen; Chen, Wei; Zhou, Yanyan; Pang, Qing; Qu, Kai; Liu, Chang

    2016-01-01

    Although overweight and obesity increase cancer risk, it is still controversial with respect to cancer mortality. In the current study, we enrolled 2670 patients of 14 tumor types from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project, to identify the prognostic role of overweight and obesity in cancer patients. After dividing the patients into different groups by the body mass index (BMI), we found significant lower mortality in the obesity group. In addition, we also treat BMI value as a binary categorical variable or continuous variable, respectively. We found significant lower mortality in the higher BMI group. Furthermore, when focusing on each tumor type, cervical cancer and bladder cancer showed lower mortality in the patients with higher BMI values. Taken together, our results demonstrate that postdiagnosis obesity might indicate a better prognosis in cancer patients. However, these findings should be interpreted cautiously because of small sample size. PMID:26657291

  9. Investigation of circular asymmetry in cancer mortality of Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, A.V. Jr.; Prentice, R.L.; Ishimaru, T.; Kato, H.; Mason, M.

    1983-01-01

    Data on Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors are used to investigate, for each city, possible circular asymmetry in cancer mortality around the hypocenter. Using the Cox regression method and controlling for age ATB, sex, followup year, distance from the hypocenter, and type of shielding, it is found that in Hiroshima cancer mortality was significantly higher in the westerly direction from the hypocenter. Mortality from stomach cancer, leukemia, and colon cancer were higher in the westerly direction. In Nagasaki, only lung cancer exhibited circular asymmetry, and was significantly higher in the westerly direction. For various reasons, the results tend to support the possibility of an asymmetry in radiation dose in Hiroshima, but not in Nagasaki. Also, possible asymmetry in nondose variables associated with cancer is suggested in both cities, particularly in variables associated with lung cancer. Indications for future work and implications for future dose-mortality investigations are discussed.

  10. A review of methods to estimate cause-specific mortality in presence of competing risks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heisey, Dennis M.; Patterson, Brent R.

    2006-01-01

    Estimating cause-specific mortality is often of central importance for understanding the dynamics of wildlife populations. Despite such importance, methodology for estimating and analyzing cause-specific mortality has received little attention in wildlife ecology during the past 20 years. The issue of analyzing cause-specific, mutually exclusive events in time is not unique to wildlife. In fact, this general problem has received substantial attention in human biomedical applications within the context of biostatistical survival analysis. Here, we consider cause-specific mortality from a modern biostatistical perspective. This requires carefully defining what we mean by cause-specific mortality and then providing an appropriate hazard-based representation as a competing risks problem. This leads to the general solution of cause-specific mortality as the cumulative incidence function (CIF). We describe the appropriate generalization of the fully nonparametric staggered-entry Kaplan–Meier survival estimator to cause-specific mortality via the nonparametric CIF estimator (NPCIFE), which in many situations offers an attractive alternative to the Heisey–Fuller estimator. An advantage of the NPCIFE is that it lends itself readily to risk factors analysis with standard software for Cox proportional hazards model. The competing risks–based approach also clarifies issues regarding another intuitive but erroneous "cause-specific mortality" estimator based on the Kaplan–Meier survival estimator and commonly seen in the life sciences literature.

  11. Diabetes and Cause-Specific Mortality in a Prospective Cohort of One Million U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Peter T.; Newton, Christina C.; Patel, Alpa V.; Jacobs, Eric J.; Gapstur, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Diabetes is a major predictor of death from heart disease and stroke; its impact on nonvascular mortality, including specific cancers, is less understood. We examined the association of diabetes with cause-specific mortality, including deaths from specific cancers. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A prospective cohort of 1,053,831 U.S. adults, without cancer at baseline, enrolled in the Cancer Prevention Study-II in 1982 and was followed for mortality until December 2008. At baseline, participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that included information on diabetes, smoking, physical activity, height, and weight. Multivariable-adjusted relative risks (RRs) (95% CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS During 26 years of follow-up, 243,051 men and 222,109 women died. In multivariable models that controlled for age, BMI, and other variables, diabetes was associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality (women RR 1.90 [95% CI 1.87–1.93]; men 1.73 [1.70–1.75]). Among women, diabetes was associated with higher risk of death from cancers of the liver (1.40 [1.05–1.86]), pancreas (1.31 [1.14–1.51]), endometrium (1.33 [1.08–1.65]), colon (1.18 [1.04–1.33]), and breast (1.16 [1.03–1.29]). Among men, diabetes was associated with risk of death from cancers of the breast (4.20 [2.20–8.04]), liver (2.26 [1.89–2.70]), oral cavity and pharynx (1.44 [1.07–1.94]), pancreas (1.40 [1.23–1.59]), bladder (1.22 [1.01–1.47]), colon (1.15 [1.03–1.29]), and (inversely) prostate (0.88 [0.79–0.97]). Diabetes was also associated with higher risks of death involving the circulatory system, respiratory system, digestive system, genitourinary system, and external causes/accidental deaths. CONCLUSIONS Diabetes is associated with higher risk of death for many diseases, including several specific forms of cancer. PMID:22699290

  12. Agricultural Chemical Use and White Male Cancer Mortality in Selected Rural Farm Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, C. Shannon; Brace, Kathy D.

    A study of 1,497 nonmetropolitan counties was conducted to test the possible contribution of agricultural chemical use to cancer mortality rates in rural counties. The dependent variables were 20-year age-adjusted mortality rates for 1950 to 1969 for five categories of cancer: genital, urinary, lymphatic, respiratory, and digestive. Because sex…

  13. The Effect of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Obesity on Cancer Mortality in Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Stevens, June; Cai, Jianwen; Thomas, Ratna; Thomas, Olivia

    2003-01-01

    Investigated the independent and combined effects of cardiorespiratory fitness and obesity on all-cause cancer mortality for women and men. Data from the Lipids Research Clinics Prevalence Study indicated that higher fitness level was a stronger predictor of reduced cancer mortality among men, while high body mass index was a stronger predictor of…

  14. [Preoperative evaluation and predictors of mortality in lung cancer resection].

    PubMed

    Rojas, Andrés; Opazo, Marcela; Hernández, Marcela; Ávila, Paulina; Villalobos, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Surgical resection of lung cancer, the only available curative option today, is strongly associated with mortality. The goal during the perioperative period is to identify and evaluate appropriate candidates for lung resection in a more careful way and reduce the immediate perioperative risk and posterior disability. This is a narrative review of perioperative risk assessment in lung cancer resection. Instruments designed to facilitate decision-making have been implemented in recent years but with contradictory results. Cardiovascular risk assessment should be the first step before a potential lung resection, considering that most of these patients are old, smokers and have atherosclerosis. Respiratory mechanics determined by postoperative forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), the evaluation of the alveolar-capillary membrane by diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide and cardiopulmonary function measuring the maximum O2 consumption, will give clues about the patient's respiratory and cardiac response to stress. With these assessments, the patient and its attending team can reach a treatment decision balancing the perioperative risk, the chances of survival and the pulmonary long-term disability.

  15. Meat consumption and mortality - results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, some US cohorts have shown a moderate association between red and processed meat consumption and mortality supporting the results of previous studies among vegetarians. The aim of this study was to examine the association of red meat, processed meat, and poultry consumption with the risk of early death in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods Included in the analysis were 448,568 men and women without prevalent cancer, stroke, or myocardial infarction, and with complete information on diet, smoking, physical activity and body mass index, who were between 35 and 69 years old at baseline. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association of meat consumption with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Results As of June 2009, 26,344 deaths were observed. After multivariate adjustment, a high consumption of red meat was related to higher all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01 to 1.28, 160+ versus 10 to 19.9 g/day), and the association was stronger for processed meat (HR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.66, 160+ versus 10 to 19.9 g/day). After correction for measurement error, higher all-cause mortality remained significant only for processed meat (HR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.25, per 50 g/d). We estimated that 3.3% (95% CI 1.5% to 5.0%) of deaths could be prevented if all participants had a processed meat consumption of less than 20 g/day. Significant associations with processed meat intake were observed for cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and 'other causes of death'. The consumption of poultry was not related to all-cause mortality. Conclusions The results of our analysis support a moderate positive association between processed meat consumption and mortality, in particular due to cardiovascular diseases, but also to cancer. PMID:23497300

  16. Hypnotics' association with mortality or cancer: a matched cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Robert D; Kline, Lawrence E

    2012-01-01

    Objectives An estimated 6%–10% of US adults took a hypnotic drug for poor sleep in 2010. This study extends previous reports associating hypnotics with excess mortality. Setting A large integrated health system in the USA. Design Longitudinal electronic medical records were extracted for a one-to-two matched cohort survival analysis. Subjects Subjects (mean age 54 years) were 10 529 patients who received hypnotic prescriptions and 23 676 matched controls with no hypnotic prescriptions, followed for an average of 2.5 years between January 2002 and January 2007. Main outcome measures Data were adjusted for age, gender, smoking, body mass index, ethnicity, marital status, alcohol use and prior cancer. Hazard ratios (HRs) for death were computed from Cox proportional hazards models controlled for risk factors and using up to 116 strata, which exactly matched cases and controls by 12 classes of comorbidity. Results As predicted, patients prescribed any hypnotic had substantially elevated hazards of dying compared to those prescribed no hypnotics. For groups prescribed 0.4–18, 18–132 and >132 doses/year, HRs (95% CIs) were 3.60 (2.92 to 4.44), 4.43 (3.67 to 5.36) and 5.32 (4.50 to 6.30), respectively, demonstrating a dose–response association. HRs were elevated in separate analyses for several common hypnotics, including zolpidem, temazepam, eszopiclone, zaleplon, other benzodiazepines, barbiturates and sedative antihistamines. Hypnotic use in the upper third was associated with a significant elevation of incident cancer; HR=1.35 (95% CI 1.18 to 1.55). Results were robust within groups suffering each comorbidity, indicating that the death and cancer hazards associated with hypnotic drugs were not attributable to pre-existing disease. Conclusions Receiving hypnotic prescriptions was associated with greater than threefold increased hazards of death even when prescribed <18 pills/year. This association held in separate analyses for several commonly used

  17. Population-based incidence and mortality cancer trends (1986-1997) from the network of Italian cancer registries.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, E; Capocaccia, R; Casella, C; Guzzinati, S; Ferretti, S; Rosso, S; Sacchettini, C; Spitale, A; Stracci, F; Tumino, R

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse incidence and mortality cancer trends in the Italian Network of Cancer Registries (about 8,000,000 inhabitants) during the period 1986-1997. Included were 525,645 newly diagnosed cancers and 269,902 cancer deaths (subjects > 14 years). Joinpoints (points in time where trend significantly changes from linearity) were found and estimated annual percentage changes (EAPC) used to summarize tendencies. Overall cancer incidence increased in both sexes and cancer mortality significantly decreased (since 1991 among men). Lung cancer showed significantly decreasing incidence (EAPC = -1.4%) and mortality (EAPC = -1.6%) among men and increasing trends among women. In women, breast cancer incidence significantly increased (EAPC= +1.7%) and mortality decreased since 1989 (EAPC= -2.0%). Stomach cancer incidence and mortality decreased in both sexes. Prostate incidence sharply increased since 1991 and mortality decreased. Colon cancer incidence increased and rectum mortality decreased significantly in both sexes. Significant increases in incidence were also found for kidney (up to 1991 among men), urinary bladder, skin epithelioma, melanoma, liver (up to 1993 among men), pancreas, mesothelioma, Kaposi's sarcoma (up to 1995 among men), testis, thyroid, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and multiple myeloma. Mortality significantly decreased for cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, oesophagus, liver (women), larynx (men), bone, cervix (since 1990), central nervous system, urinary bladder, thyroid, Hodgkin's lymphomas and leukaemias (men). Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma mortality increased in both sexes. In conclusion, most of the changes seen can be explained as the effect of changes in smoking habits and of the extension of secondary prevention activities. The Italian health care system will also have to cope with growing cancer diagnostic and therapeutic needs due to population ageing.

  18. Relationship of Predicted Risk of Developing Invasive Breast Cancer, as Assessed with Three Models, and Breast Cancer Mortality among Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Miglioretti, Diana L.; Kerlikowske, Karla; Tice, Jeffery; Vacek, Pamela M.; Gierach, Gretchen L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Breast cancer risk prediction models are used to plan clinical trials and counsel women; however, relationships of predicted risks of breast cancer incidence and prognosis after breast cancer diagnosis are unknown. Methods Using largely pre-diagnostic information from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) for 37,939 invasive breast cancers (1996–2007), we estimated 5-year breast cancer risk (<1%; 1–1.66%; ≥1.67%) with three models: BCSC 1-year risk model (BCSC-1; adapted to 5-year predictions); Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT); and BCSC 5-year risk model (BCSC-5). Breast cancer-specific mortality post-diagnosis (range: 1–13 years; median: 5.4–5.6 years) was related to predicted risk of developing breast cancer using unadjusted Cox proportional hazards models, and in age-stratified (35–44; 45–54; 55–69; 70–89 years) models adjusted for continuous age, BCSC registry, calendar period, income, mode of presentation, stage and treatment. Mean age at diagnosis was 60 years. Results Of 6,021 deaths, 2,993 (49.7%) were ascribed to breast cancer. In unadjusted case-only analyses, predicted breast cancer risk ≥1.67% versus <1.0% was associated with lower risk of breast cancer death; BCSC-1: hazard ratio (HR) = 0.82 (95% CI = 0.75–0.90); BCRAT: HR = 0.72 (95% CI = 0.65–0.81) and BCSC-5: HR = 0.84 (95% CI = 0.75–0.94). Age-stratified, adjusted models showed similar, although mostly non-significant HRs. Among women ages 55–69 years, HRs approximated 1.0. Generally, higher predicted risk was inversely related to percentages of cancers with unfavorable prognostic characteristics, especially among women 35–44 years. Conclusions Among cases assessed with three models, higher predicted risk of developing breast cancer was not associated with greater risk of breast cancer death; thus, these models would have limited utility in planning studies to evaluate breast cancer mortality reduction strategies. Further, when offering

  19. Cancer-specific incidence rates of tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Gi Hyeon; Kim, Min Jae; Seo, Soyoung; Hwang, Boram; Lee, Eugene; Yun, Yujin; Choi, Minsun; Kim, Moonsuk; Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Eu Suk; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Kyoung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Population-based studies of the incidence of tuberculosis in cancer patients according to the type of cancer are limited. We investigated the cancer-specific incidence of tuberculosis in a nationwide population-based cohort in a country with an intermediate burden of tuberculosis. We used mandatory National Health Insurance claims data to construct a cancer cohort of adults (aged 20–99 years) with newly diagnosed malignancies other than lung cancer, from January 2008 to December 2012. Patients who developed tuberculosis in this period were identified in the cancer cohort and the general population. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of tuberculosis in the cancer cohort according to type of cancer and time after cancer diagnosis were calculated by comparing the observed incidence rates with those inferred from the age- and gender-specific incidence rates in the general population. A total of 855,382 cancer patients and 1589,876 person-years (py) were observed. A total of 5745 patients developed tuberculosis; the mean incidence rate was 361.3 per 100,000 py, and the SIR was 2.22 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.17–2.27). The incidence rate was highest for hematologic malignancy and lowest for thyroid cancer. It was also highest as 650.1 per 100,000 py, with SIR of 3.70 (CI, 3.57–3.83) for the first 6 months after diagnosis of malignancy and then declined. However, it still remained higher than that of the general population after 24 months (SIR = 1.43, CI, 1.36–1.51). The incidence of tuberculosis increases after diagnosis in patients with malignancies. The risk of tuberculosis differs according to the type of cancer and remains elevated even 24 months after cancer diagnosis. Tuberculosis should be considered an important comorbidity in patients with malignancies. PMID:27661041

  20. Exposure to high concentrations of nitrosamines and cancer mortality among a cohort of rubber workers

    PubMed Central

    Straif, K.; Weiland, S.; Bungers, M.; Holthenrich, D.; Taeger, D.; Yi, S.; Keil, U.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To examine if the occurrence of different cancers was increased among rubber workers, as the highest known exposures of humans to nitrosamines have occurred in the rubber industry.
METHODS—A cohort of 8933 rubber workers (hired after 1 January 1950, still active or retired on 1 January 1981 and employed for at least 1 year in one of five study factories) was followed up for mortality from 1 January 1981 to 31 December 1991. Work histories were reconstructed with routinely documented cost centre codes, which allowed identification by employment in specific work areas. For each cost centre code time and factory specific, semi-quantitative exposures to nitrosamines (three levels: low, medium, high) and other compounds were estimated by industrial hygienists. Rate ratios for medium (RRm) and high (RRh) exposures and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated with Cox's proportional hazards models with the low exposure as reference.
RESULTS—Exposure to nitrosamines was significantly associated with an increased mortality from cancers of the oesophagus (13 deaths: RRm 1.7, 95% CI 0.3 to 10.3; RRh 7.3, 95% CI 1.9 to 27.8) and of the oral cavity and pharynx (17 deaths: RRm 0.8, 95% CI 0.2 to 4.1; RRh 3.9, 95% CI 1.4 to 11.1). A non-significant trend of increasing mortality with exposure to higher concentrations of nitrosamines was found for mortality from cancer of the prostate (26 deaths: RRm 1.4, 95% CI 0.5 to 3.8; RRh 2.2, 95% CI 0.9 to 5.6), and the brain (six deaths: RRm 3.9, 95% CI 0.3 to 42.6; RRh 6.0, 95% CI 0.6 to 57.6). No association was found between exposure to nitrosamines and cancer of the stomach (RRm 0.8, 95% CI 0.4 to 1.8; RRh 1.2, 95% CI 0.5 to 2.5) or lung (RRm 1.0, 95% CI 0.6 to 1.5; RRh 1.0, 95% CI 0.7 to 1.6).
CONCLUSIONS—Exposure to high concentrations of nitrosamines is associated with increased mortality from cancers of the oesophagus, oral cavity, and pharynx, but not with

  1. Oral cancer: the association between nation-based alcohol-drinking profiles and oral cancer mortality.

    PubMed

    Petti, Stefano; Scully, Crispian

    2005-09-01

    The unclear association between different nation-based alcohol-drinking profiles and oral cancer mortality was investigated using, as observational units, 20 countries from Europe, Northern America, Far Eastern Asia, with cross-nationally comparable data. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were run with male age-standardised, mortality rate (ASMR) as explanatory variable and annual adult alcohol consumption, adult smoking prevalence, life expectancy, as explanatory. Large between-country differences in ASMR (range, 0.88-6.87 per 100,000) were found, but the mean value was similar to the global estimate (3.31 vs. 3.09 per 100,000). Differences in alcohol consumption (2.06-21.03 annual litres per capita) and in distribution between beverages were reported. Wine was the most prevalent alcoholic beverage in 45% of cases. Significant increases in ASMR for every litre of pure ethanol (0.15 per 100,000; 95 CI, 0.01-0.29) and spirits (0.26 per 100,000; 95 CI, 0.03-0.49), non-significant effects for beer and wine were estimated. The impact of alcohol on oral cancer deaths would be higher than expected and the drinking profile could affect cancer mortality, probably because of the different drinking pattern of spirit drinkers, usually consuming huge alcohol quantities on single occasions, and the different concentrations of ethanol and cancer-preventing compounds such as polyphenols, in the various beverages. PMID:15979385

  2. Oral cancer: the association between nation-based alcohol-drinking profiles and oral cancer mortality.

    PubMed

    Petti, Stefano; Scully, Crispian

    2005-09-01

    The unclear association between different nation-based alcohol-drinking profiles and oral cancer mortality was investigated using, as observational units, 20 countries from Europe, Northern America, Far Eastern Asia, with cross-nationally comparable data. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were run with male age-standardised, mortality rate (ASMR) as explanatory variable and annual adult alcohol consumption, adult smoking prevalence, life expectancy, as explanatory. Large between-country differences in ASMR (range, 0.88-6.87 per 100,000) were found, but the mean value was similar to the global estimate (3.31 vs. 3.09 per 100,000). Differences in alcohol consumption (2.06-21.03 annual litres per capita) and in distribution between beverages were reported. Wine was the most prevalent alcoholic beverage in 45% of cases. Significant increases in ASMR for every litre of pure ethanol (0.15 per 100,000; 95 CI, 0.01-0.29) and spirits (0.26 per 100,000; 95 CI, 0.03-0.49), non-significant effects for beer and wine were estimated. The impact of alcohol on oral cancer deaths would be higher than expected and the drinking profile could affect cancer mortality, probably because of the different drinking pattern of spirit drinkers, usually consuming huge alcohol quantities on single occasions, and the different concentrations of ethanol and cancer-preventing compounds such as polyphenols, in the various beverages.

  3. Depressed mood and cause-specific mortality: a 40-year general community assessment

    PubMed Central

    Wyman, Lisa; Crum, Rosa; Celentano, David

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The current study describes how the excess mortality risk associated with depression translates into specific causes of death occurring during a 40-year follow-up period, with focus on deaths related to injuries, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Methods Data comes from a cross-sectional survey (Community Mental Health Epidemiology Study) conducted in the early 1970s in Washington County, Maryland. Random sampling for the survey resulted in 2762 interviews. For the current analyses, baseline depressed mood was linked to current participant vital status through the use of death certificate records. Results The relative subdistribution hazards for cardiovascular deaths (3.08 (1.74–5.45)) and fatal injuries (4.63 (1.76–12.18)) were significant over the entire 40-year period for young adults (18–39 years old at baseline). The relative subdistribution hazard for cardiovascular deaths during the first 15 years of follow-up was pronounced in elderly (≥ 65 years) males (2.99 (1.67–5.37)). There were no significant associations between depressed mood and cancer deaths. Conclusions Individuals in the general community with depressed mood may be at increased risk of deaths due to cardiovascular disease and injury, even several decades after exposure assessment. Young adults with depressed mood appear to be particularly vulnerable to these associations. PMID:22835415

  4. Multivitamin and mineral use and breast cancer mortality in older women with invasive breast cancer in the women's health initiative

    PubMed Central

    McGinn, A. P.; Budrys, N.; Chlebowski, R.; Ho, G. Y.; Johnson, K. C.; Lane, D. S.; Li, W.; Neuhouser, M. L.; Saquib, J.; Shikany, J. M.; Song, Y.; Thomson, C.

    2014-01-01

    Multivitamin use is common in the United States. It is not known whether multivitamins with minerals supplements (MVM) used by women already diagnosed with invasive breast cancer would affect their breast cancer mortality risk. To determine prospectively the effects of MVM use on breast cancer mortality in postmenopausal women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, a prospective cohort study was conducted of 7,728 women aged 50–79 at enrollment in the women's health initiative (WHI) in 40 clinical sites across the United States diagnosed with incident invasive breast cancer during WHI and followed for a mean of 7.1 years after breast cancer diagnosis. Use of MVM supplements was assessed at WHI baseline visit and at visit closest to breast cancer diagnosis, obtained from vitamin pill bottles brought to clinic visit. Outcome was breast cancer mortality. Hazard ratios and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer mortality comparing MVM users to non-users were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. Analyses using propensity to take MVM were done to adjust for potential differences in characteristics of MVM users versus non-users. At baseline, 37.8 % of women reported MVM use. After mean post-diagnosis follow-up of 7.1 ± 4.1 (SD) years, there were 518 (6.7 %) deaths from breast cancer. In adjusted analyses, breast cancer mortality was 30 % lower in MVM users as compared to non-users (HR = 0.70; 95 % CI 0.55, 0.91). This association was highly robust and persisted after multiple adjustments for potential confounding variables and in propensity score matched analysis (HR = 0.76; 95 % CI 0.60–0.96). Postmenopausal women with invasive breast cancer using MVM had lower breast cancer mortality than non-users. The results suggest a possible role for daily MVM use in attenuating breast cancer mortality in women with invasive breast cancer but the findings require confirmation. PMID:24104882

  5. Historical U.S. Residential Coal Use and Female Lung Cancer Mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, Jennifer; Bogen, Kenneth T.

    2001-03-01

    Recent ecological and case-control studies have indicated elevated lung cancer mortality (LCM) associated with bituminous "smoky" coal use in China, but no similar study has been conducted using U.S. populations. Early 20th century U.S. home cooking and heating fuels were examined in relation to age-specific female LCM, focusing on county-level mortality during 1950-54 to reduce potential inter-county confounding due to cigarette smoking among women aged 40* vs. 60* years (among whom 11% vs. 5% ever smoked, respectively). Overall, a significant relationship was found between female LCM and county-level average per capita bituminous coal use with and without adjustment for numerous covariates in counties where ~75% of homes used coal for heating. This positive association was similar in each female age group after adjustment of 190 combinations of variates considered in addition t

  6. [Study on mortality by specific cause among workers at a lead and zinc foundry in Sardinia].

    PubMed

    Carta, P; Aru, G; Nurchis, P; Cadeddu, C; Polizzi, M; Nieddu, V; Sali, G; Gaviano, L; Flore, C; Sanna Randaccio, F

    2005-01-01

    The mortality of 918 Sardinian lead-smelter workers followed between 1972 and 2001 is reported. The assessment of individual exposure to inorganic lead was based on several environmental and blood lead measurements available, for each department and task, between 1985 and 2001. The mortality for all cancers was within the expected numbers (SMR 1.01, n 108). Even if not statistically significant, the mortality for gastric cancer (SMR 1.22, n 4), for lung cancer (SMR 1.21, n 18) and for lymphomas and leukaemias (SMR 1.82, n 6) was higher than that expected from the regional rates during the follow-up. Only for the lung cancer mortality a statistically significant upward trend with increasing categories of lead exposure was observed (SMR 1.96, 95% CI 1.02-3.68 for the highest exposure group). Our study, even if of small size, suggests an association between occupational exposure to inorganic lead and lung cancer risk.

  7. [Specific types of bladder cancer].

    PubMed

    Bertz, S; Hartmann, A; Knüchel-Clarke, R; Gaisa, N T

    2016-02-01

    Bladder cancer shows rare variants and special subtypes with diverse prognostic importance and therefore may necessitate different therapeutic approaches. For pathologists it is important to histologically diagnose and specify such variants. Nested variants of urothelial carcinoma with inconspicuous, well-formed tumor cell nests present with an aggressive course. The plasmacytoid variant, which morphologically resembles plasma cells is associated with a shorter survival time and a high frequency of peritoneal metastasis. Micropapillary urothelial carcinoma with small papillary tumor cell islands within artificial tissue retraction spaces and frequent lymphovascular invasion also has a poor prognosis. Other important rare differential variants listed in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification are microcystic, lymphoepithelioma-like, sarcomatoid, giant cell and undifferentiated urothelial carcinomas. Additionally, there are three special types of bladder cancer: squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the bladder. These tumors are characterized by pure squamous cell or glandular differentiation and are sometimes less responsive to adjuvant (chemo)therapy. Small cell carcinoma of the bladder mimics the neuroendocrine features of its pulmonary counterpart, shows an aggressive course but is sensitive to (neo-)adjuvant chemotherapy. The morphology and histology of the most important variants and special types are discussed in this review. PMID:26782034

  8. Thyroid cancer incidence and mortality trends in Croatia 1988-2010.

    PubMed

    Vučemilo, Luka; Znaor, Tin; Kuliš, Tomislav; Šekerija, Mario; Znaor, Ariana

    2015-03-01

    The aim of our study was to describe and interpret national trends in thyroid cancer in Croatian men and women during the 1988-2010 period, to better understand the incidence and mortality trends in comparison with other populations, and to determine the proportion of certain histologic subtypes of thyroid cancer and their impact on these trends. Using information from the Croatian National Cancer Registry and WHO Mortality Database, we estimated trends in the age-standardized incidence and mortality rates by joinpoint regression analysis. Thyroid cancer incidence increased in both women and men during the study period, with the estimated annual percent change (EAPC) of 6.4% and 5.5%, with no joinpoints identified. A significant decrease in mortality (EAPC-2.1%) was observed in women, while in men mortality rates decreased nonsignificantly (EAPC-1.3%). A statistically significant incidence increase was observed only for papillary carcinomas with annual incidence increase by 6.7% for women and 7.9% for men. During the study period, thyroid cancer showed an incidence increase in Croatia with persistent and steady decrease in mortality in women and statistically nonsignificant decrease in mortality in men. The increase in papillary carcinomas led to the thyroid cancer incidence increase and also affected the thyroid cancer mortality decrease in women. The trends observed are similar to those in other European countries and require additional analysis to determine all factors that have an effect on them.

  9. Cancer mortality associated with the high-temperature oxidation of nickel subsulfide.

    PubMed

    Roberts, R S; Julian, J A; Muir, D C; Shannon, H S

    1984-01-01

    An historical prospective mortality study of INCO's Ontario work-force has been conducted. A cohort of approximately 54 000 men, employed in all aspects of the extraction and refining of copper and nickel from the Sudbury ore deposit, have been followed for mortality between 1950 and 1976. A total of 5 283 deaths were identified by computerized record-linkage to the Canadian Mortality Data Base of death certificates. The analysis focuses on mortality from cancer of the nasal sinuses, larynx, lung, and kidney. Little evidence was found for increased mortality from laryngeal or kidney cancer, but lung and nasal cancer deaths were clearly elevated in men exposed to the two Sudbury area sinter plants and at Port Colborne in the leaching, calcining, and sintering department. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for lung cancer increases linearly with increasing duration of exposure and there is no evidence of a threshold. The nasal cancer mortality rate also rises linearly with duration of exposure. While lung cancer has a greater excess in the Sudbury sinter plant than at Port Colborne, the reverse is true for mortality from nasal cancer, which is ten times more frequent at Port Colborne than at Sudbury. PMID:6532983

  10. General mortality and respiratory cancer among a cohort of male chemical workers in California.

    PubMed

    Burchfiel, C M; Cartmill, J B; Axe, F D; Bond, G G

    1992-01-01

    Cohort mortality and nested case-control studies were conducted involving 2,901 men employed 1 year or more between 1940 and 1986 at any of four California facilities of a major chemical company. Employees experienced fewer deaths from each of the major causes than were expected based on U.S., California, and local county mortality rates. Respiratory cancer was significantly elevated in one socioeconomic category comprised of operators (SMR = 157, 95% CI = 109-220). The 34 cases who died from respiratory cancer and 136 matched controls, all of whom were operators, were included in a nested case-control study. Departments in which subjects had worked were grouped into 13 work assignment or product categories by an industrial hygienist without knowledge of case-control status. Smoking habits and other occupational exposures were ascertained by telephone interview from subjects or surrogate-responders. As expected, current cigarette smoking was strongly related to respiratory cancer. After adjustment for smoking, cases were significantly more likely than controls to have ever worked in one of the 13 work areas (supervision, services, and business support). However, no dose-response relationship was evident with duration of employment in this work area and the departments involved were associated with plant security and not chemical production. Results were similar when a 15-year latency period was assumed. These findings suggest that the excess of respiratory cancer mortality among operators was most likely due to differences in cigarette smoking or other factors not ascertained, rather than to a specific occupational exposure. PMID:1415280

  11. Fifteen-year effects of Helicobacter pylori, garlic, and vitamin treatments on gastric cancer incidence and mortality.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun-Ling; Zhang, Lian; Brown, Linda M; Li, Ji-You; Shen, Lin; Pan, Kai-Feng; Liu, Wei-Dong; Hu, Yuanreng; Han, Zhong-Xiang; Crystal-Mansour, Susan; Pee, David; Blot, William J; Fraumeni, Joseph F; You, Wei-Cheng; Gail, Mitchell H

    2012-03-21

    In the Shandong Intervention Trial, 2 weeks of antibiotic treatment for Helicobacter pylori reduced the prevalence of precancerous gastric lesions, whereas 7.3 years of oral supplementation with garlic extract and oil (garlic treatment) or vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium (vitamin treatment) did not. Here we report 14.7-year follow-up for gastric cancer incidence and cause-specific mortality among 3365 randomly assigned subjects in this masked factorial placebo-controlled trial. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of gastric cancer incidence, and the Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the relative hazard of cause-specific mortality. All statistical tests were two-sided. Gastric cancer was diagnosed in 3.0% of subjects who received H pylori treatment and in 4.6% of those who received placebo (odds ratio = 0.61, 95% confidence interval = 0.38 to 0.96, P = .032). Gastric cancer deaths occurred among 1.5% of subjects assigned H pylori treatment and among 2.1% of those assigned placebo (hazard ratio [HR] of death = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.36 to 1.28). Garlic and vitamin treatments were associated with non-statistically significant reductions in gastric cancer incidence and mortality. Vitamin treatment was associated with statistically significantly fewer deaths from gastric or esophageal cancer, a secondary endpoint (HR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.30 to 0.87; P = .014). PMID:22271764

  12. Silica dust and lung cancer: results from the Nordic occupational mortality and cancer incidence registers

    SciTech Connect

    Lynge, E.; Kurppa, K.; Kristofersen, L.; Malker, H.; Sauli, H.

    1986-10-01

    Autopsy studies of the relationship between silicosis and lung cancer have been mainly negative; but recent epidemiologic studies have indicated a positive association, and an excess lung cancer risk has been observed in some occupational groups with exposure to silica dust. For the further shedding of light on the possible association between silica dust and lung cancer, analysis was made on mortality and cancer incidence data available in census-based record linkage studies from the Nordic countries for males in occupational groups with potential exposure to silica dust. The study showed an excess lung cancer risk for foundry workers in all the Nordic countries and for miners in Sweden. These results were consistent with findings from previous in-depth epidemiologic studies. The lung cancer risk did not differ significantly from that of the respective national populations for males working in excavation; stone quarries; sand and gravel pits; and glass, porcelain, ceramic, and tile manufacture. Stonecutters, who are probably not exposed to known lung carcinogens at the workplace but in some places to high concentrations of silica dust, showed a significant excess lung cancer risk in both Finland and Denmark. Excess lung cancer risks furthermore were seen for Finish miners, for Finnish males in excavation work, and for Danish glassworkers.

  13. Differences in cancer incidence, mortality, and survival between African Americans and whites.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, B; Figgs, L W; Zahm, S H

    1995-01-01

    This report highlights selected evidence of different cancer patterns among African Americans and whites and considers potential risk factors associated with these cancers. During the years 1987 to 1991, African Americans experienced higher incidence and mortality rates than whites for multiple myeloma and for cancers of the oropharynx, colorectum, lung and bronchus, cervix, and prostate. African Americans had lower incidence and mortality for cancer of the urinary bladder. The incidence of breast cancer was higher among white women, but mortality was higher among African American women. Five-year relative survival for the period 1983 to 1990 was generally lower among African Americans than whites for cancers of the oropharynx, colorectum, cervix, prostate, and female breast but slightly higher for multiple myeloma. From 1973 to 1991, there were significant declines in cervical cancer incidence among women of both races, oropharyngeal cancer mortality among whites, and bladder cancer mortality for whites and African Americans. Risk factors for the more prominent cancers suggest that efforts aimed at changing lifestyles, achieving socioeconomic parity, and insuring environmental equity are likely to relieve African Americans of much of their disproportionate cancer burden. PMID:8741798

  14. Incidence and mortality of female breast cancer in the Asia-Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    Youlden, Danny R.; Cramb, Susanna M.; Yip, Cheng Har; Baade, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of the incidence and mortality of female breast cancer for countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Methods Statistical information about breast cancer was obtained from publicly available cancer registry and mortality databases (such as GLOBOCAN), and supplemented with data requested from individual cancer registries. Rates were directly age-standardised to the Segi World Standard population and trends were analysed using joinpoint models. Results Breast cancer was the most common type of cancer among females in the region, accounting for 18% of all cases in 2012, and was the fourth most common cause of cancer-related deaths (9%). Although incidence rates remain much higher in New Zealand and Australia, rapid rises in recent years were observed in several Asian countries. Large increases in breast cancer mortality rates also occurred in many areas, particularly Malaysia and Thailand, in contrast to stabilising trends in Hong Kong and Singapore, while decreases have been recorded in Australia and New Zealand. Mortality trends tended to be more favourable for women aged under 50 compared to those who were 50 years or older. Conclusion It is anticipated that incidence rates of breast cancer in developing countries throughout the Asia-Pacific region will continue to increase. Early detection and access to optimal treatment are the keys to reducing breast cancer-related mortality, but cultural and economic obstacles persist. Consequently, the challenge is to customise breast cancer control initiatives to the particular needs of each country to ensure the best possible outcomes. PMID:25009752

  15. Estimation of life-years gained and cost effectiveness based on cause-specific mortality.

    PubMed

    Kim, Lois G; Thompson, Simon G

    2011-07-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis is usually based on life-years gained estimated from all-cause mortality. When an intervention affects only a few causes of death accounting for a small fraction of all deaths, this approach may lack precision. We develop a novel technique for cost-effectiveness analysis when life-years gained are estimated from cause-specific mortality, allowing for competing causes of death. In the context of randomised trial data, we adjust for other-cause mortality combined across randomised groups. This method yields a greater precision than analysis based on total mortality, and we show application to life-years gained, quality-adjusted life-years gained, incremental costs, and cost effectiveness. In multi-state health economic models, however, mortality from competing causes is commonly derived from national statistics and is assumed to be known and equal across intervention groups. In such models, our method based on cause-specific mortality and standard methods using total mortality give essentially identical estimates and precision. The methods are applied to a randomised trial and a health economic model, both of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm. A gain in precision for cost-effectiveness estimates is clearly helpful for decision making, but it is important to ensure that 'cause-specific mortality' is defined to include all causes of death potentially affected by the intervention.

  16. Milk Consumption and Mortality from All Causes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Susanna C.; Crippa, Alessio; Orsini, Nicola; Wolk, Alicja; Michaëlsson, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Results from epidemiological studies of milk consumption and mortality are inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies assessing the association of non-fermented and fermented milk consumption with mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. PubMed was searched until August 2015. A two-stage, random-effects, dose-response meta-analysis was used to combine study-specific results. Heterogeneity among studies was assessed with the I2 statistic. During follow-up periods ranging from 4.1 to 25 years, 70,743 deaths occurred among 367,505 participants. The range of non-fermented and fermented milk consumption and the shape of the associations between milk consumption and mortality differed considerably between studies. There was substantial heterogeneity among studies of non-fermented milk consumption in relation to mortality from all causes (12 studies; I2 = 94%), cardiovascular disease (five studies; I2 = 93%), and cancer (four studies; I2 = 75%) as well as among studies of fermented milk consumption and all-cause mortality (seven studies; I2 = 88%). Thus, estimating pooled hazard ratios was not appropriate. Heterogeneity among studies was observed in most subgroups defined by sex, country, and study quality. In conclusion, we observed no consistent association between milk consumption and all-cause or cause-specific mortality. PMID:26378576

  17. Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012.

    PubMed

    Ferlay, Jacques; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Dikshit, Rajesh; Eser, Sultan; Mathers, Colin; Rebelo, Marise; Parkin, Donald Maxwell; Forman, David; Bray, Freddie

    2015-03-01

    Estimates of the worldwide incidence and mortality from 27 major cancers and for all cancers combined for 2012 are now available in the GLOBOCAN series of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We review the sources and methods used in compiling the national cancer incidence and mortality estimates, and briefly describe the key results by cancer site and in 20 large "areas" of the world. Overall, there were 14.1 million new cases and 8.2 million deaths in 2012. The most commonly diagnosed cancers were lung (1.82 million), breast (1.67 million), and colorectal (1.36 million); the most common causes of cancer death were lung cancer (1.6 million deaths), liver cancer (745,000 deaths), and stomach cancer (723,000 deaths).

  18. Detecting a Local Cohort Effect for Cancer Mortality Data Using a Varying Coefficient Model

    PubMed Central

    Tonda, Tetsuji; Satoh, Kenichi; Kamo, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Background Cancer mortality is increasing with the aging of the population in Japan. Cancer information obtained through feasible methods is therefore becoming the basis for planning effective cancer control programs. There are three time-related factors affecting cancer mortality, of which the cohort effect is one. Past descriptive epidemiologic studies suggest that the cohort effect is not negligible in cancer mortality. Methods In this paper, we develop a statistical method for automatically detecting a cohort effect and assessing its statistical significance for cancer mortality data using a varying coefficient model. Results The proposed method was applied to liver and lung cancer mortality data on Japanese men for illustration. Our method detected significant positive or negative cohort effects. The relative risk was 1.54 for liver cancer mortality in the cohort born around 1934 and 0.83 for lung cancer in the cohort born around 1939. Conclusions Cohort effects detected using the proposed method agree well with previous descriptive epidemiologic findings. In addition, the proposed method is expected to be sensitive enough to detect smaller, previously undetected birth cohort effects. PMID:26256771

  19. Diet and colorectal cancer mortality: results from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Masayo; Wakai, Kenji; Tamakoshi, Koji; Tokudome, Shinkan; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Suzuki, Koji; Hashimoto, Shuji; Ito, Yoshinori; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between diet and colorectal cancer mortality was analyzed in a prospective study of 45,181 men and 62,643 women aged 40-79 yr enrolled in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study. Between 1988 and 1990, subjects completed a self-administered questionnaire on their sociodemographic characteristics, diet, and other lifestyle habits. During the follow-up period (average 9.9 yr), 284 colon cancer deaths (138 men and 146 women) and 173 rectal cancer deaths (116 men and 57 women) were confirmed. The only significant association of colorectal cancer mortality with vegetable intake was observed between male rectal cancer mortality and green leafy vegetable consumption [hazard ratio (HR) using Cox proportional hazard models = 0.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.3-0.9; P for trend = 0.02]. Yogurt intake was also inversely associated with male rectal cancer mortality (HR = 0.5; 95% CI = 0.2-1.0; P for trend = 0.04). Egg consumption was positively associated with male colon cancer mortality (P for trend = 0.04). Women with high fruit consumption had increased colon cancer mortality (HR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.0-2.6; P for trend = 0.04). It should be noted that this study lacked statistical power due to small sample size and measurement error in the food-frequency questionnaire. Further investigation is therefore necessary to confirm the association between diet and colorectal cancer, especially by subsites and gender.

  20. News Portrayal of Cancer: Content Analysis of Threat and Efficacy by Cancer Type and Comparison with Incidence and Mortality in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shim, Minsun; Kim, Yong-Chan; Kye, Su Yeon; Park, Keeho

    2016-08-01

    How the news media cover cancer may have profound significance for cancer prevention and control; however, little is known about the actual content of cancer news coverage in Korea. This research thus aimed to examine news portrayal of specific cancer types with respect to threat and efficacy, and to investigate whether news portrayal corresponds to actual cancer statistics. A content analysis of 1,138 cancer news stories was conducted, using a representative sample from 23 news outlets (television, newspapers, and other news media) in Korea over a 5-year period from 2008 to 2012. Cancer incidence and mortality rates were obtained from the Korean Statistical Information Service. Results suggest that threat was most prominent in news stories on pancreatic cancer (with 87% of the articles containing threat information with specific details), followed by liver (80%) and lung cancers (70%), and least in stomach cancer (41%). Efficacy information with details was conveyed most often in articles on colorectal (54%), skin (54%), and liver (50%) cancers, and least in thyroid cancer (17%). In terms of discrepancies between news portrayal and actual statistics, the threat of pancreatic and liver cancers was overreported, whereas the threat of stomach and prostate cancers was underreported. Efficacy information regarding cervical and colorectal cancers was overrepresented in the news relative to cancer statistics; efficacy of lung and thyroid cancers was underreported. Findings provide important implications for medical professionals to understand news information about particular cancers as a basis for public (mis)perception, and to communicate effectively about cancer risk with the public and patients. PMID:27478333

  1. News Portrayal of Cancer: Content Analysis of Threat and Efficacy by Cancer Type and Comparison with Incidence and Mortality in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    How the news media cover cancer may have profound significance for cancer prevention and control; however, little is known about the actual content of cancer news coverage in Korea. This research thus aimed to examine news portrayal of specific cancer types with respect to threat and efficacy, and to investigate whether news portrayal corresponds to actual cancer statistics. A content analysis of 1,138 cancer news stories was conducted, using a representative sample from 23 news outlets (television, newspapers, and other news media) in Korea over a 5-year period from 2008 to 2012. Cancer incidence and mortality rates were obtained from the Korean Statistical Information Service. Results suggest that threat was most prominent in news stories on pancreatic cancer (with 87% of the articles containing threat information with specific details), followed by liver (80%) and lung cancers (70%), and least in stomach cancer (41%). Efficacy information with details was conveyed most often in articles on colorectal (54%), skin (54%), and liver (50%) cancers, and least in thyroid cancer (17%). In terms of discrepancies between news portrayal and actual statistics, the threat of pancreatic and liver cancers was overreported, whereas the threat of stomach and prostate cancers was underreported. Efficacy information regarding cervical and colorectal cancers was overrepresented in the news relative to cancer statistics; efficacy of lung and thyroid cancers was underreported. Findings provide important implications for medical professionals to understand news information about particular cancers as a basis for public (mis)perception, and to communicate effectively about cancer risk with the public and patients. PMID:27478333

  2. Randomized-Control Screening Trials to Lower Gall Bladder Cancer Mortality in High Risk Populations.

    PubMed

    Krishnatreya, Manigreeva; Kataki, Amal Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Gall bladder cancer is generally fatal. The high morbidity and mortality due to gall bladder cancer exerts a significant impact on efforts towards cancer control in high risk populations of the World and a rationale program for control of gall bladder cancer mortality has remained as an unmet need in these populations. Currently there are no effective strategies for controlling gall bladder cancer mortality. This mini review is to highlight the need and feasibility for secondary prevention of gall bladder cancer by screening in high risk populations. A way forward is to assess the role of secondary prevention of gall bladder cancers by conducting randomized- controlled screening trials in high risk populations. PMID:27221939

  3. All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality Among Men Released From State Prison, 1980–2005

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, David L.; Wohl, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We compared mortality of ex-prisoners and other state residents to identify unmet health care needs among former prisoners. Methods. We linked North Carolina prison records with state death records for 1980 to 2005 to estimate the number of overall and cause-specific deaths among male ex-prisoners aged 20 to 69 years and used standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) to compare these observed deaths with the number of expected deaths had they experienced the same age-, race-, and cause-specific death rates as other state residents. Results. All-cause mortality among White (SMR = 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.04, 2.13) and Black (SMR = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.05) ex-prisoners was greater than for other male NC residents. Ex-prisoners' deaths from homicide, accidents, substance use, HIV, liver disease, and liver cancer were greater than the expected number of deaths estimated using death rates among other NC residents. Deaths from cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, respiratory diseases, and diabetes were at least 30% greater than expected for White ex-prisoners, but less than expected for Black ex-prisoners. Conclusions. Ex-prisoners experienced more deaths than would have been expected among other NC residents. Excess deaths from injuries and medical conditions common to prison populations highlight ex-prisoners' medical vulnerability and the need to improve correctional and community preventive health services. PMID:18923131

  4. A joint frailty model to estimate the recurrence process and the disease-specific mortality process without needing the cause of death.

    PubMed

    Belot, Aurélien; Rondeau, Virginie; Remontet, Laurent; Giorgi, Roch

    2014-08-15

    In chronic diseases, such as cancer, recurrent events (such as relapses) are commonly observed; these could be interrupted by death. With such data, a joint analysis of recurrence and mortality processes is usually conducted with a frailty parameter shared by both processes. We examined a joint modeling of these processes considering death under two aspects: 'death due to the disease under study' and 'death due to other causes', which enables estimating the disease-specific mortality hazard. The excess hazard model was used to overcome the difficulties in determining the causes of deaths (unavailability or unreliability); this model allows estimating the disease-specific mortality hazard without needing the cause of death but using the mortality hazards observed in the general population. We propose an approach to model jointly recurrence and disease-specific mortality processes within a parametric framework. A correlation between the two processes is taken into account through a shared frailty parameter. This approach allows estimating unbiased covariate effects on the hazards of recurrence and disease-specific mortality. The performance of the approach was evaluated by simulations with different scenarios. The method is illustrated by an analysis of a population-based dataset on colon cancer with observations of colon cancer recurrences and deaths. The benefits of the new approach are highlighted by comparison with the 'classical' joint model of recurrence and overall mortality. Moreover, we assessed the goodness of fit of the proposed model. Comparisons between the conditional hazard and the marginal hazard of the disease-specific mortality are shown, and differences in interpretation are discussed.

  5. Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia: follow-up for cancer incidence and mortality.

    PubMed

    Rahu, Kaja; Auvinen, Anssi; Hakulinen, Timo; Tekkel, Mare; Inskip, Peter D; Bromet, Evelyn J; Boice, John D; Rahu, Mati

    2013-06-01

    This study examined cancer incidence (1986-2008) and mortality (1986-2011) among the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers in comparison with the Estonian male population. The cohort of 4810 men was followed through nationwide population, mortality and cancer registries. Cancer and death risks were measured by standardised incidence ratio (SIR) and standardised mortality ratio (SMR), respectively. Poisson regression was used to analyse the effects of year of arrival, duration of stay and time since return on cancer and death risks. The SIR for all cancers was 1.06 with 95% confidence interval 0.93-1.20 (232 cases). Elevated risks were found for cancers of the pharynx, the oesophagus and the joint category of alcohol-related sites. No clear evidence of an increased risk of thyroid cancer, leukaemia or radiation-related cancer sites combined was apparent. The SMR for all causes of death was 1.02 with 95% confidence interval 0.96-1.08 (1018 deaths). Excess mortality was observed for mouth and pharynx cancer, alcohol-related cancer sites together and suicide. Duration of stay rather than year of arrival was associated with increased mortality. Twenty-six years of follow-up of this cohort indicates no definite health effects attributable to radiation, but the elevated suicide risk has persisted.

  6. Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia: follow-up for cancer incidence and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Rahu, Kaja; Auvinen, Anssi; Hakulinen, Timo; Tekkel, Mare; Inskip, Peter D; Bromet, Evelyn J; Boice, John D; Rahu, Mati

    2013-01-01

    This study examined cancer incidence (1986–2008) and mortality (1986–2011) among the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers in comparison with the Estonian male population. The cohort of 4,810 men was followed through nationwide population, mortality and cancer registries. Cancer and death risks were measured by standardized incidence ratio (SIR) and standardized mortality ratio (SMR), respectively. Poisson regression was used to analyze the effects of year of arrival, duration of stay, and time since return on cancer and death risks. The SIR for all cancers was 1.06 with 95% confidence interval 0.93–1.20 (232 cases). Elevated risks were found for cancers of pharynx, oesophagus, and the joint category of alcohol-related sites. No clear evidence of an increased risk of thyroid cancer, leukaemia, or radiation-related cancer sites combined was apparent. The SMR for all causes of death was 1.02 with 95% confidence interval 0.96–1.08 (1,018 deaths). Excess mortality was observed for mouth and pharynx cancer, alcohol-related cancer sites together, and suicide. Duration of stay rather than year of arrival was associated with increased mortality. Twenty-six years of follow-up of this cohort indicates no definite health effects attributable to radiation, but the elevated suicide risk has persisted. PMID:23532116

  7. Size-specific tree mortality varies with neighbourhood crowding and disturbance in a Montane Nothofagus forest.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Jennifer M; Allen, Robert B; Coomes, David A; Duncan, Richard P

    2011-01-01

    Tree mortality is a fundamental process governing forest dynamics, but understanding tree mortality patterns is challenging because large, long-term datasets are required. Describing size-specific mortality patterns can be especially difficult, due to few trees in larger size classes. We used permanent plot data from Nothofagus solandri var. cliffortioides (mountain beech) forest on the eastern slopes of the Southern Alps, New Zealand, where the fates of trees on 250 plots of 0.04 ha were followed, to examine: (1) patterns of size-specific mortality over three consecutive periods spanning 30 years, each characterised by different disturbance, and (2) the strength and direction of neighbourhood crowding effects on size-specific mortality rates. We found that the size-specific mortality function was U-shaped over the 30-year period as well as within two shorter periods characterised by small-scale pinhole beetle and windthrow disturbance. During a third period, characterised by earthquake disturbance, tree mortality was less size dependent. Small trees (<20 cm in diameter) were more likely to die, in all three periods, if surrounded by a high basal area of larger neighbours, suggesting that size-asymmetric competition for light was a major cause of mortality. In contrast, large trees (≥ 20 cm in diameter) were more likely to die in the first period if they had few neighbours, indicating that positive crowding effects were sometimes important for survival of large trees. Overall our results suggest that temporal variability in size-specific mortality patterns, and positive interactions between large trees, may sometimes need to be incorporated into models of forest dynamics.

  8. Disparities in Cancer Mortality and Incidence Among American Indians and Alaska Natives in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Espey, David K.; Swan, Judith; Wiggins, Charles L.; Eheman, Christie; Kaur, Judith S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We used improved data on American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) ancestry to provide an updated and comprehensive description of cancer mortality and incidence among AI/AN populations from 1990 to 2009. Methods. We linked the National Death Index and central cancer registry records independently to the Indian Health Service (IHS) patient registration database to improve identification of AI/AN persons in cancer mortality and incidence data, respectively. Analyses were restricted to non-Hispanic persons residing in Contract Health Service Delivery Area counties in 6 geographic regions of the United States. We compared age-adjusted mortality and incidence rates for AI/AN populations with White populations using rate ratios and mortality-to-incidence ratios. Trends were described using joinpoint analysis. Results. Cancer mortality and incidence rates for AI/AN persons compared with Whites varied by region and type of cancer. Trends in death rates showed that greater progress in cancer control was achieved for White populations compared with AI/AN populations over the last 2 decades. Conclusions. Spatial variations in mortality and incidence by type of cancer demonstrated both persistent and emerging challenges for cancer control in AI/AN populations. PMID:24754660

  9. Breast Cancer Mortality among Asian-American Women in California: Variation according to Ethnicity and Tumor Subtype

    PubMed Central

    Caggiano, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Asian-American women have equal or better breast cancer survival rates than non-Hispanic white women, but many studies use the aggregate term "Asian/Pacific Islander" (API) or consider breast cancer as a single disease. The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of mortality in seven subgroups of Asian-Americans expressing the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) tumor marker subtypes and determine whether the risk of mortality for the aggregate API category is reflective of the risk in all Asian ethnicities. Methods The study included data for 110,120 Asian and white women with stage 1 to 4 first primary invasive breast cancer from the California Cancer Registry. The Asian ethnicities identified were Pacific Islander, Southeast Asian (SEA), Indian Subcontinent, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, and Korean. A Cox regression analysis was used to compute the risk of breast cancer-specific mortality in seven Asian ethnicities and the combined API category versus white women within each of the ER/PR/HER2 subtypes. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed. Results For the ER+/PR+/HER2- subtype, the combined API category showed a 17% (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.76–0.91) lower mortality risk. This was true only for SEA (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.61–0.91) and Japanese women (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.45–0.81). In the ER+/PR-/HER2- subtype, SEA (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.38–0.84) and Filipino women (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51–0.97) had a lower risk of mortality. Japanese (HR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.25–0.99) and Filipino women (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.58–0.94) had a lower HR for the ER-/PR-/HER2+ subtype. For triple-positive, ER+/PR+/HER2+ (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.71–0.98) and triple-negative, ER-/PR-/HER2- (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.74–0.94) subtypes, only the API category showed a lower risk of mortality. Conclusion Breast cancer-specific mortality among Asian-American women varies according to their

  10. All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality Associated with Bariatric Surgery: A Review.

    PubMed

    Adams, Ted D; Mehta, Tapan S; Davidson, Lance E; Hunt, Steven C

    2015-12-01

    The question of whether or not nonsurgical intentional or voluntary weight loss results in reduced mortality has been equivocal, with long-term mortality following weight loss being reported as increased, decreased, and not changed. In part, inconsistent results have been attributed to the uncertainty of whether the intentionality of weight loss is accurately reported in large population studies and also that achieving significant and sustained voluntary weight loss in large intervention trials is extremely difficult. Bariatric surgery has generally been free of these conflicts. Patients voluntarily undergo surgery and the resulting weight is typically significant and sustained. These elements, combined with possible non-weight loss-related mechanisms, have resulted in improved comorbidities, which likely contribute to a reduction in long-term mortality. This paper reviews the association between bariatric surgery and long-term mortality. From these studies, the general consensus is that bariatric surgical patients have: 1) significantly reduced long-term all-cause mortality when compared to severely obese non-bariatric surgical control groups; 2) greater mortality when compared to the general population, with the exception of one study; 3) reduced cardiovascular-, stroke-, and cancer-caused mortality when compared to severely obese non-operated controls; and 4) increased risk for externally caused death such as suicide.

  11. Application of a Modified Garbage Code Algorithm to Estimate Cause-Specific Mortality and Years of Life Lost in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Years of life lost (YLLs) are estimated based on mortality and cause of death (CoD); therefore, it is necessary to accurately calculate CoD to estimate the burden of disease. The garbage code algorithm was developed by the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study to redistribute inaccurate CoD and enhance the validity of CoD estimation. This study aimed to estimate cause-specific mortality rates and YLLs in Korea by applying a modified garbage code algorithm. CoD data for 2010–2012 were used to calculate the number of deaths. The garbage code algorithm was then applied to calculate target cause (i.e., valid CoD) and adjusted CoD using the garbage code redistribution. The results showed that garbage code deaths accounted for approximately 25% of all CoD during 2010–2012. In 2012, lung cancer contributed the most to cause-specific death according to the Statistics Korea. However, when CoD was adjusted using the garbage code redistribution, ischemic heart disease was the most common CoD. Furthermore, before garbage code redistribution, self-harm contributed the most YLLs followed by lung cancer and liver cancer; however, after application of the garbage code redistribution, though self-harm was the most common leading cause of YLL, it is followed by ischemic heart disease and lung cancer. Our results showed that garbage code deaths accounted for a substantial amount of mortality and YLLs. The results may enhance our knowledge of burden of disease and help prioritize intervention settings by changing the relative importance of burden of disease. PMID:27775249

  12. Recent trends of cancer mortality in Romanian adults: mortality is still increasing, although young adults do better than the middle-aged and elderly population.

    PubMed

    Tereanu, Carmen; Baili, Paolo; Berrino, Franco; Micheli, Andrea; Furtunescu, Florentina L; Minca, Dana G; Sant, Milena

    2013-05-01

    We analysed the mortality trends (1986-2009) for all cancers combined and selected cancers in adult Romanians by three age groups (15-49, 50-69 and older than 70 years of age) in comparison with 11 other European countries. We extracted mortality data from the WHO database and grouped the countries into four regions: central and eastern Europe (Romania, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary), Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania), western and northern Europe (Austria, the Netherlands and Finland), and southern Europe (Croatia and Slovenia). Mortality rates were age-standardized against the standard European population. Significant changes in mortality trends were identified by Joinpoint regression and annual percentage changes (APCs) were calculated for periods with uniform trends. Cancer mortality in Romania was among the lowest in Europe in 1986, but was higher than most countries by 2009. Despite the declining mortality (APC) in younger Romanians for all cancers combined (men-1.5% from 1997, women-1.2% 1997-2004 and -3.8% 2004-2009), male lung cancer (-2.8% from 1997), female breast (-3.5% from 1999) and cervical (-5.4% from 2004) cancers, mortality has increased in middle-aged and elderly patients for most cancers analysed. The exception was declining stomach cancer mortality in most Romanians, except elderly men. For most cancers analysed, mortality declined in the Baltic countries in young and middle-aged patients, and in western and northern countries for all ages. Lung cancer mortality in women increased in all countries except Latvia. We urge immediate steps to reverse the alarming increase in cancer mortality among middle-aged and elderly Romanians.

  13. Understanding the Racial and Ethnic Differences in Cost and Mortality Among Advanced Stage Prostate Cancer Patients (STROBE).

    PubMed

    Chhatre, Sumedha; Bruce Malkowicz, Stanley; Sanford Schwartz, J; Jayadevappa, Ravishankar

    2015-08-01

    The aims of the study were to understand the racial/ethnic differences in cost of care and mortality in Medicare elderly with advanced stage prostate cancer.This retrospective, observational study used SEER-Medicare data. Cohort consisted of 10,509 men aged 66 or older and diagnosed with advanced-stage prostate cancer between 2001and 2004. The cohort was followed retrospectively up to 2009. Racial/ethnic variation in cost was analyzed using 2 part-models and quantile regression. Step-wise GLM log-link and Cox regression was used to study the association between race/ethnicity and cost and mortality. Propensity score approach was used to minimize selection bias.Pattern of cost and mortality varies between racial/ethnic groups. Compared with other racial/ethnic groups, non-Hispanic white patients had higher unadjusted costs in treatment and follow-up phases. Quintile regression results indicated that in treatment phase, Hispanics had higher costs in the 95th quantile and non-Hispanic blacks had lower cost in the 95th quantile, compared with non-Hispanic white men. In terminal phase non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics had higher cost. After controlling for treatment, all-cause and prostate cancer-specific mortality was not significant for non-Hispanic black men, compared with non-Hispanic white men. However, for Asians, mortality remained significantly lower compared with non-Hispanic white men.In conclusion, relationship between race/ethnicity, cost of care, and mortality is intricate. For non-Hispanic black men, disparity in mortality can be attributed to treatment differences. To reduce racial/ethnic disparities in prostate cancer care and outcomes, tailored policies to address underuse, overuse, and misuse of treatment and health services are necessary. PMID:26266389

  14. Mortality and cancer incidence among workers in an abrasive manufacturing industry.

    PubMed Central

    Edling, C; Järvholm, B; Andersson, L; Axelson, O

    1987-01-01

    Earlier epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to aluminium oxide and silicon carbide might carry with it an increased risk of lymphomas, stomach cancer, and non-malignant respiratory disease. To elucidate further this possible hazard, the cancer morbidity and the total mortality pattern was studied among 521 men manufacturing abrasive materials who had been exposed to aluminium oxide, silicon carbide, and formaldehyde. Total dust levels were in the range of 0.1-1.0 mg/m3. The cohort was followed up from 1958 until December 1983. No significant increase was found in total mortality, cancer mortality, or incidence of non-malignant respiratory diseases. PMID:3814536

  15. Occupational class inequalities in all-cause and cause-specific mortality among middle-aged men in 14 European populations during the early 2000s.

    PubMed

    Toch-Marquardt, Marlen; Menvielle, Gwenn; Eikemo, Terje A; Kulhánová, Ivana; Kulik, Margarete C; Bopp, Matthias; Esnaola, Santiago; Jasilionis, Domantas; Mäki, Netta; Martikainen, Pekka; Regidor, Enrique; Lundberg, Olle; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses occupational class inequalities in all-cause mortality and four specific causes of death among men, in Europe in the early 2000s, and is the most extensive comparative analysis of occupational class inequalities in mortality in Europe so far. Longitudinal data, obtained from population censuses and mortality registries in 14 European populations, from around the period 2000-2005, were used. Analyses concerned men aged 30-59 years and included all-cause mortality and mortality from all cancers, all cardiovascular diseases (CVD), all external, and all other causes. Occupational class was analysed according to five categories: upper and lower non-manual workers, skilled and unskilled manual workers, and farmers and self-employed combined. Inequalities were quantified with mortality rate ratios, rate differences, and population attributable fractions (PAF). Relative and absolute inequalities in all-cause mortality were more pronounced in Finland, Denmark, France, and Lithuania than in other populations, and the same countries (except France) also had the highest PAF values for all-cause mortality. The main contributing causes to these larger inequalities differed strongly between countries (e.g., cancer in France, all other causes in Denmark). Relative and absolute inequalities in CVD mortality were markedly lower in Southern European populations. We conclude that relative and absolute occupational class differences in all-cause and cause specific mortality have persisted into the early 2000's, although the magnitude differs strongly between populations. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that the relative gap in mortality between occupational classes has further widened in some Northern and Western European populations.

  16. Occupational Class Inequalities in All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality among Middle-Aged Men in 14 European Populations during the Early 2000s

    PubMed Central

    Toch-Marquardt, Marlen; Menvielle, Gwenn; Eikemo, Terje A.; Kulhánová, Ivana; Kulik, Margarete C.; Bopp, Matthias; Esnaola, Santiago; Jasilionis, Domantas; Mäki, Netta; Martikainen, Pekka; Regidor, Enrique; Lundberg, Olle; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses occupational class inequalities in all-cause mortality and four specific causes of death among men, in Europe in the early 2000s, and is the most extensive comparative analysis of occupational class inequalities in mortality in Europe so far. Longitudinal data, obtained from population censuses and mortality registries in 14 European populations, from around the period 2000–2005, were used. Analyses concerned men aged 30–59 years and included all-cause mortality and mortality from all cancers, all cardiovascular diseases (CVD), all external, and all other causes. Occupational class was analysed according to five categories: upper and lower non-manual workers, skilled and unskilled manual workers, and farmers and self-employed combined. Inequalities were quantified with mortality rate ratios, rate differences, and population attributable fractions (PAF). Relative and absolute inequalities in all-cause mortality were more pronounced in Finland, Denmark, France, and Lithuania than in other populations, and the same countries (except France) also had the highest PAF values for all-cause mortality. The main contributing causes to these larger inequalities differed strongly between countries (e.g., cancer in France, all other causes in Denmark). Relative and absolute inequalities in CVD mortality were markedly lower in Southern European populations. We conclude that relative and absolute occupational class differences in all-cause and cause specific mortality have persisted into the early 2000's, although the magnitude differs strongly between populations. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that the relative gap in mortality between occupational classes has further widened in some Northern and Western European populations. PMID:25268702

  17. Endometrial and cervical cancer: incidence and mortality among women in the Lodz region

    PubMed Central

    Leśniczak, Beata; Krasomski, Grzegorz; Oszukowski, Przemysław; Woźniak, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Introduction By the early 21st century the most common cancer of female genitals in Poland was cervical cancer. Now endometrial cancer ranks first. The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence and mortality of endometrial and cervical cancer among women in the Lodz region. Material and methods Data on the incidence and mortality of endometrial and cervical cancer among inhabitants of the Lodz region were obtained from the National Cancer Registry and Bulletin of Cancer Cases in the Lodz region. The analysis covered ten consecutive years beginning in 2001. Results The number of new cases reported in 2010 exceeded that observed in 2001 by 181. The standardized incidence rate of endometrial cancer increased by 6.3, while the standardized incidence rate of cervical cancer decreased by 1.4. Conclusions In the years 2001-2010, the incidence of endometrial cancer increased by 88.3% and that of cervical cancer decreased by 6.5% among inhabitants of the Lodz region. In the years 2001-2010, mortality of endometrial cancer increased by 24.5% and that of cervical cancer decreased by 12.6%. In 2010, the highest crude incidence rates in the Lodz region of both endometrial and cervical cancer at 39.1 were recorded in the district town of Piotrków. PMID:26528109

  18. Cancer incidence and mortality among members of the Danish resistance movement deported to German concentration camps: 65-Year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Maja Halgren; Nielsen, Henrik; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Johansen, Christoffer

    2015-05-15

    The widespread belief that a stressful life event increases cancer incidence and mortality was investigated in a unique cohort of all Danish male political prisoners, who survived the extremely stressful experience of life in German concentration camps between 1943 and 1945. A virtually complete cohort of all 1,322 Danish male political prisoners who survived deportation to German concentration camps were followed up for cancer incidence and all-cause and cancer-specific mortality from 1946 through 2010. Standardized ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated from the observed and expected numbers of cancers or deaths, the latter based on national rates. We observed slightly increased standardized cancer incidence ratio (SIR 1.16; 95% CI, 1.06-1.27), particularly of smoking- or alcohol-related cancers (SIR 1.31; 95% CI, 1.15-1.49) and nonsignificantly increased SIR of immune system- and hormone-related cancers (SIR 1.17; 95% CI, 0.80-1.65 and 1.05; 95% CI, 0.81-1.34 respectively). Both the standardized all-cause mortality ratio (SMR 1.11; 95% CI, 1.05-1.18) and cancer specific mortality ratio (SCMR 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01-1.26) were slightly increased, particularly from smoking- or alcohol-related cancers (SCMR 1.25; 95% CI, 1.06-1.45). The minor increased cancer incidence and cancer mortality among the survivors is probably not directly associated with exposure to this extreme stressful event, but may be indirectly mediated through behavioral responses to psychological stress, as reflected in the increased incidence of and mortality from tobacco- and alcohol-related cancers. PMID:25346456

  19. Epidemiology, incidence and mortality of lung cancer and their relationship with the development index in the world

    PubMed Central

    Rafiemanesh, Hosein; Mehtarpour, Mojtaba; Khani, Farah; Hesami, Sayed Mohammadali; Shamlou, Reza; Towhidi, Farhad; Makhsosi, Behnam Reza; Moini, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background The highest incidence of lung cancer is seen in North America and the lowest incidence in central Africa. Socioeconomic factors of inequality reflect regional disparities in human development. Due to the importance of awareness about incidence and mortality of lung cancer in health programming and the possible role of the human development index (HDI), this study was done with the aim to investigate the epidemiology of lung cancer in the world and its relationship with HDI. Methods The study was conducted based on data from the world data of cancer and the World Bank (including the HDI and its components). Data about the age-specific incidence and mortality rate (ASR) for every country in 2012 were getting from the global cancer project. To analyze data, correlation tests between incidence and death rates, and HDI and its components were employed with a significance level of 0.05 using SPSS software. Results Lung cancer with standardized incidence rate (ASIR) and standardized mortality rate (ASMR), equal to 23.1 and 19.7 (in 100,000 people), respectively. The highest and lowest values of mortality incidence ratio (MIR) for lung cancer due to continents division were 0.93 and 0.71 for Eastern Africa and Australia/New Zealand, respectively. Univariate analysis showed significant relationship (P<0.0001) between ASIR and ASMR with life expectancy at birth and mean years of schooling. Conclusions The highest MIR for lung cancer was for medium human development countries. Linear regression analysis showed a reverse significant relationship between MIR and HDI. PMID:27293825

  20. Prenatal famine exposure and adult mortality from cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other causes through age 63 years.

    PubMed

    Ekamper, Peter; van Poppel, Frans; Stein, Aryeh D; Bijwaard, Govert E; Lumey, L H

    2015-02-15

    Nutritional conditions in early life may affect adult health, but prior studies of mortality have been limited to small samples. We evaluated the relationship between pre-/perinatal famine exposure during the Dutch Hunger Winter of 1944-1945 and mortality through age 63 years among 41,096 men born in 1944-1947 and examined at age 18 years for universal military service in the Netherlands. Of these men, 22,952 had been born around the time of the Dutch famine in 6 affected cities; the remainder served as unexposed controls. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios for death from cancer, heart disease, other natural causes, and external causes. After 1,853,023 person-years of follow-up, we recorded 1,938 deaths from cancer, 1,040 from heart disease, 1,418 from other natural causes, and 523 from external causes. We found no increase in mortality from cancer or cardiovascular disease after prenatal famine exposure. However, there were increases in mortality from other natural causes (hazard ratio = 1.24, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.49) and external causes (hazard ratio = 1.46, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 1.97) after famine exposure in the first trimester of gestation. Further follow-up of the cohort is needed to provide more accurate risk estimates of mortality from specific causes of death after nutritional disturbances during gestation and very early life.

  1. The incidence and mortality of lung cancer and their relationship to development in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Pakzad, Reza; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Pakzad, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is the deadliest cancer worldwide and the most common cancer in Asia. It is necessary to get information on epidemiology and inequalities related to incidence and mortality of the cancer to use for planning and further research. This study aimed to investigate epidemiology and inequality of incidence and mortality from lung cancer in Asia. Methods The study was conducted based on data from the world data of cancer and the World Bank [including the Human Development Index (HDI) and its components]. The incidence and mortality rates, and cancer distribution maps were drawn for Asian countries. To analyze data, correlation test between incidence and death rates, and HDI and its components at significant was used in the significant level of 0.05 using SPSS software. Results A total of 1,033,881 incidence (71.13% were males and 28.87% were females. Sex ratio was 2.46) and 936,051 death (71.45% in men and 28.55% in women. The sex ratio was 2.50) recorded in Asian countries in 2012. Five countries with the highest standardized incidence and mortality rates of lung cancer were Democratic Republic of Korea, China, Armenia, Turkey, and Timor-Leste, respectively. Correlation between HDI and standardized incidence rate was 0.345 (P=0.019), in men 0.301 (P=0.042) and in women 0.3 (P=0.043); also between HDI and standardized mortality rate 0.289 (P=0.052), in men 0.265 (P=0.075) and in women 0.200 (P=0.182). Conclusions The incidence of lung cancer has been increasing in Asia. It is high in men. Along with development, the incidence and mortality from lung cancer increases. It seems necessary to study reasons and factors of increasing the incidence and mortality of lung cancer in Asian countries. PMID:26798586

  2. Maps and atlases of cancer mortality: a review of a useful tool to trigger new questions.

    PubMed

    d'Onofrio, Alberto; Mazzetta, Chiara; Robertson, Chris; Smans, Michel; Boyle, Peter; Boniol, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    In this review we illustrate our view on the epidemiological relevance of geographically mapping cancer mortality. In the first part of this work, after delineating the history of cancer mapping with a view on interpretation of Cancer Mortality Atlases, we briefly illustrate the 'art' of cancer mapping. Later we summarise in a non-mathematical way basic methods of spatial statistics. In the second part of this paper, we employ the 'Atlas of Cancer Mortality in the European Union and the European Economic Area 1993-1997' in order to illustrate spatial aspects of cancer mortality in Europe. In particular, we focus on the cancer related to tobacco and alcohol epidemics and on breast cancer which is of particular interest in cancer mapping. Here we suggest and reiterate two key concepts. The first is that a cancer atlas is not only a visual tool, but it also contain appropriate spatial statistical analyses that quantify the qualitative visual impressions to the readers even though at times revealing fallacy. The second is that a cancer atlas is by no means a book where answers to questions can be found. On the contrary, it ought to be considered as a tool to trigger new questions. PMID:27610196

  3. Maps and atlases of cancer mortality: a review of a useful tool to trigger new questions

    PubMed Central

    d’Onofrio, Alberto; Mazzetta, Chiara; Robertson, Chris; Smans, Michel; Boyle, Peter; Boniol, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    In this review we illustrate our view on the epidemiological relevance of geographically mapping cancer mortality. In the first part of this work, after delineating the history of cancer mapping with a view on interpretation of Cancer Mortality Atlases, we briefly illustrate the ‘art’ of cancer mapping. Later we summarise in a non-mathematical way basic methods of spatial statistics. In the second part of this paper, we employ the ‘Atlas of Cancer Mortality in the European Union and the European Economic Area 1993–1997’ in order to illustrate spatial aspects of cancer mortality in Europe. In particular, we focus on the cancer related to tobacco and alcohol epidemics and on breast cancer which is of particular interest in cancer mapping. Here we suggest and reiterate two key concepts. The first is that a cancer atlas is not only a visual tool, but it also contain appropriate spatial statistical analyses that quantify the qualitative visual impressions to the readers even though at times revealing fallacy. The second is that a cancer atlas is by no means a book where answers to questions can be found. On the contrary, it ought to be considered as a tool to trigger new questions.

  4. Maps and atlases of cancer mortality: a review of a useful tool to trigger new questions

    PubMed Central

    d’Onofrio, Alberto; Mazzetta, Chiara; Robertson, Chris; Smans, Michel; Boyle, Peter; Boniol, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    In this review we illustrate our view on the epidemiological relevance of geographically mapping cancer mortality. In the first part of this work, after delineating the history of cancer mapping with a view on interpretation of Cancer Mortality Atlases, we briefly illustrate the ‘art’ of cancer mapping. Later we summarise in a non-mathematical way basic methods of spatial statistics. In the second part of this paper, we employ the ‘Atlas of Cancer Mortality in the European Union and the European Economic Area 1993–1997’ in order to illustrate spatial aspects of cancer mortality in Europe. In particular, we focus on the cancer related to tobacco and alcohol epidemics and on breast cancer which is of particular interest in cancer mapping. Here we suggest and reiterate two key concepts. The first is that a cancer atlas is not only a visual tool, but it also contain appropriate spatial statistical analyses that quantify the qualitative visual impressions to the readers even though at times revealing fallacy. The second is that a cancer atlas is by no means a book where answers to questions can be found. On the contrary, it ought to be considered as a tool to trigger new questions. PMID:27610196

  5. [The frequency of cancer in France: mortality trends since 1950 and summary of the report on the causes of cancer].

    PubMed

    Hill, Catherine; Doyon, Françoise

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, a total number of 149,000 cancer deaths were observed in France, 89,000 in the male population and 60,000 in the female population. Age-standardised mortality rates are decreasing for most cancer sites, at least in recent years, the main exception being lung cancer in the female population which has become the second cause of cancer deaths after breast cancer. The report on the attributable causes of cancer in France from the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the French Science and Medical Academies and the Fédération Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer shows the importance of tobacco alcohol and infections. They are the most important causes of cancer in France, leading respectively to 24 %, 7 % and 4 % of cancer deaths. Cancer prevention is possible as demonstrated by the decrease in tobacco and alcohol consumption in the male population leading to a reduction in the risk of cancer.

  6. Association of Coffee Consumption With Overall and Cause-Specific Mortality in a Large US Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Loftfield, Erikka; Freedman, Neal D; Graubard, Barry I; Guertin, Kristin A; Black, Amanda; Huang, Wen-Yi; Shebl, Fatma M; Mayne, Susan T; Sinha, Rashmi

    2015-12-15

    Concerns about high caffeine intake and coffee as a vehicle for added fat and sugar have raised questions about the net impact of coffee on health. Although inverse associations have been observed for overall mortality, data for cause-specific mortality are sparse. Additionally, few studies have considered exclusively decaffeinated coffee intake or use of coffee additives. Coffee intake was assessed at baseline by self-report in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Among 90,317 US adults without cancer at study baseline (1998-2001) or history of cardiovascular disease at study enrollment (1993-2001), 8,718 deaths occurred during 805,644 person-years of follow-up from 1998 through 2009. Following adjustment for smoking and other potential confounders, coffee drinkers, as compared with nondrinkers, had lower hazard ratios for overall mortality (<1 cup/day: hazard ratio (HR) = 0.99 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92, 1.07); 1 cup/day: HR = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.02); 2-3 cups/day: HR = 0.82 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.88); 4-5 cups/day: HR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.86); ≥6 cups/day: HR = 0.84 (95% CI: 0.75, 0.95)). Similar findings were observed for decaffeinated coffee and coffee additives. Inverse associations were observed for deaths from heart disease, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes, pneumonia and influenza, and intentional self-harm, but not cancer. Coffee may reduce mortality risk by favorably affecting inflammation, lung function, insulin sensitivity, and depression.

  7. Association of Coffee Consumption With Overall and Cause-Specific Mortality in a Large US Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Loftfield, Erikka; Freedman, Neal D; Graubard, Barry I; Guertin, Kristin A; Black, Amanda; Huang, Wen-Yi; Shebl, Fatma M; Mayne, Susan T; Sinha, Rashmi

    2015-12-15

    Concerns about high caffeine intake and coffee as a vehicle for added fat and sugar have raised questions about the net impact of coffee on health. Although inverse associations have been observed for overall mortality, data for cause-specific mortality are sparse. Additionally, few studies have considered exclusively decaffeinated coffee intake or use of coffee additives. Coffee intake was assessed at baseline by self-report in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Among 90,317 US adults without cancer at study baseline (1998-2001) or history of cardiovascular disease at study enrollment (1993-2001), 8,718 deaths occurred during 805,644 person-years of follow-up from 1998 through 2009. Following adjustment for smoking and other potential confounders, coffee drinkers, as compared with nondrinkers, had lower hazard ratios for overall mortality (<1 cup/day: hazard ratio (HR) = 0.99 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92, 1.07); 1 cup/day: HR = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.02); 2-3 cups/day: HR = 0.82 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.88); 4-5 cups/day: HR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.86); ≥6 cups/day: HR = 0.84 (95% CI: 0.75, 0.95)). Similar findings were observed for decaffeinated coffee and coffee additives. Inverse associations were observed for deaths from heart disease, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes, pneumonia and influenza, and intentional self-harm, but not cancer. Coffee may reduce mortality risk by favorably affecting inflammation, lung function, insulin sensitivity, and depression. PMID:26614599

  8. Educational differences in cancer mortality among women and men: a gender pattern that differs across Europe

    PubMed Central

    Menvielle, G; Kunst, A E; Stirbu, I; Strand, B H; Borrell, C; Regidor, E; Leclerc, A; Esnaola, S; Bopp, M; Lundberg, O; Artnik, B; Costa, G; Deboosere, P; Martikainen, P; Mackenbach, J P

    2008-01-01

    We used longitudinal mortality data sets for the 1990s to compare socioeconomic inequalities in total cancer mortality between women and men aged 30–74 in 12 different European populations (Madrid, Basque region, Barcelona, Slovenia, Turin, Switzerland, France, Belgium, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland) and to investigate which cancer sites explain the differences found. We measured socioeconomic status using educational level and computed relative indices of inequality (RII). We observed large variations within Europe for educational differences in total cancer mortality among men and women. Three patterns were observed: Denmark, Norway and Sweden (significant RII around 1.3–1.4 among both men and women); France, Switzerland, Belgium and Finland (significant RII around 1.7–1.8 among men and around 1.2 among women); Spanish populations, Slovenia and Turin (significant RII from 1.29 to 1.88 among men; no differences among women except in the Basque region, where RII is significantly lower than 1). Lung, upper aerodigestive tract and breast cancers explained most of the variations between gender and populations in the magnitude of inequalities in total cancer mortality. Given time trends in cancer mortality, the gap in the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality between gender and between European populations will probably decrease in the future. PMID:18283307

  9. Bladder cancer mortality and private well use in New England: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Ayotte, Joseph D; Baris, Dalsu; Cantor, Kenneth P; Colt, Joanne; Robinson, Gilpin R; Lubin, Jay H; Karagas, Margaret; Hoover, Robert N; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Silverman, Debra T

    2006-01-01

    Study objective To investigate the possible relation between bladder cancer mortality among white men and women and private water use in New England, USA, where rates have been persistently raised and use of private water supplies (wells) common. Design Ecological study relating age adjusted cancer mortality rates for white men and women during 1985–1999 and proportion of persons using private water supplies in 1970. After regressing mortality rates on population density, Pearson correlation coefficients were computed between residual rates and the proportion of the population using private water supplies, using the state economic area as the unit of calculation. Calculations were conducted within each of 10 US regions. Setting The 504 state economic areas of the contiguous United States. Participants Mortality analysis of 11 cancer sites, with the focus on bladder cancer. Main results After adjusting for the effect of population density, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between residual bladder cancer mortality rates and private water supply use among both men and women in New England (men, r = 0.42; women, r = 0.48) and New York/New Jersey (men, r = 0.49; women, r = 0.62). Conclusions Use of well water from private sources, or a close correlate, may be an explanatory variable for the excess bladder cancer mortality in New England. Analytical studies are underway to clarify the relation between suspected water contaminants, particularly arsenic, and raised bladder cancer rates in northern New England. PMID:16415269

  10. Bladder cancer mortality and private well use in New England: An ecological study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayotte, J.D.; Baris, D.; Cantor, K.P.; Colt, J.; Robinson, G.R.; Lubin, J.H.; Karagas, M.; Hoover, R.N.; Fraumeni, J.F.; Silverman, D.T.

    2006-01-01

    Study objective: To investigate the possible relation between bladder cancer mortality among white men and women and private water use in New England, USA, where rates have been persistently raised and use of private water supplies (wells) common. Design: Ecological study relating age adjusted cancer mortality rates for white men and women during 1985-1999 and proportion of persons using private water supplies in 1970. After regressing mortality rates on population density, Pearson correlation coefficients were computed between residual rates and the proportion of the population using private water supplies, using the state economic area as the unit of calculation. Calculations were conducted within each of 10 US regions. Setting: The 504 state economic areas of the contiguous United States. Participants: Mortality analysis of 11 cancer sites, with the focus on bladder cancer. Main results: After adjusting for the effect of population density, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between residual bladder cancer mortality rates and private water supply use among both men and women in New England (men, r=0.42; women, r=0.48) and New York/New Jersey (men, r=0.49; women, r=0.62). Conclusions: Use of well water from private sources, or a close correlate, may be an explanatory variable for the excess bladder cancer mortality in New England. Analytical studies are underway to clarify the relation between suspected water contaminants, particularly arsenic, and raised bladder cancer rates in northern New England.

  11. Serum leptin, C-reactive protein, and cancer mortality in the NHANES III.

    PubMed

    Wulaningsih, Wahyu; Holmberg, Lars; Ng, Tony; Rohrmann, Sabine; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke

    2016-01-01

    Adipokines, such as leptin, may affect cancer through its link with inflammation and obesity. We investigated the association between leptin, C-reactive protein, and risk of cancer death while accounting general and abdominal obesity. From the Third National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES III), we selected 5957 adult men and women with baseline measurements of serum leptin and CRP. Multivariable Cox regression was used to assess leptin and CRP levels (low, moderate, high) in relation to risk of cancer death. Stratification analyses were performed for obesity as defined by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Fine and Gray regression was performed to account for death from cardiovascular disease and other causes as competing events. A total of 385 participants died of cancer during a mean follow-up of 18 years. After adjusting for BMI and waist circumference, an inverse association with log-transformed leptin was found for women, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.81 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.51-1.30) and 0.40 (95% CI: 0.24-0.68) for moderate and high compared to low levels of leptin, respectively; P(trend) = 0.0007). No association for leptin was observed in men, but higher CRP corresponded to increased risk of dying from cancer (HR: 2.98; 95% CI: 1.57-5.64 for the highest vs. lowest categories of CRP). Similar associations were observed with competing risk analysis also adjusted for BMI and waist circumference. Contrasting associations of serum leptin and CRP with cancer mortality may indicate sex-specific biological or environmental pathways linking obesity and cancer in men and women which warrant mechanistic investigations.

  12. Cause-specific mortality in individuals with severe alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency in comparison with the general population in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Tanash, Hanan A; Ekström, Magnus; Wagner, Philippe; Piitulainen, Eeva

    2016-01-01

    Background Severe alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (PiZZ) predisposes to morbidity and mortality due to early-onset emphysema and liver disease. The risk of death from other causes, including cardiovascular disease and cancer, has not been well investigated. We aimed to analyze cause-specific mortality in PiZZ individuals compared with the general Swedish population. Methods Data on 1,561 PiZZ individuals from the Swedish National AAT Deficiency Register, prospectively followed from 1991 to 2014, were analyzed. Causes of death according to the Swedish National Causes of Death Register for the study group were compared with those for the general Swedish population matched for age, sex, and calendar year, with the excess mortality expressed as standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results There were 524 deaths during the follow-up period. PiZZ individuals had excess all-cause mortality compared with the Swedish general population (SMR 3.6, 95% CI 3.3–3.9). SMR for ischemic heart disease (IHD) was 0.5 (95% CI 0.3–0.8) and was similar for never and ever-smokers, and in males and females. SMR for lung cancer was 0.9 (95% CI 0.4–1.7). PiZZ individuals had increased mortality compared with the general population for the following diseases: respiratory disease, SMR 48.4 (95% CI 43.0–54.5); primary liver carcinoma, SMR 90.0 (95% CI 59.3–130.9); complicated colon diverticulitis, SMR 20.8 (95% CI 6.7–48.6); and pulmonary embolism, SMR 6.9 (95% CI 3.3–12.7). Conclusion PiZZ individuals had a reduced mortality risk of IHD. Mortality due to respiratory, hepatic disease, diverticulitis, and pulmonary embolism was markedly increased compared with the age- and sex-matched Swedish population. PMID:27555756

  13. Changes in cause-specific mortality during heat waves in central Spain, 1975-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miron, Isidro Juan; Linares, Cristina; Montero, Juan Carlos; Criado-Alvarez, Juan Jose; Díaz, Julio

    2015-09-01

    The relationship between heat waves and mortality has been widely described, but there are few studies using long daily data on specific-cause mortality. This study is undertaken in central Spain and analysing natural causes, circulatory and respiratory causes of mortality from 1975 to 2008. Time-series analysis was performed using ARIMA models, including data on specific-cause mortality and maximum and mean daily temperature and mean daily air pressure. The length of heat waves and their chronological number were analysed. Data were stratified in three decadal stages: 1975-1985, 1986-1996 and 1997-2008. Heat-related mortality was triggered by a threshold temperature of 37 °C. For each degree that the daily maximum temperature exceeded 37 °C, the percentage increase in mortality due to circulatory causes was 19.3 % (17.3-21.3) in 1975-1985, 30.3 % (28.3-32.3) in 1986-1996 and 7.3 % (6.2-8.4) in 1997-2008. The increase in respiratory cause ranged from 12.4 % (7.8-17.0) in the first period, to 16.3 % (14.1-18.4) in the second and 13.7 % (11.5-15.9) in the last. Each day of heat-wave duration explained 5.3 % (2.6-8.0) increase in respiratory mortality in the first period and 2.3 % (1.6-3.0) in the last. Decadal scale differences exist for specific-causes mortality induced by extreme heat. The impact on heat-related mortality by natural and circulatory causes increases between the first and the second period and falls significantly in the last. For respiratory causes, the increase is no reduced in the last period. These results are of particular importance for the estimation of future impacts of climate change on health.

  14. Culling experiments demonstrate size-class specific biomass increases with mortality.

    PubMed

    Schröder, A; Persson, L; de Roos, A M

    2009-02-24

    Size-selective mortality inevitably leads to a decrease in population density and exerts a direct negative effect on targeted size classes. But density and population size structure are also shaped by food-dependent processes, such as individual growth, maturation, and reproduction. Mortality relaxes competition and thereby alters the dynamic interplay among these processes. As shown by the recently developed size-structured theory, which can account for food-dependent individual performance, this altered interplay can lead to overcompensatory responses in size class-specific biomass, with increasing mortality. We experimentally tested this theory by subjecting laboratory fish populations to a range of size-selective mortality rates. Overall, the results were in agreement with theoretical predictions. Biomass of the juvenile size class increased above control levels at intermediate adult mortality rates and thereafter declined at high mortality rates. Juvenile biomass also increased when juveniles themselves were subjected to intermediate mortality rates. Biomass in other size classes decreased with mortality. Such biomass overcompensation can have wide-ranging implications for communities and food webs, including a high sensitivity of top predators to irreversible catastrophic collapses, the establishment of alternative stable community states, and the promotion of coexistence and biodiversity. PMID:19193850

  15. Incidence and mortality from mucosal head and neck cancers amongst Australian states and territories: what it means for the northern territory.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jagtar; Jayaraj, Rama; Baxi, Siddhartha; Ramamoorthi, Ramya; Thomas, Mahiban

    2013-01-01

    Mucosal head and neck cancers are squamous cell carcinomas that develop in the upper-aero digestive epithelium. Together they constitute the sixth most common cancer with an estimated 900,000 new cases and 350,000 deaths each year reported worldwide. The risk factors are tobacco, alcohol and human papillomavirus (HPV). Our research team initially reported a high incidence rate of HNC in the indigenous population of the Northern Territory. Mortality rates also vary in the Australian States and Territories, with particularly high mortality observed in the Northern Territory. There is a paucity of incidence studies of HNC for the Australian States and Territories. Therefore this review primarily focuses on variation in incidence and mortality iacross the country and highlights specifically the high incidence and mortality in the Northern Territory. Attention is also given to sex-specific incidence and mortality rates.

  16. Cancer incidence and mortality among the Métis population of Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Ramirez, Diana C.; Colquhoun, Amy; Parker, Sara; Randall, Jason; Svenson, Lawrence W.; Voaklander, Don

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer has been identified as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Canada over the last decade. However, there is a paucity of information about cancer patterns in Aboriginal people, particularly for Métis. This study aims to explore cancer incidence and mortality burden among Métis and to compare disease estimates with non-Métis population. Methods This population-based descriptive epidemiological study used cancer incidence and mortality data from 2007 to 2012 obtained from Alberta Health Care Insurance Plan (AHCIP) – Central Stakeholder Registry – and Alberta Cancer Registry (ACR). To identify cancer cases in Métis, the ACR was linked with the Métis Nation of Alberta (MNA) Identification Registry. In Métis and non-Métis people, age-standardized cancer incidence and mortality rates were estimated and subsequently compared between both groups. Results A higher incidence of bronchus/lung cancer was found among Métis men compared with their non-Métis counterparts (RR=1.69, CI 1.28–2.09; p=0.01). No other statistically significant differences in cancer incidence or mortality were found between Métis and non-Métis people living in Alberta over the course of the 6 years studied. Conclusions Overall incidence and mortality associated with cancer were not higher among Métis people compared with non-Métis people. However, special efforts should be considered to decrease the higher incidence of bronchus/lung cancer in Métis men. Further development and maintenance of new and existing institutional collaborations are necessary to continue cancer research and health status surveillance in Métis population. PMID:26837668

  17. Cause-Specific Mortality Due to Malignant and Non-Malignant Disease in Korean Foundry Workers

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Ahn, Yeon-Soon

    2014-01-01

    Background Foundry work is associated with serious occupational hazards. Although several studies have investigated the health risks associated with foundry work, the results of these studies have been inconsistent with the exception of an increased lung cancer risk. The current study evaluated the mortality of Korean foundry workers due to malignant and non-malignant diseases. Methods This study is part of an ongoing investigation of Korean foundry workers. To date, we have observed more than 150,000 person-years in male foundry production workers. In the current study, we stratified mortality ratios by the following job categories: melting-pouring, molding-coremaking, fettling, and uncategorized production work. We calculated standard mortality ratios (SMR) of foundry workers compare to general Korean men and relative risk (RR) of mortality of foundry production workers reference to non-production worker, respectively. Results Korean foundry production workers had a significantly higher risk of mortality due to malignant disease, including stomach (RR: 3.96; 95% CI: 1.41–11.06) and lung cancer (RR: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.01–4.30), compared with non-production workers. High mortality ratios were also observed for non-malignant diseases, including diseases of the circulatory (RR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.18–3.14), respiratory (RR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.52–21.42 for uncategorized production worker), and digestive (RR: 2.27; 95% CI: 1.22–4.24) systems, as well as for injuries (RR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.52–3.66) including suicide (RR: 3.64; 95% CI: 1.32–10.01). Conclusion This study suggests that foundry production work significantly increases the risk of mortality due to some kinds of malignant and non-malignant diseases compared with non-production work. PMID:24505454

  18. Prospective study of coffee consumption and all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular mortality in Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Löf, Marie; Sandin, Sven; Yin, Li; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2015-09-01

    We investigated whether coffee consumption was associated with all-cause, cancer, or cardiovascular mortality in a prospective cohort of 49,259 Swedish women. Of the 1576 deaths that occurred in the cohort, 956 were due to cancer and 158 were due to cardiovascular disease. We used Cox proportional hazard models with adjustment for potential confounders to estimate multivariable relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI). Compared to a coffee consumption of 0-1 cups/day, the RR for all cause-mortality was 0.81 (95 % CI 0.69-0.94) for 2-5 cups/day and 0.88 (95 % CI 0.74-1.05) for >5 cups/day. Coffee consumption was not associated with cancer mortality or cardiovascular mortality when analyzed in the entire cohort. However, in supplementary analyses of women over 50 years of age, the RR for all cause-mortality was 0.74 (95 % CI 0.62-0.89) for 2-5 cups/day and 0.86 (95 % CI 0.70-1.06) for >5 cups/day when compared to 0-1 cups/day. In this same subgroup, the RRs for cancer mortality were 1.06 (95 % CI 0.81-1.38) for 2-5 cups/day and 1.40 (95 % CI 1.05-1.89) for >5 cups/day when compared to 0-1 cups/day. No associations between coffee consumption and all-cause mortality, cancer mortality, or cardiovascular mortality were observed among women below 50 years of age. In conclusion, higher coffee consumption was associated with lower all-cause mortality when compared to a consumption of 0-1 cups/day. Furthermore, coffee may have differential effects on mortality before and after 50 years of age.

  19. Estimation of the cumulated exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans and standardized mortality ratio analysis of cancer mortality by dose in an occupationally exposed cohort.

    PubMed Central

    Flesch-Janys, D; Steindorf, K; Gurn, P; Becher, H

    1998-01-01

    For a cohort of 1189 male German former herbicide and insecticide workers with exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/F), we report an extended standardized mortality ratio (SMR) analysis based on a new quantitative exposure index. This index characterizes the cumulative lifetime exposure by integrating the estimated concentration of PCDD/F at every point in time (area under the curve). Production department-specific dose rates were derived from blood levels and working histories of 275 workers by applying a first-order kinetic model. These dose rates were used to estimate exposure levels for all cohort members. Total mortality was elevated in the cohort; 413 deaths yielded an SMR of 1.15 (95% confidence interval [Cl] 1.05, 1.27) compared to the mortality of the population of Germany. Overall cancer mortality (n = 124) was significantly increased (SMR = 1.41, 95% Cl 1.17, 1.68). Various cancer sites showed significantly increased SMRs. The exposure index was used for an SMR analysis of total cancer mortality by dose. For 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) a significant trend (p = 0.01) for the SMRs with increasing cumulative PCDD/F exposure was observed. The SMR in the first exposure quartile (0-125.2 ng/kg x years) was 1.24 (95% Cl 0.82, 1.79), increasing to 1.73 (95% Cl 1.21, 2.40) in the last quartile (> or = 2503.0 ng/kg x years). For all congeners combined as toxic equivalencies (TEQ) using international toxic equivalency factors, a significant increase in cancer mortality was observed in the second quartile (360.9-1614.4 ng/kg x years, SMR 1.64; 95% Cl 1.13, 2.29) and the fourth quartile (> or = 5217.7 ng/kg x years TEQ, SMR 1.64, 95% Cl 1.13, 2.29). The trend test was not significant. The results justify the use of this cohort for a quantitative risk assessment for TCDD and to a lesser extent for TEQ. Images Figure 1 PMID:9599713

  20. Assessing model uncertainty using hexavalent chromium and lung cancer mortality as an example [Abstract 2015

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: The National Research Council recommended quantitative evaluation of uncertainty in effect estimates for risk assessment. This analysis considers uncertainty across model forms and model parameterizations with hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] and lung cancer mortality a...

  1. Assessing uncertainty in published risk estimates using hexavalent chromium and lung cancer mortality as an example

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: The National Research Council recommended quantitative evaluation of uncertainty in effect estimates for risk assessment. This analysis considers uncertainty across model forms and model parameterizations with hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] and lung cancer mortality a...

  2. Increased Cancer Mortality Risk for NASA's ISS Astronauts: The Contribution of Diagnostic Radiological Examinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, C.W.; Picco, C. E.; Gonzalez, S. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Van Baalen, M.; Shavers, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the radiation exposures and risks associated with long-term spaceflight on the International Space Station. NASA's risk model of cancer mortality is also presented.

  3. A single measure of cancer burden combining incidence with mortality rates for worldwide application.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Lim; Cho, Kyoung-Hee; Park, Eun-Cheol; Cho, Woo Hyun

    2014-01-01

    We attempted to develop an indicator combining incidence and mortality (summary indicator of cancer burden, SMCB) and to compare the magnitudes of cancer burden by world region. The SMCB was used to measure the size of cancer burden summarizing the incidence and mortality. The incidence and mortality were divided in equivalent forms and were split. The criteria dividing the size of cancer burden were used as the maximum incidence and mortality by men and women according to the world database, and the value corresponding to 10% of each maximum was set as the cut-off value. In SMCB, the size of cancer burden was highest for men with lung cancer (SMCB=18) and for women with breast cancer (SMCB=14) in MDR (more developed regions) compared to the size of burden in LDR (lower developed regions) (lung, SMCB=11, breast, SMCB=8). For men, the size of cancer burden by region was highest in EURO (SMCB=18, lung), followed by WPRO (SMCB=16, lung), PAHO (SMCB=14, prostate), AFRO (SMCB=8, prostate) and SEARO (SMCB=7, lung). Moreover, for women, the size of cancer burden was greatest in EURO (SMCB=14, breast), followed by PAHO (SMCB=13, breast), AFRO (SMCB=11, cervix uteri), EMRO (SMCB=9, breast) or SEARO (SMCB=8, cervix uteri) and WPRO (SMCB=7, lung). The summary indicator will help to provide a priority setting for reducing cancer burden in health policy.

  4. An ecological analysis of PM2.5 concentrations and lung cancer mortality rates in China

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jingying; Jiang, Dong; Lin, Gang; Liu, Kun; Wang, Qiao

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the association between Particulate Matter (PM)2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm) and lung cancer mortality rates and to estimate the potential risk of lung cancer mortality related to exposure to high PM2.5 concentrations. Design Geographically weighted regression was performed to evaluate the relation between PM2.5 concentrations and lung cancer mortality for males, females and for both sexes combined, in 2008, based on newly available long-term data. Lung cancer fatalities from long-term exposure to PM2.5 were calculated according to studies by Pope III et al and the WHO air quality guidelines (AQGs). Setting 31 provinces in China. Results PM2.5 was associated with the lung cancer mortality of males, females and both sexes combined, in China, although there were exceptions in several regions, for males and females. The number of lung cancer fatalities calculated by the WHO AQGs ranged from 531 036 to 532 004, whereas the number calculated by the American Cancer Society (ACS) reached 614 860 after long-term (approximately 3–4 years) exposure to PM2.5 concentrations since 2008. Conclusions There is a positive correlation between PM2.5 and lung cancer mortality rate, and the relationship between them varies across the entire country of China. The number of lung cancer fatalities estimated by ACS was closer to the actual data than those of the WHO AQGs. Therefore, the ACS estimate of increased risk of lung cancer mortality from long-term exposure to PM2.5 might be more applicable for evaluating lung cancer fatalities in China than the WHO estimate. PMID:26603253

  5. Increased childhood liver cancer mortality and arsenic in drinking water in Northern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Liaw, Jane; Marshall, Guillermo; Yuan, Yan; Ferreccio, Catterina; Steinmaus, Craig; Smith, Allan H.

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is an established cause of lung, bladder and skin cancers in adults, and may also cause adult kidney and liver cancer. Some evidence for these effects originated from Region II of Chile which had a period of elevated arsenic levels in drinking water, in particular from 1958 to 1970. This unique exposure scenario provides a rare opportunity to investigate the effects of early-life arsenic exposure on childhood mortality; to our knowledge, this is the first study of childhood cancer mortality and high concentrations of arsenic in drinking water. In this paper, we compare cancer mortality rates under the age of 20 in Region II during 1950–2000 with those of unexposed Region V, dividing subjects into those born before, during or after the peak exposure period. Mortality from the most common childhood cancers, leukemia and brain cancer, were not increased in the exposed population. However, we found childhood liver cancer mortality occurred at higher rates than expected; for those exposed as young children liver cancer mortality between ages 0–19 was especially high: the relative risk (RR) for males born during this period was 8.9 (95% CI 1.7–45.8; p=0.009), for females the corresponding RR was 14.1 (95% CI 1.6–126; p=0.018), and for males and females pooled, the RR was 10.6 (95% CI 2.9–39.2; p<0.001). These findings suggest exposure to arsenic in drinking water during early childhood may result in an increase in childhood liver cancer mortality. PMID:18708388

  6. Increased childhood liver cancer mortality and arsenic in drinking water in northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Jane; Marshall, Guillermo; Yuan, Yan; Ferreccio, Catterina; Steinmaus, Craig; Smith, Allan H

    2008-08-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is an established cause of lung, bladder, and skin cancers in adults and may also cause adult kidney and liver cancers. Some evidence for these effects originated from region II of Chile, which had a period of elevated arsenic levels in drinking water, in particular from 1958 to 1970. This unique exposure scenario provides a rare opportunity to investigate the effects of early-life arsenic exposure on childhood mortality; to our knowledge, this is the first study of childhood cancer mortality and high concentrations of arsenic in drinking water. In this article, we compare cancer mortality rates under the age of 20 in region II during 1950 to 2000 with those of unexposed region V, dividing subjects into those born before, during, or after the peak exposure period. Mortality from the most common childhood cancers, leukemia and brain cancer, was not increased in the exposed population. However, we found that childhood liver cancer mortality occurred at higher rates than expected. For those exposed as young children, liver cancer mortality between ages 0 and 19 was especially high: the relative risk (RR) for males born during this period was 8.9 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.7-45.8; P = 0.009]; for females, the corresponding RR was 14.1 (95% CI, 1.6-126; P = 0.018); and for males and females pooled, the RR was 10.6 (95% CI, 2.9-39.2; P < 0.001). These findings suggest that exposure to arsenic in drinking water during early childhood may result in an increase in childhood liver cancer mortality.

  7. Association between various sedentary behaviours and all-cause, cardiovascular disease and cancer mortality: the Multiethnic Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeonju; Wilkens, Lynne R; Park, Song-Yi; Goodman, Marc T; Monroe, Kristine R; Kolonel, Laurence N

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been proposed that time spent sitting increases all-cause mortality, but evidence to support this hypothesis, especially the relative effects of various sitting activities alone or in combination, is very limited. Methods The association between various sedentary behaviours (time spent: sitting watching television (TV); in other leisure activities; in a car/bus; at work; and at meals) and mortality (all-cause and cause-specific) was examined in the Multiethnic Cohort Study, which included 61 395 men and 73 201 women aged 45–75 years among five racial/ethnic groups (African American, Latino, Japanese American, Native Hawaiian and White) from Hawaii and Los Angeles, USA. Results Median follow-up was 13.7 years and 19 143 deaths were recorded. Total daily sitting was not associated with mortality in men, whereas in women the longest sitting duration (≥10 h/day vs <5 h/day) was associated with increased all-cause (11%) and cardiovascular (19%) mortality. Multivariate hazard ratios (HR) for ≥5 h/day vs <1 h/day of sitting watching TV were 1.19 in men (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10–1.29) and 1.32 in women (95% CI 1.21–1.44) for all-cause mortality. This association was consistent across four racial/ethnic groups, but was not seen in Japanese Americans. Sitting watching TV was associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular mortality, but not for cancer mortality. Time spent sitting in a car/bus and at work was not related to mortality. Conclusions Leisure time spent sitting, particularly watching television, may increase overall and cardiovascular mortality. Sitting at work or during transportation was not related to mortality. PMID:24062293

  8. Impacts of land use on spatial distribution of mortality rates of cancers caused by naturally occurring asbestos.

    PubMed

    Wei, Binggan; Jia, Xianjie; Ye, Bixiong; Yu, Jiangping; Zhang, Biao; Zhang, Xiuwu; Lu, Rongan; Dong, Tingrong; Yang, Linsheng

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the spatial distributions of mortality rates of six cancers: mesothelioma, lung cancer, intestinal cancer, nasopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer, liver cancer, and stomach cancer in Dayao using Geographic Information Systems. Relationships between the mortality rates of the six cancers and land use patterns were investigated by Pearson Correlation Coefficients. The results indicated that the mortality rates of nasopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer, lung cancer, intestinal cancer, and mesothelioma were significantly associated with outcropped asbestos. Both the proportions of farmland and urban area were positively related to the mortality rates of nasopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer, lung cancer, intestinal cancer, and mesothelioma, and significant negative correlations were found between the proportion of forestland and nasopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer and intestinal cancer. It can be concluded that naturally occurring asbestos may significantly elevate the mortality rates of nasopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer, intestinal cancer, lung cancer, and mesothelioma. Moreover, higher proportions of farmland, urban area, and lower proportions of forested land may elevate the mortality rate of the four cancers.

  9. Cancer mortality in the meat and delicatessen departments of supermarkets (1950-2006).

    PubMed

    Johnson, E S; Cardarelli, K; Jadhav, S; Chedjieu, I P; Faramawi, M; Fischbach, L; Ndetan, H; Wells, T L-C; Patel, K V; Katyal, A

    2015-04-01

    Meat cutters and meat wrappers in the meat department of supermarkets are exposed to oncogenic viruses present in raw meat from cattle, pigs, sheep, and poultry, and their products (unpasteurized milk and raw eggs). Up to the mid 1970s, meat wrappers were also exposed to carcinogens present in fumes emitted from the machine used to wrap meat. Because of this we studied cancer mortality in a cohort of 10,701 workers in the meat and delicatessen departments of supermarkets, and we report here the findings after the third follow-up. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were estimated in the cohort as a whole and in race/sex subgroups, using the US population for comparison. Study subjects were followed up from January 1950 to December 2006. Significantly increased SMRs of 1.3 (95% CI, 1.2-1.5), and 2.7 (95% CI, 1.2-5.3) were recorded for cancers of the lung, and tonsils/oropharynx, respectively, in the entire cohort, affecting nearly all race/sex subgroups. SMRs of 4.6 (95% CI, 1.0-13.6) for cancer of the floor of the mouth, and 2.8 (95% CI, 1.3-5.3) for cancer of the gall bladder and biliary tract were recorded only in White male meatcutters. Significantly decreased SMRs were observed for a few cancers. It is not known if the observed excess of cancers is a result of occupational exposures. However, substantial evidence points to fumes from the wrapping machine as a possible candidate for explaining the excess in female meat wrappers. Nested case-control studies that can examine risks from occupational exposures in greater detail, and adequately control for confounding factors are now needed, to permit specifically investigate the role of the oncogenic viruses, fumes and non-occupational risk factors in the occurrence of these cancers. The findings are important, not only occupationally but also because the general population may also experience these exposures, albeit to a lesser degree.

  10. Cancer mortality in the meat and delicatessen departments of supermarkets (1950-2006).

    PubMed

    Johnson, E S; Cardarelli, K; Jadhav, S; Chedjieu, I P; Faramawi, M; Fischbach, L; Ndetan, H; Wells, T L-C; Patel, K V; Katyal, A

    2015-04-01

    Meat cutters and meat wrappers in the meat department of supermarkets are exposed to oncogenic viruses present in raw meat from cattle, pigs, sheep, and poultry, and their products (unpasteurized milk and raw eggs). Up to the mid 1970s, meat wrappers were also exposed to carcinogens present in fumes emitted from the machine used to wrap meat. Because of this we studied cancer mortality in a cohort of 10,701 workers in the meat and delicatessen departments of supermarkets, and we report here the findings after the third follow-up. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were estimated in the cohort as a whole and in race/sex subgroups, using the US population for comparison. Study subjects were followed up from January 1950 to December 2006. Significantly increased SMRs of 1.3 (95% CI, 1.2-1.5), and 2.7 (95% CI, 1.2-5.3) were recorded for cancers of the lung, and tonsils/oropharynx, respectively, in the entire cohort, affecting nearly all race/sex subgroups. SMRs of 4.6 (95% CI, 1.0-13.6) for cancer of the floor of the mouth, and 2.8 (95% CI, 1.3-5.3) for cancer of the gall bladder and biliary tract were recorded only in White male meatcutters. Significantly decreased SMRs were observed for a few cancers. It is not known if the observed excess of cancers is a result of occupational exposures. However, substantial evidence points to fumes from the wrapping machine as a possible candidate for explaining the excess in female meat wrappers. Nested case-control studies that can examine risks from occupational exposures in greater detail, and adequately control for confounding factors are now needed, to permit specifically investigate the role of the oncogenic viruses, fumes and non-occupational risk factors in the occurrence of these cancers. The findings are important, not only occupationally but also because the general population may also experience these exposures, albeit to a lesser degree. PMID:25656684

  11. [Ecological approach to the eating habits and the cancer mortality of Brazilian people].

    PubMed

    Shimada, A

    1986-05-01

    Brazil is very big country that is located from tropical (north) to temperate (south) zone. There are very big differences not only on the eating habit but also on the death rate from cancer. People living in the south, takes much meat and milk, and has high mortality rate from cancer, and in the north, people takes vegetable foods and the cancer death rate is very low. Eating habit of the people, both Japanese and Brazilian, living in Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, the south of Brazil, were surveyed and the transition of the cancer death rates were also discussed. The south Brazilian people have very high mortality from esophagus cancer which may be related with very hot maté-tea drinking, and very low mortality from colon cancer, even though their heavy consumption of meat and milk. Breast cancer was the first cause of cancer death in women. Relationships between colon cancer mortality and the eating habit of the south Brazilian people is the most interesting epidemiological problem.

  12. Mortality from cancers of major sites in female radium dial workers

    SciTech Connect

    Stebbings, J.H.; Lucas, H.F.; Stehney, A.F.

    1984-01-01

    The female radium dial workers have now experienced significant mortality from cancers other than the bone sarcomas and head carcinomas long known to be radium induced. The relationships of radium exposure to mortality from cancers of the stomach, pancreas, colon, rectum, liver, lung, breast, cervix, and corpus uteri, and from leukemia were studied in 1,285 pre-1930 dial workers. Mortality was compared with that expected from rates for US white females, with and without adjustment for local area mortality rates, and with mortality in dial workers exposed from 1930 to 1949. For the 693 cases whose body content of radium has been measured since 1955, dose-response relationships of cancer to systemic intake of radium and duration of employment were examined. Liver, pancreatic, cervical, and uterine cancers were clearly unrelated to radium exposure. Other cancers of the digestive tract appeared to be indirectly, if at all, associated with work in radium facilities. Lung cancer requires further investigation; inhalation exposures of the dial workers were reviewed. Analyses of the breast cancer data uncovered several observations inconsistent with the previously suggested causal association with radium exposure. Multiple myeloma was also reviewed. A threefold excess risk of death due to multiple myeloma has occurred, but is more closely correlated with duration of employment (a surrogate for external gamma radiation) than with radium intake.

  13. Mortality from cancer and other causes among workers at a metal refinery.

    PubMed

    Tokudome, S; Kuratsune, M

    1983-03-20

    Hidden cases of occupational lung cancer among males were revealed by a case-control study in a town. The findings were confirmed by a prospective study on mortality among the employees of a metal refinery. It demonstrated not only a significantly increased mortality from lung cancer among copper smelters but also definite dose-response relationships between mortality from lung cancer and the degree of exposure. A very high excess mortality from lung cancer (0/E = 25.00) was observed among copper smelters who were considered to have been most heavily exposed to arsenic and/or other carcinogenic substances or workers who had been engaged in sintering and blast furnace operations for 15 years or more before 1949. The average latency period of lung cancer was 37.6 years, and unrelated to the level of exposure. Twenty-six of 29 deaths from lung cancer among copper smelters occurred after they had left the company. Other production workers and clerical workers showed no significant excess mortality from any kind of cancer. PMID:6679660

  14. Cancer mortality in small areas around nuclear facilities in England and Wales.

    PubMed Central

    Baron, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Cancer mortality trends were examined for the small areas around fourteen nuclear and five non-nuclear facilities in England and Wales. Using routine OPCS mortality data, standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for these areas were computed for selected causes of death. Changes in the SMRs were then sought by comparing the SMRs for the five years before the facility opened with the period 10 (in some cases 15) years after start-up, and by computing the weighted regression of the SMRs on calendar year. These analyses indicate no overall pattern of increasing cancer SMRs around nuclear facilities. PMID:6498079

  15. Historical cancer incidence and mortality assessment in an Illinois community proximal to a former manufactured gas plant

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Dominik D; Jiang, Xiaohui; Bylsma, Lauren C; Garabrant, David H; Irvin, Sarah R; Fryzek, Jon P

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Concern has been raised that the occurrence of cancer may be increased in neighbourhoods around a former manufactured gas plant in Champaign, Illinois, USA. Thus, we compared historical rates of cancer in this area to comparison communities as well as with nationally standardised rates. Design Retrospective population-based community cancer assessment during 1990–2010. Setting Champaign County, Illinois, USA, and zip codes encompassing the location of the former manufactured gas plant to counties that were similar demographically. Participants Residents of the counties and zip codes studied between 1990 and 2010. Main outcome measures The relative risk (RR) and 95% CI were used to compare cancer incidence and mortality in the areas near the gas compression site to the comparison counties. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated to compare rates in the areas near the gas compression site to expected rates based on overall US cancer rates. Results Total cancer mortality (RR=0.91, 95% CI 0.88 to 0.94) and incidence (RR=0.95, 95% CI 0.94 to 0.97) were reduced significantly in Champaign County versus the comparison counties. Similarly, a reduced rate of total cancer was observed in analyses by zip code (proximal to the former gas plant) when compared with either similar counties (RR=0.89, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.93) or national standardised rates of cancer (SIR=0.88, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.91). Conclusions This historical cancer assessment did not find an increased risk of total cancer or specific cancer types in communities near a former manufactured gas plant site. PMID:25534215

  16. Mortality from cancer and other causes among male airline cockpit crew in Europe.

    PubMed

    Blettner, Maria; Zeeb, Hajo; Auvinen, Anssi; Ballard, Terri J; Caldora, Massimiliano; Eliasch, Harald; Gundestrup, Maryanne; Haldorsen, Tor; Hammar, Niklas; Hammer, Gaël P; Irvine, David; Langner, Ingo; Paridou, Alexandra; Pukkala, Eero; Rafnsson, Vilhjálmur; Storm, Hans; Tulinius, Hrafn; Tveten, Ulf; Tzonou, Anastasia

    2003-10-10

    Airline pilots and flight engineers are exposed to ionizing radiation of cosmic origin and other occupational and life-style factors that may influence their health status and mortality. In a cohort study in 9 European countries we studied the mortality of this occupational group. Cockpit crew cohorts were identified and followed-up in Denmark, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Norway and Sweden, including a total of 28,000 persons. Observed and expected deaths for the period 1960-97 were compared based on national mortality rates. The influence of period and duration of employment was analyzed in stratified and Poisson regression analyses. The study comprised 547,564 person-years at risk, and 2,244 deaths were recorded in male cockpit crew (standardized mortality ratio [SMR] = 0.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.61-0.67). Overall cancer mortality was decreased (SMR = 0.68; 95% CI = 0.63-0.74). We found an increased mortality from malignant melanoma (SMR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.15-2.67) and a reduced mortality from lung cancer (SMR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.44-0.62). No consistent association between employment period or duration and cancer mortality was observed. A low cardiovascular mortality and an increased mortality caused by aviation accidents were noted. Our study shows that cockpit crew have a low overall mortality. The results are consistent with previous reports of an increased risk of malignant melanoma in airline pilots. Occupational risk factors apart from aircraft accidents seem to be of limited influence with regard to the mortality of cockpit crew in Europe.

  17. Mortality from cancer and other causes among male airline cockpit crew in Europe.

    PubMed

    Blettner, Maria; Zeeb, Hajo; Auvinen, Anssi; Ballard, Terri J; Caldora, Massimiliano; Eliasch, Harald; Gundestrup, Maryanne; Haldorsen, Tor; Hammar, Niklas; Hammer, Gaël P; Irvine, David; Langner, Ingo; Paridou, Alexandra; Pukkala, Eero; Rafnsson, Vilhjálmur; Storm, Hans; Tulinius, Hrafn; Tveten, Ulf; Tzonou, Anastasia

    2003-10-10

    Airline pilots and flight engineers are exposed to ionizing radiation of cosmic origin and other occupational and life-style factors that may influence their health status and mortality. In a cohort study in 9 European countries we studied the mortality of this occupational group. Cockpit crew cohorts were identified and followed-up in Denmark, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Norway and Sweden, including a total of 28,000 persons. Observed and expected deaths for the period 1960-97 were compared based on national mortality rates. The influence of period and duration of employment was analyzed in stratified and Poisson regression analyses. The study comprised 547,564 person-years at risk, and 2,244 deaths were recorded in male cockpit crew (standardized mortality ratio [SMR] = 0.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.61-0.67). Overall cancer mortality was decreased (SMR = 0.68; 95% CI = 0.63-0.74). We found an increased mortality from malignant melanoma (SMR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.15-2.67) and a reduced mortality from lung cancer (SMR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.44-0.62). No consistent association between employment period or duration and cancer mortality was observed. A low cardiovascular mortality and an increased mortality caused by aviation accidents were noted. Our study shows that cockpit crew have a low overall mortality. The results are consistent with previous reports of an increased risk of malignant melanoma in airline pilots. Occupational risk factors apart from aircraft accidents seem to be of limited influence with regard to the mortality of cockpit crew in Europe. PMID:12918075

  18. Cause-specific mortality in Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel production workers

    PubMed Central

    Pukkala, E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although stainless steel has been produced for more than a hundred years, exposure-related mortality data for production workers are limited. Aims To describe cause-specific mortality in Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel workers. Methods We studied Finnish stainless steel production chain workers employed between 1967 and 2004, from chromite mining to cold rolling of stainless steel, divided into sub-cohorts by production units with specific exposure patterns. We obtained causes of death for the years 1971–2012 from Statistics Finland. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) as ratios of observed and expected numbers of deaths based on population mortality rates of the same region. Results Among 8088 workers studied, overall mortality was significantly decreased (SMR 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70–0.84), largely due to low mortality from diseases of the circulatory system (SMR 0.71; 95% CI 0.61–0.81). In chromite mine, stainless steel melting shop and metallurgical laboratory workers, the SMR for circulatory disease was below 0.4 (SMR 0.33; 95% CI 0.07–0.95, SMR 0.22; 95% CI 0.05–0.65 and SMR 0.16; 95% CI 0.00–0.90, respectively). Mortality from accidents (SMR 0.84; 95% CI 0.67–1.04) and suicides (SMR 0.72; 95% CI 0.56–0.91) was also lower than in the reference population. Conclusions Working in the Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel industry appears not to be associated with increased mortality. PMID:26655692

  19. Analysis of occupational asbestos exposure and lung cancer mortality using the g formula.

    PubMed

    Cole, Stephen R; Richardson, David B; Chu, Haitao; Naimi, Ashley I

    2013-05-01

    We employed the parametric G formula to analyze lung cancer mortality in a cohort of textile manufacturing workers who were occupationally exposed to asbestos in South Carolina. A total of 3,002 adults with a median age of 24 years at enrollment (58% male, 81% Caucasian) were followed for 117,471 person-years between 1940 and 2001, and 195 lung cancer deaths were observed. Chrysotile asbestos exposure was measured in fiber-years per milliliter of air, and annual occupational exposures were estimated on the basis of detailed work histories. Sixteen percent of person-years involved exposure to asbestos, with a median exposure of 3.30 fiber-years/mL among those exposed. Lung cancer mortality by age 90 years under the observed asbestos exposure was 9.44%. In comparison with observed asbestos exposure, if the facility had operated under the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration asbestos exposure standard of <0.1 fibers/mL, we estimate that the cohort would have experienced 24% less lung cancer mortality by age 90 years (mortality ratio = 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.94). A further reduction in asbestos exposure to a standard of <0.05 fibers/mL was estimated to have resulted in a minimal additional reduction in lung cancer mortality by age 90 years (mortality ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.61, 0.92).

  20. Breast Cancer Prevalence and Mortality among Hispanic Subgroups in the United States, 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. This paper presents data on breast cancer prevalence and mortality among US Hispanics and Hispanic subgroups, including Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Central American, and South American. Methods. Five-year average annual female breast cancer prevalence and mortality rates for 2009–2013 were examined using data from the National Health Interview Survey (prevalence) and the National Center for Health Statistics and the American Community Survey (mortality rates). Results. Overall breast cancer prevalence among US Hispanic women was 1.03%. Although the estimates varied slightly by Hispanic subgroup, these differences were not statistically significant. The breast cancer mortality rate for Hispanics overall was 17.71 per 100,000 women. Higher rates were observed among Cubans (17.89), Mexicans (18.78), and Puerto Ricans (19.04), and a lower rate was observed among Central and South Americans (10.15). With the exception of the rate for Cubans, all Hispanic subgroup rates were statistically significantly different from the overall Hispanic rate. Additionally, all Hispanic subgroups rates were statistically significantly higher than the Central and South American rate. Conclusion. The data reveal significant differences in mortality across Hispanic subgroups. These data enable public health officials to develop targeted interventions to help lower breast cancer mortality among the highest risk populations.

  1. Breast Cancer Prevalence and Mortality among Hispanic Subgroups in the United States, 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. This paper presents data on breast cancer prevalence and mortality among US Hispanics and Hispanic subgroups, including Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Central American, and South American. Methods. Five-year average annual female breast cancer prevalence and mortality rates for 2009–2013 were examined using data from the National Health Interview Survey (prevalence) and the National Center for Health Statistics and the American Community Survey (mortality rates). Results. Overall breast cancer prevalence among US Hispanic women was 1.03%. Although the estimates varied slightly by Hispanic subgroup, these differences were not statistically significant. The breast cancer mortality rate for Hispanics overall was 17.71 per 100,000 women. Higher rates were observed among Cubans (17.89), Mexicans (18.78), and Puerto Ricans (19.04), and a lower rate was observed among Central and South Americans (10.15). With the exception of the rate for Cubans, all Hispanic subgroup rates were statistically significantly different from the overall Hispanic rate. Additionally, all Hispanic subgroups rates were statistically significantly higher than the Central and South American rate. Conclusion. The data reveal significant differences in mortality across Hispanic subgroups. These data enable public health officials to develop targeted interventions to help lower breast cancer mortality among the highest risk populations. PMID:27672394

  2. Breast Cancer Prevalence and Mortality among Hispanic Subgroups in the United States, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Bijou R

    2016-01-01

    Background. This paper presents data on breast cancer prevalence and mortality among US Hispanics and Hispanic subgroups, including Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Central American, and South American. Methods. Five-year average annual female breast cancer prevalence and mortality rates for 2009-2013 were examined using data from the National Health Interview Survey (prevalence) and the National Center for Health Statistics and the American Community Survey (mortality rates). Results. Overall breast cancer prevalence among US Hispanic women was 1.03%. Although the estimates varied slightly by Hispanic subgroup, these differences were not statistically significant. The breast cancer mortality rate for Hispanics overall was 17.71 per 100,000 women. Higher rates were observed among Cubans (17.89), Mexicans (18.78), and Puerto Ricans (19.04), and a lower rate was observed among Central and South Americans (10.15). With the exception of the rate for Cubans, all Hispanic subgroup rates were statistically significantly different from the overall Hispanic rate. Additionally, all Hispanic subgroups rates were statistically significantly higher than the Central and South American rate. Conclusion. The data reveal significant differences in mortality across Hispanic subgroups. These data enable public health officials to develop targeted interventions to help lower breast cancer mortality among the highest risk populations. PMID:27672394

  3. Cancer mortality in a Chinese population exposed to hexavalent chromium in water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J D; Li, S

    1997-04-01

    This report is a clarification and further analysis of our previously published mortality study regarding groundwater contamination with hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) in the JinZhou area of China between 1965 and 1978. In our previous report, we stated that a significant excess of overall cancer mortality was observed (P = 0.04) in five Cr(+6)-contaminated villages combined. Further analysis revealed no clear statistical increase in cancer mortality in the three villages adjacent to the source of the contamination (P = 0.25), where 57% of the wells exceeded the European Community safe drinking water standard of 0.05 ppm Cr+6. These results do not indicate an association of cancer mortality with exposure to Cr(+6)-contaminated groundwater, but might reflect the influence of lifestyle or environmental factors not related to Cr+6. Further follow-up of this cohort is recommended.

  4. Trends in cancer incidence and mortality in Scotland: description and possible explanations.

    PubMed Central

    Swerdlow, A. J.; dos Santos Silva, I.; Reid, A.; Qiao, Z.; Brewster, D. H.; Arrundale, J.

    1998-01-01

    Secular and cohort trends in mortality from cancer in Scotland during 1953-93, and incidence during 1960-90, were analysed using individual records from the national mortality and registration files. For certain cancer sites, the secular analyses of mortality were extended back to 1911 by use of published data. Mortality from cancer at older ages in Scotland has increased over the last 40 years. In each sex, this trend has been dominated by the effects of smoking: all-cancer rates and rates of lung cancer, now the most common fatal cancer in men and in women in Scotland, reached a peak in the cohort of men born at the turn of the century and the cohort of women born in the 1920s. For much of the period, the Scottish all-age rates of lung cancer were the highest reported in the world; they are now decreasing on a secular basis in men, but are still increasing in women. There have also been large increases at older ages in the incidence and mortality rates for cancer of the prostate in recent years. bladder cancer, nervous system cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, myeloma and leukaemia; for each there is likely to be a considerable artefactual element to the increase, with differing degrees of possibility that there may in addition be an element of real increase. Substantial decreases in mortality at all ages have occurred for stomach and colorectal cancers and substantial increases at all ages for pleural cancer and melanoma. Rates of mortality from breast cancer, the most common cancer in women in Scotland, have generally increased over the past 80 years; a temporary cessation in this upward trend occurred in the years during and after the Second World War, and recently rates have turned downward, probably at least in part because of better treatment. Mortality from ovarian cancer, the second most common reproductive-related female tumour in Scotland, has also increased at older ages. At younger ages, mortality from cancer in Scotland has decreased, especially in men

  5. Causes of Mortality After Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy and Androgen Deprivation for High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tendulkar, Rahul D.; Hunter, Grant K.; Reddy, Chandana A.; Stephans, Kevin L.; Ciezki, Jay P.; Abdel-Wahab, May; Stephenson, Andrew J.; Klein, Eric A.; Mahadevan, Arul; Kupelian, Patrick A.

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: Men with high-risk prostate cancer have other competing causes of mortality; however, current risk stratification schema do not account for comorbidities. We aim to identify the causes of death and factors predictive for mortality in this population. Methods and Materials: A total of 660 patients with high-risk prostate cancer were treated with definitive high-dose external beam radiation therapy (≥74 Gy) and androgen deprivation (AD) between 1996 and 2009 at a single institution. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was conducted to determine factors predictive of survival. Results: The median radiation dose was 78 Gy, median duration of AD was 6 months, and median follow-up was 74 months. The 10-year overall survival (OS) was 60.6%. Prostate cancer was the leading single cause of death, with 10-year mortality of 14.1% (95% CI 10.7-17.6), compared with other cancers (8.4%, 95% CI 5.7-11.1), cardiovascular disease (7.3%, 95% CI 4.7-9.9), and all other causes (10.4%, 95% CI 7.2-13.6). On multivariate analysis, older age (HR 1.55, P=.002) and Charlson comorbidity index score (CS) ≥1 (HR 2.20, P<.0001) were significant factors predictive of OS, whereas Gleason score, T stage, prostate-specific antigen, duration of AD, radiation dose, smoking history, and body mass index were not. Men younger than 70 years of age with CS = 0 were more likely to die of prostate cancer than any other cause, whereas older men or those with CS ≥1 more commonly suffered non-prostate cancer death. The cumulative incidences of prostate cancer-specific mortality were similar regardless of age or comorbidities (P=.60). Conclusions: Men with high-risk prostate cancer are more likely to die of causes other than prostate cancer, except for the subgroup of men younger than 70 years of age without comorbidities. Only older age and presence of comorbidities significantly predicted for OS, whereas prostate cancer- and treatment-related factors did not.

  6. Social determinants of Black-White disparities in breast cancer mortality: a review.

    PubMed

    Gerend, Mary A; Pai, Manacy

    2008-11-01

    Despite the recent decline in breast cancer mortality, African American women continue to die from breast cancer at higher rates than do White women. Beyond the fact that breast cancer tends to be a more biologically aggressive disease in African American than in White women, this disparity in breast cancer mortality also reflects social barriers that disproportionately affect African American women. These barriers hinder cancer prevention and control efforts and modify the biological expression of disease. The present review focuses on delineating social, economic, and cultural factors that are potentially responsible for Black-White disparities in breast cancer mortality. This review was guided by the social determinants of health disparities model, a model that identifies barriers associated with poverty, culture, and social injustice as major causes of health disparities. These barriers, in concert with genetic, biological, and environmental factors, can promote differential outcomes for African American and White women along the entire breast cancer continuum, from screening and early detection to treatment and survival. Barriers related to poverty include lack of a primary care physician, inadequate health insurance, and poor access to health care. Barriers related to culture include perceived invulnerability, folk beliefs, and a general mistrust of the health care system. Barriers related to social injustice include racial profiling and discrimination. Many of these barriers are potentially modifiable. Thus, in addition to biomedical advancements, future efforts to reduce disparities in breast cancer mortality should address social barriers that perpetuate disparities among African American and White women in the United States. PMID:18990731

  7. News Note: Screening for ovarian cancer shows no reduction in mortality

    Cancer.gov

    Simultaneous screening with a blood test for the biomarker CA-125 along with a transvaginal ultrasound (TVU), compared with usual care, did not reduce ovarian cancer mortality in American women. These results, from a National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored trial, also show that diagnostic evaluation following a false-positive result was associated with potentially harmful complications.

  8. Social determinants of Black-White disparities in breast cancer mortality: a review.

    PubMed

    Gerend, Mary A; Pai, Manacy

    2008-11-01

    Despite the recent decline in breast cancer mortality, African American women continue to die from breast cancer at higher rates than do White women. Beyond the fact that breast cancer tends to be a more biologically aggressive disease in African American than in White women, this disparity in breast cancer mortality also reflects social barriers that disproportionately affect African American women. These barriers hinder cancer prevention and control efforts and modify the biological expression of disease. The present review focuses on delineating social, economic, and cultural factors that are potentially responsible for Black-White disparities in breast cancer mortality. This review was guided by the social determinants of health disparities model, a model that identifies barriers associated with poverty, culture, and social injustice as major causes of health disparities. These barriers, in concert with genetic, biological, and environmental factors, can promote differential outcomes for African American and White women along the entire breast cancer continuum, from screening and early detection to treatment and survival. Barriers related to poverty include lack of a primary care physician, inadequate health insurance, and poor access to health care. Barriers related to culture include perceived invulnerability, folk beliefs, and a general mistrust of the health care system. Barriers related to social injustice include racial profiling and discrimination. Many of these barriers are potentially modifiable. Thus, in addition to biomedical advancements, future efforts to reduce disparities in breast cancer mortality should address social barriers that perpetuate disparities among African American and White women in the United States.

  9. Evaluation of cancer mortality in a cohort of workers exposed to low-level radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, C.S.

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to re-analyze existing data to explore methodologic approaches that may determine whether excess cancer mortality in the ORNL cohort can be explained by time-related factors not previously considered; grouping of cancer outcomes; selection bias due to choice of method selected to incorporate an empirical induction period; or the type of statistical model chosen.

  10. Pleural cancer mortality in Spain: time-trends and updating of predictions up to 2020

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A total of 2,514,346 metric tons (Mt) of asbestos were imported into Spain from 1906 until the ban on asbestos in 2002. Our objective was to study pleural cancer mortality trends as an indicator of mesothelioma mortality and update mortality predictions for the periods 2011–2015 and 2016–2020 in Spain. Methods Log-linear Poisson models were fitted to study the effect of age, period of death and birth cohort (APC) on mortality trends. Change points in cohort- and period-effect curvatures were assessed using segmented regression. Fractional power-link APC models were used to predict mortality until 2020. In addition, an alternative model based on national asbestos consumption figures was also used to perform long-term predictions. Results Pleural cancer deaths increased across the study period, rising from 491 in 1976–1980 to 1,249 in 2006–2010. Predictions for the five-year period 2016–2020 indicated a total of 1,319 pleural cancer deaths (264 deaths/year). Forecasts up to 2020 indicated that this increase would continue, though the age-adjusted rates showed a levelling-off in male mortality from 2001 to 2005, corresponding to the lower risk in post-1960 generations. Among women, rates were lower and the mortality trend was also different, indicating that occupational exposure was possibly the single factor having most influence on pleural cancer mortality. Conclusion The cancer mortality-related consequences of human exposure to asbestos are set to persist and remain in evidence until the last surviving members of the exposed cohorts have disappeared. It can thus be assumed that occupationally-related deaths due to pleural mesothelioma will continue to occur in Spain until at least 2040. PMID:24195451

  11. A novel web informatics approach for automated surveillance of cancer mortality trends✩

    PubMed Central

    Tourassi, Georgia; Yoon, Hong-Jun; Xu, Songhua

    2016-01-01

    Cancer surveillance data are collected every year in the United States via the National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) and the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). General trends are closely monitored to measure the nation's progress against cancer. The objective of this study was to apply a novel web informatics approach for enabling fully automated monitoring of cancer mortality trends. The approach involves automated collection and text mining of online obituaries to derive the age distribution, geospatial, and temporal trends of cancer deaths in the US. Using breast and lung cancer as examples, we mined 23,850 cancer-related and 413,024 general online obituaries spanning the timeframe 2008–2012. There was high correlation between the web-derived mortality trends and the official surveillance statistics reported by NCI with respect to the age distribution (ρ = 0.981 for breast; ρ = 0.994 for lung), the geospatial distribution (ρ = 0.939 for breast; ρ = 0.881 for lung), and the annual rates of cancer deaths (ρ = 0.661 for breast; ρ = 0.839 for lung). Additional experiments investigated the effect of sample size on the consistency of the web-based findings. Overall, our study findings support web informatics as a promising, cost-effective way to dynamically monitor spatiotemporal cancer mortality trends. PMID:27044930

  12. Association between Metformin Therapy and Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ting; Yang, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Metformin may be associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the effect of metformin intake on breast cancer risk and mortality. Methods We performed a PubMed and EMbase search for all available studies that described the risk of breast cancer and all-cause mortality in relation to the use of metformin among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pooled relative risks (RRs) were determined using a random effects model to assess the strength of association between metformin and the risk of breast cancer. Results Fifteen articles from PubMed satisfied the inclusion criteria, including a total of 838,333 participants. Compared with the control group, metformin use was not related to a reduced incidence of breast cancer (RR, 0.964; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.761-1.221; p=0.761). However, metformin therapy was associated with decreased all-cause mortality (RR, 0.652; 95% CI, 0.488-0.873; p=0.004). No obvious publication bias was detected (incidence: pBegg=0.755, pEgger=0.008; mortality: pBegg=0.072, pEgger=0.185). Conclusion The present study suggested that metformin therapy may decrease the all-cause mortality of patients affected by breast cancer. However, this finding should be considered carefully and confirmed with further studies. PMID:26472977

  13. Cancer incidence and mortality in Indigenous Australian children, 1997-2008.

    PubMed

    Valery, Patricia C; Youlden, Danny R; Baade, Peter D; Ward, Leisa J; Green, Adele C; Aitken, Joanne F

    2013-01-01

    We report cancer incidence and mortality among Indigenous children in Australia and compare the results with corresponding data for non-Indigenous children. This information is important in understanding the overall burden of cancer in this population, and where disparities exist, to plan what action is required. Age-standardized rates, and indirectly standardized incidence and mortality ratios (SIRs and SMRs) were calculated for the years 1997-2008. There were 224 cancers identified among Indigenous children (99.5 per million per year) and 52 Indigenous children died from cancer during the study period (22.9 per million per year). The SIR for all cancers was 0.64 (95% CI = 0.56-0.73; P < 0.001) while the SMR was 0.81 (95% CI = 0.61-1.07). These results provide a baseline with which to monitor cancer among Indigenous children over time.

  14. Ethnic differences in the relationships between diabetes, early age adiposity and mortality among breast cancer survivors: the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study.

    PubMed

    Connor, Avonne E; Visvanathan, Kala; Baumgartner, Kathy B; Baumgartner, Richard N; Boone, Stephanie D; Hines, Lisa M; Wolff, Roger K; John, Esther M; Slattery, Martha L

    2016-05-01

    The contribution of type 2 diabetes and obesity on mortality in breast cancer (BC) patients has not been well studied among Hispanic women, in whom these exposures are highly prevalent. In a multi-center population-based study, we examined the associations between diabetes, multiple obesity measures, and mortality in 1180 Hispanic and 1298 non-Hispanic white (NHW) women who were diagnosed with incident invasive BC from the San Francisco Bay Area, New Mexico, Utah, Colorado, and Arizona. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. The median follow-up time from BC diagnosis to death was 10.8 years. In ethnic-stratified results, the association for BC-specific mortality among Hispanics was significantly increased (HR 1.85 95 % CI 1.11, 3.09), but the ethnic interaction was not statistically significant. In contrast, obesity at age 30 increased BC-specific mortality risk in NHW women (HR 2.33 95 % CI 1.36, 3.97) but not Hispanics (p-interaction = 0.045). Although there were no ethnic differences for all-cause mortality, diabetes, obesity at age 30, and post-diagnostic waist-hip ratio were significantly associated with all-cause mortality in all women. This study provides evidence that diabetes and adiposity, both modifiable, are prognostic factors among Hispanic and NHW BC patients.

  15. Age-specific patterns of genetic variance in Drosophila melanogaster. I. Mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Promislow, D.E.L.; Tatar, M.; Curtsinger, J.W.

    1996-06-01

    Peter Medawar proposed that senescence arises from an age-related decline in the force of selection, which allows late-acting deleterious mutations to accumulate. Subsequent workers have suggested that mutation accumulation could produce an age-related increase in additive genetic variance (V{sub A}) for fitness traits, as recently found in Drosophila melanogaster. Here we report results from a genetic analysis of mortality in 65,134 D. melanogaster. Additive genetic variance for female mortality rates increases from 0.007 in the first week of life to 0.325 by the third week, and then declines to 0.002 by the seventh week. Males show a similar pattern, though total variance is lower than in females. In contrast to a predicted divergence in mortality curves, mortality curves of different genotypes are roughly parallel. Using a three-parameter model, we find significant V{sub A} for the slope and constant term of the curve describing age-specific mortality rates, and also for the rate at which mortality decelerates late in life. These results fail to support a prediction derived from Medawar`s {open_quotes}mutation accumulation{close_quotes} theory for the evolution of senescence. However, our results could be consistent with alternative interpretations of evolutionary models of aging. 65 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Cancer type-specific epigenetic changes: gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; de Arruda Cardoso Smith, Marília; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) remains a major cause of mortality despite declining rate in the world. Epigenetic alterations contribute significantly to the development and progression of gastric tumors. Epigenetic refers to the number of modifications of the chromatin structure that affect gene expression without altering the primary sequence of DNA, and these changes lead to transcriptional activation or silencing of the gene. Over the years, the study of epigenetic processes has increased, and novel therapeutic approaches have emerged. This chapter summarizes the main epigenomic mechanisms described recently involved in gastric carcinogenesis, focusing on the roles that aberrant DNA methylation, histone modifications (histone acetylation and methylation), and miRNAs (oncogenic and tumor suppressor function of miRNA) play in the onset and progression of gastric tumors. Clinical implications of these epigenetic alterations in GC are also discussed.

  17. Cancer type-specific epigenetic changes: gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; de Arruda Cardoso Smith, Marília; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) remains a major cause of mortality despite declining rate in the world. Epigenetic alterations contribute significantly to the development and progression of gastric tumors. Epigenetic refers to the number of modifications of the chromatin structure that affect gene expression without altering the primary sequence of DNA, and these changes lead to transcriptional activation or silencing of the gene. Over the years, the study of epigenetic processes has increased, and novel therapeutic approaches have emerged. This chapter summarizes the main epigenomic mechanisms described recently involved in gastric carcinogenesis, focusing on the roles that aberrant DNA methylation, histone modifications (histone acetylation and methylation), and miRNAs (oncogenic and tumor suppressor function of miRNA) play in the onset and progression of gastric tumors. Clinical implications of these epigenetic alterations in GC are also discussed. PMID:25421656

  18. Relationship of prediagnostic body mass index with survival after colorectal cancer: Stage-specific associations.

    PubMed

    Kocarnik, Jonathan M; Chan, Andrew T; Slattery, Martha L; Potter, John D; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey; Phipps, Amanda; Nan, Hongmei; Harrison, Tabitha; Rohan, Thomas E; Qi, Lihong; Hou, Lifang; Caan, Bette; Kroenke, Candyce H; Strickler, Howard; Hayes, Richard B; Schoen, Robert E; Chong, Dawn Q; White, Emily; Berndt, Sonja I; Peters, Ulrike; Newcomb, Polly A

    2016-09-01

    Higher body mass index (BMI) is a well-established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC), but is inconsistently associated with CRC survival. In 6 prospective studies participating in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), 2,249 non-Hispanic white CRC cases were followed for a median 4.5 years after diagnosis, during which 777 died, 554 from CRC-related causes. Associations between prediagnosis BMI and survival (overall and CRC-specific) were evaluated using Cox regression models adjusted for age at diagnosis, sex, study and smoking status (current/former/never). The association between BMI category and CRC survival varied by cancer stage at diagnosis (I-IV) for both all-cause (p-interaction = 0.03) and CRC-specific mortality (p-interaction = 0.04). Compared to normal BMI (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2) ), overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9) was associated with increased mortality among those with Stage I disease, and decreased mortality among those with Stages II-IV disease. Similarly, obesity (BMI ≥30) was associated with increased mortality among those with Stages I-II disease, and decreased mortality among those with Stages III-IV disease. These results suggest the relationship between BMI and survival after CRC diagnosis differs by stage at diagnosis, and may emphasize the importance of adequate metabolic reserves for colorectal cancer survival in patients with late-stage disease.

  19. Identifying Risk Factors for Disparities in Breast Cancer Mortality among African-American and Hispanic Women

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Nancy; Goovaerts, Pierre; Zhan, F. Benjamin; Chow, T. Edwin; Wilson, J. Gaines

    2015-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the risk factors associated with racial disparities in female breast cancer mortality for African-American and Hispanic women at the census tract level in Texas from 1995 to 2005. Methods Data on female breast cancer cases were obtained from the Texas Cancer Registry. Socioeconomic and demographic data were collected from Census 2000. Network distance and driving times to mammography facilities were estimated using Geographic Information System techniques. Demographic, poverty and spatial accessibility factors were constructed using principal component analysis. Logistic regression models were developed to predict the census tracts with significant racial disparities in breast cancer mortality based on racial disparities in late-stage diagnosis and structured factors from the principal component analysis. Results Late-stage diagnosis, poverty factors, and demographic factors were found to be significant predictors of a census tract showing significant racial disparities in breast cancer mortality. Census tracts with higher poverty status were more likely to display significant racial disparities in breast cancer mortality for both African Americans (odds ratio [OR], 2.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.95–3.04) and Hispanics (OR, 5.30; 95% CI, 4.26–6.59). Spatial accessibility was not a consistent predictor of racial disparities in breast cancer mortality for African-American and Hispanic women. Conclusion Physical access to mammography facilities does not necessarily reflect a greater utilization of mammogram screening, possibly owing to financial constraints. Therefore, a metric measuring access to health care facilities is needed to capture all aspects of access to preventive care. Despite easier physical access to mammography facilities in metropolitan areas, great resources and efforts should also be devoted to these areas where racial disparities in breast cancer mortality are often found. PMID:22265181

  20. Elemental concentrations of ambient particles and cause specific mortality in Santiago, Chile: a time series study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The health effects of particulate air pollution are widely recognized and there is some evidence that the magnitude of these effects vary by particle component. We studied the effects of ambient fine particles (aerodynamic diameter < 2.5μm, PM2.5) and their components on cause-specific mortality in Santiago, Chile, where particulate pollution is a major public health concern. Methods Air pollution was collected in a residential area in the center of Santiago. Daily mortality counts were obtained from the National Institute of Statistic. The associations between PM2.5 and cause-specific mortality were studied by time series analysis controlling for time trends, day of the week, temperature and relative humidity. We then included an interaction term between PM2.5 and the monthly averages of the mean ratios of individual elements to PM2.5 mass. Results We found significant effects of PM2.5 on all the causes analyzed, with a 1.33% increase (95% CI: 0.87-1.78) in cardiovascular mortality per 10μg/m3 increase in the two days average of PM2.5. We found that zinc was associated with higher cardiovascular mortality. Particles with high content of chromium, copper and sulfur showed stronger associations with respiratory and COPD mortality, while high zinc and sodium content of PM2.5 amplified the association with cerebrovascular disease. Conclusions Our findings suggest that PM2.5 with high zinc, chromium, copper, sodium, and sulfur content have stronger associations with mortality than PM2.5 mass alone in Santiago, Chile. The sources of particles containing these elements need to be determined to better control their emissions. PMID:23116481

  1. Urinary arsenic profiles and the risks of cancer mortality: A population-based 20-year follow-up study in arseniasis-endemic areas in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Chi-Jung; Huang, Ya-Li; Huang, Yung-Kai; Wu, Meei-Maan; Chen, Shu-Yuan; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2013-04-15

    Few studies investigated the association between chronic arsenic exposure and the mortality of cancers by estimating individual urinary arsenic methylation profiles. Therefore, we compared with the general population in Taiwan to calculate the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in arseniasis-endemic area of Taiwan from 1996 to 2010 and evaluated the dose-response relationships between environmental arsenic exposure indices or urinary arsenic profiles and the mortality of cause-specific cancer. A cohort of 1563 residents was conducted and collected their urine sample and information regarding arsenic exposure from a questionnaire. All-cause death was identified using the National Death Registry of Taiwan. Urinary arsenic profiles were measured using high performance liquid chromatography–hydride generator–atomic absorption spectrometry. We used Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate the mortality risks. In results, 193 all-site cancer deaths, and 29, 71, 43 deaths respectively for liver, lung and bladder cancers were ascertained. The SMRs were significantly high in arseniasis-endemic areas for liver, lung, and bladder cancers. People with high urinary InAs% or low DMA% or low secondary methylation index (SMI) were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer after adjusting other risk factors. Even stopping exposure to arsenic from the artesian well water, the mortality rates of the residents were higher than general population. Finally, urinary InAs%, DMA% and SMI could be the potential biomarkers to predict the mortality risk of bladder cancer. -- Highlights: ► The SMRs were significantly high in arseniasis-endemic areas for liver, lung, and bladder cancers. ► People with high urinary InAs% were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer. ► People with low DMA% or low SMI were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer.

  2. The composite dynamic method as evidence for age-specific waterfowl mortality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham, Kenneth P.; Anderson, David R.

    1979-01-01

    For the past 25 years estimation of mortality rates for waterfowl has been based almost entirely on the composite dynamic life table. We examined the specific assumptions for this method and derived a valid goodness of fit test. We performed this test on 45 data sets representing a cross section of banded sampled for various waterfowl species, geographic areas, banding periods, and age/sex classes. We found that: (1) the composite dynamic method was rejected (P <0.001) in 37 of the 45 data sets (in fact, 29 were rejected at P <0.00001) and (2) recovery and harvest rates are year-specific (a critical violation of the necessary assumptions). We conclude that the restrictive assumptions required for the composite dynamic method to produce valid estimates of mortality rates are not met in waterfowl data. Also we demonstrate that even when the required assumptions are met, the method produces very biased estimates of age-specific mortality rates. We believe the composite dynamic method should not be used in the analysis of waterfowl banding data. Furthermore, the composite dynamic method does not provide valid evidence for age-specific mortality rates in waterfowl.

  3. Fruit and vegetable intake and cause-specific mortality in the EPIC study.

    PubMed

    Leenders, Max; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Ferrari, Pietro; Siersema, Peter D; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Kaaks, Rudolf; Li, Kuanrong; Boeing, Heiner; Bergmann, Manuela M; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Peeters, Petra H M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Engeset, Dagrun; Braaten, Tonje; Redondo, Maria Luisa; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta, José-María; Ardanaz, Eva; Drake, Isabel; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Ingegerd; Winkvist, Anna; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick J; Key, Timothy J; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Johansson, Mattias; Licaj, Idlir; Gunter, Marc J; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2014-09-01

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower overall mortality. The aim of this study was to identify causes of death through which this association is established. More than 450,000 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study were included, of which 25,682 were reported deceased after 13 years of follow-up. Information on lifestyle, diet and vital status was collected through questionnaires and population registries. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for death from specific causes were calculated from Cox regression models, adjusted for potential confounders. Participants reporting consumption of more than 569 g/day of fruits and vegetables had lower risks of death from diseases of the circulatory (HR for upper fourth 0.85, 95% CI 0.77-0.93), respiratory (HR for upper fourth 0.73, 95% CI 0.59-0.91) and digestive system (HR for upper fourth 0.60, 95% CI 0.46-0.79) when compared with participants consuming less than 249 g/day. In contrast, a positive association with death from diseases of the nervous system was observed. Inverse associations were generally observed for vegetable, but not for fruit consumption. Associations were more pronounced for raw vegetable consumption, when compared with cooked vegetable consumption. Raw vegetable consumption was additionally inversely associated with death from neoplasms and mental and behavioral disorders. The lower risk of death associated with a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables may be derived from inverse associations with diseases of the circulatory, respiratory and digestive system, and may depend on the preparation of vegetables and lifestyle factors.

  4. Socioeconomic differentials and mortality from colorectal cancer in large cities in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Parreira, Viviane Gomes; Meira, Karina Cardoso; Guimarães, Raphael Mendonça

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the mortality pattern of colorectal cancer according to the social development profile of the large Brazilian cities. This was an ecological study that used as units of analysis Brazilian municipalities that were considered to be large (i.e. over 100,000 inhabitants). The social indicators adopted were obtained from the Atlas of Human Development in Brazil. Mortality data came from the Mortality Information System (MIS), represented by codes C18, C19, and C20. For data analysis, municipalities were characterised according to the indicator profile used by multivariate classification cluster analysis. It was observed that the Southeast, South, and Midwest regions concentrated over 90% of cities in the group of more developed municipalities, while the North and Northeast regions were represented by 60% of cities in the group of less developed municipalities. The mortality pattern of colorectal cancer in both groups was different, with a higher average mortality rate from colorectal cancer for populations living in cities from the more developed group (p = 0.02). The mortality rate from this cancer was shown to be directly proportional to the Municipal Human Developlemnt Index (MHDI) and inversely proportional to the inequality indicator (p < 0.001); therefore the highest means were observed among the municipalities with better socioeconomic conditions. It is important to consider social disparities to ensure equity in healthcare policy management.

  5. Socioeconomic differentials and mortality from colorectal cancer in large cities in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Parreira, Viviane Gomes; Meira, Karina Cardoso; Guimarães, Raphael Mendonça

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the mortality pattern of colorectal cancer according to the social development profile of the large Brazilian cities. This was an ecological study that used as units of analysis Brazilian municipalities that were considered to be large (i.e. over 100,000 inhabitants). The social indicators adopted were obtained from the Atlas of Human Development in Brazil. Mortality data came from the Mortality Information System (MIS), represented by codes C18, C19, and C20. For data analysis, municipalities were characterised according to the indicator profile used by multivariate classification cluster analysis. It was observed that the Southeast, South, and Midwest regions concentrated over 90% of cities in the group of more developed municipalities, while the North and Northeast regions were represented by 60% of cities in the group of less developed municipalities. The mortality pattern of colorectal cancer in both groups was different, with a higher average mortality rate from colorectal cancer for populations living in cities from the more developed group (p = 0.02). The mortality rate from this cancer was shown to be directly proportional to the Municipal Human Developlemnt Index (MHDI) and inversely proportional to the inequality indicator (p < 0.001); therefore the highest means were observed among the municipalities with better socioeconomic conditions. It is important to consider social disparities to ensure equity in healthcare policy management. PMID:26823683

  6. Cardiorespiratory fitness, different measures of adiposity, and total cancer mortality in women.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Stephen W; Finley, Carrie E; McAuley, Paul A; Frierson, Georita M

    2011-11-01

    The objective was to examine associations among cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), adiposity, and cancer mortality in women. Healthy women (N = 14,256) without cancer history completed a baseline health examination 1970-2005. Measures included BMI, percent body fat (%Fat), and CRF quantified as duration of a maximal treadmill test. CRF was classified as low (quintile 1), moderate (Q2-3), and high fit (Q4-5) by age. Standard BMI cutpoints were used, while participants were classified by %Fat quintiles. Cancer mortality rates were calculated following age, exam year, and smoking adjustment. During a mean follow-up period of 15.2 ± 9.4 years, 250 cancer deaths occurred. Adjusted mortality rates across BMI groups were 4.6, 5.7, and 8.8 (P trend 0.08); %Fat 3.0, 4.9, 2.9, 3.8, and 6.9 (P trend 0.17); and CRF 7.9, 5.5, and 2.9 (P trend 0.003). When grouped into categories of fit and unfit (upper 80% and lower 20% of CRF distribution), and using BMI as the adiposity exposure, cancer mortality rates of unfit-obese women were significantly higher than fit-normal weight women (9.8 vs. 4.1 deaths/10,000 woman-years; P = 0.02), while fit-overweight and fit-obese women had no greater risk of mortality than fit-normal weight women. Using %Fat as the adiposity exposure, unfit-obese women tended to have higher cancer mortality than fit-normal weight women (7.0 vs. 3.3 deaths/10,000 woman-years, P = 0.10). Higher levels of CRF are associated with lower cancer mortality risk in women and attenuate the risk of cancer mortality in overweight women. Using adiposity measures to estimate cancer mortality risk in women can be potentially misleading unless CRF is considered.

  7. Tecemotide: An antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wurz, Gregory T; Kao, Chiao-Jung; Wolf, Michael; DeGregorio, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    The identification of tumor-associated antigens (TAA) has made possible the development of antigen-specific cancer immunotherapies such as tecemotide. One of those is mucin 1 (MUC1), a cell membrane glycoprotein expressed on some epithelial tissues such as breast and lung. In cancer, MUC1 becomes overexpressed and aberrantly glycosylated, exposing the immunogenic tandem repeat units in the extracellular domain of MUC1. Designed to target tumor associated MUC1, tecemotide is being evaluated in Phase III clinical trials for treatment of unresectable stage IIIA/IIIB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as maintenance therapy following chemoradiotherapy. Additional Phase II studies in other indications are ongoing. This review discusses the preclinical and clinical development of tecemotide, ongoing preclinical studies of tecemotide in human MUC1 transgenic mouse models of breast and lung cancer, and the potential application of these models for optimizing the timing of chemoradiotherapy and tecemotide immunotherapy to achieve the best treatment outcome for patients. PMID:25483673

  8. Tecemotide: an antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wurz, Gregory T; Kao, Chiao-Jung; Wolf, Michael; DeGregorio, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    The identification of tumor-associated antigens (TAA) has made possible the development of antigen-specific cancer immunotherapies such as tecemotide. One of those is mucin 1 (MUC1), a cell membrane glycoprotein expressed on some epithelial tissues such as breast and lung. In cancer, MUC1 becomes overexpressed and aberrantly glycosylated, exposing the immunogenic tandem repeat units in the extracellular domain of MUC1. Designed to target tumor associated MUC1, tecemotide is being evaluated in Phase III clinical trials for treatment of unresectable stage IIIA/IIIB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as maintenance therapy following chemoradiotherapy. Additional Phase II studies in other indications are ongoing. This review discusses the preclinical and clinical development of tecemotide, ongoing preclinical studies of tecemotide in human MUC1 transgenic mouse models of breast and lung cancer, and the potential application of these models for optimizing the timing of chemoradiotherapy and tecemotide immunotherapy to achieve the best treatment outcome for patients. PMID:25483673

  9. Cancer mortality in workers exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    SciTech Connect

    Fingerhut, M.A.; Halperin, W.E.; Marlow, D.A.; Piacitelli, L.A.; Honchar, P.A.; Sweeney, M.H.; Greife, A.L.; Dill, P.A.; Steenland, K.; Suruda, A.J. )

    1991-01-24

    In both animal and epidemiologic studies, exposure to dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, or TCDD) has been associated with an increased risk of cancer. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of mortality among the 5172 workers at 12 plants in the United States that produced chemicals contaminated with TCDD. Occupational exposure was documented by reviewing job descriptions and by measuring TCDD in serum from a sample of 253 workers. Causes of death were taken from death certificates. Mortality from several cancers previously associated with TCDD (stomach, liver, and nasal cancers, Hodgkin's disease, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) was not significantly elevated in this cohort. Mortality from soft-tissue sarcoma was increased, but not significantly (4 deaths; standardized mortality ratio (SMR), 338; 95 percent confidence interval, 92 to 865). In the subcohort of 1520 workers with greater than or equal to 1 year of exposure and greater than or equal to 20 years of latency, however, mortality was significantly increased for soft-tissue sarcoma (3 deaths; SMR, 922; 95 percent confidence interval, 190 to 2695) and for cancers of the respiratory system (SMR, 142; 95 percent confidence interval, 103 to 192). Mortality from all cancers combined was slightly but significantly elevated in the overall cohort (SMR, 115; 95 percent confidence interval, 102 to 130) and was higher in the subcohort with greater than or equal to 1 year of exposure and greater than or equal to 20 years of latency (SMR, 146; 95 percent confidence interval, 121 to 176). This study of mortality among workers with occupational exposure to TCDD does not confirm the high relative risks reported for many cancers in previous studies. Conclusions about an increase in the risk of soft-tissue sarcoma are limited by small numbers and misclassification on death certificates.

  10. Diverging trends in educational inequalities in cancer mortality between men and women in the 2000s in France

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality have been observed in different European countries and the US until the end of the 1990s, with changes over time in the magnitude of these inequalities and contrasted situations between countries. The aim of this study is to estimate relative and absolute educational differences in cancer mortality in France between 1999 and 2007, and to compare these inequalities with those reported during the 1990s. Methods Data from a representative sample including 1% of the French population were analysed. Educational differences among people aged 30–74 were quantified with hazard ratios and relative indices of inequality (RII) computed using Cox regression models as well as mortality rate difference and population attributable fraction. Results In the period 1999–2007, large relative inequalities were found among men for total cancer and smoking and/or alcohol related cancers mortality (lung, head and neck, oesophagus). Among women, educational differences were reported for total cancer, head and neck and uterus cancer mortality. No association was found between education and breast cancer mortality. Slight educational differences in colorectal cancer mortality were observed in men and women. For most frequent cancers, no change was observed in the magnitude of relative inequalities in mortality between the 1990s and the 2000s, although the RII for lung cancer increased both in men and women. Among women, a large increase in absolute inequalities in mortality was observed for all cancers combined, lung, head and neck and colorectal cancer. In contrast, among men, absolute inequalities in mortality decreased for all smoking and/or alcohol related cancers. Conclusion Although social inequalities in cancer mortality are still high among men, an encouraging trend is observed. Among women though, the situation regarding social inequalities is less favourable, mainly due to a health improvement limited to higher educated

  11. Associations among ancestry, geography and breast cancer incidence, mortality, and survival in Trinidad and Tobago

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Wayne A; Morrison, Robert L; Lee, Tammy Y; Williams, Tanisha M; Ramnarine, Shelina; Roach, Veronica; Slovacek, Simeon; Maharaj, Ravi; Bascombe, Nigel; Bondy, Melissa L; Ellis, Matthew J; Toriola, Adetunji T; Roach, Allana; Llanos, Adana A M

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common newly diagnosed cancer among women in Trinidad and Tobago (TT) and BC mortality rates are among the highest in the world. Globally, racial/ethnic trends in BC incidence, mortality and survival have been reported. However, such investigations have not been conducted in TT, which has been noted for its rich diversity. In this study, we investigated associations among ancestry, geography and BC incidence, mortality and survival in TT. Data on 3767 incident BC cases, reported to the National Cancer Registry of TT, from 1995 to 2007, were analyzed in this study. Women of African ancestry had significantly higher BC incidence and mortality rates (Incidence: 66.96; Mortality: 30.82 per 100,000) compared to women of East Indian (Incidence: 41.04, Mortality: 14.19 per 100,000) or mixed ancestry (Incidence: 36.72, Mortality: 13.80 per 100,000). Geographically, women residing in the North West Regional Health Authority (RHA) catchment area followed by the North Central RHA exhibited the highest incidence and mortality rates. Notable ancestral differences in survival were also observed. Women of East Indian and mixed ancestry experienced significantly longer survival than those of African ancestry. Differences in survival by geography were not observed. In TT, ancestry and geographical residence seem to be strong predictors of BC incidence and mortality rates. Additionally, disparities in survival by ancestry were found. These data should be considered in the design and implementation of strategies to reduce BC incidence and mortality rates in TT. PMID:26338451

  12. Cancer mortality patterns around the San Onofre nuclear power plant, 1960-1978.

    PubMed Central

    Enstrom, J E

    1983-01-01

    Because of the recent concern over possible health effects associated with nuclear power plants, cancer mortality patterns in Southern California have been examined for time periods before the San Onofre nuclear power plant began commercial operation in 1968 and since then. This is one of America's older plants and is surrounded by major population centers in Orange, Riverside and San Diego Counties. Infant mortality rates and age-adjusted mortality rates for leukemia, lung cancer, all cancer, and all causes have been calculated and compared for Orange, Riverside, and San Diego Counties, for California, and for the United States during 1960-1978. In addition, childhood leukemia death rates and clusters have been examined in detail in the communities within 25 miles of San Onofre. The cancer and total mortality rates near San Onofre have remained essentially identical to the corresponding rates in California and United States from 1960 to 1978. There have been no significant radiation releases to the population surrounding the San Onofre plant and the cancer rates show no patterns which have been influenced by the presence of the plant. Although no radiogenic health effects would be expected, these results do provide a means of assessing overall mortality trends in the population. PMID:6848003

  13. Trends in corrected lung cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions

    PubMed Central

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; de Abreu, Daisy Maria Xavier; de Moura, Lenildo; Lana, Gustavo C; Azevedo, Gulnar; França, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the trend in cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions before and after correction for underreporting of deaths and redistribution of ill-defined and nonspecific causes. METHODS The study used data of deaths from lung cancer among the population aged from 30 to 69 years, notified to the Mortality Information System between 1996 and 2011, corrected for underreporting of deaths, non-registered sex and age , and causes with ill-defined or garbage codes according to sex, age, and region. Standardized rates were calculated by age for raw and corrected data. An analysis of time trend in lung cancer mortality was carried out using the regression model with autoregressive errors. RESULTS Lung cancer in Brazil presented higher rates among men compared to women, and the South region showed the highest death risk in 1996 and 2011. Mortality showed a trend of reduction for males and increase for women. CONCLUSIONS Lung cancer in Brazil presented different distribution patterns according to sex, with higher rates among men and a reduction in the mortality trend for men and increase for women. PMID:27355467

  14. Enduring health effects of asbestos use in Belgian industries: a record-linked cohort study of cause-specific mortality (2001–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Van den Borre, Laura; Deboosere, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate cause-specific mortality among asbestos workers and potentially exposed workers in Belgium and evaluate potential excess in mortality due to established and suspected asbestos-related diseases. Design This cohort study is based on an individual record linkage between the 1991 Belgian census and cause-specific mortality information for Flanders and Brussels (2001–2009). Setting Belgium (Flanders and Brussels region). Participants The study population consists of 1 397 699 male workers (18–65 years) with 72 074 deaths between 1 October 2001 and 31 December 2009. Using a classification of high-risk industries, mortality patterns between 2056 asbestos workers, 385 046 potentially exposed workers and the working population have been compared. Outcome measures Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and 95% CIs are calculated for manual and non-manual workers. Results Our findings show clear excess in asbestos-related mortality in the asbestos industry with SMRs for mesothelioma of 4071 (CI 2327 to 6611) among manual workers and of 4489 (CI 1458 to 10 476) among non-manual workers. Excess risks in asbestos-related mortality are also found in the chemical industry, the construction industry, the electrical generation and distribution industry, the basic metals manufacturing industry, the metal products manufacturing industry, the railroad industry, and the shipping industry. Oral cancer mortality is significantly higher for asbestos workers (SMR 383; CI 124 to 894), railroad workers (SMR 192; CI 112 to 308), shipping workers (SMR 172; CI 102 to 271) and construction workers (SMR 125; CI 100 to 153), indicating a possible association with occupational asbestos exposure. Workers in all four industries have elevated mortality rates for cancer of the mouth. Only construction workers experience significantly higher pharyngeal cancer mortality (SMR 151; CI 104 to 212). Conclusions The study identifies vulnerable groups of Belgian asbestos

  15. Exposure to nitrosamines, carbon black, asbestos, and talc and mortality from stomach, lung, and laryngeal cancer in a cohort of rubber workers.

    PubMed

    Straif, K; Keil, U; Taeger, D; Holthenrich, D; Sun, Y; Bungers, M; Weiland, S K

    2000-08-15

    There is sufficient evidence for an excess occurrence of stomach and lung cancer among rubber workers. However, evidence for causal associations with specific exposures is still limited. A cohort of 8,933 male German rubber workers was followed for mortality from January 1, 1981 through December 31, 1991. Work histories were reconstructed using routinely documented cost center codes. For each cost center code, calendar time-and plant-specific levels of exposure to nitrosamines, asbestos, talc (low, medium (m), and high (h)), and carbon black (two levels) were estimated by industrial hygienists. Rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models, with the lowest exposure level used as the reference category. Exposure was lagged 10 years to account for latency. Exposure-response relations between exposure to asbestos and lung cancer mortality (RRm = 1.3, 95% CI: 0.9, 1.9; RRh = 2.0, 95% CI: 0.9, 4.1) and between exposure to dust (talc and asbestos combined) and stomach cancer mortality (RRm = 1.8, 95% CI: 0.9, 3.8; RRh = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.0, 7.1) were observed. Exposure to nitrosamines was not associated with mortality from stomach or lung cancer. These results suggest that the increased mortality from lung and stomach cancer among rubber workers is associated with exposure to asbestos and dust, respectively.

  16. Hypnotic drug risks of mortality, infection, depression, and cancer: but lack of benefit.

    PubMed

    Kripke, Daniel F

    2016-01-01

    This is a review of hypnotic drug risks and benefits, reassessing and updating advice presented to the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration (United States FDA). Almost every month, new information appears about the risks of hypnotics (sleeping pills). This review includes new information on the growing USA overdose epidemic, eight new epidemiologic studies of hypnotics' mortality not available for previous compilations, and new emphasis on risks of short-term hypnotic prescription. The most important risks of hypnotics include excess mortality, especially overdose deaths, quiet deaths at night, infections, cancer, depression and suicide, automobile crashes, falls, and other accidents, and hypnotic-withdrawal insomnia. The short-term use of one-two prescriptions is associated with greater risk per dose than long-term use. Hypnotics are usually prescribed without approved indication, most often with specific contraindications, but even when indicated, there is little or no benefit. The recommended doses objectively increase sleep little if at all, daytime performance is often made worse, not better, and the lack of general health benefits is commonly misrepresented in advertising. Treatments such as the cognitive behavioral treatment of insomnia and bright light treatment of circadian rhythm disorders might offer safer and more effective alternative approaches to insomnia. PMID:27303633

  17. Hypnotic drug risks of mortality, infection, depression, and cancer: but lack of benefit

    PubMed Central

    Kripke, Daniel F.

    2016-01-01

    This is a review of hypnotic drug risks and benefits, reassessing and updating advice presented to the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration (United States FDA). Almost every month, new information appears about the risks of hypnotics (sleeping pills). This review includes new information on the growing USA overdose epidemic, eight new epidemiologic studies of hypnotics’ mortality not available for previous compilations, and new emphasis on risks of short-term hypnotic prescription. The most important risks of hypnotics include excess mortality, especially overdose deaths, quiet deaths at night, infections, cancer, depression and suicide, automobile crashes, falls, and other accidents, and hypnotic-withdrawal insomnia. The short-term use of one-two prescriptions is associated with greater risk per dose than long-term use. Hypnotics are usually prescribed without approved indication, most often with specific contraindications, but even when indicated, there is little or no benefit. The recommended doses objectively increase sleep little if at all, daytime performance is often made worse, not better, and the lack of general health benefits is commonly misrepresented in advertising. Treatments such as the cognitive behavioral treatment of insomnia and bright light treatment of circadian rhythm disorders might offer safer and more effective alternative approaches to insomnia. PMID:27303633

  18. Regional Inequalities in Lung Cancer Mortality in Belgium at the Beginning of the 21st Century: The Contribution of Individual and Area-Level Socioeconomic Status and Industrial Exposure.

    PubMed

    Hagedoorn, Paulien; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Willaert, Didier; Vanthomme, Katrien; Gadeyne, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Being a highly industrialized country with one of the highest male lung cancer mortality rates in Europe, Belgium is an interesting study area for lung cancer research. This study investigates geographical patterns in lung cancer mortality in Belgium. More specifically it probes into the contribution of individual as well as area-level characteristics to (sub-district patterns in) lung cancer mortality. Data from the 2001 census linked to register data from 2001-2011 are used, selecting all Belgian inhabitants aged 65+ at time of the census. Individual characteristics include education, housing status and home ownership. Urbanicity, unemployment rate, the percentage employed in mining and the percentage employed in other high-risk industries are included as sub-district characteristics. Regional variation in lung cancer mortality at sub-district level is estimated using directly age-standardized mortality rates. The association between lung cancer mortality and individual and area characteristics, and their impact on the variation of sub-district level is estimated using multilevel Poisson models. Significant sub-district variations in lung cancer mortality are observed. Individual characteristics explain a small share of this variation, while a large share is explained by sub-district characteristics. Individuals with a low socioeconomic status experience a higher lung cancer mortality risk. Among women, an association with lung cancer mortality is found for the sub-district characteristics urbanicity and unemployment rate, while for men lung cancer mortality was associated with the percentage employed in mining. Not just individual characteristics, but also area characteristics are thus important determinants of (regional differences in) lung cancer mortality.

  19. Regional Inequalities in Lung Cancer Mortality in Belgium at the Beginning of the 21st Century: The Contribution of Individual and Area-Level Socioeconomic Status and Industrial Exposure.

    PubMed

    Hagedoorn, Paulien; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Willaert, Didier; Vanthomme, Katrien; Gadeyne, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Being a highly industrialized country with one of the highest male lung cancer mortality rates in Europe, Belgium is an interesting study area for lung cancer research. This study investigates geographical patterns in lung cancer mortality in Belgium. More specifically it probes into the contribution of individual as well as area-level characteristics to (sub-district patterns in) lung cancer mortality. Data from the 2001 census linked to register data from 2001-2011 are used, selecting all Belgian inhabitants aged 65+ at time of the census. Individual characteristics include education, housing status and home ownership. Urbanicity, unemployment rate, the percentage employed in mining and the percentage employed in other high-risk industries are included as sub-district characteristics. Regional variation in lung cancer mortality at sub-district level is estimated using directly age-standardized mortality rates. The association between lung cancer mortality and individual and area characteristics, and their impact on the variation of sub-district level is estimated using multilevel Poisson models. Significant sub-district variations in lung cancer mortality are observed. Individual characteristics explain a small share of this variation, while a large share is explained by sub-district characteristics. Individuals with a low socioeconomic status experience a higher lung cancer mortality risk. Among women, an association with lung cancer mortality is found for the sub-district characteristics urbanicity and unemployment rate, while for men lung cancer mortality was associated with the percentage employed in mining. Not just individual characteristics, but also area characteristics are thus important determinants of (regional differences in) lung cancer mortality. PMID:26760040

  20. Regional Inequalities in Lung Cancer Mortality in Belgium at the Beginning of the 21st Century: The Contribution of Individual and Area-Level Socioeconomic Status and Industrial Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Hagedoorn, Paulien; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Willaert, Didier; Vanthomme, Katrien; Gadeyne, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Being a highly industrialized country with one of the highest male lung cancer mortality rates in Europe, Belgium is an interesting study area for lung cancer research. This study investigates geographical patterns in lung cancer mortality in Belgium. More specifically it probes into the contribution of individual as well as area-level characteristics to (sub-district patterns in) lung cancer mortality. Data from the 2001 census linked to register data from 2001–2011 are used, selecting all Belgian inhabitants aged 65+ at time of the census. Individual characteristics include education, housing status and home ownership. Urbanicity, unemployment rate, the percentage employed in mining and the percentage employed in other high-risk industries are included as sub-district characteristics. Regional variation in lung cancer mortality at sub-district level is estimated using directly age-standardized mortality rates. The association between lung cancer mortality and individual and area characteristics, and their impact on the variation of sub-district level is estimated using multilevel Poisson models. Significant sub-district variations in lung cancer mortality are observed. Individual characteristics explain a small share of this variation, while a large share is explained by sub-district characteristics. Individuals with a low socioeconomic status experience a higher lung cancer mortality risk. Among women, an association with lung cancer mortality is found for the sub-district characteristics urbanicity and unemployment rate, while for men lung cancer mortality was associated with the percentage employed in mining. Not just individual characteristics, but also area characteristics are thus important determinants of (regional differences in) lung cancer mortality. PMID:26760040

  1. Pancreatic cancer mortality and total hardness levels in Taiwan's drinking water.

    PubMed

    Yang, C Y; Chiu, H F; Cheng, M F; Tsai, S S; Hung, C F; Tseng, Y T

    1999-03-12

    The possible association between the risk of pancreatic cancer mortality and hardness levels in drinking water from municipal supplies was investigated in a matched case-control study in Taiwan. All eligible pancreatic cancer deaths (883 cases) of Taiwan residents from 1990 through 1994 were compared with deaths from other causes (883 controls), and the hardness levels of the drinking water used by these residents were determined. Data on water hardness throughout Taiwan was collected from Taiwan Water Supply Corporation (TWSC). The control group consisted of people who died from other causes and were pair matched to the cancer cases by sex, year of birth, and year of death. The results show that there is a 39 % excess risk of mortality from pancreatic cancer in relation to the use of soft water. Trend analyses showed an increasing odds ratio for pancreatic cancer with decreasing levels of hardness in drinking water. This is an important finding for the Taiwan water industry and human health.

  2. Cancer mortality among arc welders exposed to fumes containing chromium and nickel. Results of a third follow-up: 1989-1995.

    PubMed

    Becker, N

    1999-04-01

    For the historical follow-up study among arc welders exposed to chromium and nickel, which was started in 1980 in Germany, a third follow-up extending the observation period to the years 1989 through 1995 has been carried out. By 1995, of the 1213 welders and 1688 turners (control group) who were originally included in the study, 274 welders and 448 turners had died. Death certificates could be obtained for approximately 96% of the deceased. Results of the evaluation presented in this article showed that cancer mortality remains significantly increased, compared with the general population and the control group, by approximately 35%. There was an elevation of approximately 50% or 60% in mortality from cancers of the respiratory tract, which is also statistically significant. However, this increase is predominantly due to a large excess in mortality from mesothelioma, which is known to be caused chiefly by asbestos exposure. Lung cancer mortality is nonsignificantly increased by approximately 20% to 30%. An indirect assessment of asbestos-related lung cancers and total cancer indicates that the observed increase of mortality might be mainly due to asbestos exposure. Beyond that, no indication of an elevated cancer risk specifically associated with the exposure to welding fumes containing chromium and nickel could be determined.

  3. An Improved Patient-Specific Mortality Risk Prediction in ICU in a Random Forest Classification Framework.

    PubMed

    Ghose, Soumya; Mitra, Jhimli; Khanna, Sankalp; Dowling, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic and automatic patient specific prediction of the risk associated with ICU