Science.gov

Sample records for cancer surgery wards

  1. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Treatment Surgery for Breast Cancer Surgery is a common treatment for breast cancer, ... Relieve symptoms of advanced cancer Surgery to remove breast cancer There are two main types of surgery to ...

  2. Surgery for Bone Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... amputation. This is called limb-salvage or limb-sparing surgery . In going over treatment options, it is ... 2016 Treating Bone Cancer Surgery for Bone Cancer Radiation Therapy for Bone Cancer Chemotherapy for Bone Cancer Targeted ...

  3. Surgery for pancreatic cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007649.htm Surgery for pancreatic cancer To use the sharing features on this page, ... surgery are used in the surgical treatment of pancreatic cancer. Whipple procedure: This is the most common surgery ...

  4. Training in General Surgery Ward Call: A Resident-Student Buddy System.

    PubMed

    Maurice, Andrew; Hann, Angus

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of literature regarding medical student experiences of after hours hospital ward call. It was observed at our institution that medical students had minimal experience in ward call, yet were required to undertake such shifts as interns after graduation. We implemented a buddy system in which a medical student shadowed a general surgery resident for a ward call shift. Final year medical students were recruited from the local university at a tertiary teaching hospital after institutional approval. Each student attended a 4 hour evening shift on a general surgery ward with a supervising resident. A survey detailing attitudes and expectations of ward call was completed before and after the experience. Nine students enrolled in the project. Familiarity of expectations of what is required of an intern on a ward call shift improved significantly after the experience (3.1/5 to 4.1/5, p = 0.002). After hours work experience was reported as useful both before and after the study (4.5/5 to 4.7/5, p = 0.47). Students and doctors involved unanimously felt the experience was worthwhile. After hours ward call experience is useful for a final year medical student. More studies are required to further define the role of after hours ward call experiences during medical training.

  5. Cancer Surgery: Physically Removing Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... type of anesthetic — a medication that blocks the perception of pain. Your options for anesthesia will be ... http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cancer/in-depth/cancer-surgery/ART-20044171 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal ...

  6. Surgery for Pancreatic Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... but the goal is not to try to cure the cancer. Staging laparoscopy To determine which type of surgery ... the planned operation would be very unlikely to cure the cancer and could still lead to major side effects. ...

  7. Global cancer surgery: delivering safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Richard; Alatise, Olusegun Isaac; Anderson, Benjamin O; Audisio, Riccardo; Autier, Philippe; Aggarwal, Ajay; Balch, Charles; Brennan, Murray F; Dare, Anna; D'Cruz, Anil; Eggermont, Alexander M M; Fleming, Kenneth; Gueye, Serigne Magueye; Hagander, Lars; Herrera, Cristian A; Holmer, Hampus; Ilbawi, André M; Jarnheimer, Anton; Ji, Jia-Fu; Kingham, T Peter; Liberman, Jonathan; Leather, Andrew J M; Meara, John G; Mukhopadhyay, Swagoto; Murthy, Shilpa S; Omar, Sherif; Parham, Groesbeck P; Pramesh, C S; Riviello, Robert; Rodin, Danielle; Santini, Luiz; Shrikhande, Shailesh V; Shrime, Mark; Thomas, Robert; Tsunoda, Audrey T; van de Velde, Cornelis; Veronesi, Umberto; Vijaykumar, Dehannathparambil Kottarathil; Watters, David; Wang, Shan; Wu, Yi-Long; Zeiton, Moez; Purushotham, Arnie

    2015-09-01

    Surgery is essential for global cancer care in all resource settings. Of the 15.2 million new cases of cancer in 2015, over 80% of cases will need surgery, some several times. By 2030, we estimate that annually 45 million surgical procedures will be needed worldwide. Yet, less than 25% of patients with cancer worldwide actually get safe, affordable, or timely surgery. This Commission on global cancer surgery, building on Global Surgery 2030, has examined the state of global cancer surgery through an analysis of the burden of surgical disease and breadth of cancer surgery, economics and financing, factors for strengthening surgical systems for cancer with multiple-country studies, the research agenda, and the political factors that frame policy making in this area. We found wide equity and economic gaps in global cancer surgery. Many patients throughout the world do not have access to cancer surgery, and the failure to train more cancer surgeons and strengthen systems could result in as much as US $6.2 trillion in lost cumulative gross domestic product by 2030. Many of the key adjunct treatment modalities for cancer surgery--e.g., pathology and imaging--are also inadequate. Our analysis identified substantial issues, but also highlights solutions and innovations. Issues of access, a paucity of investment in public surgical systems, low investment in research, and training and education gaps are remarkably widespread. Solutions include better regulated public systems, international partnerships, super-centralisation of surgical services, novel surgical clinical trials, and new approaches to improve quality and scale up cancer surgical systems through education and training. Our key messages are directed at many global stakeholders, but the central message is that to deliver safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery to all, surgery must be at the heart of global and national cancer control planning.

  8. Cancer in young people in the north of England, 1968-85: analysis by census wards.

    PubMed Central

    Craft, A W; Parker, L; Openshaw, S; Charlton, M; Newell, J; Birch, J M; Blair, V

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether the seeming excess of childhood leukaemia and lymphoma identified in Seascale, Cumbria, UK, remains unusual when put into a wider context. DESIGN--Analysis of cancer incidence by geographical area. SETTING--The north of England including the Northern and North Western Regional Health Authority regions and the Southport and South Sefton districts of the Mersey Regional Health Authority. SUBJECTS--Altogether 6686 cases of malignant disease in people under 25 years old. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Cases of cancer diagnosed before their 25th birthday between January 1968 and December 1985 identified from three regional cancer registries were allocated to a census ward on the basis of 'usual place of residence'. Population data were derived from the 1971 and 1981 censuses, and the cancer incidence was calculated for each ward. Of the 6686 cases, there were 1035 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and 361 of non-Hodgkins lymphoma. Wards were ranked by cancer incidence and Poisson probability, using different population bases. Seascale ward is the most highly ranked ward for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia for the time periods 1968-85 or 1968-76. It is not the most highly ranked for non-Hodgkins lymphoma. However, combining acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and non-Hodgkins lymphoma incidence gives an even more extreme position for Seascale. The most extreme Poisson probability for any of the analyses was that for brain tumours in the electoral ward of Ashton St Michael, Tameside (p = 0.000009). CONCLUSION--The incidence of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and non-Hodgkins lymphoma in the Seascale ward remains high when put into a wider context. For other cancers there are wards with even more extreme Poisson probability values. PMID:8326267

  9. Surgery for pancreatic cancer -- discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000820.htm Surgery for pancreatic cancer - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... References Claudius C, Lillemoe KD. Palliative Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical ...

  10. Surgery for Bile Duct (Cholangiocarcinoma) Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Situation Bile Duct Cancer Treating Bile Duct Cancer Surgery for Bile Duct Cancer There are 2 general ... also help plan the operation to remove it. Surgery for resectable cancers For resectable cancers, the type ...

  11. Surgery for Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... type of retroperitoneal lymph node surgery called nerve-sparing surgery that is very successful when done by ... children. These men may wish to discuss nerve-sparing surgery with their doctors, as well as sperm ...

  12. Over surgery in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    MacNeill, Fiona; Karakatsanis, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Breast surgery remains the original and most effective 'targeted' therapy: excision of early cancer is curative and for more advanced disease surgery improves local disease control. However in well intentioned pursuit of cure and local disease control, some cancers are over-treated resulting in major physical and emotional morbidity. Less breast surgery is safe, as evidenced by steady reductions in mortality and local recurrence; earlier diagnosis and widespread use of systemic therapies and radiotherapy have allowed more conservative surgery. As tumour biology dictates cancer outcomes not surgery extent, surgery can safely be 'minimum required' rather than 'more is better' with the focus on removal of disease rather than healthy tissue. Surgeons can reduce the burden of surgery further but it is important that less surgery is not over-compensated by more radical or unnecessary systemic therapies and/or radiotherapy with their own toxicities and morbidity. We all need to be alert to the potential drivers of over treatment and over surgery such as failure to work within a multidisciplinary team, failure to design a multimodality treatment plan at diagnosis or overuse of novel assessment technologies of uncertain clinical utility. Pursuit of wide margins and the removal of the contra-lateral healthy breast for marginal risk-reduction gains are also to be discouraged as is routine local/regional surgery in stage 4 disease. The surgeon has a pivotal role in minimizing breast surgery to what is required to achieve the best oncological, functional and aesthetic outcomes.

  13. Surgery for Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of watery brown discharge for a few weeks. Laser surgery A focused laser beam, directed through the vagina, is used to ... cervix. This is done using a surgical or laser knife (cold knife cone biopsy) or using a ...

  14. Gallbladder Cancer: Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Employment Become a Supplier Report Fraud or Abuse Global Health ACS CAN Sign up for Email Policies Our Volunteers More ACS Sites Bookstore Shop Cancer Atlas Press Room Cancer Statistics Center Volunteer Learning Center Follow Us Twitter Facebook ...

  15. Surgery For Stomach Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... treatment for stomach cancer. Placement of a feeding tube Some patients have trouble taking in enough nutrition ... of the stomach and the small intestine. Feeding tube placement: Some people with stomach cancer are not ...

  16. [Surgery in complicated colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Kreisler, Esther; Biondo, Sebastiano; Martí-Ragué, Joan

    2006-07-01

    Colorectal cancer continues to have a serious social impact. A large proportion of patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage of the disease. Approximately one-third of patients with colorectal cancer will undergo emergency surgery for a complicated tumor, with a high risk of mortality and poorer long-term prognosis. The most frequent complications are obstruction and perforation, while massive hemorrhage is rare. The curative potential of surgery, whether urgent or elective, depends on how radical the resection is, among other factors. In the literature on the management of urgent colorectal disease, there are few references to the oncological criteria for resection. Uncertainly about the optimal treatment has led to wide variability in the treatment of this entity. The present article aims to provide a critical appraisal of the controversies surrounding the role of surgery and its impact on complicated colorectal cancer.

  17. Surgery for Pancreatic Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the abdomen. The surgeon can look at the pancreas and other organs for tumors and take biopsy ... pancreatic cancers appear to be confined to the pancreas at the time they are found. Even then, ...

  18. Caring for patients with cancer in non-specialist wards: the nurse experience.

    PubMed

    Mohan, S; Wilkes, L M; Ogunsiji, O; Walker, A

    2005-07-01

    This study aims to describe the experiences of nurses caring for cancer patients in non-specialist wards. The study was conducted in a large (420 beds) and small (32 beds) hospital in an area health service with urban and rural populations in the west of Sydney. A qualitative descriptive approach was utilized to collect data from the nurses. Data were collected using a survey and in-depth interviews of nurses working in non-specialist cancer wards. Transcribed data were managed with Nudist Vivo software and analysed for common themes using process of constant comparison and contrast. Twenty-five surveys were returned and five nurses volunteered to be interviewed. The six major themes that emerged from analysis of data were: emotional nature of care, lack of time, lack of knowledge of cancer treatment, family support, environment not conducive to proper care and dealing with patient's non-acceptance of cancer diagnosis. The nurses in this study wished to provide quality supportive care for cancer patients and their families but the inconducive environment and inadequate relevant training hindered the nurses' efforts. This then presents further need of relevant training for nurses in cancer care and time management, to meet up with these challenges.

  19. Bacterial Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Surgery Wards of a Large Teaching Hospital in Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Silvano; Gioia, Renato; De Simone, Giuseppe; Noviello, Silvana; Lombardi, Domenico; Di Crescenzo, Vincenzo Giuseppe; Filippelli, Amelia; Rega, Maria Rosaria; Massari, Angelo; Elberti, Maria Giovanna; Grisi, Lucilla; Boccia, Giovanni; De Caro, Francesco; Leone, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Surgical infections represent an increasingly important problem for the National Health System. In this study we retrospectively evaluated the bacterial epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of the microorganisms concerned as well as the utilization of antibiotics in the General and Emergency Surgery wards of a large teaching hospital in southern Italy in the period 2011–2013. Methods Data concerning non-duplicate bacterial isolates and antimicrobial susceptibility were retrieved from the Vitek 2 database. The pharmacy provided data about the consumption of antibiotics in the above reported wards. Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test were used. Results In all, 94 Gram-negative were isolated in 2011, 77 in 2012, and 125 in 2013, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa always being the most frequently isolated microorganisms. A. baumannii showed high rates of resistance to carbapenems (with values of 100% in 2011 and 2012) and low rates of resistance to tigecycline, colistin and amikacin. In the same years, there were respectively 105, 93, and 165 Gram-positive isolated. The rate of MRSA isolates ranged from 66% to 75% during the study period. Conclusions Our results show no significant increase in antimicrobial resistance over the period in question, and a higher rate of both MRSA isolates and resistance to carbapenems in A. baumannii compared with other European data. PMID:26075047

  20. Chemo Before Surgery May Help Stomach Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Chemotherapy given before surgery for cancer of the lower esophagus and stomach increased the number of patients surviving for five years compared to surgery alone, according to findings presented at the 2007 ASCO meeting in Chicago.

  1. Between-ward disparities in colorectal cancer incidence and screening in Washington DC.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sharmila; Chattopadhyay, Amit; Levine, Paul H

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to investigate the incidence and determinants of colorectal cancer (CRC) and its screening in District of Columbia (DC), and identify modifiable risk factors. Data (2000-2009) from the DC Cancer Registry, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS-DC) and Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) were used to estimate CRC incidence in eight DC Wards. Risk factors and CRC screening were analyzed using uni-, bi-, and multivariable statistical methods with survey procedures in SAS (version 9.2) including binary, unconditional multivariable logistic regression analysis. Factors measured included stage of diagnosis, age, gender, race/ethnicity, smoking, alcohol, exercise, body weight, health insurance, education, employment, and income. Over the study time, CRC screening increased from 48.4% to 68.6%. Mean age at diagnosis was 67 years. CRC incidence is high in DC. Furthermore, CRC incidence rates in DC below 50 years' age were higher than the SEER18 average. Disparities exist between CRC incidence and screening among DC Wards. Identified risk factors for CRC are smoking, obesity, and low physical activity; screening was less prevalent among the uninsured and low socio-economic group. Local variations in CRC occurrence exist and may vary from average national experiences. Identification of local regions which vary from national trends in disease occurrence is important for comprehensive understanding of the disease in the community.

  2. Predictors of Lymphedema Following Breast Cancer Surgery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    1-0738 TITLE: Predictors of Lymphedema Following Breast Cancer Surgery PRINCIPAL...2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Predictors of Lymphedema Following Breast Cancer Surgery 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-03-1-0738...following axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is upper-extremity lymphedema . The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors for lymphedema

  3. Predictors of Lymphedema Following Breast Cancer Surgery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    1-0738 TITLE: Predictors of Lymphedema Following Breast Cancer Surgery PRINCIPAL...2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Predictors of Lymphedema Following Breast Cancer Surgery 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-03-1-0738...following axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is upper-extremity lymphedema . The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors for lymphedema

  4. Thermomagnetic surgery for renal cancer.

    PubMed

    Rand, R W; Snow, H D; Brown, W J

    1982-01-01

    Thermomagnetic surgery is a technique that uses hysteresis heating of ferromagnetic materials to produce focally controlled temperatures within solid organs or tumors to cause coagulation necrosis. The degree of heating of a neoplasm is controlled by manipulating the power of the electromagnetic coil system through temperature monitoring. This effectively limits the region of destruction to the disease process and thereby avoids damage to surrounding structures. If the ferromagnetic material is delivered by an arterial route to the tumor or organ additional beneficial effect of ischemic necrosis of tissue may be achieved. This new technique is applicable to selected cases of human cancer. Exposure in the electromagnetic fields or use of the ferromagnetic material in experimental animals has produced no ill effects.

  5. [Reconstructive surgery in larynx cancer].

    PubMed

    Szmeja, Z; Szyfter, W; Leszczyńska, M; Wierzbicka, M; Golusiński, W; Dabrowski, P; Karlik, M

    2000-01-01

    Subtotal laryngectomies with larynx reconstruction are an acceptable alternative to the total laryngectomy in T2, T3 larynx cancer treatment. One procedure resection and reconstruction allow for radical oncological treatment with simultaneous preservation of air passage continuity and the function of the neolarynx. In the years 1988-1997 in ENT Dept. of Karol Marcinkowski University of Medical Sciences 38 subtotal laryngectomies with larynx reconstruction were performed. They were: 34 supracricoid laryngectomies with cricohyoidopexy, 2 with epiglotohyoidopexy and 3 supraglotic laryngectomies with reconstruction. The basic criterion of the evaluation of such procedures effectiveness was their oncological radicality. The follow-up period ranged from 2 to 9 years. Local relapse was observed in none of the cases, nodal relapse was started in 2 patients. Another aspect taken into consideration was the function of the neolarynx. In 3 cases two or three laser procedures were performed because of neolarynx lumen structure which were followed by T-dren plasty. In 10 patients temporary swallowing difficulties, especially liquids, were observed in the first three month. Gastrostomy was performed in one case. The authors discuss indications to this type of surgery, operation technique, oncological and functional results. Spirometry results and voice analyses after larynx resection and reconstruction in these patients are presented.

  6. Cancer prevention behaviors among African-American adults: a survey of wards 7 and 8 in Washington, DC.

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, S.; Kofie, V. Y.; Helzlsouer, K.; Rivo, M. L.; Bonney, G.

    1995-01-01

    A telephone survey of knowledge, attitude, and health practices regarding cancer was undertaken in wards 7 and 8, Washington, DC in 1988. These wards have the highest cancer rates in the city and are predominantly African American. Of the 670 randomly selected persons over 18 years of age, 243 were males and 427 were females. Among females, 84% believed cigarette smoking causes cancer, and 48% thought alcohol causes cancer; 31% smoked cigarettes and 38% consumed alcoholic beverages. Among males, 91% and 52% thought cigarettes and alcohol causes cancer respectively; 41% smoked and 54% consumed alcoholic beverages. Only 6% of the males over age 40 practiced all eight recommended cancer prevention behaviors, while 2% of the females over age 40 practiced all preventive health behaviors. Cancer preventive behavior was examined in relation to socioeconomic status. This study indicates that preventive health behaviors were not associated with socioeconomic status. Data suggest that cancer prevention and control programs and services targeted to this Washington, DC population should be increased and intensified. PMID:7869405

  7. [Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in cancer surgery].

    PubMed

    Vilar-Compte, Diana; García-Pasquel, María José

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in reducing surgical site infections has been demonstrated. Its utility is recognized for clean-contaminated procedures and some clean surgeries. Prophylactic antibiotics are used as intended to cover the most common germs in the surgical site; first and second generation cephalosporins are the most used. For optimal prophylaxis, an antibiotic with a targeted spectrum should be administered at sufficiently high concentrations in serum, tissue, and the surgical wound during the time that the incision is open and risk of bacterial contamination. The infusion of the first dose of antimicrobial should begin within 60 min before surgical incision and should be discontinued within 24 h after the end of surgery The prolonged use of antibiotic prophylaxis leads to emergence of bacterial resistance and high costs. The principles of antimicrobial prophylaxis in cancer surgery are the same as those described for general surgery; it is recommended to follow and comply with the standard criteria. In mastectomies and clean head and neck surgery there are specific recommendations that differ from non-cancer surgery. In the case of very extensive surgeries, such as pelvic surgery or bone surgery with reconstruction, extension of antibiotics for 48-72 h should be considered.

  8. Improving the outcomes in gastric cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Tegels, Juul J W; De Maat, Michiel F G; Hulsewé, Karel W E; Hoofwijk, Anton G M; Stoot, Jan H M B

    2014-10-14

    Gastric cancer remains a significant health problem worldwide and surgery is currently the only potentially curative treatment option. Gastric cancer surgery is generally considered to be high risk surgery and five-year survival rates are poor, therefore a continuous strive to improve outcomes for these patients is warranted. Fortunately, in the last decades several potential advances have been introduced that intervene at various stages of the treatment process. This review provides an overview of methods implemented in pre-, intra- and postoperative stage of gastric cancer surgery to improve outcome. Better preoperative risk assessment using comorbidity index (e.g., Charlson comorbidity index), assessment of nutritional status (e.g., short nutritional assessment questionnaire, nutritional risk screening - 2002) and frailty assessment (Groningen frailty indicator, Edmonton frail scale, Hopkins frailty) was introduced. Also preoperative optimization of patients using prehabilitation has future potential. Implementation of fast-track or enhanced recovery after surgery programs is showing promising results, although future studies have to determine what the exact optimal strategy is. Introduction of laparoscopic surgery has shown improvement of results as well as optimization of lymph node dissection. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy has not shown to be beneficial in peritoneal metastatic disease thus far. Advances in postoperative care include optimal timing of oral diet, which has been shown to reduce hospital stay. In general, hospital volume, i.e., centralization, and clinical audits might further improve the outcome in gastric cancer surgery. In conclusion, progress has been made in improving the surgical treatment of gastric cancer. However, gastric cancer treatment is high risk surgery and many areas for future research remain.

  9. Improving the outcomes in gastric cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tegels, Juul JW; De Maat, Michiel FG; Hulsewé, Karel WE; Hoofwijk, Anton GM; Stoot, Jan HMB

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains a significant health problem worldwide and surgery is currently the only potentially curative treatment option. Gastric cancer surgery is generally considered to be high risk surgery and five-year survival rates are poor, therefore a continuous strive to improve outcomes for these patients is warranted. Fortunately, in the last decades several potential advances have been introduced that intervene at various stages of the treatment process. This review provides an overview of methods implemented in pre-, intra- and postoperative stage of gastric cancer surgery to improve outcome. Better preoperative risk assessment using comorbidity index (e.g., Charlson comorbidity index), assessment of nutritional status (e.g., short nutritional assessment questionnaire, nutritional risk screening - 2002) and frailty assessment (Groningen frailty indicator, Edmonton frail scale, Hopkins frailty) was introduced. Also preoperative optimization of patients using prehabilitation has future potential. Implementation of fast-track or enhanced recovery after surgery programs is showing promising results, although future studies have to determine what the exact optimal strategy is. Introduction of laparoscopic surgery has shown improvement of results as well as optimization of lymph node dissection. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy has not shown to be beneficial in peritoneal metastatic disease thus far. Advances in postoperative care include optimal timing of oral diet, which has been shown to reduce hospital stay. In general, hospital volume, i.e., centralization, and clinical audits might further improve the outcome in gastric cancer surgery. In conclusion, progress has been made in improving the surgical treatment of gastric cancer. However, gastric cancer treatment is high risk surgery and many areas for future research remain. PMID:25320507

  10. Worldwide practice in gastric cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Brenkman, Hylke JF; Haverkamp, Leonie; Ruurda, Jelle P; van Hillegersberg, Richard

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the current status of gastric cancer surgery worldwide. METHODS: An international cross-sectional survey on gastric cancer surgery was performed amongst international upper gastro-intestinal surgeons. All surgical members of the International Gastric Cancer Association were invited by e-mail to participate. An English web-based survey had to be filled in with regard to their surgical preferences. Questions asked included hospital volume, the use of neoadjuvant treatment, preferred surgical approach, extent of the lymphadenectomy and preferred anastomotic technique. The invitations were sent in September 2013 and the survey was closed in January 2014. RESULTS: The corresponding specific response rate was 227/615 (37%). The majority of respondents: originated from Asia (54%), performed > 21 gastrectomies per year (79%) and used neoadjuvant chemotherapy (73%). An open surgical procedure was performed by the majority of surgeons for distal gastrectomy for advanced cancer (91%) and total gastrectomy for both early and advanced cancer (52% and 94%). A minimally invasive procedure was preferred for distal gastrectomy for early cancer (65%). In Asia surgeons preferred a minimally invasive procedure for total gastrectomy for early cancer also (63%). A D1+ lymphadenectomy was preferred in early gastric cancer (52% for distal, 54% for total gastrectomy) and a D2 lymphadenectomy was preferred in advanced gastric cancer (93% for distal, 92% for total gastrectomy) CONCLUSION: Surgical preferences for gastric cancer surgery vary between surgeons worldwide. Although the majority of surgeons use neoadjuvant chemotherapy, minimally invasive techniques are still not widely adapted. PMID:27099448

  11. Robotic Surgery for Colon and Rectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Jung; Baik, Seung Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Robotic surgery, used generally for colorectal cancer, has the advantages of a three-dimensional surgical view, steadiness, and seven degrees of robotic arms. However, there are disadvantages, such as a decreased sense of touch, extra time needed to dock the robotic cart, and high cost. Robotic surgery is performed using various techniques, with or without laparoscopic surgery. Because the results of this approach are reported to be similar to or less favorable than those of laparoscopic surgery, the learning curve for robotic colorectal surgery remains controversial. However, according to short- and long-term oncologic outcomes, robotic colorectal surgery is feasible and safe compared with conventional surgery. Advanced technologies in robotic surgery have resulted in favorable intraoperative and perioperative clinical outcomes as well as functional outcomes. As the technical advances in robotic surgery improve surgical performance as well as outcomes, it increasingly is being regarded as a treatment option for colorectal surgery. However, a multicenter, randomized clinical trial is needed to validate this approach.

  12. Prevalence of delirium among patients at a cancer ward: Clinical risk factors and prediction by bedside cognitive tests.

    PubMed

    Grandahl, Mia Gall; Nielsen, Svend Erik; Koerner, Ejnar Alex; Schultz, Helga Holm; Arnfred, Sidse Marie

    2016-08-01

    Background Delirium is a frequent psychiatric complication to cancer, but rarely recognized by oncologists. Aims 1. To estimate the prevalence of delirium among inpatients admitted at an oncological cancer ward 2. To investigate whether simple clinical factors predict delirium 3. To examine the value of cognitive testing in the assessment of delirium. Methods On five different days, we interviewed and assessed patients admitted to a Danish cancer ward. The World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases Version 10, WHO ICD-10 Diagnostic System and the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) were used for diagnostic categorization. Clinical information was gathered from medical records and all patients were tested with Mini Cognitive Test, The Clock Drawing Test, and the Digit Span Test. Results 81 cancer patients were assessed and 33% were diagnosed with delirium. All delirious participants were CAM positive. Poor performance on the cognitive tests was associated with delirium. Medical records describing CNS metastases, benzodiazepine or morphine treatment were associated with delirium. Conclusions Delirium is prevalent among cancer inpatients. The Mini Cognitive Test, The Clock Drawing Test, and the Digit Span Test can be used as screening tools for delirium among inpatients with cancer, but even in synergy, they lack specificity. Combining cognitive testing and attention to nurses' records might improve detection, yet further studies are needed to create a more detailed patient profile for the detection of delirium.

  13. The Good Pain Management (GPM) Ward Program in China and its impact on Chinese cancer patients: the SYSUCC experience

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yun-Peng; Ma, Yu-Xiang; Huang, Yan; Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Xu, Fei; Tian, Ying; Zou, Ben-Yan; Gao, Rui-Zhen; Zhang, Li

    2014-01-01

    To improve cancer pain management, the Medical Oncology Department of Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center (SYSUCC) launched the Good Pain Management (GPM) Ward Program, which has been recognized by the Chinese Ministry of Health and promoted throughout the nation. This retrospective case-control study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the program. Patients diagnosed with malignant solid tumors with bone metastasis were eligible. Patients who were admitted 6 months before the initiation of the GPM program were used as the control group, and patients admitted 6 months after the initiation of the program were used as the GPM group. The pain-reporting rate and pain management index (PMI) were calculated. The pain levels before and after pain management were compared. A total of 475 patients (244 in the control group and 231 in the GPM group) were analyzed. The pain-reporting rate of the GPM group was significantly higher than that of the control group (62.8% vs. 37.7%, P < 0.001). The PMI of the GPM group was significantly higher than that of the control group (0.083 vs. -0.261, P < 0.001). Therefore, the GPM Ward Program improved the pain management of cancer patients and provided experience for improving cancer pain management in the future. PMID:24874643

  14. [Breast cancer surgery in the third millenium].

    PubMed

    Sierra García, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Progress in health education and awareness by women of this disease, together with technical and diagnostic progresses, have contributed at the beginning of the third millenium to an earlier diagnosis and surgical treatment of breast cancer in women. In addition, a better understanding of the biology and development of this disease makes possible to achieve high cure rates with conservative surgery. This conservative surgery together wuth systematic analysis of sentinel adenopathy will allow cure in the future with only ample tumorectomies. For the few cases of advanced tumors, neoadjuvant therapies can be used; for multicentric cancers treated with total mastectomy, reconstructive surgery and prosthetic materials will be applied. Finally, progress in the understanding of genetics and advances in the field of tumor markers and receptors will help to establish indications for prophylactic syrgery in women considered at high risk for this disease.

  15. Surgery for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Neville F; Rao, Archana

    2016-10-20

    Cytoreductive surgery for patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer has been practised since the pioneering work of Tom Griffiths in 1975. Further research has demonstrated the prognostic significance of the extent of metastatic disease pre-operatively, and of complete cytoreduction post-operatively. Patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer should be referred to high volume cancer units, and managed by multidisciplinary teams. The role of thoracoscopy and resection of intrathoracic disease is presently investigational. In recent years, there has been increasing use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and interval cytoreductive surgery in patients with poor performance status, which is usually due to large volume ascites and/or large pleural effusions. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy reduces the post-operative morbidity, but if the tumour responds well to the chemotherapy, the inflammatory response makes the surgery more difficult. Post-operative morbidity is generally tolerable, but increases in older patients, and in those having multiple, aggressive surgical procedures, such as bowel resection or diaphragmatic stripping. Primary cytoreductive surgery should be regarded as the gold standard for most patients until a test is developed which would allow the prediction of platinum resistance pre-operatively.

  16. Minimally invasive surgery in cancer. Immunological response.

    PubMed

    Bobocea, A C; Trandafir, B; Bolca, C; Cordoş, I

    2012-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery produced major changes in treating abdominal malignancies and early stage lung cancer. Laparoscopy and thoracoscopy are less traumatic than open surgery: allow faster recovery, shorter hospital stay, better cosmesis. Although these clinical benefits are important, prolonged disease-free interval, long-term survival with improved quality of life are most important endpoints for oncologic surgery. Major surgery causes significant alteration of immunological response, of particular importance in oncologic patients, as postoperative immunosuppression has been related to septic complications, lower survival rate, tumor spread and metastases. Clinical studies have shown laparoscopic surgery preserves better the patient's immunological function. Postoperative plasma peak concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, C-reactive protein (CRP) and TNF-alpha were lower after laparoscopic colonic resection. Prospective thoracoscopic VATS lobectomy trials found better preservation of lymphocyte T-cell function and quicker return of proliferative responses to normal, lower levels of CRP, thromboxane and prostacyclin. Immune function is influenced by the extent of surgical trauma. Minimally invasive surgery show reduced acute-phase responses compared with open procedures and better preservation of cellular immune mechanisms.

  17. Robotic Surgery for Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ambrogi, Marcello C; Fanucchi, Olivia; Melfi, Franco; Mussi, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade the role of minimally invasive surgery has been increased, especially with the introduction of the robotic system in the surgical field. The most important advantages of robotic system are represented by the wristed instrumentation and the depth perception, which can overcome the limitation of traditional thoracoscopy. However, some data still exist in literature with regard to robotic lobectomy. The majority of papers are focused on its safety and feasibility, but further studies with long follow-ups are necessary in order to assess the oncologic outcomes. We reviewed the literature on robotic lobectomy, with the main aim to better define the role of robotic system in the clinical practice. PMID:25207216

  18. Combined surgery and photodynamic therapy of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douplik, Alexandre

    According to the recent guidelines, the gold standard is resecting an extra 0.5-3 cm beyond the lesion margins that are visually detected and/or biopsy confirmed depending on type of malignancy and its localisation to avoid missing the residuals of the tumour. Often, such a large resection leads to dysfunctions of the organ or tissues, which underwent the surgery. In some cases, an extra tumour-free margin cannot be achieved because of tumour proximity to vital sites such as major vascular or nerve structures. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is an emerging clinical modality to locally destroy cancer lesions selectively. The limitation of photodynamic therapy is the curable depth of an order of one centimetre or less. A combination of cancer surgery following by PDT can bring a benefit to reduce the resection and minimise the impact on the organ or tissue functionality. Combination of cancer surgery and photodynamic therapy provides another opportunity-fluorescence image guidance of cancer removal. Most of the photosensitizers intensively fluoresce and hence facilitate a strong fluorescence contrast versus healthy adjacent tissues.

  19. Body image concerns after colorectal cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Claire

    Body image is understood to be a person's perception of his or her own physical appearance although, as this article highlights, it embraces a greater range of bodily attributes than is often appreciated. It can be significantly affected by a diagnosis of colorectal cancer and subsequent treatment, which may modify the way the body looks, feels and functions. One of the major aesthetic and functional consequences of colorectal cancer surgery is the possibility of stoma formation, which is of particular concern to many. However, the range of other bodily effects following surgery should not be overlooked, not least because of they may result in distress. While concerns about changes in body image generally decrease over time, people recovering from cancer treatment often feel their relationship with their body has been permanently altered. Specialist support is often required when adjusting to any changes in bodily appearance and function. Care outcomes can be improved by having a sound understanding of the body image concerns likely to arise following treatment, as well as the skills to identify and support patients at risk of altered body image. This article provides guidance to nurses caring for individuals who may be experiencing distress over how their body is now perceived by themselves and others following colorectal cancer surgery.

  20. Shoulder impairment before breast cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Ann Marie; Dwyer, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare pre- and post-operative shoulder active range of motion (AROM) values from female breast cancer survivors to population norm values for shoulder AROM; and to compare shoulder AROM differences pre- and post-surgery between female African American and White breast cancer survivors (BCA). Study design This pilot study used a convenience sample and longitudinal design measuring participants 2 times (T0 = baseline, after biopsy but within 2 weeks before BCA surgery; T1 = 2nd postoperative week). Background The U.S. has the largest BCA survivor population in history and yet the mortality burden remains highest among AA BCA survivors. AAs may also have greater burden of physical and functional side effects compared to whites and the general population. Methods and Measures The data were collected from a convenience sample (n = 33; nAA = 9, nW = 24) and included data on shoulder AROM, medical chart review for pre- and co-morbid conditions, and self-reported demographics and medical history. We used t-tests to compare sample AROM means to population norms. We then compared our sample across 2 timepoints (T0 = pre-surgery; T1 = 2 weeks post-surgery) using independent samples t-tests and repeated measures analysis of variance (p < .05) to compare AA to White sub-samples AROM means. Results African Americans had significantly less shoulder abduction (at T0) and flexion (at T1) than whites. However, 100% had significantly reduced AROM for all movements at T0 (prior to surgery but after biopsy) when compared to population norms. Conclusions The significant reduction in shoulder AROM after biopsy but before surgery points to a possible unmet need for early physical therapy intervention. Further research using randomized controlled trial design is recommended. PMID:25593563

  1. Organ preservation surgery for laryngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Sharad; Carney, Andrew Simon

    2009-01-01

    The principles of management of the laryngeal cancer have evolved over the recent past with emphasis on organ preservation. These developments have paralleled technological advancements as well as refinement in the surgical technique. The surgeons are able to maintain physiological functions of larynx namely speech, respiration and swallowing without compromising the loco-regional control of cancer in comparison to the more radical treatment modalities. A large number of organ preservation surgeries are available to the surgeon; however, careful assessment of the stage of the cancer and selection of the patient is paramount to a successful outcome. A comprehensive review of various organ preservation techniques in vogue for the management of laryngeal cancer is presented. PMID:19442314

  2. Transoral robotic surgery for larynx cancer.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard V

    2014-06-01

    Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has become increasingly used to manage laryngeal and pharyngeal cancers, although the published experience in the larynx is small. Although there is burgeoning use of TORS for primary pharyngeal cancer, its application in the larynx is currently more limited. Successful TORS of the larynx has been predominantly as supraglottic laryngectomy, although there is some experience in total laryngectomy and cordectomy. Limitations of TORS of the larynx are primarily those of access and instrumentation, with respect to both the surgical robot and the retractors used to access the larynx transorally.

  3. Medicolegal aspects of esophageal cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    De Giorgio, Fabio

    2005-01-01

    Forensic implications of esophageal cancer surgery are varied and complex depending on the field of specialization involved i.e. civil law, criminal law, insurance or social security and for the distinct probative requirements related to each field. The aim of this article is to reconstruct the logical procedure of a forensic doctor who actually examines a practical case to establish the profiles of professional responsibility in particular in civil or criminal law.

  4. Minimally Invasive Colorectal Cancer Surgery in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Babaei, Masoud; Balavarca, Yesilda; Jansen, Lina; Gondos, Adam; Lemmens, Valery; Sjövall, Annika; B⊘rge Johannesen, Tom; Moreau, Michel; Gabriel, Liberale; Gonçalves, Ana Filipa; Bento, Maria José; van de Velde, Tony; Kempfer, Lana Raffaela; Becker, Nikolaus; Ulrich, Alexis; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Schrotz-King, Petra; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) of colorectal cancer (CRC) was first introduced over 20 years ago and recently has gained increasing acceptance and usage beyond clinical trials. However, data on dissemination of the method across countries and on long-term outcomes are still sparse. In the context of a European collaborative study, a total of 112,023 CRC cases from 3 population-based (N = 109,695) and 4 institute-based clinical cancer registries (N = 2328) were studied and compared on the utilization of MIS versus open surgery. Cox regression models were applied to study associations between surgery type and survival of patients from the population-based registries. The study considered adjustment for potential confounders. The percentage of CRC patients undergoing MIS differed substantially between centers and generally increased over time. MIS was significantly less often used in stage II to IV colon cancer compared with stage I in most centers. MIS tended to be less often used in older (70+) than in younger colon cancer patients. MIS tended to be more often used in women than in men with rectal cancer. MIS was associated with significantly reduced mortality among colon cancer patients in the Netherlands (hazard ratio [HR] 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] (0.63–0.69), Sweden (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.60–0.76), and Norway (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.67–0.79). Likewise, MIS was associated with reduced mortality of rectal cancer patients in the Netherlands (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.68–0.80) and Sweden (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.66–0.90). Utilization of MIS in CRC resection is increasing, but large variation between European countries and clinical centers prevails. Our results support association of MIS with substantially enhanced survival among colon cancer patients. Further studies controlling for selection bias and residual confounding are needed to establish role of MIS in survival of patients. PMID:27258522

  5. Changing Trends in Gastric Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Özer, İlter; Bostancı, Erdal Birol; Ulaş, Murat; Özoğul, Yusuf; Akoğlu, Musa

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death. It requires multimodal treatment and surgery is the most effective treatment modality. Radical surgery includes total or subtotal gastrectomy with lymph node dissection. The extent of lymphadenectomy still remains controversial. Eastern surgeons have performed D2 or more extended lymphadenectomy while their Western colleagues have performed more limited lymph node dissection. However, the trend has been changing in favour of D2 lymph node dissection in both hemispheres. Currently, D2 is the recommended type of lymphadenectomy in experienced centres in the west. In Japan, D2 lymph node dissection is the standard surgical approach. More extensive lymphadenectomy than D2 has not been found to be associated with improved survival and generally is not performed. Bursectomy and splenectomy are additional controversial issues in surgical performance, and trends regarding them will be discussed. The performance of bursectomy is controversial and there is no clear evidence of its clinical benefit. However, a trend toward better survival in patients with serosal invasion has been reported. Routine splenectomy as a part of lymph node dissection has largely been abandoned, although splenectomy is recommended in selected cases. Minimally invasive surgery has gained wide popularity and indications for minimally invasive procedures have been expanding due to increasing experience and improving technology. Neoadjuvant therapy has been shown to have beneficial effects and seems necessary to provide a survival benefit. Diagnostic laparoscopy should be kept in mind prior to treatment. PMID:28251018

  6. Surgery for lung cancer invading the mediastinum

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ayoubi, Adnan M.

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer infiltrating the mediastinum is a subset of locally advanced lung tumors for which surgery is not routinely offered. Radical operations that involve removal of adjacent mediastinal structures to obtain free margins may provide a realistic cure. Such extended resections are typically reserved to highly motivated patients seeking more aggressive management, and are only offered following complete evaluation on a case-by-case basis. Positive prognosis depends on complete R0 resection and lack of mediastinal nodal metastases. Careful and exhaustive preoperative planning as well as surgical expertise cannot be overemphasized for successful surgical outcomes. Here we provide a brief summary of the literature as well as our own experience managing these rare and sometimes challenging surgeries. PMID:27942411

  7. Delaying Chemo After Lung Cancer Surgery? Better Late Than Never

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162926.html Delaying Chemo After Lung Cancer Surgery? Better Late Than Never Patient recovery may ... 6, 2017 FRIDAY, Jan. 6, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Lung cancer chemotherapy that's been delayed due to slow recovery ...

  8. Pancreatic cancer surgery: past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Poruk, Katherine E.

    2015-01-01

    The history of pancreatic cancer surgery, though fraught with failure and setbacks, is punctuated by periods of incremental progress dependent upon the state of the art and the mettle of the surgeons daring enough to attempt it. Surgical anesthesia and the aseptic techniques developed during the latter half of the 19th century were instrumental in establishing a viable setting for pancreatic surgery to develop. Together, they allowed for bolder interventions and improved survival through the post-operative period. Surgical management began with palliative procedures to address biliary obstruction in advanced disease. By the turn of the century, surgical pioneers such as Alessandro Codivilla and Walther Kausch were demonstrating the technical feasibility of pancreatic head resections and applying principles learned from palliation to perform complicated anatomical reconstructions. Allen O. Whipple, the namesake of the pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), was the first to take a systematic approach to refining the procedure. Perhaps his greatest contribution was sparking a renewed interest in the surgical management of periampullary cancers and engendering a community of surgeons who advanced the field through their collective efforts. Though the work of Whipple and his contemporaries legitimized PD as an accepted surgical option, it was the establishment of high-volume centers of excellence and a multidisciplinary approach in the later decades of the 20th century that made it a viable surgical option. Today, pancreatic surgeons are experimenting with minimally invasive surgical techniques, expanding indications for resection, and investigating new methods for screening and early detection. In the future, the effective management of pancreatic cancer will depend upon our ability to reliably detect the earliest cancers and precursor lesions to allow for truly curative resections. PMID:26361403

  9. [Volumes of lymphadenectomy in gastric cancer surgery].

    PubMed

    Cherniavskiĭ, A A; Lavrov, N A

    2015-01-01

    It is summarized an experience of 1528 resections for gastric cancer supplemented by D1-, D2-, D2,5- and D3-lymphadenectomy in 751, 241, 359 and 177 patients resrectively. Unconventional type D2.5 means D2-lymphodis section with additional lymphadenectomy along hepatoduodenal ligament and superior retropancreatic nodes as well as omental bursa removal with lymphodis section of esophageal opening crura. Analysis of immediate and remote results is presented. It is concluded that D3-lymphadenectomy is minimally preferred over D2.5-type in gastric cancer staging. D3-lymphodis section has the largest number of especially purulent and pancreatogenic postoperative complications. D2.5-lymphadenectomy significantly increases 5-year survival in comparison with D2-lymphodis section (from 51.2 ± 4.9 to 64.0 ± 4.1%; p<0.001) and may be chosen for any radical surgery for gastric cancer including early forms. Localized proximal tumors which are in distinctive for metastasis into hepatoduodenal ligament lymph nodes are exception. D3-lymphodis section did not impact on survival in comparison with D2,5-lymphadenectomy. Only patients with antral cancer after distal subtotal gastric resection had 5-year survival increasing on 8 % (from 60.6 ± 7.5 to 68.5 ± 6.3%).

  10. Robotic surgery for gastric cancer: a technical review.

    PubMed

    Hyung, Woo Jin; Woo, Yanghee; Noh, Sung Hoon

    2011-12-01

    Minimally invasive gastric cancer surgery is gaining acceptance, especially in the treatment of patients with early gastric cancer. While offering patients the benefits of minimally invasive surgery, laparoscopic surgery is limited by several disadvantages such as altered operating view and lack of versatility in surgical instrumentation. Robotic surgery offers the surgeon the benefit of superior 3D visualization, the freedom of the EndoWrist function, and the tremble-filtered control of the four robotic arms. Due to the technical advantages of the robotic surgical system, robotic surgery may facilitate the expansion of minimally invasive surgery over laparoscopy. The application of robotic surgery for gastric cancer is increasing in experienced centers. Most reports of the robotic operating methods are only slightly modified from the laparoscopic technique. Robotic gastric cancer surgery including radical subtotal gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection is technically feasible and safe and results in similar short-term postoperative outcomes when compared to laparoscopic surgery. The role of robotic surgery in gastric cancer is promising but awaits further comparative studies of long-term results and cost-effectiveness.

  11. Recent advances in robotic surgery for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Soichiro; Otani, Kensuke; Yasuda, Koji; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Junichiro; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Hata, Keisuke; Kawai, Kazushige; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Kazama, Shinsuke; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Sunami, Eiji; Kitayama, Joji; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-08-01

    Robotic technology, which has recently been introduced to the field of surgery, is expected to be useful, particularly in treating rectal cancer where precise manipulation is necessary in the confined pelvic cavity. Robotic surgery overcomes the technical drawbacks inherent to laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer through the use of multi-articulated flexible tools, three-dimensional stable camera platforms, tremor filtering and motion scaling functions, and greater ergonomic and intuitive device manipulation. Assessments of the feasibility and safety of robotic surgery for rectal cancer have reported similar operation times, blood loss during surgery, rates of postoperative morbidity, and circumferential resection margin involvement when compared with laparoscopic surgery. Furthermore, rates of conversion to open surgery are reportedly lower with increased urinary and male sexual functions in the early postoperative period compared with laparoscopic surgery, demonstrating the technical advantages of robotic surgery for rectal cancer. However, long-term outcomes and the cost-effectiveness of robotic surgery for rectal cancer have not been fully evaluated yet; therefore, large-scale clinical studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of this new technology.

  12. Port-site metastasis after laparoscopic surgery for gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Emoto, Shigenobu; Ishigami, Hironori; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Ishihara, Soichiro; Sunami, Eiji; Kitayama, Joji; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2017-03-01

    Although the incidence of port-site metastasis after laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer has markedly decreased since laparoscopic colectomy was first reported in 1991, it still has not reached zero. In colorectal cancer, the safety of laparoscopic surgery, including the low incidence of port-site metastasis, has been proven in large, randomized trials. In gastric cancer, reports of port-site metastasis are extremely rare, but we should await the results of ongoing trials. This brief review summarizes the current knowledge regarding port-site metastasis after laparoscopic surgery for colorectal and gastric cancer.

  13. Aesthetic Surgery in Patients with Lung Cancer: A Paradigm Shift

    PubMed Central

    Baranski, Jan; Sinno, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide and the leading cause of cancer death. With the development of targeted therapy against causative driver mutations, some patients have experienced dramatic responses that have converted their disease into a chronic, stable form. Shifting concerns away from survival and back to quality-of-life issues has led some of these patients to seek aesthetic surgery. Methods: Three patient examples are presented to illustrate current lung cancer treatment modalities, disease responses, and subsequent experiences with aesthetic surgical procedures. Two patients presented for blepharoplasty and the third for revisional breast augmentation surgery. Results: Two patients were treated for lung cancer with targeted therapy and a third with more traditional chemotherapy before undergoing aesthetic surgery. All 3 patients experienced a normal recovery from surgery without any untoward results. Two remain free of disease and one has chronic stable disease. All have returned to normal, active lives. Conclusions: Recent developments in lung cancer treatment are transforming this entity into a less formidable diagnosis for some patients, much like breast cancer and prostate cancer. Plastic surgeons should be aware of this paradigm shift. Successfully treated patients should be considered as reasonable candidates for aesthetic surgery, particularly when they have the full support of their oncologist. Beyond the typical psychological benefits that plastic surgery can produce, it also provides affirmation in this patient population of a return to normalcy, thereby imparting hope and optimism for the future. PMID:27826480

  14. [Quality standards in rectal cancer surgery].

    PubMed

    Pera, M; Pascual, M

    2005-01-01

    The results of surgery for rectal cancer have classically been measured through indicators such as morbidity, mortality, and length of hospital stay. In the last few years other parameters have been included that evaluate healthcare quality such as the functional results of the surgical technique employed and quality of life. Total resection of the mesorectum, performed by experienced surgeons, is the surgical technique of choice. Currently, the sphincter can be preserved in 70% of patients. Anastomotic dehiscence after anterior resection of the rectum is the most serious complication and the most important risk factor is the height of the anastomosis. The overall dehiscence rate should be less than 15% and operative mortality should be between 2% and 3%. The colonic reservoir improves functional outcome and consequently it is the procedure of choice to reconstruct transit after low anterior resection. Local recurrence should be less than 10% and 5-year survival should be between 70% and 80%. In general, quality of life is better after anterior resection of the rectum than after abdominoperineal amputation, despite the functional deterioration presented by some patients.

  15. The role of robotic surgery in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, David M; Smith, Blair; Fowler, Jeffrey M

    2015-12-01

    Robotic surgery for endometrial cancer has less blood loss, shorter hospital stays, and less postoperative complications compared to laparotomies. Robotic technologic advantages over laparoscopic technique are most pronounced in obese patients. The shorter learning curve may explain the greater utilization of the robotic technique. Robotic surgery will continue as a mainstay in the treatment of uterine cancers as we become more efficient and cost conscious while maintaining the high quality outcomes that have been reported.

  16. The Role of Oncoplastic Breast Surgery in Breast Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Emiroğlu, Mustafa; Sert, İsmail; İnal, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to discuss indications, advantages, disadvantages, oncologic and aesthetic results of Oncoplastic Surgery (OBS). Pubmed and Medline database were searched for articles published between 1998 and 2014 for keywords: oncoplastic breast surgery, therapeutic mammoplasty, oncoplastic breast reduction, synchrenous reconstructions. Role of OBS in breast cancer surgery, its aspects to be considered, its value and results have been interpreted. This technique has advantages by providing more extensive tumourectomy, yielding better aesthetic results compared with breast conserving surgery, allowing oncoplastic reduction in breast cancer patients with macromastia, with higher patient satisfaction and quality of life and by being inexpensive due to single session practice. As for its disadvantages are: re-excision is more difficult, risk for mastectomy is higher, it is depent on the Surgeron’s experience, it has a risk for delay in adjuvant therapies and its requirement for additional imaging studies during management. Main indications are patients with small tumour/breast volume, macromastia, multifocality, procedures which can disrupt breast cosmesis such as surgeries for upper inner breas tquadrient tumours. Contraindications are positive margin problems after wide excision, diffuse malign microcalsifications, inflammatory breast cancer, history of radiotherapy and patients’ preferences. Despite low evidence level, Oncoplastic Breast Surgery seems to be both reliable and acceptable in terms of oncologic and aesthetic aspects. Oncoplastic Breast Surgery increase the application rate of breast conserving surgery by obviating practical limitations and improve the results of breast conserving surgery. Correct patient and technique choice in OBS is vital for optimization of post surgical

  17. Role of robotic surgery in colorectal resections for cancer.

    PubMed

    Bertani, E; Chiappa, A; Ubiali, P; Fiore, B; Corbellini, C; Cossu, M L; Minicozzi, A; Andreoni, B

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, robotic surgery is becoming a valid alternative in colorectal diseases treatment to laparoscopic and traditional open surgery. The most relevant reported technical advantages of the robotic surgery are 3D-view, tremor-filtering, seven degree-free motion and a higher comfortable setting for the surgeon. Both case series and comparative studies available in Literature report only short and mid-term outcomes. These studies are able to demonstrate that robotic surgery is as safe and feasible as laparoscopic surgery regarding perioperative outcomes. Trials with long term follow up are needed to establish the real safety and effectiveness of the robotic surgery especially concerning resections for cancer. The robotic surgery could be considered a promising surgical field. The high costs represent one of the most relevant drawbacks.

  18. The state of academic cancer surgery in the UK.

    PubMed

    Eckhouse, S; Sullivan, R

    2008-10-01

    Despite media and public perception to the contrary cancer surgery is the most important modality for the control and cure of cancer. However, after years of underinvestment by research funders and increasing service delivery demands the academic cancer surgeon is an endangered species. In an effort to improve evidence-based policymaking in this critical domain of cancer research the ECRM has conducted a semi-quantitative assessment of the state of academic cancer surgery in the UK. We have found that the percentage of investment in cancer surgical technologies R&D is less than 1% and even when this is extended to other diseases then this figure is still less than 1%. A decline in the overall numbers of academic surgical staff is paralleled by our finding that over 50% of the academic cancer surgeons in this survey had insufficient time for research. With clinical trials and surgical technology development identified as key research domains the majority (60-80%) did not perceive any benefit for surgical research in these areas as a result of the creation of the UK National Cancer Research Institute. We also found high support for academic surgery from colleagues but medium-low support from many institutions. Key policy conclusions are: (1) greater hypothecated investment by research funders, particularly for the development of surgical technologies as well as clinical trials, and (2) the creation of cancer surgery centres of excellence which have sufficient staffing and institutional support to engendered a creative academic environment.

  19. [Comparison of robotic surgery documentary in gynecological cancer].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Robotic surgery is a surgical technique recently introduced, with major expansion and acceptance among the medical community is currently performed in over 1,000 hospitals around the world and in the management of gynecological cancer are being developed comprehensive programs for implementation. The objectives of this paper are to review the scientific literature on robotic surgery and its application in gynecological cancer to verify its safety, feasibility and efficacy when compared with laparoscopic surgery or surgery classical major surgical complications, infections are more common in traditional radical surgery compared with laparoscopic or robotic surgery and with these new techniques surgical and staying hospital are lesser than the former however, the disadvantages are the limited number of robot systems, their high cost and applies only in specialized centers that have with equipment and skilled surgeons. In conclusion robotic surgery represents a major scientific breakthrough and surgical management of gynecological cancer with better results to other types of conventional surgery and is likely in the coming years is become its worldwide.

  20. Image-guided cancer surgery using near-infrared fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.; Hutteman, Merlijn; van der Vorst, Joost R.; van de Velde, C.J.H.; Frangioni, John V.

    2013-01-01

    Paradigm shifts in surgery arise when surgeons are empowered to perform surgery faster, better, and/or less expensively. Optical imaging that exploits invisible near-infrared fluorescent light has the potential to improve cancer surgery outcomes while minimizing anesthesia time and lowering healthcare costs. Because of this, the last few years have witnessed an explosion of proof-of-concept clinical trials in the field. In this review, we introduce the concept of near-infrared fluorescence imaging for cancer surgery, review the clinical trial literature to date, outline the key issues pertaining to imaging system and contrast agent optimization, discuss limitations and leverage, and provide a framework for making the technology available for the routine care of cancer patients in the near future. PMID:23881033

  1. Complications from Surgeries Related to Ovarian Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Lauren A.; Pavlik, Edward J.; Ueland, Emma; Brown, Hannah E.; Ladd, Kelsey M.; Huang, Bin; DeSimone, Christopher P.; van Nagell, John R.; Ueland, Frederick R.; Miller, Rachel W.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate complications of surgical intervention for participants in the Kentucky Ovarian Cancer Screening Program and compare results to those of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening trial. A retrospective database review included 657 patients who underwent surgery for a positive screen in the Kentucky Ovarian Cancer Screening Program from 1988–2014. Data were abstracted from operative reports, discharge summaries, and office notes for 406 patients. Another 142 patients with incomplete records were interviewed by phone. Complete information was available for 548 patients. Complications were graded using the Clavien–Dindo (C–D) Classification of Surgical Complications and considered minor if assigned Grade I (any deviation from normal course, minor medications) or Grade II (other pharmacological treatment, blood transfusion). C–D Grade III complications (those requiring surgical, endoscopic, or radiologic intervention) and C–D Grade IV complications (those which are life threatening) were considered “major”. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS 9.4 software. Complications were documented in 54/548 (10%) subjects. For women with malignancy, 17/90 (19%) had complications compared to 37/458 (8%) with benign pathology (p < 0.003). For non-cancer surgery, obesity was associated with increased complications (p = 0.0028). Fifty patients had minor complications classified as C–D Grade II or less. Three of 4 patients with Grade IV complications had malignancy (p < 0.0004). In the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening trial, 212 women had surgery for ovarian malignancy, and 95 had at least one complication (45%). Of the 1080 women with non-cancer surgery, 163 had at least one complication (15%). Compared to the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening trial, the Kentucky Ovarian Cancer Screening Program had significantly fewer complications from both cancer and non-cancer

  2. [Minimal-invasive surgery for lung cancer - strategies and limits].

    PubMed

    Schneiter, D; Weder, W

    2012-07-01

    Minimal invasive surgical procedures, also known as keyhole surgery, have gained in importance in the last years and have become the standard of care in experienced hands for most surgical procedures. Despite initial concerns with respect to the radicalness of the approach it is nowadays also established in oncologic surgery. Minimal invasive procedures aim at minimizing the operative trauma and associated inflammatory reactions to achieve faster convalescence after surgery. In addition to obvious cosmetic advantages minimal invasive surgery has been shown to be associated with fewer postoperative pain and shorter postoperative rehabilitation and faster reintegration into everyday as well as working life. With 15% of all cancer diagnoses and 29% of all cancer-associated causes of death, lung cancer is the most frequent malignancy in the general public and hence the treatment of lung cancer is a main focus of thoracic surgery. Within the scope of modern multimodal treatment concepts radical surgical resection of lung cancer is essential and the main pillar of curative treatment. In early stage lung cancer the current standard of care is a thoracoscopic lobectomy with mediastinal lymphadenectomy. The expertise of specialized centers allows for curative minimal-invasive treatment in a large number of patients, particularly of patients of advanced age or with limited pulmonary function.

  3. Randomized trial of subfascial infusion of ropivacaine for early recovery in laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hyun; Kim, Go Eun; Kim, Hee Cheol; Jun, Joo Hyun; Lee, Jin Young; Shin, Byung-Seop; Yoo, Heejin; Jung, Sin-Ho; Kim, Joungyoun; Lee, Seung Hyeon; Yo, Deok Kyu; Na, Yu Ri

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a need for investigating the analgesic method as part of early recovery after surgery tailored for laparoscopic colorectal cancer (LCRC) surgery. In this randomized trial, we aimed to investigate the analgesic efficacy of an inverse ‘v’ shaped bilateral, subfascial ropivacaine continuous infusion in LCRC surgery. Methods Forty two patients undergoing elective LCRC surgery were randomly allocated to one of two groups to receive either 0.5% ropivacaine continuous infusion at the subfascial plane (n = 20, R group) or fentanyl intravenous patient controlled analgesia (IV PCA) (n = 22, F group) for postoperative 72 hours. The primary endpoint was the visual analogue scores (VAS) when coughing at postoperative 24 hours. Secondary end points were the VAS at 1, 6, 48, and 72 hours, time to first flatus, time to first rescue meperidine requirement, rescue meperidine consumption, length of hospital stay, postoperative nausea and vomiting, sedation, hypotension, dizziness, headache, and wound complications. Results The VAS at rest and when coughing were similar between the groups throughout the study. The time to first gas passage and time to first rescue meperidine at ward were significantly shorter in the R group compared to the F group (P = 0.010). Rescue meperidine was administered less in the R group; however, without statistical significance. Other study parameters were not different between the groups. Conclusions Ropivacaine continuous infusion with an inverse ‘v ’ shaped bilateral, subfascial catheter placement showed significantly enhanced bowel recovery and analgesic efficacy was not different from IV PCA in LCRC surgery. PMID:27924202

  4. An Investigation into Reliability of Knee Extension Muscle Strength Measurements, and into the Relationship between Muscle Strength and Means of Independent Mobility in the Ward: Examinations of Patients Who Underwent Femoral Neck Fracture Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Katoh, Munenori; Kaneko, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate the reliability of isometric knee extension muscle strength measurement of patients who underwent femoral neck fracture surgery, as well as the relationship between independent mobility in the ward and knee muscle strength. [Subjects] The subjects were 75 patients who underwent femoral neck fracture surgery. [Methods] We used a hand-held dynamometer and a belt to measure isometric knee extension muscle strength three times, and used intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) to investigate the reliability of the measurements. We used a receiver operating characteristic curve to investigate the cutoff values for independent walking with walking sticks and non-independent mobility. [Results] ICCs (1, 1) were 0.9 or higher. The cutoff value for independent walking with walking sticks was 0.289 kgf/kg on the non-fractured side, 0.193 kgf/kg on the fractured side, and the average of both limbs was 0.238 kgf/kg. [Conclusion] We consider that the test-retest reliability of isometric knee extension muscle strength measurement of patients who have undergone femoral neck fracture surgery is high. We also consider that isometric knee extension muscle strength is useful for investigating means of independent mobility in the ward. PMID:24567667

  5. Contract management of Ontario's cancer surgery wait times strategy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Siu Mee; Irish, Jonathan C; Thompson, Leslee J

    2007-01-01

    The province of Ontario, as a result of the First Ministers' Meeting, was committed to addressing surgery wait times in Ontario. The Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care's response to this commitment was the Wait Times Strategy (WTS) initiative, which addressed access issues with the aim of positively impacting wait times in cancer surgery. Cancer Care Ontario (CCO) was tasked with managing the cancer surgery WTS. CCO engaged in accountability agreements with Ontario hospitals to provide incremental cancer surgery volumes, in return for one-time funding. Through the use of accountability agreements, CCO was able to tie service volume delivery, quality care initiatives and reporting requirements to funding. Other elements of the cancer surgery WTS implementation included the development of wait times definitions, guidelines and targets; the use of a performance management system; facilitation by existing regional cancer leads and continued development of regional cancer programs. Eight key lessons were learned: (1) baseline volume guarantees are critical to ensuring that wait times are positively impacted; (2) there is a need to create a balance between accountability and systems management; (3) clinical quality initiatives can be tied to funding initiatives; (4) allocations of services should be informed by many factors; (5) regional leadership is key to ensuring that local needs are met; (6) data are invaluable in improving performance; (7) there is regional disparity in service delivery, capacity and resources across the province; and (8) program sustainability is an underlying goal of the WTS for cancer surgery. The implication is that accountability agreements can be leveraged to create sustainable health management systems.

  6. [Current status and future perspectives of robotic surgery and laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhi-wei; Li, Jie-shou

    2012-08-01

    Laparoscopic gastrectomy has not become a common procedure for gastric cancer due to the difficulties of performing D2 lymphadenectomy and reconstruction of digestive tract by the conventional laparoscopic instruments. The da Vinci system provides 3D visualization, enhanced magnification, and seven degrees of freedom of the instruments to suture and knot in the narrow surgical space, so it can perform totally robotic gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy and robot-sewing anastomosis for reconstruction. Application of robotic system can expand the indications of minimally invasive surgery in treatment of gastric cancer. Combination fast-track surgery to optimize the perioperative management with the technique of minimally invasive surgery can enhance the recovery of surgical gastric cancer patients.

  7. Evidence and evidence gaps of laryngeal cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wiegand, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Surgical treatment of laryngeal cancer has been established for decades. In addition to total laryngectomy, which was first performed in 1873, a large number or organ preservation surgical techniques, like open partial laryngectomy, transoral laser microsurgery, and transoral robotic surgery have been developed. Studies on laryngeal cancer surgery are mainly retrospective case series and cohort studies. The evolution of chemoradiation protocols and their analysis in prospective randomized trials have led to an increasing acceptance of non-surgical treatment procedures. In addition to an improvement of prognosis, in recent years the preservation of function and maintenance of life quality after primary therapy of laryngeal cancer has increasingly become the focus of therapy planning. Significant late toxicity after chemoradiation has been identified as an important issue. This leads to a reassessment of surgical concepts and initiation of studies on laryngeal cancer surgery which was additionally stimulated by the advent of transoral robotic surgery in the US. Improving the evidence base of laryngeal cancer surgery by successful establishment of surgical trials should be the future goal. PMID:28025603

  8. [Endoscopic surgery].

    PubMed

    Rushfeldt, Christian; Pham, Khanh Do-Cong; Aabakken, Lars

    2016-05-01

    Endoscopic surgery of the stomach/gastrointestinal tract was developed in the 1990s in Japan as a minimally invasive method of removing early-stage tumours, using a gastro-/coloscope instead of open or laparoscopic surgery. Its advantages are obvious, in that the patient is spared more major surgery, the hospital saves on resources as well as admission to a ward, and society is spared the costs of days of sickness absence. Endoscopic submucosal dissection is considered the most difficult technique, but it allows for the accurate dissection of large tumours. In 1999, Japanese surgeon Takuji Gotoda and his team were the first to perform these types of dissections of early cancers in the rectum using a diathermic needle and a flexible scope.

  9. A ward without patients.

    PubMed

    1988-01-02

    Walk into Brooke ward and it doesn't feel like a ward at all. There are bright-coloured bedspreads, cuddly toys everywhere, a 1930s ball gown hangs above one of the lockers. And of course, there's Emma, the ward cat - continually fussed over by nurses and residents alike.

  10. Surgical Site Infection Complicating Breast Cancer Surgery in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Abeer A.; Al-Mousa, Haifaa H.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Surgical site infection (SSI) is the most common postoperative complication associated with breast cancer surgery. The present investigation aimed to determine the SSI rate after breast cancer surgeries and the causative microorganisms. Patients and Methods. All patients who underwent breast surgery in Kuwait Cancer Control Center as a treatment for breast cancer from January 2009–December 2010 were prospectively followed for the development of SSI. Indirect detection was used to identify SSIs through medical record to review and discussion with the treating surgeons. Results. The number of operations was 438. Females represented 434 (99.1%) cases while males constituted only 4 (0.9%) cases. SSIs were diagnosed after 10 operations, all for female cases. Most of the SSIs (8 cases; 80%) were detected after patients were discharged, during outpatient followup. Out of those 5/8; (62.5%) were readmitted for management of SSI. Nine patients (90%) received systemic antibiotic therapy for management of their wound infection. The SSI rate was 2.3%. The main causative organism was Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) which was responsible for 40% of infections. Gram negative bacteria were isolated from 40% of the cases. Conclusion. SSI is an important complication following breast cancer surgery. Microbiological diagnosis is an essential tool for proper management of such patients. PMID:24967132

  11. [Robotic surgery for colorectal cancer in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Xu, Pingping; Wei, Ye; Xu, Jianmin

    2016-05-01

    The outstanding advantages of robotic surgery include the stable and three-dimension image and the convenience of surgery manipulation. The disadvantages include the lack of factile feedback, high cost and prolonged surgery time. It was reported that robotic surgery was associated with less trauma stress and faster recovery in elderly patients(≥75 years old) when compared with open surgery. Elderly people have a higher incidence of carcinogenesis and also have more comorbidities and reduced functional reserve. Clinical data of patients over 75 years old treated by robotic surgery in Zhongshan Hospital affiliated to Fudan University from March 2011 to October 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. A total of 24 consecutive patients were included with a median age of 77.8 years old. There were 18 male and 6 female patients. Among them, 14 patients were diagnosed with descending and sigmoid colon cancers while 10 with rectal cancers; 19 had tumor size larger than 5 cm; 16 were diagnosed with ulcerative adenocarcinoma. Fourteen patients were complicated with hypertension, 6 with cardiopulmonary diseases, 4 with diabetes mellitus and 3 with cerebrovascular diseases. Twenty-two patients underwent low anterior resection and 2 abdominoperineal resection. The estimated blood loss was 85 ml; the median operation time was (123.1±45.2) min; the median number of retrieved lymph node was 12.4. Postoperative pathologic results showed that 3 patients were stage I, 10 stage II, and 11 stage III. Postoperative complication was observed in 3 patients: urinary infection in 1 case, intraperitoneal infection in 1 case and atria fibrillation in 1 case, respectively. Median time to first postoperative flatus was 2.8 days. Our results indicated that robotic surgery is safe and feasible in the elderly patients. The next generation of robotic system may make up for these deficiencies through new technologies. With the advantage of more advanced surgical simulator, robotic surgery will play a

  12. Prevention of venous thromboembolism in the cancer surgery patient.

    PubMed

    Spyropoulos, Alex C; Brotman, Daniel J; Amin, Alpesh N; Deitelzweig, Steven B; Jaffer, Amir K; McKean, Sylvia C

    2008-04-01

    Cancer patients, especially those undergoing surgery for cancer, are at extremely high risk for developing venous thromboembolism (VTE), even with appropriate thromboprophylaxis. Anticoagulant prophylaxis in cancer surgery patients has reduced the incidence of VTE events by approximately one-half in placebo-controlled trials, and extended prophylaxis (for up to 1 month) has also significantly reduced out-of-hospital VTE events in clinical trials in this population. Clinical trials show no difference between low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) and unfractionated heparin in VTE prophylaxis efficacy or bleeding risk in this population, although the incidence of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is lower with LMWH. The risk-benefit profile of low-dose anticoagulant prophylaxis appears to be favorable even in many cancer patients undergoing neurosurgery, for whom pharmacologic VTE prophylaxis has been controversial because of bleeding risks.

  13. Laparoscopic gastric surgery for cancer: where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Antonakis, Pantelis T; Ashrafian, Hutan; Isla, Alberto Martinez

    2014-10-21

    Gastric cancer poses a significant public health problem, especially in the Far East, due to its high incidence in these areas. Surgical treatment and guidelines have been markedly different in the West, but nowadays this debate is apparently coming to an end. Laparoscopic surgery has been employed in the surgical treatment of gastric cancer for two decades now, but with controversies about the extent of resection and lymphadenectomy. Despite these difficulties, the apparent advantages of the laparoscopic approach helped its implementation in early stage and distal gastric cancer, with an increase on the uptake for distal gastrectomy for more advanced disease and total gastrectomy. Nevertheless, there is no conclusive evidence about the laparoscopic approach yet. In this review article we present and analyse the current status of laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of gastric cancer.

  14. Surgery for Breast Cancer in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... some people seem to find physical therapy helpful. Chronic pain after breast surgery Some patients have problems with ... use it normally. PMPS can be treated. Although opioids or narcotics are medicines commonly used to treat pain, they don't always work well for nerve ...

  15. Fluorescent imaging of cancerous tissues for targeted surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Lihong; Shen, Baozhong; Cheng, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    To maximize tumor excision and minimize collateral damage is the primary goal of cancer surgery. Emerging molecular imaging techniques have to “image-guided surgery” developing into “molecular imaging-guided surgery”, which is termed “targeted surgery” in this review. Consequently, the precision of surgery can be advanced from tissue-scale to molecule-scale, enabling “targeted surgery” to be a component of “targeted therapy”. Evidence from numerous experimental and clinical studies has demonstrated significant benefits of fluorescent imaging in targeted surgery with preoperative molecular diagnostic screening. Fluorescent imaging can help to improve intraoperative staging and enable more radical cytoreduction, detect obscure tumor lesions in special organs, highlight tumor margins, better map lymph node metastases, and identify important normal structures intraoperatively. Though limited tissue penetration of fluorescent imaging and tumor heterogeneity are two major hurdles for current targeted surgery, multimodality imaging and multiplex imaging may provide potential solutions to overcome these issues, respectively. Moreover, though many fluorescent imaging techniques and probes have been investigated, targeted surgery remains at a proof-of-principle stage. The impact of fluorescent imaging on cancer surgery will likely be realized through persistent interdisciplinary amalgamation of research in diverse fields. PMID:25064553

  16. Surgery for invasive gynecologic cancer in the elderly female population.

    PubMed

    Lawton, F G; Hacker, N F

    1990-08-01

    Radical, curative surgery may not be considered in elderly patients with gynecologic cancer, yet the morbidity for this population from radiotherapy and cytotoxics may be high. This study compared the feasibility and outcome of such surgery in 226 consecutive patients, 72 women over 70 years old and 154 younger patients, in our institution over a 26-month period. Older patients presented with more advanced-stage cancers and, as a group, had significantly poorer presurgical performance status and more intercurrent medical problems. Nevertheless, the planned radical surgical procedure could be carried out in 90% of elderly patients, with a postoperative mortality of 1.5%. Minor postoperative complication rates were similar for the two groups and, except for vulvectomy patients, the mean inpatient stay was the same for both groups. Chronological age alone is a poor determinant of surgical risk, and elderly patients withstand radical surgery almost as well as their younger counterparts.

  17. Genetic surgery - a right strategy to attack cancer.

    PubMed

    Sverdlov, Eugene D

    2011-12-01

    The approaches now united under the term "gene therapy" can be divided into two broad strategies: (1) strategy using the ideology of molecular targeted therapy, but with genes in the role of agents targeted at certain molecular component(s) or pathways presumably crucial for cancer maintenance; (ii) strategy aimed at the destruction of tumors as a whole exploiting the features shared by all cancers, for example relatively fast mitotic cell division. While the first strategy is "true" gene therapy, the second one, as e.g. suicide gene therapy, is more like genetic surgery, when a surgeon just cuts off a tumor being not interested in subtle genetic mechanisms of cancer emergence and progression. This approach inherits the ideology of chemotherapy but escapes its severe toxic effects due to intracellular formation of toxic agents. Genetic surgery seems to be the most appropriate approach to combat cancer, and its simplicity is paradoxically adequate to the super-complexity of tumors. The review consists of three parts: (i) analysis of the reasons of tumor supercomplexity and fatally inevitable failure of molecular targeted therapy, (ii) general principles of the genetic surgery strategy, and (iii) examples of genetic surgery approaches with analysis of their drawbacks and the ways for their improvement.

  18. Is laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery equal to open surgery? An evidence based perspective

    PubMed Central

    Künzli, Beat M; Friess, Helmut; Shrikhande, Shailesh V

    2010-01-01

    Laparoscopic colorectal surgery (LCS) is an evolving subject. Recent studies show that LCS can not only offer safe surgery but evidence is growing that this new technique can be superior to classical open procedures. Fewer perioperative complications and faster postoperative recovery are regularly mentioned when studies of LCS are presented. Even though the learning curve of LCS is frequently debated when limitations of laparoscopic surgeries are reviewed, studies show that in experienced hands LCS can be a safe procedure for colorectal cancer treatment. The learning curve however, is associated with high conversion rates and economical aspects such as higher costs and prolonged hospital stay. Nevertheless, laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery (LCCR) offers several advantages such as less co-morbidity and less postoperative pain in comparison with open procedures. Furthermore, the good exposure of the pelvic cavity by laparoscopy and the magnification of anatomical structures seem to facilitate pelvic dissection laparoscopically. Moreover, recent studies describe no difference in safety and oncological radicalness in LCCR compared to the open total mesorectal excision (TME). The oncological adequacy of LCCR still remains unproven today, because long-term results do not yet exist. To date, only a few studies have described the results of laparoscopic TME combined with preoperative adjuvant treatment for colorectal cancer. The aim of this review is to examine the various areas of development and controversy of LCCR in comparison to the conventional open approach. PMID:21160858

  19. Radiotherapy combined with surgery as treatment for advanced cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Perches, R D; Lobaton, A T; Garcia, M C

    1983-12-01

    Experience obtained in a group of 44 patients with advanced cervical cancer is reported here. In this study, patients with residual cancer underwent laparotomy eight weeks after one or two different radiotherapy protocols. Sixty-eight percent of patients underwent radical surgery, 85% of patients pelvic exenterations, and 15% radical hysterectomies. In 27% of patients, no evidence of residual cancer was found in surgical specimens. Radical surgery was well tolerated, and one-third of patients were free of disease for one year or more. Control of disease was obtained in 50% of pelvic exenterations and in 60% of radical hysterectomies, regardless of prognosis, clinical stage or radiotherapy scheme. Although results show an improvement of up to 22% when comparing this to other more conventional treatments, we have concluded that we must obtain a wider experience in order to support our findings.

  20. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer: surgery, surveillance and unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Cisco, Robin M; Norton, Jeffrey A

    2008-08-01

    Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is an inherited cancer-susceptibility syndrome characterized by autosomal dominance and high penetrance. In 30-50% of cases, a causative germline mutation in CDH1, the E-cadherin gene, may be identified. Female carriers of CDH1 mutations also have an increased (20-40%) risk of lobular breast cancer. Endoscopic surveillance of patients with CDH1 mutations is ineffective because early foci of HDGC are typically small and underlie normal mucosa. CDH1 mutation carriers are therefore offered the option of prophylactic gastrectomy, which commonly reveals early foci of invasive signet-ring cell cancer. We review recommendations for genetic testing, surveillance and prophylactic surgery in HDGC. Areas for future research are discussed, including development of new screening modalities, optimal timing of prophylactic gastrectomy, identification of additional causative mutations in HDGC, management of patients with CDH1 missense mutations and prevention/early detection of lobular breast cancer in CDH1 mutation carriers.

  1. Critical appraisal of laparoscopic vs open rectal cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Winson Jianhong; Chew, Min Hoe; Dharmawan, Angela Renayanti; Singh, Manraj; Acharyya, Sanchalika; Loi, Carol Tien Tau; Tang, Choong Leong

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the long-term clinical and oncological outcomes of laparoscopic rectal resection (LRR) and the impact of conversion in patients with rectal cancer. METHODS: An analysis was performed on a prospective database of 633 consecutive patients with rectal cancer who underwent surgical resection. Patients were compared in three groups: Open surgery (OP), laparoscopic surgery, and converted laparoscopic surgery. Short-term outcomes, long-term outcomes, and survival analysis were compared. RESULTS: Among 633 patients studied, 200 patients had successful laparoscopic resections with a conversion rate of 11.1% (25 out of 225). Factors predictive of survival on univariate analysis include the laparoscopic approach (P = 0.016), together with factors such as age, ASA status, stage of disease, tumor grade, presence of perineural invasion and vascular emboli, circumferential resection margin < 2 mm, and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. The survival benefit of laparoscopic surgery was no longer significant on multivariate analysis (P = 0.148). Neither 5-year overall survival (70.5% vs 61.8%, P = 0.217) nor 5-year cancer free survival (64.3% vs 66.6%, P = 0.854) were significantly different between the laparoscopic group and the converted group. CONCLUSION: LRR has equivalent long-term oncologic outcomes when compared to OP. Laparoscopic conversion does not confer a worse prognosis. PMID:27358678

  2. National Practice in Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Eroglu, Aydan; Karasoy, Durdu; Kurt, Halil; Baskan, Semih

    2014-01-01

    Background Although breast cancer surgery is regarded as a “clean” surgery, surgical site infection (SSI) rates are higher than expected. There is no consensus regarding the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in elective breast surgery. The nationwide survey was conducted to determine the trend of antibiotic prophylaxis in breast cancer among Turkish surgeons. Methods The survey was sent to surgeons who are member of Turkish Surgical Association (TSA) via e-mail from TSA web address. A 15 item web-based survey consisted of surgeon demographics and the use of prophylactic antibiotic in patients with risk factors related to SSI. Results The number of completed questionnaires was 245. The most common antibiotic used was first generation of cephalosporins. A majority of respondents indicated that prophylaxis was preferred in patients with high risk of SSI including preoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy, older age, diabetes mellitus, immunodeficiency, immediate reconstruction (P < 0.05). However, the use of drain did not significantly influence antibiotic prophylaxis (P = 0.091). Conclusions The use of prophylactic antibiotic was strongly dependent on the presence of some risk factors; however, the variation in current practice regarding antibiotic prophylaxis demonstrated a lack of its effect on preventing SSI after breast cancer surgery. PMID:24400029

  3. The role of surgery in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Cameán, María; Delgado-Sánchez, Elsa; Piñera, Antonio; Diestro, Maria Dolores; De Santiago, Javier; Zapardiel, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the standard management of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer is correct surgical staging and optimal tumour cytoreduction followed by platinum and taxane-based chemotherapy. Standard surgical staging consists of peritoneal washings, total hysterectomy, and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, inspection of all abdominal organs and the peritoneal surface, biopsies of suspicious areas or randomised biopsies if they are not present, omentectomy and para-aortic lymphadenectomy. After this complete surgical staging, the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system for ovarian cancer is applied to determine the management and prognosis of the patient. Complete tumour cytoreduction has shown an improvement in survival. There are some criteria to predict cytoreduction outcomes based on serum biomarkers levels, preoperative imaging techniques, and laparoscopic-based scores. Optimised patient selection for primary cytoreduction would determine patients who could benefit from an optimal cytoreduction and might benefit from interval surgery. The administration of intraperitoneal chemotherapy after debulking surgery has shown an increase in progression-free survival and overall survival, especially in patients with no residual disease after surgery. It is considered that 3–17% of all epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) occur in young women that have not fulfilled their reproductive desires. In these patients, fertility-sparing surgery is a worthy option in early ovarian cancer. PMID:27594911

  4. [Causes of local recurrence after curative surgery for rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Hôhn, József; Varga, László; Baradnay, Gellért; Simonka, Zsolt; Géczi, Tibor; Nagy, Ferenc; Molnár, Tamás; Maráz, Anikó; Kahán, Zsuzsa; Balogh, Adám

    2003-01-01

    The rate of local recurrence (LR) has been 20-40% after resective surgery for rectal cancer by the traditional - Miles or Dixon - operative technics. The authors performed curative resection in 358 patients with rectal cancer in a 10 year period (01.01.1990 - 31.12.2000) in the Surgical Department of Szeged University. Since 01.01.1996 the authors changed this type of surgery for the Heald technics (total mesorectal excision - TME - with sharp dissection, using the UltraCision device) for the surgical treatment of middle or lower third rectal cancer. To compare the results of the two procedures, the authors analysed their material in two periods: Period I: 01.01.1991 - 31.12.1992: 62 patients operated on with the traditional operative technics; LR 15% within 2 years after surgery. Period II: 01.01.1997 - 31.12.1998: 78 patients operated on with the Heald technics (TME with sharp dissection); LR 6.4% within 2 years after surgery. Based on their results, the authors found that the modern operative technics by Heald, used in the second period of the study, was a relevant factor decreasing LR from 15% to 6.4%, while the gender, age of the patients, ratio of the abdominoperineal extirpation versus anterior resection (APRE/AR) and the free margin of more than 3 cm proved to be irrelevant.

  5. [Perineal cutaneous metastases from adenocarcinoma after surgery for colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Placer, Carlos; Elósegui, José Luis; Irureta, Idoia; Mujika, José Andrés; Goena, Ignacio; Enríquez Navascués, José M

    2007-07-01

    The development of cutaneous metastases in the context of colorectal cancer is exceptional, especially in the absence of visceral lesions. We present the case of a 50-year-old woman who underwent surgery for a T3N0M0 tumor in the sigmoid colon, with resection of ovarian metastases at 12 months. Reoperation was performed 14 months later for local anastomotic recurrence. Four months after surgery, a nodular ulcerated lesion was observed in the perineum due to metastases from adenocarcinoma. Aggressive local surgery was performed and the patient has presented no recurrences after a 5-year follow-up. We discuss the need for correct management of the rectal or anal stump (through the use of iodine povidone wash solution) during instrumental anastomoses.

  6. [Robotic surgery -- the modern surgical treatment of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Szabó, Ferenc János; Alexander, de la Taille

    2014-09-01

    Minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery replaces many open surgery procedures in urology due to its advantages concerning post-operative morbidity. However, the technical challenges and need of learning have limited the application of this method to the work of highly qualified surgeons. The introduction of da Vinci surgical system has offered important technical advantages compared to the laparoscopic surgical procedure. Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy became a largely accepted procedure. It has paved the way for urologists to start other, more complex operations, decreasing this way the operative morbidity. The purpose of this article is to overview the history of robotic surgery, its current and future states in the treatment of the cancer. We present our robot-assisted radical prostatectomy and the results.

  7. Comparison of laparoscopic vs. open surgery for rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zihai; Wang, Zheng; Huang, Shijie; Zhong, Shizhen; Lin, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the safety of laparoscopic radical resection for rectal cancer. A total of 64 cases of rectal cancer patients undergoing radical surgery between January, 1998 and March, 2010 were collected. The patients were divided into the laparoscopic rectal surgery group (LS group, n=31) and the open surgery group (OS group, n=33). Operation time, postoperative recovery, complications and tumor-free survival rate were compared between the two groups. The inclusion criteria were as follows: Standard Karnofsky score >70 prior to surgery, definitive pathological diagnosis and complete clinical data. The exclusion criteria were concomitant tumors affecting survival. With the Dixon operation, the LS group had a longer operation time compared with the OS group (271.2±56.2 vs. 216.0±62.7 min, respectively; P=0.036), and an earlier time of oral intake (3.0±0.9 vs. 4.7±1.0 days, respectively; P=0.000). There were no significant differences between the LS and OS groups in terms of intraoperative blood loss, number of lymph nodes retrieved, duration of postoperative hyperthermia and hospitalization time (P>0.05). With the Miles operation, there were no obvious differences between the LS and OS groups regarding operation time, intraoperative blood loss, number of lymph nodes retrieved, time of oral intake, duration of postoperative hyperthermia and hospitalization time (P>0.05). Furthermore, there were no significant differences between the LS and OS groups with the Dixon or Miles operation in terms of 3-year tumor-free survival rate (P>0.05). Thus, laparoscopic surgery appears to be a safe and feasible option for the treatment of rectal cancer. PMID:28357087

  8. Radioimmunoguided surgery in primary colon cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Nieroda, C.A.; Mojzisik, C.; Sardi, A.; Ferrara, P.J.; Hinkle, G.; Thurston, M.O.; Martin, E.W. Jr. )

    1990-01-01

    Radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS), the intraoperative use of a hand-held gamma detecting probe (GDP) to identify tissue containing radiolabeled monoclonal antibody (MAb), was performed upon 30 patients with primary colon carcinoma. Each patient received an intravenous injection of MAb B72.3 (1.0 to 0.25 mg) radiolabeled with {sup 125}I (5.0 to 1.0 mCi) 8 to 34 days before exploration. The GDP was used to measure radioactivity in colon tissue, tumor bed, nodal drainage areas, and areas of suspected metastases. Antibody localized to histologically documented tumor in 23 of 30 patients (77%). Tumor margins were more clearly defined in 20 of 30 patients (67%). GDP counts led to major alterations in surgical resection in five patients (17%) and changes in adjuvant therapy in four (14%). GDP counts identified occult liver metastases in two patients (7%) and correctly indicated the benign nature of liver masses in three (10%). In four patients (13%), occult nodal metastases were identified. RIGS can precisely delineate tumor margins, define the extent of nodal involvement, and localize occult tumor, providing a method of immediate intraoperative staging that may lessen recurrences and produce higher survival rates.

  9. [Kidney function and renal cancer surgery].

    PubMed

    Izzedine, Hassan; Méjean, Arnaud; Escudier, Bernard

    2014-02-01

    Although radical nephrectomy is still practiced in many patients with large renal tumors, oncology and nephrology arguments for kidney-sparing approach for small renal masses has taken over this first. Indeed, partial nephrectomy provides equivalent oncologic results while preserving renal function and thereby limit morbidity and cardiovascular mortality related to chronic kidney disease. In addition, patients who develop kidney cancer often have medical comorbidities that may affect renal function, such as diabetes and hypertension. Histological examination of renal tissue adjacent to the tumor showed significant pathological changes in the majority of patients. For elderly patients or patients with comorbidities, active surveillance allows kidney-sparing approach with extremely low rates of progression and metastasis of cancer disease. Despite these significant advances in understanding for the treatment of small renal masses, partial nephrectomy remains underused. Better management must take into account the preservation of renal function in order to increase overall survival. A strategy for the systematic evaluation of renal function in patients with CR, with multidisciplinary staff (nephrologist urologist and oncologist), is therefore highly desirable.

  10. A review of postoperative analgesia for breast cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gloria S; Ilfeld, Brian M

    2016-11-01

    An online database search with subsequent article review was performed in order to review the various analgesic modalities for breast cancer surgery. Of 514 abstracts, 284 full-length manuscripts were reviewed. The effect of pharmacologic interventions is varied (NSAIDS, opioids, anticonvulsants, ketamine, lidocaine). Likewise, data from high-quality randomized, controlled studies on wound infiltration (including liposome encapsulated) and infusion of local anesthetic are minimal and conflicting. Conversely, abundant evidence demonstrates paravertebral blocks and thoracic epidural infusions provide effective analgesia and minimize opioid requirements, while decreasing opioid-related side effects in the immediate postoperative period. Other techniques with promising - but extremely limited - data include cervical epidural infusion, brachial plexus, interfascial plane and interpleural blocks. In conclusion, procedural interventions involving regional blocks are more conclusively effective than pharmacologic modalities in providing analgesia to patients following surgery for breast cancer.

  11. Thermo-magnetic surgery for experimental renal cancer.

    PubMed

    Rand, R W; Snow, H D; Elliott, D G; Bubbers, J E; Barbaric, Z L; Brown, W J

    1982-09-01

    Thermo-magnetic surgery is an innovative modality in the treatment of malignancies. This unique combination can produce selectively controlled destruction of deep tumors. Heating of the magnetic metallic compounds of ferrosilicone by hysteresis produces temperatures which are incompatible with cancer cell survival. The intense focal heating causes a coagulation necrosis. Damage to surrounding normal tissue can be avoided by careful temperature monitoring and power control of the magnetic field. Cell destruction in the target tissue has been demonstrated by light and electron microscopy. Reproducible and predictable VX2 renal carcinomas in rabbits have been produced and used as the tumor model in the initial experiments of this research project. A clinical trial with selected cancer patients, performed with this technique of thermo-magnetic surgery, is now a reasonable and feasible procedure.

  12. Optical coherence tomography in guided surgery of GI cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagaynova, Elena V.; Abelevich, Alexander I.; Zagaynov, Vladimir E.; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Denisenko, Arkady N.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Snopova, Ludmila B.; Kutis, Irina S.

    2005-04-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a new high spatial resolution, real-time optical imaging modality, known from prior pilot studies for its high sensitivity to invasive cancer. We reported our results in an OCT feasibility study for accurate determination of the proximal border for esophageal carcinoma and the distal border for rectal carcinoma. The OCT study enrolled 19 patients with rectal adenocarcinoma and 24 patients with distal esophageal carcinoma (14 squamous cell carcinomas, 10 adenocarcinomas). During pre-surgery planning endoscopy we performed in vivo OCT imaging of the tumor border at four dial clock axes (12, 3, 6 and 9 o"clock). The OCT border then was marked by an electrocoagulator, or by a methylene blue tattoo. A cold biopsy (from the esophagus) was performed at visual and OCT borders and compared with visual and OCT readings. 27 post-surgery excised specimens were analyzed. OCT borders matched the histopathology in 94% cases in the rectum and 83.3% in the esophagus. In the cases of a mismatch between the OCT and histology borders, a deep tumor invasion occurred in the muscle layer (esophagus, rectum). Because of its high sensitivity to mucosal cancer, OCT can be used for pre-surgery planning and surgery guidance of the proximal border for esophageal carcinoma and the distal border for rectal carcinoma. However, deep invasion in the rectum or esophageal wall has to be controlled by alternative diagnostic modalities.

  13. 4. FIRE BREAK BETWEEN PSYCHIATRIC WARD AND NEXT WARD TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. FIRE BREAK BETWEEN PSYCHIATRIC WARD AND NEXT WARD TO THE SOUTH - Fort Randall, Neuro-Psychiatric Ward, Northeast of intersection of California Boulevard & Nurse Drive, Cold Bay, Aleutian Islands, AK

  14. The Role of Robotic Surgery for Rectal Cancer: Overcoming Technical Challenges in Laparoscopic Surgery by Advanced Techniques.

    PubMed

    Park, Seungwan; Kim, Nam Kyu

    2015-07-01

    The conventional laparoscopic approach to rectal surgery has several limitations, and therefore many colorectal surgeons have great expectations for the robotic surgical system as an alternative modality in overcoming challenges of laparoscopic surgery and thus enhancing oncologic and functional outcomes. This review explores the possibility of robotic surgery as an alternative approach in laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer. The da Vinci® Surgical System was developed specifically to compensate for the technical limitations of laparoscopic instruments in rectal surgery. The robotic rectal surgery is associated with comparable or better oncologic and pathologic outcomes, as well as low morbidity and mortality. The robotic surgery is generally easier to learn than laparoscopic surgery, improving the probability of autonomic nerve preservation and genitourinary function recovery. Furthermore, in very complex procedures such as intersphincteric dissections and transabdominal transections of the levator muscle, the robotic approach is associated with increased performance and safety compared to laparoscopic surgery. The robotic surgery for rectal cancer is an advanced technique that may resolve the issues associated with laparoscopic surgery. However, high cost of robotic surgery must be addressed before it can become the new standard treatment.

  15. Pathological Characterization of Ovarian Cancer Patients Who Underwent Debulking Surgery in Combination With Diaphragmatic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Takeshi; Oshiro, Hisashi; Sagawa, Yasukazu; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Terauchi, Fumitoshi; Nagao, Toshitaka

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Despite exhaustive efforts to detect early-stage ovarian cancers, greater than two-thirds of patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage. Although diaphragmatic metastasis is not rare in advanced ovarian cancer patients and often precludes optimal cytoreductive surgery, little is known about the mechanisms and predictive factors of metastasis to the diaphragm. Thus, as an initial step toward investigating such factors, the present study was conducted to characterize the pathological status of ovarian cancer patients who underwent debulking surgery in combination with diaphragmatic surgery. This is a retrospective and cross-sectional study of patients who underwent debulking surgery in combination with diaphragmatic surgery at our institution between January 2005 and July 2015. Clinicopathological data were reviewed by board-certified gynecologists, pathologists, and cytopathologists. The rates of various pathological findings were investigated and compared by Fisher exact test between 2 groups: 1 group that was pathologically positive for diaphragmatic metastasis (group A) and another group that was pathologically negative for diaphragmatic metastasis (group B). Forty-six patients were included: 41 patients pathologically positive and 5 pathologically negative for diaphragmatic metastasis. The rates of metastasis to the lymph node (95.8% vs 20%, P = 0.001) and metastasis to the peritoneum except for the diaphragm (97.6% vs 60.0%, P = 0.028) were significantly increased in group A compared with group B. However, no significant differences between the 2 groups were found for rates of histological subtypes (high-grade serous or non-high-grade serous), the presence of ascites, the presence of malignant ascites, exposure of cancer cells on the ovarian surface, blood vascular invasion in the primary lesion, and lymphovascular invasion in the primary lesion. Our study demonstrated that metastasis to the lymph node and nondiaphragmatic metastasis to the

  16. Surgery for oligometastasis of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Fengchun; Poruk, Katherine E.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has steadily increased over the past several decades. The majority of PDAC patients will present with distant metastases, limiting surgical management in this population. Hepatectomy and pulmonary metastasectomy (PM) has been well established for colorectal cancer patients with isolated, resectable hepatic or pulmonary metastatic disease. Recent advancements in effective systemic therapy for PDAC have led to the selection of certain patients where metastectomy may be potentially indicated. However, the indication for resection of oligometastases in PDAC is not well defined. This review will discuss the current literature on the surgical management of metastatic disease for PDAC with a specific focus on surgical resection for isolated hepatic and pulmonary metastases. PMID:26361405

  17. Oncoplastic surgery in the treatment of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rancati, Alberto; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Dorr, Julio; Angrigiani, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Advances in reconstructive breast surgery with new materials and techniques now allow us to offer our patients the best possible cosmetic results without the risks associated with oncological control of the disease. These advances, in both oncological and plastic surgery, have led to a new specialisation, namely oncoplastic breast surgery, which enables us to undertake large resections and, with advance planning, to prevent subsequent deformities. This is particularly important when more than 30% of the breast volume is removed, as it allows us to obtain precise information for conservative surgery according to the site of the lesion, and also allows us to set the boundary between conservative surgery and mastectomy. Given the existence of new alloplastic materials and new reconstructive techniques, it is essential for our patients that surgeons involved in breast cancer treatment are trained in both the oncological as well as the reconstructive and aesthetic fields, to enable them to provide the best loco-regional treatment with the best cosmetic results. PMID:23441139

  18. Glans-preserving surgery for superficial penile cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengchao; Song, Ninghong; Yin, Changjun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jie; Hua, Lixin; Wang, Zengjun; Cheng, Gong

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the safety and feasibility of glans-preserving surgery for superficial penile squamous cell carcinoma. Young patients with penile primary tumors exhibiting favorable histologic features were best suited for organ-sparing procedures, enabling them to avoid sexual disturbances. The study included 12 patients, 38-53 years of age (median age 46 years), with superficial lesions involving the glans penis, coronary sulcus, or shaft skin. After clinical staging and grading, those patients were offered a glans-preserving procedure to preserve the normal appearance and functional integrity of the glans penis. Of the 12 patients referred, the tumors were TaG1 in 4 patients, TaG2 in 3, TisG1 in 1, TisG2 in 1, T1G1 in 2, and T1G2 in 1. All patients returned to normal sexual activity 1 month postoperatively. Sexual function and sexual satisfaction were well maintained after surgery. The cosmetic results were considered satisfying/very satisfying by 83% (10 of 12 patients). Follow-up data were available on 12 patients at a mean follow-up of 62.5 months. Only 1 patient had recurrence 6 months after surgery, which was managed by a second glans-preserving surgery without recurrence. With careful patient selection and vigilant follow-up, anatomically suitable superficial penile cancer can be offered this glans-preserving surgery, while preserving function of the penis wherever possible.

  19. Beyond precision surgery: Molecularly motivated precision care for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y Y; Cheong, J-H

    2017-03-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Despite the high disease prevalence, gastric cancer research has not gained much attention. Recently, genome-scale technology has made it possible to explore the characteristics of gastric cancer at the molecular level. Accordingly, gastric cancer can be classified into molecular subtypes that convey more detailed information of tumor than histopathological characteristics, and these subtypes are associated with clinical outcomes. Furthermore, this molecular knowledge helps to identify new actionable targets and develop novel therapeutic strategies. To advance the concept of precision patient care in the clinic, patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models have recently been developed. PDX models not only represent histology and genomic features, but also predict responsiveness to investigational drugs in patient tumors. Molecularly curated PDX cohorts will be instrumental in hypothesis generation, biomarker discovery, and drug screening and testing in proof-of-concept preclinical trials for precision therapy. In the era of precision medicine, molecularly tailored therapeutic strategies should be individualized for cancer patients. To improve the overall clinical outcome, a multimodal approach is indispensable for advanced cancer patients. Careful, oncological principle-based surgery, combined with a molecularly guided multidisciplinary approach, will open new horizons in surgical oncology.

  20. Results of radical surgery for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Heald, R J; Karanjia, N D

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the hypothesis that a reduction in the distal mural margin during anterior resection for sphincter conservation in rectal cancer excision is safe, provided total mesorectal excision is undertaken with wash-out of the clamped rectum. One hundred ninety-two patients underwent anterior resection and 21 (less than 10%) patients underwent abdomino-perineal excision (APE) by one surgeon (RJH). Anterior resections were classified as "curative" (79%) and "non-curative" (21%); in the "curative" sub-group less than 4% of patients developed local recurrence. The series was retrospectively analyzed for the effect of mural margins on local recurrence with 152 patients undergoing "curative" anterior resections and 40 patients undergoing "non-curative" resections. In the 152 specimens from curative resections, 110 had a resection margin greater than 1 cm and 42 had a resection margin less than 1 cm. Four patients developed local recurrence in the greater than 1 cm margin group (95% confidence interval: 0.8%-7.8%) and no patients developed local recurrence in the less than or equal to 1 cm margin group (95% confidence interval: 0%-5.9%). In each patient with local recurrence a cause for failure was apparent. There was no statistically significant difference in local recurrence rate between the less than or equal to 1 cm margin group and the greater than 1 cm margin group. A reduction in resection margin therefore did not compromise survival after anterior resection. The significance of lateral resection margins is discussed. The role of deep radiotherapy and cytotoxics are considered.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Outcome of Gastric Cancer Surgery in Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Sung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Owing to increased life expectancy, the number of elderly patients with gastric cancer has increased. This study aimed to identify the outcomes of gastric cancer patients aged 80 years or older through comparison of their clinicopathological characteristics, surgical outcomes, and oncologic outcomes. Materials and Methods Between January 2006 and December 2013, the records of 478 patients who underwent surgery for gastric cancer were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups: patients <80 years old (n=446) and patients ≥80 years old (n=32). Results There were no significant differences in sex, body mass index, length of hospital stay, duration of surgery, depth of invasion, nodal metastasis, histologic type, or tumor size between the two groups. However, significant differences were found for the American Society of Anesthesiologist score and the serum albumin level between the two groups. Postoperative morbidity, mortality, disease-free survival, and recurrence rate did not differ between curatively resected patients in the two groups. Conclusions In elderly patients with gastric cancer, active treatment including radical gastrectomy is necessary. PMID:28053812

  2. Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects and Therapy of Chronic Otitis Media in the “ENT” and Cervicofacial Surgery Ward in the University Hospital of Ouagadougou

    PubMed Central

    Gyebre, Y. M. C.; Ouedraogo, R. W.-L.; Elola, A.; Ouedraogo, B. P.; Sereme, M.; Ouattara, M.; Ouoba, K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiological and clinical aspects of chronic otitis media and its therapeutic processes in our context. Patients and Methods. In a prospective study over a period of 1 year (March 2009–February 2010), 79 patients with chronic otitis media have been cared for in the otolaryngology ward of the University Hospital of Ouagadougou. Results. Chronic otitis media (COM) commonly occurs in the age group from 0 to 15 years (40.50%). Otorrhea was the main reason for consultation in 53 cases (67.10%); the most frequently encountered clinicopathological forms were simple COM (71%) followed by otitis media with effusion (24.30%). Intra-auricular instillations of traditional products (46.09%) were the dominant favoring factor. Treatment was essentially through medication in 59 cases with a stabilization of lesions. Endotemporal complications were noticed in 6 cases. Conclusion. The fight against chronic otitis media is carried out through preventive measures of education the of people. PMID:24066241

  3. Enhanced recovery after surgery protocol in oesophageal cancer surgery: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Major, Piotr; Wysocki, Michał; Budzyński, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Background Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocol are well established in many surgical disciplines, leading to decrease in morbidity and length of hospital stay. These multi-modal protocols have been also introduced to oesophageal cancer surgery. This review aimed to evaluate current literature on ERAS in oesophageal cancer surgery and conduct a meta-analysis on primary and secondary outcomes. Methods MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus and Cochrane Library were searched for eligible studies. We analyzed data up to May 2016. Eligible studies had to contain four described ERAS protocol elements. The primary outcome was overall morbidity. Secondary outcomes included length of hospital stay, specific complications, mortality and readmissions. Random effect meta-analyses were undertaken. Results Initial search yielded 1,064 articles. Thorough evaluation resulted in 13 eligible articles which were analyzed. A total of 2,042 patients were included in the analysis (1,058 ERAS group and 984 treated with traditional protocols). Analysis of overall morbidity as well as complication rate did not show any significant reduction. Non-surgical complications and pulmonary complications were significantly lower in the ERAS group, RR = 0.71 95% CI 0.62–0.80, p < 0.00001 and RR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.60–0.94, p = 0.01, respectively. Meta-analysis on length of stay presented significant reduction Mean difference = -3.55, 95% CI -4.41 to -2.69, p for effect<0.00001. Conclusions This systematic review with a meta-analysis on ERAS in oesophageal surgery indicates a reduction of non-surgical complications and no negative influence on overall morbidity. Moreover, a reduction in the length of hospital stay was presented. PMID:28350805

  4. Lymphedema After Surgery in Patients With Endometrial Cancer, Cervical Cancer, or Vulvar Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Lymphedema; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  5. Short- and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic surgery vs open surgery for transverse colon cancer: a retrospective multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Wan; Kim, Jeong Yeon; Kang, Byung Mo; Lee, Bong Hwa; Kim, Byung Chun; Park, Jun Ho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to compare the perioperative and oncologic outcomes between laparoscopic surgery and open surgery for transverse colon cancer. Patients and methods We conducted a retrospective review of patients who underwent surgery for transverse colon cancer at six Hallym University-affiliated hospitals between January 2005 and June 2015. The perioperative outcomes and oncologic outcomes were compared between laparoscopic and open surgery. Results Of 226 patients with transverse colon cancer, 103 underwent laparoscopic surgery and 123 underwent open surgery. There were no differences in the patient characteristics between the two groups. Regarding perioperative outcomes, the operation time was significantly longer in the laparoscopic group than in the open group (267.3 vs 172.7 minutes, P<0.001), but the time to soft food intake (6.0 vs 6.6 days, P=0.036) and the postoperative hospital stay (13.7 vs 15.7 days, P=0.018) were shorter in the laparoscopic group. The number of harvested lymph nodes was lower in the laparoscopic group than in the open group (20.3 vs 24.3, P<0.001). The 5-year overall survival (90.8% vs 88.6%, P=0.540) and disease-free survival (86.1% vs 78.9%, P=0.201) rates were similar in both groups. Conclusion The present study showed that laparoscopic surgery is associated with several perioperative benefits and similar oncologic outcomes to open surgery for the resection of transverse colon cancer. Therefore, laparoscopic surgery offers a safe alternative to open surgery in patients with transverse colon cancer. PMID:27143915

  6. Endoscopic Breast Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-02-05

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  7. Delaying surgery after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy improves prognosis of rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mihmanlı, Mehmet; Kabul Gürbulak, Esin; Akgün, İsmail Ethem; Celayir, Mustafa Fevzi; Yazıcı, Pınar; Tunçel, Deniz; Bek, Tuba Tülin; Öz, Ayhan; Ömeroğlu, Sinan

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the prognostic effect of a delayed interval between neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and surgery in locally advanced rectal cancer. METHODS We evaluated 87 patients with locally advanced mid- or distal rectal cancer undergoing total mesorectal excision following an interval period after neoadjuvant CRT at Şişli Hamidiye Etfal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul between January 2009 and January 2014. Patients were divided into two groups according to the interval before surgery: < 8 wk (group I) and ≥ 8 wk (group II). Data related to patients, cancer characteristics and pathological examination were collected and analyzed. RESULTS When the distribution of timing between group I (n = 45) and group II (n = 42) was viewed, comparison of interval periods (median ± SD) of groups showed a significant difference of as 5 ± 1.28 wk in group I and 10.1 ± 2.2 wk in group II (P < 0.001). The median follow-up period for all patients was 34.5 (9.9-81) mo. group II had significantly higher rates of pathological complete response (pCR) than group I had (19% vs 8.9%, P = 0.002). Rate of tumor regression grade (TRG) poor response was 44.4% in group I and 9.5% in group II (P < 0.002). A poor pathological response was associated with worse disease-free survival (P = 0.009). The interval time did not show any association with local recurrence (P = 0.79). CONCLUSION Delaying the neoadjuvant CRT-surgery interval may provide nodal down-staging, improve pCR rate, and decrease the rate of TRG poor response. PMID:27672428

  8. Patient factors may predict anastomotic complications after rectal cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Dana M.; Mora Pinzon, Maria C.; Francescatti, Amanda B.; Saclarides, Theodore J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Anastomotic complications following rectal cancer surgery occur with varying frequency. Preoperative radiation, BMI, and low anastomoses have been implicated as predictors in previous studies, but their definitive role is still under review. The objective of our study was to identify patient and operative factors that may be predictive of anastomotic complications. Methods A retrospective review was performed on patients who had sphincter-preservation surgery performed for rectal cancer at a tertiary medical center between 2005 and 2011. Results 123 patients were included in this study, mean age was 59 (26–86), 58% were male. There were 33 complications in 32 patients (27%). Stenosis was the most frequent complication (24 of 33). 11 patients required mechanical dilatation, and 4 had operative revision of the anastomosis. Leak or pelvic abscess were present in 9 patients (7.3%); 4 were explored, 2 were drained and 3 were managed conservatively. 4 patients had permanent colostomy created due to anastomotic complications. Laparoscopy approach, BMI, age, smoking and tumor distance from anal verge were not significantly associated with anastomotic complications. After a multivariate analysis chemoradiation was significantly associated with overall anastomotic complications (Wall = 0.35, p = 0.05), and hemoglobin levels were associated with anastomotic leak (Wald = 4.09, p = 0.04). Conclusion Our study identifies preoperative anemia as possible risk factor for anastomotic leak and neoadjuvant chemoradiation may lead to increased risk of complications overall. Further prospective studies will help to elucidate these findings as well as identify amenable factors that may decrease risk of anastomotic complications after rectal cancer surgery. PMID:25685338

  9. Surreptitious surgery on Long Island Sound: The oral cancer surgeries of President Grover Cleveland.

    PubMed

    Maloney, William

    2010-01-01

    Grover Cleveland rose from being the mayor of Buffalo to the governor of New York to the president of the United States. At the start of Cleveland's second term as president, the nation was involved in a severe financial crisis, the extent of which was not known by the general public. President Cleveland was to make a strong appeal to Congress in the coming months to repeal the Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890. He thought this would set the nation on the road to fiscal recovery. However, his vice president, Adlai Stevenson, strongly opposed repeal of the Sherman Act. Prior to scheduling his appearance before Congress, President Cleveland noticed a rough spot on his palate. A biopsy confirmed that it was cancer, and it was determined that surgery was needed. Cleveland and his advisors thought the nation would be thrown into a panic if the President's health did not remain a secret. A surgical team, which included a dentist, performed the surgery in secrecy while traveling aboard a yacht. A prosthetic obturator was fabricated by a New York prosthodontist to close the surgical defect. Cleveland recovered well, made a forceful speech before Congress, had the Sherman Act repealed and lived without a recurrence of his oral cancer for the rest of his life. The public remained unaware, for the most part, of the gravity of President Cleveland's health for decades.

  10. Robotic Surgery in Women With Ovarian Cancer: Surgical Technique and Evidence of Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Minig, Lucas; Padilla Iserte, Pablo; Zorrero, Cristina; Zanagnolo, Vanna

    2016-01-01

    Robotic surgery is a new technology that has been progressively implemented to treat endometrial and cervical cancer. However, the use of robotic surgery for ovarian cancer is limited to a few series of cases and comparative studies with laparoscopy or laparotomy. The technical issues concerning robotic surgery, as well as clinical evidence, are described in this review. Robotic surgery in early stage, advanced stage, and relapsed ovarian cancer is discussed separately. In conclusion, evidence regarding the use of robotic-assisted surgical treatment for women with ovarian cancer is still scarce, but its use is progressively growing. Robotic-assisted staging in selected patients with early stage disease has an important role in referral institutions when well-trained gynecologists perform surgeries. However, minimally invasive surgery in patients with advanced stage or relapsed ovarian cancer requires further investigation, even in selected cases.

  11. Detectability of Hygroscopic Clips Used in Breast Cancer Surgery.

    PubMed

    Carmon, Moshe; Olsha, Oded; Gekhtman, David; Nikitin, Irena; Cohen, Yamin; Messing, Michael; Lioubashevsky, Natali; Abu Dalo, Ribhi; Hadar, Tal; Golomb, Eliahu

    2017-02-01

    Sonographically detectable clips were introduced over the last decade. We retrospectively studied the rate and duration of sonographically detectable clip detectability in patients with breast cancer who had sonographically detectable clips inserted over a 2-year period. Nine of 26 patients had neoadjuvant chemotherapy, with all clips remaining detectable 140 to 187 days after insertion. Six of the 9 had intraoperative sonographic localization, with 1 reoperation (17%). Eleven additional patients with nonpalpable tumors and sonographically detectable clips had intraoperative sonographic localization with 1 reoperation (9%). In 1 patient, a sonographically detectable clip enabled intraoperative identification of a suspicious lymph node. There were no complications or clip migration. Sonographically detectable clips are helpful in breast cancer surgery with and without neoadjuvant chemotherapy, remaining detectable for many months and often averting preoperative localization and scheduling difficulties.

  12. Feasibility Evaluation of Radioimmunoguided Surgery of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Ananth; Reilly, Raymond M.; Holloway, Claire M. B.; Caldwell, Curtis B.

    2012-01-01

    Breast-conserving surgery involves completely excising the tumour while limiting the amount of normal tissue removed, which is technically challenging to achieve, especially given the limited intraoperative guidance available to the surgeon. This study evaluates the feasibility of radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS) to guide the detection and delineation of tumours intraoperatively. The 3D point-response function of a commercial gamma-ray-detecting probe (GDP) was determined as a function of radionuclide (131I, 111In, 99mTc), energy-window threshold, and collimator length (0.0–3.0-cm). This function was used to calculate the minimum detectable tumour volumes (MDTVs) and the minimum tumour-to-background activity concentration ratio (T:B) for effective delineation of a breast tumour model. The GDP had larger MDTVs and a higher minimum required T:B for tumour delineation with 131I than with 111In or 99mTc. It was shown that for 111In there was a benefit to using a collimator length of 0.5-cm. For the model used, the minimum required T:B required for effective tumour delineation was 5.2 ± 0.4. RIGS has the potential to significantly improve the accuracy of breast-conserving surgery; however, before these benefits can be realized, novel radiopharmaceuticals need to be developed that have a higher specificity for cancerous tissue in vivo than what is currently available. PMID:22518303

  13. Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancers: Surgery Alone Versus Surgery Plus Postoperative Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Gwak, Hee Keun; Kim, Woo Chul; Kim, Hun Jung; Park, Jeong Hoon

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine the role of radiotherapy after curative-intent surgery in the management of extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cancers. Methods and Materials: From 1997 through 2005, 78 patients with EHBD cancer were surgically staged. These patients were stratified by the absence of adjuvant radiation (n = 47, group I) versus radiation (n = 31, group II) after resection. Pathology examination showed 27 cases in group I and 20 cases in group II had microscopically positive resection margins. The patients in group II received 45 to 54 Gy of external beam radiotherapy. The primary endpoints of this study were overall survival, disease-free survival, and prognostic factors. Results: There were no differences between the 5-year overall survival rates for the two groups (11.6% in group I vs. 21% in group II). However, the patients with microscopically positive resection margins who received adjuvant radiation therapy had higher median disease-free survival rates than those who underwent surgery alone (21 months vs. 10 months, respectively, p = 0.042). Decreasing local failure was found in patients who received postoperative radiotherapy (61.7% in group I and 35.6% in group II, p = 0.02). Outcomes of the patients with a positive resection margin and lymph node metastasis who received postoperative radiation therapy were doubled compared to those of patients without adjuvant radiotherapy. Resection margin status, lymph node metastasis, and pathology differentiation were significant prognostic factors in disease-free survival. Conclusions: Adjuvant radiotherapy might be useful in patients with EHBD cancer, especially for those patients with microscopic residual tumors and positive lymph nodes after resection for increasing local control.

  14. [Current status of robotic surgery for gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Suda, Koichi; Ishida, Yoshinori; Uyama, Ichiro

    2014-11-01

    Robotic surgery was launched in Japan in 2000.In particular, the development of the da Vinci S Surgical System was a major breakthrough. It was introduced in Japan for the first time through our hospital in January 2009. Since then, the number of surgical robots used has been dramatically increasing, with up to approximately 160 robots all over the country. To date, we have performed more than 500 robotic surgeries, including 180 gastrectomies, at our hospital. Our data suggest that compared with the conventional laparoscopic approach, the use of the da Vinci Surgical System in minimally invasive gastrectomy for gastric cancer might improve short-term outcomes, particularly in terms of preventing postoperative local complications. Thus, we believe that use of surgical robots become increasingly beneficial for more extensive resections and operations that require more advanced skills, even though a couple of issues remain to be solved, such as long operative time, high cost, and limited experience and evidence. In this article, the current status and future perspectives regarding robotic gastrectomy for gastric cancer are presented based on our experience and a review of the literature.

  15. Variation in Medicare Payments for Colorectal Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Abdelsattar, Zaid M.; Birkmeyer, John D.; Wong, Sandra L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most expensive cancer in the United States. Episode-based bundled payments may be a strategy to decrease costs. However, it is unknown how payments are distributed across hospitals and different perioperative services. Methods: We extracted actual Medicare payments for patients in the fee-for-service Medicare population who underwent CRC surgery between January 2004 and Decembe 2006 (N = 105,016 patients). Payments included all service types from the date of hospitalization up to 1 year later. Hospitals were ranked from least to most expensive and grouped into quintiles. Results were case-mix adjusted and price standardized using empirical Bayes methods. We assessed the contributions of index hospitalization, physician services, readmissions, and postacute care to the overall variation in payment. Results: There is wide variation in total payments for CRC care within the first year after CRC surgery. Actual Medicare payments were $51,345 per patient in the highest quintile and $26,441 per patient in the lowest quintile, representing a difference of Δ = $24,902. Differences were persistent after price standardization (Δ = $17,184 per patient) and case-mix adjustment (Δ = $4,790 per patient). Payments for the index surgical hospitalization accounted for the largest share (65%) of payments but only minimally varied (11.6%) across quintiles. However, readmissions and postacute care services accounted for substantial variations in total payments. Conclusion: Medicare spending in the first year after CRC surgery varies across hospitals even after case-mix adjustment and price standardization. Variation is largely driven by postacute care and not the index surgical hospitalization. This has significant implications for policy decisions on how to bundle payments and define episodes of surgical CRC care. PMID:26130817

  16. Transoral surgery for laryngo-pharyngeal cancer - The paradigm shift of the head and cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Tateya, Ichiro; Shiotani, Akihiro; Satou, Yasuo; Tomifuji, Masayuki; Morita, Shuko; Muto, Manabu; Ito, Juichi

    2016-02-01

    Transoral surgery is a less invasive treatment that is becoming a major strategy in the treatment of laryngo-pharyngeal cancer. It is a minimally invasive approach that has no skin incision and limits the extent of tissue dissection, disruption of speech and swallowing muscles, blood loss, damage to major neurovascular structures, and injury to normal tissue. Transoral approaches to the laryngo-pharynx, except for early glottis cancer, had been limited traditionally to tumors that can be observed directly and manipulated with standard instrumentation and lighting. Since the 1990s, transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) has been used as an organ preservation strategy with good oncological control and good functional results, although it has not been widely used because of its technical difficulty. Recently, transoral robotic surgery (TORS) is becoming popular as a new treatment modality for laryngo-pharyngeal cancer, and surgical robots are used widely in the world since United States FDA approval in 2009. In spite of the global spread of TORS, it has not been approved by the Japan FDA, which has led to the development of other low-cost transoral surgical techniques in Japan. Transoral videolaryngoscopic surgery (TOVS) was developed as a new transoral surgery system for laryngo-pharyngeal lesions to address the problems of TLM. In TOVS, a rigid endoscope is used to visualize the surgical field instead of a microscope and the advantages of TOVS include the wide operative field and working space achieved using the distending laryngoscope and videolaryngoscope. Also, with the spread of narrow band imaging (NBI), endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), which are widely used for superficial cancers in the gastrointestinal tract, have been applied for the superficial laryngo-pharyngeal cancer. Both EMR and ESD are performed mainly by gastroenterologists with a sharp dissector and magnifying endoscopy (ME)-NBI with minimal surgical margin

  17. Technical feasibility of laparoscopic extended surgery beyond total mesorectal excision for primary or recurrent rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Akiyoshi, Takashi

    2016-01-14

    Relatively little is known about the oncologic safety of laparoscopic surgery for advanced rectal cancer. Recently, large randomized clinical trials showed that laparoscopic surgery was not inferior to open surgery, as evidenced by survival and local control rates. However, patients with T4 tumors were excluded from these trials. Technological advances in the instrumentation and techniques used by laparoscopic surgery have increased the use of laparoscopic surgery for advanced rectal cancer. High-definition, illuminated, and magnified images obtained by laparoscopy may enable more precise laparoscopic surgery than open techniques, even during extended surgery for T4 or locally recurrent rectal cancer. To date, the quality of evidence regarding the usefulness of laparoscopy for extended surgery beyond total mesorectal excision has been low because most studies have been uncontrolled series, with small sample sizes, and long-term data are lacking. Nevertheless, laparoscopic extended surgery for rectal cancer, when performed by specialized laparoscopic colorectal surgeons, has been reported safe in selected patients, with significant advantages, including a clear visual field and less blood loss. This review summarizes current knowledge on laparoscopic extended surgery beyond total mesorectal excision for primary or locally recurrent rectal cancer.

  18. Core Outcomes for Colorectal Cancer Surgery: A Consensus Study

    PubMed Central

    Whistance, Robert N.; Forsythe, Rachael O.; Macefield, Rhiannon; Pullyblank, Anne M.; Avery, Kerry N. L.; Brookes, Sara T.; Thomas, Michael G.; Sylvester, Paul A.; Russell, Ann; Oliver, Alfred; Morton, Dion; Kennedy, Robin; Jayne, David G.; Huxtable, Richard; Hackett, Roland; Card, Mia; Brown, Julia; Blazeby, Jane M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Surgical treatment is common, and there is a great need to improve the delivery of such care. The gold standard for evaluating surgery is within well-designed randomized controlled trials (RCTs); however, the impact of RCTs is diminished by a lack of coordinated outcome measurement and reporting. A solution to these issues is to develop an agreed standard “core” set of outcomes to be measured in all trials to facilitate cross-study comparisons, meta-analysis, and minimize outcome reporting bias. This study defines a core outcome set for CRC surgery. Methods and Findings The scope of this COS includes clinical effectiveness trials of surgical interventions for colorectal cancer. Excluded were nonsurgical oncological interventions. Potential outcomes of importance to patients and professionals were identified through systematic literature reviews and patient interviews. All outcomes were transcribed verbatim and categorized into domains by two independent researchers. This informed a questionnaire survey that asked stakeholders (patients and professionals) from United Kingdom CRC centers to rate the importance of each domain. Respondents were resurveyed following group feedback (Delphi methods). Outcomes rated as less important were discarded after each survey round according to predefined criteria, and remaining outcomes were considered at three consensus meetings; two involving international professionals and a separate one with patients. A modified nominal group technique was used to gain the final consensus. Data sources identified 1,216 outcomes of CRC surgery that informed a 91 domain questionnaire. First round questionnaires were returned from 63 out of 81 (78%) centers, including 90 professionals, and 97 out of 267 (35%) patients. Second round response rates were high for all stakeholders (>80%). Analysis of responses lead to 45 and 23 outcome domains being retained

  19. Minimally Invasive Surgery for Early-Stage Lung Cancer: From Innovation to Standard of Care.

    PubMed

    White, Abby; Swanson, Scott J

    2016-11-15

    The era of minimally invasive surgery for lung cancer follows decades of research; the collection and interpretation of countless qualitative and quantitative data points; and tireless efforts by a few pioneering thoracic surgeons who believed they could deliver a safe and oncologically sound operation with less tissue trauma, an improved physiologic profile, and fewer complications than traditional open surgery. This review highlights those efforts and the role of minimally invasive surgery for early-stage lung cancer in light of evolving technology, the emerging understanding of the biology of early-stage lung cancer, and lung cancer screening.

  20. Long-term outcomes of surgery alone versus surgery following preoperative chemoradiotherapy for early T3 rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Seung Hyun; Choi, Gyu-Seog; Kim, Gab Chul; Seo, An Na; Kim, Hye Jung; Kim, Won Hwa; Shin, Kyung-Min; Lee, So Mi; Ryeom, Hunkyu; Kim, See Hyung

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Recently, a few studies have raised the question of whether preoperative chemoradiotherapy (PCRT) is essential for all T3 rectal cancers. This case-matched study aimed to compare the long-term outcomes of surgery alone with those of PCRT + surgery for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-assessed T3ab (extramural depth of invasion ≤5 mm) and absent mesorectal fascia invasion (clear MRF) in mid/lower rectal cancer patients. From January 2006 to November 2012, 203 patients who underwent curative surgery alone (n = 118) or PCRT + surgery (n = 85) were enrolled in this retrospective study. A 1:1 propensity score-matched analysis was performed to eliminate the inherent bias. Case-matching covariates included age, sex, body mass index, histologic grade, carcinoembryonic antigen, operation method, follow-up period, tumor height, and status of lymph node metastasis. The end-points were the 5-year local recurrence (LR) rate and disease-free-survival (DFS). After propensity score matching, 140 patients in 70 pairs were included. Neither the 5-year LR rate nor the DFS was significantly different between the 2 groups (the 5-year LR rate, P = 0.93; the 5-year DFS, P = 0.94). The 5-year LR rate of the surgery alone was 2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2%–10.9%) versus 2% (95% CI 0.2%–10.1%) in the PCRT + surgery group. The 5-year DFS of the surgery alone was 87% (95% CI 74.6%–93.7%) versus 88% (95% CI 77.8%–93.9%) in the PCRT + surgery group. In patients with MRI-assessed T3ab and clear MRF mid/lower rectal cancer, the long-term outcomes of surgery alone were comparable with those of the PCRT + surgery. The suggested MRI-assessed T3ab and clear MRF can be used as a highly selective indication of surgery alone in mid/lower T3 rectal cancer. Additionally, in those patients, surgery alone can be tailored to the clinical situation. PMID:28328820

  1. Conservative treatment for breast cancer. Complications requiring reconstructive surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Bostwick, J. 3d.; Paletta, C.; Hartrampf, C.R.

    1986-05-01

    Women who select conservative treatment for carcinoma of the breast (tumor excision followed by supervoltage radiation therapy) place a premium on breast preservation and aesthetics. When local control fails and they require a mastectomy, or when the aesthetic appearance is unacceptable, they may request breast reconstruction. The goal of this study is to evaluate a series of 10 patients who required reconstructive breast surgery after complications of conservative treatment. Patient classification: I. Breast or chest wall necrosis (3). II. Breast fibrosis and gross asymmetry (3). III. Local recurrence of breast cancer (5). IV. Positive margins after the initial lumpectomy (1). The mean age was 34 years. Radiation dosage average was 5252 rads with two patients receiving iridium-192 implant boosts. The reconstructive management was complex and usually required a major musculocutaneous flap because of the radiation effects.

  2. Transoral robotic surgery in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Hans, S; Delas, B; Gorphe, P; Ménard, M; Brasnu, D

    2012-02-01

    Robots have invaded industry and, more recently, the field of medicine. Following the development of various prototypes, Intuitive Surgical® has developed the Da Vinci surgical robot. This robot, designed for abdominal surgery, has been widely used in urology since 2000. The many advantages of this transoral robotic surgery (TORS) are described in this article. Its disadvantages are essentially its high cost and the absence of tactile feedback. The first feasibility studies in head and neck cancer, conducted in animals, dummies and cadavers, were performed in 2005, followed by the first publications in patients in 2006. The first series including more than 20 patients treated by TORS demonstrated the feasibility for the following sites: oropharynx, supraglottic larynx and hypopharynx. However, these studies did not validate the oncological results of the TORS technique. TORS decreases the number of tracheotomies, and allows more rapid swallowing rehabilitation and a shorter length of hospital stay. Technical improvements are expected. Smaller, more ergonomic, new generation robots, therefore more adapted to the head and neck, will probably be available in the future.

  3. The role of the robotic technique in minimally invasive surgery in rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Paolo Pietro; Luca, Fabrizio; Petz, Wanda; Valvo, Manuela; Cenciarelli, Sabine; Zuccaro, Massimiliano; Biffi, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Laparoscopic rectal surgery is feasible, oncologically safe, and offers better short-term outcomes than traditional open procedures in terms of pain control, recovery of bowel function, length of hospital stay, and time until return to working activity. Nevertheless, laparoscopic techniques are not widely used in rectal surgery, mainly because they require a prolonged and demanding learning curve that is available only in high-volume and rectal cancer surgery centres experienced in minimally invasive surgery. Robotic surgery is a new technology that enables the surgeon to perform minimally invasive operations with better vision and more intuitive and precise control of the operating instruments, promising to overcome some of the technical difficulties associated with standard laparoscopy. The aim of this review is to summarise the current data on clinical and oncological outcomes of minimally invasive surgery in rectal cancer, focusing on robotic surgery, and providing original data from the authors’ centre. PMID:24101946

  4. How Mohs Surgery Transformed Into a First-Line Treatment of Skin Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bobotsis, Rob; Guenther, Lyn

    Mohs surgery is considered ideal treatment for many types of skin cancers. Developed by Dr Frederic Edward Mohs (1910-2002), Mohs surgery allows all surgical margins to be viewed microscopically, ensuring no cancer cells go unremoved, yet it failed to achieve immediate acceptance when first introduced in the 1940s. A catalyst to the widespread acceptance of Mohs surgery occurred with the work of dermatologic colleagues who reported excellent results without using the paste. It suggested the real innovation of Mohs surgery lay in its microscopic control and not the paste, the discontinuation of which removed all the problems associated with its use.

  5. Radiotherapy and chemoradiation after surgery for early cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Linda; Siu, Shing Shun N; Luesley, David; Bryant, Andrew; Dickinson, Heather O

    2014-01-01

    Background This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review first published in Issue 4, 2009. There is an ongoing debate about the indications for, and value of, adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy after radical surgery in women with early cervical cancer. Certain combinations of pathological risk factors are thought to represent sufficient risk for recurrence, that they justify the use of postoperative pelvic radiotherapy, though this has never been shown to improve overall survival, and use of more than one type of treatment (surgery and radiotherapy) increases the risks of side effects and complications. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of adjuvant therapies (radiotherapy, chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy, chemoradiation) after radical hysterectomy for early-stage cervical cancer (FIGO stages IB1, IB2 or IIA). Search methods For the original review, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Issue 4, 2008. The Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Trials Register, MEDLINE (January 1950 to November 2008), EMBASE (1950 to November 2008). We also searched registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings, reference lists of included studies and contacted experts in the field. For this update, we extended the database searches to September 2011 and searched the MetaRegister for ongoing trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared adjuvant therapies (radiotherapy, chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy, or chemoradiation) with no radiotherapy or chemoradiation, in women with a confirmed histological diagnosis of early cervical cancer who had undergone radical hysterectomy and dissection of the pelvic lymph nodes. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently abstracted data and assessed risk of bias. Information on grade 3 and 4 adverse events was collected from the trials. Results were pooled using random-effects meta-analyses. Main results Two RCTs

  6. Adopting ambulatory breast cancer surgery as the standard of care in an asian population.

    PubMed

    Ng, Yvonne Ying Ru; Chan, Patrick Mun Yew; Chen, Juliana Jia Chuan; Seah, Melanie Dee Wern; Teo, Christine; Tan, Ern Yu

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Ambulatory surgery is not commonly practiced in Asia. A 23-hour ambulatory (AS23) service was implemented at our institute in March 2004 to allow more surgeries to be performed as ambulatory procedures. In this study, we reviewed the impact of the AS23 service on breast cancer surgeries and reviewed surgical outcomes, including postoperative complications, length of stay, and 30-day readmission. Methods. Retrospective review was performed of 1742 patients who underwent definitive breast cancer surgery from 1 March 2004 to 31 December 2010. Results. By 2010, more than 70% of surgeries were being performed as ambulatory procedures. Younger women (P < 0.01), those undergoing wide local excision (P < 0.01) and those with ductal carcinoma-in situ or early stage breast cancer (P < 0.01), were more likely to undergo ambulatory surgery. Six percent of patients initially scheduled for ambulatory surgery were eventually managed as inpatients; a third of these were because of perioperative complications. Wound complications, 30-day readmission and reoperation rates were not more frequent with ambulatory surgery. Conclusion. Ambulatory breast cancer surgery is now the standard of care at our institute. An integrated workflow facilitating proper patient selection and structured postoperativee outpatient care have ensured minimal complications and high patient acceptance.

  7. [Current status and future prospects of robotic surgery for lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hiroshige; Taniguchi, Yuji; Miwa, Ken; Haruki, Tomohiro

    2014-11-01

    As the use of robotic surgery has widely spread, its usefulness in the field of general thoracic surgery needs to be verified. The biggest advantage of robotic surgery is the remarkably free movement of joint-equipped robotic forceps under 3-dimensional high vision. An accurate operation makes complex procedures straightforward and may overcome the disadvantages of previous thoracoscopic surgery. Robotic surgery for lung cancer has been safely introduced, and the initial results have been favorable. While still at the stage of clinical research, it is expected to be useful in hilar exposure, lymph node dissection, and suturing of lung parenchyma or bronchus. We considered robotic surgery for lung cancer surgery because of its ability to facilitate both thoracotomy and minimally invasive video-assisted thoracic surgery. Robotic thoracic surgery has not been sufficiently examined for its usefulness, and other major issues such as safety management, education, and significant cost need to be addressed. However, it may become an extension of thoracoscopic surgery, and studies showing its usefulness for primary lung cancer have been increasing. Two urgent issues are its use in advanced medical care and national heal th insurance coverage.

  8. Postoperative hormonal therapy prevents recovery of neurological damage after surgery in patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Sato, Chiho; Matsudaira, Izumi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Kawai, Masaaki; Tada, Hiroshi; Ishida, Takanori; Taki, Yasuyuki; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Cancer survivors are exposed to several risk factors for cognitive dysfunction, such as general anesthesia, surgical trauma, and adjuvant therapies. In our recent study we showed that thalamic volume reduction and attentional dysfunction occurred shortly after surgery. Here, we examined the 6-month prognosis of the 20 patients with breast cancer who underwent surgery. Seven patients did not receive any adjuvant therapy after the surgery and 13 patients received a hormonal therapy after the surgery. We assessed their attentional functions, and thalamic volumes shortly after and 6 months after surgery. We found a significant group x time interaction in the attentional functions (p = 0.033) and the right thalamus (p <  0.05, small volume correction), suggesting the thalamic volume reduction and attentional dysfunction recovered in patients without adjuvant therapy. Our findings provide a better understanding of the potential role of hormonal therapy in relation to the cognitive dysfunction of cancer survivors. PMID:27708377

  9. The Cancer Ward: Scapegoating Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeargan, Linda D.; Nehemkis, Alexis M.

    1983-01-01

    Describes scapegoating encountered during the author's third-year experience as psychological consultant to the oncology unit of a large medical center. Therapeutic strategies for managing the crisis within the structure of an ongoing staff support group are discussed. A conceptual framework for understanding the scapegoating process is…

  10. Interval Between Surgery and Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Therapy for Distal Rectal Cancer: Does Delayed Surgery Have an Impact on Outcome?

    SciTech Connect

    Habr-Gama, Angelita Perez, Rodrigo Oliva; Proscurshim, Igor; Nunes dos Santos, Rafael Miyashiro; Kiss, Desiderio; Gama-Rodrigues, Joaquim; Cecconello, Ivan

    2008-07-15

    Background: The optimal interval between neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) and surgery in the treatment of patients with distal rectal cancer is controversial. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether this interval has an impact on survival. Methods and Materials: Patients who underwent surgery after CRT were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with a sustained complete clinical response (cCR) 1 year after CRT were excluded from this study. Clinical and pathologic characteristics and overall and disease-free survival were compared between patients undergoing surgery 12 weeks or less from CRT and patients undergoing surgery longer than 12 weeks from CRT completion and between patients with a surgery delay caused by a suspected cCR and those with a delay for other reasons. Results: Two hundred fifty patients underwent surgery, and 48.4% had CRT-to-surgery intervals of 12 weeks or less. There were no statistical differences in overall survival (86% vs. 81.6%) or disease-free survival rates (56.5% and 58.9%) between patients according to interval ({<=}12 vs. >12 weeks). Patients with intervals of 12 weeks or less had significantly higher rates of Stage III disease (34% vs. 20%; p = 0.009). The delay in surgery was caused by a suspected cCR in 23 patients (interval, 48 {+-} 10.3 weeks). Five-year overall and disease-free survival rates for this subset were 84.9% and 51.6%, not significantly different compared with the remaining group (84%; p = 0.96 and 57.8%; p = 0.76, respectively). Conclusions: Delay in surgery for the evaluation of tumor response after neoadjuvant CRT is safe and does not negatively affect survival. These results support the hypothesis that shorter intervals may interrupt ongoing tumor necrosis.

  11. Oncoplastic Surgery for Upper/Upper Inner Quadrant Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Joseph; Chen, Dar-Ren; Wang, Yu-Fen; Lai, Hung-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Tumors located in the upper/upper inner quadrant of the breast warrant more attention. A small lesion relative to the size of breast in this location may be resolved by performing a level I oncoplastic technique. However, a wide excision may significantly reduce the overall quality of the breast shape by distorting the visible breast line. From June 2012 to April 2015, 36 patients with breast cancer located in the upper/upper inner quadrant underwent breast-conservation surgery with matrix rotation mammoplasty. According to the size and location of the tumor relative to the nipple-areola complex, 11 patients underwent matrix rotation with periareolar de-epithelialization (donut group) and the other 25 underwent matrix rotation only (non-donut group). The cosmetic results were self-assessed by questionnaires. The average weights of the excised breast lumps in the donut and non-donut groups were 104.1 and 84.5 g, respectively. During the 3-year follow-up period, local recurrence was observed in one case and was managed with nipple-sparing mastectomy followed by breast reconstruction with prosthetic implants. In total, 31 patients (88.6%) ranked their postoperative result as either acceptable or satisfactory. The treated breasts were also self-evaluated by 27 patients (77.1%) to be nearly identical to or just slightly different from the untreated side. Matrix rotation is an easy breast-preserving technique for treating breast cancer located in the upper/upper inner quadrant of the breast that requires a relatively wide excision. With this technique, a larger breast tumor could be removed without compromising the breast appearance. PMID:28030581

  12. Pancreatic Cancer: 80 Years of Surgery-Percentage and Repetitions.

    PubMed

    Gudjonsson, Birgir

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The incidence of pancreatic cancer is estimated to be 48,960 in 2015 in the US and projected to become the second and third leading causes of cancer-related deaths by 2030. The mean costs in 2015 may be assumed to be $79,800 per patient and for each resection $164,100. Attempt is made to evaluate the results over the last 80 years, the number of survivors, and the overall survival percentage. Methods. Altogether 1230 papers have been found which deal with resections and reveal survival information. Only 621 of these report 5-year survivors. Reservation about surgery was first expressed in 1964 and five-year survival of nonresected survivors is well documented. Results. The survival percentage depends not only on the number of survivors but also on the subset from which it is calculated. Since the 1980s the papers have mainly reported the number of resections and survival as actuarial percentages, with or without the actual number of survivors being reported. The actuarial percentage is on average 2.75 higher. Detailed information on the original group (TN), number of resections, and actual number of survivors is reported in only 10.6% of the papers. Repetition occurs when the patients from a certain year are reported several times from the same institution or include survivors from many institutions or countries. Each 5-year survivor may be reported several times. Conclusion. Assuming a 10% resection rate and correcting for repetitions and the life table percentage the overall actual survival rate is hardly more than 0.3%.

  13. Dynamic Changes in Helicobacter pylori Status Following Gastric Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kichul; Kim, Nayoung; Kim, Jaeyeon; Lee, Jung Won; Lee, Hye Seung; Lee, Jong-Chan; Yoon, Hyuk; Shin, Cheol Min; Park, Young Soo; Ahn, Sang-Hoon; Park, Do Joong; Kim, Hyung Ho; Lee, Yoon Jin; Lee, Kyoung-Ho; Kim, Young-Hoon; Lee, Dong Ho

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Helicobacter pylori eradication is recommended in patients with early gastric cancer. However, the possibility of spontaneous regression raises a question for clinicians about the need for “retesting” postoperative H. pylori status. Methods Patients who underwent curative gastrectomy at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital and had a positive H. pylori status without eradication therapy at the time of gastric cancer diagnosis were prospectively enrolled in this study. H. pylori status and atrophic gastritis (AG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) histologic status were assessed pre- and postoperatively. Results One hundred forty patients (mean age, 59.0 years; 60.7% male) underwent subtotal gastrectomy with B-I (65.0%), B-II (27.1%), Roux-en-Y (4.3%), jejunal interposition (0.7%), or proximal gastrectomy (4.3%). Preoperative presence of AG (62.9%) and IM (72.9%) was confirmed. The mean period between surgery and the last endoscopic follow-up was 38.0±25.6 months. Of the 140 patients, 80 (57.1%) were found to be persistently positive for H. pylori, and 60 (42.9%) showed spontaneous negative conversion at least once during follow-up. Of these 60 patients, eight (13.3%) showed more complex postoperative dynamic changes between negative and positive results. The spontaneous negative conversion group showed a trend of having more postoperative IM compared to the persistent H. pylori group. Conclusions A high percentage of spontaneous regression and complex dynamic changes in H. pylori status were observed after partial gastrectomy, especially in individuals with postoperative histological IM. It is better to consider postoperative eradication therapy after retesting for H. pylori. PMID:27840366

  14. Observation as Good as Surgery for Some Men with Prostate Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Many men diagnosed with early-stage prostate cancer could forego radical prostatectomy and live as long as men who have immediate surgery, according to long-awaited results from a clinical trial published July 19, 2012, in NEJM.

  15. ONE WEEK VERSUS FOUR WEEK HEPARIN PROPHYLAXIS AFTER LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERY FOR COLORECTAL CANCER.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-04-28

    The Primary Study Objective is to Assess the Efficacy and; Safety of Extended 4-week Heparin Prophylaxis Compared to; Prophylaxis Given for 8±2 Days After Planned Laparoscopic; Surgery for Colorectal Cancer.; The Clinical Benefit Will be Evaluated as the Difference in; the Incidence of VTE or VTE-related Death Occurring Within 30 Days; From Surgery in the Two Study Groups.

  16. Factors that Affect Drain Indwelling Time after Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Uslukaya, Ömer; Türkoğlu, Ahmet; Gümüş, Metehan; Bozdağ, Zübeyir; Yılmaz, Ahmet; Gümüş, Hatice; Kaya, Şeyhmus; Gül, Mesut

    2016-01-01

    Objective The most common procedure to prevent seroma formation, a common complication after breast and axillary surgery, is to use prophylactic surgical drains. Ongoing discussions continue regarding the ideal time for removing drains after surgical procedures. In this study, we aimed to investigate factors that affect drain indwelling time (DIT). Materials and Methods From 2014 to 2015, a total of 91 consecutive patients with breast cancer were included in the study. The demographic characteristics of the patients, treatment methods, histopathologic features of the tumor, size of removed breast tissue (BS), tumor size (TS), number of totally removed lymph nodes (TLN), and metastatic lymph nodes (MLN), whether they had neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and the DIT were retrospectively recorded from the hospital database. Results The mean age of the patients was 48.9 years, and the mean DIT was 4.8 days. The mean size of breast removed was 17.3 cm and tumor size was 4.7 cm, and the mean number of metastatic lymph nodes was 3.3, and mean total number of lymph nodes was 14.1. Patients who had neoadjuvant chemotherahpy had longer DIT. There was a positive correlation between the BS, TS, TLN, MLN, length of hospital stay, and DIT. Linear regresion analysis revealed that the BS, TLN, and history of neoadjuvant chemotherahpy were independent risk factors for DIT. Conclusion DIT primarily depends on BS, TLN, and history of neoadjuvant chemotherahpy. A policy for the management of removing drains to prevent seroma formation should thus be individualized.

  17. Could Adjuvant Chemotherapy after Surgery Benefit Elderly Patients with Advanced Gastric Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jin Woon; Kwon, In Gyu; Son, Young-Gil

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate tolerance to adjuvant chemotherapy, and to compare survival between treatments using only surgery and using surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy, in elderly patients with advanced gastric cancer who were ≥75 years of age. Materials and Methods Patients ≥75 years of age who were diagnosed with pathological stage II or III gastric cancer were identified retrospectively and categorized into the surgery only and surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy groups. Clinicopathological and survival data were compared between these two groups. Results Among the 130 patients studied, 67 patients underwent curative surgery only, and 63 patients received adjuvant chemotherapy after curative surgery. In the latter group, adverse events were reported in 24 patients (38.1%). The treatments were discontinued in 19 patients (30.2%) owing to any reason. The overall 5-year survival rates of the surgery only and the surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy groups did not differ significantly (44.1% vs. 30.7%, respectively; P=0.804). Among 90 death events, deaths from recurrences of gastric cancer occurred in 42 patients. Multivariate analyses revealed that the American Society of Anesthesiologists score and the depths of tumor invasions were related to survival, and the addition of adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery did not influence survival. Conclusions The decision for the addition of adjuvant chemotherapy for elderly patients should be taken after considering the condition of individual patients and their life expectancies. PMID:28053813

  18. Predictors of loco-regional recurrence and cancer-related death after breast cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Rausei, Stefano; Rovera, Francesca; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Tornese, Deborah; Fachinetti, Anna; Boni, Luigi; Dionigi, Renzo

    2010-01-01

    To determine which tumor-related factors might predispose the patient to loco-regional recurrence or death and the impact of these factors on the different types of events. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 1991 women between January 1998 and March 2010 for a first primary nonmetastatic breast cancer and treated with surgery and neo-adjuvant/adjuvant therapy. The overall survival distribution was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The prognostic impact of several factors on cumulative overall and loco-regional recurrence free survival was evaluated by univariate (log-rank test) and multivariate analysis (Cox regression). At log-rank test, pT, nodal status, histotype, grading, lymphangioinvasive growth, tumor diameter, estrogen receptors (ER) status, progesterone receptors (PR) status, expression of Ki67, and expression of Her2/neu had a prognostic value on loco-regional recurrence or overall survival. In the multivariate analysis grading remained the only independent predictor of loco-regional recurrences. With regard to overall survival, the Cox model selected grading along with nodal status and PR status. Loco-regional recurrences after breast cancer surgery are not frequent events. They are markers of tumor aggressiveness and predictor of an increased likelihood of cancer-related death. However, loco-regional recurrence and systemic tumor progression are partially independent events, since some prognostic factors differ.

  19. Early assessment of nutritional status in patients scheduled for colorectal cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Seija; Andersson, Liv; Berglund, Britta

    2009-01-01

    Nutritional support is important to optimize treatment outcomes in colorectal cancer surgery. Using retrospective review of patients' medical records, we sought to identify the kinds of nutritional problems patients with colorectal cancer reported on their first visit to the surgeon to support those at risk of malnutrition. After reviewing data from the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment of Nutritional Status, patients had a supportive counseling meeting about nutrition with a nurse. Of the 153 patients, 65% were diagnosed with colon cancer and 35% with rectal cancer. Eighteen percent of those with colon cancer were overweight, and 12% were obese. Of those with rectal cancer, 10% were overweight, and 7% were obese. Weight loss was reported by 18% of the patients with colon cancer and by 12% of the patients with rectal cancer. To identify the patients who need nutritional support before colorectal cancer surgery, it is important to first identify the patients' nutritional status. When the focus is on surgery, it is possible that these problems are not mentioned if no questions are asked. Nutritional assessment at the outpatient department makes it possible to use the time lapse between examination and surgery to improve the nutritional status.

  20. A Clinical Outcome-Based Prospective Study on Venous Thromboembolism After Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Agnelli, Giancarlo; Bolis, Giorgio; Capussotti, Lorenzo; Scarpa, Roberto Mario; Tonelli, Francesco; Bonizzoni, Erminio; Moia, Marco; Parazzini, Fabio; Rossi, Romina; Sonaglia, Francesco; Valarani, Bettina; Bianchini, Carlo; Gussoni, Gualberto

    2006-01-01

    Summary Background Data: The epidemiology of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after cancer surgery is based on clinical trials on VTE prophylaxis that used venography to screen deep vein thrombosis (DVT). However, the clinical relevance of asymptomatic venography-detected DVT is unclear, and the population of these clinical trials is not necessarily representative of the overall cancer surgery population. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of clinically overt VTE in a wide spectrum of consecutive patients undergoing surgery for cancer and to identify risk factors for VTE. Methods: @RISTOS was a prospective observational study in patients undergoing general, urologic, or gynecologic surgery. Patients were assessed for clinically overt VTE occurring up to 30 ± 5 days after surgery or more if the hospital stay was longer than 35 days. All outcome events were evaluated by an independent Adjudication Committee. Results: A total of 2373 patients were included in the study: 1238 (52%) undergoing general, 685 (29%) urologic, and 450 (19%) gynecologic surgery. In-hospital prophylaxis was given in 81.6% and postdischarge prophylaxis in 30.7% of the patients. Fifty patients (2.1%) were adjudicated as affected by clinically overt VTE (DVT, 0.42%; nonfatal pulmonary embolism, 0.88%; death 0.80%). The incidence of VTE was 2.83% in general surgery, 2.0% in gynecologic surgery, and 0.87% in urologic surgery. Forty percent of the events occurred later than 21 days from surgery. The overall death rate was 1.72%; in 46.3% of the cases, death was caused by VTE. In a multivariable analysis, 5 risk factors were identified: age above 60 years (2.63, 95% confidence interval, 1.21–5.71), previous VTE (5.98, 2.13–16.80), advanced cancer (2.68, 1.37–5.24), anesthesia lasting more than 2 hours (4.50, 1.06–19.04), and bed rest longer than 3 days (4.37, 2.45–7.78). Conclusions: VTE remains a common complication of cancer surgery, with a remarkable proportion

  1. Severe prolonged gastroparesis after cytoreductive surgery in an advanced ovarian cancer patient.

    PubMed

    Caprino, P; Fagotti, A; Missere, M; Fanfani, F; Scambia, G

    2006-01-01

    Number and type of complications after ovarian cancer surgery can vary greatly according to both the patient's characteristics, and the extension and type of surgery. Current literature lacks in mentioning specific gastrointestinal side effects, which could be evidenced during the early postoperative course of patients submitted to major gynecological oncologic surgery. A severe gastroparesis prolonged for 2 months after cytoreductive surgery in an advanced ovarian cancer patient was successfully treated with conservative multidrug therapy. Gastroparesis has to be enumerated as a rare but possible event after major gynecological oncologic surgery. A conservative management involving decompressive nasogastric tube, nutritional support, antiemetic drugs, prokinetic drugs is suggested, while surgical therapy is only recommended in a very small subset of unmanageable patients.

  2. Current status of randomized controlled trials for laparoscopic gastric surgery for gastric cancer in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoxin; Hu, Yanfeng; Liu, Hao

    2015-08-01

    China alone accounts for nearly 42% of all new gastric cancer cases worldwide, and gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer deaths in China nowadays. Without mass screening programs, unfortunately over 80% of all Chinese patients have been diagnosed as advanced diseases. As in other Asian countries, especially Japan and Korea, laparoscopic gastrectomy for the treatment of gastric cancer has gained increasingly popularity in China during the past decade. Whether laparoscopic surgery can be safely and effectively performed in the treatment of gastric cancer remains controversial, particularly with regard to curative intent in advanced diseases. Given the high incidence of these cancers, and their advanced stage at diagnosis, China has a significant interest in determining the safety and effectiveness of laparoscopic gastrectomy. A well-designed randomized controlled trial (RCT) is considered the only feasible way to provide conclusive evidence. To date, China has not played a significant role in terms of conducting RCT concerning laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer. However, an effort has been made by the Chinese researchers, with the great help from our colleagues in neighboring countries such as Korea and Japan, through the establishment of the Chinese Laparoscopic Gastrointestinal Surgery Study Group. In this review, we present the current status of RCT for laparoscopic gastric surgery for gastric cancer in China, including published and ongoing registered RCT.

  3. Depressive Symptoms and Cortisol Variability Prior to Surgery for Suspected Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sannes, Timothy S.; Jensen, Sally E.; Dodd, Stacy M.; Kneipp, Shawn M.; Garey, Stephanie L.; Patidar, Seema M.; Marsiske, Michael M.; Lutgendorf, Susan M.; Morgan, Linda S.; Pereira, Deidre B.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common type of gynecologic cancer affecting women; however, very little research has examined relationships between psychological factors and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation in this population. The current study examined relations between depressive/anxious symptoms and salivary cortisol diurnal rhythm and variability in women undergoing surgery for suspected endometrial cancer. Depressive and anxious symptoms were measured prior to surgery using the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Inventory (SIGH-AD). Saliva was collected four times a day for the three days prior to surgery and then assayed by ELISA to obtain cortisol concentrations. Cortisol slopes and intraindividual variability were then calculated across subjects. Relations between depressive/anxious symptoms and cortisol indices were examined using multilevel modeling and linear regression analyses. Participants were 82 women with nonmetastatic endometrial cancer. Anxious symptoms were not associated with either cortisol slope or intraindividual variability, and depressive symptoms were unrelated to cortisol slope. However, after controlling for presence of poorer prognosis cancer subtypes, greater depressive symptoms (excluding symptoms possibly/definitely due to health/treatment factors) in the week preceding surgery were significantly related to greater cortisol intraindividual variability (β=.214; p<.05). These results suggest that depressive symptoms prior to surgery for suspected endometrial cancer are related to greater cortisol intraindividual variability, which is suggestive of more erratic HPA axis arousal. Future research should examine whether mood symptoms may be associated with compromised health outcomes via erratic HPA axis arousal in this population. PMID:22762895

  4. Aggressive Surgery in Palliative Setting of Lung Cancer: Is it Helpful?

    PubMed Central

    Byregowda, Suman; Prabhash, Kumar; Puri, Ajay; Joshi, Amit; Noronha, Vanita; Patil, Vijay M; Panda, Pankaj Kumar; Gulia, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    With increase in survival and progression-free survival in the advanced metastatic cancers, the expectation of quality of life (QOL) has increased dramatically. Palliative care plays a vital role in the management of these advanced cancer patients. At present scenario, palliative care in advanced cancer has seen a completely different approach. Aggressive surgical procedures have been performed to improve the QOL in the advanced cancer patients. We report a case of advanced lung cancer with pathological femur fracture, treated with extensive total femur replacement surgery to provide better QOL. PMID:27803575

  5. Critical analysis of the literature investigating urogenital function preservation following robotic rectal cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Panteleimonitis, Sofoklis; Ahmed, Jamil; Harper, Mick; Parvaiz, Amjad

    2016-01-01

    AIM To analyses the current literature regarding the urogenital functional outcomes of patients receiving robotic rectal cancer surgery. METHODS A comprehensive literature search of electronic databases was performed in October 2015. The following search terms were applied: “rectal cancer” or “colorectal cancer” and robot* or “da Vinci” and sexual or urolog* or urinary or erect* or ejaculat* or impot* or incontinence. All original studies examining the urological and/or sexual outcomes of male and/or female patients receiving robotic rectal cancer surgery were included. Reference lists of all retrieved articles were manually searched for further relevant articles. Abstracts were independently searched by two authors. RESULTS Fifteen original studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A total of 1338 patients were included; 818 received robotic, 498 laparoscopic and 22 open rectal cancer surgery. Only 726 (54%) patients had their urogenital function assessed via means of validated functional questionnaires. From the included studies, three found that robotic rectal cancer surgery leads to quicker recovery of male urological function and five of male sexual function as compared to laparoscopic surgery. It is unclear whether robotic surgery offers favourable urogenital outcomes in the long run for males. In female patients only two studies assessed urological and three sexual function independently to that of males. In these studies there was no difference identified between patients receiving robotic and laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery. However, in females the presented evidence was very limited making it impossible to draw any substantial conclusions. CONCLUSION There seems to be a trend towards earlier recovery of male urogenital function following robotic surgery. To evaluate this further, larger well designed studies are required. PMID:27933136

  6. Outcomes of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for colorectal cancer with peritoneal metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, En-Kwang; Hsieh, Mao-Chih; Chen, Chien-Hsin; Lu, Yen-Jung; Wu, Szu-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In Taiwan, colorectal cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis is considered a terminal condition. We examined the clinical outcomes of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) treatment for colorectal cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis in Taiwan. We enrolled patients with colorectal cancer and peritoneal metastasis from Taipei Medical University, Wanfang Hospital between January 1999 and December 2014. Of the enrolled patients, 3 had mucinous-type tumors. In total, we enrolled 31 patients who underwent a total of 33 procedures. Of the 31 patients, 2 received the HIPEC procedure twice. Cytoreductive surgery was performed followed by HIPEC. The hazard ratios of death following cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards model. The 2- and 5-year overall survival rates of these patients following cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC were 57% and 38%, respectively. The completeness of cytoreduction (CC) scores were CC-0, CC-1, CC-2, and CC-3 in 18 (54.5%), 3 (9%), 7 (21.2%), and 5 (15.2%) patients, respectively. The mean peritoneal cancer index (PCI) was 16.20, and the mean postoperative PCI (PPCI) was 4.6. The major risk factors for death in these patients were a total PCI score > 20, total PPCI score > 0, and CC score ≥ 2 (P = 0.022, 0.031, and 0.0001, respectively; log-rank test). Multivariate analysis revealed that the total PPCI score was the strongest predictor of death following cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC in these patients. In Taiwan, performing cytoreductive surgery and administering HIPEC for treating colorectal cancer with peritoneal metastasis are feasible and resulted in long-term survival. In addition, the total PPCI score was related to poor prognosis following cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC in patients with colorectal cancer and peritoneal metastasis. PMID:28033247

  7. Timing of Breast Cancer Surgery-How Much Does It Matter?

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Sara A; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Terando, Alicia M; Agnese, Doreen M

    2017-01-24

    Timing of surgical resection after breast cancer diagnosis is dependent on a variety of factors. Lengthy delays may lead to progression; however, the impact of modest delays is less clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of surgical timing on outcomes, including disease-free survival (DFS) and nodal status (NS). The cancer registry from one academic cancer hospital was retrospectively reviewed. Time from initial biopsy to surgical resection was calculated for patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and stage 1 and 2 invasive carcinomas. Early (0-21 days), intermediate (22-42 days), and late (43-63 days) surgery groups were evaluated for differences in NS and DFS for each cancer stage separately. A total of 3,932 patients were identified for analysis. There were no differences in DFS noted for DCIS. For stage 1, early surgery (ES) was associated with worse DFS compared to intermediate surgery (IS) (p = 0.025). There were no significant differences between ES and late surgery (LS) (p = 0.700) or IS and LS (p = 0.065). In stage II cancers, there was a significant difference in DFS in ES compared to IS (p < 0.001) and LS (p = 0.009). There was no significant difference between IS and LS (p = 0.478). Patients were more likely to undergo immediate reconstruction (p < 0.0001 for all stages) in later time-to-surgery groups, while patients in earlier groups were more likely to undergo breast conserving surgery. There was also no significant difference in NS at time of surgery in clinical stage 1 (p = 0.321) or stage 2 disease (p = 0.571). Delays of up to 60 days were not associated with worse outcomes. This study should reassure patients and surgeons that modest delays do not adversely affect breast cancer outcomes. This allows patients time to consider treatment and reconstruction options.

  8. Extended venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after colorectal cancer surgery: the current state of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Sammour, Tarik; Chandra, Raaj; Moore, James W

    2016-07-01

    There is level one evidence to support combined mechanical and chemical thromboprophylaxis for 7-10 days after colorectal cancer surgery, but there remains a paucity of data to support extended prophylaxis after discharge. The aim of this clinical review is to summarise the currently available evidence for extended venous thromboprophylaxis after elective colorectal cancer surgery. Clinical review of the major clinical guidelines and published clinical data evaluating extended venous thromboprophylaxis after elective colorectal cancer surgery. Five major guideline recommendations are outlined, and the results of the five published randomised controlled trials are summarised and reviewed with a specific focus on the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of extended heparin prophylaxis to prevent clinically relevant post-operative venous thromboembolism (VTE) after colorectal cancer surgery. Extended VTE prophylaxis after colorectal cancer surgery reduces the incidence of asymptomatic screen detected deep venous thrombosis (DVT) only, with no demonstrable reduction in symptomatic DVT, symptomatic PE, or VTE related death. Evidence for cost-effectiveness is limited. As the incidence of clinical VTE is very low in this patient subgroup overall, future research should be focused on higher risk patient subgroups in whom a reduction in VTE may be both more demonstrable and clinically relevant.

  9. Quality of Online Information to Support Patient Decision-Making in Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Jordan G.; Tucholka, Jennifer L.; Steffens, Nicole M.; Neuman, Heather B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Breast cancer patients commonly use the internet as an information resource. Our objective was to evaluate the quality of online information available to support patients facing a decision for breast surgery. Methods Breast cancer surgery-related queries were performed (Google and Bing), and reviewed for content pertinent to breast cancer surgery. The DISCERN instrument was used to evaluate websites’ structural components that influence publication reliability and ability of information to support treatment decision-making. Scores of 4/5 were considered “good”. Results 45 unique websites were identified. Websites satisfied a median 5/9 content questions. Commonly omitted topics included: having a choice between breast conservation and mastectomy (67%) and potential for 2nd surgery to obtain negative margins after breast conservation (60%). Websites had a median DISCERN score of 2.9 (range 2.0–4.5). Websites achieved higher scores on structural criteria (median 3.6 [2.1–4.7]), with 24% rated as “good”. Scores on supporting decision-making questions were lower (2.6 [1.3–4.4]), with only 7% scoring “good”. Conclusion Although numerous breast cancer-related websites exist, most do a poor job providing women with essential information necessary to actively participate in decision-making for breast cancer surgery. Providing easily-accessible, high-quality online information has the potential to significantly improve patients’ experiences with decision-making. PMID:26417898

  10. Non-grasping en bloc mediastinal lymph node dissection through uniportal video-assisted thoracic surgery for lung cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chengwu; Ma, Lin; Guo, Chenglin

    2016-01-01

    Uniportal video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has been demonstrated to be feasible, safe, and effective for lung cancer surgery compared with traditional multi-portal VATS. However, complete mediastinal lymph node dissection (MLND) through uniportal VATS is still a difficult work due to more limited access, and most thoracic surgeons use strategies of grasping, accompanied with which are complicated instrumentation and mutual interference among them. To simplify the instrumentation and make MLND more comfortable, we developed the method of “non-grasping en bloc MLND” and applied it during uniportal VATS lung cancer surgery. Two main instruments (suction and energy devices) were developed with diversified use. And only the two instruments were used during MLND following the strategy of “non-grasping”. This technique incorporates with several advantages, such as: simplified instrumentation, decreased risk of damages to lymph nodes, and en bloc dissection. Considering the limited access, this technique fits well with the uniportal procedure and truly interprets the concept of “less is more” during uniportal VATS MLND. PMID:27867574

  11. [The perioperative period in cancer surgery: a critical moment! Is there a role for regional anesthesia in preventing cancer recurrence?].

    PubMed

    Beloeil, H; Nouette-Gaulain, K

    2012-06-01

    Surgical treatment of cancer is usually necessary but it can paradoxically aggravate the patient outcome by increasing the risk of recurrence. Many perioperative factors have been shown to contribute to the dissemination of the tumor: surgery itself, stress, inflammation, pain, anaesthetic drugs, blood transfusion, etc. The type of anaesthesia chosen in the cancer patient could then be crucial and influence the evolution of the disease. Experimental, preclinical and retrospective studies have suggested that a regional anesthesia associated or not with a general anesthesia for carcinologic surgery might reduce the risk of cancer recurrence. This text reviews the factors promoting the recurrence of tumors after carcinologic surgery and the potential possibilities of protection associated with the type of anaesthesia chosen.

  12. Surgery Choices for Women with DCIS or Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a tattoo that looks like the areola (the dark area around your nipple). There are two main ... feeling in your breast, nipple, and areola (the dark area around your nipple). Maybe. After surgery, the ...

  13. Surgery to Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... outcomes: the NSABP Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) P–2 trial. JAMA 2006; 295(23):2727– ... and Bowel Project Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) P-2 Trial: Preventing breast cancer. Cancer Prevention ...

  14. Treatment of Early Stage Endometrial Cancer by Transumbilical Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery Versus Traditional Laparoscopic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Hui-hua; Liu, Mu-biao; He, Yuan-li

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To compare the outcomes of transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (TU-LESS) versus traditional laparoscopic surgery (TLS) for early stage endometrial cancer (EC). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with early stage EC who were surgically treated by TU-LESS or TLS between 2011 and 2014 in a tertiary care teaching hospital. We identified 18 EC patients who underwent TU-LESS. Propensity score matching was used to match this group with 18 EC patients who underwent TLS. All patients underwent laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy by TU-LESS or TLS without conversion to laparoscopy or laparotomy. Number of pelvic lymph nodes retrieved, operative time and estimated blood loss were comparable between 2 groups. Satisfaction values of the cosmetic outcome evaluated by the patient at day 30 after surgery were significantly higher in TU-LESS group than that in TLS group (9.6 ± 0.8 vs 7.5 ± 0.7, P < 0.001), while there was no statistical difference in postoperative complications within 30 days after surgery, postoperative hospital stay, and hospital cost. For the surgical management of early stage EC, TU-LESS may be a feasible alternative approach to TLS, with comparable short-term surgical outcomes and superior cosmetic outcome. Future large-scale prospective studies are needed to identify these benefits. PMID:27057851

  15. The changes of blood platelet activation in breast cancer patients before surgery, after surgery, and in various phases of the chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kedzierska, Magdalena; Czernek, Urszula; Szydłowska-Pazera, Katarzyna; Potemski, Piotr; Piekarski, Janusz; Jeziorski, Arkadiusz; Olas, Beata

    2013-01-01

    Blood platelets from patients with cancer (before or after the surgery) exhibit a variety of qualitative abnormalities. Different anti-cancer drugs may also induce the oxidative/nitrative stress in blood platelets and change their hemostatic properties. The aim of our study was to explain the effect of superoxide anion radicals ([Formula: see text]) production on hemostatic properties of blood platelets (activated by a strong physiological agonist - thrombin) from breast cancer patients before the surgery, after the surgery, and after various phases (I-IV) of chemotherapy (doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide). Patients were hospitalized in the Department of Oncological Surgery and at the Department of Chemotherapy, Medical University of Lodz, Poland. We measured the platelet aggregation as the marker of hemostatic activity of blood platelets. We observed an increase of [Formula: see text] in thrombin-activated blood platelets from patients with breast cancer (before or after the surgery and after various phases of the chemotherapy) compared to the healthy group. Our other experiments demonstrated that aggregation (induced by thrombin) of blood platelets from patients with breast cancer before the surgery, after the surgery, and after various phases of the chemotherapy differs from aggregation of platelets obtained from healthy volunteers. Moreover, our results showed the correlation between the [Formula: see text] generation and changes of platelet aggregation in breast cancer patients before the surgery, after the surgery, and after the chemotherapy (I and IV phases). Considering the data presented in this study, we suggest that the production of [Formula: see text] in blood platelets (activated by thrombin) obtained from breast cancer patients may induce the changes of platelet aggregation, which may contribute in thrombosis in these patients.

  16. Neoadjuvant Long-Course Chemoradiotherapy for Rectal Cancer: Does Time to Surgery Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Panagiotopoulou, Ioanna G.; Parashar, Deepak; Qasem, Eyas; Mezher-Sikafi, Rasha; Parmar, Jitesh; Wells, Alan D.; Bajwa, Farrukh M.; Menon, Madhav; Jephcott, Catherine R.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate whether delaying surgery following long-course chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer correlates with pathologic complete response. Pre-operative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is standard practice in the UK for the management of locally advanced rectal cancer. Optimal timing of surgery following CRT is still not clearly defined. All patients with a diagnosis of rectal cancer who had undergone long-course CRT prior to surgery between January 2008 and December 2011 were included. Statistical analysis was performed using Stata 11. Fifty-nine patients received long-course CRT prior to surgery in the selected period. Twenty-seven percent (16/59) of patients showed a complete histopathologic response and 59.3% (35/59) of patients had tumor down-staging from radiologically-assessed node positive to histologically-proven node negative disease. There was no statistically significant delay to surgery after completion of CRT in the 16 patients with complete response (CR) compared with the rest of the group [IR: incomplete response; CR group median: 74.5 days (IQR: 70–87.5) and IR group median: 72 days (IQR: 57–83), P = 0.470]. Although no statistically significant predictors of either complete response or tumor nodal status down-staging were identified in logistic regression analyses, a trend toward complete response was seen with longer delay to surgery following completion of long-course CRT. PMID:26414816

  17. Neoadjuvant Long-Course Chemoradiotherapy for Rectal Cancer: Does Time to Surgery Matter?

    PubMed

    Panagiotopoulou, Ioanna G; Parashar, Deepak; Qasem, Eyas; Mezher-Sikafi, Rasha; Parmar, Jitesh; Wells, Alan D; Bajwa, Farrukh M; Menon, Madhav; Jephcott, Catherine R

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate whether delaying surgery following long-course chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer correlates with pathologic complete response. Pre-operative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is standard practice in the UK for the management of locally advanced rectal cancer. Optimal timing of surgery following CRT is still not clearly defined. All patients with a diagnosis of rectal cancer who had undergone long-course CRT prior to surgery between January 2008 and December 2011 were included. Statistical analysis was performed using Stata 11. Fifty-nine patients received long-course CRT prior to surgery in the selected period. Twenty-seven percent (16/59) of patients showed a complete histopathologic response and 59.3% (35/59) of patients had tumor down-staging from radiologically-assessed node positive to histologically-proven node negative disease. There was no statistically significant delay to surgery after completion of CRT in the 16 patients with complete response (CR) compared with the rest of the group [IR: incomplete response; CR group median: 74.5 days (IQR: 70-87.5) and IR group median: 72 days (IQR: 57-83), P = 0.470]. Although no statistically significant predictors of either complete response or tumor nodal status down-staging were identified in logistic regression analyses, a trend toward complete response was seen with longer delay to surgery following completion of long-course CRT.

  18. [The role of surgery in the treatment of small cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Puma, F; Urbani, M; Santoprete, S; Ricci, F; Sanguinetti, A; Vinci, D; Ottavi, P; Porcaro, G; Daddi, G

    2001-12-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a biologically aggressive tumor with a low long-term survival rate. SCLC is highly responsive to chemotherapy and surgery has a very limited role in its treatment because the disease is usually widely disseminated at the diagnosis. Good results from surgery have been reported in the small subgroup of T1-2 N0 M0 patients. In N1 peripheral SCLC, surgery in combination with other treatments, can obtain fair results. Surgical treatment does not influence the prognosis in SCLC as stage III and IV.

  19. Second-look surgery following Hartmann's procedure for obstructive left-sided colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Beppu, Naohito; Kimura, Fumihiko; Matsubara, Nagahide; Noda, Masashi; Tomita, Naohiro; Yanagi, Hidenori; Yamanaka, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the short- and long-term outcomes of patients undergoing second-look surgery following Hartmann's procedure for obstructive left-sided colorectal cancer (LSCC). All patients included in the present study had undergone radical surgery with Hartmann's procedure for obstructive LSCC. Adjuvant chemotherapy was recommended for all patients, and patients with no signs of recurrence following six months of surveillance were planned to undergo second-look surgery. The aim of second-look surgery was early detection of local recurrence and determination of the efficacy of laparoscopic Hartmann procedure reversal. A total of 15 patients with locally advanced colorectal cancer were included in the study. Three patients exhibited peritoneal dissemination at the time of laparoscopic Hartmann procedure reversal and underwent partial peritonectomy. Following adjuvant chemotherapy treatment, laparoscopic Hartmann procedure reversal was performed in all patients. However, two patients underwent colo-anal anastomosis, and two patients underwent right-sided colon or ileum reconstruction. Regarding the oncological outcomes, two of three patients in whom peritoneal dissemination was identified during laparoscopic Hartmann procedure reversal were eventually in remission following the initial surgery and the second-look surgery with partial peritonectomy. Favorable long-term outcomes were observed in 12/15 patients due to no recurrence, which may be due to the surgical techniques used and the timing of the second-look surgery following Hartmann's procedure for the treatment of obstructive LSCC. PMID:27900043

  20. Robotic surgery and cancer: the present state, problems and future vision.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Makoto; Tsugawa, Kouji

    2004-05-01

    In the 1990s, laparoscopic surgery entirely changed the traditional style of surgical operations. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has spread rapidly and is now established as the standard treatment. However, besides cholecystectomy, endoscopic procedures are still not applied so widely to a variety of surgical operations. This is because laparoscopic techniques, such as suturing or ligation, make it difficult for surgeons to perform other kinds of operations and thus greatly increase their mental and physical stress. It is necessary to introduce various advanced technologies such as: surgical robots, three dimensional (3D) images, computer graphics (CG), computer simulation technology and others. Surgical robots, including the AESOP, da Vinci and ZEUS systems, provide surgeons with technologically advanced vision and hand skills. As a result, such systems are expected to revolutionize the field of surgery. However, there have so far been few studies which discuss the indications of robotic surgery for tumors/cancer. Therefore, herein we review various studies published in English to focus on the application of robotic surgery to tumors/cancer. We point out that there are several problems to be solved for robot surgery: i) price of surgical robots, ii) training systems for surgeon, iii) coverage by medical insurance, iv) downsizing and v) navigation system. In conclusion, we believe that, in the near future as robotic technology continues to develop, almost all kinds of endoscopic surgery will be performed by this technology. It will replace traditional surgery not only in the treatment of benign diseases but also in malignant illnesses.

  1. [The surgery after. . . retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and surgery of the residual masses after chemotherapy for advanced testicular cancer].

    PubMed

    Guillemin, François; Belinga, Jean-François Betala; Marchal, Frédéric; Rauch, Philippe; Verhaeghe, Jean-Luc

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-six cases of retroperitoneal lymph node dissections for residual mass after chemotherapy for testicular cancer are reported. In a reference center, the recruitment is modified by the severity of the situations related to very big masses, tumors of poor prognosis and resistant tumors. Lymph node dissection is often atypical and surgery of metastatic residual masses is frequent (13 operations). The 8-year global survival remains stable, over 90%. The 5-year cumulated risk of recurrence is 20%, but these situations can be overtaken.

  2. The influence of complications on the costs of complex cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Short, Marah N; Aloia, Thomas A; Ho, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND It is widely known that outcomes after cancer surgery vary widely, depending on interactions between patient, tumor, neoadjuvant therapy, and provider factors. Within this complex milieu, the influence of complications on the cost of surgical oncology care remains unknown. The authors examined rates of Patient Safety Indicator (PSI) occurrence for 6 cancer operations and their association with costs of care. METHODS The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) PSI definitions were used to identify patient safety-related complications in Medicare claims data. Hospital and inpatient physician claims for the years 2005 through 2009 were analyzed for 6 cancer resections: colectomy, rectal resection, pulmonary lobectomy, pneumonectomy, esophagectomy, and pancreatic resection. Risk-adjusted regression analyses were used to measure the association between each PSI and hospitalization costs. RESULTS Overall PSI rates ranged from a low of 0.01% for postoperative hip fracture to a high of 2.58% for respiratory failure. Death among inpatients with serious treatable complications, postoperative respiratory failure, postoperative thromboembolism, and accidental puncture/laceration were >1% for all 6 cancer operations. Several PSIs—including decubitus ulcer, death among surgical inpatients with serious treatable complications, and postoperative thromboembolism—raised hospitalization costs by ≥20% for most cancer surgery types. Postoperative respiratory failure resulted in a cost increase >50% for all cancer resections. CONCLUSIONS The consistently higher costs associated with cancer surgery PSIs indicate that substantial health care savings could be achieved by targeting these indicators for quality improvement. PMID:24382697

  3. Predictors of functional shoulder recovery at 1 and 12 months after breast cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Levy, Ellen W; Pfalzer, Lucinda A; Danoff, Jerome; Springer, Barbara A; McGarvey, Charles; Shieh, Ching-yi; Morehead-Gee, Alicia; Gerber, Lynn H; Stout, Nicole L

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study are (1) to determine if upper extremity function, as represented by shoulder ROM, self-reported symptoms and upper extremity functional limitations in activities of daily living could be predictively related to demographic and cancer characteristics post-surgery for breast cancer. And (2) to examine if variables related to early onset impairment contribute to late onset impairments in women after breast cancer surgery. Subjects were assessed preoperatively and 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12+ months post breast cancer surgery for impairments and symptoms and at 12+ months for shoulder functional limitations using a physical therapy surveillance model. Body weight, shoulder ROM, manual muscle testing, and upper limb volume were recorded. At 12+ months, the Harvard Alumni Health Study Physical Activity Questionnaire, and an Upper Limb Disability Questionnaire were administered. Symptoms and ROM impairments were compared by functional limitations. Characteristics significantly associated with early ROM impairment (but not later impairment) were axillary lymph node dissection, removal of ≥15 nodes, mastectomy surgery and stage II breast cancer. Positive nodes, older age, and BMI≥25 were significantly associated with reduced shoulder ROM at 12+ months. At 12+ months, only 10 % of the patients experienced ROM impairments while rates of self-reported symptoms in the affected upper extremity at 12+ months were as follows: pain-49%, weakness-47.1%, numbness-55.9%, feeling tired-42.5%. The majority of patients used the affected upper extremity for reaching without limitation, but ≥35% reported limitation with household chores, carrying and lifting. Difficulty carrying and lifting could be predicted by BMI≥25 and use of the dominant affected upper limb. Different factors are associated with early versus later ROM loss. Symptoms reported by breast cancer survivors are frequently associated with functional limitations in upper extremity tasks and warrant

  4. A review on robotic surgery in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Mohd Azman, Zairul Azwan; Kim, Seon-Hahn

    2016-01-01

    Robotic surgery has the upper hand when compared to the laparoscopic approach in terms of superior visualisation, flexibility in movement, steadiness and accessibility to confined anatomical spaces. Nevertheless, limitations still exist with regards to cost, reduced tactile sensation, time-consuming setup and a significant learning curve to achieve. Although studies have shown better or at least comparable outcomes between the robotic and laparoscopic approach, the limitations mentioned result in poor penetrance among centres and surgeons. Advancements in robotic surgery technology and attaining the acquired skillset will translate into better clinical outcomes for patients.

  5. A review on robotic surgery in rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Azman, Zairul Azwan

    2016-01-01

    Robotic surgery has the upper hand when compared to the laparoscopic approach in terms of superior visualisation, flexibility in movement, steadiness and accessibility to confined anatomical spaces. Nevertheless, limitations still exist with regards to cost, reduced tactile sensation, time-consuming setup and a significant learning curve to achieve. Although studies have shown better or at least comparable outcomes between the robotic and laparoscopic approach, the limitations mentioned result in poor penetrance among centres and surgeons. Advancements in robotic surgery technology and attaining the acquired skillset will translate into better clinical outcomes for patients. PMID:28138573

  6. A Validation Study of Administrative Claims Data to Measure Ovarian Cancer Recurrence and Secondary Debulking Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Livaudais-Toman, Jennifer; Egorova, Natalia; Franco, Rebeca; Prasad-Hayes, Monica; Howell, Elizabeth A.; Wisnivesky, Juan; Bickell, Nina A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Administrative claims data offer an alternative to chart abstraction to assess ovarian cancer recurrence, treatment and outcomes. Such analyses have been hindered by lack of valid recurrence and treatment algorithms. In this study, we sought to develop claims-based algorithms to identify ovarian cancer recurrence and secondary debulking surgery, and to validate them against the gold-standard of chart abstraction. Methods: We conducted chart validation studies; 2 recurrence algorithms and 1 secondary surgery among 94 ovarian cancer patients treated at one hospital between 2003–2009. A new recurrence algorithm was based on treatment timing (≥6 months after primary treatment) and a previously validated algorithm was based on secondary malignancy codes. A secondary debulking surgery algorithm was based on surgical billing codes. Results: The new recurrence algorithm had: sensitivity=100% (95% confidence interval [CI]=87%-=100%), specificity=89% (95%CI=78%–95%), kappa=84% (SE=10%) while the secondary-malignancy-=code recurrence algorithm had: sensitivity=84% (95%CI=66%–94%), specificity=44% (95%CI=31%-=57%), kappa=23% (SE=8%). The secondary surgery algorithm had: sensitivity=77% (95%CI=50%–92%), = specificity= 92% (95%CI=83%–97%), kappa=66% (SE=10%).= Conclusions: A recurrence algorithm based on treatment timing accurately identified ovarian cancer =recurrence. If validated in other populations, such an algorithm can provide a tool to compare effectiveness of recurrent ovarian cancer treatments. PMID:27891525

  7. Progress of the Productive Ward.

    PubMed

    Robert, Glenn

    The progress of the Productive Ward programme has been variable. This article outlines a study that investigated the experience of implementing the programme in different hospitals and the lessons that can be learnt.

  8. Evaluation of Tumor Response after Short-Course Radiotherapy and Delayed Surgery for Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rega, Daniela; Pecori, Biagio; Scala, Dario; Avallone, Antonio; Pace, Ugo; Petrillo, Antonella; Aloj, Luigi; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Delrio, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Neoadjuvant therapy is able to reduce local recurrence in rectal cancer. Immediate surgery after short course radiotherapy allows only for minimal downstaging. We investigated the effect of delayed surgery after short-course radiotherapy at different time intervals before surgery, in patients affected by rectal cancer. Methods From January 2003 to December 2013 sixty-seven patients with the following characteristics have been selected: clinical (c) stage T3N0 ≤ 12 cm from the anal verge and with circumferential resection margin > 5 mm (by magnetic resonance imaging); cT2, any N, < 5 cm from anal verge; and patients facing tumors with enlarged nodes and/or CRM+ve who resulted unfit for chemo-radiation, were also included. Patients underwent preoperative short-course radiotherapy with different interval to surgery were divided in three groups: A (within 6 weeks), B (between 6 and 8 weeks) and C (after more than 8 weeks). Hystopatolgical response to radiotherapy was measured by Mandard’s modified tumor regression grade (TRG). Results All patients completed the scheduled treatment. Sixty-six patients underwent surgery. Fifty-three of which (80.3%) received a sphincter saving procedure. Downstaging occurred in 41 cases (62.1%). The analysis of subgroups showed an increasing prevalence of TRG 1–2 prolonging the interval to surgery (group A—16.7%, group B—36.8% and 54.3% in group C; p value 0.023). Conclusions Preoperative short-course radiotherapy is able to downstage rectal cancer if surgery is delayed. A higher rate of TRG 1–2 can be obtained if interval to surgery is prolonged to more than 8 weeks. PMID:27548058

  9. Can We Be Less Radical with Surgery for Early Cervical Cancer?

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Madeleine C; Tidy, John A

    2016-03-01

    Although a rare cancer in the developed world due to the success of cervical screening programmes, cervical cancer remains one of the most common cancers diagnosed in women under the age of 35 years old. Radical hysterectomy and more recently radical trachelectomy have been highly effective in curing the majority of women with early stage disease. Many, however, are left with long-term 'survivorship' issues including bowel, bladder and sexual dysfunction. In view of these chronic co-morbidities, many clinicians now consider whether a less radical approach to surgery may be an option for some women. This review focuses on the current evidence for the safety of conservative surgery for early stage cervical cancer with regard to cure rates in comparison to standard management, as well as any improvement in short and long-term morbidity associated with a more conservative approach.

  10. Study examines outcomes from surgery to prevent ovarian cancer

    Cancer.gov

    A new study looked at women at high risk of ovarian cancer who had no clinical signs of the disease and who underwent risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO). The study results showed cancer in the removed tissues of 2.6 percent (25 of 966) of the par

  11. [A Case of Advanced Esophageal Cancer and Tongue Cancer Treated with Induction DCF Chemotherapy Followed by Radical Surgery].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Motomu; Koyanagi, Kazuo; Sugiura, Hitoshi; Kakefuda, Toshihiro

    2015-11-01

    A man in his 60s was admitted for the treatment of advanced cervical esophageal cancer with metastasis to the lymph nodes and advanced tongue cancer with metastasis to the lymph nodes. Esophageal cancer was suspected to have invaded the trachea. The tongue cancer was located on the left side and had invaded beyond the median line of the tongue. Both cancers were pathologically diagnosed as squamous cell carcinomas. Therefore, it was determined that pharyngo-laryngo- esophagectomy and total glossectomy were required prior to the treatment. However, after 2 courses of docetaxel/cisplatin/ 5-FU combined induction chemotherapy, both cancers remarkably decreased; consequently, an esophagectomy to preserve laryngeal function and partial glossectomy could be performed simultaneously. The patient is well without recurrence 1 year post-surgery.

  12. Surgery and Chemotherapy With or Without Chemotherapy After Surgery in Treating Patients With Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, Uterine, or Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-18

    Recurrent Uterine Corpus Cancer; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer

  13. Biological research in the evolution of cancer surgery: a personal perspective.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Bernard

    2008-12-15

    During the 19th, and for most of the 20th century, malignant tumors were removed by mutilating radical anatomic dissection. Advances such as anesthesia, asepsis, and blood transfusion made possible increasingly more radical operations. There was no scientific rationale for the operations being performed. Surgery in the 20th century was dominated by the principles of William S. Halsted, who contended that the bloodstream was of little significance as a route of tumor cell dissemination; a tumor was autonomous of its host; and cancer was a local-regional disease that spread in an orderly fashion based on mechanical considerations. Halsted believed that both the extent and nuances of an operation influenced patient outcome and that inadequate surgical skill was responsible for the failure to cure. A new surgical era arose in 1957, when cancer surgery began to be influenced by laboratory and clinical research, with results contrary to Halstedian principles. A new hypothesis resulted in a scientific basis for cancer surgery. Clinical trials supported the thesis that operable cancer is a systemic disease and that variations in local-regional therapy are unlikely to substantially affect survival. Complex host-tumor relationships were shown to affect every aspect of cancer and, contrary to Halsted's thesis, the bloodstream is of considerable importance in tumor dissemination. Clinical trials also have shown that less radical surgery is justified. Studies have shown that improved survival can be achieved with systemic therapy after surgery. Such therapy can reduce both the incidence of distant disease and the tumor recurrence at the tumor site after minimal surgery. The use of systemic therapy in patients who have no identifiable metastatic disease is a drastic departure from previous strategies. New technological innovations resulting from engineering research have improved the quality of life of patients by eliminating the need for some surgical procedures. Because cancer

  14. [3rd Hungarian Breast Cancer Consensus Conference - Surgery Guidelines].

    PubMed

    Lázár, György; Bursics, Attila; Farsang, Zoltán; Harsányi, László; Kósa, Csaba; Maráz, Róbert; Mátrai, Zoltán; Paszt, Attila; Pavlovics, Gábor; Tamás, Róbert

    2016-09-01

    Therapy for breast cancer today is characterised by ever more precise diagnostic methods and ever more effective oncological treatments, a trend which will certainly continue in the future. Breast preservation and the application of oncoplastic principles are increasingly popular. A sentinel lymph node biopsy in the surgical treatment of the axilla is primary, with the indication for axillary block dissection (ABD) narrowing and radiation therapy becoming an alternative to ABD in certain cases. This publication summarises our recommendations on the surgical treatment of breast cancer based on the content of the 2nd Breast Cancer Consensus Conference and considering the latest international studies and professional recommendations.

  15. Robotic surgery for rectal cancer: current immediate clinical and oncological outcomes.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Sergio Eduardo Alonso; Seid, Victor Edmond; Klajner, Sidney

    2014-10-21

    Laparoscopic rectal surgery continues to be a challenging operation associated to a steep learning curve. Robotic surgical systems have dramatically changed minimally invasive surgery. Three-dimensional, magnified and stable view, articulated instruments, and reduction of physiologic tremors leading to superior dexterity and ergonomics. Therefore, robotic platforms could potentially address limitations of laparoscopic rectal surgery. It was aimed at reviewing current literature on short-term clinical and oncological (pathological) outcomes after robotic rectal cancer surgery in comparison with laparoscopic surgery. A systematic review was performed for the period 2002 to 2014. A total of 1776 patients with rectal cancer underwent minimally invasive robotic treatment in 32 studies. After robotic and laparoscopic approach to oncologic rectal surgery, respectively, mean operating time varied from 192-385 min, and from 158-297 min; mean estimated blood loss was between 33 and 283 mL, and between 127 and 300 mL; mean length of stay varied from 4-10 d; and from 6-15 d. Conversion after robotic rectal surgery varied from 0% to 9.4%, and from 0 to 22% after laparoscopy. There was no difference between robotic (0%-41.3%) and laparoscopic (5.5%-29.3%) surgery regarding morbidity and anastomotic complications (respectively, 0%-13.5%, and 0%-11.1%). Regarding immediate oncologic outcomes, respectively among robotic and laparoscopic cases, positive circumferential margins varied from 0% to 7.5%, and from 0% to 8.8%; the mean number of retrieved lymph nodes was between 10 and 20, and between 11 and 21; and the mean distal resection margin was from 0.8 to 4.7 cm, and from 1.9 to 4.5 cm. Robotic rectal cancer surgery is being undertaken by experienced surgeons. However, the quality of the assembled evidence does not support definite conclusions about most studies variables. Robotic rectal cancer surgery is associated to increased costs and operating time. It also seems to be

  16. Decision-Making in Breast Cancer Surgery: Where Do Patients Go for Information?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Hank; Cohen, Almog; Mandeli, John; Weltz, Christina; Port, Elisa R

    2016-05-01

    Patient decision-making regarding breast cancer surgery is multifactorial, and patients derive information on surgical treatment options from a variety of sources which may have an impact on choice of surgery. We investigated the role of different information sources in patient decision-making regarding breast cancer surgery. Two hundred and sixty-eight patients with breast cancer, eligible for breast-conserving therapy were surveyed in the immediate preoperative period, and clinical data were also collected. This survey evaluated the scope and features of patient-driven research regarding their ultimate choice of surgical treatment. The two most common sources of information used by patients were written material from surgeons (199/268-74%) and the Internet (184/268-69%). There was a trend for women who chose bilateral mastectomy to use the Internet more frequently than those choosing unilateral mastectomy (P = 0.056). Number of surgeons consulted, genetic testing, and MRI were significant predictors of patient choice of mastectomy over breast-conserving therapy. Multivariate analysis showed that the number of surgeons consulted (P < 0.001) and genetic testing (P < 0.001) were independent predictors of choosing mastectomy, whereas MRI was not. In conclusions, understanding factors driving patient decision-making may promote more effective education for patients requiring breast cancer surgery.

  17. [Surgery of the thymus gland, normal, atrophied or cancerous].

    PubMed

    Limet, R; Rogister, B

    2000-10-01

    Thymoma is the most frequently resected mediastinal tumor. Its malignancy is related more to macroscopical findings than to microscopical analysis. All thymomas should be resected, in order to prevent malignant degeneration. Furthermore, for the treatment of myasthenia, several centers recommend resection of the thymus, either tumoral (thymoma) or atrophied. Although the role of surgery in this regard is controversial, all authors unanimously stress that complete resection of all thymic remnants is essential to achieve adequate results.

  18. Reconstructive Surgery for Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hanasono, Matthew M.

    2014-01-01

    The field of head and neck surgery has gone through numerous changes in the past two decades. Microvascular free flap reconstructions largely replaced other techniques. More importantly, there has been a paradigm shift toward seeking not only to achieve reliable wound closure to protect vital structures, but also to reestablish normal function and appearance. The present paper will present an algorithmic approach to head and neck reconstruction of various subsites, using an evidence-based approach wherever possible. PMID:26556426

  19. The changing role of surgery in the treatment of primary liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Tang, Z Y; Yu, Y Q; Zhou, X D

    1986-01-01

    For decades, the role of surgery in the treatment of primary liver cancer (PLC) was important but limited. However, a comparison of pathologically proven PLC during the three periods 1958-1966, 1967-1975, and 1976-1984 revealed that as a result of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) serosurvey, changing concepts in surgical oncology, and introduction of new surgical modalities, the role of surgery has become greater. The increasing proportion of subclinical PLC (0, 7.2, and 21.2%) has favored the increasing series resection rate (16.1, 34.7, and 39.6%) and palliative surgery (13.7, 17.0, and 29.8%). The results indicated that early resection, reoperation for subclinical recurrence, resection of huge PLC in stages, and combination of palliative surgery other than resection might be responsible for the increasing 5-year survival rate (1.7, 7.1, and 19.5%) in the entire series.

  20. 17-Week Delay Surgery after Chemoradiation in Rectal Cancer with Complete Pathological Response

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Marisa D.; Gomes, Manuel T.; Moreno, Filipa; Rocha, Anabela; Lopes, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) followed by curative surgery still remains the standard of care for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). The main purpose of this multimodal treatment is to achieve a complete pathological tumor response (ypCR), with better survival. The surgery delay after CRT completion seems to increase tumor response and ypCR rate. Usually, time intervals range from 8 to 12 weeks, but the maximum tumor regression may not be seen in rectal adenocarcinomas until several months after CRT. About this issue, we report a case of a 52-year-old man with LARC treated with neoadjuvant CRT who developed, one month after RT completion, an acute myocardial infarction. The need to increase the interval between CRT and surgery for 17 weeks allowed a curative surgery without morbidity and an unexpected complete tumor response in the resected specimen (given the parameters presented in pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed 11 weeks after radiotherapy completion). PMID:26579325

  1. N2-IIIA non-small cell lung cancer: a plea for surgery!

    PubMed Central

    Renaud, Stéphane; Reeb, Jérémie; Santelmo, Nicola; Olland, Anne; Falcoz, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Management of stage IIIA-N2 non-small cell lung cancer is still matter of ongoing controversy. The debate is flawed by the heterogeneity of this group of patients, lack of strong evidence from controlled trials, diverging treatment strategies, and hesitating estimation of prognosis. Surgery is credited a survival advantage in a trimodality setting. For many teams, N2 is by principle managed with induction chemotherapy, followed by surgery if the patient is down-staged. However, surgery remains a suitable option even in case of persistent N2. On the other hand, outcomes are comparable, regardless whether chemotherapy has been given as induction or adjuvant treatment. Hence, upfront surgery without invasive staging, followed by adjuvant therapies, appears reasonable in resectable single station N2 disease, simplifying patient care and reducing cost. We expect that molecular biomarkers will improve estimation of prognosis and patient selection in the future. PMID:27942406

  2. Long-term survival after endoscopic resection for early gastric cancer in the remnant stomach: comparison with radical surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yamashina, Takeshi; Uedo, Noriya; Dainaka, Katsuyuki; Aoi, Kenji; Matsuura, Noriko; Ito, Takashi; Fujii, Mototsugu; Kanesaka, Takashi; Yamamoto, Sachiko; Akasaka, Tomofumi; Hanaoka, Noboru; Takeuchi, Yoji; Higashino, Koji; Ishihara, Ryu; Kishi, Kentaro; Fujiwara, Yoshiyuki; Iishi, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    Background Endoscopic resection (ER) has recently become standard treatment, even for early gastric cancer (EGC) in the remnant stomach. We aimed to compare long-term survival after ER versus radical surgery for EGC in the remnant stomach. Methods We retrospectively compared overall and cause-specific survival of patients who had undergone ER or radical surgery for EGC in the remnant stomach from 1998 to 2012. Results During the study period, 32 patients with intramucosal (M), two with shallow submucosal (SM1) and eight with deep submucosal (SM2) cancers had undergone ER (ER group) whereas six with M and seven with SM2 cancers had undergone surgery (surgery group). All patients were followed up for a median of 60 months; during follow up, 15 patients died, including three in the ER group with SM2 cancer who died of gastric cancer. The overall 5-year survival rates of M-SM1 and SM2 cancer patients in the ER and surgery groups were 89%, 48%, 80%, and 67%, respectively (P=0.079). The disease-specific 5-year survival rates of M-SM1 and SM2 cancer patients in the ER and surgery groups were 100%, 48%, 100%, and 100%, respectively (P=0.000). Operation time and hospital stay were significantly shorter in the ER than the surgery group (P<0.001). Grade 2 perforation occurred in two patients in the ER group and Grade 3 anastomotic leakage in two patients in the surgery group. Conclusion ER provides excellent outcomes, comparable with those of radical surgery, in patients with M-SM1 gastric cancer in the remnant stomach; however, patients with SM2 cancer require radical surgery. PMID:25608929

  3. Enhanced identification and functional protective role of carbon nanoparticles on parathyroid in thyroid cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chenlei; Tian, Bo; Li, Shengze; Shi, Tiefeng; Qin, Huadong; Liu, Shaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the effects of nanocarbon particles in combination with meticulous capsular dissection on enhancing the identification and protecting the function of parathyroid glands in thyroid cancer surgery. The data of 97 patients with papillary thyroid tumors diagnosed and treated at the Second Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University between January 2014 and February 2015 were reviewed. Data regarding the sex, age, calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, tumor size, multifocality, T stage, and extrathyroid invasion were collected. The incidence of surgeries in which the parathyroid glands were cut mistakenly, the concentration of serum calcium and parathyroid hormone before surgery (baseline) and after surgery on days 1, 3, and 7, and 1 and 6 months in the patients of the two groups (the nanocarbon and control groups) were analyzed. Fifty-two patients underwent meticulous capsular dissection combined with nanocarbon treatment (nanocarbon group), and 45 underwent meticulous capsular dissection alone (control group). The nanocarbon group showed a significantly higher total and average number of revealed parathyroid glands (average number is the mean for different individuals have different number) and a lower incidence of the parathyroid glands being mistakenly cut, in addition to a lower level of hypoparathyroidism than control group following surgery (P < 0.05). Serum calcium and PTH levels were significantly lower in patients from both groups after surgery on days 1, 3, and 7 and after 1 month, compared with the preoperative levels (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the serum calcium and PTH levels were significantly higher in the nanocarbon group after surgery on days 1, 3, 7, than in the control group. Treatment with nanocarbon in combination with meticulous capsular dissection can significantly facilitate the identification of the parathyroid in thyroid cancer surgery, reduce the risk of

  4. A Preoperative Personalized Risk Assessment Calculator for Elderly Ovarian Cancer Patients undergoing Primary Cytoreductive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Emma L; Rutstein, Sarah; Miller, William C; Gehrig, Paola A

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cytoreductive surgery for ovarian cancer has higher rates of postoperative complication than neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery. If patients at high risk of postoperative complication were identified preoperatively, primary therapy could be tailored. Our objective was to develop a predictive model to estimate the risk of major postoperative complication after primary cytoreductive surgery among elderly ovarian cancer patients. Methods Patients who underwent primary surgery for ovarian cancer between 2005-2013 were identified from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Project. Patients were selected using primary procedure CPT codes. Major complications were defined as grade 3 or higher complications on the validated Claviden-Dindo scale. Using logistic regression, we identified demographic and clinical characteristics predictive of postoperative complication. Results We identified 2,101 ovarian cancer patients of whom 35.9% were older than 65. Among women older than 65, the rate of major postoperative complication was 16.4%. Complications were directly associated with preoperative laboratory values (serum creatinine, platelets, white blood cell count, hematocrit), ascites, white race, and smoking status, and indirectly associated with albumin. Our predictive model had an area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.725. In order to not deny patients necessary surgery, we chose a 50% population rate of postoperative complication which produced model sensitivity of 9.8% and specificity of 98%. Discussion Our predictive model uses easily and routinely obtained objective preoperative factors to estimate the risk of postoperative complication among elderly ovarian cancer patients. This information can be used to assess risk, manage postoperative expectations, and make decisions regarding initial treatment. PMID:26432038

  5. Comparison of neoadjuvant versus a surgery first approach for gastric and esophagogastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Russell, Maria C

    2016-09-01

    Gastric cancer remains a significant worldwide health concern. While surgery is required for cure, all but the earliest of cancers will require multimodality therapy. Chemotherapy and chemoradiation in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings have shown to improve overall survival, but the sequencing of treatment is controversial. As healthcare expenses surge, it is increasingly important to impart value to these treatments. This review will look at the intersection of effective treatment and costs for gastric cancer. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:296-303. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Breast cancer surgery: an historical narrative. Part I. From prehistoric times to Renaissance.

    PubMed

    Sakorafas, George H; Safioleas, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Cancer was known as a disease since prehistoric times. Management of breast cancer evolved slowly through centuries in the ancient world up to the Renaissance. This period is marked by the absence of any scientifically verifiable understanding of the true nature of cancer and its natural history and consequently by a lack of effective treatment. Breast has been considered as a symbol of femininity, fertility and beauty. Hippocrates proposed that breast cancer, among other neoplasms, was a 'systemic disease' caused by an excess of black bile. The humoral theory was further supported by Galen and dominated for centuries in medicine. Fulguration and breast amputation by using various instruments to achieve a rapid operation were widely used up to the 18th century. The Renaissance was a revolutionary period, since it stimulated medical practice; at that time physicians started to scientifically study medicine. Vesalius greatly contributed in the advancement of surgery, and he vigorously opposed Galen's doctrines. Many great surgeons of that time (including Paré, Cabrol, Servetto, Scultetus, Tulp, Fabry von Hilded, etc.) advanced the science of surgery. Interestingly, Bartoleny Gabrol (1590) in Montpellier advocated radical mastectomy, which was popularised by Halsted, 300 years later. However, the lack of anaesthesia and the problem of wound infections (due to the lack of the aseptic techniques) generated significance and often problems for the surgeons of that time. Surgery was often 'heroic' but primitive and even inhumane by current standards. Therapeutic nihilism was the prevailing altitude regarding breast cancer, at least among the vast majority of surgeons.

  7. Pleural Photodynamic Therapy and Surgery in Lung Cancer and Thymoma Patients with Pleural Spread.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke-Cheng; Hsieh, Yi-Shan; Tseng, Ying-Fan; Shieh, Ming-Jium; Chen, Jin-Shing; Lai, Hong-Shiee; Lee, Jang-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Pleural spread is difficult to treat in malignancies, especially in lung cancer and thymoma. Monotherapy with surgery fails to have a better survival benefit than palliative chemotherapy, the currently accepted treatment. Photodynamic therapy utilizes a photosensitizer to target the tumor site, and the tumor is exposed to light after performing a pleurectomy and tumor resection. However, the benefits of this procedure to lung cancer or thymoma patients are unknown. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with lung cancer or thymoma with pleural seeding who underwent pleural photodynamic therapy and surgery between 2005 and 2013. Eighteen patients enrolled in this study. The mean patient age was 52.9 ± 12.2 years. Lung cancer was the inciting cancer of pleural dissemination in 10 patients (55.6%), and thymoma in 8 (44.4%). There was no procedure-related mortality. Using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, the 3-year survival rate and the 5-year survival rate were 68.9% and 57.4%, respectively. We compared the PDT lung cancer patients with those receiving chemotherapy or target therapy (n = 51) and found that the PDT group had better survival than non-PDT patients (mean survival time: 39.0 versus 17.6 months; P = .047). With proper patient selection, radical surgical resection combined with intrapleural photodynamic therapy for pleural spread in patients with non-small cell lung cancer or thymoma is feasible and may provide a survival benefit.

  8. Postoperative complications after thoracic surgery for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Maugeri, Laura; Corbo, Giuseppe Maria; Valente, Salvatore

    2004-01-01

    Postoperative complications and related risk factors after lung reduction surgery are analyzed based on a review of the literature. In particular the pathogenesis of some of postoperative respiratory disorders is carefully assessed. Most commonly cardiac arrhythmias, respiratory failure, bronchopleural fistula are observed. Main risk factors for postoperative complications are old age, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary disease, poor nutritional state, neoadjuvant therapy. Attention should be paid to all these factors, both in preoperative assessment and postoperative care, to prevent and promptly treat postoperative complications.

  9. Single-site robotic surgery in gynecologic cancer: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ha-Na; Lee, Yoo-Young; Choi, Chel Hun; Lee, Jeong-Won; Bae, Duk-Soo; Kim, Byoung-Gie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To discuss the feasibility of single-site robotic surgery for benign gynecologic tumors and early stage gynecologic cancers. Methods In this single institution, prospective analysis, we analyzed six patients who had undergone single-site robotic surgery between December 2013 and August 2014. Surgery was performed using the da Vinci Si Surgical System. Patient characteristics and surgical outcomes were analyzed. Results Single-site robotic surgery was performed successfully in all six cases. The median patient age was 48 years, and the median body mass index was 25.5 kg/m2 (range, 22 to 33 kg/m2). The median total operative time was 211 minutes, and the median duration of intracorporeal vaginal cuff suturing was 32 minutes (range, 22 to 47 minutes). The median duration of pelvic lymph node dissection was 31 minutes on one side and 27 minutes on the other side. Patients' postoperative courses were uneventful. The median postoperative hospital stay was 4 days. No postoperative complications occurred. Conclusion When used to treat benign gynecologic tumors and early stage gynecologic cancers, the single-site da Vinci robotic surgery is feasible, safe, and produces favorable surgical outcomes. PMID:25609162

  10. [Usefulness of reductive surgery for elderly advanced breast cancer with bone metastases - a case report].

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Kenichi; Fujisaki, Shigeru; Nagashima, Saki; Maeda, Tetsuyo; Tomita, Ryouichi; Suzuki, Shuhei; Hara, Yukiko; Hirano, Tomohiro; Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Amano, Sadao

    2014-11-01

    We report the case of an elderly, advanced breast cancer patient with multiple bone metastases. Breast reduction surgery was useful for this patient. The patient was an 81-year-old woman who had a breast lump. A core needle biopsy for breast cancer led to a diagnosis of invasive ductal carcinoma. The mucinous carcinoma was estrogen receptor (ER) nd progesterone receptor (PgR) positive and HER2/neu negative. Due to patient complications, it was not possible to treat with chemotherapy. The patient was administrated aromatase inhibitors (AI) and zoledronic acid hydrate. However, the AI treatment was not effective, and so she was administered toremifene. Toremifene treatment was effective for 6 months, after which she received fulvestrant. Fulvestrant treatment maintained stable disease (SD)for 14 months. After 14 months of fulvestrant treatment, serum concentrations of the tumor markers CA15-3, CEA, and BCA225 increased. We therefore decided to perform surgical breast reduction surgery. The pathological diagnosis from the surgically resected specimen was mucinous carcinoma, positive for ER and HER2, and negative for PgR. After surgery, serum concentrations of the tumor markers decreased. Following surgery, the patient was administrated lapatinib plus denosumab plus fulvestrant. The patient remains well, without bone metastases, 2 years and 6 months after surgery.

  11. Endoscopic laser scalpel for head and neck cancer surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Snehal; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; Kirov, Stefan; Li, Yongbiao; Toledo-Crow, Ricardo

    2012-02-01

    Minimally invasive surgical (MIS) techniques, such as laparoscopic surgery and endoscopy, provide reliable disease control with reduced impact on the function of the diseased organ. Surgical lasers can ablate, cut and excise tissue while sealing small blood vessels minimizing bleeding and risk of lymphatic metastases from tumors. Lasers with wavelengths in the IR are readily absorbed by water causing minimal thermal damage to adjacent tissue, ideal for surgery near critical anatomical structures. MIS techniques have largely been unable to adopt the use of lasers partly due to the difficulty in bringing the laser into the endoscopic cavity. Hollow waveguide fibers have been adapted to bring surgical lasers to endoscopy. However, they deliver a beam that diverges rapidly and requires careful manipulation of the fiber tip relative to the target. Thus, the principal obstacle for surgical lasers in MIS procedures has been a lack of effective control instruments to manipulate the laser in the body cavity and accurately deliver it to the targeted tissue. To overcome this limitation, we have designed and built an endoscopic laser system that incorporates a miniature dual wedge beam steering device, a video camera, and the control system for remote and /or robotic operation. The dual wedge Risley device offers the smallest profile possible for endoscopic use. Clinical specifications and design considerations will be presented together with descriptions of the device and the development of its control system.

  12. A Subacute Care Intervention for Short Stay Cancer Surgery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    Frederick Tims, PhD, RMT-BC, on music therapy , Daniel Murman, MD, MS, on impaired cognition in cancer patients, Michigan State University, East...the 1998 Summer Research Series, with presentations by Cathy Bradley, PhD, MPA, on health costs, Frederick Tims, PhD, RMT-BC, on music therapy , Daniel

  13. Improving outcomes for operable pancreatic cancer: is access to safer surgery the problem?

    PubMed

    Chang, David K; Merrett, Neil D; Biankin, Andrew V

    2008-07-01

    Despite advances in the understanding and treatment of pancreatic cancer in the last two decades, there is a persisting nihilistic attitude among clinicians. An alarmingly high rate of under-utilization of surgical management for operable pancreatic cancer was recently reported in the USA, where more than half of patients with stage 1 operable disease and no other contraindications were not offered surgery as therapy, denying this group of patients a 20% chance of long-term survival. These data indicate that a nihilistic attitude among clinicians may be a significant and reversible cause of the persisting high mortality of patients with pancreatic cancer. This article examines the modern management of pancreatic cancer, in particular, the advances in surgical care that have reduced the mortality of pancreatectomy to almost that of colonic resection, and outlines a strategy for improving outcomes for patients with pancreatic cancer now and in the future.

  14. On a prolonged interval between rectal cancer (chemo)radiotherapy and surgery

    PubMed Central

    Glimelius, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    Preoperative radiotherapy (RT) or chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is often required before rectal cancer surgery to obtain low local recurrence rates or, in locally advanced tumours, to radically remove the tumour. RT/CRT in tumours responding completely can allow an organ-preserving strategy. The time from the end of the RT/CRT to surgery or to the decision not to operate has been prolonged during recent years. After a brief review of the literature, the relevance of the time interval to surgery is discussed depending upon the indication for RT/CRT. In intermediate rectal cancers, where the aim is to decrease local recurrence rates without any need for down-sizing/-staging, short-course RT with immediate surgery is appropriate. In elderly patients at risk for surgical complications, surgery could be delayed 5–8 weeks. If CRT is used, surgery should be performed when the acute radiation reaction has subsided or after 5–6 weeks. In locally advanced tumours, where CRT is indicated, the optimal delay is 6–8 weeks. In patients not tolerating CRT, short-course RT with a 6–8-week delay is an alternative. If organ preservation is a goal, a first evaluation should preferably be carried out after about 6 weeks, with planned surgery for week 8 if the response is inadequate. In case the response is good, a new evaluation should be carried out after about 12 weeks, with a decision to start a ‘watch-and-wait’ programme or operate. Chemotherapy in the waiting period is an interesting option, and has been the subject of recent trials with promising results. PMID:28256956

  15. On a prolonged interval between rectal cancer (chemo)radiotherapy and surgery.

    PubMed

    Glimelius, Bengt

    2017-03-01

    Preoperative radiotherapy (RT) or chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is often required before rectal cancer surgery to obtain low local recurrence rates or, in locally advanced tumours, to radically remove the tumour. RT/CRT in tumours responding completely can allow an organ-preserving strategy. The time from the end of the RT/CRT to surgery or to the decision not to operate has been prolonged during recent years. After a brief review of the literature, the relevance of the time interval to surgery is discussed depending upon the indication for RT/CRT. In intermediate rectal cancers, where the aim is to decrease local recurrence rates without any need for down-sizing/-staging, short-course RT with immediate surgery is appropriate. In elderly patients at risk for surgical complications, surgery could be delayed 5-8 weeks. If CRT is used, surgery should be performed when the acute radiation reaction has subsided or after 5-6 weeks. In locally advanced tumours, where CRT is indicated, the optimal delay is 6-8 weeks. In patients not tolerating CRT, short-course RT with a 6-8-week delay is an alternative. If organ preservation is a goal, a first evaluation should preferably be carried out after about 6 weeks, with planned surgery for week 8 if the response is inadequate. In case the response is good, a new evaluation should be carried out after about 12 weeks, with a decision to start a 'watch-and-wait' programme or operate. Chemotherapy in the waiting period is an interesting option, and has been the subject of recent trials with promising results.

  16. Failure to rescue patients from early critical complications of oesophagogastric cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Weledji, Elroy P.; Verla, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    ‘Failure to rescue’ is a significant cause of mortality in gastrointestinal surgery. Differences in mortality between high and low-volume hospitals are not associated with large difference in complication rates but to the ability of the hospital to effectively rescue patients from the complications. We reviewed the critical complications following surgery for oesophageal and gastric cancer, their prevention and reasons for failure to rescue. Strategies focussing on perioperative optimization, the timely recognition and management of complications may be essential to improving outcome in low-volume hospitals. PMID:27054032

  17. Robotic surgery compared with laparotomy for high-grade endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Pant, Alok; Schink, Julian; Lurain, John

    2014-06-01

    High-grade endometrial cancer often presents with occult metastatic disease and this presentation pattern can be considered a contraindication to minimally invasive surgery. We sought to compare the surgical and oncologic outcomes of patients with high-grade endometrial cancer who underwent surgical management/staging via the robotic approach versus the traditional open approach. A retrospective analysis was performed of patients with high-grade endometrial cancer who were treated at a single institution from January 2008 through December 2011. High-grade endometrial histology was defined as FIGO grade 2 or 3 endometrioid, serous, clear cell or uterine carcinosarcoma. Pre-operatively, all patients had clinical stage I disease based on a combination of physical examination and imaging studies. Baseline patient demographics, operative results, complications and oncologic outcomes were analyzed. Eighty consecutive patients were included. Forty-seven patients underwent surgical management using the robotic approach and 33 patients underwent a traditional operation via laparotomy. The groups were well matched in terms of age, body mass index, medical co-morbidities, stage and histology. The average hospital stay for patients who underwent open surgery was significantly longer than for those who underwent a robotic approach [5.6 versus 1.4 days (p = 0.0001)]. Of the patients who underwent robotic surgery, 7/47 (15 %) experienced an operative complication versus 18/33 (55 %) in the open surgery cohort (p = 0.002). The average number of pelvic lymph nodes retrieved in each cohort was 12. The average number of para-aortic lymph nodes retrieved in each group was 4. On final pathologic analysis, 20 patients in the robotic surgery arm were found to have disease that had spread beyond the uterus (43 %), compared to 14 in the traditional surgery group (42 %). There were 11/47 (23 %) recurrences in the robotic surgery group during the study period, compared to 8/33 (24

  18. A case of anaphylactic shock attributed to latex allergy during gastric cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Woohyung; Lee, Jue Hee; Kim, Hyung-Ho

    2011-01-01

    Latex allergy is a known cause of allergic contact dermatitis. It produces mild symptoms, including skin rash and itching, which usually subside in a few days. However, latex allergy can also induce anaphylaxis, a severe type I hypersensitivity reaction that can cause urticaria, angioedema, hypotension, tachycardia, and bronchospasm. We report a case of anaphylactic shock during gastric cancer surgery in a patient with no previous allergic history. Surgery was suspended when hypotension, tachycardia, and wheezing developed. A thorough workup revealed that the patient had a latex allergy. The patient subsequently underwent curative gastrectomy performed with latex-free procedures. PMID:22319734

  19. Laparoscopic surgery of pancreatic cancer: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Croce, Enrico; Olmi, Stefano; Bertolini, Aimone; Magnone, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    The use of laparoscopy in pancreatic cancer offers a significant contribution to the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. Both laparoscopic staging and treatment of pancreatic cancer have proved feasible and effective. This paper reviews the literature on this topic, by a Medline search using the words laparoscopy and pancreas. Various aspects are considered: staging, treatment and palliation. Cross-references from the articles retrieved were reviewed. The efficacy and safety of diagnostic laparoscopy and ultrasonography, lowering the rate of useless laparotomies, is evident in most studies. Moreover laparoscopic resection of the body and tail of the pancreas, as well as palliation of digestive obstruction has been demonstrated as feasible. Controversy exists on feasibility of pancreatoduodenectomy. Laparoscopic gastric outlet obstruction bypass and laparoscopic biliary decompression have been reported with good results compared to open surgical procedures. Randomized controlled trials are required to validate promising results coming from the reported series, mainly retrospective.

  20. Perceived utility of an integrated psychological intervention for gynaecological cancer patients admitted for surgery: preliminary data

    PubMed Central

    Arnaboldi, Paola; Oliveri, Serena; Vadilonga, Valeria; Santoro, Luigi; Maggioni, Angelo; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate patients’ satisfaction and perceived utility for psychological consultations delivered by clinical psychologists in a sample of gynaecological cancer patients hospitalised for surgery. Methods A total of 51 gynaecological cancer patients who scored higher than four on the distress thermometer (DT) were proposed and received a psychological consultation during hospitalisation for surgery. After six months from discharge, patients were asked, during a telephone interview, to rate their level of distress post-treatment, their perceived satisfaction, and usefulness of the psychological intervention received. Results At the time of the telephone interview, the distress levels stated by patients tended to be lower than those at hospital admission, and around 61% of the patients expressed maximum satisfaction with psychological intervention. Among these, 60.8% rated the psychological consultation useful for dealing with the hospitalisation itself, 45.1% useful for dealing with personal issues and 58.8% for dealing with issues related to returning home. People who were at their first diagnosis and those who had no other reason to be distressed beyond their cancer found psychological support significantly more useful for facing up to personal issues. Conclusions Patients are highly satisfied with integrative psychological interventions delivered by clinical psychologists in a medical setting such as that of gynaecological cancer surgery and from the six-month follow-up, it emerged that such interventions help in promoting patients’ adjustment to the phase of hospitalisation and post-hospital discharge. PMID:28275391

  1. Framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Guolan; Wang, Dongsheng; Qin, Xulei; Halig, Luma; Muller, Susan; Zhang, Hongzheng; Chen, Amy; Pogue, Brian W.; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Fei, Baowei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an imaging modality that holds strong potential for rapid cancer detection during image-guided surgery. But the data from HSI often needs to be processed appropriately in order to extract the maximum useful information that differentiates cancer from normal tissue. We proposed a framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification, which includes a set of steps including image preprocessing, glare removal, feature extraction, and ultimately image classification. The framework has been tested on images from mice with head and neck cancer, using spectra from 450- to 900-nm wavelength. The image analysis computed Fourier coefficients, normalized reflectance, mean, and spectral derivatives for improved accuracy. The experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of the hyperspectral image processing and quantification framework for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery, in a challenging setting where sensitivity can be low due to a modest number of features present, but potential for fast image classification can be high. This HSI approach may have potential application in tumor margin assessment during image-guided surgery, where speed of assessment may be the dominant factor. PMID:26720879

  2. Framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guolan; Wang, Dongsheng; Qin, Xulei; Halig, Luma; Muller, Susan; Zhang, Hongzheng; Chen, Amy; Pogue, Brian W; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Fei, Baowei

    2015-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an imaging modality that holds strong potential for rapid cancer detection during image-guided surgery. But the data from HSI often needs to be processed appropriately in order to extract the maximum useful information that differentiates cancer from normal tissue. We proposed a framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification, which includes a set of steps including image preprocessing, glare removal, feature extraction, and ultimately image classification. The framework has been tested on images from mice with head and neck cancer, using spectra from 450- to 900-nm wavelength. The image analysis computed Fourier coefficients, normalized reflectance, mean, and spectral derivatives for improved accuracy. The experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of the hyperspectral image processing and quantification framework for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery, in a challenging setting where sensitivity can be low due to a modest number of features present, but potential for fast image classification can be high. This HSI approach may have potential application in tumor margin assessment during image-guided surgery, where speed of assessment may be the dominant factor.

  3. Framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guolan; Wang, Dongsheng; Qin, Xulei; Halig, Luma; Muller, Susan; Zhang, Hongzheng; Chen, Amy; Pogue, Brian W.; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Fei, Baowei

    2015-12-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an imaging modality that holds strong potential for rapid cancer detection during image-guided surgery. But the data from HSI often needs to be processed appropriately in order to extract the maximum useful information that differentiates cancer from normal tissue. We proposed a framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification, which includes a set of steps including image preprocessing, glare removal, feature extraction, and ultimately image classification. The framework has been tested on images from mice with head and neck cancer, using spectra from 450- to 900-nm wavelength. The image analysis computed Fourier coefficients, normalized reflectance, mean, and spectral derivatives for improved accuracy. The experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of the hyperspectral image processing and quantification framework for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery, in a challenging setting where sensitivity can be low due to a modest number of features present, but potential for fast image classification can be high. This HSI approach may have potential application in tumor margin assessment during image-guided surgery, where speed of assessment may be the dominant factor.

  4. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer: implications of genetic testing for screening and prophylactic surgery.

    PubMed

    Cisco, Robin M; Ford, James M; Norton, Jeffrey A

    2008-10-01

    Approximately 10% of patients with gastric cancer show familial clustering, and 3% show autosomal dominance and high penetrance. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is an autosomal-dominant, inherited cancer syndrome in which affected individuals develop diffuse-type gastric cancer at a young age. Inactivating mutations in the E-cadherin gene CDH1 have been identified in 30% to 50% of patients. CDH1 mutation carriers have an approximately 70% lifetime risk of developing DGC, and affected women carry an additional 20% to 40% risk of developing lobular breast cancer. Because endoscopic surveillance is ineffective in identifying early HDGC, gene-directed prophylactic total gastrectomy currently is offered for CDH1 mutation carriers. In series of asymptomatic individuals undergoing total gastrectomy for CDH1 mutations, the removed stomachs usually contain small foci of early DGC, making surgery not prophylactic but curative. The authors of this review recommend consideration of total gastrectomy in CDH1 mutation carriers at an age 5 years younger than the youngest family member who developed gastric cancer. Individuals who choose not to undergo prophylactic gastrectomy should be followed with biannual chromoendoscopy, and women with CDH1 mutations also should undergo regular surveillance with magnetic resonance imaging studies of the breast. Because of the emergence of gene-directed gastrectomy for HDGC, today, a previously lethal disease is detected by molecular techniques, allowing curative surgery at an early stage.

  5. Graves' Disease that Developed Shortly after Surgery for Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hea Min; Park, Soon Hyun; Lee, Jae Min; Park, Kang Seo

    2013-09-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder that may present with various clinical manifestations of hyperthyroidism. Patients with Graves' disease have a greater number of thyroid nodules and a higher incidence of thyroid cancer compared with patients with normal thyroid activity. However, cases in which patients are diagnosed with recurrence of Graves' disease shortly after partial thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer are very rare. Here we report a case of hyperthyroid Graves' disease that occurred after partial thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid cancer. In this case, the patient developed hyperthyroidism 9 months after right hemithyroidectomy, and antithyroglobulin autoantibody and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor stimulating autoantibody were positive. Therefore, we diagnosed Graves' disease on the basis of the laboratory test results and thyroid ultrasonography findings. The patient was treated with and maintained on antithyroid drugs. The mechanism of the recurrence of Graves' disease in this patient is still unclear. The mechanism may have been the improper response of the immune system after partial thyroidectomy. To precisely determine the mechanisms in Graves' disease after partial thyroidectomy, further studies based on a greater number of cases are needed.

  6. Digital technologies and quality improvement in cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Mutter, D; Bouras, G; Marescaux, J

    2005-08-01

    Telecommunications, multimedia and computer technologies will introduce marked changes in the management of cancer. New modalities in the representation of patient's medical records using computer technology products and services allow unlimited cross-sharing of information. Education taught through multimedia methods, and through the Internet, is available anywhere and any time just like surgical simulation, robotics and virtual reality. Thanks to computer and IT technologies, surgeons will be able to acquire, assess and validate new surgical procedures or concepts from any geographical location. Live demonstrations shared via videoconferencing facilitate mental development through the acquisition of the cognitive aspects of surgical procedures. Virtual reality is a major improvement in the processing of medical imaging. As a result, the interpretation and the simulation of therapeutic approaches to patients with cancer are facilitated through transparency, navigation and manipulation. The Internet eventually offers uninterrupted communication links between healthcare providers (teaching, training or multidisciplinary telementoring included). Computer and IT technologies will undoubtedly contribute to standardized cancer treatment modalities and determined guidelines for good clinical practice worldwide.

  7. The Role of Non-Curative Surgery in Incurable, Asymptomatic Advanced Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-qiang; Luo, Hui-yan; Jin, Ying; Wei, Xiao-li; Xu, Rui-hua

    2013-01-01

    Background Although general agreement exists on palliative surgery with intent of symptom palliation in advanced gastric cancer (AGC), the role of non-curative surgery for incurable, asymptomatic AGC is hotly debated. We aim to clarify the role of non-curative surgery in patients with incurable, asymptomatic AGC under the first-line chemotherapy. Methods A total of 737 patients with incurable, asymptomatic advanced gastric adenocarcinoma between January 2008 and May 2012 at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were retrospectively analyzed, comprising 414 patients with non-curative surgery plus first-line chemotherapy, and 323 patients with first-line chemotherapy only. The clinicopathologic data, survival, and prognosis were evaluated, with propensity score adjustment for selection bias. Results The median overall survival (OS) outcomes significantly favored non-curative surgery group over first-line chemotherapy only group in entire population (28.00 versus 10.37 months, P = 0.000), stage 4 patients (23.87 versus 10.37 months, P = 0.000), young patients (28.70 versus 10.37 months, P = 0.000) and elderly patients (23.07 versus 10.27 months, P = 0.031). The median OS advantages of non-curative surgery over first-line chemotherapy only were also maintained when the analyses were restricted to single organ metastasis (P = 0.001), distant lymph node metastasis (P = 0.002), peritoneal metastasis (P = 0.000), and multi-organ metastasis (P = 0.010). Significant OS advantages of non-curative surgery over chemotherapy only were confirmed solid by multivariate analyses before and after adjustment on propensity score (P = 0.000). Small subsets of patients with surgery of single metastatic lesion after previous curative gastrectomy, and with surgery of both primary and single metastatic sites showed sound median OS. Conclusions There is a role for non-curative surgery plus first-line chemotherapy for incurable, asymptomatic AGC, in

  8. [Interrelations of Objective Conditions on Psychiatric Wards and Ward Climate Characteristics].

    PubMed

    Schalast, Norbert; Sieß, Julia

    2017-04-03

    Objective Investigate inter-relations of objective conditions and a ward's social climate. Method Staff and patients on 104 wards filled in the short Essen Climate Evaluation Schema (EssenCES). Assessments were related to setting variables (like open vs. closed wards, forensic vs. general psychiatric wards, ward size, staffing). Results Setting variables and climate characteristics are strongly associated. Conclusions The EssenCES, originally catered for forensic settings, proved to be useful to characterize general psychiatric wards. A number of suggestions regarding relevant setting conditions are clearly confirmed (like staffing level; open vs. closed wards). Remarkably, staff experience a higher level of Safety on forensic than on general psychiatric wards. Patients' Cohesion and Therapeutic Hold are rated higher on general psychiatric wards. Heterogeneity of patients (vs. specialization of wards) is not positively related to climate characteristics; staff experiences less Safety on non-specialized wards.

  9. Burden of Geriatric Events Among Older Adults Undergoing Major Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Saliba, Debra; Kwan, Lorna; Moore, Alison A.; Litwin, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Most malignancies are diagnosed in older adults who are potentially susceptible to aging-related health conditions; however, the manifestation of geriatric syndromes during surgical cancer treatment is not well quantified. Accordingly, we sought to assess the prevalence and ramifications of geriatric events during major surgery for cancer. Patients and Methods Using Nationwide Inpatient Sample data from 2009 to 2011, we examined hospital admissions for major cancer surgery among elderly patients (ie, age ≥ 65 years) and a referent group age 55 to 64 years. From these observations, we identified geriatric events that included delirium, dehydration, falls and fractures, failure to thrive, and pressure ulcers. We then estimated the collective prevalence of these events according to age, comorbidity, and cancer site and further explored their relationship with other hospital-based outcomes. Results Within a weighted sample of 939,150 patients, we identified at least one event in 9.2% of patients. Geriatric events were most common among patients age ≥ 75 years, with a Charlson comorbidity score ≥ 2, and who were undergoing surgery for cancer of the bladder, ovary, colon and/or rectum, pancreas, or stomach (P < .001). Adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics, those patients who experienced a geriatric event had a greater likelihood of concurrent complications (odds ratio [OR], 3.73; 95% CI, 3.55 to 3.92), prolonged hospitalization (OR, 5.47; 95% CI, 5.16 to 5.80), incurring high cost (OR, 4.97; 95% CI, 4.58 to 5.39), inpatient mortality (OR, 3.22; 95% CI, 2.94 to 3.53), and a discharge disposition other than home (OR, 3.64; 95% CI, 3.46 to 3.84). Conclusion Many older patients who receive cancer-directed surgery experience a geriatric event, particularly those who undergo major abdominal surgery. These events are linked to operative morbidity, prolonged hospitalization, and more expensive health care. As our population ages, efforts focused on

  10. Incidence of postoperative venous thromboembolism after laparoscopic versus open colorectal cancer surgery: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guoce; Wang, Xiaofeng; Yao, Weiwei; Li, Huashan

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to systematically compare the incidence of postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE; deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism) in patients with colorectal cancer after laparoscopic surgery and conventional open surgery. A systematic search of Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was conducted. Eleven randomized control trials involving 3058 individuals who reported VTE outcomes were identified, of whom 1677 were treated with laparoscopic therapy and 1381 underwent open surgery. The combined results of the individual trials showed no statistically significant difference in the odds ratio for overall VTE (odds ratio 0.64, 95% confidence interval, 0.33-1.23, P=0.18), as well as in subgroups of deep vein thrombosis and anticoagulant prophylaxis between these 2 approaches. In conclusion, laparoscopic resection could achieve similar outcomes in terms of the incidence of VTE, which are associated with long-term benefits of the patients.

  11. [Comparison of robotic surgery with laparoscopy for surgical staging of endometrial cancer: a meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Li, X M; Wang, J

    2017-03-25

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of robotic surgery in surgical staging of endometrial cancer. Methods: Searched English and Chinese databases, including Cochrane library, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Internet, data base of Wanfang, China Science and Technology Journal (CSTJ) , and relevant journals and magazines by hand from Jan. 2000 to Oct. 2016. (1) In accordance with the inclusion criteria, two independent investigators screened databases and extracted the relevant data respectively, then evaluated the quality of including studies in Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) . (2) Meta-analysis was performed with RevMan 5.3 software. Heterogeneity inspection was done for each study and different effect model included the random effect model and fixed effect model was chose according to the results: of the inspection. At last, the related parameters of the robotic surgery and laparoscopic surgery was analysed. Results (1) Thirteen articles were ultimately included. All of them were written in English and included a total of 1 554 patients, included 739 cases of robotic surgery and 815 cases of laparoscopic surgery. Thirteen articles were all cohort study, four of them were prospective cohort study, while others were retrospective cohort study. After quality assessment, all studies had more than 5 stars and illustrated the higher quality. (2) Meta-analysis results showed: compared with laparoscopic surgery in surgical staging of endometrial cancer, robotic surgery had less estimated blood loss [standard deviation (SD)=-72.31 ml, 95%CI:-107.29 to-37.33, P<0.01], less time for hospital stay (SD=-0.29 days, 95%CI:-0.46 to-0.13, P=0.001), less need for blood transfusion [risk ratio (RR)=0.57, 95%CI: 0.33 to 0.97, P=0.040], and conversion to open surgery (RR=0.41, 95%CI: 0.26 to 0.65, P=0.000), less intraoperative complications (RR=0.43, 95%CI: 0.24 to 0.76, P=0.004) in surgical staging of endometrial cancer. There was no

  12. Tangential Radiotherapy Without Axillary Surgery in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Results of a Prospective Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Julia S.; Winer, Eric P.

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the risk of regional-nodal recurrence in patients with early-stage, invasive breast cancer, with clinically negative axillary nodes, who were treated with breast-conserving surgery, 'high tangential' breast radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery or the use of a separate nodal radiation field. Methods and Materials: Between September 1998 and November 2003, 74 patients who were {>=}55 years of age with Stage I-II clinically node-negative, hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer underwent tumor excision to negative margins without axillary surgery as a part of a multi-institutional prospective study. Postoperatively, all underwent high-tangential, whole-breast radiotherapy with a boost to the tumor bed, followed by 5 years of hormonal therapy. Results: For the 74 patients enrolled, the median age was 74.5 years, and the median pathologic tumor size was 1.2 cm. Lymphatic vessel invasion was present in 5 patients (7%). At a median follow-up of 52 months, no regional-nodal failures or ipsilateral breast recurrences had been identified (95% confidence interval, 0-4%). Eight patients died, one of metastatic disease and seven of other causes. Conclusion: In this select group of mainly older patients with early-stage hormone-responsive breast cancer and clinically negative axillary nodes, treatment with high-tangential breast radiotherapy and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery, yielded a low regional recurrence rate. Such patients might be spared more extensive axillary treatment (axillary surgery, including sentinel node biopsy, or a separate nodal radiation field), with its associated time, expense, and morbidity.

  13. Chronological changes in lung cancer surgery in a single Japanese institution

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Haruhiko; Sakai, Hiroki; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Miyazawa, Tomoyuki; Marushima, Hideki; Saji, Hisashi

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the chronological changes in epidemiological factors and surgical outcomes in patients with lung cancer who underwent surgery in a single Japanese institution. Patients and methods A clinicopathological database of patients with lung cancer who underwent surgery with curative intent from January 1974 to December 2014 was reviewed. The chronological changes in various factors, including patient’s age, sex, histological type, tumor size, pathological stage (p-stage), surgical method, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, 30-day mortality, and postoperative overall survival (OS), were evaluated. Results A total of 1,616 patients were included. The numbers of resected patients, females, adenocarcinomas, p-stage IA patients, and age at the time of surgery increased with time, but tumor size decreased (all P<0.0001). Concerning surgical methods, the number of sublobar resections increased, but that of pneumonectomies decreased (P<0.0001). The mean operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and the postoperative 30-day mortality rate decreased (all P<0.0001). When the patients were divided into two groups (1974–2004 and 2005–2014), the 5-year OS rates for all patients and for p-stage IA patients improved from 44% to 79% and from 73% to 89%, respectively (all P<0.0001). The best 5-year OS rate was obtained for sublobar resection (73%), followed by lobectomy (60%), combined resection (22%), and pneumonectomy (21%; P<0.0001). Conclusion Changes in epidemiological factors, a trend toward less invasive surgery, and a remarkably improved postoperative OS were confirmed, which demonstrated the increasingly important role of surgery in therapeutic strategies for lung cancer. PMID:28331339

  14. Fertility-Sparing Surgery in Early Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: A Viable Option?

    PubMed Central

    Fotopoulou, Christina; Braicu, Ioana; Sehouli, Jalid

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) continues to represent one of the most lethal conditions in women in the western countries. With the shifting of childbearing towards higher age, EOC increasingly affects women with active childbearing wish, resulting in major impacts on treatment management. Next to the optimal therapeutic treatment strategies, gynecologic oncologists are being asked to incorporate into their decision-making processes the patients' wish for fertility preserving alternatives ideally without compromising oncologic safety. Nowadays, fertility-sparing surgery represents an effective alternative to conventional radical cytoreduction in younger women with early stages of the disease. As such, this paper considers indications for fertility sparing surgery in EOC, reflects on outcomes from the oncologic and reproductive data of the largest and most relevant series outcomes data, reporting on fertility sparing techniques in EOC, reviews medicamentous efforts to prevent chemotherapy induced gonadotoxicity, and discusses future aspects in the gynecologic cancer management. PMID:22529854

  15. The Role of VATS in Lung Cancer Surgery: Current Status and Prospects for Development

    PubMed Central

    Dziedzic, Dariusz; Orlowski, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of anatomic lung resection by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) 20 years ago, VATS has experienced major advances in both equipment and technique, introducing a technical challenge in the surgical treatment of both benign and malignant lung disease. The demonstrated safety, decreased morbidity, and equivalent efficacy of this minimally invasive technique have led to the acceptance of VATS as a standard surgical modality for early-stage lung cancer and increasing application to more advanced disease. Formerly there was much debate about the feasibility of the technique in cancer surgery and proper lymph node handling. Although there is a lack of proper randomized studies, it is now generally accepted that the outcome of a VATS procedure is at least not inferior to a resection via a traditional thoracotomy. PMID:26294970

  16. Risk factors associated with lymphoedema among Chinese women after breast cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hua-Ping; Zeng, Qing; Zhou, Jian-Rong

    2013-04-01

    Lymphoedema is recognized as a major sequela after breast cancer treatment. This study aims to estimate the risk factors of lymphoedema development after breast cancer treatment in Chinese women. A case-control study including 100 women with lymphoedema and 130 without lymphoedema, matched on the type of surgery. Lymphoedema was defined as breast cancer patients who complained of sensations such as swelling or heaviness. The logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between lymphoedema and various factors. Findings from this study show that age, overweight or obesity and radiotherapy were associated with lymphoedema development. Oncologists and nurses should provide adequate information for breast cancer survivors, especially for those who are at high-risk of developing lymphoedema.

  17. Surgery and radiation therapy of triple-negative breast cancers: From biology to clinics.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Jacques; Poortmans, Philip M P

    2016-08-01

    Triple negative breast cancer refers to tumours lacking the expression of the three most used tumour markers, namely oestrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). These cancers are known to carry a more dismal prognosis than the other molecular subtypes. Whether a more aggressive local-regional treatment is warranted or not in patients with triple-negative breast cancer is still a matter of debate. Indeed there remain a number of grey zones with respect to the optimization of the extent and the timing of surgery and radiation therapy (RT) in this patient population, also in consideration of the significant heterogeneity in biological behaviour and response to treatment identified for these tumours. The objective of this review is to provide an insight into the biological and clinical behaviour of triple-negative breast cancers and revisit the most recent advances in their management, focussing on local-regional treatments.

  18. A cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of calcium metabolic disorder in malignant childhood cancers in patients admitted to the pediatric ward of Vali-Asr Hospital.

    PubMed

    Moayeri, Heshmat; Oloomi, Zohreh; Sambo, Saudatu A

    2011-01-01

    Calcium metabolic disorders, such as hypercalcemia is a potentially life-threatening disorder especially when coupled with an already compromised condition. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic calcium disorders in childhood cancers of patients admitted to the pediatric ward of Vali-Asr Hospital from the year 2001-2008. The study was carried out by reviewing hospital records of these patients from the hospital archives. Range of age was between 1 and 18 years. Inclusion criteria for the study population were the presence of total serum calcium evaluated at least once; and for the hypercalcemia subgroup, at least two occasions of elevated calcium levels. The prevalence of hypercalcemia and other metabolic abnormalities of phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, urea and creatinine; the prevalence of parameters such as age, gender, type and duration of cancer were determined within these groups. Median of elevated calcium levels was also determined to classify hypercalcemia into moderate and severe hypercalcemia. Median was 11.7 mg/dl, therefore, severe hypercalcemia was ≥11.7 mg/dl and moderate hypercalcemia, a range between the upper limit of normal, 10.8 and 10.2 mg/dl for the child and adolescent respectively, and 11.7 mg/dl. Relationship between hypercalcemia and the other metabolic disorders and parameters were analyzed by the SPSS V.17 program. The population of study consisted of 148 cases. Hypercalcemia was found in 8 (5.4%) patients. Half of the cases were associated with severe hypercalcemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Out of 148 cases, there were 92 (62%) boys and 56 (38%) girls. Mean and median ages were 10.9 and 11 years respectively. Mean duration of cancer was 12.8 and median 6 months. There were 57 (38.5%) cases of leukemia and 91 (61.5%) cases of solid tumors. The most common cancers were ALL, 44 cases (29.7%) followed by brain tumors, 19 cases (12.8%); non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 16 cases (10.8%); 13 cases of acute

  19. Pico2 Monitoring of Transferred Jejunum Perfusion Using an Air Tonometry Technique After Hypopharyngeal Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ozawa, Hiroyuki; Imanishi, Yorihisa; Ito, Fumihiro; Watanabe, Yoshihiro; Kato, Takashi; Nameki, Hideo; Isobe, Kiyoshi; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of intraluminal Pco2 (Pico2) monitoring by air tonometry for the assessment of the vascular condition of the transferred jejunum after surgery for hypopharyngeal cancer. Pico2 in the transplanted jejunum of 24 patients was monitored using air tonometry after radical surgery for hypopharyngeal cancer from 2003 to 2010. All but 1 patient, who removed the catheter before monitoring began, were monitored safely. Pico2 in the transferred jejunum correlated with arterial Pco2 (Paco2) that was measured concurrently, and dissociation of Pico2 from Paco2 was observed in cases with vascular complication. In those cases without postoperative vascular complication, the Pico2 value gradually increased for 3 hours but then decreased by 12 hours after surgery. Three patients experienced major vascular complication. All 3 patients had continuous elevation of Pico2 >100 mm Hg, although vascular flow in 1 patient recovered by removal of a venous thrombosis and reanastomosis of the vein 7.5 hours after surgery. Four other patients who experienced elevation of Pico2 had their skin suture released for decompression of their neck wound, resulting in a decrease in Pico2 after treatment. The current results demonstrated that continuous monitoring of Pico2 by air tonometry accurately reflects the vascular condition of the transferred jejunum, and this method is one of the best options for postoperative monitoring of jejunum blood perfusion. PMID:25789955

  20. Robotic surgery of locally advanced gastric cancer: a single-surgeon experience of 41 cases.

    PubMed

    Vasilescu, C; Procopiuc, L

    2012-01-01

    The mainstay of curative gastric cancer treatment is open gastric resection with regional lymph node dissection. Minimally invasive surgery is yet to become an established technique with a well defined role. Robotic surgery has by-passed some of the limitations of conventional laparoscopy and has proven both safe and feasible. We present our initial experience with robotic surgery based on 41 gastric cancer patients. We especially wish to underline the advantages of the robotic system when performing the digestive tract anastomoses. We present the techniques of end-to-side eso-jejunoanastomoses (using a circular stapler or manual suture) and side-to-side eso-jejunoanastomoses. In our hands, the results with circular stapled anastomoses were good and we advocate against manual suturing when performing anastomoses in robotic surgery. Moreover, we recommend performing totally intracorporeal anastomoses which have a better post-operative outcome, especially in obese patients. We present three methods of realising the total intracorporeal eso-jejuno-anastomosis with a circular stapler: manual purse-string suture, using the OrVil and the double stapling technique. The eso-jejunoanastomosis is one of the most difficult steps in performing the total gastrectomy, but these techniques allow the surgeon to choose the best option for each case. We consider that surgeons who undertake total gastrectomies must have a special training in performing these anastomoses.

  1. Omega-3 fatty acid effects on biochemical indices following cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Stehr, Sebastian N; Heller, Axel R

    2006-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have indicated that a high intake of saturated fat and/or animal fat increases the risk of colon and breast cancer. Laboratory and clinical investigations have shown a reduced risk of colon carcinogenesis after alimentation with omega-3 fatty acids, as found in fish oil. Mechanisms accounting for these anti-tumor effects are reduced levels of PGE(2) and inducible NO synthase as well as an increased lipid peroxidation, or translation inhibition with subsequent cell cycle arrest. Further, omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid is capable of down-regulating the production and effect of a number of mediators of cachexia, such as IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha and proteolysis-inducing factor. In patients with advanced cancer, it is possible to increase energy and protein intake via an enteral or parenteral route, but this seems to have little impact on progressive weight loss. Fish oil administration improved patients' conditions in cancer cachexia and during radio- and chemotherapy. In patients undergoing tumor resection surgery we observed improvement of liver and pancreas biochemical indices when omega-3 fatty acids were administered. This paper is a review of recent developments in the field of nutrition in cancer patients with emphasis on the acute phase response following cancer surgery and the beneficial aspects of fish oil administration.

  2. A novel spectral imaging system for use during pancreatic cancer surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peller, Joseph; Shipley, A. E.; Trammell, Susan R.; Abolbashari, Mehrdad; Farahi, Faramarz

    2015-03-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Most pancreatic cancer patients will die within the first year of diagnosis, and just 6% will survive five years. Currently, surgery is the only treatment that offers a chance of cure for pancreatic cancer patients. Accurately identifying the tumors margins in real time is a significant difficulty during pancreatic cancer surgery and contributes to the low 5-year survival rate. We are developing a hyperspectral imaging system based on compressive sampling for real-time tumor margin detection to facilitate more effective removal of diseased tissue and result in better patient outcomes. Recent research has shown that optical spectroscopy can be used to distinguish between healthy and diseased tissue and will likely become an important minimally invasive diagnostic tool for a range of diseases. Reflectance spectroscopy provides information about tissue morphology, while laser-induced autofluorescence spectra give accurate information about the content and molecular structure of the emitting tissue. We are developing a spectral imaging system that targets emission from collagen and NAD(P)H as diagnostics for differentiating healthy and diseased pancreatic tissue. In this study, we demonstrate the ability of our camera system to acquire hyperspectral images and its potential application for imaging autofluorescent emission from pancreatic tissue.

  3. Protocol for a multicentre randomised feasibility trial evaluating early Surgery Alone In LOw Rectal cancer (SAILOR)

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Kymberley; Hutchings, Hayley; Islam, Saiful; Holland, Gail; Hatcher, Olivia; Gwynne, Sarah; Jenkins, Ian; Coyne, Peter; Duff, Michael; Feldman, Melanie; Winter, Des C; Gollins, Simon; Quirke, Phil; West, Nick; Brown, Gina; Fitzsimmons, Deborah; Brown, Alan; Beynon, John

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There are 11 500 rectal cancers diagnosed annually in the UK. Although surgery remains the primary treatment, there is evidence that preoperative radiotherapy (RT) improves local recurrence rates. High-quality surgery in rectal cancer is equally important in minimising local recurrence. Advances in MRI-guided prediction of resection margin status and improvements in abdominoperineal excision of the rectum (APER) technique supports a reassessment of the contribution of preoperative RT. A more selective approach to RT may be appropriate given the associated toxicity. Methods and analysis This trial will explore the feasibility of a definitive trial evaluating the omission of RT in resectable low rectal cancer requiring APER. It will test the feasibility of randomising patients to (1) standard care (neoadjuvant long course RT±chemotherapy and APER, or (2) APER surgery alone for cT2/T3ab N0/1 low rectal cancer with clear predicted resection margins on MRI. RT schedule will be 45 Gy over 5 weeks as current standard, with restaging and surgery after 8–12 weeks. Recruitment will be for 24 months with a minimum 12-month follow-up. Objectives Objectives include testing the ability to recruit, consent and retain patients, to quantify the number of patients eligible for a definitive trial and to test feasibility of outcomes measures. These include locoregional recurrence rates, distance to circumferential resection margin, toxicity and surgical complications including perineal wound healing, quality of life and economic analysis. The quality of MRI staging, RT delivery and surgical specimen quality will be closely monitored. Ethics and dissemination The trial is approved by the Regional Ethics Committee and Health Research Authority (HRA) or equivalent. Written informed consent will be obtained. Serious adverse events will be reported to Swansea Trials Unit (STU), the ethics committee and trial sites. Trial results will be submitted for peer review

  4. Thoracic Duct Fistula after Thyroid Cancer Surgery: Towards a New Treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Rodier, Jean-François; Volkmar, Pierre-Philippe; Bodin, Frédéric; Frigo, Séverine; Ciftci, Sait; Dahlet, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The use of somatostatin analogs is a new conservative therapeutic approach for the treatment of chyle fistulas developing after thyroid cancer surgery. The combination therapy with a total parenteral nutrition should avoid the high morbidity of a re-intervention with an uncertain outcome. This promising trend is supported by the present case report of a chyle leak occurring after total thyroidectomy with central and lateral neck dissection for a papillary carcinoma, which was treated successfully without immediate or distant sequelae. PMID:21734879

  5. sEphB4-HSA Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Bladder Cancer, Prostate Cancer, or Kidney Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-06

    Infiltrating Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Recurrent Bladder Carcinoma; Stage I Prostate Cancer; Stage I Renal Cell Cancer; Stage II Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage II Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIA Prostate Cancer; Stage IIB Prostate Cancer; Stage III Prostate Cancer; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer

  6. Factors associated with early recurrence after curative surgery for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Wei-Ming; Meng, Qing-Bin; Yu, Jian-Chun; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Zhi-Tian

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To characterize patterns of gastric cancer recurrence and patient survival and to identify predictors of early recurrence after surgery. METHODS: Clinicopathological data for 417 consecutive patients who underwent curative resection for gastric cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Tumor and node status was reclassified according to the 7th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer tumor-node-metastasis classification for carcinoma of the stomach. Survival data came from both the patients’ follow-up records and telephone follow-ups. Recurrent gastric cancer was diagnosed based on clinical imaging, gastroscopy with biopsy, and/or cytological examination of ascites, or intraoperative findings in patients who underwent reoperation. Predictors of early recurrence were compared in patients with pT1 and pT2-4a stage tumors. Pearson’s χ2 test and Fisher’s exact test were used to compare differences between categorical variables. Survival curves were constructed using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared via the log-rank test. Variables identified as potentially important for early recurrence using univariate analysis were determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of 417 gastric cancer patients, 80 (19.2%) were diagnosed with early gastric cancer and the remaining 337 (80.8%) were diagnosed with locally advanced gastric cancer. After a median follow-up period of 56 mo, 194 patients (46.5%) experienced recurrence. The mean time from curative surgery to recurrence in these 194 patients was 24 ± 18 mo (range, 1-84 mo). Additionally, of these 194 patients, 129 (66.5%) experienced recurrence within 2 years after surgery. There was no significant difference in recurrence patterns between early and late recurrence (P < 0.05 each). For pT1 stage gastric cancer, tumor size (P = 0.011) and pN stage (P = 0.048) were associated with early recurrence of gastric tumors. Patient age, pT stage, pN stage, Lauren histotype, lymphovascular

  7. Lactation following conservation surgery and radiotherapy for breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Varsos, G.; Yahalom, J. )

    1991-02-01

    A 38-year-old woman with early stage invasive breast cancer was treated with wide excision of the tumor, axillary lymph node dissection, and breast irradiation. Three years later, she gave birth to a normal baby. She attempted breast feeding and had full lactation from the untreated breast. The irradiated breast underwent only minor changes during pregnancy and postpartum but produced small amounts of colostrum and milk for 2 weeks postpartum. There are only a few reports of lactation after breast irradiation. These cases are reviewed, and possible factors affecting breast function after radiotherapy are discussed. Because of scant information available regarding its safety for the infant, nursing from the irradiated breast is not recommended.

  8. Long-term survival and prognosis associated with conversion surgery in patients with metastatic gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Einama, Takahiro; Abe, Hironori; Shichi, Shunsuke; Matsui, Hiroki; Kanazawa, Ryo; Shibuya, Kazuaki; Suzuki, Takashi; Matsuzawa, Fumihiko; Hashimoto, Taku; Kohei, Nakachi; Homma, Shigenori; Kawamura, Hideki; Taketomi, Akinobu

    2017-01-01

    In gastric cancer, primary systemic chemotherapy is the standard approach for the management of patients with initially unresectable metastasis, and it occasionally leads to a reduction in the size of the lesion, which facilitates surgical resection. The aim of this study was to examine the prognosis of patients who were able to undergo complete resection following chemotherapy. A total of 10 patients who underwent radical surgery for stage IV primary gastric cancer after chemotherapy between 2009 and 2015 at the Department of Surgery of Hokkaido Social Work Association Obihiro Hospital (Obihiro, Japan) were retrospectively investigated. Three regimens were used (S-1, n=1; S-1 + cisplatin, n=8; and S-1 + docetaxel, n=1). The mean time from chemotherapy to surgery was 210 days. One total gastrectomy + splenectomy + colectomy, one total gastrectomy + splenectomy, four total gastrectomies and three distal gastrectomies were performed. There were two cases of pancreatic fistula formation postoperatively. All the patients survived for >1 year. Of the 10 patients, 5 survived without recurrence. The median survival time was 871.1 days after diagnosis. Therefore, curative resection after chemotherapy is associated with a better prognosis in stage IV gastric cancer patients.

  9. The learning curves of robotic and three-dimensional laparoscopic surgery in cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue-Lian; Du, Dan-Feng; Jiang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The 3D laparoscopy systems and robotic systems have been introduced into clinical practice for a few years. But the comparison of robotic and 3D laparoscopic gynecologic surgery is still needed. OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively compare the learning curves of robotic and 3D laparoscopic hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy in cervical cancer. STUDY DESIGN: The operational duration, blood loss, peritoneal drainage of first 24 hours after operation, total hospitalization days, hospitalization days after operation, lymph nodes collected, learning curves and cost of robotic and 3D laparoscopic hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy in cervical cancer performed by one experienced surgeon were studied. RESULTS: There was one surgeon who performed 37 cases of robotic and 24 cases of 3D laparoscopic hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy, and the turning point of learning curves was case 13th and case 10th. The differences of duration of operation, blood loss, peritoneal drainage of first 24 hours after operation, total hospitalization days, hospitalization days after operation, lymph nodes collected and perioperative complications were not statistically significant. But the cost of each robotic operation was higher than 3D operation. CONCLUSIONS: The turning point of the learning curve of 3D laparoscopic hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy is earlier than that of robotic sugery in patients with cervical cancer, and there is no obvious benefit from robotic surgery than 3D surgery in the terms of short-term medical index and hospitalization cost. PMID:27994668

  10. 21 CFR 50.56 - Wards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... act in, the best interest of the child for the duration of the child's participation in the clinical... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wards. 50.56 Section 50.56 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... Additional Safeguards for Children in Clinical Investigations § 50.56 Wards. (a) Children who are wards...

  11. 21 CFR 50.56 - Wards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... act in, the best interest of the child for the duration of the child's participation in the clinical... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wards. 50.56 Section 50.56 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... Additional Safeguards for Children in Clinical Investigations § 50.56 Wards. (a) Children who are wards...

  12. 21 CFR 50.56 - Wards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

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  13. 21 CFR 50.56 - Wards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... act in, the best interest of the child for the duration of the child's participation in the clinical... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wards. 50.56 Section 50.56 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... Additional Safeguards for Children in Clinical Investigations § 50.56 Wards. (a) Children who are wards...

  14. 34 CFR 97.409 - Wards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wards. 97.409 Section 97.409 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research § 97.409 Wards. (a) Children who are wards of the State or any other...

  15. 34 CFR 97.409 - Wards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wards. 97.409 Section 97.409 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research § 97.409 Wards. (a) Children who are wards of the State or any other...

  16. 34 CFR 97.409 - Wards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wards. 97.409 Section 97.409 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research § 97.409 Wards. (a) Children who are wards of the State or any other...

  17. 34 CFR 97.409 - Wards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wards. 97.409 Section 97.409 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research § 97.409 Wards. (a) Children who are wards of the State or any other...

  18. 34 CFR 97.409 - Wards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research § 97.409 Wards. (a) Children who are wards of the State or any other agency..., or similar settings in which the majority of children involved as subjects are not wards. (b)...

  19. 45 CFR 46.409 - Wards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Protections for Children Involved as Subjects in Research § 46.409 Wards. (a) Children who are wards of the..., camps, hospitals, institutions, or similar settings in which the majority of children involved as... require appointment of an advocate for each child who is a ward, in addition to any other...

  20. 45 CFR 46.409 - Wards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Protections for Children Involved as Subjects in Research § 46.409 Wards. (a) Children who are wards of the..., camps, hospitals, institutions, or similar settings in which the majority of children involved as... require appointment of an advocate for each child who is a ward, in addition to any other...

  1. Clinical implications of preoperative chemoradiotherapy prior to laparoscopic surgery for locally advanced low rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Keisaku; Shimbo, Taiju; Tanaka, Keitaro; Yamamoto, Masashi; Narumi, Yoshifumi; Okuda, Junji; Uchiyama, Kazuhisa

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate whether preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has any adverse effects on laparoscopic surgery (LS) for locally advanced low rectal cancer (LARC). The study was performed at the Osaka Medical College Hospital, and included patients who were operated on between July 2006 and December 2013. The short-term outcomes in 156 patients who underwent surgery for LARC following CRT were evaluated, of whom 152 underwent LS. Among the patients who were followed for >40 months, 77 patients (the CRT group) were compared with 39 patients who underwent LS without CRT (the surgery-alone group) for long-term outcomes. The total number of patients who received sphincter-preserving surgery was 74%. No positive longitudinal resection margins were identified, and only 1.3% had identifiable positive circumferential resection margins. The complication rate was 14%, and no serious complications occurred. There were no significant differences between the CRT and the surgery-alone groups in terms of the 5-year relapse-free survival rate (70.1 vs. 61.5%; P=0.81) or the 5-year overall survival rate (88.3 vs. 69.2%; P=0.06). However, the 5-year local recurrence-free survival rate was significantly improved in the CRT group patients (96.1 vs. 79.5%; P=0.009). In conclusion, our results have demonstrated that LS with preoperative CRT appears to be feasible and safe, and may have beneficial effects on local recurrence. PMID:28123724

  2. Reduced port laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer is safe and feasible in terms of short-term outcomes: comparative study with conventional multiport laparoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ju Myung; Lee, Yoon Suk; Kim, Ho Young; Lee, In Kyu; Oh, Seung Teak; Kim, Jun Gi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Laparoscopic surgery was previously accepted as an alternative surgical option in treatment for colorectal cancer. Nowadays, single-port laparoscopic surgery (SPLS) is introduced as a method to maximize advantages of minimally invasive surgery. However, SPLS has several limitations compared to conventional multiport laparoscopic surgery (CMLS). To overcome those limitations of SPLS, reduced port laparoscopic surgery (RPLS) was introduced. This study aimed at evaluating the short-term outcomes of RPLS. Methods Patients who underwent CMLS and RPLS of colon cancer between August 2011 and December 2013 were included in this study. Short-term clinical and pathological outcome were compared between the 2 groups. Results Thirty-two patients underwent RPLS and 217 patients underwent CMLS. Shorter operation time, less blood loss, and faster bowel movement were shown in RPLS group in this study. In terms of postoperative pain, numeric rating scale (NRS) of RPLS was lower than that of CMLS. Significant differences were shown in terms of tumor size, harvested lymph node, perineural invasion, and pathological stage. No significant differences were confirmed in terms of other surgical outcomes. Conclusion In this study, RPLS was technically feasible and safe. Especially in terms of postoperative pain, RPLS was comparable to CMLS. RPLS may be a feasible alternative option in selected patients with colon cancer. PMID:27757397

  3. Quality of life in rectal cancer surgery: What do the patient ask?

    PubMed Central

    De Palma, Giovanni D; Luglio, Gaetano

    2015-01-01

    Rectal cancer surgery has dramatically changed with the introduction of the total mesorectal excision (TME), which has demonstrated to significantly reduce the risk of local recurrence. The combination of TME with radiochemotherapy has led to a reduction of local failure to less than 5%. On the other hand, surgery for rectal cancer is also impaired by the potential for a significant loss in quality of life. This is a new challenge surgeons should think about nowadays: If patients live more, they also want to live better. The fight against cancer cannot only be based on survival, recurrence rate and other oncological endpoints. Patients are also asking for a decent quality of life. Rectal cancer is probably a paradigmatic example: Its treatment is often associated with the loss or severe impairment of faecal function, alteration of body anatomy, urogenital problems and, sometimes, intractable pain. The evolution of laparoscopic colorectal surgery in the last decades is an important example, which emphasizes the importance that themes like scar, recovery, pain and quality of life might play for patients. The attention to quality of life from both patients and surgeons led to several surgical innovations in the treatment of rectal cancer: Sphincter saving procedures, reservoir techniques (pouch and coloplasty) to mitigate postoperative faecal disorders, nerve-sparing techniques to reduce the risk for sexual dysfunction. Even more conservative procedures have been proposed alternatively to the abdominal-perineal resection, like the local excisions or transanal endoscopic microsurgery, till the possibility of a wait and see approach in selected cases after radiation therapy. PMID:26730279

  4. Cloud-Based Service Information System for Evaluating Quality of Life after Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Hao-Yun; Wu, Wen-Hsiung; Liang, Tyng-Yeu; Lee, King-The; Hou, Ming-Feng; Shi, Hon-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although recent studies have improved understanding of quality of life (QOL) outcomes of breast conserving surgery, few have used longitudinal data for more than two time points, and few have examined predictors of QOL over two years. Additionally, the longitudinal data analyses in such studies rarely apply the appropriate statistical methodology to control for censoring and inter-correlations arising from repeated measures obtained from the same patient pool. This study evaluated an internet-based system for measuring longitudinal changes in QOL and developed a cloud-based system for managing patients after breast conserving surgery. Methods This prospective study analyzed 657 breast cancer patients treated at three tertiary academic hospitals. Related hospital personnel such as surgeons and other healthcare professionals were also interviewed to determine the requirements for an effective cloud-based system for surveying QOL in breast cancer patients. All patients completed the SF-36, Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30) and its supplementary breast cancer measure (QLQ-BR23) at baseline, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years postoperatively. The 95% confidence intervals for differences in responsiveness estimates were derived by bootstrap estimation. Scores derived by these instruments were interpreted by generalized estimating equation before and after surgery. Results All breast cancer surgery patients had significantly improved QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 subscale scores throughout the 2-year follow-up period (p<0.05). During the study period, QOL generally had a negative association with advanced age, high Charlson comorbidity index score, tumor stage III or IV, previous chemotherapy, and long post-operative LOS. Conversely, QOL was positively associated with previous radiotherapy and hormone therapy. Additionally, patients with high scores for preoperative QOL tended to have high scores for QLQ-C30, QLQ-BR23 and SF-36 subscales. Based on the results of

  5. Expert Opinion on Laparoscopic Surgery for Colorectal Cancer Parallels Evidence from a Cumulative Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Martel, Guillaume; Crawford, Alyson; Barkun, Jeffrey S.; Boushey, Robin P.; Ramsay, Craig R.; Fergusson, Dean A.

    2012-01-01

    Background This study sought to synthesize survival outcomes from trials of laparoscopic and open colorectal cancer surgery, and to determine whether expert acceptance of this technology in the literature has parallel cumulative survival evidence. Study Design A systematic review of randomized trials was conducted. The primary outcome was survival, and meta-analysis of time-to-event data was conducted. Expert opinion in the literature (published reviews, guidelines, and textbook chapters) on the acceptability of laparoscopic colorectal cancer was graded using a 7-point scale. Pooled survival data were correlated in time with accumulating expert opinion scores. Results A total of 5,800 citations were screened. Of these, 39 publications pertaining to 23 individual trials were retained. As well, 414 reviews were included (28 guidelines, 30 textbook chapters, 20 systematic reviews, 336 narrative reviews). In total, 5,782 patients were randomized to laparoscopic (n = 3,031) and open (n = 2,751) colorectal surgery. Survival data were presented in 16 publications. Laparoscopic surgery was not inferior to open surgery in terms of overall survival (HR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.80, 1.09). Expert opinion in the literature pertaining to the oncologic acceptability of laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer correlated most closely with the publication of large RCTs in 2002–2004. Although increasingly accepted since 2006, laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer remained controversial. Conclusions Laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer is non-inferior to open surgery in terms of overall survival, and has been so since 2004. The majority expert opinion in the literature has considered these two techniques to be equivalent since 2002–2004. Laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer has been increasingly accepted since 2006, but remains controversial. Knowledge translation efforts in this field appear to have paralleled the accumulation of clinical trial evidence. PMID:22532846

  6. [Re-operations for 2nd primary lung cancer detected during follow-up after lung cancer surgery].

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Masanori

    2013-07-01

    Re-operations for 2nd primary lung cancers are one of the most challenging modality for thoracic surgeons. Surgeons should have knowledge of indication of re-operations as well as surgical techniques and perioperative management of patients with 2nd primary lung cancers. When performing repeated pulmonary resection on the same side of the 1st surgery, following points are important for accomplishment of a safe re-operation:1.Wide thoracotomy with muscle dissections is recommended. 2.Throughout adhesion lysis between lung parenchyma and surrounding structures are required before manipulating pulmonary vessels. 3.The main pulmonary artery is encircled before dissection of the pulmonary artery. 4.Surgeons should be familiar with intrapericardial exposure of the main pulmonary artery. The techniques consist of division of the ligament of arteriosum, incision of the pericardium, and encircle of the origin of the mail pulmonary. Re-operations for metachronous lung cancers provided favorable survival in patients with adequate physiologic pulmonary reserve.

  7. Refusal of Curative Radiation Therapy and Surgery Among Patients With Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Aizer, Ayal A.; Chen, Ming-Hui; Parekh, Arti; Choueiri, Toni K.; Kim, Simon P.; Martin, Neil E.; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Nguyen, Paul L.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Surgery and radiation therapy represent the only curative options for many patients with solid malignancies. However, despite the recommendations of their physicians, some patients refuse these therapies. This study characterized factors associated with refusal of surgical or radiation therapy as well as the impact of refusal of recommended therapy on patients with localized malignancies. Methods and Materials: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program to identify a population-based sample of 925,127 patients who had diagnoses of 1 of 8 common malignancies for which surgery and/or radiation are believed to confer a survival benefit between 1995 and 2008. Refusal of oncologic therapy, as documented in the SEER database, was the primary outcome measure. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with refusal. The impact of refusal of therapy on cancer-specific mortality was assessed with Fine and Gray's competing risks regression. Results: In total, 2441 of 692,938 patients (0.4%) refused surgery, and 2113 of 232,189 patients (0.9%) refused radiation, despite the recommendations of their physicians. On multivariable analysis, advancing age, decreasing annual income, nonwhite race, and unmarried status were associated with refusal of surgery, whereas advancing age, decreasing annual income, Asian American race, and unmarried status were associated with refusal of radiation (P<.001 in all cases). Refusal of surgery and radiation were associated with increased estimates of cancer-specific mortality for all malignancies evaluated (hazard ratio [HR], 2.80, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.59-3.03; P<.001 and HR 1.97 [95% CI, 1.78-2.18]; P<.001, respectively). Conclusions: Nonwhite, less affluent, and unmarried patients are more likely to refuse curative surgical and/or radiation-based oncologic therapy, raising concern that socioeconomic factors may drive some patients to forego potentially life-saving care.

  8. Effects of circuit exercise on autonomic nerve system of survivors after surgery of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyeng-Cheol; Yang, Jung-Ok; Kim, Seung-Ryol

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effects of exercise on the autonomic nervous system of breast cancer survivors by measuring heart rate variability during an 8-week circulation exercise program. [Subjects and Methods] This intervention study included 22 volunteer female participants, younger than 65 years, who were selected from patients who had been diagnosed with carcinoma in situ and primary invasive breast cancer, stage I-III, in accordance with the American Joint Committee on Cancer (2009) and had undergone breast surgery. [Results] Despite the statistically significant differences in the low-frequency range (log), the high-frequency range (log), the standard deviation of the N-N interval, and the root mean square of differences values, which are heart rate variability indicators after exercise, between the two groups, no statistically significant difference was found in the low-frequency range/the high-frequency range values between the two groups. [Conclusion] The improvement in heart rate variability during the 8-week circulation exercise program confirms the increase in the activity of the autonomic nervous system of breast cancer patients after surgery. PMID:27821958

  9. IDENTIFICATION OF DISTINCT DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOM TRAJECTORIES IN WOMEN FOLLOWING SURGERY FOR BREAST CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Laura B.; Cooper, Bruce A.; Neuhaus, John; West, Claudia; Paul, Steven; Aouizerat, Bradley; Abrams, Gary; Edrington, Janet; Hamolsky, Debby; Miaskowski, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Objective Most longitudinal studies of depressive symptoms reported mean symptom scores that tend to obscure interindividual heterogeneity in the symptom experience. The identification of subgroups of patients with distinct trajectories of depressive symptoms may help identify high risk individuals who require an intervention. This study aimed to identify subgroups of breast cancer patients (n=398) with distinct trajectories of depressive symptoms in the first six months after surgery, as well as predictors of these trajectories. Methods Growth mixture modeling was used to identify the latent classes based on Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale scores completed prior to and monthly for six months after surgery. Results Four latent classes of patients with distinct depressive symptom trajectories were identified: Resilient (38.9%), Subsyndromal (45.2%), Delayed (11.3%), and Peak (4.5%). Patients in the Subsyndromal class were significantly younger than patients in the Resilient class. Compared to the Resilient class, Subsyndromal, Delayed, and Peak classes had higher mean trait and state anxiety scores prior to surgery. Except for axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), disease- and treatment-related characteristics did not differ across the classes. A greater proportion of women in the Subsyndromal class had an ALND compared to those in the Resilient class. Conclusions Breast cancer patients experience different trajectories of depressive symptoms after surgery. Of note, over 60% of these women were classified into one of three distinct subgroups with clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms. Identification of phenotypic and genotypic predictors of symptom trajectories after cancer treatment warrants additional investigation. PMID:21728421

  10. Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy in treatment of gastric cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, Lynne M.; Man, Yangao; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Xin, Hongwu; Avital, Itzhak

    2017-01-01

    Although gastric cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis is associated with poor prognosis and is generally treated with palliative systemic therapy, recent studies have shown that cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) may prove to be an efficacious treatment option. In addition to reviewing the natural history of gastric cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis, this mini-review examines literature on the efficacy of CRS and HIPEC as compared to chemotherapy and surgical options. Both randomized and non-randomized studies were summarized with the emphasis focused on overall survival. In summary, CRS and HIPEC are indeed a promising treatment option for gastric cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis and large randomized clinical trials are warranted. PMID:28373757

  11. [Endobronchial surgery and photodynamic therapy for the treatment of multiple primary lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Sokolov, V V; Telegina, L V; Trakhtenberg, A Kh; Kolbanov, K I; Pikin, O V; Frank, G A

    2010-01-01

    Endoluminal endoscopic surgery and fotodynamic therapy were used in treatment of 104 patients with multiple primary lung cancer (MPLC), or more exactly, of trachea and lobar and segmental bronchi. Diagnostic division included videobronchoscopy of high resolution in with light and NBI-regimen; autoflourescent and 5-ALA-induced fluorescent videobronchoscopy, endosonography, computed tompgraphy or magnetic resonance imaging of the thorax and epithelial mucine (MUC-1) immunohistochemical analysis of scarificates. Result of treatment strongly depended on the size of primary tumor. Complete regression of cancer was observed for all tumors less then 1 sm in diameter. Endoscopic treatment, including fotodynamic therapy and argon coagulation, proved to be a method of choice in treatment early synchronous or metachronous multiple primary lung cancer in incurable patients.

  12. Lymphadenectomy and health-related quality of life after oesophageal cancer surgery: a nationwide, population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Schandl, Anna; Johar, Asif; Lagergren, Jesper; Lagergren, Pernilla

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to clarify whether more extensive surgical lymph node resection during oesophageal cancer surgery influences patients' health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Setting This was a nationwide Swedish population-based study. Participants A total of 616 patients who underwent curatively intended oesophageal cancer surgery in 2001–2005 were followed up at 6 months and 5 years after surgery. Outcome measures HRQOL was assessed with the validated European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the oesophageal cancer-specific module (EORTC QLQ-OES18). The number of removed lymph nodes in relation to HRQOL was analysed using multivariable linear regression, providing mean score differences in HRQOL scores with 95% CIs. The results were adjusted for age, comorbidity, body mass index, tumour stage, tumour histology, postoperative complications and surgeon volume. Results The study included 382 and 136 patients who completed the EORTC questionnaires at 6 months and 5 years following surgery, respectively. In general, HRQOL remained stable over time, with only improvements in role function and appetite loss. A larger number of removed lymph nodes did not decrease the HRQOL measure at 6 months or 5 years after surgery. Conclusions More extensive lymphadenectomy during oesophageal cancer surgery might not decrease patients' short-term or long-term HRQOL, but larger studies are needed to establish this potential lack of association. PMID:27566643

  13. Increase in Endoscopic and Laparoscopic Surgery Regarding the Therapeutic Approach of Gastric Cancer Detected by Cancer Screening in Saga Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Shunsuke; Sakata, Yasuhisa; Iwakiri, Ryuichi; Hara, Megumi; Akutagawa, Kayo; Shimoda, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Hidaka, Hidenori; Sakata, Hiroyuki; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Mizuguchi, Masanobu; Shimoda, Yuichiro; Irie, Hiroyuki; Noshiro, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Despite recent advances in endoscopic treatment and laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancers, an increase in the uptake of these therapeutic approaches has not yet been fully demonstrated. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the change in therapeutic approaches regarding the treatment of gastric cancers detected by cancer screening in Saga Prefecture, Japan between April 2002 and March 2011. Methods Gastric cancer screening by X-ray was performed on 311,074 subjects between April 2002 and March 2011. In total, 534 patients were thereafter diagnosed with gastric cancer. Eighteen subjects were excluded because precise details of their treatment were not available. To evaluate the changes in the therapeutic approach, the observation period was divided into three 3-year intervals: Period I: April 2002 to March 2005; Period II: April 2005 to March 2008; Period III: April 2008 to March 2011. Results The use of open laparotomy for the treatment of gastric cancer decreased, and laparoscopic surgery and endoscopic treatment increased markedly in a time-dependent manner. A 2.5-fold increase in endoscopic treatment, and a 18.4-fold increase in laparoscopic surgery were observed in Period III compared with Period I (after adjusting for age and tumor characteristics). Conclusion Endoscopic treatment and laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer increased during the investigation period (2002-2011), although the tumor characteristics of the gastric cancers detected through cancer screening in Saga Prefecture, Japan did not show any changes.

  14. Multicenter experiences in temporal bone cancer surgery based on 89 cases

    PubMed Central

    Wierzbicka, Małgorzata; Niemczyk, Kazimierz; Bruzgielewicz, Antoni; Durko, Marcin; Klatka, Janusz; Kopeć, Tomasz; Osuch-Wójcikiewicz, Ewa; Pietruszewska, Wioletta; Szymański, Marcin; Szyfter, Witold

    2017-01-01

    Objective To present outcomes of extensive surgery: lateral, subtotal, total petrosectomies in patients with temporal bone invasion resulting from specific primary cancers. Study design Retrospective case review. Setting Four tertiary referral centers. Material 89 patients with cancer of the temporal bone treated between January 2006 and December 2010. Intervention Multidisciplinary team approach including surgical resection, reconstruction, and postoperative radiotherapy. Main outcome measure Disease-specific survival, overall survival. Results In 27.0% of the patients, relapse was reported, with an average of 6.3 months after surgery; 31 patients (34.8%) died during the follow-up. The average mortality was 22.1 months. Fifty-four patients (58.7%) stayed alive during the time of observation. The average survival time was 42.0 months. The median time of survival with relapse was 12 months (range: 1–51 months). The three-year disease-free rate was 38.0% and the overall survival rate was 58.7%. Conclusions Petrosectomy is an effective treatment for malignant temporal bone invasion. The probability of a good outcome was statistically decreased with a high T grade, positive margins, and salvage surgery. Younger age is connected with better prognosis. One of the major tasks remains to improve detection and to shorten the time to diagnosis, keeping in mind that symptoms are insidious and in younger people, the time before diagnosis was longer. PMID:28225795

  15. Robotic Compartment-Based Radical Surgery in Early-Stage Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Toptas, Tayfun; Uysal, Aysel; Ureyen, Isin; Erol, Onur; Simsek, Tayup

    2016-01-01

    A radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy is the recommended treatment option in patients with early-stage cervical cancer. Although various classifications were developed in order to define the resection margins of this operation, no clear standardization could be achieved both in the nomenclature and in the extent of the surgery. Total mesometrial resection (TMMR) is a novel procedure which aims to remove all components of the compartment formed by Müllerian duct in which female reproductive organs develop. TMMR differs from the conventional radical hysterectomy techniques in that its surgical philosophy, terminology, and partly resection borders are different. In this paper, a TMMR with therapeutic pelvic lymphadenectomy operation that we performed for the first time with robot-assisted laparoscopic (robotic) approach in an early-stage cervical cancer patient was presented. This procedure has already been described in open surgery by Michael Höckel and translated to the robotic surgery by Rainer Kimmig. Our report is the second paper, to our knowledge, to present the initial experience regarding robotic TMMR in the English literature. PMID:27195167

  16. [Assessment of respiratory function in the qualification for lung cancer surgery].

    PubMed

    Franczuk, Monika; Wesołowski, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Surgery is the treatment of choice in patients with a diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A pivotal of eligibility for resection is the early stage of the disease and histopathological assessment. The performance status and comorbidities in population, predominated by elderly patients, also influence the therapeutic decisions. In some lung cancer patients COPD coexists, characterized by a decrease in lung function. Then the preoperative evaluation is particularly important, for both the risk of postoperative complications, lung function and quality of life postoperatively. Recently several recommendations for preoperative evaluation of patients being considered for surgery were published. The guidelines of BTS (2001, 2010), ACCP (2007, 2013) and joint recommendations of ERS and ESTS (2009) have been based on the currently available research results, and indicated the algorithms. The recommendations ERS/ESTS and ACCP distinguished cardiac risk estimation in all patients, which should precede the evaluation of lung function. According to the latest recommendations (ACCP 2013) the next step is spirometry, DLCO measurement and calculation of predicted postoperative values for both parameters. The low-technology exercise tests (stair climbing, shuttle walk test) were assigned as valuable to discriminate patients at low and intermediate perioperative risk. The cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) is recommended to be performed at the final qualification for surgery in patients with high risk. It was also stressed that therapeutic decisions should be taken multidisciplinary, allowing to estimate the risk of complications and to evaluate the expected quality of life in the postoperative time.

  17. The effect of preoperative smoking cessation or preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation on outcomes after lung cancer surgery: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Hansen, Mia; Page, Richard; Hasler, Elise

    2013-03-01

    The preferred treatment for lung cancer is surgery if the disease is considered resectable and the patient is considered surgically fit. Preoperative smoking cessation and/or preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation might improve postoperative outcomes after lung cancer surgery. The objectives of this systematic review were to determine the effectiveness of (1) preoperative smoking cessation and (2) preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation on peri- and postoperative outcomes in patients who undergo resection for lung cancer. We searched MEDLINE, PreMedline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Cinahl, BNI, Psychinfo, Amed, Web of Science (SCI and SSCI), and Biomed Central. Original studies published in English investigating the effect of preoperative smoking cessation or preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation on operative and longer-term outcomes in ≥ 50 patients who received surgery with curative intent for lung cancer were included. Of the 7 included studies that examined the effect of preoperative smoking cessation (n = 6) and preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation (n = 1) on outcomes after lung cancer surgery, none were randomized controlled trials and only 1 was prospective. The studies used different smoking classifications, the baseline characteristics differed between the study groups in some of the studies, and most had small sample sizes. No formal data synthesis was therefore possible. The included studies were marked by methodological limitations. On the basis of the reported bodies of evidence, it is not possible to make any firm conclusions about the effect of preoperative smoking cessation or of preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation on operative outcomes in patients undergoing surgery for lung cancer.

  18. Should the Prevalence of Incidental Thyroid Cancer Determine the Extent of Surgery in Multinodular Goiter?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The most appropriate surgical procedure for multinodular goiter (MNG) remains under debate. Incidental thyroid carcinoma (ITC) is often identified on histopathological examination after thyroidectomy performed for presumed benign MNG. Aim of the study The aim of the study was to determine the value of radical surgery for MNG patients considering the prevalence of ITC diagnosed postoperatively. Materials and Methods We conducted retrospective analysis of the medical records of 2,306 patients surgically treated for MNG between 2008 and 2013 at one center. None of the patients presented with any suspicion of malignancy, history of familial thyroid cancer, multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome or previous head or neck radiation exposure. Results Among the 2,306 MNG patients, ITC was detected in 49 (2.12%) (44 women and 5 men, with average ages of 52.2 (21–79) and 55.6 (52–62), respectively). Papillary thyroid carcinoma was significantly more frequently observed than other types of ITC (p<0.00001). Among the MNG patients, 866 (37.5%) underwent total/near total surgery, 464 (20.1%) received subtotal thyroidectomy, and 701 (30.3%) received the Dunhill operation. The remaining 275 (11.9%) patients underwent a less radical procedure and were classified as "others." Among the 49 (100%) patients with ITC, 28 (57.1%) underwent radical surgery. Another 21 (42.9%) patients required completion surgery due to an insufficient primary surgical procedure. A total of 21 (2.42%) patients in the total/near total surgery group were diagnosed with ITC, as well as 16 (2.48%) in the subtotal thyroidectomy group and 12 (1.71%) in the Dunhill operation group; 21 (100%), 4 (25%) and 3 (25%) of these patients, respectively, underwent radical surgery; thus, 0 (0%), 12 (75%) and 9 (75%) required completion surgery. The prevalence rates of ITC were comparable between the radical and subtotal surgery groups (2.42% and 3.44%, respectively, p = 0.4046), and the prevalence was higher in

  19. Brachytherapy boost to the tumour bed in high risk patients after limited surgery for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ulutin, H C; Ash, D; Dodwell, D

    2003-05-01

    The results of treatment for 174 patients at high risk of local recurrence, referred for radiotherapy after conservative surgery for early breast cancer, are evaluated. Microscopic margin involvement, extensive carcinoma in situ, and vascular/lymphatic invasion were the main risk factors for local recurrence. Whole-breast irradiation (40 Gy in 15 fractions over 3 weeks) followed with a brachytherapy boost (Ir192 wire implant or PDR Ir192) of 25 Gy was applied. Median follow-up was 80 months. The actuarial 6-year overall survival rate was 91% and the within breast recurrence-free survival was 88%. The most common risk factor among those recurring within the breast was involved surgical margins (13 out of 17). Cosmesis was reported to be good or excellent in 79% of cases. In patients at high risk for local recurrence, tumour-bed boost with brachytherapy can provide satisfactory local control after limited surgery and external radiotherapy.

  20. Incidence and types of complications after ablative oral cancer surgery with primary microvascular free flap reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Lodders, Johannes N.; Parmar, Satyesh; Stienen, Niki LM.; Martin, Timothy J.; Karagozoglu, K. Hakki; Heymans, Martijn W.; Nandra, Baljeet

    2015-01-01

    Background The aims of the study were 1) to evaluate the incidence and types of postoperative complications after ablative oral cancer surgery with primary free flap reconstruction and 2) identify prognostic variables for postoperative complications. Material and Methods Desired data was retrieved from a computer database at the department of Oral and Maxillofacial Department, Queen Elisabeth hospital Birmingham, United Kingdom, between June 2007 and October 2012. Logistic regression was used to study relationships between preoperative variables and postoperative outcomes. Results The study population consisted 184 patients, comprising 189 composite resections with reconstruction. Complications developed in 40.2% of the patients. Three patients (1.6%) died, 11.1% returned to the operating room, 5.3% developed donor site complications and 6.9% flap complications of which 3.2% total flap failure. In the multivariable analysis systemic complications were associated with anaesthesia time and hospital stay with red cell transfusion. Conclusions A significant proportion of the patients with primary free flap reconstructions after oral cancer surgery develops postoperative complications. Prolonged anaesthesia time and red cell transfusion are possible predictors for systemic complications and hospital stay respectively. Preoperative screening for risk factors is advocated for patient selection and to have realistic information and expectations. Key words:Free flap, complications, oral cancer, risk factors, reconstruction. PMID:26116846

  1. Laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer: a review of the fascial composition of the abdominal cavity.

    PubMed

    Mike, Makio; Kano, Nobuyasu

    2015-02-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has generally been performed for digestive diseases. Many patients with colon cancer undergo laparoscopic procedures. The outcomes of laparoscopic colectomy and open colectomy are the same in terms of the long-time survival. It is important to dissect the embryological plane to harvest the lymph nodes and to avoid bleeding during colon cancer surgery. To date, descriptions of the anatomy of the fascial composition have mainly involved observations unrelated to fundamental embryological concepts, causing confusion regarding the explanations of the surgical procedures, with various vocabularies used without definitions. We therefore examined the fascia of the abdominal space using a fascia concept based on clinical anatomy and embryology. Mobilization of the bilateral sides of the colon involves dissection between the fusion fascia of Toldt and the deep subperitoneal fascia. It is important to understand that the right fusion fascia of Toldt is divided into the posterior pancreatic fascia of Treitz dorsally and the anterior pancreatic fascia ventrally at the second portion of the duodenum. A comprehensive understanding of fascia composition between the stomach and transverse colon is necessary for dissecting the splenic flexure of the colon. As a result of these considerations of the fascia, more accurate surgical procedures can be performed for the excision of colon cancer.

  2. Impact of Surgery Type on Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Akça, Mustafa; Ata, Alper; Nayır, Erdinç; Erdoğdu, Süleyman; Arıcan, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objective Breast cancer can lead to alterations in quality of life of the patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the changes in quality of life of the female patients who had undergone surgical treatment for breast cancer. Materials and Methods A total of 250 female patients (breast-preserving surgery (BPS), n=27, 11%; modified radical mastectomy (MRM), n=194, 77%, and simple mastectomy (SM), n=29; 11%) aged between 28–55 years (47.4±6.4 yrs) were included in the study. Patient information, demographic characteristics, income, and treatment modalities applied were recorded. Validated Turkish versions of EORTC QLQ-C30, and EORTC–BR23 questionnaires were used for all patients. Results Breast-preserving surgery has a more favorable impact on general well-being, physical role, cognitive, psychological, and social functions, and symptom scale scores. When the identical parameters were taken into consideration, relatively favorable outcomes of BPS on the patients were observed relative to mastectomized patients. Besides, though not statistically significant, BPS has more patient-friendly effects on sexual function and sexual satisfaction in comparison with mastectomy. Patients with advanced stage disease and elder patients had more unfavorable health related quality of life (HRQoL) scores than younger patients, and those in their early stages of breast cancer. Conclusion Quality of life of BPS patients is less adversely affected relative to mastectomized patients. In the decision-making process, quality of life should be taken into consideration.

  3. [Occult breast cancer. Detection and radioguided surgery with 99mTc-MIBI].

    PubMed

    Barberá, L; Illanes, L; Terrier, F; Dopta, G

    2003-01-01

    We include those patients who present with an isolated metastasis of axillary adenopathy in the occult primary breast cancer group. Presumably, the primary tumor is a primitive breast carcinoma, unsuspected until this moment and not clinically demonstrable by mammography or ultrasonography. When no method succeeds in confirming the primary breast lesion, the patients are usually treated assuming the existing of breast cancer. Several diagnostic methods have been used to find the primary breast lesion. Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI), Positron Emission (PET) and Doppler sonography have been used in this way and several papers present the results reached with them. Our group incorporates detection and radioguided surgery with 99mTechnetium (99mTc) methoxyisobutil isonitrile into the study of these patients. We perform a planar scintimammography and SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) with 99mTc-MIBI. If the radioisotopic method shows a functional image compatible with a carcinoma, a gamma detecting probe is then used to locate the lesion and guide its surgical removal. In this paper, we present the application of the technique in 5 cases and describe the technique and its possibilities. Its advantages are explained in comparison with other methods. The dosimetric values found in the performance of the technique are reported. We consider that detection and radioguided surgery with 99mTc-MIBI in the diagnosis and treatment of occult breast cancer adds an effective tool and means progress in the approach to this disease.

  4. Use of radioimmunoguided surgery after induction chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Badellino, F; Bertoglio, S; Mariani, G; Meszaros, P; Canavese, G; Percivale, P

    1998-12-01

    Twenty-one patients with histologically proven locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) were treated with a combined modality approach based on primary chemotherapy and radical modified mastectomy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. Surgery was performed by using radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS) technique with the preoperative injection of Iodine-125 labeled monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) B72.3 anti-TAG (11 patients, Group A) and FO23C5 anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA; 10 patients, Group B). The role of RIGS was defined at surgery by using an intraoperative hand-held gamma-detecting probe (GDP) to locate the primary tumor, possible clinically occult multicentric foci and ipsilateral lymph node metastases. In Group A, RIGS correctly defined the primary tumor in seven out of 11 patients (63.3%) and was able to find multicentric tumors in two out of four patients (50%). Positive lymph nodes were identified by RIGS in three out of eight patients (37.5%). In Group B, patients RIGS correctly located the primary in 4/10 cases (40%); in two RIGS-positive cases, the tumor was clinically not evident after primary chemotherapy (yT0). RIGS correctly identified multicentric foci of tumor in one out of two cases (50%). Correct lymph nodal RIGS assessment was observed in three out of nine patients (33.3%). No RIGS false-positive findings occurred in the 21 patients included in the study. RIGS appears to be a reliable technique for the intraoperative diagnosis and staging of breast cancer with a potential role especially when conservative surgery is planned after primary chemotherapy in LABC.

  5. Perioperative assessment of psychological state and quality of life of head and neck cancer patients undergoing surgery.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Yumi; Matsushima, Eisuke; Omura, Ken

    2009-02-01

    This study assessed psychological state and quality of life (QOL) in head and neck cancer patients during the perioperative period. Patients who had undergone primary surgery at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital, Tokyo, Japan were enrolled. After obtaining informed consent, three tests were administered: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to assess psychological state, and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy General (FACT-G) and Functional Assessment of Head and Neck (FACT-H&N) to assess QOL. Japanese language versions of all tests were administered. Tests were administered 1 day before surgery, 1 week after surgery, and 1 and 6 months after discharge. Test scores were analyzed, as were relationships between psychological state, QOL and clinical factors. Anxiety was greatest before surgery, while depression was greatest immediately after surgery. QOL in the somatic and specific domains also decreased immediately after surgery. QOL in most domains improved 1 month after discharge. This study offers important information regarding perioperative psychological state and QOL in head and neck cancer patients.

  6. Ophthalmology hospital wards contamination to pathogenic free living Amoebae in Iran.

    PubMed

    Lasjerdi, Zohreh; Niyyati, Maryam; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Haghighi, Ali; Taghipour, Niloofar

    2015-09-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the occurrence of potentially pathogenic free-living amoeba in ophthalmology wards in reference hospitals in Iran. Since an increasing number of Acanthamoeba Keratitis cases after eye surgery and eye trauma have been recently observed in this country, it could be possible that the disinfection procedures undertaken in the clinical setting may not have a good hygiene and disinfection procedures, hence the aim of this study. Therefore, 42 dust and biofilm samples were collected from different areas of ophthalmology wards and checked for the presence of FLA using morphological criteria, PCR based analysis and DNA sequencing. Of the 42 samples from dust and biofilm sources, 18(42.86%) isolates were found to contain FLA and 12(92.3%) isolates belonged to Acanthamoeba T4 genotype. Isolation of the pathogenic genotype T4 from medical instruments, including slit lamp in corneal wards, may be a threat for patients undergoing eye surgery in these wards. Other FLA isolated in this study included Acanthamoeba genotype T5, Vahlkampfia sp, Naegleria australiensis, Vermamoeba vermiformis and Echinamoeba exudans. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of potentially pathogenic FLA in ophthalmology wards in Iran. Improved disinfection methods and monitoring of hospitals ward are thus necessary in this area in order to minimize the risk of infection in patients.

  7. Anatomy of the ward round.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, James A

    2008-07-01

    The ward round has been a central activity of hospital life for hundreds of years. It is hardly mentioned in textbooks. The ward round is a parade through the hospital of professionals where most decision making concerning patient care is made. However the traditional format may be intimidating for patients and inadequate for communication. The round provides an opportunity for the multi-disciplinary team to listen to the patient's narrative and jointly interpret his concerns. From this unfolds diagnosis, management plans, prognosis formation and the opportunity to explore social, psychological, rehabilitation and placement issues. Physical examination of the patient at the bedside still remains important. It has been a tradition to discuss the patient at the bedside but sensitive matters especially of uncertainty may better be discussed elsewhere. The senior doctor as round leader must seek the input of nursing whose observations may be under-appreciated due to traditional professional hierarchy. Reductions in the working hours of junior doctors and shortened length of stay have reduced continuity of patient care. This increases the importance of senior staff in ensuring continuity of care and the need for the joint round as the focus of optimal decision making. The traditional round incorporates teaching but patient's right to privacy and their preferences must be respected. The quality and form of the clinical note is underreported but the electronic record is slow to being accepted. The traditional multi-disciplinary round is disappearing in some centres. This may be regrettable. The anatomy and optimal functioning of the ward round deserves scientific scrutiny and experimentation.

  8. “Fast-track” and “Minimally Invasive” Surgery for Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin-Xin; Pan, Hua-Feng; Jiang, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Zhi-Ming; Chen, Ping; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Gang; Zhao, Kun; Li, Jie-Shou

    2016-01-01

    Background: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols or fast-track (FT) programs enable a shorter hospital stay and lower complication rate. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is associated with a lesser trauma and a quicker recovery in many elective abdominal surgeries. However, little is known of the safety and effectiveness made by ERAS protocols combined with MIS for gastric cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness made by FT programs and MIS in combination or alone. Methods: We summarized an 11-year experience on gastric cancer patients undergoing elective laparotomy or minimally invasive gastric resection in standard cares (SC) or FT programs during January 2004 to December 2014. A total of 984 patients were enrolled and assigned into four groups: open gastrectomies (OG) with SC (OG + SC group, n = 167); OG with FT programs (OG + FT group, n = 277); laparoscopic gastrectomies (LG) with FT programs (LG + FT group, n = 248); and robot-assisted gastrectomies (RG) with FT programs (RG + FT group, n = 292). Patients’ data were collected to evaluate the clinical outcome. The primary end point was the length of postoperative hospital stay. Results: The OG + SC group showed the longest postoperative hospital stay (mean: 12.3 days, median: 11 days, interquartile range [IQR]: 6–16 days), while OG + FT, LG + FT, and RG + FT groups recovered faster (mean: 7.4, 6.4, and 6.6 days, median: 6, 6, and 6 days, IQR: 3–9, 4–8, and 3–9 days, respectively, all P < 0.001). The postoperative rehabilitation parameters such as flatus time after surgery (4.7 ± 0.9, 3.1 ± 0.8, 3.0 ± 0.9, and 3.1 ± 0.9 days) followed the same manner. After 30 postoperative days’ follow-up, the total incidence of complications was 9.6% in OG + SC group, 10.1% in OG + FT group, 8.1% in LG + FT group, and 10.3% in RG + FT group. The complications showed no significant differences between the four groups (all P > 0.05). Conclusions: ERAS protocols

  9. Current status of ultrasound-guided surgery in the treatment of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Volders, José H; Haloua, Max H; Krekel, Nicole Ma; Meijer, Sybren; van den Tol, Petrousjka M

    2016-02-10

    The primary goal of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is to obtain tumour-free resection margins. Margins positive or focally positive for tumour cells are associated with a high risk of local recurrence, and in the case of tumour-positive margins, re-excision or even mastectomy are sometimes needed to achieve definite clear margins. Unfortunately, tumour-involved margins and re-excisions after lumpectomy are still reported in up to 40% of patients and additionally, unnecessary large excision volumes are described. A secondary goal of BCS is the cosmetic outcome and one of the main determinants of worse cosmetic outcome is a large excision volume. Up to 30% of unsatisfied cosmetic outcome is reported. Therefore, the search for better surgical techniques to improve margin status, excision volume and consequently, cosmetic outcome has continued. Nowadays, the most commonly used localization methods for BCS of non-palpable breast cancers are wire-guided localization (WGL) and radio-guided localization (RGL). WGL and RGL are invasive procedures that need to be performed pre-operatively with technical and scheduling difficulties. For palpable breast cancer, tumour excision is usually guided by tactile skills of the surgeon performing "blind" surgery. One of the surgical techniques pursuing the aims of radicality and small excision volumes includes intra-operative ultrasound (IOUS). The best evidence available demonstrates benefits of IOUS with a significantly high proportion of negative margins compared with other localization techniques in palpable and non-palpable breast cancer. Additionally, IOUS is non-invasive, easy to learn and can centralize the tumour in the excised specimen with low amount of healthy breast tissue being excised. This could lead to better cosmetic results of BCS. Despite the advantages of IOUS, only a small amount of surgeons are performing this technique. This review aims to highlight the position of ultrasound-guided surgery for malignant breast

  10. Current status of ultrasound-guided surgery in the treatment of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Volders, José H; Haloua, Max H; Krekel, Nicole MA; Meijer, Sybren; van den Tol, Petrousjka M

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is to obtain tumour-free resection margins. Margins positive or focally positive for tumour cells are associated with a high risk of local recurrence, and in the case of tumour-positive margins, re-excision or even mastectomy are sometimes needed to achieve definite clear margins. Unfortunately, tumour-involved margins and re-excisions after lumpectomy are still reported in up to 40% of patients and additionally, unnecessary large excision volumes are described. A secondary goal of BCS is the cosmetic outcome and one of the main determinants of worse cosmetic outcome is a large excision volume. Up to 30% of unsatisfied cosmetic outcome is reported. Therefore, the search for better surgical techniques to improve margin status, excision volume and consequently, cosmetic outcome has continued. Nowadays, the most commonly used localization methods for BCS of non-palpable breast cancers are wire-guided localization (WGL) and radio-guided localization (RGL). WGL and RGL are invasive procedures that need to be performed pre-operatively with technical and scheduling difficulties. For palpable breast cancer, tumour excision is usually guided by tactile skills of the surgeon performing “blind” surgery. One of the surgical techniques pursuing the aims of radicality and small excision volumes includes intra-operative ultrasound (IOUS). The best evidence available demonstrates benefits of IOUS with a significantly high proportion of negative margins compared with other localization techniques in palpable and non-palpable breast cancer. Additionally, IOUS is non-invasive, easy to learn and can centralize the tumour in the excised specimen with low amount of healthy breast tissue being excised. This could lead to better cosmetic results of BCS. Despite the advantages of IOUS, only a small amount of surgeons are performing this technique. This review aims to highlight the position of ultrasound-guided surgery for malignant

  11. Ward identities for Hall transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyos, Carlos; Kim, Bom Soo; Oz, Yaron

    2014-10-01

    We derive quantum field theory Ward identities based on linear area preserving and conformal transformations in 2+1 dimensions. The identities relate Hall viscosities, Hall conductivities and the angular momentum. They apply both for relativistic and non relativistic systems, at zero and at finite temperature. We consider systems with or without translation invariance, and introduce an external magnetic field and viscous drag terms. A special case of the identities yields the well known relation between the Hall conductivity and half the angular momentum density.

  12. Extralevator abdominoperineal excision versus conventional surgery for low rectal cancer: a single surgeon experience

    PubMed Central

    Neşşar, Gürel; Demirbağ, Ali Eba; Celep, Bahadır; Elbir, Orhan Hayri; Kayaalp, Cüneyt

    2016-01-01

    Objective Extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) reduces the risk of positive circumferential resection margin (CRM) and of intraoperative perforation (IOP), both of which are associated with high local recurrence rates and poor survival outcomes for rectal cancer. The aim of this study was to compare the results of ELAPE with conventional abdominoperineal excision (APE) for low rectal cancer. Material and Methods A total of 25 consecutive patients underwent ELAPE for low rectal cancer between November 2008 and September 2011. Fifty-six patients treated by conventional APE prior to 2008 were selected from our rectal cancer database for comparison as a historical cohort. Results The mean follow-up was 44.7 months in the ELAPE group, and 70.6 months in the APE group. Patients undergoing ELAPE had a lower CRM positivity and IOP rate than APE (12% vs. 20%, p=0,531; 4% vs. 8,9%, p=0,826; respectively). The ELAPE group was associated with higher perineal wound complications than the APE group (16.0% vs. 1.8%, p=0.030). Local recurrence rates for patients in both groups did not differ significantly (4.0% vs. 3.6%, p=1.0). Conclusion The results of this study suggest that ELAPE technique was associated with less CRM involvement and reduced rates of IOP but markedly higher rates of postoperative perineal complications occurred as compared to conventional surgery. ELAPE must be reserved for advanced low rectal cancers. PMID:28149119

  13. pH-Responsive fluorescent graphene quantum dots for fluorescence-guided cancer surgery and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zetan; Zhou, Shixin; Garcia, Cesar; Fan, Louzhen; Zhou, Jiangbing

    2017-04-03

    Cancer remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. Improved cancer treatment requires enhancement of cancer diagnosis and detection. To achieve this goal, here we report a novel imaging probe, pH-responsive fluorescent graphene quantum dots (pRF-GQDs). pRF-GQDs were prepared by electrolysis of graphite rods in sodium p-toluenesulfonate acetonitrile solution. The resulting pRF-GQDs, which have minimal toxicity, display a sharp fluorescence transition between green and blue at pH 6.8, a pH matching the acidic extracellular microenvironment in solid tumors. We found that this unique fluorescence switch property allows tumors to be distinguished from normal tissues. In addition to fluorescence, pRF-GQDs also exhibit upconversion photoluminescence (UCPL). We demonstrate that the combination of UCPL and fluorescence switch enables detection of solid tumors of different origin at an early developmental stage. Therefore, pRF-GQDs have great potential to be used as a universal probe for fluorescence-guided cancer surgery and cancer diagnosis.

  14. Analysis of laser surgery in non-melanoma skin cancer for optimal tissue removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanjul-Vélez, Félix; Salas-García, Irene; Arce-Diego, José Luis

    2015-02-01

    Laser surgery is a commonly used technique for tissue ablation or the resection of malignant tumors. It presents advantages over conventional non-optical ablation techniques, like a scalpel or electrosurgery, such as the increased precision of the resected volume, minimization of scars and shorter recovery periods. Laser surgery is employed in medical branches such as ophthalmology or dermatology. The application of laser surgery requires the optimal adjustment of laser beam parameters, taking into account the particular patient and lesion. In this work we present a predictive tool for tissue resection in biological tissue after laser surgery, which allows an a priori knowledge of the tissue ablation volume, area and depth. The model employs a Monte Carlo 3D approach for optical propagation and a rate equation for plasma-induced ablation. The tool takes into account characteristics of the specific lesion to be ablated, mainly the geometric, optical and ablation properties. It also considers the parameters of the laser beam, such as the radius, spatial profile, pulse width, total delivered energy or wavelength. The predictive tool is applied to dermatology tumor resection, particularly to different types of non-melanoma skin cancer tumors: basocellular carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and infiltrative carcinoma. The ablation volume, area and depth are calculated for healthy skin and for each type of tumor as a function of the laser beam parameters. The tool could be used for laser surgery planning before the clinical application. The laser parameters could be adjusted for optimal resection volume, by personalizing the process to the particular patient and lesion.

  15. Single-incision laparoscopic colorectal surgery for cancer: state of art.

    PubMed

    Cianchi, Fabio; Staderini, Fabio; Badii, Benedetta

    2014-05-28

    A number of clinical trials have demonstrated that the laparoscopic approach for colorectal cancer resection provides the same oncologic results as open surgery along with all clinical benefits of minimally invasive surgery. During the last years, a great effort has been made to research for minimizing parietal trauma, yet for cosmetic reasons and in order to further reduce surgery-related pain and morbidity. New techniques, such as natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) and single-incision laparoscopy (SIL) have been developed in order to reach the goal of "scarless" surgery. Although NOTES may seem not fully suitable or safe for advanced procedures, such as colectomies, SIL is currently regarded as the next major advance in the progress of minimally invasive surgical approaches to colorectal disease that is more feasible in generalized use. The small incision through the umbilicus allows surgeons to use familiar standard laparoscopic instruments and thus, perform even complex procedures which require extraction of large surgical specimens or intestinal anastomosis. The cosmetic result from SIL is also better because the only incision is made through the umbilicus which can hide the wound effectively after operation. However, SIL raises a number of specific new challenges compared with the laparoscopic conventional approach. A reduced capacity for triangulation, the repeated conflicts between the shafts of the instruments and the difficulties to achieve a correct exposure of the operative field are the most claimed issues. The use therefore of this new approach for complex colorectal procedures might understandingly be viewed as difficult to implement, especially for oncologic cases.

  16. Effects of breast cancer surgery and surgical side effects on body image over time.

    PubMed

    Collins, Karen Kadela; Liu, Ying; Schootman, Mario; Aft, Rebecca; Yan, Yan; Dean, Grace; Eilers, Mark; Jeffe, Donna B

    2011-02-01

    We examined the impact of surgical treatments (breast-conserving surgery [BCS], mastectomy alone, mastectomy with reconstruction) and surgical side-effects severity on early stage (0-IIA) breast cancer patients' body image over time. We interviewed patients at 4-6 weeks (T1), six (T2), 12 (T3), and 24 months (T4) following definitive surgical treatment. We examined longitudinal relationships among body image problems, surgery type, and surgical side-effects severity using the Generalized Estimating Equation approach, controlling for demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors. We compared regression coefficients of surgery type from two models, one with and one without surgical side-effects severity. Of 549 patients enrolled (mean age 58; 75% White; 65% BCS, 12% mastectomy, 23% mastectomy with reconstruction), 514 (94%) completed all four interviews. In the model without surgical side-effects severity, patients who underwent mastectomy with reconstruction reported poorer body image than patients who underwent BCS at T1-T3 (each P < 0.02), but not at T4. At T2, patients who underwent mastectomy with reconstruction also reported poorer body image than patients who underwent mastectomy alone (P = 0.0106). Adjusting for surgical side-effects severity, body image scores did not differ significantly between patients with BCS and mastectomy with reconstruction at any interview; however, patients who underwent mastectomy alone had better body image at T2 than patients who underwent mastectomy with reconstruction (P = 0.011). The impact of surgery type on body image within the first year of definitive surgical treatment was explained by surgical side-effects severity. After 2 years, body image problems did not differ significantly by surgery type.

  17. Is surgery indicated for elderly patients with early stage nonsmall cell lung cancer, in the era of stereotactic body radiotherapy?

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nam P.; Godinez, Juan; Shen, Wei; Vinh-Hung, Vincent; Gorobets, Helena; Thariat, Juliette; Ampil, Fred; Vock, Jacqueline; Karlsson, Ulf; Chi, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of this article is to assess the influence of comorbidities among elderly patients (at least 70 year old) undergoing surgery for early stage nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to explore the tolerability and efficacy of surgery in relation to stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in this patient population. Methods: A review of the literature on the prevalence of comorbidities among elderly patients with early stage NSCLC, and the impact of comorbidity factors on survival following surgery was conducted. Survival rates and the incidence of complications following SBRT for this patient population were also identified. Results: Comorbidities in elderly patients with early stage NSCLC may preclude surgery or lead to poor survival following surgery. However, chronological age alone should not be used as a deciding factor to deny curative treatment in elderly, but fit patients. Stereotactic body radiotherapy is well tolerated by elderly lung cancer patients and may result in survival rates similar to that following surgery. Conclusion: SBRT should be the treatment of choice for early stage NSCLC in elderly patients with multiple comorbidities that preclude surgery. The roles of surgery and SBRT for elderly, -fit patients with early stage NSCLC needs to be further defined in future prospective trials. PMID:27787380

  18. [Perioperative Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Lung Cancer Surgeries in Patients with Poor Pulmonary Function].

    PubMed

    Sano, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    To properly perform preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation is important for lung cancer surgeries in patients with poor pulmonary function such as severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease( COPD) to prevent postoperative complications. Those programs include exercise training, pursed-lip breathing technique, activities of dairy living training and facilitating physical activities, all which are almost same as those for patients with stable COPD. Pedometer is a useful tool to lead patient's physical activities. Postoperative therapeutic programs are also important, which includes early mobilization, nutritional support, and so on.

  19. Is surgery still the optimal treatment for stage I non-small cell lung cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Moghanaki, Drew

    2016-01-01

    There is debate about what is the optimal treatment for operable stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Although surgery has been the standard of care for centuries, recent retrospective and prospective randomized studies indicated that stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) could be an option for this group of patients with similar survival and less toxicities. However, to change the standard of care, more studies are needed and participating ongoing larger randomized studies is the best approach to resolve this controversy. PMID:27183993

  20. Curative surgery for gastric cancer in a patient with an implantable left ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yuki; Toda, Koichi; Nakamura, Teruya; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Yoshikawa, Yasushi; Fukushima, Satsuki; Saito, Shunsuke; Yoshioka, Daisuke; Domae, Keitaro; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Hashimoto, Tadayoshi; Doki, Yuichiro; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2017-02-04

    The number of patients with end-stage heart failure treated by a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is dramatically increasing, because the LVAD has been widely accepted for its clinical results. According to the initiation of destination therapy, the prevalence of malignancy in patients with an LVAD is estimated to increase. In patients with LVADs, abdominal surgery for visceral malignancy is associated with technical difficulties because of the presence of an LVAD pump or the driveline which is located transversely in the preperitoneal space. Herein, we describe the technical management for complete resection of gastric cancer in a patient with an LVAD.

  1. Coping Strategies of Southern Italian Women Predict Distress Following Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    De Feudis, Rossana; Lanciano, Tiziana; Rinaldi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the role of coping strategies in predicting emotional distress following breast cancer, over and above the illness severity, operationalized in terms of the type of surgery performed. In order to achieve this goal, two groups of newly diagnosed breast cancer women were selected and compared on the basis of the type of surgical treatment received. A subsample of 30 women with quadrantectomy and sentinel lymph-node biopsy (SLNB) and a subsample of 31 patients with mastectomy and axillary dissection (MAD) filled in the Brief Cope scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Summarizing, results showed that emotional support, venting, and humor explained a statistically significant increment of variance in psychological distress indices. Implication for clinical practice and future research were discussed. PMID:27247657

  2. 10-Year Outcomes after Monitoring, Surgery, or Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, Freddie C; Donovan, Jenny L; Lane, J Athene; Mason, Malcolm; Metcalfe, Chris; Holding, Peter; Davis, Michael; Peters, Tim J; Turner, Emma L; Martin, Richard M; Oxley, Jon; Robinson, Mary; Staffurth, John; Walsh, Eleanor; Bollina, Prasad; Catto, James; Doble, Andrew; Doherty, Alan; Gillatt, David; Kockelbergh, Roger; Kynaston, Howard; Paul, Alan; Powell, Philip; Prescott, Stephen; Rosario, Derek J; Rowe, Edward; Neal, David E

    2016-10-13

    Background The comparative effectiveness of treatments for prostate cancer that is detected by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing remains uncertain. Methods We compared active monitoring, radical prostatectomy, and external-beam radiotherapy for the treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer. Between 1999 and 2009, a total of 82,429 men 50 to 69 years of age received a PSA test; 2664 received a diagnosis of localized prostate cancer, and 1643 agreed to undergo randomization to active monitoring (545 men), surgery (553), or radiotherapy (545). The primary outcome was prostate-cancer mortality at a median of 10 years of follow-up. Secondary outcomes included the rates of disease progression, metastases, and all-cause deaths. Results There were 17 prostate-cancer-specific deaths overall: 8 in the active-monitoring group (1.5 deaths per 1000 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7 to 3.0), 5 in the surgery group (0.9 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 0.4 to 2.2), and 4 in the radiotherapy group (0.7 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 0.3 to 2.0); the difference among the groups was not significant (P=0.48 for the overall comparison). In addition, no significant difference was seen among the groups in the number of deaths from any cause (169 deaths overall; P=0.87 for the comparison among the three groups). Metastases developed in more men in the active-monitoring group (33 men; 6.3 events per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 4.5 to 8.8) than in the surgery group (13 men; 2.4 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 1.4 to 4.2) or the radiotherapy group (16 men; 3.0 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 1.9 to 4.9) (P=0.004 for the overall comparison). Higher rates of disease progression were seen in the active-monitoring group (112 men; 22.9 events per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 19.0 to 27.5) than in the surgery group (46 men; 8.9 events per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 6.7 to 11.9) or the radiotherapy group (46 men; 9.0 events per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 6.7 to 12.0) (P<0

  3. Surgery for gastric cancer patients of age 85 and older: Multicenter survey

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Hirotaka; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Itoh, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Kenichiro; Kakihara, Naoki; Takemura, Manabu; Okugawa, Kaori; Uchiyama, Kiyoshi; Nakata, Masashi; Nishi, Hiroshi; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Komatsu, Shuhei; Okamoto, Kazuma; Otsuji, Eigo

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the surgical therapies for gastric cancer (GC) patients of age 85 or older in a multicenter survey. METHODS Therapeutic opportunities for elderly GC patients have expanded in conjunction with extended life expectancy. However, the number of cases encountered in a single institution is usually very small and surgical therapies for elderly GC patients have not yet been standardized completely. In the present study, a total of 134 GC patients of age 85 or older who underwent surgery in 9 related facilities were retrospectively investigated. The relationships between surgical therapies and clinicopathological or prognostic features were analyzed. RESULTS Eighty-nine of the patients (66%) presented with a comorbidity, and 26 (19% overall) presented with more than two comorbidities. Radical lymphadenectomy was performed in 59 patients (44%), and no patient received pre- or post-operative chemotherapy. Forty of the patients (30%) experienced perioperative complications, but no surgical or perioperative mortality occurred. Laparoscopic surgery was performed in only 12 of the patients (9.0%). Univariate and multivariate analyses of the 113 patients who underwent R0 or R1 resection identified the factors of pT3/4 and limited lymphadenectomy as predictive of worse prognosis (HR = 4.68, P = 0.02 and HR =2.19, P = 0.05, respectively). Non-cancer-specific death was more common in cStage I patients than in cStage II or III patients. Limited lymphadenectomy correlated with worse cancer-specific survival (P = 0.01), particularly in cStage II patients (P < 0.01). There were no relationships between limited lymphadenectomy and any comorbidities, except for cerebrovascular disease (P = 0.07). CONCLUSION Non-cancer-specific death was not negligible, particularly in cStage I, and gastrectomy with radical lymphadenectomy appears to be an effective treatment for cStage II elderly GC patients. PMID:28275301

  4. Which patients are most at risk of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a review of admissions to a regional maxillofacial ward between 2001 and 2005.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Simon N; Proczek, Katarzyna; Sen, Rachel A; Hughes, Julie; Banks, Paul; Lowe, Derek

    2008-09-01

    This study aimed to identify all Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) cases on a Regional Maxillofacial ward, to estimate incidence and to ascertain who were most at risk. The study also explored clinical and demographic factors associated with MRSA in a subset of consecutive patients managed by primary surgery for previously untreated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OOSCC) over the same time period. Patients admitted from 1st April 2001 to 31st March 2006 to the Regional Maxillofacial Unit ward, Liverpool were identified by a retrospective review of the hospital MRSA database and there were 10109 patient admissions. MRSA (1.1%) occurred in 115 patient episodes involving 97 patients. There were 84 patients having a single episode and 13 more than one. There were no cases of mortality due to MRSA. Of the MFU patients 73 were oncology and 7 trauma. In the oncology group the commonest primary sites were wound (41) and sputum (11). Of new patients admitted for definitive treatment for OOSCC, 14% had MRSA and the two main risk factors were stage of cancer (P<0.001) and free flap (P<0.001). The risk of MRSA infection on our maxillofacial ward is low though MRSA infection is more prevalent among oncology patients particularly those requiring free tissue transfer. Careful adherence to infection prevention and control precautions is essential and practical methods to reduce MRSA need further evaluation.

  5. Non-curative surgery for patients with gastric cancer with local peritoneal metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yuanqiang; Ma, Shulan; Yang, Shuo; Luo, Fen; Wang, Zhiming; Guo, Fenghua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The role of non-curative surgery for patients with M1 gastric cancer (GC) is controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of non-curative resectional surgery for patients with GC with local peritoneal metastasis. We reviewed the medical records of 47 patients with GC with local peritoneal metastasis, which was found by laparotomy or laparoscopy. The patients were divided into 2 groups: those who underwent gastric resection (n = 29), and a non-resection group who did not (n = 18). The clinical characteristics, postoperative complications, mortality, palliative intervention, and long-term outcomes of the 2 groups were compared. Complications occurred more frequently in the resection group than in non-resection group (P = 0.017). There was no postoperative mortality or reoperation in either group. Palliative intervention was performed in 9 (31%) patients in resection group and 16 (88.9%) patients in non-resection group (P < 0.001). The intervention interval and hospital-free time were significant longer in resection group than in non-resection group (P < 0.001, P < 0.001). The Kaplan–Meier survival curves revealed that resection group had longer survival than non-resection group (P < 0.001). Non-curative resectional surgery helps prolong survival time and improve the quality of life for patients with GC with local peritoneal metastasis. PMID:27930586

  6. Wernicke encephalopathy after gastrointestinal surgery for cancer: causes of diagnostic failure or delay.

    PubMed

    Rufa, A; Rosini, F; Cerase, A; Giannini, F; Pretegiani, E; Buccoliero, R; Dotti, M T; Federico, A

    2011-04-01

    Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) is a neurological emergency due to thiamine deficiency. We aimed to identify clinical course and causes of diagnostic delay or failure of WE in a group of patients who underwent surgery for gastrointestinal tumors. A retrospective review of clinical, laboratory, neuroimaging, and therapeutic features of 10 patients with WE following abdominal surgery for cancer was carried out. Four patients died; in these subjects, diagnosis was delayed and supplementation of vitamin was absent or likely inadequate. Diagnostic delay or failure was also related to the coexistence of several medical complications at presentation masking typical symptoms of WE. In the surviving patients, outcome was influenced by promptness and type of therapy. Postoperative abdominal bleeding and number of subsequent operations may also had an effect. Postsurgical patients with gastrointestinal tumors may develop a subtle WE. The number of subsequent operations and the severity of postoperative complications may increase the risk of unrecognized WE. The disease should be suspected in postsurgical patients who have unexpected mental status changes, even under prophylactic treatment with vitamins. We suggest that prophylaxis with high doses of thiamine should be undertaken in patients with gastrointestinal tumors before surgery.

  7. Perioperative administration of propranolol to women undergoing ovarian cancer surgery: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hye-In; Lim, Soo-Hyun; Lee, Yoo-Young; Kim, Tae-Joong; Lee, Jeong-Won; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was done to evaluate whether perioperative propranolol (ß-blocker) in ovarian cancer patients undergoing debulking surgery reduced perioperative tumor growth induced by surgical stress. Methods This was a prospective randomized single institution analysis. The primary objective was to compare the changes in CA 125 level (changes between preoperation day 2 and postoperative day 7). As a study arm, patients received a low dose of propranolol 40 mg/day (4×10 mg) starting two days before surgery and 40 mg twice daily for three days following surgery. Results Twenty-two patients were enrolled and 16 were evaluable for efficacy. The drug was well tolerated. The mean decrease of CA 125 during the seven perioperative days was 83.1±8.9% in the propranolol group and 72.4±14.7% in the placebo group. The difference was statistically significant (P=0.044). The change of C-reactive protein, cortisol, and anxiety score (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-X1) were not different between the two groups. Conclusion This preliminary result is the first to directly test the role of perioperative propranolol on tumor growth. Even with the small sample size and short term use of the drug, perioperative propranolol was effective in reducing tumor burden (as measured by CA 125) suggesting its potential benefits in decreasing perioperative tumor growth. PMID:28344958

  8. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Creates Surgery Opportunities For Inoperable Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Minghao; Hou, Lingmi; Chen, Maoshan; Zhou, Yan; Liang, Yueyang; Wang, Shushu; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), the systematic chemotherapy given to patients with locally advanced and inoperable breast caner, has been proven to be of great clinical values. Many scientific reports confirmed NAC could effectively eliminate sub-clinical disseminated lesions of tumor, and improve long-term and disease-free survival rate of patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC); however, up to now, LABC is still a serious clinical issue given improved screening and early diagnosis. This study, with main focus on inoperable LABC, investigated the values of NAC in converting inoperable LABC into operable status and assessed the prognosis. Sixty-one patients with inoperable LABC were initially treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy; their local conditions were improved to operable status. Radical surgery was exerted on 49 patients. Original chemotherapy was performed after surgery, followed by local radiotherapy. And endocrine therapy was optional according to the hormone receptor status. The quality of life for most patients with skin diabrosis was obviously improved because their local conditions were under control. For all recruited cases, the survival duration and life quality were significantly improved in patients who finished both NAC and surgery compared to those who did not. Further more, this study demonstrates improved prognostic consequences. PMID:28327615

  9. [Successful treatment of advanced gastric cancer (Borrmann 1 type) with FTP chemotherapy after reduction surgery].

    PubMed

    Nomura, N; Yamada, A; Saitou, F; Tsuzawa, T; Yamashita, I; Sakakibara, T; Shimizu, T; Sakamoto, T; Karaki, Y; Tazawa, K

    1994-05-01

    A 54-year-old man was diagnosed with Borr 1 type gastric cancer, located just below ECJ with some paraaortic lymph node metastase, during treatment of diabetes mellitus at another hospital. He underwent spleno-total gastrectomy for reduction. The metastatic lymph nodes of the para-aorta were not resected, so the surgery was considered palliative. We administered FTP chemotherapy (CDDP 110 mg/day 1, 5-FU 1,200 mg/day 1-5, THP-ADM 30 mg/day 1) 5 times following surgery. The metastatic lymph nodes were remarkably decreased in size by the initial treatment. The decrement was 52.4% after the initial treatment (PR). After the 4th treatment, there were no lymph nodes detected (CR). After the 5th treatment, CR continued. The PR period was considered to be 5 months, and that of CR 4 months. The patient has no renal or heart dysfunction, and no suppression of bone marrow. His quality of life is satisfactory, and he continues to work as prior to surgery. FTP chemotherapy is considered a successful regimen for postoperative chemotherapy.

  10. Robotic Versus Laparoscopic Surgery for Rectal Cancer after Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy: Case-Matched Study of Short-Term Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong Sok; Kim, Min Jung; Park, Sung Chan; Sohn, Dae Kyung; Kim, Dae Yong; Chang, Hee Jin; Nam, Byung-Ho; Oh, Jae Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Robotic surgery is expected to have advantages over laparoscopic surgery; however, there are limited data regarding the feasibility of robotic surgery for rectal cancer after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Therefore, we evaluated the short-term outcomes of robotic surgery for rectal cancer. Materials and Methods Thirty-three patients with cT3N0-2 rectal cancer after preoperative CRT who underwent robotic low anterior resection (R-LAR) between March 2010 and January 2012 were matched with 66 patients undergoing laparoscopic low anterior resection (L-LAR). Perioperative clinical outcomes and pathological data were compared between the two groups. Results Patient characteristics did not differ significantly different between groups. The mean operation time was 441 minutes (R-LAR) versus 277 minutes (L-LAR, p < 0.001). The open conversion rate was 6.1% in the R-LAR group and 0% in the L-LAR group (p=0.11). There were no significant differences in the time to flatus passage, length of hospital stay, and postoperative morbidity. In pathological review, the mean number of harvested lymph nodes was 22.3 in R-LAR and 21.6 in L-LAR (p=0.82). Involvement of circumferential resection margin was positive in 16.1% and 6.7%, respectively (p=0.42). Total mesorectal excision (TME) quality was complete in 97.0% in R-LAR and 91.0% in L-LAR (p=0.41). Conclusion In our study, short-term outcomes of robotic surgery for rectal cancer after CRT were similar to those of laparoscopic surgery in respect to bowel function recovery, morbidity, and TME quality. Well-designed clinical trials are needed to evaluate the functional results and long-term outcomes of robotic surgery for rectal cancer. PMID:25779367

  11. Tracking nonpalpable breast cancer for breast-conserving surgery with carbon nanoparticles: implication in tumor location and lymph node dissection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanyan; Lin, Nan; Huang, Sheng; Lin, Chongping; Jin, Na; Zhang, Zaizhong; Ke, Jun; Yu, Yinghao; Zhu, Jianping; Wang, Yu

    2015-03-01

    To examine the feasibility of using carbon nanoparticles to track nonpalpable breast cancer for breast-conserving surgery. During breast-conserving surgery, it is often very challenging to determine the boundary of tumor and identify involved lymph nodes. Currently used methods are useful in identifying tumor location, but do not provide direct visual guidance for resection margin during surgery. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Fuzhou General Hospital (Fuzhou, China). The current retrospective analysis included 16 patients with nonpalpable breast cancer receiving breast-conserving surgery under the guidance of preoperative marking using a carbon nanoparticle, as well as 3 patients receiving carbon nanoparticle marking followed by neoadjuvant treatment and then breast-conserving surgery. The Tumor Node Metastasis stage in the 16 cases included: T1N0M0 in 7, T1N1M0 in 2, T2N0M0 in 4, and T2N1M0 in the remaining 3 cases. The nanoparticle was injected at 12 sites at 0.5 cm away from the apparent edge under colored ultrasonography along 6 tracks separated by 60 degrees (2 sites every track). Lymph node status was also examined. The resection edge was free from cancer cells in all 16 cases (and the 3 cases with neoadjuvant treatment). Cancer cells were identified in majority of stained lymph nodes, but not in any of the unstained lymph nodes. No recurrence or metastasis was noticed after the surgery (2 to 22-month follow-up; median: 6 months). Tracking nonpalpable breast cancer with carbon nanoparticle could guide breast-conserving surgery.

  12. Surgery versus stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer: less is not more

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    High level evidence from randomized studies comparing surgery to stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) is lacking and available retrospective cohort and case control studies are highly variable in how thoroughly they define and stage lung cancer, in how they determine operability, and in the offered surgical approaches to operable lung cancer (open vs. video-assisted). This makes it difficult to compare best radiotherapy and best surgery approaches to treatment and to be confident in conclusions of equipoise between the two modalities. What has become clear from the controversy surrounding surgery versus SABR for early stage lung cancer is the desire to optimize treatment efficacy while minimizing invasiveness and morbidity. This review highlights the ongoing debate in light of these goals. PMID:27195137

  13. Experts reviews of the multidisciplinary consensus conference colon and rectal cancer 2012: science, opinions and experiences from the experts of surgery.

    PubMed

    van de Velde, C J H; Boelens, P G; Tanis, P J; Espin, E; Mroczkowski, P; Naredi, P; Pahlman, L; Ortiz, H; Rutten, H J; Breugom, A J; Smith, J J; Wibe, A; Wiggers, T; Valentini, V

    2014-04-01

    The first multidisciplinary consensus conference on colon and rectal cancer was held in December 2012, achieving a majority of consensus for diagnostic and treatment decisions using the Delphi Method. This article will give a critical appraisal of the topics discussed during the meeting and in the consensus document by well-known leaders in surgery that were involved in this multidisciplinary consensus process. Scientific evidence, experience and opinions are collected to support multidisciplinary teams (MDT) with arguments for medical decision-making in diagnosis, staging and treatment strategies for patients with colon or rectal cancer. Surgery is the cornerstone of curative treatment for colon and rectal cancer. Standardizing treatment is an effective instrument to improve outcome of multidisciplinary cancer care for patients with colon and rectal cancer. In this article, a review of the following focuses; Perioperative care, age and colorectal surgery, obstructive colorectal cancer, stenting, surgical anatomical considerations, total mesorectal excision (TME) surgery and training, surgical considerations for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) and local recurrent rectal cancer (LRRC), surgery in stage IV colorectal cancer, definitions of quality of surgery, transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM), laparoscopic colon and rectal surgery, preoperative radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy, and how about functional outcome after surgery?

  14. Effect of Gum Chewing on the Recovery From Laparoscopic Colorectal Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Duk Yeon; Kim, Ho Young; Kim, Ji Hoon; Lee, In Gyu; Kim, Jun Ki; Oh, Seung Taek

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to examine the effect of gum chewing after laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery. Methods We reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery in Incheon St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea School of Medicine. We divided the patients into 2 groups: group A consisted of 67 patients who did not chew gum; group B consisted of 65 patients who chewed gum. We analyzed the short-term clinical outcomes between the two groups to evaluate the effect of gum chewing. Results The first passage of gas was slightly earlier in group B, but the difference was not significant. However, the length of hospital stay was 6.7 days in group B, which was significantly shorter than that in group A (7.3 days, P = 0.018). Conclusion This study showed that length of postoperative hospital stay was shorter in the gum-chewing group. In future studies, we expect to elucidate the effect of gum chewing on the postoperative recovery more clearly. PMID:24466540

  15. Treatment of early stage breast cancer by limited surgery and radical irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, A.M.; Cope, O.; Russo, R.; Wang, C.C.; Schulz, M.D.; Wang, C.; Rodkey, G.

    1980-01-01

    Eighty-five female patients with early stage breast cancer, i.e., Stage I and II were treated by limited surgery followed by radical radiation therapy at Massachusetts General Hospital between January, 1956 and December, 1974. Patients included those who were medically inoperable or who refused mastectomy. The 5-year survival rate was 83% and 76% for Stage I and II, respectively. The corresponding disease free survival (absolute) was 67% and 42%. Although the number of patients so treated is small, there was no significant difference in survival from the results of the radical mastectomy series at the same institution. No major complications were encountered. Seventeen of eighty-five patients developed minor problems; mostly fibrosis and minimal arm lymphedema stemmming from older orthovoltage equipment and treatment techniques. With the current availability of megavoltage equipment, improvements in techniques and dosimetry, complications should decrease. Combined limited surgery and radical radiation therapy should be considered in those patients where a radical mastectomy is not feasible because of psychological or medical problems. Since this procedure results in a cosmetically acceptable breast, radical radiation in early stage breast cancer seems a reasonable alternative to radical mastectomy.

  16. Therapeutic effects of cytoprotective agent on breast reconstruction after breast cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    He, Xinjia; Wang, Lihua; Li, Wei; Yu, Zhuang; Wang, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    Most patients will choose breast reconstruction after breast cancer surgery, while radiotherapy will damage skin and soft tissue so that will have adverse effect on reconstruction. In this study, we assume that the usage of Amifostine can reduce the incidence of complications after breast reconstruction so that provides more choices of reconstruction operation. Dividing SD rats into surgical placement expansion material group (include 15 ml normal saline) and simple operation group. Then further divide the former into non intervention group , radiation group and Radiation therapy combined with Amie amifostine treatment group. The decubation is 45 days after operation. Macroscopic evaluate the complications of skin and soft tissue by ImageJ. There is no obvious complications of skin and soft tissue for control group, radiotherapy alone group and radiotherapy with application of Amifostine group by macroscopic evaluation. The animals that are in expanded object group, damage probability of skin and soft tissue when use Amifostine is lower than that of radiotherapy alone group (30% vs. 69%, P=0.041). ImageJ shows the necrosis probability of skin and soft tissue when use Amifostine is obvious lower than radiotherapy alone group (6.96% vs. 12.94%, P=0.019). In conclusion, prevention and treatment of Amifostine can significantly reduce the complications of skin and soft tissue which is helpful to breast reconstruction after breast cancer surgery. PMID:26885163

  17. [A Case of Rectal Cancer Successfully Treated with Surgery and Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Metachronous Lung Metastases].

    PubMed

    Oshima, Yu; Hosoda, Yohei; Tachi, Hidekazu; Sugimoto, Takashi; Okabe, Asami; Nishiyama, Kazuhiro; Ogura, Nobuko; Komoto, Izumi; Kiyochi, Hidenori; Tsunekawa, Shoji; Tanaka, Toru; Taki, Yoshiro; Imamura, Masayuki

    2016-11-01

    A 64-year-old woman underwent polypectomy for a rectal polyp(Isp). Pathological findings were invasion of the submucosa( 3,500 mm diameter), and she underwent anterior resection for rectal cancer(RS, pT1b, pN0, cM0, Stage I )without adjuvant chemotherapy. Lung masses were found in her right(8mm)and left lung(7mm). The tumors enlarged during the 4 month follow-up period. We decided to perform left partial pneumonectomy. The tumor was diagnosed as a lung metastasis from colon cancer by pathology. Because the right tumor was located towards the center, performing right pneumonectomy would have been quite invasive and we feared occult metastases. We decided to apply SRT(50 Gy)to the right tumor. The tumor shrunk and became a scar after treatment. There were no complications such as radiation pneumonitis. The patient was in good health without any recurrence for 12 months after SRT. Surgical resection is an optimal method to control lung metastasis from colon cancer if the lesion is operable. However, in the case of a tumor centrally located, surgical resection may cause deterioration of lung function. There are also cases with contraindications for surgery due to co-morbidities. In addition, there is no consensus on observation periods to exclude occult metastases. SRT can be an effective treatment for lung metastases from colon cancer when there are bilateral lung metastases and no metastases outside the lungs.

  18. Detection methods and clinical significance of free peritoneal tumor cells found during colorectal cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Sibio, Simone; Fiorani, Cristina; Stolfi, Carmine; Divizia, Andrea; Pezzuto, Roberto; Montagnese, Fabrizio; Bagaglini, Giulia; Sammartino, Paolo; Sica, Giuseppe Sigismondo

    2015-09-27

    Peritoneal washing is now part of the standard clinical practice in several abdominal and pelvic neoplasias. However, in colorectal cancer surgery, intra-peritoneal free cancer cells (IFCC) presence is not routinely investigated and their prognostic meaning is still unclear. When peritoneal washing results are positive for the presence of IFCC a worse outcome is usually expected in these colorectal cancer operated patients, but it what is not clear is whether it is associated with an increased risk of local recurrence. It is authors' belief that one of the main reasons why IFCC are not researched as integral part of the routine staging system for colon cancer is that there still isn't a diagnostic or detection method with enough sensibility and specificity. However, the potential clinical implications of a routine research for the presence IFCC in colon neoplasias are enormous: not only to obtain a more accurate clinical staging but also to offer different therapy protocols, based on the presence of IFCC. Based on this, adjuvant chemotherapy could be offered to those patients found to be positive for IFCC; also, protocols of proactive intraperitoneal chemotherapy could be applied. Although presence of IFCC appears to have a valid prognostic significance, further studies are needed to standardize detection and examination procedures, to determine if there are and which are the stages more likely to benefit from routine search for IFCC.

  19. Correlation of ADRB1 rs1801253 Polymorphism with Analgesic Effect of Fentanyl After Cancer Surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Tian, Yanli; Zhao, Chunlei; Sui, Zhifu; Liu, Chang; Wang, Congmin; Yang, Rongya

    2015-01-01

    Background Our study aimed to explore the association between β1-adrenoceptor (ADRB1) rs1801253 polymorphism and analgesic effect of fentanyl after cancer surgeries in Chinese Han populations. Material/Methods Postoperative fentanyl consumption of 120 patients for analgesia was recorded. Genotype distributions were detected by allele specific amplification-polymerase chain reaction (ASA-PCR) method. Postoperative pain was measured by visual analogue scale (VAS) method. Differences in postoperative VAS score and postoperative fentanyl consumption for analgesia in different genotype groups were compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Preoperative cold pressor-induced pain test was also performed to test the analgesic effect of fentanyl. Results Frequencies of Gly/Gly, Gly/Arg, Arg/Arg genotypes were 45.0%, 38.3%, and 16.7%, respectively, and passed the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) test. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) and the heart rate (HR) had no significant differences at different times. After surgery, the VAS score and fentanyl consumption in Arg/Arg group were significantly higher than in other groups at the postoperative 2nd hour, but the differences were not obvious at the 4th hour, 24th hour, and the 48th hour. The results suggest that the Arg/Arg homozygote increased susceptibility to postoperative pain. The preoperative cold pressor-induced pain test suggested that individuals with Arg/Arg genotype showed worse analgesic effect of fentanyl compared to other genotypes. Conclusions In Chinese Han populations, ADRB1 rs1801253 polymorphism might be associated with the analgesic effect of fentanyl after cancer surgery. PMID:26694722

  20. Update on the management of pancreatic cancer: Surgery is not enough

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Daniel; Gustafsson, Adam; Andersson, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) represents the fourth cause of death in cancer and has a 5-year survival of < 5%. Only about 15% of the patients present with a resectable PDAC with potential to undergo “curative” surgery. After surgery, local and systemic recurrence, is though very common. The median survival of resected patients with adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery is only 20-23 mo. This underscores the significant need to improve PDAC management strategies. Increased survival rate is dependent on new breakthroughs in our understanding of not at least tumor biology. The aim of this review is to update and comment on recent knowledge concerning PDAC biology and new diagnostics and treatment modalities. One fundamental approach to improve survival rates is by earlier and improved diagnosis of the disease. In recent years, novel blood-based biomarkers have emerged based on genetic, epigenetic and protein changes in PDAC with very promising results. For biomarkers to enter clinical practice they need to have been developed using adequate control groups and provide high sensitivity and specificity and by this identify patients at risk already in a pre-symptomatic stage. Another way to improve outcomes, is by employing neoadjuvant treatments thereby increasing the number of resectable cases. Novel systemic treatment regimes like FOLFIRINOX and nab-paclitaxel have demonstrated improvements in prolonging survival in advanced cases, but long-term survival is still scarce. The future improved understanding of PDAC biology will inevitably render new treatment options directed against both the cancer cells and the surrounding microenvironment. PMID:25805920

  1. Postoperative use of hypnotics is associated with increased length of stay after uncomplicated surgery for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Noack, Morten Westergaard; Bisgård, Anne Sofie; Klein, Mads; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Hypnotics are used to treat perioperative sleep disorders. These drugs are associated with a higher risk of adverse effects among patients undergoing surgery. This study aims to quantify the use of hypnotics and factors influencing the administration of hypnotics in relation to colorectal cancer surgery. Method: A retrospective cohort study of 1979 patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery. Results: In all, 381 patients (19%) received new treatment with hypnotics. Two of the six surgical centres used hypnotics less often (odds ratio (95% confidence interval), 0.24 (0.16–0.38) and 0.20 (0.12–0.35)). Active smokers (odds ratio (95% confidence interval), 1.57 (1.11–2.24)) and patients receiving perioperative blood transfusion (odds ratio (95% confidence interval), 1.58 (1.10–2.26)) had increased likelihood of receiving hypnotics. In the uncomplicated cases, a multivariable linear regression analysis showed that consumption of hypnotics postoperatively was significantly associated with increased length of stay (1.5 (0.9–2.2) days). Conclusion: One in five patients began treatment with hypnotics after colorectal cancer surgery. Postoperative use of hypnotics was associated with an increased length of stay for uncomplicated cases of colorectal cancer surgery. PMID:27660704

  2. Short-term outcome in patients treated with cytoreduction and HIPEC compared to conventional colon cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Simkens, Geert A.; Verwaal, Vic J.; Lemmens, Valery E.; Rutten, Harm J.; de Hingh, Ignace H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is an extensive procedure with considerable morbidity. Since only few hospitals perform CRS + HIPEC, this might lead to confounded outcomes between hospitals when audited. This study aims to compare outcomes between peritoneally metastasized (PM) colon cancer patients treated with CRS + HIPEC and patients undergoing conventional colon surgery. Furthermore, the impact of CRS + HIPEC on the risk of postoperative complications will be assessed, probably leading to better insight into how to report on postoperative outcomes in this distinct group of patients undergoing extensive colon surgery. All patients with primary colon cancer who underwent segmental colon resection in a tertiary referral hospital between 2011 and 2014 were included in this prospective cohort study. Outcome after surgery was compared between patients who underwent additional CRS + HIPEC treatment or conventional surgery. Consequently, 371 patients underwent surgery, of which 43 (12%) underwent CRS + HIPEC. These patients were younger and healthier than patients undergoing conventional surgery. Tumor characteristics were less favorable and surgery was more extensive in CRS + HIPEC patients. The morbidity rate was also higher in CRS + HIPEC patients (70% vs 41%; P < 0.001). CRS + HIPEC was an independent predictor of postoperative complications (odds ratio 6.4), but was not associated with more severe postoperative complications or higher treatment-related mortality. Although patients with colonic PM undergoing CRS + HIPEC treatment were younger and healthier, the postoperative outcome was worse. This is most probably due to less favorable tumor characteristics and more extensive surgery. Nevertheless, CRS + HIPEC treatment was not associated with severe complications or increased treatment-related mortality. These results stress the need for adequate case

  3. Fluorescence-guided surgery of a highly-metastatic variant of human triple-negative breast cancer targeted with a cancer-specific GFP adenovirus prevents recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Shuya; Takehara, Kiyoto; Miwa, Shinji; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Urata, Yasuo; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Bouvet, Michael; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously developed a genetically-engineered GFP-expressing telomerase-dependent adenovirus, OBP-401, which can selectively illuminate cancer cells. In the present report, we demonstrate that targeting a triple-negative high-invasive human breast cancer, orthotopically-growing in nude mice, with OBP-401 enables curative fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS). OBP-401 enabled complete resection and prevented local recurrence and greatly inhibited lymph-node metastasis due to the ability of the virus to selectively label and subsequently kill cancer cells. In contrast, residual breast cancer cells become more aggressive after bright (white)-light surgery (BLS). OBP-401-based FGS also improved the overall survival compared with conventional BLS. Thus, metastasis from a highly-aggressive triple-negative breast cancer can be prevented by FGS in a clinically-relevant mouse model. PMID:27689331

  4. Pancreatic cancer: Surgery is a feasible therapeutic option for elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Compromised physiological reserve, comorbidities, and the natural history of pancreatic cancer may deny pancreatic resection from elderly patients. We evaluated outcomes of elderly patients amenable to pancreatic surgery. Methods The medical records of all patients who underwent pancreatic resection at our institution (1995-2007) were retrospectively reviewed. Patient, tumor, and outcomes characteristics in elderly patients aged ≥ 70 years were compared to a younger cohort (<70y). Results Of 460 patients who had surgery for pancreatic neoplasm, 166 (36%) aged ≥ 70y. Compared to patients < 70y (n = 294), elderly patients had more associated comorbidities; 72% vs. 43% (p = 0.01) and a higher rate of malignant pathologies; 73% vs. 59% (p = 0.002). Operative time and blood products consumption were comparable; however, elderly patients had more post-operative complications (41% vs. 29%; p = 0.01), longer hospital stay (26.2 vs. 19.7 days; p < 0.0001), and a higher incidence of peri-operative mortality (5.4% vs. 1.4%; p = 0.01). Multivariable analysis identified age ≥ 70y as an independent predictor of shorter disease-specific survival (DSS) among patients who had surgery for pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 224). Median DSS for patients aged ≥ 70y vs. < 70y were 15 months (SE: 1.6) vs. 20 months (SE: 3.4), respectively (p = 0.05). One, two, and 5-Y DSS rates for the cohort of elderly patients were 58%, 36% and 23%, respectively. Conclusions Properly selected elderly patients can undergo pancreatic resection with acceptable post-operative morbidity and mortality rates. Long term survival is achievable even in the presence of adenocarcinoma and therefore surgery should be seriously considered in these patients. PMID:21272335

  5. Prostate-specific membrane antigen-radioguided surgery for metastatic lymph nodes in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Tobias; Weirich, Gregor; Schottelius, Margret; Weineisen, Martina; Frisch, Benjamin; Okur, Asli; Kübler, Hubert; Thalgott, Mark; Navab, Nassir; Schwaiger, Markus; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Gschwend, Jürgen E; Eiber, Matthias

    2015-09-01

    With the advent of (68)Ga-labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen-N,N'-bis[2-hydroxy-5-(carboxyethyl)benzyl]ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid ((68)Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC) positron emission tomography (PET) hybrid imaging in prostate cancer (PCa), even small metastatic lymph nodes (LNs) can be visualized. However, intraoperative detection of such LNs may not be easy owing to their inconspicuous morphology and/or atypical localization. The aim of our feasibility study was to evaluate PSMA-radioguided surgery for detection of metastatic LNs. One patient with primary PCa and evidence of LN metastases and four PCa patients with evidence of recurrent disease to regional LNs on (68)Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET hybrid imaging received an intravenous injection of an (111)In-PSMA investigation and therapy agent 24h before surgery. Metastatic LNs were tracked intraoperatively using a gamma probe with acoustic and visual feedback. All radioactive-positive LN specimens detected in vivo were confirmed by ex vivo measurements and corresponded to PSMA-avid metastatic disease according to histopathology analysis. Intraoperative use of the gamma probe detected all PSMA-positive lesions identified on preoperative (68)Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET. Detection of small subcentimeter metastatic LNs was facilitated, and PSMA-radioguided surgery in two patients revealed additional lesions close to known tumor deposits that were not detected by preoperative (68)Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET. However, greater patient numbers and long-term follow-up data are needed to determine the future role of PSMA-radioguided surgery.

  6. Pelvic inflammatory disease increases the risk of a second primary malignancy in patients with cervical cancer treated by surgery alone.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Wen-Yen; Chen, Chien-An; Lee, Moon-Sing; Lin, Hon-Yi; Li, Chung-Yi; Su, Yu-Chieh; Tsai, Shiang-Jiun; Hung, Shih-Kai

    2016-11-01

    As the number of long-term cervical cancer survivors continues to increase because of improvements in treatment, concerns about second primary malignancy have grown. The high-risk area of second primary cancers in cervical cancer survivors is the pelvis. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) could be a useful marker for gynecological cancers. Thus, we designed a large-scale, nationwide, controlled cohort study to investigate whether PID or other risk factors increased the risk of second primary cancers in patients with cervical cancer treated by surgery alone.Between 2000 and 2010, a total of 24,444 cervical cancer patients were identified using the Registry Data for Catastrophic Illness and the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. Patients who received definite surgery were selected. To exclude the effect on second primary malignancy by treatment modalities, all cervical patients who ever having received adjuvant or definite radiotherapy or chemotherapy for primary cervical cancer were excluded. Finally, 3860 cervical cancer patients treated by surgery alone without adjuvant treatments were analyzed.Cox proportional hazards model was used for multivariate analysis and the Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess the cumulative risks. Regarding the incidence of second primary cancers, the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was used.The median follow-up time was 56.6 months. The 6-year cumulative risk of second primary cancers is 0.16% and 0.12% for PID and without PID, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, age of less than 50 years, the presence of diabetes mellitus, and PID were significantly positivity associated with the risk of second primary cancers. The hazard ratios (HRs) of age less than 50 years, diabetes mellitus, and PID were 1.38 (95% CI = 1.11-2.04), 1.40 (95% CI = 1.06-1.85), and 1.35 (95% CI = 1.00-1.81), respectively. A higher incidence of second primary cancers was observed in the genitals, bladder, and

  7. Vascular and Cognitive Assessments in Patients With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy After Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-20

    Cognitive/Functional Effects; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  8. Octreotide as Palliative Therapy for Cancer-Related Bowel Obstruction That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-05-31

    Colorectal Cancer; Constipation, Impaction, and Bowel Obstruction; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Nausea and Vomiting; Ovarian Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer

  9. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Is Associated With Increased Mortality in Chinese Patients Receiving Curative Surgery for Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kuo-Hsing; Shao, Yu-Yun; Lin, Zhong-Zhe; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Shau, Wen-Yi; Kuo, Raymond Nienchen; Chen, Ho-Min; Lai, Chiu-Ling; Yeh, Kun-Huei; Cheng, Ann-Lii

    2014-01-01

    Background. We investigated the association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and the prognosis of patients with early colon cancer who had undergone curative surgery. Methods. From three national databases of patients in Taiwan, we selected a cohort of colon cancer patients who had been newly diagnosed with stage I or stage II colon cancer between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2008 and had undergone curative surgery. We collected information regarding DM (type 2 DM only), the use of antidiabetic medications, other comorbidities, and survival outcomes. The colon cancer-specific survival (CSS) and the overall survival (OS) were compared between patients with and without DM. Results. We selected 6,937 colon cancer patients, among whom 1,371 (19.8%) had DM. The colon cancer patients with DM were older and less likely to receive adjuvant chemotherapy but had a similar tumor stage and grade, compared with colon cancer patients without DM. Compared with colon cancer patients without DM, patients with DM had significantly shorter OS (5-year OS: 71.0% vs. 81.7%) and CSS (5-year CSS: 86.7% vs. 89.2%). After adjusting for age, sex, stage, adjuvant chemotherapy, and comorbidities in our multivariate analysis, DM remained an independent prognostic factor for overall mortality (adjusted hazards ratio: 1.32, 95% confidence interval: 1.18–1.49), but not for cancer-specific mortality. Among the colon cancer patients who had received antidiabetic drug therapy, patients who had used insulin had significantly shorter CSS and OS than patients who had not. Conclusion. Among patients who receive curative surgery for early colon cancer, DM is a predictor of increased overall mortality. PMID:25061090

  10. Guidelines for the Surgical Management of Laryngeal Cancer: Korean Society of Thyroid-Head and Neck Surgery.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Soon-Hyun; Hong, Hyun Jun; Kwon, Soon Young; Kwon, Kee Hwan; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Ryu, Junsun; Park, Jun Hee; Baek, Seung-Kuk; Lee, Guk Haeng; Lee, Sei Young; Lee, Jin Choon; Chung, Man Ki; Joo, Young Hoon; Ji, Yong Bae; Hah, Jeong Hun; Kwon, Minsu; Park, Young Min; Song, Chang Myeon; Shin, Sung-Chan; Ryu, Chang Hwan; Lee, Doh Young; Lee, Young Chan; Chang, Jae Won; Jeong, Ha Min; Cho, Jae-Keun; Cha, Wonjae; Chun, Byung Joon; Choi, Ik Joon; Choi, Hyo Geun; Lee, Kang Dae

    2017-03-01

    Korean Society of Thyroid-Head and Neck Surgery appointed a Task Force to develop clinical practice guidelines for the surgical treatment of laryngeal cancer. This Task Force conducted a systematic search of the EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed databases to identify relevant articles, using search terms selected according to the key questions. Evidence-based recommendations were then created on the basis of these articles. An external expert review and Delphi questionnaire were applied to reach consensus regarding the recommendations. The resulting guidelines focus on the surgical treatment of laryngeal cancer with the assumption that surgery is the selected treatment modality after a multidisciplinary discussion in any context. These guidelines do not, therefore, address non-surgical treatment such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy. The committee developed 62 evidence-based recommendations in 32 categories intended to assist clinicians during management of patients with laryngeal cancer and patients with laryngeal cancer, and counselors and health policy-makers.

  11. Case report of two patients having successful surgery for lung cancer after treatment for Grade 2 radiation pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Yuki; Akiyama, Hirohiko; Kinoshita, Hiroyasu; Atari, Maiko; Fukuhara, Mitsuro; Saito, Yoshihiro; Sakai, Hiroshi; Uramoto, Hidetaka

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Surgery for locally advanced lung cancer is carried out following chemoradiotherapy. However, there are no reports clarifying what the effects on the subsequent prognosis are when surgery is carried out in cases with radiation pneumonitis. In this paper, we report on 2 cases of non-small cell lung cancer with Grade 2 radiation pneumonitis after induction chemoradiotherapy, in which we were able to safely perform radical surgery subsequent to the treatment for pneumonia. Presentation of cases Case 1 was a 68-year-old male with a diagnosis of squamous cell lung cancer cT2aN2M0, Stage IIIA. Sixty days after completion of the radiotherapy, Grade 2 radiation pneumonitis was diagnosed. After administration of predonine, and upon checking that the radiation pneumonitis had improved, radical surgery was performed. Case 2 was a 63-year-old male. He was diagnosed with squamous cell lung cancer cT2bN1M0, Stage IIB. One hundred and twenty days after completion of the radiotherapy, he was diagnosed with Grade 2 radiation pneumonitis. After administration of predonine, the symptoms disappeared, and radical surgery was performed. In both cases, the postoperative course was favorable, without complications, and the patients were discharged. Conclusion Surgery for lung cancer on patients with Grade 2 radiation pneumonitis should be deferred until the patients complete steroid therapy, and the clinical pneumonitis is cured. Moreover, it is believed that it is important to remove the resolved radiation pneumonitis without leaving any residual areas and not to cut into any areas of active radiation pneumonitis as much as possible. PMID:26793310

  12. Gynecologic examination and cervical biopsies after (chemo) radiation for cervical cancer to identify patients eligible for salvage surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Nijhuis, Esther R.; Zee, Ate G.J. van der; Hout, Bertha A. in 't; Boomgaard, Jantine J.; Hullu, Joanne A. de; Pras, Elisabeth; Hollema, Harry; Aalders, Jan G.; Nijman, Hans W.; Willemse, Pax H.B.; Mourits, Marian J.E. . E-mail: m.j.e.mourits@og.umcg.nl

    2006-11-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of gynecologic examination under general anesthesia with cervical biopsies after (chemo) radiation for cervical cancer to identify patients with residual disease who may benefit from salvage surgery. Methods and Materials: In a retrospective cohort study data of all cervical cancer patients with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Stage IB1 to IVA treated with (chemo) radiation between 1994 and 2001 were analyzed. Patients underwent gynecologic examination under anesthesia 8 to 10 weeks after completion of treatment. Cervical biopsy samples were taken from patients judged to be operable. In case of residual cancer, salvage surgery was performed. Results: Between 1994 and 2001, 169 consecutive cervical cancer patients received primary (chemo) radiation, of whom 4 were lost to follow-up. Median age was 56 years (interquartile range [IQR], 44-71) and median follow-up was 3.5 years (IQR, 1.5-5.9). In each of 111 patients a biopsy sample was taken, of which 90 (81%) showed no residual tumor. Vital tumor cells were found in 21 of 111 patients (19%). Salvage surgery was performed in 13 of 21 (62%) patients; of these patients, 5 (38%) achieved long-term, complete remission after salvage surgery (median follow-up, 5.2 years; range, 3.9-8.8 years). All patients with residual disease who did not undergo operation (8/21) died of progressive disease. Locoregional control was more often obtained in patients who underwent operation (7 of 13) than in patients who were not selected for salvage surgery (0 of 8 patients) (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Gynecologic examination under anesthesia 8 to 10 weeks after (chemo) radiation with cervical biopsies allows identification of those cervical cancer patients who have residual local disease, of whom a small but significant proportion may be salvaged by surgery.

  13. Biological Effects of Green Tea Capsule Supplementation in Pre-Surgery Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Steven S.; Spicer, Darcy V.; Hawes, Debra; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Yang, Chung S.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Wu, Anna H.

    2013-01-01

    Regular green tea intake has been associated with an inverse risk of breast cancer. There are compelling experimental evidence that green tea, particularly, epigallocatechin gallate, the most potent green tea catechin, possesses a range of anti-cancer properties. We conducted a pre-surgical study of green tea capsules vs. no-green tea in women with primary breast cancer to determine the effects of green tea supplementation on markers of biological response. Postmenopausal women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or stage I or II breast cancer took green tea capsules (940 mg per day) for an average of 35 days prior to surgery (n = 13) or received no green tea (n = 18). Paired diagnostic core biopsy and surgical specimen samples were analyzed for cell proliferation (Ki-67), apoptosis (caspase-3), and angiogenesis (CD34) separately in benign and malignant cell components. There were no significant changes in caspase-3 and CD34 in the green tea and no green tea groups and there were no significant differences in the change in these markers between the two groups. However, Ki-67 levels declined in both benign and malignant cell components in the green tea group; the decline in Ki-67 positivity in malignant cells was not statistically significant (P = 0.10) but was statistically significant in benign cells (P = 0.007). Ki-67 levels in benign and malignant cells did not change significantly in the no green tea group. There was a statistically significant difference in the change in Ki-67 in benign cells (P = 0.033) between the green tea and the no green tea groups. The trend of a consistent reduction in Ki-67 in both benign and malignant cells in the green tea group warrants further investigations in a larger study of breast cancer patients or high-risk women. PMID:24380073

  14. [Nutritional screening before surgery for esophageal cancer - current status and evaluation results].

    PubMed

    Shimakawa, Takeshi; Asaka, Shinich; Sagawa, Masano; Shimazaki, Asako; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Usui, Takebumi; Yokomizo, Hajime; Shiozawa, Shunichi; Yoshimatsu, Kazuhiko; Katsube, Takao; Naritaka, Yoshihiko

    2014-10-01

    The incidence of postoperative complications and mortality are usually higher in patients with preoperative malnutrition. Malnutrition often preexists, particularly in patients undergoing surgery for esophageal cancer, which is substantially invasive. It is therefore important to understand the nutritional condition of patients and actively control perioperative nutrition.Our hospital has been providing nutritional status screening for patients before resection of esophageal cancer, and we report the current status and evaluation results in this article.This screening included 158 patients requiring radical resection of esophageal cancer.Age, comorbidity with diabetes, body mass index(BMI), serum albumin(Alb), Onodera's prognostic nutritional index(PNI), and Glasgow prognostic score(GPS)were used as nutritional indicators to stratify patients for analysis.Evaluation parameters included the incidence of postoperative complications(any complication, pulmonary complications, psychiatric disorder, and anastomotic leakage)and rates of long-term postoperative hospitalization.The analysis indicated that age, BMI, serum Alb, PNI, and GPS are useful for predicting the onset of postoperative complications and prolonged postoperative hospitalization.For such patients, more active nutritional control should be provided.

  15. Neoadjuvant Treatment Does Not Influence Perioperative Outcome in Rectal Cancer Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, Alexis; Weitz, Juergen Slodczyk, Matthias; Koch, Moritz; Jaeger, Dirk; Muenter, Marc; Buechler, Markus W.

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: To identify the risk factors for perioperative morbidity in patients undergoing resection of primary rectal cancer, with a specific focus on the effect of neoadjuvant therapy. Methods and Materials: This exploratory analysis of prospectively collected data included all patients who underwent anterior resection/low anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection for primary rectal cancer between October 2001 and October 2006. The study endpoints were perioperative surgical and medical morbidity. Univariate and multivariate analyses of potential risk factors were performed. Results: A total of 485 patients were included in this study; 425 patients (88%) underwent a sphincter-saving anterior resection/low anterior resection, 47 (10%) abdominoperineal resection, and 13 (2%) multivisceral resection. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy was performed in 100 patients (21%), and 168 (35%) underwent neoadjuvant short-term radiotherapy (5 x 5 Gy). Patient age and operative time were independently associated with perioperative morbidity, and operative time, body mass index >27 kg/m{sup 2} (overweight), and resection type were associated with surgical morbidity. Age and a history of smoking were confirmed as independent prognostic risk factors for medical complications. Neoadjuvant therapy was not associated with a worse outcome. Conclusion: The results of this prospective study have identified several risk factors associated with an adverse perioperative outcome after rectal cancer surgery. In addition, neoadjuvant therapy was not associated with increased perioperative complications.

  16. Intraoperative targeted optical imaging: a guide towards tumor-free margins in cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Orbay, Hakan; Bean, Jero; Zhang, Yin; Cai, Weibo

    2013-01-01

    Over the last several decades, development of various imaging techniques such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography greatly facilitated the early detection of cancer. Another important aspect that is closely related to the survival of cancer patients is complete tumor removal during surgical resection. The major obstacle in achieving this goal is to distinguish between tumor tissue and normal tissue during surgery. Currently, tumor margins are typically assessed by visual assessment and palpation of the tumor intraoperatively. However, the possibility of microinvasion to the surrounding tissues makes it difficult to determine an adequate tumor-free excision margin, often forcing the surgeons to perform wide excisions including the healthy tissue that may contain vital structures. It would be ideal to remove the tumor completely, with minimal safety margins, if surgeons could see precise tumor margins during the operation. Molecular imaging with optical techniques can visualize the tumors via fluorophore conjugated probes targeting tumor markers such as proteins and enzymes that are upregulated during malignant transformation. Intraoperative use of this technique may facilitate complete excision of the tumor and tumor micromasses located beyond the visual capacity of the naked eye, ultimately improving the clinical outcome and survival rates of cancer patients.

  17. Changes in specialists' perspectives on cancer genetic testing, prophylactic surgery and insurance discrimination: then and now.

    PubMed

    Matloff, Ellen T; Bonadies, Danielle C; Moyer, Anne; Brierley, Karina L

    2014-04-01

    We surveyed cancer genetics specialists in 1998 to learn what they would do if at 50% risk to carry a BRCA or Lynch syndrome mutation. We chose to repeat our study 14 years later, to examine how perspectives have changed with the extensive data now available. In July 2012 we surveyed the National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) Cancer Special Interest Group via an internet based survey. We found statistically significant increases in the percentage of specialists who: would undergo BRCA testing (p = 0.0006), opt for prophylactic bilateral mastectomy (p =0.0001), opt for prophylactic removal of their uterus and ovaries for Lynch syndrome (p =0.0057 and P = 0.0090, respectively), and bill testing to insurance (p >0.0001). There were also statistically significant decreases in the percentage of participants who would have their colon removed for Lynch syndrome (p = 0.0002) and use an alias when pursuing testing (p > 0.0001). Over the past 14 years there has been a major change in perspective amongst cancer genetic specialists regarding genetic testing, prophylactic surgery and insurance discrimination.

  18. Emotional and sexual concerns in women undergoing pelvic surgery and associated treatment for gynecologic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stabile, Cara; Gunn, Abigail; Sonoda, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    The surgical management of gynecologic cancer can cause short- and long-term effects on sexuality, emotional well being, reproductive function, and overall quality of life (QoL). Fortunately, innovative approaches developed over the past several decades have improved oncologic outcomes and reduced treatment sequelae; however, these side effects of treatment are still prevalent. In this article, we provide an overview of the various standard-of-care pelvic surgeries and multimodality cancer treatments (chemotherapy and radiation therapy) by anatomic site and highlight the potential emotional and sexual consequences that can influence cancer survivorship and QoL. Potential screening tools that can be used in clinical practice to identify some of these concerns and treatment side effects and possible solutions are also provided. These screening tools include brief assessments that can be used in the clinical care setting to assist in the identification of problematic issues throughout the continuum of care. This optimizes quality of care, and ultimately, QoL in these women. Prospective clinical trials with gynecologic oncology populations should include patient-reported outcomes to identify subgroups at risk for difficulties during and following treatment for early intervention. PMID:26816823

  19. Treatment outcomes after adjuvant radiotherapy following surgery for patients with stage I endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Kyung-Ja; Park, Kyung-Ran; Ha, Boram; Kim, Yi-Jun; Jung, Wonguen; Lee, Rena; Kim, Seung Cheol; Moon, Hye Sung; Ju, Woong; Kim, Yun Hwan; Lee, Jihae

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate the treatment outcomes of adjuvant radiotherapy using vaginal brachytherapy (VB) with a lower dose per fraction and/or external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) following surgery for patients with stage I endometrial carcinoma. Materials and Methods The subjects were 43 patients with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I endometrial cancer who underwent adjuvant radiotherapy following surgery between March 2000 and April 2014. Of these, 25 received postoperative VB alone, while 18 received postoperative EBRT to the whole pelvis; 3 of these were treated with EBRT plus VB. The median EBRT dose was 50.0 Gy (45.0–50.4 Gy) and the VB dose was 24 Gy in 6 fractions. Tumor dose was prescribed at a depth of 5 mm from the cylinder surface and delivered twice per week. Results The median follow-up period for all patients was 57 months (range, 9 to 188 months). Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) for all patients were 92.5% and 95.3%, respectively. Adjuvant radiotherapy was performed according to risk factors and stage IB, grade 3 and lymphovascular invasion were observed more frequently in the EBRT group. Five-year DFS for EBRT and VB alone were 88.1% and 96.0%, respectively (p = 0.42), and 5-year OS for EBRT and VB alone were 94.4% and 96%, respectively (p = 0.38). There was no locoregional recurrence in any patient. Two patients who received EBRT and 1 patient who received VB alone developed distant metastatic disease. Two patients who received EBRT had severe complications, one each of grade 3 gastrointestinal complication and pelvic bone insufficiency fracture. Conclusion Adjuvant radiotherapy achieved high DFS and OS with acceptable toxicity in stage I endometrial cancer. VB (with a lower dose per fraction) may be a viable option for selected patients with early-stage endometrial cancer following surgery. PMID:27703126

  20. Comparison of Survival Rate in Primary Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Among Elderly Patients Treated With Radiofrequency Ablation, Surgery, or Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Heon; Jin, Gong Yong Han, Young Min; Chung, Gyung Ho; Lee, Yong Chul; Kwon, Keun Sang; Lynch, David

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: We retrospectively compared the survival rate in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with radiofrequency ablation (RFA), surgery, or chemotherapy according to lung cancer staging. Materials and Methods: From 2000 to 2004, 77 NSCLC patients, all of whom had WHO performance status 0-2 and were >60 years old, were enrolled in a cancer registry and retrospectively evaluated. RFA was performed on patients who had medical contraindications to surgery/unsuitability for surgery, such as advanced lung cancer or refusal of surgery. In the RFA group, 40 patients with inoperable NSCLC underwent RFA under computed tomography (CT) guidance. These included 16 patients with stage I to II cancer and 24 patients with stage III to IV cancer who underwent RFA in an adjuvant setting. In the comparison group (n = 37), 13 patients with stage I to II cancer underwent surgery; 18 patients with stage III to IV cancer underwent chemotherapy; and 6 patients with stage III to IV cancer were not actively treated. The survival curves for RFA, surgery, and chemotherapy in these patients were calculated using Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Median survival times for patients treated with (1) surgery alone and (2) RFA alone for stage I to II lung cancer were 33.8 and 28.2 months, respectively (P = 0.426). Median survival times for patients treated with (1) chemotherapy alone and (2) RFA with chemotherapy for stage III to IV cancer were 29 and 42 months, respectively (P = 0.03). Conclusion: RFA can be used as an alternative treatment to surgery for older NSCLC patients with stage I to II inoperable cancer and can play a role as adjuvant therapy with chemotherapy for patients with stage III to IV lung cancer.

  1. Erlotinib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Pancreatic Cancer That Can Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-10-07

    Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of the Pancreas; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer

  2. Distress and Psychosocial Needs in Patients Accessing a Cancer Day Surgery Division: Implications for Clinical Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Arnaboldi, Paola; Riva, Silvia; Vadilonga, Valeria; Tadini, Liliana; Magon, Giorgio; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The Distress Thermometer (DT) was built and validated for screening cancer patients for distress, as suggested by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. The current work was designed to measure the rates of distress in a sample of patients being hospitalized in a multidisciplinary outpatient surgery clinic. Objective: To measure the rates of distress in a sample of patients referring to a multidisciplinary day surgery division in a comprehensive cancer center based in Northern Italy. Methods: A total of 177 patients were asked to fill in the (DT) before surgery. Results: Out of 177 patients, 154 (87%) patients completed the DT. While 13% of the patients indicated a total absence of distress, more than half of the sample declared a moderate or high distress. A total of 55% of patients presented at least three difficulties in the Problem List Checklist. Distress was not correlated with age or other medical and clinical variables. Number of emotional problems was the best predictor of distress at admission (β = 0.655, p = 0.000). Conclusion: Screening for distress in a day surgery multidisciplinary oncology division is feasible and a relevant percentage of patients can be identified as clinically distressed. Outcomes also highlight the impact of age and precise physical and psycho-social signs as prognostic indicators of clinically significant distress. Measurement of distress and associated problems list represent the preliminary endpoint toward adequate recommendations that contribute to taking care of distress in cancer patients in cost-effective clinical setting. PMID:28082946

  3. Predictors of mortality within 1 year after primary ovarian cancer surgery: a nationwide cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ørskov, Mette; Iachina, Maria; Guldberg, Rikke; Mogensen, Ole; Mertz Nørgård, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify predictors of mortality within 1 year after primary surgery for ovarian cancer. Design Prospective nationwide cohort study from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2012. Setting Evaluation of data from the Danish Gynaecology Cancer Database and the Danish Civil Registration System. Participants 2654 women who underwent surgery due to a diagnosis of primary ovarian cancer. Outcome measures Overall survival and predictors of mortality within 0–180 and 181–360 days after the primary surgery. Examined predictors were age, preoperative American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, body mass index (BMI), International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, residual tumour tissue after surgery, perioperative blood transfusion and calendar year of surgery. Results The overall 1-year survival was 84%. Within 0–180 days after surgery, the 3 most important predictors of mortality from the multivariable model were residual tumour tissue >2 cm versus no residual tumour (HR=4.58 (95% CI 3.20 to 6.59)), residual tumour tissue ≤2 cm versus no residual tumour (HR=2.50 (95% CI 1.63 to 3.82)) and age >64 years versus age ≤64 years (HR=2.33 (95% CI 1.69 to 3.21)). Within 181–360 days after surgery, FIGO stages III–IV versus I–II (HR=2.81 (95% CI 1.75 to 4.50)), BMI<18.5 vs 18.5–25 kg/m2 (HR=2.08 (95% CI 1.18 to 3.66)) and residual tumour tissue >2 cm versus no residual tumour (HR=1.84 (95% CI 1.25 to 2.70)) were the 3 most important predictors. Conclusions The most important predictors of mortality within 1 year after surgery were residual tumour tissue (0–180 days after surgery) and advanced FIGO stage (181–360 days after surgery). However, our results suggest that the surgeon should not just aim at radical surgery, but also pay special attention to comorbidity, nutritional state, age >64 years and the need for perioperative blood transfusion. PMID:27103625

  4. Incidence and Predictors of Venous Thromboembolism After Debulking Surgery for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mokri, Bahareh; Mariani, Andrea; Heit, John A.; Weaver, Amy L.; McGree, Michaela E.; Martin, Janice R.; Lemens, Maureen A.; Cliby, William A.; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and the risk factors of venous thromboembolism (VTE) within 30 days after primary surgery for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Methods In a historical cohort study, we estimated the postoperative 30-day cumulative incidence of VTE among consecutive Mayo Clinic patients undergoing primary cytoreduction for EOC between January 2, 2003, and December 29, 2008. We tested perioperative patient characteristics and process-of-care variables (defined by the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, >130 variables) as potential predictors of postoperative VTE using the Cox proportional hazards modeling. Results Among 569 cases of primary EOC cytoreduction and/or staging and no recent VTE, 35 developed symptomatic VTE within 30 days after surgery (cumulative incidence = 6.5%; 95% confidence interval, 4.4%–8.6%). Within the cohort, 95 (16.7%) received graduated compression stockings (GCSs), 367 (64.5%) had sequential compression devices + GCSs, and 69 (12.1%) had sequential compression devices + GCSs + postoperative heparin, with VTE rates of 1.1%, 7.4%, and 5.8%, respectively (P = 0.07, χ2 test). The remaining 38 (6.7%) received various other chemical and mechanical prophylaxis regimens. In the multivariate analysis, current or past tobacco smoking, longer hospital stay, and a remote history of VTE significantly increased the risk for postoperative VTE. Conclusions Venous thromboembolism is a substantial postoperative complication among women with EOC, and the high cumulative rate of VTE within 30 days after primary surgery suggests that a more aggressive strategy is needed for VTE prevention. In addition, because longer hospital stay is independently associated with a higher risk for VTE, methods to decrease length of stay and minimize factors that contribute to prolonged hospitalization are warranted. PMID:24172104

  5. The Role of Religion and Spirituality in Psychological Distress Prior to Surgery for Urologic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Biegler, Kelly; Cohen, Lorenzo; Scott, Shellie; Hitzhusen, Katherine; Parker, Patricia; Gilts, Chelsea D.; Canada, Andrea; Pisters, Louis

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the associations between religion and spirituality (R/S), presurgical distress, and other psychosocial factors such as engagement coping, avoidant coping, and social support. Participants were 115 men scheduled for surgery for urologic cancer. Before surgery, participants completed scales measuring intrinsic religiosity, organized religious activity, and nonorganized religious activity (IR, ORA, NORA); social support (Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey); and distress (Impact of Event Scale [IES], Perceived Stress Scale [PSS], Brief Symptom Inventory-18 [BSI-18], and Profile of Mood States [POMS]). R/S was positively associated with engagement coping. Social support was positively associated with engagement coping and inversely associated with POMS and PSS scores. Engagement coping was positively associated with IES and BSI scores, and avoidant coping was positively associated with all distress measures. R/S moderated the association between engagement coping and IES scores, such that the association between engagement coping and IES was not significant for men with high R/S scores (greater religious belief). R/S moderated the association between social support and distress; the inverse association between social support and PSS and POMS scores was only significant for men who scored high on R/S. This study replicated findings from previous studies suggesting that engagement and avoidant types of coping can lead to increased distress prior to surgery. Although R/S was associated with engagement coping, it was not associated with any of the distress measures. The finding that R/S moderated the associations between engagement coping and distress and social support and distress suggests that the association between R/S, coping style, social support, and adjustment to stressful life situations is not simplistic, and indirect associations should be explored. PMID:21964511

  6. Inhibitory effect of dexamethasone on residual Lewis lung cancer cells in mice following palliative surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ningbo; Ji, Huaijun; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Qiang; Cao, Ming; Zang, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies found that glucocorticoids were closely associated with the oncogenesis and development of numerous types of tumors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dexamethasone on the growth and angiogenesis of Lewis lung cancer cells in mice who received palliative surgery. Lewis lung carcinoma cells were inoculated subcutaneously into the right axilla of C57BL/6 mice. When tumor diameter reached 0.5 cm, 2 weeks later, palliative surgery was performed, and the mice were randomly divided into 3 groups with 6 animals in each group (control group, cisplatin group and dexamethasone group). From the first postoperative day, all the mice were administered with saline, cisplatin or dexamethasone for 10 days, and changes in xenograft tumor volumes were monitored. Cisplatin and dexamethasone were dissolved in normal saline (0.9%). All mice were sacrificed on postoperative day 11, and the whole body and the local tumors were weighed immediately. The expression levels of hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the microvessel density (MVD) in the tumor mass, were measured by immunohistochemistry, western blotting and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In the present study, tumor growth was inhibited in the cisplatin group and dexamethasone group, and the weights of tumors were significantly decreased in the cisplatin group and dexamethasone group compared with the control group (P<0.001). The expression levels of HIF-1α and VEGF and the MVD were significantly lower in the cisplatin group and dexamethasone group than in the control group (P<0.01). In conclusion, dexamethasone can inhibit the growth and angiogenesis of residual Lewis lung carcinoma subsequent to palliative surgery partially through downregulation of HIF-1α and VEGF signaling pathways. PMID:28123567

  7. Radiation therapy alone or in combination with surgery in head and neck cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Marcial, V.A.; Pajak, T.F.

    1985-05-01

    Radiation therapy alone, surgery alone, or the combination of these two modalities, remain the accepted treatments in the management of epidermoid carcinomas of the mucosa of the head and neck. These modalities of therapy produce comparable results; but, radiotherapy alone has the advantage that it can conserve anatomy and function. Irradiation with teletherapy techniques, at times supplemented by interstitial brachytherapy, with doses ranging from 6600 to 8000 cGy, results in satisfactory tumor response (CR). The CR of T1N0 and T2N0 lesions will be 99% and 90% respectively, but only 29% in T4N3 tumors treated with radiation only. To improve on the limited CR rate achieved in the advanced stages, surgery is combined pre or post-irradiation, or reserved for the salvage of failures. In the oral cavity and oropharynx, these possible options give comparable tumor control and survival, but in the supraglottic larynx post-operative irradiation is superior to pre- operative radiotherapy. Tumor recurrence rates in the head and neck range from 15 to 34% depending on initial site, stage and type of therapy. Cancer control activities that emphasize prevention and early diagnosis should present a better future for these patients.

  8. Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for colorectal cancer: survival outcomes and patient selection

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is playing an ever increasing role in the management of colorectal cancer (CRC) with peritoneal metastases (PM) as results approach those of surgical resection of liver metastases. Selection criteria for treatment type, sequence and timing of currently available therapies remain ill-defined. Methods We review the current published literature analyzing outcomes by treatments with surgery, systemic chemotherapy, cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and HIPEC, and ongoing clinical trials. A clinical pathway that incorporates all currently available therapies, determining the timing and sequence of such therapies was constructed. Results Most of the literature on outcome data comes from studies reporting the results of CRS and HIPEC with large series showing a median survival of 32-47 months. Meanwhile, the vast majority of patients, over 90% in the United States, are being treated with palliative systemic therapies following the NCCN guidelines. Conclusions Cooperation between medical and surgical oncologists represents an unmet need in oncology when it comes to patients with CRC with PM. The presented clinical pathway constitutes a feasible and much needed first step to start this cooperation. PMID:26941985

  9. Hypnosis in the Perioperative Management of Breast Cancer Surgery: Clinical Benefits and Potential Implications

    PubMed Central

    Roelants, Fabienne; Pospiech, Audrey; Momeni, Mona; Watremez, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize data published on the use of perioperative hypnosis in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery (BCS). Indeed, the majority of BCS patients experience stress, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, and pain. Correct management of the perioperative period and surgical removal of the primary tumor are clearly essential but can affect patients on different levels and hence have a negative impact on oncological outcomes. This review examines the effect of clinical hypnosis performed during the perioperative period. Thanks to its specific properties and techniques allowing it to be used as complementary treatment preoperatively, hypnosis has an impact most notably on distress and postoperative pain. During surgery, hypnosis may be applied to limit immunosuppression, while, in the postoperative period, it can reduce pain, anxiety, and fatigue and improve wound healing. Moreover, hypnosis is inexpensive, an important consideration given current financial concerns in healthcare. Of course, large randomized prospective studies are now needed to confirm the observed advantages of hypnosis in the field of oncology. PMID:27635132

  10. Evaluation of Prognostic Nutritional Index in Patients Undergoing Radical Surgery with Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chen; Qu, Xiao; Shen, Hongchang; Zheng, Chunlong; Zhu, Linhai; Meng, Long; Du, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    The prognostic nutritional index (PNI) has been reported to be a prognostic indicator in some malignant tumors. However, its prognostic value in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been fully investigated. A retrospective review of 1416 patients with NSCLC who underwent radical surgery between January 2006 and December 2011 was conducted. To obtain optimal cutoff levels of PNI, running log-rank statistics was applied. Survival was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. The prognostic significance of PNI, together with various clinicopathological factors, was evaluated by multivariate analysis. The optimal cutoff point for PNI was 52. The 1-, 3-, and 5-yr survival rates in patients with PNI of less than 52 were 80.0%, 61.3%, and 50.4%, respectively, and were significantly more unfavorable than those in patients with PNI 52 or higher (84.7%, 71.5%, and 60.3%, respectively, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis suggested that gender (P = 0.026), age (P < 0.001), PNI (P = 0.005), differentiation (P = 0.024), pathology T category (P = 0.003), and pathology N category (P < 0.001) were revealed to be independent prognostic factors. Our results indicate that PNI is an independent predictor of survival for patients undergoing radical surgery with NSCLC.

  11. Perioperative stroke in a patient undergoing surgery for oral cancer: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Sukegawa, Shintaro; Kanno, Takahiro; Kanai, Kengo; Mandai, Toshiko; Shibata, Akane; Takahashi, Yuka; Hirata, Yuji; Furuki, Yoshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Carotid artery stenosis is a significant risk factor for stroke. In elderly patients with carotid atherosclerosis and stenosis, it is not unusual for oral, head and neck cancer surgery to be performed. The present study describes a case of stroke that occurred during a neck dissection for the treatment of cervical lymph node metastasis of a left maxillary gingival carcinoma. The patient was an 84-year-old female who was considered to be at high risk of a stroke based on pre-operative head and neck computed tomography scans, which detected severe carotid atherosclerosis and stenosis. There was no possible stroke prophylaxis available during the performance of the neck dissection in the present case. However, if patients are evaluated to be high-risk pre-operatively, statin agents should be administered, the surgery should be carefully performed, adequate sedation should be maintained post-operatively and the patient should be followed up, aiming to achieve the early detection of a possible stroke. PMID:27698839

  12. A virtual reality endoscopic simulator augments general surgery resident cancer education as measured by performance improvement.

    PubMed

    White, Ian; Buchberg, Brian; Tsikitis, V Liana; Herzig, Daniel O; Vetto, John T; Lu, Kim C

    2014-06-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of death in the USA. The need for screening colonoscopies, and thus adequately trained endoscopists, particularly in rural areas, is on the rise. Recent increases in required endoscopic cases for surgical resident graduation by the Surgery Residency Review Committee (RRC) further emphasize the need for more effective endoscopic training during residency to determine if a virtual reality colonoscopy simulator enhances surgical resident endoscopic education by detecting improvement in colonoscopy skills before and after 6 weeks of formal clinical endoscopic training. We conducted a retrospective review of prospectively collected surgery resident data on an endoscopy simulator. Residents performed four different clinical scenarios on the endoscopic simulator before and after a 6-week endoscopic training course. Data were collected over a 5-year period from 94 different residents performing a total of 795 colonoscopic simulation scenarios. Main outcome measures included time to cecal intubation, "red out" time, and severity of simulated patient discomfort (mild, moderate, severe, extreme) during colonoscopy scenarios. Average time to intubation of the cecum was 6.8 min for those residents who had not undergone endoscopic training versus 4.4 min for those who had undergone endoscopic training (p < 0.001). Residents who could be compared against themselves (pre vs. post-training), cecal intubation times decreased from 7.1 to 4.3 min (p < 0.001). Post-endoscopy rotation residents caused less severe discomfort during simulated colonoscopy than pre-endoscopy rotation residents (4 vs. 10%; p = 0.004). Virtual reality endoscopic simulation is an effective tool for both augmenting surgical resident endoscopy cancer education and measuring improvement in resident performance after formal clinical endoscopic training.

  13. Effects of different general anaesthetic techniques on immune responses in patients undergoing surgery for tongue cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, T; Fan, Y; Liu, K; Wang, Y

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different general anaesthesia techniques on immune responses in patients undergoing surgery for tongue cancer. Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 or 2 patients undergoing elective reconstructive surgery for tongue cancer were randomised to three groups. Group 1 received propofol induction and maintenance (TIVA), group 2 received propofol induction and sevoflurane maintenance (MIXED) and group 3 received sevoflurane induction and maintenance (SEVO). All patients received an infusion of remifentanil. Blood samples were obtained at eight time-points: 30 minutes before induction (T0); one hour (T1), three hours (T2) and five hours (T3) after induction; at the end of the operation (T4); and 24 hours (T5), 48 hours (T6) and 72 hours (T7) after operation. The T lymphocyte subsets (including CD3(+) cells, CD3(+)CD4(+) cells and CD3(+)CD8(+)cells) and CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio, natural killer cells and B lymphocytes were analysed by flow cytometry. All immunological indicators except CD3(+)CD8(+) cells were significantly decreased in all groups at T1~T5 compared to T0 (P <0.05). The percentages of CD3(+) cells, CD3(+)CD4(+) cells and natural killer cells, and the CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratios were significantly lower in the MIXED groups and SEVO groups but not the TIVA group at T6 as compared with T0 (P <0.05). There were minor but statistically significant differences in the percentages of CD3(+) cells, CD3(+)CD4(+) cells and natural killer cells, and the CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratios between the SEVO group and the TIVA group at T2approxT6 (P <0.05). These findings suggest that propofol has slightly less effect on cellular immune responses than sevoflurane.

  14. Radio-guided surgery improves outcome of therapeutic excision in non-palpable invasive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gallegos Hernandez, J F; Tanis, P J; Deurloo, E E; Nieweg, O E; Th Rutgers, E J; Kroon, B B R; Valdés Olmos, R A

    2004-03-01

    Intratumoral injection of a radiocolloid for lymphatic mapping enables the therapeutic excision of clinically occult breast cancer with the aid of a gamma-ray detection probe. The aim of this study was to determine the success rate of radio-guided tumour excision in addition to a guide wire and to identify factors predicting clear margins. Sixty-five consecutive patients underwent radio-guided tumour excision after intratumoral injection of 99mTc-nanocolloid guided by ultrasound or stereotaxis. A localization wire was inserted after scintigraphy had been performed (group 1). The results were compared with retrospective data from 67 consecutive patients who underwent therapeutic wire-directed excision alone (group 2). Factors predicting clear margins (> or = 1 mm) were determined in a logistic regression model. Adequate margins were obtained in 83% of group 1 and in 64% of group 2 (P = 0.014). The invasive component was incompletely excised in two patients in group 1 and in 14 patients in group 2. Further surgery was performed in four patients in group 1 and in 14 patients in group 2. Factors predictive of clear margins were decreasing pathological tumour diameter (P = 0.035), increasing weight of the specimen (P = 0.046), absence of microcalcifications (P = 0.004) and absence of carcinoma in situ component (P = 0.024). Radio-guided excision was an independent predictor of complete excision of the invasive component (P = 0.012). The application of radio-guided surgery combined with wire localization seems to improve the outcome of therapeutic excision of non-palpable invasive breast cancer compared with wire-directed excision alone.

  15. The spinal accessory nerve plexus, the trapezius muscle, and shoulder stabilization after radical neck cancer surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, H; Burns, S; Kaiser, C W

    1988-01-01

    A clinical and anatomic study of the spinal accessory, the eleventh cranial nerve, and trapezius muscle function of patients who had radical neck cancer surgery was conducted. This study was done not only to document the indispensibility of the trapezius muscle to shoulder-girdle stability, but also to clarify the role of the eleventh cranial nerve in the variable motor and sensory changes occurring after the loss of this muscle. Seventeen male patients, 49-69 years of age, (average of 60 years of age) undergoing a total of 23 radical neck dissections were examined for upper extremity function, particularly in regard to the trapezius muscle, and for subjective signs of pain. The eleventh nerve, usually regarded as the sole motor innervation to the trapezius, was cut in 17 instances because of tumor involvement. Dissection of four fresh and 30 preserved adult cadavers helped to reconcile the motor and sensory differences in patients who had undergone loss of the eleventh nerve. The dissections and clinical observations corroborate that the trapezius is a key part of a "muscle continuum" that stabilizes the shoulder. Variations in origins and insertions of the trapezius may influence its function in different individuals. As regards the spinal accessory nerve, it is concluded that varying motor and sensory connections form a plexus with the eleventh nerve, accounting, in part, for the variations in motor innervation and function of the trapezius, as well as for a variable spectrum of sensory changes when the eleventh nerve is cut. For this reason, it is suggested that the term "spinal accessory nerve plexus" be used to refer to the eleventh nerve when it is considered in the context of radical neck cancer surgery. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:3056289

  16. Systematic lymphadenectomy in ovarian cancer at second-look surgery: a randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Dell' Anna, T; Signorelli, M; Benedetti-Panici, P; Maggioni, A; Fossati, R; Fruscio, R; Milani, R; Bocciolone, L; Buda, A; Mangioni, C; Scambia, G; Angioli, R; Campagnutta, E; Grassi, R; Landoni, F

    2012-01-01

    Background: The role of systematic aortic and pelvic lymphadenectomy (SAPL) at second-look surgery in early stage or optimally debulked advanced ovarian cancer is unclear and never addressed by randomised studies. Methods: From January 1991 through May 2001, 308 patients with the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics stage IA–IV epithelial ovarian carcinoma were randomly assigned to undergo SAPL (n=158) or resection of bulky nodes only (n=150). Primary end point was overall survival (OS). Results: The median operating time, blood loss, percentage of patients requiring blood transfusions and hospital stay were higher in the SAPL than in the control arm (P<0.001). The median number of resected nodes and the percentage of women with nodal metastases were higher in the SAPL arm as well (44% vs 8%, P<0.001 and 24.2% vs 13.3%, P:0.02). After a median follow-up of 111 months, 171 events (i.e., recurrences or deaths) were observed, and 124 patients had died. Sites of first recurrences were similar in both arms. The adjusted risk for progression and death were not statistically different (hazard ratio (HR) for progression=1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.87–1.59; P=0.29; 5-year progression-free survival (PFS)=40.9% and 53.8% HR for death=1.04, 95% CI=0.733–1.49; P=0.81; 5-year OS=63.5% and 67.4%, in the SAPL and in the control arm, respectively). Conclusion: SAPL in second-look surgery for advanced ovarian cancer did not improve PFS and OS. PMID:22864456

  17. Prognostic Indicators of Surgery for Esophageal Cancer: A 5 Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nadim; Bangash, Adil; Sadiq, Muzaffaruddin

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aim: To assess the prognostic indicators preoperatively presenting and influencing the mortality rate following esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. Materials and Methods: This study was a retrospective cohort study, conducted at the Department of Surgery, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, from 1 January 2003 till 31 December 2008. Group 1 included patients who had undergone sub-total esophagectomy and were alive at completion of 12 months; whereas Group 2 included those patients who died by the completion of 12 months. Data were recollected from the Data Bank. A list of variables common to all patients from both groups was categorized and subsequently all data related to each individual patient were placed and analyzed on the version 13.0 of SPSSR for Windows. Results: Significant findings of a lower mean level of serum albumin from Group 2 were observed, whereas serum transferrin levels, also found lower in Group 2, were not statistically significant. Findings of serum pre-albumin, with a mean value of 16.12 mg/dl (P<0.05) and Geansler’s index for the evaluation of the presence of obstructive pulmonary disease prior to surgery showed a lower reading of mean ratio in Group 2. Anastamotic leak was not a common finding in the entire study. In most cases, the choice of conduit was the remodeled stomach. Nine patients from Group 2 were observed with evident leak on the fifth to seventh post-operative day following contrast swallow studies. This was statistically insignificant (P = 0.051) on multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Pre-operative variables including weight loss, low serum albumin and pre-albumin, Geansler’s index, postoperative chylothorax, pleural effusion, and hospital stay, are predictive of mortality in patients who undergo esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. PMID:20871187

  18. Nanostring-based multigene assay to predict recurrence for gastric cancer patients after surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeeyun; Sohn, Insuk; Do, In-Gu; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Park, Se Hoon; Park, Joon Oh; Park, Young Suk; Lim, Ho Yeong; Sohn, Tae Sung; Bae, Jae Moon; Choi, Min Gew; Lim, Do Hoon; Min, Byung Hoon; Lee, Joon Haeng; Rhee, Poong Lyul; Kim, Jae J; Choi, Dong Il; Tan, Iain Beehuat; Das, Kakoli; Tan, Patrick; Jung, Sin Ho; Kang, Won Ki; Kim, Sung

    2014-01-01

    Despite the benefits from adjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy, approximately one-third of stage II gastric cancer (GC) patients developed recurrences. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a prognostic algorithm for gastric cancer (GCPS) that can robustly identify high-risk group for recurrence among stage II patients. A multi-step gene expression profiling study was conducted. First, a microarray gene expression profiling of archived paraffin-embedded tumor blocks was used to identify candidate prognostic genes (N=432). Second, a focused gene expression assay including prognostic genes was used to develop a robust clinical assay (GCPS) in stage II patients from the same cohort (N=186). Third, a predefined cut off for the GCPS was validated using an independent stage II cohort (N=216). The GCPS was validated in another set with stage II GC who underwent surgery without adjuvant treatment (N=300). GCPS was developed by summing the product of Cox regression coefficients and normalized expression levels of 8 genes (LAMP5, CDC25B, CDK1, CLIP4, LTB4R2, MATN3, NOX4, TFDP1). A prospectively defined cut-point for GCPS classified 22.7% of validation cohort treated with chemoradiotherapy (N=216) as high-risk group with 5-year recurrence rate of 58.6% compared to 85.4% in the low risk group (hazard ratio for recurrence=3.16, p=0.00004). GCPS also identified high-risk group among stage II patients treated with surgery only (hazard ratio=1.77, p=0.0053).

  19. Cryopreservation of in vitro matured oocytes after ex vivo oocyte retrieval from gynecologic cancer patients undergoing radical surgery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan Woo; Lee, Sun Hee; Yang, Kwang Moon; Lee, In Ho; Lim, Kyung Teak; Lee, Ki Heon

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to report a case series of in vitro matured (IVM) oocyte freezing in gynecologic cancer patients undergoing radical surgery under time constraints as an option for fertility preservation (FP). Methods Case series report. University-based in vitro fertilization center. Six gynecologic cancer patients who were scheduled to undergo radical surgery the next day were referred for FP. The patients had endometrial (n=2), ovarian (n=3), and double primary endometrial and ovarian (n=1) cancer. Ex vivo retrieval of immature oocytes from macroscopically normal ovarian tissue was followed by mature oocyte freezing after IVM or embryo freezing with intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Results A total of 53 oocytes were retrieved from five patients, with a mean of 10.6 oocytes per patient. After IVM, a total of 36 mature oocytes were obtained, demonstrating a 67.9% maturation rate. With regard to the ovarian cancer patients, seven IVM oocytes were frozen from patient 3, who had stage IC cancer, whereas one IVM oocyte was frozen from patient 4, who had stage IV cancer despite being of a similar age. With regard to the endometrial cancer patients, 15 IVM oocytes from patient 1 were frozen. Five embryos were frozen after the fertilization of IVM oocytes from patient 6. Conclusion Immature oocytes can be successfully retrieved ex vivo from macroscopically normal ovarian tissue before radical surgery. IVM oocyte freezing provides a possible FP option in patients with advanced-stage endometrial or ovarian cancer without the risk of cancer cell spillage or time delays. PMID:27358831

  20. Will the mininvasive approach challenge the old paradigms in oral cancer surgery?

    PubMed

    Tirelli, G; Zacchigna, S; Boscolo Nata, F; Quatela, E; Di Lenarda, R; Piovesana, M

    2017-03-01

    In the genome era, the achievement of a safe and complete resection of oral cancers remains a challenge for surgeons. Margin length at histopathological examination is still considered the main indicator of oncological radicality. However, this parameter is fraught by major limitations. Cancer aggressiveness, and in particular its ability to spread in the surrounding tissue, most probably influences loco-regional control and prognosis more than margin length. Unfortunately, no molecular markers are currently available to predict tumor aggressiveness pre-operatively. However, additional histopathological parameters, beside margin length, could be considered to better stratify oral tumors, including depth of invasion (DOI), perineural invasion or composite scores. Recent advances in laser technology have established a novel surgical trend toward a minimalist approach, named transoral laser microsurgery (TLM). TLM provides a local control rate comparable to the one achieved by larger resections if the margin appears disease free, independent from its length. In addition, the clinical availability of innovative optical technologies, such as narrow band imaging (NBI) or autofluorescence, allows more precise and tailored resections, not simply based on clinical observation and ruler measurement. This review will propose the possible implementation of novel procedures toward a mini-invasive surgical approach, providing a satisfactory control rate but significantly improving the quality of life of the patients compared to conventional surgery.

  1. Image guidance of breast cancer surgery using 3-D ultrasound images and augmented reality visualization.

    PubMed

    Sato, Y; Nakamoto, M; Tamaki, Y; Sasama, T; Sakita, I; Nakajima, Y; Monden, M; Tamura, S

    1998-10-01

    This paper describes augmented reality visualization for the guidance of breast-conservative cancer surgery using ultrasonic images acquired in the operating room just before surgical resection. By combining an optical three-dimensional (3-D) position sensor, the position and orientation of each ultrasonic cross section are precisely measured to reconstruct geometrically accurate 3-D tumor models from the acquired ultrasonic images. Similarly, the 3-D position and orientation of a video camera are obtained to integrate video and ultrasonic images in a geometrically accurate manner. Superimposing the 3-D tumor models onto live video images of the patient's breast enables the surgeon to perceive the exact 3-D position of the tumor, including irregular cancer invasions which cannot be perceived by touch, as if it were visible through the breast skin. Using the resultant visualization, the surgeon can determine the region for surgical resection in a more objective and accurate manner, thereby minimizing the risk of a relapse and maximizing breast conservation. The system was shown to be effective in experiments using phantom and clinical data.

  2. Impact of aerobic exercise capacity and procedure-related factors in lung cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Licker, M; Schnyder, J-M; Frey, J-G; Diaper, J; Cartier, V; Inan, C; Robert, J; Bridevaux, P-O; Tschopp, J-M

    2011-05-01

    Over the past decades, major progress in patient selection, surgical techniques and anaesthetic management have largely contributed to improved outcome in lung cancer surgery. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of post-operative cardiopulmonary morbidity in patients with a forced expiratory volume in 1 s <80% predicted, who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). In this observational study, 210 consecutive patients with lung cancer underwent CPET with completed data over a 9-yr period (2001-2009). Cardiopulmonary complications occurred in 46 (22%) patients, including four (1.9%) deaths. On logistic regression analysis, peak oxygen uptake (peak V'(O₂) and anaesthesia duration were independent risk factors of both cardiovascular and pulmonary complications; age and the extent of lung resection were additional predictors of cardiovascular complications, whereas tidal volume during one-lung ventilation was a predictor of pulmonary complications. Compared with patients with peak V'(O₂) >17 mL·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, those with a peak V'(O₂) <10 mL·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹ had a four-fold higher incidence of cardiac and pulmonary morbidity. Our data support the use of pre-operative CPET and the application of an intra-operative protective ventilation strategy. Further studies should evaluate whether pre-operative physical training can improve post-operative outcome.

  3. Role of salvage radiotherapy for regional lymph node recurrence after radical surgery in advanced gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byoung Hyuck; Kim, Jae-Sung; Kim, Hyung-Ho; Park, Do Joong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the role of salvage radiotherapy (RT) for the treatment of regional lymph node recurrence (RLNR) after radical surgery in advanced gastric cancer. Materials and Methods We retrospectively analyzed medical records of 26 patients who underwent salvage treatment after diagnosis of RLNR between 2006 and 2011. Patients with peritoneal seeding or distant metastasis were excluded. Eighteen patients received RT with or without chemotherapy and the other 8 did chemotherapy only without RT. A three-dimensional conformal RT was performed with median dose of 56 Gy (range, 44 to 60 Gy). Sixteen patients had fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy, 5 did taxane-based chemotherapy, and irinotecan was applied in 4. Results With a median follow-up of 20 months (range, 5 to 57 months), median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) after diagnosis of RLNR were 29 months and 12 months in the entire patients, respectively. Radiotherapy (p = 0.007) and disease-free interval (p = 0.033) were statistically significant factors for OS in multivariate analysis. Median OS was 36 months in patients who received RT and 16 months in those who did not. Furthermore, delivery of RT (p < 0.001), complete remission after salvage treatment (p = 0.040) and performance status (p = 0.023) were associated with a significantly better PFS. Gastrointestinal toxicities from RT were mild in most patients. Conclusion Salvage RT combined with systemic chemotherapy may be an effective treatment managing RLNR from advanced gastric cancer. PMID:24137560

  4. Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & ... Surgery Types of Surgery Gastric Bypass ... or intestines removed due to ulcers or cancer tended to lose a lot of weight after ...

  5. Bevacizumab and Combination Chemotherapy Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced Esophageal or Stomach Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-24

    Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus; Stage IA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IA Gastric Cancer; Stage IB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer

  6. Accelerated Radiation Therapy After Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-20

    Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  7. Comprehensive Patient Questionnaires in Predicting Complications in Older Patients With Gynecologic Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-25

    Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Ovarian Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer

  8. Preoperative Serum MicroRNA-155 Expression Independently Predicts Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction After Laparoscopic Surgery for Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chaoshuang; Wang, Ruichun; Li, Xiaoyu; Chen, Junping

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the association between serum expression of miRNA-155 and postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) after laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer. Material/Methods We enrolled 110 patients scheduled to undergo colon tumor resection via laparotomy in Ningbo No. 2 Hospital from July 2013 to November 2015. The blood samples were collected from the participants 1 day before surgery. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used for the analysis of independent predictive biomarkers for POCD. Results On the 7th postoperative day, 29 of the 110 participants developed POCD, yielding a POCD incidence of 26.4%. Age, MMSE score, duration of surgery and anesthesia, serum levels of CRP, TNF-α, urea, creatinine, and miRNA-155 were highly associated with the occurrence of POCD. Serum expression of miRNA-155 was shown by multiple logistic regression analysis to be an independent predictive indicator for POCD after surgery (OR: 2.732; 95%CI 1.415–5.233; P=0.002). Conclusions The serum expression of miRNA-155 is an independent predictive factor for POCD after laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer. PMID:27872469

  9. Intravenous paracetamol infusion: Superior pain management and earlier discharge from hospital in patients undergoing palliative head-neck cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Saikat; Das, Anjan; Kundu, Ratul; Mukherjee, Dipankar; Hazra, Bimal; Mitra, Tapobrata

    2014-01-01

    Background: Paracetamol; a cyclooxygenase inhibitor; acts through the central nervous system as well as serotoninergic system as a nonopioid analgesic. A prospective, double-blinded, and randomized-controlled study was carried out to compare the efficacy of preoperative 1g intravenous (iv) paracetamol with placebo in providing postoperative analgesia in head-neck cancer surgery. Materials and Methods: From 2008 February to 2009 December, 80 patients for palliative head-neck cancer surgery were randomly divided into (F) and (P) Group receiving ivplacebo and iv paracetamol, respectively, 5 min before induction. Everybody received fentanyl before induction and IM diclofenac for pain relief at8 hourly for 24 h after surgery. Visual analogue scale (VAS) and amount of fentanyl were measured for postoperative pain assessment (24 h). Results and Statistical analysis: The mean VAS score in 1st, 2nd postoperative hour, and fentanyl requirement was less and the need for rescue analgesic was delayed in ivparacetamol group which were all statistically significant. Paracetamol group had a shorter surgical intensive care unit (SICU) and hospital stay which was also statistically significant. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the effectiveness of ivparacetamol as preemptive analgesic in the postoperative pain control after head-neck cancer surgery and earlier discharge from hospital. PMID:25276627

  10. Fast-track rapid warfarin reversal for elective surgery: extending the efficacy profile to high-risk patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Byrne, T J; Riedel, B; Ismail, H M; Heriot, A; Dauer, R; Westerman, D; Seymour, J F; Kenchington, K; Burbury, K

    2015-11-01

    Periprocedural management of patients on long-term warfarin therapy remains a common and important clinical issue, with little high-quality data to guide this complex process. The current accepted practice is cessation of warfarin five days preoperatively, but this is not without risk and can be complicated, particularly if bridging is required. An alternative method utilising low-dose intravenous vitamin K the day before surgery has been shown previously to be efficacious, safe and convenient in an elective surgical population receiving chronic warfarin therapy. The efficacy and utility of this 'fast-track' warfarin reversal protocol in surgical patients with cancer, who were at high risk of both thromboembolism and bleeding was investigated in a prospective, single-arm study at a dedicated cancer centre. Seventy-one patients underwent 82 episodes of fast-track warfarin reversal (3 mg intravenous vitamin K 18 to 24 hours before surgery). No patient suffered an adverse reaction to intravenous vitamin K, all but one achieved an International Normalized Ratio =1.5 on the day of surgery, and no surgery was deferred. Assays of vitamin K-dependent factor levels pre- and post-vitamin K demonstrated restoration of functional activity to within an acceptable range for surgical haemostasis. While this alternative method requires further validation in a larger prospective randomised study, we have now extended our use of fast-track warfarin reversal using vitamin K to patients with cancer, on the basis of our experience of its safety, convenience, reliability and efficacy.

  11. Factors Associated with the Incidence of Local Recurrences of Breast Cancer in Women Who Underwent Conservative Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tovar, Juliana Rodrigues; Zandonade, Eliana; Amorim, Maria Helena Costa

    2014-01-01

    Conservative surgery is considered the procedure of choice for women who are affected by early stage tumours. The local recurrence of cancer as a consequence of breast tissue conservation is a growing concern. This study aimed to describe the sociodemographic and clinical profiles of women who had local recurrences of breast cancer after conservative surgery and to examine the associations between sociodemographic and clinical variables and the incidence of tumour recurrence in these women. The retrospective cohort included 880 women who were diagnosed with breast cancer and underwent conservative surgery between January 2000 and December 2010. Recurrences occurred in 60 patients, and the mean age of the women at diagnosis was 48.8 years. Predictive factors for local recurrence were young age (<39 years) (P = 0.028 and OR = 10.93), surgical margin involvement (P = 0.001 and OR = 3.66), and Her-2 overexpression (P = 0.045 and OR = 1.94). The establishment of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics might help to select optimum treatments, which is a crucial challenge for public health in Brazil, especially with regard to reductions of surgery and hospitalisation expenditures in the Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde—SUS). PMID:25530886

  12. Effect of triclosan-coated sutures on surgical site infection after gastric cancer surgery via midline laparotomy

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kuk Hyun; Oh, Seung Jong; Choi, Kang Kook; Kim, Su Mi; Choi, Min Gew; Lee, Jun Ho; Noh, Jae Hyung; Sohn, Tae Sung; Bae, Jae Moon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Surgical site infection (SSI) after open abdominal surgery is still a frequently reported nosocomial infection. To reduce the incidence of SSI, triclosan-coated sutures with antiseptic activity (Vicryl Plus) were developed. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of Vicryl Plus on SSI after gastric cancer surgery via midline laparotomy. Methods A total of 916 patients who underwent gastric cancer surgery at Samsung Medical Center between December 2009 and September 2011 were prospectively collected. We examined the occurrence of SSI (primary endpoint), assessments of wound healing (secondary endpoint). They were evaluated postoperatively on days 3, 7, and 30. Results Of the 916 patients, 122 were excluded postoperatively by screening (out of the study protocol, adverse events, etc.). The remaining 794 patients were enrolled and monitored postoperatively. The cumulative SSI incidence was 11 cases (1.39%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77-2.50) on day 30. Seromas were most frequently detected in wound healing assessments, with a cumulative incidence of 147 cases (18.51%; 95% CI, 15.98-21.39) on day 30. Conclusion The use of triclosan-coated sutures (Vicryl Plus) for abdominal wall closure can reduce the number of SSIs in gastric cancer surgery. PMID:25485239

  13. Readmissions After Colon Cancer Surgery: Does It Matter Where Patients Are Readmitted?

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Tanvir; Chang, Hsien-Yen; Pfoh, Elizabeth; Pollack, Craig Evan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Readmissions to a different hospital may place patients at increased risk for poor outcomes and may increase their overall costs of care. We evaluated whether mortality and costs differ for patients with colon cancer on the basis of whether patients are readmitted to the index hospital or to a different hospital within 30 days of discharge. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis using SEER-Medicare linked claims data for patients with stage I to III colon cancer diagnosed between 2000 and2009 who were readmitted within 30 days (N = 3,399). Our primary outcome was all-cause mortality, which was modeled by using Cox proportional hazards. Secondary outcomes included colon cancer–specific mortality, 90-day mortality, and costs of care. We used subhazard ratios for colon cancer– specific mortality and generalized linear models for costs. For each model, we used a propensity score–weighted doubly robust approach to adjust for patient, physician, and hospital characteristics. Results: Approximately 23% (n = 769) of readmitted patients were readmitted to a different hospital than where they were initially discharged. After adjustment, there was no difference in all-cause mortality, colon cancer–specific mortality, or cost of care for patients readmitted to a different hospital. Patient readmitted to a different hospital did have a higher risk of short-term mortality (90-day all-cause mortality; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.38). Conclusion: Readmission to a different hospital after colon cancer surgery is associated with short-term mortality but not with long-term mortality nor with post-discharge costs of care. Additional investigation is needed to determine how to improve short-term mortality among patients readmitted to different hospitals. PMID:27048614

  14. Role of physiotherapy and patient education in lymphedema control following breast cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shiang-Ru; Hong, Rong-Bin; Chou, Willy; Hsiao, Pei-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This retrospective cohort study evaluated whether education in combination with physiotherapy can reduce the risk of breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). Methods We analyzed 1,217 women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer between January 2007 and December 2011 who underwent tumor resection and axillary lymph node dissection. The patients were divided into three groups: Group A (n=415), who received neither education nor physiotherapy postsurgery; Group B (n=672), who received an educational program on BCRL between Days 0 and 7 postsurgery; and Group C (n=130), who received an educational program on BCRL between Days 0 and 7 postsurgery, followed by a physiotherapy program. All patients were monitored until October 2013 to determine whether BCRL developed. BCRL risk factors were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results During the follow-up, 188 patients (15.4%) developed lymphedema, including 77 (18.6%) in Group A, 101 (15.0%) in Group B, and 10 (7.7%) in Group C (P=0.010). The median period from surgery to lymphedema was 0.54 years (interquartile range =0.18–1.78). The independent risk factors for BCRL included positive axillary lymph node invasion, a higher (>20) number of dissected axillary lymph nodes, and having undergone radiation therapy, whereas receiving an educational program followed by physiotherapy was a protective factor against BCRL (hazard ratio =0.35, 95% confidence interval =0.18–0.67, P=0.002). Conclusion Patient education that begins within the first week postsurgery and is followed by physiotherapy is effective in reducing the risk of BCRL in women with breast cancer. PMID:25750536

  15. The Effect of Diabetes on the Perioperative Outcomes of Colorectal Cancer Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Raymond; Wilkins, Simon; Staples, Margaret; Oliva, Karen; McMurrick, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    There are approximately 1.3 million patients in Australia with diabetes. Conflicting reports exist in the literature as to the effect of diabetes on the outcomes of colorectal cancer patients. We hypothesized that patients with diabetes would have poorer perioperative outcomes, and that diabetes was an independent risk factor for both 30-day mortality and perioperative morbidity. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of diabetes on perioperative colorectal cancer surgery outcomes, as compared to a diabetes-free reference population, and to examine factors affecting perioperative risk. We conducted an analysis of a prospectively collected, clinician-led colorectal cancer database of patients from 2010–2015. Patients with diabetes were compared to patients without diabetes on a range of perioperative outcomes. Pearson χ-squared tests, Wilcoxon rank sum tests and t-tests were employed for univariate analyses. Confounding factors were controlled for by separate logistic and linear regression analyses. The Huber-White Sandwich Estimator was used to calculate robust standard errors. A total of 1725 patients were analysed over 1745 treatment episodes in the study period with 267 patients (268 episodes) with diabetes studied. Diabetes contributed to medical, surgical complications, and increased length of inpatient stay in univariate analyses. Multivariable analysis adjusted for variables independently associated with each outcome revealed that diabetes was an independent contributor to an increased risk of surgical complications, with no significant effect on medical complications, return to the operating room, 30-day mortality, or readmission within 30 days. In this study, where overall baseline morbidity and mortality levels are low, the effect of diabetes alone on perioperative surgical outcomes appears to be overstated with control of associated perioperative risk factors such as cardiac, renal and respiratory factors being more important. PMID:27907053

  16. Mortality in tongue cancer patients treated by curative surgery: a retrospective cohort study from CGRD

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ming-Shao; Lai, Chia-Hsuan; Lee, Chuan-Pin; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Chen, Pau-Chung; Kang, Chung-Jan; Chang, Geng-He; Tsai, Yao-Te; Lu, Chang-Hsien; Chien, Chih-Yen; Young, Chi-Kuang; Fang, Ku-Hao; Liu, Chin-Jui; Yeh, Re-Ming A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Our study aimed to compare the outcomes of surgical treatment of tongue cancer patients in three different age groups. Methods From 2004 to 2013, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 1,712 patients who were treated in the four institutions constituting the Chang Gung Memorial Hospitals (CGMH). We divided and studied the patients in three age groups: Group 1, younger (<65 years); Group 2, young old (65 to <75); and Group 3, older old patients (≥75 years). Results Multivariate analyses determined the unfavorable, independent prognostic factors of overall survival to be male sex, older age, advanced stage, advanced T, N classifications, and surgery plus chemotherapy. No significant differences were found in adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of death in early-stage disease (stage I–II) among Group 1 (HR 1.0), Group 2 (HR 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.87–2.34], p = 0.158), and Group 3 (HR 1.22, 95% CI [0.49–3.03], p = 0.664) patients. However, amongst advanced-stage patients (stage (III–IV)), Group 3 (HR 2.53, 95% CI [1.46–4.38], p  = 0.001) showed significantly worse survival than the other two groups after other variables were adjusted for. Fourteen out of 21 older old, advanced-staged patients finally died, and most of the mortalities were non-cancerogenic (9/14, 64.3%), and mostly occurred within one year (12/14, 85%) after cancer diagnosis. These non-cancer cause of death included underlying diseases in combination with infection, pneumonia, poor nutrition status, and trauma. Conclusions Our study showed that advanced T classification (T3–4), positive nodal metastasis (N1–3) and poorly differentiated tumor predicted poor survival for all patients. Outcome of early-stage patients (stage I–II) among three age groups were not significantly different. However, for advanced-stage patients (stage III–IV), the older old patients (≥75) had significantly worse survival than the other two patient groups. Therefore, for early

  17. Risk of Cerebrovascular Events in Elderly Patients After Radiation Therapy Versus Surgery for Early-Stage Glottic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Julian C.; Kruser, Tim J.; Gondi, Vinai; Mohindra, Pranshu; Cannon, Donald M.; Harari, Paul M.; Bentzen, Søren M.

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: Comprehensive neck radiation therapy (RT) has been shown to increase cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk in advanced-stage head-and-neck cancer. We assessed whether more limited neck RT used for early-stage (T1-T2 N0) glottic cancer is associated with increased CVD risk, using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Methods and Materials: We identified patients ≥66 years of age with early-stage glottic laryngeal cancer from SEER diagnosed from 1992 to 2007. Patients treated with combined surgery and RT were excluded. Medicare CPT codes for carotid interventions, Medicare ICD-9 codes for cerebrovascular events, and SEER data for stroke as the cause of death were collected. Similarly, Medicare CPT and ICD-9 codes for peripheral vascular disease (PVD) were assessed to serve as an internal control between treatment groups. Results: A total of 1413 assessable patients (RT, n=1055; surgery, n=358) were analyzed. The actuarial 10-year risk of CVD was 56.5% (95% confidence interval 51.5%-61.5%) for the RT cohort versus 48.7% (41.1%-56.3%) in the surgery cohort (P=.27). The actuarial 10-year risk of PVD did not differ between the RT (52.7% [48.1%-57.3%]) and surgery cohorts (52.6% [45.2%-60.0%]) (P=.89). Univariate analysis showed an increased association of CVD with more recent diagnosis (P=.001) and increasing age (P=.001). On multivariate Cox analysis, increasing age (P<.001) and recent diagnosis (P=.002) remained significantly associated with a higher CVD risk, whereas the association of RT and CVD remained not statistically significant (HR=1.11 [0.91-1.37,] P=.31). Conclusions: Elderly patients with early-stage laryngeal cancer have a high burden of cerebrovascular events after surgical management or RT. RT and surgery are associated with comparable risk for subsequent CVD development after treatment in elderly patients.

  18. [One staged laparoscopic surgery of colon cancer with liver metastasis in the Guillermo Almenara Hospital, Lima, Peru].

    PubMed

    Núñez Ju, Juan José; Coronado3, Cesar Carlos; Anchante Castillo, Eduardo; Sandoval Jauregui, Javier; Arenas Gamio, José

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient who was diagnosed sigmoid colon cancer associated with liver metastases in segment III. The patient underwent laparoscopic surgery where the sigmoid colon resection and hepatic metastasectomy were performed in a “one staged” surgical procedure. The pathological results showed moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma in sigmoid colon, tubular adenocarcinoma metastases also in liver. Oncological surgical results were obtained with free edges of neoplasia, R0 Surgery, T3N0M1. After the optimal surgical results, the patient is handled by oncology for adjuvant treatment. We report here the sequence of events and a review of the literature.

  19. Factors influencing the surgery intentions and choices of women with early breast cancer: the predictive utility of an extended theory of planned behaviour

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Women diagnosed with early breast cancer (stage I or II) can be offered the choice between mastectomy or breast conservation surgery with radiotherapy due to equivalence in survival rates. A wide variation in the surgical management of breast cancer and a lack of theoretically guided research on this issue highlight the need for further research into the factors influencing women’s choices. An extended Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) could provide a basis to understand and predict women’s surgery choices. The aims of this study were to understand and predict the surgery intentions and choices of women newly diagnosed with early breast cancer, examining the predictive utility of an extended TPB. Methods Sixty-two women recruited from three UK breast clinics participated in the study; 48 women, newly diagnosed with early breast cancer, completed online questionnaires both before their surgery and after accessing an online decision support intervention (BresDex). Questionnaires assessed views about breast cancer and the available treatment options using items designed to measure constructs of an extended TPB (i.e., attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, and anticipated regret), and women’s intentions to choose mastectomy or BCS. Objective data were collected on women’s choice of surgery via the clinical breast teams. Multiple and logistic regression analyses examined predictors of surgery intentions and subsequent choice of surgery. Results The extended TPB accounted for 69.9% of the variance in intentions (p <.001); attitudes and subjective norms were significant predictors. Including additional variables revealed anticipated regret to be a more important predictor than subjective norms. Surgery intentions significantly predicted surgery choices (p <.01). Conclusions These findings demonstrate the utility of an extended TPB in predicting and understanding women’s surgery intentions and choices for early breast cancer

  20. Adjusted Age-Adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index Score as a Risk Measure of Perioperative Mortality before Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chun-Ming; Yin, Wen-Yao; Wei, Chang-Kao; Wu, Chin-Chia; Su, Yu-Chieh; Yu, Chia-Hui; Lee, Ching-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Background Identification of patients at risk of death from cancer surgery should aid in preoperative preparation. The purpose of this study is to assess and adjust the age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (ACCI) to identify cancer patients with increased risk of perioperative mortality. Methods We identified 156,151 patients undergoing surgery for one of the ten common cancers between 2007 and 2011 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Half of the patients were randomly selected, and a multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to develop an adjusted-ACCI score for estimating the risk of 90-day mortality by variables from the original ACCI. The score was validated. The association between the score and perioperative mortality was analyzed. Results The adjusted-ACCI score yield a better discrimination on mortality after cancer surgery than the original ACCI score, with c-statics of 0.75 versus 0.71. Over 80 years of age, 70–80 years, and renal disease had the strongest impact on mortality, hazard ratios 8.40, 3.63, and 3.09 (P < 0.001), respectively. The overall 90-day mortality rates in the entire cohort varied from 0.9%, 2.9%, 7.0%, and 13.2% in four risk groups stratifying by the adjusted-ACCI score; the adjusted hazard ratio for score 4–7, 8–11, and ≥ 12 was 2.84, 6.07, and 11.17 (P < 0.001), respectively, in 90-day mortality compared to score 0–3. Conclusions The adjusted-ACCI score helps to identify patients with a higher risk of 90-day mortality after cancer surgery. It might be particularly helpful for preoperative evaluation of patients over 80 years of age. PMID:26848761

  1. Occurrence and Prognosis of Symptomatic Venous Thromboembolism in Colorectal Cancer Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Sik; Park, Keun-Myoung; Won, Yong Sung; Kim, Jang Yong; Lee, Jin Kwon; Kim, Jun Gi; Oh, Seong Taek; Jung, Sang Seol; Kang, Won Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Colorectal cancer (CRC) has a high risk for postoperative thromboembolic complications such as venous thromboembolism (VTE) compared to other surgical diseases, but the relationship between VTE and CRC in Asian patients remains poorly understood. The present study examined the incidence of symptomatic VTE in Korean patients who underwent surgery for CRC. We also identified risk factors, incidence and survival rate for VTE in these patients Materials and Methods: The patients were identified from the CRC database treated from January 2011 to December 2012 in a single institution. These patients were classified into VTE and non-VTE groups, their demographic features were compared, and the factors which had significant effects on VTE and mortality between the two groups were analyzed. Results: We analyzed retrospectively a total of 840 patients and the incidence of VTE was 3.7% (31 patients) during the follow-up period (mean, 17.2 months). Histologic subtype (mucinous adenocarcinoma) and previous history of VTE affected the incidence of VTE on multivariate analysis. There was a statistically significant difference in survival rate between the VTE and non-VTE group, but VTE wasn’t the factor affecting survival rate on multivariate analysis. Comparing differences in survival rate for each pathologic stage, there was only a significant difference in stage II patients. Conclusion: Among CRC patients after surgery, the incidence of VTE was approximately 3% within 1 year and development of VTE wasn’t a significant risk factor for death in our study but these findings are not conclusive due to our small sample size. PMID:26217616

  2. Ethnic Differences in Types of Social Support from Multiple Sources After Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jutagir, Devika R.; Gudenkauf, Lisa M.; Stagl, Jamie M.; Carver, Charles S.; Bouchard, Laura C.; Lechner, Suzanne C.; Glück, Stefan; Blomberg, Bonnie B.; Antoni, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Diagnosis of and treatment for breast cancer (BCa) may require psychological adaptation and often involve heightened distress. Several types of social support positively relate to psychological adaptation to BCa, and negative support is associated with poorer adaptation. Although Hispanic women report greater distress than non-Hispanic White (NHW) women after diagnosis of BCa, no studies have examined ethnic differences in types of social support received from varying sources after surgery for BCa. Design Hispanic (N=61) and NHW (N=150) women diagnosed with early-stage BCa self-reported emotional, informational, instrumental, and negative support from five sources. Ethnic differences in levels of social support were compared using multiple regression analysis. Results When controlling for age, income, days since surgery, and stage of disease in multivariable models there were no ethnic differences in levels of emotional support from any source. Hispanic women reported greater informational support from adult women family members and children and male adult family members than did NHW women. Instrumental support from adult women family members was also greater among Hispanic than NHW women. Hispanic women reported higher negative support from husbands/partners and from children and male adult family members. When number of years in the U.S. was controlled, Hispanic women showed greater informational support from adult women family members, children and male adult family members, and friends. Instrumental support from adult women family members remained greater in Hispanic women, but negative support no longer differed. Conclusion Family is a greater source of informational and instrumental support for Hispanic than NHW women. Hispanic women reported higher negative support from male sources than did NHW women. Level of support from different sources may also depend on time spent in the U.S. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether patterns and

  3. PET Probe-Guided Surgery in Patients with Breast Cancer: Proposal for a Methodological Approach

    PubMed Central

    ORSARIA, PAOLO; CHIARAVALLOTI, AGOSTINO; FIORENTINI, ALESSANDRO; PISTOLESE, CHIARA; VANNI, GIANLUCA; VITTORIA GRANAI, ALESSANDRA; VARVARAS, DIMITRIOS; DANIELI, ROBERTA; SCHILLACI, ORAZIO; PETRELLA, GIUSEPPE; CLAUDIO BUONOMO, ORESTE

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although it is valuable for detecting distant metastases, identifying recurrence, and evaluating responses to chemotherapy, the role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in assessing locoregional nodal status for initial staging of breast cancer has not yet been well-defined in clinical practice. In the current report, we describe a new PET probe-based clinical approach, with evaluation of the technical performance of a handheld high-energy gamma probe for intraoperative localization of breast carcinomas, and evaluation of lymph node metastases during radio-guided oncological surgery. Patients and Methods: Three patients underwent a PET/CT scan immediately prior to surgery following the standard clinical protocol. Intraoperatively, tumors were localized and resected with the assistance of a hand-held gamma probe. PET-guided assessment of the presence or absence of regional nodal spread of malignancy was compared with the reference standard of histopathological examination. Results: In all three cases, perioperative 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging and intraoperative gamma probe detection verified complete resection of the hypermetabolic lesions and demonstrated no additional suspicious occult disease. Conclusion: This innovative approach demonstrates great promise for providing real-time access to metabolic and morphological tumor information that may lead to an optimal disease-tailored approach. In carefully selected indications, a PET probe can be a useful adjunct in surgical practice, but further trials with a larger number of patients need to be performed to verify these findings. PMID:28064227

  4. Pancreatic cancer surgery and nutrition management: a review of the current literature

    PubMed Central

    Afaneh, Cheguevara; Gerszberg, Deborah; Slattery, Eoin; Seres, David S.; Chabot, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Surgery remains the only curative treatment for pancreaticobiliary tumors. These patients typically present in a malnourished state. Various screening tools have been employed to help with preoperative risk stratification. Examples include the subjective global assessment (SGA), malnutrition universal screening tool (MUST), and nutritional risk index (NRI). Adequate studies have not been performed to determine if perioperative interventions, based on nutrition risk assessment, result in less morbidity and mortality. The routine use of gastric decompression with nasogastric sump tubes may be unnecessary following elective pancreatic resections. Instead, placement should be selective and employed on a case-by-case basis. A wide variety of feeding modalities are available, oral nutrition being the most effective. Artificial nutrition may be provided by temporary nasal tube (nasogastric, nasojejunal, or combined nasogastrojejunal tube) or surgically placed tube [gastrostomy (GT), jejunostomy (JT), gastrojejunostomy tubes (GJT)], and intravenously (parenteral nutrition, PN). The optimal tube for enteral feeding cannot be determined based on current data. Each is associated with a specific set of complications. Dual lumen tubes may be useful in the presence of delayed gastric emptying (DGE) as the stomach may be decompressed while feeds are delivered to the jejunum. However, all feeding tubes placed in the small intestine, except direct jejunostomies, commonly dislodge and retroflex into the stomach. Jejunostomies are associated with less frequent, but more serious complications. These include intestinal torsion and bowel necrosis. PN is associated with septic, metabolic, and access-related complications and should be the feeding strategy of last-resort. Enteral feeds are clearly preferred over parental nutrition. A sound understanding of perioperative nutrition may improve patient outcomes. Patients undergoing pancreatic cancer surgery should undergo multidisciplinary

  5. Pancreatic cancer surgery and nutrition management: a review of the current literature.

    PubMed

    Afaneh, Cheguevara; Gerszberg, Deborah; Slattery, Eoin; Seres, David S; Chabot, John A; Kluger, Michael D

    2015-02-01

    Surgery remains the only curative treatment for pancreaticobiliary tumors. These patients typically present in a malnourished state. Various screening tools have been employed to help with preoperative risk stratification. Examples include the subjective global assessment (SGA), malnutrition universal screening tool (MUST), and nutritional risk index (NRI). Adequate studies have not been performed to determine if perioperative interventions, based on nutrition risk assessment, result in less morbidity and mortality. The routine use of gastric decompression with nasogastric sump tubes may be unnecessary following elective pancreatic resections. Instead, placement should be selective and employed on a case-by-case basis. A wide variety of feeding modalities are available, oral nutrition being the most effective. Artificial nutrition may be provided by temporary nasal tube (nasogastric, nasojejunal, or combined nasogastrojejunal tube) or surgically placed tube [gastrostomy (GT), jejunostomy (JT), gastrojejunostomy tubes (GJT)], and intravenously (parenteral nutrition, PN). The optimal tube for enteral feeding cannot be determined based on current data. Each is associated with a specific set of complications. Dual lumen tubes may be useful in the presence of delayed gastric emptying (DGE) as the stomach may be decompressed while feeds are delivered to the jejunum. However, all feeding tubes placed in the small intestine, except direct jejunostomies, commonly dislodge and retroflex into the stomach. Jejunostomies are associated with less frequent, but more serious complications. These include intestinal torsion and bowel necrosis. PN is associated with septic, metabolic, and access-related complications and should be the feeding strategy of last-resort. Enteral feeds are clearly preferred over parental nutrition. A sound understanding of perioperative nutrition may improve patient outcomes. Patients undergoing pancreatic cancer surgery should undergo multidisciplinary

  6. Pembrolizumab, Combination Chemotherapy, and Radiation Therapy Before Surgery in Treating Adult Patients With Locally Advanced Gastroesophageal Junction or Gastric Cardia Cancer That Can Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-30

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Gastric Cardia Adenocarcinoma; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer

  7. Influence of gum-chewing on postoperative bowel activity after laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Bujun; Zhao, Hongmei; Lin, Rui; Wang, Jialiang; Chen, Quanning; Liu, Liming; Huang, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: In some studies, gum-chewing was demonstrated to have a beneficial effect on resumption of bowel function; however, other contradictory findings in other studies refute the effects of gum-chewing on peristaltic movements and digestive system stimulation. In addition, most previous studies were after colorectal or gynecology surgery, whereas few reports focused on the effect of gum-chewing after gastrectomy. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to assess the effectiveness of gum-chewing on postoperative bowel function in patients who had undergone laparoscopic gastrectomy. Methods: From March 2014 to March 2016, 75 patients with gastric cancer received elective laparoscopic surgery in Shanghai Tongji hospital and were postoperatively randomly divided into 2 groups: 38 in a gum-chewing (Gum) group and 37 in a control (No gum) group. The patients in the Gum group chewed sugarless gum 3 times daily, each time for at least 15 minutes, until the day of postoperative exhaust defecation. Results: The mean time to first flatus (83.4 ± 35.6 vs. 79.2 ± 24.2 hours; P = 0.554) and the mean time to first defecation (125.7 ± 41.2 vs. 115.4 ± 34.2 hours; P = 0.192) were no different between the no gum and Gum groups. There was also no significant difference in the incidence of postoperative ileus (P = 0.896) and postoperative hospital stay (P = 0.109) between the 2 groups. The postoperative pain score at 48 hours (P = 0.032) in the Gum group was significantly higher than in the no gum group. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in regards to patient demographics, comorbidities, duration of surgery, complications, and nausea/vomiting score. Conclusion: Gum-chewing after laparoscopic gastrectomy did not hasten the return of gastrointestinal function. In addition, gum-chewing may increase patient pain on the second postoperative day. PMID:28353600

  8. Risk Factors and Indications for 30-Day Readmission After Primary Surgery for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    AlHilli, Mariam; Langstraat, Carrie; Tran, Christine; Martin, Janice; Weaver, Amy; McGree, Michaela; Mariani, Andrea; Cliby, William; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Background To identify patients at risk for postoperative morbidities, we evaluated indications and factors associated with 30-day readmission after epithelial ovarian cancer surgery. Methods Patients undergoing primary surgery for epithelial ovarian cancer between January 2, 2003, and December 29, 2008, were evaluated. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were fit to identify factors associated with 30-day readmission. A parsimonious multivariable model was identified using backward and stepwise variable selection. Results In total, 324 (60.2%) patients were stage III and 91 (16.9%) were stage IV. Of all 538 eligible patients, 104 (19.3%) were readmitted within 30 days. Cytoreduction to no residual disease was achieved in 300 (55.8%) patients, and 167 (31.0%) had measurable disease (≤1 cm residual disease). The most common indications for readmission were surgical site infection (SSI; 21.2%), pleural effusion/ascites management (14.4%), and thromboembolic events (12.5%). Multivariate analysis identified American Society of Anesthesiologists score of 3 or higher (odds ratio, 1.85; 95% confidence interval, 1.18–2.89; P = 0.007), ascites [1.76 (1.11–2.81); P = 0.02], and postoperative complications during initial admission [grade 3–5 vs none, 2.47 (1.19–5.16); grade 1 vs none, 2.19 (0.98–4.85); grade 2 vs none, 1.28 (0.74–2.21); P = 0.048] to be independently associated with 30-day readmission (c-index = 0.625). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was the sole predictor of readmission for SSI (odds ratio, 3.92; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–4.33; P = 0.04). Conclusions Clinically significant risk factors for 30-day readmission include American Society of Anesthesiologists score of 3 or higher, ascites and postoperative complications at initial admission. The SSI and pleural effusions/ascites are common indications for readmission. Systems can be developed to predict patients needing outpatient management, improve care, and reduce

  9. Occurrence of airborne vancomycin- and gentamicin-resistant bacteria in various hospital wards in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mirhoseini, Seyed Hamed; Nikaeen, Mahnaz; Khanahmad, Hossein; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Airborne transmission of pathogenic resistant bacteria is well recognized as an important route for the acquisition of a wide range of nosocomial infections in hospitals. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of airborne vancomycin and gentamicin (VM and GM) resistant bacteria in different wards of four educational hospitals. Materials and Methods: A total of 64 air samples were collected from operating theater (OT), Intensive Care Unit (ICU), surgery ward, and internal medicine ward of four educational hospitals in Isfahan, Iran. Airborne culturable bacteria were collected using all glass impingers. Samples were analyzed for the detection of VM- and GM-resistant bacteria. Results: The average level of bacteria ranged from 99 to 1079 CFU/m3. The highest level of airborne bacteria was observed in hospital 4 (628 CFU/m3) and the highest average concentration of GM- and VM-resistant airborne bacteria were found in hospital 3 (22 CFU/m3). The mean concentration of airborne bacteria was the lowest in OT wards and GM- and VM-resistant airborne bacteria were not detected in this ward of hospitals. The highest prevalence of antibiotic-resistant airborne bacteria was observed in ICU ward. There was a statistically significant difference for the prevalence of VM-resistant bacteria between hospital wards (P = 0.012). Conclusion: Our finding showed that the relatively high prevalence of VM- and GM-resistant airborne bacteria in ICUs could be a great concern from the point of view of patients' health. These results confirm the necessity of application of effective control measures which significantly decrease the exposure of high-risk patients to potentially airborne nosocomial infections. PMID:27656612

  10. Early enteral nutrition in combination with parenteral nutrition in elderly patients after surgery due to gastrointestinal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Dongping; Sun, Zhufeng; Huang, Jianwei; Shen, Zhaozai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of nutritional support via different routes in elderly patients after surgery for gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. Methods: 105 patients with GI cancer were randomly divided into early enteral nutrition (EEN) group (n = 35), total parenteral nutrition (TPN) group (n = 35) and EN+PN group (n = 35). Results: The nutrition status and immunity were significantly compromised in all patients, while the liver function was improved at 3 days after surgery as compared to those before surgery. At 7 days after surgery, they returned to preoperative level. The nutrition status was comparable among 3 groups at 3 and 7 days after surgery (P > 0.05). ALT, AST, ALP and GGT in TNP group were significantly higher than those in EEN group and EN+PN group (P < 0.05), whereas there was no significant difference in the liver function between EEN group and EN+PN group (P > 0.05). The CD3+ cells, CD4+ cells and CD4/CD8 in EEN group and EN+PN group were significantly higher than those in TPN group (P < 0.05), but significant difference was not observed between EEN group and EN+PN group (P > 0.05). The NK cells in EN+PN group were significantly higher than in TPN group (P < 0.01). The incidence of diarrhea in EEN group was significantly higher than in TPN group and EN+PN group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: EN+PN is superior to EEN alone and TPN alone in the old patients with GI cancer in reducing the postoperative complications, improving the immunity and decreasing the hospital stay. PMID:26550350

  11. Operation Ward's Island, A Guide to the Trees and Other Features of Ward's Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    This guide for teachers, students, and adults illustrates how it is possible to use Ward's Island as an outdoor laboratory. It contains a guide to 30 kinds of trees on the island, along with clearly drawn maps and illustrations. The guide helps the user to locate these trees along two nature trails. A section called "Ward's Island…

  12. [Conversion Surgery for Initially Unresectable Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Following Gemcitabine plus Nab-Paclitaxel - A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Shuji; Nishiyama, Ryo; Kaneda, Takayoshi; Yokota, Mitsuo; Kawamata, Hiroshi; Tajima, Hiroshi; Kaizu, Takashi; Kumamoto, Yusuke; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Okuwaki, Kosuke; Iwai, Tomohisa; Imaizumi, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Erina; Hara, Atsuko; Ichinoe, Masaaki; Kida, Mitsuhiro; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2017-02-01

    We report a case of unresectable locally advanced pancreatic cancer successfully resected after gemcitabine(GEM)plus nab-paclitaxel(PTX)treatment. A 68-year-old man was referred to our institution with jaundice. We diagnosed pancreatic head cancer using computed tomography(CT)and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. We initially diagnosed it as locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer because of extensive invasion to the portal vein. GEM plus nab- PTX was administered to the patient as systemic chemotherapy. After 9 courses of chemotherapy, a CT scan revealed that the tumor had significantly reduced in size and range of portal vein invasion. Therefore, we performed pancreaticoduodenectomy with resection of the portal vein and achieved R0 resection. Currently, the patient is alive without recurrence. Therefore, conversion surgery after treatment with GEM plus nab-PTX chemotherapy for unresectable pancreatic cancer should be considered.

  13. Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for gastric cancer and other less common disease histologies: is it time?

    PubMed Central

    Feingold, Paul L.; Kwong, Mei Li M.; Sabesan, Arvind; Sorber, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide, and once spread to the peritoneum, has a 5-year survival of less than 5%. Recent years have demonstrated advances in the use of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) in combination with heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) for the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis due to various malignancies. The frequent desmoplastic stroma and poor vascularization impeding drug delivery particularly in the diffuse form of gastric cancer is thought to provide a sound rationale for a regionalized treatment approach in this disease. Here, we seek to review the available data to define the role of CRS and HIPEC in gastric cancer metastatic to the peritoneal surface, and furthermore, analyze the use of CRS and HIPEC in malignancies less commonly treated with the regionalized perfusion approach. PMID:26941987

  14. Outcomes of laparoscopic fertility-sparing surgery in clinically early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Young; Lee, Yoo-Young; Kim, Tae-Joong; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fertility-sparing surgery (FSS) is becoming an important technique in the surgical management of young women with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We retrospectively evaluated the outcome of laparoscopic FSS in presumed clinically early-stage EOC. Methods We retrospectively searched databases of patients who received laparoscopic FSS for EOC between January 1999 and December 2012 at Samsung Medical Center. Women aged ≤40 years were included. The perioperative, oncological, and obstetric outcomes of these patients were evaluated. Results A total of 18 patients was evaluated. The median age of the patients was 33.5 years (range, 14 to 40 years). The number of patients with clinically stage IA and IC was 6 (33.3%) and 12 (66.7%), respectively. There were 7 (38.9%), 5 (27.8%), 3 (16.7%), and 3 patients (16.7%) with mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, and serous tumor types, respectively. Complete surgical staging to preserve the uterus and one ovary with adnexa was performed in 4 patients (22.2%). Two out of them were upstaged to The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIIA1. During the median follow-up of 47.3 months (range, 11.5 to 195.3 months), there were no perioperative or long term surgical complications. Four women (22.2%) conceived after their respective ovarian cancer treatments. Three (16.7%) of them completed full-term delivery and one is expecting a baby. One patient had disease recurrence. No patient died of the disease. Conclusion FSS in young patients with presumed clinically early-stage EOC is a challenging and cautious procedure. Further studies are urgent to determine the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic FSS in young patients with presumed clinically early-stage EOC. PMID:26768783

  15. Does Extending the Waiting Time of Low-Rectal Cancer Surgery after Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Increase the Perioperative Complications?

    PubMed Central

    Timudom, Kittinut; Phothong, Natthawut; Akaraviputh, Thawatchai; Chinswangwatanakul, Vitoon; Pongpaibul, Ananya; Petsuksiri, Janjira; Ithimakin, Suthinee

    2016-01-01

    Background. Traditionally, rectal cancer surgery is recommended 6 to 8 weeks after completing neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Extending the waiting time may increase the tumor response rate. However, the perioperative complication rate may increase. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between extending the waiting time of surgery after neoadjuvant chemoradiation and perioperative outcomes. Methods. Sixty patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by radical resection at Siriraj hospital between June 2012 and January 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data and perioperative outcomes were compared between the two groups. Results. The two groups were comparable in term of demographic parameters. The mean time interval from neoadjuvant chemoradiation to surgery was 6.4 weeks in Group A and 11.7 weeks in Group B. The perioperative outcomes were not significantly different between Groups A and B. Pathologic examination showed a significantly higher rate of circumferential margin positivity in Group A than in Group B (30% versus 9.3%, resp.; P = 0.04). Conclusions. Extending the waiting to >8 weeks from neoadjuvant chemoradiation to surgery did not increase perioperative complications, whereas the rate of circumferential margin positivity decreased. PMID:27738430

  16. Chemotherapy With or Without Trastuzumab After Surgery in Treating Women With Invasive Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-31

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Positive; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  17. Chemoradiation Therapy for Potentially Resectable Gastric Cancer: Clinical Outcomes Among Patients Who Do Not Undergo Planned Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Michelle M.; Mansfield, Paul F.; Das, Prajnan; Janjan, Nora A.; Badgwell, Brian D.; Phan, Alexandria T.; Delclos, Marc E.; Maru, Dipen; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Crane, Christopher H.; Krishnan, Sunil

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: We retrospectively analyzed treatment outcomes among resectable gastric cancer patients treated preoperatively with chemoradiation therapy (CRT) but rendered ineligible for planned surgery because of clinical deterioration or development of overt metastatic disease. Methods and Materials: Between 1996 and 2004, 39 patients with potentially resectable gastric cancer received preoperative CRT but failed to undergo surgery. At baseline clinical staging, 33 (85%) patients had T3-T4 disease, and 27 (69%) patients had nodal involvement. Most patients received 45 Gy of radiotherapy with concurrent 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. Twenty-one patients underwent induction chemotherapy before CRT. Actuarial times to local control (LC), distant control (DC), and overall survival (OS) were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The cause for surgical ineligibility was development of metastatic disease (28 patients, 72%; predominantly peritoneal, 18 patients), poor performance status (5 patients, 13%), patient/physician preference (4 patients, 10%), and treatment-related death (2 patients, 5%). With a median follow-up of 8 months (range, 1-95 months), actuarial 1-year LC, DC, and OS were 46%, 12%, and 36%, respectively. Median LC and OS were 11.0 and 10.1 months, respectively. Conclusions: Patients with potentially resectable gastric cancer treated with preoperative CRT are found to be ineligible for surgery principally because of peritoneal progression. Patients who are unable to undergo planned surgery have outcomes comparable to that of patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with chemotherapy alone. CRT provides durable LC for the majority of the remaining life of these patients.

  18. Novel Optical Methods for Identification, Imaging, and Preservation of the Cavernous Nerves Responsible for Penile Erections during Prostate Cancer Surgery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    response time of the intracavernosal pressure ( ICP) f or bo th G aussian and flat-top spatial beam profiles (Figure 1) was performed. Thulium ...cancer surgery. Index Terms – laser biomedical applications, thulium , nervous system, urinary system I. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND A...ONS of the CN was conducted with a continuous-wave (CW) Thulium fiber laser (TLT-5, IPG Photonics, Oxford, MA) operated at a wavelength of 1870 nm

  19. Primary debulking surgery for advanced ovarian cancer: are you a believer or a dissenter?

    PubMed

    Schorge, John O; Clark, Rachel M; Lee, Susanna I; Penson, Richard T

    2014-12-01

    Nothing stirs the collective soul of primary debulking surgery (PDS) advocates like hard data suggesting equivalent outcomes of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). These opposing views have even metaphorically come to blows at the highly entertaining "SGO Fight Night" that took place during the 2008 Annual Meeting on Women's Cancer, replete with teams supporting each of the would-be gladiators. Decades of retrospective data supporting the clinical benefit of PDS has recently been challenged by the publication in 2010 of a randomized phase III trial conducted in Europe supporting the clinical efficacy of NAC. Naturally, a firestorm of criticism among believers ensued, yet practice patterns within the United States did slowly change, suggesting an emerging block of dissenters. Another randomized phase III European trial, as presented in abstract form in 2013, showed similar findings. Few other topics within the field of gynecologic oncology have participants so entrenched in the "corners" of their existing practice patterns. This review attempts to consolidate the current evidence supporting both sides so that the patient can be declared the winner.

  20. Designing a wearable navigation system for image-guided cancer resection surgery.

    PubMed

    Shao, Pengfei; Ding, Houzhu; Wang, Jinkun; Liu, Peng; Ling, Qiang; Chen, Jiayu; Xu, Junbin; Zhang, Shiwu; Xu, Ronald

    2014-11-01

    A wearable surgical navigation system is developed for intraoperative imaging of surgical margin in cancer resection surgery. The system consists of an excitation light source, a monochromatic CCD camera, a host computer, and a wearable headset unit in either of the following two modes: head-mounted display (HMD) and Google glass. In the HMD mode, a CMOS camera is installed on a personal cinema system to capture the surgical scene in real-time and transmit the image to the host computer through a USB port. In the Google glass mode, a wireless connection is established between the glass and the host computer for image acquisition and data transport tasks. A software program is written in Python to call OpenCV functions for image calibration, co-registration, fusion, and display with augmented reality. The imaging performance of the surgical navigation system is characterized in a tumor simulating phantom. Image-guided surgical resection is demonstrated in an ex vivo tissue model. Surgical margins identified by the wearable navigation system are co-incident with those acquired by a standard small animal imaging system, indicating the technical feasibility for intraoperative surgical margin detection. The proposed surgical navigation system combines the sensitivity and specificity of a fluorescence imaging system and the mobility of a wearable goggle. It can be potentially used by a surgeon to identify the residual tumor foci and reduce the risk of recurrent diseases without interfering with the regular resection procedure.

  1. Serum concentrations of antibiotics during severe invasive surgery such as esophagectomy for esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Owaki, Tetsuhiro; Okumura, Hiroshi; Uchikado, Yasuto; Sasaki, Ken; Matsumoto, Masataka; Omoto, Itaru; Setoyama, Tetsuro; Kita, Yoshiaki; Sakurai, Toshihide; Matsushita, Daisuke; Ishigami, Sumiya; Ueno, Shinichi; Natsugoe, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to confirm the antibiotic regimen during a severe invasive surgery, such as esophagectomy, with a long procedure and a large amount of normal volumes of infusion. Ten patients with esophageal cancer were enrolled in this study, and cefmetazole sodium concentrations in serum were measured during esophagectomy. The ranges of minimum inhibitory concentrations for 90% of isolates of cefmetazole sodium for microorganisms in our institutions for 8 years were investigated. The maximum concentration was 83.9 μg/mL just after the completion of infusion, and its half-life was 1.5 hours. Serum concentration of cefmetazole sodium was kept above 16 μg/mL for 4 hours during esophagectomy. It was kept above 32 μg/mL for 2.5 hours after injection. There are almost no differences in the pharmacokinetics of cefmetazole sodium between common use and during esophagectomy. In addition, additive infusion of antibiotics 4 hours after the first infusion was recommended during esophagectomy.

  2. Serum Concentrations of Antibiotics During Severe Invasive Surgery Such as Esophagectomy for Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Owaki, Tetsuhiro; Okumura, Hiroshi; Uchikado, Yasuto; Sasaki, Ken; Matsumoto, Masataka; Omoto, Itaru; Setoyama, Tetsuro; Kita, Yoshiaki; Sakurai, Toshihide; Matsushita, Daisuke; Ishigami, Sumiya; Ueno, Shinichi; Natsugoe, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to confirm the antibiotic regimen during a severe invasive surgery, such as esophagectomy, with a long procedure and a large amount of normal volumes of infusion. Ten patients with esophageal cancer were enrolled in this study, and cefmetazole sodium concentrations in serum were measured during esophagectomy. The ranges of minimum inhibitory concentrations for 90% of isolates of cefmetazole sodium for microorganisms in our institutions for 8 years were investigated. The maximum concentration was 83.9 μg/mL just after the completion of infusion, and its half-life was 1.5 hours. Serum concentration of cefmetazole sodium was kept above 16 μg/mL for 4 hours during esophagectomy. It was kept above 32 μg/mL for 2.5 hours after injection. There are almost no differences in the pharmacokinetics of cefmetazole sodium between common use and during esophagectomy. In addition, additive infusion of antibiotics 4 hours after the first infusion was recommended during esophagectomy. PMID:23438269

  3. Pneumonia after Major Cancer Surgery: Temporal Trends and Patterns of Care

    PubMed Central

    Trinh, Vincent Q.; Ravi, Praful; Abd-El-Barr, Abd-El-Rahman M.; Jhaveri, Jay K.; Gervais, Mai-Kim; Meyer, Christian P.; Hanske, Julian; Sammon, Jesse D.; Trinh, Quoc-Dien

    2016-01-01

    Rationale. Pneumonia is a leading cause of postoperative complication. Objective. To examine trends, factors, and mortality of postoperative pneumonia following major cancer surgery (MCS). Methods. From 1999 to 2009, patients undergoing major forms of MCS were identified using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), a Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) subset, resulting in weighted 2,508,916 patients. Measurements. Determinants were examined using logistic regression analysis adjusted for clustering using generalized estimating equations. Results. From 1999 to 2009, 87,867 patients experienced pneumonia following MCS and prevalence increased by 29.7%. The estimated annual percent change (EAPC) of mortality after MCS was −2.4% (95% CI: −2.9 to −2.0, P < 0.001); the EAPC of mortality associated with pneumonia after MCS was −2.2% (95% CI: −3.6 to 0.9, P = 0.01). Characteristics associated with higher odds of pneumonia included older age, male, comorbidities, nonprivate insurance, lower income, hospital volume, urban, Northeast region, and nonteaching status. Pneumonia conferred a 6.3-fold higher odd of mortality. Conclusions. Increasing prevalence of pneumonia after MCS, associated with stable mortality rates, may result from either increased diagnosis or more stringent coding. We identified characteristics associated with pneumonia after MCS which could help identify at-risk patients in order to reduce pneumonia after MCS, as it greatly increases the odds of mortality. PMID:27445554

  4. Cerebellar Hemorrhage due to a Direct Carotid–Cavernous Fistula after Surgery for Maxillary Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kamio, Yoshinobu; Hiramatsu, Hisaya; Kamiya, Mika; Yamashita, Shuhei; Namba, Hiroki

    2017-01-01

    Infratentorial cerebral hemorrhage due to a direct carotid–cavernous fistula (CCF) is very rare. To our knowledge, only four such cases have been reported. Cerebellar hemorrhage due to a direct CCF has not been reported. We describe a 63-year-old female who presented with reduced consciousness 3 days after undergoing a maxillectomy for maxillary cancer. Computed tomography showed a cerebellar hemorrhage. Magnetic resonance angiography showed a left-sided direct CCF draining into the left petrosal and cerebellar veins through the left superior petrosal sinus (SPS). Her previous surgery had sacrificed the pterygoid plexus and facial vein. Increased blood flow and reduced drainage could have led to increased venous pressure in infratentorial veins, including the petrosal and cerebellar veins. The cavernous sinus has several drainage routes, but the SPS is one of the most important routes for infratentorial venous drainage. Stenosis or absence of the posterior segment of the SPS can also result in increased pressure in the cerebellar and pontine veins. We emphasize that a direct CCF with cortical venous reflux should be precisely evaluated to determine the hemodynamic status and venous drainage from the cavernous sinus. PMID:28061497

  5. Designing a wearable navigation system for image-guided cancer resection surgery

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Pengfei; Ding, Houzhu; Wang, Jinkun; Liu, Peng; Ling, Qiang; Chen, Jiayu; Xu, Junbin; Zhang, Shiwu; Xu, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    A wearable surgical navigation system is developed for intraoperative imaging of surgical margin in cancer resection surgery. The system consists of an excitation light source, a monochromatic CCD camera, a host computer, and a wearable headset unit in either of the following two modes: head-mounted display (HMD) and Google glass. In the HMD mode, a CMOS camera is installed on a personal cinema system to capture the surgical scene in real-time and transmit the image to the host computer through a USB port. In the Google glass mode, a wireless connection is established between the glass and the host computer for image acquisition and data transport tasks. A software program is written in Python to call OpenCV functions for image calibration, co-registration, fusion, and display with augmented reality. The imaging performance of the surgical navigation system is characterized in a tumor simulating phantom. Image-guided surgical resection is demonstrated in an ex vivo tissue model. Surgical margins identified by the wearable navigation system are co-incident with those acquired by a standard small animal imaging system, indicating the technical feasibility for intraoperative surgical margin detection. The proposed surgical navigation system combines the sensitivity and specificity of a fluorescence imaging system and the mobility of a wearable goggle. It can be potentially used by a surgeon to identify the residual tumor foci and reduce the risk of recurrent diseases without interfering with the regular resection procedure. PMID:24980159

  6. Preoperative Nutritional Assessment in Elderly Cancer Patients Undergoing Elective Surgery: MNA or PG-SGA?

    PubMed

    Dubhashi, S P; Kayal, Akshat

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate and compare the use of patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) and mini nutritional assessment (MNA) as a preoperative nutritional assessment tool in elderly cancer patients. This was a prospective study carried out on 47 patients, 45 years and above suffering from cancer and admitted to Padmashree Dr. D.Y. Patil Medical College and Hospital, Pune. The patients were evaluated with PG-SGA and MNA tools at the time of admission and baseline data were collected. All patients had undergone surgeries as per indications. Postoperatively, the surgical outcomes and adverse events were noted and statistically evaluated. The average age of the study sample was 61.46 years and 29 patients were females. The patients classified by PG-SGA were ten in group A and 37 in group B and C. The patients classified by MNA were five in no risk group and 42 in group with patients at risk and malnourished. When evaluated with PG-SGA in group B and C, wound infections and requirement of change of antibiotic were seen in 86.4 % patients and their average day of onset of infection was 5.6 days. Antibiotics were administered to these patients for an average of 14.2 days and their average duration of stay was 29 days. On the other hand, the evaluation of patients with MNA, at risk and malnourished patients, wound infections, and requirement of change of antibiotic were seen in 81 % of patients and their average day of onset of infection was 5.6 days. Antibiotics were administered to these patients for an average of 13.8 days and their average duration of stay was 27 days. The results were statistically significant. The mini nutritional assessment is more exhaustive in identifying patients at risk and is useful in screening populations to identify frail elderly persons allowing us to intervene earlier, thereby improving the patient prognosis. The patient-generated subjective global assessment is a more comprehensive tool for elderly cancer

  7. [RESULTS OF LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERY FOR ENDOMETRIAL CANCER: EXPERIENCE OF THE N. N. PETROV RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF ONCOLOGY].

    PubMed

    Berlev, I V; Nekrasova, E A; Urmancheeva, A F; Ulrikh, E A; Mikaya, N A; Guseinov, K D; Saparov, A B; Trifanov, Yu N; Sidoruk, A A

    2015-01-01

    For the period from September 2010 to September 2014 there were operated 513 patients with endometrial cancer using laparoscopic installation the Karl Storz company. 304 patients (59.2%) underwent hysterectomy with appendages, 209 (40.8%)--hysterectomy with appendages and pelvic lymphadenectomy, including 11 patients (2.2%) with the addition of omentectomy in serous and serous-papillary forms of endometrial cancer. The average age of patients was 58.4 years (44-75 years). Body mass index over 25.0 was determined in 456 patients (88.9%), of whom 183 patients (35.6%) had an excess of body weight, in 159 (31.0%)--obesity of I degree, in 79 (15.5%)--obesity of II degree and in 35 patients (6.8%)--obesity of III degree. There were no reported complications during surgery. The postoperative period in the majority of patients was characterized by the minimal complications and absence of contraindications for adjuvant radiotherapy. During follow-up period there were registered 4 relapses: in 1 patient with serous--papillary form of endometrial cancer during the first year after surgery--in the form of dissemination of tumor in the abdomen and pelvis; in 3 patients--in the form of a cytological detection of glandular cancer cells in vaginal stump. As a result, regardless of age and comorbidities, laparoscopy allows performing to endometrial cancer patients the entire volume of planned radical surgery with minimum damage and with minimal risk of intra- and postoperative complications, favorable and accelerated rehabilitation period.

  8. Intrusive thoughts and quality of life among men with prostate cancer before and three months after surgery

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sudden, unwelcome and repetitive thoughts about a traumatic event – intrusive thoughts – could relate to how men assess their quality of life after prostate-cancer diagnosis. We aimed to study the prevalence of intrusive thoughts about prostate cancer and their association with quality-of-life outcomes before and after radical prostatectomy. Methods During the first year of the LAPPRO-trial, 971 men scheduled for radical prostatectomy were prospectively included from 14 urological centers in Sweden. Of those, 833 men responded to two consecutive study-specific questionnaires before and three months after surgery (participation rate 86%). The association of intrusive thoughts with three quality-of-life outcomes, i.e. self-assessed quality of life, depressive mood and waking up with anxiety was estimated by prevalence ratios that were calculated, together with a 95% confidence interval, at the same time-point as well as over time. Fisher’s exact-test was used to analyze differences between respondents and non-respondents. Wilcoxon signed-ranks and Cochran-Armitage trend tests were used for analysis of change over time. To validate new questions on intrusive thoughts, written answers to open-ended questions were read and analyzed by qualitative content analysis. Results Before surgery, 603 men (73%) reported negative intrusive thoughts about their cancer at some time in the past month and 593 men (59%) reported such thoughts three months after surgery. Comparing those reporting intrusive thoughts at least weekly or once a week before surgery with those who did not, the prevalence ratio (95% confidence interval), three months after surgery, for waking up in the middle of the night with anxiety was 3.9 (2.7 to 5.5), for depressed mood 1.8 (1.6 to 2.1) and for impaired self-assessed quality of life 1.3 (1.2 to 1.5). Conclusion The prevalence of negative intrusive thoughts about prostate cancer at the time of surgery associates with studied quality

  9. Genomic Sequencing in Determining Treatment in Patients With Metastatic Cancer or Cancer That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-20

    Metastatic Neoplasm; Recurrent Neoplasm; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Unresectable Malignant Neoplasm

  10. Preparing for Breast Reconstruction Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Breast Reconstruction Surgery Preparing for Breast Reconstruction Surgery Your surgeon can help you know what to ... The plan for follow-up Costs Understanding your surgery costs Health insurance policies often cover most or ...

  11. Role of Enteral Immunonutrition in Patients Undergoing Surgery for Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Song, Guo-Min; Tian, Xu; Liang, Hui; Yi, Li-Juan; Zhou, Jian-Guo; Zeng, Zi; Shuai, Ting; Ou, Yang-Xiang; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common upper gastrointestinal malignancies. Surgical resection remains the mainstay of curative treatment for GC. Enteral immunonutrition (EIN) has been increasingly used to enhance host immunity and relieve inflammatory response of patients undergoing surgery for GC; however, conclusions across studies still remain unclear. We aimed to evaluate the effects of EIN for such patients. We searched some electronic databases including PubMed, EBSCO-Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and EMBASE to identify any latent studies which investigated the effects of EIN compared with standard EN on GC patients who undergoing surgery until the end of December 30, 2014. Relative risk (RR), mean difference (MD), or standard mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated and we also assessed heterogeneity by using Cochrane Q and I2 statistic combined with corresponding P-value. We included 9 eligible studies which included 785 patients eventually. The meta-analysis results shown that EIN increased level of IgA (MD, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.12–0.51), IgG (MD, 1.5; 95% CI, 0.73–2.28), IgM (MD, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.06–0.39), CD4+ (SMD, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.53–1.09), CD3+ (SMD, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.21–1.15), CD4+/CD8+ ratio (MD, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.12–1.01), and NK cell (MD, 2.35; 95% CI, 0.66–4.05); decreased IL-6 (MD, −98.22; 95% CI, −156.16 to −40.28) and TNF-α (MD, −118.29; 95% CI, −162.00 to −74.58), but not improve remained outcomes of interest involving postoperative complications, length of hospitalization, serum total protein, and CD8+. Descriptive analysis suggested that EIN also increased the concentration of IL-2 but not CRP. Impact on lymphocytes remains inconsistent. EIN is effective for enhancing host immunity and relieving the inflammatory response in GC patients undergoing gastrectomy, but clinical outcomes cannot be benefit from it. Heterogeneity caused by different

  12. Combination Chemotherapy and Filgrastim Before Surgery in Treating Patients With HER2-Positive Breast Cancer That Can Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-05-07

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  13. Guidelines for the Surgical Management of Laryngeal Cancer: Korean Society of Thyroid-Head and Neck Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Soon-Hyun; Hong, Hyun Jun; Kwon, Soon Young; Kwon, Kee Hwan; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Ryu, Junsun; Park, Jun Hee; Baek, Seung-Kuk; Lee, Guk Haeng; Lee, Sei Young; Lee, Jin Choon; Chung, Man Ki; Joo, Young Hoon; Ji, Yong Bae; Hah, Jeong Hun; Kwon, Minsu; Park, Young Min; Song, Chang Myeon; Shin, Sung-Chan; Ryu, Chang Hwan; Lee, Doh Young; Lee, Young Chan; Chang, Jae Won; Jeong, Ha Min; Cho, Jae-Keun; Cha, Wonjae; Chun, Byung Joon; Choi, Ik Joon; Choi, Hyo Geun; Lee, Kang Dae

    2017-01-01

    Korean Society of Thyroid-Head and Neck Surgery appointed a Task Force to develop clinical practice guidelines for the surgical treatment of laryngeal cancer. This Task Force conducted a systematic search of the EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed databases to identify relevant articles, using search terms selected according to the key questions. Evidence-based recommendations were then created on the basis of these articles. An external expert review and Delphi questionnaire were applied to reach consensus regarding the recommendations. The resulting guidelines focus on the surgical treatment of laryngeal cancer with the assumption that surgery is the selected treatment modality after a multidisciplinary discussion in any context. These guidelines do not, therefore, address non-surgical treatment such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy. The committee developed 62 evidence-based recommendations in 32 categories intended to assist clinicians during management of patients with laryngeal cancer and patients with laryngeal cancer, and counselors and health policy-makers. PMID:28043099

  14. Surgical site infections following colorectal cancer surgery: a randomized prospective trial comparing common and advanced antimicrobial dressing containing ionic silver

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An antimicrobial dressing containing ionic silver was found effective in reducing surgical-site infection in a preliminary study of colorectal cancer elective surgery. We decided to test this finding in a randomized, double-blind trial. Methods Adults undergoing elective colorectal cancer surgery at two university-affiliated hospitals were randomly assigned to have the surgical incision dressed with Aquacel® Ag Hydrofiber dressing or a common dressing. To blind the patient and the nursing and medical staff to the nature of the dressing used, scrub nurses covered Aquacel® Ag Hydrofiber with a common wound dressing in the experimental arm, whereas a double common dressing was applied to patients of control group. The primary end-point of the study was the occurrence of any surgical-site infection within 30 days of surgery. Results A total of 112 patients (58 in the experimental arm and 54 in the control group) qualified for primary end-point analysis. The characteristics of the patient population and their surgical procedures were similar. The overall rate of surgical-site infection was lower in the experimental group (11.1% center 1, 17.5% center 2; overall 15.5%) than in controls (14.3% center 1, 24.2% center 2, overall 20.4%), but the observed difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.451), even with respect to surgical-site infection grade 1 (superficial) versus grades 2 and 3, or grade 1 and 2 versus grade 3. Conclusions This randomized trial did not confirm a statistically significant superiority of Aquacel® Ag Hydrofiber dressing in reducing surgical-site infection after elective colorectal cancer surgery. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00981110 PMID:22621779

  15. Hyperalgesia and Persistent Pain after Breast Cancer Surgery: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial with Perioperative COX-2 Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    van Helmond, Noud; Steegers, Monique A.; Filippini-de Moor, Gertie P.; Vissers, Kris C.; Wilder-Smith, Oliver H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Persistent pain is a challenging clinical problem after breast cancer treatment. After surgery, inflammatory pain and nociceptive input from nerve injury induce central sensitization which may play a role in the genesis of persistent pain. Using quantitative sensory testing, we tested the hypothesis that adding COX-2 inhibition to standard treatment reduces hyperalgesia after breast cancer surgery. A secondary hypothesis was that patients developing persistent pain would exhibit more postoperative hyperalgesia. Methods 138 women scheduled for lumpectomy/mastectomy under general anesthesia with paravertebral block were randomized to COX-2 inhibition (2x40mg parecoxib on day of surgery, thereafter 2x200mg celecoxib/day until day five) or placebo. Preoperatively and 1, 5, 15 days and 1, 3, 6, 12 months postoperatively, we determined electric and pressure pain tolerance thresholds in dermatomes C6/T4/L1 and a 100mm VAS score for pain. We calculated the sum of pain tolerance thresholds and analyzed change in these versus preoperatively using mixed models analysis with factor medication. To assess hyperalgesia in persistent pain patients we performed an additional analysis on patients reporting VAS>30 at 12 months. Results 48 COX-2 inhibition and 46 placebo patients were analyzed in a modified intention to treat analysis. Contrary to our primary hypothesis, change in the sum of tolerance thresholds in the COX-2 inhibition group was not different versus placebo. COX-2 inhibition had an effect on pain on movement at postoperative day 5 (p<0.01). Consistent with our secondary hypothesis, change in sum of pressure pain tolerance thresholds in 11 patients that developed persistent pain was negative versus patients without pain (p<0.01) from day 5 to 1 year postoperatively. Conclusions Perioperative COX-2 inhibition has limited value in preventing sensitization and persistent pain after breast cancer surgery. Central sensitization may play a role in the genesis of

  16. Potential hospital cost-savings attributed to improvements in outcomes for colorectal cancer surgery following self-audit

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background One of the potential benefits of surgical audit is improved hospital cost-efficiencies arising from lower resource consumption associated with fewer adverse events. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential cost-savings for Australian hospitals from improved surgical performance for colorectal surgery attributed to a surgical self-audit program. Methods We used a mathematical decision-model to investigate cost differences in usual practice versus surgical audit and synthesized published hospital cost data with epidemiological evidence of adverse surgical events in Australia and New Zealand. A systematic literature review was undertaken to assess post-operative outcomes from colorectal surgery and effectiveness of surgical audit. Results were subjected to both one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses to address uncertainty in model parameters. Results If surgical self-audit facilitated the reduction of adverse surgical events by half those currently reported for colorectal cancer surgery, the potential cost-savings to hospitals is AU$48,720 (95% CI: $18,080-$89,260) for each surgeon treating 20 cases per year. A smaller 25% reduction in adverse events produced cost-savings of AU$24,960 per surgeon (95%CI: $1,980-$62,980). Potential hospital savings for all operative colorectal cancer cases was estimated at AU$30.3 million each year. Conclusions Surgical self-audit has the potential to create substantial hospital cost-savings for colorectal cancer surgery in Australia when considering the widespread incidence of this disease. The study is limited by the current availability and quality of data estimates abstracted from the published literature. Further evidence on the effectiveness of self-audit is required to substantiate these findings. PMID:20105290

  17. Examination of a CRP first approach for the detection of postoperative complications in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    McSorley, Stephen T.; Khor, Bo Y.; MacKay, Graham J.; Horgan, Paul G.; McMillan, Donald C.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to examine whether a C-reactive protein (CRP) first approach would improve the detection rate of postoperative complications by CT. CRP is a useful biomarker to identify major complications following surgery for colorectal cancer. Patients with histologically confirmed colorectal cancer, who underwent elective surgery between 2008 and 2015 at a single centre were included. Exceeding the established CRP threshold of 150 mg/L on postoperative day (POD) 4 was recorded. Results of CT performed between postoperative days 4 and 14 were recorded. Four hundred ninety-five patients were included. The majority were male (58%), over 65 (68%), with node-negative disease (66%) and underwent open surgery (70%). Those patients who underwent a CT scan (n = 93), versus those who did not (n = 402), were more likely to have a postoperative complication (84% vs 35%, P < 0.001), infective complication (67% vs 21%, P < 0.001), and anastomotic leak (17% vs 2%, P < 0.001). In patients who did not undergo a CT scan (n = 402) exceeding the CRP threshold (n = 117) on POD 4 was associated with a higher rate of postoperative complication (50% vs 29%, P < 0.001), infective complications (36% vs 15%, P < 0.001), and anastomotic leak (4% vs 0.5%, P = 0.009). In patients who did undergo a CT scan (n = 93) exceeding the CRP threshold (n = 53) on POD 4 was associated with earlier CT (median POD 6 vs 8, P = 0.001) but not postoperative complications. A CRP first approach resulted in earlier and improved detection of complications by CT following surgery for colorectal cancer. PMID:28207541

  18. A Systematic Review of Clinical Outcomes and Prognostic Factors for Patients Undergoing Surgery for Spinal Metastases Secondary to Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sciubba, Daniel M.; Goodwin, C. Rory; Yurter, Alp; Ju, Derek; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Fisher, Charles; Rhines, Laurence D.; Fehlings, Michael G.; Fourney, Daryl R.; Mendel, Ehud; Laufer, Ilya; Bettegowda, Chetan; Patel, Shreyaskumar R.; Rampersaud, Y. Raja; Sahgal, Arjun; Reynolds, Jeremy; Chou, Dean; Weber, Michael H.; Clarke, Michelle J.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design  Review of the literature. Objective  Surgery and cement augmentation procedures are effective palliative treatment of symptomatic spinal metastases. Our objective is to systematically review the literature to describe the survival, prognostic factors, and clinical outcomes of surgery and cement augmentation procedures for breast cancer metastases to the spine. Methods  We performed a literature review using PubMed to identify articles that reported outcomes and/or prognostic factors of the breast cancer patient population with spinal metastases treated with any surgical technique since 1990. Results  The median postoperative survival for metastatic breast cancer was 21.7 months (8.2 to 36 months), the mean rate of any pain improvement was 92.9% (76 to 100%), the mean rate of neurologic improvement was 63.8% (53 to 100%), the mean rate of neurologic decline was 4.1% (0 to 8%), and the local tumor control rate was 92.6% (89 to 100%). Kyphoplasty studies reported a high rate of pain control in selected patients. Negative prognostic variables included hormonal (estrogen and progesterone) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) receptor refractory tumor status, high degree of axillary lymph node involvement, and short disease-free interval (DFI). All other clinical or prognostic parameters were of low or insufficient strength. Conclusion  With respect to clinical outcomes, surgery consistently yielded neurologic improvements in patients presenting with a deficit with a minimal risk of worsening; however, negative prognostic factors associated with shorter survival following surgery include estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor negativity, HER2 negativity, and a short DFI. PMID:27433433

  19. Caloric Restriction in Treating Patients With Stage 0-I Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Radiation Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-19

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer

  20. The value of latissimus dorsi flap with implant reconstruction for total mastectomy after conservative breast cancer surgery recurrence.

    PubMed

    Garusi, Cristina; Lohsiriwat, Visnu; Brenelli, Fabricio; Galimberti, Viviana Enrica; De Lorenzi, Francesca; Rietjens, Mario; Rossetto, Fabio; Petit, Jean Yves

    2011-04-01

    Total mastectomy is usually indicated after breast conservative treatment cancer recurrence. Breast reconstruction in this group can be performed with many options. We did 63 latissimus dorsi flap with implants reconstructions between 2001-2007. All of them were performed in breast cancer recurrence cases after breast conservative treatment and preceded for total mastectomy. The patient age range from 31 to 71 years old (50.1 ± 7.3 years). The follow-up was 36.5 ± 14.9 months (22-141 months). Neither flap loss nor significant major donor-site complication was recorded. The capsular contraction Baker's grade III was observed in 2 cases (3.1%). The rest were grade I-II and there was no grade IV contracture. We purpose that LD flap with implant can be performed in irradiated breast with low capsular contracture rate. It is suitable in total mastectomy reconstruction after conservative breast cancer surgery recurrence.

  1. [Extended surgery in locally invasive pancreatic cancer. An original revascularization technique].

    PubMed

    Fradique, Caldeira; Azevedo, Vaz; Vasconcelos, Vasco; Pupo, Alexandra; Quaresma, Luísa; Carreira, Noémia

    2002-01-01

    The end results of surgery for pancreatic tumors remains very poor. In patients with locally invasive tumors a by-pass type of surgery is usually performed with low survival and poor life quality. Seven patients with locally invasive pancreatic tumors were operated by the authors and extensive radical surgery was done with good results. An original revascularization technique of the hepatic artery is described.

  2. True Local Recurrences after Breast Conserving Surgery have Poor Prognosis in Patients with Early Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sarsenov, Dauren; Ilgun, Serkan; Ordu, Cetin; Alco, Gul; Bozdogan, Atilla; Elbuken, Filiz; Nur Pilanci, Kezban; Agacayak, Filiz; Erdogan, Zeynep; Eralp, Yesim; Dincer, Maktav

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study was aimed at investigating clinical and histopathologic features of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences (IBTR) and their effects on survival after breast conservation therapy. Methods: 1,400 patients who were treated between 1998 and 2007 and had breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for early breast cancer (cT1-2/N0-1/M0) were evaluated. Demographic and pathologic parameters, radiologic data, treatment, and follow-up related features of the patients were recorded. Results: 53 patients (3.8%) had IBTR after BCS within a median follow-up of 70 months. The mean age was 45.7 years (range, 27-87 years), and 22 patients (41.5%) were younger than 40 years. 33 patients (62.3%) had true recurrence (TR) and 20 were classified as new primary (NP). The median time to recurrence was shorter in TR group than in NP group (37.0 (6-216) and 47.5 (11-192) months respectively; p = 0.338). Progesterone receptor positivity was significantly higher in the NP group (p = 0.005). The overall 5-year survival rate in the NP group (95.0%) was significantly higher than that of the TR group (74.7%, p < 0.033). Multivariate analysis showed that younger age (<40 years), large tumor size (>20 mm), high grade tumor and triple-negative molecular phenotype along with developing TR negatively affected overall survival (hazard ratios were 4.2 (CI 0.98-22.76), 4.6 (CI 1.07-13.03), 4.0 (CI 0.68-46.10), 6.5 (CI 0.03-0.68), and 6.5 (CI 0.02- 0.80) respectively, p < 0.05). Conclusions: Most of the local recurrences after BCS in our study were true recurrences, which resulted in a poorer outcome as compared to new primary tumors. Moreover, younger age (<40), large tumor size (>2 cm), high grade, triple negative phenotype, and having true recurrence were identified as independent prognostic factors with a negative impact on overall survival in this dataset of patients with recurrent breast cancer. In conjunction with a more intensive follow-up program, the role of adjuvant therapy

  3. Surveillance patterns after curative-intent colorectal cancer surgery in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jensen; Muir, Jennifer; Coburn, Natalie; Singh, Simron; Hodgson, David; Saskin, Refik; Kiss, Alex; Paszat, Lawrence; El-Sedfy, Abraham; Grunfeld, Eva; Earle, Craig; Law, Calvin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postoperative surveillance following curative-intent resection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is variably performed due to existing guideline differences and to the limited data supporting different strategies. OBJECTIVES: To examine population-based rates of surveillance imaging and endoscopy in patients in Ontario following curative-intent resection of CRC with no evidence of recurrence, as well as patient or disease factors that may predispose certain groups to more frequent versus less frequent surveillance; to provide insight to the care patients receive in the presence of conflicting guidelines, in efforts to help improve care of CRC survivors by identifying any potential underuse or overuse of particular surveillance modalities, or inequalities in access to surveillance. METHOD: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from the Ontario Cancer Registry and several linked databases. Ontario patients undergoing curative-intent CRC resection from 2003 to 2007 were identified, excluding patients with probable disease relapse. In the five-year period following surgery, the number of imaging and endoscopic examinations was determined. RESULTS: There were 4960 patients included in the study. Over the five-year postoperative period, the highest proportion of patients who underwent postoperative surveillance received the following number of tests for each modality examined: one to three abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) scans (n=2073 [41.8%]); one to three abdominal ultrasounds (n=2443 [49.3%]); no chest CTs, one to three chest x-rays (n=2385 [48.1%]); and two endoscopies (n=1845 [37.2%]). Odds of not receiving any abdominopelvic imaging (CT or abdominal ultrasound) were higher in those who did not receive adjuvant chemo-therapy (OR 6.99 [95% CI 5.26 to 9.35]) or those living in certain geographical areas, but were independent of age, sex and income. Nearly all patients (n=4473 [90.2%]) underwent ≥1 endoscopy at some point during the

  4. Perioperative physical exercise interventions for patients undergoing lung cancer surgery: What is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Mainini, Carlotta; Rebelo, Patrícia Fs; Bardelli, Roberta; Kopliku, Besa; Tenconi, Sara; Costi, Stefania; Tedeschi, Claudio; Fugazzaro, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Surgical resection appears to be the most effective treatment for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. Recent studies suggest that perioperative pulmonary rehabilitation improves functional capacity, reduces mortality and postoperative complications and enhances recovery and quality of life in operated patients. Our aim is to analyse and identify the most recent evidence-based physical exercise interventions, performed before or after surgery. We searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and PsycINFO. We included randomised controlled trials aimed at assessing efficacy of exercise-training programmes; physical therapy interventions had to be described in detail in order to be reproducible. Characteristics of studies and programmes, results and outcome data were extracted. Six studies were included, one describing preoperative rehabilitation and three assessing postoperative intervention. It seems that the best preoperative physical therapy training should include aerobic and strength training with a duration of 2-4 weeks. Although results showed improvement in exercise performance after preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation, it was not possible to identify the best preoperative intervention due to paucity of clinical trials in this area. Physical training programmes differed in every postoperative study with conflicting results, so comparison is difficult. Current literature shows inconsistent results regarding preoperative or postoperative physical exercise in patients undergoing lung resection. Even though few randomised trials were retrieved, treatment protocols were difficult to compare due to variability in design and implementation. Further studies with larger samples and better methodological quality are urgently needed to assess efficacy of both preoperative and postoperative exercise programmes.

  5. Clinical significance of systematic retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy during interval debulking surgery in advanced ovarian cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Takada, Toshio; Iitsuka, Chiaki; Nomura, Hidetaka; Abe, Akiko; Taniguchi, Tomoko; Takizawa, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical significance of systematic retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy during interval debulking surgery (IDS) in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 124 advanced EOC patients and analyzed the details of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), IDS, postoperative treatment, and prognoses. Results Following IDS, 98 patients had no gross residual disease (NGRD), 15 had residual disease sized <1 cm (optimal), and 11 had residual disease sized ≥1 cm (suboptimal). Two-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 88.8% and 39.8% in the NGRD group, 40.0% and 13.3% in the optimal group (p<0.001 vs. NGRD for both), and 36.3% and 0% in the suboptimal group, respectively. Five-year OS and 2-year PFS rates were 62% and 56.1% in the lymph node-negative (LN-) group and 26.2% and 24.5% in the lymph node-positive (LN+) group (p=0.0033 and p=0.0024 vs. LN-, respectively). Furthermore, survival in the LN+ group, despite surgical removal of positive nodes, was the same as that in the unknown LN status group, in which lymphadenectomy was not performed (p=0.616 and p=0.895, respectively). Multivariate analysis identified gross residual tumor during IDS (hazard ratio, 3.68; 95% confidence interval, 1.31 to 10.33 vs. NGRD) as the only independent predictor of poor OS. Conclusion NGRD after IDS improved prognosis in advanced EOC patients treated with NACT-IDS. However, while systematic retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy during IDS may predict outcome, it does not confer therapeutic benefits. PMID:26197771

  6. Perioperative physical exercise interventions for patients undergoing lung cancer surgery: What is the evidence?

    PubMed Central

    Mainini, Carlotta; Rebelo, Patrícia FS; Bardelli, Roberta; Kopliku, Besa; Tenconi, Sara; Costi, Stefania; Tedeschi, Claudio; Fugazzaro, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Surgical resection appears to be the most effective treatment for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. Recent studies suggest that perioperative pulmonary rehabilitation improves functional capacity, reduces mortality and postoperative complications and enhances recovery and quality of life in operated patients. Our aim is to analyse and identify the most recent evidence-based physical exercise interventions, performed before or after surgery. We searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and PsycINFO. We included randomised controlled trials aimed at assessing efficacy of exercise-training programmes; physical therapy interventions had to be described in detail in order to be reproducible. Characteristics of studies and programmes, results and outcome data were extracted. Six studies were included, one describing preoperative rehabilitation and three assessing postoperative intervention. It seems that the best preoperative physical therapy training should include aerobic and strength training with a duration of 2–4 weeks. Although results showed improvement in exercise performance after preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation, it was not possible to identify the best preoperative intervention due to paucity of clinical trials in this area. Physical training programmes differed in every postoperative study with conflicting results, so comparison is difficult. Current literature shows inconsistent results regarding preoperative or postoperative physical exercise in patients undergoing lung resection. Even though few randomised trials were retrieved, treatment protocols were difficult to compare due to variability in design and implementation. Further studies with larger samples and better methodological quality are urgently needed to assess efficacy of both preoperative and postoperative exercise programmes. PMID:27803808

  7. How to select elderly colorectal cancer patients for surgery: a pilot study in an Italian academic medical center

    PubMed Central

    Ugolini, Giampaolo; Pasini, Francesco; Ghignone, Federico; Zattoni, Davide; Bacchi Reggiani, Maria Letizia; Parlanti, Daniele; Montroni, Isacco

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cancer is one of the most common diagnoses in elderly patients. Of all types of abdominal cancer, colorectal cancer (CRC) is undoubtedly the most frequent. Median age at diagnosis is approximately 70 years old worldwide. Due to the multiple comorbidities affecting elderly people, frailty evaluation is very important in order to avoid over- or under-treatment. This pilot study was designed to investigate the variables capable of predicting the long-term risk of mortality and living situation after surgery for CRC. Methods Patients with 70 years old and older undergoing elective surgery for CRC were prospectively enrolled in the study. The patients were preoperatively screened using 11 internationally-validated-frailty-assessment tests. The endpoints of the study were long-term mortality and living situation. The data were analyzed using univariate Cox proportional-hazard regression analysis to verify the predictive value of score indices in order to identify possible risk factors. Results Forty-six patients were studied. The median follow-up time after surgery was 4.6 years (range, 2.9-5.7 years) and no patients were lost to follow-up. The overall mortality rate was 39%. Four of the patients who survived (4/28, 14%) lost their functional autonomy. The preoperative impaired Timed Up and Go (TUG), Eastern Cooperative Group Performance Status (ECOG PS), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs), Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES-13) scoring systems were significantly associated with increased long term mortality risk. Conclusion Simplified frailty-assessing tools should be routinely used in elderly cancer patients before treatment in order to stratify patient risk. The TUG, ECOG-PS, IADLs and VES-13 scoring systems are potentially able to predict long-term mortality and disability. Additional studies will be needed to confirm the preliminary data in order to improve management strategies for oncogeriatric surgical patients. PMID:26779367

  8. Multivariate Analysis of Risk Factors Associated With the Nonreversal Ileostomy Following Sphincter-Preserving Surgery for Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Ah; Lee, Gil Jae; Park, Sung Won; Lee, Won-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A loop ileostomy is used to protect an anastomosis after anal sphincter-preserving surgery, especially in patients with low rectal cancer, but little information is available concerning risk factors associated with a nonreversal ileostomy. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors of ileostomy nonreversibility after a sphincter-saving resection for rectal cancer. Methods Six hundred seventy-nine (679) patients with rectal cancer who underwent sphincter-preserving surgery between January 2004 and December 2011 were evaluated retrospectively. Of the 679, 135 (19.9%) underwent a defunctioning loop ileostomy of temporary intent, and these patients were divided into two groups, that is, a reversal group (RG, 112 patients) and a nonreversal group (NRG, 23 patients) according to the reversibility of the ileostomy. Results In 23 of the 135 rectal cancer patients (17.0%) that underwent a diverting ileostomy, stoma reversal was not possible for the following reasons; stage IV rectal cancer (11, 47.8%), poor tone of the anal sphincter (4, 17.4%), local recurrence (2, 8.7%), anastomotic leakage (1, 4.3%), radiation proctitis (1, 4.3%), and patient refusal (4, 17.4%). The independent risk factors of the nonreversal group were anastomotic leakage or fistula, stage IV cancer, local recurrence, and comorbidity. Conclusion Postoperative complications such as anastomotic leakage or fistula, advanced primary disease (stage IV), local recurrence and comorbidity were identified as risk factors of a nonreversal ileostomy. These factors should be considered when drafting prudential guidelines for ileostomy closure. PMID:26161377

  9. Control of infection in hospital wards.

    PubMed

    Blowers, R

    1961-01-01

    Some of the problems of ward management are reviewed. Methods suggested for dealing with them are probably not the ideals that should ultimately be attained but minimum standards to serve as immediate objectives. They concern indications for and methods of isolation, control of infection from staff, environmental contamination, and a few technical procedures. A new type of dressing towel for wounds is described.

  10. Limits of Freedom: The Ward Churchill Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Nell, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    The University of Colorado's Ward Churchill is but the latest in a long line of professors whose volatile statements have created controversy for themselves and their universities. Specific personnel matters in the case have been meticulously addressed in Boulder, but several larger questions have been curiously neglected. One might well ask, for…

  11. "Ward v. Wilbanks": Counselor Educators Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkholder, David; Hall, Stephanie F.; Burkholder, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article investigated 71 counselor educators' perspectives and pedagogical practices related to "Ward v. Wilbanks" (2009) and the American Counseling Association (ACA) response to the case. The authors used qualitative content analysis to identify 6 themes from survey data: (a) views on gatekeeping and student training; (b)…

  12. Dealing with Scabies in a Hospital Ward.

    PubMed

    Clavagnier, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    A case of scabies has been diagnosed in the Medical Ward where Sophie works, and the hospital is having to take appropriate measures. Scabies mites can spread quickly, and staff who are in contact with the infected patient risk catching the parasites and contaminating their own family in turn. One of the night nurses is probably infected.

  13. The ward atmosphere of single-sex wards in a maximum-security forensic psychiatric hospital in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Brunt, David

    2008-03-01

    This exploratory study investigated the ward atmosphere of single-sex wards in a forensic psychiatric context in the light of Moos' conceptualization of the treatment setting. The wards for female patients bore similarities to Relationship-Oriented and Insight-Oriented programmes and had a generally positive ward atmosphere. On the other hand the wards for male patients did not resemble any treatment programme and had a more mixed diagnosis profile than those for female patients. Comparisons of the two types of wards are made and implications of the findings in terms of the overriding principle of normalization are discussed.

  14. Surgery-induced wound response promotes stem-like and tumor-initiating features of breast cancer cells, via STAT3 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Segatto, Ilenia; Berton, Stefania; Sonego, Maura; Massarut, Samuele; Perin, Tiziana; Piccoli, Erica; Colombatti, Alfonso; Vecchione, Andrea; Baldassarre, Gustavo; Belletti, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is clinically linked to cancer but the mechanisms are not fully understood. Surgery itself elicits a range of inflammatory responses, suggesting that it could represent a perturbing factor in the process of local recurrence and/or metastasis formation. Post-surgery wound fluids (WF), drained from breast cancer patients, are rich in cytokines and growth factors, stimulate the in vitro growth of breast cancer cells and are potent activators of the STAT transcription factors. We wondered whether STAT signaling was functionally involved in the response of breast cancer cells to post-surgical inflammation. We discovered that WF induced the enrichment of breast cancer cells with stem-like phenotypes, via activation of STAT3. In vitro, WF highly stimulated mammosphere formation and self-renewal of breast cancer cells. In vivo, STAT3 signaling was critical for breast cancer cell tumorigenicity and for the formation of local relapse after surgery. Overall, we demonstrate here that surgery-induced inflammation promotes stem-like phenotypes and tumor-initiating abilities of breast cancer cells. Interfering with STAT3 signaling with a peri-surgical treatment is sufficient to strongly suppress this process. The understanding of the crosstalk between breast tumor-initiating cells and their microenvironment may open the way to successful targeting of these cells in their initial stages of growth and be eventually curative. PMID:25026286

  15. Surgery-induced wound response promotes stem-like and tumor-initiating features of breast cancer cells, via STAT3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Segatto, Ilenia; Berton, Stefania; Sonego, Maura; Massarut, Samuele; Perin, Tiziana; Piccoli, Erica; Colombatti, Alfonso; Vecchione, Andrea; Baldassarre, Gustavo; Belletti, Barbara

    2014-08-15

    Inflammation is clinically linked to cancer but the mechanisms are not fully understood. Surgery itself elicits a range of inflammatory responses, suggesting that it could represent a perturbing factor in the process of local recurrence and/or metastasis. Post-surgery wound fluids (WF), drained from breast cancer patients, are rich in cytokines and growth factors, stimulate the in vitro growth of breast cancer cells and are potent activators of the STAT transcription factors. We wondered whether STAT signaling was functionally involved in the response of breast cancer cells to post-surgical inflammation. We discovered that WF induced the enrichment of breast cancer cells with stem-like phenotypes, via activation of STAT3. In vitro, WF highly stimulated mammosphere formation and self-renewal of breast cancer cells. In vivo, STAT3 signaling was critical for breast cancer cell tumorigenicity and for the formation of local relapse after surgery. Overall, we demonstrate here that surgery-induced inflammation promotes stem-like phenotypes and tumor-initiating abilities of breast cancer cells. Interfering with STAT3 signaling with a peri-surgical treatment was sufficient to strongly suppress this process. The understanding of the crosstalk between breast tumor-initiating cells and their microenvironment may open the way to successful targeting of these cells in their initial stages of growth and be eventually curative.

  16. Bariatric Surgery: Does It Play a Role in Fertility-Preserving Treatment Among Obese Young Women With Endometrial Cancer?

    PubMed

    Benito, Virginia; López-Tomassetti, Eudaldo; Esparza, Miriam; Arencibia, Octavio; Andújar, Miguel; Prieto, Mercedes; Lubrano, Amina

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 17-year-old nulliparous woman with a history of obesity (body mass index 36.2 kg/m(2)), type 2 diabetes, and polycystic ovary syndrome, who was diagnosed with grade 1 endometrioid adenocarcinoma without radiological evidence of myometrial invasion or metastatic disease. After failure of a fertility-preserving treatment with a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device, bariatric surgery was proposed to treat the obesity and improve control of her type 2 diabetes in an attempt to increase the chances of obtaining response to local treatment. Nine months after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and 18 months after insertion of the intrauterine device, the patient reached normal body weight (body mass index 20.3 kg/m(2)) and showed complete response to treatment. As far as we know, this is the first published case of an adolescent obese patient treated with bariatric surgery concomitantly with fertility-preserving management of endometrial cancer. We propose that bariatric surgery may play a role as an adjuvant therapy in fertility-preserving treatment of endometrial cancer with local progestin, in which it could enhance remission rates and reduce recurrence.

  17. Lymph Node Dissection in Surgery for Lung Cancer: Comparison of Open vs. Video-Assisted vs. Robotic-Assisted Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Toker, Alper; Demirhan, Özkan; Ayalp, Kemal; Kaba, Erkan; Uyumaz, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We compared open, video-assisted and robotic-assisted thoracoscopic surgical techniques in the dissection of N1 and N2-level lymph nodes during surgery for lung cancer. Methods: This retrospective analysis is based on prospectively collected data of patients (excluding those with N2 or N3 diseases, and sleeve resections) undergoing mediastinal lymph node dissection via open (n = 96), video-assisted thoracoscopy (n = 68), and robotic-assisted thoracoscopy (n = 106). The groups are compared according to the number of lymph node stations dissected, the number of lymph nodes dissected, and the number of lymph nodes dissected by stations. Results: Three techniques had similar results based on the number of the dissected N1 and N2-level lymph node stations. Robotic-assisted thoracoscopic surgery yielded significantly more lymph nodes in total (p = 0.0007), and in the number of dissected N1-level nodes (p <0.0001). All techniques yielded similar number of mediastinal lymph nodes, whereas robotic-assisted thoracic surgery (RATS) yielded more station #11 and #12 lymph nodes compared to the other groups. Conclusions: In this study, robotic-assisted thoracoscopic surgery has been shown to dissect more lymph nodes at N1 level. However, taking the open approach as standard, we could claim that both currently robotic and video-assisted techniques may provide similar number of dissected N1 and N2-level lymph node stations. PMID:27507107

  18. 3. PSYCHIATRIC WARD IN 24' X 60' QUONSET HUT, VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. PSYCHIATRIC WARD IN 24' X 60' QUONSET HUT, VIEW OF SOUTH FACE - Fort Randall, Neuro-Psychiatric Ward, Northeast of intersection of California Boulevard & Nurse Drive, Cold Bay, Aleutian Islands, AK

  19. Radiation Therapy in Treating Post-Menopausal Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-02

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Cribriform Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Mucinous Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  20. Azacitidine in Treating Patients With Triple Negative Stage I-IV Invasive Breast Cancer That Can Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-02-05

    Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  1. Voice Quality After Treatment of Early Vocal Cord Cancer: A Randomized Trial Comparing Laser Surgery With Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, Leena-Maija; Rautiainen, Noora; Sellman, Jaana; Saarilahti, Kauko; Mäkitie, Antti; Rihkanen, Heikki; Laranne, Jussi; Kleemola, Leenamaija; Wigren, Tuija; Sala, Eeva; Lindholm, Paula; Grenman, Reidar; Joensuu, Heikki

    2014-10-01

    Objective: Early laryngeal cancer is usually treated with either transoral laser surgery or radiation therapy. The quality of voice achieved with these treatments has not been compared in a randomized trial. Methods and Materials: Male patients with carcinoma limited to 1 mobile vocal cord (T1aN0M0) were randomly assigned to receive either laser surgery (n=32) or external beam radiation therapy (n=28). Surgery consisted of tumor excision with a CO{sub 2} laser with the patient under general anaesthesia. External beam radiation therapy to the larynx was delivered to a cumulative dose of 66 Gy in 2-Gy daily fractions over 6.5 weeks. Voice quality was assessed at baseline and 6 and 24 months after treatment. The main outcome measures were expert-rated voice quality on a grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, and strain (GRBAS) scale, videolaryngostroboscopic findings, and the patients' self-rated voice quality and its impact on activities of daily living. Results: Overall voice quality between the groups was rated similar, but voice was more breathy and the glottal gap was wider in patients treated with laser surgery than in those who received radiation therapy. Patients treated with radiation therapy reported less hoarseness-related inconvenience in daily living 2 years after treatment. Three patients in each group had local cancer recurrence within 2 years from randomization. Conclusions: Radiation therapy may be the treatment of choice for patients whose requirements for voice quality are demanding. Overall voice quality was similar in both treatment groups, however, indicating a need for careful consideration of patient-related factors in the choice of a treatment option.

  2. Quality indicators for colorectal cancer surgery and care according to patient-, tumor-, and hospital-related factors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) care has improved considerably, particularly since the implementation of a quality of care program centered on national evidence-based guidelines. Formal quality assessment is however still needed. The aim of this research was to identify factors associated with practice variation in CRC patient care. Methods CRC patients identified from all cancer centers in South-West France were included. We investigated variations in practices (from diagnosis to surgery), and compliance with recommended guidelines for colon and rectal cancer. We identified factors associated with three colon cancer practice variations potentially linked to better survival: examination of ≥12 lymph nodes (LN), non-use and use of adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II and stage III patients, respectively. Results We included 1,206 patients, 825 (68%) with colon and 381 (32%) with rectal cancer, from 53 hospitals. Compliance was high for resection, pathology report, LN examination, and chemotherapy use for stage III patients. In colon cancer, 26% of stage II patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and 71% of stage III patients. 84% of stage US T3T4 rectal cancer patients received pre-operative radiotherapy. In colon cancer, factors associated with examination of ≥12 LNs were: lower ECOG score, advanced stage and larger hospital volume; factors negatively associated were: left sided tumor location and one hospital district. Use of chemotherapy in stage II patients was associated with younger age, advanced stage, emergency setting and care structure (private and location); whereas under-use in stage III patients was associated with advanced age, presence of comorbidities and private hospitals. Conclusions Although some changes in practices may have occurred since this observational study, these findings represent the most recent report on practices in CRC in this region, and offer a useful methodological approach for assessing quality of care. Guideline compliance

  3. The Prognostic Impact of Molecular Subtypes and Very Young Age on Breast Conserving Surgery in Early Stage Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Kandace; Alco, Gul; Nur Pilanci, Kezban; Koksal, Ulkuhan I; Elbüken, Filiz; Erdogan, Zeynep; Agacayak, Filiz; Ilgun, Serkan; Sarsenov, Dauren; Öztürk, Alper; İğdem, Şefik; Okkan, Sait; Eralp, Yeşim; Dincer, Maktav; Ozmen, Vahit

    2016-01-01

    Background Premenopausal breast cancer with a triple-negative phenotype (TNBC) has been associated with inferior locoregional recurrence free survival (LRFS) and overall survival (OS) after breast conserving surgery (BCS). The aim of this study is to analyze the association between age, subtype, and surgical treatment on survival in young women (≤40 years) with early breast cancer in a population with a high rate of breast cancer in young women. Methods Three hundred thirty-two patients ≤40 years old with stage I-II invasive breast cancer who underwent surgery at a single institution between 1998 and 2012 were identified retrospectively. Uni- and multivariate analysis evaluated predictors of LRFS, OS, and disease free survival (DFS). Results Most patients (64.2%) underwent BCS. Mean age and follow-up time were 35 (25 ± 3.61) years, and 72 months (range, 24–252), respectively. In multivariate analysis, multicentricity/multifocality and young age (<35 years) independently predicted for poorer DFS and OS. Those aged 35–40 years had higher LRFS and DFS than those <35 in the mastectomy group (p=0.007 and p=0.039, respectively). Patients with TNBC had lower OS compared with patients with luminal A subtype (p=0.042), and those who underwent BCS had higher OS than patients after mastectomy (p=0.015). Conclusion Young age (< 35 years) is an independent predictor of poorer OS and DFS as compared with ages 35–40, even in countries with a lower average age of breast cancer presentation. In addition, TNBC in the young predicts for poorer OS. BCS can be performed in young patients with TNBC, despite their poorer overall survival. PMID:27433412

  4. 34 CFR 303.37 - Ward of the State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section, ward of the State means a child who, as determined by the State where the child resides, is— (1) A foster child; (2) A ward of the State; or (3) In the custody of a public child welfare agency. (b) Exception. Ward of the State does not include a foster child who has a foster...

  5. 34 CFR 303.37 - Ward of the State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section, ward of the State means a child who, as determined by the State where the child resides, is— (1) A foster child; (2) A ward of the State; or (3) In the custody of a public child welfare agency. (b) Exception. Ward of the State does not include a foster child who has a foster...

  6. 34 CFR 303.37 - Ward of the State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section, ward of the State means a child who, as determined by the State where the child resides, is— (1) A foster child; (2) A ward of the State; or (3) In the custody of a public child welfare agency. (b) Exception. Ward of the State does not include a foster child who has a foster...

  7. Robotic, laparoscopic and open surgery for gastric cancer compared on surgical, clinical and oncological outcomes: a multi-institutional chart review. A study protocol of the International study group on Minimally Invasive surgery for GASTRIc Cancer—IMIGASTRIC

    PubMed Central

    Desiderio, Jacopo; Jiang, Zhi-Wei; Nguyen, Ninh T; Zhang, Shu; Reim, Daniel; Alimoglu, Orhan; Azagra, Juan-Santiago; Yu, Pei-Wu; Coburn, Natalie G; Qi, Feng; Jackson, Patrick G; Zang, Lu; Brower, Steven T; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Facy, Olivier; Tsujimoto, Hironori; Coratti, Andrea; Annecchiarico, Mario; Bazzocchi, Francesca; Avanzolini, Andrea; Gagniere, Johan; Pezet, Denis; Cianchi, Fabio; Badii, Benedetta; Novotny, Alexander; Eren, Tunc; Leblebici, Metin; Goergen, Martine; Zhang, Ben; Zhao, Yong-Liang; Liu, Tong; Al-Refaie, Waddah; Ma, Junjun; Takiguchi, Shuji; Lequeu, Jean-Baptiste; Trastulli, Stefano; Parisi, Amilcare

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gastric cancer represents a great challenge for healthcare providers and requires a multidisciplinary treatment approach in which surgery plays a major role. Minimally invasive surgery has been progressively developed, first with the advent of laparoscopy and recently with the spread of robotic surgery, but a number of issues are currently being debated, including the limitations in performing an effective extended lymph node dissection, the real advantages of robotic systems, the role of laparoscopy for Advanced Gastric Cancer, the reproducibility of a total intracorporeal technique and the oncological results achievable during long-term follow-up. Methods and analysis A multi-institutional international database will be established to evaluate the role of robotic, laparoscopic and open approaches in gastric cancer, comprising of information regarding surgical, clinical and oncological features. A chart review will be conducted to enter data of participants with gastric cancer, previously treated at the participating institutions. The database is the first of its kind, through an international electronic submission system and a HIPPA protected real time data repository from high volume gastric cancer centres. Ethics and dissemination This study is conducted in compliance with ethical principles originating from the Helsinki Declaration, within the guidelines of Good Clinical Practice and relevant laws/regulations. A multicentre study with a large number of patients will permit further investigation of the safety and efficacy as well as the long-term outcomes of robotic, laparoscopic and open approaches for the management of gastric cancer. Trial registration number NCT02325453; Pre-results. PMID:26482769

  8. Comparison between blinded and partially blinded detection of gastric cancer with multidetector CT using surgery and endoscopic submucosal dissection as reference standards.

    PubMed

    Kim, H J; Lee, D H; Ko, Y T

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study is to compare blinded with partially blinded detection of gastric cancer with multidetector (MD) CT by using surgery and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) as reference standards. 44 patients with gastric cancer underwent MDCT with air as an oral contrast agent. Surgery was performed on 37 patients, ESD on six and surgery after ESD on one. To provide comparison cases of blinded evaluation, 38 MDCT examinations were added for cases where no focal gastric lesion was seen on endoscopy. Two radiologists, blinded to the presence, number and location of the tumours, evaluated axial and axial plus multiplanar reformation (MPR) images of 82 MDCT examinations with or without gastric cancer. For partially blinded evaluation, the same radiologists, blinded to the location and number of tumours, evaluated axial and axial plus MPR images of 44 MDCT examinations of gastric cancer. Differences in assessment were resolved by consensus. 45 gastric cancers were found in surgical and ESD specimens. Detection rates of gastric cancer from axial and axial plus MPR images during blinded evaluation and from axial and axial plus MPR images during partially blinded evaluation were 62% (28/45), 64% (29/45), 64% (29/45) and 71% (32/45), respectively. There was no statistical significance for the comparison between blinded and partially blinded detection rates of gastric cancer. The detection rate of gastric cancer with MDCT during blinded evaluation showed no specific difference compared with the detection rate of gastric cancer with MDCT during partially blinded evaluation.

  9. Income level and regional policies, underlying factors associated with unwarranted variations in conservative breast cancer surgery in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Geographical variations in medical practice are expected to be small when the evidence about the effectiveness and safety of a particular technology is abundant. This would be the case of the prescription of conservative surgery in breast cancer patients. In these cases, when variation is larger than expected by need, socioeconomic factors have been argued as an explanation. Objectives: Using an ecologic design, our study aims at describing the variability in the use of surgical conservative versus non-conservative treatment. Additionally, it seeks to establish whether the socioeconomic status of the healthcare area influences the use of one or the other technique. Methods 81,868 mastectomies performed between 2002 and 2006 in 180 healthcare areas were studied. Standardized utilization rates of breast cancer conservative (CS) and non-conservative (NCS) procedures were estimated as well as the variation among areas, using small area statistics. Concentration curves and dominance tests were estimated to determine the impact of income and instruction levels in the healthcare area on surgery rates. Multilevel analyses were performed to determine the influence of regional policies. Results Variation in the use of CS was massive (4-fold factor between the highest and the lowest rate) and larger than in the case of NCS (2-fold), whichever the age group. Healthcare areas with higher economic and instruction levels showed highest rates of CS, regardless of the age group, while areas with lower economic and educational levels yielded higher rates of NCS interventions. Living in a particular Autonomous Community (AC), explained a substantial part of the CS residual variance (up to a 60.5% in women 50 to 70). Conclusion The place where a woman lives -income level and regional policies- explain the unexpectedly high variation found in utilization rates of conservative breast cancer surgery. PMID:21504577

  10. Evaluation of EphA2 and EphB4 as Targets for Image-Guided Colorectal Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Stammes, Marieke A.; Prevoo, Hendrica A. J. M.; Ter Horst, Meyke C.; Groot, Stéphanie A.; Van de Velde, Cornelis J. H.; Chan, Alan B.; de Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee; Kuppen, Peter J. K.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.; Pasquale, Elena B.; Sier, Cornelis F. M.

    2017-01-01

    Targeted image-guided oncologic surgery (IGOS) relies on the recognition of cell surface-associated proteins, which should be abundantly present on tumor cells but preferably absent on cells in surrounding healthy tissue. The transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2, a member of the A class of the Eph receptor family, has been reported to be highly overexpressed in several tumor types including breast, lung, brain, prostate, and colon cancer and is considered amongst the most promising cell membrane-associated tumor antigens by the NIH. Another member of the Eph receptor family belonging to the B class, EphB4, has also been found to be upregulated in multiple cancer types. In this study, EphA2 and EphB4 are evaluated as targets for IGOS of colorectal cancer by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using a tissue microarray (TMA) consisting of 168 pairs of tumor and normal tissue. The IHC sections were scored for staining intensity and percentage of cells stained. The results show a significantly enhanced staining intensity and more widespread distribution in tumor tissue compared with adjacent normal tissue for EphA2 as well as EphB4. Based on its more consistently higher score in colorectal tumor tissue compared to normal tissue, EphB4 appears to be a promising candidate for IGOS of colorectal cancer. In vitro experiments using antibodies on human colon cancer cells confirmed the possibility of EphB4 as target for imaging. PMID:28165374

  11. Current Topics on Salvage Thoracic Surgery in Patients with Primary Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Salvage primary tumor resection is sometimes considered for isolated local failures after definitive chemoradiation, urgent matters, such as hemoptysis (palliative intent), and in cases judged to be contraindicated for chemotherapy or definite radiation due to severe comorbidities, despite an initial clinical diagnosis of stage III or IV disease. However, salvage surgery is generally considered to be technically more difficult, with a potentially higher morbidity. This review discusses the current topics on salvage thoracic surgery such as the definition of salvage surgery and its outcome, and future perspectives. PMID:26948299

  12. Missed Opportunities for Nutritional Rehabilitation in Children Admitted to Surgical Wards

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Pooja; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar; Phatak, Ajay; Desai, Rajendra; Srivastava, Shirish

    2016-01-01

    Background. Malnutrition in children has serious health and economic consequences. We studied documentation of malnutrition, actual prevalence, and treatment given in children admitted to surgical wards. Methods. Retrospective study of 154 patients aged <5 yrs admitted to general surgical, orthopedic, and otorhinolaryngology wards. Records were evaluated for completeness of data, way of documentation, and data quality. Descriptive analysis was done. If malnutrition was not identified and/or proper action was not taken, it was defined as a “missed opportunity.” Results. Of 154 records audited, 100 (64.94%) were males, 108 (70.13%) were from general surgery ward, and 78 (50.65%) were residing in suburban area. The mean (SD) age of the study population was 2.32 (1.16) years whereas mean (SD) duration of stay was 5.84 (6.29) days. Weight and height were mentioned in 116 (75.32%) and 8 (5.19%) records, respectively, mostly by nonsurgical personnel. Documentation and treatment of malnutrition were poor. Out of 106 apparently correct weight records, 19 (17.93%) children were severely undernourished and 30 (28.30%) were moderately undernourished whereas 20 (18.87%) children were not undernourished but required nutritional attention. Conclusion. There is poor documentation of nutritional indicators of children admitted to surgical wards. From data that was available, it is apparent that malnutrition is at high levels. “Identification” and hence management of malnutrition need more attention. PMID:27429836

  13. Missed Opportunities for Nutritional Rehabilitation in Children Admitted to Surgical Wards.

    PubMed

    Dave, Pooja; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar; Phatak, Ajay; Desai, Rajendra; Srivastava, Shirish

    2016-01-01

    Background. Malnutrition in children has serious health and economic consequences. We studied documentation of malnutrition, actual prevalence, and treatment given in children admitted to surgical wards. Methods. Retrospective study of 154 patients aged <5 yrs admitted to general surgical, orthopedic, and otorhinolaryngology wards. Records were evaluated for completeness of data, way of documentation, and data quality. Descriptive analysis was done. If malnutrition was not identified and/or proper action was not taken, it was defined as a "missed opportunity." Results. Of 154 records audited, 100 (64.94%) were males, 108 (70.13%) were from general surgery ward, and 78 (50.65%) were residing in suburban area. The mean (SD) age of the study population was 2.32 (1.16) years whereas mean (SD) duration of stay was 5.84 (6.29) days. Weight and height were mentioned in 116 (75.32%) and 8 (5.19%) records, respectively, mostly by nonsurgical personnel. Documentation and treatment of malnutrition were poor. Out of 106 apparently correct weight records, 19 (17.93%) children were severely undernourished and 30 (28.30%) were moderately undernourished whereas 20 (18.87%) children were not undernourished but required nutritional attention. Conclusion. There is poor documentation of nutritional indicators of children admitted to surgical wards. From data that was available, it is apparent that malnutrition is at high levels. "Identification" and hence management of malnutrition need more attention.

  14. The Proportion of Women Who Have a Breast 4 Years after Breast Cancer Surgery: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Mennie, Joanna C.; Mohanna, Pari-Naz; O’Donoghue, Joseph M; Rainsbury, Richard; Cromwell, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Background There are numerous pathways in breast cancer treatment, many of which enable women to retain a breast after treatment. We evaluated the proportion of women who have a breast, either through conserving surgery (BCS) or reconstruction, at 4-years after diagnosis, and how this varied by patient group. Methods and Findings We identified women with breast cancer who underwent initial BCS or mastectomy in English National Health Service (NHS) hospitals between January 2008 and December 2009 using the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) database. Women were assigned into one of four patient groups depending on their age at diagnosis and presence of comorbidities. The series of breast cancer procedure (BCS, mastectomy, immediate, or delayed reconstruction) undergone by each women was identified over four years, and the proportion of women with a breast calculated. Variation was examined across patient groups, and English Cancer Networks. Between 2008 and 2009, 60,959 women underwent BCS or mastectomy. The proportion with a breast at 4 years was 79.3%, and 64.0%, in women less than 70 years without, and with comorbidities. Whilst in women aged 70 and over without, and with comorbidities, proportions were 52.6%, and 38.2%, respectively. Comorbidities were associated with lower proportions of BCS, but had little effect on reconstruction rates unlike age. Networks variation of 15% or more was found within each patient group, and Cancer Networks tended to have either a high or low proportion across all four patient groups. However, while 14% of women under 70 years had undergone reconstruction, less than 2% of women aged 70 or more had this treatment option. Conclusion The proportion of women diagnosed with breast cancer who retain a breast at 4 years is strongly associated with age, and presence of comorbidities. There was significant variation between Cancer Networks indicating that women’s experience in England was dependent on their geographical location of

  15. A miniaturized imaging system for optical guided surgery of head and neck cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atallah, Ihab; Milet, Clément; Dorval, Paul; Gayet, Pascal; Rizo, Philippe; Henry, Maxime; Reyt, Emile; Josserand, Véronique; Hurbin, Amandine; Righini, Christian; Coll, Jean-Luc

    2015-03-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence image-guided surgery, FIGS, has lately shown a huge potential in oncologic and lymphatic related surgeries. In some indications such as liver or heart surgery, fluorescence-reachable anatomic structures are limited by the access to the surgical field. Nevertheless, most of the systems available on the market are too large to image the sides of cavities. Small devices are clearly required to improve workability of fluorescence imaging systems. The current work describes the evaluation of Fluostick a CE med certified instrument dedicated to narrow area imaging. This small size device is made of an optical head connected to a control box. We tested this instrumentation at the preclinical level for the optical-guided surgery of head and neck tumors.

  16. [The role definition of lateral arm free flap in reconstruction after head and neck cancer surgery].

    PubMed

    Li, C; Cai, Y C; Wang, W; He, Y X; Lan, X J; Li, Q L; Zhou, Y Q; Liu, J F; Zhu, G Q; Liu, K; Wang, S X; Wang, K; Fan, J C; Sun, R H

    2016-02-01

    Application of free flap is one of the important repair means in head and neck surgery. A variety of free flaps, such as anterolateral thigh flap, have showed unique advantages in repair for tissue defects after resection of head and neck tumor, and have became increasing popularity. Lateral arm flee flap is an important repair means in plastic surgery, which has developed more than 30 years, but the application of this flap for reconstruction in head and neck surgery is relatively backward, with few reports. This review focuses on the creativity and innovation, the relationship between anatomy and clinical application, and the application status and prospects for lateral arm flee flap in individual head and neck reconstruction surgery.

  17. Tracing patients from acute psychiatric wards.

    PubMed Central

    Double, D; MacPherson, R; Wong, T

    1993-01-01

    A random sample of those admitted to acute psychiatric wards in Sheffield in 1985 was traced to establish whether or not the patients were homeless 5 years later. Contrary to expectations none were found to be homeless. Although the proportion of mentally ill amongst the homeless may be significantly high, the number discharged from psychiatric hospital, at least in Sheffield, living consistently 'on the streets' or staying regularly in night shelters seems small as a proportion of all discharges. PMID:8410893

  18. Oxaliplatin, Fluorouracil, Erlotinib Hydrochloride, and Radiation Therapy Before Surgery and Erlotinib Hydrochloride After Surgery in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced Cancer of the Esophagus or Gastroesophageal Junction

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-27

    Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus; Stage II Esophageal Cancer; Stage II Gastric Cancer; Stage III Esophageal Cancer; Stage III Gastric Cancer

  19. Identification and characteristics of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in surgical wards in a Chinese university hospital.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dalin; Ma, Linlin; Wu, Zhenyu; Li, Mingcheng; Li, Xiaohan; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Kun

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumanni isolated from surgical wards in a university hospital, China. A total of 143 non-duplicate A. baumannii were isolated from 517 inpatients in surgery intensive care units (ICUs), burn wards, and general surgery wards. Of these, 102 isolates of A. baumannii (71.3%) were resistant to imipenem. Among imipenem-resistant isolates, all isolates were resistant to almost all antimicrobial agents except polymyxin E, all isolates were positive for blaOXA-23 and blaOXA-51 in addition to ISAba1, 52 (51%) were positive for blaOXA-58, 8 (7.8%) contained blaVIM-2, which co-harbored with blaOXA-58. Molecular typing revealed the presence of three clones among imipenem-resistant isolates. This study confirmed that A. baumannii strains harboring OXA or VIM type β-lactamases are widely distributed throughout the surgery wards. The data demonstrate that there was a high prevalence of imipenem-resistant A. baumannii infection in the region.

  20. A prospective study of conservative surgery without radiation therapy in select patients with Stage I breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, May; Bellon, Jennifer R. . E-mail: jbellon@lroc.harvard.edu; Gelman, Rebecca; Silver, Barbara B.A.; Recht, Abram; Schnitt, Stuart J.; Harris, Jay R.

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: The effectiveness of radiation therapy (RT) in reducing local recurrence after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) in unselected patients with early stage invasive breast cancer has been demonstrated in multiple randomized trials. Whether a subset of women can achieve local control without RT is unknown. In 1986, we initiated a prospective one-arm trial of BCS alone for highly selected breast-cancer patients. This report updates those results. Methods and Materials: Eighty-seven (of 90 planned) patients enrolled from 1986 until closure in 1992, when a predefined stopping boundary was crossed. Patients were required to have a unicentric, T1, pathologic node-negative invasive ductal, mucinous, or tubular carcinoma without an extensive intraductal component or lymphatic-vessel invasion. Surgery included local excision with margins of at least 1 cm or a negative re-excision. No RT or systemic therapy was given. Results: Results are available on 81 patients (median follow-up, 86 months). Nineteen patients (23%) had local recurrence (LR) as a first site of failure (average annual LR: 3.5 per 100 patient-years of follow-up). Other sites of first failure included 1 ipsilateral axilla, 2 contralateral breast cancers, and 4 distant metastases. Six patients developed other (nonbreast) malignancies. Nine patients have died, 4 of metastatic breast cancer and 5 of unrelated causes. Conclusions: Even in this highly selected cohort, a substantial risk of local recurrence occurred after BCS alone with margins of 1.0 cm or more. These results suggest that with the possible exception of elderly women with comorbid conditions, radiation therapy after BCS remains standard treatment.

  1. Lymphedema of the arm and breast in irradiated breast cancer patients: risks in an era of dramatically changing axillary surgery.

    PubMed

    Goffman, Thomas E; Laronga, Christine; Wilson, Lori; Elkins, David

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess risk for lymphedema of the breast and arm in radiotherapy patients in an era of less extensive axillary surgery. Breast cancer patients treated for cure were reviewed, with a minimum follow-up of 1.5 years from the end of treatment. Clinical, surgical, and radiation-related variables were tested for statistical association with arm and breast lymphedema using regression analyses, t-tests, and chi-squared analyses. Between January 1998 and June 2001, 240 women received radiation for localized breast cancer in our center. The incidence of lymphedema of the ipsilateral breast, arm, and combined (breast and arm) was 9.6%, 7.6%, and 1.8%, respectively, with a median follow-up of 27 months. For breast edema, t-test and multivariate analysis showed body mass index (BMI) to be significant (p = 0.043, p = 0.0038), as was chi-squared and multivariate testing for site of tumor in the breast (p = 0.0043, p = 0.0035). For arm edema, t-test and multivariate analyses showed the number of nodes removed to be significant (p = 0.0040, p = 0.0458); the size of the tumor was also significant by multivariate analyses (p = 0.0027). Tumor size appeared significant because a number of very large cancers failed locally and caused cancer-related obstructive lymphedema. In our center, even modern, limited level 1-2 axillary dissection and tangential irradiation carries the risk of arm lymphedema that would argue in favor of sentinel node biopsy. For breast edema, disruption of draining lymphatics by surgery and radiation with boost to the upper outer quadrant increased risk, especially for the obese. Fortunately both breast and arm edema benefited from manual lymphatic drainage.

  2. Updates on surgical management of advanced gastric cancer: new evidence and trends. Insights from the First International Course on Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery--Varese (Italy), December 2, 2011.

    PubMed

    Rausei, Stefano; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Sano, Takeshi; Sasako, Mitsuru; Biondi, Alberto; Morgagni, Paolo; Garofalo, Alfredo; Boni, Luigi; Frattini, Francesco; D'Ugo, Domenico; Preston, Shaun; Marrelli, Daniele; Degiuli, Maurizio; Capella, Carlo; Sacco, Rosario; Ruspi, Laura; De Manzoni, Giovanni; Roviello, Franco; Pinotti, Graziella; Rovera, Francesca; Noh, Sung Hoon; Coit, Daniel; Dionigi, Renzo

    2013-11-01

    Between the Ninth International Gastric Cancer Congress (IGCC) in South-Korea (Seoul, 2011) and the Tenth IGCC in Italy (Verona, 2013), the Insubria University organized the First International Course on Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery (Varese, December 2, 2011), with the patronage of Italian Research Group for Gastric Cancer (IRGGC) and the International Gastric Cancer Association (IGCA). The Course was intended to be a comprehensive update and review on advanced gastric cancer (GC) staging and treatment from well-known international experts. Clinical, research, and educational aspects of the surgeon's role in the era of stage-adapted therapy were discussed. As highlighted in the meeting, in this final document we summarize and thoroughly analyze (with references only for well-acquired randomized control trials) the new and old open problems in surgical management of advanced GC. Between the Ninth (Seoul, 2011) and the Tenth (Verona,2013) International Gastric Cancer Congress, the First International Course on Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery (Varese, December 2, 2011) was organized by the University of Insubria. This congress received the patronage of the International Gastric Cancer Association and the Italian Research Group for Gastric Cancer. The aim was to discuss open issues in surgical management of advanced gastric malignancies. We considered the opinions of several recognized experts in the field from both the Eastern and Western world, focused on definition problems and oncological and technical issues to define the current principles of advanced gastric cancer (GC) surgery.

  3. Awakening from anesthesia using propofol or sevoflurane with epidural block in radical surgery for senile gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Chen, Chen; Wang, Lin; Cheng, Gao; Wu, Wei-Wei; Li, Yuan-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the awakening of the elderly patients from propofol intravenous general anesthesia or sevoflurane inhalation general anesthesia combined with epidural block after radical gastric cancer surgery. Method: Eighty cases receiving selective radical surgery for gastric cancer were included. They were aged 65-78 years and classified as ASA grade I-II. Using a random number table, the cases were divided into 4 groups (n = 20): propofol intravenous general anesthesia (P group), sevoflurane inhalation general anesthesia (S group), propofol intravenous general anesthesia combined with epidural block (PE group), and sevoflurane inhalation general anesthesia combined with epidural block (SE group). For P and PE group, target controlled infusion of propofol was performed; for S and SE group, sevoflurane was inhaled to induce and maintain general anesthesia; for PE and SE group, before general anesthesia induction, epidural puncture and catheterization at T7-8 was performed. After surgery, perform patient controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) or patient controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA), and maintain VAS ≤ 3. The recorded indicators were as follows: time to recovery of spontaneous respiration, time to awakening, time of endotracheal tube removal, time to orientation, time to achieve modified Aldrete scores ≥ 9, modified OAA/S and Aldrete scores upon endotracheal tube removal (T1), 5 min after removal (T2), 15 min after removal (T3) and 30 min after removal (T4), dose of intraoperative remifentanil, intraoperative hypotension, and emergence agitation. Results: Time to awakening, time of endotracheal tube removal, time to orientation, and time to achieve modified Aldrete scores ≥ 9 in PE and SE group were obviously shortened compared with P and S group (P < 0.05); modified OAA/S and Aldrete scores at T1 and T2 in PE and SE group were significantly higher than those in P and S group (P < 0.05), and the scores of SE group at T1 were much higher compared

  4. Influence of Shorter Duration of Prophylactic Antibiotic Use on the Incidence of Surgical Site Infection Following Colorectal Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Youn Young; Kim, Chang Woo; Park, Sun Jin; Lee, Kil Yeon; Lee, Jung Joo; Lee, Hye Ok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to identify the risk factors for surgical site infections (SSIs) in patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery and to determine whether significantly different SSI rates existed between the short prophylactic antibiotic use group (within 24 hours) and the long prophylactic antibiotic use group (beyond 24 hours). Methods The medical records of 327 patients who underwent colorectal resection due to colorectal cancer from January 2010 to May 2014 at a single center were retrospectively reviewed, and their characteristics as well as the surgical factors known to be risk factors for SSIs, were identified. Results Among the 327 patients, 45 patients (13.8%) developed SSIs. The patients were divided into two groups according to the duration of antibiotic use: group S (within 24 hours) and group L (beyond 24 hours). Of the 327 patients, 114 (34.9%) were in group S, and 213 (65.1%) were in group L. Twelve patients (10.5%) in group S developed SSIs while 33 patients (15.5%) in group L developed SSIs (P = 0.242). History of diabetes mellitus and lung disease, long operation time, and perioperative transfusion were independent risk factors for SSIs. Conclusion This study shows that discontinuation of prophylactic antibiotics within 24 hours after colorectal surgery has no significant influence on the incidence of SSIs. This study also showed that history of diabetes mellitus and lung disease, long operation time, and perioperative transfusion were associated with increased SSI rates. PMID:26817019

  5. Factors predicting early postoperative liver cirrhosis-related complications after lung cancer surgery in patients with liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Takashi; Inoue, Kiyotoshi; Nishiyama, Noritoshi; Nagano, Koshi; Izumi, Nobuhiro; Tsukioka, Takuma; Hanada, Shoji; Suehiro, Shigefumi

    2007-12-01

    We aimed to determine the factors predicting liver cirrhosis-related complications in the early postoperative period after lung cancer surgery in patients with liver cirrhosis. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent curative surgery for primary lung cancer in our institute from January 1990 to March 2007, finding 37 cases with comorbid liver cirrhosis. These patients were divided into two groups, according to whether liver failure, bleeding, and critical infection had occurred postoperatively. Various clinical parameters were analyzed statistically between the bigeminal groups. Liver cirrhosis-related complications occurred in seven of the 37 patients (18.9%). Transient liver failure occurred in two patients (5.4%) after pulmonary resection. Acute intrathoracic bleeding occurred in four cases (10.8%). Two patients died (5.4%) in both cases due to sepsis. Preoperative total bilirubin (P<0.05), and indocyanine green retention rate at 15 min (P<0.05) were significantly higher in patients with liver failure. Only serum value of total bilirubin was an independent risk factor (P<0.05) by multivariate analysis. In predicting death from infection, only preoperative nutritional status was a significant risk factor (P<0.05). To avoid postoperative cirrhosis-related complications, preoperative preparation to improve their liver function and nutrition status is essential.

  6. Impact of the Preoperative Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) Score on the Survival after Curative Surgery for Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Iseki, Yasuhito; Shibutani, Masatsune; Maeda, Kiyoshi; Nagahara, Hisashi; Ohtani, Hiroshi; Sugano, Kenji; Ikeya, Tetsuro; Muguruma, Kazuya; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Toyokawa, Takahiro; Sakurai, Katsunobu; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2015-01-01

    Background Recently, the preoperative immune-nutritional status has been reported to correlate with the survival rate in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). However, there have been no reports on the relationship between the controlling nutritional status (CONUT) score and the clinical outcome after curative surgery for CRC. We herein evaluated the prognostic significance of the CONUT score in patients with CRC, and then compared the accuracy of the CONUT score and the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) as a predictor of survival. Methods We retrospectively reviewed a database of 204 patients who underwent curative surgery for Stage II/III CRC. Patients were divided into two groups according to the CONUT score and the PNI. Results The five-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) rate was significantly higher at 92.7% in the low CONUT group, compared to a rate of 81.0% in the high CONUT group (p=0.0016). The five-year CSS was 71.2% in the low PNI group and 92.3% in the high PNI group, which showed a significant difference (p=0.0155). A multivariate analysis showed that lymph node metastasis and the CONUT score were independent risk factors for CSS. Conclusion This study suggested that the CONUT score is a strong independent predictor of the survival among CRC patients. PMID:26147805

  7. Individualised multiplexed circulating tumour DNA assays for monitoring of tumour presence in patients after colorectal cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Sarah B.; Chua, Clarinda; Ng, Matthew; Gan, Anna; Poon, Polly SY; Teo, Melissa; Fu, Cherylin; Leow, Wei Qiang; Lim, Kiat Hon; Chung, Alexander; Koo, Si-Lin; Choo, Su Pin; Ho, Danliang; Rozen, Steve; Tan, Patrick; Wong, Mark; Burkholder, William F.; Tan, Iain Beehuat

    2017-01-01

    Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) has the potential to be a specific biomarker for the monitoring of tumours in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, our aim was to develop a personalised surveillance strategy to monitor the clinical course of CRC after surgery. We developed patient-specific ctDNA assays based on multiplexed detection of somatic mutations identified from patient primary tumours, and applied them to detect ctDNA in 44 CRC patients, analysing a total of 260 plasma samples. We found that ctDNA detection correlated with clinical events – it is detectable in pre-operative but not post-operative plasma, and also in patients with recurrent CRC. We also detected ctDNA in 11 out of 15 cases at or before clinical or radiological recurrence of CRC, indicating the potential of our assay for early detection of metastasis. We further present data from a patient with multiple primary cancers to demonstrate the specificity of our assays to distinguish between CRC recurrence and a second primary cancer. Our approach can complement current methods for surveillance of CRC by adding an individualised biological component, allowing us not only to point to the presence of residual or recurrent disease, but also attribute it to the original cancer. PMID:28102343

  8. Successful tongue cancer surgery under general anesthesia in a 99-year-old patient in Okinawa, Japan: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Tessho; Nakasone, Toshiyuki; Matayoshi, Akira; Arasaki, Akira

    2016-09-01

    As advances in the medical field have resulted in increased life expectancy, performing surgery under general anesthesia in elderly patients has become an important issue. A 99-year-old Okinawan female was admitted to the hospital presenting with pain in the tongue. Following physical examination, a clinical diagnosis of early stage tongue cancer (T2N0Mx) was confirmed. Early stage tongue cancer is particularly easy to access for surgical resection. By contrast, later stages of tongue cancer are associated with pain, dysphagia and throat obstruction. The patient and their family agreed to surgery due to the worsening pain associated with the tumor and gave informed consent for surgery. Following consultation with a cardiologist and an anesthesiologist, the tongue tumor was surgically resected under general anesthesia. Subsequent to surgery, the patient experienced pain relief and was discharged from the hospital on day 14 post-surgery. The patient was able to maintain the same quality of life, and lived for 5 years and 2 months longer without evidence of disease, surviving to the age of 104 years old. The present case demonstrates that surgery under general anesthesia may be appropriate in patients of an advanced age, with a treatment plan that should ideally be based on careful assessment of the wishes of the patient and their family, medical risks, and benefits and economic costs of alternative treatments, in addition to consideration of the patient's culture.

  9. Effectiveness of early physiotherapy to prevent lymphoedema after surgery for breast cancer: randomised, single blinded, clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Yuste Sánchez, María José; Zapico Goñi, Álvaro; Prieto Merino, David; Mayoral del Moral, Orlando; Cerezo Téllez, Ester; Minayo Mogollón, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness of early physiotherapy in reducing the risk of secondary lymphoedema after surgery for breast cancer. Design Randomised, single blinded, clinical trial. Setting University hospital in Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain. Participants 120 women who had breast surgery involving dissection of axillary lymph nodes between May 2005 and June 2007. Intervention The early physiotherapy group was treated by a physiotherapist with a physiotherapy programme including manual lymph drainage, massage of scar tissue, and progressive active and action assisted shoulder exercises. This group also received an educational strategy. The control group received the educational strategy only. Main outcome measure Incidence of clinically significant secondary lymphoedema (>2 cm increase in arm circumference measured at two adjacent points compared with the non-affected arm). Results 116 women completed the one year follow-up. Of these, 18 developed secondary lymphoedema (16%): 14 in the control group (25%) and four in the intervention group (7%). The difference was significant (P=0.01); risk ratio 0.28 (95% confidence interval 0.10 to 0.79). A survival analysis showed a significant difference, with secondary lymphoedema being diagnosed four times earlier in the control group than in the intervention group (intervention/control, hazard ratio 0.26, 95% confidence interval 0.09 to 0.79). Conclusion Early physiotherapy could be an effective intervention in the prevention of secondary lymphoedema in women for at least one year after surgery for breast cancer involving dissection of axillary lymph nodes. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN95870846. PMID:20068255

  10. Upper Limb Functionality and Quality of Life in Women with Five-Year Survival after Breast Cancer Surgery.

    PubMed

    Recchia, Thaís Lunardi; Prim, Amably Cristiny; Luz, Clarissa Medeiros da

    2017-03-01

    Objective To evaluate the correlation between upper limb functionality and quality of life in women with five-year survival following breast cancer surgical treatment. The secondary objective was to evaluate the function of the ipsilateral upper limb and the quality of life in relation to the type of surgery and the presence of pain. Methods The Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Breast plus Arm Morbidity (FACTB + 4) questionnaires were used to evaluate upper limb function and quality of life respectively. Data distribution was verified by the Shapiro-Wilk test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used for the parametric variables, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used for the distribution of non-parametric variables. The statistical significance was set at 5% (p < 0.05). Results The study included 30 patients, with a mean age of 51.23 (±8.72) years. The most common complications were: pain (50%), adherence (33.3%), and nerve lesion (20.0%). There was a moderate negative correlation between the instruments DASH and FACTB + 4 (total score), r = -0.634, and a strong negative correlation between the DASH and the FACTB + 4 arm subscale, r = -0.829. The scores of both questionnaires showed significant difference on the manifestation of pain. However, there was no significant difference found when comparing the scores considering the type of surgery performed. Conclusions Five years after surgery, the patients showed regular functionality levels on the ipsilateral upper limb and decreased quality of life, especially in the group manifesting pain.

  11. Recovery of immunological homeostasis positively correlates both with early stages of right-colorectal cancer and laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Mario; Rossi Del Monte, Simone; Salerno, Gerardo; Bocchetti, Tommaso; Angeletti, Stefano; Malisan, Florence; Cardelli, Patrizia; Ziparo, Vincenzo; Torrisi, Maria Rosaria; Visco, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Differences in postoperative outcome and recovery between patients subjected to laparoscopic-assisted versus open surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC) resection have been widely documented, though not specifically for right-sided tumors. We investigated the immunological responses to the different surgical approaches, by comparing postoperative data simultaneously obtained at systemic, local and cellular levels. A total of 25 right-sided CRC patients and controls were managed, assessing -in the immediate followup- the conventional perioperative parameters and a large panel of cytokines on plasma, peritoneal fluids and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) tissue cultures. A general better recovery for patients operated with laparoscopy compared to conventional procedure, as indicated by the analysis of typical pre- and post-surgical parameters, was observed. The synchronous evaluation of 12 cytokines showed that preoperative plasma levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, TNFα were significantly lower in healthy donors versus CRC patients and that such differences progressively increase with tumor stage. After surgery, the IL-6 and IL-8 increases were significantly higher in open compared to laparoscopic approach only in CRC at early stages. The postsurgical whole panel of cytokine levels were significantly higher in peritoneal fluids compared to corresponding plasma, but with no significant differences depending on kind of surgery or stage of disease. Then we observed that, pre- compared to the corresponding post-surgery derived LPS-stimulated PBMC cultures, produced higher supernatant levels of the whole cytokine panel. In particular IL-6 in vitro production was significantly higher in PBMC derived from patients subjected to laparoscopic versus open intervention, but -again- only in CRC at early stages of disease. Our results thus show that laparoscopy compared to open right resection is associated with a

  12. Fulvestrant and/or Anastrozole in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage II-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-06

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  13. Alternative Dosing of Exemestane Before Surgery in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage 0-II Estrogen Positive Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-17

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; Postmenopausal; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  14. Fulvestrant and Palbociclib in Treating Older Patients With Hormone Responsive Breast Cancer That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-21

    Estrogen Receptor and/or Progesterone Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  15. [Foreskin surgery].

    PubMed

    Kolehmainen, Maija; Taskinen, Seppo; Ossi, Lindell

    2010-01-01

    Balanitis, phimosis and foreskin adhesions are common indications for foreskin surgery during childhood. In phimosis, the foreskin cannot be drawn behind the glans penis because of the narrow external opening of the former. It is important to be able to distinguish between physiologic and pathologic phimosis, since their treatment is different. In adulthood, the need for surgery can be caused by phimosis, a difficult sequel of paraphimosis, recurrent inflammations of the glans penis and foreskin, diseases and cancers of the skin as well as difficulties at intercourse due to the shortness of the frenulum of the prepuce of the penis.

  16. Optimal follow-up to curative colon and rectal cancer surgery: how and for how long?

    PubMed

    Asgeirsson, Theodor; Zhang, Sen; Senagore, Anthony J

    2010-10-01

    In 2009, the projected incidence for colon and rectal cancers in the United States was 106,100 and 40,870, respectively, and approximately 75% of these patients were treated with curative intent. Surveillance or follow-up after colon and rectal cancer resection serves multiple purposes; however, the primary argument supporting the validity of surveillance is the detection of metachronous and recurrent cancers amenable to curative treatment. The surveillance may provide some comfort for cancer survivors who can be informed that they have no evidence of disease.

  17. Development of new devices for detection of gastric cancer on laparoscopic surgery using near-infrared light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, Shunko A.; Fuchi, Shingo; Mori, Kensaku; Hasegawa, Junichi; Misawa, Kazunari; Nakanishi, Hayao

    2015-03-01

    In recent year, for the treatment of gastric cancer the laparoscopic surgery is performed, which has good benefits, such as low-burden, low-invasive and the efficacy is equivalent to the open surgery. For identify location of the tumor intraperitoneally for extirpation of the gastric cancer, several points of charcoal ink is injected around the primary tumor. However, in the time of laparoscopic operation, it is difficult to estimate specific site of primary tumor, because the injected charcoal ink diffusely spread to the area distant from the tumor in the stomach. Therefore, a broad area should be resected which results in a great stress for the patients. To overcome this problem, we focused in the near-infrared wavelength of 1000nm band which have high biological transmission. In this study, we developed a fluorescent clip which was realized with glass phosphor (Yb3+, Nd3+ doped to Bi2O3-B2O3 based glasses. λp: 976 nm, FWHM: 100 nm, size: 2x1x3 mm) and the laparoscopic fluorescent detection system for clip-derived near-infrared light. To evaluate clinical performance of a fluorescent clip and the laparoscopic fluorescent detection system, we used resected stomach (thickness: 13 mm) from the patients. Fluorescent clip was fixed on the gastric mucosa, and an excitation light (λ: 808 nm) was irradiated from outside of stomach for detection of fluorescence through stomach wall. As a result, fluorescence emission from the clip was successfully detected. Furthermore, we confirmed that detection sensitivity of the emission of fluorescence from the clip depends on the output power of the excitation light. We conformed that the fluorescent clip in combination with laparoscopic fluorescent detection system is very useful method to identify the exact location of the primary gastric cancer.

  18. Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxygglucose-guided breast cancer surgery with a positron-sensitive probe: Validation in preclinical studies

    SciTech Connect

    Raylman, R.R.; Fisher, S.J.; Brown, R.S.; Ethier, S.P.; Wahl, R.L.

    1995-10-01

    In this study, the feasibility of utilizing 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-d-glucose (FDG) in conjunction with a positron-sensitive intraoperative probe to guide breast tumor excision was investigated. The probe was constructed with a plastic scintillator tip coupled to a photomultiplier tube with fiber optic cable. Anticipated resolution degradation was evaluated by measurement of line spread functions in the presence of background radiation. Realistic photon background distributions were simulated with a human torso phantom and a cardiac insert. The relationship between resolution and energy threshold was measured to find the optimal discriminator settings. In addition, probe sensitivity as a function of energy threshold was determined for various size-simulated tumors. Finally, the ability to localize breast cancers in vivo was tested in a rodent model. Mammary rat tumors implanted in Lewis rats were examined after injection with FDG; these results were correlated with those of histologic analyses. Measurements of line spread functions indicated that resolution could be maximized in a realistic background photon environment by increasing the energy threshold to levels at or above the Compton continuum edge (340 keV). At this setting, the probe`s sensitivity was determined to be 58 and 11 cps/{mu}Ci for 3.18- and 6.35-mm diameter simulated tumors, respectively. Probe readings correlated well with histologic results; the probe was generally able to discriminate between tumor and normal tissue. This study indicates that breast cancer surgery guided by a positron-sensitive probe warrants future evaluation in breast-conserving surgery of patients with breast cancer. 23 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Decision-Making in the Surgical Treatment of Breast Cancer: Factors Influencing Women’s Choices for Mastectomy and Breast Conserving Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bellavance, Emily Catherine; Kesmodel, Susan Beth

    2016-01-01

    One of the most difficult decisions a woman can be faced with when choosing breast cancer treatment is whether or not to undergo breast conserving surgery or mastectomy. The factors that influence these treatment decisions are complex and involve issues regarding access to health care, concerns for cancer recurrence, and the impact of surgery on body image and sexuality. Understanding these factors will help practitioners to improve patient education and to better guide patients through this decision-making process. Although significant scientific and societal advances have been made in improving women’s choices for the breast cancer treatment, there are still deficits in the decision-making processes surrounding the surgical treatment of breast cancer. Further research is needed to define optimal patient education and shared decision-making practices in this area. PMID:27066455

  20. Predicting Cardiac Arrest on the Wards

    PubMed Central

    Churpek, Matthew M.; Yuen, Trevor C.; Huber, Michael T.; Park, Seo Young; Hall, Jesse B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Current rapid response team activation criteria were not statistically derived using ward vital signs, and the best vital sign predictors of cardiac arrest (CA) have not been determined. In addition, it is unknown when vital signs begin to accurately detect this event prior to CA. Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study of 88 patients experiencing CA on the wards of a university hospital between November 2008 and January 2011, matched 1:4 to 352 control subjects residing on the same ward at the same time as the case CA. Vital signs and Modified Early Warning Scores (MEWS) were compared on admission and during the 48 h preceding CA. Results: Case patients were older (64 ± 16 years vs 58 ± 18 years; P = .002) and more likely to have had a prior ICU admission than control subjects (41% vs 24%; P = .001), but had similar admission MEWS (2.2 ± 1.3 vs 2.0 ± 1.3; P = .28). In the 48 h preceding CA, maximum MEWS was the best predictor (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] 0.77; 95% CI, 0.71-0.82), followed by maximum respiratory rate (AUC 0.72; 95% CI, 0.65-0.78), maximum heart rate (AUC 0.68; 95% CI, 0.61-0.74), maximum pulse pressure index (AUC 0.61; 95% CI, 0.54-0.68), and minimum diastolic BP (AUC 0.60; 95% CI, 0.53-0.67). By 48 h prior to CA, the MEWS was higher in cases (P = .005), with increasing disparity leading up to the event. Conclusions: The MEWS was significantly different between patients experiencing CA and control patients by 48 h prior to the event, but includes poor predictors of CA such as temperature and omits significant predictors such as diastolic BP and pulse pressure index. PMID:22052772

  1. Prognostic features of 51 colorectal and 130 appendiceal cancer patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis treated by cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Sugarbaker, P H; Jablonski, K A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A treatment plan to be used in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis was devised and tested as a Phase II study. BACKGROUND: Peritoneal carcinomatosis from appendical or colorectal cancer has been regarded as a fatal clinical entity. Treatment protocols have not been reported previously. METHODS: The authors used cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy to treat 181 consecutive patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. There were 51 patients with colorectal cancer and 130 patients with appendiceal cancer. Mean follow-up is 24 months, with a range of 0 to 149 months. RESULTS: Clinical features that showed prognostic significance included appendiceal versus colorectal primary tumors (p = 0.0001), grade 1 versus grades 2 and 3 histopathology (p = 0.0003), complete versus incomplete cytoreductions (p = 0.0001), lymph node-negative versus lymph node-positive primary tumors (p = 0.0001), and volume of peritoneal carcinomatosis present preoperatively for colon cancer (p = 0.0006). Features with no statistical prognostic significance included preoperative tumor volume for appendiceal cancer, age, sex, number of cycles of chemotherapy, operative time, complications, blood loss, and institution providing treatment. From these prognostic features, four prognostic groups were identified, and 3-year survival was estimated by the product-limit survival method. Group I patients (n = 76) were those with grade 1 histology, no lymph node metastases, and complete cytoreductions (survival at 3 years = 99%). Group II patients (n = 23) were those with grade 2 or 3 histology, no lymph node metastases, and complete cytoreductions (65%). Group III patients (n = 24) had any histology, lymph node metastases, and complete cytoreductions (66%). Group IV patients (n = 58) had incomplete cytoreductions (20%). PMID:7857141

  2. Knowledge, Understanding and Utilization of Preventive Strategies against Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer in Healthy and Immunosuppressed Mohs Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Alina; Nguyen, Bichchau Thi; Jiang, Shang I Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite various national recommendations advising individuals to reduce their exposure to UV radiation, many people still do not utilize these skin cancer prevention strategies. Objective The study assesses patients’ sources of medical information, knowledge of sun protection strategies, and barriers to implement these strategies. The study also compares the overall rate of utilization of skin cancer prevention strategies between healthy and immunocompromised patients. Materials and Methods Survey-based study was conducted on 140 Mohs surgery patients. Results Seventy-three percent of healthy and 74% of immunosuppressed participants identified sunscreen use as a form of protective strategy; only 36% and 27%, respectively, use sunscreen daily. Participants cite physician and internet as equal sources of medical information. Knowing two or more strategies correlated to a higher self-rating of daily utilization of any protective strategy. Conclusions The results of our study show that general knowledge regarding sun protection strategies is still limited, but awareness of multiple strategies correlated with an increase in sun protective behavior. Surprisingly, despite having a much higher incidence of skin cancers, the immunosuppressed group did not show more awareness of prevention strategies or higher utilization compared to healthy participants. PMID:24354730

  3. Cosmetic Outcome and Seroma Formation After Breast-Conserving Surgery With Intraoperative Radiation Therapy Boost for Early Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Senthi, Sashendra; Link, Emma; Chua, Boon H.

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate cosmetic outcome and its association with breast wound seroma after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) with targeted intraoperative radiation therapy (tIORT) boost for early breast cancer. Methods and Materials: An analysis of a single-arm prospective study of 55 patients with early breast cancer treated with BCS and tIORT boost followed by conventional whole breast radiation therapy (WBRT) between August 2003 and January 2006 was performed. A seroma was defined as a fluid collection at the primary tumor resection site identified clinically or radiologically. Cosmetic assessments using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer rating system were performed at baseline before BCS and 30 months after WBRT was completed. Results: Twenty-eight patients (51%) developed a seroma, with 18 patients (33%) requiring at least 1 aspiration. Tumor location was significantly associated with seroma formation (P=.001). Ten of 11 patients with an upper inner quadrant tumor developed a seroma. Excellent or good overall cosmetic outcome at 30 months was observed in 34 patients (62%, 95% confidence interval 53%-80%). Seroma formation was not associated with the overall cosmetic result (P=.54). Conclusion: BCS with tIORT boost followed by WBRT was associated with an acceptable cosmetic outcome. Seroma formation was not significantly associated with an adverse cosmetic outcome.

  4. Intraoperative Imaging-Guided Cancer Surgery: From Current Fluorescence Molecular Imaging Methods to Future Multi-Modality Imaging Technology

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Chongwei; Du, Yang; Ye, Jinzuo; Kou, Deqiang; Qiu, Jingdan; Wang, Jiandong; Tian, Jie; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a major threat to human health. Diagnosis and treatment using precision medicine is expected to be an effective method for preventing the initiation and progression of cancer. Although anatomical and functional imaging techniques such as radiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have played an important role for accurate preoperative diagnostics, for the most part these techniques cannot be applied intraoperatively. Optical molecular imaging is a promising technique that provides a high degree of sensitivity and specificity in tumor margin detection. Furthermore, existing clinical applications have proven that optical molecular imaging is a powerful intraoperative tool for guiding surgeons performing precision procedures, thus enabling radical resection and improved survival rates. However, detection depth limitation exists in optical molecular imaging methods and further breakthroughs from optical to multi-modality intraoperative imaging methods are needed to develop more extensive and comprehensive intraoperative applications. Here, we review the current intraoperative optical molecular imaging technologies, focusing on contrast agents and surgical navigation systems, and then discuss the future prospects of multi-modality imaging technology for intraoperative imaging-guided cancer surgery. PMID:25250092

  5. Effects of the commercial extract of aronia on oxidative stress in blood platelets isolated from breast cancer patients after the surgery and various phases of the chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kedzierska, Magdalena; Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Glowacki, Rafal; Bald, Edward; Czernek, Urszula; Szydłowska-Pazera, Katarzyna; Potemski, Piotr; Piekarski, Janusz; Jeziorski, Arkadiusz

    2012-03-01

    Since the extract from berries of Aronia melanocarpa presents antioxidative properties in plasma and in blood platelets, not only from healthy group, but also from patients with benign breast diseases and in patients with invasive breast cancer before surgery, the aim of our present study was to evaluate the oxidative stress by measuring the level of various biomarkers of this process such as the generation of superoxide anion radicals (O(2)(-·)), the amount of carbonyl groups and 3-nitrotyrosine in proteins or the amount of glutathione in blood platelets isolated from breast cancer patients after the surgery and after various phases of the chemotherapy in the presence of A. melanocarpa extract (Aronox) in vitro. We demonstrated in platelet proteins from patients with invasive breast cancer (after the surgery and after various phases of the chemotherapy) higher level of carbonyl groups than in control healthy group. The level of 3-nitrotyrosine in platelet proteins from patients with invasive breast cancer was also significantly higher than in healthy subject group. We observed an increase of other biomarkers of oxidative stress such as O(2)(-·) and a decrease of GSH in platelets from patients with breast cancer (after the surgery and after various phases of the chemotherapy) compared to the healthy group. In model system in vitro our results showed that the commercial extract from berries of A. melanocarpa due to antioxidant action, significantly reduced the oxidative/nitrative stress in platelets from patients with invasive breast cancer caused by the surgery and various phases of the chemotherapy.

  6. Applied investigation of person-specific and context-specific factors on postoperative recovery and clinical outcomes of patients undergoing gastrointestinal cancer surgery: multicentre European study

    PubMed Central

    Markar, Sheraz R; Mavroveli, Stella; Petrides, Konstantinos V; Scarpa, Marco; Christophe, Veronique; Castoro, Carlo; Mariette, Christophe; Lagergren, Pernilla; Hanna, George B

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cancer treatments have greatly advanced over the past two decades causing survival improvements and reduced complications from cancer surgery. However, the cancer diagnosis and the effects of treatment modalities pose a major risk to patients' psychological well-being. Given current interest and emerging evidence about the importance of psychological and social factors on cancer survival and coping with cancer treatments, this study will build and expand research in order to identify key modifiable psychosocial variables that contribute to better physical and mental health following gastrointestinal cancer (GIC) surgery. Objectives To elucidate the incidence of postoperative psychiatric morbidity within 6 months following GIC surgery. To identify key measurable modifiable preoperative psychological factors that can significantly affect postoperative psychiatric morbidity in patients undergoing surgery for GIC. To clarify the changes seen in a patient's psychological well-being during their treatment pathway for GIC. Methods and analysis This multicentre study has an observational longitudinal study design. In total, 1000 patients will be screened with a multicomponent psychological questionnaire at four different time points: at diagnosis, preoperatively, 1 and 6 months after surgery. Data from this questionnaire will be linked to postoperative complications including psychiatric morbidity, length of hospital stay and recovery to normal activity. Ethics and dissemination NHS Health Research Authority approval was gained on (REC reference 15.LO/1847) for the completion of this study. Multiple platforms will be used for the dissemination of the research data, including international clinical and patient group presentations and publication of research outputs in a high impact clinical journal. PMID:27798009