Science.gov

Sample records for cancer tumor colonization

  1. Spread of tumor microenvironment contributes to colonic obstruction through subperitoneal fibroblast activation in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Mitsuru; Kojima, Motohiro; Higuchi, Youichi; Nishizawa, Yuji; Kobayashi, Akihiro; Ito, Masaaki; Saito, Norio; Ochiai, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of the cancer microenvironment formed by peritoneal invasion (CMPI) on clinical findings in colon cancer patients. In addition to the association with poor prognosis, we discovered a relationship with bowel obstruction. Detailed analysis revealed that clinical findings related to bowel obstruction occurred more frequently in patients with an elevated type tumor, which had peritoneal elastic laminal elevation to the tumor surface, compared to those with non-elevated type tumors among those with elastic laminal invasion (ELI). Lateral tumor spread and increase of tumor annularity rate in ELI-positive elevated type cases suggested the morphological progression from ELI-positive non-elevated type to elevated type. In addition, α-smooth muscle actin expression was the highest in ELI-positive elevated type, and prominent expressions were found not only in the deep tumor area but also in the shallow tumor area. Furthermore, contraction assays revealed the robust contractile ability of subperitoneal fibroblasts stimulated by cancer cell-conditioned medium. Our findings suggest that CMPI spread into the luminal side of the colonic wall along with tumor progression, which caused bowel obstruction through the activation of subperitoneal fibroblasts. However, although the clinical outcome was not different between the two types, the clinical findings were affected by the spread of CMPI. We are the first to explore how the alteration of the tumor-promoting microenvironment, along with tumor progression, contributes to the development of clinical findings. PMID:25613547

  2. Colon cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... In the United States, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths due to cancer. Early diagnosis can often lead to a complete cure. Almost ...

  3. Intussusception of Rectosigmoid Colon Cancer Mimicking a Pedunculated Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Saigusa, Susumu; Ohi, Masaki; Imaoka, Hiroki; Shimura, Tadanobu; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Kusunoki, Masato

    2014-01-01

    Intussusception in adults is a rare phenomenon involving the colon in approximately 20% of cases. A 65-year-old man was hospitalized with anorexia, anemia, dehydration, and melena. Digital rectal examination revealed a palpable mass approximately 5 cm from the anal verge. The mass moved between the rectosigmoid colon and the rectum below the peritoneal reflection during radiographic examinations and during sigmoidoscopy. We strongly suspected a rectosigmoid pedunculated tumor and performed a low anterior resection. Intraoperatively we observed intussusception of the rectosigmoid colon with easy manual reduction. The tumor was palpable in the rectosigmoid colon. The postoperative course was uneventful. This case illustrates intussusception of a rectosigmoid type 1 colon adenocarcinoma mimicking a pedunculated tumor. PMID:24963434

  4. Polarization of macrophages in the tumor microenvironment is influenced by EGFR signaling within colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weina; Chen, Lechuang; Ma, Kai; Zhao, Yahui; Liu, Xianghe; Wang, Yu; Liu, Mei; Liang, Shufang; Zhu, Hongxia; Xu, Ningzhi

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a target of colon cancer therapy, but the effects of this therapy on the tumor microenvironment remain poorly understood. Our in vivo studies showed that cetuximab, an anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, effectively inhibited AOM/DSS-induced, colitis-associated tumorigenesis, downregulated M2-related markers, and decreased F4/80+/CD206+ macrophage populations. Treatment with conditioned medium of colon cancer cells increased macrophage expression of the M2-related markers arginase-1 (Arg1), CCL17, CCL22, IL-10 and IL-4. By contrast, conditioned medium of EGFR knockout colon cancer cells inhibited expression of these M2-related markers and induced macrophage expression of the M1-related markers inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-12, TNF-α and CCR7. EGFR knockout in colon cancer cells inhibited macrophage-induced promotion of xenograft tumor growth. Moreover, colon cancer-derived insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) increased Arg1 expression, and treatment with the IGF1R inhibitor AG1024 inhibited that increase. These results suggest that inhibition of EGFR signaling in colon cancer cells modulates cytokine secretion (e.g. IGF-1) and prevents M1-to-M2 macrophage polarization, thereby inhibiting cancer cell growth. PMID:27683110

  5. Polarization of macrophages in the tumor microenvironment is influenced by EGFR signaling within colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weina; Chen, Lechuang; Ma, Kai; Zhao, Yahui; Liu, Xianghe; Wang, Yu; Liu, Mei; Liang, Shufang; Zhu, Hongxia; Xu, Ningzhi

    2016-11-15

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a target of colon cancer therapy, but the effects of this therapy on the tumor microenvironment remain poorly understood. Our in vivo studies showed that cetuximab, an anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, effectively inhibited AOM/DSS-induced, colitis-associated tumorigenesis, downregulated M2-related markers, and decreased F4/80+/CD206+ macrophage populations. Treatment with conditioned medium of colon cancer cells increased macrophage expression of the M2-related markers arginase-1 (Arg1), CCL17, CCL22, IL-10 and IL-4. By contrast, conditioned medium of EGFR knockout colon cancer cells inhibited expression of these M2-related markers and induced macrophage expression of the M1-related markers inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-12, TNF-α and CCR7. EGFR knockout in colon cancer cells inhibited macrophage-induced promotion of xenograft tumor growth. Moreover, colon cancer-derived insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) increased Arg1 expression, and treatment with the IGF1R inhibitor AG1024 inhibited that increase. These results suggest that inhibition of EGFR signaling in colon cancer cells modulates cytokine secretion (e.g. IGF-1) and prevents M1-to-M2 macrophage polarization, thereby inhibiting cancer cell growth.

  6. Exosomes from human colorectal cancer induce a tumor-like behavior in colonic mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Lugini, Luana; Valtieri, Mauro; Federici, Cristina; Cecchetti, Serena; Meschini, Stefania; Condello, Maria; Signore, Michele; Fais, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer cells, including colorectal cancer ones (CRC), release high amounts of nanovesicles (exosomes), delivering biochemical messages for paracrine or systemic crosstalk. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been shown to play contradicting roles in tumor progression. Results CRC exosomes induce in cMSCs: i) atypical morphology, higher proliferation, migration and invasion; ii) formation of spheroids; iii) an acidic extracellular environment associated with iv) a plasma membrane redistribution of vacuolar H+-ATPase and increased expression of CEA. Colon cancer derived MSCs, which were isolated from tumor masses, produce umbilicated spheroids, a future frequently observed in the inner core of rapidly growing tumors and recapitulate the changes observed in normal colonic MSCs exposed to CRC exosomes. Materials and Methods Tissue specific colonic (c)MSCs were exposed to primary or metastatic CRC exosomes and analysed by light and electron microscopy, proliferation in 2D and 3D cultures, migration and invasion assays, Western blot and confocal microscopy for vacuolar H+-ATPase expression. Conclusions CRC exosomes are able to induce morphological and functional changes in colonic MSCs, which may favour tumor growth and its malignant progression. Our results suggest that exosomes are actively involved in cancer progression and that inhibiting tumor exosome release may represent a way to interfere with cancer. PMID:27418137

  7. Tumor LINE-1 Methylation Level in Association with Survival of Patients with Stage II Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Swets, Marloes; Zaalberg, Anniek; Boot, Arnoud; van Wezel, Tom; Frouws, Martine A.; Bastiaannet, Esther; Gelderblom, Hans; van de Velde, Cornelis J. H.; Kuppen, Peter J. K.

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide DNA hypomethylation is associated with a worse prognosis in early-stage colorectal cancer. To measure genome-wide DNA methylation levels, long interspersed nucleotide element (LINE-1) repeats are used as a surrogate marker. Cohort studies on the clinical impact of genome-wide DNA methylation level in patients with only early-stage colon cancer, are currently lacking. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of LINE-1 methylation in a stage II colon cancer cohort (n = 164). Manual needle microdissection of tumor areas was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue sections followed by DNA extraction. Bisulfite converted DNA was used to assess tumor LINE-1 methylation level by qPCR. Patients with LINE-1 hypomethylated tumors had a significantly worse overall survival compared to patients with a higher level of LINE-1 tumor DNA methylation (HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.03–2.75; p = 0.04). This effect was more prominent in patients aged over 65 years (HR 2.00, 95% CI 1.13–3.52; p = 0.02), although the test for age interaction was not significant. No significant effect on recurrence-free survival was observed. Based on these results, tumor LINE-1 hypomethylation is associated with a worse overall survival in stage II colon cancer. Whether the origin of this causation is cancer-specific or age-related can be debated. PMID:28035987

  8. Apoptosis of tumor infiltrating effector TIM-3+CD8+ T cells in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chiao-Wen; Dutta, Avijit; Chang, Li-Yuan; Mahalingam, Jayashri; Lin, Yung-Chang; Chiang, Jy-Ming; Hsu, Chen-Yu; Huang, Ching-Tai; Su, Wan-Ting; Chu, Yu-Yi; Lin, Chun-Yen

    2015-10-23

    TIM-3 functions to enforce CD8+ T cell exhaustion, a dysfunctional state associated with the tolerization of tumor microenvironment. Here we report apoptosis of IFN-γ competent TIM-3+ population of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells in colon cancer. In humans suffering from colorectal cancer, TIM-3+ population is higher in cancer tissue-resident relative to peripheral blood CD8+ T cells. Both the TIM-3+ and TIM-3- cancer tissue-resident CD8+ T cells secrete IFN-γ of comparable levels, although apoptotic cells are more in TIM-3+ compared to TIM-3- population. In mouse CT26 colon tumor model, majority of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells express TIM-3 and execute cytolysis function with higher effector cytokine secretion and apoptosis in TIM-3+ compared to TIM-3- population. The tumor cells secrete galectin-9, which increases apoptosis of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells. Galectin-9/TIM-3 signaling blockade with anti-TIM-3 antibody reduces the apoptosis and in addition, inhibits tumor growth in mice. The blockade increases therapeutic efficacy of cyclophosphamide to treat tumor in mice as well. These results reveal a previously unexplored role of TIM-3 on tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells in vivo.

  9. DAC can restore expression of NALP1 to suppress tumor growth in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, C; Wang, B; Sun, J; Na, H; Chen, Z; Zhu, Z; Yan, L; Ren, S; Zuo, Y

    2015-01-22

    Despite recent progress in the identification of genetic and molecular alternations in colorectal carcinoma, the precise molecular pathogenesis remains unclear. NALP1 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 1) is a member of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family of proteins that are key organization proteins in the inflammasome. It is reported that NALP1 plays a central role in cell apoptosis, pyroptosis, inflammatory reactions and autoimmune diseases. DAC (5-aza-2-deoxycytidine) is an antitumor drug useful to lung cancer, myelodysplastic disorders, myelodysplasia and acute myeloid leukemia. In this study, we examined the expression of NALP1 in human normal and cancerous colon tissues using tissue microarray, western blot and quantitative real-time PCR and we measured the expression of NALP1 in three kinds of colon cancer cell lines and animal models before and after treatment with DAC. Furthermore, we examined the treatment effects of DAC on colon cancer in our animal model. Our data indicate that NALP1 is expressed low in human colorectal tumoral tissues relative to paratumoral tissues and was associated with the survival and tumor metastasis of patients. The expression of NALP1 increased after treatment with DAC both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, DAC suppressed the growth of colon cancer and increased lifespan in mouse model. Therefore, we conclude that NALP1 is expressed low in colon cancer and associated with the survival and tumor metastasis of patients, and treatment with DAC can restore NALP1 levels to suppress the growth of colon cancer.

  10. Microarray Analysis of Gene Expression at the Tumor Front of Colon Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takaaki; Masaki, Tadahiko; Nozaki, Eriko; Sugiyama, Masanori; Nagashima, Fumio; Furuse, Junji; Onishi, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Takashi; Ohkura, Yasuo

    2015-12-01

    Budding or the presence poorly differentiated clusters at the boundary of cancer tissue is a pathologically important finding and serves as a prognostic factor in colorectal cancer. However, few studies have examined the cancer tissue boundary in clinical samples. The purpose of the present study was to examine gene expression at the tumor front of colon cancer in surgically resected samples. Cancer tissues were obtained by laser microdissection of 20 surgically resected specimens. Genes with significantly different microarray signals between the tumor front and the tumor center were identified. Among genes showing significant up-regulation at the tumor front were six chemokines [chemokine c-c motif ligand (CCL)2 and -18, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)9-11, and interleukin 8 (IL8)], and two apoptosis-related molecules [ubiquitin D (UBD) and baculoviral iap repeat-containing 3 (BIRC3)]. Expression of laminin gamma 2 (LAMC2), matrix metallopeptidase 7 (MMP7) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related molecules were elevated in the tumor front, but their fold changes were smaller than those of the aforementioned genes. These results suggest that chemokines, in addition to EMT-related molecules, may play important roles in invasion of colon cancer.

  11. CysLT(1)R antagonists inhibit tumor growth in a xenograft model of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Savari, Sayeh; Liu, Minghui; Zhang, Yuan; Sime, Wondossen; Sjölander, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The expression of the inflammatory G-protein coupled receptor CysLT1R has been shown to be upregulated in colon cancer patients and associated with poor prognosis. The present study investigated the correlation between CysLT1R and colon cancer development in vivo using CysLT1R antagonists (ZM198,615 or Montelukast) and the nude mouse xenograft model. Two drug administration regimens were established. The first regimen was established to investigate the importance of CysLT1R in tumor initiation. Nude mice were inoculated with 50 µM CysLT1R antagonist-pretreated HCT-116 colon cancer cells and received continued treatment (5 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally). The second regimen aimed to address the role of CysLT1R in tumor progression. Nude mice were inoculated with non-pretreated HCT-116 cells and did not receive CysLT1R antagonist treatment until recordable tumor appearance. Both regimens resulted in significantly reduced tumor size, attributed to changes in proliferation and apoptosis as determined by reduced Ki-67 levels and increased levels of p21(WAF/Cip1) (P<0.01), cleaved caspase 3, and the caspase-cleaved product of cytokeratin 18. Decreased levels of VEGF (P<0.01) and reduced vessel size (P<0.05) were also observed, the latter only in the ZM198,615-pretreatment group. Furthermore, we performed a series of in vitro studies using the colon cancer cell line HCT-116 and CysLT1R antagonists. In addition to significant reductions in cell proliferation, adhesion and colony formation, we observed induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. The ability of Montelukast to inhibit growth of human colon cancer xenograft was further validated by using two additional colon cancer cell lines, SW-480 and HT-29. Our results demonstrate that CysLT1R antagonists inhibit growth of colon cancer xenografts primarily by reducing proliferation and inducing apoptosis of the tumor cells.

  12. CysLT1R Antagonists Inhibit Tumor Growth in a Xenograft Model of Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Savari, Sayeh; Liu, Minghui; Zhang, Yuan; Sime, Wondossen; Sjölander, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The expression of the inflammatory G-protein coupled receptor CysLT1R has been shown to be upregulated in colon cancer patients and associated with poor prognosis. The present study investigated the correlation between CysLT1R and colon cancer development in vivo using CysLT1R antagonists (ZM198,615 or Montelukast) and the nude mouse xenograft model. Two drug administration regimens were established. The first regimen was established to investigate the importance of CysLT1R in tumor initiation. Nude mice were inoculated with 50 µM CysLT1R antagonist-pretreated HCT-116 colon cancer cells and received continued treatment (5 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally). The second regimen aimed to address the role of CysLT1R in tumor progression. Nude mice were inoculated with non-pretreated HCT-116 cells and did not receive CysLT1R antagonist treatment until recordable tumor appearance. Both regimens resulted in significantly reduced tumor size, attributed to changes in proliferation and apoptosis as determined by reduced Ki-67 levels and increased levels of p21WAF/Cip1 (P<0.01), cleaved caspase 3, and the caspase-cleaved product of cytokeratin 18. Decreased levels of VEGF (P<0.01) and reduced vessel size (P<0.05) were also observed, the latter only in the ZM198,615-pretreatment group. Furthermore, we performed a series of in vitro studies using the colon cancer cell line HCT-116 and CysLT1R antagonists. In addition to significant reductions in cell proliferation, adhesion and colony formation, we observed induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. The ability of Montelukast to inhibit growth of human colon cancer xenograft was further validated by using two additional colon cancer cell lines, SW-480 and HT-29. Our results demonstrate that CysLT1R antagonists inhibit growth of colon cancer xenografts primarily by reducing proliferation and inducing apoptosis of the tumor cells. PMID:24039952

  13. Expression of pim-1 in tumors, tumor stroma and tumor-adjacent mucosa co-determines the prognosis of colon cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yong-hai; Li, Jian-jun; Xie, Fang-wei; Chen, Jian-fang; Yu, Ying-hao; Ouyang, Xue-nong; Liang, Hou-jie

    2013-01-01

    Provirus integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus (pim-1) is a proto-oncogene that is linked to the development and progression of several cancers. In this study, we evaluated pim-1 expression in tumors, tumor stroma and tumor-adjacent mucosa together as an independent prognostic factor for colon cancer patients. The study included 343 colon cancer patients. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect pim-1. Multivariate cox regression for disease-free survival (DFS) were used to identify independent prognostic factors. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was used to calculate the weight of pim-1 in tumors, tumor stroma and tumor-adjacent mucosa in order to obtain a Pim-1 total score (PTS) for recurrence and survival. Kaplan-Meier DFS curves and OS curves for patients with different pim-1 expression levels were compared using the log-rank test. In this study, four independent prognostic factors were identified for colon cancer patients: pim-1 expression in tumors, tumor stroma, tumor-adjacent mucosa, as well as tumor stage. It has been established that clinical stage is an important prognostic factor for colon cancer patients. However, PTS can identify the patients who are likely to recur not only in the whole radical excision group but also within each stage of this group. Based on the results of this study we can conclude that the PTS combined with clinical staging system may be a better predictor of colon cancer patients' prognosis than using the clinical stage system alone. ClinicalTrials.gov Number: ChiCTR-PRCH-12002842.

  14. Apigenin sensitizes colon cancer cells to anti-tumor activity of ABT-263

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Huanjie; Jing, Kai; Mahmoud, Esraa; Huang, Haihong; Fang, Xianjun; Yu, Chunrong

    2013-01-01

    Apigenin is an edible plant-derived flavonoid that shows modest anti-tumor activities in vitro and in vivo. Apigenin treatment resulted in cell growth arrest and apoptosis in various types of tumors by modulating several signaling pathways. In the present study, we evaluated interactions between apigenin and ABT-263 in colon cancer cells. We observed a synergistic effect between apigenin and ABT-263 on apoptosis of colon cancer cells. ABT-263 alone induced limited cell death while upregulating expression of Mcl-1, a potential mechanism for the acquired resistance to ABT-263. The presence of apigenin antagonized ABT-263-induced Mcl-1 upregulation and dramatically enhanced ABT-263-induced cell death. Meanwhile, apigenin suppressed AKT and ERK activation. Inactivation of either AKT or ERK by lentivirus-transduced shRNA or treatment with specific small molecule inhibitors of these pathways enhanced ABT-263-induced cell death, mirroring the effect of apigenin. Moreover, the combination response was associated with upregulation of Bim and activation of Bax. Downregulation of Bax eliminated the synergistic effect of apigenin and ABT-263 on cell death. Xenograft studies in SCID mice showed that the combined treatment with apigenin and ABT-263 inhibited tumor growth by up to 70% without obvious adverse effects, while either agent only inhibited around 30%. Our results demonstrate a novel strategy to enhance ABT-263 induced anti-tumor activity in human colon cancer cells by apigenin via inhibition of the Mcl-1, AKT and ERK pro-survival regulators. PMID:24126433

  15. Contribution of Soft Substrates to Malignancy and Tumor Suppression during Colon Cancer Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Rabineau, Morgane; Kocgozlu, Leyla; Dujardin, Denis; Senger, Bernard; Haikel, Youssef; Voegel, Jean-Claude; Freund, Jean-Noel; Schaaf, Pierre; Lavalle, Philippe; Vautier, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    In colon cancer, a highly aggressive disease, progression through the malignant sequence is accompanied by increasingly numerous chromosomal rearrangements. To colonize target organs, invasive cells cross several tissues of various elastic moduli. Whether soft tissue increases malignancy or in contrast limits invasive colon cell spreading remains an open question. Using polyelectrolyte multilayer films mimicking microenvironments of various elastic moduli, we revealed that human SW480 colon cancer cells displayed increasing frequency in chromosomal segregation abnormalities when cultured on substrates with decreasing stiffness. Our results show that, although decreasing stiffness correlates with increased cell lethality, a significant proportion of SW480 cancer cells did escape from the very soft substrates, even when bearing abnormal chromosome segregation, achieve mitosis and undergo a new cycle of replication in contrast to human colonic HCoEpiC cells which died on soft substrates. This observation opens the possibility that the ability of cancer cells to overcome defects in chromosome segregation on very soft substrates could contribute to increasing chromosomal rearrangements and tumor cell aggressiveness. PMID:24167628

  16. Oncolytic herpes simplex virus kills stem-like tumor-initiating colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Susanne G; Haddad, Dana; Au, Joyce; Carson, Joshua S; O’Leary, Michael P; Lewis, Christina; Monette, Sebastien; Fong, Yuman

    2016-01-01

    Stem-like tumor-initiating cells (TICs) are implicated in cancer progression and recurrence, and can be identified by sphere-formation and tumorigenicity assays. Oncolytic viruses infect, replicate in, and kill a variety of cancer cells. In this study, we seek proof of principle that TICs are susceptible to viral infection. HCT8 human colon cancer cells were subjected to serum-free culture to generate TIC tumorspheres. Parent cells and TICs were infected with HSV-1 subtype NV1066. Cytotoxicity, viral replication, and Akt1 expression were assessed. TIC tumorigenicity was confirmed and NV1066 efficacy was assessed in vivo. NV1066 infection was highly cytotoxic to both parent HCT8 cells and TICs. In both populations, cell-kill of >80% was achieved within 3 days of infection at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1.0. However, the parent cells required 2-log greater viral replication to achieve the same cytotoxicity. TICs overexpressed Akt1 in vitro and formed flank tumors from as little as 100 cells, growing earlier, faster, larger, and with greater histologic atypia than tumors from parent cells. Treatment of TIC-induced tumors with NV1066 yielded tumor regression and slowed tumor growth. We conclude that colon TICs are selected for by serum-free culture, overexpress Akt1, and are susceptible to oncolytic viral infection. PMID:27347556

  17. MicroRNA-302a Functions as a Putative Tumor Suppressor in Colon Cancer by Targeting Akt

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shengjie; Zhang, Guoqing; Wu, Zhiyong; Shi, Weiwei; Yang, Bo; Li, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators involved in various physical and pathological processes, including cancer. The miRNA-302 family has been documented as playing a critical role in carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated the role of miRNA-302a in colon cancer. MiRNA-302a expression was detected in 44 colon cancer tissues and 10 normal colon tissues, and their clinicopathological significance was analyzed. Cell proliferation and cell cycle analysis were performed on colon cancer cells that stably expressed miRNA-302a. The target gene of miRNA-302a and the downstream pathway were further investigated. Compared with normal colon tissues, miRNA-302a expression was downregulated in colon cancer tissues. Overexpression of miRNA-302a induced G1/S cell cycle arrest in colon cancer cells, and suppressed colon cancer cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, miRNA-302a inhibited AKT expression by directly binding to its 3′ untranslated region, resulting in subsequent alterations of the AKT-GSK3β-cyclin D1 pathway. These results reveal miRNA-302a as a tumor suppressor in colon cancer, suggesting that miRNA-302a may be used as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in colon cancer. PMID:25542007

  18. Identification of novel tumor markers in prostate, colon and breast cancer by unbiased methylation profiling.

    PubMed

    Chung, Woonbok; Kwabi-Addo, Bernard; Ittmann, Michael; Jelinek, Jaroslav; Shen, Lanlan; Yu, Yinhua; Issa, Jean-Pierre J

    2008-04-30

    DNA hypermethylation is a common epigenetic abnormality in cancer and may serve as a useful marker to clone cancer-related genes as well as a marker of clinical disease activity. To identify CpG islands methylated in prostate cancer, we used methylated CpG island amplification (MCA) coupled with representational difference analysis (RDA) on prostate cancer cell lines. We isolated 34 clones that corresponded to promoter CpG islands, including 5 reported targets of hypermethylation in cancer. We confirmed the data for 17 CpG islands by COBRA and/or pyrosequencing. All 17 genes were methylated in at least 2 cell lines of a 21-cancer cell line panel containing prostate cancer, colon cancer, leukemia, and breast cancer. Based on methylation in primary tumors compared to normal adjacent tissues, NKX2-5, CLSTN1, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS and NSE1 are candidate biomarkers for prostate cancer (methylation range 50%-85%). The combination of NSE1 or SPOCK2 hypermethylation showed a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 95% in differentiating cancer from normal. Similarly NKX2-5, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS and GALR2 are candidate biomarkers for colon cancer (methylation range 60%-95%) and GALR2 hypermethylation showed a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 95%. Finally, SLC16A12, GALR2, TOX, SPOCK2, EGFR5 and DPYS are candidate biomarkers for breast cancer (methylation range 33%-79%) with the combination of EGFR5 or TOX hypermethylation showing a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 92%. Expression analysis for eight genes that had the most hypermethylation confirmed the methylation associated silencing and reactivation with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment. Our data identify new targets of transcriptional silencing in cancer, and provide new biomarkers that could be useful in screening for prostate cancer and other cancers.

  19. Colon cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - colon cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on colon cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/index Colon Cancer Alliance -- www.ccalliance.org National ...

  20. Early stage colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Hugh James

    2013-12-14

    Evidence has now accumulated that colonoscopy and removal of polyps, especially during screening and surveillance programs, is effective in overall risk reduction for colon cancer. After resection of malignant pedunculated colon polyps or early stage colon cancers, long-term repeated surveillance programs can also lead to detection and removal of asymptomatic high risk advanced adenomas and new early stage metachronous cancers. Early stage colon cancer can be defined as disease that appears to have been completely resected with no subsequent evidence of involvement of adjacent organs, lymph nodes or distant sites. This differs from the clinical setting of an apparent "curative" resection later pathologically upstaged following detection of malignant cells extending into adjacent organs, peritoneum, lymph nodes or other distant sites, including liver. This highly selected early stage colon cancer group remains at high risk for subsequent colon polyps and metachronous colon cancer. Precise staging is important, not only for assessing the need for adjuvant chemotherapy, but also for patient selection for continued surveillance. With advanced stages of colon cancer and a more guarded outlook, repeated surveillance should be limited. In future, novel imaging technologies (e.g., confocal endomicroscopy), coupled with increased pathological recognition of high risk markers for lymph node involvement (e.g., "tumor budding") should lead to improved staging and clinical care.

  1. Tumor-derived hydrogen sulfide, produced by cystathionine-β-synthase, stimulates bioenergetics, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Csaba; Coletta, Ciro; Chao, Celia; Módis, Katalin; Szczesny, Bartosz; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Hellmich, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    The physiological functions of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) include vasorelaxation, stimulation of cellular bioenergetics, and promotion of angiogenesis. Analysis of human colon cancer biopsies and patient-matched normal margin mucosa revealed the selective up-regulation of the H2S-producing enzyme cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) in colon cancer, resulting in an increased rate of H2S production. Similarly, colon cancer-derived epithelial cell lines (HCT116, HT-29, LoVo) exhibited selective CBS up-regulation and increased H2S production, compared with the nonmalignant colonic mucosa cells, NCM356. CBS localized to the cytosol, as well as the mitochondrial outer membrane. ShRNA-mediated silencing of CBS or its pharmacological inhibition with aminooxyacetic acid reduced HCT116 cell proliferation, migration, and invasion; reduced endothelial cell migration in tumor/endothelial cell cocultures; and suppressed mitochondrial function (oxygen consumption, ATP turnover, and respiratory reserve capacity), as well as glycolysis. Treatment of nude mice with aminooxyacetic acid attenuated the growth of patient-derived colon cancer xenografts and reduced tumor blood flow. Similarly, CBS silencing of the tumor cells decreased xenograft growth and suppressed neovessel density, suggesting a role for endogenous H2S in tumor angiogenesis. In contrast to CBS, silencing of cystathionine-γ-lyase (the expression of which was unchanged in colon cancer) did not affect tumor growth or bioenergetics. In conclusion, H2S produced from CBS serves to (i) maintain colon cancer cellular bioenergetics, thereby supporting tumor growth and proliferation, and (ii) promote angiogenesis and vasorelaxation, consequently providing the tumor with blood and nutritients. The current findings identify CBS-derived H2S as a tumor growth factor and anticancer drug target. PMID:23836652

  2. Application of in vitro soft agar techniques for growth of tumor cells to the study of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Buick, R N; Fry, S E; Salmon, S E

    1980-03-15

    An in vitro assay to measure the clonogenic or colony-forming capability of cancer cells present in biopsy samples has recently been applied to study the biology and drug-sensitivity of a variety of human neoplasms. This approach appears to be suitable for study of the tumor stem or progenitor cells present in malignant effusions from patients with colonic carcinoma. In our preliminary studies, morphology of the tumor colonies by inverted microscopy and with Papanicolaou staining of dried agar plating layers as well as immunofluorescent localization with a specific antiserum to human carcinoembrionic antigen have been used as markers of the neoplastic origin of colon tumor colony-forming cells. Successful application of this assay to colonic solid tumors will require improvement in techniques for disaggregation of viable clonogenic cells. We anticipate that short term clonal assays will have increasing use for clinical and biological studies of human colon cancer.

  3. Noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging of the development of individual colon cancer tumors in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Mook, Olaf R F; Jonker, Ard; Strang, Aart C; Veltien, Andor; Gambarota, Giulio; Frederiks, Wilma M; Heerschap, Arend; Van Noorden, Cornelis J F

    2008-04-01

    Monitoring tumor development is essential for the understanding of mechanisms involved in tumor progression and to determine efficacy of therapy. One of the evolving approaches is longitudinal noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of tumors in experimental models. We applied high-resolution MRI at 7 Tesla to study the development of colon cancer tumors in rat liver. MRI acquisition was triggered to the respiratory cycle to minimize motion artifacts. A special radio frequency (RF) coil was designed to acquire detailed T1-weighted and T2-weighted images of the liver. T2-weighted images identified hyperintense lesions representing tumors with a minimum diameter of 2 mm, enabling the determination of growth rates and morphological aspects of individual tumors. It is concluded that high-resolution MRI using a dedicated RF coil and triggering to the respiratory cycle is an excellent tool for quantitative and morphological analysis of individual diffusely distributed tumors throughout the liver. However, at present, MRI requires expensive equipment and expertise and is a time-consuming methodology. Therefore, it should preferably be used for dedicated applications rather than for high-throughput assessment of total tumor load in animals.

  4. O-1602, an atypical cannabinoid, inhibits tumor growth in colitis-associated colon cancer through multiple mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kargl, Julia; Haybaeck, Johannes; Stančić, Angela; Andersen, Liisa; Marsche, Gunther; Heinemann, Akos; Schicho, Rudolf

    2013-04-01

    Cannabinoids have antiinflammatory and antitumorigenic properties. Some cannabinoids, such as O-1602, have no or only little affinity to classical cannabinoid receptors but exert cannabinoid-like antiinflammatory effects during experimental colitis. Here, we investigated whether O-1602 shows antitumorigenic effects in colon cancer cells and whether it could reduce tumorigenesis in the colon in vivo. The colon cancer cell lines HT-29 and SW480 were used to study the effect of O-1602 on viability and apoptosis. The effect of O-1602 on tumor growth in vivo was studied in a colitis-associated colon cancer mouse model. O-1602 decreased viability and induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner (0.1-10 μM). In the mouse model, treatment with O-1602 (3 mg/kg, i.p., 12×) reduced tumor area by 50 % and tumor incidence by 30 %. Histological scoring revealed a significant decrease in tumor load. In tumor tissue, O-1602 decreased levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), activation of oncogenic transcription factors STAT3 and NFκB p65, and expression of TNF-α while levels for proapoptotic markers, such as p53 and BAX, increased. The in vivo effects of O-1602 on PCNA, BAX, and p53 were also observed in colon cancer cells. The data provide a novel insight into antitumorigenic mechanisms of atypical cannabinoids. O-1602 exerts antitumorigenic effects by targeting colon cancer cells as well as proinflammatory pathways known to promote colitis-associated tumorigenesis. Due to its lack of central sedation, O-1602 could be an interesting compound for the treatment of colon and possibly other cancers.

  5. MiR-9, -31, and -182 deregulation promote proliferation and tumor cell survival in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Cekaite, Lina; Rantala, Juha K; Bruun, Jarle; Guriby, Marianne; Agesen, Trude H; Danielsen, Stine A; Lind, Guro E; Nesbakken, Arild; Kallioniemi, Olli; Lothe, Ragnhild A; Skotheim, Rolf I

    2012-09-01

    Several microRNAs (miRNAs) are known to be deregulated in colon cancer, but the mechanisms behind their potential involvement on proliferation and tumor cell survival are unclear. The present study aimed to identify miRNAs with functional implications for development of colon cancer. The cell proliferation and apoptosis were examined following perturbations of miRNA levels by employing a comprehensive miRNA library screen. miRNAs nominated for relevance to colon cancer were validated on expression and functional levels. By integrating the effect of miRNA up-regulation with the endogenous miRNA expression levels within the HT29, HCT116, and SW480 colon cancer cell lines, we identified miRNAs controlling cell proliferation (n = 53) and apoptosis (n = 93). From these functionally nominated miRNAs, we narrowed the list to 10 oncogene- and 20 tumor suppressor-like miRNAs that were also differentially expressed between colon cancer (n = 80) and normal colonic mucosa (n = 20). The differential expressions of miR-9, miR-31, and miR-182 were successfully validated in a series of colon carcinomas (n = 30) and polyps (n = 10) versus normal colonic mucosa (n = 10), whereas the functional effect was confirmed in an in-depth validation using different cell viability and apoptotic markers. Several transcription factors and genes regulating cell proliferation were identified as putative target genes by integrative miRNA/mRNA expression analysis obtained from the same colon cancer patient samples. This study suggests that deregulated expression of miR-9, miR-31, and miR-182 during carcinogenesis plays a significant role in the development of colon cancer by promoting proliferation and tumor cell survival.

  6. Intratumoral Heterogeneity for Expression of Tyrosine Kinase Growth Factor Receptors in Human Colon Cancer Surgical Specimens and Orthotopic Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kuwai, Toshio; Nakamura, Toru; Kim, Sun-Jin; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Kitadai, Yasuhiko; Langley, Robert R.; Fan, Dominic; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Fidler, Isaiah J.

    2008-01-01

    The design of targeted therapy, particularly patient-specific targeted therapy, requires knowledge of the presence and intratumoral distribution of tyrosine kinase receptors. To determine whether the expression of such receptors is constant or varies between and within individual colon cancer neoplasms, we examined the pattern of expression of the ligands, epidermal growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and platelet-derived growth factor-B as well as their respective receptors in human colon cancer surgical specimens and orthotopic human colon cancers growing in the cecal wall of nude mice. The expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor and the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor on tumor cells and stromal cells, including tumor-associated endothelial cells, was heterogeneous in surgical specimens and orthotopic tumors. In some tumors, the receptor was expressed on both tumor cells and stromal cells, and in other tumors the receptor was expressed only on tumor cells or only on stromal cells. In contrast, the platelet-derived growth factor receptor was expressed only on stromal cells in both surgical specimens and orthotopic tumors. Examination of receptor expression in both individual surgical specimens and orthotopic tumors revealed that the platelet-derived growth factor receptor was expressed only on stromal cells and that the patterns of epidermal growth factor receptor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 expression differed between tumor cells. This heterogeneity in receptor expression among different tumor cells suggests that targeting a single tyrosine kinase may not yield eradication of the disease. PMID:18202197

  7. Tart cherry anthocyanins inhibit tumor development in Apc(Min) mice and reduce proliferation of human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soo-Young; Seeram, Navindra P; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Bourquin, Leslie D

    2003-05-08

    Anthocyanins, which are bioactive phytochemicals, are widely distributed in plants and especially enriched in tart cherries. Based on previous observations that tart cherry anthocyanins and their respective aglycone, cyanidin, can inhibit cyclooxygenase enzymes, we conducted experiments to test the potential of anthocyanins to inhibit intestinal tumor development in Apc(Min) mice and growth of human colon cancer cell lines. Mice consuming the cherry diet, anthocyanins, or cyanidin had significantly fewer and smaller cecal adenomas than mice consuming the control diet or sulindac. Colonic tumor numbers and volume were not significantly influenced by treatment. Anthocyanins and cyanidin also reduced cell growth of human colon cancer cell lines HT 29 and HCT 116. The IC(50) of anthocyanins and cyanidin was 780 and 63 microM for HT 29 cells, respectively and 285 and 85 microM for HCT 116 cells, respectively. These results suggest that tart cherry anthocyanins and cyanidin may reduce the risk of colon cancer.

  8. Carnitines slow down tumor development of colon cancer in the DMH-chemical carcinogenesis mouse model.

    PubMed

    Roscilli, Giuseppe; Marra, Emanuele; Mori, Federica; Di Napoli, Arianna; Mancini, Rita; Serlupi-Crescenzi, Ottaviano; Virmani, Ashraf; Aurisicchio, Luigi; Ciliberto, Gennaro

    2013-07-01

    Dietary agents are receiving much attention for the chemoprevention of cancer. While curcumin is known to influence several pathways and affect tumor growth in vivo, carnitin and its congeners play a variety of important metabolic functions: are involved in the oxydation of long-chain fatty acids, regulate acyl-CoA levels and influence protein activity and stability by modifying the extent of protein acetylation. In this study we evaluated the efficacy of carnitines in the prevention of cancer development using the 1,2,-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis model. We also assessed whether their combination was able to give rise to increased protection from cancer development. Mice treated with DMH were dosed orally with curcumin and/or carnitine and acylcarnitines for 20 weeks. At the end of the treatment colon samples were collected, and scored for multiple ACF and adenomas. We observed that carnitine and acyl-carnitines had same, if not higher, efficacy than curcumin alone in inhibiting the formation of neoplastic lesions induced by DMH treatment. Interestingly, the combination of curcumin and acetyl-L-carnitine was able to fully inhibit the development of advanced adenoma lesions. Our data unveil the antitumor effects of carnitines and warrant additional studies to further support the adoption of carnitines as cancer chemopreventative agents.

  9. Direct contacts with colon cancer cells regulate the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into tumor associated fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yanan; Li, Zongwei; Yang, Peng; Newton, Ian P; Ren, Hua; Zhang, Lichao; Wu, Haili; Li, Zhuoyu

    2014-08-15

    Tumor-stroma interactions are referred to as essential events in tumor progression. There has been growing attention that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) can travel to tumor stroma, where they differentiate into tumor-associated fibroblast (TAF)-like cells, a predominant tumor-promoting stromal cell. However, little is definitively known about the contributors for this transition. Here, using an in vitro direct co-culture model of colon cancer cells and BMSCs, we identify that colon cancer cells can induce adjoining BMSCs to exhibit the typical characteristic of TAFs, with increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Importantly, the present data also reveals that activated Notch signaling mediates transformation of BMSCs to TAFs through the downstream TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway.

  10. Study shows colon and rectal tumors constitute a single type of cancer

    Cancer.gov

    The pattern of genomic alterations in colon and rectal tissues is the same regardless of anatomic location or origin within the colon or the rectum, leading researchers to conclude that these two cancer types can be grouped as one, according to The Cancer

  11. Pharmacological inhibition of Mdm2 triggers growth arrest and promotes DNA breakage in mouse colon tumors and human colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Rigatti, Marc J.; Verma, Rajeev; Belinsky, Glenn S.; Rosenberg, Daniel W.; Giardina, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor protein performs a number of cellular functions, ranging from the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis to effects on DNA repair. Modulating p53 activity with Mdm2 inhibitors is a promising approach for treating cancer; however, it is presently unclear how the in vivo application of Mdm2 inhibitors impact the myriad processes orchestrated by p53. Since approximately half of all colon cancers (predominately cancers with microsatellite instability) are p53-normal, we assessed the anticancer activity of the Mdm2 inhibitor Nutlin-3 in the mouse azoxymethane (AOM) colon cancer model, in which p53 remains wild type. Using a cell line derived from an AOM-induced tumor, we found that four daily exposures to Nutlin-3 induced persistent p53 stabilization and cell cycle arrest without significant apoptosis. A four day dosing schedule in vivo generated a similar response in colon tumors; growth arrest without significantly increased apoptosis. In adjacent normal colon tissue, Nutlin-3 treatment reduced both cell proliferation and apoptosis. Surprisingly, Nutlin-3 induced a transient DNA damage response in tumors but not in adjacent normal tissue. Nutlin-3 likewise induced a transient DNA damage response in human colon cancer cells in a p53-dependent manner, and enhanced DNA strand breakage and cell death induced by doxorubicin. Our findings indicate that Mdm2 inhibitors not only trigger growth arrest, but may also stimulate p53’s reported ability to slow homologous recombination repair. The potential impact of Nutlin-3 on DNA repair in tumors suggests that Mdm2 inhibitors may significantly accentuate the tumoricidal actions of certain therapeutic modalities. PMID:21557332

  12. [Right Hemi-Colectomy for a Metastatic Transverse Colon Tumor from Breast Cancer Following Bilateral Breast Cancer Resection - A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Okamura, Shu; Yanagisawa, Tetsu; Ohishi, Kazuhito; Murata, Kohei; Nushijima, Yoichiro; Hamano, Rie; Fukuchi, Nariaki; Ebisui, Chikara; Yokouchi, Hideoki; Kinuta, Masakatsu

    2016-11-01

    We herein report the case of a 75-year-old female patient who underwent 4 surgeries for bilateral breast cancer and its recurrence. When she presented at a clinic with an irritable colon, a fist-sized tumor was palpated in the right upper abdomen at her first medical examination. Abdominal CT scan at the clinic revealed a tumor with a maximum diameter of 10 cm on the right side of the transverse colon and multiple swollen mesenteric lymph nodes. Therefore, the patient was referred to our hospital for surgery. Colonoscopy revealed stenosis of the same lesion with an edematous mucosa and sclerosis. Using immunohistochemistry, a biopsy specimen from the lesion tested positive for CK AE1+AE3, and negative for CD20(-)and CD3 (-). As a result, the tumor was diagnosed as a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. We performed right hemicolectomy to avoid her intestinal obstruction. Tumor cells were mainly present at the subserosa, according to HEstaining. Using immunostaining, the cells were tested for the following markers: CDX2(-), GCDFP15(weakly positive), CK7(strongly positive), CD20(partially positive), E R(+), PgR(-), and HER2(1+), characterizing the tumor as metastasis of breast cancer. Although gastro-intestinal metastasis from breast cancer is rare, and colon metastasis is even rarer, it might be necessary to rule out the possibility of a metastatic colon tumor from breast cancer when treating patients with a colon tumor who have undergone surgery for breast cancer.

  13. Pancratistatin selectively targets cancer cell mitochondria and reduces growth of human colon tumor xenografts.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Carly; Karnik, Aditya; McNulty, James; Pandey, Siyaram

    2011-01-01

    The naturally occurring Amaryllidaceae alkaloid pancratistatin exhibits potent apoptotic activity against a large panel of cancer cells lines and has an insignificant effect on noncancerous cell lines, although with an elusive cellular target. Many current chemotherapeutics induce apoptosis via genotoxic mechanisms and thus have low selectivity. The observed selectivity of pancratistatin for cancer cells promoted us to consider the hypothesis that this alkaloid targets cancer cell mitochondria rather than DNA or its replicative machinery. In this study, we report that pancratistatin decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and induced apoptotic nuclear morphology in p53-mutant (HT-29) and wild-type p53 (HCT116) colorectal carcinoma cell lines, but not in noncancerous colon fibroblast (CCD-18Co) cells. Interestingly, pancratistatin was found to be ineffective against mtDNA-depleted (ρ(0)) cancer cells. Moreover, pancratistatin induced cell death in a manner independent of Bax and caspase activation, and did not alter β-tubulin polymerization rate nor cause double-stranded DNA breaks. For the first time we report the efficacy of pancratistatin in vivo against human colorectal adenocarcinoma xenografts. Intratumor administration of pancratistatin (3 mg/kg) caused significant reduction in the growth of subcutaneous HT-29 tumors in Nu/Nu mice (n = 6), with no apparent toxicity to the liver or kidneys as indicated by histopathologic analysis and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling. Altogether, this work suggests that pancratistatin may be a novel mitochondria-targeting compound that selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells and significantly reduces tumor growth.

  14. Stages of Colon Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... for information about colorectal cancer in children. Health history affects the risk of developing colon cancer. Anything ... colorectal cancer include the following: Having a family history of colon or rectal cancer in a first- ...

  15. MUC1-specific immune therapy generates a strong anti-tumor response in a MUC1-tolerant colon cancer model

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, P.; Pathangey, L.B.; Bradley, J.B.; Tinder, T.L.; Basu, G.D.; Akporiaye, E.T.; Gendler, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    A MUC1-based vaccine was used in a preclinical model of colon cancer. The trial was conducted in a MUC1-tolerant immune competent host injected with MC38 colon cancer cells expressing MUC1. The vaccine included: MHC class I-restricted MUC1 peptides, MHC class II-restricted pan helper peptide, unmethylated CpG oligodeoxynucleotide, and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor. Immunization was successful in breaking MUC1 self-tolerance, and in eliciting a robust anti-tumor response. The vaccine stimulated IFN-γ-producing CD4+ helper and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells against MUC1 and other undefined MC38 tumor antigens. In the prophylactic setting, immunization caused complete rejection of tumor cells, while in the therapeutic regimen, tumor burden was significantly reduced. PMID:17166639

  16. Targeting FGF19 inhibits tumor growth in colon cancer xenograft and FGF19 transgenic hepatocellular carcinoma models.

    PubMed

    Desnoyers, L R; Pai, R; Ferrando, R E; Hötzel, K; Le, T; Ross, J; Carano, R; D'Souza, A; Qing, J; Mohtashemi, I; Ashkenazi, A; French, D M

    2008-01-03

    Although fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) can promote liver carcinogenesis in mice its involvement in human cancer is not well characterized. Here we report that FGF19 and its cognate receptor FGF receptor 4 (FGFR4) are coexpressed in primary human liver, lung and colon tumors and in a subset of human colon cancer cell lines. To test the importance of FGF19 for tumor growth, we developed an anti-FGF19 monoclonal antibody that selectively blocks the interaction of FGF19 with FGFR4. This antibody abolished FGF19-mediated activity in vitro and inhibited growth of colon tumor xenografts in vivo and effectively prevented hepatocellular carcinomas in FGF19 transgenic mice. The efficacy of the antibody in these models was linked to inhibition of FGF19-dependent activation of FGFR4, FRS2, ERK and beta-catenin. These findings suggest that the inactivation of FGF19 could be beneficial for the treatment of colon cancer, liver cancer and other malignancies involving interaction of FGF19 and FGFR4.

  17. Transition from colitis to cancer: high Wnt activity sustains the tumor-initiating potential of colon cancer stem cell precursors.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Anitha K; Fisher, Robert C; Butterworth, Elizabeth A; Pi, Liya; Chang, Lung-Ji; Appelman, Henry D; Chang, Myron; Scott, Edward W; Huang, Emina H

    2012-10-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) increases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the mechanisms involved in colitis-to-cancer transition (CCT) are not well understood. CCT may involve a inflammation-dysplasia-carcinoma progression sequence compared with the better characterized adenoma-carcinoma progression sequence associated with sporadic CRC. One common thread may be activating mutations in components of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which occur commonly as early events in sporadic CRC. To examine this hypothesis, we evaluated possible associations between Wnt/β-catenin signaling and CCT based on the cancer stem cell (CSC) model. Wnt/β-catenin immunostaining indicated that UC patients have a level of Wnt-pathway-active cells that is intermediate between normal colon and CRC. These UC cells exhibiting activation of the Wnt pathway constituted a major subpopulation (52% + 7.21) of the colonic epithelial cells positive for aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), a putative marker of precursor colon CSC (pCCSC). We further fractionated this subpopulation of pCCSC using a Wnt pathway reporter assay. Over successive passages, pCCSCs with the highest Wnt activity exhibited higher clonogenic and tumorigenic potential than pCCSCs with the lowest Wnt activity, thereby establishing the key role of Wnt activity in driving CSC-like properties in these cells. Notably, 5/20 single cell injections of high-Wnt pCCSC resulted in tumor formation, suggesting a correlation with CCT. Attenuation of Wnt/β-catenin in high-Wnt pCCSC by shRNA-mediated downregulation or pharmacological inhibition significantly reduced tumor growth rates. Overall, the results of our study indicates (i) that early activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is critical for CCT and (ii) that high levels of Wnt/β-catenin signaling can further demarcate high-ALDH tumor-initiating cells in the nondysplastic epithelium of UC patients. As such, our findings offer plausible diagnostic markers and therapeutic target in the

  18. Anti-tumor efficacy of ultrasonic cavitation is potentiated by concurrent delivery of anti-angiogenic drug in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Huang, Pintong; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Jian; Shentu, Weihui; Sun, Yu; Yang, Zhijian; Chen, Shuyuan

    2014-05-28

    This study investigated the efficacy of concurrent delivery of an anti-angiogenic drug and ultrasonic cavitation therapy in a mouse model of human colon cancer. A biotinylated form of the anti-angiogenic drug Endostar was conjugated to a streptavidin-coated microbubble (MB). Mice bearing subcutaneous tumors (HT29) were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 served as an untreated control. Group 2 served as a cavitation control and received naked microbubbles and sham ultrasonic cavitation (MB+sham cavitation). Group 3 received naked microbubbles and ultrasonic cavitation (MB+cavitation). Group 4 received Endostar loaded microbubbles and ultrasonic cavitation (Endostar-MB+cavitation). Ultrasonic cavitation was performed using a high-power custom built sonicator. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging (CEUS) was used to measure tumor blood flow before and after ultrasonic cavitation. In vivo fluorescence imaging was performed to monitor changes in tumor volume. Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess CD31, VEGFR-2 and alpha-v beta-3 integrin expression within the tumor. Apoptosis of the tumor cells was determined by TUNEL assay, and ultrastructural changes within the tumor were examined by electron microcopy. Ultrasonic cavitation with Endostar-MB demonstrated a significantly greater inhibition of tumor blood flow on day 7 and tumor growth on day 16 compared with naked MB and control groups. The Endostar-MB treated mice showed significantly decreased expression VEGFR-2 and alpha-v beta-3 integrin, and increased apoptosis of tumor cells and degradation of the tumor ultrastructure. Our findings indicated that the anti-vascular and anti-tumor effects of ultrasonic cavitation could be potentiated by simultaneously delivering an anti-angiogenic drug in colon cancer.

  19. Colon cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  20. Overexpression of forkhead Box C2 promotes tumor metastasis and indicates poor prognosis in colon cancer via regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingguo; Wu, Jitao; Wei, Ping; Xu, Ye; Zhuo, Changhua; Wang, Yuwei; Li, Dawei; Cai, Sanjun

    2015-01-01

    Forkhead box protein C2 (FOXC2) plays a vital role in carcinogenesis; however, its significance and prognostic value in colon cancer remain unclear. In this study, FOXC2 expression was analyzed in a tissue microarray (TMA) containing 185 samples of primary colon cancer tumor samples and in human colon cancer cell lines. The effect of FOXC2 on cell proliferation, tumorigenesis, and metastasis was examined in vitro and in vivo. FOXC2 was overexpressed in human colon cancer cells and tissues, and correlated with colon cancer progression and patient survival. Functional study demonstrated that FOXC2 promoted cell growth, cell migration, and tumor formation in nude mice, whereas knockdown of FOXC2 by short hairpin RNA (shRNAs) significantly suppressed cell growth, cell migration and tumor formation. Further study found that FOXC2 enhanced AKT activity with subsequent GSK-3β phosphorylation and Snail stabilization, and then induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and promoted tumor invasion and metastasis. Collectively, FOXC2 promotes colon cancer metastasis by facilitating EMT and acts as a potential prognostic factor and therapeutic target in colon cancer.

  1. Daikenchuto (TU-100) Suppresses Tumor Development in the Azoxymethane and APC(min/+) Mouse Models of Experimental Colon Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hasebe, Takumu; Matsukawa, Jun; Ringus, Daina; Miyoshi, Jun; Hart, John; Kaneko, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Kono, Toru; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka; Wang, Chong-Zi; Yuan, Chun-Su; Bissonnette, Marc; Musch, Mark W; Chang, Eugene B

    2017-01-01

    Chemopreventative properties of traditional medicines and underlying mechanisms of action are incompletely investigated. This study demonstrates that dietary daikenchuto (TU-100), comprised of ginger, ginseng, and Japanese pepper effectively suppresses intestinal tumor development and progression in the azoxymethane (AOM) and APC(min/+) mouse models. For the AOM model, TU-100 was provided after the first of six biweekly AOM injections. Mice were sacrificed at 30 weeks. APC(min/+) mice were fed diet without or with TU-100 starting at 6 weeks, and sacrificed at 24 weeks. In both models, dietary TU-100 decreased tumor size. In APC (min/+) mice, the number of small intestinal tumors was significantly decreased. In the AOM model, both TU-100 and Japanese ginseng decreased colon tumor numbers. Decreased Ki-67 and β-catenin immunostaining and activation of numerous transduction pathways involved in tumor initiation and progression were observed. EGF receptor expression and stimulation/phosphorylation in vitro were investigated in C2BBe1 cells. TU-100, ginger, and 6-gingerol suppressed EGF receptor induced Akt activation. TU-100 and ginseng and to a lesser extent ginger or 6-gingerol inhibited EGF ERK1/2 activation. TU-100 and some of its components and metabolites of these components inhibit tumor progression in two mouse models of colon cancer by blocking downstream pathways of EGF receptor activation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Heteroclitic XBP1 peptides evoke tumor-specific memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes against breast cancer, colon cancer, and pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jooeun; Samur, Mehmet; Munshi, Aditya; Hideshima, Teru; Keskin, Derin; Kimmelman, Alec; Lee, Ann-Hwee; Dranoff, Glen; Anderson, Kenneth C; Munshi, Nikhil C

    2015-01-01

    XBP1 is a critical transcriptional activator of the unfolded protein response (UPR), which increases tumor cell survival under prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and hypoxic conditions.This study was designed to evaluate the immunogenicity of heteroclitic XBP1 unspliced (US)184–192 (YISPWILAV) and heteroclictic XBP1 spliced (SP)367–375 (YLFPQLISV) HLA-A2 peptides, and to characterize the specific activities of XBP1 peptides-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (XBP1-CTL) against breast cancer, colon cancer, and pancreatic cancer cells.The XBP1-CTL had upregulated expression of critical T cell markers and displayed HLA-A2-restricted and antigen-specific activities against breast cancer, colon cancer and pancreatic cancer cells. XBP1-CTL were enriched withCD45RO+ memory CTL, which showed high expression of critical T cell markers (CD28, ICOS, CD69, CD40L), cell proliferation and antitumor activities as compared to CD45RO− non-memory CTL. The effector memory (EM: CD45RO+CCR7−) subset had the highest level of cell proliferation while the central memory (CM: CD45RO+CCR7+) subset demonstrated enhanced functional activities (CD107a degranulation, IFNγ/IL-2 production) upon recognition of the respective tumor cells. Furthermore, both the EM and CM XBP1-CTL subsets expressed high levels of Th1 transcription regulators Tbet and Eomes. The highest frequencies of IFNγ or granzyme B producing cells were detected within CM XBP1-CTL subset that were either Tbet+ or Eomes+ in responding to the tumor cells.These results demonstrate the immunotherapeutic potential of a cocktail of immunogenic HLA-A2 specific heteroclitic XBP1 US184–192 and heteroclictic XBP1 SP367–375 peptides to induce CD3+CD8+ CTL enriched for CM and EM cells with specific antitumor activities against a variety of solid tumors. PMID:25941601

  3. Hypofractionated Irradiation Has Immune Stimulatory Potential and Induces a Timely Restricted Infiltration of Immune Cells in Colon Cancer Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Benjamin; Rückert, Michael; Weber, Julia; Mayr, Xaver; Derer, Anja; Lotter, Michael; Bert, Christoph; Rödel, Franz; Fietkau, Rainer; Gaipl, Udo S.

    2017-01-01

    In addition to locally controlling the tumor, hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT) particularly aims to activate immune cells in the RT-modified microenvironment. Therefore, we examined whether hypofractionated RT can activate dendritic cells (DCs), induce immune cell infiltration in tumors, and how the chronology of immune cell migration into tumors occurs to gain knowledge for future definition of radiation breaks and inclusion of immunotherapy. Colorectal cancer treatments offer only limited survival benefit, and immunobiological principles for additional therapies need to be explored with preclinical models. The impact of hypofractionated RT on CT26 colon cancer tumor cell death, migration of DCs toward supernatants (SN) of tumor cells, and activation of DCs by SN were analyzed. The subcutaneous tumor of a BALB/c-CT26 mouse model was locally irradiated with 2 × 5 Gy, the tumor volume was monitored, and the infiltration of immune cells in the tumor was determined by flow cytometry daily. Hypofractionated RT induced a mixture of apoptotic and necrotic CT26 cells, which is known to be in particular immunogenic. DCs that migrated toward SN of CT26 cells particularly upregulated the activation markers CD80 and CD86 when in contact with SN of irradiated tumor cells. After hypofractionated RT, the tumor outgrowth was significantly retarded and in the irradiated tumors an increased infiltration of macrophages (CD11bhigh/F4-80+) and DCs (MHC-II+), but only between day 5 and 10 after the first irradiation, takes place. While CD4+ T cells migrated into non-irradiated and irradiated tumors, CD8+ T cells were only found in tumors that had been irradiated and they were highly increased at day 8 after the first irradiation. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells show regular turnover in irradiated and non-irradiated tumors. Tumor cell-specific anti-IgM antibodies were enhanced in the serum of animals with irradiated tumors. We conclude that

  4. Hypofractionated Irradiation Has Immune Stimulatory Potential and Induces a Timely Restricted Infiltration of Immune Cells in Colon Cancer Tumors.

    PubMed

    Frey, Benjamin; Rückert, Michael; Weber, Julia; Mayr, Xaver; Derer, Anja; Lotter, Michael; Bert, Christoph; Rödel, Franz; Fietkau, Rainer; Gaipl, Udo S

    2017-01-01

    In addition to locally controlling the tumor, hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT) particularly aims to activate immune cells in the RT-modified microenvironment. Therefore, we examined whether hypofractionated RT can activate dendritic cells (DCs), induce immune cell infiltration in tumors, and how the chronology of immune cell migration into tumors occurs to gain knowledge for future definition of radiation breaks and inclusion of immunotherapy. Colorectal cancer treatments offer only limited survival benefit, and immunobiological principles for additional therapies need to be explored with preclinical models. The impact of hypofractionated RT on CT26 colon cancer tumor cell death, migration of DCs toward supernatants (SN) of tumor cells, and activation of DCs by SN were analyzed. The subcutaneous tumor of a BALB/c-CT26 mouse model was locally irradiated with 2 × 5 Gy, the tumor volume was monitored, and the infiltration of immune cells in the tumor was determined by flow cytometry daily. Hypofractionated RT induced a mixture of apoptotic and necrotic CT26 cells, which is known to be in particular immunogenic. DCs that migrated toward SN of CT26 cells particularly upregulated the activation markers CD80 and CD86 when in contact with SN of irradiated tumor cells. After hypofractionated RT, the tumor outgrowth was significantly retarded and in the irradiated tumors an increased infiltration of macrophages (CD11b(high)/F4-80(+)) and DCs (MHC-II(+)), but only between day 5 and 10 after the first irradiation, takes place. While CD4(+) T cells migrated into non-irradiated and irradiated tumors, CD8(+) T cells were only found in tumors that had been irradiated and they were highly increased at day 8 after the first irradiation. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells show regular turnover in irradiated and non-irradiated tumors. Tumor cell-specific anti-IgM antibodies were enhanced in the serum of animals with irradiated tumors. We conclude that

  5. Integrin genetic variants and stage-specific tumor recurrence in patients with stage II and III colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Bohanes, P; Yang, D; Loupakis, F; LaBonte, M J; Gerger, A; Ning, Y; Lenz, C; Lenz, F; Wakatsuki, T; Zhang, W; Benhaim, L; El-Khoueiry, A; El-Khoueiry, R; Lenz, H-J

    2015-06-01

    Integrins (ITGs) are key elements in cancer biology, regulating tumor growth, angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis through interactions of the tumor cells with the microenvironment. Moving from the hypothesis that ITGs could have different effects in stage II and III colon cancer, we tested whether a comprehensive panel of germline single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ITG genes could predict stage-specific time to tumor recurrence (TTR). A total of 234 patients treated with 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy at the University of Southern California were included in this study. Whole-blood samples were analyzed for germline SNPs in ITG genes using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism or direct DNA sequencing. In the multivariable analysis, stage II colon cancer patients with at least one G allele for ITGB3 rs4642 had higher risk of recurrence (hazard ratio (HR)=4.027, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.556-10.421, P=0.004). This association was also significant in the combined stage II-III cohort (HR=1.975, 95% CI 1.194-3.269, P=0.008). The predominant role of ITGB3 rs4642 in stage II diseases was confirmed using recursive partitioning, showing that ITGB3 rs4642 was the most important factor in stage II diseases. In contrast, in stage III diseases the combined analysis of ITGB1 rs2298141 and ITGA4 rs7562325 allowed to identify three distinct prognostic subgroups (P=0.009). The interaction between stage and the combined ITGB1 rs2298141 and ITGA4 rs7562325 on TTR was significant (P=0.025). This study identifies germline polymorphisms in ITG genes as independent stage-specific prognostic markers for stage II and III colon cancer. These data may help to select subgroups of patients who may benefit from ITG-targeted treatments.

  6. Alterations of lymph nodes evaluation after colon cancer resection: patient and tumor heterogeneity should be taken into consideration

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Xu; Chen, Wei; Li, Shuai; Jiang, Zheng; Liu, Zheng; Zhao, Zhixun; Wang, Song; Yang, Ming; Wang, Xishan

    2016-01-01

    Despite the adequacy of nodal evaluation was gradually improved for colon cancer (CC), rare attention has been paid for the effect of patient and tumor heterogeneity on nodal evaluation. We identified 109902 CC patients in stage I-III from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results (SEER) database during 2004-2013. The lymph nodes evaluations were separately assessed in different patient- and tumor-related features, including gender, age, T stage, histology, tumor differentiation, tumor size and tumor location. The 5-year cancer specific survival (CSS) was calculated with Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank tests were used to compare the differences of CSS in patients with ≥12 and <12 lymph nodes examined. Here, we identified features including gender, age, T stage, tumor differentiation, tumor size and location were independently associated with the median number of lymph node, the rate of ≥12 lymph nodes and the rate of node positivity of CC patients. We then divided CC patients into 29 subgroups according to different patient- and tumor-related features. The median number of lymph node presented a large variance from 12 to 24, the rate of ≥12 lymph nodes increased from 53.2% to 91.2% under the combined effect of patient and tumor heterogeneity. Furthermore, the positive association between increased lymph nodes count and improved survival couldn't be observed in 8261 CC patients with the effect of this heterogeneity. In conclusion, the tumor and patient heterogeneity lead to large alterations of nodal evaluation; we should pay more attention to this effect in clinical practice. PMID:27577077

  7. Blood circulating tumor DNA for non-invasive genotyping of colon cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Siravegna, Giulia; Bardelli, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Most solid tumors, including colorectal cancers, shed cell-free DNA (ctDNA) in the blood. ctDNA can be analyzed to generate molecular profiles which capture the heterogeneity of the disease more comprehensively then tumor tissue biopsies. This approach commonly called 'liquid biopsy' can be applied to monitor response to therapy, to assess minimal residual disease and to uncover the emergence of drug resistance. This review will discuss current and future developments of ctDNA analysis in the clinical management of colorectal cancer patients.

  8. Circulating tumor DNA analysis detects minimal residual disease and predicts recurrence in patients with stage II colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tie, Jeanne; Wang, Yuxuan; Tomasetti, Cristian; Li, Lu; Springer, Simeon; Kinde, Isaac; Silliman, Natalie; Tacey, Mark; Wong, Hui-Li; Christie, Michael; Kosmider, Suzanne; Skinner, Iain; Wong, Rachel; Steel, Malcolm; Tran, Ben; Desai, Jayesh; Jones, Ian; Haydon, Andrew; Hayes, Theresa; Price, Tim J.; Strausberg, Robert L.; Diaz, Luis A.; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Vogelstein, Bert; Gibbs, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Detection of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) after resection of stage II colon cancer may identify patients at the highest risk of recurrence and help inform adjuvant treatment decisions. We used massively parallel sequencing–based assays to evaluate the ability of ctDNA to detect minimal residual disease in 1046 plasma samples from a prospective cohort of 230 patients with resected stage II colon cancer. In patients not treated with adjuvant chemotherapy, ctDNA was detected postoperatively in 14 of 178 (7.9%) patients, 11 (79%) of whom had recurred at a median follow-up of 27 months; recurrence occurred in only 16 (9.8 %) of 164 patients with negative ctDNA [hazard ratio (HR), 18; 95% confidence interval (CI), 7.9 to 40; P < 0.001]. In patients treated with chemotherapy, the presence of ctDNA after completion of chemotherapy was also associated with an inferior recurrence-free survival (HR, 11; 95% CI, 1.8 to 68; P = 0.001). ctDNA detection after stage II colon cancer resection provides direct evidence of residual disease and identifies patients at very high risk of recurrence. PMID:27384348

  9. Circulating tumor DNA analysis detects minimal residual disease and predicts recurrence in patients with stage II colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Tie, Jeanne; Wang, Yuxuan; Tomasetti, Cristian; Li, Lu; Springer, Simeon; Kinde, Isaac; Silliman, Natalie; Tacey, Mark; Wong, Hui-Li; Christie, Michael; Kosmider, Suzanne; Skinner, Iain; Wong, Rachel; Steel, Malcolm; Tran, Ben; Desai, Jayesh; Jones, Ian; Haydon, Andrew; Hayes, Theresa; Price, Tim J; Strausberg, Robert L; Diaz, Luis A; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Kinzler, Kenneth W; Vogelstein, Bert; Gibbs, Peter

    2016-07-06

    Detection of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) after resection of stage II colon cancer may identify patients at the highest risk of recurrence and help inform adjuvant treatment decisions. We used massively parallel sequencing-based assays to evaluate the ability of ctDNA to detect minimal residual disease in 1046 plasma samples from a prospective cohort of 230 patients with resected stage II colon cancer. In patients not treated with adjuvant chemotherapy, ctDNA was detected postoperatively in 14 of 178 (7.9%) patients, 11 (79%) of whom had recurred at a median follow-up of 27 months; recurrence occurred in only 16 (9.8 %) of 164 patients with negative ctDNA [hazard ratio (HR), 18; 95% confidence interval (CI), 7.9 to 40; P < 0.001]. In patients treated with chemotherapy, the presence of ctDNA after completion of chemotherapy was also associated with an inferior recurrence-free survival (HR, 11; 95% CI, 1.8 to 68; P = 0.001). ctDNA detection after stage II colon cancer resection provides direct evidence of residual disease and identifies patients at very high risk of recurrence.

  10. Autocrine induction of invasion and metastasis by tumor-associated trypsin inhibitor in human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gouyer, V; Fontaine, D; Dumont, P; de Wever, O; Fontayne-Devaud, H; Leteurtre, E; Truant, S; Delacour, D; Drobecq, H; Kerckaert, J-P; de Launoit, Y; Bracke, M; Gespach, C; Desseyn, J-L; Huet, G

    2008-07-03

    From the conditioned medium of the human colon carcinoma cells, HT-29 5M21 (CM-5M21), expressing a spontaneous invasive phenotype, tumor-associated trypsin inhibitor (TATI) was identified and characterized by proteomics, cDNA microarray approaches and functional analyses. Both CM-5M21 and recombinant TATI, but not the K18Y-TATI mutant at the protease inhibitor site, trigger collagen type I invasion by several human adenoma and carcinoma cells of the colon and breast, through phosphoinositide-3-kinase, protein kinase C and Rho-GTPases/Rho kinase-dependent pathways. Conversely, the proinvasive action of TATI in parental HT29 cells was alleviated by the TATI antibody PSKAN2 and the K18Y-TATI mutant. Stable expression of K18Y-TATI in HT-29 5M21 cells downregulated tumor growth, angiogenesis and the expression of several metastasis-related genes, including CSPG4 (13.8-fold), BMP-7 (9.7-fold), the BMP antagonist CHORDIN (5.2-fold), IGFBP-2 and IGF2 (9.6- and 4.6-fold). Accordingly, ectopic expression of KY-TATI inhibited the development of lung metastases from HT-29 5M21 tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice. These findings identify TATI as an autocrine transforming factor potentially involved in early and late events of colon cancer progression, including local invasion of the primary tumor and its metastatic spread. Targeting TATI, its molecular partners and effectors may bring novel therapeutic applications for high-grade human solid tumors in the digestive and urogenital systems.

  11. Dystroglycan Expression Is Frequently Reduced in Human Breast and Colon Cancers and Is Associated with Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Sgambato, Alessandro; Migaldi, Mario; Montanari, Micaela; Camerini, Andrea; Brancaccio, Andrea; Rossi, Giulio; Cangiano, Rodolfo; Losasso, Carmen; Capelli, Giovanni; Trentini, Gian Paolo; Cittadini, Achille

    2003-01-01

    Dystroglycan (DG) is an adhesion molecule responsible for crucial interactions between extracellular matrix and cytoplasmic compartment. It is formed by two subunits, α-DG (extracellular) and β-DG (transmembrane), that bind to laminin in the matrix and dystrophin in the cytoskeleton, respectively. In this study we evaluated by Western blot analysis the expression of DG in a series of human cancer cell lines of various histogenetic origin and in a series of human primary colon and breast cancers. Decreased expression of DG was observed in most of the cell lines and in both types of tumors and correlated with higher tumor grade and stage. Analysis of the mRNA levels suggested that expression of DG protein is likely regulated at a posttranscriptional level. Evaluation of α-DG expression by immunostaining in a series of archival cases of primary breast carcinomas confirmed that α-DG expression is lost in a significant fraction of tumors (66%). Loss of DG staining correlated with higher tumor stage (P = 0.022), positivity for p53 (P = 0.033), and high proliferation index (P = 0.045). A significant correlation was also observed between loss of α-DG and overall survival (P = 0.013 by log-rank test) in an univariate analysis. These data indicate that DG expression is frequently lost in human malignancies and suggest that this glycoprotein might play an important role in human tumor development and progression. PMID:12598319

  12. FGF-1/-3/FGFR4 signaling in cancer-associated fibroblasts promotes tumor progression in colon cancer through Erk and MMP-7.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yu-Pan; Shang, Kun; Chen, Huan; Ding, Fei; Wang, Zhen; Liang, Chen; Xu, Ye; Sun, Meng-Hong; Li, Ying-Yi

    2015-10-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), as the activated fibroblasts in the tumor stroma, are important modifiers of tumour progression. In the present study, we observed that azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate treatments induced increasingly severe colorectal mucosal inflammation and the intratumoural accumulation of CAFs. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-1 and FGF-3 were detected in infiltrating cells, and FGFR4, the specific receptor for FGF-1 and FGF-3, was detected in colon cancer tissues. The phosphorylation of FGFR4 enhanced the production of metalloproteinase (MMP)-7 and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (Mek)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk), which was accompanied by excessive vessel generation and cell proliferation. Moreover, we separated CAFs, pericarcinoma fibroblasts (PFs), and normal fibroblasts (NFs) from human colon tissue specimens to characterize the function of CAFs. We observed that CAFs secrete more FGF-1/-3 than NFs and PFs and promote cancer cell growth and angiogenesis through the activation of FGFR4, which is followed by the activation of Mek/Erk and the modulation of MMP-7 expression. The administration of FGF-1/-3-neutralizing antibodies or the treatment of cells with FGFR4 siRNA or the FGFR4 inhibitor PD173074 markedly suppressed colon cancer cell proliferation and neovascularization. These observations suggest a crucial role for CAFs and FGF signaling in the initiation and progression of colorectal cancer. The inhibition of the FGF signaling pathway may be a useful strategy for the treatment of colon cancer.

  13. Understanding your colon cancer risk

    MedlinePlus

    Colon cancer - prevention; Colon cancer - screening ... We do not know what causes colon cancer, but we do know some of the things that may increase the risk of getting it, such as: Age. Your risk increases after ...

  14. [A case report of the use of laparoscopic surgery to remove an adrenal tumor following resection of sigmoid colon cancer].

    PubMed

    Okano, Miho; Yasui, Masayoshi; Nishino, Masaya; Hosoda, Yohei; Nagai, Kenichi; Kim, Yongkook; Tsujinaka, Toshimasa

    2014-11-01

    A 58-year-old woman underwent sigmoidectomy and partial cystectomy for sigmoid colon cancer following colostomy. The final staging of the tumor was T3, N1, tub2, M0, fStage IIIa. She received 6 courses of CapeOX (oxaliplatin 130mg/m², capecitabine 200mg/m²) as adjuvant chemotherapy, which was discontinued because of severe general fatigue. At the same time, an increase in the levels of serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was detected and abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed an expanded adrenal mass. Since whole-body ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) showed no evidence of multiple organ metastases except for the right adrenal tumor, a solitary adrenal metastasis from sigmoid colon cancer was strongly suspected. Hence, colostomy closure and laparoscopic adrenalectomy were concurrently performed. Histological examination revealed non-functional adrenal adenoma. Therefore, laparoscopic surgery was a reasonable choice even in this complex case.

  15. Niclosamide inhibits colon cancer progression through downregulation of the Notch pathway and upregulation of the tumor suppressor miR-200 family

    PubMed Central

    Suliman, Mohammed A.; Zhang, Zhenxing; Na, Heya; Ribeiro, Ailton L.L.; Zhang, Yu; Niang, Bachir; Hamid, Abdu Salim; Zhang, Hua; Xu, Lijie; Zuo, Yunfei

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the most frequent causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Thus, there is a need for the development of new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of CRC. Accumulating evidence has revealed that niclosamide, an anthelminthic drug, exerts antitumor activity in several types of cancer, including colon cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for the effects of this drug remain elusive. Previous studies have shown that the aberrant Notch signaling pathway contributes to the carcinogenesis of colon cancer. Herein, we examined the effects of niclosamide on the growth, migration and apoptosis of colon cancer cells, and the role of the Notch signaling pathway. By performing MTT, wound-healing and Transwell migration assays, we observed that niclosamide suppressed the growth and migration of colon cancer cells, and flow cytometry demonstrated that cell apoptosis was induced. This was associated with the decreased protein expression of Notch1, Notch2, Notch3 and Hey1, and the increased expression of the tumor suppressor microRNA (miR or miRNA)-200 family members (miR-200a, miR-200b, miR-200c, miR-141 and miR-429) that are typically downregulated in colon cancer. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that niclosamide potentially inhibits the progression of colon cancer by downregulating Notch signaling and by upregulating the miR-200 family members. PMID:27460529

  16. A polysaccharide from Lentinus edodes inhibits human colon cancer cell proliferation and suppresses tumor growth in athymic nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinglin; Li, Weiyong; Huang, Xiao; Liu, Ying; Li, Qiang; Zheng, Ziming; Wang, Kaiping

    2017-01-01

    The antitumor effect of Lentinan is thought rely on the activation of immune responses; however, little is known about whether Lentinan also directly attacks cancer cells. We therefore investigated the direct antitumor activity of SLNT (a water-extracted polysaccharide from Lentinus edodes) and its probable mechanism. We showed that SLNT significantly inhibited proliferation of HT-29 colon cancer cells and suppressed tumor growth in nude mice. Annxein V-FITC/PI, DAPI, AO/EB and H&E staining assays all showed that SLNT induced cell apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. SLNT induced apoptosis by activating Caspase-3 via both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, which presented as the activation of Caspases-9 and -8, upregulation of cytochrome c and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, downregulation of NF-κB, and overproduction of ROS and TNF-α in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment with the caspase-3 inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO or antioxidant NAC blocked SLNT-induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that SLNT exerts direct antitumor effects by inducing cell apoptosis via ROS-mediated intrinsic and TNF-α-mediated extrinsic pathways. SLNT may thus represent a useful candidate for colon cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:27888812

  17. Cholesterol metabolism and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Broitman, S A; Cerda, S; Wilkinson, J

    1993-01-01

    While epidemiologic and concordant experimental data indicate a direct relationship between dietary fat (and presumably caloric) intake and the development of colon cancer, the effect of dietary cholesterol on this disease is still not clear. However, there appears to be a developing literature concerning an inverse relationship between serum and plasma cholesterol levels, and the risk for colon cancer. Findings that low serum cholesterol levels are apparent as early as ten years prior to the detection of colon cancer implies that sub clinical disease is probably not involved initially in this process. The possibility of low serum cholesterol as a bio-marker was considered in epidemiologic studies which focused upon obese men with lower than normal serum cholesterol levels who were found to be at increased risk to colon cancer. While the relationship between low serum cholesterol and colonic or intestinal cholesterol metabolism is presently not understood, current genetic studies provide a promising though as yet unexplored potential association. Alterations which occur during the developmental progression of colonic cancer include changes in chromosome 5, which also carries two genes vital to the biosynthesis and regulation of systemic and cellular cholesterol metabolism, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCoA R). Regulation of cholesterol metabolism in intestinal cells in vivo and in vitro varies from that seen in normal fibroblasts or hepatocytes in terms of exogenous sources of cholesterol and how these sources regulate internal synthesis. Colonic cancer cells have been used to assess small bowel enterocyte cholesterol metabolism, which has been possible because of their ability to differentiate in culture, however information regarding true colonic enterocyte cholesterol metabolism is relatively scarce. Colonic cancer cells have been shown to possess a diminished or nonexistent ability to use

  18. Tumor-selective proteotoxicity of verteporfin inhibits colon cancer progression independently of YAP1#

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huabing; Ramakrishnan, Sadeesh K.; Triner, Daniel; Centofanti, Brook; Maitra, Dhiman; Győrffy, Balázs; Sebolt-Leopold, Judith S.; Dame, Michael K.; Varani, James; Brenner, Dean E.; Fearon, Eric R.; Omary, M. Bishr; Shah, Yatrik M.

    2016-01-01

    Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) is a transcriptional coactivator in the Hippo signaling pathway. Increased YAP1- activity promotes the growth of tumors, including that of colorectal cancer (CRC). Verteporfin, a drug that enhances phototherapy to treat neovascular macular degeneration, is an inhibitor of YAP1. Here, we found that verteporfin inhibited tumor growth independently of its effects on YAP1 or the related protein TAZ in genetic or chemical-induced mouse models of CRC, in patient-derived xenografts and in enteroid models of CRC. Instead, verteporfin exhibited in vivo selectivity for killing tumor cells in part by impairing the global clearance of high molecular weight oligomerized proteins, particularly p62 (a sequestrome involved in autophagy) and STAT3 (a transcription factor). Verteporfin inhibited cytokine-induced STAT3 activity and cell proliferation and reduced the viabilty of cultured CRC cells. Although verteporfin accumulated to a greater extent in normal cells than in tumor cells in vivo, experiments with cultured cells indicated that the normal cells efficiently cleared verteporfin-induced protein oligomers through autophagic and proteasomal pathways. Culturing CRC cells in hypoxic or nutrient-deprived conditions (modeling a typical CRC microenvironment) impaired the clearance of protein oligomers and resulted in cell death; whereas culturing cells in normoxic or glucose-replete conditions protected cell viability and proliferation in the presence of verteporfin. Furthermore, verteporfin suppressed the proliferation of other cancer cell lines even in the absence of YAP1, suggesting that verteporfin may be effective against multiple types of solid cancers. PMID:26443705

  19. Stroma-directed imatinib therapy impairs the tumor-promoting effect of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in an orthotopic transplantation model of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Shinagawa, Kei; Kitadai, Yasuhiko; Tanaka, Miwako; Sumida, Tomonori; Onoyama, Mieko; Ohnishi, Mayu; Ohara, Eiji; Higashi, Yukihito; Tanaka, Shinji; Yasui, Wataru; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2013-02-15

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are reported to contribute to formation of tumor-promoting stromal cells. We reported recently that, in an orthotopic nude mice model of colon cancer, MSCs traveled to tumor stroma, where they differentiated into carcinoma-associated fibroblast (CAF)-like cells. We also found that CAFs express platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) at a high level and that imatinib therapy targeting PDGFR in CAFs inhibits growth and metastasis of human colon cancer. These findings led us to examine whether the tumor-promoting effect of MSCs is impaired by blockade of PDGFR signaling achieved with imatinib. Orthotopic transplantation and splenic injection of human MSCs along with KM12SM human colon cancer cells, in comparison with transplantation of KM12SM cells alone, resulted in significantly greater promotion of tumor growth and liver metastasis. The KM12SM + MSC xenograft enhanced cell proliferation and angiogenesis and inhibited tumor cell apoptosis. When tumor-bearing animals were treated with imatinib, there was no significant increase in primary tumor volume or total volume of liver metastases, despite the KM12SM+MSC xenograft, and survival in the mixed-cell group was prolonged by imatinib treatment. Moreover, the ability of MSCs to migrate to tumor stroma was impaired, and the number of MSCs surviving in the tumor microenvironment was significantly decreased. In in vitro experiments, treatment with imatinib inhibited migration of MSCs. Our data suggest that blockade of PDGF signaling pathways influences the interaction between bone marrow-derived MSCs and tumor cells in the tumor microenvironment and, hence, inhibits the progressive growth of colon cancer.

  20. Prognostic value of circulating tumor DNA in patients with colon cancer: Systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Gaowei; Zhang, Kuo; Yang, Xin; Ding, Jiansheng; Wang, Zujian; Li, Jinming

    2017-01-01

    The application of circulating tumor DNA(ctDNA) represents a non-invasive method for tumor detection. Its prognostic significance in patients with colorectal cancer is controversial. We performed a systematic review of data from published studies to assess the prognostic values of ctDNA in patients with colorectal cancer. We searched Medline, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and Scopus databases to identify eligible studies reporting disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) stratified by ctDNA prior to December 6, 2016. We evaluated the quality and design of these studies. A total of 22 studies were eligible for systematic review. Among them, 11 studies investigated the prognostic value of ctDNA on disease-free survival (DFS). Seven of 11 studies showed that ctDNA was an independent variable to estimate the probability of DFS by multivariate analyses. Thirteen studies assessed the relationship between ctDNA and overall survival (OS). Eight of 13 studies showed that ctDNA was an independent predictor of worse OS through the use of multivariate analyses. This analysis provides evidence that ctDNA may be a prognostic biomarker, negatively correlated with the survival of patients with colorectal cancer. PMID:28187169

  1. Colon cancer - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/presentations/100157.htm Colon cancer - Series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  2. Tumor microRNA-29a expression and the risk of recurrence in stage II colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Weissmann-Brenner, Alina; Kushnir, Michal; Lithwick Yanai, Gila; Aharonov, Ranit; Gibori, Hadas; Purim, Ofer; Kundel, Yulia; Morgenstern, Sara; Halperin, Marissa; Niv, Yaron; Brenner, Baruch

    2012-06-01

    There is emerging evidence for the prognostic role of various microRNA (miRNA) molecules in colon cancer. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the miRNA profiles in the primary tumor of patients with recurrent and non-recurrent colon cancer. The study population included 110 patients, 51 (46%) with stage I and 59 (54%) with stage II disease, who underwent curative colectomies between 1995 and 2005 without adjuvant therapy and for whom reliable miRNA expression data were available. RNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor samples. Initial profiling, using microarrays, was done in order to identify potential biomarkers of recurrence. The miRNA expression was later verified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Findings were compared between patients who had a recurrence within 36 months of surgery (bad prognosis group, n=23, 21%) and those who did not (good prognosis group, n=87, 79%) in the entire group and within each stage. The results showed that in stage I, none of the 903 miRNAs tested showed differential expression between patients with good prognosis compared with those with poor prognosis. In contrast, in stage II, one miRNA, miR-29a, showed a clear differential expression between the groups (p=0.028). High expression of miR-29a was associated with a longer disease-free survival (DFS), on both univariate and multivariate analyses. Using miR-29a, the positive predictive value for non-recurrence was 94% (2 recurrences among 31 patients). The differential expression of miR-29a was verified by qRT-PCR, showing a similar impact of this miR on DFS. In conclusion, this study demonstrated a significant impact of miR-29a on the risk of recurrence in patients with stage II but not in patients with stage I colon cancer. Based on these results, a validation study is planned.

  3. Overexpression of protein kinase C in HT29 colon cancer cells causes growth inhibition and tumor suppression.

    PubMed Central

    Choi, P M; Tchou-Wong, K M; Weinstein, I B

    1990-01-01

    By using a retrovirus-derived vector system, we generated derivatives of the human colon cancer cell line HT29 that stably overexpress a full-length cDNA encoding the beta 1 isoform of rat protein kinase C (PKC). Two of these cell lines, PKC6 and PKC7, displayed an 11- to 15-fold increase in PKC activity when compared with the C1 control cell line that carries the vector lacking the PKC cDNA insert. Both of the overexpresser cell lines exhibited striking alterations in morphology when exposed to the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Following exposure to TPA, PKC6 and PKC7 cells displayed increased doubling time, decreased saturation density, and loss of anchorage-independent growth in soft agar; but these effects were not seen with the C1 cells. Also, in contrast to the control cells, the PKC-overproducing cells failed to display evidence of differentiation, as measured by alkaline phosphatase activity, when exposed to sodium butyrate. In addition, the PKC-overexpresser cells displayed decreased tumorigenicity in nude mice, even in the absence of treatment with TPA. These results provide the first direct evidence that PKC can inhibit tumor cell growth. Thus, in some tumors, PKC might act as a growth-suppressor gene. Images PMID:2388620

  4. Methylglyoxal suppresses human colon cancer cell lines and tumor growth in a mouse model by impairing glycolytic metabolism of cancer cells associated with down-regulation of c-Myc expression.

    PubMed

    He, Tiantian; Zhou, Huaibin; Li, Chunmei; Chen, Yuan; Chen, Xiaowan; Li, Chenli; Mao, Jiating; Lyu, Jianxin; Meng, Qing H

    2016-09-01

    Methylglyoxal (MG) is a highly reactive dicarbonyl compound exhibiting anti-tumor activity. The anti-tumor effects of MG have been demonstrated in some types of cancer, but its role in colon cancer and the mechanisms underlying this activity remain largely unknown. We investigated its role in human colon cancer and the underlying mechanism using human colon cancer cells and animal model. Viability, proliferation, and apoptosis were quantified in DLD-1 and SW480 colon cancer cells by using the Cell Counting Kit-8, plate colony formation assay, and flow cytometry, respectively. Cell migration and invasion were assessed by wound healing and transwell assays. Glucose consumption, lactate production, and intracellular ATP production also were assayed. The levels of c-Myc protein and mRNA were quantitated by western blot and qRT-PCR. The anti-tumor role of MG in vivo was investigated in a DLD-1 xenograft tumor model in nude mice. We demonstrated that MG inhibited viability, proliferation, migration, and invasion and induced apoptosis of DLD-1 and SW480 colon cancer cells. Treatment with MG reduced glucose consumption, lactate production, and ATP production and decreased c-Myc protein levels in these cells. Moreover, MG significantly suppressed tumor growth and c-Myc expression in vivo. Our findings suggest that MG plays an anti-tumor role in colon cancer. It inhibits cancer cell growth by altering the glycolytic pathway associated with downregulation of c-Myc protein. MG has therapeutic potential in colon cancer by interrupting cancer metabolism.

  5. Nuclear Matrix Proteins in Human Colon Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keesee, Susan K.; Meneghini, Marc D.; Szaro, Robert P.; Wu, Ying-Jye

    1994-03-01

    The nuclear matrix is the nonchromatin scaffolding of the nucleus. This structure confers nuclear shape, organizes chromatin, and appears to contain important regulatory proteins. Tissue specific nuclear matrix proteins have been found in the rat, mouse, and human. In this study we compared high-resolution two-dimensional gel electropherograms of nuclear matrix protein patterns found in human colon tumors with those from normal colon epithelia. Tumors were obtained from 18 patients undergoing partial colectomy for adenocarcinoma of the colon and compared with tissue from 10 normal colons. We have identified at least six proteins which were present in 18 of 18 colon tumors and 0 of 10 normal tissues, as well as four proteins present in 0 of 18 tumors and in 10 of 10 normal tissues. These data, which corroborate similar findings of cancer-specific nuclear matrix proteins in prostate and breast, suggest that nuclear matrix proteins may serve as important markers for at least some types of cancer.

  6. Inflammation and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Terzić, Janos; Grivennikov, Sergei; Karin, Eliad; Karin, Michael

    2010-06-01

    The connection between inflammation and tumorigenesis is well-established and in the last decade has received a great deal of supporting evidence from genetic, pharmacological, and epidemiological data. Inflammatory bowel disease is an important risk factor for the development of colon cancer. Inflammation is also likely to be involved with other forms of sporadic as well as heritable colon cancer. The molecular mechanisms by which inflammation promotes cancer development are still being uncovered and could differ between colitis-associated and other forms of colorectal cancer. Recent work has elucidated the role of distinct immune cells, cytokines, and other immune mediators in virtually all steps of colon tumorigenesis, including initiation, promotion, progression, and metastasis. These mechanisms, as well as new approaches to prevention and therapy, are discussed in this review.

  7. Inhibition of peritoneal dissemination of colon cancer by hyperthermic CO2 insufflation: A novel approach to prevent intraperitoneal tumor spread

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Houming; Zheng, Minhua

    2017-01-01

    Background The increasing use of laparoscopic surgery for advanced gastrointestinal cancer raises concerns about intra-peritoneal tumor spread. Prevention of peritoneal dissemination is extremely important but a preventive modality is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine a novel approach (hyperthermic CO2 insufflation, HT-CO2) for preventing peritoneal dissemination during laparoscopic surgery. Methods A peritoneal dissemination model was established in Balb/c nu/nu mice by intraperitoneal injection of human colon cancer cells (SW1116, 1×106). The mice (n = 48) were subsequently randomized into two groups and subjected to hyperthermic CO2 (43°C, >95% humidity, HT-CO2 group) or standard normothermic CO2 (21°C, <1% relative humidity, NT-CO2 group) insufflation for 3 hours. The mice were sacrificed 28 days later. The peritoneal dissemination was quantitatively analyzed by counting and weighing the peritoneal nodules. The port sites and ascites volume were measured. The peritoneal damage of HT-CO2 was histologically examined with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Intra-abdominal adhesions were evaluated 4 weeks later. Results The number of peritoneal nodules in the HT-CO2 group was significantly less than that in the NT-CO2 group (10.21±3.72 vs. 67.12±5.49, P<0.01). The mean weight of metastatic tumors in the HT-CO2 group was significantly lower than that in the NT-CO2 group (0.31±0.10g vs. 2.16±0.31g, P<0.01). Massive ascites were found in the NT-CO2 group while significantly less ascites developed in HT-CO2- treated mice (8.26±0.31ml vs. 1.27±0.28ml, P<0.01). No port-site metastases were detected in the HT-CO2 group while the incidence of the NT-CO2 group was 12.5% (3/24). HT-CO2 subjection resulted in slight peritoneal damage; the peritoneum returned to normal within five days. No adhesions formed after HT-CO2 treatment. Conclusions HT-CO2 can suppress peritoneal dissemination of colon cancer cells and only causes slight and

  8. Cathelicidin suppresses colon cancer development by inhibition of cancer associated fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Michelle; Ho, Samantha; Yoo, Jun Hwan; Tran, Deanna Hoang-Yen; Bakirtzi, Kyriaki; Su, Bowei; Tran, Diana Hoang-Ngoc; Kubota, Yuzu; Ichikawa, Ryan; Koon, Hon Wai

    2015-01-01

    Background Cathelicidin (LL-37 in humans and mCRAMP in mice) represents a family of endogenous antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory peptides. Cancer-associated fibroblasts can promote the proliferation of colon cancer cells and growth of colon cancer tumors. Methods We examined the role of cathelicidin in the development of colon cancer, using subcutaneous human HT-29 colon-cancer-cell-derived tumor model in nude mice and azoxymethane- and dextran sulfate-mediated colon cancer model in C57BL/6 mice. We also determined the indirect antitumoral mechanism of cathelicidin via the inhibition of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) of colon cancer cells and fibroblast-supported colon cancer cell proliferation. Results Intravenous administration of cathelicidin expressing adeno-associated virus significantly reduced the size of tumors, tumor-derived collagen expression, and tumor-derived fibroblast expression in HT-29-derived subcutaneous tumors in nude mice. Enema administration of the mouse cathelicidin peptide significantly reduced the size and number of colonic tumors in azoxymethane- and dextran sulfate-treated mice without inducing apoptosis in tumors and the adjacent normal colonic tissues. Cathelicidin inhibited the collagen expression and vimentin-positive fibroblast expression in colonic tumors. Cathelicidin did not directly affect HT-29 cell viability, but did significantly reduce tumor growth factor-β1-induced EMT of colon cancer cells. Media conditioned by the human colonic CCD-18Co fibroblasts promoted human colon cancer HT-29 cell proliferation. Cathelicidin pretreatment inhibited colon cancer cell proliferation mediated by media conditioned by human colonic CCD-18Co fibroblasts. Cathelicidin disrupted tubulin distribution in colonic fibroblasts. Disruption of tubulin in fibroblasts reduced fibroblast-supported colon cancer cell proliferation. Conclusion Cathelicidin effectively inhibits colon cancer development by interfering with EMT and fibroblast

  9. Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2/MnSOD)/catalase and SOD2/GPx1 ratios as biomarkers for tumor progression and metastasis in prostate, colon, and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Miar, Ana; Hevia, David; Muñoz-Cimadevilla, Henar; Astudillo, Aurora; Velasco, Julio; Sainz, Rosa M; Mayo, Juan C

    2015-08-01

    The role of manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (SOD2/MnSOD) during tumor progression has been studied for several decades with controversial results. While SOD2 downregulation was initially associated with tumor initiation and was proposed as a tumor suppressor gene, recent studies have reported that SOD2 might favor tumor progression and dissemination. To our knowledge this is the first time that changes in SOD2 expression in three different types of tumors, i.e., prostate, lung, and colon cancer, are studied by analyzing both SOD2 mRNA and protein levels in a total of 246 patients' samples. In prostate samples, SOD2 protein levels were also increased, especially in middle stage tumors. In the case of colon and lung tumors both mRNA and protein SOD2 levels were increased in malignant tissues compared to those in nontumor samples. More importantly, all metastases analyzed showed increased levels of SOD2 when compared to those of normal primary tissue and healthy adjacent tissue. Together, these results suggest that a common redox imbalance in these three types of tumor occurs at intermediate stages which then might favor migration and invasion, leading to a more aggressive cancer type. Consequently, the ratios SOD2/catalase and SOD2/Gpx1 could be considered as potential markers during progression from tumor growth to metastasis.

  10. Anti-tumor activity of Sann-Joong-Kuey-Jian-Tang alone and in combination with 5-fluorouracil in a human colon cancer colo 205 cell xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chun-Yuan; Lin, Yi-Hsiang; Su, Chin-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Malignant tumors are the leading cause of death in Taiwan; among these, colon cancer ranks third as a cause of cancer-related death. Sann-Joong-Kuey-Jian-Tang (SJKJT), a traditional Chinese medicinal prescription, has been used to treat lymph node diseases and infectious lesions, and exhibits cytotoxic activity in many cancer cell lines. Our previous studies demonstrated that SJKJT inhibits the proliferation of human colon cancer colo 205 cells in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-tumor activity of SJKJT alone and in combination with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in vivo. SCID mice bearing human colon cancer colo 205 cell xenografts were administered SJKJT alone (30 mg/kg daily, p.o.), SJKJT (30 mg/kg daily, p.o.) in combination with 5-FU (30 mg/kg weekly, i.p.), or vehicle alone. At the end of the 4-week dosing schedule, the tumor and animal body weights were individually measured. The SCID mice were sacrificed with CO2 inhalation, the xenograft tumors were dissected, and the protein expression of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (MAP-LC3-II) in colo 205 xenograft tumors was measured by Western blotting. In the control, SJKJT-, and SJKJT plus 5-FU-treated mice, the tumor weights were 6.37±2.57, 0.43±0.35 and 1.63±0.46 g, and the mice body weights were 29±0.55, 29±2.71 and 27±0.77 g, respectively. Treatment with SJKJT resulted in a reduction in tumor weight compared with the control group, indicating that SJKJT inhibits tumor growth in a colo 205 xenograft model. SJKJT also increased LC3-II protein expression as compared to the controls. The present study shows that SJKJT alone or in combination with 5-FU has a positive effect on the treatment of SCID mice bearing human colon cancer colo 205 cell xenografts. This suggests that SJKJT has therapeutic potential in the treatment of human colon cancer.

  11. Hinokitiol inhibits cell growth through induction of S-phase arrest and apoptosis in human colon cancer cells and suppresses tumor growth in a mouse xenograft experiment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youn-Sun; Choi, Kyeong-Mi; Kim, Wonkyun; Jeon, Young-Soo; Lee, Yong-Moon; Hong, Jin-Tae; Yun, Yeo-Pyo; Yoo, Hwan-Soo

    2013-12-27

    Hinokitiol (1), a tropolone-related natural compound, induces apoptosis and has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antitumor activities. In this study, the inhibitory effects of 1 were investigated on human colon cancer cell growth and tumor formation of xenograft mice. HCT-116 and SW-620 cells derived from human colon cancers were found to be similarly susceptible to 1, with IC50 values of 4.5 and 4.4 μM, respectively. Compound 1 induced S-phase arrest in the cell cycle progression and decreased the expression levels of cyclin A, cyclin E, and Cdk2. Conversely, 1 increased the expression of p21, a Cdk inhibitor. Compound 1 decreased Bcl-2 expression and increased the expression of Bax, and cleaved caspase-9 and -3. The effect of 1 on tumor formation when administered orally was evaluated in male BALB/c-nude mice implanted intradermally separately with HCT-116 and SW-620 cells. Tumor volumes and tumor weights in the mice treated with 1 (100 mg/kg) were decreased in both cases. These results suggest that the suppression of tumor formation by compound 1 in human colon cancer may occur through cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

  12. Gene-expression signature of tumor recurrence in patients with stage II and III colon cancer treated with 5'fluoruracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Giráldez, María Dolores; Lozano, Juan José; Cuatrecasas, Míriam; Alonso-Espinaco, Virginia; Maurel, Joan; Mármol, Maribel; Hörndler, Carlos; Ortego, Javier; Alonso, Vicente; Escudero, Pilar; Ramírez, Gina; Petry, Christoph; Lasalvia, Luis; Bohmann, Kerstin; Wirtz, Ralph; Mira, Aurea; Castells, Antoni

    2013-03-01

    Although receiving adjuvant chemotherapy after radical surgery, a disappointing proportion of patients with colorectal cancer will develop tumor recurrence. Probability of relapse is currently predicted from pathological staging, there being a need for additional markers to further select high-risk patients. This study was aimed to identify a gene-expression signature to predict tumor recurrence in patients with Stages II and III colon cancer treated with 5'fluoruracil (5FU)-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Two-hundred and twenty-eight patients diagnosed with Stages II-III colon cancer and treated with surgical resection and 5FU-based adjuvant chemotherapy were included. RNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples and expression of 27 selected candidate genes was analyzed by RT-qPCR. A tumor recurrence predicting model, including clinico-pathological variables and gene-expression profiling, was developed by Cox regression analysis and validated by bootstrapping. The regression analysis identified tumor stage and S100A2 and S100A10 gene expression as independently associated with tumor recurrence. The risk score derived from this model was able to discriminate two groups with a highly significant different probability of tumor recurrence (HR, 2.75; 95%CI, 1.71-4.39; p = 0.0001), which it was maintained when patients were stratified according to tumor stage. The algorithm was also able to distinguish two groups with different overall survival (HR, 2.68; 95%CI, 1.12-6.42; p = 0.03). Identification of a new gene-expression signature associated with a high probability of tumor recurrence in patients with Stages II and III colon cancer receiving adjuvant 5FU-based chemotherapy, and its combination in a robust, easy-to-use and reliable algorithm may contribute to tailor treatment and surveillance strategies.

  13. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... collection below explain colon cancer risk factors, screening tests, and treatments. There are also personal stories from ... Colon Cancer Risk Play Play Colon Cancer: Screening Tests Play Play Colon Cancer Screening Tests: Colonoscopy Play ...

  14. Keep Colon Cancer At Bay

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164231.html Keep Colon Cancer at Bay Colonoscopy best way to detect disease ... 22, 2017 WEDNESDAY, March 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Colon cancer can be treated and cured if it's diagnosed ...

  15. Protein phosphatase 2A is essential to maintain active Wnt signaling and its Aβ tumor suppressor subunit is not expressed in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Carmen Figueroa-Aldariz, M; Castañeda-Patlán, M Cristina; Santoyo-Ramos, Paula; Zentella, Alejandro; Robles-Flores, Martha

    2015-11-01

    Canonical Wnt signaling is altered in most cases of colorectal cancer. Experimental evidence indicates that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) may play either positive or negative roles in Wnt signaling but its precise in vivo functions remain elusive. In this work, using colon cultured cell lines we showed that basal PP2A activity is markedly reduced in malignant cells compared to non-malignant counterparts. We found that whereas normal or cancer cells displaying not altered Wnt signaling express mRNAs coding for PP2A-A scaffold α and β isoforms, cancer cells which have altered Wnt signaling do not express the Aβ isoform mRNA. Remarkably, we found that the Aβ protein levels are lost in all colon cancer cells, and in patients' tumor biopsies. In addition, all cancer cells exhibit higher levels of RalA activity, compared to non-malignant cells. Rescue experiments to restore Aβ expression in malignant RKO cells, diminished the RalGTPase activation and cell proliferation, indicating that the Aβ isoform acts as tumor suppressor in colon cancer cells. Reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence studies showed that the PP2A-C and -Aα subunits, expressed in all colon cells, interact in vivo with β-catenin only in malignant cells. Selective inhibition of PP2A did not significantly affect cellular apoptosis but induced dose-dependent negative effects in β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity and in cell proliferation of malignant cells, indicating that the residual PP2A activity found in malignant cells, mediated by -C and Aα core subunits, is essential to maintain active Wnt signaling and cell proliferation in colon cancer cells.

  16. Nef-M1, a peptide antagonist of CXCR4, inhibits tumor angiogenesis and epithelial‑to‑mesenchymal transition in colon and breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Katkoori, Venkat R; Basson, Marc D; Bond, Vincent C; Manne, Upender; Bumpers, Harvey L

    2015-09-29

    The Nef-M1 peptide competes effectively with the natural ligand of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), stromal cell-derived factor 1-alpha, to induce apoptosis and inhibit growth in colon cancer (CRC) and breast cancer (BC). Its role in tumor angiogenesis, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulation, key steps involved in tumor growth and metastasis, are unknown. We evaluated the angioinhibitory effect of Nef-M1 peptide and examined its role in the inhibition of EMT in these cancers. Colon (HT29) and breast (MDA-MB231) cancer cells expressing CXCR4 were studied in vitro and in xenograft tumors propagated in severe combined immunodeficient mice. The mice were treated intraperitoneally with Nef-M1 or scrambled amino acid sequence of Nef-M1 (sNef-M1) peptide, a negative control, starting at the time of tumor implantation. Sections from tumors were evaluated for tumor angiogenesis, as measured by microvessel density (MVD) based on immunostaining of endothelial markers. In vitro tumor angiogenesis was assessed by treating human umbilical vein endothelial cells with conditioned media from the tumor cell lines. A BC cell line (MDA-MB 468) which does not express CXCR4 was used to study the actions of Nef-M1 peptide. Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses assessed the effect of Nef-M1 on tumor angiogenesis and EMT in both tumors and cancer cells. Metastatic lesions of CRC and BC expressed more CXCR4 than primary lesions. It was also found that tumors from mice treated with sNef-M1 had well established vascularity, while Nef-M1 treated tumors had very poor vascularization. Indeed, the mean MVD was lower in tumors from Nef-M1 treated mice than in sNef-M1 treated tumors. Nef-M1 treated tumor has poor morphology and loss of endothelial integrity. Although conditioned medium from CRC or BC cells supported HUVEC tube formation, the conditioned medium from Nef-M1 treated CRC or BC cells did not support tube formation. Western blot analyses revealed that Nef-M1

  17. Serum exosomal miR-4772-3p is a predictor of tumor recurrence in stage II and III colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang; Eng, Cathy; Shen, Jianjun; Lu, Yue; Takata, Yoko; Mehdizadeh, Amir; Chang, George J.; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel A.; Li, Yanan; Chang, Ping; Mao, Yixiang; Hassan, Manal M.; Wang, Fangyu; Li, Donghui

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The study was aimed to evaluate the prognostic or predictive value of serum exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) for tumor recurrence and response to adjuvant therapy in stage II and stage III colon cancer. Results 145 differentially expressed mature miRNAs were identified (P<0.05) and 10 top hits were carried forward in validation test. MiR-4772-3p was significantly under-expressed in 27 patients with recurrence compared to in 57 patients without recurrence (P=0.002). The reduced expression was significantly related to increased risk of tumor recurrence and risk of death. As a predictor for tumor recurrence, ROC analysis revealed the AUC (95% CI) was 0.72 (0.59-0.85, P=0.001) for lower level of miR-4772-3p compared to 0.63 (0.51-0.75, P=0.062) for tumor site and 0.65 (0.51-0.78,P=0.034) for lymph node status. Among 66/84 patients who received FOLFOX adjuvant therapy, 9/10 (90%) patients with a lower level and 10/56 (18%) patients with a higher level of miR-4772-3p had tumor recurrence (P<0.001). Materials and Methods Blood samples were prospectively collected from84 patients with stage II/III colon cancer after tumor resection and before adjuvant therapy. Serum exosomal miRNA profiles were determined by RNA sequencing. Differentially expressed mature miRNAs were identified between patients with or without tumor recurrence. The top hits were validated in individual RNA samples using quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR. Conclusions Reduced expression of serum exosomal miR-4772-3p is a prognostic biomarker for tumor recurrence in stage II and stage III colon cancer patients. The predictive value of this marker for response to FOLFOX adjuvant therapy needs further investigation. PMID:27788488

  18. Irinotecan and Alisertib in Treating Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors or Colorectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-20

    Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  19. Advances in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Levin, Mark

    2003-06-01

    From May 29 to June 5, 2003, the American Society of Clinical Oncology held its 39th Annual Meeting in Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. The meeting was devoted to the presentation of advances in clinical sciences, diagnosis, prevention and management of malignant disorders, and brings together investigators, clinicians, policy makers and other professionals interested in the science and impact of cancer worldwide. This report will be presented in two parts, the first focusing of colon cancer, and the second on breast cancer will be published in the next issue of Drug News & Perspectives.

  20. Silibinin modulates caudal-type homeobox transcription factor (CDX2), an intestine specific tumor suppressor to abrogate colon cancer in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Sangeetha, N; Nalini, N

    2015-01-01

    To authenticate the colon cancer preventive potential of silibinin, the efficacy of silibinin needs to be tested by evaluating an organ-specific biomarker. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of silibinin on the colonic expression of the caudal-type homeobox transcription factor (CDX2) an intestine specific tumor suppressor gene and its downstream targets in the colon of rats challenged with 1,2 dimethyl hydrazine (DMH). Rats of groups 1 and 2 were treated as control and silibinin control. Rats under groups 3 and 4 were given DMH (20 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) subcutaneously) once a week for 15 consecutive weeks from the 4th week of the experimental period. In addition, group 4 rats alone were treated with silibinin (50 mg/kg b.w. per os) everyday throughout the study period of 32 weeks. Histological investigation and messenger RNA and protein expression studies were performed in the colonic tissues of experimental rats. Findings of the study revealed that DMH administration significantly decreased the expression of CDX2 and Guanylyl cyclase C (GCC) in the colon of experimental rats. Further the decreased levels of CDX2 protein, colonic mucin content, and increased number of mast cells in the colon of DMH alone-administered rats reflects the onset of carcinogenesis. The pathological changes caused due to CDX2 suppression were attenuated by silibinin supplementation.

  1. Oncolytic reovirus against ovarian and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, Kensuke; Nishikawa, Sandra G; Norman, Kara L; Alain, Tommy; Kossakowska, Anna; Lee, Patrick W K

    2002-03-15

    Reovirus selectively replicates in and destroys cancer cells with an activated Ras signaling pathway. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of using reovirus (serotype 3, strain Dearing) as an antihuman colon and ovarian cancer agent. In in vitro studies, reovirus infection in human colon and ovarian cell lines was assessed by cytopathic effect as detected by light microscopy, [(35)S]Methionine labeling of infected cells for viral protein synthesis and progeny virus production by plaque assay. We observed that reovirus efficiently infected all five human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2, DLD-1, HCT-116, HT-29, and SW48) and four human ovarian cancer cell lines (MDAH2774, PA-1, SKOV3, and SW626) which were tested, but not a normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co) or a normal ovarian cell line (NOV-31). We also observed that the Ras activity in the human colon and ovarian cancer cell lines was elevated compared with that in normal colon and ovarian cell lines. In animal models, intraneoplastic as well as i.v. inoculation of reovirus resulted in significant regression of established s.c. human colon and ovarian tumors implanted at the hind flank. Histological studies revealed that reovirus infection in vivo was restricted to tumor cells, whereas the surrounding normal tissue remained uninfected. Additionally, in an i.p. human ovarian cancer xenograft model, inhibition of ascites tumor formation and the survival of animals treated with live reovirus was significantly greater than of control mice treated with UV-inactivated reovirus. Reovirus infection in ex vivo primary human ovarian tumor surgical samples was also confirmed, further demonstrating the potential of reovirus therapy. These results suggest that reovirus holds promise as a novel agent for human colon and ovarian cancer therapy.

  2. Role of metformin in suppressing 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer in diabetic and non-diabetic mice: effect on tumor angiogenesis and cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Zaafar, Dalia K; Zaitone, Sawsan A; Moustafa, Yasser M

    2014-01-01

    Several studies indicated that type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance are associated with increased colon cancer risk. Recently, studies suggest that metformin can reduce cancer risk in diabetic or non-diabetic patients with unclear mechanisms. This work aimed to determine the effect of metformin on chemically-induced colon cancer in mice. Colon cancer was induced using 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 20 mg/kg/week, s.c.) for fifteen weeks. Experiment I: healthy mice were fed with basal diet for four weeks and then allocated into seven groups, (i) saline, (ii) DMH, (iii) oxaliplatin, (iv-v): metformin (100 or 200 mg/kg) and (vi-vii): oxaliplatin+metformin (100 or 200 mg/kg), respectively. Experiment II: type 2 diabetes mellitus was induced by injection of STZ (30 mg/kg) after four weeks of high-fat feeding and then mice were allocated into seven groups similar to those reported in experiment I. Examination of the colonic tissue at the end of the experiment highlighted an increase in angiogenic markers and cell proliferation and showed a greater immunostaining for insulin growth factor I receptors and CD34 in the colon of diabetic mice compared to non-diabetics. In general, metformin downregulated tumor angiogenesis and augmented the antitumor effect of oxaliplatin. Overall, the current results showed that metformin protected against DMH-induced colon cancer in non-diabetic and diabetic mice. This therapeutic effect was, at least in part, attributed to its anti-angiogenic and anti-proliferative mechanisms.

  3. Non-canonical WNT5A signaling up-regulates the expression of the tumor suppressor 15-PGDH and induces differentiation of colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mehdawi, Lubna M; Prasad, Chandra Prakash; Ehrnström, Roy; Andersson, Tommy; Sjölander, Anita

    2016-11-01

    The tumor suppressor 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) is the key enzyme in prostaglandin E2 catabolism and is down-regulated in colorectal cancer (CRC) tissue. Canonical Wnt signaling is frequently elevated in colon cancers and has been shown to down-regulate 15-PGDH expression. Therefore, we have in the current study investigated if the non-canonical ligand WNT5A relates to increased expression of 15-PGDH in colon cancer cells. In the same cohort of patients, we demonstrated a parallel and significant loss of 15-PGDH and WNT5A protein expression in CRC tissues compared with matched normal colon tissues. Furthermore, patients with low 15-PGDH/WNT5A expression in their tumors showed reduced survival compared with patients with high 15-PGDH/WNT5A expression. To investigate if WNT5A signaling directly affects 15-PGDH expression, we performed in vitro analyses of colon cancer cells (HT-29 and Caco-2). Both cell lines, when treated with recombinant WNT5A (rWNT5A) or Foxy-5, a WNT5A-mimicking peptide, responded by increasing their expression of 15-PGDH mRNA and protein. Our investigations showed that rWNT5A and Foxy-5 induced this increased expression of 15-PGDH through reduced β-catenin signaling as well as increased JNK/AP-1 signaling in colon cancer cells. WNT5A signaling also induced increased 15-PGDH expression in a breast cancer cell line both in vitro and in vivo. In agreement, WNT5A signaling also increased the expression of the differentiation markers sucrose-isomaltase and mucin-2 in colon cancer cells. Our results show that WNT5A signaling regulates 15-PGDH expression, thus uncovering a novel mechanism by which WNT5A acts as a tumor suppressor and suggests that increased 15-PGDH expression could be used as an indicator of a positive response to Foxy-5 in patients treated with this WNT5A agonist.

  4. Colon and pancreas tumors enhance coagulation: role of hemeoxygenase-1.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Vance G; Nfonsam, Valentine N; Matika, Ryan W; Ong, Evan S; Jie, Tun; Warneke, James A; Steinbrenner, Evangelina B

    2014-07-01

    Colon and pancreatic cancer are associated with significant thrombophilia. Colon and pancreas tumor cells have an increase in hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) activity, the endogenous enzyme responsible for carbon monoxide production. Given that carbon monoxide enhances plasmatic coagulation, we determined if patients undergoing resection of colon and pancreatic tumors had an increase in endogenous carbon monoxide and plasmatic hypercoagulability. Patients with colon (n = 17) and pancreatic (n = 10) tumors were studied. Carbon monoxide was determined by the measurement of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). A thrombelastographic method to assess plasma coagulation kinetics and formation of carboxyhemefibrinogen (COHF) was utilized. Nonsmoking patients with colon and pancreatic tumors had abnormally increased COHb concentrations of 1.4 ± 0.9 and 1.9 ± 0.7%, respectively, indicative of HO-1 upregulation. Coagulation analyses comparing both tumor groups demonstrated no significant differences in any parameter; thus the data were combined for the tumor groups for comparison with 95% confidence interval values obtained from normal individuals (n = 30) plasma. Seventy percent of tumor patients had a velocity of clot formation greater than the 95% confidence interval value of normal individuals, with 53% of this hypercoagulable group also having COHF formation. Further, 67% of tumor patients had clot strength that exceeded the normal 95% confidence interval value, and 56% of this subgroup had COHF formation. Finally, 63% of all tumor patients had COHF formation. Future investigation of HO-1-derived carbon monoxide in the pathogenesis of colon and pancreatic tumor-related thrombophilia is warranted.

  5. Concomitant consumption of lycopene and fish oil inhibits tumor growth and progression in a mouse xenograft model of colon cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our previous report showed that concomitant supplementation of lycopene and eicosa-pentaenoic acid synergistically inhibited the proliferation of human colon cancer HT-29 cells in vitro. To validate our findings, the present study investigated whether consumption of lycopene and fish oil would help ...

  6. Exenatide suppresses 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer in diabetic mice: Effect on tumor angiogenesis and cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Mona K; Mohamed, Magda I

    2016-08-01

    Colon cancer is the third leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide, which results from interactions of different factors. It is frequently a pathological consequence of persistent inflammation. Diabetes affects several cancers and is positively correlated with the incidence of colon cancer. This study aimed to study the effect of exenatide in ameliorating inflammation, angiogenesis and cell proliferation in 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) induced colorectal carcinoma in diabetic mice. Mice were randomly allocated into six groups, 8 mice each. Group 1: vehicle control group. Group 2: diabetic control group. Group 3: DMH control group: diabetic mice treated with DMH (20mg/kg/week,s.c.) for 15 week. Group 4: DMH-cisplatin group: mice received cisplatin (4mg/kg/week, i.p.). Groups 5 & 6: DMH-exenatide (10 and 20μg/kg) group: mice received exenatide (10 or 20μg/kg/day,s.c.), respectively. The present results highlighted an increase in angiogenic markers and cell proliferation in the DMH-diabetic group in comparison with the control group with greater expression of endothelial marker (CD34) and Ki-67 in colon tissue. Monotherapy with cisplatin or exenatide (10 and 20μg/kg) downregulated these markers to different extents. The current results provided evidence that exenatide represents a promising chemopreventive effect against DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis in diabetic mice, at least in part, attributed to its anti-angiogenic and anti-proliferative mechanisms.

  7. A new method for detection of tumor driver-dependent changes of protein sialylation in a colon cancer cell line reveals nectin-3 as TGFBR2 target

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jennifer; Warnken, Uwe; Schnölzer, Martina; Gebert, Johannes; Kopitz, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Protein-linked glycans play key roles in cell differentiation, cell–cell interactions, cell growth, adhesion and immune response. Aberrant glycosylation is a characteristic feature of tumor cells and is involved in tumor growth, escape from apoptosis, metastasis formation, and resistance to therapy. It can serve as cancer biomarker and treatment target. To enable comprehensive screening for the impact of tumor driving mutations in colorectal cancer cells we present a method for specific analysis of tumor driver-induced glycome changes. The strategy is based on a combination of three technologies, that is recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE), Click-It chemistry and mass spectrometry. The new method is exemplified by the analysis of the impact of inactivating mutations of the TGF-ß-receptor type II (TGFBR2) on sialic acid incorporation into protein-linked glycans of the colon cancer cell line HCT116. Overall, 70 proteins were found to show de novo sialic acid incorporation exclusively upon TGFBR2 expression whereas 7 proteins lost sialylation upon TGFBR2 reconstitution. Validation of detected candidate glycoproteins is demonstrated with the cell surface glycoprotein nectin-3 known to be involved in metastasis, invasion and prognosis of various cancers. Altogether, our new approach can help to systematically puzzle out the influence of tumor-specific mutations in a major signaling pathway, as exemplified by the TGFBR2 tumor suppressor, on the tumor glycome. It facilitates the identification of glycan-based tumor markers that could be used for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In principle the outlined strategy can be adapted to any cancer cell line, tumor driver mutation and several glycan-building blocks. PMID:26177744

  8. A new method for detection of tumor driver-dependent changes of protein sialylation in a colon cancer cell line reveals nectin-3 as TGFBR2 target.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jennifer; Warnken, Uwe; Schnölzer, Martina; Gebert, Johannes; Kopitz, Jürgen

    2015-10-01

    Protein-linked glycans play key roles in cell differentiation, cell-cell interactions, cell growth, adhesion and immune response. Aberrant glycosylation is a characteristic feature of tumor cells and is involved in tumor growth, escape from apoptosis, metastasis formation, and resistance to therapy. It can serve as cancer biomarker and treatment target. To enable comprehensive screening for the impact of tumor driving mutations in colorectal cancer cells we present a method for specific analysis of tumor driver-induced glycome changes. The strategy is based on a combination of three technologies, that is recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE), Click-It chemistry and mass spectrometry. The new method is exemplified by the analysis of the impact of inactivating mutations of the TGF-ß-receptor type II (TGFBR2) on sialic acid incorporation into protein-linked glycans of the colon cancer cell line HCT116. Overall, 70 proteins were found to show de novo sialic acid incorporation exclusively upon TGFBR2 expression whereas 7 proteins lost sialylation upon TGFBR2 reconstitution. Validation of detected candidate glycoproteins is demonstrated with the cell surface glycoprotein nectin-3 known to be involved in metastasis, invasion and prognosis of various cancers. Altogether, our new approach can help to systematically puzzle out the influence of tumor-specific mutations in a major signaling pathway, as exemplified by the TGFBR2 tumor suppressor, on the tumor glycome. It facilitates the identification of glycan-based tumor markers that could be used for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In principle the outlined strategy can be adapted to any cancer cell line, tumor driver mutation and several glycan-building blocks.

  9. Monitoring of Tumor Promotion and Progression in a Mouse Model of Inflammation-Induced Colon Cancer with Magnetic Resonance Colonography1

    PubMed Central

    Young, Matthew R; Ileva, Lilia V; Bernardo, Marcelino; Riffle, Lisa A; Jones, Yava L; Kim, Young S; Colburn, Nancy H; Choyke, Peter L

    2009-01-01

    Early detection of precancerous tissue has significantly improved survival of most cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC). Animal models designed to study the early stages of cancer are valuable for identifying molecular events and response indicators that correlate with the onset of disease. The goal of this work was to investigate magnetic resonance (MR) colonography in a mouse model of CRC on a clinical MR imager. Mice treated with azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium were imaged by serial MR colonography (MRC) from initiation to euthanasia. Magnetic resonance colonography was obtained with both T1- and T2-weighted images after administration of a Fluorinert enema to remove residual luminal signal and intravenous contrast to enhance the colon wall. Individual tumor volumes were calculated and validated ex vivo. The Fluorinert enema provided a clear differentiation of the lumen of the colon from the mucosal lining. Inflammation was detected 3 days after dextran sulfate sodium exposure and subsided during the next week. Tumors as small as 1.2 mm3 were detected and as early as 29 days after initiation. Individual tumor growths were followed over time, and tumor volumes were measured by MR imaging correlated with volumes measured ex vivo. The use of a Fluorinert enema during MRC in mice is critical for differentiating mural processes from intraluminal debris. Magnetic resonance colonography with Fluorinert enema and intravenous contrast enhancement will be useful in the study of the initial stages of colon cancer and will reduce the number of animals needed for preclinical trials of prevention or intervention. PMID:19242605

  10. "Cancer tumor".

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronshtehn, V. A.

    The title is a phrase borrowed from a speech by a Leningrad pressman, V. E. Lvov, who called upon those attending a theoretical conference on ideological issues in astronomy held by the Leningrad Branch of the All-Union Astronomic and Geodetic Society (13 - 4 December 1948), "to make a more radical emphasis on the negative role of relativistic cosmology which is a cancer tumor disintegrating the contemporary astronomy theory, and a major ideological enemy of a materialist astronomy".

  11. Multi-Target Approaches in Colon Cancer Chemoprevention Based on Systems Biology of Tumor Cell-Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Guruswamy, Suresh; Rao, Chinthalapally V.

    2008-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the leading cause of cancer related deaths in the United States. Although it is preventable, thousands of lives are lost each year in the U.S. to colorectal cancer than to breast cancer and AIDS combined. In colon cancer, the formation and progression of precancerous lesions like aberrant crypt foci and polyps is associated with the up-regulation of cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and hydroxy methyl glutaryl CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase). The current review will focus on the signaling pathway involving COX-2 and HMG-CoA reductase enzymes and their downstream effectors in signaling mechanism. Cancer cells need huge pools of both cholesterol and isoprenoids to sustain their unlimited growth potential. Cholesterol by modulating caveolae formation regulates several signaling molecules like AKT, IGFR, EGFR and Rho which are involved in cell growth and survival. Cholesterol is also essential for lipid body formation which serves as storage sites for COX-2, eicosanoids and caveolin-1. Experimental studies have identified important mechanisms showing that COX-2, caveolin-1, lipid bodies and prenylated proteins is involved in carcinogenesis. Therefore multi-target, multi-drug approach is the ideal choice for effective colon cancer chemoprevention. This review will give an overview of the two pathways, their signaling networks, and the interactions between the components of the two networks in the activation and regulation of cell signaling involving growth/survival and explain the rationale for colon cancer chemoprevention using COX-2 inhibitors and statins. PMID:19763245

  12. Colon cancer stem cells: controversies and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Puglisi, Maria Ausiliatrice; Tesori, Valentina; Lattanzi, Wanda; Gasbarrini, Giovanni Battista; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2013-05-28

    Tumors have long been viewed as a population in which all cells have the equal propensity to form new tumors, the so called conventional stochastic model. The cutting-edge theory on tumor origin and progression, tends to consider cancer as a stem cell disease. Stem cells are actively involved in the onset and maintenance of colon cancer. This review is intended to examine the state of the art on colon cancer stem cells (CSCs), with regard to the recent achievements of basic research and to the corresponding translational consequences. Specific prominence is given to the hypothesized origin of CSCs and to the methods for their identification. The growing understanding of CSC biology is driving the optimization of novel anti-cancer targeted drugs.

  13. Protein-bound polysaccharide from Phellinus linteus inhibits tumor growth, invasion, and angiogenesis and alters Wnt/β-catenin in SW480 human colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Polysaccharides extracted from the Phellinus linteus (PL) mushroom are known to possess anti-tumor effects. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the anti-tumor properties of PL remain to be explored. Experiments were carried out to unravel the anticancer effects of PL. Methods The anti-cancer effects of PL were examined in SW480 colon cancer cells by evaluating cell proliferation, invasion and matrix metallo-proteinase (MMP) activity. The anti-angiogenic effects of PL were examined by assessing human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and capillary tube formation. The in vivo effect of PL was evaluated in an athymic nude mouse SW480 tumor engraft model. Results PL (125-1000 μg/mL) significantly inhibited cell proliferation and decreased β-catenin expression in SW480 cells. Expression of cyclin D1, one of the downstream-regulated genes of β-catenin, and T-cell factor/lymphocyte enhancer binding factor (TCF/LEF) transcription activity were also significantly reduced by PL treatment. PL inhibited in vitro invasion and motility as well as the activity of MMP-9. In addition, PL treatment inhibited HUVEC proliferation and capillary tube formation. Tumor growth of SW480 cells implanted into nude mice was significantly decreased as a consequence of PL treatment, and tumor tissues from treated animals showed an increase in the apoptotic index and a decrease in β-catenin expression. Moreover, the proliferation index and microvessel density were significantly decreased. Conclusions These data suggest that PL suppresses tumor growth, invasion, and angiogenesis through the inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in certain colon cancer cells. PMID:21781302

  14. Extravirgin olive oil up-regulates CB₁ tumor suppressor gene in human colon cancer cells and in rat colon via epigenetic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Di Francesco, Andrea; Falconi, Anastasia; Di Germanio, Clara; Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria Vittoria; Costa, Antonio; Caramuta, Stefano; Del Carlo, Michele; Compagnone, Dario; Dainese, Enrico; Cifani, Carlo; Maccarrone, Mauro; D'Addario, Claudio

    2015-03-01

    Extravirgin olive oil (EVOO) represents the typical lipid source of the Mediterranean diet, an eating habit pattern that has been associated with a significant reduction of cancer risk. Diet is the more studied environmental factor in epigenetics, and many evidences suggest dysregulation of epigenetic pathways in cancer. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of EVOO and its phenolic compounds on endocannabinoid system (ECS) gene expression via epigenetic regulation in both human colon cancer cells (Caco-2) and rats exposed to short- and long-term dietary EVOO. We observed a selective and transient up-regulation of CNR1 gene - encoding for type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB₁) - that was evoked by exposure of Caco-2 cells to EVOO (100 ppm), its phenolic extracts (OPE, 50 μM) or authentic hydroxytyrosol (HT, 50 μM) for 24 h. None of the other major elements of the ECS (i.e., CB₂; GPR55 and TRPV1 receptors; and NAPE-PLD, DAGL, FAAH and MAGL enzymes) was affected at any time point. The stimulatory effect of OPE and HT on CB₁ expression was inversely correlated to DNA methylation at CNR1 promoter and was associated with reduced proliferation of Caco-2 cells. Interestingly, CNR1 gene was less expressed in Caco-2 cells when compared to normal colon mucosa cells, and again this effect was associated with higher level of DNA methylation at CNR1. Moreover, in agreement with the in vitro studies, we also observed a remarkable (~4-fold) and selective increase in CB₁ expression in the colon of rats receiving dietary EVOO supplementation for 10 days. Consistently, CpG methylation of rat Cnr1 promoter, miR23a and miR-301a, previously shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer and predicted to target CB₁ mRNA, was reduced after EVOO administration down to ~50% of controls. Taken together, our findings demonstrating CB₁ gene expression modulation by EVOO or its phenolic compounds via epigenetic mechanism, both in vitro and in vivo, may

  15. New-generation taxoid SB-T-1214 inhibits stem cell-related gene expression in 3D cancer spheroids induced by purified colon tumor-initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Growing evidence suggests that the majority of tumors are organized hierarchically, comprising a population of tumor-initiating, or cancer stem cells (CSCs) responsible for tumor development, maintenance and resistance to drugs. Previously we have shown that the CD133high/CD44high fraction of colon cancer cells is different from their bulk counterparts at the functional, morphological and genomic levels. In contrast to the majority of colon cancer cells expressing moderate levels of CD133, CD44 and CD166, cells with a high combined expression of CD133 and CD44 possessed several characteristic stem cell features, including profound self-renewal capacity in vivo and in vitro, and the ability to give rise to different cell phenotypes. The present study was undertaken for two aims: a) to determine stem cell-related genomic characteristics of floating 3D multicellular spheroids induced by CD133high/CD44high colon cancer cells; and b) to evaluate CSC-specific alterations induced by new-generation taxoid SB-T-1214. Results Selected CSC phenotype was isolated from three independent invasive colon cancer cell lines, HCT116, HT29 and DLD-1. A stem cell-specific PCR array assay (SABiosciences) revealed that colonospheres induced by purified CD133high/CD44high expressing cells display profound up-regulation of stem cell-related genes in comparison with their bulk counterparts. The FACS analysis has shown that the 3D colonospheres contained some minority cell populations with high levels of expression of Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and c-Myc, which are essential for stem cell pluripotency and self-renewal. Single administration of the SB-T-1214 at concentration 100 nM-1 μM for 48 hr not only induced growth inhibition and apoptotic cell death in these three types of colon cancer spheroids in 3D culture, but also mediated massive inhibition of the stem cell-related genes and significant down-regulation of the pluripotency gene expression. PCR array and FACS data were confirmed

  16. MicroRNA-100 functions as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting Lgr5 expression in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ming-Kai; Liu, Xiao-Jun; Zhao, Zhi-Guo; Cheng, Yi-Meng

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of single‑stranded RNA molecules that are 18‑27 nucleotides in length, serve a critical function in tumorigenesis, including in the development of colon cancer. In the current study, miR‑100 levels were demonstrated to be reduced in colon cancer tissues compared with the levels in matched adjacent normal tissues. Forced overexpression of miR‑100 by transfection with miR‑100 mimics substantially inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of SW480 and HCT116 cells, whereas reduced expression, resulting from transfection of antisense oligonucleotides, promoted these processes. At the molecular level, miR‑100 was observed to reduce the levels of leucine‑rich repeat‑containing G protein‑coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5), by binding to its 3'‑untranslated region. As a result of this, Wnt/β‑catenin signaling was affected by fluctuations in the level of miR‑100 mimics or antisense. Collectively, the results of the current study elucidate a novel regulatory pathway involving miR‑100 and Lgr5 in colon cancer cells, which may present a potential therapeutic target.

  17. Neuropilin-1 in Human Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Alexander A.; Fan, Fan; Liu, Wen Biao; Ahmad, Syed A.; Stoeltzing, Oliver; Reinmuth, Niels; Bielenberg, Diane; Bucana, Corazon D.; Klagsbrun, Michael; Ellis, Lee M.

    2004-01-01

    Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1), a recently identified co-receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor, is expressed by several nongastrointestinal tumor types and enhances prostate cancer angiogenesis and growth in preclinical models. We investigated the expression and regulation of NRP-1 and the effect of NRP-1 overexpression on angiogenesis and growth of human colon adenocarcinoma by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. NRP-1 was expressed in 20 of 20 human colon adenocarcinoma specimens but not in the adjacent nonmalignant colonic mucosa. By reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis, NRP-1 mRNA was expressed in seven of seven colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. Subcutaneous xenografts of stably transfected KM12SM/LM2 human colon cancer cells overexpressing NRP-1 led to increased tumor growth and angiogenesis in nude mice. In in vitro assays, conditioned medium from NRP-1-transfected cell lines led to an increase in endothelial cell migration, but did not affect endothelial cell growth. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) led to induction of NRP-1 in human colon adenocarcinoma cells and selective blockade of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) decreased constitutive and EGF-induced NRP-1 expression. Blockade of the Erk 1/2 and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways also led to a decrease in constitutive and EGF-induced NRP-1 expression. These findings demonstrate the ubiquitous expression of NRP-1 in human colon cancer and suggest that NRP-1 may contribute to colon cancer angiogenesis and growth. This study also suggests that EGF and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways play an important role in NRP-1 regulation in colon cancer cells. PMID:15161648

  18. CT findings of colonic complications associated with colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Won; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Young Tong; Kim, Chang-Jin

    2010-01-01

    A broad spectrum of colonic complications can occur in patients with colon cancer. Clinically, some of these complications can obscure the presence of underlying malignancies in the colon and these complications may require emergency surgical management. The complications of the colon that can be associated with colon cancer include obstruction, perforation, abscess formation, acute appendicitis, ischemic colitis and intussusception. Although the majority of these complications only rarely occur, familiarity with the various manifestations of colon cancer complications will facilitate making an accurate diagnosis and administering prompt management in these situations. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the CT appearance of the colonic complications associated with colon cancer.

  19. Id1 Deficiency Protects against Tumor Formation in Apc(Min/+) Mice but Not in a Mouse Model of Colitis-Associated Colon Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Subbaramaiah, Kotha; Yantiss, Rhonda K; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Chin, Yvette; Benezra, Robert; Dannenberg, Andrew J

    2015-04-01

    Different mechanisms contribute to the development of sporadic, hereditary and colitis-associated colorectal cancer. Inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation (Id) proteins act as dominant-negative antagonists of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors. Id1 is a promising target for cancer therapy, but little is known about its role in the development of colon cancer. We used immunohistochemistry to demonstrate that Id1 is overexpressed in human colorectal adenomas and carcinomas, whether sporadic or syndromic. Furthermore, elevated Id1 levels were found in dysplasia and colon cancer arising in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Because levels of PGE2 are also elevated in both colitis and colorectal neoplasia, we determined whether PGE2 could induce Id1. PGE2 via EP4 stimulated protein kinase A activity resulting in enhanced pCREB-mediated Id1 transcription in human colonocytes. To determine the role of Id1 in carcinogenesis, two mouse models were used. Consistent with the findings in humans, Id1 was overexpressed in tumors arising in both Apc(Min) (/+) mice, a model of familial adenomatous polyposis, and in experimental colitis-associated colorectal neoplasia. Id1 deficiency led to significant decrease in the number of intestinal tumors in Apc(Min) (/+) mice and prolonged survival. In contrast, Id1 deficiency did not affect the number or size of tumors in the model of colitis-associated colorectal neoplasia, likely due to exacerbation of colitis associated with Id1 loss. Collectively, these results suggest that Id1 plays a role in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. Our findings also highlight the need for different strategies to reduce the risk of colitis-associated colorectal cancer compared with sporadic or hereditary colorectal cancer.

  20. Lebein, a snake venom disintegrin, suppresses human colon cancer cells proliferation and tumor-induced angiogenesis through cell cycle arrest, apoptosis induction and inhibition of VEGF expression.

    PubMed

    Zakraoui, Ons; Marcinkiewicz, Cezary; Aloui, Zohra; Othman, Houcemeddine; Grépin, Renaud; Haoues, Meriam; Essafi, Makram; Srairi-Abid, Najet; Gasmi, Ammar; Karoui, Habib; Pagès, Gilles; Essafi-Benkhadir, Khadija

    2017-01-01

    Lebein, is an heterodimeric disintegrin isolated from Macrovipera lebetina snake venom that was previously characterized as an inhibitor of ADP-induced platelet aggregation. In this study, we investigated the effect of Lebein on the p53-dependent growth of human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. We found that Lebein significantly inhibited LS174 (p53wt), HCT116 (p53wt), and HT29 (p53mut) colon cancer cell viability by inducing cell cycle arrest through the modulation of expression levels of the tumor suppression factor p53, cell cycle regulating proteins cyclin D1, CDK2, CDK4, retinoblastoma (Rb), CDK1, and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27. Interestingly, Lebein-induced apoptosis of colon cancer cells was dependent on their p53 status. Thus, in LS174 cells, cell death was associated with PARP cleavage and the activation of caspases 3 and 8 while in HCT116 cells, Lebein induced caspase-independent apoptosis through increased expression of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF). In LS174 cells, Lebein triggers the activation of the MAPK ERK1/2 pathway through induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It also decreased cell adhesion and migration to fibronectin through down regulation of α5β1 integrin. Moreover, Lebein significantly reduced the expression of two angiogenesis stimulators, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Neuropilin 1 (NRP1). It inhibited the VEGF-induced neovascularization process in the quail embryonic CAM system and blocked the development of human colon adenocarcinoma in nude mice. Overall, our work indicates that Lebein may be useful to design a new therapy against colon cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Colon tumor cells grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These photos compare the results of colon carcinoma cells grown in a NASA Bioreactor flown on the STS-70 Space Shuttle in 1995 flight and ground control experiments. The cells grown in microgravity (left) have aggregated to form masses that are larger and more similar to tissue found in the body than the cells cultured on the ground (right). The principal investigator is Milburn Jessup of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center.

  2. LIGHT elevation enhances immune eradication of colon cancer metastases.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Guilin; Qin, Jianzhong; Kunda, Nicholas; Calata, Jed; Mahmud, Dolores; Gann, Peter H; Fu, Yang-Xin; Rosenberg, Steven A; Prabhakar, Bellur S; Maker, Ajay V

    2017-03-01

    The majority of colon cancer patients will develop advanced disease with the liver being the most common site of metastatic disease. Patients with increased numbers of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in primary colon tumors and liver metastases have improved outcomes. However, the molecular factors which could empower anti-tumor immune responses in this setting remained to be elucidated. We reported that the immunostimulatory cytokine LIGHT (TNFSF14) in the microenvironment of colon cancer metastases associates with improved patient survival, and here we demonstrate in an immunocompetent murine model that colon tumors expressing LIGHT stimulate lymphocyte proliferation and tumor-cell specific anti-tumor immune responses. In this model, increasing LIGHT expression in the microenvironment of either primary tumors or liver metastases triggered regression of established tumors and slowed the growth of liver metastases, driven by cytotoxic T-lymphocyte mediated anti-tumor immunity. These responses corresponded with significant increases in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and increased expression of lymphocyte-homing signals in the metastatic tumors. Further, we demonstrated evidence of durable tumor-specific anti-tumor immunity. In conclusion, increasing LIGHT expression increased T-cell proliferation, activation, and infiltration, resulting in enhanced tumor-specific immune-mediated tumor regressions in primary tumors and colorectal liver metastases. Mechanisms to increase LIGHT in the colon cancer microenvironment warrant further investigation and hold promise as an immunotherapeutic strategy.

  3. Nuclear matrix proteins in human colon cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Keesee, S K; Meneghini, M D; Szaro, R P; Wu, Y J

    1994-01-01

    The nuclear matrix is the nonchromatin scaffolding of the nucleus. This structure confers nuclear shape, organizes chromatin, and appears to contain important regulatory proteins. Tissue specific nuclear matrix proteins have been found in the rat, mouse, and human. In this study we compared high-resolution two-dimensional gel electropherograms of nuclear matrix protein patterns found in human colon tumors with those from normal colon epithelia. Tumors were obtained from 18 patients undergoing partial colectomy for adenocarcinoma of the colon and compared with tissue from 10 normal colons. We have identified at least six proteins which were present in 18 of 18 colon tumors and 0 of 10 normal tissues, as well as four proteins present in 0 of 18 tumors and in 10 of 10 normal tissues. These data, which corroborate similar findings of cancer-specific nuclear matrix proteins in prostate and breast, suggest that nuclear matrix proteins may serve as important markers for at least some types of cancer. Images PMID:8127905

  4. Quantitative Assessment of Tumor Responses after Radiation Therapy in a DLD-1 Colon Cancer Mouse Model Using Serial Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sung Jun; Koom, Woong Sub; An, Chan Sik; Lim, Joon Seok; Lee, Seung-Koo; Suh, Jin-Suck

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictability of pretreatment values including Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) derived parameters (Ktrans, Kep and Ve), early changes in parameters (Ktrans, tumor volume), and heterogeneity (standard deviation of Ktrans) for radiation therapy responses via a human colorectal cancer xenograft model. Materials and Methods A human colorectal cancer xenograft model with DLD-1 cancer cells was produced in the right hind limbs of five mice. Tumors were irradiated with 3 fractions of 3 Gy each for 3 weeks. Baseline and follow up DCE-MRI were performed. Quantitative parameters (Ktrans, Kep and Ve) were calculated based on the Tofts model. Early changes in Ktrans, standard deviation (SD) of Ktrans, and tumor volume were also calculated. Tumor responses were evaluated based on histology. With a cut-off value of 0.4 for necrotic factor, a comparison between good and poor responses was conducted. Results The good response group (mice #1 and 2) exhibited higher pretreatment Ktrans than the poor response group (mice #3, 4, and 5). The good response group tended to show lower pretreatment Kep, higher pretreatment Ve, and larger baseline tumor volume than the poor response group. All the mice in the good response group demonstrated marked reductions in Ktrans and SD value after the first radiation. All tumors showed increased volume after the first radiation therapy. Conclusion The good response after radiation therapy group in the DLD-1 colon cancer xenograft nude mouse model exhibited a higher pretreatment Ktrans and showed an early reduction in Ktrans, demonstrating a more homogenous distribution. PMID:23074115

  5. Ethanol enhances tumor angiogenesis in vitro induced by low-dose arsenic in colon cancer cells through hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Son, Young-Ok; Ding, Songze; Wang, Xin; Hitron, John Andrew; Budhraja, Amit; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Lin, Qinchen; Poyil, Pratheeshkumar; Zhang, Zhuo; Luo, Jia; Shi, Xianglin

    2012-12-01

    Health effects due to environmental exposure to arsenic are a major global health concern. Arsenic has been known to induce carcinogenesis and enhance tumor development via complex and unclear mechanism. Ethanol is also a well-established risk factor for many malignancies. However, little is known about the effects of coexposure to arsenic and ethanol in tumor development. In this study, we investigate the signaling and angiogenic effect of coexposure of arsenic and ethanol on different colon cancer cell lines. Results show that ethanol markedly enhanced arsenic-induced tumor angiogenesis in vitro. These responses are related to intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, NADPH oxidase activation, and upregulation of PI3K/Akt and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) signaling. We have also found that ethanol increases the arsenic-induced expression and secretion of angiogenic signaling molecules such as vascular endothelial growth factor, which further confirmed the above observation. Antioxidant enzymes inhibited arsenic/ethanol-induced tumor angiogenesis, demonstrating that the responsive signaling pathways of coexposure to arsenic and ethanol are related to ROS generation. We conclude that ethanol is able to enhance arsenic-induced tumor angiogenesis in colorectal cancer cells via the HIF-1α pathway. These results indicate that alcohol consumption should be taken into consideration in the investigation of arsenic-induced carcinogenesis in arsenic-exposed populations.

  6. Quantification of β-Catenin Signaling Components in Colon Cancer Cell Lines, Tissue Sections, and Microdissected Tumor Cells using Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi; Gruidl, Mike; Remily-Wood, Elizabeth; Liu, Richard Z.; Eschrich, Steven; Lloyd, Mark; Nasir, Aejaz; Bui, Marilyn M.; Huang, Emina; Shibata, David; Yeatman, Timothy; Koomen, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Reaction monitoring mass spectrometry has emerged as a powerful tool for targeted detection and quantification of proteins in clinical samples. Here, we report the use of gel electrophoresis for protein fractionation and liquid chromatography coupled to multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (LC-MRM) screening for quantitative analysis of components from the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which contributes to colon tumor formation and progression. In silico tools are used to design LC-MRM screens for each target protein. Following successful peptide detection, stable isotope labeled peptides are synthesized and developed as internal standards. Then, the assays are implemented in colon cancer cell lines to achieve detection in minimal amounts of cells, compatible with direct translation to clinical specimens. Selected assays are compared with qualitative results from immunoblotting (Westerns) and translated to individual frozen colon tissue sections and laser capture microdissected tumor cells. This LC-MRM platform has been translated from in vitro models to clinical specimens, forming the basis for future experiments in patient assessment. PMID:20590165

  7. Differences Between Colon Cancer Primaries and Metastases Using a Molecular Assay for Tumor Radiation Sensitivity Suggest Implications for Potential Oligometastatic SBRT Patient Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Kamran A.; Fulp, William J.; Berglund, Anders E.; Hoffe, Sarah E.; Dilling, Thomas J.; Eschrich, Steven A.; Shridhar, Ravi; Torres-Roca, Javier F.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: We previously developed a multigene expression model of tumor radiation sensitivity index (RSI) with clinical validation in multiple independent cohorts (breast, rectal, esophageal, and head and neck patients). The purpose of this study was to assess differences between RSI scores in primary colon cancer and metastases. Methods and Materials: Patients were identified from our institutional review board–approved prospective observational protocol. A total of 704 metastatic and 1362 primary lesions were obtained from a de-identified metadata pool. RSI was calculated using the previously published rank-based algorithm. An independent cohort of 29 lung or liver colon metastases treated with 60 Gy in 5 fractions stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) was used for validation. Results: The most common sites of metastases included liver (n=374; 53%), lung (n=116; 17%), and lymph nodes (n=40; 6%). Sixty percent of metastatic tumors, compared with 54% of primaries, were in the RSI radiation-resistant peak, suggesting metastatic tumors may be slightly more radiation resistant than primaries (P=.01). In contrast, when we analyzed metastases based on anatomical site, we uncovered large differences in RSI. The median RSIs for metastases in descending order of radiation resistance were ovary (0.48), abdomen (0.47), liver (0.43), brain (0.42), lung (0.32), and lymph nodes (0.31) (P<.0001). These findings were confirmed when the analysis was restricted to lesions from the same patient (n=139). In our independent cohort of treated lung and liver metastases, lung metastases had an improved local control rate compared to that in patients with liver metastases (2-year local control rate of 100% vs 73.0%, respectively; P=.026). Conclusions: Assessment of radiation sensitivity between primary and metastatic tissues of colon cancer histology revealed significant differences based on anatomical location of metastases. These initial results warrant validation in a larger

  8. Melanosis coli in patients with colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Biernacka-Wawrzonek, Dorota; Stępka, Michał; Tomaszewska, Alicja; Ehrmann-Jóśko, Agnieszka; Chojnowska, Natalia; Muszyński, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Melanosis coli is a benign lesion affecting the mucosa of the large intestine. There is a relationship between the presence of melanosis and anthraquinone laxative use. Melanosis coli is also observed in patients with colon cancer, but there is doubt whether these two conditions are related. Aim To analyze the correlation between melanosis and colon cancer. Material and methods We analyzed retrospectively 436 patients undergoing colon cancer surgery. There were 246 women and 190 men. Patients were divided into three age groups: under 50 years, between 51 and 65 years, and over 66 years. We analyzed sections of the cancer and intestinal mucosa from the tumor’s proximal (2–5 cm) and distal (8–10 cm) zone. Results Melanosis coli was present in 52 patients, which represents 11.9% of patients with colon cancer. More often it was present in women. The most common location of melanosis and colon cancer was the terminal part of the large intestine. In patients below 50 years of age in both sexes melanosis coli did not occur. In men, melanosis was more common in the age group over 66 years. Intensity of pigmentation was higher in the tumor’s distal zone. Conclusions The incidence of melanosis coli increases with age, similar to that of colon cancer. Melanosis was not present inside tumors, in almost half of the cases it was not present in the proximal zone, and the degree of pigmentation increased in distal zone. The cause-effect relationship between melanosis coli and colon cancer remains uncertain. PMID:28337232

  9. Infrared imaging as a cancer diagnostic tool: introducing a new concept of spectral barcodes for identifying molecular changes in colon tumors.

    PubMed

    Nallala, Jayakrupakar; Piot, Olivier; Diebold, Marie-Danièle; Gobinet, Cyril; Bouché, Olivier; Manfait, Michel; Sockalingum, Ganesh D

    2013-03-01

    Complementary diagnostic methods to conventional histopathology are under scrutiny for various types of cancers for rapid and molecular level diagnostics. In this perspective, a biophotonic approach based on infrared spectral micro-imaging combined with multivariate statistical analysis has been implemented on colon tissues. The ability of infrared imaging to investigate the intrinsic biochemical features of cells and tissues has been exploited to develop a new concept of spectral bar coding. To implement this concept, 10 frozen colon tissue samples (five nontumoral and tumoral pairs from five patients) were imaged using infrared spectral micro-imaging in a nondestructive manner. The spectral images were processed by a multivariate clustering method to identify the histological organization in a label-free manner. Spectral information from the epithelial components was then automatically recovered on the basis of their intrinsic biochemical composition, and compared using a statistical method (Mann-Whitney U-test) to construct spectral barcodes specific to each patient. The spectral barcodes representing the discriminant infrared spectral wavenumbers (900-1,800 cm(-1) ) enabled characterization of some of the malignancy-associated biochemical alterations associated with mucin, nucleotides, carbohydrates, and protein regions. This approach not only allowed the identification of common biochemical alterations among all the colon cancer patients, but also revealed a difference of gradient within individual patients. This new concept of spectral bar coding gives insight into the potential of infrared spectral micro-imaging as a complementary diagnostic tool to conventional histopathology, for biochemical level understanding of malignancy in colon cancers in an objective and label-free manner.

  10. Breast and Colon Cancer Family Registries

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.

  11. Colon resection for ovarian cancer: intraoperative decisions.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Mitchel S; Zervose, Emmanuel

    2008-11-01

    To discuss the benefits and morbidity of and indications for colon resection during cytoreductive operations for ovarian cancer. The history of cytoreductive surgery for ovarian cancer is discussed, with special attention to the incorporation of colon resection. Literature regarding cytoreductive surgery for ovarian cancer is then reviewed, again with attention to the role of colon resection. The focus of the review is directed at broad technical considerations and rationales, for both primary and secondary cytoreduction. Over the past 15 to 20 years the standard cytoreductive operation for ovarian cancer has shifted from an abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and omentectomy to an en bloc radical resection of the pelvic tumor and an omentectomy, and more recently to include increasing use of extensive upper abdominal surgery. En bloc pelvic resection frequently includes rectosigmoid resection, almost always accompanied by a primary anastomosis. Other portions of the colon are at risk for metastatic involvement and sometimes require resection in order to achieve optimal cytoreduction. The data regarding colon resection for the purpose of surgical cytoreduction of ovarian cancer are conflicting (in terms of benefit) and all retrospective. However, the preponderance of information supports a benefit in terms of survival when cytoreduction is clearly optimal. Similar to primary surgery, benefit from secondary cytoreduction of ovarian cancer occurs when only a small volume of disease is left behind. The preponderance of data suggests that colon resection to achieve optimal cytoreduction has a positive impact on survival. In order to better understand the role of colon resection as well as other extensive cytoreductive procedures for ovarian cancer, it will be important to continue to improve our understanding of prognostic variables such as the nuances of metastatic bowel involvement in order to better guide appropriate surgical management.

  12. Selenium, Folate, and Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Connelly-Frost, Alexandra; Poole, Charles; Satia, Jessie A.; Kupper, Lawrence L.; Millikan, Robert C.; Sandler, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Selenium is an essential trace element which has been implicated in cancer risk; however, study results have been inconsistent with regard to colon cancer. Our objectives were to 1) investigate the association between selenium and colon cancer 2) evaluate possible effect measure modifiers and 3) evaluate potential biases associated with the use of post-diagnostic serum selenium measures Methods The North Carolina Colon Cancer Study is a large population-based, case-control study of colon cancer in North Carolina between 1996 and 2000 (n=1,691). Nurses interviewed patients about diet and lifestyle and drew blood specimens which were used to measure serum selenium. Results Individuals who had both high serum selenium (>140 mcg/L) and high reported folate (>354 mcg/day), had a reduced relative risk of colon cancer (OR=0.5, 95% CI=0.4,0.8). The risk of colon cancer for those with high selenium and low folate was approximately equal to the risk among those with low selenium and low folate (OR=1.1, 95% CI=0.7,1.5) as was the risk for those with low selenium and high folate (OR=0.9, 95% CI=0.7–1.2). We did not find evidence of bias due to weight loss, stage at diagnosis, or time from diagnosis to selenium measurement. Conclusion High levels of serum selenium and reported folate jointly were associated with a substantially reduced risk of colon cancer. Folate status should be taken into account when evaluating the relation between selenium and colon cancer in future studies. Importantly, weight loss, stage at diagnosis, or time from diagnosis to blood draw did not appear to produce strong bias in our study. PMID:19235033

  13. Oncostatic effects of fluoxetine in experimental colon cancer models.

    PubMed

    Kannen, Vinicius; Garcia, Sergio Britto; Silva, Wilson A; Gasser, Martin; Mönch, Romana; Alho, Eduardo Joaquim Lopes; Heinsen, Helmut; Scholz, Claus-Jürgen; Friedrich, Mike; Heinze, Katrin Gertrud; Waaga-Gasser, Ana Maria; Stopper, Helga

    2015-09-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most common tumors in the human population. Recent studies have shown a reduced risk for colon cancer in patients given the antidepressant fluoxetine (FLX). The exact mechanism by which FLX might protect from colon cancer remains however controversial. Here, FLX reduced the development of different colon tumor xenografts, as well as proliferation in hypoxic tumor areas within them. FLX treatment also decreased microvessel numbers in tumors. Although FLX did not increase serum and tumor glucose levels as much as the colon chemotherapy gold standard Fluorouracil did, lactate levels were significantly augmented within tumors by FLX treatment. The gene expression of the MCT4 lactate transporter was significantly downregulated. Total protein amounts from the third and fifth mitochondrial complexes were significantly decreased by FLX in tumors. Cell culture experiments revealed that FLX reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential significantly and disabled the reactive oxygen species production of the third mitochondrial complex. Furthermore, FLX arrested hypoxic colon tumor cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell-cycle. The expression of key cell-cycle-related checkpoint proteins was enhanced in cell culture and in vivo experiments. Therefore, we suggest FLX impairs energy generation, cell cycle progression and proliferation in tumor cells, especially under condition of hypoxia. This then leads to reduced microvessel formation and tumor shrinkage in xenograft models.

  14. Margin Size is an Independent Predictor of Local Tumor Progression After Ablation of Colon Cancer Liver Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiaodong; Sofocleous, Constantinos T. Erinjeri, Joseph P.; Petre, Elena N.; Gonen, Mithat; Do, Kinh G.; Brown, Karen T.; Covey, Anne M.; Brody, Lynn A.; Alago, William; Thornton, Raymond H.; Kemeny, Nancy E.; Solomon, Stephen B.

    2013-02-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between the minimal margin size and local tumor progression (LTP) following CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of colorectal cancer liver metastases (CLM). An institutional review board-approved, HIPPA-compliant review identified 73 patients with 94 previously untreated CLM that underwent RFA between March 2003 and May 2010, resulting in an ablation zone completely covering the tumor 4-8 weeks after RFA dynamic CT. Comparing the pre- with the post-RFA CT, the minimal margin size was categorized to 0, 1-5, 6-10, and 11-15 mm. Follow-up included CT every 2-4 months. Kaplan-Meier methodology and Cox regression analysis were used to evaluate the effect of the minimal margin size, tumor location, size, and proximity to a vessel on LTP. Forty-five of 94 (47.9 %) CLM progressed locally. Median LTP-free survival (LPFS) was 16 months. Two-year LPFS rates for ablated CLM with minimal margin of 0, 1-5 mm, 6-10 mm, 11-15 mm were 26, 46, 74, and 80 % (p < 0.011). Minimal margin (p = 0.002) and tumor size (p = 0.028) were independent risk factors for LTP. The risk for LTP decreased by 46 % for each 5-mm increase in minimal margin size, whereas each additional 5-mm increase in tumor size increased the risk of LTP by 22 %. An ablation zone with a minimal margin uniformly larger than 5 mm 4-8 weeks postablation CT is associated with the best local tumor control.

  15. VEGF and colon cancer growth beyond angiogenesis: does VEGF directly mediate colon cancer growth via a non-angiogenic mechanism?

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, Amrita; Jones, Michael K; Matysiak-Budnik, Tamara; Tarnawski, Andrzej S

    2014-01-01

    In this article we review the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in colon cancer growth and the underlying mechanisms. Angiogenesis, the growth of new capillary blood vessels in the body, is critical for tissue injury healing and cancer growth. In 1971, Judah Folkman proposed the concept that tumor growth beyond 2 mm is critically dependent on angiogenesis. Tumors including colon cancers release angiogenic growth factors that stimulate blood vessels to grow into the tumors thus providing oxygen and nutrients that enable exponential growth. VEGF is the most potent angiogenic growth factor. Several studies have highlighted the role of VEGF in colon cancer, specifically in the stimulation of angiogenesis. This role of VEGF is strongly supported by studies showing that inhibition of VEGF using the blocking antibody, bevacizumab, results in decreased angiogenesis and abrogation of cancer growth. In the United States, bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy is FDA approved for the treatment of metastatic colon cancer. However, the source of VEGF in colon cancer tissue, the mechanisms of VEGF generation in colon cancer cells and the molecular pathways involved in VEGF mediated angiogenesis in colon cancer are not fully known. The possibility that VEGF directly stimulates cancer cell growth in an autocrine manner has not been explored in depth.

  16. Slc5a8, a Na+-coupled high-affinity transporter for short-chain fatty acids, is a conditional tumor suppressor in colon that protects against colitis and colon cancer under low-fiber dietary conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gurav, Ashish; Sivaprakasam, Sathish; Bhutia, Yangzom D.; Boettger, Thomas; Singh, Nagendra; Ganapathy, Vadivel

    2016-01-01

    Summary Mammalian colon harbors trillions of bacteria under physiologic conditions; this symbiosis is made possible because of a tolerized response from the mucosal immune system. The mechanisms underlying this tolerogenic phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here we show that Slc5a8, a Na+-coupled high-affinity transporter in colon for the bacterial fermentation product butyrate, plays a critical role in this process. Among various immune cells in colon, dendritic cells (DCs) are unique not only in their accessibility to luminal contents but also in their ability to induce tolerogenic phenotype in T cells. We found that DCs exposed to butyrate express the immunosuppressive enzymes indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A2 (Aldh1A2), promote conversion of naïve T cells into immunosuppressive FoxP3+ Tregs, and suppress conversion of naïve T cells into pro-inflammatory IFN-γ-producing cells. Slc5a8-null DCs do not induce IDO1 and Aldh1A2 and do not generate Tregs or suppress IFN-γ-producing T cells in response to butyrate. We also provide in vivo evidence for an obligatory role for Slc5a8 in suppression of IFN-γ-producing T cells. Furthermore, Slc5a8 protects against colitis and colon cancer under conditions of low-fiber intake but not when dietary fiber intake is optimal. This agrees with the high-affinity nature of the transporter to mediate butyrate entry into cells. We conclude that Slc5a8 is an obligatory link between dietary fiber and mucosal immune system via the bacterial metabolite butyrate, and that this transporter is a conditional tumor suppressor in colon linked to dietary fiber content. PMID:25984582

  17. The Colon-26 Carcinoma Tumor-bearing Mouse as a Model for the Study of Cancer Cachexia

    PubMed Central

    Bonetto, Andrea; Rupert, Joseph E.; Barreto, Rafael; Zimmers, Teresa A.

    2017-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and adipose tissue, negative nitrogen balance, anorexia, fatigue, inflammation, and activation of lipolysis and proteolysis systems. Cancer patients with cachexia benefit less from anti-neoplastic therapies and show increased mortality1. Several animal models have been established in order to investigate the molecular causes responsible for body and muscle wasting as a result of tumor growth. Here, we describe methodologies pertaining to a well-characterized model of cancer cachexia: mice bearing the C26 carcinoma2–4. Although this model is heavily used in cachexia research, different approaches make reproducibility a potential issue. The growth of the C26 tumor causes a marked and progressive loss of body and skeletal muscle mass, accompanied by reduced muscle cross-sectional area and muscle strength3–5. Adipose tissue is also lost. Wasting is coincident with elevated circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, particularly Interleukin-6 (IL-6)3, which is directly, although not entirely, responsible for C26 cachexia. It is well-accepted that a primary mechanism by which the C26 tumor induces muscle tissue depletion is the activation of skeletal muscle proteolytic systems. Thus, expression of muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases, such as atrogin-1/MAFbx and MuRF-1, represent an accepted method for the evaluation of the ongoing muscle catabolism2. Here, we present how to execute this model in a reproducible manner and how to excise several tissues and organs (the liver, spleen, and heart), as well as fat and skeletal muscles (the gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, and quadriceps). We also provide useful protocols that describe how to perform muscle freezing, sectioning, and fiber size quantification. PMID:27929469

  18. Two initiation sites of early detection of colon cancer revealed by localization of pERK1/2 in the nuclei or in aggregates at the perinuclear region of the tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Amsterdam, Abraham; Shezen, Elias; Raanan, Calanit; Schreiber, Letizia; Slilat, Yasmin; Fabrikant, Yakov; Melzer, Ehud; Seger, Rony

    2013-07-01

    We have used human specimens and antibodies to pERK1/2 to detect early development of colon cancer using indirect immunocytochemistry. Two distinct sites were stained; one at the tip of the colon crypts and the other in the stromal tissue associated with the colonic tissue. These foci represent early stages of colon cancer initiation sites as established by enhanced Kirsten Rat Sarcoma Virus (KRAS) and the lack of p53 staining. The enhanced KRAS coincides with the initiation of tumor growth revealed by pERK1/2, both in the tip of the colon crypts, as well as in the stromal initiation site of the colon tumors. Foci of pERK1/2 staining were also detected in 50% of stromal tissue and tips of colon crypts, which were classified as normal tissues, adjacent to the malignant tissue according to general morphology. However, in colon specimens, where no malignancy was observed, no accumulation of pERK1/2 was observed. The staining of pERK1/2 at the stromal foci of the apparently non-malignant tissue appeared as aggregates in the perinuclear region, while in the colon epithelium it appeared in the cell nuclei. In low-grade colon cancer that was still free of induced mutated p53, staining of pERK1/2 was prominent in the cell nuclei, both in the stroma tissue and the tip of the colon crypts. In the intermediate stage, that exhibited significant p53 staining, only a fraction of p53-free tumor cells was labeled with pERK1/2 antibody, while in high-grade tumors, all cells of tumors were labeled with antibodies to p53, but not with antibodies to pERK1/2. We suggest that the down regulation in pERK1/2 labeling is due to the mitogenic capacity of the tumor cells, which are shifted from being driven by nuclear pERK1/2 to mutated p53 expression. We also found that the cytoplasm of low grade tumors was positive for epiregulin, while this labeling decreased in high-grade tumors. We found that the tumors arising from the stroma demonstrated poor structural differentiation, while the

  19. Most effective colon cancer chemopreventive agents in rats: a systematic review of aberrant crypt foci and tumor data, ranked by potency

    PubMed Central

    Corpet, Denis E.; Taché, Sylviane

    2002-01-01

    Potential chemopreventive agents for colorectal cancer are assessed in rodents. We speculated that the magnitude of the effect is meaningful, and ranked all published agents according to their potency. Data were gathered systematically from 137 articles with the aberrant crypt foci (ACF) endpoint, and 146 articles with the tumor endpoint. A table was built containing potency of each agent to reduce the number of ACF. Another table was built with potency of each agent to reduce the tumor incidence. Both tables are shown in the present paper, and on a website with sorting abilities (http://www.inra.fr/reseau-nacre/sci-memb/corpet/indexan.html). Potency was estimated by the ratio of value in control rats divided by value in treated rats. From each article, only the most potent agent was kept, except from articles reporting the effect of more than 7 agents. Among the 186 agents in the ACF table, the median agent halved the number of ACF. The most potent agents to reduce azoxymethane-induced ACF were pluronic, polyethylene glycol, perilla oil with beta-carotene, and sulindac sulfide. Among the 160 agents in the tumor table, the median agent halved the tumor incidence in rats. The most potent agents to reduce the incidence of azoxymethane-induced tumors were celecoxib, a protease inhibitor from soy, difluoromethylornithine with piroxicam, polyethylene glycol, and a thiosulfonate. For the 57 agents present in both tables, a significant correlation was found between the potencies against ACF and tumors (r=0.45, p<0.001). Without celecoxib, a major outlying point in the correlation, it reached r=0.68 (p<0.001, N=56). In conclusion, this review gathers almost all known chemopreventive agents, ranks the most promising ones against colon carcinogenesis in rats or mice, and further supports the use of ACF as surrogate endpoint for tumors in rats. PMID:12467130

  20. Sporadic colon cancer murine models demonstrate the value of autoantibody detection for preclinical cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Barderas, Rodrigo; Villar-Vázquez, Roi; Fernández-Aceñero, María Jesús; Babel, Ingrid; Peláez-García, Alberto; Torres, Sofía; Casal, J Ignacio

    2013-10-15

    Although autoantibody detection has been proposed for diagnosis of colorectal cancer, little is known about their initial production and development correlation with cancer progression. Azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS)-treated mice developed colon adenocarcinoma in the distal colon similar to human sporadic colon cancer. We assessed this model together with AOM and DSS-only models for their applicability to early detection of cancer. All AOM/DSS-treated mice produced autoantibodies to tumor-associated antigens analogous to those observed in human colon cancer patients. Autoantibody response was related to tumor antigen overexpression. Cancer autoantibodies were detected 21 days after starting treatment, when no malignant histopathological features were detectable, and they increased according to tumor progression. When carcinogenesis was induced separately by AOM or DSS, only those mice that developed malignant lesions produced significant levels of autoantibodies. These findings demonstrate that autoantibody development is an early event in tumorigenesis and validates its use for preclinical colon cancer diagnosis.

  1. Human Colon Cancer Cells Cultivated in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Within five days, bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells (shown) grown in Microgravity on the STS-70 mission in 1995, had grown 30 times the volume of the control specimens on Earth. The samples grown in space had a higher level of cellular organization and specialization. Because they more closely resemble tumors found in the body, microgravity grown cell cultures are ideal for research purposes.

  2. Proteins and an Inflammatory Network Expressed in Colon Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenhong; Fang, Changming; Gramatikoff, Kosi; Niemeyer, Christina C.; Smith, Jeffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein is crucial to homeostasis of normal intestinal epithelia because it suppresses the β-catenin/TCF pathway. Consequently, loss or mutation of the APC gene causes colorectal tumors in humans and mice. Here, we describe our use of Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) to compare protein expression in colon tumors to that of adjacent healthy colon tissue from ApcMin/+ mice. Twenty-seven proteins were found to be up-regulated in colon tumors and twenty-five down-regulated. As an extension of the proteomic analysis, the differentially expressed proteins were used as “seeds” to search for co-expressed genes. This approach revealed a co-expression network of 45 genes that is up-regulated in colon tumors. Members of the network include the antibacterial peptide cathelicidin (CAMP), Toll-like receptors (TLRs), IL-8, and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM1). The co-expression network is associated with innate immunity and inflammation, and there is significant concordance between its connectivity in humans versus mice (Friedman: p value = 0.0056). This study provides new insights into the proteins and networks that are likely to drive the onset and progression of colon cancer. PMID:21366352

  3. Characterization of azoxymethane-induced colon tumor metastasis to lung in a mouse model relevant to human sporadic colorectal cancer and evaluation of grape seed extract efficacy.

    PubMed

    Derry, Molly M; Raina, Komal; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

    2014-08-01

    The second leading cause of cancer-related deaths (both genders combined) in the United States is colorectal cancer (CRC). This emphasizes the need to develop both effective therapies for CRC patients and pre-clinical models mimicking human disease that carry translational potential in drug-development. Notably, at present there are no in situ models of CRC metastasis to lung. In our azoxymethane-induced colon tumorigenesis study in A/J mice assessing grape seed extract (GSE) efficacy, during necropsy we also found multiple lung nodules suggestive of colon tumor metastasis to lung that were significantly inhibited in GSE fed group. Both histopathological and molecular studies were performed to characterize and establish the origin of these lesions in lung. Histologically these nodules were determined as adenocarcinoma of mucin origin. Molecular analyses by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and RT-PCR revealed strong protein and transcript levels of colon specific markers CDX2 and CK20 in these lung nodules compared to uninvolved control lung tissue. Vis-à-vis, these nodules also showed minimally expressed lung specific biomarkers, specifically surfactant D and TTF-1, in IHC analysis. Additionally, 0.25% GSE supplementation in diet (w/w) decreased the incidence of these lung nodules by 53% and their total number by 66%. Together, the characterization of this unique in situ mouse model of CRC metastasis to lung provides translational opportunities in developing effective therapies to clinically manage and treat CRC at the advanced stage. Moreover, GSE efficacy in inhibiting CRC metastasis to lung in this model further supports its translational potential in controlling CRC growth, progression and metastasis in patients.

  4. Terahertz polarization imaging for colon cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doradla, Pallavi; Alavi, Karim; Joseph, Cecil S.; Giles, Robert H.

    2014-03-01

    Continuous wave terahertz (THz) imaging has the potential to offer a safe, noninvasive medical imaging modality for delineating colorectal cancer. The terahertz reflectance measurements of fresh 3 - 5 mm thick human colonic excisions were acquired using a continuous-wave polarization imaging technique. A CO2 optically pumped Far- Infrared molecular gas laser operating at 584 GHz was used to illuminate the colon tissue, while the reflected signals were detected using a liquid Helium cooled silicon bolometer. Both co-polarized and cross-polarized remittance from the samples was collected using wire grid polarizers in the experiment. The experimental analysis of 2D images obtained from THz reflection polarization imaging techniques showed intrinsic contrast between cancerous and normal regions based on increased reflection from the tumor. Also, the study demonstrates that the cross-polarized terahertz images not only correlates better with the histology, but also provide consistent relative reflectance difference values between normal and cancerous regions for all the measured specimens.

  5. Preventing Second Cancers in Colon Cancer Survivors

    Cancer.gov

    In this phase III trial, people who have had curative surgery for colon cancer will be randomly assigned to take sulindac and a placebo, eflornithine and a placebo, both sulindac and eflornithine, or two placebo pills for 36 months.

  6. Myeloid heme oxygenase-1 promotes metastatic tumor colonization in mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Heng-Huei; Chiang, Ming-Tsai; Chang, Po-Chiao; Chau, Lee-Young

    2015-03-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a heme degradation enzyme with antioxidant and immune-modulatory functions. HO-1 promotes tumorigenesis by enhancing tumor cell proliferation and invasion. Whether HO-1 has an effect on cancer progression through stromal compartments is less clear. Here we show that the growth of tumor engrafted subcutaneously in syngeneic mice was not affected by host HO-1 expression. However, lung metastasis arisen from subcutaneous tumor or circulating tumor cells was significantly reduced in HO-1(+/-) mice comparing to wild type (WT) mice. The reduced lung metastasis was also observed in B6 mice bearing HO-1(+/-) bone marrow as comparing to WT chimeras, indicating that HO-1 expression in hematopoietic cells impacts tumor colonization at the metastatic site. Further experiments demonstrated that the numbers of myeloid cells recruited to pulmonary premetastatic niches and metastatic loci were significantly lower in HO-1(+/-) mice than in WT mice. Likewise, the extents of tumor cell extravasation and colonization at the metastatic loci in the early phase of metastasis were significantly lower in HO-1(+/-) mice. Mechanistic studies revealed that HO-1 impacted chemoattractant-induced myeloid cell migration by modulating p38 kinase signaling. Moreover, myeloid HO-1-induced expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-10 promoted tumor cell transendothelial migration and STAT3 activation in vitro. These data support a pathological role of myeloid HO-1 in metastasis and suggest a possibility of targeting myeloid HO-1 for cancer treatment.

  7. Colonic Laterally Spreading Tumor Diagnosed as an Early Cancer and Treated with Endoscopic Mucosal Resection: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Abdelaziz, Mohamad; Sayed, Motaz

    2017-01-01

    Laterally spreading tumors (LSTs) are generally defined as superficial lesions ≥10 mm in diameter that typically extend laterally rather than vertically along the colonic wall. Such lesions are now increasingly reported because of increased awareness and the introduction of chromo and magnifying colonoscopy. Although the clinicopathological characteristics and the efficacy of endoscopic management of LSTs have been defined in Japanese cohorts, reports from the Middle East are lacking where surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment. We report a case with an LST about 20 cm from anal verge removed by endoscopic mucosal resection. After histopathological evaluation of the removed specimen, we categorized the patient as having high risk early colon cancer. The intensive follow-up as an additional treatment strategy was chosen for the patient. This review addresses the management of early carcinoma in colorectal polyp with reference to proper preoperative assessment, treatment selection with special attention to role of biomarkers, the need for additional treatment on the basis of the presence of risk factors and endoscopic follow-up after treatment. PMID:28316766

  8. [Molecular targets in colon cancer].

    PubMed

    Borner, M M

    2006-04-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in Switzerland. The nihilism that dominated the treatment of these patients for decades has been replaced by a measure of enthusiasm, given recent therapeutic advances. New anticancer drugs such as irinotecan and oxaliplatin have changed the standard chemotherapy treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. However, the real hype has come from molecular targeted therapy. Identification of cellular processes characteristic of colon cancer has permitted therapeutic targeting with favorable therapeutic index. Inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor in the clinic has provided proof of principle that interruption of signal transduction cascades in patients has therapeutic potential. Angiogenesis, especially the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway, has been proven to be another highly successful molecular target. In this article, we will review molecular targets, which are under active clinical investigation in colon cancer.

  9. Oxaliplatin and Infliximab Combination Synergizes in Inducing Colon Cancer Regression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenya; Xu, Jian; Zhao, Jian; Zhang, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Background Colon cancer is one of the most common malignant cancers and causes millions of deaths each year. There are still no effective treatments for colon cancer patients who are at advanced stage. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) might be a good therapy target due to its widely-accepted roles in regulating multiple important biological processes, especially in promoting inflammation. Material/Methods We evaluated the expression of TNF-α in 108 human colon cancer tissue samples and 2 colon cancer cell lines (CT26 and HCT116), and analyzed its prognostic values. Further, we explored the roles and mechanism of anti-TNF-α treatment in combination with chemotherapy in vitro and in vivo. Results We found that TNF-α was highly expressed in colon cancer cell lines. The survival analysis and Cox regression analysis indicated that high TNF-α was an independent adverse prognosticator of colon cancer. In addition, anti-TNF-α treatment enhanced the effects of chemotherapy in the xenograft mouse model through inducing ADCC and CDC effects. Conclusions We conclude that TNF-α is an independent adverse prognosticator of colon cancer, and anti-TNF-α might benefit colon cancer patients. PMID:28190020

  10. Inhibitory effect of phytoglycoprotein on tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} and interleukin-6 at initiation stage of colon cancer in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-treated ICR mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sei-Jung; Lim, Kye-Taek

    2007-12-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the chemopreventive potentials of plant originated glycoprotein (UDN glycoprotein, 116 kDa) isolated from the stems of Ulmus davidiana Nakai (UDN) on aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-treated ICR mice. UDN glycoprotein was administered to mice at 0.01% and 0.02% levels for 5 weeks. The mice were treated with 20 mg/kg DMH twice a week for 2 weeks in presence of UDN glycoprotein and killed at week 6. We found that UDN glycoprotein has inhibitory effects on the frequency of colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF), activation of colonic proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and release of plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in DMH-treated mice. In addition, UDN glycoprotein has anti-oxidative effects on the formation of plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the production of plasma inducible nitric oxide (NO) in DMH-treated mouse. Also, 0.02% UDN glycoprotein suppressed the DNA binding activities of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) and activator protein-1 (AP-1), accompanying the inhibitions of its subunits (p50, p65, c-Jun, and c-Fos), pro-inflammatory proteins [inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)], and pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha} and interleukin (IL)-6] on DMH-stimulated ACF formation. On the basis of these results, we assume that UDN glycoprotein may be useful for colon cancer prevention at initiation stage.

  11. SRPK2 promotes the growth and migration of the colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Wu, Hai-Feng; Shen, Wei; Xu, Dong-Yan; Ruan, Ting-Yan; Tao, Guo-Qing; Lu, Pei-Hua

    2016-07-15

    Colon cancer is one of the major causes of cancer-related death in the world. Understanding the molecular mechanism underlying this malignancy will facilitate the diagnosis and treatment. Serine-arginine protein kinase 2 (SRPK2) has been reported to be upregulated in several cancer types. However, its expression and functions in colon cancer remains unknown. In this study, it was found that the expression of SRPK2 was up-regulated in the clinical colon cancer samples. Overexpression of SRPK2 promoted the growth and migration of colon cancer cells, while knocking down the expression of SRPK2 inhibited the growth, migration and tumorigenecity of colon cancer cells. Molecular mechanism studies revealed that SRPK2 activated ERK signaling in colon cancer cells. Taken together, our study demonstrated the tumor promoting roles of SRPK2 in colon cancer cells and SRPK2 might be a promising therapeutic target for colon cancer.

  12. Cholesterol excretion and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Broitman, S A

    1981-09-01

    Populations consuming diets high in fat and cholesterol exhibit a greater incidence of colon cancer than those consuming less fat and cholesterol. Lowering elevated serum cholesterol levels experimentally or clinically is associated with increased large-bowel tumorigenesis. Thus, cholesterol lost to the gut, either dietary or endogenously synthesized, appears to have a role in large-bowel cancer. Whether the effect(s) is mediated by increases in fecal bile acid excretion or some other mechanism is not clear.

  13. DNA testing and molecular screening for colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Carethers, John M

    2014-03-01

    Colon cancer develops and progresses as a consequence of abnormal cellular molecular changes, many of which result in mutant DNA. Modern molecular techniques allow examination of individual patient genetic data that ascribe risk, predict outcome, and/or modify an approach to therapy. DNA testing and molecular screening are in use today and are becoming a critical and necessary part of routine patient care. Assessing at-risk patients for hereditary colon cancer is predicted to move from individual gene testing that is commonly performed today to whole exome or whole genome sequencing, providing additional vast information of the patient's genome that might not be related to the colon cancer syndrome. Detecting mutant DNA from shed tumor cells in fecal material for colon cancer screening will increase in diagnostic accuracy over time, with improvements in the panel of mutant DNA being examined and through clinical testing. DNA mutations and other molecular changes detected directly from within the colon cancer help to inform and guide the physician for the best approach for optimal patient care and outcome. The use of epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted therapy in advanced colon cancer patients requires knowledge of the mutation status for KRAS and BRAF genes, and knowing the mutational status of PIK3CA may predict how patients respond to aspirin to prevent colon cancer recurrence. Biologically driven decision-making, or precision medicine, is becoming increasingly adopted for optimal care and outcome for colon cancer patients. Gastroenterologists will need to be increasingly aware.

  14. Aberrant DNA methylation occurs in colon neoplasms arising in the azoxymethane colon cancer model

    PubMed Central

    Borinstein, Scott C.; Conerly, Melissa; Dzieciatkowski, Slavomir; Biswas, Swati; Washington, M. Kay; Trobridge, Patty; Henikoff, Steve; Grady, William M.

    2010-01-01

    Mouse models of intestinal tumors have advanced our understanding of the role of gene mutations in colorectal malignancy. However, the utility of these systems for studying the role of epigenetic alterations in intestinal neoplasms remains to be defined. Consequently, we assessed the role of aberrant DNA methylation in the azoxymethane (AOM) rodent model of colon cancer. AOM induced tumors display global DNA hypomethylation, which is similar to human colorectal cancer. We next assessed the methylation status of a panel of candidate genes previously shown to be aberrantly methylated in human cancer or in mouse models of malignant neoplasms. This analysis revealed different patterns of DNA methylation that were gene specific. Zik1 and Gja9 demonstrated cancer-specific aberrant DNA methylation, whereas, Cdkn2a/p16, Igfbp3, Mgmt, Id4, and Cxcr4 were methylated in both the AOM tumors and normal colon mucosa. No aberrant methylation of Dapk1 or Mlt1 was detected in the neoplasms, but normal colon mucosa samples displayed methylation of these genes. Finally, p19Arf, Tslc1, Hltf, and Mlh1 were unmethylated in both the AOM tumors and normal colon mucosa. Thus, aberrant DNA methylation does occur in AOM tumors, although the frequency of aberrantly methylated genes appears to be less common than in human colorectal cancer. Additional studies are necessary to further characterize the patterns of aberrantly methylated genes in AOM tumors. PMID:19777566

  15. Phytoestrogens regulate vitamin D metabolism in the mouse colon: relevance for colon tumor prevention and therapy.

    PubMed

    Kállay, Enikö; Adlercreutz, Herman; Farhan, Hesso; Lechner, Daniel; Bajna, Erika; Gerdenitsch, Waltraud; Campbell, Moray; Cross, Heide S

    2002-11-01

    Soybean products are highly represented in the traditional Asian diet. Major components of soy proteins are phytoestrogens, such as isoflavones. They may be responsible for the extremely low incidence of prostate and mammary tumors and possibly also of colon cancer in countries such as China and Japan. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 level is inversely related to incidence of some cancers. Levels are determined by skin exposure to ultraviolet light or, to a minor extent, nutritional uptake and by subsequent conversion of the precursor vitamin D to the active hormone by the cytochrome P450 hydroxylases CYP27A1, CYP27B1 (responsible for synthesis) and CYP24 (responsible for catabolism) in liver and kidney. However, vitamin D synthesis is also found in colonocytes and is enhanced during incipient malignancy. This may indicate an autocrine/paracrine role for this differentiation-inducing hormone in defense against progression. We were able to demonstrate that either a single large oral dose of genistein or feeding soy protein for 4 mo elevated CYP27B1 and decreased CYP24 expression in the mouse colon. Our data therefore suggest that an inverse correlation of soy product consumption with colon tumor incidence may be consequent to enhanced colonic synthesis of the antimitotic hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.

  16. Hyperglycemia exacerbates colon cancer malignancy through hexosamine biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos-Dos-Santos, A; Loponte, H F B R; Mantuano, N R; Oliveira, I A; de Paula, I F; Teixeira, L K; de-Freitas-Junior, J C M; Gondim, K C; Heise, N; Mohana-Borges, R; Morgado-Díaz, J A; Dias, W B; Todeschini, A R

    2017-03-20

    Hyperglycemia is a common feature of diabetes mellitus, considered as a risk factor for cancer. However, its direct effects in cancer cell behavior are relatively unexplored. Herein we show that high glucose concentration induces aberrant glycosylation, increased cell proliferation, invasion and tumor progression of colon cancer. By modulating the activity of the rate-limiting enzyme, glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT), we demonstrate that hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) is involved in those processes. Biopsies from patients with colon carcinoma show increased levels of GFAT and consequently aberrant glycans' expression suggesting an increase of HBP flow in human colon cancer. All together, our results open the possibility that HBP links hyperglycemia, aberrant glycosylation and tumor malignancy, and suggest this pathway as a potential therapeutic target for colorectal cancer.

  17. Developmental pathways in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Fred E.; Angus, C. William; Partis, William J.; Sigounas, George

    2012-01-01

    A hallmark of cancer is reactivation/alteration of pathways that control cellular differentiation during developmental processes. Evidence indicates that WNT, Notch, BMP and Hedgehog pathways have a role in normal epithelial cell differentiation, and that alterations in these pathways accompany establishment of the tumorigenic state. Interestingly, there is recent evidence that these pathways are intertwined at the molecular level, and these nodes of intersection may provide opportunities for effective targeted therapies. This review will highlight the role of the WNT, Notch, BMP and Hedgehog pathways in colon cancer. PMID:23032367

  18. Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in colon cancer and rectal cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  19. PET-MRI in Diagnosing Patients With Colon or Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-25

    Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

  20. Development of a mouse model for sporadic and metastatic colon tumors and its use in assessing drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Hung, Kenneth E; Maricevich, Marco A; Richard, Larissa Georgeon; Chen, Wei Y; Richardson, Michael P; Kunin, Alexandra; Bronson, Roderick T; Mahmood, Umar; Kucherlapati, Raju

    2010-01-26

    Most genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models for colon cancer are based on tissuewide or germline gene modification, resulting in tumors predominantly of the small intestine. Several of these models involve modification of the adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) gene and are excellent models for familial cancer predisposition syndromes. We have developed a stochastic somatic mutation model for sporadic colon cancer that presents with isolated primary tumors in the distal colon and recapitulates the entire adenoma-carcinoma-metastasis axis seen in human colon cancer. Using this model, we have analyzed tumors that are either solely mutant in the Apc gene or in combination with another colon cancer-associated mutant gene, the Kras G12D allele. Because of the restricted location in the distal colon, the natural history of the tumors can be analyzed by serial colonoscopy. As the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is a critical component of the complex signaling network in colon cancer, we used this model to assess the efficacy of mTOR blockade through rapamycin treatment of mice with established tumors. After treatment, Apc mutant tumors were more than 80% smaller than control tumors. However, tumors that possessed both Apc and Kras mutations did not respond to rapamycin treatment. These studies suggest that mTOR inhibitors should be further explored as potential colorectal cancer therapies in patients whose tumors do not have activating mutations in KRAS.

  1. Colon cancer modulation by a diabetic environment: A single institutional experience

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Nieves; Portal-Nuñez, Sergio; Zazo, Sandra; Corton, Marta; Minguez, Pablo; Gomez-Guerrero, Carmen; Arce, Jose Miguel; Sanz, Ana Belen; Mas, Sebastian; Aguilera, Oscar; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; Esbrit, Pedro; Ortiz, Alberto; Ayuso, Carmen; Egido, Jesus; Rojo, Federico; Garcia-Foncillas, Jesus

    2017-01-01

    Background Multiple observational studies suggest an increased risk of colon cancer in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). This can theoretically be the result of an influence of the diabetic environment on carcinogenesis or the tumor biologic behavior. Aim To gain insight into the influence of a diabetic environment on colon cancer characteristics and outcomes. Material and methods Retrospective analysis of clinical records in an academic tertiary care hospital with detailed analysis of 81 diabetic patients diagnosed of colon cancer matched with 79 non-diabetic colon cancer patients. The impact of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on the growth of colon cancer xenografts was studied in mice. Results The incidence of DM in 1,137 patients with colorectal cancer was 16%. The diabetic colon cancer cases and non-diabetic colon cancer controls were well matched for demographic and clinical variables. The ECOG Scale Performance Status was higher (worse) in diabetics (ECOG ≥1, 29.1% of controls vs 46.9% of diabetics, p = 0.02), but no significant differences were observed in tumor grade, adjuvant therapy, tumor site, lymphovascular invasion, stage, recurrence, death or cancer-related death. Moreover, no differences in tumor variables were observed between patients treated or not with metformin. In the xenograft model, tumor growth and histopathological characteristics did not differ between diabetic and nondiabetic animals. Conclusion Our findings point towards a mild or negligible effect of the diabetes environment on colon cancer behavior, once cancer has already developed. PMID:28253286

  2. Personalized Proteome Profiles of Healthy and Tumor Human Colon Organoids Reveal Both Individual Diversity and Basic Features of Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Cristobal, Alba; van den Toorn, Henk W P; van de Wetering, Marc; Clevers, Hans; Heck, Albert J R; Mohammed, Shabaz

    2017-01-03

    Diseases at the molecular level are complex and patient dependent, necessitating development of strategies that enable precision treatment to optimize clinical outcomes. Organoid technology has recently been shown to have the potential to recapitulate the in vivo characteristics of the original individual's tissue in a three-dimensional in vitro culture system. Here, we present a quantitative mass-spectrometry-based proteomic analysis and a comparative transcriptomic analysis of human colorectal tumor and healthy organoids derived, in parallel, from seven patients. Although gene and protein signatures can be derived to distinguish the tumor organoid population from healthy organoids, our data clearly reveal that each patient possesses a distinct organoid signature at the proteomic level. We demonstrate that a personalized patient-specific organoid proteome profile can be related to the diagnosis of a patient and with future development contribute to the generation of personalized therapies.

  3. Induction of KIAA1199/CEMIP is associated with colon cancer phenotype and poor patient survival.

    PubMed

    Fink, Stephen P; Myeroff, Lois L; Kariv, Revital; Platzer, Petra; Xin, Baozhong; Mikkola, Debra; Lawrence, Earl; Morris, Nathan; Nosrati, Arman; Willson, James K V; Willis, Joseph; Veigl, Martina; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Wang, Zhenghe; Markowitz, Sanford D

    2015-10-13

    Genes induced in colon cancer provide novel candidate biomarkers of tumor phenotype and aggressiveness. We originally identified KIAA1199 (now officially called CEMIP) as a transcript highly induced in colon cancer: initially designating the transcript as Colon Cancer Secreted Protein 1. We molecularly characterized CEMIP expression both at the mRNA and protein level and found it is a secreted protein induced an average of 54-fold in colon cancer. Knockout of CEMIPreduced the ability of human colon cancer cells to form xenograft tumors in athymic mice. Tumors that did grow had increased deposition of hyaluronan, linking CEMIP participation in hyaluronan degradation to the modulation of tumor phenotype. We find CEMIP mRNA overexpression correlates with poorer patient survival. In stage III only (n = 31) or in combined stage II plus stage III colon cancer cases (n = 73), 5-year overall survival was significantly better (p = 0.004 and p = 0.0003, respectively) among patients with low CEMIP expressing tumors than those with high CEMIP expressing tumors. These results demonstrate that CEMIP directly facilitates colon tumor growth, and high CEMIP expression correlates with poor outcome in stage III and in stages II+III combined cohorts. We present CEMIP as a candidate prognostic marker for colon cancer and a potential therapeutic target.

  4. Dietary Iron Enhances Colonic Inflammation and IL-6/IL-11-Stat3 Signaling Promoting Colonic Tumor Development in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Desiree S.; Fu, S. Kristine; Forrest, Cynthia H.; Croft, Kevin D.; Olynyk, John K.; Lawrance, Ian C.; Trinder, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Chronic intestinal inflammation and high dietary iron are associated with colorectal cancer development. The role of Stat3 activation in iron-induced colonic inflammation and tumorigenesis was investigated in a mouse model of inflammation-associated colorectal cancer. Mice, fed either an iron-supplemented or control diet, were treated with azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Intestinal inflammation and tumor development were assessed by endoscopy and histology, gene expression by real-time PCR, Stat3 phosphorylation by immunoblot, cytokines by ELISA and apoptosis by TUNEL assay. Colonic inflammation was more severe in mice fed an iron-supplemented compared with a control diet one week post-DSS treatment, with enhanced colonic IL-6 and IL-11 release and Stat3 phosphorylation. Both IL-6 and ferritin, the iron storage protein, co-localized with macrophages suggesting iron may act directly on IL-6 producing-macrophages. Iron increased DSS-induced colonic epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis consistent with enhanced mucosal damage. DSS-treated mice developed anemia that was not alleviated by dietary iron supplementation. Six weeks post-DSS treatment, iron-supplemented mice developed more and larger colonic tumors compared with control mice. Intratumoral IL-6 and IL-11 expression increased in DSS-treated mice and IL-6, and possibly IL-11, were enhanced by dietary iron. Gene expression of iron importers, divalent metal transporter 1 and transferrin receptor 1, increased and iron exporter, ferroportin, decreased in colonic tumors suggesting increased iron uptake. Dietary iron and colonic inflammation synergistically activated colonic IL-6/IL-11-Stat3 signaling promoting tumorigenesis. Oral iron therapy may be detrimental in inflammatory bowel disease since it may exacerbate colonic inflammation and increase colorectal cancer risk. PMID:24223168

  5. Increased expression and aberrant localization of mucin 13 in metastatic colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Brij K; Maher, Diane M; Ebeling, Mara C; Sundram, Vasudha; Koch, Michael D; Lynch, Douglas W; Bohlmeyer, Teresa; Watanabe, Akira; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Puumala, Susan E; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C

    2012-11-01

    MUC13 is a newly identified transmembrane mucin. Although MUC13 is known to be overexpressed in ovarian and gastric cancers, limited information is available regarding the expression of MUC13 in metastatic colon cancer. Herein, we investigated the expression profile of MUC13 in colon cancer using a novel anti-MUC13 monoclonal antibody (MAb, clone ppz0020) by immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. A cohort of colon cancer samples and tissue microarrays containing adjacent normal, non-metastatic colon cancer, metastatic colon cancer, and liver metastasis tissues was used in this study to investigate the expression pattern of MUC13. IHC analysis revealed significantly higher (p<0.001) MUC13 expression in non-metastatic colon cancer samples compared with faint or very low expression in adjacent normal tissues. Interestingly, metastatic colon cancer and liver metastasis tissue samples demonstrated significantly (p<0.05) higher cytoplasmic and nuclear MUC13 expression compared with non-metastatic colon cancer and adjacent normal colon samples. Moreover, cytoplasmic and nuclear MUC13 expression correlated with larger and poorly differentiated tumors. Four of six tested colon cancer cell lines also expressed MUC13 at RNA and protein levels. These studies demonstrate a significant increase in MUC13 expression in metastatic colon cancer and suggest a correlation between aberrant MUC13 localization (cytoplasmic and nuclear expression) and metastatic colon cancer.

  6. Patients with Acromegaly Presenting with Colon Cancer: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Nakhle, Samer; Ludlam, William H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Frequent colonoscopy screenings are critical for early diagnosis of colon cancer in patients with acromegaly. Case Presentations. We performed a retrospective analysis of the incidental diagnoses of colon cancer from the ACCESS trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01995734). Colon cancer was identified in 2 patients (4.5%). Case  1 patient was a 36-year-old male with acromegaly who underwent transsphenoidal surgery to remove the pituitary adenoma. After surgery, the patient underwent routine colonoscopy screening, which revealed a 40 mm tubular adenoma in the descending colon. A T1N1a carcinoma was surgically removed, and 1 of 22 lymph nodes was positive for metastatic disease, leading to a diagnosis of stage 3 colon cancer. Case  2 patient was a 50-year-old male with acromegaly who underwent transsphenoidal surgery to remove a 2 cm pituitary adenoma. The patient reported severe cramping and lower abdominal pain, and an invasive 8.1 cm3 grade 2 adenocarcinoma with signet rings was identified in the ascending colon and removed. Of the 37 lymph nodes, 34 were positive for the presence of tumor cells, and stage 3c colon cancer was confirmed. Conclusion. Current guidelines for colonoscopy screening at the time of diagnosis of acromegaly and at appropriate follow-up intervals should be followed. PMID:28025627

  7. [A case of metastatic gastric cancer originating from transverse colon cancer].

    PubMed

    Nushijima, Youichirou; Nakano, Katsutoshi; Sugimoto, Keishi; Nakaguchi, Kazunori; Kan, Kazuomi; Maruyama, Hirohide; Doi, Sadayuki; Okamura, Shu; Murata, Kohei

    2014-11-01

    Metastatic gastric cancer is uncommon, and metastasis of colorectal cancer to the stomach is extremely rare. We report a case of metastatic gastric cancer that originated from transverse colon cancer. A 52-year-old woman underwent a left hemicolectomy and D3 lymph node dissection based on a diagnosis of transverse colon cancer. The pathology results were as follows: mucinous adenocarcinoma, type 2, 6 × 11 cm, ss, ly1 v1, pm (-), dm (-), n1 (+), P0, H0, M0, Stage IIIa. The patient received XELOX as postoperative adjuvant therapy for 6 months. One year and 3 months after the left hemicolectomy, gastroscopy revealed a submucosal tumor in the lower body of the stomach and an incipient cancer in the cardia of the stomach, and a colonoscopy revealed an incipient cancer in the transverse colon. An endoscopic ultrasonography fine needle aspiration biopsy of the submucosal tumor in the lower body of the stomach was performed. Histology showed that this tumor was a mucinous adenocarcinoma similar to the primary transverse colon cancer, which led to a diagnosis of metastatic gastric cancer originating from transverse colon cancer. Distant metastasis was not detected. Endoscopic submucosal dissection of the incipient gastric cancer was performed, as were distal gastrectomy and partial colectomy. Peritoneal dissemination and para-aortic lymph node recurrence were detected 7 months after the second surgery.

  8. Supplementation by vitamin D compounds does not affect colonic tumor development in vitamin D sufficient murine models

    PubMed Central

    Irving, Amy A.; Halberg, Richard B.; Albrecht, Dawn M.; Plum, Lori A.; Krentz, Kathleen J.; Clipson, Linda; Drinkwater, Norman; Amos-Landgraf, James M.; Dove, William F.; DeLuca, Hector F.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that sunlight exposure and vitamin D are each associated with a lower risk of colon cancer. The few controlled supplementation trials testing vitamin D in humans reported to date show conflicting results. We have used two genetic models of familial colon cancer, the ApcPirc/+ (Pirc) rat and the ApcMin/+ (Min) mouse, to investigate the effect of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] and two analogs of vitamin D hormone on colonic tumors. Longitudinal endoscopic monitoring allowed us to test the efficacy of these compounds in preventing newly arising colonic tumors and in affecting established colonic tumors. 25(OH)D3 and two analogs of vitamin D hormone each failed to reduce tumor multiplicities or alter the growth patterns of colonic tumors in the Pirc rat or the Min mouse. PMID:21907701

  9. Microbes, microbiota, and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Sears, Cynthia L; Garrett, Wendy S

    2014-03-12

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) presents a considerable disease burden worldwide. The human colon is also an anatomical location with the largest number of microbes. It is natural, therefore, to anticipate a role for microbes, particularly bacteria, in colorectal carcinogenesis. The increasing accessibility of microbial meta'omics is fueling a surge in our understanding of the role that microbes and the microbiota play in CRC. In this review, we will discuss recent insights into contributions of the microbiota to CRC and explore conceptual frameworks for evaluating the role of microbes in cancer causation. We also highlight new findings on candidate CRC-potentiating species and current knowledge gaps. Finally, we explore the roles of microbial metabolism as it relates to bile acids, xenobiotics, and diet in the etiology and therapeutics of CRC.

  10. Microbes, Microbiota and Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Cynthia L.; Garrett, Wendy S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Colorectal cancer (CRC) presents a considerable disease burden worldwide. The human colon is also an anatomical location with the largest number of microbes. It is natural therefore to anticipate a role for microbes, particularly bacteria, in colorectal carcinogenesis. The increasing accessibility of microbial meta’omics is fueling a surge in our understanding of the role that microbes and the microbiota play in CRC. In this review, we will discuss recent insights into contributions of the microbiota to CRC and explore conceptual frameworks for evaluating the role of microbes in cancer causation. We also highlight new findings on candidate CRC-potentiating species and current knowledge gaps. Finally, we explore the roles of microbial metabolism as it relates to bile acids, xenobiotics, and diet in the etiology and therapeutics of CRC. PMID:24629338

  11. Colon Cancer Risk Assessment - Gauss Program

    Cancer.gov

    An executable file (in GAUSS) that projects absolute colon cancer risk (with confidence intervals) according to NCI’s Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (CCRAT) algorithm. GAUSS is not needed to run the program.

  12. Variation in Positron Emission Tomography Use After Colon Cancer Resection

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Christina E.; Hu, Chung-Yuan; You, Y. Nancy; Kaur, Harmeet; Ernst, Randy D.; Chang, George J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Colon cancer surveillance guidelines do not routinely include positron emission tomography (PET) imaging; however, its use after surgical resection has been increasing. We evaluated the secular patterns of PET use after surgical resection of colon cancer among elderly patients and identified factors associated with its increasing use. Patients and Methods: We used the SEER-linked Medicare database (July 2001 through December 2009) to establish a retrospective cohort of patients age ≥ 66 years who had undergone surgical resection for colon cancer. Postoperative PET use was assessed with the test for trends. Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were analyzed using univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results: Of the 39,221 patients with colon cancer, 6,326 (16.1%) had undergone a PET scan within 2 years after surgery. The use rate steadily increased over time. The majority of PET scans had been performed within 2 months after surgery. Among patients who had undergone a PET scan, 3,644 (57.6%) had also undergone preoperative imaging, and 1,977 (54.3%) of these patients had undergone reimaging with PET within 2 months after surgery. Marriage, year of diagnosis, tumor stage, preoperative imaging, postoperative visit to a medical oncologist, and adjuvant chemotherapy were significantly associated with increased PET use. Conclusion: PET use after colon cancer resection is steadily increasing, and further study is needed to understand the clinical value and effectiveness of PET scans and the reasons for this departure from guideline-concordant care. PMID:25852143

  13. ST6Gal-I protein expression is upregulated in human epithelial tumors and correlates with stem cell markers in normal tissues and colon cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Swindall, Amanda F; Londoño-Joshi, Angelina I; Schultz, Matthew J; Fineberg, Naomi; Buchsbaum, Donald J; Bellis, Susan L

    2013-04-01

    The ST6Gal-I sialyltransferase adds an α2-6-linked sialic acid to the N-glycans of certain receptors. ST6Gal-I mRNA has been reported to be upregulated in human cancer, but a prior lack of antibodies has limited immunochemical analysis of the ST6Gal-I protein. Here, we show upregulated ST6Gal-I protein in several epithelial cancers, including many colon carcinomas. In normal colon, ST6Gal-I localized selectively to the base of crypts, where stem/progenitor cells are found, and the tissue staining patterns were similar to the established stem cell marker ALDH1. Similarly, ST6Gal-I expression was restricted to basal epidermal layers in skin, another stem/progenitor cell compartment. ST6Gal-I was highly expressed in induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, with no detectable expression in the fibroblasts from which iPS cells were derived. On the basis of these observations, we investigated further an association of ST6Gal-I with cancer stem cells (CSC). Selection of irinotecan resistance in colon carcinoma cells led to a greater proportion of CSCs compared with parental cells, as measured by the CSC markers CD133 and ALDH1 activity (Aldefluor). These chemoresistant cells exhibited a corresponding upregulation of ST6Gal-I expression. Conversely, short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated attenuation of ST6Gal-I in colon carcinoma cells with elevated endogenous expression decreased the number of CD133/ALDH1-positive cells present in the cell population. Collectively, our results suggest that ST6Gal-I promotes tumorigenesis and may serve as a regulator of the stem cell phenotype in both normal and cancer cell populations.

  14. Metformin: A Potential Therapeutic Agent for Recurrent Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Yu, Yingjie; Vasudevan, Anita; Farhana, Lulu; Rajendra, Sindhu G.; Levi, Edi; Majumdar, Adhip P. N.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that metformin, a biguanide class of anti-diabetic drugs, possesses anti-cancer properties. However, most of the studies to evaluate therapeutic efficacy of metformin have been on primary cancer. No information is available whether metformin could be effectively used for recurrent cancer, specifically colorectal cancer (CRC) that affects up to 50% of patients treated by conventional chemotherapies. Although the reasons for recurrence are not fully understood, it is thought to be due to re-emergence of chemotherapy-resistant cancer stem/stem-like cells (CSCs/CSLCs). Therefore, development of non-toxic treatment strategies targeting CSCs would be of significant therapeutic benefit. In the current investigation, we have examined the effectiveness of metformin, in combination with 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin (FuOx), the mainstay of colon cancer therapeutics, on survival of chemo-resistant colon cancer cells that are highly enriched in CSCs/CSLCs. Our data show that metformin acts synergistically with FuOx to (a) induce cell death in chemo resistant (CR) HT-29 and HCT-116 colon cancer cells, (b) inhibit colonospheres formation and (c) enhance colonospheres disintegration. In vitro cell culture studies have further demonstrated that the combinatorial treatment inhibits migration of CR colon cancer cells. These changes were associated with increased miRNA 145 and reduction in miRNA 21. Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was also down-regulated indicating its pivotal role in regulating the growth of CR colon cancer cells. Data from SCID mice xenograft model of CR HCT-116 and CR HT-29 cells show that the combination of metformin and FuOX is highly effective in inhibiting the growth of colon tumors as evidenced by ∼50% inhibition in growth following 5 weeks of combination treatment, when compared with the vehicle treated controls. Our current data suggest that metformin together with conventional chemotherapy could be an effective treatment

  15. Tumor evolution in space: the effects of competition colonization tradeoffs on tumor invasion dynamics.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Paul A; Gatenby, Robert A; Brown, Joel S

    2013-01-01

    We apply competition colonization tradeoff models to tumor growth and invasion dynamics to explore the hypothesis that varying selection forces will result in predictable phenotypic differences in cells at the tumor invasive front compared to those in the core. Spatially, ecologically, and evolutionarily explicit partial differential equation models of tumor growth confirm that spatial invasion produces selection pressure for motile phenotypes. The effects of the invasive phenotype on normal adjacent tissue determine the patterns of growth and phenotype distribution. If tumor cells do not destroy their environment, colonizer and competitive phenotypes coexist with the former localized at the invasion front and the latter, to the tumor interior. If tumors cells do destroy their environment, then cell motility is strongly selected resulting in accelerated invasion speed with time. Our results suggest that the widely observed genetic heterogeneity within cancers may not be the stochastic effect of random mutations. Rather, it may be the consequence of predictable variations in environmental selection forces and corresponding phenotypic adaptations.

  16. Colon cancer stem cells: promise of targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Todaro, Matilde; Francipane, Maria Giovanna; Medema, Jan Paul; Stassi, Giorgio

    2010-06-01

    First developed for hematologic disorders, the concept of cancer stem cells (CSCs) was expanded to solid tumors, including colorectal cancer (CRC). The traditional model of colon carcinogenesis includes several steps that occur via mutational activation of oncogenes and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Intestinal epithelial cells exist for a shorter amount of time than that required to accumulate tumor-inducing genetic changes, so researchers have investigated the concept that CRC arises from the long-lived stem cells, rather than from the differentiated epithelial cells. Colon CSCs were originally identified through the expression of the CD133 glycoprotein using an antibody directed to its epitope AC133. It is not clear if CD133 is a marker of colon CSCs-other cell surface markers, such as epithelial-specific antigen, CD44, CD166, Musashi-1, CD29, CD24, leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1, have been proposed. In addition to initiating and sustaining tumor growth, CSCs are believed to mediate cancer relapse after chemotherapy. How can we identify and analyze colon CSCs and what agents are being designed to kill this chemotherapy-refractory population?

  17. Expression and clinical significance of tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Cai, Peifen; Guo, Wenjie; Yuan, Huaqin; Li, Qian; Wang, Weicheng; Sun, Yang; Li, Xiaomin; Gu, Yanhong

    2014-04-01

    Protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, encoded by gene PTPN11, has been identified as a tumor-promoting factor in several types of leukemia and is hyper-activated by other mechanisms in some solid tumors including gastric cancer, breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), etc. But few were reported on the expression and significances of SHP-2 in colon cancer. Here, we detect SHP-2 expression in colon cancer cells, colon cancer-induced by AOM+DSS in mice and 232 human colon cancer specimens, including 58 groups of self-matched adjacent peritumor tissues and normal tissues. We found that compared to the normal colon tissues, SHP-2 significantly decreased in tumor tissues (P<0.001). The same results were got in colon tumor cells as well as mice colon tumors. And in humans samples, low SHP-2 expression showed a significantly correlation with poor tumor differentiation (P<0.05), late TNM stage (P=0.1666) and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05).

  18. Targeted Sequencing for Discovery and Validation of DNA Methylation Markers of Colon Cancer Metastasis — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. A key issue in treating colon cancer patients is inability to accurately predict tumors that have metastatic potential and require adjuvant chemotherapy. This project will test the model that tumor metastases arise from intra-tumor heterogeneity generated by DNA methylation events, and that detecting these events can provide a predictve signature of tumors with poor outcome

  19. Curcumin inhibits tumor epithelial‑mesenchymal transition by downregulating the Wnt signaling pathway and upregulating NKD2 expression in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zewei; Chen, Haitao; Xu, Chao; Song, Lu; Huang, Lulu; Lai, Yuebiao; Wang, Yuqi; Chen, Hanlu; Gu, Danlin; Ren, Lili; Yao, Qinghua

    2016-05-01

    Tumor invasion and metastasis are closely associated with epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT refers to epithelial cells under physiological and pathological conditions that are specific to mesenchymal transition. Curcumin inhibits EMT progression via Wnt signaling. The Wnt signaling pathway is a conservative EMT‑related signaling pathway that is involved in the development of various tumors. In the present study, MTS assays were employed to analyze the proliferation of curcumin‑treated cells. Naked cuticle homolog 2 (NKD2), chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and antibodies associated with EMT were examined in SW620 colorectal cancer cell lines using western blot analysis and real‑time qPCR. NKD2 small‑interfering RNA (siRNA) and CXCR4 expression plasmid was synthesized and transfected into the colorectal cancer cell lines, and NKD2 and CXCR4 expression levels were detected. The results showed that curcumin significantly inhibited the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells and upregulated the expression of NKD2 in SW620 colorectal cancer cells and in the xenograft, resulting in the downregulation of key markers in the Wnt signaling. In addition, the progression of ETM was inhibited due to the overexpression of E‑cadherin as well as the downregulation of vimentin. Curcumin also inhibited tumor metastasis by downregulating the expression of CXCR4 significantly. The results suggested involvement of the NKD2‑Wnt‑CXCR4 signaling pathway in colorectal cancer cells. In addition, curcumin is inhibit this signaling and the development of colorectal cancer.

  20. Hyaluronate - Peanut Agglutinin Conjugates for Target-Specific Bioimaging of Colon Cancer.

    PubMed

    Beack, Songeun; Cho, Minsoo; Kim, Young-Eun; Ahn, G-One; Hahn, Sei Kwang

    2017-03-27

    Colon cancer is one of the most common death-related cancers in the world. For treating the colon cancer, it is crucial to detect and remove malignant lesions in the early time. Here, we developed hyaluronate (HA) - peanut agglutinin (PNA) conjugates for bioimaging of colon cancer. The HA-PNA conjugates were successfully synthesized by the coupling reaction between aldehyde modified HA and the N-terminal amine group of PNA. For diagnostic imaging, rhodamine B (RhoB) was chemically conjugated onto PNA in HA-PNA conjugates. After intraluminal injection of HA-PNA-RhoB conjugates into tumor-bearing mice, small-sized colon cancers could be effectively visualized by ex vivo IVIS imaging and two-photon microscopy. Taken together, we could confirm the feasibility of HA-PNA-RhoB conjugates as a bioimaging agent for detecting colon cancers. [Keywords] Hyaluronate; Peanut agglutinin; Colon cancer; Two-photon imaging; Diagnostics.

  1. Shed syndecan-2 enhances tumorigenic activities of colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sojoong; Choi, Youngsil; Jun, Eunsung; Kim, In-San; Kim, Seong-Eun; Jung, Sung-Ae; Oh, Eok-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Because earlier studies showed the cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan, syndecan-2, sheds from colon cancer cells in culture, the functional roles of shed syndecan-2 were assessed. A non-cleavable mutant of syndecan-2 in which the Asn148-Leu149 residues were replaced with Asn148-Ile149, had decreased shedding, less cancer-associated activities of syndecan-2 in vitro, and less syndecan-2-mediated metastasis of mouse melanoma cells in vivo, suggesting the importance of shedding on syndecan-2-mediated pro-tumorigenic functions. Indeed, shed syndecan-2 from cancer-conditioned media and recombinant shed syndecan-2 enhanced cancer-associated activities, and depletion of shed syndecan-2 abolished these effects. Similarly, shed syndecan-2 was detected from sera of patients from advanced carcinoma (625.9 ng/ml) and promoted cancer-associated activities. Furthermore, a series of syndecan-2 deletion mutants showed that the tumorigenic activity of shed syndecan-2 resided in the C-terminus of the extracellular domain and a shed syndecan-2 synthetic peptide (16 residues) was sufficient to establish subcutaneous primary growth of HT29 colon cancer cells, pulmonary metastases (B16F10 cells), and primary intrasplenic tumor growth and liver metastases (4T1 cells). Taken together, these results demonstrate that shed syndecan-2 directly enhances colon cancer progression and may be a promising therapeutic target for controlling colon cancer development. PMID:25686828

  2. Relationship Between Tumor Gene Expression and Recurrence in Four Independent Studies of Patients With Stage II/III Colon Cancer Treated With Surgery Alone or Surgery Plus Adjuvant Fluorouracil Plus Leucovorin

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Michael J.; Lavery, Ian; Yothers, Greg; Paik, Soonmyung; Clark-Langone, Kim M.; Lopatin, Margarita; Watson, Drew; Baehner, Frederick L.; Shak, Steven; Baker, Joffre; Cowens, J. Wayne; Wolmark, Norman

    2010-01-01

    Purpose These studies were conducted to determine the relationship between quantitative tumor gene expression and risk of cancer recurrence in patients with stage II or III colon cancer treated with surgery alone or surgery plus fluorouracil (FU) and leucovorin (LV) to develop multigene algorithms to quantify the risk of recurrence as well as the likelihood of differential treatment benefit of FU/LV adjuvant chemotherapy for individual patients. Patients and Methods We performed quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) on RNA extracted from fixed, paraffin-embedded (FPE) tumor blocks from patients with stage II or III colon cancer who were treated with surgery alone (n = 270 from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project [NSABP] C-01/C-02 and n = 765 from Cleveland Clinic [CC]) or surgery plus FU/LV (n = 308 from NSABP C-04 and n = 508 from NSABP C-06). Overall, 761 candidate genes were studied in C-01/C-02 and C-04, and a subset of 375 genes was studied in CC/C-06. Results A combined analysis of the four studies identified 48 genes significantly associated with risk of recurrence and 66 genes significantly associated with FU/LV benefit (with four genes in common). Seven recurrence-risk genes, six FU/LV-benefit genes, and five reference genes were selected, and algorithms were developed to identify groups of patients with low, intermediate, and high likelihood of recurrence and benefit from FU/LV. Conclusion RT-qPCR of FPE colon cancer tissue applied to four large independent populations has been used to develop multigene algorithms for estimating recurrence risk and benefit from FU/LV. These algorithms are being independently validated, and their clinical utility is being evaluated in the Quick and Simple and Reliable (QUASAR) study. PMID:20679606

  3. Oncotype DX(®) colon cancer assay for prediction of recurrence risk in patients with stage II and III colon cancer: A review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    You, Y Nancy; Rustin, Rudolph B; Sullivan, James D

    2015-06-01

    Advances in molecular biology have enabled identification of tumor biomarkers that allow for individualized risk assessment for patients with cancer. Molecular predictors of clinical outcome can help inform discussion regarding the role of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with resected colon cancer, such as those with stage II colon cancer in which the benefit of adjuvant therapy is controversial or those with stage III colon cancer who may have a lower risk of recurrence and less absolute benefit from oxaliplatin therapy. This article summarizes the data surrounding the development, validation, and clinical and economic utility of the Oncotype DX(®) colon cancer assay, a multigene expression assay validated to independently predict recurrence risk in patients with stage II and III colon cancer beyond traditional factors.

  4. Methylselenol, a selenium metabolite, inhibits colon cancer cell growth and cancer xenografts in C57BL/6 mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data indicate that methylselenol is a critical selenium (Se) metabolite for anticancer activity in vivo but its role in colon cancer prevention remains to be characterized. This study tested the hypothesis that methylselenol inhibits the growth of colon cancer cells and tumors. We found that submicr...

  5. CD133+CD24lo defines a 5-Fluorouracil-resistant colon cancer stem cell-like phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Paschall, Amy V.; Yang, Dafeng; Lu, Chunwan; Redd, Priscilla S.; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Heaton, Christopher M.; Lee, Jeffrey R.; Nayak-Kapoor, Asha; Liu, Kebin

    2016-01-01

    The chemotherapeutic agent 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is the most commonly used drug for patients with advanced colon cancer. However, development of resistance to 5-FU is inevitable in almost all patients. The mechanism by which colon cancer develops 5-FU resistance is still unclear. One recently proposed theory is that cancer stem-like cells underlie colon cancer 5-FU resistance, but the phenotypes of 5-FU-resistant colon cancer stem cells are still controversial. We report here that 5-FU treatment selectively enriches a subset of CD133+ colon cancer cells in vitro. 5-FU chemotherapy also increases CD133+ tumor cells in human colon cancer patients. However, sorted CD133+ colon cancer cells exhibit no increased resistance to 5-FU, and CD133 levels exhibit no correlation with colon cancer patient survival or cancer recurrence. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression between sorted CD133+ colon cancer cells and 5-FU-selected colon cancer cells identifies 207 differentially expressed genes. CD24 is one of the genes whose expression level is lower in the CD133+ and 5-FU-resistant colon cancer cells as compared to CD133+ and 5-FU-sensitive colon cancer cells. Consequently, CD133+CD24lo cells exhibit decreased sensitivity to 5-FU. Therefore, we determine that CD133+CD24lo phenotype defines 5-FU-resistant human colon cancer stem cell-like cells. PMID:27659530

  6. Clinical investigation of TROP-2 as an independent biomarker and potential therapeutic target in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Yu, Hai-Zheng; Cai, Jian-Hui

    2015-09-01

    Colon cancer is associated with a severe demographic and economic burden worldwide. The pathogenesis of colon cancer is highly complex and involves sequential genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. Despite extensive investigation, the pathogenesis of colon cancer remains to be elucidated. As the third most common type of cancer worldwide, the treatment options for colon cancer are currently limited. Human trophoblast cell‑surface marker (TROP‑2), is a cell‑surface transmembrane glycoprotein overexpressed by several types of epithelial carcinoma. In addition, TROP‑2 has been demonstrated to be associated with tumorigenesis and invasiveness in solid types of tumor. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protein expression of TROP‑2 in colon cancer tissues, and further explore the association between the expression of TROP‑2 and clinicopathological features of patients with colon cancer. The expression and localization of the TROP‑2 protein was examined using western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining. Finally, the expression of TROP‑2 expression was correlated to conventional clinicopathological features of colon cancer using a χ2 test. The results revealed that TROP‑2 protein was expressed at high levels in the colon cancer tissues, which was associated with the development and pathological process of colon cancer. Therefore, TROP‑2 may be used as a biomarker to determine the clinical prognosis, and as a potential therapeutic target in colon cancer.

  7. Frequent mutation of Apc gene in rat colon tumors and mucin-depleted foci, preneoplastic lesions in experimental colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Femia, Angelo Pietro; Dolara, Piero; Giannini, Augusto; Salvadori, Maddalena; Biggeri, Annibale; Caderni, Giovanna

    2007-01-15

    Mucin-depleted foci (MDF) are microscopic dysplastic lesions induced in the colon of rodents by specific colon carcinogens. Most MDF show Wnt pathway activation, whereas only a subset shows mutations in the Ctnnb1 gene, coding for beta-catenin. Because Apc is a member of the Wnt pathway and the most frequent mutated gene in human colon cancer, we tested whether MDF harbor Apc mutations. F344 rats were treated twice with 150 mg/kg of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. After 15 or 28 weeks, MDF, aberrant crypt foci (ACF), and tumors were collected. We screened a segment of the Apc gene comprising the region homologous to the mutation cluster region (MCR) of human APC, which frequently shows mutations in experimental colon tumors. Mutations were identified by PCR amplification and sequencing in 6:24 MDF (25%), 7:23 tumors (30%), 0:24 ACF (0%). Most of the mutations (92%) in MDF and tumors were localized in a region upstream from the MCR. All mutations were single-base substitutions and mainly formed by G:C-->A:T and C:G-->T:A transitions. The pattern of nucleotide changes was similar in MDF and tumors, and, interestingly, the same mutation in codon 1047 was found in two MDF and in three tumors. Four out of the six mutations found in MDF were nonsense mutations, and two were missense. All mutations in tumors determined a protein truncation. These results show that Apc mutations are present in MDF with a frequency similar to that of tumors, strengthening the evidence that they are precancerous lesions in colon carcinogenesis.

  8. Allogeneic nonmyeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation in metastatic colon cancer: tumor-specific T cells directed to a tumor-associated antigen are generated in vivo during GVHD.

    PubMed

    Carnevale-Schianca, Fabrizio; Cignetti, Alessandro; Capaldi, Antonio; Vitaggio, Katiuscia; Vallario, Antonella; Ricchiardi, Alberto; Sperti, Elisa; Ferraris, Renato; Gatti, Marco; Grignani, Giovanni; Rota-Scalabrini, Delia; Geuna, Massimo; Fizzotti, Marco; Sangiolo, Dario; Sottile, Antonino; De Rosa, Giovanni; Bucci, Anna Rosa; Lambertenghi-Deliliers, Giorgio; Benedetti, Edoardo; Nash, Richard; Aglietta, Massimo

    2006-05-01

    A pilot study was conducted to evaluate safety and activity of nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and to determine whether a T-cell response to a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) was induced. Fifteen patients with metastatic CRC underwent HCT from human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched siblings after a nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen. All patients engrafted with a median donor T-cell chimerism of 72% at day +56. Eight patients experienced grades II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Despite progressive disease before HCT, partial remission and disease stabilization longer than 90 days were observed in 1 and 3 patients, respectively. Induction of TAA-specific T cells was evaluated with a carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-specific HLA-A(*)0201 pentamer in 6 patients with CRC. CEA-specific CD8(+) T cells were detected in 3 of 3 patients concomitant with GHVD onset, but not in 3 of 3 patients without GVHD. They were also not detected in 9 of 9 control patients with GVHD who received transplants for diagnoses other than CRC. Antitumor activity of CEA-specific T cells was also validated in vitro. In one patient, the induction of CEA-specific T cells was associated with a decrease of serum CEA levels and a partial response. Thus, graft-versus-host reactions associated with allogeneic HCT can trigger the generation of T cells specific for CEA, and this may be associated with a clinical response.

  9. A benign cultured colon adenoma bears three genetically altered colon cancer oncogenes, but progresses to tumorigenicity and transforming growth factor-beta independence without inactivating the p53 tumor suppressor gene.

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, S D; Myeroff, L; Cooper, M J; Traicoff, J; Kochera, M; Lutterbaugh, J; Swiriduk, M; Willson, J K

    1994-01-01

    We describe the spontaneous progression of a colon adenoma cell line to tumorigenicity and growth factor independence. This system allows direct comparison of biologic stages of malignant progression with alterations of colon cancer suppressor genes and oncogenes. VACO-235, a human colon adenoma cell line, is at early passages nontumorigenic in the nude mouse, unable to grow in soft agar, growth stimulated by serum and EGF, and growth inhibited by TGF-beta. VACO-235 daughter passages 93 and higher have in culture spontaneously progressed to being weakly tumorigenic, but retain all other growth characteristics of VACO-235 early passages. A mouse xenograft from late passage VACO-235 was reestablished in culture as the granddaughter cell line, VACO-411. VACO-411 is highly tumorigenic, clones in soft agar, and is unresponsive to serum, EGF, and TGF-beta. Early passage VACO-235 bears a mutant K-ras allele, bears only mutant APC alleles, expresses no DCC transcripts, and expresses only wild type p53 transcripts. VACO-411 retains the identical genotype, still expressing only wild type p53. Colonic cells after ras mutation, APC mutation, and DCC inactivation remain nontumorigenic and growth factor dependent. Malignant progression involves at least two additional steps, and in VACO-411 can proceed by a novel pathway not requiring p53 inactivation. Images PMID:8132740

  10. Redefining Adjuvant Therapy for Colon Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In this trial, patients with resected stage III colon cancer are being randomly assigned to receive FOLFOX chemotherapy for either 3 or 6 months and to take either a pill called celecoxib or a matching placebo pill for 3 years.

  11. Affinity-based strategies to fast track development of colon cancer biomarkers — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Our goal is to discover plasma and tissue-based tumor biomarkers that work well enough together to identity colon cancer at early stages, lead to accurate diagnosis and could ultimately allow for individualized treatment.

  12. S100A8/A9 activate key genes and pathways in colon tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Mie; Williams, Roy; Wang, Ling; Vogl, Thomas; Srikrishna, Geetha

    2011-02-01

    The tumor microenvironment plays an important role in modulating tumor progression. Earlier, we showed that S100A8/A9 proteins secreted by myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) present within tumors and metastatic sites promote an autocrine pathway for accumulation of MDSC. In a mouse model of colitis-associated colon cancer, we also showed that S100A8/A9-positive cells accumulate in all regions of dysplasia and adenoma. Here we present evidence that S100A8/A9 interact with RAGE and carboxylated glycans on colon tumor cells and promote activation of MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Comparison of gene expression profiles of S100A8/A9-activated colon tumor cells versus unactivated cells led us to identify a small cohort of genes upregulated in activated cells, including Cxcl1, Ccl5 and Ccl7, Slc39a10, Lcn2, Zc3h12a, Enpp2, and other genes, whose products promote leukocyte recruitment, angiogenesis, tumor migration, wound healing, and formation of premetastatic niches in distal metastatic organs. Consistent with this observation, in murine colon tumor models we found that chemokines were upregulated in tumors, and elevated in sera of tumor-bearing wild-type mice. Mice lacking S100A9 showed significantly reduced tumor incidence, growth and metastasis, reduced chemokine levels, and reduced infiltration of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells within tumors and premetastatic organs. Studies using bone marrow chimeric mice revealed that S100A8/A9 expression on myeloid cells is essential for development of colon tumors. Our results thus reveal a novel role for myeloid-derived S100A8/A9 in activating specific downstream genes associated with tumorigenesis and in promoting tumor growth and metastasis.

  13. Bufalin Inhibits HCT116 Colon Cancer Cells and Its Orthotopic Xenograft Tumor in Mice Model through Genes Related to Apoptotic and PTEN/AKT Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Chen, Chao; Wang, Shiying; Zhang, Yong; Yin, Peihao; Gao, Zhongxiang; Xu, Jie; Feng, Dianxu; Zuo, Qinsong; Zhao, Ronghua; Chen, Teng

    2015-01-01

    Aims. To investigate the anticolorectal cancer (CRC) effects of Bufalin, a bioactive polyhydroxysteroid from Venenum Bufonis, using HCT116 human CRC cell and an established orthotopic xenograft model in mice, and to explore the mechanisms of action. Material and Methods. Cultured HCT116 cells or BALB/c mice with orthotopic tumor were treated by Bufalin (positive control: 5-FU). Cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cycling were determined by MTT, Annexin V/PI staining, and flow cytometry, respectively. In mice, tumor inhibition rate and animal survival were calculated. The expressions of PTEN/phosphate-PTEN, AKT/phosphate-AKT, Bad, Bcl-xl, Bax, or Caspase-3 in cells and/or tumors were determined by Western blot or immunohistochemical staining. Results. Bufalin significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis and cycle arrest in a dose/time-dependent manner. In the animal model, Bufalin treatment resulted in significant inhibition of tumor growth and prolonged survival. In the Bufalin-treated cultured cells and/or xenograft tumors, the expressions of PTEN, Bad, Bax, and Caspase-3 were significantly increased, while p-AKT and Bcl-xL significantly decreased. Conclusions. Our results indicate that Bufalin inhibit cell proliferation and orthotopic tumor growth by inducing cell apoptosis through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, which is of pivotal significance in the identification of an anticancer drug that may synergize with Bufalin. PMID:26770191

  14. Collection of Biospecimen & Clinical Information in Patients w/ Gastrointestinal Cancers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-05-24

    Gastrointestinal Neoplasms; Gynecologic Cancers; Gynecologic Cancers Cervical Cancer; Gastric (Stomach) Cancer; Gastro-Esophageal(GE) Junction Cancer; Gastrointenstinal Stromal Tumor (GIST); Colon/Rectal Cancer; Colon/Rectal Cancer Colon Cancer; Colon/Rectal Cancer Rectal Cancer; Colon/Rectal Cancer Anal Cancer; Anal Cancer; Hepatobiliary Cancers; Hepatobiliary Cancers Liver; Pancreatic Cancer

  15. Potentiation of Colon Cancer Susceptibility in Mice by Colonic Epithelial PPAR-δ/β Overexpression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ/β (PPAR-d) is upregulated in human colorectal cancers, but its role in colonic tumorigenesis remains controversial. Methods We generated a novel mouse model of intestinally targeted PPAR-d overexpression to simulate PPAR-d upregulation in human colon carcinogenesis. Colon-specific PPAR-d overexpression was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and activity assays. Mice with and without targeted PPAR-d overexpression were tested for azoxymethane (AOM)–induced colonic tumorigenesis. Mouse whole-genome transcriptome microarray analyses were performed to identify PPAR-d target genes to promote tumorigenesis. We used linear models to test for PPAR-d overexpression trend effects on tumor multiplicity. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Targeted PPAR-d overexpression markedly increased colonic tumor incidence (from 0 of 10 wild-type [WT] littermate mice to 9 of 10 mice [P < .001] in 2 FVB/N background mouse lines [villin-PPAR-d-1 and villin-PPAR-d-2] at a 5-mg/kg AOM dose) and multiplicity (number of tumors per mouse per mg/kg dose of AOM increased from 0.47 [95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.22 to 0.72] for the WT littermates to 2.15 [95% CI = 1.90 to 2.40] [P < .001] for the villin-PPAR-d-1 mice and from 0.44 [95% CI = 0.09 to 0.79] for the WT littermates to 1.91 [95% CI = 1.57 to 2.25] [P < .001] for the villin-PPAR-d-2 mice). PPAR-d overexpression reversed resistance to AOM-induced colonic tumorigenesis in C57BL/6 mice. PPAR-d overexpression modulated expression of several novel PPAR-d target genes in normal-appearing colonic epithelial cells of mice with PPAR-d overexpression in a pattern that matched the changes in colonic tumors. Conclusions Our finding that PPAR-d upregulation profoundly enhances susceptibility to colonic tumorigenesis should impact the development of strategies of molecularly targeting PPAR-d in cancer and

  16. Carbohydrate-containing molecules as potential biomarkers in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Joo, Eun Ji; Weyers, Amanda; Li, Guoyun; Gasimli, Leyla; Li, Lingyun; Choi, Won Jun; Lee, Kyung Bok; Linhardt, Robert J

    2014-04-01

    Glycans play a critical role in physiological and pathological processes through interaction with a variety of ligands. Altered expression and dysregulation of these molecules can cause aberrant cellular function such as malignancy. Glycomics provide information of the structure and function of glycans, glycolipids, and glycoproteins such as proteoglycans, and may help to predict cancer development and progression as biomarkers. In this report, we compared the expression of proteoglycans, the content and structure of glycosaminoglycans and glycolipids between patient-matched normal and cancer tissues obtained from colon cancer patients. Tumor-related proteoglycans, glypican-3, and syndecan-1 showed downregulation in cancer tissues compared to normal tissues. In cancer tissue, the total amount of chondroitin sulfate (CS)/dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate were lower and, interestingly, the level of disaccharide units of both 4S6S (CS-E) and 6S (CS-C) were higher compared to normal tissue. Also, overall lipids including glycolipids, a major glycomics target, were analyzed by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Increase of lyso-phosphatidylcholine (phospholipid), sphingomyelin (sphigolipid), and four types of glycolipids (glucosylceramide, lactosylceramide, monosialic acid ganglioside, and globoside 4) in cancer tissue showed the possibility as potential biomarkers in colon cancer. While requiring the need for careful interpretation, this type of broad investigation gives us a better understanding of pathophysiological roles on glycosaminoglycans and glycolipids and might be a powerful tool for colon cancer diagnosis.

  17. Carbohydrate-Containing Molecules as Potential Biomarkers in Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Eun Ji; Weyers, Amanda; Li, Guoyun; Gasimli, Leyla; Li, Lingyun; Choi, Won Jun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Glycans play a critical role in physiological and pathological processes through interaction with a variety of ligands. Altered expression and dysregulation of these molecules can cause aberrant cellular function such as malignancy. Glycomics provide information of the structure and function of glycans, glycolipids, and glycoproteins such as proteoglycans, and may help to predict cancer development and progression as biomarkers. In this report, we compared the expression of proteoglycans, the content and structure of glycosaminoglycans and glycolipids between patient-matched normal and cancer tissues obtained from colon cancer patients. Tumor-related proteoglycans, glypican-3, and syndecan-1 showed downregulation in cancer tissues compared to normal tissues. In cancer tissue, the total amount of chondroitin sulfate (CS)/dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate were lower and, interestingly, the level of disaccharide units of both 4S6S (CS-E) and 6S (CS-C) were higher compared to normal tissue. Also, overall lipids including glycolipids, a major glycomics target, were analyzed by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Increase of lyso-phosphatidylcholine (phospholipid), sphingomyelin (sphigolipid), and four types of glycolipids (glucosylceramide, lactosylceramide, monosialic acid ganglioside, and globoside 4) in cancer tissue showed the possibility as potential biomarkers in colon cancer. While requiring the need for careful interpretation, this type of broad investigation gives us a better understanding of pathophysiological roles on glycosaminoglycans and glycolipids and might be a powerful tool for colon cancer diagnosis. PMID:24502776

  18. Lack of functioning intratumoral lymphatics in colon and pancreas cancer tissue.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Waldemar L; Stanczyk, Marek; Gewartowska, Magdalena; Domaszewska-Szostek, Anna; Durlik, Marek

    2012-09-01

    There are controversial views as to whether intratumoral or peritumoral lymphatics play a dominant role in the metastatic process. Most clinical observations originate from studies of colon cancer. Colon contains mucosa and submucosa rich in lymphatics and with high lymph formation rate. This seems to be a prerequisite for easy metastasis of cancer cells to regional lymph nodes. However, there are other tissues as pancreas with a rudimentary lymphatic network where cancer metastasis formation is as intensive as in colon cancer. This contradicts the common notion that intratumor lymphatics play major role in metastases. We visualized interstitial space and lymphatics in the central and peripheral regions of colon and pancreas tumors using the color stereoscopic lymphography and simultaneously immunohistochemical performed stainings specific for lymphatic and blood endothelial cells. The density of open and compressed lymphatic and blood vessels was measured in the tumor core and edge. There were very few lymphatics in the colon and pancreas tumor core but numerous minor fluid "lakes" with no visible connection to the peritumoral lymphatics. Lining of "lakes" did not express molecular markers specific for lymphatic endothelial cells. Dense connective tissue surrounding tumor foci did not contain lymphatics. Peritumoral lymphatics were irregularly distributed in both types of tumor and only sporadically contained cells that might be tumor cells. Similar lymphoscintigraphic and histological pictures were seen in colon and pancreas cancer despite of different structure of both tissues. This suggests a uniform reaction of tissues to the growing cancer irrespective of the affected organ.

  19. Black Raspberry-Derived Anthocyanins Demethylate Tumor Suppressor Genes Through the Inhibition of DNMT1 and DNMT3B in Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-Shu; Kuo, Chieh-Ti; Cho, Seung-Ju; Seguin, Claire; Siddiqui, Jibran; Stoner, Kristen; Weng, Yu-I; Huang, Tim H.-M.; Tichelaar, Jay; Yearsley, Martha; Stoner, Gary D.; Huang, Yi-Wen

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that oral administration of black raspberry powder decreased promoter methylation of tumor suppressor genes in tumors from patients with colorectal cancer. The anthocyanins (ACs) in black raspberries are responsible, at least in part, for their cancer-inhibitory effects. In the present study, we asked if ACs are responsible for the demethylation effects observed in colorectal cancers. Three days of treatment of ACs at 0.5, 5, and 25 μg/ml suppressed activity and protein expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3B in HCT116, Caco2 and SW480 cells. Promoters of CDKN2A, and SFRP2, SFRP5, and WIF1, upstream of Wnt pathway, were demethylated by ACs. mRNA expression of some of these genes was increased. mRNA expression of β-catenin and c-Myc, downstream of Wnt pathway, and cell proliferation were decreased; apoptosis was increased. ACs were taken up into HCT116 cells and were differentially localized with DNMT1 and DNMT3B in the same cells visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Although it was reported that DNMT3B is regulated by c-Myc in mouse lymphoma, DNMT3B did not bind with c-Myc in HCT116 cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that ACs are responsible, at least in part, for the demethylation effects of whole black raspberries in colorectal cancers. PMID:23368921

  20. Oncogenic KRAS activates an embryonic stem cell-like program in human colon cancer initiation.

    PubMed

    Le Rolle, Anne-France; Chiu, Thang K; Zeng, Zhaoshi; Shia, Jinru; Weiser, Martin R; Paty, Philip B; Chiu, Vi K

    2016-01-19

    Colorectal cancer is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide. Prevention of colorectal cancer initiation represents the most effective overall strategy to reduce its associated morbidity and mortality. Activating KRAS mutation (KRASmut) is the most prevalent oncogenic driver in colorectal cancer development, and KRASmut inhibition represents an unmet clinical need. We apply a systems-level approach to study the impact of KRASmut on stem cell signaling during human colon cancer initiation by performing gene set enrichment analysis on gene expression from human colon tissues. We find that KRASmut imposes the embryonic stem cell-like program during human colon cancer initiation from colon adenoma to stage I carcinoma. Expression of miR145, an embryonic SC program inhibitor, promotes cell lineage differentiation marker expression in KRASmut colon cancer cells and significantly suppresses their tumorigenicity. Our data support an in vivo plasticity model of human colon cancer initiation that merges the intrinsic stem cell properties of aberrant colon stem cells with the embryonic stem cell-like program induced by KRASmut to optimize malignant transformation. Inhibition of the embryonic SC-like program in KRASmut colon cancer cells reveals a novel therapeutic strategy to programmatically inhibit KRASmut tumors and prevent colon cancer.

  1. EF5 and Motexafin Lutetium in Detecting Tumor Cells in Patients With Abdominal or Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-15

    Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Carcinoma of the Appendix; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Localized Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Localized Gallbladder Cancer; Localized Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Localized Resectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Stromal Cancer; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Small Intestine Cancer; Recurrent Uterine Sarcoma; Regional Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma; Small Intestine Leiomyosarcoma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Stage 0 Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage I Colon Cancer; Stage I Gastric Cancer; Stage I Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage I Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage I Pancreatic Cancer; Stage I Rectal Cancer; Stage I Uterine Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Colon Cancer; Stage II Gastric Cancer; Stage II Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Pancreatic Cancer; Stage II Rectal Cancer; Stage II Uterine Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Colon Cancer; Stage III Gastric Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Rectal Cancer; Stage III Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage

  2. Eugenia jambolana (Java Plum) Fruit Extract Exhibits Anti-Cancer Activity against Early Stage Human HCT-116 Colon Cancer Cells and Colon Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Charepalli, Venkata; Reddivari, Lavanya; Vadde, Ramakrishna; Walia, Suresh; Radhakrishnan, Sridhar; Vanamala, Jairam K. P

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization predicts over a 70% increase in cancer incidents in developing nations over the next decade. Although these nations have limited access to novel therapeutics, they do have access to foods that contain chemopreventive bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins, and as such, consumption of these foods can be encouraged to combat cancer. We and others have previously characterized the anti-colon cancer properties of dietary anthocyanins from different sources. Eugenia jambolana (Java plum) is a tropical medicinal fruit rich in anthocyanins, however, its anti-colon cancer properties are not well characterized. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that colon cancer stem cells (colon CSCs) promote resistance to chemotherapy, relapse of tumors and contribute to poor prognosis. The objectives of this study were to 1) characterize the anthocyanin profile of Java plum using HPLC-MS; and 2) determine the anti-proliferative (cell counting and MTT) and pro-apoptotic (TUNEL and caspase 3/7 glo assay) properties of Java plum fruit extract (JPE) using HCT-116 colon cancer cell line and colon CSCs (positive for CD 44, CD 133 and ALDH1b1 markers). HPLC-MS analysis showed that JPE contains a variety of anthocyanins including glucosides of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. JPE anthocyanins suppressed (p < 0.05) proliferation in HCT-116 cells and elevated (p < 0.05) apoptosis in both HCT-116 cells and colon CSCs. JPE also suppressed the stemness in colon CSCs as evaluated using colony formation assay. These results warrant further assessment of the anti-cancer activity of JPE, and its molecular mechanisms using pre-clinical models of colon cancer. PMID:26927179

  3. How to improve colon cancer screening rates

    PubMed Central

    Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo; Garcia, Diego Paim Carvalho; Coelho, Debora Lucciola; De Lima, David Correa Alves; Petroianu, Andy

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is a common cause of death throughout the world and may be prevented by routine control, which can detect precancerous neoplasms and early cancers before they undergo malignant transformation or metastasis. Three strategies may improve colon cancer screening rates: convince the population about the importance of undergoing a screening test; achieve higher efficacy in standard screening tests and make them more available to the community and develop new more sensitive and efficacious screening methods and make them available as routine tests. In this light, the present study seeks to review these three means through which to increase colon cancer screening rates. PMID:26688708

  4. Colon cancer proliferating desulfosinigrin in wasabi (Wasabia japonica).

    PubMed

    Weil, Marvin J; Zhang, Yanjun; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2004-01-01

    A reduced incidence of different types of cancer has been linked to consumption of Brassica vegetables, and there is evidence that glucosinolates (GSLs) and their hydrolysis products play a role in reducing cancer risk. Wasabi (Wasabia japonica) and horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), both Brassica vegetables, are widely used condiments both in Japanese cuisine and in the United States. Desulfosinigrin (DSS) (1) was isolated from a commercially available wasabi powder and from fresh wasabi roots. Sinigrin (2) was isolated from horseradish roots. DSS and sinigrin were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzymes, on lipid peroxidation, and on the proliferation of human colon (HCT-116), breast (MCF-7), lung (NCIH460), and central nervous system (CNS, SF-268) cancer cell lines. DSS did not inhibit COX enzymes or lipid peroxidation at 250 microg/ml. Sinigrin inhibited lipid peroxidation by 71% at 250 microg/ml. However, DSS promoted the growth of HCT-116 (colon) and NCI H460 (lung) human cancer cells as determined by the MTT assay in a concentration-dependent manner. At 3.72 microg/ml, a 27% increase in the number of viable human HCT-116 colon cancer cells was observed; the corresponding increases at 7.50 and 15 microg/ml were 42 and 69%, respectively. At 60 microg/ml, DSS doubled the number of HCT-16 colon cancer cells. For NCI H460 human lung cancer cells, DSS at 60 microg/ml increased the cell number by 20%. Sinigrin showed no proliferating effect on the tumor cells tested. This is the first report of the tumor cell-proliferating activity by a desulfoglucosinolate, the biosynthetic precursor of GSLs found in Brassica spp.

  5. Colon cancer: diagnosis and prognosis in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Block, G E

    1989-05-01

    Cancer of the colon and rectum appear to be epidemic in the US, with 150,000 cases expected during 1988. Two thirds of these patients are over age 60, and two thirds also have either full penetration of the bowel wall or metastases to regional lymph nodes. Mass screening via tests for occult blood in the stool is invaluable for detecting early carcinomas of the colon and rectum. Digital examination, endoscopy, and barium contrast radiographs help to confirm the diagnosis. Tumors of the colon and rectum are best treated operatively with appropriate lymphadenectomy and adequate margins, both proximally and distally, to guard against local recurrence. Certain factors, such as mucinous tumors, microinvasion, and non-exophytic tumors of the rectum have been shown to have a propensity for local recurrence. Local treatment by fulguration or electrocoagulation is advocated only for tiny tumors confined to a polyp, or for the extremely elderly or poor-risk patient. Radiation therapy appears to be an appropriate adjuvant to the treatment of rectal cancer either preoperatively or postoperatively.

  6. Anthocyanin-containing purple-fleshed potatoes suppress colon tumorigenesis via elimination of colon cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Charepalli, Venkata; Reddivari, Lavanya; Radhakrishnan, Sridhar; Vadde, Ramakrishna; Agarwal, Rajesh; Vanamala, Jairam K P

    2015-12-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are shown to be responsible for initiation and progression of tumors in a variety of cancers. We previously showed that anthocyanin-containing baked purple-fleshed potato (PP) extracts (PA) suppressed early and advanced human colon cancer cell proliferation and induced apoptosis, but their effect on colon CSCs is not known. Considering the evidence of bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins, against cancers, there is a critical need to study anticancer activity of PP, a global food crop, against colon CSCs. Thus, isolated colon CSCs (positive for CD44, CD133 and ALDH1b1 markers) with functioning p53 and shRNA-attenuated p53 were treated with PA at 5.0 μg/ml. Effects of baked PP (20% wt/wt) against colon CSCs were also tested in vivo in mice with azoxymethane-induced colon tumorigenesis. Effects of PA/PP were compared to positive control sulindac. In vitro, PA suppressed proliferation and elevated apoptosis in a p53-independent manner in colon CSCs. PA, but not sulindac, suppressed levels of Wnt pathway effector β-catenin (a critical regulator of CSC proliferation) and its downstream proteins (c-Myc and cyclin D1) and elevated Bax and cytochrome c, proteins-mediating mitochondrial apoptosis. In vivo, PP reduced the number of crypts containing cells with nuclear β-catenin (an indicator of colon CSCs) via induction of apoptosis and suppressed tumor incidence similar to that of sulindac. Combined, our data suggest that PP may contribute to reduced colon CSCs number and tumor incidence in vivo via suppression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and elevation of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis.

  7. Targeting the metabolic pathway of human colon cancer overcomes resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Carr, Ryan M; Qiao, Guilin; Qin, Jianzhong; Jayaraman, Sundararajan; Prabhakar, Bellur S; Maker, Ajay V

    2016-01-01

    Colon cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality for which targeted therapy is needed; however, trials using apoptosis-inducing ligand monotherapy to overcome resistance to apoptosis have not shown clinical responses. Since colon cancer cells selectively uptake and rapidly metabolize glucose, a property utilized for clinical staging, we investigated mechanisms to alter glucose metabolism in order to selectively target the cancer cells and to overcome evasion of apoptosis. We demonstrate TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) resistance in the majority of human colon cancers tested and utilize the glucose analog 2-deoxy-d-glucose to sensitize TRAIL-resistant gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma cells, and not normal gastrointestinal epithelial cells, to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through enhanced death receptor 5 expression, downstream modulation of MAPK signaling and subsequent miRNA expression modulation by increasing the expression of miR-494 via MEK activation. Further, established human colon cancer xenografts treated with this strategy experience anti-tumor responses. These findings in colon adenocarcinoma support further investigation of manipulation of cellular energetics to selectively overcome resistance to apoptosis and to impart tumor regressions in established colon cancer tumors.

  8. Targeting the metabolic pathway of human colon cancer overcomes resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Ryan M; Qiao, Guilin; Qin, Jianzhong; Jayaraman, Sundararajan; Prabhakar, Bellur S; Maker, Ajay V

    2016-01-01

    Colon cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality for which targeted therapy is needed; however, trials using apoptosis-inducing ligand monotherapy to overcome resistance to apoptosis have not shown clinical responses. Since colon cancer cells selectively uptake and rapidly metabolize glucose, a property utilized for clinical staging, we investigated mechanisms to alter glucose metabolism in order to selectively target the cancer cells and to overcome evasion of apoptosis. We demonstrate TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) resistance in the majority of human colon cancers tested and utilize the glucose analog 2-deoxy-d-glucose to sensitize TRAIL-resistant gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma cells, and not normal gastrointestinal epithelial cells, to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through enhanced death receptor 5 expression, downstream modulation of MAPK signaling and subsequent miRNA expression modulation by increasing the expression of miR-494 via MEK activation. Further, established human colon cancer xenografts treated with this strategy experience anti-tumor responses. These findings in colon adenocarcinoma support further investigation of manipulation of cellular energetics to selectively overcome resistance to apoptosis and to impart tumor regressions in established colon cancer tumors. PMID:27648301

  9. Up-regulation of Tim-3 is associated with poor prognosis of patients with colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Encheng; Huang, Qing; Wang, Ji; Fang, Chengfeng; Yang, Leilei; Zhu, Min; Chen, Jianhui; Chen, Lihua; Dong, Milian

    2015-01-01

    Tim-3 (T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3), belonging to the member of the novel Tim family, has been confirmed that it plays a critical negative role in regulating the immune responses against viral infection and carcinoma. Recently, it has also been reported that the over-expression of Tim-3 is associated with poor prognosis in solid tumors. However, the role of Tim-3 in colorectal cancer remains largely unknown. In the current study, we aim to investigate the expression of Tim-3 in colorectal carcinoma and discuss the relationship between Tim-3 expression and colon cancer prognosis, thus speculating the possible role of Tim-3 in colon cancer progression. Colon cancer tissues and paired normal tissue were obtained from 201 patients with colon cancer for preparation of tissue microarray. Tim-3 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. The Tim-3 expression level was evaluated by q-RT-PCR, western blot and immunocytochemistry in four colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT116, LoVo, SW620). Tim-3 was expressed in 92.5% tumor tissue samples and 86.5% corresponding normal tissue samples. Expression of Tim-3 was significantly higher in tumor tissues than in normal tissues (P < 0.0001). Tim-3 expression in colon cancer tissues is in correlation with colon cancer lymphatic metastasis and TNM (P < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that Tim-3 expression could be a potential independent prognostic factor for colon cancer patients (P < 0.0001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis result showed that patients with higher Tim-3 expression had a significantly shorter survival time than those with lower Tim-3 expression patients. Our results indicated that Tim-3 might participate in the tumorgenesis of colon cancer and Tim-3 expression might be a potential independent prognostic factor for patients with colorectal cancer.

  10. γδ T cells as a potential tool in colon cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ramutton, Thiranut; Buccheri, Simona; Dieli, Francesco; Todaro, Matilde; Stassi, Giorgio; Meraviglia, Serena

    2014-01-01

    γδ T cells are capable of recognizing tumor cells and exert potent cellular cytotoxicity against a large range of tumors, including colon cancer. However, tumors utilize numerous strategies to escape recognition or killing by patrolling γδ T cells, such a downregulation of NKG2D ligands, MICA/B and ULBPs. Therefore, the combined upregulation of T-cell receptorand NKG2D ligands on tumor cells and induction of NKG2D expression on γδ T cells may greatly enhance tumor killing and unlock the functions of γδ T cells. Here, we briefly review current data on the mechanisms of γδ T-cell recognition and killing of colon cancer cells and propose that γδ T cells may represent a promising target for the design of novel and highly innovative immunotherapy in patients with colon cancer.

  11. External Beam Radiotherapy for Colon Cancer: Patterns of Care

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Emily F.; Kozak, Kevin R.; Moody, John S.

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: Despite its common and well characterized use in other gastrointestinal malignancies, little is known about radiotherapy (RT) use in nonmetastatic colon cancer in the United States. To address the paucity of data regarding RT use in colon cancer management, we examined the RT patterns of care in this patient population. Methods and Materials: Patients with nonmetastatic colon cancer, diagnosed between 1988 and 2005, were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Univariate and multivariate methods were used to identify factors associated with RT use. Results: On univariate analysis, tumor location, age, sex, race, T stage, N stage, and geographic location were each associated with differences in RT use (all p < 0.01). In general, younger patients, male patients, and patients with more advanced disease were more likely to receive RT. On multivariate analysis, tumor location, age, gender, T and N stage, time of diagnosis and geographic location were significantly associated with RT use (all p < 0.001). Race, however, was not associated with RT use. On multivariate analysis, patients diagnosed in 1988 were 2.5 times more likely to receive RT than those diagnosed in 2005 (p = 0.001). Temporal changes in RT use reflect a responsiveness to evolving evidence related to the therapeutic benefits of adjuvant RT. Conclusions: External beam RT is infrequently used for colon cancer, and its use varies according to patient and tumor characteristics. RT use has declined markedly since the late 1980s; however, it continues to be used for nonmetastatic disease in a highly individualized manner.

  12. Association between TLR-9 polymorphisms and colon cancer susceptibility in Saudi Arabian female patients

    PubMed Central

    Semlali, Abdelhabib; Parine, Narasimha Reddy; Al Amri, Abdullah; Azzi, Arezki; Arafah, Maha; Kohailan, Muhammad; Shaik, Jilani P; Almadi, Majid Abdulrahman; Aljebreen, Abdulrahman M; Alharbi, Othman; Ali Azzam, Nahla; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Alanazi, Mohammad Saud

    2017-01-01

    Objective The authors aimed to explore the relationship between the expression/polymorphisms of TLR-9 and susceptibility to colon cancer development in the Saudi Arabian population. Methods In total, blood samples from 115 patients with colon cancer and 102 participants without colon cancer were analyzed in this study. Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected from the TLR-9 gene, including two sites within the TLR-9 gene’s promoter region (rs352144 and rs187084) and one site in a TLR-9 intron region (rs5743839). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed from logistic regression models after adjusting for age, gender, and tumor localization. To investigate the differential expression of TLR-9 in colon cancer, TLR-9 expression was evaluated using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction on 40 matched normal and colon tissues. Results The authors found that TLR-9 expression was decreased in colon cancer tissues as compared with that in normal tissues. Moreover, significant associations between the TLR-9 rs187084 SNP and colon cancer risk were observed in female patients only. In rs187084, the T allele had a significantly lower frequency (2.8 times) in female cancer patients than in controls (0.27 vs 0.41). The TLR-9 rs352139 and rs352144 SNPs were significantly associated with colon cancer development when the tumor was located in the rectal area. Conclusion The findings support the hypothesis that TLR-9 has an anticancer role in colon cancer development. Furthermore, genetic variation may influence colon cancer development, and SNPs in TLR-9 could serve as biomarkers for decision making in the treatment of females with rectal cancer. PMID:28031717

  13. Walnut Phenolic Extract and Its Bioactive Compounds Suppress Colon Cancer Cell Growth by Regulating Colon Cancer Stemness

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jisoo; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Lee, JaeHwan; Heo, Seung Chul; Lee, Kook Lae; Choi, Sang-Woon; Kim, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Walnut has been known for its health benefits, including anti-cardiovascular disease and anti-oxidative properties. However, there is limited evidence elucidating its effects on cancer stem cells (CSCs) which represent a small subset of cancer cells that provide resistance against chemotherapy. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-CSCs potential of walnut phenolic extract (WPE) and its bioactive compounds, including (+)-catechin, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, and gallic acid. In the present study, CD133+CD44+ cells were isolated from HCT116 cells using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and then treated with WPE. As a result, survival of the CD133+CD44+ HCT116 cells was inhibited and cell differentiation was induced by WPE. In addition, WPE down-regulated the CSC markers, CD133, CD44, DLK1, and Notch1, as well as the β-catenin/p-GSK3β signaling pathway. WPE suppressed the self-renewal capacity of CSCs. Furthermore, the WPE exhibited stronger anti-CSC effects than its individual bioactive compounds. Finally, the WPE inhibited specific CSC markers in primary colon cancer cells isolated from primary colon tumor. These results suggest that WPE can suppress colon cancer by regulating the characteristics of colon CSCs. PMID:27455311

  14. Walnut Phenolic Extract and Its Bioactive Compounds Suppress Colon Cancer Cell Growth by Regulating Colon Cancer Stemness.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jisoo; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Lee, JaeHwan; Heo, Seung Chul; Lee, Kook Lae; Choi, Sang-Woon; Kim, Yuri

    2016-07-21

    Walnut has been known for its health benefits, including anti-cardiovascular disease and anti-oxidative properties. However, there is limited evidence elucidating its effects on cancer stem cells (CSCs) which represent a small subset of cancer cells that provide resistance against chemotherapy. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-CSCs potential of walnut phenolic extract (WPE) and its bioactive compounds, including (+)-catechin, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, and gallic acid. In the present study, CD133⁺CD44⁺ cells were isolated from HCT116 cells using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and then treated with WPE. As a result, survival of the CD133⁺CD44⁺ HCT116 cells was inhibited and cell differentiation was induced by WPE. In addition, WPE down-regulated the CSC markers, CD133, CD44, DLK1, and Notch1, as well as the β-catenin/p-GSK3β signaling pathway. WPE suppressed the self-renewal capacity of CSCs. Furthermore, the WPE exhibited stronger anti-CSC effects than its individual bioactive compounds. Finally, the WPE inhibited specific CSC markers in primary colon cancer cells isolated from primary colon tumor. These results suggest that WPE can suppress colon cancer by regulating the characteristics of colon CSCs.

  15. Pectin matrix as oral drug delivery vehicle for colon cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tin Wui; Colombo, Gaia; Sonvico, Fabio

    2011-03-01

    Colon cancer is the fourth most common cancer globally with 639,000 deaths reported annually. Typical chemotherapy is provided by injection route to reduce tumor growth and metastasis. Recent research investigates the oral delivery profiles of chemotherapeutic agents. In comparison to injection, oral administration of drugs in the form of a colon-specific delivery system is expected to increase drug bioavailability at target site, reduce drug dose and systemic adverse effects. Pectin is suitable for use as colon-specific drug delivery vehicle as it is selectively digested by colonic microflora to release drug with minimal degradation in upper gastrointestinal tract. The present review examines the physicochemical attributes of formulation needed to retard drug release of pectin matrix prior to its arrival at colon, and evaluate the therapeutic value of pectin matrix in association with colon cancer. The review suggests that multi-particulate calcium pectinate matrix is an ideal carrier to orally deliver drugs for site-specific treatment of colon cancer as (1) crosslinking of pectin by calcium ions in a matrix negates drug release in upper gastrointestinal tract, (2) multi-particulate carrier has a slower transit and a higher contact time for drug action in colon than single-unit dosage form, and (3) both pectin and calcium have an indication to reduce the severity of colon cancer from the implication of diet and molecular biology studies. Pectin matrix demonstrates dual advantages as drug carrier and therapeutic for use in treatment of colon cancer.

  16. Chemoembolization Using Irinotecan in Treating Patients With Liver Metastases From Metastatic Colon or Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-10

    Liver Metastases; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Rectal Cancer

  17. Proteogenomic characterization of human colon and rectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Bing; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xiaojing; Zhu, Jing; Liu, Qi; Shi, Zhiao; Chambers, Matthew C.; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Shaddox, Kent F.; Kim, Sangtae; Davies, Sherri; Wang, Sean; Wang, Pei; Kinsinger, Christopher; Rivers, Robert; Rodriguez, Henry; Townsend, Reid; Ellis, Matthew; Carr, Steven A.; Tabb, David L.; Coffey, Robert J.; Slebos, Robbert; Liebler, Daniel

    2014-09-18

    We analyzed proteomes of colon and rectal tumors previously characterized by the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and performed integrated proteogenomic analyses. Protein sequence variants encoded by somatic genomic variations displayed reduced expression compared to protein variants encoded by germline variations. mRNA transcript abundance did not reliably predict protein expression differences between tumors. Proteomics identified five protein expression subtypes, two of which were associated with the TCGA "MSI/CIMP" transcriptional subtype, but had distinct mutation and methylation patterns and associated with different clinical outcomes. Although CNAs showed strong cis- and trans-effects on mRNA expression, relatively few of these extend to the protein level. Thus, proteomics data enabled prioritization of candidate driver genes. Our analyses identified HNF4A, a novel candidate driver gene in tumors with chromosome 20q amplifications. Integrated proteogenomic analysis provides functional context to interpret genomic abnormalities and affords novel insights into cancer biology.

  18. Activated macrophages containing tumor marker in colon carcinoma: immunohistochemical proof of a concept.

    PubMed

    Faber, T J E; Japink, D; Leers, M P G; Sosef, M N; von Meyenfeldt, M F; Nap, M

    2012-04-01

    The presence of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-containing activated macrophages has been demonstrated in peripheral blood from patients with colorectal carcinoma. Macrophages migrate from the circulation into the tissue, phagocytose debris, and return to the bloodstream. Hence it seems likely that activated macrophages containing tumor debris, i.e., tumor marker, are present in the stroma of colorectal carcinoma. After phagocytosis, they could follow a hematogenic or lymphogenic route to the peripheral blood. The aim of this study is to assess the presence of tumor marker-containing activated macrophages in the stroma of colon carcinoma and in regional lymph nodes. From 10 cases of colon carcinoma, samples of tumor tissue and metastasis-free lymph nodes were cut in serial sections and stained for CD68 to identify macrophages and for CEA, cytokeratin, or M30 presence. Slides were digitalised and visually inspected using two monitors, comparing the CD68 stain to the tumor marker stain to evaluate the presence of tumor marker-positive macrophages. Macrophages containing tumor marker could be identified in tumor stroma and in metastasis-free regional lymph nodes. The distribution varied for the different markers, CEA-positive macrophages being most abundant. The presence of macrophages containing tumor marker in the tumor stroma and lymph nodes from patients with colon carcinoma could be confirmed in this series using serial immunohistochemistry. This finding supports the concept of activated macrophages, after phagocytosing cell debris, being transported or migrating through the lymphatic system. These results support the potential of tumor marker-containing macrophages to serve as a marker for diagnosis and follow-up of colon cancer patients.

  19. Mast Cell Targeted Chimeric Toxin Can Be Developed as an Adjunctive Therapy in Colon Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan; Li, Linmei; Shi, Renren; Liu, Xueting; Zhang, Junyan; Zou, Zehong; Hao, Zhuofang; Tao, Ailin

    2016-03-11

    The association of colitis with colorectal cancer has become increasingly clear with mast cells being identified as important inflammatory cells in the process. In view of the relationship between mast cells and cancer, we studied the effect and mechanisms of mast cells in the development of colon cancer. Functional and mechanistic insights were gained from ex vivo and in vivo studies of cell interactions between mast cells and CT26 cells. Further evidence was reversely obtained in studies of mast cell targeted Fcε-PE40 chimeric toxin. Experiments revealed mast cells could induce colon tumor cell proliferation and invasion. Cancer progression was found to be related to the density of mast cells in colonic submucosa. The activation of MAPK, Rho-GTPase, and STAT pathways in colon cancer cells was triggered by mast cells during cell-to-cell interaction. Lastly, using an Fcε-PE40 chimeric toxin we constructed, we confirmed the promoting effect of mast cells in development of colon cancer. Mast cells are a promoting factor of colon cancer and thus also a potential therapeutic target. The Fcε-PE40 chimeric toxin targeting mast cells could effectively prevent colon cancer in vitro and in vivo. Consequently, these data may demonstrate a novel immunotherapeutic approach for the treatment of tumors.

  20. Mast Cell Targeted Chimeric Toxin Can Be Developed as an Adjunctive Therapy in Colon Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shan; Li, Linmei; Shi, Renren; Liu, Xueting; Zhang, Junyan; Zou, Zehong; Hao, Zhuofang; Tao, Ailin

    2016-01-01

    The association of colitis with colorectal cancer has become increasingly clear with mast cells being identified as important inflammatory cells in the process. In view of the relationship between mast cells and cancer, we studied the effect and mechanisms of mast cells in the development of colon cancer. Functional and mechanistic insights were gained from ex vivo and in vivo studies of cell interactions between mast cells and CT26 cells. Further evidence was reversely obtained in studies of mast cell targeted Fcε-PE40 chimeric toxin. Experiments revealed mast cells could induce colon tumor cell proliferation and invasion. Cancer progression was found to be related to the density of mast cells in colonic submucosa. The activation of MAPK, Rho-GTPase, and STAT pathways in colon cancer cells was triggered by mast cells during cell-to-cell interaction. Lastly, using an Fcε-PE40 chimeric toxin we constructed, we confirmed the promoting effect of mast cells in development of colon cancer. Mast cells are a promoting factor of colon cancer and thus also a potential therapeutic target. The Fcε-PE40 chimeric toxin targeting mast cells could effectively prevent colon cancer in vitro and in vivo. Consequently, these data may demonstrate a novel immunotherapeutic approach for the treatment of tumors. PMID:26978404

  1. Family History of Colon Cancer Calls for Earlier Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164202.html Family History of Colon Cancer Calls for Earlier Screening ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- If you've got a family history of colon or rectal cancers, you probably ...

  2. Enterobacter Strains Might Promote Colon Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yurdakul, Dilşad; Yazgan-Karataş, Ayten; Şahin, Fikrettin

    2015-09-01

    Many studies have been performed to determine the interaction between bacterial species and cancer. However, there has been no attempts to demonstrate a possible relationship between Enterobacter spp. and colon cancer so far. Therefore, in the present study, it is aimed to investigate the effects of Enterobacter strains on colon cancer. Bacterial proteins were isolated from 11 Enterobacter spp., one Morganella morganii, and one Escherichia coli strains, and applied onto NCM460 (Incell) and CRL1790 (ATCC) cell lines. Cell viability and proliferation were determined in MTS assay. Flow Cytometry was used to detect CD24 level and apoptosis. Real-Time PCR studies were performed to determine NFKB and Bcl2 expression. Graphpad Software was used for statistical analysis. The results showed that proteins, isolated from the Enterobacter spp., have significantly increased cell viability and proliferation, while decreasing the apoptosis of the cell lines tested. The data in the present study indicated that Enterobacter strains might promote colon cancer. Moreover, Enterobacter spp. could be a clinically important factor for colon cancer initiation and progression. Studies can be extended on animal models in order to develop new strategies for treatment.

  3. Genistein regulates tumor microenvironment and exhibits anticancer effect in dimethyl hydrazine-induced experimental colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Vasudevan; Anandasadagopan, Suresh Kumar; Ganapasam, Sudhandiran

    2016-11-12

    Colon cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality, worldwide. Cancer stem cells are attractive targets for therapeutic interventions since their abnormal growth may trigger tumor initiation, progression, and recurrence. Colon cancer in rats were induced with 1, 2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) and treated with genistein, an isoflavone rich in the soy food products, which also possesses various biological activities. Genistein treatment regulates enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidants in the DMH-induced colonic tissue microenvironment. Alcian blue staining in colonic tissue reveals that mucin secretion was found to be depleted in DMH-induced group of animals. The alterations were normalized in the genistein-treated groups. Also, the mast cell population and collagen deposition were reduced as compared to induced group. Genistein treatment reduces the prognostic marker Argyrophilic nuclear organizer region (AgNOR) and proliferating cell nucleolar antigen (PCNA) in DMH-induced group of rats. DMH administration induces oxidative stress, whereas genistein activates nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf-2) and its downstream target hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1). Colonic stem cell marker protein CD133, CD44, and β-catenin expressions were found to be increased in DMH-induced group of animals as compared to control group of rats. Genistein treatment suppressed the expression of these stem cell markers suggesting rapid dysfunctional activation and proliferation of colonic stem cell-induced by DMH. The results of this study indicate that genistein administration in rats restored the colonic niche that was damaged by DMH and inhibits colon cancer progression. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(6):623-637, 2016.

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Colon Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... given chemotherapy or radiation therapy after surgery to kill any cancer cells that are left. Treatment given ... of a special probe with tiny electrodes that kill cancer cells . Sometimes the probe is inserted directly ...

  5. General Information about Colon Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... D Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role in Cancer Research ... major research initiatives R&D Resources Tools and data sets for researchers Research by Cancer Type Find ...

  6. Engineering Approach to Identifying Patients with Colon Tumors on the Basis of Electrophotonic Imaging Technique Data

    PubMed Central

    Yakovleva, E.G.; Korotkov, K.G.; Fedorov, E.D.; Ivanova, E.V.; Plahov, R.V.; Belonosov, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Colonic neoplasms are quite a serious problem today. Screening methods play an important role in diagnosing the disease. Colorectal cancer screening is a complex undertaking, having various options, which require a lot of efforts both from the doctor and from the patient, including the use of sedatives and the necessity of the presence of an assistant for some procedures such as colonoscopy. This is why it is very important to find a method by which one can make a diagnosis quickly, easily, and painlessly. Methods: The ability to identify patients with tumors of the colon using the Electrophotonic Imaging (EPI) technique, as well as using it for differential diagnosis of tumors of the colon by their morphology, size and quantity was investigated. Selection of the most significant parameters of the EPI-graphy for the separation of the control group and the group of patients with tumors of the colon was developed. 137 people were studied with the EPI camera, with ages ranging from 16 to 86 years, including 49 males and 88 females. Based on the results of the colonoscopy and histological findings all subjects were divided into 2 groups: control group of 55 people, 9 males, 46 females; and patients with tumors (benign or malignant) of the colon - 82 people; 40 males and 42 females. Then all subjects were divided into smaller groups based on morphology, size, number of tumors and localization. Results: Based on the identified indicators decision rules to determine the patients with tumors of the colon were constructed. The specificity of the resulting function was 80.0% and sensitivity 75.6%. Decision rule was built as well with logistic regression. The specificity of the resulting function was 78.2% and sensitivity 90.0%. The accuracy of this approach was higher than using discriminant analysis. Conclusions: The results of this study have proven the ability to identify patients with tumors of the colon using EPI technology, as well as use it for

  7. MicroRNA-455-3p Inhibits Tumor Cell Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in HCT116 Human Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jiantao; Lin, Zhenlv; Zhang, Lin; Chen, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs have been reported to play significant roles in pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). In the present study, we aimed to investigate the functional role of microRNA-455-3p (miR-455-3p) in CRC, as well as its underlying mechanisms. Material/Methods Human colon cancer cell line HCT116 cells were transfected with miR-455-3p mimics, inhibitors, or controls. After transfection, the effects of miR-455-3p mimics or inhibitors on cell proliferation were analyzed by 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2- thiazolyl)-2, 5-diphenyl -2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and BrdU assay, and the effects of miR-455-3p mimics or inhibitors on cell apoptosis were determined. In addition, the underlying mechanisms of cell proliferation and apoptosis were explored by assessing the protein levels of cell cycle regulators and apoptosis-related protein. Results The results showed that overexpression of miR-455-3p significantly inhibited the cell proliferation (P<0.05 or <0.01) in HCT116 cells compared with the control group, but significantly increased the apoptosis (P<0.01). On the contrary, suppression of miR-455-3p significantly increased the cell proliferation but decreased the apoptosis. Moreover, we found that overexpression of miR-455-3p significantly elevated the protein levels of p27 kinase inhibition protein (KIP) 1, Bax, pro-caspase-3, and active caspase-3, and markedly downregulated the levels of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2). Contrary results were found by suppression of miR-455-3p. However, there were no significant differences in p21 expression. Conclusions MiRNA-455-3p functions as an anti-oncogene in HCT116 cells by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing of apoptosis. PMID:27861461

  8. FXR silencing in human colon cancer by DNA methylation and KRAS signaling.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Ann M; Zhan, Le; Maru, Dipen; Shureiqi, Imad; Pickering, Curtis R; Kiriakova, Galina; Izzo, Julie; He, Nan; Wei, Caimiao; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran; Liang, Han; Kopetz, Scott; Powis, Garth; Guo, Grace L

    2014-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a bile acid nuclear receptor described through mouse knockout studies as a tumor suppressor for the development of colon adenocarcinomas. This study investigates the regulation of FXR in the development of human colon cancer. We used immunohistochemistry of FXR in normal tissue (n = 238), polyps (n = 32), and adenocarcinomas, staged I-IV (n = 43, 39, 68, and 9), of the colon; RT-quantitative PCR, reverse-phase protein array, and Western blot analysis in 15 colon cancer cell lines; NR1H4 promoter methylation and mRNA expression in colon cancer samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas; DNA methyltransferase inhibition; methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP); bisulfite sequencing; and V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) knockdown assessment to investigate FXR regulation in colon cancer development. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR revealed that expression and function of FXR was reduced in precancerous lesions and silenced in a majority of stage I-IV tumors. FXR expression negatively correlated with phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate 3 kinase signaling and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. The NR1H4 promoter is methylated in ~12% colon cancer The Cancer Genome Atlas samples, and methylation patterns segregate with tumor subtypes. Inhibition of DNA methylation and KRAS silencing both increased FXR expression. FXR expression is decreased early in human colon cancer progression, and both DNA methylation and KRAS signaling may be contributing factors to FXR silencing. FXR potentially suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and other oncogenic signaling cascades, and restoration of FXR activity, by blocking silencing mechanisms or increasing residual FXR activity, represents promising therapeutic options for the treatment of colon cancer.

  9. An inducible mouse model of colon carcinogenesis for the analysis of sporadic and inflammation-driven tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Neufert, Clemens; Becker, Christoph; Neurath, Markus F

    2007-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a life-threatening disease that can develop spontaneously or as a complication of inflammatory bowel diseases. Mouse models are essential tools for the preclinical testing of novel therapeutic options in vivo. Here, we provide a highly reliable protocol for an experimental mouse model to study the development of colon cancers. It is based on the mutagenic agent azoxymethane (AOM), which exerts colonotropic carcinogenicity. Repeated intraperitoneal administration of AOM results in the development of spontaneous tumors within 30 weeks. As an alternative option, inflammation-dependent tumor growth can be investigated by combining the administration of AOM with the inflammatory agent dextran sodium sulfate in drinking water, which causes rapid growth of multiple colon tumors per mouse within 10 weeks. Different scoring systems including number of tumors and tumor size identify factors promoting or inhibiting tumor initiation and/or tumor progression, respectively.

  10. How MicroRNAs Influence both Hereditary and Inflammatory-mediated Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, Jennifer; Cohen, Zoe; Onyeaguchi, Benjamin C.; Funk, Janet; Nelson, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs have emerged as important post-translational regulators of gene expression and are involved in several physiological and pathological states including the pathogenesis of human colon cancers. In regards to tumor development, microRNAs can act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Both hereditary predispositions (i.e. Lynch Syndrome and Familial Adenomatous Polyposis) contribute to the development of colon cancer. In addition, individuals who suffer from inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis have a higher risk of developing colon cancer. Here, we discuss the occurrence of the deregulated expression of miRNAs in colon cancer that arise due to hereditary predisposition and inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:24042167

  11. Oral 5-fluorouracil colon-specific delivery through in vivo pellet coating for colon cancer and aberrant crypt foci treatment.

    PubMed

    Bose, A; Elyagoby, A; Wong, T W

    2014-07-01

    In situ coating of 5-fluorouracil pellets by ethylcellulose and pectin powder mixture (8:3 weight ratio) in capsule at simulated gastrointestinal media provides colon-specific drug release in vitro. This study probes into pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles of intra-capsular pellets coated in vivo in rats with reference to their site-specific drug release outcomes. The pellets were prepared by extrusion-spheronization technique. In vitro drug content, drug release, in vivo pharmacokinetics, local colonic drug content, tumor, aberrant crypt foci, systemic hematology and clinical chemistry profiles of coated and uncoated pellets were examined against unprocessed drug. In vivo pellet coating led to reduced drug bioavailability and enhanced drug accumulation at colon (179.13 μg 5-FU/g rat colon content vs 4.66 μg/g of conventional in vitro film-coated pellets at 15 mg/kg dose). The in vivo coated pellets reduced tumor number and size, through reforming tubular epithelium with basement membrane and restricting expression of cancer from adenoma to adenocarcinoma. Unlike uncoated pellets and unprocessed drug, the coated pellets eliminated aberrant crypt foci which represented a putative preneoplastic lesion in colon cancer. They did not inflict additional systemic toxicity. In vivo pellet coating to orally target 5-fluorouracil delivery at cancerous colon is a feasible therapeutic treatment approach.

  12. Colon cancer: it's CIN or CIMP.

    PubMed

    Issa, Jean-Pierre

    2008-10-01

    Combined genetic and epigenetic analysis of sporadic colon cancer suggest that it can no longer be viewed as a single disease. There are at least three different subsets with distinct clinico-pathologic features, with important implications for preventions, screening, and therapy.

  13. Defective IL-23/IL-17 Axis Protects p47phox−/− Mice from Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Cornelia; Herrero San Juan, Martina; Weigmann, Benno; Bergis, Dominik; Dauber, Katrin; Muders, Michael H.; Baretton, Gustavo B.; Pfeilschifter, Josef Martin; Bonig, Halvard; Brenner, Sebastian; Radeke, Heinfried H.

    2017-01-01

    In the colon, a sophisticated balance between immune reaction and tolerance is absolutely required. Dysfunction may lead to pathologic phenotypes ranging from chronic inflammatory processes to cancer development. Two prominent modulators of colon inflammation are represented by the closely related cytokines interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23, which initiate adaptive Th1 and Th17 immune responses, respectively. In this study, we investigated the impact of the NADPH oxidase protein p47phox, which negatively regulates IL-12 in dendritic cells, on colon cancer development in a colitis-associated colon cancer model. Initially, we found that IL-12−/− mice developed less severe colitis but are highly susceptible to colon cancer. By contrast, p47phox−/− mice showed lower tumor scores and fewer high grade tumors than wild-type (WT) littermates. Treatment with toll-like receptor 9 ligand CpG2216 significantly enhanced colitis in p47phox−/− mice, whereas tumor growth was simultaneously reduced. In tumor tissue of p47phox−/− mice, the IL-23/IL-17 axis was crucially hampered. IL-23p19 protein expression in tumor tissue correlated with tumor stage. Reconstitution of WT mice with IL-23p19−/− bone marrow protected these mice from colon cancer, whereas transplantation of WT hematopoiesis into IL-23p19−/− mice increased the susceptibility to tumor growth. Our study strengthens the divergent role of IL-12 and IL-23 in colon cancer development. With the characterization of p47phox as a novel modulator of both cytokines our investigation introduces a promising new target for antitumor strategies. PMID:28191009

  14. A cancer-favoring oncolytic vaccinia virus shows enhanced suppression of stem-cell like colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, So Young; Bang, Seo Young; Jeong, Su-Nam; Kang, Dae Hwan; Heo, Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell-like colon cancer cells (SCCs) pose a major challenge in colon cancer treatment because of their resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Oncolytic virus-based therapy has shown promising results in uncured cancer patients; however, its effects on SCCs are not well studied yet. Here, we engineered a cancer-favoring oncolytic vaccinia virus (CVV) as a potent biotherapeutic and investigated its therapeutic efficacy in terms of killing SCCs. CVV is an evolved Wyeth strain vaccinia virus (EVV) lacking the viral thymidine kinase. SCC models were established using human or mouse colon cancer spheres, which continuously expressed stemness markers. The cancer-favoring characteristics and different cytotoxic pathways for killing cancer cells successfully overrode general drug resistance, thereby killing colon cancer cells regardless of the presence of SCCs. Subcutaneously injected HT29 spheres showed lower growth in CVV-treated models than in 5-Fu-treated models. Intraperitoneally injected CT26 spheres induced tumor masses in the abdominal region. CVV-treated groups showed higher survival rates and smaller tumor mass formation, compared to 5-Fu-treated groups. Interestingly, the combined treatment of CVV with 5-Fu showed improved survival rates and complete suppression of tumor mass. The CVV developed in this study, thus, effectively suppresses SCCs, which can be synergistically enhanced by simultaneous treatment with the anticancer drug 5-Fu. Our novel CVV is highly advantageous as a next-generation therapeutic for treating colon cancer. PMID:26918725

  15. Patient Beliefs About Colon Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Ely, John W; Levy, Barcey T; Daly, Jeanette; Xu, Yinghui

    2016-03-01

    Only about half of eligible individuals undergo colon cancer screening. We have limited knowledge about the patient beliefs that adversely affect screening decisions and about which beliefs might be amenable to change through education. As part of a clinical trial, 641 rural Iowans, aged 52 to 79 years, reported their beliefs about colon cancer screening in response to a mailed questionnaire. Consenting subjects were randomized into four groups, which were distinguished by four levels of increasingly intensive efforts to promote screening. Two of the groups received mailed educational materials and completed a follow-up questionnaire, which allowed us to determine whether their beliefs about screening changed following the education. We also completed a factor analysis to identify underlying (latent) factors that might explain the responses to 33 questions about readiness, attitudes, and perceived barriers related to colon cancer screening. The strongest predictors of a patient's stated readiness to be screened were a physician's recommendation to be screened (1 point difference on 10-point Likert scale, 95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.5 to 1.6 point difference), a family history of colon cancer (0.85-point Likert scale difference, 95 % CI, 0.1 to 1.6), and a belief that health-care decisions should be mostly left to physicians rather than patients (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.21, P < .001). Of the 33 questionnaire items about screening beliefs, 11 (33 %) changed favorably following the educational intervention. In the factor analysis, the 33 items were reduced to 8 underlying factors, such as being too busy to undergo screening and worries about screening procedures. We found a limited number of underlying factors that may help explain patient resistance to colon cancer screening.

  16. Isolation and phenotypic characterization of cancer stem-like side population cells in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Feng, Long; Wu, Jian-Bing; Yi, Feng-Ming

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies in cancer biology suggest that chemotherapeutic drug resistance and tumor relapse are driven by cells within a tumor termed 'cancer stem cells'. In the present study, a Hoechst 33342 dye exclusion technique was used to identify cancer stem‑like side population (SP) cells in colon carcinoma, which accounted for 3.4% of the total cell population. Following treatment with verapamil, the population of SP cells was reduced to 0.6%. In addition, the sorted SP cells exhibited marked multidrug resistance and enhanced cell survival rates compared with non‑SP cells. The SP cells were able to generate more tumor spheres and were CD133 positive. Subsequent biochemical analysis revealed that the levels of the adenosine triphosphate‑binding cassette sub‑family G member 2 transporter protein, B‑cell lymphoma anti‑apoptotic factor and autocrine production of interleukin‑4 were significantly enhanced in the colon cancer SP cells, which contributed to drug resistance, protection of the cells from apoptosis and tumor recurrence. Therefore, the findings suggested that treatment failure and colon tumorigenesis is dictated by a small population of SP cells, which indicate a potential target in future therapies.

  17. A case of very well-differentiated adenocarcinoma with carcinoid tumor in the ascending colon.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Hayato; Sakurai, Shinji; Tsukagoshi, Ritsuko; Suzuki, Masaki; Tabe, Yuichi; Fukasawa, Takaharu; Kiriyama, Shinsuke; Fukuchi, Minoru; Naitoh, Hiroshi; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Malignant tumors with mixed glandular and neuroendocrine characteristics with at least 30% of each component are classified as mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC) by the World Health Organization 2010 classification. We report here a case of very well-differentiated adenocarcinoma accompanied by carcinoid tumor, categorized as MANEC. A 41-year-old Japanese man was clinically diagnosed with ascending colon cancer and underwent right hemicolectomy. Using an immunohistologic technique, the pathologic diagnosis was very well-differentiated adenocarcinoma accompanied by carcinoid tumor and marked eosinophil infiltration, which was categorized as MANEC. By immunohistochemical analysis, tumor cells of the carcinoid component exhibited very low proliferation activity. Our case was thought to be MANEC without high malignant potential. MANEC as per the World Health Organization 2010 classification seems to include tumors with diverse grades of malignancy, and it might need to have subclassifications according to the malignancy potential of the tumor cells.

  18. Role of colonic stents in the management of colorectal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Sagar, Jayesh

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the commonly encountered cancers across the Western World. In United Kingdom, this constitutes third most common ranked cancer and second most common ranked cause of cancer related deaths. Its acute presentation as a malignant colonic obstruction imposes challenges in its management. Colonic stent has been used for many years to alleviate acute obstruction in such cases allowing optimisation of patient’s physiological status and adequate staging of cancer. In this review, current literature evidence regarding use of colonic stent in acute malignant colonic obstruction is critically appraised and recommendations on the use of colonic stent are advocated. PMID:26962401

  19. Modulation of colon cancer by nutmeg.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Krausz, Kristopher W; Nichols, Robert G; Xu, Wei; Patterson, Andrew D; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2015-04-03

    Colon cancer is the most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer mortality in humans. Using mass spectrometry-based metabolomics, the current study revealed the accumulation of four uremic toxins (cresol sulfate, cresol glucuronide, indoxyl sulfate, and phenyl sulfate) in the serum of mice harboring adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene mutation-induced colon cancer. These uremic toxins, likely generated from the gut microbiota, were associated with an increase in the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and a disorder of lipid metabolism. Nutmeg, which exhibits antimicrobial activity, attenuated the levels of uremic toxins and decreased intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(min/+) mice. Nutmeg-treated Apc(min/+) mice had decreased IL-6 levels and normalized dysregulated lipid metabolism, suggesting that uremic toxins are responsible, in part, for the metabolic disorders that occur during tumorigenesis. These studies demonstrate a potential biochemical link among gut microbial metabolism, inflammation, and metabolic disorders and suggest that modulation of gut microbiota and lipid metabolism using dietary intervention or drugs may be effective in colon cancer chemoprevention strategies.

  20. Rectal prolapse as initial clinical manifestation of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, C-W; Hsiao, C-W; Wu, C-C; Jao, S-W

    2008-04-01

    Rectal prolapse as the initial clinical manifestation of colorectal cancer is uncommon. We describe the case of a 75-year-old woman who was diagnosed as having adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon after presenting with complete rectal prolapse. The tumor caused rectosigmoid intussusception and then it prolapsed out through the anus. She underwent rectosigmoidectomy and rectopexy. The postoperative course was uneventful. The relationship between colorectal cancer and rectal prolapse has not been clearly established. This case report describes an unusual presentation of colorectal cancer. It suggests that rectal prolapse can present as the initial symptom of colorectal cancer and may also be a presenting feature of the occult intra-abdominal pathology. The importance of adequate investigation such as colonoscopy should be emphasized in patients who develop a new onset of rectal prolapse.

  1. Linear Discriminant Functions in Connection with the micro-RNA Diagnosis of Colon Cancer.

    PubMed

    Nikas, Jason B; Low, Walter C

    2012-01-01

    Early detection (localized stage) of colon cancer is associated with a five-year survival rate of 91%. Only 39% of colon cancers, however, are diagnosed at that early stage. Early and accurate diagnosis, therefore, constitutes a critical need and a decisive factor in the clinical treatment of colon cancer and its success. In this study, using supervised linear discriminant analysis, we have developed three diagnostic biomarker models that-based on global micro-RNA expression analysis of colonic tissue collected during surgery-can discriminate with a perfect accuracy between subjects with colon cancer (stages II-IV) and normal healthy subjects. We developed our three diagnostic biomarker models with 57 subjects [40 with colon cancer (stages II-IV) and 17 normal], and we validated them with 39 unknown (new and different) subjects [28 with colon cancer (stages II-IV) and 11 normal]. For all three diagnostic models, both the overall sensitivity and specificity were 100%. The nine most significant micro-RNAs identified, which comprise the input variables to the three linear discriminant functions, are associated with genes that regulate oncogenesis, and they play a paramount role in the development of colon cancer, as evidenced in the tumor tissue itself. This could have a significant impact in the fight against this disease, in that it may lead to the development of an early serum or blood diagnostic test based on the detection of those nine key micro-RNAs.

  2. Variation in the CYP19A1 gene and risk of colon and rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Martha L; Lundgreen, Abbie; Herrick, Jennifer S; Kadlubar, Susan; Caan, Bette J; Potter, John D; Wolff, Roger K

    2011-07-01

    CYP19A1, or aromatase, influences estrogen-metabolizing enzymes and may influence cancer risk. We examine variation in the CYP19A1 gene and risk of colorectal cancer using data from population-based case-control studies (colon n = 1,574 cases, 1,970 controls; rectal n = 791 cases, 999 controls). Four SNPs were statistically significantly associated with colon cancer and four were associated with rectal cancer. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, the AA genotype of rs12591359 was associated with an increased risk of colon cancer (OR 1.44 95% CI 1.16-1.80) and the AA genotype of rs2470144 was associated with a reduced risk of rectal cancer (OR 0.65 95% CI 0.50-0.84). Variants of CYP19A1 were associated with CIMP+ and CIMP+/KRAS2-mutated tumors. CT/TT genotypes of rs1961177 were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of a MSI+ colon tumor (OR 1.77 95% CI 1.26-2.37). We observed statistically significant interactions between genetic variation in NFκB1 and CYP19A1 for both colon and rectal cancer. Our data suggest the importance of CYP19A1 in the development of colon and rectal cancer and that estrogen may influence risk through an inflammation-related mechanism.

  3. Optimization of chitosan nanoparticles for colon tumors using experimental design methodology.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anekant; Jain, Sanjay K

    2016-12-01

    Purpose Colon-specific drug delivery systems (CDDS) can improve the bio-availability of drugs through the oral route. A novel formulation for oral administration using ligand coupled chitosan nanoparticles bearing 5-Flurouracil (5FU) encapsulated in enteric coated pellets has been investigated for CDDS. Method The effect of polymer concentration, drug concentration, stirring time and stirring speed on the encapsulation efficiency, and size of nanoparticles were evaluated. The best (or optimum) formulation was obtained by response surface methodology. Using the experimental data, analysis of variance has been carried out to evolve linear empirical models. Using a new methodology, polynomial models have been evolved and the parametric analysis has been carried out. In order to target nanoparticles to the hyaluronic acid (HA) receptors present on colon tumors, HA coupled nanoparticles were tested for their efficacy in vivo. The HA coupled nanoparticles were encapsulated in pellets and were enteric coated to release the drug in the colon. Results Drug release studies under conditions of mimicking stomach to colon transit have shown that the drug was protected from being released in the physiological environment of the stomach and small intestine. The relatively high local drug concentration with prolonged exposure time provides a potential to enhance anti-tumor efficacy with low systemic toxicity for the treatment of colon cancer. Conclusions Conclusively, HA coupled nanoparticles can be considered as the potential candidate for targeted drug delivery and are anticipated to be promising in the treatment of colorectal cancer.

  4. Coffee, colon function and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Vitaglione, Paola; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2012-09-01

    For several years the physiological effects of coffee have been focused on its caffeine content, disregarding the hundreds of bioactive coffee components, such as polyphenols, melanoidins, carbohydrates, diterpenes, etc. These compounds may exert their protection against colorectal cancer (CRC), the third most common cancer worldwide. However, the amount and type of compounds ingested with the beverage may be highly different depending on the variety of coffee used, the roasting degree, the type of brewing method as well as the serving size. In this frame, this paper reviews the mechanisms by which coffee may influence the risk of CRC development focusing on espresso and filtered coffee, as well as on the components that totally or partially reach the colon i.e. polyphenols and dietary fiber, including melanoidins. In particular the effects of coffee on some colon conditions whose deregulation may lead to cancer, namely microbiota composition and lumen reducing environment, were considered. Taken together the discussed studies indicated that, due to their in vivo metabolism and composition, both coffee chlorogenic acids and dietary fiber, including melanoidins, may reduce CRC risk, increasing colon motility and antioxidant status. Further studies should finally assess whether the coffee benefits for colon are driven through a prebiotic effect.

  5. Tumor suppressive role of sestrin2 during colitis and colon carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ro, Seung-Hyun; Xue, Xiang; Ramakrishnan, Sadeesh K; Cho, Chun-Seok; Namkoong, Sim; Jang, Insook; Semple, Ian A; Ho, Allison; Park, Hwan-Woo; Shah, Yatrik M; Lee, Jun Hee

    2016-01-01

    The mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways are critical regulators of intestinal inflammation and colon cancer growth. Sestrins are stress-inducible proteins, which suppress both mTORC1 and ER stress; however, the role of Sestrins in colon physiology and tumorigenesis has been elusive due to the lack of studies in human tissues or in appropriate animal models. In this study, we show that human SESN2 expression is elevated in the colon of ulcerative colitis patients but is lost upon p53 inactivation during colon carcinogenesis. In mouse colon, Sestrin2 was critical for limiting ER stress and promoting the recovery of epithelial cells after inflammatory injury. During colitis-promoted tumorigenesis, Sestrin2 was shown to be an important mediator of p53’s control over mTORC1 signaling and tumor cell growth. These results highlight Sestrin2 as a novel tumor suppressor, whose downregulation can accelerate both colitis and colon carcinogenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12204.001 PMID:26913956

  6. Radioimmunoguided surgery in primary colon cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Nieroda, C.A.; Mojzisik, C.; Sardi, A.; Ferrara, P.J.; Hinkle, G.; Thurston, M.O.; Martin, E.W. Jr. )

    1990-01-01

    Radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS), the intraoperative use of a hand-held gamma detecting probe (GDP) to identify tissue containing radiolabeled monoclonal antibody (MAb), was performed upon 30 patients with primary colon carcinoma. Each patient received an intravenous injection of MAb B72.3 (1.0 to 0.25 mg) radiolabeled with {sup 125}I (5.0 to 1.0 mCi) 8 to 34 days before exploration. The GDP was used to measure radioactivity in colon tissue, tumor bed, nodal drainage areas, and areas of suspected metastases. Antibody localized to histologically documented tumor in 23 of 30 patients (77%). Tumor margins were more clearly defined in 20 of 30 patients (67%). GDP counts led to major alterations in surgical resection in five patients (17%) and changes in adjuvant therapy in four (14%). GDP counts identified occult liver metastases in two patients (7%) and correctly indicated the benign nature of liver masses in three (10%). In four patients (13%), occult nodal metastases were identified. RIGS can precisely delineate tumor margins, define the extent of nodal involvement, and localize occult tumor, providing a method of immediate intraoperative staging that may lessen recurrences and produce higher survival rates.

  7. Metastasis-associated in colon cancer-1 in gastric cancer: Beyond metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhen-Zhen; Chen, Li-Shan; Zhou, Rui; Bin, Jian-Ping; Liao, Yu-Lin; Liao, Wang-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis-associated in colon cancer-1 (MACC1) is an oncogene that was first identified in colon cancer. The upstream and downstream of MACC1 form a delicate regulatory network that supports its tumorigenic role in cancers. Multiple functions of MACC1 have been discovered in many cancers. In gastric cancer (GC), MACC1 has been shown to be involved in oncogenesis and tumor progression. MACC1 overexpression adversely affects the clinical outcomes of GC patients. Regarding the mechanism of action of MACC1 in GC, studies have shown that it promotes the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and accelerates cancer metastasis. MACC1 is involved in many hallmarks of GC in addition to metastasis. MACC1 promotes vasculogenic mimicry (VM) via TWIST1/2, and VM increases the tumor blood supply, which is necessary for tumor progression. MACC1 also facilitates GC lymphangiogenesis by upregulating extracellular secretion of VEGF-C/D, indicating that MACC1 may be an important player in GC lymphatic dissemination. Additionally, MACC1 supports GC growth under metabolic stress by enhancing the Warburg effect. In conclusion, MACC1 participates in multiple biological processes inside and outside of GC cells, making it an important mediator of the tumor microenvironment. PMID:27547006

  8. Anticancer effect of linalool via cancer-specific hydroxyl radical generation in human colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Kenichi; Zheng, Yun-Wen; Murata, Soichiro; Ito, Hiromu; Nakayama, Ken; Kurokawa, Tomohiro; Sano, Naoki; Nowatari, Takeshi; Villareal, Myra O; Nagano, Yumiko N; Isoda, Hiroko; Matsui, Hirofumi; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the anticancer mechanisms of the monoterpenoid alcohol linalool in human colon cancer cells. METHODS The cytotoxic effect of linalool on the human colon cancer cell lines and a human fibroblast cell line was examined using the WST-8 assay. The apoptosis-inducing effect of linalool was measured using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay and flow cytometry with Annexin V. Oxidative stress was investigated by staining for diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine, which is a cellular lipid peroxidation marker, and electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Sixteen SCID mice xenografted with human cancer cells were randomized into 3 groups for in vivo analysis: control and low-dose and high-dose linalool groups. The control group was administered tap water orally every 3 d. The linalool treatment groups were administered 100 or 200 μg/kg linalool solution orally for the same period. All mice were sacrificed under anesthesia 21 d after tumor inoculation, and tumors and organs were collected for immunohistochemistry using an anti-4-hydroxynonenal antibody. Tumor weights were measured and compared between groups. RESULTS Linalool induced apoptosis of cancer cells in vitro, following the cancer-specific induction of oxidative stress, which was measured based on spontaneous hydroxyl radical production and delayed lipid peroxidation. Mice in the high-dose linalool group exhibited a 55% reduction in mean xenograft tumor weight compared with mice in the control group (P < 0.05). In addition, tumor-specific lipid peroxidation was observed in the in vivo model. CONCLUSION Linalool exhibited an anticancer effect via cancer-specific oxidative stress, and this agent has potential for application in colon cancer therapy. PMID:27956800

  9. Colon cancer: cancer stem cells markers, drug resistance and treatment.

    PubMed

    Kozovska, Zuzana; Gabrisova, Veronika; Kucerova, Lucia

    2014-10-01

    Malignant tumours consist of heterogeneous populations of tumour cells. Cancer stem cells (CSC) represent a population of cells within a tumour with highly tumorigenic and chemoresistant properties. These cells may be identified by the expression of CSC markers. There are several key stem cells markers specified for colon cancer: CD133, CD44, ALDH1, ALCAM. These days, a major obstacle to effective cancer management is development of a multidrug resistance (MDR). The principal mechanism responsible for development of MDR phenotype is the over-expression of ABC transporters. Tumours and relapsing tumours after therapy are drived by subpopulations of tumour cells with aggressive phenotype resistant to chemotherapeutics. These cells are called CSC or tumour-initiating cells (TIC). Here we outline recent information about MDR of colon cancer and CSC markers. We have focused on novel therapeutic strategies which have been developed to prevent or overcome MDR. One such strategy is a combination of chemotherapy and modulators of MDR pumps or chemotherapy and monoclonal antibodies against vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF. Colon cancer is characterized by the presence of colon CSC expressing specific stem cell markers. The divergent presence of these markers can help to adjust personalized therapy. The review provides a detailed overview of resistance of colon cancer cells and discusses how the presence of CSC markers can influence therapy and prognosis of patients.

  10. Targeting Lymph Node Retrieval and Assessment in Stage II Colon Cancer: A Quality Outcome Community-Based Cancer Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Grote, Thomas; Hughes, Amy H.; Rimmer, Cathy C.; Less, Dale A.; Abernethy, Amy P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Adequate lymph node evaluation is required for the proper staging of colon cancer. The current recommended number of lymph nodes that should be retrieved and assessed is 12. Methods The multidisciplinary Gastrointestinal Tumor Board at the Derrick L. Davis Forsyth Regional Cancer Center reviewed and recommended that a minimum of 12 lymph nodes be examined in all cases of colon cancer to ensure proper staging. This recommendation occurred at the end of the first quarter of 2005. To ensure this new standard was being followed, an outcomes study looking at the number of lymph nodes evaluated in stage II colon cancer was initiated. All patients with stage II colon cancer diagnosed between 2004 and 2006 were reviewed. Results There was a statistically significant improvement in the number of stage II colon cancer patients with 12 or more lymph nodes evaluated. Before the Gastrointestinal Tumor Board's recommendation, 49% (40 out of 82 patients) had 12 or more lymph nodes sampled. The median number of lymph nodes evaluated was 11. After the Gastrointestinal Tumor Board's recommendation, 79% (70 out of 88 patients) had 12 or more lymph nodes sampled. The median number of lymph nodes was 16. Conclusion Multidisciplinary tumor boards can impact the quality of care of patients as demonstrated in this study. Although we do not yet have survival data on these patients, based on the previous literature referenced in this article, we would expect to see an improvement in survival rates in patients with 12 or more nodes retrieved and assessed. PMID:20856779

  11. The Innate Immune Receptor NLRX1 Functions as a Tumor Suppressor by Reducing Colon Tumorigenesis and Key Tumor-Promoting Signals.

    PubMed

    Koblansky, A Alicia; Truax, Agnieszka D; Liu, Rongrong; Montgomery, Stephanie A; Ding, Shengli; Wilson, Justin E; Brickey, W June; Mühlbauer, Marcus; McFadden, Rita-Marie T; Hu, Peizhen; Li, Zengshan; Jobin, Christian; Lund, Pauline Kay; Ting, Jenny P-Y

    2016-03-22

    NOD-like receptor (NLR) proteins are intracellular innate immune sensors/receptors that regulate immunity. This work shows that NLRX1 serves as a tumor suppressor in colitis-associated cancer (CAC) and sporadic colon cancer by keeping key tumor promoting pathways in check. Nlrx1(-/-) mice were highly susceptible to CAC, showing increases in key cancer-promoting pathways including nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and interleukin 6 (IL-6). The tumor-suppressive function of NLRX1 originated primarily from the non-hematopoietic compartment. This prompted an analysis of NLRX1 function in the Apc(min/+) genetic model of sporadic gastrointestinal cancer. NLRX1 attenuated Apc(min/+) colon tumorigenesis, cellular proliferation, NF-κB, MAPK, STAT3 activation, and IL-6 levels. Application of anti-interleukin 6 receptor (IL6R) antibody therapy reduced tumor burden, increased survival, and reduced STAT3 activation in Nlrx1(-/-)Apc(min/+) mice. As an important clinical correlate, human colon cancer samples expressed lower levels of NLRX1 than healthy controls in multiple patient cohorts. These data implicate anti-IL6R as a potential personalized therapy for colon cancers with reduced NLRX1.

  12. Colon cancer treatment: Are there racial disparities in an equal-access healthcare system?

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Abegail A.; Enewold, Lindsey; Zahm, Shelia H.; Shriver, Craig D.; Stojadinovic, Alexander; McGlynn, Katherine A.; Zhu, Kangmin

    2014-01-01

    Background In the general US population, blacks and whites have been shown to undergo colon cancer treatment at disproportionate rates. Accessibility to medical care may be the most important factor influencing differences in colon cancer treatment among whites and blacks. Objective This study assessed whether racial disparities in colon cancer surgery and chemotherapy existed in an equal-access healthcare system. Additionally, we sought to examine whether racial differences varied by demographic and tumor characteristics. Design and Setting Database research using the United States Department of Defense’s (DoD) Military Health System. Patients Patients included 2,560 Non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) and Non-Hispanic Blacks (NHB) with colon cancer diagnosed from 1998 to 2007. Main Outcome Measures Logistic regression was used to assess the associations between race and the receipt of colon cancer surgery or chemotherapy, while controlling for available potential confounders, both overall and stratified by age at diagnosis, sex, and tumor stage. Results After multivariate adjustment, the odds of receiving colon cancer surgery or chemotherapy NHBs versus NHWs were similar (OR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.37–1.53; OR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.59–1.04; respectively). Additionally, no effect modification by age at diagnosis, sex, and tumor stage were observed. Limitations Treatment data might not be complete for beneficiaries who also had non-DoD health insurance. Conclusions When access to medical care is equal, racial disparities in the provision of colon cancer surgery and chemotherapy were not apparent. Thus, it is possible that the inequalities in access to care play a major role in the racial disparities seen in colon cancer treatment in the general population. PMID:25101601

  13. [Pancreatic-duodenectomy for invasive colon cancer in a patient with Lynch syndrome. Case report.].

    PubMed

    Vergara-Fernández, O; Zamora-Valdés, D; Rodríguez-Zentner, H A; Tapia, H; Sánchez-Fernández, N; Gamboa-Domínguez, A; Medina-Franco, H; Chan-Núñez, C

    2009-01-01

    Despite the screening efforts in the general population and particularly in families with hereditary colon cancer, locally advanced colon cancer remains a common clinical problem. In block resection is considered mainstay therapy in these patients. The aim of this report is to present a case of right-sided colon cancer with a medullar phenotype invading the duodenum treated through in block resection. A case of a 54-year-old male with a family history of colon and pancreatic cancer with lower gastrointestinal tract bleeding is presented. Colonoscopy and computed tomography scan showed a tumor in the colonic hepatic flexure invading the duodenum. The patient underwent an in block resection of the right colon, duodenum, pancreas and antrum. The histopathological study showed a T4N0M0 adenocarcinoma invading the duodenum, pancreas and antrum with negative margins. His postoperative evolution was complicated with a pancreatic fistula, which resolved with conservative measures. In conclusion, in block resection is the treatment of choice for locally advanced colon cancer with invasion to duodenum and pancreas and should be performed in high-volume centers familiar with this type of procedures. Key words: pancreaticoduodenectomy, colon cancer, Lynch syndrome, pancreas, surgery, Mexico.

  14. The Sirtuin 3 Expression Profile Is Associated with Pathological and Clinical Outcomes in Colon Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunyuan; Huang, Zonghai; Jiang, Hong; Shi, Fujun

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the correlation between Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) expression and the clinical outcome of patients with colon cancer. Methods. The tumor specimens from 127 patients with colon cancer were obtained for SIRT3 immunohistochemical staining. Patients were followed up. In in vitro study, SIRT3 gene was inhibited to observe the effects of SIRT3 on the biological behavior of cultured colon cells. Results. The SIRT3 expression level was found to be significantly associated with the lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001) and tumor stages (P < 0.001). The colon cancer-specific survival was 64.6% among patients with high SIRT3 expressions and 88.6% among patients with low SIRT3 expressions (log-rank P = 0.016). The overall survival was 80.2% among patients with low SIRT3 expressions and 55.9% among patients with high SIRT3 expressions (log-rank P = 0.002). In vitro study showed that silencing of SIRT3 gene inhibited the proliferation, invasion, and cells migration but increased the apoptosis in the cultured colon cell lines. Conclusion. This study provides evidence supporting that SIRT3 is closely associated with the clinical outcomes of colon cancer. SIRT3 may be considered as a marker for colon cancer. PMID:25105144

  15. Tumor-associated macrophages favor C26 murine colon carcinoma cell proliferation in an oxidative stress-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Luput, Lavinia; Licarete, Emilia; Sesarman, Alina; Laura, Patras; Alupei, Marius Costel; Banciu, Manuela

    2017-02-17

    The role of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in the development of colon carcinoma is still controversial. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the TAM‑driven processes that may affect colon cancer cell proliferation. To achieve this purpose, murine macrophages were co-cultured with C26 murine colon carcinoma cells at a cell density ratio that approximates physiological conditions for colon carcinoma development in vivo. In this respect, the effects of TAM-mediated angiogenesis, inflammation and oxidative stress on the proliferative capacity of C26 murine colon carcinoma cells were studied. To gain insight into the TAM-driven oxidative stress, NADPH oxidase, the main pro-oxidant enzyme in macrophages, was inhibited. Our data revealed that the stimulatory effects of TAMs on C26 cell proliferation may be related mainly to their pro-oxidant actions exerted by NADPH oxidase activity, which maintains the redox status and the angiogenic capacity of the tumor microenvironment. Additionally, the anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic effects of TAMs on tumor cells were found to create a favorable microenvironment for C26 colon carcinoma development and progression. In conclusion, our data confirmed the protumor role of TAMs in the development of colon carcinoma in an oxidative stress-dependent manner that potentiates the angiogenic capacity of the tumor microenvironment. These data may offer valuable information for future tumor-targeted therapies based on TAM 're-education' strategies.

  16. [A Case of Pseudo-Meigs Syndrome Associated with Metachronous Ovarian Metastasis from Ascending Colon Cancer].

    PubMed

    Yachi, Takafumi; Nishikawa, Shinsuke; Tokura, Tomohisa; Iwama, Masahiro; Akaishi, Takanobu; Umehara, Minoru; Umehara, Yutaka; Murata, Akihiko; Takahashi, Kenichi; Morita, Takayuki

    2015-10-01

    We experienced a case of pseudo-Meigs syndrome associated with metachronous metastasis to the ovary from ascending colon cancer. A 65-year-old woman underwent curative surgery for ascending colon cancer at another hospital. A follow-up CT carried out 3 months after the surgery revealed a right ovarian tumor and a large amount of ascites. The patient was diagnosed with ovarian metastasis from ascending colon cancer with carcinomatous peritonitis. Palliative care was recommended, and she presented at our department for a second opinion. In spite of a large amount of ascites and pleural effusion, no disseminating tumor was detected on contrast-enhanced CT at our hospital, and we recommended that she undergo a diagnostic laparotomy. The laparotomy was negative for carcinomatous peritonitis and a right oophorectomy was performed. The histopathological findings indicated that the ovarian tumor was consistent with metastasis from ascending colon cancer. After the surgery, we initiated chemotherapy with mFOLFOX6+bevacizumab and the symptoms were well controlled. A follow-up CT carried out 11 months after the surgery revealed a left ovarian tumor and increased ascites, and the patient underwent a left oophorectomy. Then, chemotherapy with the same regimen was administered for 12 months, and she did not develop any signs of recurrence for 27 months after the surgery. Ovarian metastasis from colon cancer may occasionally cause pseudo-Meigs syndrome, and it is important to be aware of the usefulness of oophorectomy for the control of ascites and pleural effusion.

  17. Adjuvant treatment strategies for early colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Waterston, Ashita M; Cassidy, Jim

    2005-01-01

    Colon cancer remains a major cause of death; however, in the last 3 years a number of trials have been published that have led to changes in the treatment of patients with this disease. Initially, the adjuvant treatment of patients following curative resection was based on their Dukes staging; this is now being refined by consideration of other pathological factors, as well as the investigation of newer prognostic markers such as p53, Ki67 and a number of genes on chromosome 18. Tumours generally develop from the progressive accumulation of genetic events, although some develop through mutation or inactivation of DNA mismatch repair proteins leading to microsatellite instability; this is particularly important in Lynch's syndrome. The loss of gene expression can occur by deletion or mutation of genes or by aberrant methylation of CpG islands. In patients with Dukes C colon cancer the standard of care for adjuvant chemotherapy was previously based on bolus fluorouracil (5-fluorouracil) and folinic acid (leucovorin) administered 5 days per month or weekly for 6 months. Recent studies with a combination of infusional fluorouracil, folinic acid and oxaliplatin have been found to be superior. A further study replacing fluorouracil with oral capecitabine has also demonstrated equivalent disease-free survival. Although some debate remains regarding the benefit of adjuvant treatment for patients with Dukes B colon cancer, the emerging consensus is that, for those patients who are younger and have high-risk features, chemotherapy should be discussed. A number of large vaccine trials have also been conducted in the adjuvant setting and, overall, these have been disappointing. This is a rapidly advancing area of therapy and the results of new trials are awaited to determine whether additional benefits can be achieved with biological therapies such as anti-vascular endothelial growth factor and anti-epithelial growth factor receptor monoclonal antibodies, which have already

  18. Radioimmunotoxin Therapy of Experimental Colon and Ovarian Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, Donald J.; Vallera, Daniel A.

    2006-02-09

    mixed with the EpCam sFv that was synthesized without any toxin attached. The proliferation studies showed that EpCam sFv was able to block the killing of the EpCam expressing cells by DTEpCam. An irrelevant control protein, 1D10Fc was unable to block. Together, these studies indicated that EpCam was exquisitely selective. In order to produce an IT of even greater potency, we used a toxin containing the Golgi retention sequence KDEL. The same EpCam sFv was spliced to truncated PE containing the terminal KDEL sequence. The addition of KDEL enhanced the potency of the EpCam sFv IT at least 6 logs or 1000-fold with an IC50 of 2 to 7 x 10-8 nM. This conjugate was also shown to be highly selective. Taken together, all of these studies indicate that in vitro experiments have shown that we have a highly potent IT that selectively kills colon cancer cells. The next step was to show that the EpCam IT had the ability to inhibit the growth of flank tumors in vivo in nude mice. The same human colon tumor cells, HT29 used in the in vitro studies were injected into the flank of nude mice. Tumor cells were injected into groups of mice and when tumors reached the size of 0.5 cm3, we injected our best-performing EpCam IT called EpCamKDEL intratumorally. There was a significant drop in tumor size indicating that this agent was very effective against human colon cancer. Since the EpCamKDEL was injected intratumorally, it did not have to travel through the systemic circulation to find its target. Our next step will be to inject EpCamKDEL intravenously into mice with flank tumors to determine if EpCamKDEL has the ability to migrate to the tumor systemically. The next step was to radiolabel EpCamKDEL to see whether it could serve as an RIT. We radiolabeled EpCam with 111In as a surrogate for 90Y and then incubated it with HT29. The labeling efficiency was over 90% indicating that a high percentage of the protein molecules could be readily radiolabeled. However, the immunoreactivity was only

  19. CacyBP/SIP promotes the proliferation of colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Huihong; Shi, Yongquan; Chen, Xiong; Wang, Jun; Lu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Faming; Liu, Zhengxiong; Lei, Ting; Fan, Daiming

    2017-01-01

    CacyBP/SIP is a component of the ubiquitin pathway and is overexpressed in several transformed tumor tissues, including colon cancer, which is one of the most common cancers worldwide. It is unknown whether CacyBP/SIP promotes the proliferation of colon cancer cells. This study examined the expression level, subcellular localization, and binding activity of CacyBP/SIP in human colon cancer cells in the presence and absence of the hormone gastrin. We found that CacyBP/SIP was expressed in a high percentage of colon cancer cells, but not in normal colonic surface epithelium. CacyBP/SIP promoted the cell proliferation of colon cancer cells under both basal and gastrin stimulated conditions as shown by knockdown studies. Gastrin stimulation triggered the translocation of CacyBP/SIP to the nucleus, and enhanced interaction between CacyBP/SIP and SKP1, a key component of ubiquitination pathway which further mediated the proteasome-dependent degradation of p27kip1 protein. The gastrin induced reduction in p27kip1 was prevented when cells were treated with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. These results suggest that CacyBP/SIP may be promoting growth of colon cancer cells by enhancing ubiquitin-mediated degradation of p27kip1.

  20. CacyBP/SIP promotes the proliferation of colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiong; Wang, Jun; Lu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Faming; Liu, Zhengxiong; Lei, Ting; Fan, Daiming

    2017-01-01

    CacyBP/SIP is a component of the ubiquitin pathway and is overexpressed in several transformed tumor tissues, including colon cancer, which is one of the most common cancers worldwide. It is unknown whether CacyBP/SIP promotes the proliferation of colon cancer cells. This study examined the expression level, subcellular localization, and binding activity of CacyBP/SIP in human colon cancer cells in the presence and absence of the hormone gastrin. We found that CacyBP/SIP was expressed in a high percentage of colon cancer cells, but not in normal colonic surface epithelium. CacyBP/SIP promoted the cell proliferation of colon cancer cells under both basal and gastrin stimulated conditions as shown by knockdown studies. Gastrin stimulation triggered the translocation of CacyBP/SIP to the nucleus, and enhanced interaction between CacyBP/SIP and SKP1, a key component of ubiquitination pathway which further mediated the proteasome-dependent degradation of p27kip1 protein. The gastrin induced reduction in p27kip1 was prevented when cells were treated with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. These results suggest that CacyBP/SIP may be promoting growth of colon cancer cells by enhancing ubiquitin-mediated degradation of p27kip1. PMID:28196083

  1. Colon Cancer on The Rise Among Gen Xers, Millennials

    MedlinePlus

    ... Colon Cancer on the Rise Among Gen Xers, Millennials And an old adversary -- the obesity epidemic -- may ... their early 50s and younger -- Gen Xers and millennials -- are experiencing significant increases in colon and rectal ...

  2. Nutraceuticals as potential therapeutic agents for colon cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Kuppusamy, Palaniselvam; Yusoff, Mashitah M; Maniam, Gaanty Pragas; Ichwan, Solachuddin Jauhari Arief; Soundharrajan, Ilavenil; Govindan, Natanamurugaraj

    2014-06-01

    Colon cancer is a world-wide health problem and the second-most dangerous type of cancer, affecting both men and women. The modern diet and lifestyles, with high meat consumption and excessive alcohol use, along with limited physical activity has led to an increasing mortality rate for colon cancer worldwide. As a result, there is a need to develop novel and environmentally benign drug therapies for colon cancer. Currently, nutraceuticals play an increasingly important role in the treatment of various chronic diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer׳s disease. Nutraceuticals are derived from various natural sources such as medicinal plants, marine organisms, vegetables and fruits. Nutraceuticals have shown the potential to reduce the risk of colon cancer and slow its progression. These dietary substances target different molecular aspects of colon cancer development. Accordingly, this review briefly discusses the medicinal importance of nutraceuticals and their ability to reduce the risk of colorectal carcinogenesis.

  3. Nutraceuticals as potential therapeutic agents for colon cancer: a review

    PubMed Central

    Kuppusamy, Palaniselvam; Yusoff, Mashitah M.; Maniam, Gaanty Pragas; Ichwan, Solachuddin Jauhari Arief; Soundharrajan, Ilavenil; Govindan, Natanamurugaraj

    2014-01-01

    Colon cancer is a world-wide health problem and the second-most dangerous type of cancer, affecting both men and women. The modern diet and lifestyles, with high meat consumption and excessive alcohol use, along with limited physical activity has led to an increasing mortality rate for colon cancer worldwide. As a result, there is a need to develop novel and environmentally benign drug therapies for colon cancer. Currently, nutraceuticals play an increasingly important role in the treatment of various chronic diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer׳s disease. Nutraceuticals are derived from various natural sources such as medicinal plants, marine organisms, vegetables and fruits. Nutraceuticals have shown the potential to reduce the risk of colon cancer and slow its progression. These dietary substances target different molecular aspects of colon cancer development. Accordingly, this review briefly discusses the medicinal importance of nutraceuticals and their ability to reduce the risk of colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:26579381

  4. The utility of Apc-mutant rats in modeling human colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Irving, Amy A.; Yoshimi, Kazuto; Hart, Marcia L.; Parker, Taybor; Clipson, Linda; Ford, Madeline R.; Kuramoto, Takashi; Dove, William F.; Amos-Landgraf, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Prior to the advent of genetic engineering in the mouse, the rat was the model of choice for investigating the etiology of cancer. Now, recent advances in the manipulation of the rat genome, combined with a growing recognition of the physiological differences between mice and rats, have reignited interest in the rat as a model of human cancer. Two recently developed rat models, the polyposis in the rat colon (Pirc) and Kyoto Apc Delta (KAD) strains, each carry mutations in the intestinal-cancer-associated adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) gene. In contrast to mouse models carrying Apc mutations, in which cancers develop mainly in the small intestine rather than in the colon and there is no gender bias, these rat models exhibit colonic predisposition and gender-specific susceptibility, as seen in human colon cancer. The rat also provides other experimental resources as a model organism that are not provided by the mouse: the structure of its chromosomes facilitates the analysis of genomic events, the size of its colon permits longitudinal analysis of tumor growth, and the size of biological samples from the animal facilitates multiplexed molecular analyses of the tumor and its host. Thus, the underlying biology and experimental resources of these rat models provide important avenues for investigation. We anticipate that advances in disease modeling in the rat will synergize with resources that are being developed in the mouse to provide a deeper understanding of human colon cancer. PMID:25288683

  5. The utility of Apc-mutant rats in modeling human colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Irving, Amy A; Yoshimi, Kazuto; Hart, Marcia L; Parker, Taybor; Clipson, Linda; Ford, Madeline R; Kuramoto, Takashi; Dove, William F; Amos-Landgraf, James M

    2014-11-01

    Prior to the advent of genetic engineering in the mouse, the rat was the model of choice for investigating the etiology of cancer. Now, recent advances in the manipulation of the rat genome, combined with a growing recognition of the physiological differences between mice and rats, have reignited interest in the rat as a model of human cancer. Two recently developed rat models, the polyposis in the rat colon (Pirc) and Kyoto Apc Delta (KAD) strains, each carry mutations in the intestinal-cancer-associated adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) gene. In contrast to mouse models carrying Apc mutations, in which cancers develop mainly in the small intestine rather than in the colon and there is no gender bias, these rat models exhibit colonic predisposition and gender-specific susceptibility, as seen in human colon cancer. The rat also provides other experimental resources as a model organism that are not provided by the mouse: the structure of its chromosomes facilitates the analysis of genomic events, the size of its colon permits longitudinal analysis of tumor growth, and the size of biological samples from the animal facilitates multiplexed molecular analyses of the tumor and its host. Thus, the underlying biology and experimental resources of these rat models provide important avenues for investigation. We anticipate that advances in disease modeling in the rat will synergize with resources that are being developed in the mouse to provide a deeper understanding of human colon cancer.

  6. Decorin in Human Colon Cancer: Localization In Vivo and Effect on Cancer Cell Behavior In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Nyman, Marie C; Sainio, Annele O; Pennanen, Mirka M; Lund, Riikka J; Vuorikoski, Sanna; Sundström, Jari T T; Järveläinen, Hannu T

    2015-09-01

    Decorin is generally recognized as a tumor suppressing molecule. Nevertheless, although decorin has been shown to be differentially expressed in malignant tissues, it has often remained unclear whether, in addition to non-malignant stromal cells, cancer cells also express it. Here, we first used two publicly available databases to analyze the current information about decorin expression and immunoreactivity in normal and malignant human colorectal tissue samples. The analyses demonstrated that decorin expression and immunoreactivity may vary in cancer cells of human colorectal tissues. Therefore, we next examined decorin expression in normal, premalignant and malignant human colorectal tissues in more detail using both in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry for decorin. Our results invariably demonstrate that malignant cells within human colorectal cancer tissues are devoid of both decorin mRNA and immunoreactivity. Identical results were obtained for cells of neuroendocrine tumors of human colon. Using RT-qPCR, we showed that human colon cancer cell lines are also decorin negative, in accordance with the above in vivo results. Finally, we demonstrate that decorin transduction of human colon cancer cell lines causes a significant reduction in their colony forming capability. Thus, strategies to develop decorin-based adjuvant therapies for human colorectal malignancies are highly rational.

  7. The Role of Curcumin in Modulating Colonic Microbiota During Colitis and Colon Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Rita-Marie T.; Larmonier, Claire B.; Shehab, Kareem W.; Midura-Kiela, Monica; Ramalingam, Rajalakshmy; Harrison, Christy A.; Besselsen, David G.; Chase, John H.; Caporaso, J. Gregory; Jobin, Christian; Ghishan, Fayez K.; Kiela, Pawel R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Intestinal microbiota influences the progression of colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). With diet being a key determinant of the gut microbial ecology, dietary interventions are an attractive avenue for the prevention of CAC. Curcumin is the most active constituent of the ground rhizome of the Curcuma Longa plant, which has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-proliferative properties. Methods Il10−/− mice on 129/SvEv background were used as a model of CAC. Starting at 10 weeks of age, WT or Il10−/− mice received six weekly i.p. injections of azoxymethane (AOM) or saline, and were started on either a control or curcumin-supplemented diet. Stools were collected every 4 weeks for microbial community analysis. Mice were sacrificed at 30 weeks of age. Results Curcumin-supplemented diet increased survival, decreased colon weight/length ratio, and at 0.5%, entirely eliminated tumor burden. Although colonic histology indicated improvement with curcumin, no effects of mucosal immune responses have been observed in PBS/Il10−/− mice, and limited effects were seen in AOM/Il10−/− mice. In WT and in Il10−/− mice, curcumin increased bacterial richness, prevented age-related decrease in alpha diversity, increased the relative abundance of Lactobacillales, and decreased Coriobacterales order. Taxonomic profile of AOM/Il10−/− mice receiving curcumin was more similar to those of wild-type mice than those fed control diet. Conclusions In AOM/Il10−/− model, curcumin reduced or eliminated colonic tumor burden with limited effects on mucosal immune responses. The beneficial effect of curcumin on tumorigenesis was associated with the maintenance of a more diverse colonic microbial ecology. PMID:26218141

  8. Differences in carcinoembryonic antigen levels between colon and rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yunlong; Xuan, Weibo; Chen, Chunlin; Chen, Zhe; Yang, Ziyi; Zuo, Yunfei; Ren, Shuangyi

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the levels of the serum tumor biomarker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in patients with carcinoma of the colon and rectum in different clinical stages. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed types of cancer worldwide and previous studies have reported rapidly updated therapeutic regimes. While the majority of studies focus on CRC as a single entity, certain studies distinguish colon cancer (CC) from rectal cancer (RC), as there is a hypothesis stating that CC and RC are two naturally different entities. CEA is reported to be an important tumor-associated antigen overexpressed in CRC, which is routinely detected as a significant indicator of CRC. Our study aimed to identify potential differences in the expression of CEA between CC and RC, which may, to some degree, reflect the natural differences between the two. We investigated 240 CRC cases between July, 2010 and December, 2012 from The First and Second Affiliated Hospitals of Dalian Medical University, including 117 CC and 123 RC patients with tumors classified by Duke's staging as A-D. The serum CEA level was measured preoperatively by radioimmunoassays as a routinely used auxiliary indicator. The expression of CEA differed between CC and RC, with the former exhibiting variation among the four stages, whereas no variation was observed in RC. In addition, there were differences between CC and RC regarding the CEA level in stage C and D. Furthermore, the CEA level in stage C of CC was significantly lower compared to that in any other stage. In conclusion, the intrinsic distribution of the CEA level between CC and RC suggests that CC and RC may be two naturally different entities; the significantly low CEA level in stage C of CC indicates that stage C may be crucial in the evolution of CC.

  9. Tea catechins inhibit hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET kinase) activity in human colon cancer cells: kinetic and molecular docking studies

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Christine A.; Bisson, William H.; Dashwood, Roderick H.

    2009-01-01

    Most cancer deaths result from spread of the primary tumor to distant sites (metastasis). MET is an important protein for metastasis in multiple tumor types. Here we report on the ability of tea catechins to suppress MET activation in human colon cancer cells, and propose a mechanism by which they might compete for the kinase domain of the MET protein. PMID:19839593

  10. PPARδ deficiency disrupts hypoxia-mediated tumorigenic potential of colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Eunshil; Koo, Jung Eun; Yeon, Sang Hyeon; Kwak, Mi-Kyoung; Hwang, Daniel H; Lee, Joo Young

    2014-11-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) δ is highly expressed in colon epithelial cells and closely linked to colon carcinogenesis. However, the role of PPARδ in colon cancer cells in a hypoxic tumor microenvironment is not fully understood. We found that expression of the tumor-promoting cytokines, IL-8 and VEGF, induced by hypoxia (<1% O2) and deferoxamine (a hypoxia mimetic) was significantly attenuated in PPARδ-deficient HCT116 colon cancer cells. Consequently, PPARδ-knockout colon cancer cells exposed to hypoxia and deferoxamine failed to stimulate endothelial cell vascularization and macrophage migration/proliferation, whereas wild-type cells were able to induce angiogenesis and macrophage activation in response to hypoxic stress. Hypoxic stress induced transcriptional activation of PPARδ, but not its protein expression, in HCT116 cells. Exogenous expression of p300 potentiated deferoxamine-induced PPARδ transactivation, while siRNA knockdown of p300 abolished hypoxia- and deferoxamine-induced PPARδ transactivation. PPARδ associated with p300 upon hypoxic stress as demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation studies. PI3K inhibitors or siRNA knockdown of Akt suppressed the PPARδ transactivation induced by hypoxia and deferoxamine in HCT116 cells, leading to decreased expression of IL-8 and VEGF. Collectively, these results reveal that PPARδ is required for hypoxic stress-mediated cytokine expression in colon cancer cells, resulting in promotion of angiogenesis, macrophage recruitment, and macrophage proliferation in the tumor microenvironment. p300 and the PI3K/Akt pathway play a role in the regulation of PPARδ transactivation induced by hypoxic stress. Our results demonstrate the positive crosstalk between PPARδ in tumor cells and the hypoxic tumor microenvironment and provide potential therapeutic targets for colon cancer.

  11. A recellularized human colon model identifies cancer driver genes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huanhuan Joyce; Wei, Zhubo; Sun, Jian; Bhattacharya, Asmita; Savage, David J; Serda, Rita; Mackeyev, Yuri; Curley, Steven A.; Bu, Pengcheng; Wang, Lihua; Chen, Shuibing; Cohen-Gould, Leona; Huang, Emina; Shen, Xiling; Lipkin, Steven M.; Copeland, Neal G.; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Shuler, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Refined cancer models are needed to bridge the gap between cell-line, animal and clinical research. Here we describe the engineering of an organotypic colon cancer model by recellularization of a native human matrix that contains cell-populated mucosa and an intact muscularis mucosa layer. This ex vivo system recapitulates the pathophysiological progression from APC-mutant neoplasia to submucosal invasive tumor. We used it to perform a Sleeping Beauty transposon mutagenesis screen to identify genes that cooperate with mutant APC in driving invasive neoplasia. 38 candidate invasion driver genes were identified, 17 of which have been previously implicated in colorectal cancer progression, including TCF7L2, TWIST2, MSH2, DCC and EPHB1/2. Six invasion driver genes that to our knowledge have not been previously described were validated in vitro using cell proliferation, migration and invasion assays, and ex vivo using recellularized human colon. These results demonstrate the utility of our organoid model for studying cancer biology. PMID:27398792

  12. Helicobacter Infection Is Required for Inflammation and Colon Cancer in Smad3-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Maggio-Price, Lillian; Treuting, Piper; Zeng, Weiping; Tsang, Mark; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Iritani, Brian M.

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that intestinal microbial organisms may play an important role in triggering and sustaining inflammation in individuals afflicted with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Moreover, individuals with IBD are at increased risk for developing colorectal cancer, suggesting that chronic inflammation may initiate genetic or epigenetic changes associated with cancer development. We tested the hypothesis that bacteria may contribute to the development of colon cancer by synergizing with defective transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling, a pathway commonly mutated in human colon cancer. Although others have reported that mice deficient in the TGF-β signaling molecule SMAD3 develop colon cancer, we found that SMAD3-deficient mice maintained free of the Gram-negative enterohepatic bacteria Helicobacter spp. for up to 9 months do not develop colon cancer. Furthermore, infection of SMAD3−/− mice with Helicobacter triggers colon cancer in 50% to 66% of the animals. Using real-time PCR, we found that Helicobacter organisms concentrate in the cecum, the preferred site of tumor development. Mucinous adenocarcinomas develop 5 to 30 weeks after infection and are preceded by an early inflammatory phase, consisting of increased proliferation of epithelial cells; increased numbers of cyclooxygenase-2–positive cells, CD4+ T cells, macrophages; and increased MHC class II expression. Colonic tissue revealed increased transcripts for the oncogene c-myc and the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α, some of which have been implicated in colon cancer. These results suggest that bacteria may be important in triggering colorectal cancer, notably in the context of gene mutations in the TGF-β signaling pathway, one of the most commonly affected cellular pathways in colorectal cancer in humans. PMID:16424015

  13. Differential localization of LGR5 and Nanog in clusters of colon cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Amsterdam, Abraham; Raanan, Calanit; Schreiber, Letizia; Freyhan, Ora; Fabrikant, Yakov; Melzer, Ehud; Givol, David

    2013-05-01

    One paradigm of cancer development claims that cancer emerges at the niche of tissue stem cells and these cells continue to proliferate in the tumor as cancer stem cells. LGR5, a membrane receptor, was recently found to be a marker of normal colon stem cells in colon polyps and is also expressed in colon cancer stem cells. Nanog, an embryonic stem cell nuclear factor, is expressed in several embryonic tissues, but Nanog expression is not well documented in cancerous stem cells. Our aim was to examine whether both LGR5 and Nanog are expressed in the same clusters of colon stem cells or cancer stem cells, using immunocytochemistry with specific antibodies to each antigen. We analyzed this aspect using paraffin embedded tumor tissue sections obtained from 18 polyps and 36 colon cancer specimens at stages I-IV. Antibodies to LGR5 revealed membrane and cytoplasm immunostaining of scattered labeled cells in normal crypts, with no labeling of Nanog. However, in close proximity to the tumors, staining to LGR5 was much more intensive in the crypts, including that of the epithelial cells. In cancer tissue, positive LGR5 clusters of stem cells were observed mainly in poorly differentiated tumors and in only a few scattered cells in the highly differentiated tumors. In contrast, antibodies to Nanog mainly stained the growing edges of carcinoma cells, leaving the poorly differentiated tumor cells unlabeled, including the clustered stem cells that could be detected even by direct morphological examination. In polyp tissues, scattered labeled cells were immunostained with antibodies to Nanog and to a much lesser extent with antibodies to LGR5. We conclude that expression of LGR5 is probably specific to stem cells of poorly differentiated tumors, whereas Nanog is mainly expressed at the edges of highly differentiated tumors. However, some of the cell layers adjacent to the carcinoma cell layers that still remained undifferentiated, expressed mainly Nanog with only a few cells

  14. Up-regulation of CHAF1A, a poor prognostic factor, facilitates cell proliferation of colon cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zehua; Cui, Feifei; Yu, Fudong; Peng, Xiao; Jiang, Tao; Chen, Dawei; Lu, Su; Tang, Huamei; Peng, Zhihai

    2014-06-27

    Highlights: • We identified that CHAF1A was up-regulated in colon tumor mucosa in TMA. • The expression pattern of CHAF1A was validated with qPCR and western-blot. • CHAF1A overexpression is an independent indicator for poor colon cancer survival. • CHAF1A facilitates cell proliferation of colon cancer both in vitro and in vivo. - Abstract: Deregulation of chromatin assembly factor 1, p150 subunit A (CHAF1A) has recently been reported to be involved in the development of some cancer types. In this study, we identified that the frequency of positive CHAF1A staining in primary tumor mucosa (45.8%, 93 of 203 samples) was significantly elevated compared to that in paired normal mucosa (18.7%, 38 of 203 samples). The increased expression was strongly associated with cancer stage, tumor invasion, and histological grade. The five-year survival rate of patients with CHAF1A-positive tumors was remarkably lower than that of patients with CHAF1A-negative tumors. Colon cancer cells with CHAF1A knockdown exhibited decreased cell growth index, reduction in colony formation ability, elevated cell apoptosis rate as well as impaired colon tumorigenicity in nude mice. Hence, CHAF1A upregulation functions as a poor prognostic indicator of colon cancer, potentially contributing to its progression by mediating cancer cell proliferation.

  15. Cutaneous metastasis of colon cancer: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Sheets, Nicholas; Powers, Jeremy; Richmond, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous metastases arising from an internal malignancy are a rare phenomenon, occurring in 0.001% of all skin biopsies performed. Of these, 6.5% originate from the a primary colon cancer. Colon cancer, when metastatic to the skin, typically appears as a painless flesh-colored nodule or as a mass with occasional ulceration. We report a case of a large cutaneous metastasis to the suprascapular region as the initial presenting symptom of an underlying colon cancer.

  16. Prognostic value of hedgehog signaling pathway in patients with colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meihua; Li, Xinhua; Liu, Ting; Leng, Aimin; Zhang, Guiying

    2012-06-01

    Hedgehog signaling pathway plays an important role in normal mammalian gastrointestinal development and is implicated in the oncogenesis of various tumors. However, its correlation with progression and prognosis of colon cancer has not been well documented. This study was designed to investigate expression patterns of related proteins in hedgehog signaling pathway in colon cancer to elucidate its prognostic value in this tumor. Using human colon cancer and their corresponding non-diseased colon from 228 patients' biopsies, the expression of sonic hedgehog, its receptor Patched, and downstream transcription factor Gli1 was investigated by immunohistochemical staining to assess their association with the clinicopathological characteristics of colon cancer. Disease-free survival and overall survival were examined by Kaplan-Meier estimates and the log-rank test. Prognostic factors were determined by multivariate Cox analysis. One hundred and thirty-eight patients (59.6%) had sonic hedgehog-positive tumors and that the disease-free survival (43.5 vs. 73.3%, P < 0.001), and overall survival rates (50.7 vs. 88.9%, P < 0.001) of patients with sonic hedgehog-positive tumors were much lower than those of patients with sonic hedgehog-negative tumors. In addition, 163 patients (71.5%) had Patched-positive tumors, and the disease-free survival (41.7 vs. 76.9%, P < 0.001) and overall survival rates (55.2 vs. 80.0%, P = 0.002) of patients with Patched-positive tumors were also lower than those of patients with Patched-negative tumors. Moreover, positive Gli1 expression had a bad effect on the disease-free survival (41.9 vs. 73.2%, P < 0.001) and overall survival rate of patients with colon cancer (50.0 vs. 89.3%, P < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis, sonic hedgehog, Patched, and Gli1 status were indicators for poor disease-free survival and overall survival. These results have shown that the increasing expression of sonic hedgehog, Patched, and Gli1 are indicators for a poor

  17. [A case of cerebellum metastasis from colon cancer].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akiyoshi; Honma, Kiichi; Kondo, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    We report a case of cerebellum metastasis from transverse colon cancer, which had no evidence of recurrence in the thoracoabdominal region by chemotherapy and resection of liver and lung metastases after initial operation. The case is a 71-year-old male. We performed a radical resection of transverse colon cancer (D2) in 2001. The finding was moderately-differentiated adenocarcinoma, se, n1, ly1, v2, H0, P0, M0, stage IIIa. Relapsing tumor, which metastasized to the liver in 3 years, the right lung in 4 years and 8 months and the left lung in 5 years and 11 months after initial operation, were totally resected. Following the partial resection of the left lung, he received a treatment with 12 times of mFOLFOX6 and S-1+PSK. There was a good control observed in the thoracoabdominal region with no metastases for 14 months. However, drift and dizziness developed in April 2008, and cerebellum metastasis was diagnosed by MRI. He underwent a partial resection of cerebellum tumor, radiation therapy and FOLFIRI. He has been alive for 1 year after the treatment of the cerebellum metastasis, and there has been no evidence of recurrence in the thoracoabdominal region in 8 years after initial operation.

  18. A case report of thyroid gland metastasis associated with lung metastasis from colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Keisuke; Nozawa, Keijiro; Aoyagi, Yoshiko; Ishihara, Soichiro; Matsuda, Keiji; Fukushima, Junichi; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid gland metastasis of malignant tumors is observed in 1.9% to 9.5% of histologically examined autopsy cases. Thyroid metastasis from colon cancer is extremely rare and the prognosis is poor. Here we report a case of lung metastasis and thyroid gland metastasis following sigmoid colon cancer surgery. In 2000, a 58-year-old woman underwent a sigmoid colectomy for sigmoid colon cancer. In 2005, a metastatic lung tumor was detected by chest CT. The patient underwent a partial thoracoscopic resection of the left lung in April 2005. On a CT scan taken 3 years and 4 months after the lung resection, a tumor mass was observed in the left lung and a low-absorption region with an unclear border was seen in the left lobe of the thyroid gland. Thyroid aspiration cytology showed adenocarcinoma, and a diagnosis of thyroid gland metastasis from sigmoid colon cancer was made. In April 2008 a subtotal thyroidectomy was performed. Following surgery, the patient underwent chemotherapy with mFOLFOX6 and bevacizumab. Nevertheless a number of lung metastases and expressions of lung metastasis were subsequently observed. Histopathological examination revealed a number of metastases of differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma in the thyroid gland from colon cancer.

  19. Personalizing colon cancer adjuvant therapy: selecting optimal treatments for individual patients.

    PubMed

    Dienstmann, Rodrigo; Salazar, Ramon; Tabernero, Josep

    2015-06-01

    For more than three decades, postoperative chemotherapy-initially fluoropyrimidines and more recently combinations with oxaliplatin-has reduced the risk of tumor recurrence and improved survival for patients with resected colon cancer. Although universally recommended for patients with stage III disease, there is no consensus about the survival benefit of postoperative chemotherapy in stage II colon cancer. The most recent adjuvant clinical trials have not shown any value for adding targeted agents, namely bevacizumab and cetuximab, to standard chemotherapies in stage III disease, despite improved outcomes in the metastatic setting. However, biomarker analyses of multiple studies strongly support the feasibility of refining risk stratification in colon cancer by factoring in molecular characteristics with pathologic tumor staging. In stage II disease, for example, microsatellite instability supports observation after surgery. Furthermore, the value of BRAF or KRAS mutations as additional risk factors in stage III disease is greater when microsatellite status and tumor location are taken into account. Validated predictive markers of adjuvant chemotherapy benefit for stage II or III colon cancer are lacking, but intensive research is ongoing. Recent advances in understanding the biologic hallmarks and drivers of early-stage disease as well as the micrometastatic environment are expected to translate into therapeutic strategies tailored to select patients. This review focuses on the pathologic, molecular, and gene expression characterizations of early-stage colon cancer; new insights into prognostication; and emerging predictive biomarkers that could ultimately help define the optimal adjuvant treatments for patients in routine clinical practice.

  20. An integrated microfluidic system for screening of phage-displayed peptides specific to colon cancer cells and colon cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Che, Yu-Jui; Wu, Huei-Wen; Hung, Lien-Yu; Liu, Ching-Ann; Chang, Hwan-You; Wang, Kuan; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2015-09-01

    Affinity reagents recognizing biomarkers specifically are essential components of clinical diagnostics and target therapeutics. However, conventional methods for screening of these reagents often have drawbacks such as large reagent consumption, the labor-intensive or time-consuming procedures, and the involvement of bulky or expensive equipment. Alternatively, microfluidic platforms could potentially automate the screening process within a shorter period of time and reduce reagent and sample consumption dramatically. It has been demonstrated recently that a subpopulation of tumor cells known as cancer stem cells possess high drug resistance and proliferation potential and are regarded as the main cause of metastasis. Therefore, a peptide that recognizes cancer stem cells and differentiates them from other cancer cells will be extremely useful in early diagnosis and target therapy. This study utilized M13 phage display technology to identify peptides that bind, respectively, to colon cancer cells and colon cancer stem cells using an integrated microfluidic system. In addition to positive selection, a negative selection process was integrated on the chip to achieve the selection of peptides of high affinity and specificity. We successfully screened three peptides specific to colon cancer cells and colon cancer stem cells, namely, HOLC-1, HOLC-2, and COLC-1, respectively, and their specificity was measured by the capture rate between target, control, and other cell lines. The capture rates are 43.40 ± 7.23%, 45.16 ± 7.12%, and 49.79 ± 5.34% for colon cancer cells and colon cancer stem cells, respectively, showing a higher specificity on target cells than on control and other cell lines. The developed technique may be promising for early diagnosis of cancer cells and target therapeutics.

  1. Akt Inhibitor MK2206 in Treating Patients With Previously Treated Colon or Rectal Cancer That is Metastatic or Locally Advanced and Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-13

    Colon Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Colon Signet Ring Cell Adenocarcinoma; Rectal Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Rectal Signet Ring Cell Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Colon Carcinoma; Recurrent Rectal Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

  2. Different effects of ERβ and TROP2 expression in Chinese patients with early-stage colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yu-Jing; Wang, Guo-Qiang; Lu, Zhen-Hai; Zhang, Lin; Li, Ji-Bin; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Ding, Pei-Rong; Ou, Qing-Jian; Zhang, Mei-Fang; Jiang, Wu; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Wan, De-Sen

    2012-12-01

    Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) and TROP2 expressed in colon carcinoma and might play an important role there. We explored the relationship of ERβ and TROP2 expression with the prognosis of early-stage colon cancer. ERβ and TROP2 levels were assessed by immunohistochemistry in normal mucosa and tumoral tissues from 220 Chinese patients with T(3)N(0)M(0) (stage IIa) and T(4)N(0)M(0) (stage IIb) colon cancer in the Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, who underwent curative surgical resection between 1995 and 2003. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was applied to analyze the overall survival (OS) data, and the ROC curve, Kaplan-Meier estimate, log rank test, and Jackknife method were used to show the effect of ERβ and TROP2 expression at different stages of cancer. The 5-year survival rates were not significantly different between the patients with stage IIa and stage IIb colon cancer (83 vs. 80 %, respectively). The high expression of ERβ was related to decreasing OS in stage IIa and stage IIb colon cancer, while the high expression of TROP2 was related to decreasing OS in stage IIb colon cancer. The expression of ERβ and TROP2 has tumor-suppressive and tumor-promoting effect in stage IIa and stage IIb colon cancer, respectively.

  3. Colon cancer metastasis to the mandibular gingiva with partial occult squamous differentiation: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Quan-Guang; Huang, Tao; Yang, Sheng-Li; Hu, Jian-Li

    2017-01-01

    Metastasis is the primary cause of death among patients with colon cancer. However, the number of available studies regarding oral cavity metastases from colon cancer is currently limited. We herein report an unusual case of a 60-year-old male patient who developed an oral cavity metastasis from colon cancer. A total of 12 clinical case studies reporting colon cancer metastases to the mandibular gingival region were also reviewed, with the aim to elucidate the clinical and pathological characteristics of this disease entity in order to improve clinical diagnosis and treatment. It was demonstrated that patients with oral cavity metastases from colon cancer were predominantly in the sixth or seventh decades of life. The mandible was the main site of metastatic tumors to the oral cavity, while the occurrence of gingival metastases was comparatively rare. Moreover, the diagnoses of an oral metastatic tumor and primary colon cancer were often synchronous and were frequently accompanied with metastases to other organs. Several key aspects were suggested that should be accounted for when diagnosing colon cancer patients, including focusing attention to oral symptoms when examining cancer patients, utilizing a multidisciplinary approach for differential diagnosis and utilizing postoperative pathological examination to accurately diagnose the type of tumor and optimize the efficacy of treatment.

  4. Butyrate Inhibits Cancerous HCT116 Colon Cell Proliferation but to a Lesser Extent in Noncancerous NCM460 Colon Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Huawei; Taussig, David P.; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Hakkak, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, exhibits chemoprevention effects on colon cancer development. However, the mechanistic action of butyrate remains to be determined. We hypothesize that butyrate inhibits cancerous cell proliferation but to a lesser extent in noncancerous cells through regulating apoptosis and cellular-signaling pathways. We tested this hypothesis by exposing cancerous HCT116 or non-cancerous NCM460 colon cells to physiologically relevant doses of butyrate. Cellular responses to butyrate were characterized by Western analysis, fluorescent microscopy, acetylation, and DNA fragmentation analyses. Butyrate inhibited cell proliferation, and led to an induction of apoptosis, genomic DNA fragmentation in HCT116 cells, but to a lesser extent in NCM460 cells. Although butyrate increased H3 histone deacetylation and p21 tumor suppressor expression in both cell types, p21 protein level was greater with intense expression around the nuclei in HCT116 cells when compared with that in NCM460 cells. Furthermore, butyrate treatment increased the phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2), a survival signal, in NCM460 cells while it decreased p-ERK1/2 in HCT116 cells. Taken together, the activation of survival signaling in NCM460 cells and apoptotic potential in HCT116 cells may confer the increased sensitivity of cancerous colon cells to butyrate in comparison with noncancerous colon cells. PMID:28045428

  5. Microvascular architecture of experimental colon tumors in the rat.

    PubMed

    Skinner, S A; Tutton, P J; O'Brien, P E

    1990-04-15

    Tumor cell proliferation is dependent upon concurrent growth of a supporting vasculature. This study aims to characterize the structural features of the microvasculature within a primary tumor model. There were 22 colon tumors induced in 16 rats by repeated administration of dimethylhydrazine. A cast of the microvessels was prepared by intraarterial administration of acrylic resin (Mercox). After corrosion of the tissue, the cast was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Tumors 2.6 to 12.0 mm in diameter were examined. Within polypoid carcinomas up to 5.7 mm in diameter, there were two distinct vascular zones, a luminal vascular zone continuous with the vasculature of normal mucosa and a central zone continuous with the normal submucosa and muscularis propria vessels. Within both vascular zones, the organization of microvessels had the same general pattern as in normal mucosa. However, in tumors with diameters greater than 5.7 mm, the vasculature was seen to be disorganized and of a greater density than normal. In the smallest tumors, few morphological changes were seen in the individual microvessels when compared to normal. However, with tumor growth, there was elongation and increased diameters of the microvessels within the tumor. Microvessels within the luminal zone of the tumors which could definitely be traced to veins had diameters of 50 to 100 microns (compared to 12 to 30 microns for normal venules). Individual microvessels varied in diameter along their course forming saccular dilations in places. Networks of frequently anastomosing microvessels were formed. Extravasation of resin occurred from some microvessels. Elongated vessels of uniform diameter which travel distances up to 2 mm without branching were seen and were probably arterioles. These appearances indicate that there are two distinct stages of development of the vasculature within primary tumors, an early phase where the tumor is supplied by the preexisting host microvessels, followed by a

  6. Review article: loss of the calcium-sensing receptor in colonic epithelium is a key event in the pathogenesis of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Ailín C; Hanly, Ann M; Collins, Danielle; Baird, Alan W; Winter, Desmond C

    2012-03-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is expressed abundantly in normal colonic epithelium and lost in colon cancer, but its exact role on a molecular level and within the carcinogenesis pathway is yet to be described. Epidemiologic studies show that inadequate dietary calcium predisposes to colon cancer; this may be due to the ability of calcium to bind and upregulate the CaSR. Loss of CaSR expression does not seem to be an early event in carcinogenesis; indeed it is associated with late stage, poorly differentiated, chemo-resistant tumors. Induction of CaSR expression in neoplastic colonocytes arrests tumor progression and deems tumors more sensitive to chemotherapy; hence CaSR may be an important target in colon cancer treatment. The CaSR has a complex role in colon cancer; however, more investigation is required on a molecular level to clarify its exact function in carcinogenesis. This review describes the mechanisms by which the CaSR is currently implicated in colon cancer and identifies areas where further study is needed.

  7. Modeling human colon cancer in rodents using a food-borne carcinogen, PhIP.

    PubMed

    Nakagama, Hitoshi; Nakanishi, Masako; Ochiai, Masako

    2005-10-01

    Animal models provide researchers with powerful tools to elucidate multistage mechanisms for cancer development and to gain further insights into the biological roles of various cancer-related genes in in vivo situations. As for colon cancer models in rodents, Apc-disrupted mice, including ApcMin, have been one of the most widely utilized animal models to dissect the molecular events implicated in the development of intestinal tumors. In rats, several models have been established using chemical carcinogens, including azoxymethane and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo-[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). The former is a representative colon carcinogenic alkylating agent, and the latter a heterocyclic amine produced while cooking meat and fish, which people are exposed to in ordinary life. It is of great importance to note that PhIP preferentially targets the colon and prostate gland in male rats, and the mammary glands in female rats. Cancers in these three organs are common in Western countries and are currently increasing in Japan, where modern dietary habits are rapidly becoming more like those of the West. In the present article, the history of PhIP-induced colon cancer models in rodents, activation/detoxification mechanisms of PhIP with regard to the formation of PhIP-DNA adducts, mechanistic approaches to dissect the molecular events involved in the development of colon cancer by PhIP, and epidemiological evidence of human exposure to PhIP are overviewed. The induction of Paneth cell maturation/differentiation in PhIP-induced colon cancers, genetic traits affecting susceptibility to colon carcinogenesis, and the biological relevance of colon cancer models in rodents to studying human colon carcinogenesis are also discussed.

  8. Pathological implications of Cx43 down-regulation in human colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Rehana; Rashid, Rabiya; Andrabi, Khurshid; Parray, Fazl Q; Besina, Syed; Shah, Mohd Amin; Ul Hussain, Mahboob

    2014-01-01

    Connexin 43 is an important gap junction protein in vertebrates and is known for its tumor suppressive properties. Cx43 is abundantly expressed in the human intestinal epithelial cells and muscularis mucosae. To explore the role of Cx43 in the genesis of human colon cancer, we performed the expression analysis of Cx43 in 80 cases of histopathologically confirmed and clinically diagnosed human colon cancer samples and adjacent control tissue and assessed correlations with clinicopathological variables. Western blotting using anti-Cx43 antibody indicated that the expression of Cx43 was significantly down regulated (75%) in the cancer samples as compared to the adjacent control samples. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis of the tissue samples confirmed the down regulation of the Cx43 in the intestinal epithelial cells. Cx43 down regulation showed significant association (p<0.05) with the histological type and tumor invasion properties of the cancer. Our data demonstrated that loss of Cx43 may be an important event in colon carcinogenesis and tumor progression, providing significant insights about the tumor suppressive properties of the Cx43 and its potential as a diagnostic marker for colon cancer.

  9. Vancomycin-sensitive bacteria trigger development of colitis-associated colon cancer by attracting neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yuriko; Ito, Sachiko; Isobe, Ken-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease confers an increased risk of developing colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC). During the active colitis or developing tumor stage, commensal bacteria show dynamic translocation. However, whether alteration of the bacterial composition in the gut causes CAC is still unclear. To clarify the effect of commensal bacteria on CAC development, we employed an azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced murine CAC model treated with or without antibiotics. In addition, we analyzed the effects of antibiotics on infiltration of myeloid cells, colonic inflammatory responses, and colorectal cancer formation. We found that vancomycin treatment dramatically suppressed tumor development. In addition, AOM/DSS treatment greatly induced the infiltration of Gr-1high/CD11bhigh neutrophils to the colon, which led to the production of tumor necrosis factor α and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Vancomycin treatment suppressed the infiltration of neutrophils induced by AOM/DSS. Moreover, vancomycin treatment greatly reduced the colon injury and DNA damage caused by AOM/DSS-induced NO radicals. Our results indicate that vancomycin-sensitive bacteria induced colon inflammation and DNA damage by attracting neutrophils into damaged colon tissue, thus promoting tumor formation. PMID:27050089

  10. Vancomycin-sensitive bacteria trigger development of colitis-associated colon cancer by attracting neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yuriko; Ito, Sachiko; Isobe, Ken-ichi

    2016-04-06

    Inflammatory bowel disease confers an increased risk of developing colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC). During the active colitis or developing tumor stage, commensal bacteria show dynamic translocation. However, whether alteration of the bacterial composition in the gut causes CAC is still unclear. To clarify the effect of commensal bacteria on CAC development, we employed an azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced murine CAC model treated with or without antibiotics. In addition, we analyzed the effects of antibiotics on infiltration of myeloid cells, colonic inflammatory responses, and colorectal cancer formation. We found that vancomycin treatment dramatically suppressed tumor development. In addition, AOM/DSS treatment greatly induced the infiltration of Gr-1(high)/CD11b(high) neutrophils to the colon, which led to the production of tumor necrosis factor α and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Vancomycin treatment suppressed the infiltration of neutrophils induced by AOM/DSS. Moreover, vancomycin treatment greatly reduced the colon injury and DNA damage caused by AOM/DSS-induced NO radicals. Our results indicate that vancomycin-sensitive bacteria induced colon inflammation and DNA damage by attracting neutrophils into damaged colon tissue, thus promoting tumor formation.

  11. The anatomy of the TNM for colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hueman, Matthew T.; Chen, Dechang; Patel, Jigar A.; Wang, Huan; Schwartz, Arnold M.

    2017-01-01

    Background To visualize the anatomy as revealed by dendrograms of the tumor, lymph node, and metastasis (TNM) staging system for colon cancer and compare it with the Dukes’ system. Methods A hierarchical clustering algorithm generated tree-structured dendrograms that stratified patients according to survival only. The dendrograms were constructed with the same prognostic variables used for the TNM. Because combinations of prognostic factors were stratified only on survival, additional factors of any number and type could be integrated into the TNM without changing the TNM categories. Results The algorithm provided a step-by-step visualization of the TNM and the Dukes’ system for colon cancer. Dendrograms and associated 5-year survival rates were generated for the T category only, the N category only, the T, N combination, and combinations of the T, N, and M, and the T, N, M with histological grade. Dendrograms revealed visual differences between the structure of TNM and the Dukes’ system of staging. Dendrograms also revealed how variations in prognostic factors changed survival. By cutting dendrograms along their dissimilarity axis, multiple prognostic subgroups could be created for colon cancer that may reflect outcomes that are more accurate to estimate. Conclusions Dendrograms provide a new way to view cancer patient staging. They reveal a visual step-by-step hierarchical relationship between survival rates and combinations of prognostic variables. The dendrograms also revealed fundamental differences between the TNM and the Dukes system of staging. By stratifying on survival only, additional factors including molecular factors can be added to the TNM, because it classifies patients according to survival rates only and not according to pre-set rules of prognostic factors and stage groups. The clinical implications of stratifying only survival are discussed. PMID:28280604

  12. Diet, genes, and microbes: complexities of colon cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Birt, Diane F; Phillips, Gregory J

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and generally, as countries climb the economic ladder, their rates of colon cancer increase. Colon cancer was an early disease where key genetic mutations were identified as important in disease progression, and there is considerable interest in determining whether specific mutations sensitize the colon to cancer prevention strategies. Epidemiological studies have revealed that fiber- and vegetable-rich diets and physical activity are associated with reduced rates of colon cancer, while consumption of red and processed meat, or alcoholic beverages, and overconsumption as reflected in obesity are associated with increased rates. Animal studies have probed these effects and suggested directions for further refinement of diet in colon cancer prevention. Recently a central role for the microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract in colon cancer development is being probed, and it is hypothesized that the microbes may integrate diet and host genetics in the etiology of the disease. This review provides background on dietary, genetic, and microbial impacts on colon cancer and describes an ongoing project using rodent models to assess the ability of digestion-resistant starch in the integration of these factors with the goal of furthering colon cancer prevention.

  13. Physical Activity Counteracts Tumor Cell Growth in Colon Carcinoma C26-Injected Muscles: An Interim Report

    PubMed Central

    Hiroux, Charlotte; Vandoorne, Tijs; Koppo, Katrien; De Smet, Stefan; Hespel, Peter; Berardi, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue is a rare site of tumor metastasis but is the main target of the degenerative processes occurring in cancer-associated cachexia syndrome. Beneficial effects of physical activity in counteracting cancer-related muscle wasting have been described in the last decades. Recently it has been shown that, in tumor xeno-transplanted mouse models, physical activity is able to directly affect tumor growth by modulating inflammatory responses in the tumor mass microenvironment. Here, we investigated the effect of physical activity on tumor cell growth in colon carcinoma C26 cells injected tibialis anterior muscles of BALB/c mice. Histological analyses revealed that 4 days of voluntary wheel running significantly counteracts tumor cell growth in C26-injected muscles compared to the non-injected sedentary controls. Since striated skeletal muscle tissue is the site of voluntary contraction, our results confirm that physical activity can also directly counteract tumor cell growth in a metabolically active tissue that is usually not a target for metastasis. PMID:27478560

  14. Colon cancer presenting as a testicular metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Mohiuddin, Majid; Sharif, Asma

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 43-year-old male who initially presented with intermittent testicular pain as the first sign of metastatic stage IV colon cancer. Physical examination revealed a normal penis, scrotum and testes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of pelvis showed an irregular 3 cm mass of the spermatic cord and right radical inguinal orchiectomy was performed. The pathological diagnosis was metastatic adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, even though metastases to the testes are rare, they should be considered in clinical practice especially in older men who present with a testicular mass or discomfort. PMID:28138654

  15. Ovine intestinal adenocarcinomas: histologic and phenotypic comparison with human colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Munday, John S; Brennan, Moira M; Jaber, Azhar M; Kiupel, Matti

    2006-04-01

    Approximately 7% of old, unthrifty sheep (Ovis aries) in New Zealand have intestinal adenocarcinomas. To investigate whether these sheep might be used as a model of human colonic neoplasia, the biologic behavior and histologic appearance of ovine intestinal adenocarcinomas were compared with those reported for human colonic adenocarcinomas. We collected 50 intestinal tracts with grossly visible intestinal neoplasia from slaughtered sheep. Neoplasms were assessed using World Health Organization guidelines for assessment of human colonic adenocarcinomas. All ovine adenocarcinomas developed in the small intestine. In contrast, only 4% of human intestinal tumors develop at this location, whereas the majority develop in the colon. A visible polyp is present within 89% of human colonic adenocarcinomas, whereas polyps were present in only 46% of the ovine neoplasms. Intestinal wall infiltration by the neoplastic cells and rates of lymph node (84% in sheep; 61% in humans) and distant (52% in sheep; 17% in humans) metastases were comparable between ovine and human adenocarcinomas. However, ovine adenocarcinomas developed more peritoneal and fewer hepatic metastases than human adenocarcinomas. Histologic grading of ovine tumors revealed cell differentiation similar to that reported within human colonic adenocarcinomas. In conclusion, ovine intestinal adenocarcinomas, like human colonic adenocarcinomas, typically arise spontaneously and consistently develop widespread metastases. In addition, tumors appear histologically similar between these species. Therefore, sheep may provide a model of advanced human colonic cancer, possibly allowing evaluation of novel therapeutics and surgical procedures.

  16. Prospective multicenter study of the impact of oncotype DX colon cancer assay results on treatment recommendations in stage II colon cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Geetika; Renfro, Lindsay A; Behrens, Robert J; Lopatin, Margarita; Chao, Calvin; Soori, Gamini S; Dakhil, Shaker R; Mowat, Rex B; Kuebler, J Philip; Kim, George; Mazurczak, Miroslaw; Lee, Mark; Alberts, Steven R

    2014-05-01

    The Oncotype DX colon cancer assay is a clinically validated predictor of recurrence risk in stage II colon cancer patients. This prospective study evaluated the impact of recurrence score (RS) results on physician recommendations regarding adjuvant chemotherapy in T3, mismatch repair-proficient (MMR-P) stage II colon cancer patients. Patients and Methods. Stage IIA colon cancer patients were enrolled in 17 centers. Patient tumor specimens were assessed by the RS test (quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) and mismatch repair (immunohistochemistry). For each patient, the physician's recommended postoperative treatment plan of observation, fluoropyrimidine monotherapy, or combination therapy with oxaliplatin was recorded before and after the RS and mismatch repair results were provided. Results. Of 221 enrolled patients, 141 patients had T3 MMR-P tumors and were eligible for the primary analysis. Treatment recommendations changed for 63 (45%; 95% confidence interval: 36%-53%) of these 141 T3 MMR-P patients, with intensity decreasing for 47 (33%) and increasing for 16 (11%). Recommendations for chemotherapy decreased from 73 patients (52%) to 42 (30%), following review of RS results by physician and patient. Increased treatment intensity was more often observed at higher RS values, and decreased intensity was observed at lower values (p = .011). Conclusion. Compared with traditional clinicopathological assessment, incorporation of the RS result into clinical decision making was associated with treatment recommendation changes for 45% of T3 MMR-P stage II colon cancer patients in this prospective multicenter study. Use of the RS assay may lead to overall reduction in adjuvant chemotherapy use in this subgroup of stage II colon cancer patients.

  17. Prospective Multicenter Study of the Impact of Oncotype DX Colon Cancer Assay Results on Treatment Recommendations in Stage II Colon Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Geetika; Renfro, Lindsay A.; Behrens, Robert J.; Lopatin, Margarita; Chao, Calvin; Soori, Gamini S.; Dakhil, Shaker R.; Mowat, Rex B.; Kuebler, J. Philip; Kim, George; Mazurczak, Miroslaw; Lee, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The Oncotype DX colon cancer assay is a clinically validated predictor of recurrence risk in stage II colon cancer patients. This prospective study evaluated the impact of recurrence score (RS) results on physician recommendations regarding adjuvant chemotherapy in T3, mismatch repair-proficient (MMR-P) stage II colon cancer patients. Patients and Methods. Stage IIA colon cancer patients were enrolled in 17 centers. Patient tumor specimens were assessed by the RS test (quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) and mismatch repair (immunohistochemistry). For each patient, the physician’s recommended postoperative treatment plan of observation, fluoropyrimidine monotherapy, or combination therapy with oxaliplatin was recorded before and after the RS and mismatch repair results were provided. Results. Of 221 enrolled patients, 141 patients had T3 MMR-P tumors and were eligible for the primary analysis. Treatment recommendations changed for 63 (45%; 95% confidence interval: 36%–53%) of these 141 T3 MMR-P patients, with intensity decreasing for 47 (33%) and increasing for 16 (11%). Recommendations for chemotherapy decreased from 73 patients (52%) to 42 (30%), following review of RS results by physician and patient. Increased treatment intensity was more often observed at higher RS values, and decreased intensity was observed at lower values (p = .011). Conclusion. Compared with traditional clinicopathological assessment, incorporation of the RS result into clinical decision making was associated with treatment recommendation changes for 45% of T3 MMR-P stage II colon cancer patients in this prospective multicenter study. Use of the RS assay may lead to overall reduction in adjuvant chemotherapy use in this subgroup of stage II colon cancer patients. PMID:24710310

  18. Colon Cancer Tumorigenesis Initiated by the H1047R Mutant PI3K

    PubMed Central

    Yueh, Alexander E.; Payne, Susan N.; Leystra, Alyssa A.; Van De Hey, Dana R.; Foley, Tyler M.; Pasch, Cheri A.; Clipson, Linda; Matkowskyj, Kristina A.; Deming, Dustin A.

    2016-01-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway is critical for multiple important cellular functions, and is one of the most commonly altered pathways in human cancers. We previously developed a mouse model in which colon cancers were initiated by a dominant active PI3K p110-p85 fusion protein. In that model, well-differentiated mucinous adenocarcinomas developed within the colon and initiated through a non-canonical mechanism that is not dependent on WNT signaling. To assess the potential relevance of PI3K mutations in human cancers, we sought to determine if one of the common mutations in the human disease could also initiate similar colon cancers. Mice were generated expressing the Pik3caH1047R mutation, the analog of one of three human hotspot mutations in this gene. Mice expressing a constitutively active PI3K, as a result of this mutation, develop invasive adenocarcinomas strikingly similar to invasive adenocarcinomas found in human colon cancers. These tumors form without a polypoid intermediary and also lack nuclear CTNNB1 (β-catenin), indicating a non-canonical mechanism of tumor initiation mediated by the PI3K pathway. These cancers are sensitive to dual PI3K/mTOR inhibition indicating dependence on the PI3K pathway. The tumor tissue remaining after treatment demonstrated reduction in cellular proliferation and inhibition of PI3K signaling. PMID:26863299

  19. Autoantibodies to Ca2+ binding protein Calnuc is a potential marker in colon cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao; Lin, Ping; Qiu, Suimin; Peng, Xuan-Xian; Looi, Koksun; Farquhar, Marilyn Gist; Zhang, Jian-Ying

    2007-05-01

    Calnuc is a calcium (Ca2+) binding protein found in both Golgi and cytoplasm, and it may play a role in G protein- and Ca2+-regulated signal transduction events. This study was designed to investigate the possibility of whether Calnuc protein might be a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) that induces autoantibody response in human cancers, and to evaluate the feasibility of the Calnuc antigen-antibody system as a marker in cancer detection. Purified full-length recombinant Calnuc protein was used as an antigen in enzyme-linked immunoassay and Western blotting for the detection of autoantibodies in cancers. Sera from 447 patients with 9 different types of cancer were analyzed. Although the frequency of autoantibody to Calnuc was found to be 4.7% in total groups of cancer, it was not significantly different to that of normal individuals (1.2%). However, the frequency of autoantibody to Calnuc in colon cancer (11.5%) was significantly higher than that in normal individuals (1.2%). The expression analysis of Calnuc in multiple colon cancer tissues by immunohistochemistry on tissue array further confirmed the high specificity of Calnuc in colon cancer. Of 69 colon cancer tissue specimens examined, 41 tissues (59.4%) overexpressed Calnuc, while normal colon tissues did not show any expression of Calnuc. The subcellular distribution analysis of Calnuc examined by subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence indicates that Calnuc is a membrane associated protein and mostly distributed in Golgi, which is consistent with previous reports. With adding Calnuc into a TAA array (including p53, c-myc, cyclin B1, cyclin D1), the cumulative frequency of antibody to multiple TAAs in colon cancer was raised to 65.4% which is significantly higher than the cumulative frequency in normal individuals (6.1%). This indicates that a mini-array of multiple TAAs which includes Calnuc might provide a novel non-invasive approach to enhance antibody detection for colon cancer diagnosis.

  20. Associations between trans fatty acid consumption and colon cancer among Whites and African Americans in the North Carolina colon cancer study I.

    PubMed

    Vinikoor, Lisa C; Satia, Jessie A; Schroeder, Jane C; Millikan, Robert C; Martin, Christopher F; Ibrahim, Joseph G; Sandler, Robert S

    2009-01-01

    Disparities in incidence and mortality rates of colon cancer exist between Whites and African Americans. Prior studies examined the association between trans fatty acid consumption and colorectal cancer, but none assessed this possible relationship within a large study population of African Americans and Whites. Using data from a population-based, case-control study in North Carolina, we investigated this association with attention to possible racial differences. Cases and matched controls were queried on demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, medical history, and diet. Cases reported higher daily consumption (g/day) of trans fatty acids (mean = 5.9, SD = 2.9, median = 5.5, IQR = 3.8-7.5) compared to controls (mean = 5.2, SD = 2.4, median = 4.7, IQR = 3.5-6.4). Energy-adjusted trans fatty acid consumption was not associated with colon cancer. Compared to participants in the lowest quartile of consumption, those in the highest quartile had an adjusted odds ratio of 1.01 (95% confidence interval 0.69, 1.49) for Whites and 0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.61, 1.62) for African Americans. No association was found between increased consumption of trans fatty acid and specific tumor location (proximal or distal colon). In conclusion, trans fatty acid consumption is not associated with colon cancer and does not contribute to disparities in colon cancer rates.

  1. Special cancer microenvironment in human colonic cancer: Concept of cancer microenvironment formed by peritoneal invasion (CMPI) and implication of subperitoneal fibroblast in cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Motohiro; Ochiai, Atsushi

    2016-01-27

    Clinical outcomes of colorectal cancer are influenced not by tumor size, but by spread into the bowel wall. Although assessment of serosal involvement is an important pathological feature for classification of colon cancer, its diagnostic consistency has been questioned. Using elastic staining, we assessed elastic laminal invasion (ELI) for more objective stratification of deep tumor invasion around the peritoneal surface. In addition, pathological characteristic features of marked tumor budding, fibrosis, and macrophage infiltration in the tumor area with ELI was elucidated. This characteristic tumor area was termed cancer microenvironment formed by peritoneal elastic laminal invasion (CMPI). We elucidated histoanatomical layer-dependent heterogeneity of fibroblast in colonic tissue. Furthermore, subperitoneal fibroblasts (SPFs) play a crucial role in tumor progression and metastasis in CMPI. Our ELI and CMPI concept contributes not only to objective pathological diagnosis, but also sheds light on biological research of special cancer microenvironments detectable in human colorectal cancers. Herein, we describe the diagnostic utility of ELI and morphological alteration in advanced colorectal cancers to determine the phenomenon that occurs when tumors invade around the peritoneal surface. Next, biological research of CMPI is reviewed to stress the importance of pathological research to establish new biological concepts.

  2. Special cancer microenvironment in human colonic cancer: Concept of cancer microenvironment formed by peritoneal invasion (CMPI) and implication of subperitoneal fibroblast in cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Ochiai, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Clinical outcomes of colorectal cancer are influenced not by tumor size, but by spread into the bowel wall. Although assessment of serosal involvement is an important pathological feature for classification of colon cancer, its diagnostic consistency has been questioned. Using elastic staining, we assessed elastic laminal invasion (ELI) for more objective stratification of deep tumor invasion around the peritoneal surface. In addition, pathological characteristic features of marked tumor budding, fibrosis, and macrophage infiltration in the tumor area with ELI was elucidated. This characteristic tumor area was termed cancer microenvironment formed by peritoneal elastic laminal invasion (CMPI). We elucidated histoanatomical layer‐dependent heterogeneity of fibroblast in colonic tissue. Furthermore, subperitoneal fibroblasts (SPFs) play a crucial role in tumor progression and metastasis in CMPI. Our ELI and CMPI concept contributes not only to objective pathological diagnosis, but also sheds light on biological research of special cancer microenvironments detectable in human colorectal cancers. Herein, we describe the diagnostic utility of ELI and morphological alteration in advanced colorectal cancers to determine the phenomenon that occurs when tumors invade around the peritoneal surface. Next, biological research of CMPI is reviewed to stress the importance of pathological research to establish new biological concepts. PMID:26816328

  3. Expression Profile of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 Enzymes in Colon and Bladder Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P.; Spyrou, Ioannis; Ploumidis, Achilles; Papalampros, Alexandros Eystathios; Kyriakakis, Michalis; Delakas, Demetrios; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The cytochrome P450 CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 enzymes are involved in carcinogenesis via activation of pro-carcinogenic compounds to carcinogenic metabolites. CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 have shown elevated levels in human tumors as determined by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemical studies. However studies that have examined CYP1 expression by enzyme activity assays are limited. Results In the current study the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 was investigated in a panel of human tumors of bladder and colorectal origin by qRT-PCR and enzyme activity assays. The results demonstrated that 35% (7/20) of bladder tumors and 35% (7/20) of colon tumors overexpressed active CYP1 enzymes. CYP1B1 mRNA was overexpressed in 65% and 60% of bladder and colon tumors respectively, whereas CYP1A1 was overexpressed in 65% and 80% of bladder and colon tumors. Mean mRNA levels of CYP1B1 and CYP1A1 along with mean CYP1 activity were higher in bladder and colon tumors compared to normal tissues (p<0.05). Statistical analysis revealed CYP1 expression levels to be independent of TNM status. Moreover, incubation of tumor microsomal protein in 4 bladder and 3 colon samples with a CYP1B1 specific antibody revealed a large reduction (72.5 ± 5.5 % for bladder and 71.8 ± 7.2% for colon) in catalytic activity, indicating that the activity was mainly attributed to CYP1B1 expression. Conclusions The study reveals active CYP1 overexpression in human tumors and uncovers the potential use of CYP1 enzymes and mainly CYP1B1 as targets for cancer therapy. PMID:24358191

  4. Tumor Endothelial Inflammation Predicts Clinical Outcome in Diverse Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Filippo, Matthew; Labay, Edwardine; Beckett, Michael A.; Mauceri, Helena J.; Liang, Hua; Darga, Thomas E.; Perakis, Samantha; Khan, Sajid A.; Sutton, Harold G.; Zhang, Wei; Khodarev, Nikolai N.; Garcia, Joe G. N.; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Vascular endothelial cells contribute to the pathogenesis of numerous human diseases by actively regulating the stromal inflammatory response; however, little is known regarding the role of endothelial inflammation in the growth of human tumors and its influence on the prognosis of human cancers. Methods Using an experimental model of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-mediated inflammation, we characterized inflammatory gene expression in immunopurified tumor-associated endothelial cells. These genes formed the basis of a multivariate molecular predictor of overall survival that was trained and validated in four types of human cancer. Results We report that expression of experimentally derived tumor endothelial genes distinguished pathologic tissue specimens from normal controls in several human diseases associated with chronic inflammation. We trained these genes in human cancer datasets and defined a six-gene inflammatory signature that predicted significantly reduced overall survival in breast cancer, colon cancer, lung cancer, and glioma. This endothelial-derived signature predicted outcome independently of, but cooperatively with, standard clinical and pathological prognostic factors. Consistent with these findings, conditioned culture media from human endothelial cells stimulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines accelerated the growth of human colon and breast tumors in immunodeficient mice as compared with conditioned media from untreated endothelial cells. Conclusions This study provides the first prognostic cancer gene signature derived from an experimental model of tumor-associated endothelial inflammation. These findings support the notion that activation of inflammatory pathways in non-malignant tumor-infiltrating endothelial cells contributes to tumor growth and progression in multiple human cancers. Importantly, these results identify endothelial-derived factors that could serve as potential targets for therapy in diverse human cancers

  5. Syndecan-1 deficiency promotes tumor growth in a murine model of colitis-induced colon carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Binder Gallimidi, Adi; Nussbaum, Gabriel; Hermano, Esther; Weizman, Barak; Meirovitz, Amichay; Vlodavsky, Israel; Götte, Martin; Elkin, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Syndecan-1 (Sdc1) is an important member of the cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan family, highly expressed by epithelial cells in adult organisms. Sdc1 is involved in the regulation of cell migration, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, growth-factor, chemokine and integrin activity, and implicated in inflammatory responses and tumorigenesis. Gastrointestinal tract represents an important anatomic site where loss of Sdc1 expression was reported both in inflammation and malignancy. However, the biological significance of Sdc1 in chronic colitis-associated tumorigenesis has not been elucidated. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to test the effects of Sdc1 loss on colorectal tumor development in inflammation-driven colon tumorigenesis. Utilizing a mouse model of colitis-related colon carcinoma induced by the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM), followed by the inflammatory agent dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), we found that Sdc1 deficiency results in increased susceptibility to colitis-associated tumorigenesis. Importantly, colitis-associated tumors developed in Sdc1-defficient mice were characterized by increased local production of IL-6, activation of STAT3, as well as induction of several STAT3 target genes that act as important effectors of colonic tumorigenesis. Altogether, our results highlight a previously unknown effect of Sdc1 loss in progression of inflammation-associated cancer and suggest that decreased levels of Sdc1 may serve as an indicator of colon carcinoma progression in the setting of chronic inflammation. PMID:28350804

  6. Current treatment options for colon cancer peritoneal carcinomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Aoyagi, Tomoyoshi; Terracina, Krista P; Raza, Ali; Takabe, Kazuaki

    2014-01-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC), the dissemination of cancer cells throughout the lining of the abdominal cavity, is the second most common presentation of colon cancer distant metastasis. Despite remarkable advances in cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted therapy for colon cancer over the last 15 years, it has been repeatedly shown that these therapies remain ineffective for colon cancer PC. Recently, there has been a rapid accumulation of reports that cytoreductive surgery combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS-HIPEC) prolongs the life of colon cancer PC patients. Here, we will review the clinical presentation, the mechanisms of disease progression, and current treatment options for colon cancer PC, with a focus on the benefits and limitations of CRS-HIPEC. PMID:25253949

  7. Current treatment options for colon cancer peritoneal carcinomatosis.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Tomoyoshi; Terracina, Krista P; Raza, Ali; Takabe, Kazuaki

    2014-09-21

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC), the dissemination of cancer cells throughout the lining of the abdominal cavity, is the second most common presentation of colon cancer distant metastasis. Despite remarkable advances in cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted therapy for colon cancer over the last 15 years, it has been repeatedly shown that these therapies remain ineffective for colon cancer PC. Recently, there has been a rapid accumulation of reports that cytoreductive surgery combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS-HIPEC) prolongs the life of colon cancer PC patients. Here, we will review the clinical presentation, the mechanisms of disease progression, and current treatment options for colon cancer PC, with a focus on the benefits and limitations of CRS-HIPEC.

  8. Racial/ethnic variation in the anatomic subsite location of in situ and invasive cancers of the colon.

    PubMed Central

    Shavers, Vickie L.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Approximately 145,000 Americans were diagnosed with colorectal cancer and 56,000 died from colorectal cancer in 2006. Although colorectal screening can reduce mortality and incidence, U.S. screening rates are particularly low for racial/ethnic minorities. Racial differences in the subsite location of colon cancers could have implications for colorectal screening. This study examines the anatomic subsite distribution of tumors among African-American, Hispanic, Asian-American/Pacific-Islander and non-Hispanic white (NHW) patients with colon cancer. METHODS: Surveillance and End Results program data for 254,469 primary in situ and invasive colon cancers for patients from 1973-2002 are included in this analysis. Descriptive analyses and logistic regression are used to describe and examine variations in the proportion of colon cancers diagnosed at sites proximal to the sigmoid colon or proximal to the splenic flexure over three successive time periods. RESULTS: The proportion of colon cancers diagnosed at the sigmoid colon was 15.6-21.3% lower, while diagnoses at the descending colon were 40.5.0-45.3.0% higher for African Americans than NHWs over the three time periods. In logistic regression analyses adjusted for gender, age group and year of diagnosis, the odds of a diagnosis of cancer proximal to the sigmoid colon or proximal to the splenic flexure was significantly higher for African Americans but lower for Hispanics and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders compared to NHWs. DISCUSSION: The higher proportion of cancers among African Americans diagnosed at sites that are generally attempted but not always reached with a sigmoidscope suggest that African Americans may benefit from screening colonoscopy. They also highlight the need for systems that collect data that would allow a direct examination of the role that the differential use of specific colon screening tests and polypectomy play in racial/ethnic variation in colon cancer incidence and in the

  9. Trypanosomiasis-Induced Megacolon Illustrates How Myenteric Neurons Modulate the Risk for Colon Cancer in Rats and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Kannen, Vinicius; de Oliveira, Enio C.; Motta, Bruno Zene; Chaguri, Annuar Jose; Brunaldi, Mariângela Ottoboni; Garcia, Sérgio B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Trypanosomiasis induces a remarkable myenteric neuronal degeneration leading to megacolon. Very little is known about the risk for colon cancer in chagasic megacolon patients. To clarify whether chagasic megacolon impacts on colon carcinogenesis, we investigated the risk for colon cancer in Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) infected patients and rats. Methods Colon samples from T. cruzi-infected and uninfected patients and rats were histopathologically investigated with colon cancer biomarkers. An experimental model for chemical myenteric denervation was also performed to verify the myenteric neuronal effects on colon carcinogenesis. All experiments complied the guidelines and approval of ethical institutional review boards. Results No colon tumors were found in chagasic megacolon samples. A significant myenteric neuronal denervation was observed. Epithelial cell proliferation and hyperplasia were found increased in chagasic megacolon. Analyzing the argyrophilic nucleolar organiser regions within the cryptal bottom revealed reduced risk for colon cancer in Chagas’ megacolon patients. T. cruzi-infected rats showed a significant myenteric neuronal denervation and decreased numbers of colon preneoplastic lesions. In chemical myenteric denervated rats preneoplastic lesions were reduced from the 2nd wk onward, which ensued having the colon myenteric denervation significantly induced. Conclusion/Significance Our data suggest that the trypanosomiasis-related myenteric neuronal degeneration protects the colon tissue from carcinogenic events. Current findings highlight potential mechanisms in tropical diseases and cancer research. PMID:25884710

  10. INPP4B is an oncogenic regulator in human colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, S T; Chi, M N; Yang, R H; Guo, X Y; Zan, L K; Wang, C Y; Xi, Y F; Jin, L; Croft, A; Tseng, H-Y; Yan, X G; Farrelly, M; Wang, F H; Lai, F; Wang, J F; Li, Y P; Ackland, S; Scott, R; Agoulnik, I U; Hondermarck, H; Thorne, R F; Liu, T; Zhang, X D; Jiang, C C

    2016-01-01

    Inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase type II (INPP4B) negatively regulates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling and is a tumor suppressor in some types of cancers. However, we have found that it is frequently upregulated in human colon cancer cells. Here we show that silencing of INPP4B blocks activation of Akt and serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 3 (SGK3), inhibits colon cancer cell proliferation and retards colon cancer xenograft growth. Conversely, overexpression of INPP4B increases proliferation and triggers anchorage-independent growth of normal colon epithelial cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that the effect of INPP4B on Akt and SGK3 is associated with inactivation of phosphate and tensin homolog through its protein phosphatase activity and that the increase in INPP4B is due to Ets-1-mediated transcriptional upregulation in colon cancer cells. Collectively, these results suggest that INPP4B may function as an oncogenic driver in colon cancer, with potential implications for targeting INPP4B as a novel approach to treat this disease. PMID:26411369

  11. Phosphatase PRL-3 is a direct regulatory target of TGFbeta in colon cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanjun; Liu, Xiao-Qiong; Rajput, Ashwani; Geng, Liying; Ongchin, Melanie; Zeng, Qi; Taylor, Gregory S; Wang, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Metastasis causes most deaths from cancer yet mechanistic understanding and therapeutic options remain limited. Overexpression of the phosphatase PRL-3 (phosphatase of regenerating liver) is associated with metastasis of colon cancer. Here, we show that PRL-3 is a direct target of signaling by TGFβ, which is broadly implicated in progression and metastasis. We found that suppression of PRL-3 expression by TGFβ was mediated by Smad-dependent inhibition of PRL-3 transcription at the level of promoter activity. PRL-3 activation stimulated PI3K/AKT signaling that caused resistance to stress-induced apoptosis. PRL-3 overexpression promoted metastatic colonization in an orthotopic mouse model of colon cancer, whereas PRL-3 knockdown reduced metastatic potential. Altered metastatic phenotypes were not derivative of primary tumor development or local invasion but could be attributed to PRL-3-mediated cell survival. Our findings suggest that inhibiting PRL-3 expression might be an important mechanism through which TGFβ suppresses metastasis in colon cancer. In addition, our findings suggest that loss of TGFβ signaling, which occurs commonly during colon cancer progression, is sufficient to activate a PRL-3-mediated cell survival pathway that can selectively promote metastasis. Therefore, a major implication of our findings is that PRL-3 antagonists may offer significant value for antimetastatic therapy in patients with colon cancer.

  12. Tumor markers used in monitoring the tumor recurrence in patients with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    BURZ, CLAUDIA; AZIZ, BEN YOUSSEF MOHAMED; BĂLĂCESCU, LOREDANA; LELUŢIU, LUMINIŢA; BUIGA, RAREŞ; SAMASCA, GABRIEL; IRIMIE, ALEXANDRU; LISENCU, COSMIN

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims The aim of this study was to investigate the value of serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen (CA 19-9) correlated with some tissue molecules as predictive markers for recurrence in colon cancer. Methods A total of 30 patients diagnosed with colon cancer stage II or III who underwent optimal surgery were enrolled in study. Tumor markers CEA and CA 19-9 were determined before surgery. Tumor samples were prepared using tissue microarray kit (TMA) then stained for different cellular markers (Ki 67, HER2, BCL2, CD56, CD4, CD8) and analyzed using Inforatio programme for quantitative determination. All patients received standard adjuvant treatment, which consisted of eight cycles chemotherapy type XELOX. The patients were followed up for 3 years. Results Upon 3 years follow-up, 67% of patients developed tumor relapse, the most common site of metastasis being the liver. No correlations were observed between either serum or tissue tumor markers and the risk of tumor relapse. Conclusion Over 50% of patients with colon cancer who had optimal treatment developed metastasis. No statistically significant predictive value for investigated molecules was found. Future studies are needed to confirm the use of molecular markers in monitoring patients with colorectal cancer PMID:27547057

  13. Microchimerism and survival after breast and colon cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we reported microchimerism to be oppositely associated with maternal breast and colon cancer. In women with a blood test positive for male microchimerism the risk of breast cancer development was reduced to one third, whereas the risk of colon cancer was elevated 4-fold. In this article addendum, I report the survival of cases in the original study after being diagnosed with cancer. Despite small numbers, the analysis suggests that microchimerism may be positively associated with survival after breast and maybe colon cancer diagnosis. Despite the findings on colon cancer in our original report, I speculate whether microchimerism could have a general beneficial role in cancer, which in some sites may not be evident because an allogeneic maternal immune reaction hastens cancer development.

  14. The organotelluride catalyst LAB027 prevents colon cancer growth in the mice.

    PubMed

    Coriat, R; Marut, W; Leconte, M; Ba, L B; Vienne, A; Chéreau, C; Alexandre, J; Weill, B; Doering, M; Jacob, C; Nicco, C; Batteux, F

    2011-08-11

    Organotellurides are newly described redox-catalyst molecules with original pro-oxidative properties. We have investigated the in vitro and in vivo antitumoral effects of the organotelluride catalyst LAB027 in a mouse model of colon cancer and determined its profile of toxicity in vivo. LAB027 induced an overproduction of H(2)O(2) by both human HT29 and murine CT26 colon cancer cell lines in vitro. This oxidative stress was associated with a decrease in proliferation and survival rates of the two cell lines. LAB027 triggered a caspase-independent, ROS-mediated cell death by necrosis associated with mitochondrial damages and autophagy. LAB027 also synergized with the cytotoxic drug oxaliplatin to augment its cytostatic and cytotoxic effects on colon cancer cell lines but not on normal fibroblasts. The opposite effects of LAB027 on tumor and on non-transformed cells were linked to differences in the modulation of reduced glutathione metabolism between the two types of cells. In mice grafted with CT26 tumor cells, LAB027 alone decreased tumor growth compared with untreated mice, and synergized with oxaliplatin to further decrease tumor development compared with mice treated with oxaliplatin alone. LAB027 an organotelluride catalyst compound synergized with oxaliplatin to prevent both in vitro and in vivo colon cancer cell proliferation while decreasing the in vivo toxicity of oxaliplatin. No in vivo adverse effect of LAB027 was observed in this model.

  15. [Colon cancer after colon interposition for oesophageal replacement].

    PubMed

    Sikorszki, László; Horváth, Ors Péter; Papp, András; Cseke, László; Pavlovics, Gábor

    2010-08-01

    The authors report the case of a colon adenocarcinoma developed on the neck at the anastomosis of the skin tube and colon 44 years following a corrosive oesophageal injury. This patient suffered a moderately severe oesophageal, stomach and laryngeal injuries due to drinking hydrochloric acid 44 years ago. He underwent serial laryngoplasties, then needed a tracheostomy, oesophagectomy, pyloroplasty and ileocolon transposition. An antethoracal oesophagus formation was performed with ileocolon and skin tube amendment. 44 years later an ulcerated adenocarcinoma developed in the transposed colon, which was resected and the ability to swallow was reinstated by the transplantation of an isolated jejunal segment using microvascular anastomosis.

  16. LIN28B Promotes Colon Cancer Migration and Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Minghui; Wu, Gang; Hou, Xiaolin; Hou, Nengyi; Liang, Liqin; Jia, Guiqing; Shuai, Ping; Luo, Bin; Wang, Kang; Li, Guoxin

    2014-01-01

    LIN28B is involved in “stemness” and tumourigenesis by negatively regulating the maturation of let-7 microRNA family members. In this study, we showed that LIN28B expression promotes migration and recurrence of colon cancer. Immunohistochemistry and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reactions were performed to detect LIN28B expression in colon cancer tissue microarrays, paraffin-embedded surgical resected tissues and cancer cells. Loss-of-function, migration and proliferation analyses were performed to delineate the potential roles of LIN28B in colon cancer. LIN28B was upregulated in colon cancer tissue compared to normal mucosa, and its overexpression correlated with reduced patient survival and increased tumour recurrence. LIN28B suppression inhibited the migration of SW480 colon cancer cells and facilitated the cytotoxicity induced by oxaliplatin in SW480 and HCT116 colon cancer cells. In conclusion, LIN28B overexpression contributes to colon tumourigenesis, and LIN28B may serve as a diagnostic tool and therapeutic target for colon cancer. PMID:25360631

  17. Rectal and colon cancer: Not just a different anatomic site.

    PubMed

    Tamas, K; Walenkamp, A M E; de Vries, E G E; van Vugt, M A T M; Beets-Tan, R G; van Etten, B; de Groot, D J A; Hospers, G A P

    2015-09-01

    Due to differences in anatomy, primary rectal and colon cancer require different staging procedures, different neo-adjuvant treatment and different surgical approaches. For example, neoadjuvant radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy is administered solely for rectal cancer. Neoadjuvant therapy and total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer might be responsible in part for the differing effect of adjuvant systemic treatment on overall survival, which is more evident in colon cancer than in rectal cancer. Apart from anatomic divergences, rectal and colon cancer also differ in their embryological origin and metastatic patterns. Moreover, they harbor a different composition of drug targets, such as v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF), which is preferentially mutated in proximal colon cancers, and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is prevalently amplified or overexpressed in distal colorectal cancers. Despite their differences in metastatic pattern, composition of drug targets and earlier local treatment, metastatic rectal and colon cancer are, however, commonly regarded as one entity and are treated alike. In this review, we focused on rectal cancer and its biological and clinical differences and similarities relative to colon cancer. These aspects are crucial because they influence the current staging and treatment of these cancers, and might influence the design of future trials with targeted drugs.

  18. Inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 expression alters immune response in colon tumor microenvironment in mice

    PubMed Central

    Takamatsu, Manabu; Hirata, Akihiro; Ohtaki, Hirofumi; Hoshi, Masato; Ando, Tatsuya; Ito, Hiroyasu; Hatano, Yuichiro; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Kuno, Toshiya; Saito, Kuniaki; Seishima, Mitsuru; Hara, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme that degrades the essential amino acid l-tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway, exerts immunomodulatory effects in a number of diseases. IDO expression is increased in tumor tissue and in draining lymph nodes; this increase is thought to play a role in tumor evasion by suppressing the immune response. A competitive inhibitor of IDO is currently being tested in clinical trials for the treatment of relapsed or refractory solid tumors, but the efficacy of IDO inhibition in colorectal tumors remains to be fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of IDO deficiency on colon tumorigenesis in mice by genetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition. Ido1-deficient(−/−) mice were crossed with ApcMin/+ mice or were administered azoxymethane with or without dextran sodium sulfate. Ido1 deficiency did not lead to significant differences in the size and number of colon tumors. Similarly, the pharmacological inhibition of IDO using 1-methyltryptophan (1-mT) also resulted in no significant differences in tumor size and number in ApcMin/+ mice. However, Ido1 deficiency altered the immune response in the tumor microenvironment, showing a significant increase in mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a significant decrease in the number of Foxp3-positive regulatory T cells in the colon tumors of Ido1(−/−) mice. Importantly, 1-mT treatment also significantly altered cytokine expression in the colon tumor tissues. These results suggest that IDO inhibition alone cannot sufficiently suppress colon cancer development in mice despite its immunomodulatory activity in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26033215

  19. Proteoglycans as potential microenvironmental biomarkers for colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Suhovskih, Anastasia V; Aidagulova, Svetlana V; Kashuba, Vladimir I; Grigorieva, Elvira V

    2015-09-01

    Glycosylation changes occur widely in colon tumours, suggesting glycosylated molecules as potential biomarkers for colon cancer diagnostics. In this study, proteoglycans (PGs) expression levels and their transcriptional patterns are investigated in human colon tumours in vivo and carcinoma cells in vitro. According to RT-PCR analysis, normal and cancer colon tissues expressed a specific set of PGs (syndecan-1, perlecan, decorin, biglycan, versican, NG2/CSPG4, serglycin, lumican, CD44), while the expression of glypican-1, brevican and aggrecan was almost undetectable. Overall transcriptional activity of the PGs in normal and cancer tissues was similar, although expression patterns were different. Expression of decorin and perlecan was down-regulated 2-fold in colon tumours, while biglycan and versican expression was significantly up-regulated (6-fold and 3-fold, respectively). Expression of collagen1A1 was also increased 6-fold in colon tumours. However, conventional HCT-116 colon carcinoma and AG2 colon cancer-initiating cells did not express biglycan and decorin and were versican-positive and -negative, respectively, demonstrating an extracellular origin of the PGs in cancer tissue. Selective expression of heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans syndecan-1 and perlecan in the AG2 colon cancer-initiating cell line suggests these PGs as potential biomarkers for cancer stem cells. Overall transcriptional activity of the HS biosynthetic system was similar in normal and cancer tissues, although significant up-regulation of extracellular sulfatases SULF1/2 argues for a possible distortion of HS sulfation patterns in colon tumours. Taken together, the obtained results suggest versican, biglycan, collagen1A1 and SULF1/2 expression as potential microenvironmental biomarkers and/or targets for colon cancer diagnostics and treatment.

  20. Guanylyl cyclase C signaling axis and colon cancer prevention

    PubMed Central

    Pattison, Amanda M; Merlino, Dante J; Blomain, Erik S; Waldman, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer-related mortality and morbidity worldwide. While improved treatments have enhanced overall patient outcome, disease burden encompassing quality of life, cost of care, and patient survival has seen little benefit. Consequently, additional advances in CRC treatments remain important, with an emphasis on preventative measures. Guanylyl cyclase C (GUCY2C), a transmembrane receptor expressed on intestinal epithelial cells, plays an important role in orchestrating intestinal homeostatic mechanisms. These effects are mediated by the endogenous hormones guanylin (GUCA2A) and uroguanylin (GUCA2B), which bind and activate GUCY2C to regulate proliferation, metabolism and barrier function in intestine. Recent studies have demonstrated a link between GUCY2C silencing and intestinal dysfunction, including tumorigenesis. Indeed, GUCY2C silencing by the near universal loss of its paracrine hormone ligands increases colon cancer susceptibility in animals and humans. GUCY2C’s role as a tumor suppressor has opened the door to a new paradigm for CRC prevention by hormone replacement therapy using synthetic hormone analogs, such as the FDA-approved oral GUCY2C ligand linaclotide (Linzess™). Here we review the known contributions of the GUCY2C signaling axis to CRC, and relate them to a novel clinical strategy targeting tumor chemoprevention. PMID:27688649

  1. Influence of gilaburu (Viburnum opulus) juice on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Ulger, Harun; Ertekin, Tolga; Karaca, Omur; Canoz, Ozlem; Nisari, Mehtap; Unur, Erdoğan; Elmalı, Ferhan

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the effects of gilaburu (Viburnum opulus) juice on colon tumorogenesis were investigated. Eight weeks old Balb-C male mice received subcutaneous injections of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) (20 mg/kg body weight) once a week for 12 weeks. Both the sham control (group 1) and the DMH control (group 2) groups received drinking water alone, whereas the mice of groups 3 and 4 received gilaburu juice for 30 weeks (started with first DMH injection) and for 18 weeks (started after last DMH injection), respectively. Eighteen weeks after the last DMH injection, all mice were killed and the histogenesis of colon tumors was investigated from the paraffin-embedded sections of colon, which were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. The sites and incidences of tumoral lesions (low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia, intramucosal carcinoma and invasive carcinoma) were analyzed and compared with control. The results showed that the body weights of the mice were similar in all the groups. No tumoral lesions were found in group 1. Colon tumors developed in all DMH-treated mice (groups 2, 3 and 4). In these groups, the greatest numbers of tumor lesions were detected in the distal colon, followed by the mid-colon and only a few in the proximal colon. There was a reduction in the mean total number of tumor lesion in groups 3 (8.5) and 4 (8.3), when compared to group 2 (11.3). The incidence of invasive carcinoma in group 3 was significantly lower than group 2 (p < 0.05). On the basis of these results, we conclude that gilaburu juice may be useful for the prevention of colon cancer at the initiation stage.

  2. Trypanosoma cruzi extracts elicit protective immune response against chemically induced colon and mammary cancers.

    PubMed

    Ubillos, Luis; Freire, Teresa; Berriel, Edgardo; Chiribao, María Laura; Chiale, Carolina; Festari, María Florencia; Medeiros, Andrea; Mazal, Daniel; Rondán, Mariella; Bollati-Fogolín, Mariela; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Robello, Carlos; Osinaga, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan parasite that causes Chagas' disease, has anticancer effects mediated, at least in part, by parasite-derived products which inhibit growth of tumor cells. We investigated whether immunity to T. cruzi antigens could induce antitumor activity, using two rat models which reproduce human carcinogenesis: colon cancer induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), and mammary cancer induced by N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU). We found that vaccination with T. cruzi epimastigote lysates strongly inhibits tumor development in both animal models. Rats immunized with T. cruzi antigens induce activation of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and splenocytes from these animals showed higher cytotoxic responses against tumors as compared to rats receiving adjuvant alone. Tumor-associated immune responses included increasing number of CD11b/c(+) His48(-) MHC II(+) cells corresponding to macrophages and/or dendritic cells, which exhibited augmented NADPH-oxidase activity. We also found that T. cruzi lysate vaccination developed antibodies specific for colon and mammary rat cancer cells, which were capable of mediating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in vitro. Anti-T. cruzi antibodies cross-reacted with human colon and breast cancer cell lines and recognized 41/60 (68%) colon cancer and 38/63 (60%) breast cancer samples in a series of 123 human tumors. Our results suggest that T. cruzi antigens can evoke an integrated antitumor response involving both the cellular and humoral components of the immune response and provide novel insights into the understanding of the intricate relationship between parasite infection and tumor growth.

  3. Genomic profiling of stage II and III colon cancers reveals APC mutations to be associated with survival in stage III colon cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    van den Broek, Evert; Krijgsman, Oscar; Sie, Daoud; Tijssen, Marianne; Mongera, Sandra; van de Wiel, Mark A.; Th. Belt, Eric J.; den Uil, Sjoerd H.; Bril, Herman; Stockmann, Hein B.A.C.; Ylstra, Bauke; Carvalho, Beatriz; Meijer, Gerrit A.; Fijneman, Remond J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor profiling of DNA alterations, i.e. gene point mutations, somatic copy number aberrations (CNAs) and structural variants (SVs), improves insight into the molecular pathology of cancer and clinical outcome. Here, associations between genomic aberrations and disease recurrence in stage II and III colon cancers were investigated. A series of 114 stage II and III microsatellite stable colon cancer samples were analyzed by high-resolution array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) to detect CNAs and CNA-associated chromosomal breakpoints (SVs). For 60 of these samples mutation status of APC, TP53, KRAS, PIK3CA, FBXW7, SMAD4, BRAF and NRAS was determined using targeted massive parallel sequencing. Loss of chromosome 18q12.1-18q12.2 occurred more frequently in tumors that relapsed than in relapse-free tumors (p < 0.001; FDR = 0.13). In total, 267 genes were recurrently affected by SVs (FDR < 0.1). CNAs and SVs were not associated with disease-free survival (DFS). Mutations in APC and TP53 were associated with increased CNAs. APC mutations were associated with poor prognosis in (5-fluorouracil treated) stage III colon cancers (p = 0.005; HR = 4.1), an effect that was further enhanced by mutations in MAPK pathway (KRAS, NRAS, BRAF) genes. We conclude that among multiple genomic alterations in CRC, strongest associations with clinical outcome were observed for common mutations in APC. PMID:27729614

  4. Differential expression of nanog1 and nanogp8 in colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ishiguro, Tatsuya; Sato, Ai; Ohata, Hirokazu; Sakai, Hiroaki; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Koji

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog is expressed in a majority of colon cancer cell lines examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both nanog1 and nanogp8 are expressed in colon cancer cells with varying ratios. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog mediates cell proliferation of colon cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog predominantly localizes in cytoplasm of colon cancer cells. -- Abstract: Nanog, a homeodomain transcription factor, is an essential regulator for promotion of self-renewal of embryonic stem cells and inhibition of their differentiation. It has been demonstrated that nanog1 as well as nanogp8, a retrogene of nanog1, is preferentially expressed in advanced stages of several types of cancer, suggesting their involvement during cancer progression. Here, we investigated the expression of Nanog in well-characterized colon cancer cell lines. Expression of Nanog was detectable in 5 (HCT116, HT29, RKO, SW48, SW620) out of seven cell lines examined. RNA expression analyses of nanog1 and nanogp8 indicated that, while nanog1 was a major form in SW620 as well as in teratoma cells Tera-2, nanogp8 was preferentially expressed in HT29 and HCT116. In accordance with this, shRNA-mediated knockdown of nanog1 caused the reduction of Nanog in SW620 but not in HT29. Inhibition of Nanog in SW620 cells negatively affected cell proliferation and tumor formation in mouse xenograft. Biochemical subcellular fractionation and immunostaining analyses revealed predominant localization of Nanog in cytoplasm in SW620 and HT29, while it was mainly localized in nucleus in Tera-2. Our data indicate that nanog1 and nanogp8 are differentially expressed in colon cancer cells, and suggest that their expression contributes to proliferation of colon cancer cells.

  5. Colon cancer prediction with genetic profiles using intelligent techniques.

    PubMed

    Alladi, Subha Mahadevi; P, Shinde Santosh; Ravi, Vadlamani; Murthy, Upadhyayula Suryanarayana

    2008-01-01

    Micro array data provides information of expression levels of thousands of genes in a cell in a single experiment. Numerous efforts have been made to use gene expression profiles to improve precision of tumor classification. In our present study we have used the benchmark colon cancer data set for analysis. Feature selection is done using t-statistic. Comparative study of class prediction accuracy of 3 different classifiers viz., support vector machine (SVM), neural nets and logistic regression was performed using the top 10 genes ranked by the t-statistic. SVM turned out to be the best classifier for this dataset based on area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and total accuracy. Logistic Regression ranks as the next best classifier followed by Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP). The top 10 genes selected by us for classification are all well documented for their variable expression in colon cancer. We conclude that SVM together with t-statistic based feature selection is an efficient and viable alternative to popular techniques.

  6. MKK6 is upregulated in human esophageal, stomach, and colon cancers.

    PubMed

    Parray, Arif Ali; Baba, Rafia Anjum; Bhat, Hina Fayaz; Wani, Lateef; Mokhdomi, Taseem Ahmad; Mushtaq, Umar; Bhat, Sehar Saleem; Kirmani, Deeba; Kuchay, Sanaullah; Wani, Mudassir Maqbool; Khanday, Firdous Ahmad

    2014-10-01

    Expression analysis of MKK6 protein in solid tumors has never been investigated. Here, we report systematic analysis of MKK6 protein in different types of human tumor samples using western blotting and immunofluorescence techniques. We observed significant increase in the expression of MKK6 in Esophageal, Stomach, and Colon cancers as compared to controls. Results were alternately confirmed by Immunofluorescence studies. Upregulation of MKK6 protein is indicative of its role in human cancers and could possibly be used as a novel diagnostic or prognostic marker in these cancers.

  7. THE APPLICATION OF CURRENT DIAGNOSTIC PROTOCOLS OF PATIENTS WITH COLON CANCER IN PREPARATION FOR THERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Vukobrat-Bijedic, Zora; Husic-Selimovic, Azra; Sofic, Amela; Bijedic, Nina; Gogov, Bisera; Djuran, Aleksandra; Redzepovic, Amila; Saray, Aida; Bjelogrlic, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Colorectal cancer is the third most common tumor which causes high percentage of mortality in the general population. Etiologic factors which cause this disease are various, while diagnostic methods involve very complex protocols from detection of tumor markers to a combination of endoscopic and imaging methods. Goal: To determine the number of patients suffering from colon cancer for a period of two years and with endoscopic methods to verify and localize the tumor and its spread. Histopathological determination of the tumor type. Determine the concentration of CEA and CA 19-9 in the serum. Depending on the tumor location asses its progression, severity and extent by radiological imaging methods. Material and Methods: The study was prospective and retrospective, performed at the Gastroenterohepatology Clinic of the Clinical Center of Sarajevo University. During the two-year follow-up, 91 patients were hospitalized underwent endoscopy, targeted biopsy and histologically proven adenocarcinoma of the colon in which a pathologist determined grade of the cancers. Samples were eosin stained and underwent pathological histological analyzes. All patients according to tumor localization underwent CT scan and MRI of the rectum and pelvis. Results: The most common location of the cancer regardless of sex was in the recto sigmoid colon. Prevalence of colorectal cancer spread to other organs was not related to location. No significant dependence of the localization of the tumor by gender was found (p-value = 0.313). Ca 19-9 had the highest value in localization of tumors in the rectum. There was no statistically significant difference in age between men and women. The largest number of patients has adenocarcinoma grade 2 and the localization at the rectum. Conclusion: The combination of laboratory parameters (CEA and CA 19-9) with endoscopic and radiological imaging methods is essential in diagnosis of colorectal cancer and assessment of the process progression

  8. Biochemical and functional characterization of glycosylation-associated mutational landscapes in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Venkitachalam, Srividya; Revoredo, Leslie; Varadan, Vinay; Fecteau, Ryan E.; Ravi, Lakshmeswari; Lutterbaugh, James; Markowitz, Sanford D.; Willis, Joseph E.; Gerken, Thomas A.; Guda, Kishore

    2016-01-01

    The molecular basis of aberrant protein glycosylation, a pathological alteration widespread in colorectal cancers (CRC), and the mechanisms by which it contributes to tumor progression remain largely unknown. We performed targeted re-sequencing of 430 glycosylation-associated genes in a series of patient-derived CRC cell lines (N = 31) and matched primary tumor tissues, identifying 12 new significantly mutated glycosylation-associated genes in colon cancer. In particular, we observed an enrichment of mutations in genes (B3GNT2, B4GALT2, ST6GALNAC2) involved in the biosynthesis of N- and Cores 1–3 O-linked glycans in the colon, accounting for ~16% of the CRCs tested. Analysis of independent large-scale tumor tissue datasets confirmed recurrent mutations within these genes in colon and other gastrointestinal cancers. Systematic biochemical and phenotypic characterization of the candidate wild-type and mutant glycosyltransferases demonstrated these mutations as either markedly altering protein localization, post-translational modification, encoded enzymatic activities and/or the migratory potential of colon carcinoma cells. These findings suggest that functionally deleterious mutations in glycosyltransferase genes in part underlie aberrant glycosylation, and contribute to the pathogenesis of molecular subsets of colon and other gastrointestinal malignancies. PMID:27004849

  9. Autocrine Secretion of Progastrin Promotes the Survival and Self-Renewal of Colon Cancer Stem-like Cells.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Julie; Failla, Laura M; Pascussi, Jean-Marc; Lagerqvist, Ebba L; Ollier, Jérémy; Finetti, Pascal; Bertucci, François; Ya, Chu; Gasmi, Imène; Bourgaux, Jean-François; Prudhomme, Michel; Mazard, Thibault; Ait-Arsa, Imade; Houhou, Leila; Birnbaum, Daniel; Pélegrin, André; Vincent, Charles; Ryall, James G; Joubert, Dominique; Pannequin, Julie; Hollande, Frédéric

    2016-06-15

    Subpopulations of cancer stem-like cells (CSC) are thought to drive tumor progression and posttreatment recurrence in multiple solid tumors. However, the mechanisms that maintain stable proportions of self-renewing CSC within heterogeneous tumors under homeostatic conditions remain poorly understood. Progastrin is a secreted peptide that exhibits tumor-forming potential in colorectal cancer, where it regulates pathways known to modulate colon CSC behaviors. In this study, we investigated the role of progastrin in regulating CSC phenotype in advanced colorectal cancer. Progastrin expression and secretion were highly enriched in colon CSC isolated from human colorectal cancer cell lines and colon tumor biopsies. Progastrin expression promoted CSC self-renewal and survival, whereas its depletion by RNA interference-mediated or antibody-mediated strategies altered the homeostatic proportions of CSC cells within heterogeneous colorectal cancer tumors. Progastrin downregulation also decreased the frequency of ALDH(high) cells, impairing their tumor-initiating potential, and inhibited the high glycolytic activity of ALDH(high) CSC to limit their self-renewal capability. Taken together, our results show how colorectal CSC maintain their tumor-initiating and self-renewal capabilities by secreting progastrin, thereby contributing to the tumor microenvironment to support malignancy. Cancer Res; 76(12); 3618-28. ©2016 AACR.

  10. LINE-1 hypomethylation in normal colon mucosa is associated with poor survival in Chinese patients with sporadic colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuchen; Li, Yiwei; Nie, Jia; Li, Dawei; Peng, Junjie; Lian, Peng; Li, Bin; Cai, Guoxiang; Li, Xinxiang; Cai, Sanjun

    2015-01-01

    Genetic and epigenetic pathways are not independent in colorectal cancer (CRC) carcinogenesis. We aimed to determine the influence of various molecular features on Chinese patients' colon cancer-specific survival (CCSS). Various genetic and epigenetic modifications were detected in paired tumor and normal mucosa tissue samples. The prognostic variables regarding patient CCSS were determined. Overall, 127 patients, including 83 males and 44 females, completed a median follow-up of 65 (3–85) months. A mean LINE-1 methylation rate of 64.62% (range, 9.45–86.93) was observed. Hypermethylation at the hMLH1 gene promoter was detected in 26 (20.47%) patients. KRAS was mutated in 52 (40.94%) patients. Sixteen (12.60%) patients were confirmed as microsatellite instability (MSI)-High, and 76 (59.84%) were found to have loss of heterozygosity at 18q. The LINE-1 methylation level, MSI status, perineural invasion and distant metastases were confirmed as independent prognostic factors for patient CCSS. A stratified survival analysis further revealed that certain subgroups of patients with LINE-1 hypomethylation had significantly worse survival (all p < 0.05). Our data revealed that both genetic and epigenetic abnormalities can concurrently exist during colonic tumorigenesis. As a global epigenetic change, LINE-1 hypomethylation in normal colon mucosa might be associated with a worse outcome in certain Chinese patients with colon cancer. PMID:26172297

  11. A folate receptor-targeted lipoplex delivering interleukin-15 gene for colon cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiao; Luo, Min; Wei, Xia-Wei; Ma, Cui-Cui; Yang, Yu-Han; Shao, Bin; Liu, Yan-Tong; Liu, Ting; Ren, Jun; Liu, Li; He, Zhi-Yao; Wei, Yu-Quan

    2016-08-09

    Interleukin-15 has been implicated as a promising cytokine for cancer immunotherapy, while folate receptor α (FRα) has been shown to be a potentially useful target for colon cancer therapy. Herein, we developed F-PLP/pIL15, a FRα-targeted lipoplex loading recombinant interleukin-15 plasmid (pIL15) and studied its antitumor effects in vivo using a CT26 colon cancer mouse model. Compared with control (normal saline) treatment, F-PLP/pIL15 significantly suppressed tumor growth in regard to tumor weight (P < 0.001) and reduced tumor nodule formation (P < 0.001). Moreover, when compared to other lipoplex-treated mice, F-PLP/pIL15-treated mice showed higher levels of IL15 secreted in the serum (P < 0.001) and ascites (P < 0.01). These results suggested that the targeted delivery of IL15 gene might be associated with its in vivo antitumor effects, which include inducing tumor cell apoptosis, inhibiting tumor proliferation and promoting the activation of immune cells such as T cells and natural killer cells. Furthermore, hematoxylin and eosin staining of vital organs following F-PLP/pIL15 treatment showed no detectable toxicity, thus indicating that intraperitoneal administration may be a viable route of delivery. Overall, these results suggest that F-PLP/pIL15 may serve as a potential targeting preparation for colon cancer therapy.

  12. A folate receptor-targeted lipoplex delivering interleukin-15 gene for colon cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiao; Luo, Min; Wei, Xia-Wei; Ma, Cui-Cui; Yang, Yu-Han; Shao, Bin; Liu, Yan-Tong; Liu, Ting; Ren, Jun; Liu, Li; He, Zhi-Yao; Wei, Yu-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-15 has been implicated as a promising cytokine for cancer immunotherapy, while folate receptor α (FRα) has been shown to be a potentially useful target for colon cancer therapy. Herein, we developed F-PLP/pIL15, a FRα-targeted lipoplex loading recombinant interleukin-15 plasmid (pIL15) and studied its antitumor effects in vivo using a CT26 colon cancer mouse model. Compared with control (normal saline) treatment, F-PLP/pIL15 significantly suppressed tumor growth in regard to tumor weight (P < 0.001) and reduced tumor nodule formation (P < 0.001). Moreover, when compared to other lipoplex-treated mice, F-PLP/pIL15-treated mice showed higher levels of IL15 secreted in the serum (P < 0.001) and ascites (P < 0.01). These results suggested that the targeted delivery of IL15 gene might be associated with its in vivo antitumor effects, which include inducing tumor cell apoptosis, inhibiting tumor proliferation and promoting the activation of immune cells such as T cells and natural killer cells. Furthermore, hematoxylin and eosin staining of vital organs following F-PLP/pIL15 treatment showed no detectable toxicity, thus indicating that intraperitoneal administration may be a viable route of delivery. Overall, these results suggest that F-PLP/pIL15 may serve as a potential targeting preparation for colon cancer therapy. PMID:27438147

  13. Microenvironment influence on human colon adenocarcinoma phenotypes and matrix metalloproteinase-2, p53 and β-catenin tumor expressions from identical monoclonal cell tumor in the orthotopic model in athymic nude rats.

    PubMed

    Priolli, Denise Gonçalves; Abrantes, Ana Margarida; Neves, Silvia; Gonçalves, Ana Cristina; Lopes, Camila Oliveira; Martinez, Natalia Peres; Cardinalli, Izilda Aparecida; Ribeiro, Ana Bela Sarmento; Botelho, Maria Filomena

    2014-03-01

    The present study aims to identify differences between left and right colon adenocarcinoma arising from identical clonal cell and to find out if microenvironment has any influence on matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2), p53 and β-catenin tumor expressions. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Rats (RNU) were submitted to cecostomy to obtain the orthotopic model of right colon tumor (n = 10), while for the left colon model (n = 10), a colon diversion and distal mucous fistula in the descending colon was used. Cultivated human colon adenocarcinoma cells (WiDr) were inoculated in stomas submucosa. Histopathological analysis, real-time reverse transcription-PCR for β-catenin, p53 and MMP2, as well as immunohistochemical analysis for p53 and β-catenin expression were conducted. Central tendency, variance analysis and the Livak delta-delta-CT method were used for statistical analysis, adopting a 5% significance level. RESULTS. All tumors from the left colon exhibited infiltrative ulceration, while in the right colon tumor growth was predominantly exophytic (67%). In the left colon, tumor growth was undifferentiated (100%), while it was moderately differentiated in the right colon (83%). In right colon tumors, MMP2, p53, and β-catenin gene expressions were higher than compared to left colon (p = 4.59354E-05, p = 0.0035179, p = 0.00093798, respectively, for MMP2, p53 and β-catenin). β-catenin and p53 results obtained by real-time polymerase chain reaction were confirmed by immunohistochemistry assay (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001, respectively, for β-catenin and p53). CONCLUSION. Left and right human colon adenocarcinomas developed in animal models have distinct phenotypes even when they have the same clonal origin. Microenvironment has influenced p53, β-catenin, and MMP2 expression in animal models of colon cancer.

  14. HMG-CoA reductase regulates CCL17-induced colon cancer cell migration via geranylgeranylation and RhoA activation

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Haidari, Amr A.; Syk, Ingvar; Thorlacius, Henrik

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Simvastatin blocked CCL17-induced and CCR4-dependent RhoA activation in HT29 cells. • CCL17/CCR4-mediated migration of colon cancer cells was antagonised by simvastatin. • Cell migration recovered by adding Mevalonate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate. • Targeting HMG-CoA reductase might be useful to inhibit colon cancer metastasis. - Abstract: Background: Simvastatin is widely used to lower cholesterol levels in patients with cardiovascular diseases, although accumulating evidence suggests that statins, such as simvastatin, also exert numerous anti-tumoral effects. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of simvastatin on colon cancer cell migration. Methods: Migration assays were performed to evaluate CCL17-induced colon cancer cell (HT-29) chemotaxis. In vitro tumor growth and apoptosis were assessed using a proliferation assay and annexin V assay, respectively. Active RhoA protein levels in CCL17-stimulated colon cancer cells were quantified using a G-LISA assay. Results: We found that simvastatin dose-dependently decreased CCL17-induced colon cancer cell migration. Simvastatin had no effect on colon cancer cell proliferation or apoptosis. Inhibition of beta chemokine receptor 4, CCR4, reduced CCL17-evoked activation of RhoA in colon cancer cells. Moreover, administration of mevalonate reversed the inhibitory effect of simvastatin on CCL17-induced colon cancer cell migration. Interestingly, co-incubation with geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) antagonized the inhibitory impact of simvastatin on colon cancer cell migration triggered by CCL17. Moreover, we observed that simvastatin decreased CCL17-induced activation of RhoA in colon cancer cells. Administration of mevalonate and GGPP reversed the inhibitory effect of simvastatin on CCL17-provoked RhoA activation in colon cancer cells. Conclusions: Taken together, our findings show for the first time that HMG-CoA reductase regulates CCL17-induced colon cancer cell migration via

  15. Glucagon-like peptide 2 in colon carcinogenesis: possible target for anti-cancer therapy?

    PubMed

    Kannen, Vinicius; Garcia, Sergio Britto; Stopper, Helga; Waaga-Gasser, Ana Maria

    2013-07-01

    The role of glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP2) in colon tissue has been studied extensively, from the time it was discovered that GLP2 promotes intestinal growth. A large number of studies have shown potential applications for GLP2 in human therapy. However, recent data have suggested the notion that GLP2 plays a key role in colon carcinogenesis. Questions have been arisen regarding the pro-proliferative effects of GLP2 and whether they might promote intestinal healing or advance colon tumor growth. Here, we provide striking evidence to show that the physiological activities of GLP2 are closely related to cancer-related molecular pathways that have been shown to circumvent drug desensitization. We further explore the different pathways of GLP2-signaling to suggest suitable GLP2-based therapeutic strategies in colon cancer.

  16. Combined adenocarcinoma-carcinoid tumor of transverse colon.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Prosanta Kumar; Halder, Shyamal

    2013-01-01

    A 65-year-old male presented with painless hematochezia associated with episodic cramps in upper abdomen, watery diarrhea, and a slowly growing mass in upper abdomen. Examination revealed a firm 6 x 5 cm, intra-abdominal, epigastric mass. Colonoscopy up to 90 cm showed a stenosing, ulcero-proliferative lesion in the transverse colon. No synchronous lesion was detected. Biopsy revealed mucin secreting adenocarcinoma. Exploration showed the growth involving the transverse colon proximal to the splenic flexure with a part of ileum, approximately three feet proximal to ileo-caecal junction, adherent to it. No significant mesenteric lymph node enlargement was evident. The patient underwent resection of the growth along with the segment of adherent ileum. Continuity was re-established by a colo-colic and ileo-ileal anastomosis respectively. Patient received adjuvant chemotherapy. Post-operative histopathology demonstrated a composite histological pattern with an admixture of carcinoid tumor and adenocarcinoma, invasion of ileal serosa and adenocarcinomatous deposits in mesocolic lymph nodes, the tumor staging being (T4, N0, M0/Stage II) for carcinoid and (T4, N1, M0/Stage III) for adenocarcinoma. Patient was followed-up for a year and was doing well without any evidence of recurrence.

  17. Grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit colon cancer-induced angiogenesis through suppressing the expression of VEGF and Ang1.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shuangsheng; Yang, Ninggang; Liu, Yuanyuan; Gao, Jing; Huang, Tao; Hu, Lamei; Zhao, Jin; Li, Yongquan; Li, Caili; Zhang, Xiaosu

    2012-12-01

    Tumor cells trigger angiogenesis through overexpression of various angiogenic factors including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin 1 (Ang1). Therefore, inhibition of the expression of both VEGF and Ang1, the initial step of tumor angiogenesis, is a promising strategy for cancer chemoprevention and therapy. Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) are widely consumed dietary supplements that have antitumor activity. Due to their polymeric structure, GSPs are poorly absorbed along the gastrointestinal tract and can reach the colon at high concentrations, allowing these chemicals to act as chemopreventive agents for colon cancer. In the present study, we found that GSPs inhibited colon tumor-induced angiogenesis and, thus, the growth of colon tumor xenografts on the chick chorioallantoic membranes. The mechanisms of their action were related to inhibiting the expression of both VEGF and Ang1 through scavenging reactive oxygen species. Previous studies have demonstrated that the chemopreventive effects of GSPs on colon cancer are associated with their growth inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects. Our results demonstrate another mechanism by which GSPs inhibit colon tumor growth, which will be helpful for developing GSPs as a pharmacologically safe angiopreventive agent against colorectal cancer.

  18. Analysis of colon tumors in rats by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Janaína; Hage, Raduan; Silveira, Landulfo, Jr.; Silveira, Fabricio; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu T.; Munin, Egberto; Plapler, Hélio

    2007-02-01

    Biomedical applications of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy have increased their importance at the last ten years. This technique can determinate the molecular composition of materials, allowing a sensible and fast biological diagnosis. It has showed to be a promising tool for health diagnosis due to its high sensibility. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in humans beings. In the last decades many experimental models have been developed in animals based in the use of chemical composites to induce the formation and development of these tumors, many of them present similar characteristics to those of natural occurrence aiming to the attainment of information on genesis, evolution, as well as diagnosis and more efficient therapies for treating these neoplasias. Amongst the most used chemical composites is the 1,2- dimetilhydrazine (DMH) because its morphological and histological similarity to those tumors. This study aims to compare in vivo normal colon tissue and tumoral colon tissue, induced by DMH, in rats by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy to permit the use in the near future for an efficient diagnosis in real time besides being useful as an auxiliary method for several therapies, including the photodynamic therapy.

  19. Mice Expressing Activated PI3K Rapidly Develop Advanced Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Leystra, Alyssa A.; Deming, Dustin A.; Zahm, Christopher D.; Farhoud, Mohammed; Paul Olson, Terrah J.; Hadac, Jamie N.; Nettekoven, Laura A.; Albrecht, Dawn M.; Clipson, Linda; Sullivan, Ruth; Washington, Mary Kay; Torrealba, Jose R.; Weichert, Jamey P.; Halberg, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    Aberrations in the phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway play a key role in the pathogenesis of numerous cancers by altering cellular growth, metabolism, proliferation, and apoptosis (1). Mutations in the catalytic domain of PI3K that generate a dominantly active kinase are commonly found in human colorectal cancers and have been thought to drive tumor progression, but not initiation (2). However, the effects of constitutively activated PI3K upon the intestinal mucosa have not been previously studied in animal models. Here, we demonstrate that the expression of a dominantly active form of the PI3K protein in the mouse intestine results in hyperplasia and advanced neoplasia. Mice expressing constitutively active PI3K in the epithelial cells of the distal small bowel and colon rapidly developed invasive adenocarcinomas in the colon that spread into the mesentery and adjacent organs. The histological characteristics of these tumors were strikingly similar to invasive mucinous colon cancers in humans. Interestingly, these tumors formed without a benign polypoid intermediary, consistent with the lack of aberrant WNT signaling observed. Together, our findings indicate a non-canonical mechanism of colon tumor initiation that is mediated through activation of PI3K. This unique model has the potential to further our understanding of human disease and facilitate the development of therapeutics through pharmacologic screening and biomarker identification. PMID:22525701

  20. Possible mechanisms by which pro- and prebiotics influence colon carcinogenesis and tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Reddy, B S

    1999-07-01

    Oligofructose and inulin, selective fermentable chicory fructans, have been shown to stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria, which are regarded as beneficial strains in the colon. Studies were designed to evaluate inulin (Raftiline) and oligofructose (Raftilose) for their potential inhibitory properties against the development of colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rats. ACF are putative preneoplastic lesions from which adenomas and carcinomas may develop in the colon. The results of this study indicate that dietary administration of oligofructose and inulin inhibits the development of ACF in the colon, suggesting the potential colon tumor inhibitory properties of chicory fructans. The degree of ACF inhibition was more pronounced in animals given inulin than in those fed oligofructose. Because these prebiotics selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activities, ras-p21 ontoprotein expressions and tumor inhibitory activity of lyophilized cultures of Bifidobacterium longum against chemically induced colon and mammary carcinogenesis and against colonic tumor cell proliferation were examined. Dietary administration of lyophilized cultures of B. longum strongly suppressed colon and mammary tumor development and tumor burden. Inhibition of colon carcinogenesis was associated with a decrease in colonic mucosal cell proliferation and activities of colonic mucosal and tumor ornithine decarboxylase and ras-p21. Human clinical trials are likely to broaden our insight into the importance of the pre- and probiotics in health and disease.

  1. A link between lipid metabolism and epithelial-mesenchymal transition provides a target for colon cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martínez, Ruth; Cruz-Gil, Silvia; Gómez de Cedrón, Marta; Álvarez-Fernández, Mónica; Vargas, Teodoro; Molina, Susana; García, Belén; Herranz, Jesús; Moreno-Rubio, Juan; Reglero, Guillermo; Pérez-Moreno, Mirna; Feliu, Jaime; Malumbres, Marcos; Ramírez de Molina, Ana

    2015-11-17

    The alterations in carbohydrate metabolism that fuel tumor growth have been extensively studied. However, other metabolic pathways involved in malignant progression, demand further understanding. Here we describe a metabolic acyl-CoA synthetase/stearoyl-CoA desaturase ACSL/SCD network causing an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program that promotes migration and invasion of colon cancer cells. The mesenchymal phenotype produced upon overexpression of these enzymes is reverted through reactivation of AMPK signaling. Furthermore, this network expression correlates with poorer clinical outcome of stage-II colon cancer patients. Finally, combined treatment with chemical inhibitors of ACSL/SCD selectively decreases cancer cell viability without reducing normal cells viability. Thus, ACSL/SCD network stimulates colon cancer progression through conferring increased energetic capacity and invasive and migratory properties to cancer cells, and might represent a new therapeutic opportunity for colon cancer treatment.

  2. A simple, quantitative method using alginate gel to determine rat colonic tumor volume in vivo.

    PubMed

    Irving, Amy A; Young, Lindsay B; Pleiman, Jennifer K; Konrath, Michael J; Marzella, Blake; Nonte, Michael; Cacciatore, Justin; Ford, Madeline R; Clipson, Linda; Amos-Landgraf, James M; Dove, William F

    2014-04-01

    Many studies of the response of colonic tumors to therapeutics use tumor multiplicity as the endpoint to determine the effectiveness of the agent. These studies can be greatly enhanced by accurate measurements of tumor volume. Here we present a quantitative method to easily and accurately determine colonic tumor volume. This approach uses a biocompatible alginate to create a negative mold of a tumor-bearing colon; this mold is then used to make positive casts of dental stone that replicate the shape of each original tumor. The weight of the dental stone cast correlates highly with the weight of the dissected tumors. After refinement of the technique, overall error in tumor volume was 16.9% ± 7.9% and includes error from both the alginate and dental stone procedures. Because this technique is limited to molding of tumors in the colon, we utilized the Apc(Pirc/+) rat, which has a propensity for developing colonic tumors that reflect the location of the majority of human intestinal tumors. We have successfully used the described method to determine tumor volumes ranging from 4 to 196 mm³. Alginate molding combined with dental stone casting is a facile method for determining tumor volume in vivo without costly equipment or knowledge of analytic software. This broadly accessible method creates the opportunity to objectively study colonic tumors over time in living animals in conjunction with other experiments and without transferring animals from the facility where they are maintained.

  3. A Simple, Quantitative Method Using Alginate Gel to Determine Rat Colonic Tumor Volume In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Irving, Amy A; Young, Lindsay B; Pleiman, Jennifer K; Konrath, Michael J; Marzella, Blake; Nonte, Michael; Cacciatore, Justin; Ford, Madeline R; Clipson, Linda; Amos-Landgraf, James M; Dove, William F

    2014-01-01

    Many studies of the response of colonic tumors to therapeutics use tumor multiplicity as the endpoint to determine the effectiveness of the agent. These studies can be greatly enhanced by accurate measurements of tumor volume. Here we present a quantitative method to easily and accurately determine colonic tumor volume. This approach uses a biocompatible alginate to create a negative mold of a tumor-bearing colon; this mold is then used to make positive casts of dental stone that replicate the shape of each original tumor. The weight of the dental stone cast correlates highly with the weight of the dissected tumors. After refinement of the technique, overall error in tumor volume was 16.9% ± 7.9% and includes error from both the alginate and dental stone procedures. Because this technique is limited to molding of tumors in the colon, we utilized the ApcPirc/+ rat, which has a propensity for developing colonic tumors that reflect the location of the majority of human intestinal tumors. We have successfully used the described method to determine tumor volumes ranging from 4 to 196 mm3. Alginate molding combined with dental stone casting is a facile method for determining tumor volume in vivo without costly equipment or knowledge of analytic software. This broadly accessible method creates the opportunity to objectively study colonic tumors over time in living animals in conjunction with other experiments and without transferring animals from the facility where they are maintained. PMID:24674588

  4. Thymoquinone potentiates chemoprotective effect of Vitamin D3 against colon cancer: a pre-clinical finding

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Amr M; Refaat, Bassem A; El-Shemi, Adel G; Kensara, Osama A; Ahmad, Jawwad; Idris, Shakir

    2017-01-01

    Prevention of colon cancer among high-risk group has been long lasting research goal. Emerging data have evidenced the anticancer activities of Vitamin D3 (Vit.D) and Thymoquinone (TQ). The aim of the current study was to evaluate the synergistic potential of Thymoquinone and Vitamin D3 in the control of colon cancer progression using azoxymethane-induced rat model. Vit.D and TQ were given individually or in combination 4 week prior to induction and continued for a total of 20 week. At the end of the study, all animals were euthanized and their resected colons were examined macroscopically and microscopically for tumor growth. Colonic tissue preparations were used for measuring gene expression and/or protein levels of selected pro and anti-tumor biomarkers using quantitative RT-PCR, ELISA and immunohistochemistry. Compared with their individual supplementation, combined Vit.D/TQ showed prominent anti-tumor effect manifested by significant reduction (P < 0.05) of the numbers of grown tumors and large aberrant crypts foci. Mechanistically, gene expression and/or protein quantification studies revealed that combined Vit.D/TQ supplementation induced significant reduction (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05) of pro-cancerous molecules (Wnt, β-catenin, NF-κB, COX-2, iNOS, VEGF and HSP-90) as well as significant increase (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) of anti-tumorigenesis biomarkers (DKK-1, CDNK-1A, TGF-β1, TGF-β/RII and smad4) as compared to un-supplemented or individually supplemented groups, respectively. In conclusion, TQ augmented the chemopreventive effect of Vit.D during the initiation phase of colon cancer in rat model, with the potential to suppress progression of pre-neoplastic lesions in colon carcinogenesis. PMID:28337306

  5. Vertebral Metastasis as the Initial Manifestation of Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Tushina; Williams, Renee; Liechty, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Oncology guidelines currently recommend against performing colonoscopies in the workup of adenocarcinoma of unknown primary unless colonic malignancy is otherwise suggested by clinical signs or symptoms. We present 2 cases of metastatic colonic adenocarcinoma that presented only with neurologic symptoms from vertebral metastasis. Although bony metastases are a rare presentation of colon cancer and colonoscopy is not warranted in the initial workup of adenocarcinoma of unknown primary, we describe these cases as a reminder that bony metastases do not rule out a colon cancer diagnosis. PMID:27807574

  6. Vertebral Metastasis as the Initial Manifestation of Colon Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jain, Tushina; Williams, Renee; Liechty, Benjamin; Ann Chen, Lea

    2016-08-01

    Oncology guidelines currently recommend against performing colonoscopies in the workup of adenocarcinoma of unknown primary unless colonic malignancy is otherwise suggested by clinical signs or symptoms. We present 2 cases of metastatic colonic adenocarcinoma that presented only with neurologic symptoms from vertebral metastasis. Although bony metastases are a rare presentation of colon cancer and colonoscopy is not warranted in the initial workup of adenocarcinoma of unknown primary, we describe these cases as a reminder that bony metastases do not rule out a colon cancer diagnosis.

  7. [A review of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for lung metastasis of colon cancer].

    PubMed

    Saito, Takeshi; Morohashi, Hajime; Hasebe, Tatsuya; Sakamoto, Yoshiyuki; Koyama, Motoi; Murata, Akihiko; Hakamada, Kenichi

    2014-11-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the efficacy of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for lung metastasis of colon cancer, with particular emphasis on local tumor control. Seven patients with 8 lesions underwent SRT for lung metastasis of colon cancer in our institution between February 2012 and February 2014. We judged the curative effect of SRT on the basis of tumor shrinkage observed on computed tomography (CT) scans. All lung metastases decreased in size, and local recurrence was not observed. SRT is a technique involving three-dimensional radiation, which decreases radiation exposure to neighboring normal tissues. The 2-year local tumor control rate for lung metastasis of colon cancer with SRT is 77.9%, and the 2-year survival rate is 53.7%. Our results, in which all patients achieved local control, suggest that SRT is a minimally aggressive treatment option for lung metastasis of colon cancer in cases where a pneumonectomy is difficult to perform. In the future, results from long-term studies are needed to validate our findings.

  8. Right Versus Left Colon Cancer Biology: Integrating the Consensus Molecular Subtypes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael S; Menter, David G; Kopetz, Scott

    2017-03-01

    Although clinical management of colon cancer generally has not accounted for the primary tumor site, left-sided and right-sided colon cancers harbor different clinical and biologic characteristics. Right-sided colon cancers are more likely to have genome-wide hypermethylation via the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), hypermutated state via microsatellite instability, and BRAF mutation. There are also differential exposures to potential carcinogenic toxins and microbiota in the right and left colon. Gene expression analyses further shed light on distinct biologic subtypes of colorectal cancers (CRCs), with 4 consensus molecular subtypes (CMSs) identified. Importantly, these subtypes are differentially distributed between right- and left-sided CRCs, with greater proportions of the "microsatellite unstable/immune" CMS1 and the "metabolic" CMS3 subtypes found in right-sided colon cancers. This review summarizes important biologic distinctions between right- and left-sided CRCs that likely impact prognosis and may predict for differential responses to biologic therapy. Given the inferior prognosis of stage III-IV right-sided CRCs and emerging data suggesting that anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody therapy is associated with worse survival in right-sided stage IV CRCs compared with left-sided cancers, these biologic differences between right- and left-sided CRCs provide critical context and may provide opportunities to personalize therapy.

  9. β-Catenin promotes colitis and colon cancer through imprinting of proinflammatory properties in T cells.

    PubMed

    Keerthivasan, Shilpa; Aghajani, Katayoun; Dose, Marei; Molinero, Luciana; Khan, Mohammad W; Venkateswaran, Vysak; Weber, Christopher; Emmanuel, Akinola Olumide; Sun, Tianjao; Bentrem, David J; Mulcahy, Mary; Keshavarzian, Ali; Ramos, Elena M; Blatner, Nichole; Khazaie, Khashayarsha; Gounari, Fotini

    2014-02-26

    The density and type of lymphocytes that infiltrate colon tumors are predictive of the clinical outcome of colon cancer. High densities of T helper 17 (T(H)17) cells and inflammation predict poor outcome, whereas infiltration by T regulatory cells (Tregs) that naturally suppress inflammation is associated with longer patient survival. However, the role of Tregs in cancer remains controversial. We recently reported that Tregs in colon cancer patients can become proinflammatory and tumor-promoting. These properties were directly linked with their expression of RORγt (retinoic acid-related orphan receptor-γt), the signature transcription factor of T(H)17 cells. We report that Wnt/β-catenin signaling in T cells promotes expression of RORγt. Expression of β-catenin was elevated in T cells, including Tregs, of patients with colon cancer. Genetically engineered activation of β-catenin in mouse T cells resulted in enhanced chromatin accessibility in the proximity of T cell factor-1 (Tcf-1) binding sites genome-wide, induced expression of T(H)17 signature genes including RORγt, and promoted T(H)17-mediated inflammation. Strikingly, the mice had inflammation of small intestine and colon and developed lesions indistinguishable from colitis-induced cancer. Activation of β-catenin only in Tregs was sufficient to produce inflammation and initiate cancer. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in effector T cells and/or Tregs is causatively linked with the imprinting of proinflammatory properties and the promotion of colon cancer.

  10. Antitumor effects of calgranulin B internalized in human colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Byong Chul; Ku, Ja-Lok; Shin, Young-Kyoung; Cho, Jae Youl; Kim, Minjae; Kwon, Myung-Hee; Goh, Sung Ho; Chang, Hee Jin; Oh, Jae Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Calgranulin B is a small, calcium-binding protein expressed in neutrophils that is secreted into the tumor microenvironment in cancer cases. We previously showed that calgranulin B levels are increased in the stools of colorectal cancer patients. In patient tumor tissues, calgranulin B protein levels correlated with the presence of stromal inflammatory cells surrounding tumor cells, and calgranulin B promoter methylation was observed in both paired human tissues and colon cancer cell lines. Cell lines did not express calgranulin B, but in vitro studies showed that colon cancer cells internalized extracellular calgranulin B, while other types of cancer cells did not. Calgranulin B internalization led to reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptotic cell death. AKT and ERK signals were also increased after calgranulin B treatment, as were p53, β-catenin, E-cadherin and cleaved caspase-3 levels. Additionally, a human protein microarray identified aurora A kinase as a calgranulin B binding partner, and binding inhibited aurora A kinase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings demonstrate the antitumor effects of calgranulin B in the inflammatory microenvironment and suggest that calgranulin B could be potentially efficacious in the treatment of colon cancer. PMID:26933915

  11. Chemopreventive effect of apple and berry fruits against colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko; Octorina Dewi, Dyah Ekashanti; Narayanan, Aqilah Leela T; Balaji, Arunpandian; Subramanian, Aruna Priyadarshini; Yusof, Mustafa

    2014-12-07

    Colon cancer arises due to the conversion of precancerous polyps (benign) found in the inner lining of the colon. Prevention is better than cure, and this is very true with respect to colon cancer. Various epidemiologic studies have linked colorectal cancer with food intake. Apple and berry juices are widely consumed among various ethnicities because of their nutritious values. In this review article, chemopreventive effects of these fruit juices against colon cancer are discussed. Studies dealing with bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of apple and berry juices are emphasized in this article. A thorough literature survey indicated that various phenolic phytochemicals present in these fruit juices have the innate potential to inhibit colon cancer cell lines. This review proposes the need for more preclinical evidence for the effects of fruit juices against different colon cancer cells, and also strives to facilitate clinical studies using these juices in humans in large trials. The conclusion of the review is that these apple and berry juices will be possible candidates in the campaign against colon cancer.

  12. Chemopreventive effect of apple and berry fruits against colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko; Octorina Dewi, Dyah Ekashanti; Narayanan, Aqilah Leela T; Balaji, Arunpandian; Subramanian, Aruna Priyadarshini; Yusof, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Colon cancer arises due to the conversion of precancerous polyps (benign) found in the inner lining of the colon. Prevention is better than cure, and this is very true with respect to colon cancer. Various epidemiologic studies have linked colorectal cancer with food intake. Apple and berry juices are widely consumed among various ethnicities because of their nutritious values. In this review article, chemopreventive effects of these fruit juices against colon cancer are discussed. Studies dealing with bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of apple and berry juices are emphasized in this article. A thorough literature survey indicated that various phenolic phytochemicals present in these fruit juices have the innate potential to inhibit colon cancer cell lines. This review proposes the need for more preclinical evidence for the effects of fruit juices against different colon cancer cells, and also strives to facilitate clinical studies using these juices in humans in large trials. The conclusion of the review is that these apple and berry juices will be possible candidates in the campaign against colon cancer. PMID:25493015

  13. Epigenetic silencing of glutaminase 2 in human liver and colon cancers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Glutaminase 2 (Gls2) is a p53 target gene and is known to play an important role in energy metabolism. Gls2 has been reported to be downregulated in human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). However, the underlying mechanism responsible for its downregulation is still unclear. Here, we investigated Gls2 expression and its promoter methylation status in human liver and colon cancers. Methods mRNA expression of Gls2 was determined in human liver and colon cancer cell lines and HCC tissues by real-time PCR and promoter methylation was analyzed by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and validated by bisulfite genome sequencing (BGS). Cell growth was determined by colony formation assay and MTS assay. Statistical analysis was performed by Wilcoxon matched-pairs test or non-parametric t test. Results First, we observed reduced Gls2 mRNA level in a selected group of liver and colon cancer cell lines and in the cancerous tissues from 20 HCC and 5 human colon cancer patients in comparison to their non-cancerous counter parts. Importantly, the lower level of Gls2 in cancer cells was closely correlated to its promoter hypermethylation; and chemical demethylation treatment with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (Aza) increased Gls2 mRNA level in both liver and colon cancer cells, indicating that direct epigenetic silencing suppressed Gls2 expression by methylation. Next, we further examined this correlation in human HCC tissues, and 60% of primary liver tumor tissues had higher DNA methylation levels when compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues. Detailed methylation analysis of 23 CpG sites at a 300-bp promoter region by bisulfite genomic sequencing confirmed its methylation. Finally, we examined the biological function of Gls2 and found that restoring Gls2 expression in cancer cells significantly inhibited cancer cell growth and colony formation ability through induction of cell cycle arrest. Conclusions We provide evidence showing that epigenetic silencing of Gls2 via promoter

  14. [A CASE OF ASCENDING COLON CANCER RECURRENCE WITH INTRALUMINAL URETERAL DISSEMINATION MIMICKING PRIMARY URETERAL CANCER, DETECTED DURING INVESTIGATION FOR FEVER].

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Ryuichi; Kubota, Masashi; Kanno, Toru; Okada, Takashi; Higashi, Yoshihito; Yamada, Hitoshi

    2015-10-01

    A 69-year-old woman visited our hospital with a chief complaint of fever. Five years ago, she was diagnosed as ascending colon cancer and received right hemi-colectomy. One year later, local recurrence with right hydronephrosis was detected, and she received chemotherapy -4 cycles of modified fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX6) plus bevacizumab, and 12 cycles of fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) plus bevacizumab- for two years. Local recurrence and right hydronephrosis disappeared on positron emission tomography performed 4 years postoperatively. This time, abdominal computed tomography for investigation of fever showed a relapse of right hydronephrosis and pyonephrosis. Cystoscopy revealed non-papillary tumor from the right ureteral orifice. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple tumors in the right ureter, and the distal lesion projecting into the bladder. After the general condition became well by right nephrostomy for infection control, transurethral resection of bladder tumor was performed. Histological examination of the specimen revealed a metastatic tubular adenocarcinoma (colon origin). Although right nephrectomy was performed for pyonephrosis control, she died of local progression of ascending colon cancer 10 months after first visit. Intraluminal ureteral progression of carcinoma originating from organs other than urinary tract is very rare. To our knowledge, this is the 9th report in the English or Japanese literature. In this case we could not rule out primary ureteral cancer preoperatively, and histological examination revealed intraluminal ureteral dissemination of ascending colon cancer.

  15. Cancer immunotherapy using tumor cryoablation.

    PubMed

    Sidana, Abhinav

    2014-01-01

    Cryoablation is increasingly being used as a primary treatment for localized cancers and as a salvage therapy for metastatic cancers. Anecdotal clinical reports and animal experiments have confirmed an induction of systemic antitumor immune response by tumor cryoablation. To capitalize on the stimulatory effects of cryoablation for cancer immunotherapy, this response must be intensified using other immunomodulatory agents. This article reviews the preclinical and clinical evidence and discusses the mechanism of the antitumor immune response generated by cryoablation. The rationale and evidence behind several immunotherapy approaches that can be combined with cryoablation to devise a cryoimmunotherapeutic strategy with a potential to impact the progression of metastatic disease are described.

  16. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Is Associated With Increased Mortality in Chinese Patients Receiving Curative Surgery for Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kuo-Hsing; Shao, Yu-Yun; Lin, Zhong-Zhe; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Shau, Wen-Yi; Kuo, Raymond Nienchen; Chen, Ho-Min; Lai, Chiu-Ling; Yeh, Kun-Huei; Cheng, Ann-Lii

    2014-01-01

    Background. We investigated the association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and the prognosis of patients with early colon cancer who had undergone curative surgery. Methods. From three national databases of patients in Taiwan, we selected a cohort of colon cancer patients who had been newly diagnosed with stage I or stage II colon cancer between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2008 and had undergone curative surgery. We collected information regarding DM (type 2 DM only), the use of antidiabetic medications, other comorbidities, and survival outcomes. The colon cancer-specific survival (CSS) and the overall survival (OS) were compared between patients with and without DM. Results. We selected 6,937 colon cancer patients, among whom 1,371 (19.8%) had DM. The colon cancer patients with DM were older and less likely to receive adjuvant chemotherapy but had a similar tumor stage and grade, compared with colon cancer patients without DM. Compared with colon cancer patients without DM, patients with DM had significantly shorter OS (5-year OS: 71.0% vs. 81.7%) and CSS (5-year CSS: 86.7% vs. 89.2%). After adjusting for age, sex, stage, adjuvant chemotherapy, and comorbidities in our multivariate analysis, DM remained an independent prognostic factor for overall mortality (adjusted hazards ratio: 1.32, 95% confidence interval: 1.18–1.49), but not for cancer-specific mortality. Among the colon cancer patients who had received antidiabetic drug therapy, patients who had used insulin had significantly shorter CSS and OS than patients who had not. Conclusion. Among patients who receive curative surgery for early colon cancer, DM is a predictor of increased overall mortality. PMID:25061090

  17. PGE{sub 2}-induced colon cancer growth is mediated by mTORC1

    SciTech Connect

    Dufour, Marc Faes, Seraina Dormond-Meuwly, Anne Demartines, Nicolas Dormond, Olivier

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • PGE{sub 2} activates mTORC1 in colon cancer cells. • Inhibition of mTORC1 blocks PGE{sub 2} induced colon cancer cell growth. • mTORC1 is a signaling intermediary in PGE{sub 2} induced colon cancer cell responses. - Abstract: The inflammatory prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) cytokine plays a key role in the development of colon cancer. Several studies have shown that PGE{sub 2} directly induces the growth of colon cancer cells and furthermore promotes tumor angiogenesis by increasing the production of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The signaling intermediaries implicated in these processes have however not been fully characterized. In this report, we show that the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) plays an important role in PGE{sub 2}-induced colon cancer cell responses. Indeed, stimulation of LS174T cells with PGE{sub 2} increased mTORC1 activity as observed by the augmentation of S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation, a downstream effector of mTORC1. The PGE{sub 2} EP{sub 4} receptor was responsible for transducing the signal to mTORC1. Moreover, PGE{sub 2} increased colon cancer cell proliferation as well as the growth of colon cancer cell colonies grown in matrigel and blocking mTORC1 by rapamycin or ATP-competitive inhibitors of mTOR abrogated these effects. Similarly, the inhibition of mTORC1 by downregulation of its component raptor using RNA interference blocked PGE{sub 2}-induced LS174T cell growth. Finally, stimulation of LS174T cells with PGE{sub 2} increased VEGF production which was also prevented by mTORC1 inhibition. Taken together, these results show that mTORC1 is an important signaling intermediary in PGE{sub 2} mediated colon cancer cell growth and VEGF production. They further support a role for mTORC1 in inflammation induced tumor growth.

  18. Liver X receptor β activation induces pyroptosis of human and murine colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Derangère, V; Chevriaux, A; Courtaut, F; Bruchard, M; Berger, H; Chalmin, F; Causse, S Z; Limagne, E; Végran, F; Ladoire, S; Simon, B; Boireau, W; Hichami, A; Apetoh, L; Mignot, G; Ghiringhelli, F; Rébé, C

    2014-01-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) have been proposed to have some anticancer properties, through molecular mechanisms that remain elusive. Here we report for the first time that LXR ligands induce caspase-1-dependent cell death of colon cancer cells. Caspase-1 activation requires Nod-like-receptor pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and ATP-mediated P2 × 7 receptor activation. Surprisingly, LXRβ is mainly located in the cytoplasm and has a non-genomic role by interacting with pannexin 1 leading to ATP secretion. Finally, LXR ligands have an antitumoral effect in a mouse colon cancer model, dependent on the presence of LXRβ, pannexin 1, NLRP3 and caspase-1 within the tumor cells. Our results demonstrate that LXRβ, through pannexin 1 interaction, can specifically induce caspase-1-dependent colon cancer cell death by pyroptosis. PMID:25124554

  19. Noscapine induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human colon cancer cells in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zi-Rong; Liu, Meng; Peng, Xiu-Lan; Lei, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Ji-Xiang; Dong, Wei-Guo

    2012-05-11

    Noscapine, a phthalide isoquinoline alkaloid derived from opium, has been widely used as a cough suppressant for decades. Noscapine has recently been shown to potentiate the anti-cancer effects of several therapies by inducing apoptosis in various malignant cells without any detectable toxicity in cells or tissues. However, the mechanism by which noscapine induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells remains unclear. The signaling pathways by which noscapine induces apoptosis were investigated in colon cancer cell lines treated with various noscapine concentrations for 72 h, and a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability was observed. Noscapine effectively inhibited the proliferation of LoVo cells in vitro (IC(50)=75 μM). This cytotoxicity was reflected by cell cycle arrest at G(2)/M and subsequent apoptosis, as indicated by increased chromatin condensation and fragmentation, the upregulation of Bax and cytochrome c (Cyt-c), the downregulation of survivin and Bcl-2, and the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Moreover, in a xenograft tumor model in mice, noscapine injection clearly inhibited tumor growth via the induction of apoptosis, which was demonstrated using a TUNEL assay. These results suggest that noscapine induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells via mitochondrial pathways. Noscapine may be a safe and effective chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of human colon cancer.

  20. 5-Fluorouracil resistant colon cancer cells are addicted to OXPHOS to survive and enhance stem-like traits

    PubMed Central

    Calvani, Maura; Taddei, Maria Letizia; Giannoni, Elisa; Kopetz, Scott; Kazmi, Syed Mohammad Ali; Pia, Morelli Maria; Pettazzoni, Piergiorgio; Sacco, Elena; Caselli, Anna; Vanoni, Marco; Landriscina, Matteo; Cirri, Paolo; Chiarugi, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Despite marked tumor shrinkage after 5-FU treatment, the frequency of colon cancer relapse indicates that a fraction of tumor cells survives treatment causing tumor recurrence. The majority of cancer cells divert metabolites into anabolic pathways through Warburg behavior giving an advantage in terms of tumor growth. Here, we report that treatment of colon cancer cell with 5-FU selects for cells with mesenchymal stem-like properties that undergo a metabolic reprogramming resulting in addiction to OXPHOS to meet energy demands. 5-FU treatment-resistant cells show a de novo expression of pyruvate kinase M1 (PKM1) and repression of PKM2, correlating with repression of the pentose phosphate pathway, decrease in NADPH level and in antioxidant defenses, promoting PKM2 oxidation and acquisition of stem-like phenotype. Response to 5-FU in a xenotransplantation model of human colon cancer confirms activation of mitochondrial function. Combined treatment with 5-FU and a pharmacological inhibitor of OXPHOS abolished the spherogenic potential of colon cancer cells and diminished the expression of stem-like markers. These findings suggest that inhibition of OXPHOS in combination with 5-FU is a rational combination strategy to achieve durable treatment response in colon cancer. PMID:26527315

  1. 5-fluorouracil resistant colon cancer cells are addicted to OXPHOS to survive and enhance stem-like traits.

    PubMed

    Denise, Corti; Paoli, Paolo; Calvani, Maura; Taddei, Maria Letizia; Giannoni, Elisa; Kopetz, Scott; Kazmi, Syed Mohammad Ali; Pia, Morelli Maria; Pettazzoni, Piergiorgio; Sacco, Elena; Caselli, Anna; Vanoni, Marco; Landriscina, Matteo; Cirri, Paolo; Chiarugi, Paola

    2015-12-08

    Despite marked tumor shrinkage after 5-FU treatment, the frequency of colon cancer relapse indicates that a fraction of tumor cells survives treatment causing tumor recurrence. The majority of cancer cells divert metabolites into anabolic pathways through Warburg behavior giving an advantage in terms of tumor growth. Here, we report that treatment of colon cancer cell with 5-FU selects for cells with mesenchymal stem-like properties that undergo a metabolic reprogramming resulting in addiction to OXPHOS to meet energy demands. 5-FU treatment-resistant cells show a de novo expression of pyruvate kinase M1 (PKM1) and repression of PKM2, correlating with repression of the pentose phosphate pathway, decrease in NADPH level and in antioxidant defenses, promoting PKM2 oxidation and acquisition of stem-like phenotype. Response to 5-FU in a xenotransplantation model of human colon cancer confirms activation of mitochondrial function. Combined treatment with 5-FU and a pharmacological inhibitor of OXPHOS abolished the spherogenic potential of colon cancer cells and diminished the expression of stem-like markers. These findings suggest that inhibition of OXPHOS in combination with 5-FU is a rational combination strategy to achieve durable treatment response in colon cancer.

  2. MicroRNA Profiles Discriminate among Colon Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Drusco, Alessandra; Nuovo, Gerard J.; Zanesi, Nicola; Di Leva, Gianpiero; Pichiorri, Flavia; Volinia, Stefano; Fernandez, Cecilia; Antenucci, Anna; Costinean, Stefan; Bottoni, Arianna; Rosito, Immacolata A.; Liu, Chang-Gong; Burch, Aaron; Acunzo, Mario; Pekarsky, Yuri; Alder, Hansjuerg; Ciardi, Antonio; Croce, Carlo M.

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are being exploited for diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of cancer and other diseases. Their high tissue specificity and critical role in oncogenesis provide new biomarkers for the diagnosis and classification of cancer as well as predicting patients' outcomes. MicroRNAs signatures have been identified for many human tumors, including colorectal cancer (CRC). In most cases, metastatic disease is difficult to predict and to prevent with adequate therapies. The aim of our study was to identify a microRNA signature for metastatic CRC that could predict and differentiate metastatic target organ localization. Normal and cancer tissues of three different groups of CRC patients were analyzed. RNA microarray and TaqMan Array analysis were performed on 66 Italian patients with or without lymph nodes and/or liver recurrences. Data obtained with the two assays were analyzed separately and then intersected to identify a primary CRC metastatic signature. Five differentially expressed microRNAs (hsa-miR-21, -103, -93, -31 and -566) were validated by qRT-PCR on a second group of 16 American metastatic patients. In situ hybridization was performed on the 16 American patients as well as on three distinct commercial tissues microarray (TMA) containing normal adjacent colon, the primary adenocarcinoma, normal and metastatic lymph nodes and liver. Hsa-miRNA-21, -93, and -103 upregulation together with hsa-miR-566 downregulation defined the CRC metastatic signature, while in situ hybridization data identified a lymphonodal invasion profile. We provided the first microRNAs signature that could discriminate between colorectal recurrences to lymph nodes and liver and between colorectal liver metastasis and primary hepatic tumor. PMID:24921248

  3. Role of connexins in metastatic breast cancer and melanoma brain colonization.

    PubMed

    Stoletov, Konstantin; Strnadel, Jan; Zardouzian, Erin; Momiyama, Masashi; Park, Frederick D; Kelber, Jonathan A; Pizzo, Donald P; Hoffman, Robert; VandenBerg, Scott R; Klemke, Richard L

    2013-02-15

    Breast cancer and melanoma cells commonly metastasize to the brain using homing mechanisms that are poorly understood. Cancer patients with brain metastases display poor prognosis and survival due to the lack of effective therapeutics and treatment strategies. Recent work using intravital microscopy and preclinical animal models indicates that metastatic cells colonize the brain, specifically in close contact with the existing brain vasculature. However, it is not known how contact with the vascular niche promotes microtumor formation. Here, we investigate the role of connexins in mediating early events in brain colonization using transparent zebrafish and chicken embryo models of brain metastasis. We provide evidence that breast cancer and melanoma cells utilize connexin gap junction proteins (Cx43, Cx26) to initiate brain metastatic lesion formation in association with the vasculature. RNAi depletion of connexins or pharmacological blocking of connexin-mediated cell-cell communication with carbenoxolone inhibited brain colonization by blocking tumor cell extravasation and blood vessel co-option. Activation of the metastatic gene twist in breast cancer cells increased Cx43 protein expression and gap junction communication, leading to increased extravasation, blood vessel co-option and brain colonization. Conversely, inhibiting twist activity reduced Cx43-mediated gap junction coupling and brain colonization. Database analyses of patient histories revealed increased expression of Cx26 and Cx43 in primary melanoma and breast cancer tumors, respectively, which correlated with increased cancer recurrence and metastasis. Together, our data indicate that Cx43 and Cx26 mediate cancer cell metastasis to the brain and suggest that connexins might be exploited therapeutically to benefit cancer patients with metastatic disease.

  4. Metastasis of sigmoid colon cancer in cryptorchid testis: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Rampa, Mario; Battaglia, Luigi; Caprotti, Andrea; Gazzano, Giacomo; Prestianni, Pierpaolo; Muscarà, Cecilia; Vannelli, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Isolated testicular metastasis from colorectal cancer is considered an unusual event. In this case report we describe for the first time a metastasis from an adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon to a cryptorchid testis. The patient developed a painless testicular nodule three years after the diagnosis of primary sigmoid colon cancer. Recent reports have suggested that the incidence of genitourinary abnormalities in human males has increased over the past 50 years; in particular, cryptorchid testes increase the clinical risk factors for primary or metastatic testicular cancer. In conclusion, there should be awareness of the risk of metastasis of colorectal cancer to the testis in the workup of patients with testicular symptoms. Furthermore, patients with colorectal cancer and cryptorchidism should be managed with a single surgical intervention: when the primary colorectal tumor is removed, the cryptorchid testicle should also be removed to reduce the risk of late metastases.

  5. Incidence and Predictors of Bowel Obstruction in Elderly Patients With Stage IV Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Winner, Megan; Mooney, Stephen J.; Hershman, Dawn L.; Feingold, Daniel L.; Allendorf, John D.; Wright, Jason D.; Neugut, Alfred I.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Research has been limited on the incidence, mechanisms, etiology, and treatment of symptoms that require palliation in patients with terminal cancer. Bowel obstruction (BO) is a common complication of advanced abdominal cancer, including colon cancer, for which small, single-institution studies have suggested an incidence rate of 15% to 29%. Large population-based studies examining the incidence or risk factors associated with BO in cancer are lacking. OBJECTIVE To investigate the incidence and risk factors associated with BO in patients with stage IV colon cancer. DESIGN AND SETTING Retrospective cohort, population-based study of patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results and Medicare claims linked databases who were diagnosed as having stage IV colon cancer from January 1, 1991, through December 31, 2005. PATIENTS Patients 65 years or older with stage IV colon cancer (n = 12 553). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Time to BO, defined by inpatient hospitalization for BO. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to determine associations between BO and patient, prior treatment, and tumor features. RESULTS We identified 1004 patients with stage IV colon cancer subsequently hospitalized with BO (8.0%). In multivariable analysis, proximal tumor site (hazard ratio, 1.22 [95% CI, 1.07–1.40]), high tumor grade (1.34 [1.16–1.55]), mucinous histological type (1.27 [1.08–1.50]), and nodal stage N2 (1.52 [1.26–1.84]) were associated with increased risk of BO, as was the presence of obstruction at cancer diagnosis (1.75 [1.47–2.04]). A more recent diagnosis was associated with decreased risk of subsequent obstruction (hazard ratio, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.72–0.98]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this large population of patients with stage IV colon cancer, BO after diagnosis was less common (8.0%) than previously reported. Risk was associated with site and histological type of the primary tumor. Future studies will explore management and

  6. Chemokine 25–induced signaling suppresses colon cancer invasion and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huanhuan Joyce; Edwards, Robert; Tucci, Serena; Bu, Pengcheng; Milsom, Jeff; Lee, Sang; Edelmann, Winfried; Gümüs, Zeynep H.; Shen, Xiling; Lipkin, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Chemotactic cytokines (chemokines) can help regulate tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Here, we show that chemokine 25 (CCL25) and its cognate receptor chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9) inhibit colorectal cancer (CRC) invasion and metastasis. We found that CCR9 protein expression levels were highest in colon adenomas and progressively decreased in invasive and metastatic CRCs. CCR9 was expressed in both primary tumor cell cultures and colon-cancer-initiating cell (CCIC) lines derived from early-stage CRCs but not from metastatic CRC. CCL25 stimulated cell proliferation by activating AKT signaling. In vivo, systemically injected CCR9+ early-stage CCICs led to the formation of orthotopic gastrointestinal xenograft tumors. Blocking CCR9 signaling inhibited CRC tumor formation in the native gastrointestinal CCL25+ microenvironment, while increasing extraintestinal tumor incidence. NOTCH signaling, which promotes CRC metastasis, increased extraintestinal tumor frequency by stimulating CCR9 proteasomal degradation. Overall, these data indicate that CCL25 and CCR9 regulate CRC progression and invasion and further demonstrate an appropriate in vivo experimental system to study CRC progression in the native colon microenvironment. PMID:22863617

  7. Identification of Risk Factors for Recurrence in High-Risk Stage II Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hatano, Satoshi; Ishida, Hideyuki; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Haga, Norihiro; Miura, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    To identify risk factors for recurrence in patients with stage II colon cancer, Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed in 194 patients with stage II colon cancer who underwent curative surgery between April 1997 and December 2008. Thirteen clinical and pathologic factors, including use of fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy in 113 of the patients (58.2%), were assessed. By multivariate analysis, only obstruction, perforation, and T4-level invasion were identified as independent risk factors affecting disease-free survival (DFS) (P < 0.01). The 5-year DFS rate was 70.6% in patients with one or more risk factors (n = 68) and 96.0% in patients with no risk factors (n = 126) (P < 0.01). These results suggest that obstruction, perforation, and T4-level invasion are suitable candidates for prediction of tumor recurrence in patients with stage II colon cancer. The oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy, which has been reported to be effective in stage III colon cancer patients, may improve the prognosis in high-risk stage II colon cancer patients. PMID:23701145

  8. PHLPP regulates hexokinase 2-dependent glucose metabolism in colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xiaopeng; Wen, Yang-An; Mitov, Mihail I; C Oaks, Mary; Miyamoto, Shigeki; Gao, Tianyan

    2017-01-01

    Increased glucose metabolism is considered as one of the most important metabolic alterations adapted by cancer cells in order to generate energy as well as high levels of glycolytic intermediates to support rapid proliferation. PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase (PHLPP) belongs to a novel family of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases that function as tumor suppressors in various types of human cancer. Here we determined the role of PHLPP in regulating glucose metabolism in colon cancer cells. Knockdown of PHLPP increased the rate of glucose consumption and lactate production, whereas overexpression of PHLPP had the opposite effect. Bioenergetic analysis using Seahorse Extracelluar Flux Analyzer revealed that silencing PHLPP expression induced a glycolytic shift in colon cancer cells. Mechanistically, we found that PHLPP formed a complex with Akt and hexokinase 2 (HK2) in the mitochondrial fraction of colon cancer cells and knockdown of PHLPP enhanced Akt-mediated phosphorylation and mitochondrial localization of HK2. Depletion of HK2 expression or treating cells with Akt and HK2 inhibitors reversed PHLPP loss-induced increase in glycolysis. Furthermore, PHLPP knockdown cells became addicted to glucose as a major energy source in that glucose starvation significantly decreased cancer cell survival. As HK2 is the key enzyme that determines the direction and magnitude of glucose flux, our study identified PHLPP as a novel regulator of glucose metabolism by controlling HK2 activity in colon cancer cells. PMID:28179998

  9. The oncogenic effects of p53-inducible gene 3 (PIG3) in colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon-Joo; Kim, Hong Beum; Kim, Jeeho

    2017-01-01

    The p53-inducible gene 3 (PIG3), initially identified as a gene downstream of p53, plays an important role in the apoptotic process triggered by p53-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Recently, several studies have suggested that PIG3 may play a role in various types of cancer. However, the functional significance of PIG3 in cancer remains unclear. Here, we found that PIG3 was highly expressed in human colon cancer cell lines compared to normal colonderived fibroblasts. Therefore, we attempted to elucidate the functional role of PIG3 in colon cancer. PIG3 overexpression increases the colony formation, migration and invasion ability of HCT116 colon cancer cells. Conversely, these tumorigenic abilities were significantly decreased in in vitro studies with PIG3 knockdown HCT116 cells. PIG3 knockdown also attenuated the growth of mouse xenograft tumors. These results demonstrate that PIG3 is associated with the tumorigenic potential of cancer cells, both in vitro and in vivo, and could play a key oncogenic role in colon cancer. PMID:28280421

  10. Tucatinib (ONT-380) and Trastuzumab for Patients With HER2-positive Metastatic Colorectal Cancer (MOUNTAINEER)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-13

    Colorectal Cancer; Colorectal Carcinoma; Colorectal Tumors; Neoplasms, Colorectal; HER-2 Gene Amplification; Metastatic Cancer; Metastatic Colon Cancer; Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum

  11. Cannabinoids receptor type 2, CB2, expression correlates with human colon cancer progression and predicts patient survival.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martínez, Esther; Gómez, Irene; Martín, Paloma; Sánchez, Antonio; Román, Laura; Tejerina, Eva; Bonilla, Félix; Merino, Antonio García; de Herreros, Antonio García; Provencio, Mariano; García, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is altered in different tumor types, including colon cancer. However, little is known about the role of the ECS in tumor progression. Here we report the correlation between CB 2 expression and pathological data in a series of 175 colorectal cancer patients, as well as the response of the HT29 colon cancer-derived cell line upon CB 2 activation. CB 2 mRNA was detected in 28.6% of samples tested. It was more frequent in N+ patients and predicts disease free survival and overall survival in colon cancer. In positive samples, CB 2 was expressed with great intensity in tumor epithelial cells and correlated with tumor growth. Treatment of HT29 with CB 2 agonist revealed membrane loss of E-cadherin and SNAIL1 overexpression. A direct correlation between CB 2 and SNAIL1 expression was also found in human tumors. CB 2 receptor expression is a poor prognostic marker for colon cancer and the activation of this receptor, with non-apoptotic doses of agonists, could be collaborating with disease progression. These results raise the question whether the activation of CB 2 should be considered as anti-tumoral therapy.

  12. Cannabinoids receptor type 2, CB2, expression correlates with human colon cancer progression and predicts patient survival

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Martínez, Esther; Gómez, Irene; Martín, Paloma; Sánchez, Antonio; Román, Laura; Tejerina, Eva; Bonilla, Félix; Merino, Antonio García; de Herreros, Antonio García; Provencio, Mariano; García, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is altered in different tumor types, including colon cancer. However, little is known about the role of the ECS in tumor progression. Here we report the correlation between CB2 expression and pathological data in a series of 175 colorectal cancer patients, as well as the response of the HT29 colon cancer-derived cell line upon CB2 activation. CB2 mRNA was detected in 28.6% of samples tested. It was more frequent in N+ patients and predicts disease free survival and overall survival in colon cancer. In positive samples, CB2 was expressed with great intensity in tumor epithelial cells and correlated with tumor growth. Treatment of HT29 with CB2 agonist revealed membrane loss of E-cadherin and SNAIL1 overexpression. A direct correlation between CB2 and SNAIL1 expression was also found in human tumors. CB2 receptor expression is a poor prognostic marker for colon cancer and the activation of this receptor, with non-apoptotic doses of agonists, could be collaborating with disease progression. These results raise the question whether the activation of CB2 should be considered as anti-tumoral therapy. PMID:25859556

  13. Colon cancer presented with sigmoid volvulus: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Aras, Abbas; Kızıltan, Remzi; Batur, Abdussamet; Çelik, Sebahattin; Yılmaz, Özkan; Kotan, Çetin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sigmoid volvulus is the most prevalent type of colonic volvulus. Colon cancer is seen less where sigmoid volvulus is common, so it is rare to see that colon cancer is synchronous with sigmoid volvulus. Presentation of case We would like to present a case of sigmoid volvulus caused by colon cancer in a male patient aged 80 who was referred to the hospital with toxaemic shock presentation. Discussion Sigmoid cancer can be presented as sigmoid volvulus to the emergency department. In intestinal obstruction early diagnosis is of crucial importance. Computarized tomography is a diagnosis tool that should be preferred both in the diagnosis of obstruction and in detecting its cause, localisation, degree and complications. Conclusion When surgery is performed due to the urgent colonic obstruction in colonic volvulus diagnosed patients, a colon tumour should be considered in the same column loops or in the distal colon. We believe that CT is the method that should be preferred in large-bowel obstruction suspected patients. PMID:26519810

  14. Interactome analysis of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in murine models of colon and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Aliper, Alexander M; Frieden-Korovkina, Victoria P; Buzdin, Anton; Roumiantsev, Sergey A; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2014-11-30

    In solid cancers, myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) infiltrate (peri)tumoral tissues to induce immune tolerance and hence to establish a microenvironment permissive to tumor growth. Importantly, the mechanisms that facilitate such infiltration or a subsequent immune suppression are not fully understood. Hence, in this study, we aimed to delineate disparate molecular pathways which MDSC utilize in murine models of colon or breast cancer. Using pathways enrichment analysis, we completed interactome maps of multiple signaling pathways in CD11b+/Gr1(high/low) MDSC from spleens and tumor infiltrates of mice with c26GM colon cancer and tumor infiltrates of MDSC in 4T1 breast cancer. In both cancer models, infiltrating MDSC, but not CD11b+ splenic cells, have been found to be enriched in multiple signaling molecules suggestive of their enhanced proliferative and invasive phenotypes. The interactome data has been subsequently used to reconstruct a previously unexplored regulation of MDSC cell cycle by the c-myc transcription factor which was predicted by the analysis. Thus, this study represents a first interactome mapping of distinct multiple molecular pathways whereby MDSC sustain cancer progression.

  15. SNP Regulation of microRNA Expression and Subsequent Colon Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Mullany, Lila E.; Wolff, Roger K.; Herrick, Jennifer S.; Buas, Matthew F.; Slattery, Martha L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and as such have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer. MiRNAs regulate mRNAs through binding of the miRNA 5’ seed sequence (~7–8 nucleotides) to the mRNA 3’ UTRs; polymorphisms in these regions have the potential to alter miRNA-mRNA target associations. SNPs in miRNA genes as well as miRNA-target genes have been proposed to influence cancer risk through altered miRNA expression levels. Methods MiRNA-SNPs and miRNA-target gene-SNPs were identified through the literature. We used SNPs from Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) data that were matched to individuals with miRNA expression data generated from an Agilent platform for colon tumor and non-tumor paired tissues. These samples were used to evaluate 327 miRNA-SNP pairs for associations between SNPs and miRNA expression levels as well as for SNP associations with colon cancer. Results Twenty-two miRNAs expressed in non-tumor tissue were significantly different by genotype and 21 SNPs were associated with altered tumor/non-tumor differential miRNA expression across genotypes. Two miRNAs were associated with SNP genotype for both non-tumor and tumor/non-tumor differential expression. Of the 41 miRNAs significantly associated with SNPs all but seven were significantly differentially expressed in colon tumor tissue. Two of the 41 SNPs significantly associated with miRNA expression levels were associated with colon cancer risk: rs8176318 (BRCA1), ORAA 1.31 95% CI 1.01, 1.78, and rs8905 (PRKAR1A), ORGG 2.31 95% CI 1.11, 4.77. Conclusion Of the 327 SNPs identified in the literature as being important because of their potential regulation of miRNA expression levels, 12.5% had statistically significantly associations with miRNA expression. However, only two of these SNPs were significantly associated with colon cancer. PMID:26630397

  16. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulates cell motility in human colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ssu-Ming; Lin, Chingju; Lin, Hsiao-Yun; Chiu, Chien-Ming; Fang, Chia-Wei; Liao, Kuan-Fu; Chen, Dar-Ren; Yeh, Wei-Lan

    2015-06-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potent neurotrophic factor that has been shown to affect cancer cell metastasis and migration. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms of BDNF-induced cell migration in colon cancer cells. The migratory activities of two colon cancer cell lines, HCT116 and SW480, were found to be increased in the presence of human BDNF. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO)-1 is known to be involved in the development and progression of tumors. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie HO-1 in the regulation of colon cancer cell migration remain unclear. Expression of HO-1 protein and mRNA increased in response to BDNF stimulation. The BDNF-induced increase in cell migration was antagonized by a HO-1 inhibitor and HO-1 siRNA. Furthermore, the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) also increased in response to BDNF stimulation, as did VEGF mRNA expression and transcriptional activity. The increase in BDNF-induced cancer cell migration was antagonized by a VEGF-neutralizing antibody. Moreover, transfection with HO-1 siRNA effectively reduced the increased VEGF expression induced by BDNF. The BDNF-induced cell migration was regulated by the ERK, p38, and Akt signaling pathways. Furthermore, BDNF-increased HO-1 and VEGF promoter transcriptional activity were inhibited by ERK, p38, and AKT pharmacological inhibitors and dominant-negative mutants in colon cancer cells. These results indicate that BDNF increases the migration of colon cancer cells by regulating VEGF/HO-1 activation through the ERK, p38, and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. The results of this study may provide a relevant contribution to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which BDNF promotes colon cancer cell motility.

  17. Collaborative Model for Acceleration of Individualized Therapy of Colon Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) COLORADO , DENVER 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER...Individualized Therapy of Colon Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Aik Choon Tan, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO

  18. Gut Bacteria May Link Diet, Colon Cancer, Study Says

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163274.html Gut Bacteria May Link Diet, Colon Cancer, Study Says High- ... link appears to be a type of intestinal bacteria, the Boston research team said. Specifically, they looked ...

  19. Colon Cancer Rates, Deaths Drop in Americans Over 50

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163856.html Colon Cancer Rates, Deaths Drop in Americans Over 50 Report suggests higher ... over 50 fell 32 percent since 2000, while deaths from the disease fell by 34 percent. Those ...

  20. Vitamin E, Selenium Don't Cut Colon Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162669.html Vitamin E, Selenium Don't Cut Colon Cancer Risk: ... 2016 WEDNESDAY, Dec. 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Taking vitamin E and selenium does not appear to reduce ...

  1. 15-LOX-1 suppression of hypoxia-induced metastatic phenotype and HIF-1α expression in human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuanqing; Mao, Fei; Zuo, Xiangsheng; Moussalli, Micheline J; Elias, Elias; Xu, Weiguo; Shureiqi, Imad

    2014-06-01

    The expression of 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) is downregulated in colon cancer and other major cancers, and 15-LOX-1 reexpression in cancer cells suppresses colonic tumorigenesis. Various lines of evidence indicate that 15-LOX-1 expression suppresses premetastatic stages of colonic tumorigenesis; nevertheless, the role of 15-LOX-1 loss of expression in cancer epithelial cells in metastases continues to be debated. Hypoxia, a common feature of the cancer microenvironment, promotes prometastatic mechanisms such as the upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, a transcriptional master regulator that enhances cancer cell metastatic potential, angiogenesis, and tumor cell invasion and migration. We have, therefore, tested whether restoring 15-LOX-1 in colon cancer cells affects cancer cells' hypoxia response that promotes metastasis. We found that 15-LOX-1 reexpression in HCT116, HT29LMM, and LoVo colon cancer cells inhibited survival, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, angiogenesis, cancer cell migration and invasion, and HIF-1α protein expression and stability under hypoxia. These findings demonstrate that 15-LOX-1 expression loss in cancer cells promotes metastasis and that therapeutically targeting ubiquitous 15-LOX-1 loss in cancer cells has the potential to suppress metastasis.

  2. 15-LOX-1 suppression of hypoxia-induced metastatic phenotype and HIF-1α expression in human colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuanqing; Mao, Fei; Zuo, Xiangsheng; Moussalli, Micheline J; Elias, Elias; Xu, Weiguo; Shureiqi, Imad

    2014-01-01

    The expression of 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) is downregulated in colon cancer and other major cancers, and 15-LOX-1 reexpression in cancer cells suppresses colonic tumorigenesis. Various lines of evidence indicate that 15-LOX-1 expression suppresses premetastatic stages of colonic tumorigenesis; nevertheless, the role of 15-LOX-1 loss of expression in cancer epithelial cells in metastases continues to be debated. Hypoxia, a common feature of the cancer microenvironment, promotes prometastatic mechanisms such as the upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, a transcriptional master regulator that enhances cancer cell metastatic potential, angiogenesis, and tumor cell invasion and migration. We have, therefore, tested whether restoring 15-LOX-1 in colon cancer cells affects cancer cells' hypoxia response that promotes metastasis. We found that 15-LOX-1 reexpression in HCT116, HT29LMM, and LoVo colon cancer cells inhibited survival, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, angiogenesis, cancer cell migration and invasion, and HIF-1α protein expression and stability under hypoxia. These findings demonstrate that 15-LOX-1 expression loss in cancer cells promotes metastasis and that therapeutically targeting ubiquitous 15-LOX-1 loss in cancer cells has the potential to suppress metastasis. PMID:24634093

  3. Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Colon, Pancreatic, or Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-27

    Recurrent Colon Cancer; Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Rectal Cancer; Limited Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Stage III Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Pancreatic Cancer; Stage II Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IVB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage II Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Pancreatic Cancer

  4. Methods for Detecting Circulating Cancer Stem Cells (CCSCs) as a Novel Approach for Diagnosis of Colon Cancer Relapse/Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Kantara, Carla; O’Connell, Malaney; Luthra, Gurinder; Gajjar, Aakash; Sarkar, Shubhashish; Ullrich, Robert; Singh, Pomila

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are believed to be resistant to currently available therapies and maybe responsible for relapse of cancer in patients. Measuring circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood of patients has emerged as a non-invasive diagnostic procedure for screening patients who may be at high risk for developing metastatic cancers or relapse of the cancer disease. However, accurate detection of CTCs has remained a problem, since epithelial-cell-markers used to-date, are not always reliable for detecting CTCs, especially during epithelial-mesenchymal-transition. Since CSCs are required to initiate metastatic tumors, our goal was to optimize and standardize a method for identifying circulating CSCs (CCSCs) in patients, using established CSC markers. Here, we report for the first time the detection of CCSCs in blood of athymic nude mice, bearing metastatic tumors, and in the blood of patients positive for colonic adenocarcinomas. Using a simple and non-expensive method, we isolated a relatively pure population of CSCs (CD45−/CK19+), free of red blood cells and largely free of contaminating CD45+ white blood cells. Enriched CCSCs from patients with colon adenocarcinomas had a malignant phenotype and co-expressed CSC markers (DCLK1/LGR5) with CD44/Annexin A2. CSCs were not found in the blood of non-cancer patients, free of colonic growths. Enriched CCSCs from colon cancer patients grew primary spheroids, suggesting presence of tumor-initiating cells in the blood of these patients. In conclusion, we have developed a novel diagnostic assay for detecting CSCs in circulation, which may more accurately predict the risk of relapse or metastatic disease in patients. Since CSCs can potentially initiate metastatic growths, patients positive for CCSCs can be treated with inhibitory agents that selectively target CSCs, besides conventional treatments, to reduce the risk of relapse/metastatic disease for improving clinical outcomes. PMID:25347154

  5. Proteins that interact with calgranulin B in the human colon cancer cell line HCT-116

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Hee; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Shin, Daye; Kim, Jong Heon; Cho, Jae Youl; Yoo, Byong Chul

    2017-01-01

    Calgranulin B is released from immune cells and can be internalized into colon cancer cells to prevent proliferation. The present study aimed to identify proteins that interact with calgranulin B to suppress the proliferation of colon cancer cells, and to obtain information on the underlying anti-tumor mechanism(s) of calgranulin B. Calgranulin B expression was induced in colon cancer cell line HCT-116 by infection with calgranulin B-FLAG expressing lentivirus, and it led to a significant suppression of cell proliferation. Proteins that interacted with calgranulin B were obtained by immunoprecipitation using whole homogenate of lentivirus-infected HCT-116 cells which expressing calgranulin B-FLAG, and identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 454 proteins were identified that potentially interact with calgranulin B, and most identified proteins were associated with RNA processing, post-transcriptional modifications and the EIF2 signaling pathway. Direct interaction of calgranulin B with flotillin-1, dynein intermediate chain 1, and CD59 glycoprotein has been confirmed, and the molecules N-myc proto-oncogene protein, rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR, and myc proto-oncogene protein were shown to regulate calgranulin B-interacting proteins. Our results provide new insight and useful information to explain the possible mechanism(s) underlying the role of calgranulin B as an anti-tumor effector in colon cancer cells. PMID:28036279

  6. Irinotecan-Eluting Beads in Treating Patients With Refractory Metastatic Colon or Rectal Cancer That Has Spread to the Liver

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-24

    Liver Metastases; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

  7. [Detection of multiple colon and rectal tumors during diagnostic treatment and follow-up].

    PubMed

    Pikó, Béla; Rahóty, Pál; Krémer, Ildikó; Zsilák, János; Török, Enikõ; Bassam, Ali; Csiffári, Margit; Dimák, Sándor; Kis, Anita; Rus-Gal, Paul; Szabó, Zsolt; Veréb, Blanka; Puskásné Szatmári, Klára

    2011-11-01

    Recognition of the commonly encountered colorectal cancer (CRC) generally begins and takes place because of and based on symptoms and signs, due to the unsettled screening of this type of cancer. Sometimes, because of advanced stage cancer urgent surgical intervention could become necessary and, if this is the case, there is no time and possibility for searching for an eventual second tumor and perhaps the patient's status does not permit performing intraoperative investigations either. The incidence of multiple colon cancer is considered to be between 2.5 and 30% according to the literature. That is why one should exclude them even in the absence of pre- and intraoperative investigations and complaints. On the other hand, colonoscopy and perhaps irrigoscopy of seemingly healthy followed-up patients is mandatory. In the case of the presence of complaints/symptoms denoting impaired intestinal passage seen in a followed-up patient or during the adjuvant setting or metastatic/recurrent disease, treatment and even during hospice care we should evaluate the possibility of a second metachronous tumor. Moreover, if there is no urgency, the multidisciplinary team (oncoteam) should recommend the adequate treatment by balancing gain/utility and risk.

  8. Experimental radioimmunotherapy of a xenografted human colonic tumor (GW-39) producing carcinoembryonic antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Goldenberg, D.M.; Gaffar, S.A.; Bennett, S.J.; Beach, J.L.

    1981-11-01

    Experiments were undertaken to evaluate the antitumor effects of 131I-labeled goat antibody immunoglobulin G prepared against carcinoembryonic antigen in hamsters bearing the carcinoembryonic antigen-producing GW-39 human colonic carcinoma. At a single injection of 1 mCi 131I and higher, a marked growth inhibition of GW-39 tumors, as well as a considerable increase in the survival time of the tumor-bearing hamsters, could be achieved. At a dose of 1 mCi, the radioactive affinity-purified antibody appeared to be superior to radioactive normal goat immunoglobulin G in influencing tumor growth and survival time, but no significant difference could be seen at the higher dose of 2 mCi given. Radiobiological calculations indicated that the tumors received, at up to 20 days after therapy, 1325 rads for the specific antibody and only 411 rads for the normal immunoglobulin G preparation. These findings encourage the further evaluation of antibodies to tumor markers for isotopic cancer therapy.

  9. Downregulation of LIMK1–ADF/cofilin by DADS inhibits the migration and invasion of colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jian; Zhou, Yujuan; Pan, Zhibing; Shi, Ling; Yang, Jing; Liao, Aijun; Liao, Qianjin; Su, Qi

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore whether the downregulation of LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1)-actin depolymerization factor (ADF, also known as destrin)/cofilin by diallyl disulfide (DADS) inhibited the migration and invasion of colon cancer. Previous studies have shown that silencing LIMK1 could significantly enhance the inhibitory effect of DADS on colon cancer cell migration and invasion, suggesting that LIMK1 was a target molecule of DADS, which needed further confirmation. This study reported that LIMK1 and destrin were highly expressed in colon cancer and associated with poor prognosis of patients with colon cancer. Also, the expression of LIMK1 was positively correlated with the expression of destrin. The overexpression of LIMK1 significantly promoted colon cancer cell migration and invasion. DADS obviously inhibited migration and invasion by suppressing the phosphorylation of ADF/cofilin via downregulation of LIMK1 in colon cancer cells. Furthermore, DADS-induced suppression of cell proliferation was enhanced and antagonized by the knockdown and overexpression of LIMK1 in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Similar results were observed for DADS-induced changes in the expression of vimentin, CD34, Ki-67, and E-cadherin in xenografted tumors. These results indicated that LIMK1 was a potential target molecule for the inhibitory effect of DADS on colon cancer cell migration and invasion. PMID:28358024

  10. Idelalisib induces PUMA-dependent apoptosis in colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shida; Zhu, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Ning; Yao, Zhicheng

    2017-01-01

    Idelalisib, a PI3K inhibitor, specifically targeting p110δ, has been approved for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. However, the mechanisms of action of idelalisib in colon cancer cells are not well understood. We investigated how idelalisib suppresses colon cancer cells growth and potentiates effects of other chemotherapeutic drugs. In this study, we found that idelalisib treatment induces PUMA in colon cancer cells irrespective of p53 status through the p65 pathway following AKT inhibition and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) activation. PUMA is necessary for idelalisib-induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Idelalisib also synergized with 5-FU or regorafenib to induce marked apoptosis via PUMA in colon cancer cells. Furthermore, PUMA deficiency suppressed apoptosis and antitumor effect of idelalisib in xenograft model. These results demonstrate a critical role of PUMA in mediating the anticancer effects of idelalisib in colon cancer cells and suggest that PUMA induction can be used as an indicator of idelalisib sensitivity, and also have important implications for it clinical applications. PMID:28008149

  11. Idelalisib induces PUMA-dependent apoptosis in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shida; Zhu, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Ning; Yao, Zhicheng

    2017-01-24

    Idelalisib, a PI3K inhibitor, specifically targeting p110δ, has been approved for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. However, the mechanisms of action of idelalisib in colon cancer cells are not well understood. We investigated how idelalisib suppresses colon cancer cells growth and potentiates effects of other chemotherapeutic drugs. In this study, we found that idelalisib treatment induces PUMA in colon cancer cells irrespective of p53 status through the p65 pathway following AKT inhibition and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) activation. PUMA is necessary for idelalisib-induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Idelalisib also synergized with 5-FU or regorafenib to induce marked apoptosis via PUMA in colon cancer cells. Furthermore, PUMA deficiency suppressed apoptosis and antitumor effect of idelalisib in xenograft model. These results demonstrate a critical role of PUMA in mediating the anticancer effects of idelalisib in colon cancer cells and suggest that PUMA induction can be used as an indicator of idelalisib sensitivity, and also have important implications for it clinical applications.

  12. Natural products and colon cancer: current status and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Rajamanickam, Subapriya; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2008-01-01

    Carcinogenesis is a multistage process consisting of initiation, promotion and progression phases. Thus, the multistage sequence of events has many phases for prevention and intervention. Chemoprevention, a novel approach for controlling cancer, involves the use of specific natural products or synthetic chemical agents to reverse, suppress or prevent premalignancy before the development of invasive cancer. Several natural products, such as, grains, nuts, cereals, spices, fruits, vegetables, beverages, medicinal plants and herbs and their various phytochemical constituents including, phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, alkaloids, nitrogen containing as well as organosulfur compounds confer protective effects against wide range of cancers including colon cancer. Since diet has an important role in the etiology of colon cancer, dietary chemoprevention received attention for colon cancer prevention. However, identification of an agent with chemopreventive potential requires in vitro studies, efficacy and toxicity studies in animal models before embarking on human clinical trials. A brief introduction about colon cancer and the role of some recent natural products in colon cancer chemoprevention with respect to multiple molecular mechanisms in various in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies are described in this review. PMID:19884979

  13. Isothiocyanate analogs targeting CD44 receptor as an effective strategy against colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Suniti; Vyas, Alok; O’Brien, Paul; Markwald, Roger R.; Khetmalas, Madhukar; Hascall, Vincent C.; McCarthy, James B.; Karamanos, Nikos K.; Tammi, Markku I.; Tammi, Raija H.; Prestwitch, Glenn D.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory pathway plays an important role in tumor cell progression of colorectal cancers. Although colon cancer is considered as one of the leading causes of death worldwide, very few drugs are available for its effective treatment. Many studies have examined the effects of specific COX-2 and 5-LOX inhibitors on human colorectal cancer, but the role of isothiocyanates (ITSCs) as COX–LOX dual inhibitors engaged in hyaluronan–CD44 interaction has not been studied. In the present work, we report series of ITSC analogs incorporating bioisosteric thiosemicarbazone moiety. These inhibitors are effective against panel of human colon cancer cell lines including COX-2 positive HCA-7, HT-29 cells lines, and hyaluronan synthase-2 (Has2) enzyme over-expressing transformed intestinal epithelial Apc10.1Has2 cells. Specifically, our findings indicate that HA-CD44v6-mediated COX-2/5-LOX signaling mediate survivin production, which in turn, supports anti-apoptosis and chemo-resistance leading to colon cancer cell survival. The over-expression of CD44v6shRNA as well as ITSC treatment significantly decreases the survival of colon cancer cells. The present results thus offer an opportunity to evolve potent inhibitors of HA synthesis and CD44v6 pathway and thus underscoring the importance of the ITSC analogs as chemopreventive agents for targeting HA/CD44v6 pathway. PMID:25013352

  14. American ginseng suppresses Western diet-promoted tumorigenesis in model of inflammation-associated colon cancer: role of EGFR

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Western diets increase colon cancer risk. Epidemiological evidence and experimental studies suggest that ginseng can inhibit colon cancer development. In this study we asked if ginseng could inhibit Western diet (20% fat) promoted colonic tumorigenesis and if compound K, a microbial metabolite of ginseng could suppress colon cancer xenograft growth. Methods Mice were initiated with azoxymethane (AOM) and, two weeks later fed a Western diet (WD, 20% fat) alone, or WD supplemented with 250-ppm ginseng. After 1 wk, mice received 2.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 5 days and were sacrificed 12 wks after AOM. Tumors were harvested and cell proliferation measured by Ki67 staining and apoptosis by TUNEL assay. Levels of EGF-related signaling molecules and apoptosis regulators were determined by Western blotting. Anti-tumor effects of intraperitoneal compound K were examined using a tumor xenograft model and compound K absorption measured following oral ginseng gavage by UPLC-mass spectrometry. Effects of dietary ginseng on microbial diversity were measured by analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA. Results Ginseng significantly inhibited colonic inflammation and tumorigenesis and concomitantly reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis. The EGFR cascade was up-regulated in colonic tumors and ginseng significantly reduced EGFR and ErbB2 activation and Cox-2 expression. Dietary ginseng altered colonic microbial diversity, and bacterial suppression with metronidazole reduced serum compound K following ginseng gavage. Furthermore, compound K significantly inhibited tumor xenograft growth. Conclusions Ginseng inhibited colonic inflammation and tumorigenesis promoted by Western diet. We speculate that the ginseng metabolite compound K contributes to the chemopreventive effects of this agent in colonic tumorigenesis. PMID:22070864

  15. Surveillance and Survivorship after Treatment for Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Makhoul, Rami; Alva, Suraj; Wilkins, Kirsten B.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer diagnosed in the United States. Majority of patients have localized disease that is amenable to curative resection. Disease recurrence remains a major concern after resection. In addition, patients are at an increased risk for developing a second or metachronous colon cancer. The principal goal of surveillance following treatment of colon cancer is to improve disease-free and overall survival. Survivorship is a distinct phase following surveillance to help improve quality of life and promote longevity. PMID:26648797

  16. mTOR Inhibition Elicits a Dramatic Response in PI3K-Dependent Colon Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Deming, Dustin A.; Leystra, Alyssa A.; Farhoud, Mohammed; Nettekoven, Laura; Clipson, Linda; Albrecht, Dawn; Washington, Mary Kay; Sullivan, Ruth; Weichert, Jamey P.; Halberg, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway is critical for multiple cellular functions including metabolism, proliferation, angiogenesis, and apoptosis, and is the most commonly altered pathway in human cancers. Recently, we developed a novel mouse model of colon cancer in which tumors are initiated by a dominant active PI3K (FC PIK3ca*). The cancers in these mice are moderately differentiated invasive mucinous adenocarcinomas of the proximal colon that develop by 50 days of age. Interestingly, these cancers form without a benign intermediary or aberrant WNT signaling, indicating a non-canonical mechanism of tumorigenesis. Since these tumors are dependent upon the PI3K pathway, we investigated the potential for tumor response by the targeting of this pathway with rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor. A cohort of FC PIK3ca* mice were treated with rapamycin at a dose of 6 mg/kg/day or placebo for 14 days. FDG dual hybrid PET/CT imaging demonstrated a dramatic tumor response in the rapamycin arm and this was confirmed on necropsy. The tumor tissue remaining after treatment with rapamycin demonstrated increased pERK1/2 or persistent phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (pS6), indicating potential resistance mechanisms. This unique model will further our understanding of human disease and facilitate the development of therapeutics through pharmacologic screening and biomarker identification. PMID:23593290

  17. Unusually large colon cancer cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases occurring in resection scars.

    PubMed

    Alexandrescu, Doru T; Vaillant, Juan; Yahr, Laura J; Kelemen, Pond; Wiernik, Peter H

    2005-08-01

    Development of cutaneous metastases from colon cancer is a rare event, usually occurring in the setting of diffusely-disseminated disease and commonly carrying a dismal prognosis. Cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases in surgical scars occur extremely rarely, with only a few cases reported. We describe two cases of cutaneous metastases from colon cancer. A 62-year-old woman developed an 11-cm midline abdominal mass that slowly grew on the skin surface. The mass occurred at the scar site of her previous surgery performed 5 years prior for resection of a colon adenocarcinoma. A 46-year-old male presented with a subcutaneous 4.5-cm nodule in midline-abdominal scar, 3 years after resection of the primary colon cancer. These cases illustrate the pathological features and natural history of cutaneous metastases observed until the tumors have reached a very large size. Particular features of cutaneous scar metastases from colon cancer observed in our cases are a superficial pattern of spread, strong positivity for EGFR, low serum carcinoembrionic antigen, and long survival of the patients, possibly contributed to by the use of chemotherapy.

  18. beta-Catenin regulates vascular endothelial growth factor expression in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Easwaran, Vijay; Lee, Sang H; Inge, Landon; Guo, Lida; Goldbeck, Cheryl; Garrett, Evelyn; Wiesmann, Marion; Garcia, Pablo D; Fuller, John H; Chan, Vivien; Randazzo, Filippo; Gundel, Robert; Warren, Robert S; Escobedo, Jaime; Aukerman, Sharon L; Taylor, Robert N; Fantl, Wendy J

    2003-06-15

    To evaluate whether beta-catenin signaling has a role in the regulation of angiogenesis in colon cancer, a series of angiogenesis-related gene promoters was analyzed for beta-catenin/TCF binding sites. Strikingly, the gene promoter of human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, or VEGF-A) contains seven consensus binding sites for beta-catenin/TCF. Analysis of laser capture microdissected human colon cancer tissue indicated a direct correlation between up-regulation of VEGF-A expression and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutational status (activation of beta-catenin signaling) in primary tumors. In metastases, this correlation was not observed. Analysis by immunohistochemistry of intestinal polyps in mice heterozygous for the multiple intestinal neoplasia gene (Min/+) at 5 months revealed an increase and redistribution of VEGF-A in proximity to those cells expressing nuclear beta-catenin with a corresponding increase in vessel density. Transfection of normal colon epithelial cells with activated beta-catenin up-regulated levels of VEGF-A mRNA and protein by 250-300%. When colon cancer cells with elevated beta-catenin levels were treated with beta-catenin antisense oligodeoxynucleotides, VEGF-A expression was reduced by more than 50%. Taken together, our observations indicate a close link between beta-catenin signaling and the regulation of VEGF-A expression in colon cancer.

  19. Cholera-toxin suppresses carcinogenesis in a mouse model of inflammation-driven sporadic colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Doulberis, Michael; Angelopoulou, Katerina; Kaldrymidou, Eleni; Tsingotjidou, Anastasia; Abas, Zaphiris; Erdman, Suzan E; Poutahidis, Theofilos

    2015-02-01

    Human studies and clues from animal models have provided important links between gastrointestinal (GI) tract bacteria and colon cancer. Gut microbiota antigenic stimuli play an important role in shaping the intestinal immune responses. Therefore, especially in the case of inflammation-associated colon cancer, gut bacteria antigens may affect tumorigenesis. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the oral administration of a bacterial product with known immunomodulatory properties on inflammation-driven colorectal neoplasmatogenesis. For that, we used cholera-toxin and a well-established mouse model of colon cancer in which neoplasia is initiated by a single dose of the genotoxic agent azoxymethane (AOM) and subsequently promoted by inflammation caused by the colitogenic substance dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). We found that a single, low, non-pathogenic dose of CT, given orally at the beginning of each DSS treatment cycle downregulated neutrophils and upregulated regulatory T-cells and IL-10 in the colonic mucosa. The CT-induced disruption of the tumor-promoting character of DSS-induced inflammation led to the reduction of the AOM-initiated colonic polypoidogenesis. This result adds value to the emerging notion that certain GI tract bacteria or their products affect the immune system and render the microenvironment of preneoplastic lesions less favorable for promoting their evolution to cancer.

  20. Curcumin derivative WZ35 efficiently suppresses colon cancer progression through inducing ROS production and ER stress-dependent apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junru; Feng, Zhiguo; Wang, Chunhua; Zhou, Huiping; Liu, Weidong; Kanchana, Karvannan; Dai, Xuanxuan; Zou, Peng; Gu, Junlian; Cai, Lu; Liang, Guang

    2017-01-01

    Colon cancer is characterized by its fast progression and poor prognosis, and novel agents of treating colon cancer are urgently needed. WZ35, a synthetic curcumin derivative, has been reported to exhibit promising antitumor activity. Here, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo activities of WZ35 and explored the underlying mechanisms in colon cancer cell lines. WZ35 treatment significantly decreased the cell viability associated with G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction in colon cancer cell lines. We also show that WZ35 is highly effective in inhibiting tumor growth in a CT26 xenograft mouse model. Mechanistically, WZ35 treatment significantly induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in CT26 cells. Abrogation of ROS production by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) co-treatment almost totally reversed the WZ35-induced cell apoptosis and ER stress activation. Inhibition of p-PERK by GSK2606414 can significantly reverse WZ35-induced cell apoptosis in CT26 cells. Taken together, the curcumin derivative WZ35 exhibited anti-tumor effects in colon cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, via a ROS-ER stress-mediated mechanism. These findings indicate that activating ROS generation could be an important strategy for the treatment of colon cancers. PMID:28337376

  1. Models of Human Metastatic Colon Cancer in Nude Mice Orthotopically Constructed by Using Histologically Intact Patient Specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xinyu; Besterman, Jeffrey M.; Monosov, Ann; Hoffman, Robert M.

    1991-10-01

    There is an important need for clinically relevant animal models for human cancers. Toward this goal, histologically intact human colon-cancer specimens derived surgically from patients were implanted orthotopically to the colon or cecum of nude mice. We have observed extensive orthotopic growth in 13 of 20 cases of implanted patient colon tumors. These showed various growth patterns with subsequent regional, lymph-node, and liver metastasis, as well as general abdominal carcinomatosis. Thus, models for human colon cancer have been developed that show (i) local growth, (ii) abdominal metastasis, (iii) general abdominal carcinomatosis with extensive peritoneal seeding, (iv) lymph-node metastasis, (v) liver metastasis, and (vi) colonic obstruction. These models permit the passage of the tumors to form large cohorts. They will facilitate research into the biology of colon cancer metastatic capability and the development of new drugs active against metastatic cancer. These models may also predict the clinical course and the in vivo response to drugs of the cancer of individual patients.

  2. Antitumor Activity of Human Hydatid Cyst Fluid in a Murine Model of Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Sofía; Berois, Nora; Fernández, Gabriel; Freire, Teresa; Osinaga, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the antitumor immune response induced by human hydatic cyst fluid (HCF) in an animal model of colon carcinoma. We found that anti-HCF antibodies were able to identify cell surface and intracellular antigens in CT26 colon cancer cells. In prophylactic tumor challenge experiments, HCF vaccination was found to be protective against tumor formation for 40% of the mice (P = 0.01). In the therapeutic setting, HCF vaccination induced tumor regression in 40% of vaccinated mice (P = 0.05). This vaccination generated memory immune responses that protected surviving mice from tumor rechallenge, implicating the development of an adaptive immune response in this process. We performed a proteomic analysis of CT26 antigens recognized by anti-HCF antibodies to analyze the immune cross-reactivity between E. granulosus (HCF) and CT26 colon cancer cells. We identified two proteins: mortalin and creatine kinase M-type. Interestingly, CT26 mortalin displays 60% homology with E. granulosus hsp70. In conclusion, our data demonstrate the capacity of HCF vaccination to induce antitumor immunity which protects from tumor growth in an animal model. This new antitumor strategy could open new horizons in the development of highly immunogenic anticancer vaccines. PMID:24023528

  3. MicroRNA-320a suppresses human colon cancer cell proliferation by directly targeting {beta}-catenin

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jian-Yong; Huang, Yi; Li, Ji-Peng; Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Lei; Meng, Yan-Ling; Yan, Bo; Bian, Yong-Qian; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Wei-Zhong; and others

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-320a is downregulated in human colorectal carcinoma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of miR-320a inhibits colon cancer cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {beta}-Catenin is a direct target of miR-320a in colon cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-320a expression inversely correlates with mRNA expression of {beta}-catenin's target genes in human colon carcinoma. -- Abstract: Recent profile studies of microRNA (miRNA) expression have documented a deregulation of miRNA (miR-320a) in human colorectal carcinoma. However, its expression pattern and underlying mechanisms in the development and progression of colorectal carcinoma has not been elucidated clearly. Here, we performed real-time PCR to examine the expression levels of miR-320a in colon cancer cell lines and tumor tissues. And then, we investigated its biological functions in colon cancer cells by a gain of functional strategy. Further more, by the combinational approaches of bioinformatics and experimental validation, we confirmed target associations of miR-320a in colorectal carcinoma. Our results showed that miR-320a was frequently downregulated in cancer cell lines and colon cancer tissues. And we demonstrated that miR-320a restoration inhibited colon cancer cell proliferation and {beta}-catenin, a functionally oncogenic molecule was a direct target gene of miR-320a. Finally, the data of real-time PCR showed the reciprocal relationship between miR-320a and {beta}-catenin's downstream genes in colon cancer tissues. These findings indicate that miR-320a suppresses the growth of colon cancer cells by directly targeting {beta}-catenin, suggesting its application in prognosis prediction and cancer treatment.

  4. The anti-cancer effects of poi (Colocasia esculenta) on colonic adenocarcinoma cells In vitro.

    PubMed

    Brown, Amy C; Reitzenstein, Jonathan E; Liu, Jessie; Jadus, Martin R

    2005-09-01

    Hawaiians tend to have lower incidence rates of colorectal cancer and it was hypothesized that this may be due to ethnic differences in diet, specifically, their consumption of poi, a starchy paste made from the taro (Colocasia esulenta L.) plant corm. Soluble extracts of poi were incubated at 100 mg/mL in vitro for antiproliferative activity against the rat YYT colon cancer cell line. (3)H-thymidine incorporation studies were conducted to demonstrate that the poi inhibited the proliferation of these cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. The greatest suppression of YYT colon cancer growth occurred when 25% concentration was used. When poi was incubated with the YYT cells after 2 days, the YYT cells underwent apoptotic changes as evidenced by a positive terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) stain. Poi enhanced the proliferation of normal mouse splenocyte control cells, suggesting that poi is not simply toxic to all cells but even has a positive immunostimulatory role. By flow cytometry, T cells (CD4+ and CD8+) were predominantly activated by the poi. Although numerous factors can contribute to the risk of colon cancer, perhaps poi consumption may contribute to the lower colon cancer rates among Hawaiians by two distinct mechanisms. First, by inducing apoptosis within colon cancer cells; second, by non-specifically activating lymphocytes, which in turn can lyse cancerous cells. Our results suggest for the first time that poi may have novel tumor specific anti-cancer activities and future research is suggested with animal studies and human clinical trials.

  5. Nanocytology of rectal colonocytes to assess risk of colon cancer based on field cancerization.

    PubMed

    Damania, Dhwanil; Roy, Hemant K; Subramanian, Hariharan; Weinberg, David S; Rex, Douglas K; Goldberg, Michael J; Muldoon, Joseph; Cherkezyan, Lusik; Zhu, Yuanjia; Bianchi, Laura K; Shah, Dhiren; Pradhan, Prabhakar; Borkar, Monica; Lynch, Henry; Backman, Vadim

    2012-06-01

    Developing a minimally invasive and cost-effective prescreening strategy for colon cancer is critical because of the impossibility of conducting colonoscopy on the entire at-risk population. The concept of field carcinogenesis, in which normal-appearing tissue away from a tumor has molecular and, consequently, nano-architectural abnormalities, offers one attractive approach to identify high-risk patients. In this study, we investigated whether the novel imaging technique partial wave spectroscopic (PWS) microscopy could risk-stratify patients harboring precancerous lesions of the colon, using an optically measured biomarker (L(d)) obtained from microscopically normal but nanoscopically altered cells. Rectal epithelial cells were examined from 146 patients, including 72 control patients, 14 patients with diminutive adenomas, 20 patients with nondiminutive/nonadvanced adenomas, 15 patients with advanced adenomas/high-grade dysplasia, 12 patients with genetic mutation leading to Lynch syndrome, and 13 patients with cancer. We found that the L(d) obtained from rectal colonocytes was well correlated with colon tumorigenicity in our patient cohort and in an independent validation set of 39 additional patients. Therefore, our findings suggest that PWS-measured L(d) is an accurate marker of field carcinogenesis. This approach provides a potential prescreening strategy for risk stratification before colonoscopy.

  6. Nanocytology of rectal colonocytes to assess risk of colon cancer based on field cancerization

    PubMed Central

    Damania, Dhwanil; Roy, Hemant K.; Subramanian, Hariharan; Weinberg, David S.; Rex, Douglas K.; Goldberg, Michael J.; Muldoon, Joseph; Cherkezyan, Lusik; Zhu, Yuanjia; Bianchi, Laura K.; Shah, Dhiren; Pradhan, Prabhakar; Borkar, Monica; Lynch, Henry; Backman, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    Developing a minimally invasive and cost effective pre-screening strategy for colon cancer is critical, because of the impossibility of performing colonoscopy on the entire at-risk population. The concept of field carcinogenesis, in which normal-appearing tissue away from a tumor has molecular and, consequently, nano-architectural abnormalities, offers one attractive approach to identify high-risk patients. In this study, we investigated whether the novel imaging technique partial-wave spectroscopic (PWS) microscopy could risk-stratify patients harboring precancerous lesions of the colon, using an optically measured biomarker (Ld) obtained from microscopically normal but nanoscopically altered cells. Rectal epithelial cells were examined from 146 patients, including 72 control patients, 14 patients with diminutive adenomas, 20 patients with non-advanced-non-diminutive adenomas, 15 patients with advanced adenomas/high-grade dysplasia, 12 patients with genetic mutation leading to Lynch syndrome, and 13 cancer patients. We found that the Ld obtained from rectal colonocytes was well-correlated with colon tumorigenicity in our patient cohort and in an independent validation set of 39 additional patients. Therefore, our findings suggest that PWS-measured Ld is an accurate marker of field carcinogenesis. This approach provides a potential pre-screening strategy for risk stratification before colonoscopy. PMID:22491589

  7. IL-32θ inhibits stemness and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of cancer stem cells via the STAT3 pathway in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Yesol; Kwon, Taeho; Bak, In seon; Hong, Jintae; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Yoon, Do-Young

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-32 is a well-known cytokine associated with inflammation, virus infections and cancer. IL-32θ is a newly identified isoform of IL-32, whose function has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated IL-32θ function in colon cancer stem cells. Using samples from colon cancer patients, we found that the expression of IL-32θ mRNAs was significantly suppressed in tumor regions. We investigated the effects of IL-32θ on colon cancer. Ectopic expression of IL-32θ attenuated invasion, migration in vitro and in vivo tumorigenicity of colon cancer cells. IL-32θ inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), resulting in the suppression of their migratory and invasive capabilities of HT29 colon cancer cells. In addition, IL-32θ altered various properties of CSCs, including sphere formation and expression of stemness related genes. IL-32θ directly bound to STAT3 and inhibited its nuclear translocation, leading to inhibited transcription of downstream factors, including Bmi1 and ZEB1. We showed that IL-32θ inhibited the STAT3-ZEB1 pathway and consequently inhibited key factors of stemness and EMT. Taken together, our findings reveal that IL-32θ can be a tumor suppressor, indicating that IL-32θ could possibly be used in therapies for colon cancer. PMID:26824417

  8. Noscapine induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human colon cancer cells in vivo and in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zi-Rong; Liu, Meng; Peng, Xiu-Lan; Lei, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Ji-Xiang; Dong, Wei-Guo

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Noscapine inhibited cell viability of colon cancer in a time- and dose- dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer G{sub 2}/M phase arrest and chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation were induced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Noscapine promoted apoptosis via mitochondrial pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tumorigenicity was inhibited by noscapine. -- Abstract: Noscapine, a phthalide isoquinoline alkaloid derived from opium, has been widely used as a cough suppressant for decades. Noscapine has recently been shown to potentiate the anti-cancer effects of several therapies by inducing apoptosis in various malignant cells without any detectable toxicity in cells or tissues. However, the mechanism by which noscapine induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells remains unclear. The signaling pathways by which noscapine induces apoptosis were investigated in colon cancer cell lines treated with various noscapine concentrations for 72 h, and a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability was observed. Noscapine effectively inhibited the proliferation of LoVo cells in vitro (IC{sub 50} = 75 {mu}M). This cytotoxicity was reflected by cell cycle arrest at G{sub 2}/M and subsequent apoptosis, as indicated by increased chromatin condensation and fragmentation, the upregulation of Bax and cytochrome c (Cyt-c), the downregulation of survivin and Bcl-2, and the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Moreover, in a xenograft tumor model in mice, noscapine injection clearly inhibited tumor growth via the induction of apoptosis, which was demonstrated using a TUNEL assay. These results suggest that noscapine induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells via mitochondrial pathways. Noscapine may be a safe and effective chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of human colon cancer.

  9. Mechanisms involved in biological behavior changes associated with Angptl4 expression in colon cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xue-Feng; Han, Jie; Hu, Xiao-Tong; He, Chao

    2012-05-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths throughout the world. Angiopoietin-like-4 (Angptl4), a member of the angiopoietin family of secreted proteins, is frequently expressed in the perinecrotic areas of different human tumors, yet its role is still unclear in colorectal cancer. Angptl4 mRNA expression in primary colorectal cancer tissue and seven colon cancer cell lines was measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR; the influence of Angptl4 expression on the colon cancer cell lines was investigated by either overexpression or knockdown of Angptl4 in colon cancer cell lines HCT116 and HT29, respectively. The results showed that Angptl4 mRNA is frequently expressed in human colorectal cancer tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of Angptl4 promoted cell migration, F-actin reorganization and formation of pseudopodia. Further investigation showed that high Angptl4 expression was associated with an increase in ezrin/radixin/moesin and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein expression and a decrease in E-cadherin expression. These results indicate that overexpression of Angptl4 may promote invasion and metastasis in CRC.

  10. Diet-Induced Obesity Is Associated with an Impaired NK Cell Function and an Increased Colon Cancer Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Goritz, Vincent; Doberstein, Henriette; Hiller, Grit Gesine Ruth; Rosenstock, Philip; Jahn, Janine; Pörtner, Ole; Berreis, Tobias; Mueller, Thomas; Spielmann, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased colon cancer incidence, but underlying mechanisms remained unclear. Previous studies showed altered Natural killer (NK) cell functions in obese individuals. Therefore, we studied the impact of an impaired NK cell functionality on the increased colon cancer risk in obesity. In vitro investigations demonstrated a decreased IFN-γ secretion and cytotoxicity of human NK cells against colon tumor cells after NK cell preincubation with the adipokine leptin. In addition, leptin incubation decreased the expression of activating NK cell receptors. In animal studies, colon cancer growth was induced by injection of azoxymethane (AOM) in normal weight and diet-induced obese rats. Body weight and visceral fat mass were increased in obese animals compared to normal weight rats. AOM-treated obese rats showed an increased quantity, size, and weight of colon tumors compared to the normal weight tumor group. Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated a decreased number of NK cells in spleen and liver in obesity. Additionally, the expression levels of activating NK cell receptors were lower in spleen and liver of obese rats. The results show for the first time that the decreased number and impaired NK cell function may be one cause for the higher colon cancer risk in obesity. PMID:28357137

  11. Label-free detection of tumor markers in a colon carcinoma tumor progression model by confocal Raman microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalfi-Happ, Claudia; Rück, Angelika; Udart, Martin; Hauser, Carmen; Dürr, Christine; Kriebel, Martin

    2013-06-01

    Living colon carcinoma cells were investigated by confocal Raman microspectroscopy. An in vitro model of tumor progression was established. Evaluation of data sets by cluster analysis reveals that lipid bodies might be a valuable diagnostic parameter for early carcinogenesis.

  12. PAC1 and PACAP expression, signaling, and effect on the growth of HCT8, human colonic tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Le, Sang V; Yamaguchi, Dean J; McArdle, Craig A; Tachiki, Ken; Pisegna, Joseph R; Germano, Patrizia

    2002-11-15

    The pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) type 1 receptor (PAC1) is a heptahelical, G protein-coupled receptor that has been shown to be expressed by non-squamous lung cancer and breast cancer cell lines, and to be coupled to the growth of these tumors. We have previously shown that PACAP and its receptor, PAC1, are expressed in rat colonic tissue. In this study, we used polyclonal antibodies directed against the COOH terminal of PAC1, as well as fluorescently labeled PACAP, Fluor-PACAP, to demonstrate the expression of PAC1 on HCT8 human colonic tumor cells, using FACS analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Similarly, anti-PACAP polyclonal antibodies were used to confirm the expression of PACAP hormone by this cell line. We then investigated the signal transduction properties of PAC1 in these tumor cells. PACAP-38 elevated intracellular cAMP levels in a dose-dependent manner, with a half-maximal (EC(50)) stimulation of approximately 3 nM. In addition, PACAP-38 stimulation caused an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration [Ca(2+)](i), which was partially inhibited by the PACAP antagonist, PACAP-(6-38). Finally, we studied the potential role of PACAP upon the growth of these tumor cells. We found that PACAP-38, but not VIP, increased the number of viable HCT8 cells, as measured by MTT activity. We also demonstrated that HCT8 cells expressed the Fas receptor (Fas-R/CD95), which was subsequently down-regulated upon activation with PACAP-38, further suggesting a possible role for PACAP in the growth and survival of these tumor cells. These data indicate that HCT8 human colon tumor cells express PAC1 and produce PACAP hormone. Furthermore, PAC1 activation is coupled to adenylate cyclase, increase cytosolic [Ca(2+)](i), and cellular proliferation. Therefore, PACAP is capable of increasing the number of viable cells and regulating Fas-R expression in a human colonic cancer cell line, suggesting that PACAP might play a role in the

  13. Honokiol in combination with radiation targets notch signaling to inhibit colon cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ponnurangam, Sivapriya; Mammen, Joshua M V; Ramalingam, Satish; He, Zhiyun; Zhang, Youcheng; Umar, Shahid; Subramaniam, Dharmalingam; Anant, Shrikant

    2012-04-01

    Cancer stem cells are implicated in resistance to ionizing radiation (IR) and chemotherapy. Honokiol, a biphenolic compound has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating various ailments. In this study, we determined the ability of honokiol to enhance the sensitivity of colon cancer stem cells to IR. The combination of honokiol and IR suppressed proliferation and colony formation while inducing apoptosis of colon cancer cells in culture. There were also reduced numbers and size of spheroids, which was coupled with reduced expression of cancer stem cell marker protein DCLK1. Flow cytometry studies confirmed that the honokiol-IR combination reduced the number of DCLK1+ cells. In addition, there were reduced levels of activated Notch-1, its ligand Jagged-1, and the downstream target gene Hes-1. Furthermore, expression of components of the Notch-1 activating γ-secretase complex, presenilin 1, nicastrin, Pen2, and APH-1 was also suppressed. On the other hand, the honokiol effects were mitigated when the Notch intracellular domain was expressed. To determine the effect of honokiol-IR combination on tumor growth in vivo, nude mice tumor xenografts were administered honokiol intraperitoneally and exposed to IR. The honokiol-IR combination significantly inhibited tumor xenograft growth. In addition, there were reduced levels of DCLK1 and the Notch signaling-related proteins in the xenograft tissues. Together, these data suggest that honokiol is a potent inhibitor of colon cancer growth that targets the stem cells by inhibiting the γ-secretase complex and the Notch signaling pathway. These studies warrant further clinical evaluation for the combination of honokiol and IR for treating colon cancers.

  14. DDA1 promotes stage IIB–IIC colon cancer progression by activating NFκB/CSN2/GSK-3β signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hongcheng; Wen, Yugang; Yu, Fudong; Cui, Feifei; Zhang, Dongyuan; Xue, Yingming; Liu, Chenchen; Yue, Ben; Chen, Jian; Wang, Jingtao; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Meng; Yu, Yang; Jiang, Weiliang; Liu, Xisheng; Mi, Yushuai; Zhou, Zongguang; Qin, Xuebin; Peng, Zhihai

    2016-01-01

    Conventional high-recurrence risk factors are not sufficient to predict post-operative risk of tumor recurrence or sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy for stage II colon cancer. DDA1, an evolutionarily conserved gene located at 19p13.11, may be involved in the activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NFκB). This study aimed to investigate whether DDA1 contributes to tumorigenesis and progression of stage II colon cancer via activation of the NFκB pathway. We found that positive expression of DDA1 alone or in combination with p65 nuclear translocation correlated with increased risk of tumor recurrence in patients with stage IIB–IIC colon cancer. DDA1 overexpression in colon cancer lines promoted cell proliferation, facilitated cell cycle progression, inhibited 5-FU-induced apoptosis, enhanced invasion, and induced the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Suppression of DDA1 inhibited tumor progression, and reduced tumor growth in vivo. We also demonstrated that DDA1-mediated tumor progression is associated with the activation of the NFκB/COP9 signalosome 2(CSN2)/glycogen synthase kinase3β (GSK3β) pathway. These results indicate that DDA1 promotes colon cancer progression through activation of NFκB/CSN2/GSK3β signaling. DDA1, together with NFκB activation status, may serve as a sensitive biomarker for tumor recurrence risk and prognosis in patients with stage IIB–IIC colon cancers. PMID:26942699

  15. Acidic microenvironment and bone pain in cancer-colonized bone

    PubMed Central

    Yoneda, Toshiyuki; Hiasa, Masahiro; Nagata, Yuki; Okui, Tatsuo; White, Fletcher A

    2015-01-01

    Solid cancers and hematologic cancers frequently colonize bone and induce skeletal-related complications. Bone pain is one of the most common complications associated with cancer colonization in bone and a major cause of increased morbidity and diminished quality of life, leading to poor survival in cancer patients. Although the mechanisms responsible for cancer-associated bone pain (CABP) are poorly understood, it is likely that complex interactions among cancer cells, bone cells and peripheral nerve cells contribute to the pathophysiology of CABP. Clinical observations that specific inhibitors of osteoclasts reduce CABP indicate a critical role of osteoclasts. Osteoclasts are proton-secreting cells and acidify extracellular bone microenvironment. Cancer cell-colonized bone also releases proton/lactate to avoid intracellular acidification resulting from increased aerobic glycolysis known as the Warburg effect. Thus, extracellular microenvironment of cancer-colonized bone is acidic. Acidosis is algogenic for nociceptive sensory neurons. The bone is densely innervated by the sensory neurons that express acid-sensing nociceptors. Collectively, CABP is evoked by the activation of these nociceptors on the sensory neurons innervating bone by the acidic extracellular microenvironment created by bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-colonizing cancer cells. As current treatments do not satisfactorily control CABP and can elicit serious side effects, new therapeutic interventions are needed to manage CABP. Understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanism by which the acidic extracellular microenvironment is created in cancer-colonized bone and by which the expression and function of the acid-sensing nociceptors on the sensory neurons are regulated would facilitate to develop novel therapeutic approaches for the management of CABP. PMID:25987988

  16. Simvastatin inhibits tumor angiogenesis in HER2-overexpressing human colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Zheng, Junhua; Xu, Bin; Ling, Jie; Qiu, Wei; Wang, Yongbing

    2017-01-01

    Overexpression of the HER2 oncogene contributes to tumor angiogenesis, which is an essential hallmark of cancer. Simvastatin has been reported to exhibit antitumor activities in several cancers; however, its roles and molecular mechanismsin the regulation of colorectal angiogenesis remain to be clarified. Here, we show that colon cancer cells express high levels of VEGF, total HER2 and phosphorylated HER2, and simvastatin apparently decreased their expression in HER2-overexpressing colon cancer cells. Simvastatin pretreatment reduced endothelial tube formation in vitro and microvessel density in vivo. Furthermore, simvastatin markedly inhibited tumor angiogenesis even in the presence of heregulin (HRG)-β1 (a HER2 co-activator) pretreatment in HER2+ tumor cells. Mechanistic investigation showed that simvastatin significantly abrogated HER2-induced tumor angiogenesis by inhibiting VEGF secretion. Together, these results provide a novel mechanism underlying the simvastatin-induced inhibition of tumor angiogenesis through regulating HER2/VEGF axis.

  17. Patterns of metastasis in colon and rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Riihimäki, Matias; Hemminki, Akseli; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Investigating epidemiology of metastatic colon and rectal cancer is challenging, because cancer registries seldom record metastatic sites. We used a population based approach to assess metastatic spread in colon and rectal cancers. 49,096 patients with colorectal cancer were identified from the nationwide Swedish Cancer Registry. Metastatic sites were identified from the National Patient Register and Cause of Death Register. Rectal cancer more frequently metastasized into thoracic organs (OR = 2.4) and the nervous system (1.5) and less frequently within the peritoneum (0.3). Mucinous and signet ring adenocarcinomas more frequently metastasized within the peritoneum compared with generic adenocarcinoma (3.8 [colon]/3.2 [rectum]), and less frequently into the liver (0.5/0.6). Lung metastases occurred frequently together with nervous system metastases, whereas peritoneal metastases were often listed with ovarian and pleural metastases. Thoracic metastases are almost as common as liver metastases in rectal cancer patients with a low stage at diagnosis. In colorectal cancer patients with solitary metastases the survival differed between 5 and 19 months depending on T or N stage. Metastatic patterns differ notably between colon and rectal cancers. This knowledge should help clinicians to identify patients in need for extra surveillance and gives insight to further studies on the mechanisms of metastasis. PMID:27416752

  18. Is right-sided colon cancer different to left-sided colorectal cancer? - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lee, G H; Malietzis, G; Askari, A; Bernardo, D; Al-Hassi, H O; Clark, S K

    2015-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) exhibits differences in incidence, pathogenesis, molecular pathways and outcome depending on the location of the tumor. This review focuses on the latest developments in epidemiological and scientific studies, which have enhanced our understanding on the underlying genetic and immunological differences between the proximal (right-sided) colon and the distal (left-sided) colorectum. The different ways in which environmental risk factors influence the pathogenesis of CRC depending on its location and the variations in surgical and oncological outcomes are also discussed in this review. In the current era of personalized medicine, we aim to reiterate the importance of tumor location in management of CRC and the implication on future clinical and scientific research.

  19. A study of three polymorphic sites of ADA gene in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Spina, C; Saccucci, P; Cozzoli, E; Bottini, E; Gloria-Bottini, F

    2010-12-01

    Adenosine inhibits the immune response in tumors. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) controls adenosine level and as ecto-enzyme acts as costimulatory molecule of adenosine receptors and/or CD26. We examined ADA₁, ADA₂, ADA₆ polymorphic sites of ADA gene in 109 subjects with colon cancer from Rome's population and in 246 blood donors as controls from the same population. In colon cancer ADA₁*2/ADA₂*1 haplotype is more represented, while ADA₁*2/ADA₂*2 is less represented than in controls. ADA₂*2/ADA₆*2 is less represented in patients than in controls. Polymorphic sites of ADA might influence cell-mediated anti-tumor immune responses controlling adenosine level and extraenzymatic protein functions.

  20. Mass spectrometry MALDI imaging of colon cancer biomarkers: a new diagnostic paradigm.

    PubMed

    Pevsner, Paul H; Melamed, Jonathan; Remsen, Tiffany; Kogos, Alexander; Francois, Fritz; Kessler, Paul; Stern, Arnold; Anand, Sury

    2009-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC), is the second-leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the USA, affecting both men and women. Current projections show little or no change since the publication of a morbidity and mortality study in 2005. The projected number of new cases for 2008 is 154,000, and the projected number of CRC cancer deaths for 2008 is 53,000. The standard diagnostic paradigm is based on histopathology of either biopsy or surgical specimens. This article suggests a new paradigm for colon cancer diagnosis and staging using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI IMS or IMS). IMS may identify potential tumors in normal tissue of cancer patients and predict those cancer patients who are at risk for recurrent cancer.

  1. CDX2 as a Prognostic Biomarker in Stage II and Stage III Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dalerba, Piero; Sahoo, Debashis; Paik, Soonmyung; Guo, Xiangqian; Yothers, Greg; Song, Nan; Wilcox-Fogel, Nate; Forgó, Erna; Rajendran, Pradeep S.; Miranda, Stephen P.; Hisamori, Shigeo; Hutchison, Jacqueline; Kalisky, Tomer; Qian, Dalong; Wolmark, Norman; Fisher, George A.; van de Rijn, Matt; Clarke, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Background The identification of high-risk stage II colon cancers is key to the selection of patients who require adjuvant treatment after surgery. Microarray-based multigene-expression signatures derived from stem cells and progenitor cells hold promise, but they are difficult to use in clinical practice. Methods We used a new bioinformatics approach to search for biomarkers of colon epithelial differentiation across gene-expression arrays and then ranked candidate genes according to the availability of clinical-grade diagnostic assays. With the use of subgroup analysis involving independent and retrospective cohorts of patients with stage II or stage III colon cancer, the top candidate gene was tested for its association with disease-free survival and a benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Results The transcription factor CDX2 ranked first in our screening test. A group of 87 of 2115 tumor samples (4.1%) lacked CDX2 expression. In the discovery data set, which included 466 patients, the rate of 5-year disease-free survival was lower among the 32 patients (6.9%) with CDX2-negative colon cancers than among the 434 (93.1%) with CDX2-positive colon cancers (hazard ratio for disease recurrence, 3.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60 to 7.38; P = 0.002). In the validation data set, which included 314 patients, the rate of 5-year disease-free survival was lower among the 38 patients (12.1%) with CDX2 protein–negative colon cancers than among the 276 (87.9%) with CDX2 protein–positive colon cancers (hazard ratio, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.36 to 4.29; P = 0.003). In both these groups, these findings were independent of the patient's age, sex, and tumor stage and grade. Among patients with stage II cancer, the difference in 5-year disease-free survival was significant both in the discovery data set (49% among 15 patients with CDX2-negative tumors vs. 87% among 191 patients with CDX2-positive tumors, P = 0.003) and in the validation data set (51% among 15 patients with CDX2

  2. Effects of silk sericin on the proliferation and apoptosis of colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kaewkorn, Waraporn; Limpeanchob, Nanteetip; Tiyaboonchai, Waree; Pongcharoen, Sutatip; Sutheerawattananonda, Manote

    2012-01-01

    Sericin is a silk protein woven from silkworm cocoons (Bombyx mori). In animal model, sericin has been reported to have anti-tumoral action against colon cancer. The mechanisms underlying the activity of sericin against cancer cells are not fully understood. The present study investigated the effects of sericin on human colorectal cancer SW480 cells compared to normal colonic mucosal FHC cells. Since the size of the sericin protein may be important for its activity, two ranges of molecular weight were tested. Sericin was found to decrease SW480 and FHC cell viability. The small sericin had higher anti-proliferative effects than that of the large sericin in both cell types. Increased apoptosis of SW480 cells is associated with increased caspase-3 activity and decreased Bcl-2 expression. The anti-proliferative effect of sericin was accompanied by cell cycle arrest at the S phase. Thus, sericin reduced SW480 cell viability by inducing cell apoptosis via caspase-3 activation and down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression. The present study provides scientific data that support the protective effect of silk sericin against cancer cells of the colon and suggests that this protein may have significant health benefits and could potentially be developed as a dietary supplement for colon cancer prevention.

  3. Prognostic and predictive significance of MSI in stages II/III colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Saridaki, Zacharenia; Souglakos, John; Georgoulias, Vassilis

    2014-06-14

    In colon cancer, classic disease staging remains the key prognosis and treatment determinant. Although adjuvant chemotherapy has an established role in stage III colon cancer patients, in stage II it is still a subject of controversy due to its restriction to a small subgroup of patients with high-risk histopathologic features. Patients with stage II tumors form a highly heterogeneous group, with five-year relative overall survival rates ranging from 87.5% (IIA) to 58.4% (IIC). Identifying those for whom adjuvant chemotherapy would be appropriate and necessary has been challenging, and prognostic markers which could serve in the selection of patients more likely to recur or benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy are eagerly needed. The stronger candidate in this category seems to be microsatellite instability (MSI). The recently reported European Society for Medical Oncology guidelines suggest that MSI should be evaluated in stage II colorectal cancer patients in order to contribute in treatment decision-making regarding chemotherapy administration. The hypothetical predictive role of MSI regarding its response to 5-fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy has proven a much more difficult issue to address. Almost every possible relation between MSI and chemotherapy outcome has been described in the adjuvant colon cancer setting in the international literature, and the matter is far from being settled. In this current report we critically evaluate the prognostic and predictive impact of MSI status in patients with stage II and stage III colon cancer patients.

  4. MicroRNAs as Regulator of Signaling Networks in Metastatic Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Du, Yong; Liu, Xiaoming; Cho, William C.; Yang, Yinxue

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, noncoding RNA molecules capable of regulating gene expression translationally and/or transcriptionally. A large number of evidence have demonstrated that miRNAs have a functional role in both physiological and pathological processes by regulating the expression of their target genes. Recently, the functionalities of miRNAs in the initiation, progression, angiogenesis, metastasis, and chemoresistance of tumors have gained increasing attentions. Particularly, the alteration of miRNA profiles has been correlated with the transformation and metastasis of various cancers, including colon cancer. This paper reports the latest findings on miRNAs involved in different signaling networks leading to colon cancer metastasis, mainly focusing on miRNA profiling and their roles in PTEN/PI3K, EGFR, TGFβ, and p53 signaling pathways of metastatic colon cancer. The potential of miRNAs used as biomarkers in the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic targets in colon cancer is also discussed. PMID:26064956

  5. shRNA-Mediated XRCC2 Gene Knockdown Efficiently Sensitizes Colon Tumor Cells to X-ray Irradiation in Vitro and in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qin; Wang, Yan; Du, Liqing; Xu, Chang; Sun, Yuanming; Yang, Bing; Sun, Zhijuan; Fu, Yue; Cai, Lu; Fan, Saijun; Fan, Feiyue; Liu, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most common tumors of the digestive tract. Resistance to ionizing radiation (IR) decreased therapeutic efficiency in these patients’ radiotherapy. XRCC2 is the key protein of DNA homologous recombination repair, and its high expression is associated with enhanced resistance to DNA damage induced by IR. Here, we investigated the effect of XRCC2 silencing on colon tumor cells’ growth and sensitivity to X-radiation in vitro and in vivo. Colon tumor cells (T84 cell line) were cultivated in vitro and tumors originated from the cell line were propagated as xenografts in nude mice. The suppression of XRCC2 expression was achieved by using vector-based short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in T84 cells. We found that the knockdown of XRCC2 expression effectively decreased T84 cellular proliferation and colony formation, and led to cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrested in G2/M phase induced by X-radiation in vitro. In addition, tumor xenograft studies suggested that XRCC2 silencing inhibited tumorigenicity after radiation treatment in vivo. Our data suggest that the suppression of XRCC2 expression rendered colon tumor cells more sensitive to radiation therapy in vitro and in vivo, implying XRCC2 as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of radioresistant human colon cancer. PMID:24481064

  6. Wnt signaling directs a metabolic program of glycolysis and angiogenesis in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pate, Kira T; Stringari, Chiara; Sprowl-Tanio, Stephanie; Wang, Kehui; TeSlaa, Tara; Hoverter, Nate P; McQuade, Miriam M; Garner, Chad; Digman, Michelle A; Teitell, Michael A; Edwards, Robert A; Gratton, Enrico; Waterman, Marian L

    2014-01-01

    Much of the mechanism by which Wnt signaling drives proliferation during oncogenesis is attributed to its regulation of the cell cycle. Here, we show how Wnt/β-catenin signaling directs another hallmark of tumorigenesis, namely Warburg metabolism. Using biochemical assays and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) to probe metabolism in vitro and in living tumors, we observe that interference with Wnt signaling in colon cancer cells reduces glycolytic metabolism and results in small, poorly perfused tumors. We identify pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1) as an important direct target within a larger gene program for metabolism. PDK1 inhibits pyruvate flux to mitochondrial respiration and a rescue of its expression in Wnt-inhibited cancer cells rescues glycolysis as well as vessel growth in the tumor microenvironment. Thus, we identify an important mechanism by which Wnt-driven Warburg metabolism directs the use of glucose for cancer cell proliferation and links it to vessel delivery of oxygen and nutrients. PMID:24825347

  7. ERRα metabolic nuclear receptor controls growth of colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bernatchez, Gérald; Giroux, Véronique; Lassalle, Thomas; Carpentier, André C; Rivard, Nathalie; Carrier, Julie C

    2013-10-01

    The estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα) is a nuclear receptor that acts primarily as a regulator of metabolic processes, particularly in tissues subjected to high-energy demand. In addition to its control of energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis, ERRα has recently been associated with cancer progression. Notably, increased expression of ERRα has been shown in several cancerous tissues, including breast, ovary and colon. However, additional studies are required to gain insight into the action of ERRα in cancer biology, particularly in non-endocrine-related cancers. Therefore, using a short hairpin RNA-mediated approach, we investigated whether ERRα is required for the rapid growth of colon cancer cells and to maintain their neoplastic metabolic state. Results show that silencing ERRα significantly impaired colon cancer cell proliferation and colony formation in vitro as well as their in vivo tumorigenic capacity. A pronounced delay in G1-to-S cell cycle phase transition was observed in ERRα-depleted cells in association with reduced cyclin-dependent kinase 2 activity and hyperphosphorylated state of the retinoblastoma protein along with disturbed expression of several cell cycle regulators, including p15 and p27. Interestingly, ERRα-depleted HCT116 cells also displayed significant reduction in expression of a large set of key genes to glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle and lipid synthesis. Furthermore, using (14)C isotope tracer analysis, ERRα depletion in colon cancer cells resulted in reduced glucose incorporation and glucose-mediated lipogenesis in these cells. These findings suggest that ERRα coordinates colon cancer cell proliferation and tumorigenic capacity with energy metabolism. Thus, ERRα could represent a promising therapeutic target in colon cancer.

  8. Unique DNA methylome profiles in CpG island methylator phenotype colon cancers

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yaomin; Hu, Bo; Choi, Ae-Jin; Gopalan, Banu; Lee, Byron H.; Kalady, Matthew F.; Church, James M.; Ting, Angela H.

    2012-01-01

    A subset of colorectal cancers was postulated to have the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), a higher propensity for CpG island DNA methylation. The validity of CIMP, its molecular basis, and its prognostic value remain highly controversial. Using MBD-isolated genome sequencing, we mapped and compared genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of normal, non-CIMP, and CIMP colon specimens. Multidimensional scaling analysis revealed that each specimen could be clearly classified as normal, non-CIMP, and CIMP, thus signifying that these three groups have distinctly different global methylation patterns. We discovered 3780 sites in various genomic contexts that were hypermethylated in both non-CIMP and CIMP colon cancers when compared with normal colon. An additional 2026 sites were found to be hypermethylated in CIMP tumors only; and importantly, 80% of these sites were located in CpG islands. These data demonstrate on a genome-wide level that the additional hypermethylation seen in CIMP tumors occurs almost exclusively at CpG islands and support definitively that these tumors were appropriately named. When these sites were examined more closely, we found that 25% were adjacent to sites that were also hypermethylated in non-CIMP tumors. Thus, CIMP is also characterized by more extensive methylation of sites that are already prone to be hypermethylated in colon cancer. These observations indicate that CIMP tumors have specific defects in controlling both DNA methylation seeding and spreading and serve as an important first step in delineating molecular mechanisms that control these processes. PMID:21990380

  9. Multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy used to discriminate human colon cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adur, Javier; Pelegati, Vitor B.; Bianchi, Mariana; de Thomaz, André A.; Baratti, Mariana O.; Carvalho, Hernandes F.; Casco, Víctor H.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2013-02-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most diffused cancers in the Western World, ranking third worldwide in frequency of incidence after lung and breast cancers. Even if it is curable when detected and treated early, a more accurate premature diagnosis would be a suitable aim for both cancer prognostic and treatment. Combined multimodal nonlinear optical (NLO) microscopies, such as two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF), second-harmonic generation (SHG), third harmonic generation (THG), and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) can be used to detect morphological and metabolic changes associated with stroma and epithelial transformation in colon cancer disease. NLO microscopes provide complementary information about tissue microstructure, showing distinctive patterns between normal and malignant human colonic mucosa. Using a set of scoring methods significant differences both in the content, distribution and organization of stroma collagen fibrils, and lifetime components of NADH and FAD cofactors of human colon mucosa biopsies were found. Our results provide a framework for using NLO techniques as a clinical diagnostic tool for human colon cancer, and also suggest that the SHG and FLIM metrics could be applied to other intestinal disorders, which are characterized by abnormal cell proliferation and collagen assembly.

  10. Lithium inhibits tumor lymphangiogenesis and metastasis through the inhibition of TGFBIp expression in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Maeng, Yong-Sun; Lee, Rina; Lee, Boram; Choi, Seung-Il; Kim, Eung Kweon

    2016-02-09

    Metastasis is the main cause of mortality in cancer patients. Although there are many anti-cancer drugs targeting tumor growth, anti-metastatic agents are rarely developed. Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis are crucial for cancer progression; in particular, lymphangiogenesis is pivotal for metastasis in cancer. Here we report that lithium inhibits colon cancer metastasis by blocking lymphangiogenesis. Lithium reduces the expression of transforming growth factor-β-induced protein (TGFBIp) in colon cancer cells by inhibiting Smad3 phosphorylation via GSK3β inactivation. Moreover, lithium inhibits lymphatic endothelial cell migration, which is increased upon TGFBIp expression in tumor cells. Lithium had no significant effect on SW620 tumor growth in vitro and in vivo; however, it inhibited lymphangiogenesis in tumors. In tumor xenografts model, lithium was found to prevent metastasis to the lungs, liver, and lymph nodes by inhibiting TGFBIp-induced tumor lymphangiogenesis. Collectively, our findings demonstrate a novel role of lithium in the inhibition of colon cancer metastasis by blocking TGFBIp expression, and thereby TGFBIp-induced lymphangiogenesis, in primary tumors.

  11. [Colon cancer: a rare complication in a colonic esophageal segment after coloesophagoplasty].

    PubMed

    Martín, Miguel Angel; Ferrás, Albio

    2005-01-01

    We report the case of a 65-year-old woman who presented to the Hermanos Ameijeiras Hospital in Cuba due to dysphagia for the previous 5 months. Forty years previously, she had undergone esophagocoloplasty for caustic esophagitis. Adenocarcinoma was diagnosed in the colonic interposition. The tumor was resected with oncologic margins and food transit was successfully restored.

  12. Clostridium difficile colonization in preoperative colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi; Luo, Yun; Lv, Yinxiang; Huang, Chen; Sheng, Qinsong; Zhao, Peng; Ye, Julian; Jiang, Weiqin; Liu, Lulu; Song, Xiaojun; Tong, Zhou; Chen, Wenbin; Lin, Jianjiang; Tang, Yi-Wei; Jin, Dazhi; Fang, Weijia

    2017-01-02

    The entire process of Clostridium difficile colonization to infection develops in large intestine. However, the real colonization pattern of C. difficile in preoperative colorectal cancer patients has not been studied. In this study, 33 C. difficile strains (16.1%) were isolated from stool samples of 205 preoperative colorectal cancer patients. C. difficile colonization rates in lymph node metastasis patients (22.3%) were significantly higher than lymph node negative patients (10.8%) (OR=2.314, 95%CI=1.023-5.235, P =0.025). Meanwhile, patients positive for stool occult blood had lower C. difficile colonization rates than negative patients (11.5% vs. 24.0%, OR=0.300, 95%CI=0.131-0.685, P =0.019). A total of 16 sequence types were revealed by multilocus sequence typing. Minimum spanning tree and time-space cluster analysis indicated that all C. difficile isolates were epidemiologically unrelated. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed all isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and metronidazole. The results suggested that the prevalence of C. difficile colonization is high in preoperative colorectal cancer patients, and the colonization is not acquired in the hospital. Since lymph node metastasis colorectal cancer patients inevitably require adjuvant chemotherapy and C. difficile infection may halt the ongoing treatment, the call for sustained monitoring of C. difficile in those patients is apparently urgent.

  13. Adjuvant therapy for colon cancer in the new millenium.

    PubMed

    Rao, S; Cunningham, D

    2003-01-01

    A significant proportion of patients with colon cancer who undergo curative surgical resection develop metastatic disease. Over the last 20 years large prospective randomised studies have demonstrated a clear survival benefit for patients with stage III colon cancer who are treated with adjuvant 5FU based chemotherapy. At the present time 6 months of 5FU and leucovorin is generally considered the standard adjuvant therapy. For stage II disease the routine use of adjuvant treatment remains controversial. Newer drugs such as oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and the oral fluoropyrimidines have proven active in advanced colorectal cancer and are currently being evaluated in the adjuvant setting. Molecular markers for this disease are being identified and may help define those patients who would benefit from therapy. The integration of adjuvant immunotherapy with conventional chemotherapy offers the potential to improve the long-term outcome for surgically resected colon cancer.

  14. Effect of IL-17 in the development of colon cancer in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lijuan; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Lili; Hu, Jie; Chen, Haixia; Wang, Lei; Yin, Xiaolin; Li, Quanhai; Qi, Yixin

    2016-01-01

    Cytokine therapy is commonly used for tumor immunotherapy. Although early studies focused directly on the tumor, current investigations are more attentive of the tumor microenvironment. Various immune cells and related cytokines in the tumor microenvironment play an important role in the occurrence and development of tumor. Interleukin (IL)-17 is the characteristic cytokine produced by Th17 cells. IL-17 has been associated with various immune responses. The results of previous studies showed that IL-17 can significantly reduce the size of transplanted tumors in tumor-bearing mice, albeit it has no effect on the survival time of mice. By investigating the effect of IL-17 in the number and distribution of lymphocyte infiltration in tumor tissues, the expression of cytokines and transcription factors associated with the subsets of CD4+T cells in tumor tissues, the distribution of subsets of spleen lymphocyte in tumor-bearing mice, a preliminary investigation of the possible antitumor mechanism of IL-17 was performed. In conclusion, the antitumor effect of IL-17 gene transfection in the colon cancer of mice may be associated with the mechanisms whereby IL-17 gene transfection can change the distribution of different subsets of spleen lymphocytes in mice. IL-17 gene transfection can increase the number of lymphocyte infiltration in tumor tissues. IL-17 gene transfection can promote the high expression of interferon-γ in tumor tissue, while reducing the expression of IL-10 and IL-13 factors, thus exerting an antitumor effect. PMID:28101230

  15. Products of the colonic microbiota mediate the effects of diet on colon cancer risk.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Stephen J D; Ou, Junhai; Aufreiter, Susanne; O'Connor, Deborah; Sharma, Sumit; Sepulveda, Jorge; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi; Mawhinney, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    It is estimated that most colon cancers can be attributed to dietary causes. We have hypothesized that diet influences the health of the colonic mucosa through interaction with the microbiota and that it is the milieu interior that regulates mucosal proliferation and therefore cancer risk. To validate this further, we compared colonic contents from healthy 50- to 65-y-old people from populations with high and low risk, specifically low risk Native Africans (cancer incidence <1:100,000; n = 17), high risk African Americans (risk 65:100,000; n = 17), and Caucasian Americans (risk 50:100,000; n = 18). Americans typically consume a high-animal protein and -fat diet, whereas Africans consume a staple diet of maize meal, rich in resistant starch and low in animal products. Following overnight fasting, rapid colonic evacuation was performed with 2 L polyethylene glycol. Total colonic evacuants were analyzed for SCFA, vitamins, nitrogen, and minerals. Total SCFA and butyrate were significantly higher in Native Africans than in both American groups. Colonic folate and biotin content, measured by Lactobacillus rhamnoses and Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 bioassay, respectively, exceeded normal daily dietary intakes. Compared with Africans, calcium and iron contents were significantly higher in Caucasian Americans and zinc content was significantly higher in African Americans, but nitrogen content did not differ among the 3 groups. In conclusion, the results support our hypothesis that the microbiota mediates the effect diet has on colon cancer risk by their generation of butyrate, folate, and biotin, molecules known to play a key role in the regulation of epithelial proliferation.

  16. Piwil2 modulates the proliferation and metastasis of colon cancer via regulation of matrix metallopeptidase 9 transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Dawei; Sun, Xing; Yan, Dongwang; Huang, Jianfeng; Luo, Qiongzhen; Tang, Huamei; Peng, Zhihai

    2012-10-01

    Piwi-like protein 2 (Piwil2) has recently emerged as a putative oncogene which is amplified in several human malignancies. However, the role of Piwil2 in colon cancer remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and pathological significance of Piwil2, and the possible role in the proliferation and metastasis of colon cancer. Primary colon cancer paired with adjacent normal colon tissue and lymph node metastasis (LNM) lesions in 66 patients' tissue microarrays (TMA) were used to determine the expression of Piwil2. Knocked down Piwil2 expression in SW620 and SW480 colon cancer cell lines was performed to evaluate the role of Piwil2 in cell proliferation, invasion, metastasis in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. The possible roles of Piwil2 in the regulation of a 2 kb matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9) promoter fragment and on the regulation of apoptotic pathways were evaluated by using a luciferase reporter construct and Western blots, respectively. Significantly higher expression levels of Piwil2 were observed in primary colon cancer tissue and in LNM in comparison with normal colon mucosa. Piwil2 expression significantly correlated with more aggressive clinical and pathological parameters with poorer five-year metastasis-free survival and overall survival. Piwil2 silencing significantly reduced cancer cell proliferation, colony formation ability and increased apoptosis in vitro and inhibited tumor growth in vivo. Piwil2 knockdown also attenuated migration and invasion of colon cancer cells via modulation of MMP9 transcriptional activities. Our results indicate that Piwil2 moderates the proliferation and metastasis potential of colon cancer.

  17. Pazopanib, a novel multi-kinase inhibitor, shows potent antitumor activity in colon cancer through PUMA-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Huanan; Li, Wei; Zhong, Juchang; Yu, Rongcheng; Huang, Xinfeng; Wang, Honghui; Tan, Zhikai; Wang, Jiangang; Zhang, Yingjie

    2017-01-10

    Colon cancer is still the third most common cancer which has a high mortality but low five-year survival rate. Novel tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) such as pazopanib become effective antineoplastic agents that show promising clinical activity in a variety of carcinoma, including colon cancer. However, the precise underlying mechanism against tumor is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that pazopanib promoted colon cancer cell apoptosis through inducing PUMA expression. Pazopanib induced p53-independent PUMA activation by inhibiting PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, thereby activating Foxo3a, which subsequently bound to the promoter of PUMA to activate its transcription. After induction, PUMA activated Bax and triggered the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Furthermore, administration of pazopanib highly suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft model. PUMA deletion in cells and tumors led to resistance of pazopanib, indicating PUMA-mediated pro-apoptotic and anti-tumor effects in vitro and in vivo. Combing pazopanib with some conventional or novel drugs, produced heightened and synergistic antitumor effects that were associated with potentiated PUMA induction via different pathways. Taken together, these results establish a critical role of PUMA in mediating the anticancer effects of pazopanib in colon cancer cells and provide the rationale for clinical evaluation.