Science.gov

Sample records for candidate biological control

  1. Life cycle of Puccinia crupinae, a candidate fungal biological control agent for Crupina vulgaris

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crupina vulgaris (Common crupina, Asteraceae) is an introduced weed pest in the western United States. An isolate of the rust fungus Puccinia crupinae from the Greece is currently under evaluation as a candidate for biological control of C. crupina in a Biosafety Level 3 (BL-3) containment greenhou...

  2. High Host Specificity in Encarsia diaspidicola (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), a Biological Control Candidate Against the White Peach Scale in Hawaii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pre-introductory host specificity tests were performed with Encarsia diaspidicola, a biological control candidate against the invasive white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona. False oleander scale, P. cockerelli, coconut scale, Aspidiotus destructor, cycad scale, Aulacaspis yasumatsui, greenh...

  3. Effect of continuous rearing on courtship acoustics of five braconid parasitoids, candidates for augmentative biological control of Anastrepha species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The courtship acoustics of five species of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), potential candidates for augmentative biological control of Anastrepha species (Diptera: Tephritidae), were compared between recently colonized individuals and those continuously reared 70-148 generations. During...

  4. Candidate predators for biological control of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    Lesna, Izabela; Wolfs, Peter; Faraji, Farid; Roy, Lise; Komdeur, Jan; Sabelis, Maurice W

    2009-06-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is currently a significant pest in the poultry industry in Europe. Biological control by the introduction of predatory mites is one of the various options for controlling poultry red mites. Here, we present the first results of an attempt to identify potential predators by surveying the mite fauna of European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) nests, by assessing their ability to feed on poultry red mites and by testing for their inability to extract blood from bird hosts, i.e., newly hatched, young starlings and chickens. Two genuine predators of poultry red mites are identified: Hypoaspis aculeifer and Androlaelaps casalis. A review of the literature shows that some authors suspected the latter species to parasitize on the blood of birds and mammals, but they did not provide experimental evidence for these feeding habits and/or overlooked published evidence showing the reverse. We advocate careful analysis of the trophic structure of arthropods inhabiting bird nests as a basis for identifying candidate predators for control of poultry red mites.

  5. Are three colonies of Neostromboceros albicomus, a candidate biological control agent for Lygodium microphyllum, the same host biotype?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three colonies of Neostromboceros albicomus, a candidate biological control agent of Lygodium microphyllum, were barcoded using the D2 expansion domain, to determine which of two biotypes they represented. The first colony, collected in 2005 & 2007, was used for the initial host range testing. Colon...

  6. Comparative evaluation of two populations of Pseudophilothrips ichini as candidates for biological control of Brazilian peppertree

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) is one of the worst invasive species in Florida. The thrips Pseudophilothrips ichini Hood (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) is being considered as a potential biological control agent of Brazilian peppertree. Two populati...

  7. Cheyletus eruditus (taurrus): an effective candidate for the biological control of the snake mite (Ophionyssus natricis).

    PubMed

    Schilliger, Lionel H; Morel, Damien; Bonwitt, Jesse H; Marquis, Olivier

    2013-09-01

    The most commonly encountered ectoparasite in captive snakes is the hematophagous snake mite (Ophionyssus natricis). Infected snakes often exhibit lethargy, dysecdysis, pruritus, crusting dermatitis (sometimes progressing to abscesses), and behavioral changes (increased bathing time, rubbing against objects). Anemia and septicemia are occasional complications. Eliminating snake mites from a collection is frustrating. Insecticidal and acaricidal compounds used in mammals can be used against O. natricis infestation in reptiles, but they all are potentially neurotoxic to reptiles. The use of a biological agent to control the snake mite was first developed by using the predatory mites Hypoaspis miles and Hypoaspis aculeifer. However, no data are available regarding the potential of these mites to control O. natricis. Furthermore, the survival and predatory behavior of H. aculeifer and H. miles decreases above 28 degrees C, which is the lower value of the optimal temperature zone range required for rearing snakes. The aim of this study is to identify the ability of the predatory mite Cheyletus eruditus to control O. natricis. In the first experiment, 125 O. natricis mites where placed in separate plastic tubes together with the same number of C. eruditus mites. After 48 hr, the survival rate of snake mites was 6% compared with 92% in the control group (n = 125, P < 0,001). In the second experiment, 11 infested (average of 13 O. natricis per snake) ball pythons, with an average of 13 O. natricis per individual, were placed in separate cages with 1,000 C. eruditus mites + vermiculite After 15 days, only an average of two mites per snake remained, compared with 48 per snake in the control group (t-test, P < 0,01).

  8. The importance of molecular tools in classical biological control of weeds: Two case studies with yellow starthistle candidate biological agents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Molecular analyses may play a primary role in the process of host-specificity evaluation at species and population levels; here are reported two examples of their application with new candidate biocontrol agents for yellow starthistle (YST). Ceratapion basicorne is a root-crown boring weevil that sh...

  9. Biology and host preference of the planthopper Taosa longula (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae) a candidate for biological control of water hyacinth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Taosa longula Remes Lenicov (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae) is a planthopper from the South American tropics that feeds on water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae). The biology of T. longula was studied in the laboratory and field to evaluate it as a potential biologic...

  10. Leptotrachelus dorsalis (F.) (Coleoptera: Carabidae): A candidate biological control agent of the sugarcane borer in Louisiana

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With the registration and wide-spread use of insect growth regulators (e.g. tebufenozide and novaluron) for control of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Louisiana, larvae of the ground beetle, Leptotrachelus dorsalis (F.) (Coleoptera: Carabidae) have become appar...

  11. DNA Fingerprinting To Improve Data Collection Efficiency and Yield in a Host-Specificity Test of a Weed Biological Control Candidate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An open-field test was conducted in southern France to assess the host-specificity of Ceratapion basicorne, a candidate for biological control of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis; YST). Test plants were infested by naturally occurring populations of C. basicorne but were also exposed to s...

  12. Integrative species delimitation in photosynthetic sea slugs reveals twenty candidate species in three nominal taxa studied for drug discovery, plastid symbiosis or biological control.

    PubMed

    Krug, Patrick J; Vendetti, Jann E; Rodriguez, Albert K; Retana, Jennifer N; Hirano, Yayoi M; Trowbridge, Cynthia D

    2013-12-01

    DNA barcoding can highlight taxa in which conventional taxonomy underestimates species richness, identifying mitochondrial lineages that may correspond to unrecognized species. However, key assumptions of barcoding remain untested for many groups of soft-bodied marine invertebrates with poorly resolved taxonomy. Here, we applied an integrative approach for species delimitation to herbivorous sea slugs in clade Sacoglossa, in which unrecognized diversity may complicate studies of drug discovery, plastid endosymbiosis, and biological control. Using the mitochondrial barcoding COI gene and the nuclear histone 3 gene, we tested the hypothesis that three widely distributed "species" each comprised a complex of independently evolving lineages. Morphological and reproductive characters were then used to evaluate whether each lineage was distinguishable as a candidate species. The "circumtropical" Elysia ornata comprised a Caribbean species and four Indo-Pacific candidate species that are potential sources of kahalalides, anti-cancer compounds. The "monotypic" and highly photosynthetic Plakobranchus ocellatus, used for over 60 years to study chloroplast symbiosis, comprised 10 candidate species. Finally, six candidate species were distinguished in the Elysia tomentosa complex, including potential biological control agents for invasive green algae (Caulerpa spp.). We show that a candidate species approach developed for vertebrates effectively categorizes cryptic diversity in marine invertebrates, and that integrating threshold COI distances with non-molecular character data can delimit species even when common assumptions of DNA barcoding are violated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Integrative species delimitation in photosynthetic sea slugs reveals twenty candidate species in three nominal taxa studied for drug discovery, plastid symbiosis or biological control

    PubMed Central

    Krug, Patrick J.; Vendetti, Jann E.; Rodriguez, Albert K.; Retana, Jennifer N.; Hirano, Yayoi M.; Trowbridge, Cynthia D.

    2013-01-01

    DNA barcoding can highlight taxa in which conventional taxonomy underestimates species richness, identifying mitochondrial lineages that may correspond to unrecognized species. However, key assumptions of barcoding remain untested for many groups of soft-bodied marine invertebrates with poorly resolved taxonomy. Here, we applied an integrative approach for species delimitation to herbivorous sea slugs in clade Sacoglossa, in which unrecognized diversity may complicate studies of drug discovery, plastid endosymbiosis, and biological control. Using the mitochondrial barcoding COI gene and the nuclear histone 3 gene, we tested the hypothesis that three widely distributed “species” each comprised a complex of independently evolving lineages. Morphological and reproductive characters were then used to evaluate whether each lineage was distinguishable as a candidate species. The “circumtropical” Elysia ornata comprised a Caribbean species and four Indo-Pacific candidate species that are potential sources of kahalalides, anti-cancer compounds. The “monotypic” and highly photosynthetic Plakobranchus ocellatus, used for over 60 years to study chloroplast symbiosis, comprised 10 candidate species. Finally, six candidate species were distinguished in the Elysia tomentosa complex, including potential biological control agents for invasive green algae (Caulerpa spp.). We show that a candidate species approach developed for vertebrates effectively categorizes cryptic diversity in marine invertebrates, and that integrating threshold COI distances with non-molecular character data can delimit species even when common assumptions of DNA barcoding are violated. PMID:23876292

  14. Effect of host-plant genotypes on the performance of three candidate biological control agents of Schinus terebinthifolius in Florida.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brazilian pepper is a weed in Florida, California and Hawaii that originates from South America. In Florida we have found two distinct types of Brazilian pepper plant and a hybrid between these two types. To control this weed, three biological control agents are being evaluated from Brazil. These ar...

  15. Host range testing and biology of Abia sericea (Cimbicidae), a candidate for biological control of invasive teasels (Dipsacus spp.) in North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Invasive teasels (Dipsacus spp., Dipsacaceae) are widespread in the USA, being present in 43 states and listed as noxious in five. The cimbicid sawfly Abia sericea (L.) is under evaluation as a potential agent for biological control of teasels. The host range, biology, and life history of this ins...

  16. Laboratory experiments on snail predation by Sargochromis codringtoni, a candidate for biological control of the snails that transmit schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Chimbari, M J; Madsen, H; Ndamba, J

    1997-01-01

    The potential efficacy of Sargochromis codringtoni, a species of cichlid fish, in the biological control of snails carrying the Schistosoma spp. infecting man has long been recognized. A laboratory study to produce much-needed data on the malacophagous characteristics of this fish was conducted, to see if field studies on its possible role as a biological agent for snail control in Zimbabwe were likely to be worthwhile. The fish can consume large numbers of snails within a short period: a single fish, provided with trout pellets as an alternative food, not only chose to eat the snails but also consumed > 800 within 3 weeks. Addition of macrophytes to the aquaria used appeared to offer the snails no protection from predation. For fish measuring 15-18 cm in length, there was no size preference among snails measuring up to 12 mm in shell height nor was any species preference observed in experiments involving Bulinus globosus, B. tropicus and Melanoides tuberculata. The fish crushed B. globosus which were > 3.0 mm in shell height in their pharynges but swallowed smaller snails of this species whole. Before field trials are conducted, further laboratory studies, in which field conditions are simulated, should be carried out.

  17. Laboratory host range of Parafreutreta regalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), a candidate agent for biological control of Cape-ivy.

    PubMed

    Balciunas, Joe; Mehelis, Chris; Van Der Westhuizen, Liamé; Neser, Stefan

    2010-06-01

    Cape-ivy (Delairea odorata Lamaire) is an ornamental vine that has escaped into natural areas in many countries and become a serious pest. It is native to the eastern part of South Africa, and surveys there located several potential biological control agents for this weed. One of these is Parafreutreta regalis Munro, a tephritid fly that causes large galls to form on the stems of the vine. In a collaborative effort, we began to evaluate, in both California and South Africa, the host range of this fly. Between the two locations, we tested 93 plant species and 2 varieties of Cape-ivy to see if, after being exposed to four pairs of flies for a week, any galls would develop on them. No galls were formed on any of the test species, although an average of six galls developed on each of the Cape-ivy controls. We also tested to see whether P. regalis showed any preference for either of the two varieties of Cape-ivy. There was no significant difference between the numbers of galls forming on the stipulate or astipulate varieties. Our tests indicate that this fly is essentially monospecific. Earlier research had shown that P. regalis galls cause a significant reduction in the height and nongall biomass of Cape-ivy. A petition has been submitted to initiate the process of obtaining permission to release P. regalis in California to control the Cape-ivy infestations there.

  18. Integrated Systems Biology Analysis of Transcriptomes Reveals Candidate Genes for Acidity Control in Developing Fruits of Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Dingquan; Zhao, Yihong; Cao, Minghao; Qiao, Liang; Zheng, Zhi-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Organic acids, such as citrate and malate, are important contributors for the sensory traits of fleshy fruits. Although their biosynthesis has been illustrated, regulatory mechanisms of acid accumulation remain to be dissected. To provide transcriptional architecture and identify candidate genes for citrate accumulation in fruits, we have selected for transcriptome analysis four varieties of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) with varying fruit acidity, Succari (acidless), Bingtang (low acid), and Newhall and Xinhui (normal acid). Fruits of these varieties at 45 days post anthesis (DPA), which corresponds to Stage I (cell division), had similar acidity, but they displayed differential acid accumulation at 142 DPA (Stage II, cell expansion). Transcriptomes of fruits at 45 and 142 DPA were profiled using RNA sequencing and analyzed with three different algorithms (Pearson correlation, gene coexpression network and surrogate variable analysis). Our network analysis shows that the acid-correlated genes belong to three distinct network modules. Several of these candidate fruit acidity genes encode regulatory proteins involved in transport (such as AHA10), degradation (such as APD2) and transcription (such as AIL6) and act as hubs in the citrate accumulation gene networks. Taken together, our integrated systems biology analysis has provided new insights into the fruit citrate accumulation gene network and led to the identification of candidate genes likely associated with the fruit acidity control. PMID:27092171

  19. Integrated Systems Biology Analysis of Transcriptomes Reveals Candidate Genes for Acidity Control in Developing Fruits of Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck).

    PubMed

    Huang, Dingquan; Zhao, Yihong; Cao, Minghao; Qiao, Liang; Zheng, Zhi-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Organic acids, such as citrate and malate, are important contributors for the sensory traits of fleshy fruits. Although their biosynthesis has been illustrated, regulatory mechanisms of acid accumulation remain to be dissected. To provide transcriptional architecture and identify candidate genes for citrate accumulation in fruits, we have selected for transcriptome analysis four varieties of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) with varying fruit acidity, Succari (acidless), Bingtang (low acid), and Newhall and Xinhui (normal acid). Fruits of these varieties at 45 days post anthesis (DPA), which corresponds to Stage I (cell division), had similar acidity, but they displayed differential acid accumulation at 142 DPA (Stage II, cell expansion). Transcriptomes of fruits at 45 and 142 DPA were profiled using RNA sequencing and analyzed with three different algorithms (Pearson correlation, gene coexpression network and surrogate variable analysis). Our network analysis shows that the acid-correlated genes belong to three distinct network modules. Several of these candidate fruit acidity genes encode regulatory proteins involved in transport (such as AHA10), degradation (such as APD2) and transcription (such as AIL6) and act as hubs in the citrate accumulation gene networks. Taken together, our integrated systems biology analysis has provided new insights into the fruit citrate accumulation gene network and led to the identification of candidate genes likely associated with the fruit acidity control.

  20. Searching for microbial biological control candidates for invasive grasses: coupling expanded field research with strides in biotechnology and grassland restoration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Highly invasive grasses (e.g. Bromus spp., Pennisetum ciliare, Taeniatherum caput-medusae) are largely unabated in much of the arid Western U.S., despite more than 70 years of control attempts with a wide array of tools and management practices. The development and sustained integration of new appro...

  1. Mining biological databases for candidate disease genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Terry A.; Scheetz, Todd; Webster, Gregg L.; Casavant, Thomas L.

    2001-07-01

    The publicly-funded effort to sequence the complete nucleotide sequence of the human genome, the Human Genome Project (HGP), has currently produced more than 93% of the 3 billion nucleotides of the human genome into a preliminary `draft' format. In addition, several valuable sources of information have been developed as direct and indirect results of the HGP. These include the sequencing of model organisms (rat, mouse, fly, and others), gene discovery projects (ESTs and full-length), and new technologies such as expression analysis and resources (micro-arrays or gene chips). These resources are invaluable for the researchers identifying the functional genes of the genome that transcribe and translate into the transcriptome and proteome, both of which potentially contain orders of magnitude more complexity than the genome itself. Preliminary analyses of this data identified approximately 30,000 - 40,000 human `genes.' However, the bulk of the effort still remains -- to identify the functional and structural elements contained within the transcriptome and proteome, and to associate function in the transcriptome and proteome to genes. A fortuitous consequence of the HGP is the existence of hundreds of databases containing biological information that may contain relevant data pertaining to the identification of disease-causing genes. The task of mining these databases for information on candidate genes is a commercial application of enormous potential. We are developing a system to acquire and mine data from specific databases to aid our efforts to identify disease genes. A high speed cluster of Linux of workstations is used to analyze sequence and perform distributed sequence alignments as part of our data mining and processing. This system has been used to mine GeneMap99 sequences within specific genomic intervals to identify potential candidate disease genes associated with Bardet-Biedle Syndrome (BBS).

  2. Comparative evaluation of fecundity and survivorship of six copepod (Copepoda: Cyclopidae) species, in relation to selection of candidate biological control agents against Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Phong, Tran Vu; Tuno, Nobuko; Kawada, Hitoshi; Takagi, Masahiro

    2008-03-01

    The fecundity and survival of 6 copepod species were assessed under laboratory conditions in order to choose the best candidates to control the aquatic stages of dengue mosquitoes in the field. Females of all the 6 species (Mesocyclops aspericornis, Mesocyclops pehpeiensis, Mesocyclops woutersi, Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides, Mesocyclops ogunnus, and Megacyclops viridis) mated more than once. Multiple mating resulted in increased egg production. The reproductive ability and longevity varied among the species, and M. aspericornis had the highest values. The lowest values were observed in M. thermocyclopoides. Multiple mating of males of M. aspericornis was also observed. The paternal fecundity decreased with each additional mating. There was no difference in the paternal fecundity between the males that mated at low and high female frequencies. The sperm stored in the M. aspericornis females remained viable for 30 days after storage under moist conditions at 25 degrees C or 15 degrees C. This feature in M. aspericornis represents an additional positive factor indicating that this species is a good biological agent for controlling mosquito larvae, especially in domestic water containers that may dry intermittently.

  3. Differences in morphometrics and reproductive physiology between two populations of Trissolcus japonicus, a promising biological control agent candidate for brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys Stal) in the US

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Trissolcus japonicus (Ashmead), a solitary egg parasitoid of Pentatomidae native to Southeast Asia, has been undergoing host-range testing in U.S. quarantine facilities since 2009 as a candidate for the biological control of brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys Stål)(BMSB), an invasive agri...

  4. Characterization and evaluation of target and host: Ramularia crupinae, a candidate for biological control of two varieties of Crupina vulgaris in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crupina vulgaris (common crupina) is an invasive annual plant of rangelands and pastures in the United States. A leaf-spotting fungus, Ramularia crupinae, has been evaluated for biological control. There are two varieties of C. vulgaris which differ morphologically and biologically, particularly i...

  5. Biological Networks for Cancer Candidate Biomarkers Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Wenying; Xue, Wenjin; Chen, Jiajia; Hu, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Due to its extraordinary heterogeneity and complexity, cancer is often proposed as a model case of a systems biology disease or network disease. There is a critical need of effective biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and/or outcome prediction from system level analyses. Methods based on integrating omics data into networks have the potential to revolutionize the identification of cancer biomarkers. Deciphering the biological networks underlying cancer is undoubtedly important for understanding the molecular mechanisms of the disease and identifying effective biomarkers. In this review, the networks constructed for cancer biomarker discovery based on different omics level data are described and illustrated from recent advances in the field. PMID:27625573

  6. F1 Sterile insect technique: a novel approach for risk assessment of Episimus unguiculus (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a candidate biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolus in the Continental USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Federal regulations mandate that researchers in the field of classical weed biological control follow the precautionary principle when proposing the release of an organism that can affect our environment. However, the host range observed in traditional laboratory cage experiments typically is broad...

  7. Pre-release assessment of impact on Arundo donax by the candidate biological control agents, Tetramesa romana (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) and Rhizaspidiotus donacis (Homoptera: Diaspididae) under quarantine conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Impact by two potential biological control agents, Tetramesa romana Walker and Rhizaspidiotus donacis (Leonardi), on the invasive weed, giant reed, Arundo donax L., was assessed in a quarantine greenhouse before release. Tetramesa romana alone and T. romana plus R. donacis significantly damaged A. ...

  8. Life history and host range of the leaf blotcher Eucosmophora schinusivora; a candidate for biological control of Schinus terebinthifolius in the USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The host range of Eucosmophora schinusivora Davis & Wheeler (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) was studied to assess its suitability as a biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), a serious environmental and agricultural weed in the USA and elsewhere in the world. The l...

  9. Laboratory and open-field tests on Abia sericea (L.) (Hymenoptera: Cimbicidae) - a candidate for biological control of teasels (Dipsacus spp.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Invasive teasels (Dipsacus spp.) are widespread in the USA (43 states) and listed as noxious in five states. The cimbicid sawfly Abia sericea (Linné, 1758) is under evaluation as a potential agent for biological control of teasels. Abia sericea lays its eggs under the epidermis of the leaves of Di...

  10. Population establishment of and promising early results with the brown lygodium moth, Neomusotima conspurcatalis - a candidate biological control agent of Old World climbing fern, Lygodium microphyllum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Old World climbing fern, Lygodium microphyllum is one of the most serious invasive, weeds affecting southern and central Florida. Management of this weed using traditional strategies has proved difficult and expensive, with limited long-term success. In early 2008, a new biological control agent cal...

  11. Biological Control in Agroecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, Suzanne W. T.

    1982-01-01

    Living organisms are used as biological pest control agents in (i) classical biological control, primarily for permanent control of introduced perennial weed pests or introduced pests of perennial crops; (ii) augmentative biological control, for temporary control of native or introduced pests of annual crops grown in monoculture; and (iii) conservative or natural control, in which the agroecosystem is managed to maximize the effect of native or introduced biological control agents. The effectiveness of biological control can be improved if it is based on adequate ecological information and theory, and if it is integrated with other pest management practices.

  12. Endophytic fungi associated with Fallopia japonica (Polygonaceae) in Japan and their interactions with Puccinia polygoni-amphibii var. tovariae, a candidate for classical biological control.

    PubMed

    Kurose, Daisuke; Furuya, Naruto; Tsuchiya, Kenichi; Tsushima, Seiya; Evans, Harry C

    2012-07-01

    Fallopia japonica (Polygonaceae), or Japanese knotweed, is now spreading globally, causing serious problems in Europe and North America in both natural and urban habitats. There is an urgent need for alternative management solutions, and classical biological control, using coevolved natural enemies found in the native range, is currently being investigated. Here, we isolated fungal endophytes from F. japonica in Japan, its natural habitat, to find endophytes that might increase the virulence of a coevolved rust pathogen, Puccinia polygoni-amphibii var. tovariae. A total of 1581 fungal endophytes were recovered from F. japonica and classified into 15 taxa. Five genera (Colletotrichum, Pestalotiopsis, Phoma, Phomopsis, and Alternaria) were dominant as endophytes in F. japonica. A greenhouse study of the dominant endophyte-pathogen interactions revealed three types of reactions: suppressive, synergistic, and neutral. In particular, one Phomopsis isolate--closely related to Diaporthe medusaea, based on ITS sequences--promoted the pathogenic aggressiveness of P. polygoni-amphibii var. tovariae and, therefore, this interaction is potentially useful to increase the effectiveness of the rust fungus as a biological control agent of F. japonica in its invasive range. Copyright © 2012 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Host-range testing of Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a candidate for biological control of tree-of-heaven, Ailanthus altissima.

    PubMed

    Herrick, N J; McAvoy, T J; Snyder, A L; Salom, S M; Kok, L T

    2012-02-01

    Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, tree-of-heaven, is an invasive species native to Asia. It first was introduced into the United States in the 1700 s and now is distributed throughout much of North America. Mechanical and chemical controls are current suppression tactics, however, implementation is costly. A weevil, Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Harold), was identified in China and imported for quarantine testing in 2004 as a potential biological control agent. Host specificity tests on adult feeding, larval development, and oviposition of this weevil were conducted from 2007 to 2011 on A. altissima and 29 nontarget species. Eucryptorrhynchus brandti adults fed significantly more on A. altissima foliage when compared with all test species. Range of means for feeding on A. altissima was 32.5-106.5 mm(2)/adult/d. In no-choice tests, Simarouba glauca DC, Leitneria floridana Chapm., and Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F., had feeding rates of only 10, 49, and 10%, respectively, compared with the level of feeding on A. altissima. The mean range of adult feeding by E. brandti on all other test species was <7% of feeding on A. altissima (0.0-3.3 ± 5.0 mm(2)/adult/d). In the no-choice larval inoculation tests, larval development only occurred in two of 10 L. floridana seedlings compared with seven of 10 A. altissima seedlings. In the no-choice oviposition tests, oviposition and subsequent larval development did not occur in L. floridiana, whereas all seven A. altissima seedlings supported oviposition and subsequent larval development. The weevil did not appear to be a threat to L. floridana or any other nontarget species tested. Therefore, we conclude that Eucryptorrhynchus brandti is highly host specific to A. altissima.

  14. Integrated Biological Control

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, A.R.

    2002-09-01

    Biological control is any activity taken to prevent, limit, clean up, or remediate potential environmental, health and safety, or workplace quality impacts from plants, animals, or microorganisms. At Hanford the principal emphasis of biological control is to prevent the transport of radioactive contamination by biological vectors (plants, animals, or microorganisms), and where necessary, control and clean up resulting contamination. Other aspects of biological control at Hanford include industrial weed control (e.g.; tumbleweeds), noxious weed control (invasive, non-native plant species), and pest control (undesirable animals such as rodents and stinging insects; and microorganisms such as molds that adversely affect the quality of the workplace environment). Biological control activities may be either preventive (apriori) or in response to existing contamination spread (aposteriori). Surveillance activities, including ground, vegetation, flying insect, and other surveys, and apriori control actions, such as herbicide spraying and placing biological barriers, are important in preventing radioactive contamination spread. If surveillance discovers that biological vectors have spread radioactive contamination, aposteriori control measures, such as fixing contamination, followed by cleanup and removal of the contamination to an approved disposal location are typical response functions. In some cases remediation following the contamination cleanup and removal is necessary. Biological control activities for industrial weeds, noxious weeds and pests have similar modes of prevention and response.

  15. Integrated Biological Control

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, A.R.

    2003-10-09

    Biological control is any activity taken to prevent, limit, clean up, or remediate potential environmental, health and safety, or workplace quality impacts from plants, animals, or microorganisms. At Hanford the principal emphasis of biological control is to prevent the transport of radioactive contamination by biological vectors (plants, animals, or microorganisms), and where necessary, control and clean up resulting contamination. Other aspects of biological control at Hanford include industrial weed control (e.g.; tumbleweeds), noxious weed control (invasive, non-native plant species), and pest control (undesirable animals such as rodents and stinging insects, and microorganisms such as molds that adversely affect the quality of the workplace environment). Biological control activities may be either preventive (a priori) or in response to existing contamination spread (a posteriori). Surveillance activities, including ground, vegetation, flying insect, and other surveys, and a priori control actions, such as herbicide spraying and placing biological barriers, are important in preventing radioactive contamination spread. If surveillance discovers that biological vectors have spread radioactive contamination, a posteriori control measures, such as fixing contamination, followed by cleanup and removal of the contamination to an approved disposal location are typical response functions. In some cases remediation following the contamination cleanup and removal is necessary. Biological control activities for industrial weeds, noxious weeds and pests have similar modes of prevention and response.

  16. Fundamental host range of Pseudophilothrips ichini s.l. (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae): a candidate biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cuda, J P; Medal, J C; Gillmore, J L; Habeck, D H; Pedrosa-Macedo, J H

    2009-12-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) is a non-native perennial woody plant that is one of the most invasive weeds in Florida, Hawaii, and more recently California and Texas. This plant was introduced into Florida from South America as a landscape ornamental in the late 19th century, eventually escaped cultivation, and now dominates entire ecosystems in south-central Florida. Recent DNA studies have confirmed two separate introductions of S. terebinthifolius in Florida, and there is evidence of hybridization. A thrips, Pseudophilothrips ichini s.l. (Hood) (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), is commonly found attacking shoots and flowers of S. terebinthifolius in Brazil. Immatures and occasionally adults form large aggregations on young terminal growth (stems and leaves) of the plant. Feeding damage by P. ichini s.l. frequently kills new shoots, which reduces vigor and restricts growth of S. terebinthifolius. Greenhouse and laboratory host range tests with 46 plant species in 18 families and 10 orders were conducted in Paraná, Brazil, and Florida. Results of no-choice, paired-choice, and multiple-choice tests indicated that P. ichini s.l. is capable of reproducing only on S. terebinthifolius and possibly Schinus molle L., an ornamental introduced into California from Peru that has escaped cultivation and is considered invasive. Our results showed that P. ichini s.l. posed minimal risk to mature S. molle plants or the Florida native Metopium toxiferum L. Krug and Urb. In May 2007, the federal interagency Technical Advisory Group for Biological Control Agents of Weeds (TAG) concluded P. ichini s.l. was sufficiently host specific to recommend its release from quarantine.

  17. The host range and impact of Bikasha collaris (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a promising candidate agent for biological control of Chinese tallow, Triadica sebifera (Euphorbiaceae) in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Native to China, the Chinese tallow, Triadica sebifera (Euphorbiaceae) is an aggressive woody invader in the southeastern United States. The flea beetle, Bikasha collaris (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a common herbivore attacking this plant in China. To evaluate its potential as a biological contr...

  18. Insecticides and Biological Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furness, G. O.

    1972-01-01

    Use of insecticides has been questioned due to their harmful effects on edible items. Biological control of insects along with other effective practices for checking spread of parasites on crops are discussed. (PS)

  19. Insecticides and Biological Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furness, G. O.

    1972-01-01

    Use of insecticides has been questioned due to their harmful effects on edible items. Biological control of insects along with other effective practices for checking spread of parasites on crops are discussed. (PS)

  20. Geographical range and laboratory studies on Apanteles opuntiarum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Argentina, a candidate for biological control of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a pest that threatens native Opuntia spp. in North America. Control tactics developed and implemented against this invasive pest successfully eradicated the moth in Mexico and on barrier islands in the United States. However,...

  1. Commercializing Biological Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeLeu, K. L.; Young, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the only commercial establishment involved in biological control in Australia. The wasp Aphitis melinus, which parasitizes the insect Red Scale, is bred in large numbers and released in the citrus groves where Red Scale is causing damage to the fruit. (JR)

  2. Commercializing Biological Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeLeu, K. L.; Young, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the only commercial establishment involved in biological control in Australia. The wasp Aphitis melinus, which parasitizes the insect Red Scale, is bred in large numbers and released in the citrus groves where Red Scale is causing damage to the fruit. (JR)

  3. Biological control of ticks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samish, M.; Ginsberg, H.; Glazer, I.; Bowman, A.S.; Nuttall, P.

    2004-01-01

    Ticks have numerous natural enemies, but only a few species have been evaluated as tick biocontrol agents (BCAs). Some laboratory results suggest that several bacteria are pathogenic to ticks, but their mode of action and their potential value as biocontrol agents remain to be determined. The most promising entomopathogenic fungi appear to be Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, strains of which are already commercially available for the control of some pests. Development of effective formulations is critical for tick management. Entomopathogenic nematodes that are pathogenic to ticks can potentially control ticks, but improved formulations and selection of novel nematode strains are needed. Parasitoid wasps of the genus Ixodiphagus do not typically control ticks under natural conditions, but inundative releases show potential value. Most predators of ticks are generalists, with a limited potential for tick management (one possible exception is oxpeckers in Africa). Biological control is likely to play a substantial role in future IPM programmes for ticks because of the diversity of taxa that show high potential as tick BCAs. Considerable research is required to select appropriate strains, develop them as BCAs, establish their effectiveness, and devise production strategies to bring them to practical use.

  4. Overview of saltcedar biological control

    Treesearch

    C. Jack DeLoach; Lindsey R. Milbrath; Ray Carruthers; Allen E. Knutson; Fred Nibling; Debra Eberts; David C. Thompson; David J. Kazmer; Tom L. Dudley; Dan W. Bean; Jeff B. Knight

    2006-01-01

    Biological control has successfully controlled 10 exotic, invasive weeds of rangelands and natural ecosystems in the United States since 1945, and control of others is in progress. We initiated biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) in 1987, using host-specific insect herbivores that regulate saltcedar populations in the Old World. We did a...

  5. Osteosarcoma Genetics and Epigenetics: Emerging Biology and Candidate Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, James J.; Khanna, Chand

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone, typically presenting in the first or second decade of life. Unfortunately, clinical outcomes for osteosarcoma patients have not substantially improved in over 30 years. This stagnation in therapeutic advances is perhaps explained by the genetic, epigenetic, and biological complexities of this rare tumor. In this review we provide a general background on the biology of osteosarcoma and the clinical status quo. We go on to enumerate the genetic and epigenetic defects identified in osteosarcoma. Finally, we discuss ongoing large-scale studies in the field and potential new therapies that are currently under investigation. PMID:26349415

  6. Candidate Species Selection and Controlled Environment Injuries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.

    1982-01-01

    Research was undertaken to attempt to identify the causal agents for intumescences that develop on many different species of plants in controlled environments. Concentration and filtration procedures were not successful in identifying any particular compounds. The injury was found to develop, even though the atmosphere for the plants is filtered through activated charcoal, potassium permanganate, or is subjected to catalytic combustion at 450 C. Thus, the causal agent is apparently either an oxidized compound or specific element, or the result of some unrecognized variation in physical conditions around the plants. The research has demonstrated that the injury is controlled to a significant extent by temperature. Growing temperatures of 20 degrees and 25 degrees C resulted in serious injury on plants, but temperatures of 30 C resulted in very little injury.

  7. Biological pathways, candidate genes and molecular markers associated with quality-of-life domains: an update

    PubMed Central

    Sprangers, Mirjam A.G.; Thong, Melissa S.Y.; Bartels, Meike; Barsevick, Andrea; Ordoñana, Juan; Shi, Qiuling; Wang, Xin Shelley; Klepstad, Pål; Wierenga, Eddy A.; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Sloan, Jeff A.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is compelling evidence of a genetic foundation of patient-reported QOL. Given the rapid development of substantial scientific advances in this area of research, the current paper updates and extends reviews published in 2010. Objectives The objective is to provide an updated overview of the biological pathways, candidate genes and molecular markers involved in fatigue, pain, negative (depressed mood) and positive (well-being/happiness) emotional functioning, social functioning, and overall QOL. Methods We followed a purposeful search algorithm of existing literature to capture empirical papers investigating the relationship between biological pathways and molecular markers and the identified QOL domains. Results Multiple major pathways are involved in each QOL domain. The inflammatory pathway has the strongest evidence as a controlling mechanism underlying fatigue. Inflammation and neurotransmission are key processes involved in pain perception and the COMT gene is associated with multiple sorts of pain. The neurotransmitter and neuroplasticity theories have the strongest evidence for their relationship with depression. Oxytocin-related genes and genes involved in the serotonergic and dopaminergic pathways play a role in social functioning. Inflammatory pathways, via cytokines, also play an important role in overall QOL. Conclusions Whereas the current findings need future experiments and replication efforts, they will provide researchers supportive background information when embarking on studies relating candidate genes and/or molecular markers to QOL domains. The ultimate goal of this area of research is to enhance patients’ QOL. PMID:24604075

  8. An Exercise in Biological Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox, John; Duke, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the history of the use of pesticides and biological control. Introduces the concept of biological control as illustrated in the use of the entomopathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis and highlights laboratory demonstrations of Koch's postulates. Includes an exercise that offers the student and teacher several integrated learning…

  9. Biological pest control in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Williams, Trevor; Arredondo-Bernal, Hugo C; Rodríguez-del-Bosque, Luis A

    2013-01-01

    Mexico is a megadiverse country that forms part of the Mesoamerican biological corridor that connects North and South America. Mexico's biogeographical situation places it at risk from invasive exotic insect pests that enter from the United States, Central America, or the Caribbean. In this review we analyze the factors that contributed to some highly successful past programs involving classical biological control and/or the sterile insect technique (SIT). The present situation is then examined with reference to biological control, including SIT programs, targeted at seven major pests, with varying degrees of success. Finally, we analyze the current threats facing Mexico's agriculture industry from invasive pests that have recently entered the country or are about to do so. We conclude that despite a number of shortcomings, Mexico is better set to develop biological control-based pest control programs, particularly on an area-wide basis, than many other Latin American countries are. Classical and augmentative biological control and SIT-based programs are likely to provide effective and sustainable options for control of native and exotic pests, particularly when integrated into technology packages that meet farmers' needs across the great diversity of production systems in Mexico.

  10. Herbivory, Predation, and Biological Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Terence M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Authors describe a set of controlled ecosystems that can be used to demonstrate the effects of herbivory on the health and growth of a plant population and of predation on the growth of a primary consumer population. The system also shows the effectiveness of biological pest control measures in a dramatic way. The construction of the ecosystems is…

  11. Herbivory, Predation, and Biological Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Terence M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Authors describe a set of controlled ecosystems that can be used to demonstrate the effects of herbivory on the health and growth of a plant population and of predation on the growth of a primary consumer population. The system also shows the effectiveness of biological pest control measures in a dramatic way. The construction of the ecosystems is…

  12. Integrating chemical and biological control

    Treesearch

    Scott Salom; Albert Mayfield; Tom McAvoy

    2011-01-01

    Research and management efforts to establish an effective biological control program against HWA has received significant support by the U.S. Forest Service over the past 17 years. Other federal and state agencies, universities, and private entities have also contributed to this overall research and management effort. Although a number of HWA-specific predator species...

  13. Control theory meets synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Domitilla; Dy, Aaron J; Qian, Yili

    2016-07-01

    The past several years have witnessed an increased presence of control theoretic concepts in synthetic biology. This review presents an organized summary of how these control design concepts have been applied to tackle a variety of problems faced when building synthetic biomolecular circuits in living cells. In particular, we describe success stories that demonstrate how simple or more elaborate control design methods can be used to make the behaviour of synthetic genetic circuits within a single cell or across a cell population more reliable, predictable and robust to perturbations. The description especially highlights technical challenges that uniquely arise from the need to implement control designs within a new hardware setting, along with implemented or proposed solutions. Some engineering solutions employing complex feedback control schemes are also described, which, however, still require a deeper theoretical analysis of stability, performance and robustness properties. Overall, this paper should help synthetic biologists become familiar with feedback control concepts as they can be used in their application area. At the same time, it should provide some domain knowledge to control theorists who wish to enter the rising and exciting field of synthetic biology.

  14. Control theory meets synthetic biology

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The past several years have witnessed an increased presence of control theoretic concepts in synthetic biology. This review presents an organized summary of how these control design concepts have been applied to tackle a variety of problems faced when building synthetic biomolecular circuits in living cells. In particular, we describe success stories that demonstrate how simple or more elaborate control design methods can be used to make the behaviour of synthetic genetic circuits within a single cell or across a cell population more reliable, predictable and robust to perturbations. The description especially highlights technical challenges that uniquely arise from the need to implement control designs within a new hardware setting, along with implemented or proposed solutions. Some engineering solutions employing complex feedback control schemes are also described, which, however, still require a deeper theoretical analysis of stability, performance and robustness properties. Overall, this paper should help synthetic biologists become familiar with feedback control concepts as they can be used in their application area. At the same time, it should provide some domain knowledge to control theorists who wish to enter the rising and exciting field of synthetic biology. PMID:27440256

  15. Conditional lethality strains for the biological control of Anastrepha species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pro-apoptotic cell death genes are promising candidates for biologically-based autocidal control of pest insects as demonstrated by tetracycline (tet)-suppressible systems for conditional embryonic lethality in Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) and the medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Cc). However, for medfly...

  16. Biological processes, properties and molecular wiring diagrams of candidate low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility genes

    PubMed Central

    Bonifaci, Núria; Berenguer, Antoni; Díez, Javier; Reina, Oscar; Medina, Ignacio; Dopazo, Joaquín; Moreno, Víctor; Pujana, Miguel Angel

    2008-01-01

    Background Recent advances in whole-genome association studies (WGASs) for human cancer risk are beginning to provide the part lists of low-penetrance susceptibility genes. However, statistical analysis in these studies is complicated by the vast number of genetic variants examined and the weak effects observed, as a result of which constraints must be incorporated into the study design and analytical approach. In this scenario, biological attributes beyond the adjusted statistics generally receive little attention and, more importantly, the fundamental biological characteristics of low-penetrance susceptibility genes have yet to be determined. Methods We applied an integrative approach for identifying candidate low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility genes, their characteristics and molecular networks through the analysis of diverse sources of biological evidence. Results First, examination of the distribution of Gene Ontology terms in ordered WGAS results identified asymmetrical distribution of Cell Communication and Cell Death processes linked to risk. Second, analysis of 11 different types of molecular or functional relationships in genomic and proteomic data sets defined the "omic" properties of candidate genes: i/ differential expression in tumors relative to normal tissue; ii/ somatic genomic copy number changes correlating with gene expression levels; iii/ differentially expressed across age at diagnosis; and iv/ expression changes after BRCA1 perturbation. Finally, network modeling of the effects of variants on germline gene expression showed higher connectivity than expected by chance between novel candidates and with known susceptibility genes, which supports functional relationships and provides mechanistic hypotheses of risk. Conclusion This study proposes that cell communication and cell death are major biological processes perturbed in risk of breast cancer conferred by low-penetrance variants, and defines the common omic properties, molecular

  17. Intestinal nematodes: biology and control.

    PubMed

    Epe, Christian

    2009-11-01

    A variety of nematodes occur in dogs and cats. Several nematode species inhabit the small and large intestines. Important species that live in the small intestine are roundworms of the genus Toxocara (T canis, T cati) and Toxascaris (ie, T leonina), and hookworms of the genus Ancylostoma (A caninum, A braziliense, A tubaeforme) or Uncinaria (U stenocephala). Parasites of the large intestine are nematodes of the genus Trichuris (ie, whipworms, T vulpis). After a comprehensive description of their life cycle and biology, which are indispensable for understanding and justifying their control, current recommendations for nematode control are presented and discussed thereafter.

  18. Biology and host range of Heterapoderopsis bicallosicollis; a potential biological control agent for Chinese tallow Triadica sebifera

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chinese tallow, Triadica sebifera, is an invasive weed that infests natural and agricultural areas of the southeastern USA. A candidate for biological control of Chinese tallow has been studied under quarantine conditions. The biology and host range of a primitive leaf feeding beetle, Heterapoderops...

  19. Controlled annotations for systems biology.

    PubMed

    Juty, Nick; Laibe, Camille; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to provide sufficient information to enable a reader, new to the subject of Systems Biology, to create and use effectively controlled annotations, using resolvable Identifiers.org Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs). The text details the underlying requirements that have led to the development of such an identification scheme and infrastructure, the principles that underpin its syntax and the benefits derived through its use. It also places into context the relationship with other standardization efforts, how it differs from other pre-existing identification schemes, recent improvements to the system, as well as those that are planned in the future. Throughout, the reader is provided with explicit examples of use and directed to supplementary information where necessary.

  20. Molecular biology of weed control.

    PubMed

    Gressel, J

    2000-01-01

    The vast commercial effort to utilize chemical and molecular tools to solve weed control problems has had a major impact on the basic biological sciences as well as benefits to agriculture, and the first generation of transgenic products has been successful, while somewhat crude. More sophisticated products are envisaged and expected. Biotechnologically-derived herbicide-resistant crops have been a considerable benefit, yet in some cases there is a risk that the same useful transgenes may introgress into related weeds, specifically the weeds that are hardest to control without such transgenic crops. Biotechnology can also be used to mitigate the risks. Molecular tools should be considered for weed control without the use of, or with less chemicals, whether by enhancing crop competitiveness with weeds for light, nutrients and water, or via allelochemicals. Biocontrol agents may become more effective as well as more safe when rendered hypervirulent yet non-spreading by biotechnology. There might be ways to disperse deleterious transposons throughout weed populations, obviating the need to modify the crops.

  1. PiNGO: a Cytoscape plugin to find candidate genes in biological networks.

    PubMed

    Smoot, Michael; Ono, Keiichiro; Ideker, Trey; Maere, Steven

    2011-04-01

    PiNGO is a tool to screen biological networks for candidate genes, i.e. genes predicted to be involved in a biological process of interest. The user can narrow the search to genes with particular known functions or exclude genes belonging to particular functional classes. PiNGO provides support for a wide range of organisms and Gene Ontology classification schemes, and it can easily be customized for other organisms and functional classifications. PiNGO is implemented as a plugin for Cytoscape, a popular network visualization platform. PiNGO is distributed as an open-source Java package under the GNU General Public License (http://www.gnu.org/), and can be downloaded via the Cytoscape plugin manager. A detailed user guide and tutorial are available on the PiNGO website (http://www.psb.ugent.be/esb/PiNGO.

  2. Biologically-Induced Micropitting of Alloy 22, a Candidate Nuclear Waste Packaging Material

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, S; Carrillo, C; Horn, J

    2003-11-03

    The effects of potential microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) on candidate packaging materials for nuclear waste containment are being assessed. Coupons of Alloy 22, the outer barrier candidate for waste packaging, were exposed to a simulated, saturated repository environment (or microcosm) consisting of crushed rock (tuff) from the Yucca Mountain repository site and a continual flow of simulated groundwater for periods up to five years at room temperature and 30 C. Coupons were incubated with YM tuff under both sterile and non-sterile conditions. Surfacial analysis by scanning electron microscopy of the biotically-incubated coupons show development of both submicron-sized pinholes and pores; these features were not present on either sterile or untreated control coupons. Room temperature, biotically-incubated coupons show a wide distribution of pores covering the coupon surface, while coupons incubated at 30 C show the pores restricted to polishing ridges.

  3. Biological marker candidates of Alzheimer's disease in blood, plasma, and serum.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Philine; Hampel, Harald; Buerger, Katharina

    2009-01-01

    At the earliest clinical stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), when first symptoms are mild, making a reliable and accurate diagnosis is difficult. AD related brain pathology and underlying molecular mechanisms precede symptoms. Biological markers can serve as supportive early screening and diagnostic tools as well as indicators of presymptomatic biochemical change. Moreover, biomarkers cover a variety of roles and functions such as disease prediction, indicating disease acuity and progression, and may ensure biological mapping of treatment outcome. Early screening, detection, and diagnosis of AD would permit earlier disease modifying intervention at potentially reversible stages. To date, most established biological markers from both cerebrospinal fluid neurochemistry and structural and functional neuroimaging have not reached widespread clinical application. Crucial remaining problems, such as easy acceptance and application of a test, cost-effectiveness, and noninvasiveness, need to be resolved. The development and validation of precise, reliable, and robust tests and biomarkers in blood, plasma, or serum has therefore been for a long time the ultimate focus of many research groups worldwide. Blood-based testing will most likely be the prerequisite to future sensitive screening of large populations at risk of AD and the baseline in a diagnostic flow approach to AD. The status and emerging perspectives on hypothesis and exploratory-based candidate biomarkers derived from blood, plasma, and serum are reviewed and discussed.

  4. Biology and Water Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Charles E.

    Within this text, the reader is attuned to the role biology can and should play in combating the alarming increase in water pollution. Both the urgency of the problem and the biological techniques that are being developed to cope with the water pollution crisis are scrutinized; what is and is not known about the problem is explained; past,…

  5. Biology and Water Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Charles E.

    Within this text, the reader is attuned to the role biology can and should play in combating the alarming increase in water pollution. Both the urgency of the problem and the biological techniques that are being developed to cope with the water pollution crisis are scrutinized; what is and is not known about the problem is explained; past,…

  6. A Candidate Vegetation Index of Biological Integrity Based on Species Dominance and Habitat Fidelity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gara, Brian D; Stapanian, Martin A.

    2015-01-01

    Indices of biological integrity of wetlands based on vascular plants (VIBIs) have been developed in many areas of the USA and are used in some states to make critical management decisions. An underlying concept of all VIBIs is that they respond negatively to disturbance. The Ohio VIBI (OVIBI) is calculated from 10 metrics, which are different for each wetland vegetation class. We present a candidate vegetation index of biotic integrity based on floristic quality (VIBI-FQ) that requires only two metrics to calculate an overall score regardless of vegetation class. These metrics focus equally on the critical ecosystem elements of diversity and dominance as related to a species’ degree of fidelity to habitat requirements. The indices were highly correlated but varied among vegetation classes. Both indices responded negatively with a published index of wetland disturbance in 261 Ohio wetlands. Unlike VIBI-FQ, however, errors in classifying wetland vegetation may lead to errors in calculating OVIBI scores. This is especially critical when assessing the ecological condition of rapidly developing ecosystems typically associated with wetland restoration and creation projects. Compared to OVIBI, the VIBI-FQ requires less field work, is much simpler to calculate and interpret, and can potentially be applied to all habitat types. This candidate index, which has been “standardized” across habitats, would make it easier to prioritize funding because it would score the “best” and “worst” of all habitats appropriately and allow for objective comparison across different vegetation classes.

  7. Core biological marker candidates of Alzheimer's disease - perspectives for diagnosis, prediction of outcome and reflection of biological activity.

    PubMed

    Hampel, H; Mitchell, A; Blennow, K; Frank, R A; Brettschneider, S; Weller, L; Möller, H-J

    2004-03-01

    AD from age-associated memory-impairment, depression, and some secondary dementias. First studies showed that measurement of p-tau proteins significantly improves early and differential diagnosis, as well as disease prediction in subjects at risk for AD and comes closest to fulfilling proposed criteria of a biological marker for AD. However, the nature of the majority of reported findings are still preliminary and retrospective. General issues for biomarkers have to be adequately addressed, such as sensitivity of the method, frequency of assessments, stability of the method, standardization of methods and dynamic range. There is still a partial lack of comparison patient populations that must be addressed in future studies. International dementia networks have been recently established to advance the establishment of core biomarker candidates of AD as potential surrogate endpoints for clinical trials and their clinical use for predictive and diagnostic purposes.

  8. Review of Pasteuria penetrans: Biology, Ecology, and Biological Control Potential

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Z. X.; Dickson, D. W.

    1998-01-01

    Pasteuria penetrans is a mycelial, endospore-forming, bacterial parasite that has shown great potential as a biological control agent of root-knot nematodes. Considerable progress has been made during the last 10 years in understanding its biology and importance as an agent capable of effectively suppressing root-knot nematodes in field soil. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the biology, ecology, and biological control potential of P. penetrans and other Pasteuria members. Pasteuria spp. are distributed worldwide and have been reported from 323 nematode species belonging to 116 genera of free-living, predatory, plant-parasitic, and entomopathogenic nematodes. Artificial cultivation of P. penetrans has met with limited success; large-scale production of endospores depends on in vivo cultivation. Temperature affects endospore attachment, germination, pathogenesis, and completion of the life cycle in the nematode pseudocoelom. The biological control potential of Pasteuria spp. have been demonstrated on 20 crops; host nematodes include Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Heterodera spp., Meloidogyne spp., and Xiphinema diversicaudatum. Pasteuria penetrans plays an important role in some suppressive soils. The efficacy of the bacterium as a biological control agent has been examined. Approximately 100,000 endospores/g of soil provided immediate control of the peanut root-knot nematode, whereas 1,000 and 5,000 endospores/g of soil each amplified in the host nematode and became suppressive after 3 years. PMID:19274225

  9. New generation super alloy candidates for medical applications: corrosion behavior, cation release and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Reclaru, L; Ziegenhagen, R; Unger, R E; Eschler, P Y; Constantin, F

    2014-12-01

    Three super alloy candidates (X1 CrNiMoMnW 24-22-6-3-2 N, NiCr21 MoNbFe 8-3-5 AlTi, CoNiCr 35-20 Mo 10 BTi) for a prolonged contact with skin are evaluated in comparison with two reference austenitic stainless steels 316L and 904L. Several electrochemical parameters were measured and determined (E(oc), E(corr), i(corr), b(a), b(c), E(b), R(p), E(crev) and coulometric analysis) in order to compare the corrosion behavior. The cation release evaluation and in vitro biological characterization also were performed. In terms of corrosion, the results reveal that the 904L steels presented the best behavior followed by the super austenitic steel X1 CrNiMoMnW 24-22-6-3-2 N. For the other two super alloys (NiCr and CoNiCr types alloys) tested in different conditions (annealed, work hardened and work hardened+age hardened) it was found that their behavior to corrosion was weak and close to the other reference stainless steel, 316L. Regarding the extraction a mixture of cations in relatively high concentrations was noted and therefore a cocktail effect was not excluded. The results obtained in the biological assays WST-1 and TNF-alpha were in correlation with the corrosion and extraction evaluation.

  10. QTL Mapping and Candidate Gene Analysis of Telomere Length Control Factors in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Amber N.; Lauter, Nick; Vera, Daniel L.; McLaughlin-Large, Karen A.; Steele, Tace M.; Fredette, Natalie C.; Bass, Hank W.

    2011-01-01

    Telomere length is a quantitative trait important for many cellular functions. Failure to regulate telomere length contributes to genomic instability, cellular senescence, cancer, and apoptosis in humans, but the functional significance of telomere regulation in plants is much less well understood. To gain a better understanding of telomere biology in plants, we used quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping to identify genetic elements that control telomere length variation in maize (Zea mays L.). For this purpose, we measured the median and mean telomere lengths from 178 recombinant inbred lines of the IBM mapping population and found multiple regions that collectively accounted for 33–38% of the variation in telomere length. Two-way analysis of variance revealed interaction between the quantitative trait loci at genetic bin positions 2.09 and 5.04. Candidate genes within these and other significant QTL intervals, along with select genes known a priori to regulate telomere length, were tested for correlations between expression levels and telomere length in the IBM population and diverse inbred lines by quantitative real-time PCR. A slight but significant positive correlation between expression levels and telomere length was observed for many of the candidate genes, but Ibp2 was a notable exception, showing instead a negative correlation. A rad51-like protein (TEL-MD_5.04) was strongly supported as a candidate gene by several lines of evidence. Our results highlight the value of QTL mapping plus candidate gene expression analysis in a genetically diverse model system for telomere research. PMID:22384354

  11. Biological Control of Southern Pine Beetle

    Treesearch

    Fred M. Stephen; C. Wayne Berisford

    2011-01-01

    Exotic invasive forest insects are frequently managed through classical biological control, which involves searching for, introducing, and establishing their exotic natural enemies. Biological control of native bark beetles, including the southern pine beetle (SPB), has been primarily attempted by conserving and manipulating their natural enemies. Knowledge of the role...

  12. The biological control of disease vectors.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kenichi W; Amarasekare, Priyanga

    2012-09-21

    Vector-borne diseases are common in nature and can have a large impact on humans, livestock and crops. Biological control of vectors using natural enemies or competitors can reduce vector density and hence disease transmission. However, the indirect interactions inherent in host-vector disease systems make it difficult to use traditional pest control theory to guide biological control of disease vectors. This necessitates a conceptual framework that explicitly considers a range of indirect interactions between the host-vector disease system and the vector's biological control agent. Here we conduct a comparative analysis of the efficacy of different types of biological control agents in controlling vector-borne diseases. We report three key findings. First, highly efficient predators and parasitoids of the vector prove to be effective biological control agents, but highly virulent pathogens of the vector also require a high transmission rate to be effective. Second, biocontrol agents can successfully reduce long-term host disease incidence even though they may fail to reduce long-term vector densities. Third, inundating a host-vector disease system with a natural enemy of the vector has little or no effect on reducing disease incidence, but inundating the system with a competitor of the vector has a large effect on reducing disease incidence. The comparative framework yields predictions that are useful in developing biological control strategies for vector-borne diseases. We discuss how these predictions can inform ongoing biological control efforts for host-vector disease systems. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Indirect nontarget effects of host-specific biological control agents: Implications for biological control

    Treesearch

    Dean E. Pearson; Ragan M. Callaway

    2005-01-01

    Classical biological control of weeds currently operates under the assumption that biological control agents are safe (i.e., low risk) if they do not directly attack nontarget species. However, recent studies indicate that even highly host-specific biological control agents can impact nontarget species through indirect effects. This finding has profound...

  14. Modeling and biological control of mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Lord, Cynthia C

    2007-01-01

    Models can be useful at many different levels when considering complex issues such as biological control of mosquitoes. At an early stage, exploratory models are valuable in exploring the characteristics of an ideal biological control agent and for guidance in data collection. When more data are available, models can be used to explore alternative control strategies and the likelihood of success. There are few modeling studies that explicitly consider biological control in mosquitoes; however, there have been many theoretical studies of biological control in other insect systems and of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases in general. Examples are used here to illustrate important aspects of designing, using and interpreting models. The stability properties of a model are valuable in assessing the potential of a biological control agent, but may not be relevant to a mosquito population with frequent environmental perturbations. The time scale and goal of proposed control strategies are important considerations when analyzing a model. The underlying biology of the mosquito host and the biological control agent must be carefully considered when deciding what to include in a model. Factors such as density dependent population growth in the host, the searching efficiency and aggregation of a natural enemy, and the resource base of both have been shown to influence the stability and dynamics of the interaction. Including existing mosquito control practices into a model is useful if biological control is proposed for locations with current insecticidal control. The development of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies can be enhanced using modeling techniques, as a wide variety of options can be simulated and examined. Models can also be valuable in comparing alternate routes of disease transmission and to investigate the level of control needed to reduce transmission.

  15. Biological control and sustainable food production.

    PubMed

    Bale, J S; van Lenteren, J C; Bigler, F

    2008-02-27

    The use of biological control for the management of pest insects pre-dates the modern pesticide era. The first major successes in biological control occurred with exotic pests controlled by natural enemy species collected from the country or area of origin of the pest (classical control). Augmentative control has been successfully applied against a range of open-field and greenhouse pests, and conservation biological control schemes have been developed with indigenous predators and parasitoids. The cost-benefit ratio for classical biological control is highly favourable (1:250) and for augmentative control is similar to that of insecticides (1:2-1:5), with much lower development costs. Over the past 120 years, more than 5000 introductions of approximately 2000 non-native control agents have been made against arthropod pests in 196 countries or islands with remarkably few environmental problems. Biological control is a key component of a 'systems approach' to integrated pest management, to counteract insecticide-resistant pests, withdrawal of chemicals and minimize the usage of pesticides. Current studies indicate that genetically modified insect-resistant Bt crops may have no adverse effects on the activity or function of predators or parasitoids used in biological control. The introduction of rational approaches for the environmental risk assessment of non-native control agents is an essential step in the wider application of biological control, but future success is strongly dependent on a greater level of investment in research and development by governments and related organizations that are committed to a reduced reliance on chemical control.

  16. Conserving and Enhancing Biological Control of Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Timper, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Conservation biological control is the modification of the environment or existing practices to protect and enhance antagonistic organisms to reduce damage from pests. This approach to biological control has received insufficient attention compared with inundative applications of microbial antagonists to control nematodes. This review provides examples of how production practices can enhance or diminish biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes and other soilborne pests. Antagonists of nematodes can be enhanced by providing supplementary food sources such as occurs when organic amendments are applied to soil. However, some organic amendments (e.g., manures and plants containing allelopathic compounds) can also be detrimental to nematode antagonists. Plant species and genotype can strongly influence the outcome of biological control. For instance, the susceptibility of the plant to the nematode can determine the effectiveness of control; good hosts will require greater levels of suppression than poor hosts. Plant genotype can also influence the degree of rhizosphere colonization and antibiotic production by antagonists, as well the expression of induced resistance by plants. Production practices such as crop rotation, fallow periods, tillage, and pesticide applications can directly disrupt populations of antagonistic organisms. These practices can also indirectly affect antagonists by reducing their primary nematode host. One of the challenges of conservation biological control is that practices intended to protect or enhance suppression of nematodes may not be effective in all field sites because they are dependent on indigenous antagonists. Ultimately, indicators will need to be identified, such as the presence of particular antagonists, which can guide decisions on where it is practical to use conservation biological control. Antagonists can also be applied to field sites in conjunction with conservation practices to improve the consistency, efficacy, and

  17. Conserving and enhancing biological control of nematodes.

    PubMed

    Timper, Patricia

    2014-06-01

    Conservation biological control is the modification of the environment or existing practices to protect and enhance antagonistic organisms to reduce damage from pests. This approach to biological control has received insufficient attention compared with inundative applications of microbial antagonists to control nematodes. This review provides examples of how production practices can enhance or diminish biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes and other soilborne pests. Antagonists of nematodes can be enhanced by providing supplementary food sources such as occurs when organic amendments are applied to soil. However, some organic amendments (e.g., manures and plants containing allelopathic compounds) can also be detrimental to nematode antagonists. Plant species and genotype can strongly influence the outcome of biological control. For instance, the susceptibility of the plant to the nematode can determine the effectiveness of control; good hosts will require greater levels of suppression than poor hosts. Plant genotype can also influence the degree of rhizosphere colonization and antibiotic production by antagonists, as well the expression of induced resistance by plants. Production practices such as crop rotation, fallow periods, tillage, and pesticide applications can directly disrupt populations of antagonistic organisms. These practices can also indirectly affect antagonists by reducing their primary nematode host. One of the challenges of conservation biological control is that practices intended to protect or enhance suppression of nematodes may not be effective in all field sites because they are dependent on indigenous antagonists. Ultimately, indicators will need to be identified, such as the presence of particular antagonists, which can guide decisions on where it is practical to use conservation biological control. Antagonists can also be applied to field sites in conjunction with conservation practices to improve the consistency, efficacy, and

  18. Hemlock woolly adelgid biological control research

    Treesearch

    Michael Montgomery; Nathan Havill; Carole Cheah; Mark McClure; Gabriella Zilahi-Balogh; Ashley Lamb; Scott Salom

    2003-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae Annand, is an introduced pest that causes mortality of hemlock in the eastern U. S. Three laboratories have imported and are evaluating predacious beetles for biological control of the adelgid.

  19. Robot control with biological cells.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Soichiro; Zauner, Klaus-Peter; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio

    2007-02-01

    At present there exists a large gap in size, performance, adaptability and robustness between natural and artificial information processors for performing coherent perception-action tasks under real-time constraints. Even the simplest organisms have an enviable capability of coping with an unknown dynamic environment. Robots, in contrast, are still clumsy if confronted with such complexity. This paper presents a bio-hybrid architecture developed for exploring an alternate approach to the control of autonomous robots. Circuits prepared from amoeboid plasmodia of the slime mold Physarum polycephalum are interfaced with an omnidirectional hexapod robot. Sensory signals from the macro-physical environment of the robot are transduced to cellular scale and processed using the unique micro-physical features of intracellular information processing. Conversely, the response form the cellular computation is amplified to yield a macroscopic output action in the environment mediated through the robot's actuators.

  20. Biological control of livestock pests : Parasitoids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), are common pests on livestock, poultry, and equine facilities. Biological control of filth flies with pupal parasitoids can be used in conjunction with other control methods as part of an integrated fly management program. ...

  1. Best practices for the use and exchange of invertebrate biological control genetic resources relevant for food and agriculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biological control is an important and environmentally preferred management option for invasive insect pests and weeds. Implementation of new international regulations governing exchange of genetic materials impacts the availability of candidate biocontrol agents, and exchange policies need to be ca...

  2. Controlled ecological life support system - biological problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, B., III (Editor); Macelroy, R. D. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The general processes and controls associated with two distinct experimental paradigms are examined. Specific areas for research related to biotic production (food production) and biotic decomposition (waste management) are explored. The workshop discussions were directed toward Elemental cycles and the biological factors that affect the transformations of nutrients into food, of food material into waste, and of waste into nutrients were discussed. To focus on biological issues, the discussion assumed that (1) food production would be by biological means (thus excluding chemical synthesis), (2) energy would not be a limiting factor, and (3) engineering capacity for composition and leak rate would be adequate.

  3. A biologically-inspired framework for contour detection using superpixel-based candidates and hierarchical visual cues.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao; Shang, Ke; Ming, Delie; Tian, Jinwen; Ma, Jiayi

    2015-10-20

    Contour detection has been extensively investigated as a fundamental problem in computer vision. In this study, a biologically-inspired candidate weighting framework is proposed for the challenging task of detecting meaningful contours. In contrast to previous models that detect contours from pixels, a modified superpixel generation processing is proposed to generate a contour candidate set and then weigh the candidates by extracting hierarchical visual cues. We extract the low-level visual local cues to weigh the contour intrinsic property and mid-level visual cues on the basis of Gestalt principles for weighting the contour grouping constraint. Experimental results tested on the BSDS benchmark show that the proposed framework exhibits promising performances to capture meaningful contours in complex scenes.

  4. A Biologically-Inspired Framework for Contour Detection Using Superpixel-Based Candidates and Hierarchical Visual Cues

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao; Shang, Ke; Ming, Delie; Tian, Jinwen; Ma, Jiayi

    2015-01-01

    Contour detection has been extensively investigated as a fundamental problem in computer vision. In this study, a biologically-inspired candidate weighting framework is proposed for the challenging task of detecting meaningful contours. In contrast to previous models that detect contours from pixels, a modified superpixel generation processing is proposed to generate a contour candidate set and then weigh the candidates by extracting hierarchical visual cues. We extract the low-level visual local cues to weigh the contour intrinsic property and mid-level visual cues on the basis of Gestalt principles for weighting the contour grouping constraint. Experimental results tested on the BSDS benchmark show that the proposed framework exhibits promising performances to capture meaningful contours in complex scenes. PMID:26492252

  5. Candidate control design metrics for an agile fighter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.; Bailey, Melvin L.; Ostroff, Aaron J.

    1991-01-01

    Success in the fighter combat environment of the future will certainly demand increasing capability from aircraft technology. These advanced capabilities in the form of superagility and supermaneuverability will require special design techniques which translate advanced air combat maneuvering requirements into design criteria. Control design metrics can provide some of these techniques for the control designer. Thus study presents an overview of control design metrics and investigates metrics for advanced fighter agility. The objectives of various metric users, such as airframe designers and pilots, are differentiated from the objectives of the control designer. Using an advanced fighter model, metric values are documented over a portion of the flight envelope through piloted simulation. These metric values provide a baseline against which future control system improvements can be compared and against which a control design methodology can be developed. Agility is measured for axial, pitch, and roll axes. Axial metrics highlight acceleration and deceleration capabilities under different flight loads and include specific excess power measurements to characterize energy meneuverability. Pitch metrics cover both body-axis and wind-axis pitch rates and accelerations. Included in pitch metrics are nose pointing metrics which highlight displacement capability between the nose and the velocity vector. Roll metrics (or torsion metrics) focus on rotational capability about the wind axis.

  6. Biological invasion and biological control select for different life histories

    PubMed Central

    Tayeh, Ashraf; Hufbauer, Ruth A.; Estoup, Arnaud; Ravigné, Virginie; Frachon, Léa; Facon, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Biological invaders have long been hypothesized to exhibit the fast end of the life-history spectrum, with early reproduction and a short lifespan. Here, we examine the rapid evolution of life history within the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis. The species, once used as a biological control agent, is now a worldwide invader. We show that biocontrol populations have evolved a classic fast life history during their maintenance in laboratories. Invasive populations also reproduce earlier than native populations, but later than biocontrol ones. Invaders allocate more resources to reproduction than native and biocontrol individuals, and their reproduction is spread over a longer lifespan. This life history is best described as a bet-hedging strategy. We assert that invasiveness cannot be explained only by invoking faster life histories. Instead, the evolution of life history within invasive populations can progress rapidly and converge to a fine-tuned evolutionary match between the invaded environment and the invader. PMID:26035519

  7. Trichoderma saturnisporum, a new biological control agent.

    PubMed

    Diánez Martínez, Fernando; Santos, Mila; Carretero, Francisco; Marín, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    Biocontrol agents (BCAs) could be a viable alternative to chemicals in the management of fungal crop diseases. Screening for potential biocontrol and plant growth promoter isolates from a soil in Cádiz (Spain) was conducted. Several isolates showed antagonism in in vitro tests to several plant pathogens. Two isolates of Trichoderma saturnisporum (Ascomycetes, Hypocreales) were identified by sequencing of the rDNA region. One isolate was selected for further in vivo plant growth promotion and biological control assays. Results indicate that substrate application of T. saturnisporum improved plant quality and showed biological control activity against Phytophthora capsici and Phytophthora parasitica (Peronosporales, Peronosporaceae). There are a few references to T. saturnisporum isolated from different media but not its ability to promote plant growth or biocontrol. This is the first report of T. saturnisporum as a seedling growth promoter and as biological control agent. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Spiders as biological controllers in the agroecosystem.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Samrat; Isaia, Marco; Venturino, Ezio

    2009-06-07

    In this paper, we propose a general model consisting of insects, pests and spiders interacting in an agroecosystem included in a typical homogeneous rural landscape, characterized by a continuous mosaic of cultivated land and a few small patches of grasslands and small woods bounding the fields. The model is general enough to show all the phenomena observed in the agroecosystem. The role of the spider population as a biological controller in the agroecosystem is particularly emphasized. Human intervention by means of pesticide spraying and its relationship with the biological pest controllers is also accounted for.

  9. Biology & control of Anopheles culicifacies Giles 1901

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, V.P.; Dev, V.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria epidemiology is complex due to multiplicity of disease vectors, sibling species complex and variations in bionomical characteristics, vast varied terrain, various ecological determinants. There are six major mosquito vector taxa in India, viz. Anopheles culicifacies, An. fluviatilis, An. stephensi, An. minimus, An. dirus and An. sundaicus. Among these, An. culicifacies is widely distributed and considered the most important vector throughout the plains and forests of India for generating bulk of malaria cases (>60% annually). Major malaria epidemics are caused by An. culicifaices. It is also the vector of tribal malaria except parts of Odisha and Northeastern States of India. An. culicifacies has been the cause of perennial malaria transmission in forests, and over the years penetrated the deforested areas of Northeast. An. culicifacies participates in malaria transmission either alone or along with An. stephensi or An. fluviatilis. The National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) spends about 80 per cent malaria control budget annually in the control of An. culicifacies, yet it remains one of the most formidable challenges in India. With recent advances in molecular biology there has been a significant added knowledge in understanding the biology, ecology, genetics and response to interventions, requiring stratification for cost-effective and sustainable malaria control. Research leading to newer interventions that are evidence-based, community oriented and sustainable would be useful in tackling the emerging challenges in malaria control. Current priority areas of research should include in-depth vector biology and control in problem pockets, preparation of malaria-risk maps for focused and selective interventions, monitoring insecticide resistance, cross-border initiative and data sharing, and coordinated control efforts for achieving transmission reduction, and control of drug-resistant malaria. The present review on An. culicifacies

  10. The biological control of the malaria vector.

    PubMed

    Kamareddine, Layla

    2012-09-01

    The call for malaria control, over the last century, marked a new epoch in the history of this disease. Many control strategies targeting either the Plasmodium parasite or the Anopheles vector were shown to be effective. Yet, the emergence of drug resistant parasites and insecticide resistant mosquito strains, along with numerous health, environmental, and ecological side effects of many chemical agents, highlighted the need to develop alternative tools that either complement or substitute conventional malaria control approaches. The use of biological means is considered a fundamental part of the recently launched malaria eradication program and has so far shown promising results, although this approach is still in its infancy. This review presents an overview of the most promising biological control tools for malaria eradication, namely fungi, bacteria, larvivorous fish, parasites, viruses and nematodes.

  11. The Biological Control of the Malaria Vector

    PubMed Central

    Kamareddine, Layla

    2012-01-01

    The call for malaria control, over the last century, marked a new epoch in the history of this disease. Many control strategies targeting either the Plasmodium parasite or the Anopheles vector were shown to be effective. Yet, the emergence of drug resistant parasites and insecticide resistant mosquito strains, along with numerous health, environmental, and ecological side effects of many chemical agents, highlighted the need to develop alternative tools that either complement or substitute conventional malaria control approaches. The use of biological means is considered a fundamental part of the recently launched malaria eradication program and has so far shown promising results, although this approach is still in its infancy. This review presents an overview of the most promising biological control tools for malaria eradication, namely fungi, bacteria, larvivorous fish, parasites, viruses and nematodes. PMID:23105979

  12. Biological Control of Nematodes with Bacteria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biological control of nematodes is receiving increased attention as environmental considerations with the use of nematicides have increased in importance and their high cost prohibits use on many crops. In addition, nematode resistant cultivars are not available for many crops and resistance that i...

  13. Incorporating biological control into IPM decision making

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Of the many ways biological control can be incorporated into Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs, natural enemy thresholds are arguably most easily adopted by stakeholders. Integration of natural enemy thresholds into IPM programs requires ecological and cost/benefit crop production data, thr...

  14. Vaccinomics Approach to the Identification of Candidate Protective Antigens for the Control of Tick Vector Infestations and Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Marinela; Alberdi, Pilar; Fernández De Mera, Isabel G; Krull, Christoph; Nijhof, Ard; Villar, Margarita; De La Fuente, José

    2017-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne pathogen causing human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), tick-borne fever (TBF) in small ruminants, and other forms of anaplasmosis in different domestic and wild animals. The main vectors of this pathogen are Ixodes tick species, particularly I. scapularis in the United States and I. ricinus in Europe. One of the main limitations for the development of effective vaccines for the prevention and control of A. phagocytophilum infection and transmission is the identification of effective tick protective antigens. The objective of this study was to apply a vaccinomics approach to I. scapularis-A. phagocytophilum interactions for the identification and characterization of candidate tick protective antigens for the control of vector infestations and A. phagocytophilum infection. The vaccinomics pipeline included the use of quantitative transcriptomics and proteomics data from uninfected and A. phagocytophilum-infected I. scapularis ticks for the selection of candidate protective antigens based on the variation in tick mRNA and protein levels in response to infection, their putative biological function, and the effect of antibodies against these proteins on tick cell apoptosis and pathogen infection. The characterization of selected candidate tick protective antigens included the identification and characterization of I. ricinus homologs, functional characterization by different methodologies including RNA interference, immunofluorescence, gene expression profiling, and artificial tick feeding on rabbit antibodies against the recombinant antigens to select the candidates for vaccination trials. The vaccinomics pipeline developed in this study resulted in the identification of two candidate tick protective antigens that could be selected for future vaccination trials. The results showed that I. scapularis lipocalin (ISCW005600) and lectin pathway inhibitor (AAY66632) and I. ricinus homologs constitute candidate protective

  15. Vaccinomics Approach to the Identification of Candidate Protective Antigens for the Control of Tick Vector Infestations and Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Marinela; Alberdi, Pilar; Fernández De Mera, Isabel G.; Krull, Christoph; Nijhof, Ard; Villar, Margarita; De La Fuente, José

    2017-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne pathogen causing human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), tick-borne fever (TBF) in small ruminants, and other forms of anaplasmosis in different domestic and wild animals. The main vectors of this pathogen are Ixodes tick species, particularly I. scapularis in the United States and I. ricinus in Europe. One of the main limitations for the development of effective vaccines for the prevention and control of A. phagocytophilum infection and transmission is the identification of effective tick protective antigens. The objective of this study was to apply a vaccinomics approach to I. scapularis-A. phagocytophilum interactions for the identification and characterization of candidate tick protective antigens for the control of vector infestations and A. phagocytophilum infection. The vaccinomics pipeline included the use of quantitative transcriptomics and proteomics data from uninfected and A. phagocytophilum-infected I. scapularis ticks for the selection of candidate protective antigens based on the variation in tick mRNA and protein levels in response to infection, their putative biological function, and the effect of antibodies against these proteins on tick cell apoptosis and pathogen infection. The characterization of selected candidate tick protective antigens included the identification and characterization of I. ricinus homologs, functional characterization by different methodologies including RNA interference, immunofluorescence, gene expression profiling, and artificial tick feeding on rabbit antibodies against the recombinant antigens to select the candidates for vaccination trials. The vaccinomics pipeline developed in this study resulted in the identification of two candidate tick protective antigens that could be selected for future vaccination trials. The results showed that I. scapularis lipocalin (ISCW005600) and lectin pathway inhibitor (AAY66632) and I. ricinus homologs constitute candidate protective

  16. Biological and structural characterization of a naturally inspired material engineered from elastin as a candidate for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Vassalli, Massimo; Sbrana, Francesca; Laurita, Alessandro; Papi, Massimiliano; Bloise, Nora; Visai, Livia; Bochicchio, Brigida

    2013-12-23

    The adoption of a biomimetic approach in the design and fabrication of innovative materials for biomedical applications is encountering a growing interest. In particular, new molecules are being engineered on the basis of proteins present in the extracellular matrix, such as fibronectin, collagen, or elastin. Following this approach scientists expect to be able not only to obtain materials with tailored mechanical properties but also to elicit specific biological responses inherited by the mimicked tissue. In the present work, a novel peptide, engineered starting from the sequence encoded by exon 28 of human tropoelastin, was characterized from a chemical, physical, and biological point of view. The obtained molecule was observed to aggregate at high temperatures, forming a material able to induce a biological effect similar to what elastin does in the physiological context. This material seems to be a good candidate to play a relevant role in future biomedical applications with special reference to vascular surgery.

  17. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel imidazolidine derivatives as candidates to schistosomicidal agents.

    PubMed

    Matos-Rocha, Thiago José; Lima, Maria do Carmo Alves de; Silva, Anekécia Lauro da; Oliveira, Jamerson Ferreira de; Gouveia, Allana Lemos Andrade; Silva, Vinícius Barros Ribeiro da; Almeida, Antônio Sérgio Alves de; Brayner, Fábio André; Cardoso, Pablo Ramon Gualberto; Pitta-Galdino, Marina da Rocha; Pitta, Ivan da Rocha; Rêgo, Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo; Alves, Luiz Carlos; Pitta, Maira Galdino da Rocha

    2017-04-03

    Schistosomiasis is an infectious parasitic disease caused by trematodes of the genus Schistosoma, which threatens at least 258 million people worldwide and its control is dependent on a single drug, praziquantel. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-Schistosoma mansoni activity in vitro of novel imidazolidine derivatives. We synthesized two novel imidazolidine derivatives: (LPSF/PTS10) (Z)-1-(2-chloro-6-fluorobenzyl)-4-(4-dimethylaminobenzylidene)-5-thioxoimidazolidin-2-one and (LPSF/PTS23) (Z)-1-(2-chloro-6-fluoro-benzyl)-5-thioxo-4-(2,4,6-trimethoxy-benzylidene)-imidazolidin-2-one. The structures of two compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods. During the biological assays, parameters such as motility, oviposition, mortality and analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy were performed. LPSF/PTS10 and LPSF/PTS23 were considered to be active in the separation of coupled pairs, mortality and to decrease the motor activity. In addition, LPSF/PTS23 induced ultrastructural alterations in worms, after 24 h of contact, causing extensive erosion over the entire body of the worms. The imidazolidine derivatives containing the trimetoxy and benzylidene halogens showed promising in vitro schistosomicidal activity.

  18. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel imidazolidine derivatives as candidates to schistosomicidal agents

    PubMed Central

    Matos-Rocha, Thiago José; de Lima, Maria do Carmo Alves; da Silva, Anekécia Lauro; de Oliveira, Jamerson Ferreira; Gouveia, Allana Lemos Andrade; da Silva, Vinícius Barros Ribeiro; de Almeida, Antônio Sérgio Alves; Brayner, Fábio André; Cardoso, Pablo Ramon Gualberto; Pitta-Galdino, Marina da Rocha; Pitta, Ivan da Rocha; Rêgo, Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo; Alves, Luiz Carlos; Pitta, Maira Galdino da Rocha

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Schistosomiasis is an infectious parasitic disease caused by trematodes of the genus Schistosoma, which threatens at least 258 million people worldwide and its control is dependent on a single drug, praziquantel. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-Schistosoma mansoni activity in vitro of novel imidazolidine derivatives. Material and methods: We synthesized two novel imidazolidine derivatives: (LPSF/PTS10) (Z)-1-(2-chloro-6-fluorobenzyl)-4-(4-dimethylaminobenzylidene)-5-thioxoimidazolidin-2-one and (LPSF/PTS23) (Z)-1-(2-chloro-6-fluoro-benzyl)-5-thioxo-4-(2,4,6-trimethoxy-benzylidene)-imidazolidin-2-one. The structures of two compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods. During the biological assays, parameters such as motility, oviposition, mortality and analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy were performed. Results: LPSF/PTS10 and LPSF/PTS23 were considered to be active in the separation of coupled pairs, mortality and to decrease the motor activity. In addition, LPSF/PTS23 induced ultrastructural alterations in worms, after 24 h of contact, causing extensive erosion over the entire body of the worms. Conclusion: The imidazolidine derivatives containing the trimetoxy and benzylidene halogens showed promising in vitro schistosomicidal activity. PMID:28380119

  19. Novel factors in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and potential drug candidates are found with systems biology approach.

    PubMed

    Manczinger, Máté; Kemény, Lajos

    2013-01-01

    Psoriasis is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease characterized by increased proliferation of keratinocytes, activation of immune cells and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. Systems biology approach makes it possible to reveal novel important factors in the pathogenesis of the disease. Protein-protein, protein-DNA, merged (containing both protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions) and chemical-protein interaction networks were constructed consisting of differentially expressed genes (DEG) between lesional and non-lesional skin samples of psoriatic patients and/or the encoded proteins. DEGs were determined by microarray meta-analysis using MetaOMICS package. We used STRING for protein-protein, CisRED for protein-DNA and STITCH for chemical-protein interaction network construction. General network-, cluster- and motif-analysis were carried out in each network. Many DEG-coded proteins (CCNA2, FYN, PIK3R1, CTGF, F3) and transcription factors (AR, TFDP1, MEF2A, MECOM) were identified as central nodes, suggesting their potential role in psoriasis pathogenesis. CCNA2, TFDP1 and MECOM might play role in the hyperproliferation of keratinocytes, whereas FYN may be involved in the disturbed immunity in psoriasis. AR can be an important link between inflammation and insulin resistance, while MEF2A has role in insulin signaling. A controller sub-network was constructed from interlinked positive feedback loops that with the capability to maintain psoriatic lesional phenotype. Analysis of chemical-protein interaction networks detected 34 drugs with previously confirmed disease-modifying effects, 23 drugs with some experimental evidences, and 21 drugs with case reports suggesting their positive or negative effects. In addition, 99 unpublished drug candidates were also found, that might serve future treatments for psoriasis.

  20. Novel Factors in the Pathogenesis of Psoriasis and Potential Drug Candidates Are Found with Systems Biology Approach

    PubMed Central

    Manczinger, Máté; Kemény, Lajos

    2013-01-01

    Psoriasis is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease characterized by increased proliferation of keratinocytes, activation of immune cells and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. Systems biology approach makes it possible to reveal novel important factors in the pathogenesis of the disease. Protein-protein, protein-DNA, merged (containing both protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions) and chemical-protein interaction networks were constructed consisting of differentially expressed genes (DEG) between lesional and non-lesional skin samples of psoriatic patients and/or the encoded proteins. DEGs were determined by microarray meta-analysis using MetaOMICS package. We used STRING for protein-protein, CisRED for protein-DNA and STITCH for chemical-protein interaction network construction. General network-, cluster- and motif-analysis were carried out in each network. Many DEG-coded proteins (CCNA2, FYN, PIK3R1, CTGF, F3) and transcription factors (AR, TFDP1, MEF2A, MECOM) were identified as central nodes, suggesting their potential role in psoriasis pathogenesis. CCNA2, TFDP1 and MECOM might play role in the hyperproliferation of keratinocytes, whereas FYN may be involved in the disturbed immunity in psoriasis. AR can be an important link between inflammation and insulin resistance, while MEF2A has role in insulin signaling. A controller sub-network was constructed from interlinked positive feedback loops that with the capability to maintain psoriatic lesional phenotype. Analysis of chemical-protein interaction networks detected 34 drugs with previously confirmed disease-modifying effects, 23 drugs with some experimental evidences, and 21 drugs with case reports suggesting their positive or negative effects. In addition, 99 unpublished drug candidates were also found, that might serve future treatments for psoriasis. PMID:24303025

  1. Cancer in silico drug discovery: a systems biology tool for identifying candidate drugs to target specific molecular tumor subtypes.

    PubMed

    San Lucas, F Anthony; Fowler, Jerry; Chang, Kyle; Kopetz, Scott; Vilar, Eduardo; Scheet, Paul

    2014-12-01

    Large-scale cancer datasets such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) allow researchers to profile tumors based on a wide range of clinical and molecular characteristics. Subsequently, TCGA-derived gene expression profiles can be analyzed with the Connectivity Map (CMap) to find candidate drugs to target tumors with specific clinical phenotypes or molecular characteristics. This represents a powerful computational approach for candidate drug identification, but due to the complexity of TCGA and technology differences between CMap and TCGA experiments, such analyses are challenging to conduct and reproduce. We present Cancer in silico Drug Discovery (CiDD; scheet.org/software), a computational drug discovery platform that addresses these challenges. CiDD integrates data from TCGA, CMap, and Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) to perform computational drug discovery experiments, generating hypotheses for the following three general problems: (i) determining whether specific clinical phenotypes or molecular characteristics are associated with unique gene expression signatures; (ii) finding candidate drugs to repress these expression signatures; and (iii) identifying cell lines that resemble the tumors being studied for subsequent in vitro experiments. The primary input to CiDD is a clinical or molecular characteristic. The output is a biologically annotated list of candidate drugs and a list of cell lines for in vitro experimentation. We applied CiDD to identify candidate drugs to treat colorectal cancers harboring mutations in BRAF. CiDD identified EGFR and proteasome inhibitors, while proposing five cell lines for in vitro testing. CiDD facilitates phenotype-driven, systematic drug discovery based on clinical and molecular data from TCGA.

  2. Biological Concepts. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie, John W.

    This manual contains the textual material for a three-lesson unit which introduces students to the basic concepts applicable to all biological treatment systems. The general topic areas addressed in the lessons are: (1) the microorganisms found in biological systems; (2) the factors that affect the growth and health of biological systems; and (3)…

  3. Onchocerciasis control: biological research is still needed.

    PubMed

    Boussinesq, M

    2008-09-01

    Achievements obtained by the onchocerciasis control programmes should not lead to a relaxation in the biological research on Onchocerco volvulus. Issues such as the Loa loa-related post-ivermectin serious adverse events, the uncertainties as to whether onchocerciasis can be eliminated by ivermectin treatments, and the possible emergence of ivermectin-resistant O. volvulus populations should be addressed proactively. Doxycycline, moxidectin and emodepside appear to be promising as alternative drugs against onchocerciasis but support to researches in immunology and genomics should also be increased to develop new control tools, including both vaccines and macrofilaricidal drugs.

  4. A biological model for controlling interface growth and morphology.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyt, Jeffrey John; Holm, Elizabeth Ann

    2004-01-01

    Biological systems create proteins that perform tasks more efficiently and precisely than conventional chemicals. For example, many plants and animals produce proteins to control the freezing of water. Biological antifreeze proteins (AFPs) inhibit the solidification process, even below the freezing point. These molecules bond to specific sites at the ice/water interface and are theorized to suppress solidification chemically or geometrically. In this project, we investigated the theoretical and experimental data on AFPs and performed analyses to understand the unique physics of AFPs. The experimental literature was analyzed to determine chemical mechanisms and effects of protein bonding at ice surfaces, specifically thermodynamic freezing point depression, suppression of ice nucleation, decrease in dendrite growth kinetics, solute drag on the moving solid/liquid interface, and stearic pinning of the ice interface. Stearic pinning was found to be the most likely candidate to explain experimental results, including freezing point depression, growth morphologies, and thermal hysteresis. A new stearic pinning model was developed and applied to AFPs, with excellent quantitative results. Understanding biological antifreeze mechanisms could enable important medical and engineering applications, but considerable future work will be necessary.

  5. Antroquinonol A: Scalable Synthesis and Preclinical Biology of a Phase 2 Drug Candidate

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The fungal-derived Taiwanese natural product antroquinonol A has attracted both academic and commercial interest due to its reported exciting biological properties. This reduced quinone is currently in phase II trials (USA and Taiwan) for the treatment of non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and was recently granted orphan drug status by the FDA for the treatment of pancreatic cancer and acute myeloid leukemia. Pending successful completion of human clinical trials, antroquinonol is expected to be commercialized under the trade name Hocena. A synthesis-enabled biological re-examination of this promising natural product, however, reveals minimal in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity in preclinical models. PMID:27163023

  6. Objective Quantification of Physical Activity in Bariatric Surgery Candidates and Normal-Weight Controls

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Dale S.; Jakicic, John M.; Vithiananthan, Sivamainthan; Thomas, J. Graham; Leahey, Tricia M.; Sax, Harry C.; Pohl, Dieter; Roye, G.D.; Ryder, Beth A.; Wing, Rena R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is an important component of weight loss programs and may be encouraged for severely obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. However, few studies have determined the amount and intensity of activities undertaken preoperatively by bariatric surgery patients using objective measures. Methods Using RT3 tri-axial accelerometers, this study compared 38 bariatric surgery candidates and 20 normal-weight controls on: 1) activity counts/hour; 2) minutes/day spent in moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) and vigorous intensity PA (VPA); and 3) level of compliance with national recommendations to accumulate 150 minutes/week of MVPA in bouts ≥ 10 minutes. Results Surgery candidates, compared to controls, recorded significantly (Ps < 0.01) fewer activity counts/hour (13799 ± 3758 vs 19462 ± 4259) and spent fewer minutes/day engaged in MVPA (26.4 ± 23.0 vs 52.4 ± 24.7) and VPA (1.2 ± 3.4 vs 11.8 ± 9.0). More than two-thirds (68%) of surgery candidates versus 13% of NW did not accumulate any MVPA in bouts ≥ 10 minutes and only 4.5% of Ob met the weekly MVPA recommendation compared to 40% of NW. Conclusion Bariatric surgery candidates have low PA levels and rarely engage in PA bouts of sufficient duration and intensity to maintain and improve health. Additional research is needed to determine how best to increase PA in bariatric surgery candidates. PMID:19837009

  7. El control biologico de plagas(Biological control of pests)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this work some ecological principles that drive applied biocontrol and agent selection are discussed. Subjects such as specificity evaluations, host shifts and species invasiveness are analyzed under the light of ecological theory. The main assertions are: 1. biological control is a safe and bene...

  8. Prospects for biological control of rodent populations*

    PubMed Central

    Wodzicki, Kazimierz

    1973-01-01

    Pathogens and predatory animals are the main agents used for the biological control of rodents. The pathogens that have been used are of the genus Salmonella; none is rodent-specific and all can cause severe infection in man and domestic animals. Furthermore, rodents frequently develop immunity to, and become carriers of, these organisms, and there is little to commend their use, except in lightly populated areas where control is infrequently applied. The relationships of five predator species with their rodent prey have been examined. The monitor lizard, mongoose, and ferret were for different reasons found to be unsatisfactory, and there is not yet sufficient evidence to warrant further releases of the Japanese weasel. Domestic and feral cats control rodents well in some situations but only after some other agent has removed a large part of the rodent population. PMID:4587482

  9. Rotating Biological Contractors (RBC's). Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zickefoose, Charles S.

    This two-lesson unit on rotating biological contactors (RBC's) is designed to be used with students who have had some experience in wastewater treatment and a basic understanding of biological treatment. The first lesson provides information on the concepts and components of RBC treatment systems. The second lesson focuses on design operation and…

  10. The ecological controls on the prevalence of candidate division TM7 in polar regions.

    PubMed

    Winsley, Tristrom J; Snape, Ian; McKinlay, John; Stark, Jonny; van Dorst, Josie M; Ji, Mukan; Ferrari, Belinda C; Siciliano, Steven D

    2014-01-01

    The candidate division TM7 is ubiquitous and yet uncultured phylum of the Bacteria that encompasses a commonly environmental associated clade, TM7-1, and a "host-associated" clade, TM7-3. However, as members of the TM7 phylum have not been cultured, little is known about what differs between these two clades. We hypothesized that these clades would have different environmental niches. To test this, we used a large-scale global soil dataset, encompassing 223 soil samples, their environmental parameters and associated bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence data. We correlated chemical, physical and biological parameters of each soil with the relative abundance of the two major classes of the phylum to deduce factors that influence the groups' seemingly ubiquitous nature. The two classes of the phylum (TM7-1 and TM7-3) were indeed distinct from each other in their habitat requirements. A key determinant of each class' prevalence appears to be the pH of the soil. The class TM7-1 displays a facultative anaerobic nature with correlations to more acidic soils with total iron, silicon, titanium and copper indicating a potential for siderophore production. However, the TM7-3 class shows a more classical oligotrophic, heterotroph nature with a preference for more alkaline soils, and a probable pathogenic role with correlations to extractable iron, sodium and phosphate. In addition, the TM7-3 was abundant in diesel contaminated soils highlighting a resilient nature along with a possible carbon source. In addition to this both classes had unique co-occurrence relationships with other bacterial phyla. In particular, both groups had opposing correlations to the Gemmatimonadetes phylum, with the TM7-3 class seemingly being outcompeted by this phylum to result in a negative correlation. These ecological controls allow the characteristics of a TM7 phylum preferred niche to be defined and give insight into possible avenues for cultivation of this previously uncultured group.

  11. Selection of candidate salad vegetables for controlled ecological life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, L.; Guo, S.; Ai, W.; Tang, Y.

    Higher plants, as one of the essential biological components of CELSS, can supply food, oxygen and water for human crews during future long-duration space missions and Lunar/Mars habitats. In order to select suitable leaf vegetable varieties for our CELSS Experimental Facility (CEF), five varieties of lettuce (“Nenlvnaiyou”, “Dasusheng”, “Naichoutai”, “Dongfangkaixuan” and “Siji”), two of spinach (“Daye” and “Quanneng”), one of rape (“Jingyou No. 1”) and one of common sowthistle were grown and compared on the basis of edible biomass, and nutrient content. In addition, two series of experiments were conducted to study single leaf photosynthetic rates and transpiration rates at 30 days after planting, one which used various concentrations of CO2 (500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 μmol mol-1) and another which used various light intensities (100, 300, 500 and 700 μmol m-2 s-1). Results showed that lettuce cvs. “Nenlvnaiyou”, “Siji” and “Dasusheng” produced higher yields of edible biomass; common sowthisle would be a good source of β-carotene for the diet. Based on the collective findings, we selected three varieties of lettuce (“Nenlvnaiyou”, “Dasusheng” and “Siji”) and one of common sowthistle as the candidate crops for further research in our CEF. In addition, elevated CO2 concentration increased the rates of photosynthesis and transpiration, and elevated light intensity increased the rate of photosynthesis for these varieties. These results can be useful for determining optimal conditions for controlling CO2 and water fluxes between the crops and the overall CELSS.

  12. Biological control of Fusarium moniliforme in maize.

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, C W; Yates, I E; Hinton, D M; Meredith, F

    2001-01-01

    Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon, a biological species of the mating populations within the (italic)Gibberella fujikuroi species complex, i.e., population A [= G. moniliformis (Sheld.) Wineland], is an example of a facultative fungal endophyte. During the biotrophic endophytic association with maize, as well as during saprophytic growth, F. moniliforme produces the fumonisins. The fungus is transmitted vertically and horizontally to the next generation of plants via clonal infection of seeds and plant debris. Horizontal infection is the manner by which this fungus is spread contagiously and through which infection occurs from the outside that can be reduced by application of certain fungicides. The endophytic phase is vertically transmitted. This type infection is important because it is not controlled by seed applications of fungicides, and it remains the reservoir from which infection and toxin biosynthesis takes place in each generation of plants. Thus, vertical transmission of this fungus is just as important as horizontal transmission. A biological control system using an endophytic bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, has been developed that shows great promise for reducing mycotoxin accumulation during the endophytic (vertical transmission) growth phase. Because this bacterium occupies the identical ecological niche within the plant, it is considered an ecological homologue to F. moniliforme, and the inhibitory mechanism, regardless of the mode of action, operates on the competitive exclusion principle. In addition to this bacterium, an isolate of a species of the fungus Trichoderma shows promise in the postharvest control of the growth and toxin accumulation from F. moniliforme on corn in storage. PMID:11359703

  13. AN INTEGRATED BIOLOGICAL CONTROL SYSTEM AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON AR; CAUDILL JG; GIDDINGS RF; RODRIGUEZ JM; ROOS RC; WILDE JW

    2010-02-11

    In 1999 an integrated biological control system was instituted at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Successes and changes to the program needed to be communicated to a large and diverse mix of organizations and individuals. Efforts at communication are directed toward the following: Hanford Contractors (Liquid or Tank Waste, Solid Waste, Environmental Restoration, Science and Technology, Site Infrastructure), General Hanford Employees, and Hanford Advisory Board (Native American Tribes, Environmental Groups, Local Citizens, Washington State and Oregon State regulatory agencies). Communication was done through direct interface meetings, individual communication, where appropriate, and broadly sharing program reports. The objectives of the communication efforts was to have the program well coordinated with Hanford contractors, and to have the program understood well enough that all stakeholders would have confidence in the work performed by the program to reduce or elimated spread of radioactive contamination by biotic vectors. Communication of successes and changes to an integrated biological control system instituted in 1999 at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site have required regular interfaces with not only a diverse group of Hanford contractors (i.e., those responsible for liquid or tank waste, solid wastes, environmental restoration, science and technology, and site infrastructure), and general Hanford employees, but also with a consortium of designated stake holders organized as the Hanford Advisory Board (i.e., Native American tribes, various environmental groups, local citizens, Washington state and Oregon regulatory agencies, etc.). Direct interface meetings, individual communication where appropriate, and transparency of the biological control program were the methods and outcome of this effort.

  14. Unraveling retrograde signaling pathways: finding candidate signaling molecules via metabolomics and systems biology driven approaches.

    PubMed

    Caldana, Camila; Fernie, Alisdair R; Willmitzer, Lothar; Steinhauser, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    A tight coordination of biological processes between cellular compartments and organelles is crucial for the survival of any eukaryotic organism. According to cellular requirements, signals can be generated within organelles, such as chloroplasts and mitochondria, modulating the nuclear gene expression in a process called retrograde signaling. Whilst many research efforts have been focused on dissecting retrograde signaling pathways using biochemical and genetics approaches, metabolomics and systems biology driven studies have illustrated their great potential for hypotheses generation and for dissecting signaling networks in a rather unbiased or untargeted fashion. Recently, integrative genomics approaches, in which correlation analysis has been applied on transcript and metabolite profiling data of Arabidopsis thaliana, revealed the identification of metabolites which are putatively acting as mediators of nuclear gene expression. Complimentary, the continuous technological developments in the field of metabolomics per se has further demonstrated its potential as a very suitable readout to unravel metabolite-mediated signaling processes. As foundation for these studies here we outline and discuss recent advances in elucidating retrograde signaling molecules and pathways with an emphasis on metabolomics and systems biology driven approaches.

  15. Biological control of corky root in tomato.

    PubMed

    Fiume, G; Fiume, F

    2008-01-01

    Corky root caused by Pyrenochaeta lycopersici (Schneider et Gerlach) is one of the most important soil borne fungal pathogens which develops in the soils, causing diseases in different crops. The research was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the biological control of corky root on tomato. Biological control was performed by using Trichoderma viride Pers. 18/17 SS, Streptomyces spp. AtB42 and Bacillus subtilis M51 PI. According to present and future regulations on the use of chemical fungicides and considering that treatments must avoids environmental pollution, the main object of this research was to find alternative strategies by using biocontrol agents against P. lycopersici that affect tomato plants. In laboratory, the effectiveness of T. viride 18/17 SS, Streptomyces spp. AtB42 and B. subtilis M51 PI to control P. lycopersici were studied. In greenhouse, the research was carried out comparing the following treatments: 1) untreated control; 2) T. viride 18/17 SS; 3) Streptomyces spp. AtB42; 4) B. subtilis M51 PI. Roots of plants of tomato H3028 Hazera were treated with the antagonist suspensions just prior of transplant. Treatments were repeated about 2 months after, with the same suspensions sprayed on the soil to the plant collar. In dual culture, the inhibition of P. lycopersici ranged up to 81.2% (caused from T. viride 18/17 SS), 75.6% (from Streptomyces spp. AtB42) and 66.8% (from B. subtilis M51 PI). In greenhouse trials, with regard to corky root symptoms, all treated plots showed signifycative differences compared to untreated. T. viride gave the better results followed by Streptomyces spp. and then by B. subtilis. The fungus antagonist showed good root surface competence such as demonstrated its persistence on the roots surface of the tomato plants whose roots were treated with T. viride 18/17 SS up to 2 months before.

  16. Expression and biological characterization of an anti-CD20 biosimilar candidate antibody: a case study.

    PubMed

    Dorvignit, Denise; Palacios, Julio L; Merino, Maylin; Hernández, Tays; Sosa, Katya; Casaco, Angel; López-Requena, Alejandro; Mateo de Acosta, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The CD20 molecule is a non-glycosylated protein expressed mainly on the surface of B lymphocytes. In some pathogenic B cells, it shows an increased expression, thus becoming an attractive target for diagnosis and therapy. Rituximab is a chimeric antibody that specifically recognizes the human CD20 molecule. This antibody is indicated for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphomas and autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. In this work, we describe the stable expression and biological evaluation of an anti-CD20 biosimilar antibody. While rituximab is produced in fed-batch culture of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, our biosimilar antibody expression process consists of continuous culture of recombinant murine NS0 myeloma cells. The ability of the purified biosimilar antibody to recognize the CD20 molecule on human tumor cell lines, as well as on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from humans and primates, was demonstrated by flow cytometry. The biosimilar antibody induced complement-dependent cytotoxicity, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and apoptosis on human cell lines with high expression of CD20. In addition, this antibody depleted CD20-positive B lymphocytes from peripheral blood in monkeys. These results indicate that the biological properties of the biosimilar antibody compare favorably with those of the innovator product, and that it should be evaluated in future clinical trials.

  17. Prequels to Synthetic Biology: From Candidate Gene Identification and Validation to Enzyme Subcellular Localization in Plant and Yeast Cells.

    PubMed

    Foureau, E; Carqueijeiro, I; Dugé de Bernonville, T; Melin, C; Lafontaine, F; Besseau, S; Lanoue, A; Papon, N; Oudin, A; Glévarec, G; Clastre, M; St-Pierre, B; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, N; Courdavault, V

    2016-01-01

    Natural compounds extracted from microorganisms or plants constitute an inexhaustible source of valuable molecules whose supply can be potentially challenged by limitations in biological sourcing. The recent progress in synthetic biology combined to the increasing access to extensive transcriptomics and genomics data now provide new alternatives to produce these molecules by transferring their whole biosynthetic pathway in heterologous production platforms such as yeasts or bacteria. While the generation of high titer producing strains remains per se an arduous field of investigation, elucidation of the biosynthetic pathways as well as characterization of their complex subcellular organization are essential prequels to the efficient development of such bioengineering approaches. Using examples from plants and yeasts as a framework, we describe potent methods to rationalize the study of partially characterized pathways, including the basics of computational applications to identify candidate genes in transcriptomics data and the validation of their function by an improved procedure of virus-induced gene silencing mediated by direct DNA transfer to get around possible resistance to Agrobacterium-delivery of viral vectors. To identify potential alterations of biosynthetic fluxes resulting from enzyme mislocalizations in reconstituted pathways, we also detail protocols aiming at characterizing subcellular localizations of protein in plant cells by expression of fluorescent protein fusions through biolistic-mediated transient transformation, and localization of transferred enzymes in yeast using similar fluorescence procedures. Albeit initially developed for the Madagascar periwinkle, these methods may be applied to other plant species or organisms in order to establish synthetic biology platform. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Biological control agents elevate hantavirus by subsidizing deer mouse populations

    Treesearch

    Dean E. Pearson; Ragan M. Callaway

    2006-01-01

    Biological control of exotic invasive plants using exotic insects is practiced under the assumption that biological control agents are safe if they do not directly attack non-target species. We tested this assumption by evaluating the potential for two host-specific biological control agents (Urophora spp.), widely established in North America for spotted...

  19. Correlation analyses of clinical and molecular findings identify candidate biological pathways in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ling, Xuefeng B; Macaubas, Claudia; Alexander, Heather C; Wen, Qiaojun; Chen, Edward; Peng, Sihua; Sun, Yue; Deshpande, Chetan; Pan, Kuang-Hung; Lin, Richard; Lih, Chih-Jian; Chang, Sheng-Yung P; Lee, Tzielan; Sandborg, Christy; Begovich, Ann B; Cohen, Stanley N; Mellins, Elizabeth D

    2012-10-23

    Clinicians have long appreciated the distinct phenotype of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA) compared to polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (POLY). We hypothesized that gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from children with each disease would reveal distinct biological pathways when analyzed for significant associations with elevations in two markers of JIA activity, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and number of affected joints (joint count, JC). PBMC RNA from SJIA and POLY patients was profiled by kinetic PCR to analyze expression of 181 genes, selected for relevance to immune response pathways. Pearson correlation and Student's t-test analyses were performed to identify transcripts significantly associated with clinical parameters (ESR and JC) in SJIA or POLY samples. These transcripts were used to find related biological pathways. Combining Pearson and t-test analyses, we found 91 ESR-related and 92 JC-related genes in SJIA. For POLY, 20 ESR-related and 0 JC-related genes were found. Using Ingenuity Systems Pathways Analysis, we identified SJIA ESR-related and JC-related pathways. The two sets of pathways are strongly correlated. In contrast, there is a weaker correlation between SJIA and POLY ESR-related pathways. Notably, distinct biological processes were found to correlate with JC in samples from the earlier systemic plus arthritic phase (SAF) of SJIA compared to samples from the later arthritis-predominant phase (AF). Within the SJIA SAF group, IL-10 expression was related to JC, whereas lack of IL-4 appeared to characterize the chronic arthritis (AF) subgroup. The strong correlation between pathways implicated in elevations of both ESR and JC in SJIA argues that the systemic and arthritic components of the disease are related mechanistically. Inflammatory pathways in SJIA are distinct from those in POLY course JIA, consistent with differences in clinically appreciated target organs. The limited

  20. Export controls and biological weapons: new roles, new challenges.

    PubMed

    Roberts, B

    1998-01-01

    This article considers the value of export controls in reducing the threat of biological weapons. It concludes that export control through export licensing is an essential element in the overall strategy to limit the spread of biological weapons. Modifications to existing export control systems can maximize the usefulness of export controls for limiting the threat of biological warfare and bioterrorism. Export controls are useful only within a broader strategy that includes both an arms control dimension and military defensive preparedness.

  1. Aloe vera: Potential candidate in health management via modulation of biological activities

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Arshad H.; Aldebasi, Yousef H.; Srikar, Sauda; Khan, Amjad A.; Aly, Salah M.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment based on natural products is rapidly increasing worldwide due to the affordability and fewer side effects of such treatment. Various plants and the products derived from them are commonly used in primary health treatment, and they play a pivotal role in the treatment of diseases via modulation of biochemical and molecular pathways. Aloe vera, a succulent species, produces gel and latex, plays a therapeutic role in health management through antioxidant, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory activities, and also offers a suitable alternative approach for the treatment of various types of diseases. In this review, we summarize the possible mechanism of action and the therapeutic implications of Aloe vera in health maintenance based on its modulation of various biological activities. PMID:26392709

  2. Drawing networks of rejection - a systems biological approach to the identification of candidate genes in heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cadeiras, Martin; von Bayern, Manuel; Sinha, Anshu; Shahzad, Khurram; Latif, Farhana; Lim, Wei Keat; Grenett, Hernan; Tabak, Esteban; Klingler, Tod; Califano, Andrea; Deng, Mario C

    2011-04-01

    Technological development led to an increased interest in systems biological approaches to characterize disease mechanisms and candidate genes relevant to specific diseases. We suggested that the human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) network can be delineated by cellular reconstruction to guide identification of candidate genes. Based on 285 microarrays (7370 genes) from 98 heart transplant patients enrolled in the Cardiac Allograft Rejection Gene Expression Observational study, we used an information-theoretic, reverse-engineering algorithm called ARACNe (algorithm for the reconstruction of accurate cellular networks) and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay to reconstruct and validate a putative gene PBMC interaction network. We focused our analysis on transcription factor (TF) genes and developed a priority score to incorporate aspects of network dynamics and information from published literature to supervise gene discovery. ARACNe generated a cellular network and predicted interactions for each TF during rejection and quiescence. Genes ranked highest by priority score included those related to apoptosis, humoural and cellular immune response such as GA binding protein transcription factor (GABP), nuclear factor of κ light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells (NFκB), Fas (TNFRSF6)-associated via death domain (FADD) and c-AMP response element binding protein. We used the TF CREB to validate our network. ARACNe predicted 29 putative first-neighbour genes of CREB. Eleven of these (37%) were previously reported. Out of the 18 unknown predicted interactions, 14 primers were identified and 11 could be immunoprecipitated (78.6%). Overall, 75% (n= 22) inferred CREB targets were validated, a significantly higher fraction than randomly expected (P < 0.001, Fisher's exact test). Our results confirm the accuracy of ARACNe to reconstruct the PBMC transcriptional network and show the utility of systems biological approaches to identify possible molecular targets

  3. Chemical Biology Strategies for Biofilm Control.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liang; Givskov, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Microbes live as densely populated multicellular surface-attached biofilm communities embedded in self-generated, extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs). EPSs serve as a scaffold for cross-linking biofilm cells and support development of biofilm architecture and functions. Biofilms can have a clear negative impact on humans, where biofilms are a common denominator in many chronic diseases in which they prime development of destructive inflammatory conditions and the failure of our immune system to efficiently cope with them. Our current assortment of antimicrobial agents cannot efficiently eradicate biofilms. For industrial applications, the removal of biofilms within production machinery in the paper and hygienic food packaging industry, cooling water circuits, and drinking water manufacturing systems can be critical for the safety and efficacy of those processes. Biofilm formation is a dynamic process that involves microbial cell migration, cell-to-cell signaling and interactions, EPS synthesis, and cell-EPS interactions. Recent progress of fundamental biofilm research has shed light on novel chemical biology strategies for biofilm control. In this article, chemical biology strategies targeting the bacterial intercellular and intracellular signaling pathways will be discussed.

  4. Rotating Biological Contactors (RBC's). Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zickefoose, Charles S.

    This student manual provides the textual material for a unit on rotating biological contactors (RBC's). Topic areas considered include: (1) flow patterns of water through RBC installations; (2) basic concepts (shaft and stage); (3) characteristics of biomass; (4) mechanical features (bearings, mechanical drive systems, and air drive systems); (5)…

  5. Biological aspects and candidate biomarkers for rapid-cycling in bipolar disorder: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Buoli, Massimiliano; Serati, Marta; Altamura, A Carlo

    2017-08-24

    Rapid-cycling bipolar disorder represents a frequent severe subtype of illness which has been associated with poor response to pharmacological treatment. Aim of the present article is to provide an updated review of biological markers associated with rapid-cycling bipolar disorder. A research in the main database sources has been conducted to identify relevant papers about the topic. Rapid-cycling bipolar disorder patients seem to have a more frequent family history for bipolar spectrum disorders (d range: 0.44-0.74) as well as an increased susceptibility to DNA damage or mRNA hypo-transcription (d range: 0.78-1.67) than non rapid-cycling ones. A susceptibility to hypothyroidism, which is exacerbated by treatment with lithium, is possible in rapid-cycling bipolar disorder, but further studies are needed to draw definitive conclusions. Rapid-cycling bipolar patients might have more insuline resistance as well as more severe brain changes in frontal areas (d range: 0.82-0.94) than non rapid-cycling ones. Many questions are still open about this topic. The first is whether the rapid-cycling is inheritable or is more generally the manifestation of a severe form of bipolar disorder. The second is whether some endocrine dysfunctions (diabetes and hypothyroidism) predispose to rapid-cycling or rapid-cycling is the consequence of drug treatment or medical comorbidities (e.g. obesity). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. An integrative system biology approach to unravel potential drug candidates for multiple age related disorders.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Isha; Khurana, Pooja; Yadav, Mohini; Hasija, Yasha

    2017-08-11

    Aging, though an inevitable part of life, is becoming a worldwide social and economic problem. Healthy aging is usually marked by low probability of age related disorders. Good therapeutic approaches are still in need to cure age related disorders. Occurrence of more than one ARD in an individual, expresses the need of discovery of such target proteins, which can affect multiple ARDs. Advanced scientific and medical research technologies throughout last three decades have arrived to the point where lots of key molecular determinants affect human disorders can be examined thoroughly. In this study, we designed and executed an approach to prioritize drugs that may target multiple age related disorders. Our methodology, focused on the analysis of biological pathways and protein protein interaction networks that may contribute to the pharmacology of age related disorders, included various steps such as retrieval and analysis of data, protein-protein interaction network analysis, and statistical and comparative analysis of topological coefficients, pathway, and functional enrichment analysis, and identification of drug-target proteins. We assume that the identified molecular determinants may be prioritized for further screening as novel drug targets to cure multiple ARDs. Based on the analysis, an online tool named as 'ARDnet' has been developed to construct and demonstrate ARD interactions at the level of PPI, ARDs and ARDs protein interaction, ARDs pathway interaction and drug-target interaction. The tool is freely made available at http://genomeinformatics.dtu.ac.in/ARDNet/Index.html. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. An Integrated Bioinformatics and Computational Biology Approach Identifies New BH3-Only Protein Candidates.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Robert G; Chen, Yuzhong; Riz, Irene; Zeng, Chen

    2012-05-04

    In this study, we utilized an integrated bioinformatics and computational biology approach in search of new BH3-only proteins belonging to the BCL2 family of apoptotic regulators. The BH3 (BCL2 homology 3) domain mediates specific binding interactions among various BCL2 family members. It is composed of an amphipathic α-helical region of approximately 13 residues that has only a few amino acids that are highly conserved across all members. Using a generalized motif, we performed a genome-wide search for novel BH3-containing proteins in the NCBI Consensus Coding Sequence (CCDS) database. In addition to known pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins, 197 proteins were recovered that satisfied the search criteria. These were categorized according to α-helical content and predictive binding to BCL-xL (encoded by BCL2L1) and MCL-1, two representative anti-apoptotic BCL2 family members, using position-specific scoring matrix models. Notably, the list is enriched for proteins associated with autophagy as well as a broad spectrum of cellular stress responses such as endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, antiviral defense, and the DNA damage response. Several potential novel BH3-containing proteins are highlighted. In particular, the analysis strongly suggests that the apoptosis inhibitor and DNA damage response regulator, AVEN, which was originally isolated as a BCL-xL-interacting protein, is a functional BH3-only protein representing a distinct subclass of BCL2 family members.

  8. Providing Guidance for Patients With Moderate-to-Severe Psoriasis Who Are Candidates for Biologic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Aldredge, Lakshi M.; Young, Melodie S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated disease characterized by itchy, scaly, and often painful plaques in the skin. Psoriasis can have significant psychosocial burdens and increased risks for numerous comorbidities, including diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease, particularly in patients with moderate-to-severe disease. Dermatology nurse practitioners and physician assistants are an important part of the healthcare team, contributing to all aspects of psoriasis management. This review reinforces the unique aspects of care that nurse practitioners and physician assistants provide to patients with psoriasis, such as facilitating conversations about managing disease, setting appropriate expectations, and considering treatment options, including when treatment response or tolerability is suboptimal. The importance of relationship building is stressed. Patient management topics discussed include helpful tips about assessing treatment options, initiating biologic therapy, optimizing patient adherence, and managing comorbidities. Also reviewed are how to deal with common barriers including lack of knowledge about psoriasis or making healthy lifestyle changes, fear of injections or side effect risks, lack of health insurance, and concerns about treatment costs. Overall, by forming meaningful relationships and engaging patients in their psoriasis care, nurse practitioners and physician assistants can help to optimize clinical efficacy outcomes and consistently manage moderate-to-severe psoriasis and its comorbidities over the patient’s life course. PMID:27004085

  9. Physarum polycephalum: towards a biological controller.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Benjamin; Adamatzky, Andrew; Greenman, John; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Microbial fuels cells (MFCs) are bio-electrochemical transducers that generate energy from the metabolism of electro-active microorganisms. The organism Physarum polycephalum is a slime mould, which has demonstrated many novel and interesting properties in the field of unconventional computation, such as route mapping between nutrient sources, maze solving and nutrient balancing. It is a motile, photosensitive and oxygen-consuming organism, and is known to be symbiotic with some, and antagonistic with other microbial species. In the context of artificial life, the slime mould would provide a biological mechanism (along with the microbial community) for controlling the performance and behaviour of artificial systems (MFCs, robots). In the experiments it was found that P. polycephalum did not generate significant amounts of power when inoculated in the anode. However, when P. polycephalum was introduced in the cathode of MFCs, a statistically significant difference in power output was observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Using Pseudomonas spp. for Integrated Biological Control.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Virginia O; Stack, James P

    2007-02-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas spp. have been studied for decades as model organisms for biological control of plant disease. Currently, there are three commercial formulations of pseudomonads registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for plant disease suppression, Bio-Save 10 LP, Bio-Save 11 LP, and BlightBan A506. Bio-Save 10 LP and Bio-Save 11 LP, products of Jet Harvest Solutions, Longwood, FL, contain Pseudomonas syringae strains ESC-10 and ESC-11, respectively. These products are applied in packinghouses to prevent postharvest fungal diseases during storage of citrus, pome, stone fruits, and potatoes. BlightBan A506, produced by NuFarm Americas, Burr Ridge, IL, contains P. fluorescens strain A506. BlightBan A506 is applied primarily to pear and apple trees during bloom to suppress the bacterial disease fire blight. Combining BlightBan A506 with the antibiotic streptomycin improves control of fire blight, even in areas with streptomycin-resistant populations of the pathogen. BlightBan A506 also may reduce fruit russet and mild frost injury. These biocontrol products consisting of Pseudomonas spp. provide moderate to excellent efficacy against multiple production constraints, are relatively easy to apply, and they can be integrated with conventional products for disease control. These characteristics will contribute to the adoption of these products by growers and packinghouses.

  11. Programmable temperature control system for biological materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anselmo, V. J.; Harrison, R. G.; Rinfret, A. P.

    1982-01-01

    A system was constructed which allows programmable temperature-time control for a 5 cu cm sample volume of arbitrary biological material. The system also measures the parameters necessary for the determination of the sample volume specific heat and thermal conductivity as a function of temperature, and provides a detailed measurement of the temperature during phase change and a means of calculating the heat of the phase change. Steady-state and dynamic temperature control is obtained by supplying heat to the sample volume through resistive elements constructed as an integral part of the sample container. For cooling purposes, this container is totally immersed into a cold heat sink. Using a mixture of dry ice and alcohol at 79 C, the sample volume can be controlled from +40 to -60 C at rates from steady state to + or - 65 C/min. Steady-state temperature precision is better than 0.2 C, while the dynamic capability depends on the temperature rate of change as well as the mass of both the sample and the container.

  12. Rare, Low-Frequency, and Common Variants in the Protein-Coding Sequence of Biological Candidate Genes from GWASs Contribute to Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Diogo, Dorothée; Kurreeman, Fina; Stahl, Eli A.; Liao, Katherine P.; Gupta, Namrata; Greenberg, Jeffrey D.; Rivas, Manuel A.; Hickey, Brendan; Flannick, Jason; Thomson, Brian; Guiducci, Candace; Ripke, Stephan; Adzhubey, Ivan; Barton, Anne; Kremer, Joel M.; Alfredsson, Lars; Sunyaev, Shamil; Martin, Javier; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Bowes, John; Eyre, Steve; Siminovitch, Katherine A.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Worthington, Jane; Klareskog, Lars; Padyukov, Leonid; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Plenge, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The extent to which variants in the protein-coding sequence of genes contribute to risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is unknown. In this study, we addressed this issue by deep exon sequencing and large-scale genotyping of 25 biological candidate genes located within RA risk loci discovered by genome-wide association studies (GWASs). First, we assessed the contribution of rare coding variants in the 25 genes to the risk of RA in a pooled sequencing study of 500 RA cases and 650 controls of European ancestry. We observed an accumulation of rare nonsynonymous variants exclusive to RA cases in IL2RA and IL2RB (burden test: p = 0.007 and p = 0.018, respectively). Next, we assessed the aggregate contribution of low-frequency and common coding variants to the risk of RA by dense genotyping of the 25 gene loci in 10,609 RA cases and 35,605 controls. We observed a strong enrichment of coding variants with a nominal signal of association with RA (p < 0.05) after adjusting for the best signal of association at the loci (penrichment = 6.4 × 10−4). For one locus containing CD2, we found that a missense variant, rs699738 (c.798C>A [p.His266Gln]), and a noncoding variant, rs624988, reside on distinct haplotypes and independently contribute to the risk of RA (p = 4.6 × 10−6). Overall, our results indicate that variants (distributed across the allele-frequency spectrum) within the protein-coding portion of a subset of biological candidate genes identified by GWASs contribute to the risk of RA. Further, we have demonstrated that very large sample sizes will be required for comprehensively identifying the independent alleles contributing to the missing heritability of RA. PMID:23261300

  13. Growth hormone abuse and biological passport: is mannan-binding lectin a complementary candidate?

    PubMed

    Such-Sanmartín, Gerard; Bosch, Jaume; Segura, Jordi; Gutiérrez-Gallego, Ricardo

    2011-09-01

    In the detection of human growth hormone (GH) abuse, the approach based on altered GH-related biomarkers is also being considered with respect to its application within the context of a biological passport. As a potential biomarker, mannan-binding lectin (MBL), which is reported to respond to recombinant GH (rGH) administration, is evaluated here. Randomized and single blind and approved by the Ethical Committee (Comité Ético de Investigación Clínica-Instituto Municipal de Asistencia Sanitaria). One group of 12 male subjects (24.2 ± 2.2 years; 76.1 ± 6.1 kg) was studied. Mannan-binding lectin concentration was measured in 12 healthy individuals after subcutaneous daily doses of 6 IU of rGH administration. Mannan-binding lectin serum concentration increased after rGH administration. Mannan-binding lectin concentration increases were observed 48 hours after the first administration and remained elevated for several days after the final dose. Mannan-binding lectin concentration increase and elapsed time to recover initial MBL values after the last rGH administration. Absolute values displayed high interindividual variability, and 1 individual did not show any MBL increase (potential MBL deficiency). Mannan-binding lectin protein showed a clear concentration increase after continued rGH administration, despite the high heterogeneity found between individuals. The use of MBL as a complementary GH-related biomarker could be of interest, taking advantage of the high increases (up to 700%) and the relatively slow recovery time.

  14. The ecological controls on the prevalence of candidate division TM7 in polar regions

    PubMed Central

    Winsley, Tristrom J.; Snape, Ian; McKinlay, John; Stark, Jonny; van Dorst, Josie M.; Ji, Mukan; Ferrari, Belinda C.; Siciliano, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    The candidate division TM7 is ubiquitous and yet uncultured phylum of the Bacteria that encompasses a commonly environmental associated clade, TM7-1, and a “host-associated” clade, TM7-3. However, as members of the TM7 phylum have not been cultured, little is known about what differs between these two clades. We hypothesized that these clades would have different environmental niches. To test this, we used a large-scale global soil dataset, encompassing 223 soil samples, their environmental parameters and associated bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence data. We correlated chemical, physical and biological parameters of each soil with the relative abundance of the two major classes of the phylum to deduce factors that influence the groups' seemingly ubiquitous nature. The two classes of the phylum (TM7-1 and TM7-3) were indeed distinct from each other in their habitat requirements. A key determinant of each class' prevalence appears to be the pH of the soil. The class TM7-1 displays a facultative anaerobic nature with correlations to more acidic soils with total iron, silicon, titanium and copper indicating a potential for siderophore production. However, the TM7-3 class shows a more classical oligotrophic, heterotroph nature with a preference for more alkaline soils, and a probable pathogenic role with correlations to extractable iron, sodium and phosphate. In addition, the TM7-3 was abundant in diesel contaminated soils highlighting a resilient nature along with a possible carbon source. In addition to this both classes had unique co-occurrence relationships with other bacterial phyla. In particular, both groups had opposing correlations to the Gemmatimonadetes phylum, with the TM7-3 class seemingly being outcompeted by this phylum to result in a negative correlation. These ecological controls allow the characteristics of a TM7 phylum preferred niche to be defined and give insight into possible avenues for cultivation of this previously uncultured group. PMID

  15. Ecological Compatibility of GM Crops and Biological Control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant genetically modified (GM) crops pervade many modern cropping systems, and present challenges and opportunities for developing biologically-based pest management programs. Interactions between biological control agents (insect predators, parasitoids, and pathog...

  16. Neoseiulus paspalivorus, a predator from coconut, as a candidate for controlling dry bulb mites infesting stored tulip bulbs.

    PubMed

    Lesna, Izabela; da Silva, Fernando R; Sato, Yukie; Sabelis, Maurice W; Lommen, Suzanne T E

    2014-06-01

    The dry bulb mite, Aceria tulipae, is the most important pest of stored tulip bulbs in The Netherlands. This tiny, eriophyoid mite hides in the narrow space between scales in the interior of the bulb. To achieve biological control of this hidden pest, candidate predators small enough to move in between the bulb scales are required. Earlier experiments have shown this potential for the phytoseiid mite, Neoseiulus cucumeris, but only after the bulbs were exposed to ethylene, a plant hormone that causes a slight increase in the distance between tulip bulb scales, just sufficient to allow this predator to reach the interior part of the bulb. Applying ethylene, however, is not an option in practice because it causes malformation of tulip flowers. In fact, to prevent this cosmetic damage, bulb growers ventilate rooms where tulip bulbs are stored, thereby removing ethylene produced by the bulbs (e.g. in response to mite or fungus infestation). Recently, studies on the role of predatory mites in controlling another eriophyoid mite on coconuts led to the discovery of an exceptionally small phytoseiid mite, Neoseiulus paspalivorus. This predator is able to move under the perianth of coconuts where coconut mites feed on meristematic tissue of the fruit. This discovery prompted us to test N. paspalivorus for its ability to control A. tulipae on tulip bulbs under storage conditions (ventilated rooms with bulbs in open boxes; 23 °C; storage period June-October). Using destructive sampling we monitored predator and prey populations in two series of replicated experiments, one at a high initial level of dry bulb mite infestation, late in the storage period, and another at a low initial dry bulb mite infestation, halfway the storage period. The first and the second series involved treatment with N. paspalivorus and a control experiment, but the second series had an additional treatment in which the predator N. cucumeris was released. Taking the two series of experiments together

  17. Optically controlled collisions of biological objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Benjamin J.; Kishore, Rani; Mammen, Mathai; Helmerson, Kristian; Choi, Seok-Ki; Phillips, William D.; Whitesides, George M.

    1998-04-01

    We have developed a new assay in which two mesoscale particles are caused to collide using two independently controlled optical tweezers. This assay involves the measurement of the adhesion probability following a collision. Since the relative orientation, impact parameter (i.e., distance of closest approach), and collision velocity of the particles, as well as the components of the solution, are all under the user's control, this assay can mimic a wide range of biologically relevant collisions. We illustrate the utility of our assay by evaluating the adhesion probability of a single erythrocyte (red blood cell) to an influenza virus-coated microsphere, in the presence of sialic acid-bearing inhibitors of adhesion. This probability as a function of inhibitor concentration yields a measure of the effectiveness of the inhibitor for blocking viral adhesion. Most of the inhibition constants obtained using the tweezers agree well with those obtained from other techniques, although the inhibition constants for the best of the inhibitors were beyond the limited resolution of conventional assays. They were readily evaluated using our tweezers-based assay, however, and prove to be the most potent inhibitors of adhesion between influenza virus and erythrocytes ever measured. Further studies are underway to investigate the effect of collision velocity on the adhesion probability, with the eventual goal of understanding the various mechanisms of inhibition (direct competition for viral binding sites versus steric stabilization). Analysis of these data also provide evidence that the density of binding sites may be a crucial parameter in the application of this assay and polymeric inhibition in general.

  18. Nanostructure Control of Biologically Inspired Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales, Adrianne Marie

    Biological polymers, such as polypeptides, are responsible for many of life's most sophisticated functions due to precisely evolved hierarchical structures. These protein structures are the result of monodisperse sequences of amino acids that fold into well-defined chain shapes and tertiary structures. Recently, there has been much interest in the design of such sequence-specific polymers for materials applications in fields ranging from biotechnology to separations membranes. Non-natural polymers offer the stability and robustness necessary for materials applications; however, our ability to control monomer sequence in non-natural polymers has traditionally operated on a much simpler level. In addition, the relationship between monomer sequence and self-assembly is not well understood for biological molecules, much less synthetic polymers. Thus, there is a need to explore self-assembly phase space with sequence using a model system. Polypeptoids are non-natural, sequence-specific polymers that offer the opportunity to probe the effect of sequence on self-assembly. A variety of monomer interactions have an impact on polymer properties, such as chirality, hydrophobicity, and electrostatic interactions. Thus, a necessary starting point for this project was to investigate monomer sequence effects on the bulk properties of polypeptoid homopolymers. It was found that several polypeptoids have experimentally accessible melting transitions that are dependent on the choice of side chains, and it was shown that this transition is tuned by the incorporation of "defects" or a comonomer. The polypeptoid chain shape is also controlled with the choice of monomer and monomer sequence. By using at least 50% monomers with bulky, chiral side chains, the polypeptoid backbone is sterically twisted into a helix, and as found for the first time in this work, the persistence length is increased. However, this persistence length, which is a measure of the stiffness of the polymer, is

  19. Status of biological control in vegetation management in forestry

    Treesearch

    George P. Markin; Donald E. Gardner

    1993-01-01

    Biological control traditionally depends upon importing the natural enemies of introduced weeds. Since vegetation management in forestry has primarily been aimed at protecting economic species of trees from competition from other native plants, biological control has been of little use in forestry. An alternative approach to controlling unwanted native plants,...

  20. Understanding the side effects of classical biological control

    Treesearch

    Dean Pearson

    2008-01-01

    Classical biological control involves the use of imported natural enemies to suppress or control populations of the target pest species below an economically or ecologically relevant threshold. Biological control is a useful tool for mitigating the impacts of exotic invasive plants; however, its application is not without risk (see Carruthers and D’Antonio...

  1. Episodic positive selection at mitochondrial genome in an introduced biological control agent.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao-Sen; Liang, Xin-Yu; Zou, Shang-Jun; Liu, Yang; De Clercq, Patrick; Ślipiński, Adam; Pang, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Artificial introduction in classical biological control provides a unique opportunity to understand mitochondrial evolution driving adaptation to novel environments. We studied mitochondrial genomes of a world-wide introduced agent, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri. We detected positive selection in complex I genes (ND5 and ND4) against a background of widespread negative selection. We further detected significant signals in neutrality tests within 11 populations at ND5 gene, indicating a recent selective sweep/positive selection. Our results imply that these candidate mutations may contribute local adaptation of exotic biological control agents and these provide new insights into the improvement of classical biological control programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Stress-sensitive neurosignalling in depression: an integrated network biology approach to candidate gene selection for genetic association analysis.

    PubMed

    van Eekelen, J Anke M; Ellis, Justine A; Pennell, Craig E; Craig, Jeff; Saffery, Richard; Mattes, Eugen; Olsson, Craig A

    2012-07-26

    Genetic risk for depressive disorders is poorly understood despite consistent suggestions of a high heritable component. Most genetic studies have focused on risk associated with single variants, a strategy which has so far only yielded small (often non-replicable) risks for depressive disorders. In this paper we argue that more substantial risks are likely to emerge from genetic variants acting in synergy within and across larger neurobiological systems (polygenic risk factors). We show how knowledge of major integrated neurobiological systems provides a robust basis for defining and testing theoretically defensible polygenic risk factors. We do this by describing the architecture of the overall stress response. Maladaptation via impaired stress responsiveness is central to the aetiology of depression and anxiety and provides a framework for a systems biology approach to candidate gene selection. We propose principles for identifying genes and gene networks within the neurosystems involved in the stress response and for defining polygenic risk factors based on the neurobiology of stress-related behaviour. We conclude that knowledge of the neurobiology of the stress response system is likely to play a central role in future efforts to improve genetic prediction of depression and related disorders.

  3. Stress-sensitive neurosignalling in depression: an integrated network biology approach to candidate gene selection for genetic association analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Eekelen, J. Anke M.; Ellis, Justine A.; Pennell, Craig E.; Craig, Jeff; Saffery, Richard; Mattes, Eugen; Olsson, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic risk for depressive disorders is poorly understood despite consistent suggestions of a high heritable component. Most genetic studies have focused on risk associated with single variants, a strategy which has so far only yielded small (often non-replicable) risks for depressive disorders. In this paper we argue that more substantial risks are likely to emerge from genetic variants acting in synergy within and across larger neurobiological systems (polygenic risk factors). We show how knowledge of major integrated neurobiological systems provides a robust basis for defining and testing theoretically defensible polygenic risk factors. We do this by describing the architecture of the overall stress response. Maladaptation via impaired stress responsiveness is central to the aetiology of depression and anxiety and provides a framework for a systems biology approach to candidate gene selection. We propose principles for identifying genes and gene networks within the neurosystems involved in the stress response and for defining polygenic risk factors based on the neurobiology of stress-related behaviour. We conclude that knowledge of the neurobiology of the stress response system is likely to play a central role in future efforts to improve genetic prediction of depression and related disorders. PMID:25478122

  4. Candidate proof mass actuator control laws for the vibration suppression of a frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umland, Jeffrey W.; Inman, Daniel J.

    1991-01-01

    The vibration of an experimental flexible space truss is controlled with internal control forces produced by several proof mass actuators. Four candidate control law strategies are evaluated in terms of performance and robustness. These control laws are experimentally implemented on a quasi free-free planar truss. Sensor and actuator dynamics are included in the model such that the final closed loop is self-equilibrated. The first two control laws considered are based on direct output feedback and consist of tuning the actuator feedback gains to the lowest mode intended to receive damping. The first method feeds back only the position and velocity of the proof mass relative to the structure; this results in a traditional vibration absorber. The second method includes the same feedback paths as the first plus feedback of the local structural velocity. The third law is designed with robust H infinity control theory. The fourth strategy is an active implementation of a viscous damper, where the actuator is configured to provide a bending moment at two points on the structure. The vibration control system is then evaluated in terms of how it would benefit the space structure's position control system.

  5. Controlled vocabularies and semantics in systems biology.

    PubMed

    Courtot, Mélanie; Juty, Nick; Knüpfer, Christian; Waltemath, Dagmar; Zhukova, Anna; Dräger, Andreas; Dumontier, Michel; Finney, Andrew; Golebiewski, Martin; Hastings, Janna; Hoops, Stefan; Keating, Sarah; Kell, Douglas B; Kerrien, Samuel; Lawson, James; Lister, Allyson; Lu, James; Machne, Rainer; Mendes, Pedro; Pocock, Matthew; Rodriguez, Nicolas; Villeger, Alice; Wilkinson, Darren J; Wimalaratne, Sarala; Laibe, Camille; Hucka, Michael; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2011-10-25

    The use of computational modeling to describe and analyze biological systems is at the heart of systems biology. Model structures, simulation descriptions and numerical results can be encoded in structured formats, but there is an increasing need to provide an additional semantic layer. Semantic information adds meaning to components of structured descriptions to help identify and interpret them unambiguously. Ontologies are one of the tools frequently used for this purpose. We describe here three ontologies created specifically to address the needs of the systems biology community. The Systems Biology Ontology (SBO) provides semantic information about the model components. The Kinetic Simulation Algorithm Ontology (KiSAO) supplies information about existing algorithms available for the simulation of systems biology models, their characterization and interrelationships. The Terminology for the Description of Dynamics (TEDDY) categorizes dynamical features of the simulation results and general systems behavior. The provision of semantic information extends a model's longevity and facilitates its reuse. It provides useful insight into the biology of modeled processes, and may be used to make informed decisions on subsequent simulation experiments.

  6. Controlled vocabularies and semantics in systems biology

    PubMed Central

    Courtot, Mélanie; Juty, Nick; Knüpfer, Christian; Waltemath, Dagmar; Zhukova, Anna; Dräger, Andreas; Dumontier, Michel; Finney, Andrew; Golebiewski, Martin; Hastings, Janna; Hoops, Stefan; Keating, Sarah; Kell, Douglas B; Kerrien, Samuel; Lawson, James; Lister, Allyson; Lu, James; Machne, Rainer; Mendes, Pedro; Pocock, Matthew; Rodriguez, Nicolas; Villeger, Alice; Wilkinson, Darren J; Wimalaratne, Sarala; Laibe, Camille; Hucka, Michael; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    The use of computational modeling to describe and analyze biological systems is at the heart of systems biology. Model structures, simulation descriptions and numerical results can be encoded in structured formats, but there is an increasing need to provide an additional semantic layer. Semantic information adds meaning to components of structured descriptions to help identify and interpret them unambiguously. Ontologies are one of the tools frequently used for this purpose. We describe here three ontologies created specifically to address the needs of the systems biology community. The Systems Biology Ontology (SBO) provides semantic information about the model components. The Kinetic Simulation Algorithm Ontology (KiSAO) supplies information about existing algorithms available for the simulation of systems biology models, their characterization and interrelationships. The Terminology for the Description of Dynamics (TEDDY) categorizes dynamical features of the simulation results and general systems behavior. The provision of semantic information extends a model's longevity and facilitates its reuse. It provides useful insight into the biology of modeled processes, and may be used to make informed decisions on subsequent simulation experiments. PMID:22027554

  7. Implementation of Statistical Process Control: Evaluating the Mechanical Performance of a Candidate Silicone Elastomer Docking Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oravec, Heather Ann; Daniels, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has been developing a novel docking system to meet the requirements of future exploration missions to low-Earth orbit and beyond. A dynamic gas pressure seal is located at the main interface between the active and passive mating components of the new docking system. This seal is designed to operate in the harsh space environment, but is also to perform within strict loading requirements while maintaining an acceptable level of leak rate. In this study, a candidate silicone elastomer seal was designed, and multiple subscale test articles were manufactured for evaluation purposes. The force required to fully compress each test article at room temperature was quantified and found to be below the maximum allowable load for the docking system. However, a significant amount of scatter was observed in the test results. Due to the stochastic nature of the mechanical performance of this candidate docking seal, a statistical process control technique was implemented to isolate unusual compression behavior from typical mechanical performance. The results of this statistical analysis indicated a lack of process control, suggesting a variation in the manufacturing phase of the process. Further investigation revealed that changes in the manufacturing molding process had occurred which may have influenced the mechanical performance of the seal. This knowledge improves the chance of this and future space seals to satisfy or exceed design specifications.

  8. Biological control agents elevate hantavirus by subsidizing deer mouse populations.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Dean E; Callaway, Ragan M

    2006-04-01

    Biological control of exotic invasive plants using exotic insects is practiced under the assumption that biological control agents are safe if they do not directly attack non-target species. We tested this assumption by evaluating the potential for two host-specific biological control agents (Urophora spp.), widely established in North America for spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) control, to indirectly elevate Sin Nombre hantavirus by providing food subsidies to populations of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), the primary reservoir for the virus. We show that seropositive deer mice (mice testing positive for hantavirus) were over three times more abundant in the presence of the biocontrol food subsidy. Elevating densities of seropositive mice may increase risk of hantavirus infection in humans and significantly alter hantavirus ecology. Host specificity alone does not ensure safe biological control. To minimize indirect risks to non-target species, biological control agents must suppress pest populations enough to reduce their own numbers.

  9. Extrafloral nectar in an apple ecosystem to enhance biological control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A common goal of conservation biological control is to enhance biodiversity to increase abundance and effectiveness of predators and parasitoids. Although many studies report an increase in abundance of natural enemies, it has been difficult to document increases in rates of biological control. To...

  10. Understanding Federal regulations as guidelines for classical biological control programs

    Treesearch

    Michael E. Montgomery

    2011-01-01

    This chapter reviews the legislation and rules that provide the foundation for federal regulation of the introduction of natural enemies of insects as biological control agents. It also outlines the steps for complying with regulatory requirements, using biological control of Adelges tsugae Annand, the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), as an example. The...

  11. Biological control of purple loosestrife in North America

    Treesearch

    Bernd. Blossey

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, interest in a biological method to control problem plants in natural areas in the United States has grown. All federal agencies must comply with standards to reduce the use and dependence on chemical control of weeds. But, biological methodologies are not readily available, nor have they been well-endorsed or financially supported. Despite an excellent...

  12. Biological control of the terrestrial carbon sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, E.-D.

    2006-03-01

    This lecture reviews the past (since 1964 when the International Biological Program began) and the future of our understanding of terrestrial carbon fluxes with focus on photosynthesis, respiration, primary-, ecosystem-, and biome-productivity.

    Photosynthetic capacity is related to the nitrogen concentration of leaves, but the capacity is only rarely reached under field conditions. Average rates of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance are closely correlated and operate near 50% of their maximal rate, with light being the limiting factor in humid regions and air humidity and soil water the limiting factor in arid climates. Leaf area is the main factor to extrapolate from leaves to canopies, with maximum surface conductance being dependent on leaf level stomatal conductance. Additionally, gas exchange depends also on rooting depth which determines the water and nutrient availability and on mycorrhizae which regulate the nutrient status. An important anthropogenic disturbance is the nitrogen uptake from air pollutants, which is not balanced by cation uptake from roots and this may lead to damage and breakdown of the plant cover.

    Photosynthesis is the main carbon input into ecosystems, but it alone does not represent the ecosystem carbon balance, which is determined by respiration of various kinds. Plant respiration and photosynthesis determine growth (net primary production) and microbial respiration balances the net ecosystem flux. In a spruce forest, 30% of the assimilatory carbon gain is used for respiration of needles, 20% is used for respiration in stems. Soil respiration is about 50% the carbon gain, half of which is root respiration, half is microbial respiration. In addition, disturbances lead to carbon losses, where fire, harvest and grazing bypass the chain of respiration. In total, the carbon balance at the biome level is only about 1% of the photosynthetic carbon input, or may indeed become negative. The recent observed

  13. Biological Control Strategies for Mosquito Vectors of Arboviruses

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan-Jang S.; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana L.

    2017-01-01

    Historically, biological control utilizes predatory species and pathogenic microorganisms to reduce the population of mosquitoes as disease vectors. This is particularly important for the control of mosquito-borne arboviruses, which normally do not have specific antiviral therapies available. Although development of resistance is likely, the advantages of biological control are that the resources used are typically biodegradable and ecologically friendly. Over the past decade, the advancement of molecular biology has enabled optimization by the manipulation of genetic materials associated with biological control agents. Two significant advancements are the discovery of cytoplasmic incompatibility induced by Wolbachia bacteria, which has enhanced replacement programs, and the introduction of dominant lethal genes into local mosquito populations through the release of genetically modified mosquitoes. As various arboviruses continue to be significant public health threats, biological control strategies have evolved to be more diverse and become critical tools to reduce the disease burden of arboviruses. PMID:28208639

  14. Access and benefit sharing (ABS) under the convention on biological diversity (CBD): implications for microbial biological control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Researchers and implementers of biological control are confronted with a variety of scientific, regulatory and administrative challenges to their biological control programs. One developing challenge will arise from the implementation of provisions of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) co...

  15. Biological control and nutrition: food for thought

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chemical pesticides are used frequently to combat arthropod pests that plague crops; however, these compounds come with potential risks to the environment and human health. Research efforts have focused on using natural agents as an alternative to these chemical insecticides. These biological contro...

  16. Conservation Biological Control in Pepper and Eggplant

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several important factors contribute to low productivity in pepper and eggplant due to western flower thrips. Research has been conducted to develop an understanding of flower thrips population dynamics and insecticide efficacy studies have allowed us to direct recommendations for biological contro...

  17. The Control of Chemical and Biological Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Archibald S.; And Others

    This book is composed of four papers prepared to illuminate the problem areas which might arise if the policies of the 1925 Geneva Protocol and other measures to limit chemical and biological weapons are ratified by the United States Senate. The papers included are: Legal Aspects of the Geneva Protocol of 1925; The Use of Herbicides in War: A…

  18. The Control of Chemical and Biological Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Archibald S.; And Others

    This book is composed of four papers prepared to illuminate the problem areas which might arise if the policies of the 1925 Geneva Protocol and other measures to limit chemical and biological weapons are ratified by the United States Senate. The papers included are: Legal Aspects of the Geneva Protocol of 1925; The Use of Herbicides in War: A…

  19. Preformulation considerations for controlled release dosage forms. Part I. Selecting candidates.

    PubMed

    Chrzanowski, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The physical-chemical properties of interest for controlled release (CR) dosage form development presented are based on the author's experience. Part I addresses selection of the final form based on a logical progression of physical-chemical properties evaluation of candidate forms and elimination of forms with undesirable properties from further evaluation in order to simplify final form selection. Several candidate forms which could include salt, free base or acid, polymorphic and amorphic forms of a new chemical entity (NCE) or existing drug substance (DS) are prepared and evaluated for critical properties in a scheme relevant to manufacturing processes, predictive of problems, requiring small amounts of test materials and simple analytical tools. A stability indicating assay is not needed to initiate the evaluation. This process is applicable to CR and immediate release (IR) dosage form development. The critical properties evaluated are melting, crystallinity, solubilities in water, 0.1 N HCl, and SIF, hygrodymamics, i.e., moisture sorption and loss at extremes of RH, and LOD at typical wet granulation drying conditions, and processability, i.e., corrosivity, and filming and/or sticking upon compression.

  20. Biology and control of Varroa destructor.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, Peter; Aumeier, Pia; Ziegelmann, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    The ectoparasitic honey bee mite Varroa destructor was originally confined to the Eastern honey bee Apis cerana. After a shift to the new host Apis mellifera during the first half of the last century, the parasite dispersed world wide and is currently considered the major threat for apiculture. The damage caused by Varroosis is thought to be a crucial driver for the periodical colony losses in Europe and the USA and regular Varroa treatments are essential in these countries. Therefore, Varroa research not only deals with a fascinating host-parasite relationship but also has a responsibility to find sustainable solutions for the beekeeping. This review provides a survey of the current knowledge in the main fields of Varroa research including the biology of the mite, damage to the host, host tolerance, tolerance breeding and Varroa treatment. We first present a general view on the functional morphology and on the biology of the Varroa mite with special emphasis on host-parasite interactions during reproduction of the female mite. The pathology section describes host damage at the individual and colony level including the problem of transmission of secondary infections by the mite. Knowledge of both the biology and the pathology of Varroa mites is essential for understanding possible tolerance mechanisms in the honey bee host. We comment on the few examples of natural tolerance in A. mellifera and evaluate recent approaches to the selection of Varroa tolerant honey bees. Finally, an extensive listing and critical evaluation of chemical and biological methods of Varroa treatments is given. This compilation of present-day knowledge on Varroa honey bee interactions emphasizes that we are still far from a solution for Varroa infestation and that, therefore, further research on mite biology, tolerance breeding, and Varroa treatment is urgently needed.

  1. CaAP2 transcription factor is a candidate gene for a flowering repressor and a candidate for controlling natural variation of flowering time in Capsicum annuum.

    PubMed

    Borovsky, Yelena; Sharma, Vinod K; Verbakel, Henk; Paran, Ilan

    2015-06-01

    The APETALA2 transcription factor homolog CaAP2 is a candidate gene for a flowering repressor in pepper, as revealed by induced-mutation phenotype, and a candidate underlying a major QTL controlling natural variation in flowering time. To decipher the genetic control of transition to flowering in pepper (Capsicum spp.) and determine the extent of gene function conservation compared to model species, we isolated and characterized several ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-induced mutants that vary in their flowering time compared to the wild type. In the present study, we report on the isolation of an early-flowering mutant that flowers after four leaves on the primary stem compared to nine leaves in the wild-type 'Maor'. By genetic mapping and sequencing of putative candidate genes linked to the mutant phenotype, we identified a member of the APETALA2 (AP2) transcription factor family, CaAP2, which was disrupted in the early-flowering mutant. CaAP2 is a likely ortholog of AP2 that functions as a repressor of flowering in Arabidopsis. To test whether CaAP2 has an effect on controlling natural variation in the transition to flowering in pepper, we performed QTL mapping for flowering time in a cross between early and late-flowering C. annuum accessions. We identified a major QTL in a region of chromosome 2 in which CaAP2 was the most significant marker, explaining 52 % of the phenotypic variation of the trait. Sequence comparison of the CaAP2 open reading frames in the two parents used for QTL mapping did not reveal significant variation. In contrast, significant differences in expression level of CaAP2 were detected between near-isogenic lines that differ for the flowering time QTL, supporting the putative function of CaAP2 as a major repressor of flowering in pepper.

  2. Biology of the galling wasp, Tetramesa romana, a biological control agent of giant reed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The biology of the gall-forming wasp, Tetramesa romana Walker (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), from southern France and Spain was studied for biological control of giant reed (Arundo donax L.), an exotic and invasive riparian weed in the U.S. Females developed eggs parthenogenetically and deposited them...

  3. Biology of Leptoypha hospita (Hemiptera: Tingidae), a Potential Biological Control Agent of Chinese Privet

    Treesearch

    Yanzhuo Zhang; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn; Kristine Braman; Jianghua Sun

    2011-01-01

    The biology of Leptoypha hospita Drake et Poor (Hemiptera: Tingidae), a potential biological control agent from China for Chinese privet, Ligustrum sinense Lour., was studied in quarantine in the United States. Both nymphs and adults feed on Chinese privet mesophyll cells that lead to a bleached appearance of leaves and dieback of branch tips. L. hospita has five...

  4. Immunomodulator plasmid projected by systems biology as a candidate for the development of adjunctive therapy for respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    PubMed

    Vargas, José Eduardo; de Souza, Ana Paula Duarte; Porto, Bárbara Nery; Fazolo, Tiago; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos; Pitrez, Paulo Márcio; Stein, Renato Tetelbom

    2016-03-01

    An imbalance in Th1/Th2 cytokine immune response has been described to influence the pathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) acute bronchiolitis and the severity of infection. Th2-driven response has been well described under first RSV vaccine (formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine antigens) and replicated in some conditions for RSV-infected mice, in which a Th2-dependent lung eosinophilia increases illness severity, accompanied of tissue damage. Currently, several prototypes of RSV vaccine are being tested, but there is no vaccine available so far. The advance of bioinformatics can help to solve this issue. Systems biology approaches based on network topological analysis may help to identify new genes in order to direct Th1 immune response during RSV challenge. For this purpose, network centrality analyses from high-throughput experiments were performed in order to select major genes enrolled in each T-helper immune response. Thus, genes termed Hub (B) and bottlenecks (H), which control the flow of biological information (Th1 or Th2 immune response, in this case) within the network, would be identified. As these genes possess high potential to promote Th1 immune response, they could be cloned under regulation of specific promoters in a plasmid, which will be available as a gene-transfer adjunctive to vaccines. Th1 immune response potentiated by our strategy may contribute to accelerate Th1/Th2 shift from neonatal immune system, which might favor protective immunity against RSV infection and reduce lung damage.

  5. Biologically inspired neural network controller for an infrared tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frigo, Janette R.; Tilden, Mark W.

    1999-01-01

    Many biological system exhibit capable, adaptive behavior with a minimal nervous system such as those found in lower invertebrates. Scientists and engineers are studying biological system because these models may have real-world applications. the analog neural controller, herein, is loosely modeled after minimal biological nervous systems. The system consists of the controller and pair of sensor mounted on an actuator. It is implemented with an electrical oscillator network, two IR sensor and a dc motor, used as an actuator for the system. The system tracks an IR target source. The pointing accuracy of this neural network controller is estimated through experimental measurements and a numerical model of the system.

  6. Neem (Azadirachta indica a. Juss) components: candidates for the control of Crinipellis perniciosa and Phytophthora ssp.

    PubMed

    de Rezende Ramos, Alessandra; Lüdke Falcão, Loeni; Salviano Barbosa, Guilherme; Helena Marcellino, Lucilia; Silvano Gander, Eugen

    2007-01-01

    Witches' broom and pod rot are the two most devastating diseases of cocoa in South America and Africa, respectively. Their control by means of phytosanitation and chemical fungicides is labor-intensive, costly and, in many cases, environmentally undesirable. Therefore efforts are made in order to identify alternative, environmentally safe and cost-efficient methods for the control of these pathogens. Promising candidates are components of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica), that have been used for centuries in Asia as insecticides, fungicides, anticonceptionals in popular medicine. Here we report about tests on the effect of various concentrations of extracts from neem leaves on growth of mycelia of Crinipellis and Phytophthora and on germination of spores of Crinipellis. We show a 35% growth reduction of mycelia of Phytophthora on neem leaf extract media, whereas growth of mycelia of Crinipellis was not affected, even at the highest concentration of neem leaf extracts used (35%). However, the most dramatic effect of neem leaf extracts is observed on Crinipellis spore germination, here the extracts (20-35%) reduced germination almost completely. Based on these results, we believe that the neem tree might be a source for the production, on small and medium scale, of an effective and cheap formulation for the control of Crinipellis and Phytophthora.

  7. Genes in new environments: genetics and evolution in biological control.

    PubMed

    Roderick, George K; Navajas, Maria

    2003-11-01

    The availability of new genetic technologies has positioned the field of biological control as a test bed for theories in evolutionary biology and for understanding practical aspects of the release of genetically manipulated material. Purposeful introductions of pathogens, parasites, predators and herbivores, when considered as replicated semi-natural field experiments, show the unpredictable nature of biological colonization. The characteristics of organisms and their environments that determine this variation in the establishment and success of biological control can now be explored using genetic tools. Lessons from studies of classical biological control can help inform researchers and policy makers about the risks that are associated with the release of genetically modified organisms, particularly with respect to long-term evolutionary changes.

  8. Active ingredients of ginger as potential candidates in the prevention and treatment of diseases via modulation of biological activities

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Arshad H; shabrmi, Fahad M Al; Aly, Salah M

    2014-01-01

    The current mode of treatment based on synthetic drugs is expensive and also causes genetic and metabolic alterations. However, safe and sound mode of treatment is needed to control the diseases development and progression. In this regards, medicinal plant and its constituents play an important role in diseases management via modulation of biological activities. Ginger, the rhizome of the Zingiber officinale, has shown therapeutic role in the health management since ancient time and considered as potential chemopreventive agent. Numerous studies based on clinical trials and animal model has shown that ginger and its constituents shows significant role in the prevention of diseases via modulation of genetic and metabolic activities. In this review, we focused on the therapeutics effects of ginger and its constituents in the diseases management, and its impact on genetic and metabolic activities. PMID:25057339

  9. Active ingredients of ginger as potential candidates in the prevention and treatment of diseases via modulation of biological activities.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Arshad H; Shabrmi, Fahad M Al; Aly, Salah M

    2014-01-01

    The current mode of treatment based on synthetic drugs is expensive and also causes genetic and metabolic alterations. However, safe and sound mode of treatment is needed to control the diseases development and progression. In this regards, medicinal plant and its constituents play an important role in diseases management via modulation of biological activities. Ginger, the rhizome of the Zingiber officinale, has shown therapeutic role in the health management since ancient time and considered as potential chemopreventive agent. Numerous studies based on clinical trials and animal model has shown that ginger and its constituents shows significant role in the prevention of diseases via modulation of genetic and metabolic activities. In this review, we focused on the therapeutics effects of ginger and its constituents in the diseases management, and its impact on genetic and metabolic activities.

  10. Encyrtid parasitoids of soft scale insects: biology, behavior, and their use in biological control.

    PubMed

    Kapranas, Apostolos; Tena, Alejandro

    2015-01-07

    Parasitoids of the hymenopterous family Encyrtidae are one of the most important groups of natural enemies of soft scale insects and have been used extensively in biological control. We summarize existing knowledge of the biology, ecology, and behavior of these parasitoids and how it relates to biological control. Soft scale stage/size and phenology are important determinants of host range and host utilization, which are key aspects in understanding how control by these parasitoids is exerted. Furthermore, the nutritional ecology of encyrtids and their physiological interactions with their hosts affect soft scale insect population dynamics. Lastly, the interactions among encyrtids, heteronomous parasitoids, and ants shape parasitoid species complexes and consequently have a direct impact on the biological control of soft scale insects.

  11. Biological control is more than just natural enemies

    Treesearch

    Dean E. Pearson

    2005-01-01

    The past decade has given rise to exciting new developments in the field of community ecology that have profound implications for biological control. The recognition that biological invasions offer unprecedented opportunities to investigate the nature of community assembly has swept invasive species studies to the forefront of popular ecology. Meanwhile,...

  12. Indirect effects of host-specific biological control agents

    Treesearch

    Dean E. Pearson; Ragan M. Callaway

    2003-01-01

    Biological control is a crucial tool in the battle against biological invasions, but biocontrol agents can have a deleterious impact on native species. Recognition of risks associated with host shifting has increased the emphasis on host specificity of biocontrol agents for invasive weeds. However, recent studies indicate host-specific biocontrol agents can...

  13. Evaluation of nine candidate genes in patients with normal tension glaucoma: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Christiane; Gramer, Eugen; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Pasutto, Francesca; Reinthal, Eva; Wissinger, Bernd; Weisschuh, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Background Normal tension glaucoma is a major subtype of glaucoma, associated with intraocular pressures that are within the statistically normal range of the population. Monogenic forms following classical inheritance patterns are rare in this glaucoma subtype. Instead, multigenic inheritance is proposed for the majority of cases. The present study tested common sequence variants in candidate genes for association with normal tension glaucoma in the German population. Methods Ninety-eight SNPs were selected to tag the common genetic variation in nine genes, namely OPTN (optineurin), RDX (radixin), SNX16 (sorting nexin 16), OPA1 (optic atrophy 1), MFN1 (mitofusin 1), MFN2 (mitofusin 2), PARL (presenilin associated, rhomboid-like), SOD2 (superoxide dismutase 2, mitochondrial) and CYP1B1 (cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily B, polypeptide 1). These SNPs were genotyped in 285 cases and 282 fully evaluated matched controls. Statistical analyses comprised single polymorphism association as well as haplogroup based association testing. Results Results suggested that genetic variation in five of the candidate genes (RDX, SNX16, OPA1, SOD2 and CYP1B1) is unlikely to confer major risk to develop normal tension glaucoma in the German population. In contrast, we observed a trend towards association of single SNPs in OPTN, MFN1, MFN2 and PARL. The SNPs of OPTN, MFN2 and PARL were further analysed by multimarker haplotype-based association testing. We identified a risk haplotype being more frequent in patients and a vice versa situation for the complementary protective haplotype in each of the three genes. Conclusion Common variants of OPTN, PARL, MFN1 and MFN2 should be analysed in other cohorts to confirm their involvement in normal tension glaucoma. PMID:19754948

  14. Arms Control: US and International efforts to ban biological weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons Convention, the treaty that bans the development, production, and stockpiling and acquisition of biological weapons was opened for signature in 1972 and came into force in 1975 after being ratified by 22 governments, including the depository nations of the USA, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. In support of the Convention, the USA later established export controls on items used to make biological weapons. Further, in accordance with the 1990 President`s Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative, actions were taken to redefine and expand US export controls, as well as to encourage multilateral controls through the Australia Group. Thus far, the Convention has not been effective in stopping the development of biological weapons. The principal findings as to the reasons of the failures of the Convention are found to be: the Convention lacks universality, compliance measures are effective, advantage of verification may outweigh disadvantages. Recommendations for mitigating these failures are outlined in this report.

  15. The process of advance care planning in HCT candidates and proxies: self-efficacy, locus of control, and anxiety levels.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Katharine E; Forti, Allison M; Russell, Gregory B; Naik, Seema; Hurd, David; McQuellon, Richard P

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between hematopoietic cell transplant candidate and proxy advance care planning (ACP) behavior and attitudes. A total of 49 candidates and 44 proxies completed the Advance Directive Attitudes Survey, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, Family Decision Making Self-Efficacy Scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. In all, 45% of candidates reported completing an advance directive (AD), while only 26% had ADs on file; 80% of candidates discussed ACP wishes with their loved ones and 15% discussed ACP wishes with their medical team. The AD completers were significantly (1) older, (2) more positive about ADs, and (3) were less likely to believe that health events happen by chance. Discrepancies between reported ACP behavior and communication with health care practitioners have implications for end-of-life care. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Domestic geese: biological weed control in an agricultural setting.

    Treesearch

    Tricia L. Wurtz

    1995-01-01

    Vertebrate herbivores can be effective agents of biological weed control in certain applications. I compared the use of domestic geese for weed control in an agricultural field with the herbicide hexazinone and with hand control. Newly planted spruce seedlings acted as a prototype crop that would be unpalatable to the geese. Trampling by geese led to as much as 47%...

  17. Subolesin: a candidate vaccine antigen for the control of cattle tick infestations in Indian situation.

    PubMed

    Shakya, Mukesh; Kumar, Binod; Nagar, Gaurav; de la Fuente, José; Ghosh, Srikanta

    2014-06-12

    Identification of cross-protective tick vaccine antigens is a challenging area of veterinary research. To address this challenge, a recently identified candidate tick protective antigen, Subolesin (SUB), was targeted in this research. The conservation of subolesin ortholog of Hyalomma anatolicum and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus across different Indian strains was 98.1-99.4% (within species), while at the amino acid level SUB sequence homology was ≥53.2% (between tick species). Recombinant R. (B.) microplus SUB (rBmSu) was produced in Escherichia coli and characterized. Cross-bred cattle male calves (N=10) were immunized with three doses of 100 μg each of the rBmSu emulsified in 10% Montanide 888 at monthly intervals on days 0, 30 and 60. The control group was injected with PBS in 10% Montanide 888. For the first tick challenge, calves were infested with larvae of R. (B.) microplus generated from 100mg eggs 2 weeks after last immunization (day 75). The immunization resulted in 16.3%, 8.0%, 9.4%, and 26.1% reduction in female tick numbers (DT), weight (DW), oviposition (DO) and egg fertility (DF), respectively, when compared to controls. In the subsequent challenge on day 105, DT, DW, DO and DF were reduced by 9.0%, 4.1%, 8.6%, and 24.2%, respectively, when compared to controls. The vaccine efficacy (E) was equal to 44.0% and 37.2% after the first and second challenges, respectively. The results showed a positive correlation between antibody titers for both total IgG and IgG1 and E in the second but not in the first tick challenge. These results suggested the possibility of developing a SUB-based vaccine for control of cattle tick infestations under Indian conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Controlling biological networks by time-delayed signals.

    PubMed

    Orosz, Gábor; Moehlis, Jeff; Murray, Richard M

    2010-01-28

    This paper describes the use of time-delayed feedback to regulate the behaviour of biological networks. The general ideas on specific transcriptional regulatory and neural networks are demonstrated. It is shown that robust yet tunable controllers can be constructed that provide the biological systems with model-engineered inputs. The results indicate that time delay modulation may serve as an efficient biocompatible control tool.

  19. Controllability and observability of Boolean networks arising from biology.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Yang, Meng; Chu, Tianguang

    2015-02-01

    Boolean networks are currently receiving considerable attention as a computational scheme for system level analysis and modeling of biological systems. Studying control-related problems in Boolean networks may reveal new insights into the intrinsic control in complex biological systems and enable us to develop strategies for manipulating biological systems using exogenous inputs. This paper considers controllability and observability of Boolean biological networks. We propose a new approach, which draws from the rich theory of symbolic computation, to solve the problems. Consequently, simple necessary and sufficient conditions for reachability, controllability, and observability are obtained, and algorithmic tests for controllability and observability which are based on the Gröbner basis method are presented. As practical applications, we apply the proposed approach to several different biological systems, namely, the mammalian cell-cycle network, the T-cell activation network, the large granular lymphocyte survival signaling network, and the Drosophila segment polarity network, gaining novel insights into the control and/or monitoring of the specific biological systems.

  20. Controllability and observability of Boolean networks arising from biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rui; Yang, Meng; Chu, Tianguang

    2015-02-01

    Boolean networks are currently receiving considerable attention as a computational scheme for system level analysis and modeling of biological systems. Studying control-related problems in Boolean networks may reveal new insights into the intrinsic control in complex biological systems and enable us to develop strategies for manipulating biological systems using exogenous inputs. This paper considers controllability and observability of Boolean biological networks. We propose a new approach, which draws from the rich theory of symbolic computation, to solve the problems. Consequently, simple necessary and sufficient conditions for reachability, controllability, and observability are obtained, and algorithmic tests for controllability and observability which are based on the Gröbner basis method are presented. As practical applications, we apply the proposed approach to several different biological systems, namely, the mammalian cell-cycle network, the T-cell activation network, the large granular lymphocyte survival signaling network, and the Drosophila segment polarity network, gaining novel insights into the control and/or monitoring of the specific biological systems.

  1. Control of Biologically Inspired Robotic Microswimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kei Cheang, U.; Lee, Jun Hee; Roy, Dheeraj; Kim, Min Jun

    2010-11-01

    Flagella have been employed as nanoactuators for biomimetic microswimmers in low Reynolds number fluidic environments. The microswimmers utilize flagellar filaments isolated from Salmonella typhimurium to mimic the spiral-type propulsion mechanism of flagellated bacteria. The microswimmer included a polystyrene microbead conjugated to one or multiple magnetic nanobeads via flagellar filaments using avidin-biotin linkages. Wireless propulsion energy was supplied to magnetic bead by an AC magnetic field, which in turn rotate the bead and induce spiral-type swimming. A magnetic controller consisted of electromagnetic coils arranged in an approximate Helmholtz configuration was designed and constructed. In conjunction with a LabVIEW input interface, a DAQ controller was used as a function generator to induce AC current outputs from the power supply to the magnetic controller in order to generate an AC magnetic field. Numerical analysis was performed to characterize the magnetic controller. A high-speed camera provided real-time imaging of the microswimmer motion in a static fluidic environment. The robotic microswimmers exhibited active propulsion under an AC magnetic field, which demonstrates the possibility for future biomedical applications for drug delivery.

  2. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Domestication of olive fruit, Olea europaea L., produced a better host for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), than wild olives, but fruit domestication reduced natural enemy efficiency. Important factors for selection of natural enemies for control of olive fruit fly include climate matchi...

  3. Biology and control of hemlock woolly adelgid

    Treesearch

    Nathan P. Havill; Ligia C. Vieira; Scott M. Salom

    2014-01-01

    This publication is a substantial revision of FHTET 2001-03, Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, which was published in 2001. This publication contains information on the native range of hemlock and range of hemlock woolly adelgid, the importance of hemlocks in eastern forest ecosystems, and on hosts, life cycle, control, and population trends of the hemlock woolly adelgid.

  4. Optimal Control through Biologically-Inspired Pursuit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    Transactions on Automatic Control 48, 988– 1001. Roumeliotis, S.I. and G.A. Bekey (2002). Distributed multi-robot localization. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and...1999). Distributed covering by ant- robots using evaporating traces. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation 15(5), 918–933.

  5. Biological Control of Russian thistle (tumbleweed)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We submitted a petition to the APHIS Technical Advisory Group (TAG) in December 2004 requesting permission to release the blister mite (Aceria salsolae) to control Russian thistle (Salsola tragus) and its close relatives. Host specificity experiments conducted in the USDA quarantine laboratory in ...

  6. The biology of small, introduced populations, with special reference to biological control.

    PubMed

    Fauvergue, Xavier; Vercken, Elodie; Malausa, Thibaut; Hufbauer, Ruth A

    2012-07-01

    Populations are introduced into novel environments in different contexts, one being the biological control of pests. Despite intense efforts, less than half introduced biological control agents establish. Among the possible approaches to improve biological control, one is to better understand the processes that underpin introductions and contribute to ecological and evolutionary success. In this perspective, we first review the demographic and genetic processes at play in small populations, be they stochastic or deterministic. We discuss the theoretical outcomes of these different processes with respect to individual fitness, population growth rate, and establishment probability. Predicted outcomes differ subtly in some cases, but enough so that the evaluating results of introductions have the potential to reveal which processes play important roles in introduced populations. Second, we attempt to link the theory we have discussed with empirical data from biological control introductions. A main result is that there are few available data, but we nonetheless report on an increasing number of well-designed, theory-driven, experimental approaches. Combining demography and genetics from both theoretical and empirical perspectives highlights novel and exciting avenues for research on the biology of small, introduced populations, and great potential for improving both our understanding and practice of biological control.

  7. The biology of small, introduced populations, with special reference to biological control

    PubMed Central

    Fauvergue, Xavier; Vercken, Elodie; Malausa, Thibaut; Hufbauer, Ruth A

    2012-01-01

    Populations are introduced into novel environments in different contexts, one being the biological control of pests. Despite intense efforts, less than half introduced biological control agents establish. Among the possible approaches to improve biological control, one is to better understand the processes that underpin introductions and contribute to ecological and evolutionary success. In this perspective, we first review the demographic and genetic processes at play in small populations, be they stochastic or deterministic. We discuss the theoretical outcomes of these different processes with respect to individual fitness, population growth rate, and establishment probability. Predicted outcomes differ subtly in some cases, but enough so that the evaluating results of introductions have the potential to reveal which processes play important roles in introduced populations. Second, we attempt to link the theory we have discussed with empirical data from biological control introductions. A main result is that there are few available data, but we nonetheless report on an increasing number of well-designed, theory-driven, experimental approaches. Combining demography and genetics from both theoretical and empirical perspectives highlights novel and exciting avenues for research on the biology of small, introduced populations, and great potential for improving both our understanding and practice of biological control. PMID:22949919

  8. Biological consequences of environmental control through housing.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, D H

    1975-01-01

    Housing was originally devised as a control of the thermal environment, but numerous other functions have been added with resulting competition and confusion. Current design gives insufficient attention to thermal factors and relies upon supplementary heating and cooling to compensate for faults. These are wasteful of energy, and the exhaust from air conditioners adds to the heat island conditions in city cores. The impact of consumerism on domestic space and the importance of personal space and privacy are reviewed. PMID:1157791

  9. Biological consequences of environmental control through housing.

    PubMed

    Lee, D H

    1975-04-01

    Housing was originally devised as a control of the thermal environment, but numerous other functions have been added with resulting competition and confusion. Current design gives insufficient attention to thermal factors and relies upon supplementary heating and cooling to compensate for faults. These are wasteful of energy, and the exhaust from air conditioners adds to the heat island conditions in city cores. The impact of consumerism on domestic space and the importance of personal space and privacy are reviewed.

  10. [Biological assay in quality control of animal medicines].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuan; Ouyang, Luo-Dan; Dai, Chun-Mei; Ma, Li; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2017-06-01

    Animal medicine is a unique part of traditional Chinese medicine. They have strong effects, but their effective compounds are not entirely known. The efficiency and safety of animal medicines can't be effectively controlled by current quality assurance system and evaluation method, which has deeply influenced the development of animal medicines. Biological assay does not focus on efficacy of single component, but directly reflects the pharmacodynamics and safety of animal medicines by biological effect. With the development of biotechnology, many new technologies have emerged, such as biochip and high content analysis. Based on the related targets, pathways and key biochemical factors, the field of biological assay has been expanded. With advantages of pharmacology andoverall controllability, as well as the characteristics of in line with the quality control of Chinese Medicine, biological assay will become one of the important development directionsfor quality standardization of animal medicines. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. Anti-tick biological control agents: assessment and future perspectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samish, M.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Glazer, I.; Bowman, Alan. S.; Nuttall, Patricia A.

    2008-01-01

    Widespread and increasing resistance to most available acaracides threatens both global livestock industries and public health. This necessitates better understanding of ticks and the diseases they transmit in the development of new control strategies. Ticks: Biology, Disease and Control is written by an international collection of experts and covers in-depth information on aspects of the biology of the ticks themselves, various veterinary and medical tick-borne pathogens, and aspects of traditional and potential new control methods. A valuable resource for graduate students, academic researchers and professionals, the book covers the whole gamut of ticks and tick-borne diseases from microsatellites to satellite imagery and from exploiting tick saliva for therapeutic drugs to developing drugs to control tick populations. It encompasses the variety of interconnected fields impinging on the economically important and biologically fascinating phenomenon of ticks, the diseases they transmit and methods of their control.

  12. Functional Agents to Biologically Control Deoxynivalenol Contamination in Cereal Grains

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ye; Tan, Yanglan; Liu, Na; Liao, Yucai; Sun, Changpo; Wang, Shuangxia; Wu, Aibo

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins, as microbial secondary metabolites, frequently contaminate cereal grains and pose a serious threat to human and animal health around the globe. Deoxynivalenol (DON), a commonly detected Fusarium mycotoxin, has drawn utmost attention due to high exposure levels and contamination frequency in the food chain. Biological control is emerging as a promising technology for the management of DON contamination. Functional biological control agents (BCAs), which include antagonistic microbes, natural fungicides derived from plants and detoxification enzymes, can be used to control DON contamination at different stages of grain production. In this review, studies regarding different biological agents for DON control in recent years are summarized for the first time. Furthermore, this article highlights the significance of BCAs for controlling DON contamination, as well as the need for more practical and efficient BCAs concerning food safety. PMID:27064760

  13. Biological Control on Mineral Transformation in Soils ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, K.; Hsieh, J. C.; Chadwick, O. A.; Kelly, E. F.

    2001-12-01

    Weathering of primary minerals is commonly linked to biological processes through the production of carbonic and organic acids. Plants can also play a role in weathering by removing soluble constituents and enhancing diffusion gradients within the soil. Here we investigate the synthesis of secondary minerals and the role of plants in removing elements that act as building blocks for these minerals. In order to minimize losses from leaching, we have sampled a chronosequence of soils forming on lava flows on Hawaii Island that receive about 200 mm of rain annually and have never been subjected to high levels of rainfall. The P concentration in the soils drops from almost 3000 mg/kg on a 1.5 ky lava flow to around 1000 mg/kg on a 350 ky lava flow. This loss of P can only be ascribed to P-uptake by plants with subsequent removal through the loss of above ground biomass through fire and/or wind removal. Over the same time frame the amount of plagioclase in the soils drops from around 22% of the <2 mm soil fraction on the youngest lava flow to virtually 0% on the 350 ky flow, suggesting a substantial release of Si. Elevated silicon in arid, basaltic soil environments often leads to formation of smectite, a feature not observed along the chronosequence. In fact, plagioclase is replaced by the kaolin mineral halloysite with allophane as an apparent precursor. Kaolin minerals are associated with moderate to intense leaching environments rather than the mild leaching conditions that influence these soils. We selected an intermediate age soil profile (170 ky lava flow) to conduct an in-depth investigation of the soil mineral composition. We detected a strong dominance of halloysite, the presence of gibbsite, but no smectite. Secondary halloysite formation is preferred over smectite formation when Si activities are relatively low, and the pH is acidic rather than alkaline. Although this mineral assemblage seems to imply formation under a wetter climatic regime, the oxygen

  14. Development of a candidate reference material for adventitious virus detection in vaccine and biologicals manufacturing by deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Mee, Edward T; Preston, Mark D; Minor, Philip D; Schepelmann, Silke

    2016-04-12

    Unbiased deep sequencing offers the potential for improved adventitious virus screening in vaccines and biotherapeutics. Successful implementation of such assays will require appropriate control materials to confirm assay performance and sensitivity. A common reference material containing 25 target viruses was produced and 16 laboratories were invited to process it using their preferred adventitious virus detection assay. Fifteen laboratories returned results, obtained using a wide range of wet-lab and informatics methods. Six of 25 target viruses were detected by all laboratories, with the remaining viruses detected by 4-14 laboratories. Six non-target viruses were detected by three or more laboratories. The study demonstrated that a wide range of methods are currently used for adventitious virus detection screening in biological products by deep sequencing and that they can yield significantly different results. This underscores the need for common reference materials to ensure satisfactory assay performance and enable comparisons between laboratories. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Differentiation in neutral genes and a candidate gene in the pied flycatcher: using biological archives to track global climate change.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Kerstin; Schwenk, Klaus; Both, Christiaan; Canal, David; Johansson, Ulf S; van der Mije, Steven; Töpfer, Till; Päckert, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Global climate change is one of the major driving forces for adaptive shifts in migration and breeding phenology and possibly impacts demographic changes if a species fails to adapt sufficiently. In Western Europe, pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) have insufficiently adapted their breeding phenology to the ongoing advance of food peaks within their breeding area and consequently suffered local population declines. We address the question whether this population decline led to a loss of genetic variation, using two neutral marker sets (mitochondrial control region and microsatellites), and one potentially selectively non-neutral marker (avian Clock gene). We report temporal changes in genetic diversity in extant populations and biological archives over more than a century, using samples from sites differing in the extent of climate change. Comparing genetic differentiation over this period revealed that only the recent Dutch population, which underwent population declines, showed slightly lower genetic variation than the historic Dutch population. As that loss of variation was only moderate and not observed in all markers, current gene flow across Western and Central European populations might have compensated local loss of variation over the last decades. A comparison of genetic differentiation in neutral loci versus the Clock gene locus provided evidence for stabilizing selection. Furthermore, in all genetic markers, we found a greater genetic differentiation in space than in time. This pattern suggests that local adaptation or historic processes might have a stronger effect on the population structure and genetic variation in the pied flycatcher than recent global climate changes.

  16. A unique heterologous fibrin sealant (HFS) as a candidate biological scaffold for mesenchymal stem cells in osteoporotic rats.

    PubMed

    Orsi, Patrícia Rodrigues; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda Cruz; Justulin, Luis Antônio; Kaneno, Ramon; de Assis Golim, Marjorie; Dos Santos, Daniela Carvalho; Creste, Camila Fernanda Zorzella; Oba, Eunice; Maia, Leandro; Barraviera, Benedito; Ferreira, Rui Seabra

    2017-09-29

    The injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) directly into the bone of osteoporotic (OP) patients for rapid recovery has been studied worldwide. Scaffolds associated with MSCs are used to maintain and avoid cell loss after application. A unique heterologous fibrin sealant (HFS) derived from snake venom was evaluated for the cytotoxicity of its main components and as a three-dimensional biological scaffold for MSCs to repair a critical femur defect in osteoporotic rats. The cytotoxicity of HFS was assessed using a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assay and transmission electron microscopy. The cells were cultured, characterized by flow cytometry and differentiated into the osteogenic lineage. Two-month-old rats underwent ovariectomy to induce OP. After 3 months, a 5 mm critical bone defect was made in the distal end of the rat femurs and filled with HFS; HFS + MSCs; and HFS + MSCs D (differentiated into the osteogenic lineage) to evaluate the effects. An injury control group (injury and no treatment) and blank control group (no injury and no treatment) were also included. The animals were observed at days 14 and 28 by microtomographic (micro-CT) analyses, histologic and biochemical analysis, as well as scanning electron microscopy. The results revealed that one of the compounds of HFS, the thrombin-like enzyme extracted from snake venom, had no cytotoxic effects on the MSCs. OP was successfully induced, as demonstrated by the significant differences in the levels of 17β-estradiol, Micro-CT analyses and alkaline phosphatase between the ovariectomized (OVX) and non-ovariectomized (NOVX) groups. The histological data revealed that at 14 days after surgery in both the OVX and NOVX animals, the HFS + CTMs and HFS + CTMsD showed a higher formation of bone cells at the site in relation to the control group (without treatment). Collagen formation was evidenced through bone neoformation in all treated and control groups

  17. [Global consequences and control strategies of biological invasion].

    PubMed

    Xie, Zongqiang; Chen, Zhigang; Fan, Dayong; Xiong, Gaoming

    2003-10-01

    Biological invasion is a worldwide ecological phenomenon, but its mechanism is still not very clear. Invasive species give impacts on native species and ecosystems through competitions, predations, changing habitats, and dispersing diseases. They pose an increasing threat to the composition and structure of natural communities across the globe. Biological invasion has been greatly damaging the ecological and evolutionary integrity of natural ecosystems, which will weaken the functions of the ecosystems and frequently cause natural disasters. A better understanding of the causes, patterns, predictability, consequences, and management options associated with this threat to biodiversity is necessary to guide managers, policy makers, researchers, and general publics. Biological invasion also causes huge economic losses, and 137 billion dollar losses per year from biological invasion were estimated in USA. Invasive diseases impair human health and kill thousands and thousands of people, and invasive bacteria lead to so serious social panic and turbulence that people could feel uneasy even when eating and sleeping. Biological invasion largely decreases global biodiversity, which will threaten the survival and development of our descendants. Three steps are used in prevention and control of biological invasions. Comprehensive quarantine is the most effective way to prevent exotic invasion by accident. Ecological evaluation and monitoring is helpful to avoid disasters from species introduction. Physical methods, chemical approaches and biological controls are used to eradicate and control the spread of invaded species. Before biological controls are chosen, risk analysis of controlling organism is needed. Ideally, there should be both pre-eradication assessment to tailor removal to avoid unwanted ecological effects and post-removal assessment of eradication effects on both the target organism and the invaded ecosystem.

  18. Control of Dermatomycoses by Physical, Chemical and Biological Agents.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-28

    r A.-A0% 5586 STRITCH SCHOOL OF M4EDICINE MAYWOOD ILL DEPT OF MICRO-ETC F/G 6/5 CONTROL OF DERMATOMYCOSES BY PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL...Final reports ~tW/ Yj S. ca Is -- I - - O E E ~~ ( Control of Dermatomycoses by Physical, Chemical Fina re,.tK. and Biological Agents Ciratepid123 . S...to the radical cure of dermatomycoses and the control of ringworm infections in comiunal life is to develop effective methods that kill dermatophytic

  19. Biological implications of the 1996 controlled flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdez, Richard A.; Shannon, Joseph P.; Blinn, Dean W.

    The 1996 controlled flood provided evidence that elevated releases from Glen Canyon Dam can enhance short-term primary and secondary production of aquatic resources of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. The flood scoured substantial proportions of benthic algae and macroinvertebrates and removed fine sediments from the channel, which ultimately stimulated primary productivity and consumer biomass. Channel margin sand deposits buried riparian vegetation and leaf litter, entraining nutrients for later incorporation into the upper trophic levels. The flood restructured high-stage sand bars and associated eddy return channels (i.e., backwaters used as nurseries by native and non-native fish), but many were short-lived because reattachment bars were eroded shortly after the flood. The flood was of insufficient magnitude to permanently suppress non-native fish populations, even though there was significant population depletion at some collecting sites. Pre-spawning aggregations, spawning ascents of tributaries, and habitat use by native fishes were unaffected by the flood. Adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Lees Ferry tailwater fishery were also unaffected, but the proportion of juveniles <152 mm total length decreased by 10% a strong year class following the flood indicated replacement through successful reproduction.

  20. Cell biology. Metabolic control of cell death.

    PubMed

    Green, Douglas R; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-09-19

    Beyond their contribution to basic metabolism, the major cellular organelles, in particular mitochondria, can determine whether cells respond to stress in an adaptive or suicidal manner. Thus, mitochondria can continuously adapt their shape to changing bioenergetic demands as they are subjected to quality control by autophagy, or they can undergo a lethal permeabilization process that initiates apoptosis. Along similar lines, multiple proteins involved in metabolic circuitries, including oxidative phosphorylation and transport of metabolites across membranes, may participate in the regulated or catastrophic dismantling of organelles. Many factors that were initially characterized as cell death regulators are now known to physically or functionally interact with metabolic enzymes. Thus, several metabolic cues regulate the propensity of cells to activate self-destructive programs, in part by acting on nutrient sensors. This suggests the existence of "metabolic checkpoints" that dictate cell fate in response to metabolic fluctuations. Here, we discuss recent insights into the intersection between metabolism and cell death regulation that have major implications for the comprehension and manipulation of unwarranted cell loss.

  1. Environmental Impacts of Arthropod Biological Control: An Ecological Perspective

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Arthropod biological control has long been used against insect and mite pests in agriculture production systems, forests, and other natural ecosystems. Depending on the methods of deploying natural enemies and the type of control agents (herbivores, parasitoids, and/or predators), potential environ...

  2. Tea: Biological control of insect and mite pests in China

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tea is one of the most economically important crops in China. To secure its production and quality conservation biological control within the context of integrated pest management (IPM) has been widely popularized for better control of arthropod pests on tea with less chemical insecticide usage and ...

  3. Integrated management of Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius) using biological control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Integrated weed management (IWM) strategies are being advocated and employed to control invasive plants species. In this study, we compared the impact of three management strategies [biological control alone (BC), BC with fire (BC + F), and BC with mowing (BC + M)] to determine if combining fire or...

  4. Investigating the potential of biological control against Phytophthora ramorum

    Treesearch

    Timothy L. Widmer

    2008-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum is a unique organism in many ways, having a broad host range and both soilborne and aerial infection stages. This makes mplementing effective control measures very complex. The use of biological control has been demonstrated against various Phytophthora spp. in general, but not specifically against P...

  5. The biology and control of Giardia spp and Tritrichomonas foetus.

    PubMed

    Payne, Patricia A; Artzer, Marjory

    2009-11-01

    The biology and control of Giardia spp in dogs and cats, and Tritrichomonas foetus in cats is reviewed, including nomenclature, morphology, life cycle, epidemiology, pathogenic process, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and control, and public health aspects. These surprisingly similar protozoan pathogens are both clinically significant in veterinary clinical medicine.

  6. Nematodes for the biological control of the woodwasp, Sirex noctilio

    Treesearch

    Robin A. Bedding

    2007-01-01

    The tylenchid nematode Beddingia (Deladenus) siricidicola (Bedding) is by far the most important control agent of Sirex noctilio F., a major pest of pine plantations. It sterilizes female sirex, is density dependent, can achieve nearly 100 percent parasitism and, as a result of its complicated biology can be readily manipulated for sirex control. Bedding and Iede (2005...

  7. The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum: Lessons in Biological Control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cactus moth was one of the success stories in classical biological control. In the 1920s, the prickly pear cactus was a serious pest in Australia. The cactus moth was imported from its native habitat in South America and proved so successful in controlling cactus that it was mass reared and exp...

  8. The Trojan Female Technique for pest control: a candidate mitochondrial mutation confers low male fertility across diverse nuclear backgrounds in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Damian K; Tompkins, Daniel M; Gemmell, Neil J

    2015-10-01

    Pest species represent a major ongoing threat to global biodiversity. Effective management approaches are required that regulate pest numbers, while minimizing collateral damage to nontarget species. The Trojan Female Technique (TFT) was recently proposed as a prospective approach to biological pest control. The TFT draws on the evolutionary hypothesis that maternally inherited mitochondrial genomes are prone to the accumulation of male, but not female, harming mutations. These mutations could be harnessed to provide trans-generational fertility-based control of pest species. A candidate TFT mutation was recently described in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, which confers male-only sterility in the specific isogenic nuclear background in which it is maintained. However, applicability of the TFT relies on mitochondrial mutations whose male-sterilizing effects are general across nuclear genomic contexts. We test this assumption, expressing the candidate TFT-mutation bearing haplotype alongside a range of nuclear backgrounds and comparing its fertility in males, relative to that of control haplotypes. We document consistently lower fertility for males harbouring the TFT mutation, in both competitive and noncompetitive mating contexts, across all nuclear backgrounds screened. This indicates that TFT mutations conferring reduced male fertility can segregate within populations and could be harnessed to facilitate this novel form of pest control.

  9. The Trojan Female Technique for pest control: a candidate mitochondrial mutation confers low male fertility across diverse nuclear backgrounds in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, Damian K; Tompkins, Daniel M; Gemmell, Neil J

    2015-01-01

    Pest species represent a major ongoing threat to global biodiversity. Effective management approaches are required that regulate pest numbers, while minimizing collateral damage to nontarget species. The Trojan Female Technique (TFT) was recently proposed as a prospective approach to biological pest control. The TFT draws on the evolutionary hypothesis that maternally inherited mitochondrial genomes are prone to the accumulation of male, but not female, harming mutations. These mutations could be harnessed to provide trans-generational fertility-based control of pest species. A candidate TFT mutation was recently described in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, which confers male-only sterility in the specific isogenic nuclear background in which it is maintained. However, applicability of the TFT relies on mitochondrial mutations whose male-sterilizing effects are general across nuclear genomic contexts. We test this assumption, expressing the candidate TFT-mutation bearing haplotype alongside a range of nuclear backgrounds and comparing its fertility in males, relative to that of control haplotypes. We document consistently lower fertility for males harbouring the TFT mutation, in both competitive and noncompetitive mating contexts, across all nuclear backgrounds screened. This indicates that TFT mutations conferring reduced male fertility can segregate within populations and could be harnessed to facilitate this novel form of pest control. PMID:26495040

  10. Investigating Biological Control Agents for Controlling Invasive Populations of the Mealybug Pseudococcus comstocki in France

    PubMed Central

    Malausa, Thibaut; Delaunay, Mathilde; Fleisch, Alexandre; Groussier-Bout, Géraldine; Warot, Sylvie; Crochard, Didier; Guerrieri, Emilio; Delvare, Gérard; Pellizzari, Giuseppina; Kaydan, M. Bora; Al-Khateeb, Nadia; Germain, Jean-François; Brancaccio, Lisa; Le Goff, Isabelle; Bessac, Melissa; Ris, Nicolas; Kreiter, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Pseudococcus comstocki (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a mealybug species native to Eastern Asia and present as an invasive pest in northern Italy and southern France since the start of the century. It infests apple and pear trees, grapevines and some ornamental trees. Biocontrol programmes against this pest proved successful in central Asia and North America in the second half of the 20th century. In this study, we investigated possible biocontrol agents against P. comstocki, with the aim of developing a biocontrol programme in France. We carried out systematic DNA-barcoding at each step in the search for a specialist parasitoid. First we characterised the French target populations of P. comstocki. We then identified the parasitoids attacking P. comstocki in France. Finally, we searched for foreign mealybug populations identified a priori as P. comstocki and surveyed their hymenopteran parasitoids. Three mealybug species (P. comstocki, P. viburni and P. cryptus) were identified during the survey, together with at least 16 different parasitoid taxa. We selected candidate biological control agent populations for use against P. comstocki in France, from the species Allotropa burrelli (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Acerophagus malinus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). The coupling of molecular and morphological characterisation for both pests and natural enemies facilitated the programme development and the rejection of unsuitable or generalist parasitoids. PMID:27362639

  11. Investigating Biological Control Agents for Controlling Invasive Populations of the Mealybug Pseudococcus comstocki in France.

    PubMed

    Malausa, Thibaut; Delaunay, Mathilde; Fleisch, Alexandre; Groussier-Bout, Géraldine; Warot, Sylvie; Crochard, Didier; Guerrieri, Emilio; Delvare, Gérard; Pellizzari, Giuseppina; Kaydan, M Bora; Al-Khateeb, Nadia; Germain, Jean-François; Brancaccio, Lisa; Le Goff, Isabelle; Bessac, Melissa; Ris, Nicolas; Kreiter, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Pseudococcus comstocki (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a mealybug species native to Eastern Asia and present as an invasive pest in northern Italy and southern France since the start of the century. It infests apple and pear trees, grapevines and some ornamental trees. Biocontrol programmes against this pest proved successful in central Asia and North America in the second half of the 20th century. In this study, we investigated possible biocontrol agents against P. comstocki, with the aim of developing a biocontrol programme in France. We carried out systematic DNA-barcoding at each step in the search for a specialist parasitoid. First we characterised the French target populations of P. comstocki. We then identified the parasitoids attacking P. comstocki in France. Finally, we searched for foreign mealybug populations identified a priori as P. comstocki and surveyed their hymenopteran parasitoids. Three mealybug species (P. comstocki, P. viburni and P. cryptus) were identified during the survey, together with at least 16 different parasitoid taxa. We selected candidate biological control agent populations for use against P. comstocki in France, from the species Allotropa burrelli (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Acerophagus malinus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). The coupling of molecular and morphological characterisation for both pests and natural enemies facilitated the programme development and the rejection of unsuitable or generalist parasitoids.

  12. Implementation of integral feedback control in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Somvanshi, Pramod R; Patel, Anilkumar K; Bhartiya, Sharad; Venkatesh, K V

    2015-01-01

    Integral control design ensures that a key variable in a system is tightly maintained within acceptable levels. This approach has been widely used in engineering systems to ensure offset free operation in the presence of perturbations. Several biological systems employ such an integral control design to regulate cellular processes. An integral control design motif requires a negative feedback and an integrating process in the network loop. This review describes several biological systems, ranging from bacteria to higher organisms in which the presence of integral control principle has been hypothesized. The review highlights that in addition to the negative feedback, occurrence of zero-order kinetics in the process is a key element to realize the integral control strategy. Although the integral control motif is common to these systems, the mechanisms involved in achieving it are highly specific and can be incorporated at the level of signaling, metabolism, or at the phenotypic levels.

  13. Selecting research of candidate crops in controlled ecological life support system(CELSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, L.; Guo, S.; Ai, W.; Tang, Y.

    In order to select appropriate biological components for controlled ecological life support system CELSS supporting future long-duration space mission and planetary exploration habitat five crops of lettuce neilvnanyou dasusheng naichoutai dongfangkaixuan and sijiyoumaicai two crops of spinach daye and quanneng one rape jingyou No 1 and one common sowthistle were grown in Controlled Ecological Life Support Technique Complex Experimental System Nutrient solution light period and intensity atmospheric temperature relative humidity O 2 and CO 2 concentration in the system were all regulated automatically Canopy photosynthetic rate transpiration rate were measured at different growing stages at different CO 2 levels 500 1000 1500 and 2000 mu mol cdot mol -1 and different light intensities 100 300 500 and 700 mu mol cdot m -2 cdot s -1 Three crops of lettuce neilvnaiyou dasusheng and youmaicai one common sowthistle were selected based on their high productivity nutrient composition and content photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate which is necessarily benefit for further research of CELSS

  14. Biology and preliminary host range assessment of two potential kudzu biological control agents

    Treesearch

    Matthew J. Fyre; Judith Hough-Goldstein; Jiang-Hua Sun

    2007-01-01

    Two insect species from China, Gonioctena tredecimmaclliata (Jacoby) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and Ornatalcides (Mesalcidodes) trifidus (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were studied in quarantine in the United States as potential biological control agents for kudzu, Pueraria nwntana variety Zobata (Willd.) Maesen and S. Almeida...

  15. Design control considerations for biologic-device combination products.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Dave; Liu, Roger; Anand Subramony, J; Cammack, Jon

    2017-01-11

    Combination products are therapeutic and diagnostic medical products that combine drugs, devices, and/or biological products with one another. Historically, biologics development involved identifying efficacious doses administered to patients intravenously or perhaps by a syringe. Until fairly recently, there has been limited focus on developing an accompanying medical device, such as a prefilled syringe or auto-injector, to enable easy and more efficient delivery. For the last several years, and looking forward, where there may be little to distinguish biologics medicines with relatively similar efficacy profiles, the biotechnology market is beginning to differentiate products by patient-focused, biologic-device based combination products. As innovative as biologic-device combination products are, they can pose considerable development, regulatory, and commercialization challenges due to unique physicochemical properties and special clinical considerations (e.g., dosing volumes, frequency, co-medications, etc.) of the biologic medicine. A biologic-device combination product is a marriage between two partners with "cultural differences," so to speak. There are clear differences in the development, review, and commercialization processes of the biologic and the device. When these two cultures come together in a combination product, developers and reviewers must find ways to address the design controls and risk management processes of both the biologic and device, and knit them into a single entity with supporting product approval documentation. Moreover, digital medicine and connected health trends are pushing the boundaries of combination product development and regulations even further. Despite an admirable cooperation between industry and FDA in recent years, unique product configurations and design features have resulted in review challenges. These challenges have prompted agency reviewers to modernize consultation processes, while at the same time, promoting

  16. Successful biological control of tropical soda apple in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum, is a small shrub native to tropical regions of Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina. This weed was first found in Florida in 1988. In May 2003, a leaf feeding beetle, Gratiana boliviana, from South America was released in Florida as a biological control agent of tro...

  17. Integrating Biological Systems in the Process Dynamics and Control Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Robert S.; Doyle, Francis J.; Henson, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of the chemical engineering discipline motivates a re-evaluation of the process dynamics and control curriculum. A key requirement of future courses will be the introduction of theoretical concepts and application examples relevant to emerging areas, notably complex biological systems. We outline the critical concepts required to…

  18. Classical biological control for the protection of natural ecosystems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We review the contribution, at a world level, of classical biological control of invasive insects and plants to the preservation of wildlands, including their biodiversity, their natural resources, and the ecosystems services that they provide. We include both older projects with demonstrated benef...

  19. Hybrid vigor in the biological control agent, Longitarsus jacobaeae.

    PubMed

    Szűcs, Marianna; Eigenbrode, Sanford D; Schwarzländer, Mark; Schaffner, Urs

    2012-07-01

    Hybridization is an important evolutionary mechanism that can increase the fitness and adaptive potential of populations. A growing body of evidence supports its importance as a key factor contributing to rapid evolution in invasive species, but the effects of hybridization have rarely been assessed in intentionally introduced biological control agents. We investigated hybrids between a Swiss and an Italian population of the beetle, Longitarsus jacobaeae, a biological control agent of Jacobaea vulgaris, by reciprocally crossing individuals in the laboratory. Phenological traits of F1 and F2 hybrid lineages showed intermediate values relative to their parental populations, with some maternal influence. Fitness of the F2 generation, measured as lifetime fecundity, was higher than that of the Italian parent in one of the lineages and higher than that of either parent in the other hybrid lineage. The increased fecundity of hybrids may benefit tansy ragwort biological control by increasing the establishment success and facilitating a more rapid population buildup in the early generations. Even though the long-term consequences of hybridization in this and other systems are hard to predict, intentional hybridization may be a useful tool in biological control strategies as it would promote similar microevolutionary processes operating in numerous targeted invasive species.

  20. Facultative Lagoons. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lorri

    This instructor's guide contains materials needed to teach a two-lesson unit on the structure and components of facultative lagoons, the biological theory of their operation, and factors affecting their operation. Control testing recommendations, maintenance guidelines, and troubleshooting hints are also provided. These materials include: (1) an…

  1. Future prospects for biological control of postharvest diseases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This article reflects the current research and future prospects in the area of biological control of postharvest diseases (BCPD) of fruits. During the past decade, not only research interest in BCPD grew, which is reflected in a number of publications, but the use of the pioneering product Bio-save...

  2. A Review of the Biological Control of Fire Ants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The suppression of well-established invasive ants will likely require biological control by natural enemies. This approach is self-sustaining and can impact undetected or inaccessible populations that are the source of the continual presence and expansion of the invaders. There is an ongoing effor...

  3. Integrating Biological Systems in the Process Dynamics and Control Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Robert S.; Doyle, Francis J.; Henson, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of the chemical engineering discipline motivates a re-evaluation of the process dynamics and control curriculum. A key requirement of future courses will be the introduction of theoretical concepts and application examples relevant to emerging areas, notably complex biological systems. We outline the critical concepts required to…

  4. Stakeholder perceptions: Biological control of Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia)

    Treesearch

    Sharlene E. Sing; Kevin J. Delaney

    2016-01-01

    An online survey was distributed through email lists provided by various stakeholder groups on behalf of the International Consortium for Biological Control of Russian Olive in spring of 2012. A total of 392 respondents replied from 24 U.S. states and 1 Canadian province. Questions posed in the survey were designed to identify and categorize 1) stakeholders by...

  5. The use of phytophagous insects in biological control (in French)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phytophagous insects play an important role in classical biological control. This chapter is divided into 6 paragraphs: 1) we present firstly the history and the context of biocontrol, 2) we detail the impact of herbivory on the target plants; 3) we specify the different groups of insects that have ...

  6. Hybrid vigor in the biological control agent, Longitarsus jacobaeae

    PubMed Central

    Szűcs, Marianna; Eigenbrode, Sanford D; Schwarzländer, Mark; Schaffner, Urs

    2012-01-01

    Hybridization is an important evolutionary mechanism that can increase the fitness and adaptive potential of populations. A growing body of evidence supports its importance as a key factor contributing to rapid evolution in invasive species, but the effects of hybridization have rarely been assessed in intentionally introduced biological control agents. We investigated hybrids between a Swiss and an Italian population of the beetle, Longitarsus jacobaeae, a biological control agent of Jacobaea vulgaris, by reciprocally crossing individuals in the laboratory. Phenological traits of F1 and F2 hybrid lineages showed intermediate values relative to their parental populations, with some maternal influence. Fitness of the F2 generation, measured as lifetime fecundity, was higher than that of the Italian parent in one of the lineages and higher than that of either parent in the other hybrid lineage. The increased fecundity of hybrids may benefit tansy ragwort biological control by increasing the establishment success and facilitating a more rapid population buildup in the early generations. Even though the long-term consequences of hybridization in this and other systems are hard to predict, intentional hybridization may be a useful tool in biological control strategies as it would promote similar microevolutionary processes operating in numerous targeted invasive species. PMID:22949924

  7. A method for biological control of a complex phytoadaptogen.

    PubMed

    Bocharova, O A; Lyzhenkova, M A; Kurennaya, O N; Knyazhev, V A

    2003-12-01

    We propose a method for standardization of complex adaptogen-containing preparations. The method is based on acceleration of baking yeast strain growth on energy-depleted medium in the presence of the test agent. This method allows simple quantitative biological control of phytoadaptogens and comparison of adaptogenic activity of mono- and complex preparations.

  8. Funding needed for assessments of weed biological control

    Treesearch

    John L. Maron; Dean E. Pearson; Stephen M. Hovick; Walter P. Carson

    2010-01-01

    Invasive non-native plants are a serious economic and ecological problem worldwide, and major efforts are therefore devoted to reducing weed abundance in agricultural and natural settings. Effective options for reducing invasive abundance and spread are few, although one common approach is biological control - the introduction of specialist herbivores or pathogens from...

  9. Controlled release of biologically active silver from nanosilver surfaces.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingyu; Sonshine, David A; Shervani, Saira; Hurt, Robert H

    2010-11-23

    Major pathways in the antibacterial activity and eukaryotic toxicity of nanosilver involve the silver cation and its soluble complexes, which are well established thiol toxicants. Through these pathways, nanosilver behaves in analogy to a drug delivery system, in which the particle contains a concentrated inventory of an active species, the ion, which is transported to and released near biological target sites. Although the importance of silver ion in the biological response to nanosilver is widely recognized, the drug delivery paradigm has not been well developed for this system, and there is significant potential to improve nanosilver technologies through controlled release formulations. This article applies elements of the drug delivery paradigm to nanosilver dissolution and presents a systematic study of chemical concepts for controlled release. After presenting thermodynamic calculations of silver species partitioning in biological media, the rates of oxidative silver dissolution are measured for nanoparticles and macroscopic foils and used to derive unified area-based release kinetics. A variety of competing chemical approaches are demonstrated for controlling the ion release rate over 4 orders of magnitude. Release can be systematically slowed by thiol and citrate ligand binding, formation of sulfidic coatings, or the scavenging of peroxy-intermediates. Release can be accelerated by preoxidation or particle size reduction, while polymer coatings with complexation sites alter the release profile by storing and releasing inventories of surface-bound silver. Finally, the ability to tune biological activity is demonstrated through a bacterial inhibition zone assay carried out on selected formulations of controlled release nanosilver.

  10. Biological nitrification process simulation in groundwater with dissolved oxygen controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Jinlong

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays groundwater contamination by nitrogenous fertilizer is a globally growing problem, but groundwater always serves as an important water source, especially in rural area. In order to tackle this problem, biological nitrification and denitrification process has been widely used for removal of nitrogenous pollutants from polluted water. To improve removal efficiency, the dissolved oxygen (DO) controller is presented. And the control strategies for the activated sludge process have been developed and evaluated by simulation. The results also showed that the DO controller will be applied widely in the control and management of the decentralization water treatment.

  11. Exploration for the Biological Control of Flowering Rush, Butomus umbellatus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    control of flowering rush, Butomus umbellatus P. Häfliger, R. Leiner, C. Baan, A. Martins, S. Soukou, D. Sjolie, I. Toševski and H.L...2014 to 00-06-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Exploration for the Biological Control of Flowering Rush, Butomus umbellatus 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911NF-14...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Flowering rush (Butomus umbellatus

  12. Biologically controlled minerals as potential indicators of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, D. E.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Kaneshiro, E.

    1991-01-01

    Minerals can be produced and deposited either by abiotic or biologic means. Regardless of their origin, mineral crystals reflect the environment conditions (e.g., temperature, pressure, chemical composition, and redox potential) present during crystal formation. Biologically-produced mineral crystals are grown or reworked under the control of their host organism and reflect an environment different from the abiotic environment. In addition, minerals of either biologic or abiotic origin have great longevities. For these reasons, biologically produced minerals have been proposed as biomarkers. Biomarkers are key morphological, chemical, and isotopic signatures of living systems that can be used to determine if life processes have occurred. Studies of biologically controlled minerals produced by the protist, Paramecium tetraurelia, were initiated since techniques have already been developed to culture them and isolate their crystalline material, and methods are already in place to analyze this material. Two direct crystalline phases were identified. One phase, whose chemical composition is high in Mg, was identified as struvite. The second phase, whose chemical composition is high in Ca, has not been previously found occurring naturally and may be considered a newly discovered material. Analyses are underway to determine the characteristics of these minerals in order to compare them with characteristics of these minerals in order to compare them with characteristics of minerals formed abiotically, but with the same chemical composition.

  13. Economic Benefit for Cuban Laurel Thrips Biological Control.

    PubMed

    Shogren, C; Paine, T D

    2016-02-01

    The Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips ficorum Marchal (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), is a critical insect pest of Ficus microcarpa in California urban landscapes and production nurseries. Female thrips feed and oviposit on young Ficus leaves, causing the expanding leaves to fold or curl into a discolored leaf gall. There have been attempts to establish specialist predator natural enemies of the thrips, but no success has been reported. We resampled the same areas in 2013-2014 where we had released Montandoniola confusa (= morguesi) Streito and Matocq (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in southern California in 1995 but had been unable to recover individuals in 1997-1998. Thrips galls were significantly reduced in all three of the locations in the recent samples compared with the earlier samples. M. confusa was present in all locations and appears to be providing successful biological control. The value of the biological control, the difference between street trees in good foliage condition and trees with poor foliage, was $58,766,166. If thrips damage reduced the foliage to very poor condition, the value of biological control was $73,402,683. Total cost for the project was $61,830. The benefit accrued for every dollar spent on the biological control of the thrips ranged from $950, if the foliage was in poor condition, to $1,187, if the foliage was in very poor condition. The value of urban forest is often underappreciated. Economic analyses that clearly demonstrate the very substantial rates of return on investment in successful biological control in urban forests provide compelling arguments for supporting future efforts.

  14. Climate and Biological Controls of Carbon Fluxes along latitudinal gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Y.; Yuan, J.; Niu, S.

    2012-12-01

    It has not been carefully examined whether relative importance of climate and biological controls of carbon fluxes is similar among various ecosystem types along latitudinal gradients from the tropical to polar region. We hypothesize that except tropical regions, there is a consistent pattern of climate and biological controls of carbon fluxes across all the other ecosystems. We tested the hypothesis by analyzing data of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from nearly 200 eddy-flux towers distributed worldwide and simulated gross primary production (GPP) from the Australian Community Atmosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) model. Specifically, we estimated yearly NEE (i.e., NEP), carbon uptake period (CUP) and seasonal maximum of NEE (NEE¬_max) from eddy-flux data. Similarly, we estimated CUP, GPP_max, seasonal maximum leaf area index (LAI_max), and Vcmax from the model across the globe. Our regression analysis indicates that NEP is very tightly correlated with the product of CUP and NEE_max cross all sites. Similarly, simulated GPP is highly correlated with the product of CUP and GPP_max over the globe in the CABLE model. CUP is related to phenology and represents climate control of carbon fluxes while NEE_max or GPP_max is determined by biological processes and thus represents biological control of carbon processes. We further analyzed relationships of GPP_max with LAI_max and Vcmax individually or in combination. GPP_max is highly correlated with them. This talk will present results of our analysis and explain our hypothesis test regarding relative importance of biological and climate controls of carbon fluxes along the latitudinal gradients.

  15. Controlled tetra-Fc sialylation of IVIg results in a drug candidate with consistent enhanced anti-inflammatory activity

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, Nathaniel; Schwab, Inessa; Ortiz, Daniel; Bhatnagar, Naveen; Lansing, Jonathan C.; Medeiros, Amy; Tyler, Steven; Mekala, Divya; Cochran, Edward; Sarvaiya, Hetal; Garofalo, Kevin; Meccariello, Robin; Meador, James W.; Rutitzky, Laura; Schultes, Birgit C.; Ling, Leona; Avery, William; Nimmerjahn, Falk; Manning, Anthony M.; Kaundinya, Ganesh V.; Bosques, Carlos J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the beneficial therapeutic effects of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in inflammatory diseases, consistent therapeutic efficacy and potency remain major limitations for patients and physicians using IVIg. These limitations have stimulated a desire to generate therapeutic alternatives that could leverage the broad mechanisms of action of IVIg while improving therapeutic consistency and potency. The identification of the important anti-inflammatory role of fragment crystallizable domain (Fc) sialylation has presented an opportunity to develop more potent Ig therapies. However, translating this concept to potent anti-inflammatory therapeutics has been hampered by the difficulty of generating suitable sialylated products for clinical use. Therefore, we set out to develop the first, to our knowledge, robust and scalable process for generating a well-qualified sialylated IVIg drug candidate with maximum Fc sialylation devoid of unwanted alterations to the IVIg mixture. Here, we describe a controlled enzymatic, scalable process to produce a tetra-Fc–sialylated (s4-IVIg) IVIg drug candidate and its qualification across a wide panel of analytic assays, including physicochemical, pharmacokinetic, biodistribution, and in vivo animal models of inflammation. Our in vivo characterization of this drug candidate revealed consistent, enhanced anti-inflammatory activity up to 10-fold higher than IVIg across different animal models. To our knowledge, this candidate represents the first s4-IVIg suitable for clinical use; it is also a valuable therapeutic alternative with more consistent and potent anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:25733881

  16. Controlled tetra-Fc sialylation of IVIg results in a drug candidate with consistent enhanced anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Nathaniel; Schwab, Inessa; Ortiz, Daniel; Bhatnagar, Naveen; Lansing, Jonathan C; Medeiros, Amy; Tyler, Steven; Mekala, Divya; Cochran, Edward; Sarvaiya, Hetal; Garofalo, Kevin; Meccariello, Robin; Meador, James W; Rutitzky, Laura; Schultes, Birgit C; Ling, Leona; Avery, William; Nimmerjahn, Falk; Manning, Anthony M; Kaundinya, Ganesh V; Bosques, Carlos J

    2015-03-17

    Despite the beneficial therapeutic effects of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in inflammatory diseases, consistent therapeutic efficacy and potency remain major limitations for patients and physicians using IVIg. These limitations have stimulated a desire to generate therapeutic alternatives that could leverage the broad mechanisms of action of IVIg while improving therapeutic consistency and potency. The identification of the important anti-inflammatory role of fragment crystallizable domain (Fc) sialylation has presented an opportunity to develop more potent Ig therapies. However, translating this concept to potent anti-inflammatory therapeutics has been hampered by the difficulty of generating suitable sialylated products for clinical use. Therefore, we set out to develop the first, to our knowledge, robust and scalable process for generating a well-qualified sialylated IVIg drug candidate with maximum Fc sialylation devoid of unwanted alterations to the IVIg mixture. Here, we describe a controlled enzymatic, scalable process to produce a tetra-Fc-sialylated (s4-IVIg) IVIg drug candidate and its qualification across a wide panel of analytic assays, including physicochemical, pharmacokinetic, biodistribution, and in vivo animal models of inflammation. Our in vivo characterization of this drug candidate revealed consistent, enhanced anti-inflammatory activity up to 10-fold higher than IVIg across different animal models. To our knowledge, this candidate represents the first s4-IVIg suitable for clinical use; it is also a valuable therapeutic alternative with more consistent and potent anti-inflammatory activity.

  17. Who seeks bariatric surgery? Psychosocial functioning among adolescent candidates, other treatment-seeking adolescents with obesity and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Call, C C; Devlin, M J; Fennoy, I; Zitsman, J L; Walsh, B T; Sysko, R

    2017-08-25

    Limited data are available on the characteristics of adolescents with obesity who seek bariatric surgery. Existing data suggest that adolescent surgery candidates have a higher body mass index (BMI) than comparison adolescents with obesity, but the limited findings regarding psychosocial functioning are mixed. This study aimed to compare BMI and psychosocial functioning among adolescent bariatric surgery candidates, outpatient medical-treatment-seeking adolescents with obesity (receiving lifestyle modification), and adolescents in the normal-weight range. All adolescents completed self-report measures of impulsivity, delay discounting, depression, anxiety, stress, eating pathology, family functioning and quality of life, and had their height and weight measured. Adolescent surgical candidates had higher BMIs than both comparison groups. Surgical candidates did not differ from medical-treatment-seeking adolescents with obesity on any measure of psychosocial functioning, but both groups of adolescents with obesity reported greater anxiety and eating pathology and poorer quality of life than normal-weight adolescents. Quality of life no longer differed across groups after controlling for BMI, suggesting that it is highly related to weight status. Adolescents with obesity may experience greater anxiety, eating pathology, and quality of life impairments than their peers in the normal-weight range regardless of whether they are seeking surgery or outpatient medical treatment. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  18. Biological Evaluation of Endophytic Fungus Chaetomium sp. NF15 of Justicia adhatoda L.: A Potential Candidate for Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Nighat; Mukhtar, Usman; Ihsan-Ul-Haq; Ahmed Qazi, Muneer; Jadoon, Muniba; Ahmed, Safia

    2016-01-01

    Background The endophytes of medicinal plants, such as Justicia adhatoda L., represent a promising and largely underexplored domain that is considered as a repository of biologically active compounds. Objectives The aim of present study was isolation, identification, and biological evaluation of endophytic fungi associated with the J. adhatoda L. plant for the production of antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic compounds Materials and Methods Endophytic fungi associated with the J. adhatoda L. plant were isolated from healthy plant parts and taxonomically characterized through morphological, microscopic, and 18S rDNA sequencing methods. The screening for bioactive metabolite production was achieved using ethyl acetate extracts, followed by the optimization of different parameters for maximum production of bioactive metabolites. Crude and partially purified extracts were used to determine the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic potential Results Out of six endophytic fungal isolates, Chaetomium sp. NF15 showed the most promising biological activity and was selected for detailed study. The crude ethyl acetate extract of NF15 isolate after cultivation under optimized culture conditions showed promising antimicrobial activity, with significant inhibition of the clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (87%, n=42), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (> 85%, n = 41), and Candida albicans (62%, n = 24). Conclusions The present study confirms the notion of selecting endophytic fungi of medicinal plant Justicia for the bioassay-guided isolation of its bioactive compounds, and demonstrates that endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. NF15 could be a potential source of bioactive metabolites PMID:27635208

  19. Biological Evaluation of Endophytic Fungus Chaetomium sp. NF15 of Justicia adhatoda L.: A Potential Candidate for Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Nighat; Mukhtar, Usman; Ihsan-Ul-Haq; Ahmed Qazi, Muneer; Jadoon, Muniba; Ahmed, Safia

    2016-06-01

    The endophytes of medicinal plants, such as Justicia adhatoda L., represent a promising and largely underexplored domain that is considered as a repository of biologically active compounds. The aim of present study was isolation, identification, and biological evaluation of endophytic fungi associated with the J. adhatoda L. plant for the production of antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic compounds. Endophytic fungi associated with the J. adhatoda L. plant were isolated from healthy plant parts and taxonomically characterized through morphological, microscopic, and 18S rDNA sequencing methods. The screening for bioactive metabolite production was achieved using ethyl acetate extracts, followed by the optimization of different parameters for maximum production of bioactive metabolites. Crude and partially purified extracts were used to determine the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic potential. Out of six endophytic fungal isolates, Chaetomium sp. NF15 showed the most promising biological activity and was selected for detailed study. The crude ethyl acetate extract of NF15 isolate after cultivation under optimized culture conditions showed promising antimicrobial activity, with significant inhibition of the clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (87%, n=42), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (> 85%, n = 41), and Candida albicans (62%, n = 24). The present study confirms the notion of selecting endophytic fungi of medicinal plant Justicia for the bioassay-guided isolation of its bioactive compounds, and demonstrates that endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. NF15 could be a potential source of bioactive metabolites.

  20. Epigenetics and Why Biological Networks are More Controllable than Expected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motter, Adilson

    2013-03-01

    A fundamental property of networks is that perturbations to one node can affect other nodes, potentially causing the entire system to change behavior or fail. In this talk, I will show that it is possible to exploit this same principle to control network behavior. This approach takes advantage of the nonlinear dynamics inherent to real networks, and allows bringing the system to a desired target state even when this state is not directly accessible or the linear counterpart is not controllable. Applications show that this framework permits both reprogramming a network to a desired task as well as rescuing networks from the brink of failure, which I will illustrate through various biological problems. I will also briefly review the progress our group has made over the past 5 years on related control of complex networks in non-biological domains.

  1. From biological models to the evolution of robot control systems.

    PubMed

    Bullinaria, John A

    2003-10-15

    Attempts to formulate realistic models of the development of the human oculomotor control system have led to the conclusion that evolutionary factors play a crucial role. Moreover, even rather coarse simulations of the biological evolutionary processes result in adaptable control systems that are considerably more efficient than those designed by human researchers. In this paper I shall describe some of the aspects of these biological models that are likely to be useful for building robot control systems. In particular, I shall consider the evolution of appropriate innate starting points for learning/adaptation, patterns of learning rates that vary across different system components, learning rates that vary during the system's lifetime, and the relevance of individual differences across the evolved populations.

  2. Biology of Leipothrix dipsacivagus (Petanovic & Rector, 2007) (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) – A promising candidate for biological control of Dipsacus spp.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The eriophyid mite Leipothrix dipsacivagus has been recorded from Serbia and Bulgaria on Dipsacus laciniatus and from France on D. fullonum. Host-specificity tests have shown that it can develop and reproduce only on Dipsacus spp., which indicates that it could be regarded as potential biocontrol a...

  3. The pharmacogenetic control of antiplatelet response: candidate genes and CYP2C19.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yao; Lewis, Joshua P; Hulot, Jean-Sébastien; Scott, Stuart A

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin, clopidogrel, prasugrel and ticagrelor are antiplatelet agents for the prevention of ischemic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and other indications. Variability in response is observed to different degrees with these agents, which can translate to increased risks for adverse cardiovascular events. As such, potential pharmacogenetic determinants of antiplatelet pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and clinical outcomes have been actively studied. This article provides an overview of the available antiplatelet pharmacogenetics literature. Evidence supporting the significance of candidate genes and their potential influence on antiplatelet response and clinical outcomes are summarized and evaluated. Additional focus is directed at CYP2C19 and clopidogrel response, including the availability of clinical testing and genotype-directed antiplatelet therapy. The reported aspirin response candidate genes have not been adequately replicated and few candidate genes have thus far been implicated in prasugrel or ticagrelor response. However, abundant data support the clinical validity of CYP2C19 and clopidogrel response variability among ACS/PCI patients. Although limited prospective trial data are available to support the utility of routine CYP2C19 testing, the increased risks for reduced clopidogrel efficacy among ACS/PCI patients that carry CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles should be considered when genotype results are available.

  4. The Pharmacogenetic Control of Antiplatelet Response: Candidate Genes and CYP2C19

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yao; Lewis, Joshua P.; Hulot, Jean-Sébastien; Scott, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Aspirin, clopidogrel, prasugrel and ticagrelor are antiplatelet agents for the prevention of ischemic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and other indications. Variability in response is observed to different degrees with these agents, which can translate to increased risks for adverse cardiovascular events. As such, potential pharmacogenetic determinants of antiplatelet pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and clinical outcomes have been actively studied. Areas covered This article provides an overview of the available antiplatelet pharmacogenetics literature. Evidence supporting the significance of candidate genes and their potential influence on antiplatelet response and clinical outcomes are summarized and evaluated. Additional focus is directed at CYP2C19 and clopidogrel response, including the availability of clinical testing and genotype-directed antiplatelet therapy. Expert opinion The reported aspirin response candidate genes have not been adequately replicated and few candidate genes have thus far been implicated in prasugrel or ticagrelor response. However, abundant data supports the clinical validity of CYP2C19 and clopidogrel response variability among ACS/PCI patients. Although limited prospective trial data are available to support the utility of routine CYP2C19 testing, the increased risks for reduced clopidogrel efficacy among ACS/PCI patients that carry CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles should be considered when genotype results are available. PMID:26173871

  5. Validating Genome-Wide Association Candidates Controlling Quantitative Variation in Nodulation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Tiffin, Peter; Guhlin, Joseph; Atkins, Paul; Baltes, Nicholas J.; Denny, Roxanne

    2017-01-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies offer the opportunity to identify genes that contribute to naturally occurring variation in quantitative traits. However, GWA relies exclusively on statistical association, so functional validation is necessary to make strong claims about gene function. We used a combination of gene-disruption platforms (Tnt1 retrotransposons, hairpin RNA-interference constructs, and CRISPR/Cas9 nucleases) together with randomized, well-replicated experiments to evaluate the function of genes that an earlier GWA study in Medicago truncatula had identified as candidates contributing to variation in the symbiosis between legumes and rhizobia. We evaluated ten candidate genes found in six clusters of strongly associated single nucleotide polymorphisms, selected on the basis of their strength of statistical association, proximity to annotated gene models, and root or nodule expression. We found statistically significant effects on nodule production for three candidate genes, each validated in two independent mutants. Annotated functions of these three genes suggest their contributions to quantitative variation in nodule production occur through processes not previously connected to nodulation, including phosphorous supply and salicylic acid-related defense response. These results demonstrate the utility of GWA combined with reverse mutagenesis technologies to discover and validate genes contributing to naturally occurring variation in quantitative traits. The results highlight the potential for GWA to complement forward genetics in identifying the genetic basis of ecologically and economically important traits. PMID:28057894

  6. On Feeling in Control: A Biological Theory for Individual Differences in Control Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Declerck, Carolyn H.; Boone, Christophe; De Brabander, Bert

    2006-01-01

    This review aims to create a cross-disciplinary framework for understanding the perception of control. Although, the personality trait locus of control, the most common measure of control perception, has traditionally been regarded as a product of social learning, it may have biological antecedents as well. It is suggested that control perception…

  7. On Feeling in Control: A Biological Theory for Individual Differences in Control Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Declerck, Carolyn H.; Boone, Christophe; De Brabander, Bert

    2006-01-01

    This review aims to create a cross-disciplinary framework for understanding the perception of control. Although, the personality trait locus of control, the most common measure of control perception, has traditionally been regarded as a product of social learning, it may have biological antecedents as well. It is suggested that control perception…

  8. A theoretical approach on controlling agricultural pest by biological controls.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Prasanta Kumar; Jana, Soovoojeet; Kar, T K

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we propose and analyze a prey-predator type dynamical system for pest control where prey population is treated as the pest. We consider two classes for the pest namely susceptible pest and infected pest and the predator population is the natural enemy of the pest. We also consider average delay for both the predation rate i.e. predation to the susceptible pest and infected pest. Considering a subsystem of original system in the absence of infection, we analyze the existence of all possible non-negative equilibria and their stability criteria for both the subsystem as well as the original system. We present the conditions for transcritical bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation in the disease free system. The theoretical evaluations are demonstrated through numerical simulations.

  9. Biological air filter for air-quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ras, Niels; Krooneman, Janneke; Ogink, Nico; Willers, Hans; D'Amico, Arnaldo; di Natale, Corrado; Godia, F.; Albiol, J.; Perez, J.; Martinez, N.; Dixon, Mike; Llewellyn, David; Eckhard, Fir; Zona, G.; Fachecci, L.; Kraakman, Bart; Demey, Dries; Michel, Noelle; Darlington, Alan

    2005-10-01

    Biological air filtration is a promising technique for air-quality control in closed environments in space and on Earth, and it offers several advantages over existing techniques. However, to apply it in these environments, specific criteria have to be met. A concept for biological air filtration in closed environments was developed and tested by an international team of specialists. Several model systems for closed environments in space and on Earth were used as a source of contaminated air. Conventional and new analytical techniques were used to determine odour composition and removal efficiency of the filter, including an "electronic nose". The results show that the developed biological air filter is suitable for treating contaminated air in closed environments. The developed electronic nose was shown to be a promising method for air-quality monitoring.

  10. Comprehensive analysis of schizophrenia-associated loci highlights ion channel pathways and biologically plausible candidate causal genes

    PubMed Central

    Pers, Tune H.; Timshel, Pascal; Ripke, Stephan; Lent, Samantha; Sullivan, Patrick F.; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Franke, Lude; Hirschhorn, Joel N.

    2016-01-01

    Over 100 associated genetic loci have been robustly associated with schizophrenia. Gene prioritization and pathway analysis have focused on a priori hypotheses and thus may have been unduly influenced by prior assumptions and missed important causal genes and pathways. Using a data-driven approach, we show that genes in associated loci: (1) are highly expressed in cortical brain areas; (2) are enriched for ion channel pathways (false discovery rates <0.05); and (3) contain 62 genes that are functionally related to each other and hence represent promising candidates for experimental follow up. We validate the relevance of the prioritized genes by showing that they are enriched for rare disruptive variants and de novo variants from schizophrenia sequencing studies (odds ratio 1.67, P = 0.039), and are enriched for genes encoding members of mouse and human postsynaptic density proteomes (odds ratio 4.56, P = 5.00 × 10−4; odds ratio 2.60, P = 0.049).The authors wish it to be known that, in their opinion, the first 2 authors should be regarded as joint First Author. PMID:26755824

  11. Comprehensive analysis of schizophrenia-associated loci highlights ion channel pathways and biologically plausible candidate causal genes.

    PubMed

    Pers, Tune H; Timshel, Pascal; Ripke, Stephan; Lent, Samantha; Sullivan, Patrick F; O'Donovan, Michael C; Franke, Lude; Hirschhorn, Joel N

    2016-03-15

    Over 100 associated genetic loci have been robustly associated with schizophrenia. Gene prioritization and pathway analysis have focused on a priori hypotheses and thus may have been unduly influenced by prior assumptions and missed important causal genes and pathways. Using a data-driven approach, we show that genes in associated loci: (1) are highly expressed in cortical brain areas; (2) are enriched for ion channel pathways (false discovery rates <0.05); and (3) contain 62 genes that are functionally related to each other and hence represent promising candidates for experimental follow up. We validate the relevance of the prioritized genes by showing that they are enriched for rare disruptive variants and de novo variants from schizophrenia sequencing studies (odds ratio 1.67, P = 0.039), and are enriched for genes encoding members of mouse and human postsynaptic density proteomes (odds ratio 4.56, P = 5.00 × 10(-4); odds ratio 2.60, P = 0.049).The authors wish it to be known that, in their opinion, the first 2 authors should be regarded as joint First Author.

  12. BIOPACK: the ground controlled late access biological research facility.

    PubMed

    van Loon, Jack J W A

    2004-03-01

    Future Space Shuttle flights shall be characterized by activities necessary to further build the International Space Station, ISS. During these missions limited resources are available to conduct biological experiments in space. The Shuttles' Middeck is a very suitable place to conduct science during the ISS assembly missions or dedicated science missions. The BIOPACK, which flew its first mission during the STS-107, provides a versatile Middeck Locker based research tool for gravitational biology studies. The core facility occupies the space of only two Middeck Lockers. Experiment temperatures are controlled for bacteria, plant, invertebrate and mammalian cultures. Gravity levels and profiles can be set ranging from 0 to 2.0 x g on three independent centrifuges. This provides the experimenter with a 1.0 x g on-board reference and intermediate hypogravity and hypergravity data points to investigate e.g. threshold levels in biological responses. Temperature sensitive items can be stored in the facilities' -10 degrees C and +4 degrees C stowage areas. During STS-107 the facility also included a small glovebox (GBX) and passive temperature controlled units (PTCU). The GBX provides the experimenter with two extra levels of containment for safe sample handling. This biological research facility is a late access (L-10 hrs) laboratory, which, when reaching orbit, could automatically be starting up reducing important experiment lag-time and valuable crew time. The system is completely telecommanded when needed. During flight system parameters like temperatures, centrifuge speeds, experiment commanding or sensor readouts can be monitored and changed when needed. Although ISS provides a wide range of research facilities there is still need for an STS-based late access facility such as the BIOPACK providing experimenters with a very versatile research cabinet for biological experiments under microgravity and in-flight control conditions.

  13. Host specificity in biological control: insights from opportunistic pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Brodeur, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Host/prey specificity is a significant concern in biological control. It influences the effectiveness of a natural enemy and the risks it might have on non-target organisms. Furthermore, narrow host specificity can be a limiting factor for the commercialization of natural enemies. Given the great diversity in taxonomy and mode of action of natural enemies, host specificity is a highly variable biological trait. This variability can be illustrated by opportunist fungi from the genus Lecanicillium, which have the capacity to exploit a wide range of hosts – from arthropod pests to fungi causing plant diseases – through different modes of action. Processes determining evolutionary trajectories in host specificity are closely linked to the modes of action of the natural enemy. This hypothesis is supported by advances in fungal genomics concerning the identity of genes and biological traits that are required for the evolution of life history strategies and host range. Despite the significance of specificity, we still need to develop a conceptual framework for better understanding of the relationship between specialization and successful biological control. The emergence of opportunistic pathogens and the development of ‘omic’ technologies offer new opportunities to investigate evolutionary principles and applications of the specificity of biocontrol agents. PMID:22949922

  14. An analysis of learning in an online biology course for teachers and teacher candidates: A mixed methods approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebec, Michael Thomas

    Due to discipline specific shortages, web-based learning has been proposed as a convenient way to upgrade the content knowledge of instructors interested in learning to teach science. Despite quantitative evidence that web-based instruction is equivalent to traditional methods, questions remain regarding its use. The efficiency and practicality of this approach with teachers in particular has not been extensively studied. This investigation examines learning in an online biology course designed to help teachers prepare for science certification exams. Research questions concern flow teachers learn biology in the online environment and how this setting influences the learning process. Quantitative and qualitative methodologies are employed in an attempt to provide a more complete perspective than typical studies of online learning. Concept maps, tests, and online discussion transcripts are compared as measures of assimilated knowledge, while interviews reflect participants' views on the course. Findings indicate that participants experienced gains in declarative knowledge, but little improvement with respect to conditional knowledge. Qualitative examination of concept maps demonstrates gaps in participants' understandings of key course ideas. Engagement in the use of online resources varied according to participants' attitudes towards online learning. Subjects also reported a lack of motivation to fully engage in the course due to busy teaching schedules and the absence of accountability.

  15. A new species of Neolasioptera (Diptera: Cecidomyiiidae) from Parkinsonia aculeata (Leguninosae) in Argentina for possible use in biological control in Australia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Neolasioptera parkinsoniae Gagné (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is described as a new species from stem swellings on Parkinsonia aculeata L. (Leguminosae) in NW Argentina. The new species appears to be a good candidate for the biological control of its host in Australia, where the plant was accidentally i...

  16. Pathogen refuge: a key to understanding biological control.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kenneth B

    2010-01-01

    Pathogen refuge is the idea that some potentially infectious pathogen propagules are not susceptible to the influence of an antagonistic microbial agent. The existence of a refuge can be attributable to one or more factors, including temporal, spatial, structural, and probabilistic, or to the pathogen's evolved ability to acquire antagonist-free space prior to ingress into a plant host. Within a specific pathosystem, refuge size can be estimated in experiments by measuring the proportion of pathogen propagules that remain infective as a function of the amount of antagonist introduced to the system. Refuge size is influenced by qualities of specific antagonists and by environment but less so by the quantity of antagonist. Consequently, most efforts to improve and optimize biological control are in essence efforts to reduce refuge size. Antagonist mixtures, optimal timing of antagonist introductions, integrated biological and chemical control, environmental optimization, and the utilization of disarmed pathogens as antagonists are strategies with potential to minimize a pathogen refuge.

  17. Wolbachia: A biological control strategy against arboviral diseases.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Ipsita; Rath, Animesha; Mahapatra, Namita; Hazra, Rupenangshu K

    2016-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases particularly those transmitted by mosquitoes like Dengue are among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in human population. There are no effective vaccines or treatment against dengue fever till date and the control methods are limited. So, new approaches are urgently in need to reverse these trends. Vector control is currently the primary intervention tool. Strategies that reduce or block pathogen transmission by mosquitoes have been proposed as a means of augmenting current control measures to reduce the growing burden of vector-borne diseases. Wolbachia an endosymbiont of arthropod vectors is being explored as a novel ecofriendly control strategy. Studies in Drosophila have shown that Wolbachia can confer resistance to diverse RNA viruses and protect flies from virus-induced mortality. This review was focused on biology of the Wolbachia and its implication as a control measure for arboviral diseases mainly Dengue and Chikungunya.

  18. Feedback control as a framework for understanding tradeoffs in biology.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Noah J; Ankarali, Mert M; Dyhr, Jonathan P; Madhav, Manu S; Roth, Eatai; Sefati, Shahin; Sponberg, Simon; Stamper, Sarah A; Fortune, Eric S; Daniel, Thomas L

    2014-07-01

    Control theory arose from a need to control synthetic systems. From regulating steam engines to tuning radios to devices capable of autonomous movement, it provided a formal mathematical basis for understanding the role of feedback in the stability (or change) of dynamical systems. It provides a framework for understanding any system with regulation via feedback, including biological ones such as regulatory gene networks, cellular metabolic systems, sensorimotor dynamics of moving animals, and even ecological or evolutionary dynamics of organisms and populations. Here, we focus on four case studies of the sensorimotor dynamics of animals, each of which involves the application of principles from control theory to probe stability and feedback in an organism's response to perturbations. We use examples from aquatic (two behaviors performed by electric fish), terrestrial (following of walls by cockroaches), and aerial environments (flight control by moths) to highlight how one can use control theory to understand the way feedback mechanisms interact with the physical dynamics of animals to determine their stability and response to sensory inputs and perturbations. Each case study is cast as a control problem with sensory input, neural processing, and motor dynamics, the output of which feeds back to the sensory inputs. Collectively, the interaction of these systems in a closed loop determines the behavior of the entire system. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Controlled Release of Biologically Active Silver from Nanosilver Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingyu; Sonshine, David A.; Shervani, Saira; Hurt, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Major pathways in the antibacterial activity and eukaryotic toxicity of nano-silver involve the silver cation and its soluble complexes, which are well established thiol toxicants. Through these pathways, nano-silver behaves in analogy to a drug delivery system, in which the particle contains a concentrated inventory of an active species, the ion, which is transported to and released near biological target sites. Although the importance of silver ion in the biological response to nano-silver is widely recognized, the drug delivery paradigm has not been well developed for this system, and there is significant potential to improve nano-silver technologies through controlled release formulations. This article applies elements of the drug delivery paradigm to nano-silver dissolution and presents a systematic study of chemical concepts for controlled release. After presenting thermodynamic calculations of silver species partitioning in biological media, the rates of oxidative silver dissolution are measured for nanoparticles and macroscopic foils and used to derive unified area-based release kinetics. A variety of competing chemical approaches are demonstrated for controlling the ion release rate over four orders of magnitude. Release can be systematically slowed by thiol and citrate ligand binding, formation of sulfidic coatings, or the scavenging of peroxy-intermediates. Release can be accelerated by pre-oxidation or particle size reduction, while polymer coatings with complexation sites alter the release profile by storing and release inventories of surface-bound silver. Finally, the ability to tune biological activity is demonstrated through bacterial inhibition zone assay carried out on selected formulations of controlled release nano-silver. PMID:20968290

  20. Controlled polymer synthesis--from biomimicry towards synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Pasparakis, George; Krasnogor, Natalio; Cronin, Leroy; Davis, Benjamin G; Alexander, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    The controlled assembly of synthetic polymer structures is now possible with an unprecedented range of functional groups and molecular architectures. In this critical review we consider how the ability to create artificial materials over lengthscales ranging from a few nm to several microns is generating systems that not only begin to mimic those in nature but also may lead to exciting applications in synthetic biology (139 references).

  1. Biological Investigations of Adaptive Networks: Neuronal Control of Conditioned Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    NO Boiling AFB, DC 203-4861102F 2312 Al I TI TLE (include Secunty Clamtfiation) Biological Investigations of Adaptive Networks: Neuronal Control of...based on mathematical models and computer simulation. Recordings were done from single brain stem neurons in awake, behaving animals for the purpose...single-unit recordings from awake behaving animals were developed. The relationship between single neurons ’ dynamic behavior and the CR in terms of

  2. Biological control agents: from field to market, problems, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Velivelli, Siva L S; De Vos, Paul; Kromann, Peter; Declerck, Stephane; Prestwich, Barbara D

    2014-10-01

    Global food security is vulnerable due to massive growth of the human population, changes in global climate, the emergence of novel/more virulent pathogens, and demands from increasingly discerning consumers for chemical-free, sustainably produced food products. Bacterium-based biological control agents (BCAs), if used as part of an integrated management system, may satisfy the above demands. We focus on the advantages, limitations, problems, and challenges involved in such strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biological control on Sr partitioning during calcification of Emiliania huxleyi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rickaby, R. E.; Schrag, D. P.

    2001-12-01

    The concentration of trace elements (e.g. Sr, Cd, Ba and Zn) in marine biogenic calcites has the potential to act as a tool to probe past ocean conditions and related climate change. The concentration of a trace element such as Sr in the calcite depends on two factors: the oceanic concentration of Sr, and the partitioning of Sr between seawater and the biogenic calcite. We challenge the view that the partitioning of trace elements occurs according to predictions for inorganic calcite precipitation and propose that the chemistry of the biogenic calcite is instead controlled by biological discrimination during the calcification process. As an example, we investigate the partitioning of Sr and Ca during calcification with culture experiments of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. As the calcite liths are constructed in an intracellular vesicle during calcification, we propose that the biological discrimination between the similar Sr2+ and Ca2+ ions by Ca2+-selective channels and pumps, or the organic template, is the dominant control on the chemistry of the calcite. An understanding of environmental controls on the biological discrimination between Ca and trace elements during calcification is vital for using these paleoceanographic tools to record past climates.

  4. Alfalfa living mulch advances biological control of soybean aphid.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Nicholas P; O'neal, Matthew E; Singer, Jeremy W

    2007-04-01

    Despite evidence for biological control in North America, outbreaks of the invasive soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), continue to occur on soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.). Our objectives were to determine whether natural enemies delay aphid establishment and limit subsequent population growth and whether biological control can be improved by altering the within-field habitat. We hypothesized that a living mulch would increase the abundance of the aphidophagous community in soybean and suppress A. glycines establishment and population growth. We measured natural enemy and A. glycines abundance in soybean grown with and without an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) living mulch. Soybean grown with an alfalfa living mulch had 45% more natural enemies and experienced a delay in A. glycines establishment that resulted in lower peak populations. From our experiments, we concluded that the current natural enemy community in Iowa can delay A. glycines establishment, and an increase in aphidophagous predator abundance lowered the rate of A. glycines population growth preventing economic populations (i.e., below the current economic threshold) from occurring. Incorporation of a living mulch had an unexpected impact on A. glycines population growth, lowering the aphids' intrinsic rate of growth, thus providing a bottom-up suppression of A. glycines. We suggest future studies of living mulches or cover crops for A. glycines management should address both potential sources of suppression. Furthermore, our experience suggests that more consistent biological control of A. glycines may be possible with even partial resistance that slows but does not prevent reproduction.

  5. Design of a candidate flutter suppression control law for DAST ARW-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, W. M., Jr.; Tiffany, S. H.

    1984-01-01

    A control law is developed to suppress symmetric flutter for a mathematical model of an aeroelastic research vehicle. An implementable control law is attained by including modified LQC (Linear Quadratic Gaussian) design techniques, controller order reduction, and gain scheduling. An alternate (complementary) design approach is illustrated for one flight condition wherein nongradient-based constrained optimization techniques are applied to maximize controller robustness.

  6. Self-Organized Biological Dynamics and Nonlinear Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walleczek, Jan

    2006-04-01

    The frontiers and challenges of biodynamics research Jan Walleczek; Part I. Nonlinear Dynamics in Biology and Response to Stimuli: 1. External signals and internal oscillation dynamics - principal aspects and response of stimulated rhythmic processes Friedemann Kaiser; 2. Nonlinear dynamics in biochemical and biophysical systems: from enzyme kinetics to epilepsy Raima Larter, Robert Worth and Brent Speelman; 3. Fractal mechanisms in neural control: human heartbeat and gait dynamics in health and disease Chung-Kang Peng, Jeffrey M. Hausdorff and Ary L. Goldberger; 4. Self-organising dynamics in human coordination and perception Mingzhou Ding, Yanqing Chen, J. A. Scott Kelso and Betty Tuller; 5. Signal processing in biochemical reaction networks Adam P. Arkin; Part II. Nonlinear Sensitivity of Biological Systems to Electromagnetic Stimuli: 6. Electrical signal detection and noise in systems with long-range coherence Paul C. Gailey; 7. Oscillatory signals in migrating neutrophils: effects of time-varying chemical and electrical fields Howard R. Petty; 8. Enzyme kinetics and nonlinear biochemical amplification in response to static and oscillating magnetic fields Jan Walleczek and Clemens F. Eichwald; 9. Magnetic field sensitivity in the hippocampus Stefan Engström, Suzanne Bawin and W. Ross Adey; Part III. Stochastic Noise-Induced Dynamics and Transport in Biological Systems: 10. Stochastic resonance: looking forward Frank Moss; 11. Stochastic resonance and small-amplitude signal transduction in voltage-gated ion channels Sergey M. Bezrukov and Igor Vodyanoy; 12. Ratchets, rectifiers and demons: the constructive role of noise in free energy and signal transduction R. Dean Astumian; 13. Cellular transduction of periodic and stochastic energy signals by electroconformational coupling Tian Y. Tsong; Part IV. Nonlinear Control of Biological and Other Excitable Systems: 14. Controlling chaos in dynamical systems Kenneth Showalter; 15. Electromagnetic fields and biological

  7. Strategies for Controlled Delivery of Biologics for Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Johnny; Lu, Steven; Kasper, F. Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G.

    2014-01-01

    The delivery of biologics is an important component in the treatment of osteoarthritis and the functional restoration of articular cartilage. Numerous factors have been implicated in the cartilage repair process, but the uncontrolled delivery of these factors may not only reduce their full reparative potential and can also cause unwanted morphological effects. It is therefore imperative to consider the type of biologic to be delivered, the method of delivery, and the temporal as well as spatial presentation of the biologic to achieve the desired effect in cartilage repair. Additionally, the delivery of a single factor may not be sufficient in guiding neo-tissue formation, motivating recent research towards the delivery of multiple factors. This review will discuss the roles of various biologics involved in cartilage repair and the different methods of delivery for appropriate healing responses. A number of spatiotemporal strategies will then be emphasized for the controlled delivery of single and multiple bioactive factors in both in vitro and in vivo cartilage tissue engineering applications. PMID:24993610

  8. Cordyceps fungi as natural killers, new hopes for medicine and biological control factors.

    PubMed

    Dworecka-Kaszak, Bożena

    2014-01-01

    The Cordyceps genus includes many species of fungi, most of which are endoparasitoids on arthropods.The distribution of these fungi is cosmopolitan, but many occur in regions such as Asia with a hot, humid climate. These pathogens of insect pests are promising candidates for use as biological control factors. Entomopathogenic fungi including the famous Cordyceps sinensis produce bioactive compounds. Lately Cordyceps sinensis was renamed Ophiocordyceps sinensis. This fungus has a long history as a medicinal fungus. It germinates in a living host, kills and mummifies the larva, and then grows from the body of the host. Is known in Tibet as the “winter worm, summer grass”,or “Caterpillar fungus” (Yartsa gunbu). Collecting Ophiocordyceps has become an important source of money for local households in Nepal. Ophiocordyceps sinensis is cultivated as an anamorph for its medicinal and pharmaceutical properties in an artificial medium on an industrial scale. Ophiocordyceps compounds have immunostimulating properties and antitumor activity.

  9. Distinguishing between biologically induced and biologically controlled mineralization in fossil organisms using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Päßler, Jan-Filip; Jarochowska, Emilia; Bestmann, Michel; Munnecke, Axel

    2017-04-01

    Although carbonate-precipitating cyanobacteria are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems today, the criteria used to identify them in the geological record are subjective and rarely testable. Differences in the mode of biomineralization between cyanobacteria and metazoans, i.e. biologically induced calcification (BIM) vs. biologically controlled calcification (BCM) might be possible to discern through different crystallographic structures in which they result. We employed electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) to investigate the structure of calcareous skeletons in two microproblematica widespread in Paleozoic marine ecosystems: Rothpletzella Wood 1945, considered to be a cyanobacterium, and Allonema Ulrich & Bassler 1904. We used a calcareous trilobite shell as a reference. The shell of Allonema has a simple single-layered structure of acicular crystals perpendicular to the surface of the organism. The c-axes of these crystals are parallel to the elongation and thereby normal to the surface of the organism. The pole figures and misorientation axis distribution reveal a fiber texture around the c-axis with a small degree of variation (up to 30°), indicating a well-organized structure. A comparable pattern was found in the trilobite shell. This structure allows excluding biologically induced mineralization as the mechanism of shell formation in Allonema. In Rothpletzella the c-axes of the microcrystalline sheath show a broader clustering compared to Allonema, but still reveal crystals tending to be perpendicular to the surface of the organism. The misorientation axes of adjacent crystals show a random distribution. However, Rothpletzella also shares other morphological similarities with fossil and extant cyanobacteria. We propose that the strict limitation of rotations (misorientations) between adjacent crystals around a specific axis of the crystal system can be used as a criterion to distinguish shells formed through biologically controlled biomineralization.

  10. Effect of a Mobile Web App on Kidney Transplant Candidates' Knowledge About Increased Risk Donor Kidneys: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Elisa J; Sohn, Min-Woong; Chang, Chih-Hung; McNatt, Gwen; Vera, Karina; Beauvais, Nicole; Warren, Emily; Mannon, Roslyn B; Ison, Michael G

    2017-06-01

    Kidney transplant candidates (KTCs) must provide informed consent to accept kidneys from increased risk donors (IRD), but poorly understand them. We conducted a multisite, randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of a mobile Web application, Inform Me, for increasing knowledge about IRDs. Kidney transplant candidates undergoing transplant evaluation at 2 transplant centers were randomized to use Inform Me after routine transplant education (intervention) or routine transplant education alone (control). Computer adaptive learning method reinforced learning by embedding educational material, and initial (test 1) and additional test questions (test 2) into each chapter. Knowledge (primary outcome) was assessed in person after education (tests 1 and 2), and 1 week later by telephone (test 3). Controls did not receive test 2. Willingness to accept an IRD kidney (secondary outcome) was assessed after tests 1 and 3. Linear regression test 1 knowledge scores were used to test the significance of Inform Me exposure after controlling for covariates. Multiple imputation was used for intention-to-treat analysis. Two hundred eighty-eight KTCs participated. Intervention participants had higher test 1 knowledge scores (mean difference, 6.61; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 5.37-7.86) than control participants, representing a 44% higher score than control participants' scores. Intervention participants' knowledge scores increased with educational reinforcement (test 2) compared with control arm test 1 scores (mean difference, 9.50; 95% CI, 8.27-10.73). After 1 week, intervention participants' knowledge remained greater than controls' knowledge (mean difference, 3.63; 95% CI, 2.49-4.78) (test 3). Willingness to accept an IRD kidney did not differ between study arms at tests 1 and 3. Inform Me use was associated with greater KTC knowledge about IRD kidneys above routine transplant education alone.

  11. The Investigation of the Level of Self-Directed Learning Readiness According to the Locus of Control and Personality Traits of Preschool Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balaban Dagal, Asude; Bayindir, Dilan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the level of self-directed learning readiness, locus of control and the personality traits of preschool teacher candidates. The survey method was used for this study. The study group consisted of 151 teacher candidates who volunteered to participate in the study from Preschool…

  12. Nomuraea rileyi as biological control agents of Rhipicephalus microplus tick.

    PubMed

    Perinotto, W M S; Terra, A L M; Angelo, I C; Fernandes, É K K; Golo, P S; Camargo, M G; Bittencourt, V R E P

    2012-10-01

    Nomuraea rileyi, a fungus pathogenic to insects, has been widely used for biological control of agricultural pests in Brazil. This study investigates the effects of N. rileyi, isolates Nr 138, Nr 151, and Nr 177, to eggs, larvae, and engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus tick. Specimens were immersed in 1 ml of conidial suspension for 3 min, whereas the control group was immersed in 0.01% Tween 80 water solution. The isolate Nr 138 controlled 67.37% of ticks when the highest conidial concentration was used, 10(8) conidia ml(-1). The isolate Nr 177 significantly reduced the percentage of hatch of larvae from eggs treated with 10(8) conidia ml(-1). Conversely, the isolate Nr 151 was not virulent to eggs, larvae, or adults. Variability in virulence was observed among the N. rileyi isolates investigated in the current study-Nr 138 was more virulent to engorged females, while Nr 177 was more virulent to unfed larvae. Although N. rileyi proved to be virulent to several stages of R. microplus, the results obtained in this study indicate that N. rileyi does not appear to be a remarkable biological control agent for R. microplus.

  13. Survival in HIV-positive transplant recipients compared with transplant candidates and with HIV-negative controls

    PubMed Central

    Roland, Michelle E.; Barin, Burc; Huprikar, Shirish; Murphy, Barbara; Hanto, Douglas W.; Blumberg, Emily; Olthoff, Kim; Simon, David; Hardy, William D.; Beatty, George; Stock, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the impact of liver and kidney transplantation on survival in HIV-positive transplant candidates and compare outcomes between HIV-positive and negative recipients. Design Observational cohort of HIV-positive transplant candidates and recipients and secondary analysis comparing study recipients to HIV-negative national registry controls. Methods We fit proportional hazards models to assess transplantation impact on mortality among recipients and candidates. We compared time to graft failure and death with HIV-negative controls in unmatched, demographic-matched, and risk-adjusted models. Results There were 17 (11.3%) and 46 (36.8%) deaths among kidney and liver recipients during a median follow-up of 4.0 and 3.5 years, respectively. Transplantation was associated with survival benefit for HIV-infected liver recipients with model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) greater than or equal 15 [hazard ratio (HR) 0.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05, 0.01; P <0.0001], but not for MELD less than 15 (HR 0.7; 95% CI 0.3, 1.8; P =0.43) or for kidney recipients (HR 0.6; 95% CI 0.3, 1.4; P =0.23). In HIV-positive kidney recipients, unmatched and risk-matched analyses indicated a marginally significant HR for graft loss [1.3 (P =0.07) and HR 1.4 (P =0.052)]; no significant increase in risk of death was observed. All models demonstrated a higher relative hazard of graft loss or death in HIV-positive liver recipients; the absolute difference in the proportion of deaths was 6.7% in the risk-matched analysis. Conclusion Kidney transplantation should be standard of care for well managed HIV-positive patients. Liver transplant in candidates with high MELD confers survival benefit; transplant is a viable option in selected candidates. The increased mortality risk compared with HIV-negative recipients was modest. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.Gov; NCT00074386; http://clinicaltrials.gov/. PMID:26765937

  14. Evaluation of 6 candidate genes on chromosome 11q23 for coeliac disease susceptibility: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent whole genome analysis and follow-up studies have identified many new risk variants for coeliac disease (CD, gluten intolerance). The majority of newly associated regions encode candidate genes with a clear functional role in T-cell regulation. Furthermore, the newly discovered risk loci, together with the well established HLA locus, account for less than 50% of the heritability of CD, suggesting that numerous additional loci remain undiscovered. Linkage studies have identified some well-replicated risk regions, most notably chromosome 5q31 and 11q23. Methods We have evaluated six candidate genes in one of these regions (11q23), namely CD3E, CD3D, CD3G, IL10RA, THY1 and IL18, as risk factors for CD using a 2-phase candidate gene approach directed at chromosome 11q. 377 CD cases and 349 ethnically matched controls were used in the initial screening, followed by an extended sample of 171 additional coeliac cases and 536 additional controls. Results Promotor SNPs (-607, -137) in the IL18 gene, which has shown association with several autoimmune diseases, initially suggested association with CD (P < 0.05). Follow-up analyses of an extended sample supported the same, moderate effect (P < 0.05) for one of these. Haplotype analysis of IL18-137/-607 also supported this effect, primarily due to one relatively rare haplotype IL18-607C/-137C (P < 0.0001), which was independently associated in two case-control comparisons. This same haplotype has been noted in rheumatoid arthritis. Conclusion Haplotypes of the IL18 promotor region may contribute to CD risk, consistent with this cytokine's role in maintaining inflammation in active CD. PMID:20478055

  15. Investigating the Decision Heuristics of Candidate Teachers Who Are Different in Their Responsibility Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özen, Yener

    2016-01-01

    In this study, decision heuristics used by individuals with different responsibility controls were investigated. In the research, 370 final grade university students studying at Erzincan University Faculty of Education were included. In order to collect data, Internally Controlled Responsibility-Externally Controlled Responsibility Scale of Özen…

  16. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Prest, Emmanuelle I.; Hammes, Frederik; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2016-01-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order

  17. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Prest, Emmanuelle I; Hammes, Frederik; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S

    2016-01-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order

  18. Synthetic biology and regulatory networks: where metabolic systems biology meets control engineering

    PubMed Central

    He, Fei; Murabito, Ettore; Westerhoff, Hans V.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic pathways can be engineered to maximize the synthesis of various products of interest. With the advent of computational systems biology, this endeavour is usually carried out through in silico theoretical studies with the aim to guide and complement further in vitro and in vivo experimental efforts. Clearly, what counts is the result in vivo, not only in terms of maximal productivity but also robustness against environmental perturbations. Engineering an organism towards an increased production flux, however, often compromises that robustness. In this contribution, we review and investigate how various analytical approaches used in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology are related to concepts developed by systems and control engineering. While trade-offs between production optimality and cellular robustness have already been studied diagnostically and statically, the dynamics also matter. Integration of the dynamic design aspects of control engineering with the more diagnostic aspects of metabolic, hierarchical control and regulation analysis is leading to the new, conceptual and operational framework required for the design of robust and productive dynamic pathways. PMID:27075000

  19. Synthetic biology and regulatory networks: where metabolic systems biology meets control engineering.

    PubMed

    He, Fei; Murabito, Ettore; Westerhoff, Hans V

    2016-04-01

    Metabolic pathways can be engineered to maximize the synthesis of various products of interest. With the advent of computational systems biology, this endeavour is usually carried out through in silico theoretical studies with the aim to guide and complement further in vitro and in vivo experimental efforts. Clearly, what counts is the result in vivo, not only in terms of maximal productivity but also robustness against environmental perturbations. Engineering an organism towards an increased production flux, however, often compromises that robustness. In this contribution, we review and investigate how various analytical approaches used in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology are related to concepts developed by systems and control engineering. While trade-offs between production optimality and cellular robustness have already been studied diagnostically and statically, the dynamics also matter. Integration of the dynamic design aspects of control engineering with the more diagnostic aspects of metabolic, hierarchical control and regulation analysis is leading to the new, conceptual and operational framework required for the design of robust and productive dynamic pathways.

  20. Systemic insecticides used in dogs: potential candidates for phlebotomine vector control?

    PubMed

    Gomez, Sonia Ares; Picado, Albert

    2017-06-01

    Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) is a public health problem endemic in some countries. Current control measures, in particular culling infected dogs, have not reduced ZVL incidence in humans. We evaluated the use of five systemic insecticides (spinosad, fluralaner, afoxolaner, sarolaner and moxidectin) currently used in dogs for other purposes (e.g. tick, flea control) in controlling ZVL transmission. The anti-phlebotomine capacity of these compounds confirmed in experimental studies makes their use in ZVL control programmes very promising. Limitations and benefits of using this new control tool are compared to current practices. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Selection of reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in a predatory biological control agent, Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunxiao; Pan, Huipeng; Noland, Jeffrey Edward; Zhang, Deyong; Zhang, Zhanhong; Liu, Yong; Zhou, Xuguo

    2015-01-01

    Reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a reliable technique for quantifying gene expression across various biological processes, of which requires a set of suited reference genes to normalize the expression data. Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is one of the most extensively used biological control agents in the field to manage arthropod pest species. In this study, expression profiles of 16 housekeeping genes selected from C. maculata were cloned and investigated. The performance of these candidates as endogenous controls under specific experimental conditions was evaluated by dedicated algorithms, including geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and ΔCt method. In addition, RefFinder, a comprehensive platform integrating all the above-mentioned algorithms, ranked the overall stability of these candidate genes. As a result, various sets of suitable reference genes were recommended specifically for experiments involving different tissues, developmental stages, sex, and C. maculate larvae treated with dietary double stranded RNA. This study represents the critical first step to establish a standardized RT-qPCR protocol for the functional genomics research in a ladybeetle C. maculate. Furthermore, it lays the foundation for conducting ecological risk assessment of RNAi-based gene silencing biotechnologies on non-target organisms; in this case, a key predatory biological control agent. PMID:26656102

  2. Selection of reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in a predatory biological control agent, Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunxiao; Pan, Huipeng; Noland, Jeffrey Edward; Zhang, Deyong; Zhang, Zhanhong; Liu, Yong; Zhou, Xuguo

    2015-12-10

    Reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a reliable technique for quantifying gene expression across various biological processes, of which requires a set of suited reference genes to normalize the expression data. Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is one of the most extensively used biological control agents in the field to manage arthropod pest species. In this study, expression profiles of 16 housekeeping genes selected from C. maculata were cloned and investigated. The performance of these candidates as endogenous controls under specific experimental conditions was evaluated by dedicated algorithms, including geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and ΔCt method. In addition, RefFinder, a comprehensive platform integrating all the above-mentioned algorithms, ranked the overall stability of these candidate genes. As a result, various sets of suitable reference genes were recommended specifically for experiments involving different tissues, developmental stages, sex, and C. maculate larvae treated with dietary double stranded RNA. This study represents the critical first step to establish a standardized RT-qPCR protocol for the functional genomics research in a ladybeetle C. maculate. Furthermore, it lays the foundation for conducting ecological risk assessment of RNAi-based gene silencing biotechnologies on non-target organisms; in this case, a key predatory biological control agent.

  3. A Biomechanical Comparison of Proportional Electromyography Control to Biological Torque Control Using a Powered Hip Exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Young, Aaron J; Gannon, Hannah; Ferris, Daniel P

    2017-01-01

    Despite a large increase in robotic exoskeleton research, there are few studies that have examined human performance with different control strategies on the same exoskeleton device. Direct comparison studies are needed to determine how users respond to different types of control. The purpose of this study was to compare user performance using a robotic hip exoskeleton with two different controllers: a controller that targeted a biological hip torque profile and a proportional myoelectric controller. We tested both control approaches on 10 able-bodied subjects using a pneumatically powered hip exoskeleton. The state machine controller targeted a biological hip torque profile. The myoelectric controller used electromyography (EMG) of lower limb muscles to produce a proportional control signal for the hip exoskeleton. Each subject performed two 30-min exoskeleton walking trials (1.0 m/s) using each controller and a 10-min trial with the exoskeleton unpowered. During each trial, we measured subjects' metabolic cost of walking, lower limb EMG profiles, and joint kinematics and kinetics (torques and powers) using a force treadmill and motion capture. Compared to unassisted walking in the exoskeleton, myoelectric control significantly reduced metabolic cost by 13% (p = 0.005) and biological hip torque control reduced metabolic cost by 7% (p = 0.261). Subjects reduced muscle activity relative to the unpowered condition for a greater number of lower limb muscles using myoelectric control compared to the biological hip torque control. More subjects subjectively preferred the myoelectric controller to the biological hip torque control. Myoelectric control had more advantages (metabolic cost and muscle activity reduction) compared to a controller that targeted a biological torque profile for walking with a robotic hip exoskeleton. However, these results were obtained with a single exoskeleton device with specific control configurations while level walking at a

  4. pH control in biological systems using calcium carbonate.

    PubMed

    Salek, S S; van Turnhout, A G; Kleerebezem, R; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-05-01

    Due to its abundance, calcium carbonate (CaCO3) has high potentials as a source of alkalinity for biotechnological applications. The application of CaCO3 in biological systems as neutralizing agent is, however, limited due to potential difficulties in controlling the pH. The objective of the present study was to determine the dominant processes that control the pH in an acid-forming microbial process in the presence of CaCO3. To achieve that, a mathematical model was made with a minimum set of kinetically controlled and equilibrium reactions that was able to reproduce the experimental data of a batch fermentation experiment using finely powdered CaCO3. In the model, thermodynamic equilibrium was assumed for all speciation, complexation and precipitation reactions whereas, rate limited reactions were included for the biological fatty acid production, the mass transfer of CO2 from the liquid phase to the gas phase and the convective transport of CO2 out of the gas phase. The estimated pH-pattern strongly resembled the measured pH, suggesting that the chosen set of kinetically controlled and equilibrium reactions were establishing the experimental pH. A detailed analysis of the reaction system with the aid of the model revealed that the pH establishment was most sensitive to four factors: the mass transfer rate of CO2 to the gas phase, the biological acid production rate, the partial pressure of CO2 and the Ca(+2) concentration in the solution. Individual influences of these factors on the pH were investigated by extrapolating the model to a continuously stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) case. This case study indicates how the pH of a commonly used continuous biotechnological process could be manipulated and adjusted by altering these four factors. Achieving a better insight of the processes controlling the pH of a biological system using CaCO3 as its neutralizing agent can result in broader applications of CaCO3 in biotechnological industries.

  5. Deciphering endophyte behaviour: the link between endophyte biology and efficacious biological control agents.

    PubMed

    Card, Stuart; Johnson, Linda; Teasdale, Suliana; Caradus, John

    2016-08-01

    Endophytes associate with the majority of plant species found in natural and managed ecosystems. They are regarded as extremely important plant partners that provide improved stress tolerance to the host compared with plants that lack this symbiosis. Fossil records of endophytes date back more than 400 million years, implicating these microorganisms in host plant adaptation to habitat transitions. However, it is only recently that endophytes, and their bioactive products, have received meaningful attention from the scientific community. The benefits some endophytes can confer on their hosts include plant growth promotion and survival through the inhibition of pathogenic microorganisms and invertebrate pests, the removal of soil contaminants, improved tolerance of low fertility soils, and increased tolerance of extreme temperatures and low water availability. Endophytes are extremely diverse and can exhibit many different biological behaviours. Not all endophyte technologies have been successfully commercialised. Of interest in the development of the next generation of plant protection products is how much of this is due to the biology of the particular endophytic microorganism. In this review, we highlight selected case studies of endophytes and discuss their lifestyles and behavioural traits, and discuss how these factors contribute towards their effectiveness as biological control agents. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Non-target effects of an introduced biological control agent on deer mouse ecology

    Treesearch

    Dean E. Pearson; Kevin S. McKelvey; Leonard F. Ruggiero

    2000-01-01

    Release of exotic insects as biological control agents is a common approach to controlling exotic plants. Though controversy has ensued regarding the deleterious direct effects of biological control agents to non-target species, few have examined the indirect effects of a "well-behaved" biological control agent on native fauna. We studied a grassland in west-...

  7. Transformation of Contaminant Candidate List (CCL3) compounds during ozonation and advanced oxidation processes in drinking water: Assessment of biological effects.

    PubMed

    Mestankova, Hana; Parker, Austa M; Bramaz, Nadine; Canonica, Silvio; Schirmer, Kristin; von Gunten, Urs; Linden, Karl G

    2016-04-15

    The removal of emerging contaminants during water treatment is a current issue and various technologies are being explored. These include UV- and ozone-based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). In this study, AOPs were explored for their degradation capabilities of 25 chemical contaminants on the US Environmental Protection Agency's Contaminant Candidate List 3 (CCL3) in drinking water. Twenty-three of these were found to be amenable to hydroxyl radical-based treatment, with second-order rate constants for their reactions with hydroxyl radicals (OH) in the range of 3-8 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). The development of biological activity of the contaminants, focusing on mutagenicity and estrogenicity, was followed in parallel with their degradation using the Ames and YES bioassays to detect potential changes in biological effects during oxidative treatment. The majority of treatment cases resulted in a loss of biological activity upon oxidation of the parent compounds without generation of any form of estrogenicity or mutagenicity. However, an increase in mutagenic activity was detected by oxidative transformation of the following CCL3 parent compounds: nitrobenzene (OH, UV photolysis), quinoline (OH, ozone), methamidophos (OH), N-nitrosopyrolidine (OH), N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine (OH), aniline (UV photolysis), and N-nitrosodiphenylamine (UV photolysis). Only one case of formation of estrogenic activity was observed, namely, for the oxidation of quinoline by OH. Overall, this study provides fundamental and practical information on AOP-based treatment of specific compounds of concern and represents a framework for evaluating the performance of transformation-based treatment processes.

  8. Controllable Snail-Paced Light in Biological Bacteriorhodopsin Thin Film

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Pengfei; Rao, D.V.G.L.N.

    2005-12-16

    We observe that the group velocity of light is reduced to an extremely low value of 0.091 mm/s in a biological thin film of bacteriorhodopsin at room temperature. By exploiting unique features of a flexible photoisomerization process for coherent population oscillation, the velocity is all-optically controlled over an enormous span, from snail-paced to normal light speed, with no need of modifying the characteristics of the incident pulse. Because of the large quantum yield for the photoreaction in this biochemical system, the ultraslow light is observed even at low light levels of microwatts, indicating high energy efficiency.

  9. P97/CDC-48: proteostasis control in tumor cell biology.

    PubMed

    Fessart, Delphine; Marza, Esther; Taouji, Saïd; Delom, Frédéric; Chevet, Eric

    2013-08-28

    P97/CDC-48 is a prominent member of a highly evolutionary conserved Walker cassette - containing AAA+ATPases. It has been involved in numerous cellular processes ranging from the control of protein homeostasis to membrane trafficking through the intervention of specific accessory proteins. Expression of p97/CDC-48 in cancers has been correlated with tumor aggressiveness and prognosis, however the precise underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be characterized. Moreover p97/CDC-48 inhibitors were developed and are currently under intense investigation as anticancer drugs. Herein, we discuss the role of p97/CDC-48 in cancer development and its therapeutic potential in tumor cell biology.

  10. Biological control of surface temperature in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sathyendranath, Shubha; Gouveia, Albert D.; Shetye, Satish R.; Ravindran, P.; Platt, Trevor

    1991-01-01

    In the Arabian Sea, the southwest monsoon promotes seasonal upwelling of deep water, which supplies nutrients to the surface layer and leads to a marked increase in phytoplankton growth. Remotely sensed data on ocean color are used here to show that the resulting distribution of phytoplankton exerts a controlling influence on the seasonal evolution of sea surface temperature. This results in a corresponding modification of ocean-atmosphere heat exchange on regional and seasonal scales. It is shown that this biological mechanism may provide an important regulating influence on ocean-atmosphere interactions.

  11. Using biological control research in the classroom to promote scientific inquiry and literacy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many scientists who research biological control also teach at universities or more informally through cooperative outreach. The purpose of this paper is to review biological control activities for the classroom in four refereed journals, The American Biology Teacher, Journal of Biological Education...

  12. The role of biological control of mosquitoes in integrated vector control.

    PubMed

    Lacey, L A; Orr, B K

    1994-01-01

    An integrated approach for the control of mosquitoes and the diseases they transmit will better enable sustainable control while helping to circumvent some of the problems associated with the use of conventional insecticides. Environmental methods and biological control are alternatives to chemical control and are key components of the integrated strategy. The use of vertebrate and invertebrate predators and entomopathogens as biological control agents and their role in integrated control programs is reviewed with emphasis on fish, Toxorhynchites mosquitoes, Notonecta species, predatory copepods, entomopathogenic bacteria, and the fungus Lagenidium giganteum. The successful implementation of these organisms will depend on an in-depth understanding of the ecology of both the targeted species and the biological control agents to be used. Thorough geographic reconnaissance will also be essential for the successful abatement of pest and vector mosquitoes. The success and sustainability of future programs, especially in developing countries, will rely not only on the use of the most appropriate technologies but also on the direct participation of the affected communities. Possible undesirable effects of biological control are also reviewed.

  13. Microstructure synthesis control of biological polyhydroxyalkanoates with mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pederson, Erik Norman

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA's) are a class of biologically produced polymers, or plastic, that is synthesized by various microorganisms. PHA's are made from biorenewable resources and are fully biodegradable and biocompatible, making them an environmentally friendly green polymer. A method of incorporating polymer microstructure into the PHA synthesized in Ralstonia eutropha was developed. These microstructures were synthesized with polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) as the polymer domains. To synthesize the PHB V copolymer, the additional presence of valerate was required. To control valerate substrate additions to the bioreactor, an off-gas mass spectrometry (MS) feedback control system was developed. Important process information including the cell physiology, growth kinetics, and product formation kinetics in the bioreactor was obtained with MS and used to control microstructure synthesis. The two polymer microstructures synthesized were core-shell granules and block copolymers. Block copolymers control the structure of the individual polymer chains while core-shell granules control the organization of many polymer chains. Both these microstructures result in properties unattainable by blending the two polymers together. The core-shell structures were synthesized with controlled domain thickness based on a developed model. Different block copolymers compositions were synthesized by varying the switching time of the substrate pulses responsible for block copolymer synthesis. The block copolymers were tested to determine their chemical properties and cast into films to determine the materials properties. These block copolymer films possessed new properties not achieved by copolymers or blends of the two polymers.

  14. How do control-based approaches enter into biology?

    PubMed

    LeDuc, Philip R; Messner, William C; Wikswo, John P

    2011-08-15

    Control is intrinsic to biological organisms, whose cells are in a constant state of sensing and response to numerous external and self-generated stimuli. Diverse means are used to study the complexity through control-based approaches in these cellular systems, including through chemical and genetic manipulations, input-output methodologies, feedback approaches, and feed-forward approaches. We first discuss what happens in control-based approaches when we are not actively examining or manipulating cells. We then present potential methods to determine what the cell is doing during these times and to reverse-engineer the cellular system. Finally, we discuss how we can control the cell's extracellular and intracellular environments, both to probe the response of the cells using defined experimental engineering-based technologies and to anticipate what might be achieved by applying control-based approaches to affect cellular processes. Much work remains to apply simplified control models and develop new technologies to aid researchers in studying and utilizing cellular and molecular processes.

  15. Identification and characterization of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus candidate protective antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations.

    PubMed

    Almazán, Consuelo; Lagunes, Rodolfo; Villar, Margarita; Canales, Mario; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Jongejan, Frans; de la Fuente, José

    2010-01-01

    The cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp., affect cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. The recombinant Rhipicephalus microplus Bm86 antigen has been shown to protect cattle against tick infestations. However, variable efficacy of Bm86-based vaccines against geographic tick strains has encouraged the research for additional tick-protective antigens. Herein, we describe the analysis of R. microplus glutathione-S transferase, ubiquitin (UBQ), selenoprotein W, elongation factor-1 alpha, and subolesin (SUB) complementary DNAs (cDNAs) by RNA interference (RNAi) in R. microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus. Candidate protective antigens were selected for vaccination experiments based on the effect of gene knockdown on tick mortality, feeding, and fertility. Two cDNA clones encoding for UBQ and SUB were used for cattle vaccination and infestation with R. microplus and R. annulatus. Control groups were immunized with recombinant Bm86 or adjuvant/saline. The highest vaccine efficacy for the control of tick infestations was obtained for Bm86. Although with low immunogenic response, the results with the SUB vaccine encourage further investigations on the use of recombinant subolesin alone or in combination with other antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations. The UBQ peptide showed low immunogenicity, and the results of the vaccination trial were inconclusive to assess the protective efficacy of this antigen. These experiments showed that RNAi could be used for the selection of candidate tick-protective antigens. However, vaccination trials are necessary to evaluate the effect of recombinant antigens in the control of tick infestations, a process that requires efficient recombinant protein production and formulation systems.

  16. Biologically inspired autonomous structural materials with controlled toughening and healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Michael E.; Sodano, Henry A.

    2010-04-01

    The field of structural health monitoring (SHM) has made significant contributions in the field of prognosis and damage detection in the past decade. The advantageous use of this technology has not been integrated into operational structures to prevent damage from propagating or to heal injured regions under real time loading conditions. Rather, current systems relay this information to a central processor or human operator, who then determines a course of action such as altering the mission or scheduling repair maintenance. Biological systems exhibit advanced sensory and healing traits that can be applied to the design of material systems. For instance, bone is the major structural component in vertebrates; however, unlike modern structural materials, bone has many properties that make it effective for arresting the propagation of cracks and subsequent healing of the fractured area. The foremost goal for the development of future adaptive structures is to mimic biological systems, similar to bone, such that the material system can detect damage and deploy defensive traits to impede damage from propagating, thus preventing catastrophic failure while in operation. After sensing and stalling the propagation of damage, the structure must then be repaired autonomously using self healing mechanisms motivated by biological systems. Here a novel autonomous system is developed using shape memory polymers (SMPs), that employs an optical fiber network as both a damage detection sensor and a network to deliver stimulus to the damage site initiating adaptation and healing. In the presence of damage the fiber optic fractures allowing a high power laser diode to deposit a controlled level of thermal energy at the fractured sight locally reducing the modulus and blunting the crack tip, which significantly slows the crack growth rate. By applying a pre-induced strain field and utilizing the shape memory recovery effect, thermal energy can be deployed to close the crack and return

  17. Plasmonics in Biology and Plasmon-Controlled Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Lakowicz, Joseph R

    2006-03-01

    Fluorescence technology is fully entrenched in all aspects of biological research. To a significant extent, future advances in biology and medicine depend on the advances in the capabilities of fluorescence measurements. As examples, the sensitivity of many clinical assays is limited by sample autofluorescence, single-molecule detection is limited by the brightness and photostability of the fluorophores, and the spatial resolution of cellular imaging is limited to about one-half of the wavelength of the incident light. We believe a combination of fluorescence, plasmonics, and nanofabrication can fundamentally change and increase the capabilities of fluorescence technology. Surface plasmons are collective oscillations of free electrons in metallic surfaces and particles. Surface plasmons, without fluorescence, are already in use to a limited extent in biological research. These applications include the use of surface plasmon resonance to measure bioaffinity reactions and the use of metal colloids as light-scattering probes. However, the uses of surface plasmons in biology are not limited to their optical absorption or extinction. We now know that fluorophores in the excited state can create plasmons that radiate into the far field and that fluorophores in the ground state can interact with and be excited by surface plasmons. These reciprocal interactions suggest that the novel optical absorption and scattering properties of metallic nanostructures can be used to control the decay rates, location, and direction of fluorophore emission. We refer to these phenomena as plasmon-controlled fluorescence (PCF). We predict that PCF will result in a new generation of probes and devices. These likely possibilities include ultrabright single-particle probes that do not photobleach, probes for selective multiphoton excitation with decreased light intensities, and distance measurements in biomolecular assemblies in the range from 10 to 200 nm. Additionally, PCF is likely to allow

  18. Plasmonics in Biology and Plasmon-Controlled Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence technology is fully entrenched in all aspects of biological research. To a significant extent, future advances in biology and medicine depend on the advances in the capabilities of fluorescence measurements. As examples, the sensitivity of many clinical assays is limited by sample autofluorescence, single-molecule detection is limited by the brightness and photostability of the fluorophores, and the spatial resolution of cellular imaging is limited to about one-half of the wavelength of the incident light. We believe a combination of fluorescence, plasmonics, and nanofabrication can fundamentally change and increase the capabilities of fluorescence technology. Surface plasmons are collective oscillations of free electrons in metallic surfaces and particles. Surface plasmons, without fluorescence, are already in use to a limited extent in biological research. These applications include the use of surface plasmon resonance to measure bioaffinity reactions and the use of metal colloids as light-scattering probes. However, the uses of surface plasmons in biology are not limited to their optical absorption or extinction. We now know that fluorophores in the excited state can create plasmons that radiate into the far field and that fluorophores in the ground state can interact with and be excited by surface plasmons. These reciprocal interactions suggest that the novel optical absorption and scattering properties of metallic nanostructures can be used to control the decay rates, location, and direction of fluorophore emission. We refer to these phenomena as plasmon-controlled fluorescence (PCF). We predict that PCF will result in a new generation of probes and devices. These likely possibilities include ultrabright single-particle probes that do not photobleach, probes for selective multiphoton excitation with decreased light intensities, and distance measurements in biomolecular assemblies in the range from 10 to 200 nm. Additionally, PCF is likely to allow

  19. Biological forcing controls the chemistry of the coral exoskeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meibom, A.; Mostefaoui, S.; Cuif, J.; Yurimoto, H.; Dauphin, Y.; Houlbreque, F.; Dunbar, R.; Constantz, B.

    2006-12-01

    A multitude of marine organisms produce calcium carbonate skeletons that are used extensively to reconstruct water temperature variability of the tropical and subtropical oceans - a key parameter in global climate-change models. Such paleo-climate reconstructions are based on the notion that skeletal oxygen isotopic composition and certain trace-element abundances (e.g., Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios) vary in response to changes in the water temperature. However, it is a fundamental problem that poorly understood biological processes introduce large compositional deviations from thermodynamic equilibrium and hinder precise calibrations of many paleo-climate proxies. Indeed, the role of water temperature in controlling the composition of the skeleton is far from understood. We have studied trace-element abundances as well as oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions of individual skeletal components in the zooxanthellate and non-zooxanthellate corals at ultra-structural, i.e. micrometer to sub-micrometer length scales. From this body of work we draw the following, generalized conclusions: 1) Centers of calcification (COC) are not in equilibrium with seawater. Notably, the Sr/Ca ratio is higher than expected for aragonite equilibrium with seawater at the temperature at which the skeleton was formed. Furthermore, the COC are further away from equilibrium with seawater than fibrous skeleton in terms of stable isotope composition. 2) COC are dramatically different from the fibrous aragonite skeleton in terms of trace element composition. 3) Neither trace element nor stable isotope variations in the fibrous (bulk) part of the skeleton are directly related to changes in SST. In fact, changes in SST can have very little to do with the observed compositional variations. 4) Trace element variations in the fibrous (bulk) part of the skeleton are not related to the activity of zooxanthellae. These observations are directly relevant to the issue of biological versus non-biological

  20. Viable spore counts in biological controls pre-sterilization.

    PubMed

    Brusca, María I; Bernat, María I; Turcot, Liliana; Nastri, Natalia; Nastri, Maria; Rosa, Alcira

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the total count of viable spores in standardized inoculated carriers pre-sterilization. Samples of "Bacterial Spore Sterilization Strip" (R Biological Laboratories) (well before their expiry date) were divided into Group A (B. subtilis) and Group B (B. stearothermophylus). Twenty-four strips were tested per group. The strips were minced in groups of three, placed in chilled sterile water and vortexed for 5 minutes to obtain a homogenous suspension. Ten ml of the homogenous suspension were transferred to two sterile jars, i.e. one jar per group. The samples were then heated in a water bath at 95 degrees C (Group A) or 80 degrees C (Group B) for 15 minutes and cooled rapidly in an ice bath at 0- 4 degrees C during 15 minutes. Successive dilutions were performed until a final aliquot of 30 to 300 colony-forming units (CFU) was obtained. The inoculums were placed in Petri dishes with culture medium (soy extract, casein agar adapted for spores, melted and cooled to 45-50 degrees C) and incubated at 55 degrees C or 37 degrees C. Statistical analysis of the data was performed. A larger number of spores were found at 48 hours than at 24 hours. However, this finding did not hold true for all the groups. The present results show that monitoring viable spores pre-sterilization would guarantee the accuracy of the data. Total spore counts must be within 50 and 300% of the number of spores indicated in the biological control. The procedure is essential to guarantee the efficacy of the biological control.

  1. Mechanisms for control of biological electron transfer reactions

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Heather R.; Dow, Brian A.; Davidson, Victor L.

    2014-01-01

    Electron transfer (ET) through and between proteins is a fundamental biological process. The rates and mechanisms of these ET reactions are controlled by the proteins in which the redox centers that donate and accept electrons reside. The protein influences the magnitudes of the ET parameters, the electronic coupling and reorganization energy that are associated with the ET reaction. The protein can regulate the rates of the ET reaction by requiring reaction steps to optimize the system for ET, leading to kinetic mechanisms of gated or coupled ET. Amino acid residues in the segment of the protein through which long range ET occurs can also modulate the ET rate by serving as staging points for hopping mechanisms of ET. Specific examples are presented to illustrate these mechanisms by which proteins control rates of ET reactions. PMID:25085775

  2. Chemical and biological approaches for mycotoxin control: a review.

    PubMed

    Edlayne, Gonçalez; Simone, Aquino; Felicio, Joana D

    2009-06-01

    Mycotoxins are metabolites and toxic substances produced by certain filamentous fungi that frequently contaminate food and agriculture commodities, which cause disease in animals or man. The toxigenic fungi belong to mainly three genera: Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. Examples of mycotoxins of greatest public health and agroeconomic significance include aflatoxins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, patulin and ergot alkaloids. Commodities susceptible to direct contamination with mycotoxins include nuts, oilseeds and grains. Chemical and biological treatments have been attempted to minimize the risk of mycotoxins contamination or eliminate the fungi of food and feeds. One way to prevent or interfere with fungal growth and mycotoxin production is by use of synthetic or natural agents. Bacteria have been studied to control the mycotoxins production and fungal growth in food. Plant genotypes resistant to infection by toxigenic fungi have been also studied. This review will approach same patented methods applied to degrade, prevent and control of mycotoxins in food and feeds.

  3. Thermal hydrolysis of secondary scum for control of biological foam.

    PubMed

    Jolis, Domènec; Marneri, Matina

    2006-08-01

    Thermal hydrolysis of secondary scum at 9 bars and 170 degrees C was shown to completely destroy Gordonia sp. cells and reduce its foaming potential, so that it can be recycled to headworks or sent to the solids-handling side of the plant without the risk of causing foaming problems in the activated sludge system and anaerobic digesters. This process shows promise for biological foam control in wastewater treatment plants where solids retention time control and selective wasting cannot be applied and/or selector installation is not possible. An initial cost comparison of thermal hydrolysis and several widely accepted foam-management strategies shows it to be competitive; however, optimization of operating pressure and temperature is necessary.

  4. Switchable electrode interfaces controlled by physical, chemical and biological signals.

    PubMed

    Bocharova, Vera; Katz, Evgeny

    2012-02-01

    Electrode interfaces functionalized with various signal-responsive materials have been designed to allow switchable properties of the modified electrodes. External signals of different nature (electrical potential, magnetic field, light, chemical/biochemical inputs) were applied to reversibly activate-deactivate the electrode interfaces upon demand. Multifunctional properties of the modified interfaces have allowed their responses to complex combinations of external signals. Further increase of their complexity has been achieved by integrating the signal-responsive interfaces with unconventional biomolecular computing systems logically processing multiple biochemical signals. This approach has resulted in electrochemical systems controlled by complex variations of biomarkers corresponding to different physiological conditions, thus allowing biological control over electronic systems. The switchable electrodes have been integrated with various "smart" biosensing and signal-processing systems and have been used to assemble biofuel cells producing power on demand.

  5. Compact and controlled microfluidic mixing and biological particle capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, Matthew; Owen, Drew; Mills, Zachary Grant; Hesketh, Peter J.; Alexeev, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    We use three-dimensional simulations and experiments to develop a multifunctional microfluidic device that performs rapid and controllable microfluidic mixing and specific particle capture. Our device uses a compact microfluidic channel decorated with magnetic features. A rotating magnetic field precisely controls individual magnetic microbeads orbiting around the features, enabling effective continuous-flow mixing of fluid streams over a compact mixing region. We use computer simulations to elucidate the underlying physical mechanisms that lead to effective mixing and compare them with experimental mixing results. We study the effect of various system parameters on microfluidic mixing to design an efficient micromixer. We also experimentally and numerically demonstrate that orbiting microbeads can effectively capture particles transported by the fluid, which has major implications in pre-concentration and detection of biological particles including various cells and bacteria, with applications in areas such as point-of-care diagnostics, biohazard detection, and food safety. Support from NSF and USDA is gratefully acknowledged.

  6. Mechanisms for control of biological electron transfer reactions.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Heather R; Dow, Brian A; Davidson, Victor L

    2014-12-01

    Electron transfer (ET) through and between proteins is a fundamental biological process. The rates and mechanisms of these ET reactions are controlled by the proteins in which the redox centers that donate and accept electrons reside. The protein influences the magnitudes of the ET parameters, the electronic coupling and reorganization energy that are associated with the ET reaction. The protein can regulate the rates of the ET reaction by requiring reaction steps to optimize the system for ET, leading to kinetic mechanisms of gated or coupled ET. Amino acid residues in the segment of the protein through which long range ET occurs can also modulate the ET rate by serving as staging points for hopping mechanisms of ET. Specific examples are presented to illustrate these mechanisms by which proteins control rates of ET reactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A drop tower for controlled impact testing of biological tissues.

    PubMed

    Burgin, Leanne V; Aspden, Richard M

    2007-05-01

    Impact damage, in particular to tissues such as articular cartilage, is a recognised source of morbidity. To understand better the clinical outcomes, it is important to know the mechanics of the damage sustained and the biological response of cells to rapidly applied forces and subsequent tissue disruption. An instrumented drop tower has been designed to enable controlled impact loads to be applied to small samples of biological materials. Impact severity can be controlled by using impactors of different masses and various drop heights. Force and deceleration at impact are recorded at 50,000 samples s(-1) by a force transducer under the sample and an accelerometer on the impactor. Repeatability was tested on rubber washers and coefficients of variation were found to be better than 8% for dynamic stiffness, 3.4% for stress and 4.3% for strain. Initial tests on isolated biopsies of articular cartilage showed that at an initial strain rate of 916 s(-1), the peak dynamic modulus of human femoral head cartilage was 59 MPa, and for a bovine biopsy the initial strain rate and corresponding peak dynamic modulus were 3380 s(-1) and 130 MPa, respectively. The equipment described is capable of applying an impact load to small biopsies of tissue with a defined energy and velocity and measuring deformation and load at high rates of loading.

  8. Assessing Probabilistic Risk Assessment Approaches for Insect Biological Control Introductions

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Leyla V.; Wright, Mark G.

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of biological control agents to new environments requires host specificity tests to estimate potential non-target impacts of a prospective agent. Currently, the approach is conservative, and is based on physiological host ranges determined under captive rearing conditions, without consideration for ecological factors that may influence realized host range. We use historical data and current field data from introduced parasitoids that attack an endemic Lepidoptera species in Hawaii to validate a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) procedure for non-target impacts. We use data on known host range and habitat use in the place of origin of the parasitoids to determine whether contemporary levels of non-target parasitism could have been predicted using PRA. Our results show that reasonable predictions of potential non-target impacts may be made if comprehensive data are available from places of origin of biological control agents, but scant data produce poor predictions. Using apparent mortality data rather than marginal attack rate estimates in PRA resulted in over-estimates of predicted non-target impact. Incorporating ecological data into PRA models improved the predictive power of the risk assessments. PMID:28686180

  9. The Neurally Controlled Animat: Biological Brains Acting with Simulated Bodies.

    PubMed

    Demarse, Thomas B; Wagenaar, Daniel A; Blau, Axel W; Potter, Steve M

    2001-01-01

    The brain is perhaps the most advanced and robust computation system known. We are creating a method to study how information is processed and encoded in living cultured neuronal networks by interfacing them to a computer-generated animal, the Neurally-Controlled Animat, within a virtual world. Cortical neurons from rats are dissociated and cultured on a surface containing a grid of electrodes (multi-electrode arrays, or MEAs) capable of both recording and stimulating neural activity. Distributed patterns of neural activity are used to control the behavior of the Animat in a simulated environment. The computer acts as its sensory system providing electrical feedback to the network about the Animat's movement within its environment. Changes in the Animat's behavior due to interaction with its surroundings are studied in concert with the biological processes (e.g., neural plasticity) that produced those changes, to understand how information is processed and encoded within a living neural network. Thus, we have created a hybrid real-time processing engine and control system that consists of living, electronic, and simulated components. Eventually this approach may be applied to controlling robotic devices, or lead to better real-time silicon-based information processing and control algorithms that are fault tolerant and can repair themselves.

  10. Biological control of Fasciola gigantica with Echinostoma revolutum.

    PubMed

    Suhardono; Roberts, J A; Copeman, D B

    2006-08-31

    A field trial was carried out in West Java to investigate the potential for control of fasciolosis of antagonism between larvae of Fasciola gigantica and Echinostoma revolutum in Lymnaea rubiginosa. The trial was undertaken in 26 farmers' irrigated rice fields, each chosen because it was adjacent to a cattle pen the effluent from which flowed into or was used as fertiliser in the rice field. Fourteen of the fields chosen at random were retained as controls and received no treatment while in 12, faeces from 5 to 15 ducks containing eggs of E. revolutum were introduced to the rice from a duck pen located over the effluent drain from the cattle pen before it emptied into the adjacent rice field, or at the site bovine faeces was added to the field as fertiliser. After harvest significantly fewer L. rubiginosa were found infected with F. gigantica in fields where duck and cattle dung entered the field together than in control fields, supporting a conclusion that this method of biological control would reduce the infectivity of rice fields fertilised with bovine dung (which are those with the highest potential for being a source of infection with F. gigantica). Positive features of using dung from ducks infected with E. revolutum to control F. gigantica are the minimum additional work and disruption to existing farming practices required to implement the scheme, the common natural infection with E. revolutum in village ducks, and effectiveness of dung from 5 to 15 ducks, a number commonly kept by farmers.

  11. Intensified agriculture favors evolved resistance to biological control.

    PubMed

    Tomasetto, Federico; Tylianakis, Jason M; Reale, Marco; Wratten, Steve; Goldson, Stephen L

    2017-03-13

    Increased regulation of chemical pesticides and rapid evolution of pesticide resistance have increased calls for sustainable pest management. Biological control offers sustainable pest suppression, partly because evolution of resistance to predators and parasitoids is prevented by several factors (e.g., spatial or temporal refuges from attacks, reciprocal evolution by control agents, and contrasting selection pressures from other enemy species). However, evolution of resistance may become more probable as agricultural intensification reduces the availability of refuges and diversity of enemy species, or if control agents have genetic barriers to evolution. Here we use 21 y of field data from 196 sites across New Zealand to show that parasitism of a key pasture pest (Listronotus bonariensis; Argentine stem weevil) by an introduced parasitoid (Microctonus hyperodae) was initially nationally successful but then declined by 44% (leading to pasture damage of c. 160 million New Zealand dollars per annum). This decline was not attributable to parasitoid numbers released, elevation, or local climatic variables at sample locations. Rather, in all locations the decline began 7 y (14 host generations) following parasitoid introduction, despite releases being staggered across locations in different years. Finally, we demonstrate experimentally that declining parasitism rates occurred in ryegrass Lolium perenne, which is grown nationwide in high-intensity was significantly less than in adjacent plots of a less-common pasture grass (Lolium multiflorum), indicating that resistance to parasitism is host plant-dependent. We conclude that low plant and enemy biodiversity in intensive large-scale agriculture may facilitate the evolution of host resistance by pests and threaten the long-term viability of biological control.

  12. Case-control approach application for finding a relationship between candidate genes and clinical mastitis in Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Masoumeh; Moradi-Sharhrbabak, M; Miraie-Ashtiani, R; Safdari-Shahroudi, M; Abdollahi-Arpanahi, R

    2016-02-01

    Mastitis is a major source of economic loss in dairy herds. The objective of this research was to evaluate the association between genotypes within SLC11A1 and CXCR1 candidate genes and clinical mastitis in Holstein dairy cattle using the selective genotyping method. The data set contained clinical mastitis records of 3,823 Holstein cows from two Holstein dairy herds located in two different regions in Iran. Data included the number of cases of clinical mastitis per lactation. Selective genotyping was based on extreme values for clinical mastitis residuals (CMR) from mixed model analyses. Two extreme groups consisting of 135 cows were formed (as cases and controls), and genotyped for the two candidate genes, namely, SLC11A1 and CXCR1, using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), respectively. Associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes with CMR and breeding values for milk and protein yield were carried out by applying logistic regression analyses, i.e. estimating the probability of the heterogeneous genotype in the dependency of values for CMR and breeding values (BVs). The sequencing results revealed a novel mutation in 1139 bp of exon 11 of the SLC11A1 gene and this SNP had a significant association with CMR (P < 0.05). PCR-RFLP analysis leads to three banding patterns for CXCR1c.735C>G and these genotypes had significant relationships with CMR. Overall, the results showed that SLC11A1 and CXCR1 are valuable candidate genes for the improvement of mastitis resistance as well as production traits in dairy cattle populations.

  13. Drug target identification in sphingolipid metabolism by computational systems biology tools: metabolic control analysis and metabolic pathway analysis.

    PubMed

    Ozbayraktar, F Betül Kavun; Ulgen, Kutlu O

    2010-08-01

    Sphingolipids regulate cellular processes that are critically important in cell's fate and function in cancer development and progression. This fact underlies the basics of the novel cancer therapy approach. The pharmacological manipulation of the sphingolipid metabolism in cancer therapeutics necessitates the detailed understanding of the pathway. Two computational systems biology tools are used to identify potential drug target enzymes among sphingolipid pathway that can be further utilized in drug design studies for cancer therapy. The enzymes in sphingolipid pathway were ranked according to their roles in controlling the metabolic network by metabolic control analysis. The physiologically connected reactions, i.e. biologically significant and functional modules of network, were identified by metabolic pathway analysis. The final set of candidate drug target enzymes are selected such that their manipulation leads to ceramide accumulation and long chain base phosphates depletion. The mathematical tools' efficiency for drug target identification performed in this study is validated by clinically available drugs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A candidate architecture for monitoring and control in chemical transfer propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, Michael; Millis, Marc G.

    1990-01-01

    To support the exploration of space, a reusable space-based rocket engine must be developed. This engine must sustain superior operability and man-rated levels of reliability over several missions with limited maintenance or inspection between flights. To meet these requirements, an expander cycle engine incorporating a hghly capable control and health monitoring system is planned. Alternatives for the functional organization and the implementation architecture of the engine's monitoring and control system are discussed. On the basis of this discussion, a decentralized architecture is favored. The trade-offs between several implementation options are outlined and future work is proposed.

  15. A candidate architecture for monitoring and control in chemical transfer propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, Michael P.; Millis, Marc G.

    1990-01-01

    To support the exploration of space, a reusable space-based rocket engine must be developed. This engine must sustain superior operability and man-rated levels of reliability over several missions with limited maintenance or inspection between flights. To meet these requirements, an expander cycle engine incorporating a highly capable control and health monitoring system is planned. Alternatives for the functional organization and the implementation architecture of the engine's monitoring and control system are discussed. On the basis of this discussion, a decentralized architecture is favored. The trade-offs between several implementation options are outlined and future work is proposed.

  16. Climate matching: implications for the biological control of hemlock woolly adelgid

    Treesearch

    R. Talbot III. Trotter

    2008-01-01

    Classical biological control programs are faced with a daunting challenge: inserting a new species into an existing ecological system. In order for the newly introduced biological control species to survive and reproduce, the recipient ecosystem must provide the required biotic and abiotic requirements. The Adelgid Biological Control simulator (ABCs), a simulation...

  17. Development of RNAi method for screening candidate genes to control emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), a serious invasive forest pest in the United States, has killed millions of North American ash trees and spread to 29 states since it was first detected in 2002 in southern Michigan. Development of a new control method that specifically targets the pest but has no adverse i...

  18. QTL mapping and candidate gene analysis of telomere length control factors in maize (Zea mays L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Telomere length is under genetic control and important for essential telomere functions. Failure to regulate telomere length homeostasis contributes to cancers and aging-related diseases in animals, but the effects of telomere length defects in plants remains poorly understood. To learn more about t...

  19. Development and Characterization of attenuated Mutant Candidate Vaccines for Control of Paratuberculosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) is the causative pathogen of Johne’s disease, a chronic inflammatory wasting disease in ruminants. The disease has been difficult to control because of the lack of an effective vaccine. To develop a live attenuated vaccine for Map, as well as for the...

  20. Candidate genes associated with QTL controlling resistance to fusarium root rot in pea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium root rot (FRR) of pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a serious pathogen in the USA and Europe and genetic resistance offers an effective and economical control for this pathogen. Fusarium root rot is caused by the fungus pathogen (Haematonectria haematococca (Berk. & Broome) (Anamorph): Fusarium sol...

  1. Fine mapping and identification of a candidate gene for a major locus controlling maturity date in peach.

    PubMed

    Pirona, Raul; Eduardo, Iban; Pacheco, Igor; Da Silva Linge, Cassia; Miculan, Mara; Verde, Ignazio; Tartarini, Stefano; Dondini, Luca; Pea, Giorgio; Bassi, Daniele; Rossini, Laura

    2013-10-22

    Maturity date (MD) is a crucial factor for marketing of fresh fruit, especially those with limited shelf-life such as peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch): selection of several cultivars with differing MD would be advantageous to cover and extend the marketing season. Aims of this work were the fine mapping and identification of candidate genes for the major maturity date locus previously identified on peach linkage group 4. To improve genetic resolution of the target locus two F2 populations derived from the crosses Contender x Ambra (CxA, 306 individuals) and PI91459 (NJ Weeping) x Bounty (WxBy, 103 individuals) were genotyped with the Sequenom and 9K Illumina Peach Chip SNP platforms, respectively. Recombinant individuals from the WxBy F2 population allowed the localisation of maturity date locus to a 220 kb region of the peach genome. Among the 25 annotated genes within this interval, functional classification identified ppa007577m and ppa008301m as the most likely candidates, both encoding transcription factors of the NAC (NAM/ATAF1, 2/CUC2) family. Re-sequencing of the four parents and comparison with the reference genome sequence uncovered a deletion of 232 bp in the upstream region of ppa007577m that is homozygous in NJ Weeping and heterozygous in Ambra, Bounty and the WxBy F1 parent. However, this variation did not segregate in the CxA F2 population being the CxA F1 parent homozygous for the reference allele. The second gene was thus examined as a candidate for maturity date. Re-sequencing of ppa008301m, showed an in-frame insertion of 9 bp in the last exon that co-segregated with the maturity date locus in both CxA and WxBy F2 populations. Using two different segregating populations, the map position of the maturity date locus was refined from 3.56 Mb to 220 kb. A sequence variant in the NAC gene ppa008301m was shown to co-segregate with the maturity date locus, suggesting this gene as a candidate controlling ripening time in peach. If confirmed on other

  2. Fine mapping and identification of a candidate gene for a major locus controlling maturity date in peach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maturity date (MD) is a crucial factor for marketing of fresh fruit, especially those with limited shelf-life such as peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch): selection of several cultivars with differing MD would be advantageous to cover and extend the marketing season. Aims of this work were the fine mapping and identification of candidate genes for the major maturity date locus previously identified on peach linkage group 4. To improve genetic resolution of the target locus two F2 populations derived from the crosses Contender x Ambra (CxA, 306 individuals) and PI91459 (NJ Weeping) x Bounty (WxBy, 103 individuals) were genotyped with the Sequenom and 9K Illumina Peach Chip SNP platforms, respectively. Results Recombinant individuals from the WxBy F2 population allowed the localisation of maturity date locus to a 220 kb region of the peach genome. Among the 25 annotated genes within this interval, functional classification identified ppa007577m and ppa008301m as the most likely candidates, both encoding transcription factors of the NAC (NAM/ATAF1, 2/CUC2) family. Re-sequencing of the four parents and comparison with the reference genome sequence uncovered a deletion of 232 bp in the upstream region of ppa007577m that is homozygous in NJ Weeping and heterozygous in Ambra, Bounty and the WxBy F1 parent. However, this variation did not segregate in the CxA F2 population being the CxA F1 parent homozygous for the reference allele. The second gene was thus examined as a candidate for maturity date. Re-sequencing of ppa008301m, showed an in-frame insertion of 9 bp in the last exon that co-segregated with the maturity date locus in both CxA and WxBy F2 populations. Conclusions Using two different segregating populations, the map position of the maturity date locus was refined from 3.56 Mb to 220 kb. A sequence variant in the NAC gene ppa008301m was shown to co-segregate with the maturity date locus, suggesting this gene as a candidate controlling ripening time in

  3. Simulated Solar Flare X-Ray and Thermal Cycling Durability Evaluation of Hubble Space Telescope Thermal Control Candidate Replacement Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Sechkar, Edward A.; Scheiman, David A.

    1998-01-01

    During the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) second servicing mission (SM2), astronauts noticed that the multilayer insulation (MLI) covering the telescope was damaged. Large pieces of the outer layer of MLI (aluminized Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (Al-FEP)) were torn in several locations around the telescope. A piece of curled up Al-FEP was retrieved by the astronauts and was found to be severely embrittled, as witnessed by ground testing. Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) organized a HST MLI Failure Review Board (FRB) to determine the damage mechanism of FEP in the HST environment, and to recommend replacement insulation material to be installed on HST during the third servicing mission (SM3) in 1999. Candidate thermal control replacement materials were chosen by the FRB and tested for environmental durability under various exposures and durations. This paper describes durability testing of candidate materials which were exposed to charged particle radiation, simulated solar flare x-ray radiation and thermal cycling under load. Samples were evaluated for changes in solar absorptance and tear resistance. Descriptions of environmental exposures and durability evaluations of these materials are presented.

  4. An intensive search for promising fungal biological control agents of ticks, particularly Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Everton K K; Angelo, Isabele C; Rangel, Drauzio E N; Bahiense, Thiago C; Moraes, Aurea M L; Roberts, Donald W; Bittencourt, Vânia R E P

    2011-12-15

    Entomopathogenic fungi have been investigated worldwide as promising biological control agents of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. The current study evaluates the virulence of several fungal isolates to R. microplus larva in the laboratory as part of an effort to identify isolates with promise for effective biocontrol of R. microplus in the field. Sixty fungal isolates, encompassing 5 Beauveria spp. and 1 Engyodontium albus (=Beauveria alba), were included in this study. In addition to bioassays, the isolates were characterized morphologically and investigated as to their potential for conidial mass production. These findings were correlated with previous reports on the same fungal isolates of their natural UV-B tolerance (Fernandes et al., 2007), thermotolerance and cold activity (Fernandes et al., 2008), and genotypes (Fernandes et al., 2009). R. microplus larvae obtained from artificially infested calves were less susceptible to Beauveria bassiana infection than ticks acquired from naturally infested cattle from a different location. Isolates CG 464, CG 500 and CG 206 were among the most virulent Beauveria isolates tested in this study. All fungal isolates presented morphological features consistent with their species descriptions. Of the 53 B. bassiana isolates, five (CG 481, CG 484, CG 206, CG 235 and CG 487) had characteristics that qualified them as promising candidates for biological control agents of R. microplus, viz., mean LC(50) between 10(7) and 10(8)conidiaml(-1); produced 5000 conidia or more on 60mm(2) surface area of PDAY medium; and, in comparison to untreated (control) conidia, had the best conidial tolerances to UV-B (7.04 kJ m(-2)) and heat (45°C, 2h) of 50% or higher, and conidial cold (5°C, 15d) activity (mycelial growth) higher than 60%. The current study of 60 Beauveria spp. isolates, therefore, singles out a few (five) with high potential for controlling ticks under field conditions.

  5. Biostability and biological performance of a PDMS-based polyurethane for controlled drug release.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Anne; Padsalgikar, Ajay Devidas; Ferris, Lynn Marie; Poole-Warren, Laura Anne

    2008-07-01

    Polymers have been used to deliver therapeutic agents in a range of medical devices with drug eluting stents being the most widespread current application. Although polymers enable controlled release of a therapeutic agent, the polymeric surface has been reported to provide suboptimal biocompatibility and haemocompatibility and it has been suggested that currently used polymers may be at least partly responsible for the late adverse events observed in intravascular stent systems. In this study, the biostability and biological performance of a siloxane-based polyurethane elastomer (E2A) demonstrating excellent long-term biostability in the unloaded state was investigated following incorporation of a therapeutic agent. After implantation in an ovine model for 6 months, samples were assessed using SEM and ATR-FTIR to determine changes in the surface chemical structure and morphology of the materials and tensile testing was used to examine changes in bulk characteristics. Biological response was assessed using in vitro cytotoxicity testing and histological analysis. Results indicated that incorporation of 25mg/g dexamethasone acetate (DexA) into the siloxane-based polyurethane resulted in no significant difference in the biostability and biocompatibility of the material. Some level of cytotoxic potential was exhibited which was believed to result from residual DexA leaching from samples during the extraction process. These findings suggest that E2A is a potential candidate for a delivery vehicle of therapeutic agents in implantable drug delivery applications.

  6. Biologically controlled synthesis and assembly of magnetite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bennet, Mathieu; Bertinetti, Luca; Neely, Robert K; Schertel, Andreas; Körnig, André; Flors, Cristina; Müller, Frank D; Schüler, Dirk; Klumpp, Stefan; Faivre, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles have size- and shape-dependent magnetic properties. In addition, assemblies of magnetite nanoparticles forming one-dimensional nanostructures have magnetic properties distinct from zero-dimensional or non-organized materials due to strong uniaxial shape anisotropy. However, assemblies of free-standing magnetic nanoparticles tend to collapse and form closed-ring structures rather than chains in order to minimize their energy. Magnetotactic bacteria, ubiquitous microorganisms, have the capability to mineralize magnetite nanoparticles, the so-called magnetosomes, and to direct their assembly in stable chains via biological macromolecules. In this contribution, the synthesis and assembly of biological magnetite to obtain functional magnetic dipoles in magnetotactic bacteria are presented, with a focus on the assembly. We present tomographic reconstructions based on cryo-FIB sectioning and SEM imaging of a magnetotactic bacterium to exemplify that the magnetosome chain is indeed a paradigm of a 1D magnetic nanostructure, based on the assembly of several individual particles. We show that the biological forces are a major player in the formation of the magnetosome chain. Finally, we demonstrate by super resolution fluorescence microscopy that MamK, a protein of the actin family necessary to form the chain backbone in the bacteria, forms a bundle of filaments that are not only found in the vicinity of the magnetosome chain but are widespread within the cytoplasm, illustrating the dynamic localization of the protein within the cells. These very simple microorganisms have thus much to teach us with regards to controlling the design of functional 1D magnetic nanoassembly.

  7. Evaluation of Hematobin as a Vaccine Candidate to Control Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) Loads in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Breijo, M; Rocha, S; Ures, X; Pastro, L; Alonzo, P; Fernández, C; Meikle, A

    2017-06-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.), is a blood-sucking livestock ectoparasite responsible for substantial livestock losses. In the present work, the potential use of recombinant hematobin (HTB), a horn fly salivary protein, as an antigen for cattle vaccination was investigated. In this trial, horn fly loads and H. irritans's blood intake were assessed in vaccinated (n = 4) and control (n = 4) crossbred dark-coated steers, which were naturally infected. The vaccinated group received a 1 ml subcutaneous injection of 100 µg of HTB protein emulsified in 500 µl of Incomplete Freund Adjuvant (AIF) on days 0 and 30. The control group received on the same days 1 ml of distilled water emulsified in 500 µl of AIF. The vaccinated group had significantly more HTB-specific IgG antibodies after the HTB booster and had a lower fly load than the control group (206 ± 23 vs. 285 ± 23 flies per animal, respectively). Blood intake by H. irritans did not differ between groups. In summary, these results suggest that vaccinating cattle with HTB could reduce cattle H. irritans load. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Biology and life history of Argopistes tsekooni (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in China, a promising biological control agent of Chinese privet.

    Treesearch

    Y-Z Zhang; J. Sun; J.L. Hanula

    2009-01-01

    The biology and life history of Argopistes tsekooni Chen (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a potential biological control agent of Chinese privet, Ligustrum sinense Lour., was studied under laboratory and outdoor conditions in Huangshan City of Anhui Province, China, in 2006. A. tsekooni larvae are leafminers that...

  9. Evaluation of candidate insecticides for control of the nantucket pine tip moth (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae)

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Dalusky; C. Wayne Berisford

    1999-01-01

    Initial screening in 1995 compared the efficacy of Capture®, Dimlin®, Foray®, Mimid®, Neema®, Pounce®, and Tempo® in controlling infestation by the Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock). Orthene®TTO, Tame® and a tank-mix of the two were added to the trials in 1996. All compounds tested were significantly better than the check regarding infestation of...

  10. Survey of current and emerging technologies for biological contamination control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frick, Andreas; Mogul, Rakesh

    2012-07-01

    This study will survey current and emerging technologies for biological contamination control within the context of planetary protection. Using a systems analysis approach, our objective is to compare various implementation variables across tasks ranging from surface cleaning to full-system sterilization for spacecraft and spacecraft components. Methods reviewed include vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide, plasma-phase sterilants such as oxygen and hydrogen peroxide, dry heat, laser-based techniques, supercritical carbon dioxide-based methods, and advanced bio-barriers. These methods will be evaluated in relation to relevant mission architectures and will address aspects of sample return missions. Results from this study, therefore, will offer new insights into the present-day engineering capabilities and future developmental concerns for missions targeting icy satellites, Mars, and other locations of astrochemical and astrobiological significance.

  11. Quagga and zebra mussels: biology, impacts, and control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nalepa, Thomas F.; Schloesser, Don W.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Schloesser, Don W.

    2013-01-01

    Quagga and Zebra Mussels: Biology, Impacts, and Control, Second Edition provides a broad view of the zebra/quagga mussel issue, offering a historic perspective and up-to-date information on mussel research. Comprising 48 chapters, this second edition includes reviews of mussel morphology, physiology, and behavior. It details mussel distribution and spread in Europe and across North America, and examines policy and regulatory responses, management strategies, and mitigation efforts. In addition, this book provides extensive coverage of the impact of invasive mussel species on freshwater ecosystems, including effects on water clarity, phytoplankton, water quality, food web changes, and consequences to other aquatic fauna. It also reviews and offers new insights on how zebra and quagga mussels respond and adapt to varying environmental conditions. This new edition includes seven video clips that complement chapter text and, through visual documentation, provide a greater understanding of mussel behavior and distribution.

  12. Real-time Experiment Interface for Biological Control Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Risa J.; Bettencourt, Jonathan; White, John A.; Christini, David J.; Butera, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The Real-time Experiment Interface (RTXI) is a fast and versatile real-time biological experimentation system based on Real-Time Linux. RTXI is open source and free, can be used with an extensive range of experimentation hardware, and can be run on Linux or Windows computers (when using the Live CD). RTXI is currently used extensively for two experiment types: dynamic patch clamp and closed-loop stimulation pattern control in neural and cardiac single cell electrophysiology. RTXI includes standard plug-ins for implementing commonly used electrophysiology protocols with synchronized stimulation, event detection, and online analysis. These and other user-contributed plug-ins can be found on the website (http://www.rtxi.org). PMID:21096883

  13. Parasites and biological invasions: parallels, interactions, and control.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Alison M; Hatcher, Melanie J

    2015-05-01

    Species distributions are changing at an unprecedented rate owing to human activity. We examine how two key processes of redistribution - biological invasion and disease emergence - are interlinked. There are many parallels between invasion and emergence processes, and invasions can drive the spread of new diseases to wildlife. We examine the potential impacts of invasion and disease emergence, and discuss how these threats can be countered, focusing on biosecurity. In contrast with international policy on emerging diseases of humans and managed species, policy on invasive species and parasites of wildlife is fragmented, and the lack of international cooperation encourages individual parties to minimize their input into control. We call for international policy that acknowledges the strong links between emerging diseases and invasion risk.

  14. Real-time experiment interface for biological control applications.

    PubMed

    Lin, Risa J; Bettencourt, Jonathan; Wha Ite, John; Christini, David J; Butera, Robert J

    2010-01-01

    The Real-time Experiment Interface (RTXI) is a fast and versatile real-time biological experimentation system based on Real-Time Linux. RTXI is open source and free, can be used with an extensive range of experimentation hardware, and can be run on Linux or Windows computers (when using the Live CD). RTXI is currently used extensively for two experiment types: dynamic patch clamp and closed-loop stimulation pattern control in neural and cardiac single cell electrophysiology. RTXI includes standard plug-ins for implementing commonly used electrophysiology protocols with synchronized stimulation, event detection, and online analysis. These and other user-contributed plug-ins can be found on the website (http://www.rtxi.org).

  15. A Biologically Inspired Cooperative Multi-Robot Control Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howsman, Tom; Craft, Mike; ONeil, Daniel; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A prototype cooperative multi-robot control architecture suitable for the eventual construction of large space structures has been developed. In nature, there are numerous examples of complex architectures constructed by relatively simple insects, such as termites and wasps, which cooperatively assemble their nests. The prototype control architecture emulates this biological model. Actions of each of the autonomous robotic construction agents are only indirectly coordinated, thus mimicking the distributed construction processes of various social insects. The robotic construction agents perform their primary duties stigmergically i.e., without direct inter-agent communication and without a preprogrammed global blueprint of the final design. Communication and coordination between individual agents occurs indirectly through the sensed modifications that each agent makes to the structure. The global stigmergic building algorithm prototyped during the initial research assumes that the robotic builders only perceive the current state of the structure under construction. Simulation studies have established that an idealized form of the proposed architecture was indeed capable of producing representative large space structures with autonomous robots. This paper will explore the construction simulations in order to illustrate the multi-robot control architecture.

  16. Dynamic phases in control and information processing biological circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayanan

    2015-03-01

    Recent work using the mathematical framework of large deviation theory has shown that fluctuations about the steady state can have a particularly rich structure even in extremely simple non-equilibrium systems [Phys. Rev. E. 89, 062108, 2014]. In certain instances the fluctuations can encode the presence of a dynamical phase with properties distinct from those of the steady state of the system. The transition between these two regimes is akin to a first order thermodynamic phase transition. Specifically, it implies an extreme sensitivity of the system to changes in certain sets of parameters. I will show that such dynamical phase transitions can serve as a general organizing principle to understand biological circuits that are involved in information processing and control. I will focus on two specific examples: adaptation control in E. coli chemotaxis and ultra sensitive response of the E. coli flagella motor, to illustrate these calculations. This work also elucidates the role played by energy dissipation in ensuring control and suggests general guidelines for the construction of robust non equilibrium circuits that perform various specified functions.

  17. Biological control of biofilms on membranes by metazoans.

    PubMed

    Klein, Theresa; Zihlmann, David; Derlon, Nicolas; Isaacson, Carl; Szivak, Ilona; Weissbrodt, David G; Pronk, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, chemical and physical methods have been used to control biofouling on membranes by inactivating and removing the biofouling layer. Alternatively, the permeability can be increased using biological methods while accepting the presence of the biofouling layer. We have investigated two different types of metazoans for this purpose, the oligochaete Aelosoma hemprichi and the nematode Plectus aquatilis. The addition of these grazing metazoans in biofilm-controlled membrane systems resulted in a flux increase of 50% in presence of the oligochaetes (Aelosoma hemprichi), and a flux increase of 119-164% in presence of the nematodes (Plectus aquatilis) in comparison to the control system operated without metazoans. The change in flux resulted from (1) a change in the biofilm structure, from a homogeneous, cake-like biofilm to a more heterogeneous, porous structure and (2) a significant reduction in the thickness of the basal layer. Pyrosequencing data showed that due to the addition of the predators, also the community composition of the biofilm in terms of protists and bacteria was strongly affected. The results have implications for a range of membrane processes, including ultrafiltration for potable water production, membrane bioreactors and reverse osmosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Biological control in the preservation of pome fruits].

    PubMed

    Viñas, I

    1995-03-01

    Fresh fruits are susceptible of be attacked by several pathogenic fungi after harvest due to both their high water and nutrients content and their loss of most of the intrinsic resistance that protected them over their development while attached to the plant. Most rot pathogens can be controlled by various methods such as refrigeration, controlled atmospheres and fungicides. Biological control strategies are emerging as promising alternatives to the use of synthetic fungicides. Several factors must be considered for the selection of biocontrol agents to be used against postharvest fruits diseases. Survivability of the antagonist is a major factor to determine its usefulness. Antagonists must survive and be effective after their exposure to both postharvest treatments and storage conditions. Several antagonistic microorganisms have been found that can effectively inhibit postharvest diseases. Just as there is a diversity among microorganisms, there is also a diversity of mechanisms by which they operate. Although in most cases these mechanisms have not been satisfactorily elucidated, they are likely to involve antibiosis, nutrient competition, stimulation of host defense, predation and parasitism. In many cases, probably more than one mechanism operate. The marketing of some of these antagonists may be feasible and they could be an alternative to synthetic pesticides.

  19. Food contamination control in European new Member States and associated candidate countries: data collected within the SAFEFOODNET project.

    PubMed

    Maggioni, Silvia; Benfenati, Emilio; Colosio, Claudio; Moretto, Angelo; Roots, Ott; Tasiopoulou, Stavroula; Visentin, Sara

    2009-05-01

    This paper reports the results obtained from the data collected within the European Commission funded project SAFEFOODNET regarding the state of the art in the control of chemical food contaminants in twelve European New Member States and one Associated Candidate Country (Turkey). Information has been gathered on institutions involved in food chemical contamination control, types of contaminants and matrices analyzed, procedures for data quality assurance, purposes of the analyses and accessibility of data in the participant countries. The resulting picture points out the general availability of adequate capabilities for the analysis of food contaminants in the laboratories in charge of control and the performance of the analysis of a large variety of chemicals (persistent organic pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, mycotoxins, heavy metals, radionuclides) in almost each country with few exceptions (dioxins in Bulgaria, Turkey, Latvia, persistent organic pollutants in Lithuania and Malta, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Malta). The application of validated analytical methods and the process of laboratory accreditation are partially fulfilled within the investigated countries, but still forthcoming for some countries, as in Romania, Turkey and Malta. Information collected on food controls is only partially available online and the language used is prevalently local and English to a lesser extent.

  20. Risk assessment and stakeholder perceptions in novel biological control agent release: YST as a case study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of risk assessment are to learn about whether a candidate agent would be safe to use in the environment where release is planned, and to present such information in a clear, understandable format to regulators, stakeholders, and the public. Plant pathogens evaluated for biological co...

  1. Candidate Mission from Planet Earth control and data delivery system architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Phillip; Weinstein, Frank C.; Hei, Donald J., Jr.; Todd, Jacqueline

    1992-01-01

    Using a structured, experienced-based approach, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has assessed the generic functional requirements for a lunar mission control and data delivery (CDD) system. This analysis was based on lunar mission requirements outlined in GSFC-developed user traffic models. The CDD system will facilitate data transportation among user elements, element operations, and user teams by providing functions such as data management, fault isolation, fault correction, and link acquisition. The CDD system for the lunar missions must not only satisfy lunar requirements but also facilitate and provide early development of data system technologies for Mars. Reuse and evolution of existing data systems can help to maximize system reliability and minimize cost. This paper presents a set of existing and currently planned NASA data systems that provide the basic functionality. Reuse of such systems can have an impact on mission design and significantly reduce CDD and other system development costs.

  2. Pterostilbene Is a Potential Candidate for Control of Blackleg in Canola

    PubMed Central

    Barbulescu, Denise M.; Salisbury, Phil A.; Slater, Anthony T.

    2016-01-01

    Two stilbenes, resveratrol and pterostilbene, exhibit antifungal activity against Leptosphaeria maculans, the fungal pathogen responsible for blackleg (stem canker) in canola (Brassica napus). In vitro studies on the effect of these stilbenes on L. maculans mycelial growth and conidia germination showed that pterostilbene is a potent fungicide and sporicide, but resveratrol only exerted minor inhibition on L. maculans. Cell viability of hyphae cultures was markedly reduced by pterostilbene and SYTOX green staining showed that cell membrane integrity was compromised. We demonstrate that pterostilbene exerts fungicidal activity across 10 different L. maculans isolates and the compound confers protection to the blackleg-susceptible canola cv. Westar seedlings. The potential of pterostilbene as a control agent against blackleg in canola is discussed. PMID:27213274

  3. Candidate Mission from Planet Earth control and data delivery system architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Phillip; Weinstein, Frank C.; Hei, Donald J., Jr.; Todd, Jacqueline

    1992-01-01

    Using a structured, experienced-based approach, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has assessed the generic functional requirements for a lunar mission control and data delivery (CDD) system. This analysis was based on lunar mission requirements outlined in GSFC-developed user traffic models. The CDD system will facilitate data transportation among user elements, element operations, and user teams by providing functions such as data management, fault isolation, fault correction, and link acquisition. The CDD system for the lunar missions must not only satisfy lunar requirements but also facilitate and provide early development of data system technologies for Mars. Reuse and evolution of existing data systems can help to maximize system reliability and minimize cost. This paper presents a set of existing and currently planned NASA data systems that provide the basic functionality. Reuse of such systems can have an impact on mission design and significantly reduce CDD and other system development costs.

  4. Economic value of biological control in integrated pest management of managed plant systems.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, Steven E; Ellsworth, Peter C; Frisvold, George B

    2015-01-07

    Biological control is an underlying pillar of integrated pest management, yet little focus has been placed on assigning economic value to this key ecosystem service. Setting biological control on a firm economic foundation would help to broaden its utility and adoption for sustainable crop protection. Here we discuss approaches and methods available for valuation of biological control of arthropod pests by arthropod natural enemies and summarize economic evaluations in classical, augmentative, and conservation biological control. Emphasis is placed on valuation of conservation biological control, which has received little attention. We identify some of the challenges of and opportunities for applying economics to biological control to advance integrated pest management. Interaction among diverse scientists and stakeholders will be required to measure the direct and indirect costs and benefits of biological control that will allow farmers and others to internalize the benefits that incentivize and accelerate adoption for private and public good.

  5. Modeling the growth dynamics of four candidate crops for Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Tyler

    1987-01-01

    The production of food for human life support for advanced space missions will require the management of many different crops. The research to design these food production capabilities along with the waste management to recycle human metabolic wastes and inedible plant components are parts of Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS). Since complete operating CELSS were not yet built, a useful adjunct to the research developing the various pieces of a CELSS are system simulation models that can examine what is currently known about the possible assembly of subsystems into a full CELSS. The growth dynamics of four crops (wheat, soybeans, potatoes, and lettuce) are examined for their general similarities and differences within the context of their important effects upon the dynamics of the gases, liquids, and solids in the CELSS. Data for the four crops currently under active research in the CELSS program using high-production hydroponics are presented. Two differential equations are developed and applied to the general characteristics of each crop growth pattern. Model parameters are determined by closely approximating each crop's data.

  6. Development of RNAi method for screening candidate genes to control emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Thais B; Rieske, Lynne K; J Duan, Jian; Mogilicherla, Kanakachari; Palli, Subba R

    2017-08-07

    The ingestion of double-strand RNAs (dsRNA) targeting essential genes in an insect could cause mortality. Based on this principle, a new generation of insect control methods using RNA interference (RNAi) are being developed. In this work, we developed a bioassay for oral delivery of dsRNA to an invasive forest and urban tree pest, the emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis). EAB feeds and develops beneath the bark, killing trees rapidly. This behavior, coupled with the lack of a reliable artificial diet for rearing larvae and adults, make them difficult to study. We found that dsRNA is transported and processed to siRNAs by EAB larvae within 72 h after ingestion. Also, feeding neonate larvae with IAP (inhibitor of apoptosis) or COP (COPI coatomer, β subunit) dsRNA silenced their target genes and caused mortality. Both an increase in the concentration of dsRNA fed and sequential feeding of two different dsRNAs increased mortality. Here we provide evidence for successful RNAi in EAB, and demonstrate the development of a rapid and effective bioassay for oral delivery of dsRNA to screen additional genes.

  7. Controlling biological deterioration of wood with volatile chemicals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.D.; Corden, M.E.

    1980-08-01

    Volatile fungicides placed in holes in pressure-treated Douglas-fir transmission poles with internal decay diffuse as vapors for about 2.4 m above and below the groundline to control decay for at least 10 y. The presence of fungitoxic vapors of chloropicrin (trichloronitromethane) in these poles suggests added years of control. Vapam (sodium N-methyldithiocarbamate) was less effective, but both of these chemicals are used nationwide. Methylisotiocyanate (MS), which appears especially promising in both laboratory wood-block screening tests and in poles 2 years after treatment, may prove outstanding as a control for internal decay of poles. Successfully formulated as a solid, MS could increase the safety and versatility of fumigant use. A comparison of devices for inspecting Douglas-fir poles for decay emphasized the importance of having well-trained inspectors who know the limitations of the tools and methods they use. A manual for the maintenance of Douglas-fir and western redcedar poles was published to aid inspectors and managers of wood pole systems. Fumigants varied in their residual protection against invasion by decay fungi with chloropicrin having the highest residual fungitoxicity. Fumigants had no adverse effect on vegetation around poles, nor on the strength properties of wood. Of the 8 decay fungi isolated from over 15,600 pressure-treated Douglas-fir poles, Poria carbonica and Poria placenta were by far the most prevalent. Of the five most prevalent nondecay fungi isolated from these poles, a Scytalidium species can produce an environment unsuitable for reinvasion of the wood by decay fungi. The resistance of the Scytalidium species to chloropicrin raises the possibility of a combined chemical-biological control of internal decay.

  8. A candidate probiotic with unfavourable effects in subjects with irritable bowel syndrome: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Some probiotics have shown efficacy for patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Lactobacillus (L.) plantarum MF1298 was found to have the best in vitro probiotic properties of 22 strains of lactobacilli. The aim of this study was to investigate the symptomatic effect of L. plantarum MF1298 in subjects with IBS. Primary outcome was treatment preference and secondary outcomes were number of weeks with satisfactory relief of symptoms and IBS sum score. Methods The design was a randomised double blind placebo-controlled crossover trial. 16 subjects with IBS underwent two three-week periods of daily intake of one capsule of 1010 CFU L. plantarum MF 1298 or placebo separated by a four-week washout period. Results Thirteen participants (81%; 95% CI 57% to 93%; P = 0.012) preferred placebo to L. plantarum MF1298 treatment. The mean (SD) number of weeks with satisfactory relief of symptoms in the periods with L. plantarum MF1298 and placebo were 0.50 (0.89) and 1.44 (1.26), respectively (P = 0.006). IBS sum score was 6.44 (1.81) in the period with L. plantarum MF1298 treatment compared with 5.35 (1.77) in the period with placebo (P = 0.010). With a clinically significant difference in the IBS sum score of 2 in disfavour of active treatment, the number needed to harm was 3.7, 95% CI 2.3 to 10.9. Conclusions This trial shows for the first time an unfavourable effect on symptoms in subjects with IBS after intake of a potential probiotic. The trial registration number Clinical trials NCT00355810. PMID:20144246

  9. Using Biological-Control Research in the Classroom to Promote Scientific Inquiry & Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Matthew L.; Richardson, Scott L.; Hall, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Scientists researching biological control should engage in education because translating research programs into classroom activities is a pathway to increase scientific literacy among students. Classroom activities focused on biological control target all levels of biological organization and can be cross-disciplinary by drawing from subject areas…

  10. 77 FR 46373 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological... of Symnus coniferarum into the eastern United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce... as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae...

  11. 75 FR 28232 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological... a biological control agent to reduce the severity of hemlock woolly adelgid infestations. We are... continental United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of hemlock woolly...

  12. Using Biological-Control Research in the Classroom to Promote Scientific Inquiry & Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Matthew L.; Richardson, Scott L.; Hall, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Scientists researching biological control should engage in education because translating research programs into classroom activities is a pathway to increase scientific literacy among students. Classroom activities focused on biological control target all levels of biological organization and can be cross-disciplinary by drawing from subject areas…

  13. A Randomized Controlled Phase Ib Trial of the Malaria Vaccine Candidate GMZ2 in African Children

    PubMed Central

    Hounkpatin, Aurore B.; Schaumburg, Frieder; Ngoa, Ulysse Ateba; Esen, Meral; Fendel, Rolf; de Salazar, Pablo Martinez; Mürbeth, Raymund E.; Milligan, Paul; Imbault, Nathalie; Imoukhuede, Egeruan Babatunde; Theisen, Michael; Jepsen, Søren; Noor, Ramadhani A.; Okech, Brenda; Kremsner, Peter G.; Mordmüller, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Background GMZ2 is a fusion protein of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 3 (MSP3) and glutamate rich protein (GLURP) that mediates an immune response against the blood stage of the parasite. Two previous phase I clinical trials, one in naïve European adults and one in malaria-exposed Gabonese adults showed that GMZ2 was well tolerated and immunogenic. Here, we present data on safety and immunogenicity of GMZ2 in one to five year old Gabonese children, a target population for future malaria vaccine efficacy trials. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty children one to five years of age were randomized to receive three doses of either 30 µg or 100 µg of GMZ2, or rabies vaccine. GMZ2, adjuvanted in aluminum hydroxide, was administered on Days 0, 28 and 56. All participants received a full course of their respective vaccination and were followed up for one year. Both 30 µg and 100 µg GMZ2 vaccine doses were well tolerated and induced antibodies and memory B-cells against GMZ2 as well as its antigenic constituents MSP3 and GLURP. After three doses of vaccine, the geometric mean concentration of antibodies to GMZ2 was 19-fold (95%CI: 11,34) higher in the 30 µg GMZ2 group than in the rabies vaccine controls, and 16-fold (7,36) higher in the 100 µg GMZ2 group than the rabies group. Geometric mean concentration of antibodies to MSP3 was 2.7-fold (1.6,4.6) higher in the 30 µg group than in the rabies group and 3.8-fold (1.5,9.6) higher in the 100 µg group. Memory B-cells against GMZ2 developed in both GMZ2 vaccinated groups. Conclusions/Significance Both 30 µg as well as 100 µg intramuscular GMZ2 are immunogenic, well tolerated, and safe in young, malaria-exposed Gabonese children. This result confirms previous findings in naïve and malaria-exposed adults and supports further clinical development of GMZ2. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00703066 PMID:21829466

  14. Biological control of Ascaris suum eggs by Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Frassy, Luiza Neme; Ferreira, Aloízio Soares

    2011-12-01

    Ascaris suum is a gastrointestinal nematode parasite of swines. The aim of this study was to observe Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus on biological control of A. suum eggs after fungus passage through swines gastrointestinal tract. Eighteen pigs, previously dewormed, were randomly divided into three groups: group 1, treated with the fungus isolate VC4; group 2, treated with the fungus isolate VC1 and group 3 did not receive fungus (control). In the treated groups, each animal received a 9 g single dose of mycelium mass containing P. chlamydosporia (VC1 or VC4). Thereafter, animal fecal samples were collected at the following intervals: 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h after treatment beginning and these were poured in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar culture medium. Then, 1,000 A. suum eggs were poured into each dish and kept in an incubator at 26 °C and in the dark for 30 days. After this period, approximately 100 eggs were removed from each Petri dish and morphologically analyzed under light microscopy following the ovicidal activity parameters. The higher percentage observed for isolated VC4 eggs destruction was 57.5% (36 h) after fungus administration and for isolate VC1 this percentage was 45.8% (24 h and 72 h) (p > 0.01). P. chlamydosporia remained viable after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of swines, maintaining its ability of destroying A. suum eggs.

  15. Evolutionary biology and genetic techniques for insect control.

    PubMed

    Leftwich, Philip T; Bolton, Michael; Chapman, Tracey

    2016-01-01

    The requirement to develop new techniques for insect control that minimize negative environmental impacts has never been more pressing. Here we discuss population suppression and population replacement technologies. These include sterile insect technique, genetic elimination methods such as the release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL), and gene driving mechanisms offered by intracellular bacteria and homing endonucleases. We also review the potential of newer or underutilized methods such as reproductive interference, CRISPR technology, RNA interference (RNAi), and genetic underdominance. We focus on understanding principles and potential effectiveness from the perspective of evolutionary biology. This offers useful insights into mechanisms through which potential problems may be minimized, in much the same way that an understanding of how resistance evolves is key to slowing the spread of antibiotic and insecticide resistance. We conclude that there is much to gain from applying principles from the study of resistance in these other scenarios - specifically, the adoption of combinatorial approaches to minimize the spread of resistance evolution. We conclude by discussing the focused use of GM for insect pest control in the context of modern conservation planning under land-sparing scenarios.

  16. Establishing Fungal Entomopathogens as Endophytes: Towards Endophytic Biological Control

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Soroush; Ortiz, Viviana; Vega, Fernando E.

    2013-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana is a fungal entomopathogen with the ability to colonize plants endophytically. As an endophyte, B. bassiana may play a role in protecting plants from herbivory and disease. This protocol demonstrates two inoculation methods to establish B. bassiana endophytically in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), in preparation for subsequent evaluations of endophytic biological control. Plants are grown from surface-sterilized seeds for two weeks before receiving a B. bassiana treatment of 108 conidia/ml (or water) applied either as a foliar spray or a soil drench. Two weeks later, the plants are harvested and their leaves, stems and roots are sampled to evaluate endophytic fungal colonization. For this, samples are individually surface sterilized, cut into multiple sections, and incubated in potato dextrose agar media for 20 days. The media is inspected every 2-3 days to observe fungal growth associated with plant sections and record the occurrence of B. bassiana to estimate the extent of its endophytic colonization. Analyses of inoculation success compare the occurrence of B. bassiana within a given plant part (i.e. leaves, stems or roots) across treatments and controls. In addition to the inoculation method, the specific outcome of the experiment may depend on the target crop species or variety, the fungal entomopathogen species strain or isolate used, and the plant's growing conditions. PMID:23603853

  17. Proteolytic control of Interleukin-11 and Interleukin-6 biology.

    PubMed

    Lokau, Juliane; Agthe, Maria; Flynn, Charlotte M; Garbers, Christoph

    2017-11-01

    Interleukin-11 (IL-11) and IL-6 are secreted glycoproteins which fulfill important homeostatic functions. Activation of target cells occurs via membrane-bound IL-11 and IL-6 receptors (IL-11R and IL-6R, respectively). Formation of IL-11/IL-11R and IL-6/IL-6R complexes triggers the recruitment of a homodimer of the ubiquitously expressed signal-transducing β-receptor gp130 (classic signaling). IL-11R and IL-6R can be shed by several proteases, albeit with different preferences and specificities, and these soluble receptors (sIL-11R and sIL-6R) act as agonists and can activate in principle all cells via gp130. We have termed these protease-controlled pathways IL-6 and IL-11 trans-signaling. In this review, we describe the basic biology of both cytokines and summarize the current knowledge how proteases control and shape the trans-signaling pathways of the two cytokines. We will further highlight how the underlying molecular mechanisms can be used to design specific inhibitors that block trans, but not classic signaling of IL-11 and IL-6. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteolysis as a Regulatory Event in Pathophysiology edited by Stefan Rose-John. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [RESEARCH PROGRESS OF CONTROLLED RELEASING DELIVERY OF BIOLOGICAL FACTORS FOR CARTILAGE REPAIR].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jialei; Xiang, Zhou

    2015-08-01

    To summarize the recent progress of the controlled releasing delivery of biological factors for cartilage repair. The recently published literature at home and abroad on the controlled releasing delivery of biological factors for cartilage repair was reviewed and summarized. Various biological factors have been applied for repairing cartilage. For better cartilage repair effects, controlled releasing delivery of biological factors can be applied by means of combining biological factors with degradable biomaterials, or by micro- and nano-particles. Meanwhile, multiple biologic delivery and temporally controlled delivery are also inevitable choices. Although lots of unsolved problems exist, the controlled releasing delivery of biological factors has been a research focus for cartilage repair because of the controllability and delicacy.

  19. Candidate CDTI procedures study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ace, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    A concept with potential for increasing airspace capacity by involving the pilot in the separation control loop is discussed. Some candidate options are presented. Both enroute and terminal area procedures are considered and, in many cases, a technologically advanced Air Traffic Control structure is assumed. Minimum display characteristics recommended for each of the described procedures are presented. Recommended sequencing of the operational testing of each of the candidate procedures is presented.

  20. Insect pathogens as biological control agents: Back to the future.

    PubMed

    Lacey, L A; Grzywacz, D; Shapiro-Ilan, D I; Frutos, R; Brownbridge, M; Goettel, M S

    2015-11-01

    The development and use of entomopathogens as classical, conservation and augmentative biological control agents have included a number of successes and some setbacks in the past 1years. In this forum paper we present current information on development, use and future directions of insect-specific viruses, bacteria, fungi and nematodes as components of integrated pest management strategies for control of arthropod pests of crops, forests, urban habitats, and insects of medical and veterinary importance. Insect pathogenic viruses are a fruitful source of microbial control agents (MCAs), particularly for the control of lepidopteran pests. Most research is focused on the baculoviruses, important pathogens of some globally important pests for which control has become difficult due to either pesticide resistance or pressure to reduce pesticide residues. Baculoviruses are accepted as safe, readily mass produced, highly pathogenic and easily formulated and applied control agents. New baculovirus products are appearing in many countries and gaining an increased market share. However, the absence of a practical in vitro mass production system, generally higher production costs, limited post application persistence, slow rate of kill and high host specificity currently contribute to restricted use in pest control. Overcoming these limitations are key research areas for which progress could open up use of insect viruses to much larger markets. A small number of entomopathogenic bacteria have been commercially developed for control of insect pests. These include several Bacillus thuringiensis sub-species, Lysinibacillus (Bacillus) sphaericus, Paenibacillus spp. and Serratia entomophila. B. thuringiensis sub-species kurstaki is the most widely used for control of pest insects of crops and forests, and B. thuringiensis sub-species israelensis and L. sphaericus are the primary pathogens used for control of medically important pests including dipteran vectors. These pathogens

  1. Biology and preliminary host range assessment of two potential kudzu biological control agents.

    PubMed

    Frye, Matthew J; Hough-Goldstein, Judith; Sun, Jiang-Hua

    2007-12-01

    Two insect species from China, Gonioctena tredecimmaculata (Jacoby) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and Ornatalcides (Mesalcidodes) trifidus (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were studied in quarantine in the United States as potential biological control agents for kudzu, Pueraria montana variety lobata (Willd.) Maesen and S. Almeida. Adults of G. tredecimmaculata were ovoviviparous and reproduced throughout the summer, producing offspring that had an obligate adult diapause. In no-choice tests, adult and larval G. tredecimmaculata rejected most of the plant species tested, but consumed foliage and completed their life cycle on soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and on a native woodland plant, hog-peanut (Amphicarpaea bracteata L. Fernald), which are in the same subtribe as kudzu (Glycininae). Insects showed similar responses to field- and greenhouse-grown soybean and kudzu foliage, despite measurable differences in leaf traits: field-grown foliage of both plants had greater leaf toughness, higher total carbon content, higher trichome density, and lower water content than greenhouse foliage. O. trifidus adults also rejected most of the plants tested but fed on and severely damaged potted soybean and hog-peanut plants in addition to kudzu. Further tests in China are needed to determine whether these species will accept nontarget host plants under open-field conditions.

  2. Impact of Release Rates on the Effectiveness of Augmentative Biological Control Agents

    PubMed Central

    Crowder, David W.

    2007-01-01

    To access the effect of augmentative biological control agents, 31 articles were reviewed that investigated the impact of release rates of 35 augmentative biological control agents on the control of 42 arthropod pests. In 64% of the cases, the release rate of the biological control agent did not significantly affect the density or mortality of the pest insect. Results where similar when parasitoidsor predators were utilized as the natural enemy. Within any order of natural enemy, there were more cases where release rates did not affect augmentative biological control than cases where release rates were significant. There were more cases in which release rates did not affect augmentative biological control when pests were from the orders Hemiptera, Acari, or Diptera, but not with pests from the order Lepidoptera. In most cases, there was an optimal release rate that produced effective control of a pest species. This was especially true when predators were used as a biological control agent. Increasing the release rate above the optimal rate did not improve control of the pest and thus would be economically detrimental. Lower release rates were of ten optimal when biological control was used in conjunction with insecticides. In many cases, the timing and method of biological control applications were more significant factors impacting the effectiveness of biological control than the release rate. Additional factors that may limit the relative impact of release rates include natural enemy fecundity, establishment rates, prey availability, dispersal, and cannibalism. PMID:20307240

  3. Impact of release rates on the effectiveness of augmentative biological control agents.

    PubMed

    Crowder, David W

    2007-01-01

    To access the effect of augmentative biological control agents, 31 articles were reviewed that investigated the impact of release rates of 35 augmentative biological control agents on the control of 42 arthropod pests. In 64% of the cases, the release rate of the biological control agent did not significantly affect the density or mortality of the pest insect. Results where similar when parasitoids or predators were utilized as the natural enemy. Within any order of natural enemy, there were more cases where release rates did not affect augmentative biological control than cases where release rates were significant. There were more cases in which release rates did not affect augmentative biological control when pests were from the orders Hemiptera, Acari, or Diptera, but not with pests from the order Lepidoptera. In most cases, there was an optimal release rate that produced effective control of a pest species. This was especially true when predators were used as a biological control agent. Increasing the release rate above the optimal rate did not improve control of the pest and thus would be economically detrimental. Lower release rates were of ten optimal when biological control was used in conjunction with insecticides. In many cases, the timing and method of biological control applications were more significant factors impacting the effectiveness of biological control than the release rate. Additional factors that may limit the relative impact of release rates include natural enemy fecundity, establishment rates, prey availability, dispersal, and cannibalism.

  4. Section candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eos has carried biographies and photographs of candidates for President-Elect of the Union and for President-Elect and Secretary of each section. In addition, statements by the candidates for Union and Section President-Elect have appeared. T h e material for the petition candidate for President-Elect of the Solar-Planetary Relationships Section and a correction to the biography of one candidate for President-Elect of t h e Geodesy Section appear below. The material for the original slate for Solar-Planetary Relationships appeared in the August 6 issue, that for the Seismology Section in the August 13 issue, that for the Geodesy Section in the August 20 issue, that for the Atmospheric Sciences Section in the August 27 issue, that for the Hydrology Section in the September 3 issue, that for the Tectonophysics Section in the September 10 issue, that for the Volcanology, Geochemistry, and Petrology Section in the September 17 issue, that for the Planetology Section in the September 24 issue, that for the Ocean Sciences Section in the October 1 issue, that for the Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism Section in the October 8 issue, and that for Union President-Elect in the October 15 issue. T h e slate of candidates for all offices was carried in the July 2 issue.

  5. Leaf microbiota of strawberries as affected by biological control agents.

    PubMed

    Sylla, Justine; Alsanius, Beatrix W; Krüger, Erika; Reineke, Annette; Strohmeier, Stephan; Wohanka, Walter

    2013-10-01

    The increasing use of biological control agents (BCAs) against Botrytis cinerea in strawberry raises the question of whether there are any undesirable impacts of foliar applications of BCAs on nontarget microorganisms in the phyllosphere. Therefore, our objective was to investigate this issue within a field study. Strawberry plants were repeatedly sprayed with three BCAs-namely, RhizoVital 42 fl. (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42), Trianum-P (Trichoderma harzianum T22), and Naturalis (Beauveria bassiana ATCC 74040)-to suppress Botrytis cinerea infections. Microbial communities of differentially treated leaves were analyzed using plate counts and pyrosequencing and compared with the microbial community of nontreated leaves. Plate count results indicate that the applied Bacillus and Trichoderma spp. survived in the strawberry phyllosphere throughout the strawberry season. However, no significant impacts on the leaf microbiota could be detected by this culture-dependent technique. Pyrosequencing of internal transcribed spacer ribosomal RNA and 16S RNA sequences revealed a change in fungal composition and diversity at class level after the introduction of T. harzianum T22 to the phyllosphere, whereas the bacterial composition and diversity was not affected by either this Trichoderma preparation or the other two BCAs. Our results suggest that pyrosequencing represents a useful method for studying microbial interactions in the phyllosphere.

  6. Biologically controlled precipitation of calcium phosphate by Ramlibacter tataouinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzerara, Karim; Menguy, Nicolas; Guyot, François; Skouri, Feriel; de Luca, Gilles; Barakat, Mohamed; Heulin, Thierry

    2004-12-01

    Ramlibacter tataouinensis, a β-proteobacterium strain isolated from an arid environment, was cultured on a solid culture medium supplemented with calcium. Optical and transmission electron microscopies (TEM) showed that the precipitation of nanometer-sized calcium phosphate particles was mainly restricted to the cysts at the center of the colonies and occurred first in the periplasm of the bacteria then inside the cells. Poorly crystallized calcium phosphates, with low Ca/P ratios and located in the periplasm, were nanometer-sized phases elongated tangentially to the cell surface, whereas precipitates inside the cells were crystallized nanocrystalline hydroxyapatites (HAP) with a preferential orientation of their c axes perpendicular to the cell surface. These observations suggest a biologically controlled matrix-mediated calcification. As noticed by previous authors, well-defined fossilized bacteria can thus be preserved in natural phosphate deposits. Moreover, this study shows that, at least for some species, well-defined orientations of phosphates in cell interiors and cell walls could be used, in conjunction with others, as supplementary biogenicity criteria in fossilized materials.

  7. Modelling of photo-thermal control of biological cellular oscillators.

    PubMed

    Assanov, Gani S; Zhanabaev, Zeinulla Zh; Govorov, Alexander O; Neiman, Alexander B

    2013-10-01

    We study the transient dynamics of biological oscillators subjected to brief heat pulses. A prospective well-defined experimental system for thermal control of oscillators is the peripheral electroreceptors in paddlefish. Epithelial cells in these receptors show spontaneous voltage oscillations which are known to be temperature sensitive. We use a computational model to predict the effect of brief thermal pulses in this system. In our model thermal stimulation is realized through the light excitation of gold nanoparticles delivered in close proximity to epithelial cells and generating heat due to plasmon resonance. We use an ensemble of modified Morris-Lecar systems to model oscillatory epithelial cells. First, we validate that the model quantitatively reproduces the dynamics of epithelial oscillations in paddlefish electroreceptors, including responses to static and slow temperature changes. Second, we use the model to predict transient responses to short heat pulses generated by the light actuated gold nanoparticles. The model predicts that the epithelial oscillators can be partially synchronized by brief 5 - 15 ms light stimuli resulting in a large-amplitude oscillations of the mean field potential.

  8. Prescribed fire effects on biological control of leafy spurge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fellows, D.P.; Newton, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    The flea beetle, Aphthona nigriscutis Foudras, is a potentially useful agent for biological control of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) in grasslands devoted to wildlife conservation. However, effects of other grassland management practices on the persistence and dynamics of flea beetle populations are not well understood. We conducted small plot tests to evaluate 1) the effect of prerelease burning on establishment of A. nigriscutis colonies, and 2) the ability of established A. nigriscutis colonies to survive prescribed fire. More colonies established on plots that were burned prior to beetle release (83% establishment) than on unburned plots (37% establishment), possibly due to litter reduction and baring of the soil surface. However, most colonies established with the aid of fire did not survive past the first generation unless the habitat was otherwise suitable for the species, and we conclude that the primary benefit of prerelease burning is increased recruitment of A. nigriscutis during the first few generations. Established colonies were not harmed by burns in October and May. Both spring and fall burns resulted in an increase in leafy spurge stem density during the first growing season, but stem density declined to the preburn level by the second growing season.

  9. Implications of Plasmodium vivax Biology for Control, Elimination, and Research

    PubMed Central

    Olliaro, Piero L.; Barnwell, John W.; Barry, Alyssa; Mendis, Kamini; Mueller, Ivo; Reeder, John C.; Shanks, G. Dennis; Snounou, Georges; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes our current understanding of the biology of Plasmodium vivax, how it differs from Plasmodium falciparum, and how these differences explain the need for P. vivax-tailored interventions. The article further pinpoints knowledge gaps where investments in research are needed to help identify and develop such specific interventions. The principal obstacles to reduce and eventually eliminate P. vivax reside in 1) its higher vectorial capacity compared with P. falciparum due to its ability to develop at lower temperature and over a shorter sporogonic cycle in the vector, allowing transmission in temperate zones and making it less sensitive to vector control measures that are otherwise effective on P. falciparum; 2) the presence of dormant liver forms (hypnozoites), sustaining multiple relapsing episodes from a single infectious bite that cannot be diagnosed and are not susceptible to any available antimalarial except primaquine, with routine deployment restricted by toxicity; 3) low parasite densities, which are difficult to detect with current diagnostics leading to missed diagnoses and delayed treatments (and protracted transmission), coupled with 4) transmission stages (gametocytes) occurring early in acute infections, before infection is diagnosed. PMID:27799636

  10. Noise in biological systems: pros, cons, and mechanisms of control.

    PubMed

    Pilpel, Yitzhak

    2011-01-01

    Genetic regulatory circuits are often regarded as precise machines that accurately determine the level of expression of each protein. Most experimental technologies used to measure gene expression levels are incapable of testing and challenging this notion, as they often measure levels averaged over entire populations of cells. Yet, when expression levels are measured at the single cell level of even genetically identical cells, substantial cell-to-cell variation (or "noise") may be observed. Sometimes different genes in a given genome may display different levels of noise; even the same gene, expressed under different environmental conditions, may display greater cell-to-cell variability in specific conditions and more tight control in other situations. While at first glance noise may seem to be an undesired property of biological networks, it might be beneficial in some cases. For instance, noise will increase functional heterogeneity in a population of microorganisms facing variable, often unpredictable, environmental changes, increasing the probability that some cells may survive the stress. In that respect, we can speculate that the population is implementing a risk distribution strategy, long before genetic heterogeneity could be acquired. Organisms may have evolved to regulate not only the averaged gene expression levels but also the extent of allowed deviations from such an average, setting it at the desired level for every gene under each specific condition. Here we review the evolving understanding of noise, its molecular underpinnings, and its effect on phenotype and fitness--when it can be detrimental, beneficial, or neutral and which regulatory tools eukaryotic cells may use to optimally control it.

  11. Identification of Bacillus Strains for Biological Control of Catfish Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Chao; Carrias, Abel; Williams, Malachi A.; Capps, Nancy; Dan, Bui C. T.; Newton, Joseph C.; Kloepper, Joseph W.; Ooi, Ei L.; Browdy, Craig L.; Terhune, Jeffery S.; Liles, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus strains isolated from soil or channel catfish intestine were screened for their antagonism against Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila, the causative agents of enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and motile aeromonad septicaemia (MAS), respectively. Twenty one strains were selected and their antagonistic activity against other aquatic pathogens was also tested. Each of the top 21 strains expressed antagonistic activity against multiple aquatic bacterial pathogens including Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, Yersinia ruckeri, Flavobacterium columnare, and/or the oomycete Saprolegnia ferax. Survival of the 21 Bacillus strains in the intestine of catfish was determined as Bacillus CFU/g of intestinal tissue of catfish after feeding Bacillus spore-supplemented feed for seven days followed by normal feed for three days. Five Bacillus strains that showed good antimicrobial activity and intestinal survival were incorporated into feed in spore form at a dose of 8×107 CFU/g and fed to channel catfish for 14 days before they were challenged by E. ictaluri in replicate. Two Bacillus subtilis strains conferred significant benefit in reducing catfish mortality (P<0.05). A similar challenge experiment conducted in Vietnam with four of the five Bacillus strains also showed protective effects against E. ictaluri in striped catfish. Safety of the four strains exhibiting the strongest biological control in vivo was also investigated in terms of whether the strains contain plasmids or express resistance to clinically important antibiotics. The Bacillus strains identified from this study have good potential to mediate disease control as probiotic feed additives for catfish aquaculture. PMID:23029244

  12. Quantitative trait loci and underlying candidate genes controlling agronomical and fruit quality traits in octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa).

    PubMed

    Zorrilla-Fontanesi, Yasmín; Cabeza, Amalia; Domínguez, Pedro; Medina, Juan Jesús; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Denoyes-Rothan, Beatrice; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F; Amaya, Iraida

    2011-09-01

    Breeding for fruit quality traits in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, 2n = 8x = 56) is complex due to the polygenic nature of these traits and the octoploid constitution of this species. In order to improve the efficiency of genotype selection, the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and associated molecular markers will constitute a valuable tool for breeding programs. However, the implementation of these markers in breeding programs depends upon the complexity and stability of QTLs across different environments. In this work, the genetic control of 17 agronomical and fruit quality traits was investigated in strawberry using a F(1) population derived from an intraspecific cross between two contrasting selection lines, '232' and '1392'. QTL analyses were performed over three successive years based on the separate parental linkage maps and a pseudo-testcross strategy. The integrated strawberry genetic map consists of 338 molecular markers covering 37 linkage groups, thus exceeding the 28 chromosomes. 33 QTLs were identified for 14 of the 17 studied traits and approximately 37% of them were stable over time. For each trait, 1-5 QTLs were identified with individual effects ranging between 9.2 and 30.5% of the phenotypic variation, indicating that all analysed traits are complex and quantitatively inherited. Many QTLs controlling correlated traits were co-located in homoeology group V, indicating linkage or pleiotropic effects of loci. Candidate genes for several QTLs controlling yield, anthocyanins, firmness and L-ascorbic acid are proposed based on both their co-localization and predicted function. We also report conserved QTLs among strawberry and other Rosaceae based on their syntenic location.

  13. Improved understanding of weed biological control safety and impact with chemical ecology: a review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We review chemical ecology literature as it relates to weed biological control and discuss how this means of controlling invasive plants could be enhanced by the consideration of several well established research developments. The interface between chemical ecology and weed biological control presen...

  14. Pythium species and isolate diversity influence inhibition by the biological control agent Streptomyces lydicus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Disease control of soilborne pathogens by biological control agents has often been inconsistent under field conditions. One factor that may contribute to this inconsistency is the variability in response among pathogen populations and/or communities to the selected biological control agent. One hund...

  15. Simulations of population dynamics of hemlock woolly adelgid and potential impact of biological control agents

    Treesearch

    Joseph S. Elkinton; Robert T. Trotter; Ann F. Paradis

    2011-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) is a small invasive Hemipteran herbivore that threatens the continued presence and abundance of hemlock in eastern North America. Efforts to control the adelgid have focused on the introduction of classical biological control agents. These biological controls include six different species of predatory...

  16. Application of systems biology approach identifies and validates GRB2 as a risk gene for schizophrenia in the Irish Case Control Study of Schizophrenia (ICCSS) sample.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingchun; Wan, Chunling; Jia, Peilin; Fanous, Ayman H; Kendler, Kenneth S; Riley, Brien P; Zhao, Zhongming

    2011-02-01

    Recently, we prioritized 160 schizophrenia candidate genes (SZGenes) by integrating multiple lines of evidence and subsequently identified twenty-four pathways in which these 160 genes are overrepresented. Among them, four neurotransmitter-related pathways were top ranked. In this study, we extended our previous pathway analysis by applying a systems biology approach to identifying candidate genes for schizophrenia. We constructed protein-protein interaction subnetworks for four neurotransmitter-related pathways and merged them to obtain a general neurotransmitter network, from which five candidate genes stood out. We tested the association of four genes (GRB2, HSPA5, YWHAG, and YWHAZ) in the Irish Case-Control Study of Schizophrenia (ICCSS) sample (1021 cases and 626 controls). Interestingly, six of the seven tested SNPs in GRB2 showed significant signal, two of which (rs7207618 and rs9912608) remained significant after permutation test or Bonferroni correction, suggesting that GRB2 might be a risk gene for schizophrenia in Irish population. To our knowledge, this is the first report of GRB2 being significantly associated with schizophrenia in a specific population. Our results suggest that the systems biology approach is promising for identification of candidate genes and understanding the etiology of complex diseases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comprehensive Performance Study of Magneto Cantilevers as a Candidate Model for Biological Sensors used in Lab-on-a-Chip Applications.

    PubMed

    Saberkari, Hamidreza; Ghavifekr, Habib Badri; Shamsi, Mousa

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, demand for biological sensors which are capable of fast and accurate detection of minor amounts of pathogens in real-time form has been intensified. Acoustic wave (AW) devices whose performance is determined by mass sensitivity parameters and quality factor are used in biological sensors as platforms with high quality. Yet, current AW devices are facing many challenges such as the low value of their quality factor in practical applications and also their difficulty to use in liquids. The main focus of this article is to study on the magnetostrictive sensors which include milli/microcantilever (MSMC) type. In comparison with AW devices, MSMC has a lot of advantages; (1) its actuation and sensing unit is wirelessly controlled. (2) Its fabrication process is easy. (3) It works well in liquids. (4) It has a high-quality factor (in the air > 500). Simulation results demonstrate that the amount of quality factor depends on environment properties (density and viscosity), MSMC geometry, and its resonant behavior of harmonic modes.

  18. Comprehensive Performance Study of Magneto Cantilevers as a Candidate Model for Biological Sensors used in Lab-on-a-Chip Applications

    PubMed Central

    Saberkari, Hamidreza; Ghavifekr, Habib Badri; Shamsi, Mousa

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, demand for biological sensors which are capable of fast and accurate detection of minor amounts of pathogens in real-time form has been intensified. Acoustic wave (AW) devices whose performance is determined by mass sensitivity parameters and quality factor are used in biological sensors as platforms with high quality. Yet, current AW devices are facing many challenges such as the low value of their quality factor in practical applications and also their difficulty to use in liquids. The main focus of this article is to study on the magnetostrictive sensors which include milli/microcantilever (MSMC) type. In comparison with AW devices, MSMC has a lot of advantages; (1) its actuation and sensing unit is wirelessly controlled. (2) Its fabrication process is easy. (3) It works well in liquids. (4) It has a high-quality factor (in the air > 500). Simulation results demonstrate that the amount of quality factor depends on environment properties (density and viscosity), MSMC geometry, and its resonant behavior of harmonic modes. PMID:26120566

  19. A randomized, controlled trial of the safety of candidate microbicide SPL7013 Gel when applied to the penis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Marcus Y.; Millwood, Iona Y.; Wand, Handan; Poynten, Mary; Law, Matthew; Kaldor, John M.; Wesselingh, Steve; Price, Clare F.; Clark, Laura J.; Paull, Jeremy R.A.; Fairley, Christopher K.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To determine the safety of the candidate vaginal microbicide SPL7013 Gel (VivaGel®) when applied to the penis. Methods A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study. Thirty-six healthy men (18 circumcised, 18 uncircumcised), were randomized in a 2:1 ratio and treated with 3% SPL7013 Gel (N=24) or placebo gel (N=12), applied once daily for 7 days. Genital toxicity was determined by interview, diary, and examination. Results There were 10 genital adverse events (AEs) in 6 men (25%) receiving SPL7013 Gel, and 5 genital AEs in 4 men (33%) receiving the placebo that were possibly or probably related to the study product (difference of −8%, 95% CI: −40% to 23%, p=0.70). The most common genital AEs were genital pruritus and application site erythema. All genital AEs were mild (grade 1), and all but one, in the placebo group, were transient. Analysis of vital signs, non-genital AEs, and laboratory results indicated no safety or tolerability issues with SPL7013 Gel, irrespective of circumcision status. There was no detectable absorption of SPL7013 into the plasma. Conclusions 3% SPL7013 Gel was safe and well tolerated, and comparable with placebo, when administered to the penis of both circumcised and uncircumcised men once daily for 7 days, with no evidence of systemic absorption or toxicity. PMID:19214122

  20. A consultation on the optimization of controlled human malaria infection by mosquito bite for evaluation of candidate malaria vaccines.

    PubMed

    Laurens, Matthew B; Duncan, Christopher J; Epstein, Judith E; Hill, Adrian V; Komisar, Jack L; Lyke, Kirsten E; Ockenhouse, Christian F; Richie, Thomas L; Roestenberg, Meta; Sauerwein, Robert W; Spring, Michele D; Talley, Angela K; Moorthy, Vasee S

    2012-08-03

    Early clinical investigations of candidate malaria vaccines and antimalarial medications increasingly employ an established model of controlled human malaria infection (CHMI). Study results are used to guide further clinical development of vaccines and antimalarial medications as CHMI results to date are generally predictive of efficacy in malaria-endemic areas. The urgency to rapidly develop an efficacious malaria vaccine has increased demand for efficacy studies that include CHMI and the need for comparability of study results among the different centres conducting CHMI. An initial meeting with the goal to optimize and standardise CHMI procedures was held in 2009 with follow-up meetings in March and June 2010 to harmonise methods used at different centres. The end result is a standardised document for the design and conduct of CHMI and a second document for the microscopy methods used to determine the patency endpoint. These documents will facilitate high accuracy and comparability of CHMI studies and will be revised commensurate with advances in the field. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Eicosanoids: Exploiting Insect Immunity to Improve Biological Control Programs

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, David; Haas, Eric; Miller, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Insects, like all invertebrates, express robust innate, but not adaptive, immune reactions to infection and invasion. Insect immunity is usually resolved into three major components. The integument serves as a physical barrier to infections. Within the hemocoel, the circulating hemocytes are the temporal first line of defense, responsible for clearing the majority of infecting bacterial cells from circulation. Specific cellular defenses include phagocytosis, microaggregation of hemocytes with adhering bacteria, nodulation and encapsulation. Infections also stimulate the humoral component of immunity, which involves the induced expression of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides and activation of prophenoloxidase. These peptides appear in the hemolymph of challenged insects 6–12 hours after the challenge. Prostaglandins and other eicosanoids are crucial mediators of innate immune responses. Eicosanoid biosynthesis is stimulated by infection in insects. Inhibition of eicosanoid biosynthesis lethally renders experimental insects unable to clear bacterial infection from hemolymph. Eicosanoids mediate specific cell actions, including phagocytosis, microaggregation, nodulation, hemocyte migration, hemocyte spreading and the release of prophenoloxidase from oenocytoids. Some invaders have evolved mechanisms to suppress insect immunity; a few of them suppress immunity by targeting the first step in the eicosanoid biosynthesis pathways, the enzyme phospholipase A2. We proposed research designed to cripple insect immunity as a technology to improve biological control of insects. We used dsRNA to silence insect genes encoding phospholipase A2, and thereby inhibited the nodulation reaction to infection. The purpose of this article is to place our view of applying dsRNA technologies into the context of eicosanoid actions in insect immunity. The long-term significance of research in this area lies in developing new pest management technologies to contribute to food security in

  2. Mass-production of the arundo wasp and other insects for biological weed control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mass-rearing is underutilized in biological weed control, despite the wealth of biological information available for insects that have been released and the utility of inoculative releases using large numbers of insects to maximize establishment. Mass-rearing is particularly uncommon for biological...

  3. Candidate gene selection and detailed morphological evaluations of fs8.1, a quantitative trait locus controlling tomato fruit shape.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liang; Rodriguez, Gustavo R; Clevenger, Josh P; Illa-Berenguer, Eudald; Lin, Jinshan; Blakeslee, Joshua J; Liu, Wenli; Fei, Zhangjun; Wijeratne, Asela; Meulia, Tea; van der Knaap, Esther

    2015-10-01

    fs8.1 is a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) that controls the elongated shape of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit. In this study, we fine-mapped the locus from a 47Mb to a 3.03Mb interval on the long arm of chromosome 8. Of the 122 annotated genes found in the fs8.1 region, 51 were expressed during floral development and six were differentially expressed in anthesis-stage ovaries in fs8.1 and wild-type (WT) lines. To identify possible nucleotide polymorphisms that may underlie the fruit shape phenotype, genome sequence analyses between tomato cultivars carrying the mutant and WT allele were conducted. This led to the identification of 158 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and five small indels in the fs8.1 interval, including 31 that could be associated with changes in gene expression or function. Morphological and histological analyses showed that the effects of fs8.1 were mainly on reproductive organ elongation by increasing cell number in the proximal-distal direction. Fruit weight was also increased in fs8.1 compared with WT, which was predominantly attributed to the increased fruit length. By combining the findings from the different analyses, we consider 12 likely candidate genes to underlie fs8.1, including Solyc08g062580 encoding a pentatricopeptide repeat protein, Solyc08g061560 encoding a putative orthologue of ERECTA, which is known to control fruit morphology and inflorescence architecture in Arabidopsis, Solyc08g061910 encoding a GTL2-like trihelix transcription factor, Solyc08g061930 encoding a protein that regulates cytokinin degradation, and two genes, Solyc08g062340 and Solyc08g062450, encoding 17.6kDa class II small heat-shock proteins.

  4. Definition of arthritis candidate risk genes by combining rat linkage-mapping results with human case-control association data.

    PubMed

    Bäckdahl, L; Guo, J P; Jagodic, M; Becanovic, K; Ding, B; Olsson, T; Lorentzen, J C

    2009-12-01

    To define genomic regions that link to rat arthritis and to determine the potential association with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of the corresponding human genomic regions. Advanced intercross lines (AIL) between arthritis susceptible DA rats and arthritis resistant PVG.1AV1 rats were injected with differently arthritogenic oils to achieve an experimental situation with substantial phenotypic variation in the rat study population. Genotyping of microsatellite markers was performed over genomic regions with documented impact on arthritis, located on rat chromosomes 4, 10 and 12. Linkage between genotypes and phenotypes were determined by R/quantitative trait loci (QTL). Potential association with RA of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in homologous human chromosome regions was evaluated from public Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) data derived from 2000 cases and 3000 controls. A high frequency of arthritis (57%) was recorded in 422 rats injected with pristane. Maximum linkage to pristane-induced arthritis occurred less than 130 kb from the known genetic arthritis determinants Ncf1 and APLEC, demonstrating remarkable mapping precision. Five novel quantitative trait loci were mapped on rat chromosomes 4 and 10, with narrow confidence intervals. Some exerted sex-biased effects and some were linked to chronic arthritis. Human homologous genomic regions contain loci where multiple nearby SNPs associate nominally with RA (eg, at the genes encoding protein kinase Calpha and interleukin 17 receptor alpha). High-resolution mapping in AIL populations defines limited sets of candidate risk genes, some of which appear also to associate with RA and thus may give clues to evolutionarily conserved pathways that lead to arthritis.

  5. Candidate gene selection and detailed morphological evaluations of fs8.1, a quantitative trait locus controlling tomato fruit shape

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Liang; Rodriguez, Gustavo R.; Clevenger, Josh P.; Illa-Berenguer, Eudald; Lin, Jinshan; Blakeslee, Joshua J.; Liu, Wenli; Fei, Zhangjun; Wijeratne, Asela; Meulia, Tea; van der Knaap, Esther

    2015-01-01

    fs8.1 is a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) that controls the elongated shape of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit. In this study, we fine-mapped the locus from a 47Mb to a 3.03Mb interval on the long arm of chromosome 8. Of the 122 annotated genes found in the fs8.1 region, 51 were expressed during floral development and six were differentially expressed in anthesis-stage ovaries in fs8.1 and wild-type (WT) lines. To identify possible nucleotide polymorphisms that may underlie the fruit shape phenotype, genome sequence analyses between tomato cultivars carrying the mutant and WT allele were conducted. This led to the identification of 158 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and five small indels in the fs8.1 interval, including 31 that could be associated with changes in gene expression or function. Morphological and histological analyses showed that the effects of fs8.1 were mainly on reproductive organ elongation by increasing cell number in the proximal–distal direction. Fruit weight was also increased in fs8.1 compared with WT, which was predominantly attributed to the increased fruit length. By combining the findings from the different analyses, we consider 12 likely candidate genes to underlie fs8.1, including Solyc08g062580 encoding a pentatricopeptide repeat protein, Solyc08g061560 encoding a putative orthologue of ERECTA, which is known to control fruit morphology and inflorescence architecture in Arabidopsis, Solyc08g061910 encoding a GTL2-like trihelix transcription factor, Solyc08g061930 encoding a protein that regulates cytokinin degradation, and two genes, Solyc08g062340 and Solyc08g062450, encoding 17.6kDa class II small heat-shock proteins. PMID:26175354

  6. WILD PIGS: BIOLOGY, DAMAGE, CONTROL TECHINQUES AND MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, John; Brisbin, I. Lehr

    2009-12-31

    about anything; and, they can live just about anywhere. On top of that, wild pigs are both very difficult to control and, with the possible exception of island ecosystems, almost impossible to eradicate (Dickson et al. 2001, Sweeney et al. 2003). The solution to the wild pig problem has not been readily apparent. The ultimate answer as to how to control these animals has not been found to date. In many ways, wild pigs are America's most successful large invasive species. All of which means that wild pigs are a veritable nightmare for land and resource managers trying to keep the numbers of these animals and the damage that they do under control. Since the more that one knows about an invasive species, the easier it is to deal with and hopefully control. For wild pigs then, it is better to 'know thy enemy' than to not, especially if one expects to be able to successfully control them. In an effort to better 'know thy enemy,' a two-day symposium was held in Augusta, Georgia, on April 21-22, 2004. This symposium was organized and sponsored by U.S.D.A. Forest Service-Savannah River (USFS-SR), U. S. Department of Energy-Savannah River Operations Office (DOE-SR), the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), the South Carolina Chapter of the Soil & Water Conservation Society, and the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The goal of this symposium was to assemble researchers and land managers to first address various aspects of the biology and damage of wild pigs, and then review the control techniques and management of this invasive species. The result would then be a collected synopsis of what is known about wild pigs in the United States. Although the focus of the symposium was primarily directed toward federal agencies, presenters also included professionals from academic institutions, and private-sector control contractors and land managers. Most of the organizations associated with implementing this symposium were affiliated with the Savannah River Site (SRS), a

  7. Control of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Gallinarum in birds by using live vaccine candidate containing attenuated Salmonella Gallinarum mutant strain.

    PubMed

    Penha Filho, Rafael Antonio Casarin; de Paiva, Jacqueline Boldrin; da Silva, Mariana Dias; de Almeida, Adriana Maria; Berchieri, Angelo

    2010-04-01

    is a promising Salmonella live vaccine candidate that demonstrated good efficacy to control the infection by two serotypes of major importance to the poultry industry.

  8. Preformulation considerations for controlled release dosage forms. Part III. Candidate form selection using numerical weighting and scoring.

    PubMed

    Chrzanowski, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Two numerical methods, Decision Analysis (DA) and Potential Problem Analysis (PPA) are presented as alternative selection methods to the logical method presented in Part I. In DA properties are weighted and outcomes are scored. The weighted scores for each candidate are totaled and final selection is based on the totals. Higher scores indicate better candidates. In PPA potential problems are assigned a seriousness factor and test outcomes are used to define the probability of occurrence. The seriousness-probability products are totaled and forms with minimal scores are preferred. DA and PPA have never been compared to the logical-elimination method. Additional data were available for two forms of McN-5707 to provide complete preformulation data for five candidate forms. Weight and seriousness factors (independent variables) were obtained from a survey of experienced formulators. Scores and probabilities (dependent variables) were provided independently by Preformulation. The rankings of the five candidate forms, best to worst, were similar for all three methods. These results validate the applicability of DA and PPA for candidate form selection. DA and PPA are particularly applicable in cases where there are many candidate forms and where each form has some degree of unfavorable properties.

  9. Biology and host range of Omolabus piceus, a weevil rejected for biological control for Schinus terebinthifolius in the USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Surveys for biological control agents of the invasive weed Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae) discovered two Omolabus weevils (Coleoptera: Attelabidae) feeding on the plant in its native range. Molecular and morphological analysis indicated that one of these species consistently fed on the tar...

  10. Biological control of the Mediterranean fruit fly in Israel: biological parameters of imported parasitoid wasps

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three braconid species that parasitize the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), CERATITIS CAPITATA (Wiedemann) were recently imported into Israel. Several of their key biological parameters were studied. The longevities of the egg-attacking parasitoids FOPIUS ARISANUS and FOPIUS CERATITIVORUS, and t...

  11. Current levels of suppression of waterhyacinth in Florida by classical biological control agents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes, has been a global target for classical biological control efforts for decades. In Florida, herbicides are the primary tactic employed, usually without regard for the activities of the three biological control agents introduced intentionally during the 1970's, na...

  12. Economic value of biological control in integrated pest management of managed plant systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biological control is an underlying pillar of integrated pest management, yet little focus has been placed on assigning economic value to this key ecosystem service. Setting biological control on a firm economic foundation would help to broaden its utility and adoption for sustainable crop protectio...

  13. Introduction to the Toxin Reviews Special Issue "Aspergillus, Aflatoxin, Cyclopiazonic Acid, and Biological Control"

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This special issue of Toxin Reviews, “Aspergillus, Aflatoxin, CPA and Biological Control of Aflatoxin", is different from previous publications because it focuses on solving the problem of mycotoxin contamination through the use of biological control strains of Aspergillus, which is applicable to th...

  14. Current status and potential of conservation biological control for agriculture in the developing world

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Conservation biological control (CBC), often described as the field of biological control with the the greatest potential for use in the developing world, has received only marginal, scattered research attention outside Western Europe or North America. Thus, pesticide overuse remains rampant in many...

  15. Recent research trends in the use of predators for biological control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We focus on recent interesting research trends in biological control using predators by selecting four areas of current research: 1) Intraguild predation (IGP): defined as the “killing and eating of species that use similar resources and are thus potential competitors”. In biological control, the si...

  16. Biologically based technologies for control of soil-borne plant pathogens of cucumber and oilseed rape

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sustainable intensification of food production is necessary if we are to feed the world’s future population and maintain the resources required to produce this food. Biologically based technologies for disease control, such as microbial biological control agents and cover crops, can be integral to ...

  17. Indirect ecological effects in invaded landscapes: Spillover and spillback from biological control agents to native analogues

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biological control remains an effective option for managing large-scale weed problems in natural areas. The predation or parasitism of biological control agents by other species present in the introduced range (biotic resistance) is well studied and is often cited as the cause for a lack of establis...

  18. Managing conflict over biological control: the case of strawberry guava in Hawaii

    Treesearch

    Tracy Johnson

    2016-01-01

    Biological control researchers commonly avoid targets with potential for high conflict, but for certain highly damaging invaders with no viable management alternatives, it may be necessary to consider biological control even when it is likely to generate conflict. Discussed here is a case study, strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum Sabine...

  19. Plant-mediated interactions: considerations for agent selection in weed biological control programs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant-mediated indirect interactions among herbivores (arthropods and pathogens) are common and extensively reported in the ecological literature. However, they are not well-documented with respect to weed biological control. Such interactions between biological control agents can have net positive...

  20. Correlation of salivary glucose, blood glucose and oral candidal carriage in the saliva of type 2 diabetics: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Satish; Padmashree, S.; Jayalekshmi, Rema

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To study the correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients, to study the relationship between salivary glucose levels and oral candidal carriage in type 2 diabetic patients and to determine whether salivary glucose levels could be used as a noninvasive tool for the measurement of glycemic control in type 2 diabetics. Study Design: The study population consisted of three groups: Group 1 consisted of 30 controlled diabetics and Group 2 consisted of 30 uncontrolled diabetics based on their random nonfasting plasma glucose levels. Group 3 consisted of 30 healthy controls. Two milliliters of peripheral blood was collected for the estimation of random nonfasting plasma glucose levels and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Unstimulated saliva was collected for the estimation of salivary glucose. Saliva was collected by the oral rinse technique for the estimation of candidal counts. Results: The salivary glucose levels were significantly higher in controlled and uncontrolled diabetics when compared with controls. The salivary candidal carriage was also significantly higher in uncontrolled diabetics when compared with controlled diabetics and nondiabetic controls. The salivary glucose levels showed a significant correlation with blood glucose levels, suggesting that salivary glucose levels can be used as a monitoring tool for predicting glycemic control in diabetic patients. Conclusion: The present study found that estimation of salivary glucose levels can be used as a noninvasive, painless technique for the measurement of diabetic status of a patient in a dental set up. Increased salivary glucose levels leads to increased oral candidal carriage; therefore, oral diagnosticians are advised to screen the diabetic patients for any oral fungal infections and further management. PMID:25191065

  1. Evolutionary game based control for biological systems with applications in drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaobo; Lenaghan, Scott C; Zhang, Mingjun

    2013-06-07

    Control engineering and analysis of biological systems have become increasingly important for systems and synthetic biology. Unfortunately, no widely accepted control framework is currently available for these systems, especially at the cell and molecular levels. This is partially due to the lack of appropriate mathematical models to describe the unique dynamics of biological systems, and the lack of implementation techniques, such as ultra-fast and ultra-small devices and corresponding control algorithms. This paper proposes a control framework for biological systems subject to dynamics that exhibit adaptive behavior under evolutionary pressures. The control framework was formulated based on evolutionary game based modeling, which integrates both the internal dynamics and the population dynamics. In the proposed control framework, the adaptive behavior was characterized as an internal dynamic, and the external environment was regarded as an external control input. The proposed open-interface control framework can be integrated with additional control algorithms for control of biological systems. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework, an optimal control strategy was developed and validated for drug delivery using the pathogen Giardia lamblia as a test case. In principle, the proposed control framework can be applied to any biological system exhibiting adaptive behavior under evolutionary pressures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Importance of Intertrophic Interactions in Biological Weed Control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The earliest research leading to successful weed biocontrol included observations and some analysis that the strict “gate-keeping” by peer reviewers, editors and publishers does not often allow today. Within these pioneering studies was a valid picture of the biology of weed biocontrol that is appli...

  3. Control of rugose spiraling whitefly using biological insecticides, 2014

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of selected biological insecticides against a new invasive whitefly pest, Aleurodicus rugioperculatus Martin, in white bird of paradise under field condition. The trial was conducted at United States Horticultural Research Laboratory in Fort P...

  4. Activated Sludge. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boe, Owen K.; Klopping, Paul H.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a seven-lesson unit on activated sludge. Topic areas addressed in the lessons include: (1) activated sludge concepts and components (including aeration tanks, aeration systems, clarifiers, and sludge pumping systems); (2) activated sludge variations and modes; (3) biological nature of activated…

  5. Integrating biological control into pecan weevil management: a sustainable approach

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae, is a key pest of pecans. This article summarizes research and makes recommendations based on a project that was funded in part by the USDA-Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education program and that was aimed at developing biological methods of C. caryae contr...

  6. Biology and rearing of Cleruchoides noackae (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), an egg parasitoid for the biological control of Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae).

    PubMed

    Mutitu, Eston K; Garnas, Jeffrey R; Hurley, Brett P; Wingfield, Michael J; Harney, Marlene; Bush, Samantha J; Slippers, Bernard

    2013-10-01

    Cleruchoides noackae Lin and Huber (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) is a solitary egg parasitoid of Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero and Dellapé (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae). The parasitoid was first described in 2009 and its biology and rearing are poorly understood. A key obstacle to the use of C. noackae as a biological control agent has been the ability to consistently rear it under quarantine conditions. This study reports on a series of experiments conducted in quarantine to rear C. noackae and to examine the effects of diet on longevity, per capita reproduction, and progeny sex ratio, as well as to determine development time, and preference and suitability of host eggs of different ages. When supplemented with honey solution, the longevity of C. noackae females increased significantly by 2.4 d and that of males by 1.7 d, relative to the unfed adults. Mean per capita reproduction for the honey-fed wasps was 7.7 offspring per female, with progeny sex ratio slightly skewed toward males. Mean percentage parasitism was 32.2%. C. noackae was capable of parasitizing and completing development from oviposition to adult eclosion within 15.7 d in host eggs between 0 and 5 d old. The ability of C. noackae to parasitize a wide range of host egg ages increases the period of vulnerability of T. peregrinus to attack, increasing its potential efficacy as a biological control agent. The methods and results reported here represent a crucial step in the ongoing efforts to develop this potential biological control system.

  7. Physical Constraints on Biological Integral Control Design for Homeostasis and Sensory Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Jordan; McMillen, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology includes an effort to use design-based approaches to create novel controllers, biological systems aimed at regulating the output of other biological processes. The design of such controllers can be guided by results from control theory, including the strategy of integral feedback control, which is central to regulation, sensory adaptation, and long-term robustness. Realization of integral control in a synthetic network is an attractive prospect, but the nature of biochemical networks can make the implementation of even basic control structures challenging. Here we present a study of the general challenges and important constraints that will arise in efforts to engineer biological integral feedback controllers or to analyze existing natural systems. Constraints arise from the need to identify target output values that the combined process-plus-controller system can reach, and to ensure that the controller implements a good approximation of integral feedback control. These constraints depend on mild assumptions about the shape of input-output relationships in the biological components, and thus will apply to a variety of biochemical systems. We summarize our results as a set of variable constraints intended to provide guidance for the design or analysis of a working biological integral feedback controller. PMID:23442873

  8. Physical constraints on biological integral control design for homeostasis and sensory adaptation.

    PubMed

    Ang, Jordan; McMillen, David R

    2013-01-22

    Synthetic biology includes an effort to use design-based approaches to create novel controllers, biological systems aimed at regulating the output of other biological processes. The design of such controllers can be guided by results from control theory, including the strategy of integral feedback control, which is central to regulation, sensory adaptation, and long-term robustness. Realization of integral control in a synthetic network is an attractive prospect, but the nature of biochemical networks can make the implementation of even basic control structures challenging. Here we present a study of the general challenges and important constraints that will arise in efforts to engineer biological integral feedback controllers or to analyze existing natural systems. Constraints arise from the need to identify target output values that the combined process-plus-controller system can reach, and to ensure that the controller implements a good approximation of integral feedback control. These constraints depend on mild assumptions about the shape of input-output relationships in the biological components, and thus will apply to a variety of biochemical systems. We summarize our results as a set of variable constraints intended to provide guidance for the design or analysis of a working biological integral feedback controller.

  9. Use of Six Sigma Worksheets for assessment of internal and external failure costs associated with candidate quality control rules for an ADVIA 120 hematology analyzer.

    PubMed

    Cian, Francesco; Villiers, Elisabeth; Archer, Joy; Pitorri, Francesca; Freeman, Kathleen

    2014-06-01

    Quality control (QC) validation is an essential tool in total quality management of a veterinary clinical pathology laboratory. Cost-analysis can be a valuable technique to help identify an appropriate QC procedure for the laboratory, although this has never been reported in veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to determine the applicability of the Six Sigma Quality Cost Worksheets in the evaluation of possible candidate QC rules identified by QC validation. Three months of internal QC records were analyzed. EZ Rules 3 software was used to evaluate candidate QC procedures, and the costs associated with the application of different QC rules were calculated using the Six Sigma Quality Cost Worksheets. The costs associated with the current and the candidate QC rules were compared, and the amount of cost savings was calculated. There was a significant saving when the candidate 1-2.5s, n = 3 rule was applied instead of the currently utilized 1-2s, n = 3 rule. The savings were 75% per year (£ 8232.5) based on re-evaluating all of the patient samples in addition to the controls, and 72% per year (£ 822.4) based on re-analyzing only the control materials. The savings were also shown to change accordingly with the number of samples analyzed and with the number of daily QC procedures performed. These calculations demonstrated the importance of the selection of an appropriate QC procedure, and the usefulness of the Six Sigma Costs Worksheet in determining the most cost-effective rule(s) when several candidate rules are identified by QC validation. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  10. The Molecular Revolution in Cutaneous Biology: EDC and Locus Control.

    PubMed

    Oh, Inez Y; de Guzman Strong, Cristina

    2017-05-01

    The epidermal differentiation complex (EDC) locus consists of a cluster of genes important for the terminal differentiation of the epidermis. While early studies identified the functional importance of individual EDC genes, the recognition of the EDC genes as a cluster with its shared biology, homology, and physical linkage was pivotal to later studies that investigated the transcriptional regulation of the locus. Evolutionary conservation of the EDC and the transcriptional activation during epidermal differentiation suggested a cis-regulatory mechanism via conserved noncoding elements or enhancers. This line of pursuit led to the identification of CNE 923, an epidermal-specific enhancer that was found to mediate chromatin remodeling of the EDC in an AP-1 dependent manner. These genomic studies, as well as the advent of high-throughput sequencing and genome engineering techniques, have paved the way for future investigation into enhancer-mediated regulatory networks in cutaneous biology. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Biological control of aragonite formation in stony corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Von Euw, Stanislas; Zhang, Qihong; Manichev, Viacheslav; Murali, Nagarajan; Gross, Juliane; Feldman, Leonard C.; Gustafsson, Torgny; Flach, Carol; Mendelsohn, Richard; Falkowski, Paul G.

    2017-06-01

    Little is known about how stony corals build their calcareous skeletons. There are two prevailing hypotheses: that it is a physicochemically dominated process and that it is a biologically mediated one. Using a combination of ultrahigh-resolution three-dimensional imaging and two-dimensional solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we show that mineral deposition is biologically driven. Randomly arranged, amorphous nanoparticles are initially deposited in microenvironments enriched in organic material; they then aggregate and form ordered aragonitic structures through crystal growth by particle attachment. Our NMR results are consistent with heterogeneous nucleation of the solid mineral phase driven by coral acid-rich proteins. Such a mechanism suggests that stony corals may be able to sustain calcification even under lower pH conditions that do not favor the inorganic precipitation of aragonite.

  12. Enhancing biological control of basal stem rot disease (Ganoderma boninense) in oil palm plantations.

    PubMed

    Susanto, A; Sudharto, P S; Purba, R Y

    2005-01-01

    Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease caused by Ganoderma boninense is the most destructive disease in oil palm, especially in Indonesia and Malaysia. The available control measures for BSR disease such as cultural practices and mechanical and chemical treatment have not proved satisfactory due to the fact that Ganoderma has various resting stages such as melanised mycelium, basidiospores and pseudosclerotia. Alternative control measures to overcome the Ganoderma problem are focused on the use of biological control agents and planting resistant material. Present studies conducted at Indonesian Oil Palm Research Institute (IOPRI) are focused on enhancing the use of biological control agents for Ganoderma. These activities include screening biological agents from the oil palm rhizosphere in order to evaluate their effectiveness as biological agents in glasshouse and field trials, testing their antagonistic activities in large scale experiments and eradicating potential disease inoculum with biological agents. Several promising biological agents have been isolated, mainly Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride, Gliocladium viride, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Bacillus sp. A glasshouse and field trial for Ganoderma control indicated that treatment with T. harzianum and G. viride was superior to Bacillus sp. A large scale trial showed that the disease incidence was lower in a field treated with biological agents than in untreated fields. In a short term programme, research activities at IOPRI are currently focusing on selecting fungi that can completely degrade plant material in order to eradicate inoculum. Digging holes around the palm bole and adding empty fruit bunches have been investigated as ways to stimulate biological agents.

  13. Dynamics of Boolean networks controlled by biologically meaningful functions.

    PubMed

    Raeymaekers, L

    2002-10-07

    The remarkably stable dynamics displayed by randomly constructed Boolean networks is one of the most striking examples of the spontaneous emergence of self-organization in model systems composed of many interacting elements (Kauffman, S., J. theor. Biol.22, 437-467, 1969; The Origins of Order, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1993). The dynamics of such networks is most stable for a connectivity of two inputs per element, and decreases dramatically with increasing number of connections. Whereas the simplicity of this model system allows the tracing of the dynamical trajectories, it leaves out many features of real biological connections. For instance, the dynamics has been studied in detail only for networks constructed by allowing all theoretically possible Boolean rules, whereas only a subset of them make sense in the material world. This paper analyses the effect on the dynamics of using only Boolean functions which are meaningful in a biological sense. This analysis is particularly relevant for nets with more than two inputs per element because biological networks generally appear to be more extensively interconnected. Sets of the meaningful functions were assembled for up to four inputs per element. The use of these rules results in a smaller number of distinct attractors which have a shorter length, with relatively little sensitivity to the size of the network and to the number of inputs per element. Forcing away the activator/inhibitor ratio from the expected value of 50% further enhances the stability. This effect is more pronounced for networks consisting of a majority of activators than for networks with a corresponding majority of inhibitors, indicating that the former allow the evolution of larger genetic networks. The data further support the idea of the usefulness of logical networks as a conceptual framework for the understanding of real-world phenomena.

  14. Topographically Controlled Fronts in the Ocean and Their Biological Influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolanski, Eric; Hamner, William M.

    1988-07-01

    Headlands, islands, and reefs generate complex threedimensional secondary flows that result in physical and biological fronts. Mixing and diffusion processes near these reefs and headlands are quite different from these processes in the open sea, and classical advection-diffusion models that were developed for the open sea are not valid near shore. Topographically generated fronts affect the distribution of sediments, and they aggregate waterborne eggs, larvae, and plankton. This aggregation influences the distribution and density of benthic assemblages and of pelagic secondary and tertiary predators.

  15. Topographically controlled fronts in the ocean and their biological influence.

    PubMed

    Wolanski, E; Hamner, W M

    1988-07-08

    Headlands, islands, and reefs generate complex three-dimensional secondary flows that result in physical and biological fronts. Mixing and diffusion processes near these reefs and headlands are quite different from these processes in the open sea, and classical advection-diffusion models that were developed for the open sea are not valid near shore. Topographically generated fronts affect the distribution of sediments, and they aggregate waterborne eggs, larvae, and plankton. This aggregation influences the distribution and density of benthic assemblages and of pelagic secondary and tertiary predators.

  16. [Controlling of biological stability in drinking water by purification processes].

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei; Tang, Feng; Zhang, Xiao-jian; He, Wen-jie; Han, Hong-da; Hu, Jian-kun

    2005-11-01

    In a pilot scale system, the formation and removal of BDOC and AOC were compared in the pre-treatment unit, traditional treatment unit and advanced treatment unit. The experimental results indicate that the COD(Mn) removal in a traditional process plus active carbon filter system is 30% and in a traditional process plus ozone and active carbon filter system is more than 50%. The AOC contents in the effluent of a traditional process plus active carbon filter system is below 50 microg/L. The optimum process combination in the research is: traditional process plus ozonation plus biological active carbon.

  17. ABT-controllable laser hyperthermia of biological objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotov, Eugene V.; Yakovlev, Ivan V.; Zhadobov, Maxim; Reyman, Alexander M.

    2002-05-01

    The results of experimentally investigated laser heating of optically absorbing inhomogeneities inside the biological objects accompanied with monitoring of internal temperature by acoustical brightness thermometry (ABT) have been presented. One of the urgent problems of modern medicine is to provide organism safety during photodynamic therapy of various neoplasms including malignant ones. In the case when neoplasm differs from normal tissue mainly in optical absorption it seems to be effective to use laser heating for this purpose. In our experiments we used the NIR emission of CW and pulse-periodic Nd:YAG lasers (1064 nm) as well as CW semiconductor laser (800 nm) for heating of tissue- simulating phantom. Optically transparent gelatine with absorbing inhomogeneity inside was used as a phantom. Internal temperature was measured non-invasively by means of multi-channel ABT after long heating of an object by laser radiation. Temperature was also measured independently by contact electronic thermometer. The results of experiments demonstrated high efficiency of ABT application for internal temperature monitoring during PDT and other hyperthermia procedures. Besides that laser radiation can be used for backlighting followed by ABT investigation of internal structure of temperature distribution inside biological tissues. This work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Projects # 00-02-16600; 01-02-06417; 01-02- 17645) and 6th competition-expertise of young scientists of Russian Academy of Sciences (Project #399).

  18. Biological control of wood decay against fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Susi, Petri; Aktuganov, Gleb; Himanen, Juha; Korpela, Timo

    2011-07-01

    Wood (timber) is an important raw material for various purposes, and having biological composition it is susceptible to deterioration by various agents. The history of wood protection by impregnation with synthetic chemicals is almost two hundred years old. However, the ever-increasing public concern and the new environmental regulations on the use of chemicals have created the need for the development and the use of alternative methods for wood protection. Biological wood protection by antagonistic microbes alone or in combination with (bio)chemicals, is one of the most promising ways for the environmentally sound wood protection. The most effective biocontrol antagonists belong to genera Trichoderma, Gliocladium, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Streptomyces. They compete for an ecological niche by consuming available nutrients as well as by secreting a spectrum of biochemicals effective against various fungal pathogens. The biochemicals include cell wall-degrading enzymes, siderophores, chelating iron and a wide variety of volatile and non-volatile antibiotics. In this review, the nature and the function of the antagonistic microbes in wood protection are discussed.

  19. Anaerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. Areas addressed include: (1) anaerobic sludge digestion (considering the nature of raw sludge, purposes of anaerobic digestion, the results of digestion, types of equipment, and other topics); (2) digester process control (considering feeding…

  20. Biological Control of Introduced Weeds of Native Hawaiian Forests

    Treesearch

    George P. Markin; Roddy F. Nagata; Donald E. Gardner

    1992-01-01

    Among the many threats to the continued existence of the remaining native forests and other native ecosystems of the Hawaiian Islands, the most severe and the most difficult to control are the invasion and replacement by induced species of plants. Because conventional methods of plant management have faild to control this invasion, a multiagency, state and federal...

  1. Host specificity of an Italian population of Cosmobaris scolopacea (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), candidate for the biological control of Salsola tragus (Chenopodiaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Russian thistle, Salsola tragus L. (Chenopodiaceae) is a troublesome weed infesting the drier regions of western North America. It is native to Central Asia and infests rangelands and semi-arid pasture lands, croplands, residential, disturbed and industrial areas. Cosmobaris scolopacea (Germar) is a...

  2. De Novo Analysis of the Transcriptome of Meloidogyne enterolobii to Uncover Potential Target Genes for Biological Control

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiangyang; Yang, Dan; Niu, Junhai; Zhao, Jianlong; Jian, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Meloidogyne enterolobii is one of the obligate biotrophic root-knot nematodes that has the ability to reproduce on many economically-important crops. We carried out de novo sequencing of the transcriptome of M. enterolobii using Roche GS FLX and obtained 408,663 good quality reads that were assembled into 8193 contigs and 31,860 singletons. We compared the transcripts in different nematodes that were potential targets for biological control. These included the transcripts that putatively coded for CAZymes, kinases, neuropeptide genes and secretory proteins and those that were involved in the RNAi pathway and immune signaling. Typically, 75 non-membrane secretory proteins with signal peptides secreted from esophageal gland cells were identified as putative effectors, three of which were preliminarily examined using a PVX (pGR107)-based high-throughput transient plant expression system in Nicotiana benthamiana (N. benthamiana). Results showed that these candidate proteins suppressed the programmed cell death (PCD) triggered by the pro-apoptosis protein BAX, and one protein also caused necrosis, suggesting that they might suppress plant immune responses to promote pathogenicity. In conclusion, the current study provides comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of M. enterolobii for the first time and lays a foundation for further investigation and biological control strategies. PMID:27598122

  3. Control of organ size: development, regeneration, and the role of theory in biology.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Charles F

    2015-02-19

    How organs grow to be the right size for the animal is one of the central mysteries of biology. In a paper in BMC Biology, Khammash et al. propose a mechanism for escaping from the deficiencies of feedback control of growth as a mechanism.

  4. (Eds) Proceedings of the XII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This Proceeding book presents the different topics discussed during the 20th Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds in la Grande Motte, France. Topics were: 1)The economic impact; 2)Regulations and feasibility in Europe; 3)The role of modelling in population dynamics; 4)The evolutionary biology; 5...

  5. 21 CFR 310.4 - Biologics; products subject to license control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Biologics; products subject to license control. 310.4 Section 310.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN.... (b) To obtain marketing approval for radioactive biological products for human use, as defined...

  6. 21 CFR 310.4 - Biologics; products subject to license control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Biologics; products subject to license control. 310.4 Section 310.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN.... (b) To obtain marketing approval for radioactive biological products for human use, as defined...

  7. 21 CFR 310.4 - Biologics; products subject to license control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Biologics; products subject to license control. 310.4 Section 310.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN.... (b) To obtain marketing approval for radioactive biological products for human use, as defined...

  8. First controlled vertical flight of a biologically inspired microrobot.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Arancibia, Néstor O; Ma, Kevin Y; Galloway, Kevin C; Greenberg, Jack D; Wood, Robert J

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we present experimental results on altitude control of a flying microrobot. The problem is approached in two stages. In the first stage, system identification of two relevant subsystems composing the microrobot is performed, using a static flapping experimental setup. In the second stage, the information gathered through the static flapping experiments is employed to design the controller used in vertical flight. The design of the proposed controller relies on the idea of treating an exciting signal as a subsystem of the microrobot. The methods and results presented here are a key step toward achieving total autonomy of bio-inspired flying microrobots.

  9. Dynamic heterogeneity controls diffusion and viscosity near biological interfaces.

    PubMed

    Pronk, Sander; Lindahl, Erik; Kasson, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    At a nanometre scale, the behaviour of biological fluids is largely governed by interfacial physical chemistry. This may manifest as slowed or anomalous diffusion. Here we describe how measures developed for studying glassy systems allow quantitative measurement of interfacial effects on water dynamics, showing that correlated motions of particles near a surface result in a viscosity greater than anticipated from individual particle motions. This effect arises as a fundamental consequence of spatial heterogeneity on nanometre length scales and applies to any fluid near any surface. Increased interfacial viscosity also causes the classic finding that large solutes such as proteins diffuse much more slowly than predicted in bulk water. This has previously been treated via an empirical correction to the solute size: the hydrodynamic radius. Using measurements of quantities from theories of glass dynamics, we can now calculate diffusion constants from molecular details alone, eliminating the empirical correction factor.

  10. Controlling the Geometry of Silver Nanostructures for Biological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkarran, Ali Akbar; Estakhri, Saba; Nezhad, Mohammad Reza Hormozi; Eshghi, Sima

    Noble metals nanostructures, particularly silver, have attracted much attention in the fields of electronics, chemistry, physics, biology and medicine due to their unique properties which are strongly dependent on the size and shape of metal nanomaterials. This study discusses on silver nanostructures with different geometries including wire, cube, sphere and triangle prepared using solution-phase method and applied for antibacterial activities. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Ultra Violet Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and electron microscopy studies of different types of silver nanostructures revealed distinct optical and structural properties of an individual silver nanostructure. We have also evaluated the antibacterial activity of different shapes of silver nanostructures against Escherichia coli (E.coli), Bacillus and Staphylococcus. Results presents shape dependent antimicrobial activity of silver nanostructures.

  11. Marine biological controls on atmospheric CO2 and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelroy, M. B.

    1983-01-01

    It is argued that the ocean is losing N gas faster than N is being returned to the ocean, and that replenishment of the N supply in the ocean usually occurs during ice ages. Available N from river and estruarine transport and from rainfall after formation by lightning are shown to be at a rate too low to compensate for the 10,000 yr oceanic lifetime of N. Ice sheets advance and transfer moraine N to the ocean, lower the sea levels, erode the ocean beds, promote greater biological productivity, and reduce CO2. Ice core samples have indicated a variability in the atmospheric N content that could be attributed to the ice age scenario.

  12. Dynamic heterogeneity controls diffusion and viscosity near biological interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronk, Sander; Lindahl, Erik; Kasson, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    At a nanometre scale, the behaviour of biological fluids is largely governed by interfacial physical chemistry. This may manifest as slowed or anomalous diffusion. Here we describe how measures developed for studying glassy systems allow quantitative measurement of interfacial effects on water dynamics, showing that correlated motions of particles near a surface result in a viscosity greater than anticipated from individual particle motions. This effect arises as a fundamental consequence of spatial heterogeneity on nanometre length scales and applies to any fluid near any surface. Increased interfacial viscosity also causes the classic finding that large solutes such as proteins diffuse much more slowly than predicted in bulk water. This has previously been treated via an empirical correction to the solute size: the hydrodynamic radius. Using measurements of quantities from theories of glass dynamics, we can now calculate diffusion constants from molecular details alone, eliminating the empirical correction factor.

  13. Mechanistically compatible mixtures of bacterial antagonists improve biological control of fire blight of pear.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, V O; Johnson, K B; Sugar, D; Loper, J E

    2011-01-01

    Mixtures of biological control agents can be superior to individual agents in suppressing plant disease, providing enhanced efficacy and reliability from field to field relative to single biocontrol strains. Nonetheless, the efficacy of combinations of Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, a commercial biological control agent for fire blight of pear, and Pantoea vagans strain C9-1 or Pantoea agglomerans strain Eh252 rarely exceeds that of individual strains. A506 suppresses growth of the pathogen on floral colonization and infection sites through preemptive exclusion. C9-1 and Eh252 produce peptide antibiotics that contribute to disease control. In culture, A506 produces an extracellular protease that degrades the peptide antibiotics of C9-1 and Eh252. We hypothesized that strain A506 diminishes the biological control activity of C9-1 and Eh252, thereby reducing the efficacy of biocontrol mixtures. This hypothesis was tested in five replicated field trials comparing biological control of fire blight using strain A506 and A506 aprX::Tn5, an extracellular protease-deficient mutant, as individuals and combined with C9-1 or Eh252. On average, mixtures containing A506 aprX::Tn5 were superior to those containing the wild-type strain, confirming that the extracellular protease of A506 diminished the biological control activity of C9-1 and Eh252 in situ. Mixtures of A506 aprX::Tn5 and C9-1 or Eh252 were superior to oxytetracycline or single biocontrol strains in suppressing fire blight of pear. These experiments demonstrate that certain biological control agents are mechanistically incompatible, in that one strain interferes with the mechanism by which a second strain suppresses plant disease. Mixtures composed of mechanistically compatible strains of biological control agents can suppress disease more effectively than individual biological control agents.

  14. A Review of the Tawny Crazy Ant, Nylanderia fulva, an Emergent Ant Invader in the Southern United States: Is Biological Control a Feasible Management Option?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zinan; Moshman, Lori; Kraus, Emily C.; Wilson, Blake E.; Acharya, Namoona; Diaz, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    The tawny crazy ant, Nylanderia fulva (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), has invaded states of the U.S. including Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, and Georgia. Native to South America, N. fulva is considered a pest in the U.S. capable of annoying homeowners and farmers, as well as displacing native ant species. As it continues to expand its range, there is a growing need to develop novel management techniques to control the pest and prevent further spread. Current management efforts rely heavily on chemical control, but these methods have not been successful. A review of the biology, taxonomy, ecology, and distribution of N. fulva, including discussion of ecological and economic consequences of this invasive species, is presented. Options for future management are suggested focusing on biological control, including parasitoid flies in the genus Pseudacteon, the microsporidian parasite Myrmecomorba nylanderiae, and a novel polynucleotide virus as potential biological control agents. We suggest further investigation of natural enemies present in the adventive range, as well as foreign exploration undertaken in the native range including Paraguay, Brazil, and Argentina. We conclude that N. fulva may be a suitable candidate for biological control. PMID:27983690

  15. Differential physiological responses of dalmatian toadflax, Linaria dalmatica L. Miller, to injury from two insect biological control agents: Implications for decision-making in biological control

    Treesearch

    Robert K. D. Peterson; Sharlene E. Sing; David K. Weaver

    2005-01-01

    Successful biological control of invasive weeds with specialist herbivorous insects is predicated on the assumption that the injury stresses the weeds sufficiently to cause reductions in individual fitness. Because plant gas exchange directly impacts growth and fitness, characterizing how injury affects these primary processes may provide a key indicator of...

  16. Prospects for the use of biological control agents against Anoplophora in Europe

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This review summarises the literature on the biological control of Anoplophora spp. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and discusses its potential for use in Europe. Entomopathogenic fungi: Beauveria brongniartii Petch (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) has already been developed into a commercial product in Ja...

  17. Early-season flood enhances native biological control agents in Wisconsin cranberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biological control is predicated on the concept that crop plants are protected when predators suppress herbivore populations. However, many factors, including concurrent crop protection strategies, may modify the effectiveness of a predator in a given agroecosystem. In Wisconsin commercial cranberry...

  18. Beyond efficacy: Challenges in the selection of safe bacterial biological control agents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The search for new biological control agents often begins with screening in vitro for activity against target pathogens, followed by greenhouse or field assays. Physiological, biochemical, and phylogenetic analyses frequently are not undertaken until much later, after considerable investment already...

  19. Holarchical Systems and Emotional Holons : Biologically-Inspired System Designs for Control of Autonomous Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ippolito, Corey; Plice, Laura; Pisanich, Greg

    2003-01-01

    The BEES (Bio-inspired Engineering for Exploration Systems) for Mars project at NASA Ames Research Center has the goal of developing bio-inspired flight control strategies to enable aerial explorers for Mars scientific investigations. This paper presents a summary of our ongoing research into biologically inspired system designs for control of unmanned autonomous aerial vehicle communities for Mars exploration. First, we present cooperative design considerations for robotic explorers based on the holarchical nature of biological systems and communities. Second, an outline of an architecture for cognitive decision making and control of individual robotic explorers is presented, modeled after the emotional nervous system of cognitive biological systems. Keywords: Holarchy, Biologically Inspired, Emotional UAV Flight Control

  20. Parasitoids attacking emerald ash borers in western Pennsylvania and their potential use in biological control

    Treesearch

    J.J. Duan; R.W. Fuester; J. Wildonger; P.B. Taylor; S. Barth; S-E. Spichiger

    2009-01-01

    Current biological control programs against the emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) have primarily focused on the introduction and releases of exotic parasitoids from China, home of the pest origin....

  1. Host Specificity of Argopistes tsekooni (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a Potential Biological Control Agent of Chinese Privet

    Treesearch

    Yan Zhuo Zhang; James Hanula; Jiang Hua Sun

    2008-01-01

    Chinese privet, Ligustrum sinense Lour., is a perennial semi-evergreen shrub that is aserious invasive weed in the United States. Classical biological control offers the best hope forcontrolling it in an economic, effective, and persistent way. Host...

  2. Utilization of an introduced weed biological control agent by a native parasitoid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A native parasitoid, Kalopolynema ema (Schauff and Grissell) (Hymenoptera, Mymaridae), that usually parasitizes the eggs of Megamelus davisi VanDuzee (Hemiptera, Delphacidae), has begun utilizing a new host, Megamelus scutellaris (Berg) (Hemiptera, Delphacidae), the introduced biological control age...

  3. Biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) by saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.): effects on small mammals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The spread of introduced saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) throughout many riparian systems across the western United States motivated the introduction of biological control agents that are specific to saltcedar, saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda carinulata, D. elongata; Chrysomelidae). I monitored small mam...

  4. High-throughput assay for optimising microbial biological control agent production and delivery

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lack of technologies to produce and deliver effective biological control agents (BCAs) is a major barrier to their commercialization. A myriad of variables associated with BCA cultivation, formulation, drying, storage, and reconstitution processes complicates agent quality maximization. An efficie...

  5. Recent (1977-1980) releases of imported larch casebearer parasites for biological control.

    Treesearch

    Roger B. Ryan

    1981-01-01

    Releases of Diadegma laricinellum (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Dicladocerus westwoodii, Dicladocerus japonicus, Chrysocharis laricinellae, Elachertus argissaj, Necremnus metalarus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and Agathis pumila (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for biological control of the larch casebearer in...

  6. Phytotoxicity assessment for potential biological control of leafy spurge by soilborne microorganisms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula-virgata), a native of Eurasia, is a serious invasive weed of western grasslands of North America. It is very difficult and cost-prohibitive to control with herbicides; control by insect biological control agents and cultural practices are minimally effective in suppress...

  7. Biology, Distribution And Control Of The Cactus Moth, Cactoblastis Cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralide)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) became a textbook example of successful classical biological control after it was imported from Argentina into Australia in 1926 to control invasive Opuntia cacti. To date, the moth continues to play an active role in controlling...

  8. Historical perspective on biological control of postharvest diseases – past, present, and future

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The birth of the field of biological control of postharvest diseases can be traced back to 1984 when a researcher testing an antagonist (Bacillus subtilis) in the field to control brown rot of peaches (caused by Monilinia fructicola ) decided to apply the antagonist directly to the peach to control ...

  9. Metabolic behavior of bacterial biological control agents in soil and plant rhizospheres

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biological control provides an attractive alternative to chemical pesticides for the control of plant diseases. To date, however, few biocontrol products have been developed successfully at the commercial level. This stems largely from variability in disease control performance that is often obser...

  10. Physical and Biological Controls of Copepod Aggregation and Baleen Whale Distribution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Physical and Biological Controls of Copepod Aggregation...distribution. OBJECTIVES The objectives of this study are to • Elucidate the mechanisms of copepod aggregation in the Great South Channel, a...Physical and Biological Controls of Copepod Aggregation and Baleen Whale Distribution 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  11. Physical and Biological Controls of Copepod Aggregation and Baleen Whale Distribution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Physical and Biological Controls of Copepod Aggregation and...DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Physical and Biological Controls of Copepod Aggregation and Baleen Whale Distribution...OBJECTIVES The objectives of this study are to: • Elucidate the mechanisms of copepod aggregation in the Great South Channel, a major

  12. Field Studies and Laboratory Bearing of Arzama densa Walker, A Biological Control Agent against Waterhyacinth.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    WLK.. A BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENT AGAINST WATERHYACINTH PART I: INTRODUCTION 1. Waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, is a perennial... crassipes Solms) in the Nile System, Egypt," Aquatic Bot. 1:243-252. Bock, J. H. 1966. "An Ecological Study of Eichhornia crassipes with Special...biological organisms combined with other types of control methods. 2 141 REFERENCES Batanouny, K. H. and El-Fiky, A. M. 1975. "The Waterhyacinth ( Eichhornia

  13. Recent advances in mammalian synthetic biology-design of synthetic transgene control networks.

    PubMed

    Tigges, Marcel; Fussenegger, Martin

    2009-08-01

    Capitalizing on an era of functional genomic research, systems biology offers a systematic quantitative analysis of existing biological systems thereby providing the molecular inventory of biological parts that are currently being used for rational synthesis and engineering of complex biological systems with novel and potentially useful functions-an emerging discipline known as synthetic biology. During the past decade synthetic biology has rapidly developed from simple control devices fine-tuning the activity of single genes and proteins to multi-gene/protein-based transcription and signaling networks providing new insight into global control and molecular reaction dynamics, thereby enabling the design of novel drug-synthesis pathways as well as genetic devices with unmatched biological functions. While pioneering synthetic devices have first been designed as test, toy, and teaser systems for use in prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes, first examples of a systematic assembly of synthetic gene networks in mammalian cells has sketched the full potential of synthetic biology: foster novel therapeutic opportunities in gene and cell-based therapies. Here we provide a concise overview on the latest advances in mammalian synthetic biology.

  14. Biological Control of Mosquito Vectors: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Benelli, Giovanni; Jeffries, Claire L.; Walker, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes represent the major arthropod vectors of human disease worldwide transmitting malaria, lymphatic filariasis, and arboviruses such as dengue virus and Zika virus. Unfortunately, no treatment (in the form of vaccines or drugs) is available for most of these diseases and vector control is still the main form of prevention. The limitations of traditional insecticide-based strategies, particularly the development of insecticide resistance, have resulted in significant efforts to develop alternative eco-friendly methods. Biocontrol strategies aim to be sustainable and target a range of different mosquito species to reduce the current reliance on insecticide-based mosquito control. In this review, we outline non-insecticide based strategies that have been implemented or are currently being tested. We also highlight the use of mosquito behavioural knowledge that can be exploited for control strategies. PMID:27706105

  15. Biological waste gas treatment with a modified rotating biological contactor. Iota. Control of biofilm growth and long-term performance.

    PubMed

    Vinage, I; von Rohr, P Rudolf

    2003-11-01

    In this work, we introduce a modified rotating biological contactor (RBC) system and demonstrate its feasibility by applying the newly devised process to the biological treatment of artificial waste gas. In the proposed system, the waste gas is introduced to the bioreactor in the spacings between the rotating discs through a hollow shaft, thus allowing for intimate gas-liquid contact. A 91-l modified RBC containing 20 biofilm support discs 40 cm in diameter was used in the experiments. Toluene was used as the model pollutant, and the system was operated under standard operating conditions for more than one year in order to investigate its long-term performance and assess its ability to control the growth of the biofilm. It was demonstrated that the proposed system allows to efficiently control the growth of the biofilm, thus overcoming the clogging problem inherent in most conventional methods for the biological treatment of waste gas. Moreover, the system was shown to exhibit stationary long-term performance for a period of more than one year, hence indicating its feasibility for industrial application.

  16. Novel ESCRT functions in cell biology: spiraling out of control?

    PubMed

    Campsteijn, Coen; Vietri, Marina; Stenmark, Harald

    2016-08-01

    The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT), originally identified for its role in endosomal protein sorting and biogenesis of multivesicular endosomes (MVEs), has proven to be a versatile machinery for involution and scission of narrow membrane invaginations filled with cytosol. Budding of enveloped viruses and cytokinetic abscission were early described functions for the ESCRT machinery, and recently a number of new ESCRT functions have emerged. These include cytokinetic abscission checkpoint control, plasma membrane repair, exovesicle release, quality control of nuclear pore complexes, neuron pruning, and sealing of the newly formed nuclear envelope. Here we review these novel ESCRT mechanisms and discuss similarities and differences between the various ESCRT-dependent activities.

  17. Design and control strategies for CELSS - Integrating mechanistic paradigms and biological complexities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, B., III; Kaufmann, R.; Reinhold, C.

    1981-01-01

    Systems analysis and control theory consideration are given to simulations of both individual components and total systems, in order to develop a reliable control strategy for a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) which includes complex biological components. Because of the numerous nonlinearities and tight coupling within the biological component, classical control theory may be inadequate and the statistical analysis of factorial experiments more useful. The range in control characteristics of particular species may simplify the overall task by providing an appropriate balance of stability and controllability to match species function in the overall design. The ultimate goal of this research is the coordination of biological and mechanical subsystems in order to achieve a self-supporting environment.

  18. Biology, epidemiology, and control of Heterobasidion species worldwide.

    PubMed

    Garbelotto, Matteo; Gonthier, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato is a species complex comprising five species that are widely distributed in coniferous forests of the Northern Hemisphere and are each characterized by a distinct host preference. More than 1,700 papers have been published on these fungi in the past four decades, making them perhaps the most widely studied forest fungi. Heterobasidion species are at different levels on the saprotroph-necrotroph gradient, and the same individual can switch from one mode to the other. This offers a unique opportunity to study how genomic structure, gene expression, and genetic trade-offs may all interact with environmental factors to determine the life mode of the organism. The abilities of Heterobasidion spp. to infect stumps as saprotrophs and to spread to neighboring trees as pathogens have resulted in significant damages to timber production in managed forests. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the biology, ecology, evolution, and management of these species and is based on classical and modern studies.

  19. Microbial control of the dark end of the biological pump

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A fraction of the carbon captured by phytoplankton in the sunlit surface ocean sinks to depth as dead organic matter and faecal material. The microbial breakdown of this material in the subsurface ocean generates carbon dioxide. Collectively, this microbially mediated flux of carbon from the atmosphere to the ocean interior is termed the biological pump. In recent decades it has become clear that the composition of the phytoplankton community in the surface ocean largely determines the quantity and quality of organic matter that sinks to depth. This settling organic matter, however, is not sufficient to meet the energy demands of microbes in the dark ocean. Two additional sources of organic matter have been identified: non-sinking organic particles of debated origin that escape capture by sediment traps and exhibit stable concentrations throughout the dark ocean, and microbes that convert inorganic carbon into organic matter. Whether these two sources can together account for the significant mismatch between organic matter consumption and supply in the dark ocean remains to be seen. It is clear, however, that the microbial community of the deep ocean works in a fundamentally different way from surface water communities. PMID:24707320

  20. Microbial control of the dark end of the biological pump.

    PubMed

    Herndl, Gerhard J; Reinthaler, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    A fraction of the carbon captured by phytoplankton in the sunlit surface ocean sinks to depth as dead organic matter and faecal material. The microbial breakdown of this material in the subsurface ocean generates carbon dioxide. Collectively, this microbially mediated flux of carbon from the atmosphere to the ocean interior is termed the biological pump. In recent decades it has become clear that the composition of the phytoplankton community in the surface ocean largely determines the quantity and quality of organic matter that sinks to depth. This settling organic matter, however, is not sufficient to meet the energy demands of microbes in the dark ocean. Two additional sources of organic matter have been identified: non-sinking organic particles of debated origin that escape capture by sediment traps and exhibit stable concentrations throughout the dark ocean, and microbes that convert inorganic carbon into organic matter. Whether these two sources can together account for the significant mismatch between organic matter consumption and supply in the dark ocean remains to be seen. It is clear, however, that the microbial community of the deep ocean works in a fundamentally different way from surface water communities.

  1. Microbial control of the dark end of the biological pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herndl, Gerhard J.; Reinthaler, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    A fraction of the carbon captured by phytoplankton in the sunlit surface ocean sinks to depth as dead organic matter and faecal material. The microbial breakdown of this material in the subsurface ocean generates carbon dioxide. Collectively, this microbially mediated flux of carbon from the atmosphere to the ocean interior is termed the biological pump. In recent decades it has become clear that the composition of the phytoplankton community in the surface ocean largely determines the quantity and quality of organic matter that sinks to depth. This settling organic matter, however, is not sufficient to meet the energy demands of microbes in the dark ocean. Two additional sources of organic matter have been identified: non-sinking organic particles of debated origin that escape capture by sediment traps and exhibit stable concentrations throughout the dark ocean, and microbes that convert inorganic carbon into organic matter. Whether these two sources can together account for the significant mismatch between organic matter consumption and supply in the dark ocean remains to be seen. It is clear, however, that the microbial community of the deep ocean works in a fundamentally different way from surface water communities.

  2. Biology and control of the raspberry crown borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    PubMed

    McKern, Jacquelyn A; Johnson, Donn T; Lewis, Barbara A

    2007-04-01

    This study explored the biology of raspberry crown borer, Pennisetia marginata (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), in Arkansas and the optimum timing for insecticide and nematode applications. The duration of P. marginata's life cycle was observed to be 1 yr in Arkansas. Insecticide trials revealed that bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, metaflumizone, and metofluthrin efficacy were comparable with that of azinphosmethyl, the only labeled insecticide for P. marginata in brambles until 2005. Applications on 23 October 2003 for plots treated with bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and azinphosmethyl resulted in >88% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 3 November 2004 of metaflumizone, metofluthrin, and bifenthrin resulted in >89% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 7 April 2005 for metofluthrin, imidacloprid, bifenthrin, metaflumizone, and benzoylphenyl urea resulted in >64% reduction in the number of larvae per crown. Applications on 6 May 2004 did not reduce larval numbers. The optimum timing for treatments was found to be between October and early April, before the larvae tunneled into the crowns of plants. Applying bifenthrin with as little as 468 liters water/ha (50 gal/acre) was found to be as effective against larvae as higher volumes of spray. Nematode applications were less successful than insecticides. Nematode applications of Steinernemafeltiae, Steinernema carpocapsae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora reduced larvae counts per plant by 46, 53, and 33%, respectively.

  3. DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT CONTROL THROUGH BIOLOGICAL FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disinfection by-product (DBP) control through biofiltration is defined as the removal of DBP precursor mateterial (PM) by bacteria attached to the filte nedia. The PM consists of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and is utilized by the filter bacteria as a substrate for cell mainten...

  4. Anaerobic Digestion. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This instructor's guide contains materials needed to teach a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. These materials include: (1) unit overview; (2) lesson plans; (3) lecture outlines; (4) student worksheets for each lesson (with answers); and (5) two copies of a final quiz (with and without answers). Lesson 1 is a review of the theory of…

  5. Insect pathogens as biological control agents: back to the future

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the past 15 years a number of successes and setbacks have taken place regarding development and use of microbial control agents. In this Forum paper we present current information on development, use and future directions of entomopathogenic virus, bacteria, fungi and nematodes as components of i...

  6. Facultative Lagoons. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lorri

    The textual material for a unit on facultative lagoons is presented in this student manual. Topic areas discussed include: (1) loading; (2) microbial theory; (3) structure and design; (4) process control; (5) lagoon start-up; (6) data handling and analysis; (7) lagoon maintenance (considering visual observations, pond structure, safety, odor,…

  7. Microsporidia Biological Control Agents and Pathogens of Beneficial Insects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microsporidian infections of insects are generally chronic, causing subtle pathologies of reduced fecundity and shorter lifespans. The lack of acute infections that cause rapid mortality, make microsporida ill-suited as biopesticides for arthropod control. Instead, they are considered to be more use...

  8. Preventive control of Scirtothrips dorsalis with biological insecticides, 2011

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this study was 1) to evaluate the efficacy of the selected entomopathogens against a new invasive thrips pest, chilli thrips (CT) Scirtothrips dorsalis in pepper as a preventive control strategy, and 2) compare potential of entomopathogens with a chemical standard under greenhouse ...

  9. Biological control studies on Convolvulus arvensis L. with fungal pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) is a perennial, noxious weed in Europe and in many agricultural areas of the world, including Turkey. Some pathogenic fungi were identified with potential to control bindweed and some of them could be used as mycoherbicide components. In the summers of 2008, 200...

  10. DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT CONTROL THROUGH BIOLOGICAL FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disinfection by-product (DBP) control through biofiltration is defined as the removal of DBP precursor mateterial (PM) by bacteria attached to the filte nedia. The PM consists of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and is utilized by the filter bacteria as a substrate for cell mainten...

  11. Excitable population dynamics, biological control failure, and spatiotemporal pattern formation in a model ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Morozov, Andrew; Petrovskii, Sergei

    2009-05-01

    Biological control has been attracting an increasing attention over the last two decades as an environmentally friendly alternative to the more traditional chemical-based control. In this paper, we address robustness of the biological control strategy with respect to fluctuations in the controlling species density. Specifically, we consider a pest being kept under control by its predator. The predator response is assumed to be of Holling type III, which makes the system's kinetics "excitable." The system is studied by means of mathematical modeling and extensive numerical simulations. We show that the system response to perturbations in the predator density can be completely different in spatial and non-spatial systems. In the nonspatial system, an overcritical perturbation of the population density results in a pest outbreak that will eventually decay with time, which can be regarded as a success of the biological control strategy. However, in the spatial system, a similar perturbation can drive the system into a self-sustained regime of spatiotemporal pattern formation with a high pest density, which is clearly a biological control failure. We then identify the parameter range where the biological control can still be successful and describe the corresponding regime of the system dynamics. Finally, we identify the main scenarios of the system response to the population density perturbations and reveal the corresponding structure of the parameter space of the system.

  12. Conservation biological control of rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini), in eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Brown, M W; Mathews, Clarissa R

    2007-10-01

    Because of the potentially serious damage rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini) (Homoptera: Aphididae), can cause to apple fruit and branch development, prophylactic insecticides are often used for control. If biological control could be relied on, the amount of pesticide applied in orchards could be reduced. This study examined biological control of rosy apple aphid in eastern West Virginia and the potential for enhancement through conservation biological control, in particular, the effect of interplanting extrafloral nectar-bearing peach trees. By 20 d after first bloom, only 2% of fundatrices initially present survived to form colonies based on regression of data from 687 colonies. Exclusion studies showed that many of the early colonies were probably destroyed by predation; the major predator responsible seemed to be adult Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Mortality before apple bloom was most important in controlling rosy apple aphid population growth but by itself is not sufficiently reliable to prevent economic injury. Interplanting of extrafloral nectar-bearing trees did not increase biological control, and interplanting with 50% trees with extrafloral nectar glands reduced biological control. The number of leaf curl colonies in the 50% interplanted orchards was lower than in monoculture orchards, suggesting a preference of alate oviparae for more diverse habitats, supporting the resource concentration hypothesis but not at a level sufficient to prevent injury. Predation and parasitism after the formation of leaf curl colonies was not adequate to control rosy apple aphid populations.

  13. Genetic Risk Score Modelling for Disease Progression in New-Onset Type 1 Diabetes Patients: Increased Genetic Load of Islet-Expressed and Cytokine-Regulated Candidate Genes Predicts Poorer Glycemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Brorsson, Caroline A.; Nielsen, Lotte B.; Andersen, Marie Louise; Kaur, Simranjeet; Bergholdt, Regine; Hansen, Lars; Mortensen, Henrik B.; Pociot, Flemming; Størling, Joachim; Hvidoere Study Group on Childhood Diabetes

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over 40 type 1 diabetes risk loci. The clinical impact of these loci on β-cell function during disease progression is unknown. We aimed at testing whether a genetic risk score could predict glycemic control and residual β-cell function in type 1 diabetes (T1D). As gene expression may represent an intermediate phenotype between genetic variation and disease, we hypothesized that genes within T1D loci which are expressed in islets and transcriptionally regulated by proinflammatory cytokines would be the best predictors of disease progression. Two-thirds of 46 GWAS candidate genes examined were expressed in human islets, and 11 of these significantly changed expression levels following exposure to proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β + IFNγ + TNFα) for 48 h. Using the GWAS single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from each locus, we constructed a genetic risk score based on the cumulative number of risk alleles carried in children with newly diagnosed T1D. With each additional risk allele carried, HbA1c levels increased significantly within first year after diagnosis. Network and gene ontology (GO) analyses revealed that several of the 11 candidate genes have overlapping biological functions and interact in a common network. Our results may help predict disease progression in newly diagnosed children with T1D which can be exploited for optimizing treatment. PMID:26904692

  14. 78 FR 74218 - Imposition of Additional Sanctions on Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... Imposition of Additional Sanctions on Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare... the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act of 1991, 22 U.S.C. 5604(a) and...(b) of the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act of 1991, as...

  15. Controlled flight of a biologically inspired, insect-scale robot.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kevin Y; Chirarattananon, Pakpong; Fuller, Sawyer B; Wood, Robert J

    2013-05-03

    Flies are among the most agile flying creatures on Earth. To mimic this aerial prowess in a similarly sized robot requires tiny, high-efficiency mechanical components that pose miniaturization challenges governed by force-scaling laws, suggesting unconventional solutions for propulsion, actuation, and manufacturing. To this end, we developed high-power-density piezoelectric flight muscles and a manufacturing methodology capable of rapidly prototyping articulated, flexure-based sub-millimeter mechanisms. We built an 80-milligram, insect-scale, flapping-wing robot modeled loosely on the morphology of flies. Using a modular approach to flight control that relies on limited information about the robot's dynamics, we demonstrated tethered but unconstrained stable hovering and basic controlled flight maneuvers. The result validates a sufficient suite of innovations for achieving artificial, insect-like flight.

  16. Mechanization and Control Concepts for Biologically Inspired Micro Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, David L.; Slominski, Eric C.

    2003-01-01

    It is possible that MAV designs of the future will exploit flapping flight in order to perform missions that require extreme agility, such as rapid flight beneath a forest canopy or within the confines of a building. Many of nature's most agile flyers generate flapping motions through resonant excitation of an aeroelastically tailored structure: muscle tissue is used to excite a vibratory mode of their flexible wing structure that creates propulsion and lift. A number of MAV concepts have been proposed that would operate in a similar fashion. This paper describes an ongoing research activity in which mechanization and control concepts with application to resonant flapping MAVs are being explored. Structural approaches, mechanical design, sensing and wingbeat control concepts inspired by hummingbirds, bats and insects are examined. Experimental results from a testbed capable of generating vibratory wingbeat patterns that approximately match those exhibited by hummingbirds in hover, cruise, and reverse flight are presented.

  17. Biological Control of Mosquito Vectors: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Jeffries, Claire L; Walker, Thomas

    2016-10-03

    Mosquitoes represent the major arthropod vectors of human disease worldwide transmitting malaria, lymphatic filariasis, and arboviruses such as dengue virus and Zika virus. Unfortunately, no treatment (in the form of vaccines or drugs) is available for most of these diseases andvectorcontrolisstillthemainformofprevention. Thelimitationsoftraditionalinsecticide-based strategies, particularly the development of insecticide resistance, have resulted in significant efforts to develop alternative eco-friendly methods. Biocontrol strategies aim to be sustainable and target a range of different mosquito species to reduce the current reliance on insecticide-based mosquito control. In thisreview, weoutline non-insecticide basedstrategiesthat havebeenimplemented orare currently being tested. We also highlight the use of mosquito behavioural knowledge that can be exploited for control strategies.

  18. Wolbachia and the biological control of mosquito-borne disease.

    PubMed

    Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Iñaki; Walker, Thomas; O' Neill, Scott L

    2011-06-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue fever and filariasis cause an enormous health burden to people living in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Despite years of intense effort to control them, many of these diseases are increasing in prevalence, geographical distribution and severity, and options to control them are limited. The transinfection of mosquitos with the maternally inherited, endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia is a promising new biocontrol approach. Fruit fly Wolbachia strains can invade and sustain themselves in mosquito populations, reduce adult lifespan, affect mosquito reproduction and interfere with pathogen replication. Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes have been released in areas of Australia in which outbreaks of dengue fever occur, as a prelude to the application of this technology in dengue-endemic areas of south-east Asia.

  19. Biological Controls on the Precipitation of Chromium in Harbor Sediments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-30

    relative to control aquaria. Pantoea agglomerans su·ain SPl, a facultative anaerobic bacterium, can grow anaerobically with the dissimilatmy...facultative anaerobe Pantoea agglomerans SP1. 2000. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 66: 543-548. Obraztsova A.Y., Francis, C.A., and Tebo B.M...Sulfur Disproportionation by the Facultative Anaerobe Pantoea agglomerans SP1 as a Mechanism for Chromium(VI) Reduction. Geomicrobiology Journal (accepted). 5

  20. Probiotic Bacteria as Biological Control Agents in Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Verschuere, Laurent; Rombaut, Geert; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Verstraete, Willy

    2000-01-01

    There is an urgent need in aquaculture to develop microbial control strategies, since disease outbreaks are recognized as important constraints to aquaculture production and trade and since the development of antibiotic resistance has become a matter of growing concern. One of the alternatives to antimicrobials in disease control could be the use of probiotic bacteria as microbial control agents. This review describes the state of the art of probiotic research in the culture of fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and live food, with an evaluation of the results obtained so far. A new definition of probiotics, also applicable to aquatic environments, is proposed, and a detailed description is given of their possible modes of action, i.e., production of compounds that are inhibitory toward pathogens, competition with harmful microorganisms for nutrients and energy, competition with deleterious species for adhesion sites, enhancement of the immune response of the animal, improvement of water quality, and interaction with phytoplankton. A rationale is proposed for the multistep and multidisciplinary process required for the development of effective and safe probiotics for commercial application in aquaculture. Finally, directions for further research are discussed. PMID:11104813

  1. A direct molecular link between the autism candidate gene RORa and the schizophrenia candidate MIR137

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devanna, Paolo; Vernes, Sonja C.

    2014-02-01

    Retinoic acid-related orphan receptor alpha gene (RORa) and the microRNA MIR137 have both recently been identified as novel candidate genes for neuropsychiatric disorders. RORa encodes a ligand-dependent orphan nuclear receptor that acts as a transcriptional regulator and miR-137 is a brain enriched small non-coding RNA that interacts with gene transcripts to control protein levels. Given the mounting evidence for RORa in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and MIR137 in schizophrenia and ASD, we investigated if there was a functional biological relationship between these two genes. Herein, we demonstrate that miR-137 targets the 3'UTR of RORa in a site specific manner. We also provide further support for MIR137 as an autism candidate by showing that a large number of previously implicated autism genes are also putatively targeted by miR-137. This work supports the role of MIR137 as an ASD candidate and demonstrates a direct biological link between these previously unrelated autism candidate genes.

  2. Parasitoids of Queensland Fruit Fly Bactrocera tryoni in Australia and Prospects for Improved Biological Control

    PubMed Central

    Zamek, Ashley L.; Spinner, Jennifer E.; Micallef, Jessica L.; Gurr, Geoff M.; Reynolds, Olivia L.

    2012-01-01

    This review draws together available information on the biology, methods for study, and culturing of hymenopteran parasitoids of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, and assesses prospects for improving biological control of this serious pest. Augmentative release of the native and naturalised Australian parasitoids, especially the braconid Diachasmimorpha tryoni, may result in better management of B. tryoni in some parts of Australia. Mass releases are an especially attractive option for areas of inland eastern Australia around the Fruit Fly Exclusion Zone that produces B. tryoni-free fruits for export. Diachasmimorpha tryoni has been successful in other locations such as Hawaii for the biological control of other fruit fly species. Biological control could contribute to local eradication of isolated outbreaks and more general suppression and/or eradication of the B. tryoni population in endemic areas. Combining biological control with the use of sterile insect technique offers scope for synergy because the former is most effective at high pest densities and the latter most economical when the pest becomes scarce. Recommendations are made on methods for culturing and study of four B. tryoni parasitoids present in Australia along with research priorities for optimising augmentative biological control of B. tryoni. PMID:26466726

  3. Parasitoids of Queensland Fruit Fly Bactrocera tryoni in Australia and Prospects for Improved Biological Control.

    PubMed

    Zamek, Ashley L; Spinner, Jennifer E; Micallef, Jessica L; Gurr, Geoff M; Reynolds, Olivia L

    2012-10-22

    This review draws together available information on the biology, methods for study, and culturing of hymenopteran parasitoids of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, and assesses prospects for improving biological control of this serious pest. Augmentative release of the native and naturalised Australian parasitoids, especially the braconid Diachasmimorpha tryoni, may result in better management of B. tryoni in some parts of Australia. Mass releases are an especially attractive option for areas of inland eastern Australia around the Fruit Fly Exclusion Zone that produces B. tryoni-free fruits for export. Diachasmimorpha tryoni has been successful in other locations such as Hawaii for the biological control of other fruit fly species. Biological control could contribute to local eradication of isolated outbreaks and more general suppression and/or eradication of the B. tryoni population in endemic areas. Combining biological control with the use of sterile insect technique offers scope for synergy because the former is most effective at high pest densities and the latter most economical when the pest becomes scarce. Recommendations are made on methods for culturing and study of four B. tryoni parasitoids present in Australia along with research priorities for optimising augmentative biological control of B. tryoni.

  4. Screening Spanish isolates of steinernematid nematodes for use as biological control agents through laboratory and greenhouse microcosm studies.

    PubMed

    Campos-Herrera, Raquel; Gutiérrez, Carmen

    2009-02-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are one of the best non-chemical alternatives for insect pest control, with native EPN strains that are adapted to local conditions considered to be ideal candidates for regional biological control programs. Virulence screening of 17 native Mediterranean EPN strains was performed to select the most promising strain for regional insect pest control. Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) Rioja strain produced 7%, 91% and 33% larval mortality for the insects Agriotes sordidus (Illiger) (Coleoptera: Elateridae), Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), respectively, and was selected as the most promising strain. The S. feltiae Rioja strain-S. littoralis combination was considered the most suitable to develop the Rioja strain as a biocontrol agent for soil applications. The effect of soil texture on the virulence of the Rioja strain against S. littoralis was determined through dose-response experiments. The estimated LC(90) to kill larvae in two days was 220, 753 and 4178 IJs/cm(2) for soils with a clay content of 5%, 14% and 24%, respectively, which indicates that heavy soils produced negative effects on the virulence of the Rioja strain. The nematode dose corresponding to the LC(90) for soils with a 5% and 14% clay content reduced insect damage to Capsicum annuum Linnaeus (Solanales: Solanaceae) plants under greenhouse microcosm conditions. The results of this research suggest that an accurate characterization of new EPN strains to select the most suitable combination of insect, nematode and soil texture might provide valuable data to obtain successful biological control under different ecological scenarios in future field applications.

  5. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel MUC1 glycopeptide conjugate vaccine candidate comprising a 4’-deoxy-4’-fluoro-Thomsen–Friedenreich epitope

    PubMed Central

    Gerlitzki, Bastian; Schmitt, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Summary The development of selective anticancer vaccines that provide enhanced protection against tumor recurrence and metastasis has been the subject of intense research in the scientific community. The tumor-associated glycoprotein MUC1 represents a well-established target for cancer immunotherapy and has been used for the construction of various synthetic vaccine candidates. However, many of these vaccine prototypes suffer from an inherent low immunogenicity and are susceptible to rapid in vivo degradation. To overcome these drawbacks, novel fluorinated MUC1 glycopeptide-BSA/TTox conjugate vaccines have been prepared. Immunization of mice with the 4’F-TF-MUC1-TTox conjugate resulted in strong immune responses overriding the natural tolerance against MUC1 and producing selective IgG antibodies that are cross-reactive with native MUC1 epitopes on MCF-7 human cancer cells. PMID:25670999

  6. Roles of VRK1 as a new player in the control of biological processes required for cell division.

    PubMed

    Valbuena, Alberto; Sanz-García, Marta; López-Sánchez, Inmaculada; Vega, Francisco M; Lazo, Pedro A

    2011-08-01

    Cell division, in addition to an accurate transmission of genetic information to daughter cells, also requires the temporal and spatial coordination of several biological processes without which cell division would not be feasible. These processes include the temporal coordination of DNA replication and chromosome segregation, regulation of nuclear envelope disassembly and assembly, chromatin condensation and Golgi fragmentation for its redistribution into daughter cells, among others. However, little is known regarding regulatory proteins and signalling pathways that might participate in the coordination of all these different biological functions. Such regulatory players should directly have a role in the processes leading to cell division. VRK1 (Vaccinia-related kinase 1) is an early response gene required for cyclin D1 expression, regulates p53 by a specific Thr18 phosphorylation, controls chromatin condensation by histone phosphorylation, nuclear envelope assembly by phosphorylation of BANF1, and participates in signalling required for Golgi fragmentation late in the G2 phase. We propose that VRK1, a Ser-Thr kinase, might be a candidate to play an important coordinator role in these cell division processes as part of a novel signalling pathway.

  7. [Malaria: from genetic and molecular biology to disease control].

    PubMed

    Ambroise-Thomas, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    The knowledge of the genomic structure of Plasmodium falciparum and of its main vector, Anopheles gambiae, may offer new perspectives for malaria therapy, vaccines or control of mosquito-borne transmission. New targets for future antimalarial drugs were identified, mainly apicoplast (a vestige of a vegetal structure incorporated by the parasite) and several enzymes, particularly proteases. The practical difficulty is now to select a few number of these "promising molecules", probably no more than 3 or 4, for a preclinical and clinical pharmaceutical development. Indeed, several other antimalarial drugs are already under development, and the industrial possibilities for developing new drugs are evidently limited. Many new vaccination targets and antigenic proteins were also identified. According to scientific and industrial limitations, a complete evaluation of these antigens is absolutely necessary to select a few of them for clinical development. For anti-malarial vaccinations, DNA vaccines may offer the most interesting perspectives, with the possibility of simultaneous immunisation against different Plasmodium stages and of an adjuvant effect by adding a gene encoding certain cytokines. In Anopheles gambiae genome, several genes encoding key-proteins (particularly odorant receptors necessary for blood feeding) were identified, as other genes encoding for proteins limiting the sexual development of Plasmodium inside its vector. From a theoretical viewpoint, genetically modified non biting or non transmitting mosquitoes offer new perspectives for the control of malaria transmission, but until now, the preliminary practical attempts gave rather poor results. On the whole, the genomic and proteomic of Plasmodium falciparum and Anopheles gambiae yielded exciting scientific results, but it is still too early and very speculative to imagine their practical applications for the control of malaria.

  8. New experimental approaches to the biology of flight control systems.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Graham K; Bacic, Marko; Bomphrey, Richard J; Carruthers, Anna C; Gillies, James; Walker, Simon M; Thomas, Adrian L R

    2008-01-01

    Here we consider how new experimental approaches in biomechanics can be used to attain a systems-level understanding of the dynamics of animal flight control. Our aim in this paper is not to provide detailed results and analysis, but rather to tackle several conceptual and methodological issues that have stood in the way of experimentalists in achieving this goal, and to offer tools for overcoming these. We begin by discussing the interplay between analytical and empirical methods, emphasizing that the structure of the models we use to analyse flight control dictates the empirical measurements we must make in order to parameterize them. We then provide a conceptual overview of tethered-flight paradigms, comparing classical ;open-loop' and ;closed-loop' setups, and describe a flight simulator that we have recently developed for making flight dynamics measurements on tethered insects. Next, we provide a conceptual overview of free-flight paradigms, focusing on the need to use system identification techniques in order to analyse the data they provide, and describe two new techniques that we have developed for making flight dynamics measurements on freely flying birds. First, we describe a technique for obtaining inertial measurements of the orientation, angular velocity and acceleration of a steppe eagle Aquila nipalensis in wide-ranging free flight, together with synchronized measurements of wing and tail kinematics using onboard instrumentation and video cameras. Second, we describe a photogrammetric method to measure the 3D wing kinematics of the eagle during take-off and landing. In each case, we provide demonstration data to illustrate the kinds of information available from each method. We conclude by discussing the prospects for systems-level analyses of flight control using these techniques and others like them.

  9. Biology and control of tabanids, stable flies and horn flies.

    PubMed

    Foil, L D; Hogsette, J A

    1994-12-01

    Tabanids are among the most free-living adult flies which play a role as livestock pests. A single blood meal is used as a source of energy for egg production (100-1,000 eggs per meal), and females of certain species can oviposit before a blood meal is obtained (autogeny). Therefore, the maintenance of annual populations requires successful oviposition by only 2% of females. Wild animal blood sources are usually available to maintain annual tabanid populations. Larval habitats are also independent of domestic livestock. Thus, the use of repellents or partial repellents is the only effective chemical strategy to reduce the incidence of tabanids on livestock. Permanent traps (and possibly treated silhouette traps) can be employed to intercept flies. Selective grazing or confinement can also reduce the impact of tabanids. Stable fly adults are dependent on vertebrate blood for survival and reproduction, but the amount of time spent in contact with the host is relatively small. Stable fly larvae develop in manure, spilled feed and decaying vegetation. Management of larval habitats by sanitation is the key to stable fly control. Treatment of animals with residual insecticides can aid in control; thorough application to the lower body parts of livestock is important. Proper use of modified traps, using either treated targets or solar-powered electrocution grids, can be effective in reducing stable fly populations. Adult horn flies spend the major part of their time on the host, and the larvae are confined to bovid manure. Therefore, almost any form of topical insecticide application for livestock is effective against horn flies, in the absence of insecticide resistance. Treatments should be applied when economic benefit is possible; economic gains are associated with increased weaning weights and weight gains of yearling and growing cattle. Oral chemical treatments (insect growth regulators or insecticides) administered at appropriate rates via bolus, water, food or

  10. Control of BTEX migration using a biologically enhanced permeable barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Borden, R.C.; Goin, R.T.; Kao, C.M.

    1997-06-01

    A permeable barrier system, consisting of a line of closely spaced wells, was installed perpendicular to ground water flow to control the migration of a dissolved hydrocarbon plume. The wells were charged with concrete briquets that release oxygen and nitrate at a controlled rate, enhancing aerobic biodegradation in the downgradient aquifer. Laboratory batch reactor experiments were conducted to identify concrete mixtures that slowly released oxygen over an extended time period. A full-scale permeable barrier system using ORC was constructed at a gasoline-spill site. During the first 242 days of operation, total BTEX decreased from 17 to 3.4 mg/L and dissolved oxygen increased from 0.4 to 1.8 mg/L during transport through the barrier. Over time, BTEX treatment efficiencies declined, indicating the barrier system had become less effective in releasing oxygen and nutrients to the highly contaminated portion of the aquifer. Point dilution tests and sediment analyses performed at the conclusion of the project indicated that the aquifer in the vicinity of the remediation wells had been clogged by precipitation with iron minerals.

  11. Agricultural biological reference materials for analytical quality control

    SciTech Connect

    Ihnat, M.

    1986-01-01

    Cooperative work is under way at Agriculture Canada, US Department of Agriculture, and US National Bureau of Standards in an attempt to fill some of the gaps in the world repertoire of reference materials and to provide much needed control materials for laboratories' day to day operations. This undertaking involves the preparation and characterization of a number of agricultural and food materials for data quality control for inorganic constituents. Parameters considered in the development of these materials were material selection based on importance in commerce and analysis; techniques of preparation, processing, and packaging; physical and chemical characterization; homogeneity testing and quantitation (certification). A large number of agricultural/food products have been selected to represent a wide range of not only levels of sought-for constituents (elements) but also a wide range of matrix components such as protein, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, fat, and ash. Elements whose concentrations are being certified cover some two dozen major, minor, and trace elements of nutritional, toxicological, and environmental significance.

  12. Innovations in Proteomic Profiling of Cancers: Alternative Splice Variants as a New Class of Cancer Biomarker Candidates and Bridging of Proteomics with Structural Biology

    PubMed Central

    Omenn, Gilbert S.; Menon, Rajasree; Zhang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing allows a single gene to generate multiple RNA transcripts which can be translated into functionally diverse protein isoforms. Current knowledge of splicing is derived mainly from RNA transcripts, with very little known about the expression level, 3D structures, and functional differences of the proteins. Splicing is a remarkable phenomenon of molecular and biological evolution. Studies which simply report up-regulation or down-regulation of protein or mRNA expression are confounded by the effects of mixtures of these isoforms. Besides understanding the net biological effects of the mixtures, we may be able to develop biomarker tests based on the observable differential expression of particular splice variants or combinations of splice variants in specific disease states. Here we review our work on differential expression of splice variant proteins in cancers and the feasibility of integrating proteomic analysis with structure-based conformational predictions of the differences between such isoforms. PMID:23603631

  13. Variable selection in Bayesian generalized linear-mixed models: an illustration using candidate gene case-control association studies.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Miao-Yu

    2015-03-01

    The problem of variable selection in the generalized linear-mixed models (GLMMs) is pervasive in statistical practice. For the purpose of variable selection, many methodologies for determining the best subset of explanatory variables currently exist according to the model complexity and differences between applications. In this paper, we develop a "higher posterior probability model with bootstrap" (HPMB) approach to select explanatory variables without fitting all possible GLMMs involving a small or moderate number of explanatory variables. Furthermore, to save computational load, we propose an efficient approximation approach with Laplace's method and Taylor's expansion to approximate intractable integrals in GLMMs. Simulation studies and an application of HapMap data provide evidence that this selection approach is computationally feasible and reliable for exploring true candidate genes and gene-gene associations, after adjusting for complex structures among clusters. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Mold Control and Detection In Biological Drug Substance Manufacturing Facilities: An Industry Perspective.

    PubMed

    Bawa, Anita; Asefi, Sophia; Ramsey, Stephanie; Arbesser-Rastburg, Christine; Paul, Mousumi; Leira, Francisco; McFarland, Kim; Landeryou, Tracy; Reddy, Bindhu; Murphy, Marie; Daddis, Barbara; Baine, David; Willison-Parry, Derek

    2017-06-16

    The biopharmaceutical industry produces non-sterile and/or low-bioburden intermediates and bulk biologics (i.e. Drug Substances) using bioburden controlled processes in accordance to Q7A and Annex 2. In many cases, single mold isolation events have received a high level of scrutiny; the goal of this paper is to challenge this paradigm and provide the rationale for an enhanced control approach that focuses on trending of mold species as microbial indicators rather than on single isolation events. Molds, can also be part (in much lower numbers) of the normal microbial population of a biologics manufacturing facility and, therefore, mold isolation is not an unexpected event in non-aseptic processing environments. This presentation provides recommendations from a biopharmaceutical industry perspective on mold monitoring in biologics drug substance facilities and processes. Additionally, recommendations on subjects commonly encountered in the establishment of a monitoring program, such as mold trending, responding to mold isolation events and best practices on mold prevention, are included. These recommendations assist biologic manufacturers in refining their current mold control strategy, as well as developing control strategies for new processes, facilities and products. Establishing appropriate mold control programs is a key element of overall microbial control plans in biologics manufacturing facilities. Copyright © 2017, Parenteral Drug Association.

  15. Predator interference effects on biological control: The "paradox" of the generalist predator revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parshad, Rana D.; Bhowmick, Suman; Quansah, Emmanuel; Basheer, Aladeen; Upadhyay, Ranjit Kumar

    2016-10-01

    An interesting conundrum in biological control questions the efficiency of generalist predators as biological control agents. Theory suggests, generalist predators are poor agents for biological control, primarily due to mutual interference. However field evidence shows they are actually quite effective in regulating pest densities. In this work we provide a plausible answer to this paradox. We analyze a three species model, where a generalist top predator is introduced into an ecosystem as a biological control, to check the population of a middle predator, that in turn is depredating on a prey species. We show that the inclusion of predator interference alone, can cause the solution of the top predator equation to blow-up in finite time, while there is global existence in the no interference case. This result shows that interference could actually cause a population explosion of the top predator, enabling it to control the target species, thus corroborating recent field evidence. Our results might also partially explain the population explosion of certain species, introduced originally for biological control purposes, such as the cane toad (Bufo marinus) in Australia, which now functions as a generalist top predator. We also show both Turing instability and spatio-temporal chaos in the model. Lastly we investigate time delay effects.

  16. Machine perception and intelligent control architecture for multirobot coordination based on biological principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomopoulos, Stelios C.; Braught, Grant

    1996-10-01

    Intelligent control, inspired by biological and AI (artificial intelligence) principles, has increased the understanding of controlling complex processes without precise mathematical model of the controlled process. Through customized applications, intelligent control has demonstrated that it is a step in the right direction. However, intelligent control has yet to provide a complete solution to the problem of integrated manufacturing systems via intelligent reconfiguration of the robotics systems. The aim of this paper is to present an intelligent control architecture and design methodology based on biological principles that govern self-organization of autonomous agents. Two key structural elements of the proposed control architecture have been tested individually on key pilot applications and shown promising results. The proposed intelligent control design is inspired by observed individual and collective biological behavior in colonies of living organisms that are capable of self-organization into groups of specialized individuals capable of collectively achieving a set of prescribed or emerging objectives. The nervous and brain system in the proposed control architecture is based on reinforcement learning principles and conditioning and modeled using adaptive neurocontrollers. Mathematical control theory (e.g. optimal control, adaptive control, and neurocontrol) is used to coordinate the interactions of multiple robotics agents.

  17. Nanoscale hybrid systems based on carbon nanotubes for biological sensing and control

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Youngtak; Shin, Narae; Kim, Daesan; Park, Jae Yeol

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a concise review on the recent development of nanoscale hybrid systems based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for biological sensing and control. CNT-based hybrid systems have been intensively studied for versatile applications of biological interfaces such as sensing, cell therapy and tissue regeneration. Recent advances in nanobiotechnology not only enable the fabrication of highly sensitive biosensors at nanoscale but also allow the applications in the controls of cell growth and differentiation. This review describes the fabrication methods of such CNT-based hybrid systems and their applications in biosensing and cell controls. PMID:28188158

  18. Nanoscale hybrid systems based on carbon nanotubes for biological sensing and control.

    PubMed

    Cho, Youngtak; Shin, Narae; Kim, Daesan; Park, Jae Yeol; Hong, Seunghun

    2017-04-30

    This paper provides a concise review on the recent development of nanoscale hybrid systems based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for biological sensing and control. CNT-based hybrid systems have been intensively studied for versatile applications of biological interfaces such as sensing, cell therapy and tissue regeneration. Recent advances in nanobiotechnology not only enable the fabrication of highly sensitive biosensors at nanoscale but also allow the applications in the controls of cell growth and differentiation. This review describes the fabrication methods of such CNT-based hybrid systems and their applications in biosensing and cell controls.

  19. OMNIHAB - a controlled environmental system for application in gravitational biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anken, Ralf; Hilbig, Reinhard; Anken, Ralf; Lebert, Michael; Häder, Donat

    Several "closed" habitats have been designed in the past for experiments with unicellular organisms as well as with multicellular animals and plants under long-term microgravity. Some of these environmental systems were flown successfully. The bioregenerative C.E.B.A.S.- Minimodul allowed the maintenance of higher plants (Ceratophyllum sp.), mollusks (Biomphalaria glabrata) and fish (swordtail Xiphophorus helleri, cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus) under spaceflight conditions (STS-89, STS-90 Neurolab, STS-107). A much simpler and smaller system, the OMEGAHAB, was successfully employed on the FOTON M-3 flight, containing cichlid fish larvae and unicellular algae (Euglena gracilis). Further aquatic habitats are under development (e.g., AquaHab, another aquatic research module especially dedicated to ground based, application-oriented research). These systems tend to be specialized, minimal ecosystems with limited research potential. Therefore, we propose to develop a controlled, multi-modular hardware to increase the diversity of experimental species to be flown together. Currently, a variety of plant and animal species are used as model systems. Combining as many of them as possible (and conducting a most effective sample-sharing among the different working groups) will strongly improve the cost-benefit ratio and thus effectiveness of a space- flight experiment in utilising limited resources at the maximum. The concept of OMNIHAB, an aquatic life support system comprising exchangeable modules, will be presented at the meeting.

  20. Biology and control of swamp dodder (Cuscuta gronovii)

    SciTech Connect

    Bewick, T.A.

    1987-01-01

    A simple model predicting swamp dodder (Cuscuta gronovii Willd.) emergence was developed. The model states that 0.1% of the cranberry seedlings will emerge after 150 to 170 GDD have accumulated after the winter ice has melted on the cranberry beds, using 0 C as the low temperature threshold. Experiments in cranberry showed that pronamide (3,5-dichloro-(N-1,1-dimethyl-2-propynyl)benzamide) was effective in controlling swamp dodder when applied preemergence. Rates below 2.4 kg ai/ha appeared to be safe for cranberry plants and fruit. Experiments with /sup 14/C glyphosate showed that the herbicide moved out of carrot leaves to the physiological sinks in the plant. In carrots parasitized by swamp dodder the dodder acted as one of the strongest sinks for photosynthates from the host. In cranberry glyphosate moved out of the leaves, but most remained in the stem to which the treated leaves were attached. The only physiological sinks that accumulated significant amounts of label were the stem apices. The concentration of the herbicide in this sink decreased with time. Swamp dodder stems were able to absorb glyphosate directly from solution.