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Sample records for cane blackstrap molasses

  1. Invertase activity of intact cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing on sugar cane molasses. 1. Steady-state continuous culture tests

    SciTech Connect

    Vitolo, M.; Vairo, M.L.R.; Borzani, W.

    1985-08-01

    During the steady-state continuous culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on sugar cane blackstrap molasses under different experimental conditions, oscillatory variations of the invertase activity of the intact yeast cells were observed. The continuous morphological changes of the cells wall and of the periplasmic space affecting the interaction between invertase and sucrose molecules could be responsible by the observed oscillatory phenomena. The average invertase activity at the steady state is linearly correlated to the cell's growth rate.

  2. Analysis of Extracted and Volatile Components in Blackstrap Molasses Feed as Candidate House Fly Attractants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    acid 14.41 Both Propionic acid 15.45 Both × Butanoic acid 16.86 Both × Furfuryl alcohol 17.16 Both × Pentanoic acid 18.14 Hexane Propanamide 18.84...Table 1). Another study conducted on volatiles from cane molasses identified furfuryl alcohol, which was found in both hexane and ether extracts in this

  3. Simplified modeling of fed-batch alcoholic fermentation of sugarcane blackstrap molasses.

    PubMed

    Converti, Attilio; Arni, Saleh; Sato, Sunao; de Carvalho, João Carlos Monteiro; Aquarone, Eugênio

    2003-10-05

    Simplified modeling based on material balances for biomass, ethanol and substrate was used to describe the kinetics of fed-batch alcohol fermentation of sugarcane blackstrap molasses. Maintenance requirements were previously shown to be of particular significance in this system, owing to the use of massive inoculum to minimize inhibitions; therefore, they were taken into consideration for kinetic modeling. Average values of biomass and ethanol yields, productivities, and substrate consumption rates, calculated at the end of runs performed either at constant or exponentially varying flow rates, demonstrated that all of these parameters were influenced by the initial sugar-feeding rate, F(o)S(o). Under conditions of substrate shortage (F(o)S(o)

  4. Ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in sugarcane blackstrap molasses through a fed-batch process: optimization by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, João C M; Vitolo, Michele; Sato, Sunao; Aquarone, Eugênio

    2003-09-01

    We studied the effect of reactor filling time (T) (3-5 h), initial mass of inoculum (M) (1000-2100 g), and exponential time decay constant for the substrate feed rate (K) (0.6-1.6 h-1) on ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in sugarcane blackstrap molasses through a fed-batch culture. The highest ethanol productivity (16.9 g/[L x h]) occurred at T = 3 h, K = 1.6 h-1, and M = 1300 g. In addition, productivity was affected by both M (for T = 3 and 4 h) and K (for T = 3 h) and varied inversely with T under any value fixed for M and K. By the quadratic regression multivariable analysis method, equations were determined to estimate ethanol yield and productivity as function of the variables studied (T, K, and M).

  5. Agriculture: Bioconversion of sugar cane molasses

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, P.

    1999-09-29

    Auxein Corporation is demonstrating for commercial use an organic acid phytochelate, derived from what would otherwise be a discarded portion of sugar cane, that could increase the domestic sugar industry's profit margin from near zero to 7%. Along with helping a struggling industry, the phytochelate will bring substantial improvements to crop and tree production and greatly reduce the environmental threat posed by nitrogen-based fertilizers. Currently, the amount of fertilizer used produces harmful levels of run-off that contaminates ground water with unwanted nitrogen. By utilizing organic acid phytochelates, which assist plant growth by unlocking minerals stored in soil, fertilizer use can be dramatically reduced. This would improve crop yields, remove environmental threats to ground water, and cut fertilizer costs by as much as 50%.

  6. Effect of pH, aeration and sucrose feeding on the invertase activity of intact S. cerevisiae cells grown in sugarcane blackstrap molasses.

    PubMed

    Vitolo, M; Duranti, M A; Pellegrim, M B

    1995-08-01

    S. cerevisiae was grown in a blackstrap molasses containing medium in batch and fed-batch cultures. The following parameters were varied: pH (from 4.0 to 6.5), dissolved oxygen (DO) (from 0 to 5.0 mg O2 L-1) and sucrose feeding rate. When glucose concentration (S) was higher than 0.5 g L-1 a reduction in the specific invertase activity of intact cells (v) and an oscillatory behavior of v values during fermentation were observed. Both the invertase reduction and the oscillatory behavior of v values could be related to the glucose inhibitory effect on invertase biosynthesis. The best culture conditions for attaining S. cerevisiae cells suitable for invertase production were: temperature = 30 degrees C; pH = 5.0; DO = 3.3 mg O2 L-1; (S) = 0.5 g L-1 and sucrose added into the fermenter according to the equations: (V-Vo) = t2/16 or (V - Vo) = (Vf - Vo).(e0.6t-1)/10.

  7. A novel approach of integrated bioprocessing of cane molasses for production of prebiotic and functional bioproducts.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manisha; Patel, Satya Narayan; Lata, Kusum; Singh, Umesh; Krishania, Meena; Sangwan, Rajender S; Singh, Sudhir P

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the sugar industry by-product cane molasses was investigated as feedstock for acceptor reactions by dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides MTCC 10508, leading to the biosynthesis of oligosaccharides. The starch industry corn fiber residue was used as a source for acceptor molecules, maltose, in the reaction. Production of approximately 124g oligosaccharides (DP3-DP6) per kg of fresh molasses was achieved. Further, cane molasses based medium was demonstrated as a sole carbon source for L. mesenteroides growth and dextransucrase production. d-Fructose released by dextransucrase activity as processing by-product was transformed into the functional monosaccharide with zero caloric value, d-psicose, by inducing its epimerization. Quantitative analysis approximated 37g d-psicose per kg of fresh molasses. Thus, the study established a novel approach of integrated bioprocessing of cane molasses into prebiotic and functional food additives.

  8. Dietary interaction of cane molasses with source of roughage: intake and lactation effects.

    PubMed

    Morales, J L; Van Horn, H H; Moore, J E

    1989-09-01

    Effects of cane molasses at 0, 4, and 8% of DM in complete mixed diets were evaluated when molasses was fed to lactating dairy cows with cottonseed hulls, alfalfa haylage, or both combined. Thirty-six mature Holstein cows from mid to late lactation were used in a partially balanced incomplete block design with three 28-d periods. Variables measured were DM intake, milk yield, and composition. With cottonseed hull diets (30% of DM), molasses improved milk yield, milk fat percentage, solids-corrected milk, and feed efficiency. Dry matter intake was not affected by molasses. With alfalfa haylage diets (35% of DM), 8% molasses depressed actual milk yield and solids-corrected milk, DM intake, milk fat percentage, milk protein percentage, and feed efficiency. Milk fat percentage was increased with 4% molasses. With 65% alfalfa haylage diets, most variables measured were unaffected by molasses; however, with 8% molasses, DM intake increased and milk protein percentage decreased. In diets with both roughages combined, molasses did not affect any variable measured; however, these diets gave highest solids-corrected milk yields. Results show clearly that molasses effects depend on percentage molasses and type and amount of roughage in the diet.

  9. Fungal invertase as an aid for fermentation of cane molasses into ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.K.; Sato, H.H.

    1982-10-01

    Comparative studies of the fermentation of cane molasses into ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence or absence of fungal invertase were performed. When cane molasses was fermented by the yeast at 30 degrees Centigrade and pH 5.0, the presence of the enzyme had no effect on ethanol production. At pH 3.4, ethanol production was increased by the addition of invertase. At 40 degrees C, the addition of invertase increased ethanol production by 5.5% at pH 5.0 and by 20.9% at pH 3.5. (Refs. 8).

  10. Improved welan gum production by Alcaligenes sp. ATCC31555 from pretreated cane molasses.

    PubMed

    Ai, Hongxia; Liu, Min; Yu, Pingru; Zhang, Shaozhi; Suo, Yukai; Luo, Ping; Li, Shuang; Wang, Jufang

    2015-09-20

    Welan gum production by Alcaligenes sp. ATCC31555 from cane molasses was studied in batch fermentation to reduce production costs and enhance gum production. The pretreatment of cane molasses, agitation speed and the addition of supplements were investigated to optimize the process. Sulfuric acid hydrolysis was found to be the optimal pretreatment, resulting in a maximum gum concentration of 33.5 g/L, which is 50.0% higher than those obtained from the molasses' mother liquor. Agitation at 600 rpm at 30°C and addition of 10% n-dodecane following fermentation for 36 h increased the maximum gum production up to 41.0 ± 1.41 g/L, which is 49.1% higher than the greatest welan gum concentration in the literature so far. The welan gum product showed an acceptable molecular weight, similar rheological properties and better thermal stability to that obtained from glucose. These results indicate that cane molasses may be a suitable and inexpensive substrate for cost-effective industrial-scale welan gum production.

  11. Enhanced poly(L-malic acid) production from pretreated cane molasses by Aureobasidium pullulans in fed-batch fermentation.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jun; Xu, Jiaxing; Hu, Lei; Liu, Xiaoyan

    2016-11-16

    Poly(L-malic acid) (PMA) is a natural polyester with many attractive properties for biomedical application. However, the cost of PMA production is high when glucose is used as a carbon source. To solve this problem, cane molasses as a low-cost feedstock was applied for the production of PMA. Six pretreatment methods were applied to cane molasses before fermentation. Pretreatment with combined tricalcium phosphate, potassium ferrocyanide, and sulfuric acid (TPFSA) removed significant amounts of metal ions from cane molasses. The PMA concentration increased from 5.4 g/L (untreated molasses) to 36.9 g/L (TPFSA-pretreated molasses) after fermentation in shake flasks. A fed-batch fermentation strategy was then developed. In this method, TPFSA-pretreated cane molasses solution was continuously fed into the fermentor to maintain the total sugar concentration at 20 g/L. This technique generated approximately 95.4 g/L PMA with a productivity of 0.57 g/L/hr. The present study indicated that fed-batch fermentation using pretreated cane molasses is a feasible technique for producing high amounts of PMA.

  12. The effect of sugar cane molasses on the immune and male reproductive systems using in vitro and in vivo methods

    PubMed Central

    Rahiman, Farzana; Pool, Edmund John

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Sugar cane molasses is a commonly used ingredient in several food products. Contrasting reports suggest that molasses may have potential adverse or beneficial effects on human health. However, little evidence exists that examines the effects of molasses on the different physiological systems. This study investigated the effects of sugar cane molasses on various physiological systems using in vivo and in vitro methods. Materials and Methods: Molasses was administered orally to BALB/c, male mice and animals were randomly assigned into either a treatment or control group. General physiological changes, body weight and molasses intake of animals were monitored. At the end of the exposure period, collected blood samples were evaluated for potential toxicity using plasma biomarkers and liver enzyme activity. Immunised treated and untreated mice were evaluated for antibody titre to determine the effect of molasses on the immune response. To investigate the impact of molasses on testicular steroidogenesis, testes from both treated and control groups were harvested, cultured and assayed for testosterone synthesis. Results: Findings suggest that fluid intake by molasses-treated animals was significantly increased and these animals showed symptoms of loose faeces. Molasses had no significant effect on body weight, serum biomarkers or liver enzyme activity (P>0.05). Immunoglobulin-gamma anti-antigen levels were significantly suppressed in molasses-treated groups (P=0.004). Animals subjected to molasses exposure also exhibited elevated levels of testosterone synthesis (P=0.001). Conclusion: Findings suggests that molasses adversely affects the humoral immune response. The results also promote the use of molasses as a supplement to increase testosterone levels. PMID:27872709

  13. [Effects of sugar cane molasses on the nutritive value of Canavalia ensiformis seeds for broiler chicks].

    PubMed

    Vargas, R E; Castillo, M; Michelangeli, C

    1996-06-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of sugar cane molasses to improve performance of broiler chicks fed a diet containing 30% raw or autoclaved Canavalia ensiformis seeds (Jack beans). For this latter purpose, canavalia seeds were ground and autoclaved at 120 degrees C and 15 psi during 60 min. Day-old male chicks (Cobb x Cobb) were used throughout the study. In Experiment 1, adding 10% molasses to a control diet devoided of jack beans seeds significantly (p < 0.05) increased chick feed intake. However, neither the addition of 10% molasses nor of 5% glucose, sucrose, fructose, xylose or corn starch to the 30% raw canavalia ration allowed feed intakes similar to that shown by the control diet (Experiment 2). Broiler performance was evaluated in Experiment 3 in response to diets containing 30% raw or autoclaved jack bean meal. Ten-percent molasses was also added to both diets which along with the control diet were fed to chiks had free access to diets. Growth was depressed when the Jack bean containing diets were pair-fed to chicks. The results indicated that the use of molasses does not overcome the deleterious effects on chick performance due to the presence of 30% raw or autoclaved jack bean meal in the diets.

  14. Production of the Functional Trisaccharide 1-Kestose from Cane Sugar Molasses Using Aspergillus japonicus β-Fructofuranosidase.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Katsuki; Kondo, Nobuhiro; Toyota, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Sachio

    2017-01-01

    We report the production of the functional trisaccharide 1-kestose, O-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-β-D-fructofuranosyl α-D-glucopyranoside, by β-fructofuranosidase from Aspergillus japonicus using sugar cane molasses as substrate. Sucrose in cane sugar molasses acted as a fructosyl donor and acceptor for the enzyme. The tetrasaccharide nystose, O-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-β-D-fructofuranosyl α-D-glucopyranoside, was produced from 1-kestose. Cane sugar molasses mixed with water provided a better substrate solution for β-fructofuranosidase compared to undiluted molasses due to the high concentration of product inhibitors such as glucose and fructose in molasses. The maximum concentration of 1-kestose obtained was 84.9 mg/ml and the maximum production efficiency was 32.3% after 24 h reaction at 40 °C. The maximum efficiency of combined fructo-oligosaccharide (1-kestose and nystose) production was 40.6%. 1-Kestose was therefore produced via a fructosyl-transfer reaction catalyzed by β-fructofuranosidase from A. japonicus.

  15. Electrical, thermal and electrochemical properties of disordered carbon prepared from palygorskite and cane molasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Edelio Danguillecourt; Laffita, Yodalgis Mosqueda; Montoro, Luciano Andrey; Della Santina Mohallem, Nelcy; Cabrera, Humberto; Pérez, Guillermo Mesa; Frutis, Miguel Aguilar; Cappe, Eduardo Pérez

    2017-02-01

    We have synthesized and electrochemically tested a carbon sample that was suitable as anode for lithium secondary battery. The synthesis was based on the use of the palygorskite clay as template and sugar cane molasses as carbon source. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM) analysis showed that the nanometric carbon material has a highly disordered graphene-like wrinkled structure and large specific surface area (467 m2 g-1). The compositional characterization revealed a 14% of heteroatoms-containing groups (O, H, N, S) doping the as-prepared carbon. Thermophysical measurements revealed the good thermal stability and an acceptable thermal diffusivity (9·10-7 m2 s-1) and conductivity (1.1 W m-1 K-1) of this carbon. The electrical properties showed an electronic conductivity of hole-like carriers of approximately one S/cm in a 173-293 K range. The testing of this material as anodes in a secondary lithium battery displayed a high specific capacity and excellent performance in terms of number of cycles. A high reversible capacity of 356 mA h g-1 was reached.

  16. High Level Ethanol from Sugar Cane Molasses by a New Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain in Industrial Scale

    PubMed Central

    Fadel, M.; Keera, Abeer A.; Mouafi, Foukia E.; Kahil, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    A new local strain of S. cerevisiae F-514, for ethanol production during hot summer season, using Egyptian sugar cane molasses was applied in Egyptian distillery factory. The inouluum was propagated through 300 L, 3 m3, and 12 m3 fermenters charged with diluted sugar cane molasses containing 4%-5% sugars. The yeast was applied in fermentation vessels 65 m3 working volume to study the varying concentrations of urea, DAP, orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and its combinations as well as magnesium sulfate and inoculum size. The fermenter was allowed to stay for a period of 20 hours to give time for maximum conversion of sugars into ethanol. S. cerevisiae F-514 at molasses sugar level of 18% (w/v), inoculum size of 20% (v/v) cell concentration of 3.0 × 108/mL, and combinations of urea, diammonium phosphate (DAP), orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and magnesium sulfate at amounts of 20, 10, 5, and 10 kg/65 m3 working volume fermenters, respectively, supported maximum ethanol production (9.8%, v/v), fermentation efficiency (FE) 88.1%, and remaining sugars (RS) 1.22%. The fermentation resulted 13.4 g dry yeast/L contained 34.6% crude protein and 8.2% ash. By selecting higher ethanol yielding yeast strain and optimizing, the fermentation parameters both yield and economics of the fermentation process can be improved. PMID:24363937

  17. Production, optimization and characterization of lactic acid by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NCIM 2025 from utilizing agro-industrial byproduct (cane molasses).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Abhinay Kumar; Tripathi, Abhishek Dutt; Jha, Alok; Poonia, Amrita; Sharma, Nitya

    2015-06-01

    In the present work Lactobacillus delbrueckii was used to utilize agro-industrial byproduct (cane molasses) for lactic acid production under submerged fermentation process. Screening of LAB was done by Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR). Effect of different amino acids (DL-Phenylalanine, L-Lysine and DL-Aspartic acid) on the fermentation process was done by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used to optimize the levels of three parameters viz. tween 80, amino acid and cane molasses concentration during fermentative production of lactic acid. Under optimum condition lactic acid production was enhanced from 55.89 g/L to 84.50 g/L. Further, validation showed 81.50 g/L lactic acid production. Scale up was done on 7.5 L fermentor. Productivity was found to be 3.40 g/L/h which was higher than previous studies with reduced fermentation time from 24 h to 12 h. Further characterization of lactic acid was done by FTIR.

  18. Economical production of poly(ε-l-lysine) and poly(l-diaminopropionic acid) using cane molasses and hydrolysate of streptomyces cells by Streptomyces albulus PD-1.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jun; Xu, Zhaoxian; Xu, Hong; Liang, Jinfeng; Li, Sha; Feng, Xiaohai

    2014-07-01

    Poly(ε-L-lysine) (ε-PL) and poly(L-diaminopropionic acid) (PDAP) co-production by Streptomyces albulus PD-1 from cane molasses and hydrolysate of strepyomyces cells (HSC) was investigated for the first time in this study. The optimal initial total sugar concentration of the cane molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid was determined to be 20 g L(-1), and HSC could substitute for yeast extract for ε-PL and PDAP co-production. When fed-batch fermentation was performed in 1t fermentor with pretreated cane molasses and HSC, 20.6 ± 0.5 g L(-1) of ε-PL and 5.2 ± 0.6 g L(-1) of PDAP were obtained. The amount of strepyomyces cells obtained in one fed-batch fermentation is sufficient to prepare the HSC to satisfy the demand of subsequent fermentations, thus the self-cycling of organic nitrogen source becomes available. These results suggest that the low-cost cane molasses and HSC can be used for the economical production of ε-PL and PDAP by S. albulus PD-1.

  19. Optimization of biodegradable plastic production on sugar cane molasses in Enterobacter sp. SEL2

    PubMed Central

    Naheed, Nighat; Jamil, Nazia

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated environments have a large number of bacteria which can accumulate PHA as their energy reserves. Out of 54 isolated bacterial strains from three groups of contaminated sites 48 were found PHA positive. The sites were grouped on the basis of the type of carbon sources i.e. sugars, fatty acids and much diverse type. Strains MFD5, MFD11, UML3, USL2, SEL2, SEL3, SEL10 and PFW1 produced 69.9 ± 0.29, 75.27 ± 0.45, 65.43 ± 0.1, 72.54 ± 0.27, 76.61 ± 0.28, 61.81 ± 0.05, 71.16 ± 0.09 and 74.92 ± 0.5 percent of PHA to their constant cell weight (CCW) respectively in PHA detection media supplemented with 2% glucose. Molasses, whey, crumbs hydrolysate and palm oil were checked as inexpensive carbon sources. Molasses alone could supply the required nutrients for growth and PHA production. Strain SEL2 produced 47.36 ± 0.45% PHA using 2% molasses at 37 °C and pH 7.0. Upon production optimization the best accumulation (80.95 ± 0.01%) was observed in PHA detection media with 0.2% nitrogen source, 3% molasses, pH 5.0 and 37 °C by the strain SEL2. The overall effect of the presence of increased molasses concentration in the media was positive it increased the accumulation period till 72 h. Enterobacter sp. SEL2 (JF901810) is first time being reported for PHA production. PMID:25242924

  20. Optimization of biodegradable plastic production on sugar cane molasses in Enterobacter sp. SEL2.

    PubMed

    Naheed, Nighat; Jamil, Nazia

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated environments have a large number of bacteria which can accumulate PHA as their energy reserves. Out of 54 isolated bacterial strains from three groups of contaminated sites 48 were found PHA positive. The sites were grouped on the basis of the type of carbon sources i.e. sugars, fatty acids and much diverse type. Strains MFD5, MFD11, UML3, USL2, SEL2, SEL3, SEL10 and PFW1 produced 69.9 ± 0.29, 75.27 ± 0.45, 65.43 ± 0.1, 72.54 ± 0.27, 76.61 ± 0.28, 61.81 ± 0.05, 71.16 ± 0.09 and 74.92 ± 0.5 percent of PHA to their constant cell weight (CCW) respectively in PHA detection media supplemented with 2% glucose. Molasses, whey, crumbs hydrolysate and palm oil were checked as inexpensive carbon sources. Molasses alone could supply the required nutrients for growth and PHA production. Strain SEL2 produced 47.36 ± 0.45% PHA using 2% molasses at 37 °C and pH 7.0. Upon production optimization the best accumulation (80.95 ± 0.01%) was observed in PHA detection media with 0.2% nitrogen source, 3% molasses, pH 5.0 and 37 °C by the strain SEL2. The overall effect of the presence of increased molasses concentration in the media was positive it increased the accumulation period till 72 h. Enterobacter sp. SEL2 (JF901810) is first time being reported for PHA production.

  1. Economical production of poly(γ-glutamic acid) using untreated cane molasses and monosodium glutamate waste liquor by Bacillus subtilis NX-2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan; Feng, Xiaohai; Zhou, Zhe; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Hong

    2012-06-01

    The production of poly(γ-glutamic acid) by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 from cane molasses and monosodium glutamate waste liquor (MGWL) was studied for the first time in this work. When batch fermentation was carried out with untreated molasses, 33.6±0.37 g L(-1) PGA was obtained with a productivity of 0.46±0.006 g L(-1) h(-1). In order to minimize the substrate inhibition, fed-batch fermentation was performed with untreated or hydrolyzed molasses in 7.5 L bioreactor, giving 50.2±0.53 and 51.1±0.51 g L(-1) of PGA at 96 h, respectively. Further studies were carried out by using MGWL as another carbon source, resulting in a PGA concentration of 52.1±0.52 g L(-1) with a productivity of 0.54±0.003 g L(-1) h(-1). These results suggest that the low-cost cane molasses and MGWL can be used for the environmental-friendly and economical production of PGA by B. subtilis NX-2.

  2. Comparative metabolomic-based metabolic mechanism hypothesis for microbial mixed cultures utilizing cane molasses wastewater for higher 2-phenylethanol production.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xinrong; Qi, Haishan; Mu, Li; Wen, Jianping; Jia, Xiaoqiang

    2014-10-08

    The mixed microbes coculture method in cane molasses wastewater (CMW) was adopted to produce 2-phenylethanol (2-PE). Comparative metabolomics combined with multivariate statistical analysis was performed to profile the differences of overall intracellular metabolites concentration for the mixed microbes cocultured under two different fermentation conditions with low and high 2-PE production. In total 102 intracellular metabolites were identified, and 17 of them involved in six pathways were responsible for 2-PE biosynthesis. After further analysis of metabolites and verification by feeding experiment, an overall metabolic mechanism hypothesis for the microbial mixed cultures (MMC) utilizing CMW for higher 2-PE production was presented. The results demonstrated that the branches of intracellular pyruvate metabolic flux, as well as the flux of phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, glutamate, proline, leucine, threonine, and oleic acid, were closely related to 2-PE production and cell growth, which provided theoretical guidance for domestication and selection of species as well as medium optimization for MMC metabolizing CMW to enhance 2-PE yield.

  3. Modeling the anaerobic digestion of cane-molasses vinasse: extension of the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) with sulfate reduction for a very high strength and sulfate rich wastewater.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Ernesto L; Spanjers, Henri; Solon, Kimberly; Amerlinck, Youri; Nopens, Ingmar; Dewulf, Jo

    2015-03-15

    This research presents the modeling of the anaerobic digestion of cane-molasses vinasse, hereby extending the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 with sulfate reduction for a very high strength and sulfate rich wastewater. Based on a sensitivity analysis, four parameters of the original ADM1 and all sulfate reduction parameters were calibrated. Although some deviations were observed between model predictions and experimental values, it was shown that sulfates, total aqueous sulfide, free sulfides, methane, carbon dioxide and sulfide in the gas phase, gas flow, propionic and acetic acids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and pH were accurately predicted during model validation. The model showed high (±10%) to medium (10%-30%) accuracy predictions with a mean absolute relative error ranging from 1% to 26%, and was able to predict failure of methanogenesis and sulfidogenesis when the sulfate loading rate increased. Therefore, the kinetic parameters and the model structure proposed in this work can be considered as valid for the sulfate reduction process in the anaerobic digestion of cane-molasses vinasse when sulfate and organic loading rates range from 0.36 to 1.57 kg [Formula: see text]  m(-3) d(-1) and from 7.66 to 12 kg COD m(-3) d(-1), respectively.

  4. Acetone, butanol, and ethanol production from cane molasses using Clostridium beijerinckii mutant obtained by combined low-energy ion beam implantation and N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine induction.

    PubMed

    Li, Han-guang; Luo, Wei; Gu, Qiu-ya; Wang, Qiang; Hu, Wen-jun; Yu, Xiao-bin

    2013-06-01

    In order to obtain mutant strains showing higher solvent tolerance and butanol production than those of wild-type strains, the butanol-producing strain Clostridium beijerinckii L175 was subjected to mutagenesis using a combined method of low-energy ion beam implantation and N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine induction. With this effort, mutant strain MUT3 was isolated. When it was used for butanol fermentation in P2 medium, the production of butanol was 15.8±0.7 g/L 46% higher than the wild-type strain. Furthermore, after optimization of butanol production from cane molasses with MUT3, the maximum butanol production of 14.9±0.5 g/L were obtained in crew-capped bottles. When ABE production by MUT3 was carried out in a bioreactor, the production of butanol and total solvent were 15.1±0.8 g/L and 22.1±0.9 g/L, respectively. The remarkable butanol production and solvent tolerance of MUT3 make it promising for butanol production from cane molasses.

  5. Utilization of molasses and sugar cane bagasse for production of fungal invertase in solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger GH1.

    PubMed

    Veana, F; Martínez-Hernández, J L; Aguilar, C N; Rodríguez-Herrera, R; Michelena, G

    2014-01-01

    Agro-industrial wastes have been used as substrate-support in solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Molasses and sugarcane bagasse are by-products of sugar industry and can be employed as substrates for invertase production. Invertase is an important enzyme for sweeteners development. In this study, a xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 isolated of the Mexican semi-desert, previously reported as an invertase over-producer strain was used. Molasses from Mexico and Cuba were chemically analyzed (total and reducer sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous contents); the last one was selected based on chemical composition. Fermentations were performed using virgin and hydrolyzate bagasse (treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid). Results indicated that, the enzymatic yield (5231 U/L) is higher than those reported by other A. niger strains under solid state fermentation, using hydrolyzate bagasse. The acid hydrolysis promotes availability of fermentable sugars. In addition, maximum invertase activity was detected at 24 h using low substrate concentration, which may reduce production costs. This study presents an alternative method for invertase production using a xerophilic fungus isolated from Mexican semi-desert and inexpensive substrates (molasses and sugarcane bagasse).

  6. Utilization of molasses and sugar cane bagasse for production of fungal invertase in solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger GH1

    PubMed Central

    Veana, F.; Martínez-Hernández, J.L.; Aguilar, C.N.; Rodríguez-Herrera, R.; Michelena, G.

    2014-01-01

    Agro-industrial wastes have been used as substrate-support in solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Molasses and sugarcane bagasse are by-products of sugar industry and can be employed as substrates for invertase production. Invertase is an important enzyme for sweeteners development. In this study, a xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 isolated of the Mexican semi-desert, previously reported as an invertase over-producer strain was used. Molasses from Mexico and Cuba were chemically analyzed (total and reducer sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous contents); the last one was selected based on chemical composition. Fermentations were performed using virgin and hydrolyzate bagasse (treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid). Results indicated that, the enzymatic yield (5231 U/L) is higher than those reported by other A. niger strains under solid state fermentation, using hydrolyzate bagasse. The acid hydrolysis promotes availability of fermentable sugars. In addition, maximum invertase activity was detected at 24 h using low substrate concentration, which may reduce production costs. This study presents an alternative method for invertase production using a xerophilic fungus isolated from Mexican semi-desert and inexpensive substrates (molasses and sugarcane bagasse). PMID:25242918

  7. Alkaline degradation of invert sugar from molasses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Byung Y; Montgomery, Rex

    2007-11-01

    Sugar beet and sugar cane molasses have been shown to be suitable starting materials for producing de-icer preparations. The sucrose in the molasses is hydrolyzed to glucose and fructose by invertase. The reducing sugars are then degraded by NaOH, the alkali being neutralized by the sugar acids produced, resulting in an increase of the ionic strength and consequently depression of the freezing point of the resulting solution. For the preparation of de-icers, the desired freezing point depression to a temperature of less than about -20 degrees C can be achieved by adjusting the amount and concentration of the alkali metal hydroxide used. The resulting products are biodegradable and eliminate the corrosive effects associated with the use of conventional chloride salts. Degradation of invert sugar by NaOH has been achieved without an external heat source. The reaction products showed the same freezing point depression as seen in the degradation products from pure glucose.

  8. 75 FR 47258 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ...-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the Secretary..., as well as, refined and specialty sugar Tariff-Rate Quotas (TRQ) as required under the U.S. World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments. The FY 2011 raw cane sugar TRQ is established at 1,117,195...

  9. Microbial decolorization and bioremediation of melanoidin containing molasses spent wash.

    PubMed

    Singh, K D; Sharma, S; Dwivedi, A; Pandey, P; Thakur, R L; Kumar, V

    2007-07-01

    Molasses spent wash from cane-molasses based distilleries contains a brown coloured recalcitrantpolymer melanoidin, which if disposed untreated poses a great threat to environment. Microbial decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction was found to be dependent on specific carbon and nitrogen source. Under optimal condition of pH, carbon and nitrogen concentration for each treatment, it was found that Bacillus sp isolated from soil was capable of removing COD (85. 35%) and colour (81.10%) from distillery waste to the maximum extent after 9 days atpH 7 in the medium containing 0.5% peptone, 2% glucose and 10% (v/v), followed by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and lowest reduction was obtained by using native microbial consortium.

  10. Extraction of sucrose from molasses

    SciTech Connect

    Landis, A.M.

    1982-01-26

    Sucrose is extracted from molasses by passing an aqueous molasses solution over an adsorbent, e.g., calcined Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-supported pyrolyzed C/sub 6/H/sub 6/. Thus, 10 mL molasses (approximately 46% solids) was run through a column containing 70 cubic centimetres above adsorbent with sucrose retention volume 21.4 and selectivity for sucrose - betaine 23.8.

  11. 78 FR 56646 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... Tariff- Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the...-quota aggregate quantity of raw cane sugar at 1,117,195 metric tons raw value (MTRV). The Secretary also announces the establishment of the FY 2014 in-quota aggregate quantity of certain sugars, syrups,...

  12. The energy cane alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    This book reviews the conceptual and theoretical background of Saccharum botany, which underlies the growing of cane as a total growth commodity. Management details are provided for energy cane planting, cultivation, harvest, and postharvest operations. Chapters on energy cane utilization stress new developments in lignocellulose conversion plus alternative options for fermentable solids usage. Chapters are also included for the management of alternative grasses to supplement energy cane, and the breeding of new hybrid canes with high biomass attributes at the intergeneric and interspecific levels.

  13. Enhanced production of ligninolytic enzymes and decolorization of molasses distillery wastewater by fungi under solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Pant, Deepak; Adholeya, Alok

    2007-10-01

    Selected isolates of fungi were grown on wheat straw and corncob in the presence of different moistening agents such as water, molasses, potato dextrose broth and distillery effluent. All the fungal isolates responded differently with respect to growth and ligninolytic enzyme production. Fungal growth on different substrates was checked by calculating ergosterol content, which varied widely within a single species when grown on different substrates. The maximum laccase production was obtained for Aspergillus flavus TERI DB9 grown on wheat straw with molasses. For manganese peroxidase, highest production was in Aspergillus niger TERI DB20 grown on corncob with effluent. Among the two isolates positive for lignin peroxidase, the highest production was in Fusarium verticillioides ITCC 6140. This immobilized fungal biomass was then used for decolorization of effluent from a cane molasses based distillery. Maximum decolorization (86.33%) was achieved in Pleurotus ostreatus (Florida) Eger EM 1303 immobilized on corncob with molasses in a period of 28 days.

  14. A palynostratigraphic approach to the SW Anatolian molasse basin: Kale-Tavas molasse and Denizli molasse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgün, Funda; Sözbilir, Hasan

    The study, explains stratigraphy of the Oligo-Miocene molasse around the Denizli province (SW Anatolia), based on the palynology which is also supported by the detailed mapping and correlation of the measured sections from the coal-bearing sequences of the molasse deposits. For this purpose, two huge depressions named as the Kale-Tavas molasse and Denizli molasse basins were examined. The Kale-Tavas molasse deposits has a basal unconformity with the underlying pre-Oligocene basement and begins with the Chattian Karadere and Mortuma formations which are covered unconformably by the Aquitanian Yenidere formation. An angular unconformity between the Chattian and the Burdigalian is only observed in the middle part of the basin, around Kale. In the Tavas section, the Aquitanian and the Burdigalian are absent. The Denizli molasse is characterized by Chattian-Aquitanian sequence consisting of distinctive sedimentary facies, alluvial fan and deltaic-shallow marine deposits with carbonate patch reefs. Palynostratigraphic studies, which have given the Chattian age, have been carried out from the coal lenses of alluvial fan and delta plain deposits. In addition to the palynological determinations, coral and foraminiferal content of the carbonate patch reefs which rest conformably on the coal-bearing sequences have yielded the Chattian-Aquitanian age. Two different palynomorph associations have been determined from the molasse deposits. The first palynomorph association which is established in the samples from the Sağdere and Mortuma formations, corresponds to the Chattian age, whilst the second is of the Aquitanian age. The Late Oligocene-Early Miocene which is claimed as the time of N-S-extensional tectonics in western Turkey, is related to the depositional time of the molasse sequences in the study area. Thus, the molasse is older than the basal deposits of the Gediz and Büyük Menderes grabens.

  15. Identification of genes whose expressions are enhanced or reduced in baker's yeast during fed-batch culture process using molasses medium by DNA microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Shima, Jun; Kuwazaki, Seigo; Tanaka, Fumiko; Watanabe, Hajime; Yamamoto, Hideki; Nakajima, Ryoichi; Tokashiki, Tadaaki; Tamura, Hiromi

    2005-06-25

    Genes whose expression levels are enhanced or reduced during the cultivation process that uses cane molasses in baker's yeast production were identified in this study. The results showed that baker's yeast grown in molasses medium had higher fermentation ability and stress tolerance compared with baker's yeast grown in synthetic medium. Molasses apparently provided not only sugar as a carbon source but also provided functional components that enhanced or reduced expression of genes involved in fermentation ability and stress tolerance. To identify the genes whose expression is enhanced or reduced during cultivation in molasses medium, DNA microarray analysis was then used to compare the gene expression profile of cells grown in molasses with that of cells grown in synthetic medium. To simulate the commercial baker's yeast production process, cells were cultivated using a fed-batch culture system. In molasses medium, genes involved in the synthesis or uptake of vitamins (e.g., biotin, pyridoxine and thiamine) showed enhanced expression, suggesting that vitamin concentrations in molasses medium were lower than those in synthetic medium. Genes involved in formate dehydrogenase and maltose assimilation showed enhanced expression in molasses medium. In contrast, genes involved in iron utilization (e.g., siderophore, iron transporter and ferroxidase) showed enhanced expression in synthetic medium, suggesting that iron starvation occurred. The genes involved in the metabolism of amino acids also showed enhanced expression in synthetic medium. This identification of genes provides information that will help improve the baker's yeast production process.

  16. Free-Standing Canes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehresman, Paul

    1995-01-01

    A precane device, called the "free-standing cane," was developed to help children with blindness along with other disabilities. The cane detects obstacles; guides the user's hands into a relaxed, static position in front of the hips; facilitates postural security and control; and offers tactile and kinesthetic feedback. (JDD)

  17. "Cane" as Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeever, Benjamin F.

    1970-01-01

    Cane...represents the apotheosis of one man's attempt to bear witness to the reality and the power of an idea . . . that the Negro is not an apprentice to equality but a journeyman in suffering." (Author)

  18. 19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26....26 Molasses in tank cars. When molasses is imported in tank cars, the importer shall file with the... sugars or the character of the molasses in the different cars....

  19. 19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26....26 Molasses in tank cars. When molasses is imported in tank cars, the importer shall file with the... sugars or the character of the molasses in the different cars....

  20. 19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26....26 Molasses in tank cars. When molasses is imported in tank cars, the importer shall file with the... sugars or the character of the molasses in the different cars....

  1. 19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26....26 Molasses in tank cars. When molasses is imported in tank cars, the importer shall file with the... sugars or the character of the molasses in the different cars....

  2. 19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26....26 Molasses in tank cars. When molasses is imported in tank cars, the importer shall file with the... sugars or the character of the molasses in the different cars....

  3. From Wheelchair to Cane

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Amanda; Berbrayer, David

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spina bifida is associated with foot deformities, which may lead to foot ulcers, osteomyelitis, and limb amputation. Calcanectomy and Symes amputations have been reported successful in spina bifida. There is lack of evidence for transtibial amputations. This case describes a 27-yr-old woman with L4 level spina bifida who underwent bilateral transtibial amputations. She ambulated with bilateral ankle foot orthoses and canes until age 22. At age 22, she had bilateral foot reconstructive surgeries complicated by nonunion, ulcerations, and osteomyelitis. She was using a wheelchair by age 25. She had elective bilateral transtibial amputations at age 27 for progressive osteomyelitis. Four weeks after amputations, she was fit with bilateral prostheses. On completion of 2 mos of rehabilitation, she ambulated with a cane. This case demonstrates good functional outcomes after transtibial amputations in a young spina bifida patient. Prosthetic fitting should be considered for similar, previously high functioning spina bifida patients with transtibial amputation(s). PMID:26259056

  4. Biocatalytic decolourisation of molasses by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, A P; Dhamankar, V S; Kapadnis, B P

    2006-08-01

    Bioremediation potential of Phanerochaete chrysosporium strains NCIM 1073, NCIM 1106 and NCIM 1197 to decolourise molasses in solid and liquid molasses media was studied. Strains varied in the pattern of molasses decolourisation on solid medium by Giant colony method. Under submerged cultivation conditions, strain NCIM 1073 did not decolourise molasses while, strains NCIM 1106 and NCIM 1197 could decolourise molasses up to 82% and 76%, respectively. Under stationary cultivation conditions, none of the strains could decolourise molasses. This was overcome by increasing the surface area of the culture in flat bottom glass bottles under stationary cultivation conditions. Under submerged cultivation conditions, growth was more or less same in all strains. However, the lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase activities were significantly less in the strain NCIM 1073. Under stationary cultivation conditions, none of the strains could produce enzymes lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase. However, all of them could produce lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase when cultivated in flat bottom glass bottles under stationary cultivation conditions.

  5. In a sea of sticky molasses: The physics of the Boston Molasses Flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Nicole; Kennedy, Jordan; Rubinstein, Shmuel

    2016-11-01

    On January 15th, 1919, shortly after 12:40 pm local time, a giant storage tank collapsed in Boston's crowded North End, releasing more than 8.7 million liters of molasses. Contemporary accounts estimated the initial wave was 7.6 meters tall and moved at more than 15 m/s. In moments, molasses engulfed the Commercial Street area, flattening buildings, damaging the elevated train, killing 21 people, and injuring 150 more. Molasses is a viscoelastic fluid 1.5 times as dense as water with a viscosity roughly 4000 times greater. This talk will explore the physics of the Boston Molasses Flood, including the effects of temperature fluctuations and molasses rheology on events leading up to the tank's collapse and their impact on subsequent rescue efforts.

  6. Molasses for ethanol: the economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis of sugarcane ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal, Anand R.; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2009-10-01

    Many biofuel standards, including California's recently adopted low carbon fuel standard, consider just one feedstock from one supplying country for the production of sugarcane ethanol: fresh mill-pressed cane juice from a Brazilian factory. While cane juice is the dominant feedstock for ethanol in most Brazilian factories, a large number of producers in Indonesia, India, and the Caribbean, and a significant number in Brazil, manufacture most of their ethanol from molasses, a low value co-product of raw sugar. Several producers in these countries have the capacity to export ethanol to California, but the GREET (from: greenhouse gas, regulated emissions and energy use in transportation) model, which is the LCA (lifecycle assessment) model of choice for most biofuel regulators including California, does not currently include this production pathway. We develop a modification to GREET to account for this pathway. We use the upstream and process lifecycle results from the existing GREET model for Brazilian ethanol to derive lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions for ethanol manufactured from any combination of molasses and fresh cane juice. We find that ethanol manufactured with only molasses as a feedstock with all other processes and inputs identical to those of the average Brazilian mill has a lifecycle GHG (greenhouse gas) rating of 15.1 gCO2- eq MJ-1, which is significantly lower than the current California-GREET assigned rating of 26.6 gCO2- eq MJ-1. Our model can be applied at any level of granulation from the individual factory to an industry-wide average. We examine some ways in which current sugarcane producers could inaccurately claim this molasses credit. We discuss methods for addressing this in regulation.

  7. A smart cane with vibrotactile biofeedback improves cane loading for people with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Routson, Rebecca L; Bailey, Marcus; Pumford, Isabelle; Czerniecki, Joseph M; Aubin, Patrick M

    2016-08-01

    Nine million adults have symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) in the U.S. and almost half of those people have a walking aid such as a cane. Proper cane loading (e.g. 15% body weight [BW]) can reduce knee loading and may slow OA progression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a novel smart cane with vibrotactile biofeedback that aims to facilitate increased cane loading. Ten subjects with knee OA performed a 50 m hallway walk test under four conditions: 1) naïve, 2) conventional cane with verbal instruction, 3) smart cane, and 4) conventional cane post smart cane. The cane load (% BW; mean ± 1 standard deviation) for the four conditions was 9.0 ± 1.9 (naïve), 12.7 ± 2.6 (conventional cane), 17.6 ± 2.4 (smart cane), and 15.6 ±3.1 (conventional cane post smart cane). These results indicate that the smart cane's vibrotactile biofeedback helped the users achieve the target cane loading of 15% BW or more as compared to naïve or verbal instruction alone. After using the smart cane, conventional cane loading was higher than the naïve and verbal instruction conditions demonstrating a potential smart cane training effect. Long term increased cane loading may reduce knee pain and improve joint function.

  8. Sugar Substrates for l-Lysine Fermentation by Ustilago maydis

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Marroquín, A.; Ledezma, M.; Carreño, R.

    1970-01-01

    The extracellular production of l-lysine in media with cane sugar, blackstrap molasses, or clarified sugar-cane juice by a previously obtained mutant of Ustilago maydis was studied. Enzymatically inverted clarified juice (medium J-3) gave 2.9 g of lysine per liter under the following conditions: inoculum, 5%; pH 5.8; temperature, 30 C; KLa in the fermentors, 0.41 mmoles of O2 per liter per min; fermentation time, 72 hr. The concentrate, obtained by direct evaporation and drying of the fermentation broth, could be used as a possible feed supplement because of its amino-acid and vitamin content. PMID:5485081

  9. Development of the Specific Adaptation Mobility Cane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrington, S.

    1995-01-01

    A travel cane was adapted for use by a 10-year-old boy with cortical blindness, severe mental retardation and cerebral palsy affecting his left arm and leg. The Specific Adaptation Mobility Cane utilizes the affected arm to hold the cane while leaving the other hand free for trailing walls, opening doors, carrying objects, and holding handrails.…

  10. Polyphenolic reductants in cane sugar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited information is available to understand the chemical structure of cane sugar extracts responsible for the redox reactivity. This study employed Fremy’s salt to test the hypothesis that hydroquinone/catechol-semiquinone-quinone redox cycle is responsible for the antioxidant activity of sugarc...

  11. Effect of temperature, anaerobiosis, stirring and salt addition on natural fermentation silage of sardine and sardine wastes in sugarcane molasses.

    PubMed

    Zahar, M; Benkerroum, N; Guerouali, A; Laraki, Y; El Yakoubi, K

    2002-04-01

    Conditions for a natural fermentation during ensilage of sardines or their waste in sugarcane molasses (60:40 w/w) were evaluated regarding the effect of temperature (15, 25 and 35 degrees C), anaerobiosis (closed vs. open jars), daily stirring of the mixture, and salt addition to the initial mix at 5% (w/w) level. Successful natural fermentation took place in sardine silages incubated at 25 or 35 degrees C in open jars to reach a pH of 4.4 in about 2 and 1 weeks, respectively. For samples kept at 15 degrees C, the pH decline was very slow and pH did not decrease below 5.5 after one month of incubation. At 25 degrees C, the most favorable conditions for silage of sardine waste in cane molasses, as evidenced by the fastest decline in pH to a stable value of about 4.4, were achieved in closed jars and with daily stirring of the mix. The pH 4.4 was reached in one week with an advance of at least 3 days compared to the other conditions (open jars and closed jars without daily stirring). Addition of salt at 5% (w/w) in the mix before incubation inhibited the fermentation process.

  12. Spring reflections on Louisiana sugar cane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Louisiana sugar industry continues to produce high cane and sugar yields despite a short growing season. Spring fallow land management is essential for the upcoming crop. In the past few years, wide row spacing, billet cane planting, and cover-cropping have received significant attention. The ei...

  13. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cane. 890.3075 Section 890.3075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A...

  14. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cane. 890.3075 Section 890.3075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A...

  15. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cane. 890.3075 Section 890.3075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A...

  16. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cane. 890.3075 Section 890.3075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A...

  17. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cane. 890.3075 Section 890.3075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A...

  18. Growing of sugar cane for energy

    SciTech Connect

    Humbert, R.P.

    1980-06-01

    The Brazilian alcohol program is reviewed and research into ways of increasing sugar cane yields discussed. Sugar cane varieties are being selected for their ''total sugars'' production. The effects of supplimentary applications of fertilizers and irrigations are being investigated. Time up to several months can be saved because in the growing of sugar cane for alcohol and cellulose it is not necessary to ripen the cane to convert most of the sugars to sucrose. The author feels that growing sugar cane for alcohol has a lot of potential for petroleum importing contries in the tropics. Smaller sugar mills, no longer economic for sugar production, can be economic for alcohol production as the energy requirements are far less.

  19. Effect of Cane Length on Drop-Off Detection Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall

    2012-01-01

    Although individuals who are blind have used a stick or a cane for their independent travel since the early years of human history, designs for modern long canes did not appear until World War II, when the systematic long cane techniques were developed by Hoover (1962). Ergonomic factors, such as the length of the cane, may affect how well a cane…

  20. Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L

    2014-03-01

    Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology.

  1. Continuous Ethanol Fermentation of Pretreated Lignocellulosic Biomasses, Waste Biomasses, Molasses and Syrup Using the Anaerobic, Thermophilic Bacterium Thermoanaerobacter italicus Pentocrobe 411

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Rasmus Lund; Jensen, Karen Møller; Mikkelsen, Marie Just

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellosic ethanol production is now at a stage where commercial or semi-commercial plants are coming online and, provided cost effective production can be achieved, lignocellulosic ethanol will become an important part of the world bio economy. However, challenges are still to be overcome throughout the process and particularly for the fermentation of the complex sugar mixtures resulting from the hydrolysis of hemicellulose. Here we describe the continuous fermentation of glucose, xylose and arabinose from non-detoxified pretreated wheat straw, birch, corn cob, sugar cane bagasse, cardboard, mixed bio waste, oil palm empty fruit bunch and frond, sugar cane syrup and sugar cane molasses using the anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter Pentocrobe 411. All fermentations resulted in close to maximum theoretical ethanol yields of 0.47–0.49 g/g (based on glucose, xylose, and arabinose), volumetric ethanol productivities of 1.2–2.7 g/L/h and a total sugar conversion of 90–99% including glucose, xylose and arabinose. The results solidify the potential of Thermoanaerobacter strains as candidates for lignocellulose bioconversion. PMID:26295944

  2. Continuous Ethanol Fermentation of Pretreated Lignocellulosic Biomasses, Waste Biomasses, Molasses and Syrup Using the Anaerobic, Thermophilic Bacterium Thermoanaerobacter italicus Pentocrobe 411.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Rasmus Lund; Jensen, Karen Møller; Mikkelsen, Marie Just

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellosic ethanol production is now at a stage where commercial or semi-commercial plants are coming online and, provided cost effective production can be achieved, lignocellulosic ethanol will become an important part of the world bio economy. However, challenges are still to be overcome throughout the process and particularly for the fermentation of the complex sugar mixtures resulting from the hydrolysis of hemicellulose. Here we describe the continuous fermentation of glucose, xylose and arabinose from non-detoxified pretreated wheat straw, birch, corn cob, sugar cane bagasse, cardboard, mixed bio waste, oil palm empty fruit bunch and frond, sugar cane syrup and sugar cane molasses using the anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter Pentocrobe 411. All fermentations resulted in close to maximum theoretical ethanol yields of 0.47-0.49 g/g (based on glucose, xylose, and arabinose), volumetric ethanol productivities of 1.2-2.7 g/L/h and a total sugar conversion of 90-99% including glucose, xylose and arabinose. The results solidify the potential of Thermoanaerobacter strains as candidates for lignocellulose bioconversion.

  3. Development of a Preschool "Kiddy Cane."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogrund, R. L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a "kiddy cane" for use with young children with blindness, aged 2-6, is described including development of the prototype, field testing, modifications resulting from feedback from specialists, and ongoing evaluation. (Author/DB)

  4. IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Donal F. Day

    2009-01-29

    The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate

  5. Consolidated Afloat Networks and Enterprise Services (CANES)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    Information Retrieval (DAMIR) UNCLASSIFIED CANES 2016 MAR UNCLASSIFIED 2 Table of Contents Common Acronyms and Abbreviations for MAIS...Automated Information System MAIS OE - MAIS Original Estimate MAR – MAIS Annual Report MDA - Milestone Decision Authority MDD - Materiel...Then Year U.S.C- United States Code USD(AT&L) - Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, & Logistics CANES 2016 MAR UNCLASSIFIED 3

  6. Activity monitor accuracy in persons using canes.

    PubMed

    Wendland, Deborah Michael; Sprigle, Stephen H

    2012-01-01

    The StepWatch activity monitor has not been validated on multiple indoor and outdoor surfaces in a population using ambulation aids. The aims of this technical report are to report on strategies to configure the StepWatch activity monitor on subjects using a cane and to report the accuracy of both leg-mounted and cane-mounted StepWatch devices on people ambulating over different surfaces while using a cane. Sixteen subjects aged 67 to 85 yr (mean 75.6) who regularly use a cane for ambulation participated. StepWatch calibration was performed by adjusting sensitivity and cadence. Following calibration optimization, accuracy was tested on both the leg-mounted and cane-mounted devices on different surfaces, including linoleum, sidewalk, grass, ramp, and stairs. The leg-mounted device had an accuracy of 93.4% across all surfaces, while the cane-mounted device had an aggregate accuracy of 84.7% across all surfaces. Accuracy of the StepWatch on the stairs was significantly less accurate (p < 0.001) when comparing surfaces using repeated measures analysis of variance. When monitoring community mobility, placement of a StepWatch on a person and his/her ambulation aid can accurately document both activity and device use.

  7. Drop-off detection with the long cane: effect of cane shaft weight and rigidity on performance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Shik; Wall Emerson, Robert; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Auer, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Most travellers who are blind rely on a long cane to detect drop-offs on their walking paths. We examined how different cane shaft materials affect drop-off detection performance through providing different vibrotactile and proprioceptive feedbacks to the cane user. Results of the study showed a significant interaction between cane shaft weight and how the cane is used. A heavier cane was advantageous for detecting drop-offs when the individual used the 'constant contact technique' - cane tip stays in contact with the walking surface at all times - but not when he used the 'two-point touch technique' - cane tip is rhythmically tapped on the surface. In addition, a more flexible cane was advantageous for detecting drop-offs when the two-point touch technique was used but not when the constant contact technique was used. It is recommended that, when blind individuals select a cane shaft material, they consider which long cane technique they use more often. Practitioner Summary: Long cane shaft material affects how well a blind individual can detect drop-offs. A heavier shaft was advantageous when using the constant contact technique (cane tip stays in continuous contact with the surface), while a more flexible shaft was better when using the two-point touch technique (cane tip rhythmically taps the surface).

  8. Drop-off detection with the long cane: effect of cane shaft weight and rigidity on performance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Auer, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Most travellers who are blind rely on a long cane to detect drop-offs on their walking paths. We examined how different cane shaft materials affect drop-off detection performance through providing different vibrotactile and proprioceptive feedbacks to the cane user. Results of the study showed a significant interaction between cane shaft weight and how the cane is used. A heavier cane was advantageous for detecting drop-offs when the individual used the ‘constant contact technique’ – cane tip stays in contact with the walking surface at all times – but not when he used the ‘two-point touch technique’ – cane tip is rhythmically tapped on the surface. In addition, a more flexible cane was advantageous for detecting drop-offs when the two-point touch technique was used but not when the constant contact technique was used. It is recommended that, when blind individuals select a cane shaft material, they consider which long cane technique they use more often. Practitioner Summary: Long cane shaft material affects how well a blind individual can detect drop-offs. A heavier shaft was advantageous when using the constant contact technique (cane tip stays in continuous contact with the surface), while a more flexible shaft was better when using the two-point touch technique (cane tip rhythmically taps the surface). PMID:27065052

  9. Environmental view across Cane River Lake to the Roque House, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Environmental view across Cane River Lake to the Roque House, looking from the northeast (note Front Street in background) - Roque House, Between Front Street & Cane River, Natchitoches, Natchitoches Parish, LA

  10. Performance and Metabolism of Calves Fed Starter Feed Containing Sugarcane Molasses or Glucose Syrup as a Replacement for Corn

    PubMed Central

    Oltramari, C. E.; Nápoles, G. G. O.; De Paula, M. R.; Silva, J. T.; Gallo, M. P. C.; Pasetti, M. H. O.; Bittar, C. M. M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing corn grain for sugar cane molasses (MO) or glucose syrup (GS) in the starter concentrate on performance and metabolism of dairy calves. Thirty-six individually housed Holstein male calves were blocked according to weight and date of birth and assigned to one of the starter feed treatments, during an 8 week study: i) starter containing 65% corn with no MO or GS (0MO); ii) starter containing 60% corn and 5% MO (5MO); iii) starter containing 55% corn and 10% MO (10MO); and iv) starter containing 60% corn and 5% GS (5GS). Animals received 4 L of milk replacer daily (20 crude protein, 16 ether extract, 12.5% solids), divided in two meals (0700 and 1700 h). Starter and water were provided ad libitum. Starter intake and fecal score were monitored daily until animals were eight weeks old. Body weight and measurements (withers height, hip width and heart girth) were measured weekly before the morning feeding. From the second week of age, blood samples were collected weekly, 2 h after the morning feeding, for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate and lactate determination. Ruminal fluid was collected at 4, 6, and 8 weeks of age using an oro-ruminal probe and a suction pump for determination of pH and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). At the end of the eighth week, animals were harvested to evaluate development of the proximal digestive tract. The composition of the starter did not affect (p>0.05) concentrate intake, weight gain, fecal score, blood parameters, and rumen development. However, treatment 5MO showed higher (p<0.05) total concentration of SCFAs, acetate and propionate than 0MO, and these treatments did not differ from 10MO and 5GS (p>0.05). Thus, it can be concluded that the replacement of corn by 5% or 10% sugar cane molasses or 5% GS on starter concentrate did not impact performance, however it has some positive effects on rumen fermentation which may be beneficial for calves with a developing rumen. PMID

  11. Developments in beet and cane sugar extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, C.; Schwartzberg, H.G.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews the various types of extractors used in the extraction of sugar from beet and sugar cane. The types of extractors described are as follows:- Countercurrent Screw - Conveyor Extractors, (Tower Extractors, Slope Extractors), Countercurrent Drag Chain Extractors, Multistage Cross-Flow Extractors, Trommel Extractors, Multistage Scroll Extractors, Diffustion Batteries. Reduced capital costs and power expenditures and slightly higher cane sugar yields can be obtained by combined milking and diffusion extraction as opposed to multi-stage milling. The mechanical reliability of the machinery is emphasized and special attention is given to extraction procedures. Nowadays the trend in beet and cane sugar extraction is toward the use of larger and larger units which helps minimize labor and capital costs per unit of product.

  12. Human Factor Analysis of Long Cane Design: Weight and Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Mark D.; Emerson, Robert Wall

    2005-01-01

    In a series of experiments, canes of different lengths, weights, and weight distributions were assessed to determine the effect of these characteristics on various performance measures. The results indicate that the overall weight of a cane and the distribution of weight along a cane's shaft do not affect a person's performance, but accuracy does…

  13. Development of New Energy Cane Culitvars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research into alternative energy sources has been on the rise since the 1970s. Novel sources of carbon-neutral energy are currently in high demand, but can pose different challenges in their development. Energy cane is a relatively new generation crop being bred as a source for biofuel feedstock and...

  14. 21 CFR 168.130 - Cane sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cane sirup. 168.130 Section 168.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table...

  15. 21 CFR 168.130 - Cane sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cane sirup. 168.130 Section 168.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table...

  16. 21 CFR 168.130 - Cane sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the juice of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) or by solution in water of sugarcane concrete made... such juice. The concentration may be adjusted with or without added water. It may contain one or more... sirup” or “Sugar cane sirup”. Alternatively, the word “sirup” may be spelled “syrup”. (d)...

  17. 21 CFR 168.130 - Cane sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the food shall be declared on the label as required by the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cane sirup. 168.130 Section 168.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  18. 21 CFR 168.130 - Cane sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the food shall be declared on the label as required by the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cane sirup. 168.130 Section 168.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  19. Screening of different fungi for decolorization of molasses

    PubMed Central

    Seyis, Isil; Subasioglu, Tugba

    2009-01-01

    The decolorization of molasses by 17 different fungi in 2 media was studied. Trichoderma viride showed the highest decolorization yield (53.5%) when cultivated at 30ºC for 7 days in Medium 1 which contained the molasses which was diluted to 40 g/L in distilled water. The other Trichoderma species and Penicillium sp. also gave similar results of 40-45%. Decolorization yield was increased by adding peptone and yeast extract to the production medium except Penicillium sp. Growth rate was not related to decolorization yet pH value was. When the pH decreased below 5.0 after the incubation, the decolorization yield increased. Although reducing sugar in culture broth decreased with decreasing color intensity, there was no connection between protein utilization and decolorizing activity. PMID:24031318

  20. Three-dimensional spatial diffusion in optical molasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodapp, T. W.; Gerz, C.; Furtlehner, C.; Westbrook, C. I.; Phillips, W. D.; Dalibard, J.

    1995-02-01

    We have studied the expansion of a small cloud of85Rb atoms in three-dimensional optical molasses (lin ⊥ lin and σ+ - σ- configurations) and observed diffusive motion. We determined the spatial-diffusion coefficients for various laser intensities and detunings, and compared them (in the case of lin ⊥ lin molasses) to values calculated from friction and momentum-diffusion coefficients of a one-dimensional (1D) theory of laser cooling. The predicted variations of the spatial-diffusion coefficient with laser intensity and detuning are in good qualitative agreement with the experimental data. We found that the minimal value observed experimentally, ≈ 6 × 10-4 cm2/s, lies within a factor of 3 of the 1D theoretical minimum, ≈, 26ħ/ M, where M is the atomic mass.

  1. Sub-Doppler cooling of sodium atoms in gray molasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colzi, Giacomo; Durastante, Gianmaria; Fava, Eleonora; Serafini, Simone; Lamporesi, Giacomo; Ferrari, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    We report on the realization of sub-Doppler laser cooling of sodium atoms in gray molasses using the D1 optical transition (3 s 1/2 2S →3 p 1/2 2P) at 589.8 nm. The technique is applied to samples containing 3 ×109 atoms, previously cooled to 350 μ K in a magneto-optical trap, and it leads to temperatures as low as 9 μ K and phase-space densities in the range of 10-4. The capture efficiency of the gray molasses is larger than 2/3, and we observe no density-dependent heating for densities up to 1011cm-3 .

  2. Mechatronic long cane as a travel aid for the blind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Robert X.; Cai, Xiaofeng

    1998-12-01

    Applying the principle of mechatronics, this paper presents design considerations for a new type of sensor-embedded 'smart' long cane which can serve as an orientation and travel aid for the blind. The smart long cane uses a set of miniaturized ultrasonic sensors to detect obstacles along the travel path, and provide human voice feedback on the obstacle's height and distance to guide the cane user away for head collisions and subsequent injuries. Topics discussed include sensor array design, placement, and integration, structure of the embedded software, and ergonomic issues for the new cane design.

  3. Drop-off Detection with the Long Cane: Effects of Different Cane Techniques on Performance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the drop-off detection performance with the two-point touch and constant contact cane techniques using a repeated-measures design with a convenience sample of 15 cane users with visual impairments. The constant contact technique was superior to the two-point touch technique in the drop-off detection rate and the 50% detection threshold. The findings may help an orientation and mobility instructor select an appropriate technique for a particular client or training situation. PMID:21209791

  4. Ergonomic Factors Related to Drop-Off Detection With the Long Cane: Effects of Cane Tips and Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Shik; Wall Emerson, Robert S.; Curtis, Amy B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study examined the effect of cane tips and cane techniques on drop-off detection with the long cane. Background Blind pedestrians depend on a long cane to detect drop-offs. Missing a drop-off may result in falls or collision with moving vehicles in the street. Although cane tips appear to affect a cane user’s ability to detect drop-offs, few experimental studies have examined such effect. Method A repeated-measures design with block randomization was used for the study. Participants were 17 adults who were legally blind and had no other disabilities. Participants attempted to detect the drop-offs of varied depths using different cane tips and cane techniques. Results Drop-off detection rates were similar between the marshmallow tip (77.0%) and the marshmallow roller tip (79.4%) when both tips were used with the constant contact technique, p = .294. However, participants detected drop-offs at a significantly higher percentage when they used the constant contact technique with the marshmallow roller tip (79.4%) than when they used the two-point touch technique with the marshmallow tip (63.2%), p < .001. Conclusion The constant contact technique used with a marshmallow roller tip (perceived as a less advantageous tip) was more effective than the two-point touch technique used with a marshmallow tip (perceived as a more advantageous tip) in detecting drop-offs. Application The findings of the study may help cane users and orientation and mobility specialists select appropriate cane techniques and cane tips in accordance with the cane user’s characteristics and the nature of the travel environment. PMID:21077566

  5. GS4 Molasses ICUMSA (International Commission for Uniform Methods in Sugar Analysis) Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A report is given on international trade methods for molasses. At the present time there is a need to replace lead acetate clarification agent used in the determination of sucrose in molasses samples, in Europe and other parts of the world. The report discusses possible replacements for lead aceta...

  6. Current Research on Molasses as an Alternative Energy Source for Organic Dairy Herds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As organic grain prices have increased and organic milk prices have decreased, dairy farmers are seeking lower-cost supplementation strategies. Sugarcane molasses, a rich source of sucrose, seems to be a viable option as a source of energy. Molasses frequently costs less per pound of dry matter than...

  7. Production and Purification of Bioethanol from Molasses and Cassava

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maryana, Roni; Wahono, Satriyo Krido

    2009-09-01

    This research aim to analysis bioethanol purification process. Bioethanol from cassava has been produced in previous research and the ethanol from molasses was taken from Bekonang region. The production of bioethanol from cassava was carried out through several processes such as homogenization, adding of α-amylase, β-amylase and yeast (Saccharomyces c). Two types of laboratory scale distillator have been used, the first type is 50 cm length and 4 cm diameter. The second type distillator is 30 cm length and 9 cm diameter. Both types have been used to distill bioethanol The initial concentration after the fermentation process is 15% for bioethanol from cassava and 20-30% ethanol from molasses. The results of first type distillator are 90% of bioethanol at 50° C and yield 2.5%; 70% of bioethanol at 60° C and yield 11.2%. 32% of bioethanol at 70° C and yield 42%. Meanwhile the second distillator results are 84% of bioethanol at 50° C with yield 12%; 51% of bioethanol at 60° C with yield 35.5%; 20% of bioethanol at 70° C with yield 78.8%; 16% of bioethanol at 80° C with yield 81.6%. The ethanol from molasses has been distillated once times in Bekonang after the fermentation process, the yield was about 20%. In this research first type distillator and the initial concentration is 20% has been used. The results are 95% of bioethanol at 75° C with yield 8%; 94% of bioethanol at 85° C with yield 13% when vacuum pump was used. And 94% of bioethanol at 90° C with yield 3.7% and 94% of bioethanol at 96° C with yield 10.27% without vacuum pump. The bioethanol purification use second type distillator more effective than first type distillator.

  8. Ensilage of tropical grasses mixed with legumes and molasses.

    PubMed

    Tjandraatmadja, M; Norton, B W; Mac Rae, I C

    1994-01-01

    The effects of adding two legumes, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, cv. Cunningham, and molasses on the fermentation characteristics of silages made from two tropical grasses (Pangola grass, Digitaria decumbens, and Setaria sphacelata cv. Kazungula) were investigated. Pangola grass silages contained significantly higher contents of water-soluble carbohydrates and lactic acid than did setaria silages after 100 days fermentation, but there were no significant differences between the two silages in populations of lactic acid bacteria and contents of total N and NH3-N. Addition of either species of legume had no significant effect on fermentation acids and NH3-N contents, and numbers of lactic acid bacteria. Addition of both legumes reduced NH3-N production in the silages by 59% after 5 days' fermentation. Numbers of lactic acid bacteria were not significantly affected by the different treatments. Enterococcus faecalis represented 60% of the lactic acid bacteria isolated from the treated herbages prior to ensiling. By 100 days of fermentation, only lactobacilli were isolated: 82% homo-fermenters and 18% hetero-fermenters. Lactobacillus mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum was found only in the silage supplemented with 33% (w/w) legume. It was concluded that the low quality of tropical grasses used as feeds for ruminants may be significantly improved by ensiling these grasses with small amounts of molasses and with high-protein tree leaves.

  9. Canes Implementation: Analysis of Budgetary, Business, and Policy Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT CANES IMPLEMENTATION: ANALYSIS OF BUDGETARY, BUSINESS ...BUDGETARY, BUSINESS , AND POUCY CHALLENGES 6. AUTHOR(S) Reginald Badua and Shalanda Warr 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NA1VIE(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited CANES IMPLEMENTATION: ANALYSIS OF BUDGETARY, BUSINESS , AND POLICY CHALLENGES Reginald

  10. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35... overall allotment quantity. (c) A sugar beet processor allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment...

  11. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35... overall allotment quantity. (c) A sugar beet processor allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment...

  12. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35... overall allotment quantity. (c) A sugar beet processor allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment...

  13. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35... overall allotment quantity. (c) A sugar beet processor allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment...

  14. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35... overall allotment quantity. (c) A sugar beet processor allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment...

  15. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a...

  16. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a...

  17. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a...

  18. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a...

  19. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a...

  20. Rotating cross arm trellis and cane training for brambles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the combination of primocane training and cane positioning techniques using a rotatable cross-arm (RCA) trellis system and covering plants in winter to protect buds and canes from freezing temperatures in 'Apache', 'Boysenberry', 'Siskiyou', and 'Triple Crown' blackberry. After tying p...

  1. 1. Straighton view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Straight-on view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery showing three-roll cane mill, single reduction gear, flywheel and steam engine. - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

  2. Older Homebound Women: Negotiating Reliance on a Cane or Walker

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Eileen J.; Benson, Jacquelyn J.; Matsuda, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    Canes and walkers are commonly characterized as assistive devices and as devices that serve the same purpose, as walking aides. These general views were reappraised and tempered in this descriptive phenomenological study with 40 older women (aged 85-98) who were unable to leave their homes without help. The purpose was to describe the phenomena of negotiating reliance on canes and walkers as walking devices and the lifeworld context underlying each phenomenon. Relative to lifeworld, there were differences between coming to terms with using a cane and coming to terms with using a walker. Data revealed similarities and distinctions between the basic intentions of relying on canes and on walkers and the associated purposes served by canes and walkers. Participants did not view either device as consistently assistive. Findings evoke opportunities for dialogue among older persons, scholars, practitioners, and designers of these devices about coming to terms with such devices and relying on them. PMID:21041520

  3. Florida Citrus Molasses as a Fermentation Substrate1

    PubMed Central

    Long, Sterling K.; Hill, E. C.; Wheaton, T. A.

    1967-01-01

    Samples of midseason Florida citrus molasses from 10 different manufacturing plants were studied during 2 years of production for suitability as fermentation substrates. They were analyzed for degrees Brix, pH, percentage of protein, and free amino acid content. The following ranges of values were obtained: degrees Brix, 65.4 to 73.0; pH, 4.2 to 6.4; and protein, 3.3 to 5.1%. Although the general characteristics of all samples were quite similar, the total free amino acid content and the number of amino acids differed from year to year and from plant to plant. The free amino acids consistently present were asparagine, aspartic acid, alanine, γ-amino-butyric, glycine, glutamic acid, proline, serine, and threonine. Occasionally found were arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and valine. An extremely high level of proline was detected in all samples. PMID:16349724

  4. Decolorization of anaerobically digested molasses spent wash by Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, M; Ganguli, A; Tripathi, A K

    2009-01-01

    The distillery wastewater (spent wash) contains dark-brown colored recalcitrant organic compounds that are not amenable to conventional biological treatment. The characteristic recalcitrance to decolorization is due to the presence of brown melanoidin polymers. In the present study, feasibility of using Pseudomonas putida strain U for decolorization of spent wash was demonstrated. Batch cultures of P. putida decolourized spent wash by 24%, 2- fold higher decolorization was achieved following immobilization in calcium alginate beads. Glucose concentration was critical for decolourization and improved color removal efficiency was obtained by periodic replenishment of glucose. Decolourization was also observed with lactose or whey as alternative carbon sources. The results of our study suggest that P. putida could be used for biological decolorization of molasses spent washes and that supplementation with whey (a by-product from cheese industry) can offer economical viability to the process.

  5. Potential production of energy cane for fuel in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, G.

    1984-08-01

    Sugarcane grown as energy cane presents a new potential to the Caribbean countries to provide their own energy needs and to reduce or eliminate fuel oil imports. The use of proper agronomic techniques can convert conventional sugarcane growing to a crop capable of giving energy feedstocks in the form of fiber for boiler fuel for electricity and fermentable solids for alcohol for motor fuel. Sugarcane can still be obtained from the energy cane for domestic consumption and export if desired. The aerable land now devoted to sugarcane can utilized for energy-cane production without causing any serious imbalance in food crop production.

  6. Engineered Enterobacter aerogenes for efficient utilization of sugarcane molasses in 2,3-butanediol production.

    PubMed

    Jung, Moo-Young; Park, Bu-Soo; Lee, Jinwon; Oh, Min-Kyu

    2013-07-01

    Sugarcane molasses is considered to be a good carbon source for biorefinery due to its high sugar content and low price. Sucrose occupies more than half of the sugar in the molasses. Enterobacter aerogenes is a good host strain for 2,3-butanediol production, but its utilization of sucrose is not very efficient. To improve sucrose utilization in E. aerogenes, a sucrose regulator (ScrR) was disrupted from the genomic DNA. The deletion mutation increased the sucrose consumption rate significantly when sucrose or sugarcane molasses was used as a carbon source. The 2,3-butanediol production from sugarcane molasses by the mutant was enhanced by 60% in batch fermentation compared to that by the wild type strain. In fed-batch fermentation, 98.69 g/L of 2,3-butanediol production was achieved at 36 h.

  7. Phenols in citrus peel byproducts. Concentrations of hydroxycinnamates and polymethoxylated flavones in citrus peel molasses.

    PubMed

    Manthey, J A; Grohmann, K

    2001-07-01

    In addition to the main flavanone glycosides (i.e., hesperidin and naringin) in citrus peel, polymethoxylated flavones and numerous hydroxycinnamates also occur and are major phenolic constituents of the molasses byproduct generated from fruit processing. Although a small number of the hydroxycinnamates in citrus occur as amides, most occur as esters and are susceptible to alkaline hydrolysis. This susceptibility to alkaline hydrolysis was used in measuring the concentrations of hydroxycinnamates in citrus peel molasses. The highest concentrations of hydroxycinnamates occurred in molasses of orange [C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and tangerine (C. reticulata Blanco.) compared to grapefruit (C. paradisi Macf.) and lemon [C. limon (L.) Burm.]. Concentrations of two phenolic glucosides, phlorin (phloroglucinol-beta-O-glucoside) and coniferin (coniferyl alcohol-4-beta-O-glucoside), were also measured. Measurements of the polymethoxylated flavones in molasses from several tangerine and orange varieties showed that these compounds occurred in the highest amounts in Dancy tangerine, whereas samples from two other tangerine molasses contained significantly lower levels, similar to those in the molasses samples from late- and early/mid-season oranges.

  8. Clastogenicity of landfarming soil treated with sugar cane vinasse.

    PubMed

    da Silva Souza, Tatiana; Hencklein, Fabiana Aparecida; de Franceschi de Angelis, Dejanira; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

    2013-02-01

    The addition of nutrients and/or soil bulking agents is used in bioremediation to increase microbial activity in contaminated soils. For this purpose, some studies have assessed the effectiveness of vinasse in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with petroleum waste. The present study was aimed at investigating the clastogenic/aneugenic potential of landfarming soil from a petroleum refinery before and after addition of sugar cane vinasse using the Allium cepa bioassay. Our results show that the addition of sugar cane vinasse to landfarming soil potentiates the clastogenic effects of the latter probably due the release of metals that were previously adsorbed into the organic matter. These metals may have interacted synergistically with petroleum hydrocarbons present in the landfarming soil treated with sugar cane vinasse. We recommend further tests to monitor the effects of sugar cane vinasse on soils contaminated with organic wastes.

  9. VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE CLEANING PLANT AND CRUSHING MILL TO THE FORE. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  10. 10. Side view of cane mill looking NW with steam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Side view of cane mill looking NW with steam engine in background. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  11. 16. View of cane mill sitting under open shed showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. View of cane mill sitting under open shed showing discharge and top rolls. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  12. Potential production of energy cane for fuel in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, G.

    1984-12-01

    Sugarcane presents a tremendous potential as a renewable energy source for the non-oil producing countries of the Caribbean. The energy cane concept is sugarcane managed for maximum dry matter (total fermentable solids for alcohol fuel and combustible solids for electricity) rather than sucrose. The use of sugarcane as a renewable energy source can provide a solution, either partial or total, to the Caribbean energy problem. Sugar cane production and the use of this crop as a renewable energy source are described.

  13. Utilization of molasses spentwash for production of bioplastics by waste activated sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Khardenavis, Anshuman A. Vaidya, Atul N.; Kumar, M. Suresh; Chakrabarti, Tapan

    2009-09-15

    Present study describes the treatment of molasses spentwash and its use as a potential low cost substrate for production of biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by waste activated sludge. Fluorescence microscopy revealed the presence of PHB granules in sludge biomass which was further confirmed by fourier transform-infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The processing of molasses spentwash was carried out for attaining different ratios of carbon and nitrogen (C:N). Highest chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and PHB accumulation of 60% and 31% respectively was achieved with raw molasses spentwash containing inorganic nitrogen (C:N ratio = 28) followed by COD removal of 52% and PHB accumulation of 28% for filtered molasses containing inorganic nitrogen (C:N ratio = 29). PHB production yield (Y{sub p/s}) was highest (0.184 g g{sup -1} COD consumed) for deproteinized spentwash supplemented with nitrogen. In contrast, the substrate consumption and product formation were higher in case of raw spentwash. Though COD removal was lowest from deproteinized spentwash, evaluation of kinetic parameters suggested higher rates of conversion of available carbon to biomass and PHB. Thus the process provided dual benefit of conversion of two wastes viz. waste activated sludge and molasses spentwash into value-added product-PHB.

  14. Sugar Beet Pulp as Leuconostoc mesenteroides T3 Support for Enhanced Dextransucrase Production on Molasses.

    PubMed

    Miljković, Miona G; Davidović, Slađana Z; Carević, Milica B; Veljović, Đorđe N; Mladenović, Dragana D; Rajilić-Stojanović, Mirjana D; Dimitrijević-Branković, Suzana I

    2016-11-01

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP) and molasses, as an agro industrial waste material, are produced in large amounts annually. Thus, a major challenge nowadays is to develop procedures that could increase the value of the generated waste. In this study, SBP as a support for cell immobilization and molasses as a source of nutrients were used for a dextransucrase (DS) production by Leuconostoc mesenteroides T3. The influence of SBP in native form (SBP-N) and after treatment with NaOH (SBP-NaOH) on DS production was investigated. The optimal medium composition for the maximum DS production was determined by varying the concentration of molasses, SBP, and sucrose. The maximum DS yield of 2.02 U/ml was obtained in the medium with 2.5 % of molasses, 2.5 % SBP-NaOH, and 4 % of sucrose concentration. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed immobilization of Lc. mesenteroides T3 cells onto SBP-NaOH. According to the obtained results, the production of DS on molasses could be improved by using NaOH-treated SBP as a carrier for whole-cell immobilization. Our study reveals the basis for the development of process for DS production with additional reduction of expenses by using waste materials for obtaining the valuable biotechnological product.

  15. Production of L-ornithine from sucrose and molasses by recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Bu, Yi-Fan; Liu, Jian-Zhong

    2015-09-01

    Sucrose and molasses are attractive raw materials for industrial fermentation. Although Corynebacterium glutamicum shows sucrose-utilizing activity, sucrose or molasses is only a fraction of carbon source used in the fermentation medium in most works. An engineered C. glutamicum strain was constructed for producing L-ornithine with sucrose or molasses as a sole carbon source by transferring Mannheimia succiniciproducens β-fructofuranosidase gene (sacC). The engineered strain, C. glutamicum ΔAPE6937R42 (pEC-sacC), produced 22.0 g/L of L-ornithine with sucrose as the sole carbon source, which is on par with that obtained by the parent strain C. glutamicum ΔAPE6937R42 with glucose as the sole carbon. The resulting strain C. glutamicum ΔAPE6937R42 (pEC-sacC) produced 27.0 g/L of L-ornithine with molasses as the sole carbon source, which is higher than that obtained by the parent strain C. glutamicum ΔAPE6937R42 with glucose as the sole carbon. This strategy can be applied for developing sucrose- or molasses-utilizing industrial strains.

  16. Utilization of molasses spentwash for production of bioplastics by waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Khardenavis, Anshuman A; Vaidya, Atul N; Kumar, M Suresh; Chakrabarti, Tapan

    2009-09-01

    Present study describes the treatment of molasses spentwash and its use as a potential low cost substrate for production of biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by waste activated sludge. Fluorescence microscopy revealed the presence of PHB granules in sludge biomass which was further confirmed by fourier transform-infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The processing of molasses spentwash was carried out for attaining different ratios of carbon and nitrogen (C:N). Highest chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and PHB accumulation of 60% and 31% respectively was achieved with raw molasses spentwash containing inorganic nitrogen (C:N ratio=28) followed by COD removal of 52% and PHB accumulation of 28% for filtered molasses containing inorganic nitrogen (C:N ratio=29). PHB production yield (Y(p/s)) was highest (0.184 g g(-1) COD consumed) for deproteinized spentwash supplemented with nitrogen. In contrast, the substrate consumption and product formation were higher in case of raw spentwash. Though COD removal was lowest from deproteinized spentwash, evaluation of kinetic parameters suggested higher rates of conversion of available carbon to biomass and PHB. Thus the process provided dual benefit of conversion of two wastes viz. waste activated sludge and molasses spentwash into value-added product-PHB.

  17. Advanced Augmented White Cane with obstacle height and distance feedback.

    PubMed

    Pyun, Rosali; Kim, Yeongmi; Wespe, Pascal; Gassert, Roger; Schneller, Stefan

    2013-06-01

    The white cane is a widely used mobility aid that helps visually impaired people navigate the surroundings. While it reliably and intuitively extends the detection range of ground-level obstacles and drop-offs to about 1.2 m, it lacks the ability to detect trunk and head-level obstacles. Electronic Travel Aids (ETAs) have been proposed to overcome these limitations, but have found minimal adoption due to limitations such as low information content and low reliability thereof. Although existing ETAs extend the sensing range beyond that of the conventional white cane, most of them do not detect head-level obstacles and drop-offs, nor can they identify the vertical extent of obstacles. Furthermore, some ETAs work independent of the white cane, and thus reliable detection of surface textures and drop-offs is not provided. This paper introduces a novel ETA, the Advanced Augmented White Cane, which detects obstacles at four vertical levels and provides multi-sensory feedback. We evaluated the device in five blindfolded subjects through reaction time measurements following the detection of an obstacle, as well as through the reliability of dropoff detection. The results showed that our aid could help the user successfully detect an obstacle and identify its height, with an average reaction time of 410 msec. Drop-offs were reliably detected with an intraclass correlation > 0.95. This work is a first step towards a low-cost ETA to complement the functionality of the conventional white cane.

  18. Sediment-transport characteristics of Cane Creek, Lauderdale County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carey, W.P.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of the sediment-transport characteristics of Cane Creek in Lauderdale County, Tennessee, was conducted from 1985-88 to evaluate the potential for channel erosion induced by modifications (realignment and enlargement) and the potential ability of different flows to move bed and bank stabilizing material. Frequently occurring flows in Cane Creek are capable of moving sand-size material (0.0625 - 4.0 millimeters). During floods that equal or exceed the 2-year flood, Cane Creek is capable of moving very coarse gravel (32 - 64 millimeters). Boundary-shear values at bridges, where flow contractions occur, correspond to critical diameters in excess of 100 millimeters. Thus, the areas near bridges, where channel stability is most critical, are the areas where erosive power is greatest. Deepening and widening of Cane Creek has exposed large areas of channel boundary that are a significant source of raindrop-detached sediment during the early stages of a storm before stream flow increases signifi- cantly. This causes suspended-sediment concentration to peak while the flow hydrograph is just beginning to rise. For basins like Cane Creek, where runoff events commonly last less than a day and where variation in discharge and sediment concentrations are large, an estimate of sediment yield based on periodic observations of instantaneous values is subject to considerable uncertainty.

  19. Ethanoligenens harbinense gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from molasses wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xing, Defeng; Ren, Nanqi; Li, Qiubo; Lin, Ming; Wang, Aijie; Zhao, Lihua

    2006-04-01

    Two strictly anaerobic bacterial strains (YUAN-3T and X-29) were isolated from anaerobic activated sludge of molasses wastewater in a continuous stirred-tank reactor. The strains were Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, mesophilic and motile. Cells were regular rods (0.4-0.8 x 1.5-8.0 microm) and occurred singly, in pairs and sometimes in chains of up to eight. Autoaggregative and autofluorescent growth of strain YUAN-3T and non-aggregative growth of strain X-29 were observed at 20-44 degrees C and pH 3.5-9.0. Both strains hydrolysed gelatin and aesculin and fermented several kinds of mono-, di- and oligosaccharides. Fermentation end products formed from glucose were acetate, ethanol, hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The predominant cellular fatty acids were the branched-chain fatty acids iso-C(16 : 0) (44.18 %) and iso-C(12 : 0) (26.67 %). The DNA G+C contents of strains YUAN-3T and X-29 were 47.8 and 49.0 mol%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolates represent a novel phyletic sublineage within the Clostridium cellulosi rRNA cluster, with <92 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to currently known species. On the basis of polyphasic evidence from this study, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium should be classified in a new genus as a novel species, Ethanoligenens harbinense gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Ethanoligenens harbinense is YUAN-3T (=JCM 12961T = CGMCC 1.5033T).

  20. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets,...

  1. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets,...

  2. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets,...

  3. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets,...

  4. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets,...

  5. Kinetics of ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse enzymatic hydrolysate concentrated with molasses under cell recycle.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Rafael Ramos; Maugeri Filho, Francisco; Maciel Filho, Rubens; da Costa, Aline Carvalho

    2013-02-01

    In this work, a kinetic model for ethanol fermentation from sugarcane bagasse enzymatic hydrolysate concentrated with molasses was developed. A model previously developed for fermentation of pure molasses was modified by the inclusion of a new term for acetic acid inhibition on microorganism growth rate and the kinetic parameters were estimated as functions of temperature. The influence of the hydrolysate on the kinetic parameters is analyzed by comparing with the parameters from fermentation of pure molasses. The impact of cells recycling in the kinetic parameters is also evaluated, as well as on the ethanol yield and productivity. The model developed described accurately most of the fermentations performed in several successive batches for temperatures from 30 to 38°C.

  6. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar...

  7. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane...

  8. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar...

  9. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane...

  10. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane...

  11. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar...

  12. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar...

  13. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane...

  14. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar...

  15. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane...

  16. Energy cane as a multiple-products alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    CANE SUGAR planting as it was formerly known is in serious and essentially irreversible trouble. Diversification of sugarcane to alternative farm crops is indicated in some instances. Yet, for the most part, the more logical alternative is an internal diversification to a multiple-products biomass commodity. Sometimes termed the energy cane approach, its keystones are the management of sugarcane as a quantitative rather than qualitative entity, and the inclusion of certain tropical-grass relatives to assist cane in its year-round supply of biomass to industrial consumers. Managed in this way, absolute tonnages of whole cane are increased materially beyond what is possible from sugar-crop management. Juice quality declines but sugar yields are significant as a function of high biomass tonnages per acre. Usage of the lignocellulose can range from low-quality humid boiler fuel in furnaces designed for refuse incineration, to higher-quality fuels in more efficient boilers, to proprietary fuels and chemical products, and to lignocellulose supply as the feedstock for primary chemicals production. The latter might include, for example, synthesis gas and petrochemicals in tropical regions lacking natural gas, naphtha, or coal as starting materials. Diversification of sugarcane to completely new farm commodities is opposed in favor of internal diversification to a high-growth, multiple-products commodity. Decisive issues here are as much educational as they are technical. The energy cane concept maintains that sugarcane is a future resource of enormous national and international value. It should develop accordingly where decision-taking is by persons who respect the cane plant and who have done their homework on its alternative-use potentials. 35 references, 5 figures, 6 tables.

  17. Collimation of a thulium atomic beam by two-dimensional optical molasses

    SciTech Connect

    Sukachev, D D; Kalganova, E S; Sokolov, A V; Savchenkov, A V; Vishnyakova, G A; Golovizin, A A; Akimov, A V; Kolachevsky, Nikolai N; Sorokin, Vadim N

    2013-04-30

    The number of laser cooled and trapped thulium atoms in a magneto-optical trap is increased by a factor of 3 using a two-dimensional optical molasses which collimated the atomic beam before entering a Zeeman slower. A diode laser operating at 410.6 nm was employed to form optical molasses: The laser was heated to 70 Degree-Sign C by a two-step temperature stabilisation system. The laser system consisting of a master oscillator and an injection-locked amplifier emitted more than 100 mW at 410 nm and had a spectral linewidth of 0.6 MHz. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  18. Enhancing L-Lysine Production of Beet Molasses by Engineered Escherichia coli Using an In Situ Pretreatment Method.

    PubMed

    He, Xun; Qi, Yanbin; Chen, Kequan; Li, Yan; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2016-07-01

    Reducing the viscosity of molasses environmentally and selectively removing the harmful ingredients for microbes are the keys to promoting the bioavailability of molasses. A simple and environmental in situ pretreatment method integrating surfactants and alkali was developed to reduce the viscosity of molasses prior to L-lysine production using Escherichia coli ZY0217. Adding activated carbon and modified orange peel based on the in situ pretreatment process effectively removed pigments and excessive zinc in the molasses and also significantly increased the cell growth and L-lysine yield from E. coli ZY0217. The experimental results showed that a mixture of secondary alkane sulfonate, an anionic surfactant, and HodagCB-6, a non-ionic surfactant, effectively reduced the viscosity of the molasses more so than any single surfactant. When the surfactant mixture was added at a concentration of 0.04 g/L to the molasses, the ω value was 0.4, and when ammonia was added at 0.6 %, the lowest viscosity of 705 mPa · s was obtained. Further, 91.5 % of the color and 86.68 % of the original levels of zinc were removed using an activated carbon and modified orange peel treatment on the molasses with the lowest viscosity, which further promoted cell growth and L-lysine production. In the fed-batch cultivation process, the L-lysine concentration achieved using a constant-speed feeding strategy was 45.89 g/L, with an L-lysine yield of 27.18 %, whereas the L-lysine yield from untreated molasses was only 10.13 %. The increase in L-lysine yield was related to the reduced viscosity and the detoxification of the molasses. Lastly, the pretreatment was found to significantly enhance the conversion of sugars in the molasses to L-lysine.

  19. Quantification of long cane usage characteristics with the constant contact technique.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeongmi; Moncada-Torres, Arturo; Furrer, Jonas; Riesch, Markus; Gassert, Roger

    2016-07-01

    While a number of Electronic Travel Aids (ETAs) have been developed over the past decades, the conventional long cane remains the most widely utilized navigation tool for people with visual impairments. Understanding the characteristics of long cane usage is crucial for the development and acceptance of ETAs. Using optical tracking, cameras and inertial measurement units, we investigated grasp type, cane orientation and sweeping characteristics of the long cane with the constant contact technique. The mean cane tilt angle, sweeping angle, and grip rotation deviation were measured. Grasp type varied among subjects, but was maintained throughout the experiments, with thumb and index finger in contact with the cane handle over 90% of the time. We found large inter-subject differences in sweeping range and frequency, while the sweeping frequency showed low intra-subject variability. These findings give insights into long cane usage characteristics and provide critical information for the development of effective ETAs.

  20. 9. Detail view of cane mill showing feed, top and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Detail view of cane mill showing feed, top and discharge roll driving pinions and main shaft coupling. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  1. Payback time for soil carbon and sugar-cane ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, Francisco F. C.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Davies, Christian A.; Holbrook, N. Michele; Paustian, Keith; Maia, Stoécio M. F.; Galdos, Marcelo V.; Bernoux, Martial; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2014-07-01

    The effects of land-use change (LUC) on soil carbon (C) balance has to be taken into account in calculating the CO2 savings attributed to bioenergy crops. There have been few direct field measurements that quantify the effects of LUC on soil C for the most common land-use transitions into sugar cane in Brazil, the world's largest producer . We quantified the C balance for LUC as a net loss (carbon debt) or net gain (carbon credit) in soil C for sugar-cane expansion in Brazil. We sampled 135 field sites to 1 m depth, representing three major LUC scenarios. Our results demonstrate that soil C stocks decrease following LUC from native vegetation and pastures, and increase where cropland is converted to sugar cane. The payback time for the soil C debt was eight years for native vegetation and two to three years for pastures. With an increasing need for biofuels and the potential for Brazil to help meet global demand, our results will be invaluable for guiding expansion policies of sugar-cane production towards greater sustainability.

  2. Methods of alcohol production available to the cane sugar refiner

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, M.C.

    1981-11-01

    The three methods of fermenting sugar feedstocks, namely, batch, batch recycle and continuous culture are described. With the current emphasis on fuel alcohol from sugar cane products, new techniques for dealing with the effuent stillage are required. Other areas for improvement include the fermentation process itself and the various distillation methods. New technology in these areas together with the economic considerations involved are reviewed.

  3. Immobilized Sclerotinia sclerotiorum invertase to produce invert sugar syrup from industrial beet molasses by-product.

    PubMed

    Mouelhi, Refka; Abidi, Ferid; Galai, Said; Marzouki, M Nejib

    2014-03-01

    The fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum produces invertase activity during cultivation on many agroindustrial residues. The molasses induced invertase was purified by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was estimated at 48 kDa. Optimal temperature was determined at 60 °C and thermal stability up to 65 °C. The enzyme was stable between pH 2.0 and 8.0; optimum pH was about 5.5. Apparent K(m) and V(max) for sucrose were estimated to be respectively 5.8 mM and 0.11 μmol/min. The invertase was activated by β-mercaptoethanol. Free enzyme exhibited 80 % of its original activity after two month's storage at 4 °C and 50 % after 1 week at 25 °C. In order to investigate an industrial application, the enzyme was immobilized on alginate and examined for invert sugar production by molasses hydrolysis in a continuous bioreactor. The yield of immobilized invertase was about 78 % and the activity yield was 59 %. Interestingly the immobilized enzyme hydrolyzed beet molasses consuming nearly all sucrose. It retained all of its initial activity after being used for 4 cycles and about 65 % at the sixth cycle. Regarding productivity; 20 g/l of molasses by-product gave the best invert sugar production 46.21 g/day/100 g substrate related to optimal sucrose conversion of 41.6 %.

  4. Galactoglucomannan Oligosaccharides (GGMO) from a Molasses Byproduct of Pine (Pinus taeda) Fiberboard Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    "Temulose" is the trade name for a water-soluble molasses produced on a large scale (300 - 400 tonnes per year) as a byproduct of the fiberboard industry. The feedstock for temulose is predominantly a single species of pine (Pinus taeda) grown and harvested in stands in south-eastern Texas. Becaus...

  5. Galactoglucomannan Oligosaccharides (GGMO) from a Molasses Byproduct of Pine (Pinus taeda) Fiberboard Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Temulose” is the trade name for a water-soluble molasses produced on a large scale (300 - 400 tonnes per year) as a byproduct of the fiberboard industry. The feedstock for temulose is predominantly a single species of pine (Pinus taeda) grown and harvested in stands in southeastern Texas. Because...

  6. Induction of bovine polioencephalomalacia with a feeding system based on molasses and urea.

    PubMed Central

    Mella, C M; Perez-Oliva, O; Loew, F M

    1976-01-01

    Polioencephalomalacia (PEM), a disease first described in the United States and related to intensive beef production, appeared in Cuba coincident with the use of a new, molasses-urea-based diet to fatten bulls. Because the only experimental means so far of reproducing PEM has been with amprolium, a structural analog of thiamin, the present study attempted to induce the disease using the molasses-urea-based diet. Six Holstein bulls (200-300 kg) were studied during consumption of three successive diets: 1) commercial molasses-urea-restricted forage diet of Cuban feedlots, 2) a period in which forage was gradually withdrawn and 3) a forage-free diet composed only of molasses, urea and fish meal. PEM was reproduced in this way. At ten-day intervals, blood concentrations of glucose, lactate, pyruvate and urea were measured, as well as when clinical signs of PEM appeared. The signs, clinical course and lesions of the experimentally induced disease were comparable to those of field cases. The biochemical results suggested a block in pyruvate oxidation as in PEM elsewhere in the world. No evidence existed of urea intoxication. In addition, brain and liver concentration of total thiamin from field cases and normal animals were found to be similar. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1000370

  7. Effect of molasses in anaerobic soil disinfestation: Focus on the soil microbiome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growers in Florida have begun to apply molasses to increase the soil microbial biodiversity. Previous reports have indicated that a greater microbial diversity could cause disease suppressive soils. Furthermore, it has been shown that under moderate temperature, 15-20° C, an increase of carbon could...

  8. Unusual catalysts from molasses: synthesis, properties and application in obtaining biofuels from algae.

    PubMed

    Samorì, Chiara; Torri, Cristian; Fabbri, Daniele; Falini, Giuseppe; Faraloni, Cecilia; Galletti, Paola; Spera, Silvia; Tagliavini, Emilio; Torzillo, Giuseppe

    2012-08-01

    Acid catalysts were prepared by sulfonation of carbon materials obtained from the pyrolysis of sugar beet molasses, a cheap, viscous byproduct in the processing of sugar beets into sugar. Conditions for the pyrolysis of molasses (temperature and time) influenced catalyst performance; the best combination came from pyrolysis at low temperature (420 °C) for a relatively long time (8-15 h), which ensured better stability of the final material. The most effective molasses catalyst was highly active in the esterification of fatty acids with methanol (100 % yield after 3 h) and more active than common solid acidic catalysts in the transesterification of vegetable oils with 25-75 wt % of acid content (55-96 % yield after 8 h). A tandem process using a solid acid molasses catalyst and potassium hydroxide in methanol was developed to de-acidificate and transesterificate algal oils from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Nannochloropsis gaditana, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, which contain high amounts of free fatty acids. The amount of catalyst required for the de-acidification step was influenced by the chemical composition of the algal oil, thus operational conditions were determined not only in relation to free fatty acids content in the oil, but according to the composition of the lipid extract of each algal species.

  9. Water Footprints of Cassava- and Molasses-Based Ethanol Production in Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Mangmeechai, Aweewan; Pavasant, Prasert

    2013-12-15

    The Thai government has been promoting renewable energy as well as stimulating the consumption of its products. Replacing transport fuels with bioethanol will require substantial amounts of water and enhance water competition locally. This study shows that the water footprint (WF) of molasses-based ethanol is less than that of cassava-based ethanol. The WF of molasses-based ethanol is estimated to be in the range of 1,510-1,990 L water/L ethanol, while that of cassava-based ethanol is estimated at 2,300-2,820 L water/L ethanol. Approximately 99% of the water in each of these WFs is used to cultivate crops. Ethanol production requires not only substantial amounts of water but also government interventions because it is not cost competitive. In Thailand, the government has exploited several strategies to lower ethanol prices such as oil tax exemptions for consumers, cost compensation for ethanol producers, and crop price assurances for farmers. For the renewable energy policy to succeed in the long run, the government may want to consider promoting molasses-based ethanol production as well as irrigation system improvements and sugarcane yield-enhancing practices, since molasses-based ethanol is more favorable than cassava-based ethanol in terms of its water consumption, chemical fertilizer use, and production costs.

  10. [BIOCONVERSION OF CRUDE GLYCEROL AND MOLASSES MIXTURE IN BIOSURFACTANTS OF NOCARDIA VACCINII IMB B-7405].

    PubMed

    Pirog, T P; Kudrya, N V; Shevchuk, T A; Beregova, K A; Iutynska, G O

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of replacing glucose and pure glycerol in mixed substrates for surtace-active substances (SAS, biosurfactants) biosynthesis of Nocardia vaccinii IMB B-7405 on molasses (sugar production waste) and crude glycerol (by-product of biodiesel production) was established. It was established that the increasing concentration of crude glycerol to 6% in mixture with 1.0% molasses was accompanied by increase of amount of SAS synthesized more than twice, and the increasing content of molasses to 3.0% in mixture with 1.0% crude glycerol--by some decrease in the level of surfactant as compared to that in a medium containing 1.0% monosubstrates. It was shown that the increasing concentration of sodium nitrate to 2-fold in medium cultivation of N. vaccinii IMB B-7405 allowed to increase to 7.0% content of grude glycerol in mixture with 1.0% molasses. Under such conditions of cultivation concentration of exocellular SAS synthesized was 7,5 g/l, that to 1,3 fold higher than in basic medium with a lower content of nitrogen source.

  11. Optimisation of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidants, and anthocyanins from sugar beet molasses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingshun; Zhao, Yi; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-04-01

    Response surface methodology was used to optimise experimental conditions for ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of functional components from sugar beet molasses. The central composite design (CCD) was used for the optimisation of extraction parameters in terms of total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities and anthocyanins. Result suggested the optimal conditions obtained by RSM for UAE from sugar beet molasses were as follows: HCl concentration 1.55-1.72 mol/L, ethanol concentration 57-63% (v/v), extraction temperature 41-48 °C, and extraction time 66-73 min. In the optimal conditions, the experimental total phenolic contents were 17.36 mg GAE/100mL, antioxidant activity was 16.66 mg TE/g, and total anthocyanins were 31.81 mg/100g of the sugar beet molasses extract, which were well matched the predicted values. Teen compounds, i.e. gallic acid, vanillin, hydroxybenzoic acid, syringic acid, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, catechin, delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucuronide and ferulic acid were determined by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS in sugar beet molasses.

  12. Ensilage characteristics of three tropical grasses as influenced by stage of growth and addition of molasses.

    PubMed

    Tjandraatmadja, M; Norton, B W; Mac Rae, I C

    1994-01-01

    When molasses was added during ensilage of three tropical grasses [hamil grass (Panicum maximum cv. Hamil), pangola grass (Digitaria decumbens) and setaria (Setaria sphacelata cv. Kazungula)] the final pH, concentration of fermentation acids (except lactic acid) and NH3-N content were all similar after 100 days of incubation. Pangola grass silage had significantly higher lactic acid content (66 g/kg dry matter) than the other two. Adding either 4 or 8% (w/w) molasses reduced NH3-N, volatile fatty acid content and pH but increased lactic acid content in the final silages. Numbers of lactic acid bacteria remained approximately constant during the course of the fermentation, although large differences were noted in the species composition of the populations. At the time of ensiling, only Pediococcus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. were detected. By 5 days, the homo-fermentative population, notably Lactobacillus plantarum, dominated (43%) and remained dominant. Hetero-fermentative rods were only detected in the 100-day silage, where they represented 29% of the strains isolated. Homo-fermenters were more abundant in pangola (60%) and setaria (47%) silages than hamil (27%) silages. Homo-fermenter populations were lowest in the 12-week forage. Molasses additions increased homo-fermenter populations. Pangola grass gave the best quality silage but, since the water-soluble carbohydrate content in the grasses was insufficient to promote a strong lactic fermentation, the addition of 20 to 30 kg molasses/tonne should achieve satisfactory preservation.

  13. Fermentative production of butanol from sorghum molasses as a potential agricultural fuel. Final report, June 26, 1981-September 25, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, L.T.

    1982-12-01

    A strain, Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 4259, suitable for butanol-acetone fermentation of sorghum molasses was selected from several strains of the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). It was cultivated in the composition-optimized sorghum molasses medium. The microbial growth and sugar consumption pattern in the sorghum molasses medium exhibited a typical diauxie phenomenon. The results strongly suggest that the difficulty encountered by the Weizmann type of organisms in butanol-acetone fermentation of molasses is due to the diauxie phenomenon causing a significant decrease in the solvent production rate. Acid hydrolysis of sorghum molasses minimizes the occurrence of the phenomenon, thereby remarkably increasing the solvent yield. The final solvent concentrations in the inverted molasses medium were butanol, 1.0% (w/v); acetone, 0.37% (w/v); ethanol, 0.18% (w/v); and total solvent, 1.55% (w/v). The total solvent yield in the inverted sorghum molasses medium was 30.3% based on the weight of sugar consumed. Effects of the temperature, agitation and heat-shocking were also investigated.

  14. The effect of cane use method on center of mass displacement during stair ascent.

    PubMed

    Hsue, Bih-Jen; Su, Fong-Chin

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effect of forward and lateral cane placement on displacement of whole body center of mass (COM) and spatial relationship between COM and the cane during stair ascent (SA) in healthy adults. The data were obtained using three-dimensional motion analysis while ascending stairs non-reciprocally with following methods: (1) dominant foot stepped up first, then the opposite foot without a cane (NC); (2) forward placement of a quadricane followed by the ipsilateral foot, then contralateral foot (FCI); (3) forward cane placement followed by the contralateral foot, then ipsilateral foot (FCC); (4) ipsilateral foot stepping up first, followed by the contralateral foot, then the cane (LCI); (5) contralateral foot stepping up, followed by the ipsilateral foot, then the cane (LCC). The results indicated that the cane placement had significant effect on the medial-lateral (ML) COM displacement and the kinematics of the trunk. Lateral cane placement requires greater trunk extension and side-flexion. The major differences between ipsilateral and contralateral cane use are the motions at frontal and transverse planes in which the COM displacement in ML direction is larger in ipsilateral cane use. The COM displacement in ML direction is larger in ipsilateral use of cane (LCI and FCI). The results of this study may help clinicians better understand the possible nature of balance control in patients who ascend stairs with a cane, and suggest that the method of cane placement should be taken into consideration by clinicians when teaching the cane user to ascend stairs.

  15. Lateral cane lengths affect yield components in 'Triple Crown' blackberry on rotating cross-arm trellis and cane training system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three primocanes of mature ‘Triple Crown’ blackberry plants were trained on the rotating cross-arm trellis (RCA) trellis. By the end of the summer, as many as 30 lateral canes with lengths greater than 3.5 m had developed on three primocanes that had been bent at a 0.50-m height and allowed to exte...

  16. [Screening and identification of microorganisms for decolorization of molasses spent wash].

    PubMed

    Li, Bi-Jin; Liu, You-Yan; He, Kai; Teng, Fang-Ming; He, Xi-Pu; Li, Qing-Yun

    2012-09-01

    Microorganisms were screened from the natural environment for decolorization of molasses spent wash, and the isolated strains were then employed in the treatment of actual wastewater. The primary screening was carried out on agar plates supplemented with synthesized melanoidin as the target substrate, since melanoidin is one of the most refractory pigments in wastewater. Promising microorganisms were further selected through secondary screening by decolorization of untreated actual wastewater in shaking flask cultures. Gel filtration chromatography was used to determine the molecular weight distribution of pigments in molasses spent wash before and after decolorization. A strain named A5P1 was isolated from the soil samples collected, showing a good ability of decolorizing molasses spent wash, and was later identified as Aspergillus flavus by morphology and ITS sequence analysis. Experimental study of factors affecting the decolorization performance of strain A5P1 gave the optimal conditions as follows: 4.3 x 10(4) mL(-1) of inoculum size, medium with initial pH of 4.5 and cultivation at 39 degrees C. It could decolorize 53.0% of the pigments in the untreated molasses spent wash and decreased 80% of chemical oxygen demand after four-day incubation. The result of gel filtration chromatography demonstrated that both the large and small molecular weight fractions of pigments in the molasses spent wash could be removed by strain A5P1. Based on the measurement of enzyme activities, at least three different kinds of enzymes, i. e. the enzyme with H2O2-producing activity, laccase and manganese peroxidase were involved in the decolorization process. Therefore, the decolorization mechanism of strain A5P1 was preliminarily considered to be mainly biodegradation, with bioadsorption as a minor reaction.

  17. Two-in-one fuel combining sugar cane with low rank coal and its CO₂ reduction effects in pulverized-coal power plants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Wook; Bae, Jong-Soo; Lee, Young-Joo; Park, Se-Joon; Hong, Jai-Chang; Lee, Byoung-Hwa; Jeon, Chung-Hwan; Choi, Young-Chan

    2013-02-05

    Coal-fired power plants are facing to two major independent problems, namely, the burden to reduce CO(2) emission to comply with renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and cap-and-trade system, and the need to use low-rank coal due to the instability of high-rank coal supply. To address such unresolved issues, integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) with carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been suggested, and low rank coal has been upgraded by high-pressure and high-temperature processes. However, IGCC incurs huge construction costs, and the coal upgrading processes require fossil-fuel-derived additives and harsh operation condition. Here, we first show a hybrid coal that can solve these two problems simultaneously while using existing power plants. Hybrid coal is defined as a two-in-one fuel combining low rank coal with a sugar cane-derived bioliquid, such as molasses and sugar cane juice, by bioliquid diffusion into coal intrapores and precarbonization of the bioliquid. Unlike the simple blend of biomass and coal showing dual combustion behavior, hybrid coal provided a single coal combustion pattern. If hybrid coal (biomass/coal ratio = 28 wt %) is used as a fuel for 500 MW power generation, the net CO(2) emission is 21.2-33.1% and 12.5-25.7% lower than those for low rank coal and designed coal, and the required coal supply can be reduced by 33% compared with low rank coal. Considering high oil prices and time required before a stable renewable energy supply can be established, hybrid coal could be recognized as an innovative low-carbon-emission energy technology that can bridge the gulf between fossil fuels and renewable energy, because various water-soluble biomass could be used as an additive for hybrid coal through proper modification of preparation conditions.

  18. Wearable Virtual White Cane Network for navigating people with visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yabiao; Chandrawanshi, Rahul; Nau, Amy C; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2015-09-01

    Navigating the world with visual impairments presents inconveniences and safety concerns. Although a traditional white cane is the most commonly used mobility aid due to its low cost and acceptable functionality, electronic traveling aids can provide more functionality as well as additional benefits. The Wearable Virtual Cane Network is an electronic traveling aid that utilizes ultrasound sonar technology to scan the surrounding environment for spatial information. The Wearable Virtual Cane Network is composed of four sensing nodes: one on each of the user's wrists, one on the waist, and one on the ankle. The Wearable Virtual Cane Network employs vibration and sound to communicate object proximity to the user. While conventional navigation devices are typically hand-held and bulky, the hands-free design of our prototype allows the user to perform other tasks while using the Wearable Virtual Cane Network. When the Wearable Virtual Cane Network prototype was tested for distance resolution and range detection limits at various displacements and compared with a traditional white cane, all participants performed significantly above the control bar (p < 4.3 × 10(-5), standard t-test) in distance estimation. Each sensor unit can detect an object with a surface area as small as 1 cm(2) (1 cm × 1 cm) located 70 cm away. Our results showed that the walking speed for an obstacle course was increased by 23% on average when subjects used the Wearable Virtual Cane Network rather than the white cane. The obstacle course experiment also shows that the use of the white cane in combination with the Wearable Virtual Cane Network can significantly improve navigation over using either the white cane or the Wearable Virtual Cane Network alone (p < 0.05, paired t-test).

  19. Chromatographic detection of sugar cane samples via polarimetry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Juan Carlos; Fajer, Victor; Rodríguez, Carlos W.; Naranjo, Salvador; Mora, Luis; Ravelo, Justo; Cossio, Gladys; Avila, Norma

    2004-03-01

    The combination of molecular exclusion cromatography with the laser polarimetry has become a powerful technique to separate and evaluate some carbohydrates of sugar cane plants. In the following work it has been obtained chromatograms of carbohydrates standards, which has been used as comparison patterns in the studies of the juice quality in different cane varieties of different physiological stadiums and stress conditions. By means of the employment of this technique, it has also been determined the influence of carbohydrates of medium molecular mass in the determination of the apparent sucrose in the routine sugar analysis. On the other hand, discreet determination of the fractions causes time consuming and a troublesome manipulation. In the present work some modifications to the system are shown, obtaining a small volume sample (less than 1 ml) and angular readings on line, avoiding the employment of fraction collectors.

  20. Enhancing of sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis by Annulohypoxylon stygium glycohydrolases.

    PubMed

    Robl, Diogo; Costa, Patrícia dos Santos; Büchli, Fernanda; Lima, Deise Juliana da Silva; Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Squina, Fabio Marcio; Pimentel, Ida Chapaval; Padilla, Gabriel; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a bioprocess for the production of β-glucosidase and pectinase from the fungus Annulohypoxylon stygium DR47. Media optimization and bioreactor cultivation using citrus bagasse and soybean bran were explored and revealed a maximum production of 6.26 U/mL of pectinase at pH 4.0 and 10.13 U/mL of β-glucosidase at pH 5.0. In addition, the enzymes extracts were able to replace partially Celluclast 1.5L in sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis. Proteomic analysis from A. stygium cultures revealed accessory enzymes, mainly belong to the families GH3 and GH54, that would support enhancement of commercial cocktail saccharification yields. This is the first report describing bioreactor optimization for enzyme production from A. stygium with a view for more efficient degradation of sugar cane bagasse.

  1. Waste molasses alone displaces glucose-based medium for microalgal fermentation towards cost-saving biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dong; Lu, Yue; Chen, Yi-Feng; Wu, Qingyu

    2011-06-01

    The by-product of sugar refinery-waste molasses was explored as alternative to glucose-based medium of Chlorella protothecoides in this study. Enzymatic hydrolysis is required for waste molasses suitable for algal growth. Waste molasses hydrolysate was confirmed as a sole source of full nutrients to totally replace glucose-based medium in support of rapid growth and high oil yield from algae. Under optimized conditions, the maximum algal cell density, oil content, and oil yield were respectively 70.9 g/L, 57.6%, and 40.8 g/L. The scalability of the waste molasses-fed algal system was confirmed from 0.5L flasks to 5L fermenters. The quality of biodiesel from waste molasses-fed algae was probably comparable to that from glucose-fed ones. Economic analysis indicated the cost of oil production from waste molasses-fed algae reduced by 50%. Significant cost reduction of algal biodiesel production through fermentation engineering based on the approach is expected.

  2. Surficial geology of the Cane Creek basin, Lauderdale County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    The surficial geology of the Cane Creek basin, in Lauderdale County, West Tennessee, was studied from 1985-88. Peoria Loess is the parent material from which soils in the Cane Creek drainage basin were derived. In general, a brown silt grades into a gray silt from 5 to I7 feet below ground surface. This color change probably represents depth to water table prior to the channelization of Cane Creek. Only at river mile 11.9 does rock outcrop near the main channel. Lower reaches of major tributaries have surficial geology similar to the main channel. In upper reaches of Hyde Creek and Fain Spring Creek, the sequence from the St&ace is sand and gravels, red-brown sandstone, sand and clay layers, and then, an orange sand layer. Coarse-grained deposits are found most often along the northern boundary of the basin and only occasionally in areas to the west and south of the main channel. Depth to sand or gravel ranges from about 0 to 158 feet in the uplands, and generally deeper than 40 feet near the main channel.

  3. Crude glycerin combined with sugar cane silage in lamb diets.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Filho, Carlos Alberto Alves; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; da Silva, Camilla Flávia Portela Gomes; Cabral, Ícaro dos Santos; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; dos Reis, Larissa Gomes; de Almeida, Flávio Moreira; Souza, Lígia Lins

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the level of crude glycerin (CG) on in vitro fermentation kinetics (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), on in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation (0, 30, 60, and 90 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), and intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance (0, 20, 55, 82, and 108 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage) in lambs. The in vitro trials were conducted in a completely randomized design with three repetitions. The in vivo trial was conducted in a Latin square design with five repetitions (5 × 5). For variables in which the F test was considered significant, the statistical interpretation of the effect of CG substitution levels was carried out through regression analyses. Kinetic parameters were not affected by CG inclusion. On in vitro NDF degradation, a significant effect of CG levels was observed on the potentially degradable fraction of NDF, the insoluble potentially degradable fraction of NDF, and the undegradable NDF fraction. The intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance were not affected by CG inclusion. The CG levels change in vitro NDF degradability parameters; however, there were no changes in animal intake, digestibility, and nitrogen balance with the inclusion levels used.

  4. Slab rollback orogeny in the Alps and evolution of the Swiss Molasse basin

    PubMed Central

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Kissling, Edi

    2015-01-01

    The stratigraphies of foreland basins have been related to orogeny, where continent–continent collision causes the construction of topography and the downwarping of the foreland plate. These mechanisms have been inferred for the Molasse basin, stretching along the northern margin of the European Alps. Continuous flexural bending of the subducting European lithosphere as a consequence of topographic loads alone would imply that the Alpine topography would have increased at least between 30 Ma and ca. 5–10 Ma when the basin accumulated the erosional detritus. This, however, is neither consistent with observations nor with isostatic mass balancing models because paleoaltimetry estimates suggest that the topography has not increased since 20 Ma. Here we show that a rollback mechanism for the European plate is capable of explaining the construction of thick sedimentary successions in the Molasse foreland basin where the extra slab load has maintained the Alpine surface at low, but constant, elevations. PMID:26472498

  5. Escape tectonics and foreland basin evolution: The Austrian-German Molasse basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortner, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    The Alpine peripheral foreland basin formed during Eocene collision of the lower, European plate and the upper, Adriatic plate. Two marine to continental megasequences fill the basin. The transition form deep marine to continental deposits of the first megasequence at the Early - Late Oligocene boundary has been related to a change from predominant horizontal to vertical movements in the core of the orogenic wedge. The second megasequence is, however, poorly understood, and different models have been put forward. I present an alternative explanation for the development of this second megacycle, based on an analysis of the Subalpine Molasse thrust belt east of the Rhine river (Ortner et al., 2015). The main characteristics of the Subalpine Molasse thrust belt are: 1) A frontal anticline/thrust started to develop during deposition of the older, marine portion of the second megasequence. Structures continued to grow throughout deposition of the younger, continental part of the megasequence. Structural growth is documented by growth strata. 2) The thrusts in the Subalpine Molasse evolved in a break-back sequence. 3) The amount of shortening during depositon of the second megasequence reduces from 40-50 km near the Rhine valley to zero in the east in the Salzburg area. The onset of the second megasequence in the foreland north of the Subalpine Molasse thrust belt is characterized by an angular unconformity documenting a tilt of the foreland toward the orogen, and therefore ongoing flexure of the lower plate. East of the eastern end of the Subalpine Molasse thrust belt, the deposits of the second megasequence are in a horizontal position, lower plate flexure had stopped. In the internal part of the Alpine orogenic wedge, shortening, exhumation and E-directed stretching of the Tauern Window as a consequence of escape tectonics was active. Most probably shortening was transferred from the Alpine front into the zone of lateral escape, causing the break-back thrust sequence

  6. Engineering of Bacillus subtilis for the Production of 2,3-Butanediol from Sugarcane Molasses.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Apoorva Nandkumar; Nipanikar-Gokhale, Padmaja; Jain, Rishi

    2016-05-01

    2,3-butanediol is known to be a platform chemical with several potential industrial applications. Sustainable industrial scale production can be attained by using a sugarcane molasses based fermentation process using Bacillus subtilis. However, the accumulation of acetoin needs to be reduced to improve process efficiency. In this work, B. subtilis was genetically modified in order to increase the yield of 2,3-butanediol. Metabolic engineering strategies such as cofactor engineering and overexpression of the key enzyme butanediol dehydrogenase were attempted. Both the strategies individually led to a statistically significant increase in the 2,3-butanediol yields for sugarcane molasses based fermentation. Cofactor engineering led to a 26 % increase in 2,3-butanediol yield and overexpression of bdhA led to a 11 % increase. However, the combination of the two strategies did not lead to a synergistic increase in 2,3-butanediol yield.

  7. Biological decolourisation of wastewater from molasses fermentation by Trametes versicolor in an airlift reactor.

    PubMed

    Rioja, R; García, M T; Peña, M; González, G

    2008-06-01

    Continuous decolourisation of wastewater from molasses fermentation using mycelium of Trametes versicolor in pellets shape was performed in an airlift bioreactor (semi-pilot scale) with the aim of operating steadily for a long period, maintaining the colour removal activity. The influences of influent flow and glucose feed rate were tested. Induction of peroxidases secretion by Mn(2+) addition was also studied. The efficiency of the decolourisation process was followed by monitoring colour and enzymatic activities. The experimental results showed that continuous decolourisation in an airlift bioreactor can be considered a suitable alternative for treating molasses fermentation wastewater. A colour removal yield around 60% remained practically constant during 23 days under continuous operation. Laccase was found to be the main enzyme secreted by the strain, being responsible for the decolourisation process. Mn(2+) addition was not likely to induct manganese-dependent peroxidase secretion.

  8. Betaine and beet molasses enhance L-lactic acid production by Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose concentrations and with poor organic nitrogen nutrients. The fermentation with 0.05 g/L betaine could produce 17.9% more lactic acid compared to the fermentation without betaine. Beet molasses, which is rich in sucrose and betaine, was utilized in a co-feeding fermentation and raised the productivity by 22%. The efficient lactic acid fermentation by B. coagulans is thus developed by using betaine and beet molasses.

  9. Inhibitory effect of sugarcane molasses extract on the formation of N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine and N(ε)-(carboxyethyl)lysine.

    PubMed

    Yu, Pei; Xu, Xian-Bing; Yu, Shu-Juan

    2017-04-15

    Molasses, the main byproduct of sugar production, is a well-known source of phenolic compounds. In this study, the effect of sugarcane molasses extract on the formation of N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and N(ε)-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) was investigated in glucose-lysine model reaction systems. Results showed that sugarcane molasses extract significantly and dose dependently inhibited the formation of CML and CEL in model reaction systems. The antiglycation activities of sugarcane molasses extract were not only brought about by its antioxidant activities but also associated with its trapping abilities of reactive carbonyl species, such as glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal (MGO), the key intermediate compound for the formation of CML and CEL. Besides, the presence of sugarcane molasses extract effectively reduced the extent of browning. The present study emphasized the potential health effects of sugarcane molasses and the possibility of using byproducts as effective ingredients to reduce dietary Maillard reaction end products.

  10. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas fluorescens growing on molasses and its application in phenol degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryantia, Venty; Marliyana, Soerya Dewi; Wulandari, Astri

    2015-12-01

    A molasses based medium for the biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas fluorescens was developed, where the effect of pre-treated of molasses and medium composition were evaluated. Biosurfactant production was followed by measuring optical density (OD), surface tension and emulsifying index (E24) over 12 days of fermentation. The optimum condition for the biosurfactant production was obtained when a medium containing of 8 g/L nutrient broth, 5 g/L NaCl, 1 g/L NH4NO3 and 5% v/v pre-treated molasses with centrifugation was used as media with 3 days of fermentation. The biosurfactant was identified as a rhamnolipid type biosurfactant which had critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of 801 mg/L and was able to reduce the surface tension of the water from 80 mN/m to 51 mN/m. The biosurfactants had water in oil (w/o) emulsion type. Biosurfactant was able to emulsify various hydrocarbons, which were able to decrase the interfacial tension about 50-75% when benzyl chloride, anisaldehyde and palm oil were used as immiscible compounds. The biosurfactant exhibited the E24 value of about 50% and the stable emulsion was reached up to 30 days when lubricant was used as an immiscible compound. Up to 68% of phenol was degraded in the presence of biosurfactant within 15 days, whereas only 56% of phenol was degraded in the absence of biosurfactant. Overall, the results exhibited that molasses are recommended for the rhamnolipids production which possessed good surface-active properties and had potential application in the enhancement of phenol degradation.

  11. Production of activated carbon from a new precursor molasses by activation with sulphuric acid.

    PubMed

    Legrouri, K; Khouya, E; Ezzine, M; Hannache, H; Denoyel, R; Pallier, R; Naslain, R

    2005-02-14

    Activated carbon has been prepared from molasses, a natural precursor of vegetable origin resulting from the sugar industry in Morocco. The preparation of the activated carbon from the molasses has been carried out by impregnation of the precursor with sulphuric acid, followed by carbonisation at varying conditions (temperature and gas coverage) in order to optimize preparation parameters. The influence of activation conditions was investigated by determination of adsorption capacity of methylene blue and iodine, the BET surface area, and the pore volume of the activated carbon were determined while the micropore volume was determined by the Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) equation. The activated materials are mainly microporous and reveal the type I isotherm of the Brunauer classification for nitrogen adsorption. The activated carbons properties in this study were found for activation of the mixture (molasses/sulphuric acid) in steam at 750 degrees C. The samples obtained in this condition were highly microporous, with high surface area (> or =1200 m2/g) and the maximum adsorption capacity of methylene blue and iodine were 435 and 1430 mg/g, respectively.

  12. Oil removal from petroleum sludge using bacterial culture with molasses substrate at temperature variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni'matuzahroh, Puspitasari, Alvin Oktaviana; Pratiwi, Intan Ayu; Fatimah, Sumarsih, Sri; Surtiningsih, Tini; Salamun

    2016-03-01

    The study aims to reveal the potency of biosurfactant-producing bacterial culture with molasses as substrate growth in releasing oil from the petroleum sludge at temperature variations. Bacteria used consisted of (Acinetobacter sp. P2(1), Pseudomonas putida T1(8), Bacillus subtilis 3KP and Micrococcus sp. L II 61). The treatments were tested at 40°C, 50°C and 60 °C for 7 days of incubation. Synthetic surfactant (Tween 20) was used as a positive control and molasses as a negative control. Release of petroleum hydrocarbons from oil sludge was expressed in percentage of oil removal from oil sludge (%). Data were analyzed statistically using the Analysis of Variance (α = 0.05) and continued with Games-Howell test. The kinds of bacterial cultures, incubation temperature and combination of both affected the percentage of oil removal. The abilities of Bacillus subtilis 3KP and Micrococcus sp. LII 61cultures in oil removal from oil sludge at the temperature exposure of 60°C were higher than Tween 20. Both of bacterial cultures grown on molasses can be proposed as a replacement for synthetic surfactant to clean up the accumulation of oil sludge in a bottom of oil refinery tank.

  13. Seismic stratigraphy and stratigraphic modelling of the South-eastern German Molasse Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Aigner, T.; Jin, J.; Luterbacher, P.

    1995-08-01

    Although the German Molasse Basin can be regarded as a mature hydrocarbon province, no regional sequence stratigraphic analysis has been carried out so far. We have studied seismic lines and well data from the region between the Isar and Inn rivers (SE Germany) that have been generously supplied by German oil companies (DEE, BEB, Mobil, RWE-DEA and Wintershall). Initial work indicates that five major seismic sequences within three main depositional cycles are developed. The Alpine thrust belt to the south serves as the primary sediment source in the foreland basin. However, sedimentary infill mainly took place parallel to the basin axis. Our analysis suggests that the stratigraphic development of the Molasse Basin was mainly controlled by eustatic sea-level changes which caused the shoreline to shift in the W-E direction. The shifting of the depocenter axis in a N-S direction was controlled by the tectonic evolution of the thrust belt. The sea-level curve determined by seismic stratigraphy and well-derived subsidence curves have been used as input parameters for stratigraphic modelling, using the programs GeoMOD and PHIL. Basin-fill simulations with PHIL are in good agreement with the main features of the sequence stratigraphy and the distribution of the systems tracts observed in the study area. The qualitative sea-level curve for the German Molasse Basin derived from the seismostratigraphic analysis could be quantified by the stratigraphic exercises.

  14. Saponin-containing subfractions of soybean molasses induce enteritis in the distal intestine of Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, David; Urán, Paula; Arnous, Anis; Koppe, Wolfgang; Frøkiaer, Hanne

    2007-03-21

    The current work aimed at tracing the causative components for soybean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Soybean molasses was subjected to phase separation using n-butanol. Three subfractions were obtained as follows: butanol phase, precipitate, and water phase. The biochemical composition of soybean molasses and the obtained subfractions were analyzed in detail: Protein, fat, and ash were quantified according to standard methods. Sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose were quantified using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. Soyasaponins were quantified using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Finally, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to evaluate the size distribution of the proteins present in each fraction. Molasses and the different subfractions were thereafter fed to Atlantic salmon in two successive fish trials. The level of intestinal inflammation was evaluated by light microscopy using a semiquantitative scoring system. Histological assessments revealed that Atlantic salmon fed a combination of butanol phase and precipitate displayed significant enteritis. Atlantic salmon fed the water phase displayed normal intestinal morphology. The causative components for soybean-induced enteritis withstand butanol treatment and prolonged heating at 70 degrees C. Sucrose, raffinose, stachyose, nor soybean proteins larger than 10 kDa induce enteritis alone. Soyasaponins, or components that follow the same solubility pattern, trigger the inflammatory reaction. We therefore suggest that soybean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon is induced by soyasaponins alone or by soyasaponins in combination with other factors, e.g., antigenic soybean proteins or the intestinal microflora.

  15. Improvement production of bacterial cellulose by semi-continuous process in molasses medium.

    PubMed

    Cakar, Fatih; Ozer, Işılay; Aytekin, A Özhan; Sahin, Fikrettin

    2014-06-15

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) has unique properties such as structural, functional, physical and chemical. The mass production of BC for industrial application has recently become attractive to produce more economical and high productive cellulose. In this study, to improve the productivity of bacterial cellulose (BC), BC production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus FC01 was investigated in molasses medium with static semi-continuous operation mode. Cell dry weight, polysaccharide, sugar and cellulose concentrations were monitored and cellulose was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The highest cellulose yield (1.637 g/L) was obtained in SCP50-7d, which molasses of 1/2 ratio for 7 days by static semi-continuous operation mode. The results show that BC can be highly produced by G. xylinus in molasses with static semi-continuous process than batch process. We claimed that low-cost medium with semi-continuous operation mode in static culture is a good candidate for industrial scale BC productions.

  16. High organic loading treatment for industrial molasses wastewater and microbial community shifts corresponding to system development.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Kyohei; Chosei, Tomoaki; Nakahara, Nozomi; Hatamoto, Masashi; Wakabayashi, Takashi; Kawai, Toshikazu; Araki, Nobuo; Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    Molasses wastewater contains high levels of organic compounds, cations, and anions, causing operational problems for anaerobic biological treatment. To establish a high organic loading treatment system for industrial molasses wastewater, this study designed a combined system comprising an acidification tank, a thermophilic multi-stage (MS)-upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, mesophilic UASB reactor, and down-flow hanging sponge reactor. The average total chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand removal rates were 85%±3% and 95%±2%, respectively, at an organic loading rate of 42kgCODcrm(-3)d(-1) in the MS-UASB reactor. By installation of the acidification tank, the MS-UASB reactor achieved low H2-partial pressure. The abundance of syntrophs such as fatty acid-degrading bacteria increased in the MS-UASB and 2nd-UASB reactors. Thus, the acidification tank contributed to maintaining a favorable environment for syntrophic associations. This study provides new information regarding microbial community composition in a molasses wastewater treatment system.

  17. Post-treatment of molasses wastewater by electrocoagulation and process optimization through response surface analysis.

    PubMed

    Tsioptsias, C; Petridis, D; Athanasakis, N; Lemonidis, I; Deligiannis, A; Samaras, P

    2015-12-01

    Molasses wastewater is a high strength effluent of food industry such as distilleries, sugar and yeast production plants etc. It is characterized by a dark brown color and exhibits a high content in substances of recalcitrant nature such as melanoidins. In this study, electrocoagulation (EC) was studied as a post treatment step for biologically treated molasses wastewater with high nitrogen content obtained from a baker's yeast industry. Iron and copper electrodes were used in various forms; the influence and interaction of current density, molasses wastewater dilution, and reaction time, on COD, color, ammonium and nitrate removal rates and operating cost were studied and optimized through Box Behnken's response surface analysis. Reaction time varied from 0.5 to 4 h, current density varied from 5 to 40 mA/cm(2) and dilution from 0 to 90% (v/v expressed as water concentration). pH, conductivity and temperature measurements were also carried out during each experiment. From preliminary experiments, it was concluded that the application of aeration and sample dilution, considerably influenced the kinetics of the process. The obtained results showed that COD removal varied between 10 and 54%, corresponding to an operation cost ranging from 0.2 to 33 euro/kg COD removed. Significant removal rates were obtained for nitrogen as nitrate and ammonium (i.e. 70% ammonium removal). A linear relation of COD and ammonium to the design parameters was observed, while operation cost and nitrate removal responded in a curvilinear function. A low ratio of electrode surface to treated volume was used, associated to a low investment cost; in addition, iron wastes could be utilized as low cost electrodes i.e. iron fillings from lathes, aiming to a low operation cost due to electrodes replacement. In general, electrocoagulation proved to be an effective and low cost process for biologically treated molasses-wastewater treatment for additional removal of COD and nitrogen content and

  18. Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1101 highly produces mannitol from sugarcane molasses as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Maria Eugenia; Fornaguera, María José; Raya, Raúl R; Mozzi, Fernanda

    2012-08-01

    Mannitol is a natural polyol extensively used in the food industry as low-calorie sugar being applicable for diabetic food products. We aimed to evaluate mannitol production by Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1101 using sugarcane molasses as low-cost energy source. Mannitol formation was studied in free-pH batch cultures using 3-10% (w/v) molasses concentrations at 37 °C and 30 °C under static and agitated conditions during 48 h. L. reuteri CRL 1101 grew well in all assayed media and heterofermentatively converted glucose into lactic and acetic acids and ethanol. Fructose was used as an alternative electron acceptor and reduced it to mannitol in all media assayed. Maximum mannitol concentrations of 177.7 ± 26.6 and 184.5 ± 22.5 mM were found using 7.5% and 10% molasses, respectively, at 37 °C after 24-h incubation. Increasing the molasses concentration from 7.5% up to 10% (w/v) and the fermentation period up to 48 h did not significantly improve mannitol production. In agitated cultures, high mannitol values (144.8 ± 39.7 mM) were attained at 8 h of fermentation as compared to static ones (5.6 ± 2.9 mM), the highest mannitol concentration value (211.3 ± 15.5 mM) being found after 24 h. Mannitol 2-dehydrogenase (MDH) activity was measured during growth in all fermentations assayed; the highest MDH values were obtained during the log growth phase, and no correlation between MDH activities and mannitol production was observed in the fermentations performed. L. reuteri CRL 1101 successfully produced mannitol from sugarcane molasses being a promising candidate for microbial mannitol synthesis using low-cost substrate.

  19. Materials Testing in Long Cane Design: Sensitivity, Flexibility, and Transmission of Vibration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Mark D.; Emerson, Robert Wall

    2005-01-01

    Different materials that are used in manufacturing long cane shafts were assessed for their ability to transmit vibration and their sensitivity to tactile information, flexibility, and durability. It was found that the less flexible a cane shaft is, the better it transmits vibrations that are useful for discriminating surface textures and that…

  20. Knowledge of and Preferences for Long Cane Components: A Qualitative and Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose-Zaken, Grace

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the various components of long canes and reports on a study of the knowledge and preferences of 100 adults with visual impairments regarding the various components and types of canes. Results indicated that the terrain of a route, weather conditions, mobility demand, and purpose of an outing are important…

  1. Sugar cane bagasse: an alternative fuel in the Brazilian citrus industry

    SciTech Connect

    Guerra, J.L.; Steger, E.

    1988-05-01

    This article will briefly discuss the production of sugar cane bagasse and advantages for using it as an alternative fuel. In particular, this article will focus on how Citrosuco Paulista, (a multi-plant producer of citrus concentrates), modified its existing boilers and dryers to accommodate the new sugar cane bagasse fuel.

  2. Microwave modification of sugar cane to enhance juice extraction during milling.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Graham; Harris, Gerard; Jacob, Mohan V; Sheehan, Madoc; Yin, Ling

    2011-01-01

    Sugar extraction from cane requires shredding and crushing, both of which are energy intensive activities. Cane shredders account for almost 30% of the total power requirements for the juice extraction train in a sugar mill with four mills. Shredder hammers also wear quickly during the crushing season and need to be regularly maintained or replaced. Microwave pre-treatment of other plant based materials has resulted in significant reductions in total processing energy. This paper briefly reviews the underlying structure of sugar cane and how microwave pre-treatment may interact with sugar cane. Microwave treatment reduced the strength of sugar cane samples to 20% of its untreated value. This strength reduction makes it easier to crush the cane and leads to a 320% increase in juice yield compared with untreated cane when cane samples were crushed in a press. There was also a 68% increase in Brix %, a 58% increase in total dissolved solids, a 58% reduction in diffusion time, a 39% increase in Pol%, and a 7% increase in juice purity compared with the control samples after 60 minutes of diffusion in distilled water.

  3. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the...

  4. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section 409.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40 Applicability; description of...

  5. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of...

  6. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the...

  7. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of...

  8. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the...

  9. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section 409.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40 Applicability; description of...

  10. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section 409.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40 Applicability; description of...

  11. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of...

  12. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of...

  13. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the...

  14. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section 409.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40 Applicability; description of...

  15. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section 409.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40 Applicability; description of...

  16. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of...

  17. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the...

  18. How to manage cane in the field and factory following damaging freezes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exposure of sugar cane to damaging frosts occurs in approximately 25% of the sugar cane producing countries world-wide. A series of damaging freezes, -2.6, -3.3 and -2.1°C, occurred in Morocco on 4, 5 and 13 February 2012, respectively, only 2 weeks after the commencement of the harvest season. ...

  19. How to manage sugar cane in the field and factory following damaging freezes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exposure of sugar cane to damaging frosts occurs in approximately 25% of the sugar cane producing countries world-wide. A series of damaging freezes, -2.6, -3.3 and -2.1°C, occurred in Morocco on 4, 5 and 13 February 2012, respectively, only 2 weeks after the commencement of the harvest season....

  20. 76 FR 20305 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0;Notices #0; Federal... projected surplus cane sugar marketing allotments under the FY 2011 (October 1, 2010-September 30, 2011) Sugar Marketing Allotment Program. The FY 2011 cane sector allotment and cane state allotments...

  1. 75 FR 14479 - Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar... fiscal year (FY) 2010 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar. DATES... maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the Uruguay Round...

  2. 76 FR 21418 - Fiscal Year 2011 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY... Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of... raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: April 15, 2011. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be mailed or...

  3. 77 FR 25012 - Fiscal Year 2012 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY... Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of... raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: April 26, 2012. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be mailed or...

  4. 75 FR 26316 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar... additional fiscal year (FY) 2010 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar... maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the Uruguay Round...

  5. 76 FR 42160 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar... additional fiscal year (FY) 2011 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar... the United States (HTS), the United States maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined...

  6. Super-linear spreading in local bistable cane toads equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouin, Emeric; Henderson, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we study the influence of an Allee effect on the spreading rate in a local reaction–diffusion–mutation equation modeling the invasion of cane toads in Australia. We are, in particular, concerned with the case when the diffusivity can take unbounded values. We show that the acceleration feature that arises in this model with a Fisher-KPP, or monostable, nonlinearity still occurs when this nonlinearity is instead bistable, despite the fact that this kills the small populations. This is in stark contrast to the work of Alfaro, Gui-Huan, and Mellet–Roquejoffre–Sire in related models, where the change to a bistable nonlinearity prevents acceleration.

  7. Lipid Production of Heterotrophic Chlorella sp. from Hydrolysate Mixtures of Lipid-Extracted Microalgal Biomass Residues and Molasses.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hongli; Ma, Xiaochen; Gao, Zhen; Wan, Yiqin; Min, Min; Zhou, Wenguang; Li, Yun; Liu, Yuhuan; Huang, He; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of lipid production of Chlorella sp. from waste materials. Lipid-extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs) and molasses were hydrolyzed, and their hydrolysates were analyzed. Five different hydrolysate mixture ratios (w/w) of LMBRs/molasses (1/0, 1/1, 1/4, 1/9, and 0/1) were used to cultivate Chlorella sp. The results showed that carbohydrate and protein were the two main compounds in the LMBRs, and carbohydrate was the main compound in the molasses. The highest biomass concentration of 5.58 g/L, Y biomass/sugars of 0.59 g/g, lipid productivity of 335 mg/L/day, and Y lipids/sugars of 0.25 g/g were obtained at the hydrolysate mixture ratio of LMBRs/molasses of 1/4. High C/N ratio promoted the conversion of sugars into lipids. The lipids extracted from Chlorella sp. shared similar lipid profile of soybean oil and is therefore a potential viable biodiesel feedstock. These results showed that Chlorella sp. can utilize mixed sugars and amino acids from LMBRs and molasses to accumulate lipids efficiently, thus reducing the cost of microalgal biodiesel production and improving its economic viability.

  8. Antioxidant activity of sugarcane molasses against 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride-induced peroxyl radicals.

    PubMed

    Asikin, Yonathan; Takahashi, Makoto; Mishima, Takashi; Mizu, Masami; Takara, Kensaku; Wada, Koji

    2013-11-01

    Sugarcane molasses is a rich source of antioxidant materials with peroxyl radical scavenging effects. To explore the potent antioxidant activity of sugarcane molasses against 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced peroxyl radicals, 7 methanolic fractions of sugarcane molasses (F1-F7) were separated via bioassay-guided fractionation and evaluated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), cellular antioxidant activity (CAA), and oxidative DNA damage protective activity assays. The ORAC values of sugarcane molasses fractions ranged from 4399 to 6,266 μmol TE/g, whilst the EC50 values for CAA ranged from 3.7 to 5.9 μg/ml. Moreover, it was found that sugarcane molasses fractions, particularly F6 and F7, could protect against oxidative DNA damage caused by peroxyl radicals at an effective concentration of 100 μg/ml. Ten phenolic constituents were identified in the fractions, including known antioxidative compounds, viz., schaftoside, isoschaftoside, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde.

  9. Energy Expenditure During Cane-Assisted Gait in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Anamaria; Alves, Ana Claudia Monteiro; de Oliveira, Leda Magalhães; Saad, Marcelo; Natour, Jamil

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the energy expenditure in patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis while walking with canes of different lengths. METHODS A quasi-experimental study (single-group) was carried out on thirty patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis. An adjustable aluminum cane was used, and three different cane lengths were determined for each subject: C1 – length from the floor to the greater trochanter; C2 – length from the floor to the distal wrist crease; and C3 – length obtained by the formula: height x 0.45 + 0.87 m. Resting and walking heart rates were measured with a Polar hear rate meter. Walking speed was calculated by the time required for the patient to walk 10 m. Gait energy cost was estimated using the physiological cost index, and results were compared. RESULTS The sample consisted of 25 women and five men (average age of 68 years). Statistically significant differences in physiological cost index measurements were observed between unassisted walking and assisted walking with a cane of any length (p<0.001), as well as between walking with a C2-length cane and unassisted walking, and walking with a C1-length cane and walking with a C3-length cane (p=0.001; p = 0.037; p=0.001; respectively). CONCLUSION These data demonstrate that small alterations in the length of canes used for weight-bearing ambulation in patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis increase the energy expenditure measured by the physiological cost index during walking. Further studies are needed for a more precise quantification of the increase in energy expenditure during cane-assisted gait and an assessment of the effectiveness of cane use in relieving pain and improving function in patients with knee osteoarthritis. PMID:18438573

  10. Molasses supplementation for dual-purpose cows during the dry season in subtropical Mexico.

    PubMed

    Salvador-Loreto, Isela; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel; Estrada-Flores, Julieta Gertrudis; Vicente-Mainar, Fernando; García-Martínez, Anastacio; Albarrán-Portillo, Benito

    2016-03-01

    The effect of including 9 % of molasses in supplements offered to dual purpose cows, during dry season in subtropical Mexico was determined. Forage availability in pastures during the dry season is reduced and of low quality. Molasses is a readily available source of energy that may improve forage utilization and could have a positive effect on cow's milk production and calves daily weight gain (CDWG). Twelve multiparous Brown Swiss cows (409 ± 33 kg of body weight and 136 ± 73 days in milk), and their calves were randomly assigned to two supplements (six cows per treatment). Control supplement (COS) consisted of cracked maize ears (CME), soybean meal and urea (14 % CP), and experimental supplement in which 9 % of CME was replaced by molasses (MOS). Cows received 4.5 kg/cow/day dry matter (DM) of supplement. Experiment lasted 10 weeks divided in five experimental periods (EP). Animal responses (milk yield, milk composition, body weight, body condition score and CDWG) were recorded at the end of every EP. A linear mixed model was used to analyse the data as a complete random design. Net profits from milk and beef due to supplements were estimated using partial budget approach. Average milk yield was 7 (kg/cow/day) with 30.6, 30.4 and 42.5 (g/kg milk) of fat, protein and lactose, respectively. Average cow weight was 422 kg and CDWG was 0.8 kg/day. No significant responses on animal production variables were found when 9 % of MOS was included in the supplement; however, total net income increased on 4 %, due to higher CDWG.

  11. Protective gloves on manual sugar cane cutting are really effective?

    PubMed

    Abrahão, R F; Gonzaga, M C; Braunbeck, O A

    2012-01-01

    Problems related to the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), specially the use of protective gloves for the manual sugar cane cutting, motivated this research, made possible by a tripartite negotiation involving the Ministry of Labor, the Union of Rural Workers and the Employer's Association of sugarcane agribusiness. The main objective was to evaluate, from an ergonomics perspective, the impact of use of the gloves during the manual cane sugar cutting, raising questions on safety, effectiveness and comfort. The research was carried in a sugarcane industry of São Paulo for two seasons involving 47 workers who made a qualitative analysis of acceptance of four models of protective gloves. The methodology included the use of semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and field observations and the experimental determination of the coefficient of static friction developed between the gloves and the surfaces of the machete handle. The main results indicate the general inadequacy of the gloves currently used forcing the employees to improvise. Workers found the glove of leather and nylon scraping the best reported for comfort in use. The overall results highlight the problem of detachment of test standards for the manufacture of PPE, ignoring users and the activity to be performed.

  12. Structure of the Canes Venatici I cloud of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, Dmitry I.; Makarova, Lidia N.; Uklein, Roman I.

    2016-10-01

    We study the spatial distribution of the sparse cloud of galaxies in the Canes Venatici constellation. We determined distances of 30 galaxies using the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) method. This homogeneous sample allows us to distinguish the zone of chaotic motions around the center of the system. A group of galaxies around M94 is characterized by the mass-luminosity ratio of M/L B=159 (M/L)⊙. It is significantly higher than the typical ratio M/L B=159 (M/L)⊙ for the nearby groups of galaxies. The CVn I cloud of galaxies contains 4-5 times less luminous matter compared with the well-known nearby groups, such as the Local Group, M 81 and Centaurus A. The central galaxy M 94 is at least 1 mag fainter than any other central galaxy of these groups. However, the concentration of galaxies in the Canes Venatici may have a comparable total mass.

  13. Design and Optimization of a Process for Sugarcane Molasses Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    El-Gendy, Nour Sh.; Madian, Hekmat R.; Amr, Salem S. Abu

    2013-01-01

    A statistical model was developed in this study to describe bioethanol production through a batch fermentation process of sugarcane molasses by locally isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y-39. Response surface methodology RSM based on central composite face centered design CCFD was employed to statistically evaluate and optimize the conditions for maximum bioethanol production and study the significance and interaction of incubation period, initial pH, incubation temperature, and molasses concentration on bioethanol yield. With the use of the developed quadratic model equation, a maximum ethanol production of 255 g/L was obtained in a batch fermentation process at optimum operating conditions of approximately 71 h, pH 5.6, 38°C, molasses concentration 18% wt.%, and 100 rpm. PMID:24222769

  14. Erosion processes in molassic cliffs: the role of the rock surface temperature and atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrea, Dario; Abellán, Antonio; Guerin, Antoine; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Voumard, Jérémie

    2014-05-01

    The morphology of the Swiss Plateau is modeled by numerous steep cliffs of Molasse. These cliffs are mainly composed of sub-horizontal alternated layers of sandstone, shale and conglomerates deposed in the Alps foreland basin during the Tertiary period. These Molasse cliffs are affected by erosion processes inducing numerous rockfall events. Thus, it is relevant to understand how different external factors influence Molasse erosion rates. In this study, we focus on analyzing temperature variation during a winter season. As pilot study area we selected a cliff which is formed by a sub-horizontal alternation of outcropping sandstone and shale. The westward facing test site (La Cornalle, Vaud, Switzerland), which is a lateral scarp of a slow moving landslide area, is currently affected by intense erosion. Regarding data acquisition, we monitored both in-situ rock and air temperatures at 15 minutes time-step since October 2013: (1) on the one hand we measured Ground Surface Temperature (GST) at near-surface (0.1 meter depth) using a GST mini-datalogger M-Log5W-Rock model; (2) On the other hand we monitored atmospheric conditions using a weather station (Davis Vantage pro2 plus) collecting numerous parameters (i.e. temperature, irradiation, rain, wind speed, etc.). Furthermore, the area was also seasonally monitored by Ground-Based (GB) LiDAR since 2010 and monthly monitored since September 2013. In order to understand how atmospheric conditions (such as freeze and thaw effect) influence the erosion of the cliff, we modeled the temperature diffusion through the rock mass. To this end, we applied heat diffusion and radiation equation using a 1D temperature profile, obtaining as a result both temperature variations at different depths together with the location of the 0°C isotherm. Our model was calibrated during a given training set using both in-situ rock temperatures and atmospheric conditions. We then carried out a comparison with the rockfall events derived from the

  15. Slab rollback orogeny in the Alps inferred from the stratigraphic evolution of the Swiss Molasse basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Kissling, Edi

    2016-04-01

    The stratigraphic development of foreland basins have been related to orogenic processes, where continent- continent collision resulted in the construction of topography and the downwarping of the foreland plate. These mechanisms have been used to explain the Oligocene to Miocene evolution of the Molasse basin, situated on the northern side of the European Alps. Continuous flexural bending of the subducting European lithosphere as a consequence of topographic loads alone would imply that the Alpine topography would have increased at least between 30 Ma and ca. 5-10 Ma when the basin accumulated the erosional detritus. This, however, is neither consistent with observations nor with isostatic mass balancing models. In particular, the use of empirical relationships between the spacing of alluvial megafans, orogen width and morphometric properties of stream channels feeding the fans imply a general trend towards an increasing total fluvial relief until 1,900±1,000 m at ca. 20 Ma, followed by a prolonged period of time during which this variable has remained nearly constant. Accordingly, larger topographic loads cannot be invoked to explain the continuous deflection of the foreland plate. Alternatively, a scenario where horizontal forces cause a downward dragging of the foreland plate would offer a valuable explanation for the decoupling between basin depth and topographic loads. However, such a scenario would be associated with the occurrence of compressional forces within the foreland plate, which is not in agreement with observations in the Molasse Basin, at least for the present, where focal mechanisms of current seismic events imply the occurrence of extensional forces at work. We suggest that rollback orogeny, driven by the gravitational pull of the European slab, provides a mechanism to explain the increasing deflection of the foreland in the absence of larger topographic forcing, and it agrees with the geologic record that the subducting European plate did not

  16. Molasses and microbial inoculants improve fermentability and silage quality of cotton waste-based spent mushroom substrate.

    PubMed

    Kwak, W S; Kim, Y I; Seok, J S; Oh, Y K; Lee, S M

    2009-02-01

    A small-silo study was conducted to develop an effective ensiling storage method for the use of cotton waste-based spent mushroom substrate (SMS) as an animal feed. The SMS was ensiled with 5% molasses (DM basis), 0.5% (v/w) lactic acid bacteria (LAB, Lactobacillus plantarum) inoculant or 0.5% (v/w) yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) inoculant. The treatments included 100% SMS (control), 95% SMS+5% molasses (T1), 95% SMS+5% molasses+0.5% LAB (T2) and 95% SMS+5% molasses+5% LAB+0.5% yeast (T3). The treatments were ensiled for 10. Change in chemical compositions was little (P>0.05) according to the ensiling process and treatments. Compared with those before ensiling, 100% SMS (control) after ensiling showed unstable fermentative properties with high pH (5.2) and little lactic acid production. Compared with the ensiled control, treatments (T1, T2 and T3) resulted in decreased pH, 18-20 times higher concentrations of lactic acid, and greater populations of total bacteria (P<0.07), LAB and yeast (P<0.07). The addition of 5% molasses, 0.5% LAB and 0.5% yeast (T3) to the SMS resulted in the lowest pH (4.25) and the greatest microbial populations. Treatment T3 was selected for a large scale silo study which was ensiled for 10, 20 and 30 d. As in the small-silo study, the T3 treatment showed favorable fermentative and microbial parameters, compared with the control, by decreasing pH and increasing lactic acid concentrations, LAB and yeast populations. The minimum ensiling period was 20 d, when pH was reasonably low and LAB and yeast populations were greatest. In conclusion, molasses and microbial inoculation improved silage quality of SMS.

  17. The use of Lactobacillus species as starter cultures for enhancing the quality of sugar cane silage.

    PubMed

    Ávila, C L S; Carvalho, B F; Pinto, J C; Duarte, W F; Schwan, R F

    2014-02-01

    Sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) is a forage crop widely used in animal feed because of its high dry matter (DM) production (25 to 40 t/ha) and high energy concentration. The ensiling of sugar cane often incurs problems with the growth of yeasts, which leads to high losses of DM throughout the fermentative process. The selection of specific inoculants for sugar cane silage can improve the quality of the silage. The present study aimed to select strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from sugar cane silage and to assess their effects when used as additives on the same type of silage. The LAB strains were inoculated into sugar cane broth to evaluate their production of metabolites. The selected strains produced higher concentrations of acetic and propionic acids and resulted in better silage characteristics, such as low yeast population, lower ethanol content, and lesser DM loss. These data confirmed that facultative heterofermentative strains are not good candidates for sugar cane silage inoculation and may even worsen the quality of the silage fermentation by increasing DM losses throughout the process. Lactobacillus hilgardii strains UFLA SIL51 and UFLA SIL52 resulted in silage with the best characteristics in relation to DM loss, low ethanol content, higher LAB population, and low butyric acid content. Strains UFLA SIL51 and SIL52 are recommended as starter cultures for sugar cane silage.

  18. Judging hardness of an object from the sounds of tapping created by a white cane.

    PubMed

    Nunokawa, K; Seki, Y; Ino, S; Doi, K

    2014-01-01

    The white cane plays a vital role in the independent mobility support of the visually impaired. Allowing the recognition of target attributes through the contact of a white cane is an important function. We have conducted research to obtain fundamental knowledge concerning the exploration methods used to perceive the hardness of an object through contact with a white cane. This research has allowed us to examine methods that enhance accuracy in the perception of objects as well as the materials and structures of a white cane. Previous research suggest considering the roles of both auditory and tactile information from the white cane in determining objects' hardness is necessary. This experimental study examined the ability of people to perceive the hardness of an object solely through the tapping sounds of a white cane (i.e., auditory information) using a method of magnitude estimation. Two types of sounds were used to estimate hardness: 1) the playback of recorded tapping sounds and 2) the sounds produced on-site by tapping. Three types of handgrips were used to create different sounds of tapping on an object with a cane. The participants of this experiment were five sighted university students wearing eye masks and two totally blind students who walk independently with a white cane. The results showed that both sighted university students and totally blind participants were able to accurately judge the hardness of an object solely by using auditory information from a white cane. For the blind participants, different handgrips significantly influenced the accuracy of their estimation of an object's hardness.

  19. Diets Based on Sugar Cane Treated with Calcium Oxide for Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, G. G. P.; Garcia, R.; Pires, A. J. V.; Silva, R. R.; Detmann, E.; Filho, A. Eustaquio; Ribeiro, L. S. O.; Carvalho, L. M.

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and the effect of total collection days (two and four days) on apparent digestibility estimates for lambs fed diets containing sugar cane treated with calcium oxide (CaO). Eight Santa Inês castrated male lambs with a 16.6±1.8 kg body weight were used. The lambs were distributed in two 4×4 Latin squares, with four experimental periods of 14 d each. The animals were kept in 1.2 m2 individual pens, and the intake and digestibility evaluations were performed during the last four days of each period. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous, containing 14% crude protein (CP), and presenting 70% sugar cane treated with 0, 0.75, 1.5 or 2.25% of CaO (as-fed basis), corrected with 1% urea, and 30% concentrate. The sugar cane with added CaO was chopped, treated, and offered to the animals after 24 h of storage. The sugar cane with CaO increased the DM, OM, CP, NDF, NDFap, TC, NFCap and TDN intake (kg/d), when compared to natural sugar cane, and produced the same intake expressed as a percentage of body weight (% BW). The NFCap digestibility of the CaO-treated sugar cane was inferior to the NFCap digestibility in natural sugar cane. There was a linear increase in the DM intake with the CaO-added sugar cane, but the DM and NDF digestibility and the TDN content decreased linearly. The chemical treatment of sugar cane with CaO increases the intake but does not improve the nutrient digestibility. Two days of total fecal collection were found to be sufficient to estimate the total apparent digestibility in lambs. PMID:25049779

  20. Elevation of a cane-growing area of the state of Sao Paulo using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Tardin, A. T.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Chen, S. C.; Lucht, L. A. M.; Moreira, M. A.; Delima, A. M.; Maia, F. C. S.

    1981-01-01

    Images at a scale of 1:250.000 were visually interpreted for identification and area estimates of sugar cane plantations in Sao Paulo. The basic criteria for crop identification were the spectral characteristics of channels 5 and 7 and their temporal variations observed from different LANDSAT passes. Using this technique, it was possible to map the sugar cane areas as well as the sugar cane already harvested. An area of 801,950 hectares was estimated within the study area. The confidence interval of correct classification ranged from 87.11% to 94.71%.

  1. Rhamnolipid production by pseudomonas aeruginosa GIM 32 using different substrates including molasses distillery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, An-hua; Xu, Mei-ying; Sun, Wei; Sun, Guo-ping

    2011-03-01

    A rhamnolipid production strain newly isolated from oil-contaminated soil was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa GIM32 by its morphology and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The effect of carbon source and carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio on rhamnolipids production was investigated. Palm oil was favorable as a carbon source for rhamnolipid production. The maximum biomass and rhamnolipid concentration were 8.24 g/L and 30.4 g/L, respectively, with an optimization medium containing 50 g/L palm oil and 5 g/L sodium nitrate. Molasses distillery wastewater as an unconventional substrate for rhamnolipid production was investigated. It was found that 2.6 g/L of rhamnolipids was produced; this amount was higher than that of past reports using wastewater as a substrate. In addition, 44% of the chemical oxygen demand of wastewater was removed at the same time under the optimization condition. Eleven kinds of different molecular weight rhamnolipid homologues were identified in the rhamnolipids obtained from molasses distillery wastewater by P. aeruginosa GIM32 by LC-MS analysis.

  2. Microalgae-activated sludge treatment of molasses wastewater in sequencing batch photo-bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Tsioptsias, Costas; Lionta, Gesthimani; Samaras, Petros

    2016-08-09

    The aim of this work was the examination of the treatment potential of molasses wastewater, by the utilization of activated sludge and microalgae. The systems used included a sequencing batch bioreactor and a similar photo-bioreactor, favoring microalgae growth. The microalgae treatment of molasses wastewater mixture resulted in a considerable reduction in the total nitrogen content. A reduction in the ammonium and nitrate content was observed in the photo-bioreactor, while the effluent's total nitrogen consisted mainly of 50% organic nitrogen. The transformation of the nitrogen forms in the photo-bioreactor was attributed to microalgae activity, resulting in the production of a better quality effluent. Lower COD removal was observed for the photo-bioreactor than the control, which however increased, by the replacement of the anoxic phase by a long aeration period. The mechanism of nitrogen removal included both the denitrification process during the anoxic stage and the microalgae activities, as the replacement of the anoxic stage resulted in low total nitrogen removal capacities. A decrease in the photobioreactor performance was observed after 35 days of operation due to biofilm formation on the light tube surface, while the operation at higher temperature accelerated microalgae growth, resulting thus in the early failure of the photoreactor.

  3. Enhanced ethanol production at commercial scale from molasses using high gravity technology by mutant S. cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Muhammad; Hussain, Tariq; Iqbal, Munawar; Abbas, Mazhar

    2017-02-16

    Very high gravity (VHG) technology was employed on industrial scale to produce ethanol from molasses (fermented) as well as by-products formation estimation. The effect of different Brix° (32, 36 and 40) air-flow rates (0.00, 0.20, 0.40, and 0.60vvm) was studied on ethanol production. The maximum ethanol production was recorded to be 12.2% (v/v) at 40 Brix° with 0.2vvm air-flow rate. At optimum level aeration and 40 Brix° VHG, the residual sugar level was recorded in the range of 12.5-18.5g/L, whereas the viable cell count remained constant up to 50h of fermentation and dry matter production increased with fermentation time. Both water and steam consumption reduced significantly under optimum conditions of Brix° and aeration rate with compromising the ethanol production. Results revealed VHG with continuous air flow is viable technique to reduce the ethanol production cost form molasses at commercial scale.

  4. The fermentation of sugarcane molasses by Dekkera bruxellensis and the mobilization of reserve carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Luciana Filgueira; Lucatti, Elisa; Basso, Luiz Carlos; de Morais, Marcos Antonio

    2014-03-01

    The yeast Dekkera bruxellensis is considered to be very well adapted to industrial environments, in Brazil, USA, Canada and European Countries, when different substrates are used in alcoholic fermentations. Our previous study described its fermentative profile with a sugarcane juice substrate. In this study, we have extended its physiological evaluation to fermentation situations by using sugarcane molasses as a substrate to replicate industrial working conditions. The results have confirmed the previous reports of the low capacity of D. bruxellensis cells to assimilate sucrose, which seems to be the main factor that can cause a bottleneck in its use as fermentative yeast. Furthermore, the cells of D. bruxellensis showed a tendency to deviate most of sugar available for biomass and organic acids (lactic and acetic) compared with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, when calculated on the basis of their respective yields. As well as this, the acetate production from molasses medium by both yeasts was in marked contrast with the previous data on sugarcane juice. Glycerol and ethanol production by D. bruxellensis cells achieved levels of 33 and 53 % of the S. cerevisiae, respectively. However, the ethanol yield was similar for both yeasts. It is worth noting that this yeast did not accumulate trehalose when the intracellular glycogen content was 30 % lower than in S. cerevisiae. The lack of trehalose did not affect yeast viability under fermentation conditions. Thus, the adaptive success of D. bruxellensis under industrial fermentation conditions seems to be unrelated to the production of these reserve carbohydrates.

  5. Effect of sucrose concentration on the products of Kombucha fermentation on molasses.

    PubMed

    Malbaša, R; Lončar, E; Djurić, M; Došenović, I

    2008-06-01

    Fermentation of 1.5g/l of Indian black tea, sweetened with adequate quantities of molasses (containing approx. 70g/l, 50g/l and 35g/l of sucrose), was conducted using domestic Kombucha. Inoculation was performed with 10% of fermentation broth from a previous process. The fermentation in cylindrical vessels containing 2l of liquid phase, was carried out at 22±1°C for 14 days, with periodical sampling, to measure pH, content of acids (total, acetic and l-lactic), content of remaining sucrose, and the yield of biomass at the end of fermentation. A product with 70g/l sucrose from molasses corresponds to an optimal concentration of carbon source, which provided metabolites with high pH, a low content of less desired acetic acid, a high content of highly desired l-lactic acid, an acceptable content of total acids and the highest possible level of utilisation of sucrose.

  6. Evolution of the eastern Austrian Molasse Basin: The Lower Miocene (Burdigalian) as a key to the understanding of the Eastern Alps - Molasse Basin system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palzer, Markus; Knierzinger, Wolfgang; Wagreich, Michael; Meszar, Maria E.; Gier, Susanne; Soliman, Ali; -Elena Kallanxhi, Mǎdǎlina

    2016-04-01

    The eastern Austrian Molasse Basin is situated between the Bohemian Massif, the Waschberg-Zone and the Alps. There, sands of the Lower Miocene (Upper Ottnangian) Traisen Formation represent a clastic interval at the top of pelitic Schlier successions, which is correlated with the global sea level drop Bur3 (Burdigalian). North of the Danube River, the continuation of the Traisen-Formation is overlain by the Karpatian Laa-Formation. Drill cores from OMV-wells predominantly from the continuation of the Traisen Formation in deep parts in the NE of the basin show hundreds of meters of pelites with intersections of sands. Contrary to the exposed, mainly brackish TF, a turbiditic and predominantly fully marine deep-water environment is inferred from the cores. Profiles of carbonate content, XRD, XRF, whole rock chemistry, clay minerals, calcareous nannoplankton and dinoflagellate cysts of 7 wells were investigated representing a NE-SW transect through the LAMB. Based on these data, a new stratigraphy for the Burdigalian distal parts of the LAMB can be defined and correlated with the proximal units. The Traisen Formation and its equivalents are characterized at their base by an increased clastic input in the south and by increasing mica content in the northern parts. The complete interval is characterized by the decreased carbonate content. The XRD data show strongly reduced calcite contents which goe hand in hand with the absence of nannoplankton. Whether the signal is related to a crisis in primary production or to carbonate dissolution remains unclear. The absence of dinoflagellate cysts and the chemical data (reduced B/Al* ratios indicate reduced salinity) are considered as an argument for an environmental crisis. However, the absence of resedimented Cretaceous to Paleocene nannofossils, which usually occur together with the autochthonous NN4-nannofossils, indicates carbonate dissolution. These results enable us to define a basinal interval as equivalent to the

  7. Volatilisation of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species during the pyrolysis of biomass: differences between sugar cane bagasse and cane trash.

    PubMed

    Keown, Daniel M; Favas, George; Hayashi, Jun-ichiro; Li, Chun-Zhu

    2005-09-01

    Sugar cane bagasse and cane trash were pyrolysed in a novel quartz fluidised-bed/fixed-bed reactor. Quantification of the Na, K, Mg and Ca in chars revealed that pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, valence and biomass type were important factors influencing the volatilisation of these alkali and alkaline earth metallic (AAEM) species. Pyrolysis at a slow heating rate (approximately 10 K min(-1)) led to minimal (often <20%) volatilisation of AAEM species from these biomass samples. Fast heating rates (>1000 K s(-1)), encouraging volatile-char interactions with the current reactor configuration, resulted in the volatilisation of around 80% of Na, K, Mg and Ca from bagasse during pyrolysis at 900 degrees C. Similar behaviour was observed for monovalent Na and K with cane trash, but the volatilisation of Mg and Ca from cane trash was always restricted. The difference in Cl content between bagasse and cane trash was not sufficient to fully explain the difference in the volatilisation of Mg and Ca.

  8. Travelling waves for the cane toads equation with bounded traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouin, Emeric; Calvez, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we study propagation in a non-local reaction-diffusion-mutation model describing the invasion of cane toads in Australia (Phillips et al 2006 Nature 439 803). The population of toads is structured by a space variable and a phenotypical trait and the space diffusivity depends on the trait. We use a Schauder topological degree argument for the construction of some travelling wave solutions of the model. The speed c* of the wave is obtained after solving a suitable spectral problem in the trait variable. An eigenvector arising from this eigenvalue problem gives the flavour of the profile at the edge of the front. The major difficulty is to obtain uniform L∞ bounds despite the combination of non-local terms and a heterogeneous diffusivity.

  9. Effect of microbial inoculant or molasses on fermentative quality and aerobic stability of sawdust-based spent mushroom substrate.

    PubMed

    Kim, J S; Lee, Y H; Kim, Y I; Ahmadi, F; Oh, Y K; Park, J M; Kwak, W S

    2016-09-01

    In the first experiment, the effect of two novel Lactobacillus plantarum strains was studied on the fermentation of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) through 10d of ensiling. Based on lactic acid production and lactic acid bacteria population, L. plantarum KU5 was identified as the best strain for fermentation with a 5-L bag silo. Spent mushroom substrate was ensiled with 0.5% (v/w) L. plantarum KU5 without or with 5% molasses. Silages treated with microbial inoculant and molasses had the lowest pH and the highest fermentative odors. In a second set of experiments similar to the above 5-L silo study, the simultaneous application of L. plantarum KU5 inoculant and molasses to 80-L silos improved fermentability and aerobic stability of SMS silages. For similar treatment using ton-bag silos, aerobic stability decreased and NH3-N content increased dramatically. In conclusion, sawdust-based SMS for animal use was successfully ensiled with L. plantarum KU5 inoculant and molasses.

  10. Rim15p-mediated regulation of sucrose utilization during molasses fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PE-2.

    PubMed

    Inai, Tomomi; Watanabe, Daisuke; Zhou, Yan; Fukada, Rie; Akao, Takeshi; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2013-11-01

    Inherited loss-of-function mutations in the Rim15p-mediated stress-response pathway contribute to the high fermentation rate of sake yeast strains. In the present study, we found that disruption of the RIM15 gene in ethanol-producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PE-2 accelerated molasses fermentation through enhanced sucrose utilization following glucose starvation.

  11. A two-stage fermentation process of erythritol production by yeast Y. lipolytica from molasses and glycerol.

    PubMed

    Mirończuk, Aleksandra M; Rakicka, Magdalena; Biegalska, Anna; Rymowicz, Waldemar; Dobrowolski, Adam

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a two-stage fermentation process of erythritol production based on molasses and glycerol was investigated. During the first stage, the biomass of Yarrowia lipolytica was grown on medium containing sucrose as the sole carbon source. In the second stage, production of erythritol was initiated by glycerol addition. To use molasses as a substrate for erythritol synthesis, sucrose utilization was established by expressing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SUC2 gene. In this study, cultivation of yeast Y. lipolytica could produce 52-114 g/L of erythritol. The productivity was 0.58-1.04 g/L/h, and yield was 0.26-0.57 g/g; the final biomasses yield ranged 17-41 g/L. This is the first report describing erythritol production via industrial raw molasses and glycerol by Y. lipolytica. This work uses genetically modified strains of Y. lipolytica as tool for the direct conversion of affordable raw industrial molasses and glycerol into the value-added erythritol product.

  12. 3 CFR 8439 - Proclamation 8439 of October 15, 2009. White Cane Safety Day, 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... full measure of happiness. For blind Americans, the white cane is a potent symbol of that freedom... productivity. In recent years, refreshable Braille displays and speech synthesis devices have given...

  13. Direct determination of sugar cane quality parameters by X-ray spectrometry and multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Melquiades, F L; Bortoleto, G G; Marchiori, L F S; Bueno, M I M S

    2012-10-31

    Current methods for quality control of sugar cane are performed in extracted juice using several methodologies, often requiring appreciable time and chemicals (eventually toxic), making the methods not green and expensive. The present study proposes the use of X-ray spectrometry together with chemometric methods as an innovative and alternative technique for determining sugar cane quality parameters, specifically sucrose concentration, POL, and fiber content. Measurements in stem, leaf, and juice were performed, and those applied directly in stem provided the best results. Prediction models for sugar cane stem determinations with a single 60 s irradiation using portable X-ray fluorescence equipment allows estimating the % sucrose, % fiber, and POL simultaneously. Average relative deviations in the prediction step of around 8% are acceptable if considering that field measurements were done. These results may indicate the best period to cut a particular crop as well as for evaluating the quality of sugar cane for the sugar and alcohol industries.

  14. Diet composition of the invasive cane toad (Chaunus marinus) on Rota, Northern Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, R.N.; Bakkegard, K.A.; Desy, G.E.; Plentovich, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    The cane or marine toad (Chaunus marinus, formerly Bufo marinus) was introduced to the Northern Mariana Islands starting in the 1930s. The effects of this exotic predator on native vertebrates (especially lizards) are largely unknown. We analysed the stomach contents of 336 cane toads collected from the island of Rota, with the goal of estimating the level of toad predation on native vertebrates. Beetles, ants, millipedes, and grasshoppers/crickets comprised the majority of prey classes consumed by toads. The introduced Brahminy blindsnake (Ramphotyphlops braminus; N = 6) and conspecific cane toads (N = 4) were the vertebrates most commonly found in toad stomachs. Skinks (Emoia; N = 2) were the only native vertebrates represented in our sample. The small numbers of nocturnal terrestrial vertebrates native to Rota likely translates to relatively low rates of predation by cane toads on native vertebrates.

  15. Molecular characterization of MHC class II in the Australian invasive cane toad reveals multiple splice variants.

    PubMed

    Lillie, Mette; Cui, Jian; Shine, Richard; Belov, Katherine

    2016-07-01

    The cane toad has gained notoriety for its invasion across the Australian landscape, with significant impacts on the native Australian fauna. The invasion has accelerated over time, with invading cane toads adapted for highly dispersive traits. This, however, has come at the cost of the immune system, with lower investment in some immune functions. To investigate the cane toad's immunogenetics, we characterized four major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class IIA and three MHC class IIB loci. Preliminary observations suggest very low allelic diversity at all loci. We also observed various splice isoforms. One isoform seen at one class IIA and two class IIB loci was missing exon 2, which is essential to peptide binding and presentation. The other isoform, observed at a class IIA locus, is likely to be a soluble MHC product. These results may suggest a significant role of alternative splicing of MHC loci in the Australian cane toad.

  16. Biotic Resistance to an Alien Amphibian: Larval Competition between Japanese Frogs and Invasive Cane Toads.

    PubMed

    Haramura, Takashi; Takeuchi, Hirohiko; Crossland, Michael R; Shine, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Understanding negative effects of native species on introduced taxa may suggest novel ways to control the invasive species by enhancing such effects. Previous studies have reported that the larvae of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) are suppressed by competition with the larvae of native anurans in Australia, but not in North America. We conducted laboratory trials to measure the effect of exposure to the larvae of Japanese frogs (Microhyla ornata, Fejervarya sakishimensis, Rhacophorus owstoni) on rates of survival, growth and development of cane toad tadpoles in Ishigaki Island, in southern Japan. Survival rates were not affected by native species, but competition with Dicroglossids and Rhacophorids (but not Microhylids) strongly reduced rates of growth and development in the tadpoles of cane toads. Dicroglossid tadpoles also reduced the body condition to toad tadpoles in addition to effects on SVL and mass. Encouraging populations of native frogs in toad-invaded areas of Japan thus may help to reduce the numbers of invasive cane toads.

  17. Chemistry Based on Renewable Raw Materials: Perspectives for a Sugar Cane-Based Biorefinery

    PubMed Central

    Villela Filho, Murillo; Araujo, Carlos; Bonfá, Alfredo; Porto, Weber

    2011-01-01

    Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane. PMID:21637329

  18. Influence of gamma radiation on microbiological parameters of the ethanolic fermentation of sugar-cane must

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcarde, A. R.; Walder, J. M. M.; Horii, J.

    2003-04-01

    The influence of gamma radiation on reducing the population of some bacteria Bacillus and Lactobacillus that usually contaminate the sugar-cane must and its effects on acidity of the medium and viability of the yeast during fermentation were evaluated. The treatment with gamma radiation reduced the bacterial load of the sugar-cane must. Consequently, the volatile acidity produced during the fermentation of the must decreased and the viability of the yeast afterwards added increased.

  19. Lithofacies Associations and Depositional Environments of the Neogene Molasse succession, Pishin Belt, northwestern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasi, A.; Kassi, A.; Friis, H.; Umar, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Pishin Belt is a NE-SW trending mixed flysch and molasse basin, situated at the northwestern part of Pakistan, bordered by Afghan Block of the Eurasian Plate in the west and Indian Plate in the east. Western boundary of the belt is marked by the well-known Chaman Transform Fault, whereas the Zhob Valley Thrust and Muslim Bagh-Zhob Ophiolite mark the eastern boundary. The Belt is divisible into six tectono-stratigraphic zones bounded by major thrusts. Muslim Bagh-Zhob Ophiolite is the base and Zone-I of this belt. Zone-II comprises shallow marine and flysch successions of the Eocene Nisai Formation and Oligocene Khojak Formation. The Early to Middle Miocene Dasht Murgha group comprises Zone-III, the Late Miocene-Pliocene Malthanai formation comprises Zone-IV, the Pleistocene Bostan Formation makes Zone-V, and the flat-laying Holocene deposits of the Zhob Valley comprise Zone-VI. The Neogene molasse successions of the Pishin Belt include the Dasht Murgha group, Malthanai formation and Bostan Formation; these are mostly composed of sandstone, claystone and conglomerate lithologies. Sandstones have been classified as lithic arenites and their QFL values suggest quartzolithic composition. Twelve distinct lithofacies have been recognized in the succession and thus grouped into four types of facies associations. Lithofacies include clast-supported massive gravel (Gcm), clast-supported crudely bedded gravel (Gh), cross-stratified conglomerate (Gt and Gp), trough cross-stratified sandstone (St), planar cross-stratified sandstone (Sp), ripple cross-laminated sandstone (Sr), horizontally stratified sandstone (Sh), low-angle cross-stratified sandstone (Sl), massive sandstones (Sm), massive mudstone and siltstone (Fm) and paleosol carbonate (P). The lithofacies associations include channel facies association (CHA), crevasse-splay facies association (CSA), natural-levee facies association (LVA) and floodplain facies association (FPA). The lithofacies associations suggest

  20. Bio-hydrogen production from molasses by anaerobic fermentation in continuous stirred tank reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei; Li, Yong-feng; Chen, Hong; Deng, Jie-xuan; Yang, Chuan-ping

    2010-11-01

    A study of bio-hydrogen production was performed in a continuous flow anaerobic fermentation reactor (with an available volume of 5.4 L). The continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for bio-hydrogen production was operated under the organic loading rates (OLR) of 8-32 kg COD/m3 reactor/d (COD: chemical oxygen demand) with molasses as the substrate. The maximum hydrogen production yield of 8.19 L/d was obtained in the reactor with the OLR increased from 8 kg COD/m3 reactor/d to 24 kg COD/m3 d. However, the hydrogen production and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) drastically decreased at an OLR of 32 kg COD/m3 reactor/d. Ethanoi, acetic, butyric and propionic were the main liquid fermentation products with the percentages of 31%, 24%, 20% and 18%, which formed the mixed-type fermentation.

  1. Enhanced bioremediation of crude oil utilizing lipophilic fertilizers combined with biosurfactants and molasses.

    PubMed

    Nikolopoulou, Maria; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2008-11-01

    Many research studies have demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of fertilization with nitrogen and phosphorus to combat oil spills in marine environments. Rapid dilution of water-soluble nutrients can be overcome by oleophilic formulations that retain optimal nutrient concentrations at the oil-water interface where biodegradation occurs. Previous work has demonstrated that biodegradation processes are enhanced by the addition of lipophilic fertilizers of natural origin (uric acid and lecithin). In this work, we examined the effectiveness of these nutrients in combination with biosurfactants (rhamnolipids) and molasses (source of C and vitamins) to enhance the biodegradation by naturally occurring microorganisms. It was found that the use of biosurfactants resulted in an increased removal of petroleum hydrocarbons (96% removal of C19-C34 n-alkanes within a period of 18 days) as well as in a reduction of the lag phase (almost 80% removal was achieved within the first week of biosurfactant application).

  2. A radiochemical, hydrochemical and dissolved gas study of groundwaters in the Molasse basin of Upper Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, J. N.; Goldbrunner, J. E.; Darling, W. G.; Hooker, P. J.; Wilson, G. B.; Youngman, M. J.; Eichinger, L.; Rauert, W.; Stichler, W.

    1985-05-01

    The Innviertel (Ottnangian) formation of the Molasse zone of Upper Austria is of major importance as a source of potable water. A hydrochemical, radiochemical and dissolved gas study was undertaken to establish the flow pattern in the Innviertel and its relationship to groundwaters in deeper formations in the Molasse basin. The Innviertel groundwaters could be differentiated into three groups on the basis of their chemical compositions. Waters from shallow boreholes which sampled very localised systems are oxidising waters of the Ca-bicarbonate type and may have high 3H contents. A transition to reducing groundwaters occurs in the second and third groups, with Na + replacing Ca 2+ as the dominant cation and sulphate being reduced to sulphide. The uranium solution chemistry also changes systematically with this change in redox conditions. The 234U/ 238U activity ratios are enhanced for group 2 groundwaters and decrease again in group 3 groundwaters. The low Cl contents of all the Innviertel groundwaters indicate that the marine sediments have been completely flushed by meteoric water and this is confirmed by the stable isotope composition of the water. Groundwater residence times have been estimated from hydrological data, radiogenic 4He accumulation rates and palaeotemperatures of recharge which were estimated from noble gas contents. The 3He/ 4He ratio shows that most radiogenic He diffuses from the basement granite and the He flux was estimated on the basis of diffusion theory. Groundwater residence times were assessed from this diffusive flux of helium and together with the recharge temperatures, indicate that the evolved groundwaters of the Innviertel were recharged during the interstadial which preceded the last glaciation.

  3. Stability of Molasse: TLS for structural analysis in the valley of Gotteron-Fribourg, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Hammouda, Mariam; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc Henri; Bouaziz, Samir; Mazotti, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    The marine molasses of Fribourg (Switzerland) is an area where the cliff collapses and rockfalls are quite frequent and difficult to predict due to this particular lithology, a poorly consolidated greywacke. Because of some recent rockfall events, the situation became critical especially in the valley of Gotteron where a big block has slightly moved down and might destroy a house in case of rupture. The cliff made of jointed sandstone and thin layers of clay and siltstone presents many fractures, joints and massive cross bedding surfaces which increases the possibility of slab failure. This paper presents a detailed structural analysis of the cliff and the identification of the potential failure mechanisms. The methodology is about combining field observation and terrestrial LiDAR scanning point cloud in order to assess the stability of potential slope instabilities of molasses. Three LiDAR scans were done i) to extract discontinuity families depending to the dip and the dip direction of joints and ii) to run kinematic tests in order to identify responsible sets for each potential failure mechanisms. Raw point clouds were processed using IMAlign module of Polyworks and CloudCompare software. The structural analysis based on COLTOP 3D (Jaboyedoff et al. 2007) allowed the identification of four discontinuity sets that were not measured in the field. Two different failure mechanisms have been identified as critical: i) planar sliding which is the main responsible mechanism of the present fallen block and ii) wedge sliding. The planar sliding is defined by the discontinuity sets J1 and J5 with a direction parallel to the slope and with a steep dip angle. The wedges, defined by couples of discontinuity sets, contribute to increase cracks' opening and to the detachment of slabs. The use of TLS combined with field survey provides us a first interpretation of instabilities and a very promising structural analysis.

  4. The Greenhouse Gas Flux and Carbon Budget of Land Use Conversion from Pasture to Energy Cane Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duval, B.; Davis, S. C.; Parton, W. J.; Long, S. P.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2011-12-01

    The United States is committed to produce 140 billion liters of ethanol by 2022. To meet this goal, and mitigate concerns about the "fuel versus food" conundrum, there is a pressing need for a second generation of sustainable biofuel feedstocks. Energy cane is a high yield, cold-tolerant C4 grass that can be efficiently used to produce bio-ethanol via existing cellulo-lignosic conversion technologies. There is exciting promise for Energy cane as an ethanol feedstock, however the climate implications of large-scale land use change from pasture (a significant use of land in the Southeastern USA) to production of an energy grass has not been fully explored. Furthermore, the soil type on which Energy cane will be grown will likely have a significant impact on greenhouse gases (GHG). We use DAYCENT, a process based biogeochemical model, to forecast how land use change from pasture to Energy cane production influences ecosystem level GHG flux and soil carbon flux. Because Energy cane is not widely cultivated, we use the available sugar cane literature to validate our in silico experiments. DAYCENT simulations suggest that soil type and fertilization rates have a strong control on the GHG and soil C dynamics after changing land from pasture to Energy cane. Our model results show net losses of ecosystem level C when Energy cane is grown on Histosols (organic matter rich soils), and a net gain of ecosystem C when that crop is grown on Spodosols (sandy soils). Respired CO2, N2O and total GHG efflux is significantly higher on Histosols compared to Spodosols in cane production. We conclude that the soil type on which Energy cane is grown determines the climatic impact of changing a landscape from pasture to Energy cane, and the greatest long-term climate benefit comes from growing cane on Spodosols.

  5. Production and characterization of PHA from recombinant E. coli harbouring phaC1 gene of indigenous Pseudomonas sp. LDC-5 using molasses

    PubMed Central

    Saranya, V.; Shenbagarathai, R.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are biodegradable and biocompatible green thermoplastics, synthesized by wide variety of bacteria as an intracellular carbon and energy storage intermediate. They are used as an alternative to nonrenewable petroleum derived plastics. The current interest in these biopolyesters is stimulated by the search for cost-effective capitalized production. This paper attempts to achieve maximized production rate from recombinant system using inexpensive substrate. Molasses from agro-industrial waste was used to produce PHA from recombinant E.coli in batch culture. PHA yield in molasses (3.06g/L ± 0.05‒75.5%) was higher than that of sucrose (2.5g/L ± 0.05 - 65.1%). Properties of the polymer produced from molasses and sucrose were analyzed by DSC, TGA, DTA, GC/MS, TLC and optical rotation studies. The findings suggested that molasses enhanced PHA production in recombinant E.coli. PMID:24031729

  6. Biological nitrogen fixation in sugar cane: A key to energetically viable biofuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Boddey, R.M.

    1995-05-01

    The advantages of producing biofuels to replace fossil energy sources are derived from the fact that the energy accumulated in the biomass in captured directly from photosynthesis and is thus renewable, and that the cycle of carbon dioxide fixation by the crop, followed by burning of the fuel makes no overall contribution to atmospheric CO{sub 2} or, consequently, to global warming. However, these advantages are negated if large quantities of fossil fuels need to be used to grow or process the biofuel crop. In this regard, the Brazilian bioethanol program, based on the fermentation/distillation of sugar cane juice, is particularly favorable, not only because the crop is principally hand harvested, but also because of the low nitrogen fertilizer use on sugar cane in Brazil. Recent {sup 15}N and N balance studies have shown that in some Brazilian cane varieties, high yields are possible without N fertilization because the plants are able to obtain large contributions of nitrogen from plant-associated biological N{sub 2} fixation (BNF). The N{sub 2}-fixing acid-tolerant bacterium Acetobacter diazotrophicus was first found to occur within roots, stems, and leaves of sugar cane. Subsequently, two species of Herbaspirillum also have been found to occur within the interior of all sugar cane tissues. The discovery of these, and other N{sub 2}-fixing bacteria that survive poorly in soil but thrive within plant tissue (endophytic bacteria), may account for the high BNF contributions observed in sugar cane. Further study of this system should allow the gradual elimination of N fertilizer use on sugar cane, at least in Brazil, and opens up the possibility of the extension of this efficient N{sub 2}-fixing system to cereal and other crops with consequent immense potential benefits to tropical agriculture. 44 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Saccharibacillus sacchari gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from sugar cane.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Raúl; García-Fraile, Paula; Zurdo-Piñeiro, José Luis; Mateos, Pedro F; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Bedmar, Eulogio J; Sánchez-Raya, Juan; Velázquez, Encarna

    2008-08-01

    A bacterial strain designated GR21T was isolated from apoplastic fluid of Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate forms a separate branch within the family 'Paenibacillaceae', with Paenibacillus as the closest related genus. Within this genus, the closest related species is Paenibacillus xylanilyticus, with 93.4 % similarity to the sequence of the type strain. The isolate has Gram-variable, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped cells, motile by polar and subpolar flagella. Round, non-ornamented, central or subterminal spores are formed in unswollen sporangia. The strain is catalase-positive and oxidase-negative on nutrient agar medium. Cellulose and aesculin were hydrolysed, whereas xylan, starch and gelatin were not. Growth was supported by many carbohydrates as carbon sources. Strain GR21T displayed a lipid profile consisting of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, an unknown aminophospholipid, two unknown glycolipids and an unknown phosphoglycolipid. MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone and anteiso-C15: 0 was the major fatty acid. The DNA G+C content was 57.8 mol%. Phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses, including assimilation of carbon sources and exoenzyme production commonly used for classification within the family 'Paenibacillaceae', showed that strain GR21T belongs to a new genus within this family, for which the name Saccharibacillus sacchari gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Saccharibacillus sacchari is GR21T (=LMG 24085T =DSM 19268T).

  8. Effects of the level of sugarcane molasses on growth and carcass performance of Caribbean growing pigs reared under a ground sugarcane stalks feeding system.

    PubMed

    Xandé, X; Archimède, H; Gourdine, J L; Anais, C; Renaudeau, D

    2010-01-01

    The influence of the level of sugarcane (SC) molasses on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality in Creole (CR) growing pigs fed with ground sugarcane stalks (GCS)-based diet was studied in a mixed farming system context. The aim of the study was to optimize the growth performance of CR pigs with SC-molasses as an energy source in this unconventional feeding. A total of 32 CR pigs were used from 30 to 60 kg of body weight (BW). The experimental dietary treatments consisted of four levels of inclusion of SC-molasses (200, 400, 600, and 800 g DM/d/pig) into a GCS diet, for diets 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The GCS allowance was based on live BW (170 g/kg BW/d) and the diets were supplemented with a soya-bean meal supplement (350 g/d of a 49.2% CP and 16.6 MJ DE/kg). All the pigs were slaughtered at 60 kg BW. Increasing the level of molasses did not affect (p > 0.05) average BW gain (254 g/d), CP intake (154 g/d) and sugar extraction rate from the total ration (85%). A gradual inclusion of molasses in a GCS-based diet did not affect the carcass and meat quality of CR pigs. In conclusion, molasses supplementation does not allow the increase of growth performance in GCS fed pigs.

  9. Improvement of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid Production by Marine Dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii Using Rapeseed Meal Hydrolysate and Waste Molasses as Feedstock

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yangmin; Liu, Jiao; Jiang, Mulan; Liang, Zhuo; Jin, Hu; Hu, Xiaojia; Wan, Xia; Hu, Chuanjiong

    2015-01-01

    Rapeseed meal and waste molasses are two important agro-industrial by-products which are produced in large quantities. In this study, solid state fermentation and fungal autolysis were performed to produce rapeseed meal hydrolysate (RMH) using fungal strains of Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium oxalicum and Neurospora crassa. The hydrolysate was used as fermentation feedstock for heterotrophic growth of microalga Crypthecodinium cohnii that produce docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The addition of waste molasses as a supplementary carbon source greatly increased the biomass and DHA yield. In the batch fermentations using media composed of diluted RMH (7%) and 1-9% waste molasses, the highest biomass concentration and DHA yield reached 3.43 g/L and 8.72 mg/L, respectively. The algal biomass produced from RMH and molasses medium also had a high percentage of DHA (22-34%) in total fatty acids similar to that of commercial algal biomass. RMH was shown to be rich in nitrogen supply comparable to the commercial nitrogen feedstock like yeast extract. Using RMH as sole nitrogen source, waste molasses excelled other carbon sources and produced the highest concentration of biomass. This study suggests that DHA production of the marine dinoflagellate C. cohnii could be greatly improved by concomitantly using the cheap by-products rapeseed meal hydrolysate and molasses as alternative feedstock. PMID:25942565

  10. Comparative study of the effect of ferrocyanide and EDTA on the production of ethyl alcohol from molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Oderinde, R.A.; Ngoka, L.C.; Adesogan, E.K.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of potassium ferrocyanide and EDTA on ethyl alcohol production from molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated on simulated batch pilot-plant-scale conditions for alcoholic fermentation of molasses. Ethyl alcohol production was more sensitive to ferrocyanide than to EDTA. When ferrocyanide was introduced into the cultures at the time of inoculation, there was stimulation of ethyl alcohol production, with 261 ppm ferrocyanide producing the maximum effect, which was 3.0% more than n control cultures. When added during the propagation of the yeast, ferrocyanide depressed ethyl alcohol production by 4.0% maximum whereas EDTA stimulated ethyl alcohol production by 2.0%. Addition of ferrocyanide during the fermentation stage produced no significant effect on alcohol production, whereas over a wide range of EDTA concentration there was a steady increase in alcohol yield.

  11. DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR MODEL 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R; Jason Varble, J

    2008-05-27

    Cane-based Celotex{trademark} has been used extensively in various Department of Energy (DOE) packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard was only manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new shipping packages requiring the material as a component. Current consolidation plans for the DOE Complex require the procurement of several thousand new Model 9975 shipping packages requiring cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard. Therefore, an alternative to cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is needed. Knight-Celotex currently manufactures Celotex{trademark} fiberboard from other cellulosic materials, such as hardwood and softwood. A review of the relevant literature has shown that softwood-based Celotex{trademark} meets all parameters important to the Model 9975 shipping package.

  12. Fluoride bioaccumulation by hydroponic cultures of camellia (Camellia japonica spp.) and sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum spp.).

    PubMed

    Camarena-Rangel, Nancy; Rojas Velázquez, Angel Natanael; Santos-Díaz, María del Socorro

    2015-10-01

    The ability of hydroponic cultures of camellia and sugar cane adult plants to remove fluoride was investigated. Plants were grown in a 50% Steiner nutrient solution. After an adaptation period to hydroponic conditions, plants were exposed to different fluoride concentrations (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg L(-1)). Fluoride concentration in the culture medium and in tissues was measured. In sugar cane, fluoride was mainly located in roots, with 86% of it absorbed and 14% adsorbed. Sugar cane plants removed 1000-1200 mg fluoride kg(-1) dry weight. In camellia plants the highest fluoride concentration was found in leaf. Roots accumulated fluoride mainly through absorption, which was 2-5 times higher than adsorption. At the end of the experiment, fluoride accumulation in camellia plants was 1000-1400 mgk g(-1) dry weight. Estimated concentration factors revealed that fluoride bioaccumulation is 74-221-fold in camellia plants and 100-500-fold in sugar cane plants. Thus, the latter appear as a suitable candidate for removing fluoride from water due to their bioaccumulation capacity and vigorous growth rate; therefore, sugar cane might be used for phytoremediation.

  13. Antioxidant effects of grape vine cane extracts from different Chinese grape varieties on edible oils.

    PubMed

    Min, Zhuo; Guo, Zemei; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Ang; Li, Hua; Fang, Yulin

    2014-09-23

    This study involved the determination of the peroxide value (POV) as a measure of the resistance of the oxidation of edible oil with grape vine cane additives to assess their antioxidation potential. The study demonstrated that grape extracts of canes could effectively inhibit the lipid oxidation of edible oils and that this ability varied significantly due to the different extraction solvents employed, as well as to the different varieties of canes used. Lipid oxidation of edible oils was significantly reduced under an accelerated storage condition of 70 ± 1 °C in the presence of Vitamin C (VC), which was chosen as a synergist of grape vine cane extract. A 4:1 ratio of Victoria Blanc-ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and VC led to a significant lowering of the peroxide value and indicated a better antioxidant effect. Thus, these results indicated that some varieties of grape vine cane extracts could be applied as natural antioxidants for elevation of the quality of edible oils in the food industry.

  14. The northern coast of the Ottnangian (middle Burdigalian, early Miocene) Molasse Sea in Germany: sediments, foraminiferal assemblages and biostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pippèrr, Martina; Reichenbacher, Bettina; Doppler, Gerhard; Hagmaier, Mischa; Jung, Dietmar

    2016-04-01

    This study provides new data on the litho- and biostratigraphy of the middle Burdigalian (Ottnangian) marine sediments at or close to the former northern coastline of the German Molasse Basin, based on cores from three boreholes (Burgau, Hamlar 2 and Lutzingen) and two outcrops (Haunsheim and Dattenhausen). Methods include quantitative analysis of benthic foraminiferal assemblages (90 samples), studies of planktonic foraminifers and ostracods and investigations of lithofacies. The data indicate that the transgressive-regressive marine sediments of the Upper Marine Molasse (OMM) at Burgau and Hamlar 2 can be subdivided into the well-known lower and middle Ottnangian sedimentation cycles, with the first cycle being represented by the "OMM-Basisschichten" and Kalkofen Formation and the second by the Baltringen and Steinhöfe Formations. We show for the first time that also the northernmost marginal-marine OMM facies (Lutzingen, Haunsheim and Dattenhausen) can be correlated with the lower and middle Ottnangian sedimentation cycles. Consequently, our results do not support the presence of a previously suggested third sedimentation cycle within the OMM sediments. Our micropaleontological data reveal regionally diverse depositional environments, reflecting different water depths and co-varying environmental variables. Significant differences in abundance, diversity and species composition of the benthic foraminiferal assemblages demonstrate marginal-marine facies for Lutzingen, Haunsheim and Dattenhausen, nearshore facies for Hamlar 2 and shallow marine basin facies for Burgau. The characteristic lower Ottnangian benthic foraminiferal species exhibit restricted ecological tolerances. Hence, the absence or scarcity of these species in nearshore to marginal-marine deposits has no stratigraphic significance. The presence of two sedimentation cycles in the western German Molasse Basin alone may have resulted from the interplay of regional tectonics and basin development that

  15. Continuous separation of sugarcane molasses with a simulated moving-bed adsorber. Adsorption equilibria, kinetics, and application

    SciTech Connect

    Saska, M.; Mei Di Wu; Clarke, S.J.; Iqbal, K. )

    1992-10-01

    Fundamental chromatographic properties are reported that are related to the industrial separation of sugarcane molasses in a simulated moving-bed adsorber. The distribution coefficients of KCL, sucrose, glucose, and fructose on XUS-40166.00 (K[sup +]) cation exchanger were determined by pulse testing to be 0.00, 0.22, 0.45, and 0.50 at infinite dilution at 70 C. The adsorption isotherm of KCl is quadratic; those of the sugars only slightly nonlinear and dependent on KCl concentration. HETP was found to be independent of fluid velocity for KCl in the range of the interstitial velocity of 5 to 35 cm/min, and increasing with v for sucrose. At high fluid velocities the broadening of the sucrose band in a packed bed comes primarily from intraparticle mass transfer, with axial dispersion and film diffusion playing minor roles. The process for separation of sugarcane molasses was demonstrated on a 47 liter, eight-column simulated moving-bed adsorber. A theoretical, staged model of the simulated moving-bed adsorber with one inert totally excluded and three linearly adsorbing components was found to give an excellent representation of the transient and steady-state behavior of the continuous separation of sugarcane molasses.

  16. Changes in development and ultrastructure of Aspergillus niger mycelium, strain with increased tolerance to toxic substances from beet molasses.

    PubMed

    Zakowska, Z; Gabara, B

    1991-01-01

    Effects of a defoamer and toxic molasses compounds on development and ultrastructure of A. niger mycelium, strain Z, characterized by high tolerance to these substances and producing citric acid in surface fermentation on proper molasses media with 70% yield were presented. Spumol BJ in concentration of 5 microliters/100 cm3 as well as toxic molasses compounds stimulated the process of swelling and germinating of conidia. Moreover, giant conidia, unable to germinate, appeared. Developing mycelium with dispersed hyphae became mucilaginous after 17-20 h culture, which indicated the process of sinking but after 24 h some part of the mycelium developed normally. Electron microscopic observations of mycelium developing in the presence of the toxic substances showed along with electron-transparent cytoplasm in a consequence of decrease in ribosome number, changes in ultrastructure of mitochondria. It may be assumed that one of the reasons of the above described abnormalities in development and ultrastructure of mycelium was a disturbance of respiration processes. The appearance of deposits of electron-dense material in mitochondria suggested the existence of a defence mechanism, eliminating toxic substances.

  17. The Effects of Freezing and Supplementation of Molasses and Inoculants on Chemical and Nutritional Composition of Sunflower Silage

    PubMed Central

    Konca, Y.; Beyzi, S. Buyukkilic; Ayaşan, T.; Kaliber, M.; Kiraz, A. Bozkurt

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of freezing and supplementation of molasses (M), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and LAB+enzyme mixture on chemical and nutritional composition of sunflower silage (SF). Sunflower crops were harvested (at about 29.2%±1.2% dry matter) and half of fresh sunflower was ensiled alone and half was frozen (F) at −20°C for 7 days. Silage additives were admixed into frozen SF material. All samples were ensiled in glass jars with six replicates for 90 days. The treatments were as follows: i) positive control (non-frozen and no additives, NF), ii) negative control (frozen, no additives, F), iii) F+5% molasses (FM), iv) F+LAB (1.5 g/tons, Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium, FLAB); v) F+LAB+enzyme (2 g/tons Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium and cellulase and amylase enzymes, FLEN). Freezing silage increased dry matter, crude ash, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent lignin. The organic matter, total digestible nutrient, non-fiber carbohydrate, metabolizable energy and in vitro dry matter digestibility were negatively influenced by freezing treatments (p<0.05). In conclusion, freezing sunflower plants prior to ensiling may negatively affect silage quality, while molasses supplementation improved some quality traits of frozen silage. Lactic acid bacteria and LAB+enzyme inoculations did not effectively compensate the negative impacts of freezing on sunflower silage. PMID:26954197

  18. Quality of gingernut type biscuits as affected by varying fat content and partial replacement of honey with molasses.

    PubMed

    Filipčev, Bojana; Šimurina, Olivera; Bodroža-Solarov, Marija

    2014-11-01

    Gingernut type biscuits were prepared with varying fat content (10, 20, and 30 % w/w flour basis) and with sugar beet molasses replacing 0, 25, and 50 % w/w of the honey in the formulation. To evaluate the effects of these modifications, dough properties, and the physical, and sensory properties, and chemical composition of the biscuits were determined. Dough properties were significantly affected by the fat content; higher fat gave softer dough with reduced adhesiveness, cohesiveness and springiness. Biscuit height and diameter were also significantly affected only by the fat content. The tested biscuit variants showed no difference with respect to hardness and fracturability. During storage, hardness, fracturability and brittleness of the biscuits significantly increased but significant differences within the biscuits variants were observed after two months of storage in terms of fracturability which was least impaired in the biscuits with 30 % fat. Higher fat content also contributed to better flavour keeping during storage. Substitution of honey with molasses resulted in products with darker colour, less yellow and more red tone. Molasses also contributed to better nutritive value of biscuits by increasing significantly the content of proteins, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron.

  19. Production of ethanol by filamentous and yeast-like forms of Mucor indicus from fructose, glucose, sucrose, and molasses.

    PubMed

    Sharifia, Mahnaz; Karimi, Keikhosro; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2008-11-01

    The fungus Mucor indicus is found in this study able to consume glucose and fructose, but not sucrose in fermentation of sugarcane and sugar beet molasses. This might be an advantage in industries which want to selectively remove glucose and fructose for crystallisation of sucrose present in the molasses. On the other hand, the fungus assimilated sucrose after hydrolysis by the enzyme invertase. The fungus efficiently grew on glucose and fructose and produced ethanol in synthetic media or from molasses. The cultivations were carried out aerobically and anaerobically, and manipulated toward filamentous or yeast-like morphology. Ethanol was the major metabolite in all the experiments. The ethanol yield in anaerobic cultivations was between 0.35 and 0.48 g/g sugars consumed, depending on the carbon source and the growth morphology, while a yield of as low as 0.16 g/g was obtained during aerobic cultivation. The yeast-like form of the fungus showed faster ethanol production with an average productivity of 0.90 g/l h from glucose, fructose and inverted sucrose, than the filamentous form with an average productivity of 0.33 g/l h. The biomass of the fungus was also analyzed with respect to alkali-insoluble material (AIM), chitin, and chitosan. The biomass of the fungus contained per g maximum 0.217 g AIM and 0.042 g chitosan in yeast-like cultivation under aerobic conditions.

  20. High-cell-density fed-batch culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae KV-25 using molasses and corn steep liquor.

    PubMed

    Vu, Van Hanh; Kim, Keun

    2009-12-01

    High-cell-density cultivation of yeast was investigated using the agricultural waste products corn steep liquor (CSL) and molasses. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae KV-25 cell mass was significantly dependent on the ratio between C and N sources. The concentrations of molasses and CSL in the culture medium were statistically optimized at 10.25% (v/v) and 16.87% (v/v), respectively, by response surface methodology (RSM). Batch culture in a 5-l stirred tank reactor using the optimized medium resulted in a cell mass production of 36.5 g/l. In the fed-batch culture, the feed phase was preceded by a batch phase using the optimized medium, and a very high dried-cell-mass yield of 187.63 g/l was successfully attained by feeding a mixture of 20% (v/v) molasses and 80% (v/v) CSL at a rate of 22 ml/h. In this system, the production of cell mass depended mainly on the agitation speed, the composition of the feed medium, and the glucose level in the medium, but only slightly on the aeration rate.

  1. Effects of volatile solid concentration and mixing ratio on hydrogen production by co-digesting molasses wastewater and sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Yeol; Wee, Daehyun; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2014-11-28

    Co-digesting molasses wastewater and sewage sludge was evaluated for hydrogen production by response surface methodology (RSM). Batch experiments in accordance with various dilution ratios (40- to 5-fold) and waste mixing composition ratios (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80, and 0:100, on a volume basis) were conducted. Volatile solid (VS) concentration strongly affected the hydrogen production rate and yield compared with the waste mixing ratio. The specific hydrogen production rate was predicted to be optimal when the VS concentration ranged from 10 to 12 g/l at all the mixing ratios of molasses wastewater and sewage sludge. A hydrogen yield of over 50 ml H2/g VS(removed) was obtained from mixed waste of 10% sewage sludge and 10 g/l VS (about 10-fold dilution ratio). The optimal chemical oxygen demand/ total nitrogen ratio for co-digesting molasses wastewater and sewage sludge was between 250 and 300 with a hydrogen yield above 20 ml H2/g VS(removed).

  2. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...

  3. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  4. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...

  5. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  6. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  7. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...

  8. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...

  9. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  10. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...

  11. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may... microorganisms in cane-sugar and/or beet-sugar mills as specified in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) They...

  12. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section 409.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50 Applicability; description of...

  13. 75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products....

  14. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section 409.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50 Applicability; description of...

  15. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar and sugar-containing products....

  16. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section 409.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50 Applicability; description of...

  17. 75 FR 39612 - Allocation of Second Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Office of... imported raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: July 9, 2010. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be mailed or... (HTS), the United States maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)...

  18. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section 409.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50 Applicability; description of...

  19. 75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate... announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of 300,000 short tons raw value (STRV) to imports, and increased the fiscal year (FY) 2010 raw sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ)...

  20. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade... allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising...

  1. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice... raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES: Effective...

  2. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section 409.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50 Applicability; description of...

  3. 78 FR 57445 - Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative...) in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imported raw cane sugar, refined sugar...

  4. Humidity data for 9975 shipping packages with cane fiberboard

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W. L.

    2016-05-01

    The 9975 surveillance program is developing a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in K-Area Complex beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis. Direct measurements of humidity and fiberboard moisture content have been made on two test packages with cane fiberboard and varying internal heat levels from 0 up to 19W. With an internal heat load, a temperature gradient in the fiberboard assembly leads to varying relative humidity in the air around the fiberboard. However, the absolute humidity tends to remain approximately constant throughout the package. The moisture content of fiberboard varies under the influence of several phenomena. Changes in local fiberboard temperature (from an internal heat load) can cause fiberboard moisture changes through absorption or evaporation. Fiberboard degradation at elevated temperature will produce water as a byproduct. And the moisture level within the package is constantly seeking equilibrium with that of the surrounding room air, which varies on a daily and seasonal basis. One indicator of the moisture condition within a 9975 package might be obtained by measuring the relative humidity in the upper air space, by inserting a humidity probe through a caplug hole. However, the data indicate that for the higher internal heat loads (15 and 19 watts), a large variation in internal moisture conditions produces little or no variation in the air space relative humidity. Therefore, this approach does not appear to be sensitive to fiberboard moisture variations at the higher heat loads which are of most interest to maintaining fiberboard integrity.

  5. Isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane use in cane toads (Rhinella marina)

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Kaleigh E.; Strahl-Heldreth, Danielle; Clark-Price, Stuart C.

    2016-01-01

    Anaesthetic chamber concentrations of isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane that resulted in loss of righting reflex within 15 minutes in 50 per cent of toads (Rhinella marina) exposed (ED50-LRR<15MIN) were identified. The median and range ED50-LRR<15MIN was 1.4 (0.9–1.4) per cent for isoflurane, 1.75 (1.1–1.9) per cent for sevoflurane and 4.4 (4.3–5.5) per cent for desflurane. Subsequently, toads were exposed to 1.5 times the ED50-LRR<15MIN and times to loss and return of righting reflex were identified. All toads for all anaesthetics lost righting reflex. The median and range loss of righting reflex was 4:00 (3:00–5:30) minutes for isoflurane, 4:45 (3:30–7:00) minutes for sevoflurane, and 4:15 (4:00–5:30) minutes for desflurane and was not different between anaesthetics. Time to return of righting reflex was 175 (123–211) minutes for isoflurane, 192 (116–383) minutes for sevoflurane and 74 (52–220) minutes for desflurane. Time to return of righting reflex was significantly shorter for desflurane compared with isoflurane or sevoflurane. The use of isoflurane, sevoflurane or desflurane can be used to provide immobilisation to cane toads and potentially other anurans. Induction times are likely similar when using an anaesthetic chamber to provide anaesthesia. However recovery time may take twice as long when utilising isoflurane or sevoflurane over desflurane. PMID:27651914

  6. Exploiting intraspecific competitive mechanisms to control invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina)

    PubMed Central

    Crossland, Michael R.; Haramura, Takashi; Salim, Angela A.; Capon, Robert J.; Shine, Richard

    2012-01-01

    If invasive species use chemical weapons to suppress the viability of conspecifics, we may be able to exploit those species-specific chemical cues for selective control of the invader. Cane toads (Rhinella marina) are spreading through tropical Australia, with negative effects on native species. The tadpoles of cane toads eliminate intraspecific competitors by locating and consuming newly laid eggs. Our laboratory trials show that tadpoles find those eggs by searching for the powerful bufadienolide toxins (especially, bufogenins) that toads use to deter predators. Using those toxins as bait, funnel-traps placed in natural waterbodies achieved near-complete eradication of cane toad tadpoles with minimal collateral damage (because most native (non-target) species are repelled by the toads' toxins). More generally, communication systems that have evolved for intraspecific conflict provide novel opportunities for invasive-species control. PMID:22696528

  7. Design and Installation of Irrigation System for the Expansion of Sugar cane- Industries in Ahvaz, IRAN.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshari, E.; Afshari, S.

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents achievements of a twelve years ongoing project expansion of sugar cane- industries as a major agricultural development in Ahvaz, IRAN. The entire project is divided in to seven units and each unit provides irrigation water for 30,000 acres of sugar cane farms in Ahwaz. Absou Inc. is one of the consulting firms that is in charge of design and overseeing installation of irrigation system as well as the development of lands for sugar-cane cultivation at one of the units, called Farabi unit .In general, the mission of project is to Pump fresh water from Karoon River and direct it to the sugar cane farm for irrigation. In particular, the task of design and installation include, (1) build a pumping station at Karoon River with capacity of 1271 ft3/sec, (2) transfer water by main channel from Karoon rive to the farm site 19 miles (3) install a secondary pumping stations which direct water from main channel to drainage pipes and provides water for local farms (4) build a secondary channels which carries water with pipe lines with total length of 42 miles and diameter of 16 to 32 inch. (5) install drainage pump stations and collectors (6) level the ground surface and prepare it for irrigation (7) build railroad for carrying sugar canes (23 miles). Thus far, more than 15,000 acres of farm in Farabi unit is under sugar cane cultivation. The presentation will illustrate more details about different aspects of the project including design, installation and construction phases.

  8. Effect of copper source and level on performance and copper status of cattle consuming molasses-based supplements.

    PubMed

    Arthington, J D; Pate, F M; Spears, J W

    2003-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the availability of dietary Cu offered to growing beef cattle consuming molasses-based supplements. In Exp. 1, 24 Braford heifers were assigned randomly to bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) pastures (two heifers/pasture). Heifers were provided 1.5 kg of TDN and 0.3 kg of supplemental CP/heifer daily using a molasses-cottonseed meal slurry. Three treatments were randomly assigned to pastures (four pastures/treatment), providing 100 mg of supplemental Cu daily in the form of either CuSO4 (inorganic Cu) or organic-Cu. A third treatment offered no supplemental Cu (negative control). Heifer BW was collected at the start and end of the study. Jugular blood and liver samples were collected on d 0, 29, 56, and 84. In Exp. 2, 24 Brahman-crossbred steers were fed the same molasses-cottonseed meal supplement at the same rates used in Exp. 1. Steers were housed in individual pens (15 m2) with free-choice access to stargrass (Cynodon spp.) hay. Four Cu treatments were assigned to individual steers (six pens/treatment) providing 1) 10 ppm of Cu from an organic source; 2) 10 ppm Cu from Tri-basic Cu chloride (TBCC); 3) 30 ppm of Cu from TBCC; or 4) 30 ppm of Cu, a 50:50 ratio of TBCC and organic Cu. Body weights and jugular blood and liver samples were collected on d 0, 24, 48, and 72. In Exp. 1, liver Cu concentrations did not differ between heifers supplemented with inorganic and organic Cu. Each source resulted in increased (P < 0.05) liver Cu concentrations compared with the unsupplemented control. Plasma ceruloplasmin concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) for Cu-supplemented heifers, independent of Cu source. Heifer ADG tended (P = 0.11) to increase with Cu supplementation compared with the unsupplemented control. In Exp. 2, liver Cu was greater (P < 0.05) on d 24, 48, and 72 for steers consuming 30 vs. 10 ppm of Cu. Steers supplemented with organic Cu had lower DMI than steers supplemented with 10 or 30 ppm of TBCC. These data suggest that

  9. The impact of stress on the health of sugar cane cutters

    PubMed Central

    Priuli, Roseana Mara Aredes; de Moraes, Maria Silvia; Chiaravalloti, Rafael Morais

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Evaluate the impact of stress on sugar cane cutters and the prevalence of physical and psychological symptoms before and after harvest. METHODS We studied 114 sugarcane cutters and 109 urban workers in the pre-harvest and 102 sugar cane cutters and 81 urban workers in the post-harvest period in the city of Mendonça, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2009. Data analysis was based on the frequency and percentage of the assessed symptoms of stress, using the Lipp-ISSL test (Symptoms of Stress for Adults). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The Fisher Test was used to compare the variable of stress between pre- and post-harvest within the sugar cane cutter and urban worker groups. P values below 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS Stress in sugar cane cutters increased after harvesting (34.2% pre-harvest and 46.1% post-harvest); in urban workers, stress decreased from 44.0% pre-harvest to 42.0% post-harvest. There was prevalence of the phase of resistance to stress for both groups with signs more apparent from the near-exhaustion and exhaustion phases for sugar cane cutters. After harvest, there was a tendency for the number of sugar cane cutters with symptoms of near-exhaustion (6.4%) and exhaustion (10.6%) to increase. After harvest there was a trend for the number of sugar cane cutters with physical symptoms (pre-harvest = 20.5%, post-harvest = 25.5%) and psychological symptoms (pre-harvest = 64.1%; post-harvest = 70.2%) to increase. For both groups, predominantly psychological symptoms occurred in both phases (70.2% versus 64.7%). CONCLUSIONS The work process of cutting cane can cause stress. Individual factors such as cognitive perception of the experience, self-efficacy beliefs and expectations of the employee regarding their performance can influence the understanding of the reactions in their body in face of the work. PMID:24897043

  10. CANE FIBERBOARD DEGRADATION WITHIN THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE DURING LONG-TERM STORAGE APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.

    2013-06-19

    The 9975 shipping package is used as part of the configuration for long-term storage of special nuclear materials in the K Area Complex at the Savannah River Site. The cane fiberboard overpack in the 9975 package provides thermal insulation, impact absorption and criticality control functions relevant to this application. The Savannah River National Laboratory has conducted physical, mechanical and thermal tests on aged fiberboard samples to identify degradation rates and support the development of aging models and service life predictions in a storage environment. This paper reviews the data generated to date, and preliminary models describing degradation rates of cane fiberboard in elevated temperature – elevated humidity environments.

  11. AGING MODEL FOR CANE FIBERBOARD OVERPACK IN THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Harris, S.

    2010-03-05

    Many radioactive material shipping packages incorporate a cane fiberboard overpack for thermal insulation and impact resistance. Mechanical, thermal and physical properties have been measured on cane fiberboard following thermal aging in several temperature/humidity environments. Several of the measured properties change significantly over time in the more severe environments, while other properties are relatively constant. Changes in each of the properties have been fit to a model to allow predictions of degradation under various storage scenarios. Additional data continue to be collected to provide for future refinements to the model.

  12. Removal of pigments from molasses wastewater by combining micro-electrolysis with biological treatment method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ben; Tian, Xiaofei; Yu, Lian; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2016-12-01

    Pigments in molasses wastewater (MWW) effluent, such as melanoidins, were considered as kinds of the most recalcitrant and hazardous colorant contaminants to the environment. In this study, de-coloring the MWW by a synergistic combination of micro-electrolysis with bio-treatment was performed. Aiming to a high de-colorization yield, levels of nutrition source supplies, MWW dilution ratio, and micro-electrolysis reaction time were optimized accordingly. For a diluted (50 %, v/v) MWW, an maximum overall de-colorization yield (97.1 ± 0.5 %, for absorbance at 475 nm) was achieved through the bio-electrolysis treatment. In electrolysis bio-treatment, the positive effect of micro-electrolysis was also revealed by a promoted growth of fungal biomass as well as activities of ligninolytic enzymes. Activities of lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, and laccase were promoted by 111.2, 103.9, and 7.7 %, respectively. This study also implied that the bio-treatment and the micro-electrolysis had different efficiencies on removal of pigments with distinct polarities.

  13. Cytotoxicity and Apoptotic Effects of Polyphenols from Sugar Beet Molasses on Colon Carcinoma Cells in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingshun; Zhao, Zhengang; Yu, Shujuan

    2016-01-01

    Three polyphenols were isolated and purified from sugar beet molasses by ultrasonic-aid extraction and various chromatographic techniques, and their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis. Cytotoxicity and the molecular mechanism were measured by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, flow cytometry, caspase-3 activity assay and Western blot assay. The results showed that gallic acid, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride and epicatechin have cytotoxicity to the human colon, hepatocellular and breast cancer cells. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride showed its cytotoxicity against various tumor cell lines, particularly against colon cancer Caco-2 cells with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 23.21 ± 0.14 μg/mL in vitro. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride may be a potential candidate for the treatment of colon cancer. In the mechanism study, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride increased the ratio of cell cycle at G0/G1 phase and reduced cyclin D1 expression on Caco-2 cells. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride decreased mutant p21 expression, and increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and the activation of caspase-3 to induce apoptosis. PMID:27347927

  14. Chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, and in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters of potato-wheat straw silage treated with molasses and lactic acid bacteria and corn silage.

    PubMed

    Babaeinasab, Y; Rouzbehan, Y; Fazaeli, H; Rezaei, J

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of molasses and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, and in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters of an ensiled potato-wheat straw mixture in a completely randomized design with 4 replicates. Wheat straw was harvested at full maturity and potato tuber when the leaves turned yellowish. The potato-wheat straw (57:43 ratio, DM basis) mixture was treated with molasses, LAB, or a combination. Lalsil Fresh LB (Lallemand, France; containing NCIMB 40788) or Lalsil MS01 (Lallemand, France; containing MA18/5U and MA126/4U) were each applied at a rate of 3 × 10 cfu/g of fresh material. Treatments were mixed potato-wheat straw silage (PWSS) without additive, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil Fresh LB, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil MS01, PWSS + 5% molasses, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil Fresh LB + 5% molasses, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil MS01 + 5% molasses, and corn silage (CS). The compaction densities of PWSS treatments and CS were approximately 850 and 980 kg wet matter/m, respectively. After anaerobic storage for 90 d, chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, in vitro gas production (GP), estimated OM disappearance (OMD), ammonia-N, VFA, microbial CP (MCP) production, and cellulolytic bacteria count were determined. Compared to CS, PWSS had greater ( < 0.001) values of DM, ADL, water-soluble carbohydrates, pH, and ammonia-N but lower ( < 0.05) values of CP, ash free-NDF (NDFom), ash, nitrate, and lactic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acids concentrations. When PWSS was treated with molasses, LAB, or both, the contents of CP and lactic and acetic acids increased, whereas NDFom, ammonia-N, and butyric acid decreased ( < 0.05). Based on in vitro ruminal experiments, PWSS had greater ( < 0.05) values of GP, OMD, and MCP but lower ( < 0.05) VFA and acetic acid compared to CS. With adding molasses alone or in combination with LAB inoculants to PWSS, the values of GP

  15. Co-digestion of molasses or kitchen waste with high-rate activated sludge results in a diverse microbial community with stable methane production.

    PubMed

    De Vrieze, Jo; Plovie, Kristof; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2015-04-01

    Kitchen waste and molasses are organic waste streams with high organic content, and therefore are interesting substrates for renewable energy production by means of anaerobic digestion. Both substrates, however, often cause inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process, when treated separately, hence, co-digestion with other substrates is required to ensure stable methane production. In this research, A-sludge (sludge harvested from a high rate activated sludge system) was used to stabilize co-digestion with kitchen waste or molasses. Lab-scale digesters were fed with A-sludge and kitchen waste or molasses for a total period of 105 days. Increased methane production values revealed a stabilizing effect of concentrated A-sludge on kitchen waste digestion. Co-digestion of molasses with A-sludge also resulted in a higher methane production. Volumetric methane production rates up to 1.53 L L(-1) d(-1) for kitchen waste and 1.01 L L(-1) d(-1) for molasses were obtained by co-digestion with A-sludge. The stabilizing effect of A-sludge was attributed to its capacity to supplement various nutrients. Microbial community results demonstrated that both reactor conditions and substrate composition determined the nature of the bacterial community, although there was no direct influence of micro-organisms in the substrate itself, while the methanogenic community profile remained constant as long as optimal conditions were maintained.

  16. Identifying Physiological and Yield Related Traits in Sugarcane and Energy Cane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A growing interest of producing sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) for both sugar and bioenergy and saturation of using organic soils provide an opportunity to expand production on mineral (sand) soils. However, sugarcane yields and profits on sand soils are generally low. Energy cane may be an alternative ...

  17. Biomass Composition and Mineral Removal of Sugarcane and Energy Cane on a Sand Soil in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 20% of Sugarcane is grown on sand soils in south Florida, but yields and profits are lower compared to sugarcane grown on organic soils in the region. Energy cane may be an alternative crop on sand soils in the future to improve profits because of the growing interest of increased biom...

  18. Teaching the Use of a Long Cane Step by Step: Suggestions for Progressive, Methodical Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauerburger, Dona; Bourquin, Eugene

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental part of the orientation and mobility curriculum is the acquisition and retention of skills in using a long cane automatically and proficiently to detect and negotiate obstacles and drop-offs. Using practitioners' experiences and the principles of learning theory, instructors can monitor students' advancement and adapt teaching…

  19. Accidental fatal poisoning of a dog by Dieffenbachia picta (dumb cane).

    PubMed

    Loretti, Alexandre Paulino; da Silva Ilha, Marcia Regina; Ribeiro, Rita Elaine Streda

    2003-10-01

    A single case of accidental fatal poisoning by Dieffenbachia picta, (dumb cane) (Araceae) in a 9-y-old female Poodle is described. Clinical signs included severe, locally extensive erosive/ulcerative glossitis accompanied by marked dyspnea of acute onset. The animal did not respond to emergency procedures to relieve severe respiratory distress; fatal asphyxiation ensued from edema of the glottis a few hours after the first clinical signs were observed. According to the owner, the dog had access to a tall, potted dumb cane plant and chewed the thick stem of the plant intensely. The owner did not authorize a necropsy of the animal. The diagnosis of Dieffenbachia picta poisoning was based on the history of accidental consumption of dumb cane and clinical signs. A comparison of this single case with other reports of dumb cane poisoning suggests that dogs poisoned by Dieffenbachia species usually recover uneventfully with conservative management and that death from asphyxiation is a rare but possible consequence of this intoxication. Severe edematous swelling of the glottis with occlusion of the larynx airway passage can occur in those cases in which large amounts of sap are quickly squeezed from the plant during intense chewing. Death would occur if owners do not seek veterinary care immediately and if emergency procedures are not instituted on time.

  20. Structural and physicochemical characteristics of starch from sugar cane and sweet sorghum stalks.

    PubMed

    Alves, Fernanda Viginotti; Polesi, Luís Fernando; Aguiar, Cláudio Lima; Sarmento, Silene Bruder Silveira

    2014-10-13

    The starch present in sugar cane and sorghum juice has been considered a problem to the sugar industry. The objective of this work was to study the structural and physicochemical characteristics of the starch present in sugar cane and sweet sorghum. Sugar cane and sweet sorghum starches presented small granules (maximum 5.9 and 7.9 μm), A-type diffraction pattern, high degree of relative crystallinity (44.4 and 42.0%), and low amylose content (17.5 and 16.4%), respectively. Sugar cane starch presented more uniformity in granule shape and size, more homogeneity in amylose chain length, higher number of long lateral chains of amylopectin, and higher susceptibility to enzymatic digestion. Besides being in higher amount in the juice, sweet sorghum starch presented lower values for thermal properties of gelatinization, as well as higher swelling factor, which can cause more problems during processing. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the variety and maturity influence on these properties.

  1. Comparison of Sugarcane and Energy Cane in Growth and Biomass Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane is one of major crops on sand soils in south Florida, but yields and profits are low compared to sugarcane grown on organic soils in the region. Energy cane may be an alternative crop on sand soils in the future to improve profits because of the growing interest of high biomass for energy....

  2. Production of energy cane and elephantgrass on marginal soils using winter covers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumacher) and energy cane (Saccharum sp.) are tall tropical bunch grasses that produce very high biomass yields and are considered an excellent bio-energy feedstock for the lower South. However, previous studies have shown that production is not sustainable wit...

  3. Biotic Resistance to an Alien Amphibian: Larval Competition between Japanese Frogs and Invasive Cane Toads

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Understanding negative effects of native species on introduced taxa may suggest novel ways to control the invasive species by enhancing such effects. Previous studies have reported that the larvae of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) are suppressed by competition with the larvae of native anurans in Australia, but not in North America. We conducted laboratory trials to measure the effect of exposure to the larvae of Japanese frogs (Microhyla ornata, Fejervarya sakishimensis, Rhacophorus owstoni) on rates of survival, growth and development of cane toad tadpoles in Ishigaki Island, in southern Japan. Survival rates were not affected by native species, but competition with Dicroglossids and Rhacophorids (but not Microhylids) strongly reduced rates of growth and development in the tadpoles of cane toads. Dicroglossid tadpoles also reduced the body condition to toad tadpoles in addition to effects on SVL and mass. Encouraging populations of native frogs in toad-invaded areas of Japan thus may help to reduce the numbers of invasive cane toads. PMID:27253973

  4. Use of the Sonicguide and Laser Cane in Obtaining or Keeping Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, William H.; Smith, Tom E. C.

    1983-01-01

    Owners of laser canes and Sonicguides were surveyed to determine whether these devices were used in employment settings. Of the 94 respondents, 74 were still using their electronic travel aids: 36 percent used the devices to travel to and from work, and 49 percent used them on the job. (SEW)

  5. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. 890.3790 Section 890.3790 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790...

  6. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. 890.3790 Section 890.3790 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790...

  7. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. 890.3790 Section 890.3790 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790...

  8. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. 890.3790 Section 890.3790 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790...

  9. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. 890.3790 Section 890.3790 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790...

  10. Breeding Energy Cane Cultivars as a Biomass Feedstock for Coal Replacement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research and advanced breeding have demonstrated that energy cane possesses all of the attributes desirable in a biofuel feedstock: extremely good biomass yield in a small farming footprint; negative/neutral carbon footprint; maximum outputs from minimum inputs; well-established growing model for fa...

  11. Advanced Breeding, Development, and Release of High Biomass Energy Cane Cultivars in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research into alternative energy sources has been on the rise since the 1970s. Novel sources of carbon-neutral energy are currently in high demand, but can pose different challenges in their development. Energy cane is a relatively new generation crop being bred as a source for biofuel feedstock and...

  12. WHITE PAPER: DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR 9975 PACKAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Varble, J

    2007-11-20

    Cane-based Celotex{trademark} has been used extensively in various DOE packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex{trademark} for the 9975 was manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex{trademark} is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new 9975 packages. Knight-Celotex Fiberboard has Celotex{trademark} manufacturing plants in Danville, VA and Sunbury, PA that use softwood and hardwood, respectively, as a raw material in the manufacturing of Celotex{trademark}. The purpose of this White Paper is to demonstrate that softwood-based Celotex{trademark} from the Knight-Celotex Danville Plant has performance equivalent to cane-based Celotex{trademark} from the Knight-Celotex Marrero Plant for transportation in a 9975 package.

  13. 76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments, and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of... in the domestic sugar Overall Allotment Quantity (OAQ); a reassignment of surplus sugar...

  14. Biomedical Substrates of the Two-Point Cane Technique: A Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews research on the biomechanical elements related to the most commonly used long cane technique, the two-point touch, by individuals with blindness or low vision. The use of several natural biomechanical tendencies supports the contention that the technique is inherently efficient. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)

  15. Increased estimates of air-pollution emissions from Brazilian sugar-cane ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, C.-C.; Campbell, J. E.; Mena-Carrasco, M.; Spak, S. N.; Carmichael, G. R.; Chen, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Accelerating biofuel production has been promoted as an opportunity to enhance energy security, offset greenhouse-gas emissions and support rural economies. However, large uncertainties remain in the impacts of biofuels on air quality and climate. Sugar-cane ethanol is one of the most widely used biofuels, and Brazil is its largest producer. Here we use a life-cycle approach to produce spatially and temporally explicit estimates of air-pollutant emissions over the whole life cycle of sugar-cane ethanol in Brazil. We show that even in regions where pre-harvest field burning has been eliminated on half the croplands, regional emissions of air pollutants continue to increase owing to the expansion of sugar-cane growing areas, and burning continues to be the dominant life-cycle stage for emissions. Comparison of our estimates of burning-phase emissions with satellite estimates of burning in São Paulo state suggests that sugar-cane field burning is not fully accounted for in satellite-based inventories, owing to the small spatial scale of individual fires. Accounting for this effect leads to revised regional estimates of burned area that are four times greater than some previous estimates. Our revised emissions maps thus suggest that biofuels may have larger impacts on regional climate forcing and human health than previously thought.

  16. Comparative analyses of stilbenoids in canes of major Vitis vinifera L. cultivars.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Carole; Richard, Tristan; Renouf, Elodie; Bisson, Jonathan; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Bordenave, Louis; Ollat, Nathalie; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cluzet, Stéphanie

    2013-11-27

    Grapevine canes are rich in resveratrol and its complex derivatives. These compounds have many biological activities and are needed mainly for health purposes. Canes, which are often wasted, can be used to produce these high-value compounds at low cost. We studied sixteen Vitis vinifera L. cultivars among the most widely cultivated ones worldwide. Polyphenols were extracted from their canes and identified by liquid chromatography-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We accurately determined the content of E-ε-viniferin, E-resveratrol, E-piceatannol, and vitisin B and, for the first time, that of hopeaphenol and miyabenol C. The canes did not contain these major stilbene compounds in similar proportions, and their abundance and order of abundance varied according to the cultivar. For instance, Pinot noir has very high levels of E-resveratrol and E-ε-viniferin; Gewurztraminer has very high levels of vitisin B, and Carignan and Riesling have very high levels of hopeaphenol. These findings suggest that the right cultivar should be used to obtain the highest yield of a polyphenol of interest.

  17. Alkali-based AFEX pretreatment for the conversion of sugarcane bagasse and cane leaf residues to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Chandraraj; Sousa, Leonardo da Costa; Jin, Mingjie; Chang, Linpei; Dale, Bruce E; Balan, Venkatesh

    2010-10-15

    Sugarcane is one of the major agricultural crops cultivated in tropical climate regions of the world. Each tonne of raw cane production is associated with the generation of 130 kg dry weight of bagasse after juice extraction and 250 kg dry weight of cane leaf residue postharvest. The annual world production of sugarcane is approximately 1.6 billion tones, generating 279 MMT tones of biomass residues (bagasse and cane leaf matter) that would be available for cellulosic ethanol production. Here, we investigated the production of cellulosic ethanol from sugar cane bagasse and sugar cane leaf residue using an alkaline pretreatment: ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX). The AFEX pretreatment improved the accessibility of cellulose and hemicelluloses to enzymes during hydrolysis by breaking down the ester linkages and other lignin carbohydrate complex (LCC) bonds and the sugar produced by this process is found to be highly fermentable. The maximum glucan conversion of AFEX pretreated bagasse and cane leaf residue by cellulases was approximately 85%. Supplementation with hemicellulases during enzymatic hydrolysis improved the xylan conversion up to 95-98%. Xylanase supplementation also contributed to a marginal improvement in the glucan conversion. AFEX-treated cane leaf residue was found to have a greater enzymatic digestibility compared to AFEX-treated bagasse. Co-fermentation of glucose and xylose, produced from high solid loading (6% glucan) hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and cane leaf residue, using the recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae (424A LNH-ST) produced 34-36 g/L of ethanol with 92% theoretical yield. These results demonstrate that AFEX pretreatment is a viable process for conversion of bagasse and cane leaf residue into cellulosic ethanol.

  18. Sugar cane management with humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizer: impacts on Oxisol some physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, M. C.; Campos, F. S.; Souza, Z. M.

    2012-04-01

    The present investigation has as objective to study the impact of cultive systems, humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizers on Oxisol some physical properties cultivated of sugar cane. It was developed in Aparecida do Taboado, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in Manufactores Alcoolvale. The study was in sugar cane culture implanted on 3th and 4th cycle. The experimental design was at randomized blocks following scheme in zone with eight treatments and four replications. The two treatments in main zone were represented by cultivation systems (with and without chisel) and the subzone fertilization (T1-mineral, T2-mineral+sugar cane residue, T3-mineral+humic and fulvic acids and T4-mix of mineral, sugar cane residue and humic and fulvic acids). In three soil layers: 0.00-0.05; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m were studied the physical soil properties: macroporosity, microporosity, total porosity and soil bulk density. Also evaluate the technological quality of sugar cane. The conclusions are: the application of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue+humic extract (Humitec ®) and cropping system with chisel were more effective in improving soil physical; the system of crop of sugar cane ratton implanted in the 2th and 3th cycle, without the use of chisel was better in the recovery of soil physical properties; the crop system without the chisel and the combination of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue was promising to increase of Brix, Pol juice, Pol sugar cane and total recoverable sugars Pol.

  19. Scalings at geothermal facilities exploring the Malm Aquifer (Bavarian Molasse Baisin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhl, Bernhard; Herbrich, Moritz; Baumann, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Scalings at geothermal facilities exploring the Malm Aquifer (Bavarian Molasse Basin) (Herbrich, M., Köhl, B., Baumann, T.) Scalings are a widespread problem among geothermal plants which exploit the Malm Aquifer in the Bavarian Molasse Zone. They effect the technical and economic efficiency of geothermal plants and cause costly revisions of the geothermal cycle. Scalings observed at geothermal facilities exploring the Malm Aquifer mainly consist of different CaCO3 polymorphs and are found at the motor, in the pumps and pipes and throughout the groundlevel facilities including the heat exchangers. There are two main processes leading to a disruption of the carbonate equilibrium and causing these CaCO3 scalings: local temperature peaks and degassing of less soluble gases due to local pressure drops. While the increase of the temperature leads to a local supersaturation at the hot surface of e.g. the motor, the formation of gas bubbles strips all soluble gases from the solution according to the Henry equilibrum constants, thus shifting the carbonate-equilibrium towards less soluble CaCO3. In order to prevent the formation of scalings, these processes have to be quantified. Therefore, we investigated the scalings in all sections of the geothermal cycle at geothermal plants in the Malm Aquifer. So far, we have sampled scalings from the pumps and the production pipes after three exchanges of the pump, scalings collected in the particle filters, scalings from the ground level geothermal facilities, and scalings from the injection pipes. The samples were characterized by REM-EDX, XRD, and image processing to assess the mineralogical features and the elemental composition. The porosity and bulk density were measured to assess the mass of the deposits and to calculate the kinetics of the formation. All together, this generated a unique quantitative dataset with a spatial resolution of 9 m along the production tubes. The thickness of the scalings first decreases from the

  20. Thermal and exhumation histories from borehole thermochronometer samples in the Swiss Molasse Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillon, Charlotte; Ehlers, Todd; Enkelmann, Eva; Becker, Jens K.; Schnellmann, Michael

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade, significant interest has emerged to better understand the links between the foreland basin evolution and the erosion history of the Alps. For this, the European Alps are indeed a well-suited study region since the hinterland and the Swiss Molasse basin erosion rates and timing were extensively studied using basin analysis, and low-temperature thermochronology 1-4,5,6. However, the driving mechanisms for the post-Miocene erosion of the Swiss Molasse basin remains controversial, and several papers discuss whether global climatic changes1 or local variations of base level7,8,9 have controlled the erosion of the basin. With this study, we add quantitative constraints on the late-stage history of the basin by presenting new AFT and AHe dataset (respectively 16 and 19 samples) from two boreholes located ~30 km apart from each other, one located close to the center (Sonnengarten, depth of 3500 m) and one located to the North (Benken, depth of 100 m) of the basin. The data are derived from Triassic to Pliocene sand deposits as well as the underlying gneissic basement rocks and both AFT and AHe results are ranging from Pliocene to Triassic ages. The two dataset present very different age patterns which make the direct interpretation difficult. Therefore, thermal models using the QTQt software10,11 have been performed. This software is capable to evaluate cooling rates and timing using multiple samples from a single borehole. To test the robustness of the simulations, several runs for each borehole based on different data sets were performed, and showed some discrepancies between the resulting thermal histories. We provide, based on the simulations results, the most probable erosion estimates which are in the same range as the ones proposed in previous studies in the basin. For the borehole Benken, we reproduce a long and slow erosion phase starting at 23 Ma, with an overall estimate of the amount of eroded sediments ranging between 1.2 to 2 km. For the

  1. Development of appropriate technology for treatment of molasses-based wastewater.

    PubMed

    Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Onodera, Takashi; Choeisai, Pairaya; Khodphuvieng, Jamnan; Prammanee, Preecha; Yoochatchaval, Wilasinee; Kaewpradit, Wanwipa; Kubota, Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the performance of a proposed treatment system consisting of an anaerobic process (acidification, methane fermentation) and an aerobic process (trickling filter) was evaluated for treating high concentrations of molasses-based wastewater (43-120 gCOD/L) by a continuous flow experiment. An anaerobic up-flow staged sludge bed (USSB) reactor, equipped with multiple gas solid separators, was used as the main treatment/methane recovery process. The USSB showed good efficiency of both COD removal (80-87%) and methane recovery (70-80%) at an organic loading rate of 11-43 kgCOD/m(3) day. As the influent COD concentration was increased, the organic loading rate for stable operation of the USSB was reduced due to cation inhibition. However, the COD removal efficiency of the whole treatment system (including the aerobic post-treatment process) was 96% even at an influent COD concentration of 120 gCOD/L. Use of the treated wastewater as a fertilizer and/or irrigation-water for sugarcane was evaluated by a field cultivation test. Both growth of sugarcane and emission of greenhouse gases from the field soil were measured. A relatively high methane flux (352 μgCH4/m(2) h) was observed when the treated wastewater from day 0 was used. By day 3, however, this value was reduced to the same level as the control. In addition, growth of sugarcane was satisfactory when the treated wastewater was used. The treated wastewater was found to be useful for cultivation of sugarcane in terms of both a low risk of greenhouse gas emission from the field soil and effectiveness for growth of sugarcane.

  2. Soy molasses as fermentation substrate for production of butanol using Clostridium beijerinckii BA101.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, N; Lolas, A; Blaschek, H P

    2001-05-01

    Spray-dried soy molasses (SDSM) contains the sugars dextrose, sucrose, fructose, pinitol, raffinose, verbascose, melibiose, and stachyose. Of the 746 g kg(-1) total sugars in SDSM, 434 g kg(-1) is fermentable using Clostridium beijerinckii BA101. SDSM was used to produce acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) by C. beijerinckii BA101 in batch cultures. Using 80 g l(-1) SDSM, 10.7 g l(-1) ABE was produced in P2 medium. Higher concentrations of SDSM resulted in poor solvent production due to the presence of excessive salt and inhibitory components. C. beijerinckii BA101 in SDSM at 80 g l(-1) concentration produced 22.8 g l(-1) ABE when supplemented with 25.3 g l(-1) glucose. SDSM contains 57.4 g kg(-1) mineral ash and 2% tri-calcium phosphate. Tri-calcium phosphate up to 43.1 g l(-1) was not inhibitory and at a tri-calcium phosphate concentration of 28.8 g l(-1), the culture produced more solvents (30.1 g l(-1)) than the control experiment (23.8 g l(-1)). In contrast, sodium chloride was a strong inhibitor of C. beijerinckii BA101 cell growth. At a concentration of 10 g l(-1) sodium chloride, a maximum cell concentration of 0.6 g l(-1) was achieved compared to 1.7 g l(-1) in the control experiment. The effects of two salts on specific growth rate constant (mu) and specific rate of ABE production (nu) for C. beijerinckii BA101 were examined.

  3. Provenance Analysis of Lower Miocene Sediments in the Lower Austrian Molasse Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knierzinger, Wolfgang; Palzer, Markus; Wagreich, Michael

    2015-04-01

    In the Early Miocene (Late Ottnangian) a global drop of the sea level and the continuous rise of the Alps caused a regression of the Paratethys. During this time interval the Traisen Formation (formerly Oncophora beds) was deposited in the Lower Austrian Molasse Basin. These yellowish-brownish to greyish mica-rich and carbonate-free sands and silts with clayish interlayers were originally named after a brackish water bivalve ("Oncophora"- now Rzehakia). The southeastern part of the TF partly interfingers with finer sands of the Dietersdorf Formation (DF). The Pixendorf Group combines the TF and the DF [coarse sands, conglomerates, blocks] of the Upper Ottnangian lithostratigraphic units in Lower Austria. West to the Waschberg Zone a deeper-water environment (so called Oncophora beds in former literature, herein [informally] renamed to Wildendürnbach Member) with sediment gravity flows (turbidites, muddy/sandy slumps) is inferred from OMV well data. Examinations of these fine sandstones, silts and laminated pelites have been carried out on the basis of the Wildendürnbach-4 OMV drilling core. Analyses of the TF revealed rather homogenous heavy mineral assemblages, dominated by high amounts of garnet (~65%) and relatively high amounts of epidote/zoisite (~10%) and amphiboles (~10%). Conducted surveys point towards a primary influence of metamorphic (metapelitic) source rocks of Austroalpine Crystalline Complexes of the rising Eastern Alps. Heavy mineral analysis of the WDK-4 drilling core showed even higher amounts of garnet (~80%) combined with minor amounts of rutile, staurolite, apatite, epidote/zoisite, tourmalines, zircon and amphiboles. Consistent heavy mineral assemblages and chemical data (EMPA) suggest a stratigraphical correlation with the Křepice Formation and the Ždánice-Hustopeče Formation in the Czech Republic and sedimentary influence from the Western Carpathian Flysch Belt.

  4. Noteworthy Facts about a Methane-Producing Microbial Community Processing Acidic Effluent from Sugar Beet Molasses Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Chojnacka, Aleksandra; Szczęsny, Paweł; Błaszczyk, Mieczysław K.; Zielenkiewicz, Urszula; Detman, Anna; Salamon, Agnieszka; Sikora, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a complex process involving hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis. The separation of the hydrogen-yielding (dark fermentation) and methane-yielding steps under controlled conditions permits the production of hydrogen and methane from biomass. The characterization of microbial communities developed in bioreactors is crucial for the understanding and optimization of fermentation processes. Previously we developed an effective system for hydrogen production based on long-term continuous microbial cultures grown on sugar beet molasses. Here, the acidic effluent from molasses fermentation was used as the substrate for methanogenesis in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket bioreactor. This study focused on the molecular analysis of the methane-yielding community processing the non-gaseous products of molasses fermentation. The substrate for methanogenesis produces conditions that favor the hydrogenotrophic pathway of methane synthesis. Methane production results from syntrophic metabolism whose key process is hydrogen transfer between bacteria and methanogenic Archaea. High-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of total DNA isolated from the methanogenic microbial community and bioinformatic sequence analysis revealed that the domain Bacteria was dominated by Firmicutes (mainly Clostridia), Bacteroidetes, δ- and γ-Proteobacteria, Cloacimonetes and Spirochaetes. In the domain Archaea, the order Methanomicrobiales was predominant, with Methanoculleus as the most abundant genus. The second and third most abundant members of the Archaeal community were representatives of the Methanomassiliicoccales and the Methanosarcinales. Analysis of the methanogenic sludge by scanning electron microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that it was composed of small highly heterogeneous mineral-rich granules. Mineral components of methanogenic granules probably modulate syntrophic metabolism and methanogenic

  5. Thermal history of the westernmost Eastern Alps (Penninic Rhenodanubian Flysch nappes, Helvetic nappes, and Subalpine Molasse thrust sheets)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerlauth, Michael; Bertrand, Audrey; Rantitsch, Gerd; Groß, Doris; Ortner, Hugo; Pomella, Hannah; Fügenschuh, Bernhard

    2016-07-01

    The frontal part of the westernmost Eastern Alps comprises from top to bottom of the Austroalpine and Penninic nappes, Ultrahelvetic slices, and two Helvetic thrust sheets, thrust upon the northern Alpine Molasse Basin. The thermal evolution of the Penninic Rhenodanubian Flysch nappes, the Helvetic nappes, and the allochthonous part of the Alpine Molasse Basin is constrained by vitrinite reflectance measurements and apatite fission track dating and implemented in a tectonic evolution scheme. Within the Helvetic nappes, vitrinite reflectance increases regionally from north to south and stratigraphically from the Campanian-Maastrichtian Wang Formation to the Toarcian Mols Member. Apatite fission track ages from Penninic and Subalpine Molasse units are consistently younger than the deposition age. They indicate therefore a post-depositional thermal overprint exceeding approximately 120 °C, the upper temperature limit of the apatite partial annealing zone. 1D thermal modelling suggests that the Penninic nappes attained deepest burial between the latest Cretaceous and Early Palaeocene with the Penninic basal thrust being located at approximately 8 km in the north compared to approximately 12 km in the south. Deepest burial of the upper Helvetic nappe occurred between the latest Eocene and Early Miocene. Its base was buried down to approximately 10.5 km in the north compared to 11.5 km in the south. Exhumation of the entire nappe stack started in the Early to Middle Miocene. For both Penninic and Helvetic models, a heatflow minimum during the Cenozoic deformation (max. 27-32 mW/m2), followed by an increase from the Middle Miocene onwards (up to 60 mW/m2), was assumed.

  6. Profiling of Indigenous Microbial Community Dynamics and Metabolic Activity During Enrichment in Molasses-Supplemented Crude Oil-Brine Mixtures for Improved Understanding of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    PubMed

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Pedersen, Dorthe Skou; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Lantz, Anna Eliasson

    2015-06-01

    Anaerobic incubations using crude oil and brine from a North Sea reservoir were conducted to gain increased understanding of indigenous microbial community development, metabolite production, and the effects on the oil-brine system after addition of a complex carbon source, molasses, with or without nitrate to boost microbial growth. Growth of the indigenous microbes was stimulated by addition of molasses. Pyrosequencing showed that specifically Anaerobaculum, Petrotoga, and Methanothermococcus were enriched. Addition of nitrate favored the growth of Petrotoga over Anaerobaculum. The microbial growth caused changes in the crude oil-brine system: formation of oil emulsions, and reduction of interfacial tension (IFT). Reduction in IFT was associated with microbes being present at the oil-brine interphase. These findings suggest that stimulation of indigenous microbial growth by addition of molasses has potential as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) strategy in North Sea oil reservoirs.

  7. Adsorption studies of molasse's wastewaters on activated carbon: modelling with a new fractal kinetic equation and evaluation of kinetic models.

    PubMed

    Figaro, S; Avril, J P; Brouers, F; Ouensanga, A; Gaspard, S

    2009-01-30

    Adsorption kinetic of molasses wastewaters after anaerobic digestion (MSWD) and melanoidin respectively on activated carbon was studied at different pH. The kinetic parameters could be determined using classical kinetic equations and a recently published fractal kinetic equation. A linear form of this equation can also be used to fit adsorption data. Even with lower correlation coefficients the fractal kinetic equation gives lower normalized standard deviation values than the pseudo-second order model generally used to fit adsorption kinetic data, indicating that the fractal kinetic model is much more accurate for describing the kinetic adsorption data than the pseudo-second order kinetic model.

  8. Conversion of beet molasses and cheese whey into fatty acid methyl esters by the yeast Cryptococcus curvatus.

    PubMed

    Takakuwa, Naoya; Saito, Katsuichi

    2010-01-01

    Eighty-one yeast isolates from raw milk were surveyed for the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). Only one species, identified as Cryptococcus curvatus, produced FAME at a detectable level. Cr. curvatus TYC-19 produced more FAME from beet molasses and cheese whey medium than other strains of the same species. In both media, the major FAME produced were linoleic and oleic acid methyl esters. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA indicated that TYC-19 diverged from the same species.

  9. Beyond optical molasses: 3D raman sideband cooling of atomic cesium to high phase-space density

    PubMed

    Kerman; Vuletic; Chin; Chu

    2000-01-17

    We demonstrate a simple, general purpose method to cool neutral atoms. A sample containing 3x10(8) cesium atoms prepared in a magneto-optical trap is cooled and simultaneously spin polarized in 10 ms at a density of 1.1x10(11) cm (-3) to a phase space density nlambda(3)(dB) = 1/500, which is almost 3 orders of magnitude higher than attainable in free space with optical molasses. The technique is based on 3D degenerate Raman sideband cooling in optical lattices and remains efficient even at densities where the mean lattice site occupation is close to unity.

  10. Development and application of a new biotechnology of the molasses in-situ method; detailed evaluation for selected wells in the Romashkino carbonate reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, M.; Lungerhausen, D.; Murtada, H.; Rosenthal, G.

    1995-12-31

    On the basis of different laboratory studies, by which special strains of the type Clostridium tyrobutyricum were found, the application of molasses in-situ method for the enhanced recovery of oil in Romashkino oil field was executed. In an anaerobic, 6%-molasses medium the strains produce about 11,400 mg/l of organic acids (especially butyric acid), 3,200 mg/l ethanol, butanol, etc., and more than 350 ml/g of molasses biogas with a content of 80% C0{sub 2} and 20% H{sub 2}. The metabolics of Clostridium tyrobutyricum depress the growth of SRB, whereas methanogenic bacteria grow in an undiluted fermented molasses medium very well. In this way the dominant final fermentation process is methanogenesis. By laboratory studies with original cores under the conditions of the carbonate reservoir in Bashkir, the recovery of oil increased from 15% after waterflooding to 29% OOIP during the treatment with molasses and bacteria. We developed a new biotechnological method for a self-regulated, automatic continuous culture and constructed a special pilot plant with a high technical standard. The plant produced during the pilot on Romashkino field (September 1992 to August 1994) about 1,000 m{sup 3} of clean inoculum with a content of 3-4 billion cells per ml. This inoculum was injected in slugs together with 15,000 m{sup 3} of molasses medium, first in one, later in five wells. We will demonstrate for two example wells the complex microbiological and chemical changes in the oil, gas, and water phases, and their influences on the recover of oil.

  11. Cytogenetic biomonitoring of occupationally exposed workers to ashes from burning of sugar cane in Ahome, Sinaloa, México.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen; Rodríguez-Quintana, Ana Rosa; Meza, Enrique; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Amador-Muñóz, Omar; Mora-Romero, Arlene; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Félix-Gastélum, Rubén; Rodríguez-Romero, Isabel; Caba, Mario

    2015-09-01

    Burning the sugar cane field before harvesting has a negative impact on both air and human health, however this issue had not been explored in Mexico. The objective of this work was to determine the chromosomal damage in workers from sugar cane burning fields in Sinaloa, México. To this purpose, we analyzed 1000 cells of buccal exfoliated epithelia from 60 exposed workers and 60 non-exposed controls to determine micronucleus frequencies and other nuclear abnormalities. The results indicated significant higher values of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities such as binucleate cells, pyknosis, karyolysis, chromatin condensation and nuclear buds frequencies in the exposed subjects compared to those that were not exposed. Our data indicates that sugar cane burning, that generates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, represents a genotoxic risk for workers in this important sugar cane producing area in Mexico.

  12. Recovery of used frying sunflower oil with sugar cane industry waste and hot water.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rehab F M; El Anany, A M

    2014-11-01

    The main goal of the current investigation was to use sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) and to compare its adsorption efficiency with Magnesol XL as synthetic adsorbents to regenerate the quality of used frying sunflower oil. In addition, to evaluate the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying oil and the treated oil. The metal patterns of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL were determined. Some physical and chemical properties of unused, used frying and used-treated sunflower oil were determined. Sunflower oil sample was heated at 180 °C + 5 °C, then frozen French fries potato were fried every 30 min. during a continuous period of 20 h. Oil samples were taken every 4 h. The filter aids were added individually to the used frying oil at levels 1, 2 and 3 % (w / v), then mechanically stirred for 60 min at 105 °C. The results indicate that all the filter aids under study were characterized by high levels of Si and variable levels of other minerals. The highest level of Si was recorded for sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) was 76.79 wt. %. Frying process caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increases in physico-chemical properties of sunflower oil. The treatments of used frying sunflower oil with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in the quality of treated oil, however the soap content of treated oil was increased, therefore, the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying and used-treated sunflower oil was evaluated. The values of soap and Total polar compounds after water treatment were about 4.62 and 7.27 times as low as that for sunflower oil treated with 3 % sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA). The results of the present study indicate that filtration treatment with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash( SCBA) regenerated the quality of used sunflower oil and possess higher adsorbing effects than the synthetic filter aid ( Magnesol XL ) in

  13. Spatial relationship between the productivity of cane sugar and soil electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira, Glecio; Silva, Jucicléia; Bezerra, Joel; Silva, Enio; Montenegro, Abelardo

    2013-04-01

    The cultivation of sugar cane in Brazil occupies a prominent place in national production chain, because the country is the main world producer of sugar and ethanol. Accordingly, studies are needed that allow an integrated production and technified, and especially that estimates of crops are consistent with the actual production of each region. The objective of this study was to determine the spatial relationship between the productivity of cane sugar and soil electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction. The field experiment was conducted at an agricultural research site located in Goiana municipality, Pernambuco State, north-east of Brazil (Latitude 07 ° 34 '25 "S, Longitude 34 ° 55' 39" W). The surface of the studied field is 6.5 ha, and its mean height 8.5 m a.s.l. This site has been under sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum sp.) monoculture during the last 24 years and it was managed burning the straw each year after harvesting, renewal of plantation was performed every 7 years. Studied the field is located 10 km east from Atlantic Ocean and it is representative of the regional landscape lowlands, whose soils are affected by salinity seawater, sugarcane plantations with the main economical activity. Soil was classified an orthic the Podsol. The productivity of cane sugar and electrical conductivity were measured in 90 sampling points. The productivity of cane sugar was determined in each of the sampling points in plots of 9 m2. The Apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa, mS m-1) was measured with an electromagnetic induction device EM38-DD (Geonics Limited). The equipment consists of two units of measurement, one in a horizontal dipole (ECa-H) to provide effective measurement distance of 1.5 m approximately and other one in vertical dipole (ECa-V) with an effective measurement depth of approximately 0.75 m. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and geostatistical tools. The results showed that productivity in the study area

  14. Food-grade argan oil supplementation in molasses enhances fermentative performance and antioxidant defenses of active dry wine yeast.

    PubMed

    Gamero-Sandemetrio, Esther; Torrellas, Max; Rábena, María Teresa; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Aranda, Agustín; Matallana, Emilia

    2015-12-01

    The tolerance of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to desiccation is important for the use of this microorganism in the wine industry, since active dry yeast (ADY) is routinely used as starter for must fermentations. Both biomass propagation and dehydration cause cellular oxidative stress, therefore negatively affecting yeast performance. Protective treatments against oxidative damage, such as natural antioxidants, may have important biotechnological implications. In this study we analysed the antioxidant capacity of pure chemical compounds (quercetin, ascorbic acid, caffeic acid, oleic acid, and glutathione) added to molasses during biomass propagation, and we determine several oxidative damage/response parameters (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, protective metabolites and enzymatic activities) to assess their molecular effects. Supplementation with ascorbic, caffeic or oleic acids diminished the oxidative damage associated to ADY production. Based on these results, we tested supplementation of molasses with argan oil, a natural food-grade ingredient rich in these three antioxidants, and we showed that it improved both biomass yield and fermentative performance of ADY. Therefore, we propose the use of natural, food-grade antioxidant ingredients, such as argan oil, in industrial processes involving high cellular oxidative stress, such as the biotechnological production of the dry starter.

  15. Superior molasses assimilation, stress tolerance, and trehalose accumulation of baker's yeast isolated from dried sweet potatoes (hoshi-imo).

    PubMed

    Nishida, Osamu; Kuwazaki, Seigo; Suzuki, Chise; Shima, Jun

    2004-07-01

    Yeast strains were isolated from dried sweet potatoes (hoshi-imo), a traditional preserved food in Japan. Dough fermentation ability, freeze tolerance, and growth rates in molasses, which are important characteristics of commercial baker's yeast, were compared between these yeast strains and a commercial yeast derivative that had typical characteristics of commercial strains. Classification tests including pulse-field gel electrophoresis and fermentation/assimilation ability of sugars showed that almost the stains isolated belonged to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One strain, ONY1, accumulated intracellular trehalose at a higher level than commercial strain T128. Correlated with intracellular trehalose contents, the fermentation ability of high-sugar dough containing ONY1 was higher. ONY1 also showed higher freeze tolerance in both low-sugar and high-sugar doughs. The growth rate of ONY1 was significantly higher under batch and fed-batch cultivation conditions using either molasses or synthetic medium than that of strain T128. These results suggest that ONY1 has potential commercial use as baker's yeast for frozen dough and high-sugar dough.

  16. Influence of the Production Process on the Key Aroma Compounds of Rum: From Molasses to the Spirit.

    PubMed

    Franitza, Laura; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-11-30

    The production of rum consists of fermentation, distillation, and aging. To check the influence of each step on the final rum aroma, molasses, mash, distillate, and the final rum were analyzed using the sensomics concept. The changes in key aroma compounds were determined by application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for identification and by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs) for quantitation. Odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to respective odor threshold) were calculated for the compounds determined in the rum and, finally, the rum aroma was successfully simulated by recombination. (E)-β-Damascenone showed by far the highest OAV (3280) in rum. Although this compound was determined already in molasses, its concentration increased significantly during distillation, indicating a thermolabile precursor. Vanillin, 4-ethylphenol, 2-methoxyphenol, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, and 2-methoxy-4-propylphenol are well-known compounds mainly stemming from the wood barrels used for aging and showed an OAV ≥ 1. Another important group of aroma-active compounds in rum were ethyl esters, for which a significant increase was determined during fermentation but also to a lesser extent during aging. Altogether, the concentrations of 68% of the aroma-active compounds increased during the process, demonstrating its influence on the overall rum aroma.

  17. Feeding value of urea molasses-treated wheat straw ensiled with fresh cattle manure for growing crossbred cattle calves.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad A; Nisa, Mahr U; Afzal, Danish; Sharif, Muhammad; Saddiqi, Hafiz A

    2011-03-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the influence of urea plus molasses-treated wheat straw (WS) ensiled with cattle manure (CM) on nutrients intake, their digestibilities, and growth performance of crossbred (Sahiwal × Holstein Friesian) cattle calves. The CM was mixed with ground WS in a ratio of 30:70 on dry matter (DM) basis. The WS-CM mixture treated with urea (4% DM) and molasses (4% DM) was allowed to ferment for 40 days in a cemented pit. Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic fermented wheat straw (FWS)-based experimental diets were formulated. The FWS0, FWS20, FWS30, and FWS40 diets contained 0%, 20%, 30%, and 40% FWS, respectively. Twenty calves (9-10 months of age) were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design, five in each group. Increasing trends for DM, organic matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber intakes by calves were observed with increasing dietary FWS level. Weight gain was significantly different among calves fed different levels of FWS. The highest weight gain (491.8 g/day) was observed in calves fed FWS40 diet, while calves fed FWS0 and FWS20 diets gained 350.0 and 449.6 g/day, respectively. The results from this study imply that the FWS can be added up to 30% in the diet of growing crossbred calves without any detrimental effect on their performance.

  18. Characterization of the COD removal, electricity generation, and bacterial communities in microbial fuel cells treating molasses wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Yeong; Kim, Tae G; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2016-11-09

    The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, electricity generation, and microbial communities were compared in 3 types of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) treating molasses wastewater. Single-chamber MFCs without and with a proton exchange membrane (PEM), and double-chamber MFC were constructed. A total of 10,000 mg L(-1) COD of molasses wastewater was continuously fed. The COD removal, electricity generation, and microbial communities in the two types of single-chamber MFCs were similar, indicating that the PEM did not enhance the reactor performance. The COD removal in the single-chamber MFCs (89-90%) was higher than that in the double-chamber MFC (50%). However, electricity generation in the double-chamber MFC was higher than that in the single-chamber MFCs. The current density (80 mA m(-2)) and power density (17 mW m(-2)) in the double-chamber MFC were 1.4- and 2.2-times higher than those in the single-chamber MFCs, respectively. The bacterial community structures in single- and double-chamber MFCs were also distinguishable. The amount of Proteobacteria in the double-chamber MFC was 2-3 times higher than those in the single-chamber MFCs. For the archaeal community, Methanothrix (96.4%) was remarkably dominant in the single-chamber MFCs, but Methanobacterium (35.1%), Methanosarcina (28.3%), and Methanothrix (16.2%) were abundant in the double-chamber MFC.

  19. Slowly released molasses barrier system for controlling nitrate plumes in groundwater: a pilot-scale tank study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Sun; Lee, Kyuyeon; Um, Jae Yeon; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2014-02-01

    A well-type barrier system containing solidified molasses as a reactive medium was developed to promote the indigenous denitrifying activity and to treat nitrate plumes in groundwater. Three slowly released molasses (SRM) barrier systems harboring 60, 120, and 120 SRM rods, which were named System A, B, and C, respectively, were operated to examine nitrate removal efficiency in a pilot-scale sandy tank. These SRM systems induced a consistent removal of nitrate without pore clogging and hydraulic disturbance during the test period. The initial nitrate concentration was 142mgL(-1), and the concentrations decreased by 80%, 84%, and 79% in System A, B, and C, respectively. In particular, System C was inoculated with heterotrophic denitrifiers, but the nitrate removal efficiency was not enhanced compared to System B, probably due to the prior existence of indigenous denitrifiers in the sandy tank. The presence of nitrite reductase-encoding gene (i.e. nirK) at the site was confirmed by denatured gradient gel electrophoresis analysis.

  20. Quantification of heat mining in the Malm aquifer of the Bavarian Molasse Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafogler, Mark; Wenderoth, Frank; Niessner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Geothermal energy is a key technology for the transition from fossil ressources to renewable energy. The Bavarian Molasse Basin offers unique geological and hydrogeological conditions for district heating and heat and power generation. With 15 plants operating and another dozen in construction or planning, exploration is highly successful. However, detailed knowledge about the processes occuring in the aquifer which is crucial to run geothermal facilities efficiently and economically, still is scarce. After more than 10 years of operation there is a good record of the hydraulics and the hydrochemistry at the production well, including numerous data from pump failures and the development of precipitates. The injection well and its surrounding, however, is usually a black box which is not readily accessible. Here, not even the temperatures in the immediate vicinity have been measured. Nevertheless, the performance of the aquifer near the injection well controls the long-term operation of the geothermal system. Thanks to an extension of the Pullach geothermal facility with a third well in 2011 there was a unique opportunity to produce water from a former injection well after 5 years of operation. Since the start of the production from this well in 2012, we collected an extensive data set of hydraulic, thermal and hydrochemical data. Within the first two years after reverting the flow direction and at a production rate of 20 L/s, which is significantly lower than the injection rate of up to 35 L/s, the temperature at the well head increased with a rate of 10 K/a. These temperatures were compared with predictions from the initial heat mining model, which was then refined. From the data it was immediately obvious that a homogeneous treatment of the Malm aquifer is not applicable. Instead a heterogeneous flow regime has to be assumed to account for the fast initial increase of the temperatures which is caused by a higher effective exchange area. The results suggest that

  1. A multi-stage 3-D stress field modelling approach exemplified in the Bavarian Molasse Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Moritz O.; Heidbach, Oliver; Reinecker, John; Przybycin, Anna M.; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    The knowledge of the contemporary in situ stress state is a key issue for safe and sustainable subsurface engineering. However, information on the orientation and magnitudes of the stress state is limited and often not available for the areas of interest. Therefore 3-D geomechanical-numerical modelling is used to estimate the in situ stress state and the distance of faults from failure for application in subsurface engineering. The main challenge in this approach is to bridge the gap in scale between the widely scattered data used for calibration of the model and the high resolution in the target area required for the application. We present a multi-stage 3-D geomechanical-numerical approach which provides a state-of-the-art model of the stress field for a reservoir-scale area from widely scattered data records. Therefore, we first use a large-scale regional model which is calibrated by available stress data and provides the full 3-D stress tensor at discrete points in the entire model volume. The modelled stress state is used subsequently for the calibration of a smaller-scale model located within the large-scale model in an area without any observed stress data records. We exemplify this approach with two-stages for the area around Munich in the German Molasse Basin. As an example of application, we estimate the scalar values for slip tendency and fracture potential from the model results as measures for the criticality of fault reactivation in the reservoir-scale model. The modelling results show that variations due to uncertainties in the input data are mainly introduced by the uncertain material properties and missing SHmax magnitude estimates needed for a more reliable model calibration. This leads to the conclusion that at this stage the model's reliability depends only on the amount and quality of available stress information rather than on the modelling technique itself or on local details of the model geometry. Any improvements in modelling and increases

  2. New energy crop giant cane (Arundo donax L.) can substitute traditional energy crops increasing biogas yield and reducing costs.

    PubMed

    Luca, Corno; Pilu, Roberto; Tambone, Fulvia; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-09-01

    Giant cane is a promising non-food crop for biogas production. Giant cane and corn silages coming from full-scale fields were tested, in mixtures with pig slurry, for biomethane production by a continuous stirred tank lab-scale-reactor (CSTR) approach. Results indicated that giant cane produced less biomethane than corn, i.e. 174±10 N m(3) CH4 Mg(-1) TS(-1) and 245±26 N m(3) CH4 Mg(-1) TS(-1), respectively. On the other hand, because of its high field biomass production, the biogas obtainable per Ha was higher for giant cane than for corn, i.e. 12,292 N m(3) CH4 Ha(-1) and 4549 N m(3) CH4 Ha(-1), respectively. Low energetic and agronomic inputs for giant cane cultivation led to a considerable reduction in the costs of producing both electricity and biomethane, i.e. 0.50 € N m(-3) CH4(-1) and 0.81 € N m(-3) CH4(-1), and 0.10 € kW hEE(-1) and 0.19 € kW hEE(-1) for biomethane and electricity production, and for giant cane and corn mixtures respectively.

  3. Waist-up protection for blind individuals using the EyeCane as a primary and secondary mobility aid

    PubMed Central

    Buchs, Galit; Simon, Noa; Maidenbaum, Shachar; Amedi, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Background: One of the most stirring statistics in relation to the mobility of blind individuals is the high rate of upper body injuries, even when using the white-cane. Objective: We here addressed a rehabilitation- oriented challenge of providing a reliable tool for blind people to avoid waist-up obstacles, namely one of the impediments to their successful mobility using currently available methods (e.g., white-cane). Methods: We used the EyeCane, a device we developed which translates distances from several angles to haptic and auditory cues in an intuitive and unobtrusive manner, serving both as a primary and secondary mobility aid. We investigated the rehabilitation potential of such a device in facilitating visionless waist-up body protection. Results: After ∼5 minutes of training with the EyeCane blind participants were able to successfully detect and avoid obstacles waist-high and up. This was significantly higher than their success when using the white-cane alone. As avoidance of obstacles required participants to perform an additional cognitive process after their detection, the avoidance rate was significantly lower than the detection rate. Conclusion: Our work has demonstrated that the EyeCane has the potential to extend the sensory world of blind individuals by expanding their currently accessible inputs, and has offered them a new practical rehabilitation tool. PMID:28157111

  4. Invader immunology: invasion history alters immune system function in cane toads (Rhinella marina) in tropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gregory P; Phillips, Benjamin L; Dubey, Sylvain; Shine, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Because an individual's investment into the immune system may modify its dispersal rate, immune function may evolve rapidly in an invader. We collected cane toads (Rhinella marina) from sites spanning their 75-year invasion history in Australia, bred them, and raised their progeny in standard conditions. Evolved shifts in immune function should manifest as differences in immune responses among the progeny of parents collected in different locations. Parental location did not affect the offspring's cell-mediated immune response or stress response, but blood from the offspring of invasion-front toads had more neutrophils, and was more effective at phagocytosis and killing bacteria. These latter measures of immune function are negatively correlated with rate of dispersal in free-ranging toads. Our results suggest that the invasion of tropical Australia by cane toads has resulted in rapid genetically based compensatory shifts in the aspects of immune responses that are most compromised by the rigours of long-distance dispersal.

  5. Lactic acid production from sugar-cane juice by a newly isolated Lactobacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Timbuntam, Walaiporn; Sriroth, Klanarong; Tokiwa, Yutaka

    2006-06-01

    A newly isolated sucrose-tolerant, lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus sp. strain FCP2, was grown on sugar-cane juice (125 g sucrose l(-1), 8 g glucose l(-1) and 6 g fructose l(-1)) for 5 days and produced 104 g lactic acid l(-1) with 90% yield. A higher yield (96%) and productivity (2.8 g l(-1 )h(-1)) were obtained when strain FCP2 was cultured on 3% w/v (25 g sucrose l(-1), 2 g glucose l(-1) and 1 g fructose l(-1)) sugar-cane juice for 10 h. Various cheap nitrogen sources such as silk worm larvae, beer yeast autolysate and shrimp wastes were also used as a substitute to yeast extract.

  6. Characterisation of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I in the Australian Cane Toad, Rhinella marina

    PubMed Central

    Lillie, Mette; Shine, Richard; Belov, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I is a highly variable gene family that encodes cell-surface receptors vital for recognition of intracellular pathogens and initiation of immune responses. The MHC class I has yet to be characterised in bufonid toads (Order: Anura; Suborder: Neobatrachia; Family: Bufonidae), a large and diverse family of anurans. Here we describe the characterisation of a classical MHC class I gene in the Australian cane toad, Rhinella marina. From 25 individuals sampled from the Australian population, we found only 3 alleles at this classical class I locus. We also found large number of class I alpha 1 alleles, implying an expansion of class I loci in this species. The low classical class I genetic diversity is likely the result of repeated bottleneck events, which arose as a result of the cane toad's complex history of introductions as a biocontrol agent and its subsequent invasion across Australia. PMID:25093458

  7. Maximizing the xylitol production from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate by controlling the aeration rate

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, S.S.; Ribeiro, J.D.; Felipe, M.G.A.; Vitolo, M.

    1997-12-31

    Batch fermentations of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate treated for removing the inhibitors of the fermentation were performed by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 for xylitol production. The fermentative parameters agitation and aeration rate were studied aiming the maximization of xylitol production from this agroindustrial residue. The maximal xylitol volumetric productivity (0.87 g/L {center_dot} h) and yield (0.67 g/g) were attained at 400/min and 0.45 v.v.m. (K{sub L}a 27/h). According to the results, a suitable control of the oxygen input permitting the xylitol formation from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate is required for the development of an efficient fermentation process for large-scale applications. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Congeners in sugar cane spirits aged in casks of different woods.

    PubMed

    Bortoletto, Aline M; Alcarde, André R

    2013-08-15

    The profile of volatile compounds and aging markers in sugar cane spirits aged for 36 months in casks made of 10 types of wood were studied. The ethanol content, volatile acidity, aldehydes, esters, higher alcohols, and methanol were determined. In addition, gallic, vanilic and syringic acids, siringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde, sinapaldehyde, vanillin, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural were identified and quantified. The profile of volatile compounds characterised aging in each type of wood. The beverage aged in oak cask achieved the highest contents of maturation-related congeners. The Brazilian woods, similar to oak, were jequitibá rosa and cerejeira, which presented the highest contents of some maturation-related compounds, such as vanillin, vanilic acid, syringaldehyde and sinapaldehyde. Although oak wood conferred more chemical complexity to the beverage, Brazilian woods, singly or complementarily, present potential for spirit characterisation and for improving the quality of sugar cane spirits.

  9. From Wheelchair to Cane: Elective Transtibial Amputations in a Patient with Spina Bifida.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Amanda; Berbrayer, David

    2015-11-01

    Spina bifida is associated with foot deformities, which may lead to foot ulcers, osteomyelitis, and limb amputation. Calcanectomy and Symes amputations have been reported successful in spina bifida. There is lack of evidence for transtibial amputations. This case describes a 27-yr-old woman with L4 level spina bifida who underwent bilateral transtibial amputations. She ambulated with bilateral ankle foot orthoses and canes until age 22. At age 22, she had bilateral foot reconstructive surgeries complicated by nonunion, ulcerations, and osteomyelitis. She was using a wheelchair by age 25. She had elective bilateral transtibial amputations at age 27 for progressive osteomyelitis. Four weeks after amputations, she was fit with bilateral prostheses. On completion of 2 mos of rehabilitation, she ambulated with a cane. This case demonstrates good functional outcomes after transtibial amputations in a young spina bifida patient. Prosthetic fitting should be considered for similar, previously high functioning spina bifida patients with transtibial amputation(s).

  10. Optical quality of the eye of the cane toad Bufo marinus.

    PubMed

    Jagger, W S

    1988-01-01

    The wide-angle optical quality of the cane toad eye was measured using a single-pass intraocular optical fibre microprobe, a double-pass projection method and high magnification ophthalmoscopy to photograph individual photoreceptors. The cane toad eye is a wide angle optical device with a horizontal field of nearly 200 deg and a large relative aperture (ca f/1). Its image quality, which is poor compared to diffraction-limited performance, decreases relatively little towards the periphery. Rough matching was found between image quality and the potential resolution of the rod array, although undersampling occurs for small pupils. Undersampling probably also occurs for the cone and ganglion cell arrays. The relative rotational symmetry of the topographic distribution of image quality precludes direct matching to the topography of the visual streak at the ganglion cell layer although it remains to be determined whether it is matched to the receptor distribution.

  11. Supplementation of herbage-based diets with corn meal or liquid molasses changes the milk fatty acids profile in grazing dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies showed that feeding carbohydrate sources with different NSC profiles (e.g., starch vs. sucrose) and rates of ruminal degradation altered the milk fatty acids (FA) profile in dairy cows. This study evalu¬ated the impact of corn meal (CM) or liquid molasses (MOL) on the milk FA profil...

  12. Dosimetric evaluation of sucrose and granulated cane sugar in the therapeutic dose range

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Melanie T. M.; Jordan, Kevin J.

    2009-04-15

    Granulated cane sugar has been used as a dosimetric material to report dose in high dose accidental irradiations. The purpose of this study was to assess whether clinical dosimetry is also plausible with such a commonly available material. The behavior of cane sugar was explored with respect to therapeutically relevant radiation quantities (dose, dose rate) and qualities (energy, radiation type) as well as under different temperature conditions. The stability of the signal postirradiation was also measured. Absorbed dose was measured by spectrophotometric readout of a ferrous ammonium sulfate xylenol orange (FX)-sugar solution in 10 cm path length cells. A visible color change was produced as a function of dose when the irradiated sugar samples were dissolved in FX solution (10% dilution by mass). A comparison of the optical absorbance spectra and dose response of cane sugar with analytical grade sucrose was done to establish a benchmark standard from which subsequent dosimetry measurements can be validated. The response of the sugar dosimeter read at 590 nm was found to be linear over the dose range of 100-2000 cGy, independent of energy (6-18 MV) and of the average dose rate (100-500 cGy/min). The readout of sugar samples irradiated with mixed photon and electron fields was also shown to be independent of radiation type (photons and electrons). Sugar temperature (20-40 degree sign C) during irradiation did not affect dose estimates, making it a promising dosimeter for in vivo dosimetry, particularly in cases where the dosimeter must remain in contact with the patient for an extended period of time. Sugar can be used as an integrating dosimeter, since it exhibits no fractionation effects. Granulated cane sugar is cost effective, safe, soft tissue equivalent, and can be used under various experimental conditions, making it a suitable dosimeter for some radiotherapy applications.

  13. Estimation of the sugar cane cultivated area from LANDSAT images using the two phase sampling method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Cappelletti, C. A.; Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1982-01-01

    A two phase sampling method and the optimal sampling segment dimensions for the estimation of sugar cane cultivated area were developed. This technique employs visual interpretations of LANDSAT images and panchromatic aerial photographs considered as the ground truth. The estimates, as a mean value of 100 simulated samples, represent 99.3% of the true value with a CV of approximately 1%; the relative efficiency of the two phase design was 157% when compared with a one phase aerial photographs sample.

  14. Effect of the atmosphere on the classification of LANDSAT data. [Identifying sugar canes in Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Morimoto, T.; Kumar, R.; Molion, L. C. B.

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In conjunction with Turner's model for the correction of satellite data for atmospheric interference, the LOWTRAN-3 computer was used to calculate the atmospheric interference. Use of the program improved the contrast between different natural targets in the MSS LANDSAT data of Brasilia, Brazil. The classification accuracy of sugar canes was improved by about 9% in the multispectral data of Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo.

  15. Preliminary statistical studies concerning the Campos RJ sugar cane area, using LANDSAT imagery and aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Costa, S. R. X.; Paiao, L. B. F.; Mendonca, F. J.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Duarte, V.

    1983-01-01

    The two phase sampling technique was applied to estimate the area cultivated with sugar cane in an approximately 984 sq km pilot region of Campos. Correlation between existing aerial photography and LANDSAT data was used. The two phase sampling technique corresponded to 99.6% of the results obtained by aerial photography, taken as ground truth. This estimate has a standard deviation of 225 ha, which constitutes a coefficient of variation of 0.6%.

  16. Influence of post-pruning storage on stilbenoid levels in Vitis vinifera L. canes.

    PubMed

    Gorena, Tamara; Saez, Vania; Mardones, Claudia; Vergara, Carola; Winterhalter, Peter; von Baer, Dietrich

    2014-07-15

    Increasing evidence for the health benefits of E-resveratrol has triggered interest in stilbenoids in grapes, wine and by-products. Less attention has been paid to stilbenoid levels in viticulture residues. However, grape canes are a promising source of stilbenoids and have economic potential because they are a source of high-value phytochemicals. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of post-pruning storage on stilbenoid levels in grape canes. In most samples, the predominant stilbenoid was (E)-resveratrol, followed by (E)-ε-viniferin. In Pinot Noir canes stored after pruning at room temperature, the stilbenoid levels increased significantly after 8 months. The concentration was increased by up to fivefold, reaching 4,777 mg kg(-1)dw (dry weight). This effect did not occur in frozen, lyophilised or milled material. Branches collected directly from the plants after grape vintage and those remaining on the plant after pruning showed only a small increase in stilbenoid levels.

  17. Acetic Acid Bacterial Biota of the Pink Sugar Cane Mealybug, Saccharococcus sacchari, and Its Environs

    PubMed Central

    Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Inkerman, Peter A.

    1990-01-01

    Saccharococcus sacchari is the primary colonizer of the developing “sterile” tissue between the leaf sheath and stem of sugar cane. The honeydew secreted by the mealybugs is acidic (about pH 3) and supports an atypical epiphytic microbiota dominated by acetobacter-like bacteria and acidophilic yeast species. However, Erwinia and Leuconostoc species predominate within the leaf sheath pocket region when the mealybugs die out. The unidentified acetobacters were readily isolated from S. sacchari throughout its life cycle and from other genera of mealybugs on sugar cane and various other plants, both above and below ground. No other insect present on sugar cane was a significant vector of acetic acid bacteria. The major factors restricting microbial diversity within the environs of mealybugs were considered to be yeast activity along with bacterial production of acetic acid, ketogluconic acids, and gamma-pyrones, in association with their lowering of pH. The microbial products may aid in suppressing the attack by the parasitic mold Aspergillus parasiticus on mealybugs but could act as attractants for the predatory fruit fly Cacoxenus perspicax. PMID:16348144

  18. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of sugar cane renewable jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Marcelo; Gurgel, Angelo C; Seabra, Joaquim E A

    2014-12-16

    This study evaluated the life cycle GHG emissions of a renewable jet fuel produced from sugar cane in Brazil under a consequential approach. The analysis included the direct and indirect emissions associated with sugar cane production and fuel processing, distribution, and use for a projected 2020 scenario. The CA-GREET model was used as the basic analytical tool, while Land Use Change (LUC) emissions were estimated employing the GTAP-BIO-ADV and AEZ-EF models. Feedstock production and LUC impacts were evaluated as the main sources of emissions, respectively estimated as 14.6 and 12 g CO2eq/MJ of biofuel in the base case. However, the renewable jet fuel would strongly benefit from bagasse and trash-based cogeneration, which would enable a net life cycle emission of 8.5 g CO2eq/MJ of biofuel in the base case, whereas Monte Carlo results indicate 21 ± 11 g CO2eq/MJ. Besides the major influence of the electricity surplus, the sensitivity analysis showed that the cropland-pasture yield elasticity and the choice of the land use factor employed to sugar cane are relevant parameters for the biofuel life cycle performance. Uncertainties about these estimations exist, especially because the study relies on projected performances, and further studies about LUC are also needed to improve the knowledge about their contribution to the renewable jet fuel life cycle.

  19. Advancing energy cane cell wall digestibility screening by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chong, Barrie Fong; O'Shea, Michael G

    2013-10-01

    Breeding energy cane for cellulosic biofuel production involves manipulating various traits. An important trait to optimize is cell wall degradability as defined by enzymatic hydrolysis. We investigated the feasibility of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with multivariate calibration to predict energy cane cell wall digestibility based upon fiber samples from a range of sugarcane genotypes and related species. These samples produced digestibility values ranging between 6 and 31%. To preserve the practicality of the technique, spectra obtained from crudely prepared samples were used. Various spectral pre-processing methods were tested, with the best NIRS calibration obtained from second derivative, orthogonal signal-corrected spectra. Model performance was evaluated by cross-validation and independent validation. Large differences between the performance results from the two validation approaches indicated that the model was sensitive to the choice of test data. This may be remedied by using a larger calibration training set containing diverse sample types. The best result was obtained through independent validation which produced a R(2) value of 0.86, a root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) of 1.59, and a ratio of prediction to deviation (RPD) of 2.7. This study has demonstrated that it is feasible and practical to use NIRS to predict energy cane cell wall digestibility.

  20. Various extraction methods for obtaining stilbenes from grape cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Soural, Ivo; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan; Balík, Josef; Horník, Štěpán; Cuřínová, Petra; Sýkora, Jan

    2015-04-08

    Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. vinifera variety Cabernet Moravia, various conditions were studied: different solvents, using powdered versus cut cane material, different extraction times, and one-step or multiple extractions. The largest concentrations found were 6030 ± 680 µg/g dry weight (d.w.) for trans-resveratrol, 2260 ± 90 µg/g d.w. for trans-ε-viniferin, and 510 ± 40 µg/g d.w. for r2-viniferin. The highest amounts of stilbenes (8500 ± 1100 µg/g d.w.) were obtained using accelerated solvent extraction in methanol.

  1. Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS: calibration and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

    2011-12-01

    Sugarcane is currently the most efficient bioenergy crop with regards to the energy produced per hectare. With approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005, and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Dynamic global vegetation models coupled with agronomical models are powerful and novel tools to tackle many of the environmental issues related to biofuels if they are carefully calibrated and validated against field observations. Here we adapt the agro-terrestrial model ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane simulations. Observation data of LAI are used to evaluate the sensitivity of the model to parameters of nitrogen absorption and phenology, which are calibrated in a systematic way for six sites in Australia and La Reunion. We find that the optimal set of parameters is highly dependent on the sites' characteristics and that the model can reproduce satisfactorily the evolution of LAI. This careful calibration of ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane biomass production for different locations and technical itineraries provides a strong basis for further analysis of the impacts of bioenergy-related land use change on carbon cycle budgets. As a next step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to estimate the uncertainty of the model in biomass and carbon flux simulation due to its parameterization.

  2. Fate of Tebuthiuron and Hexazinone in Green-Cane Harvesting System.

    PubMed

    Toniêto, Thiago Antônio Pinheiro; de Pierri, Letícia; Tornisielo, Valdemar Luiz; Regitano, Jussara Borges

    2016-05-25

    In Brazil, fire prior to sugar cane harvesting has to be phased out by 2017, but it has already been phased out in up to 85-90% of the cropped area. The new system is called green cane and has entirely changed weed management practices. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of the straw presence as well as humic acid (HA), formulation, soil type, and aging on the sorption and leaching of (14)C-tebuthiuron and hexazinone. Both herbicides presented low sorption for all treatments (Kd,app ≤ 3.25 L kg(-1)), but it was higher for tebuthiuron in the clayer soil (LVd). Straw and aging only slightly enhanced sorption. The HA effects were not clear. Sorption was mostly affected by herbicide and soil type. Straw may promote physical trapping (∼40% of applied amount), which cannot be accessed by "batch" sorption (∼15% of the applied amount is sorbed), attenuating leaching of highly mobile herbicides in green-cane systems. To properly assess leaching through straw residues under laboratory condition, rainfall distribution is very important.

  3. Briquetting of charcoal from sugar-cane bagasse fly ash (scbfa) as an alternative fuel.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, S R; Pena, A F V; Miguel, A G

    2010-05-01

    Brazil is the largest worldwide producer of alcohol and sugar from sugar-cane and has an extensive alternative program for car fuel which is unique. The objective of this work is to offer one management option of a solid residue produced by this industrial segment. The pressed sugar-cane bagasse is burned to produce steam and electricity by cogeneration. The combustion yields both bottom and fly ashes which contain high amounts of silicon oxide as a major component. Fly ash which contains a high volume (>30% by weight) of charcoal was used in this work. The ash was sieved to separate the thick charcoal from inorganic materials which are concentrated in the thinner fraction. The briquettes were hand pressed using charcoal mixed with a binder (starch) obtained from cassava flour (a tropical root). The results (density, mechanical resistance) obtained with 8% by weight of starch binder are presented here. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to characterize the ashes and the briquettes. The results show that sugar-cane bagasse fly ash (SCBFA) can be used to produce briquettes with an average density of 1.12gcm(-3) and an average calorific value of 25,551kJ/kg.

  4. Impact of oil and gas field in sugar cane condition using landsat 8 in Indramayu area and its surrounding, West Java province, Republic of Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muji Susantoro, Tri; Wikantika, Ketut; Saskia Puspitasari, Alia; Saepuloh, Asep

    2017-01-01

    This study tried to monitor sugar cane condition surrounding of oil and gas field area. The spectral approaches were conducted for mapping sugar cane stress. As an initial stage Landsat-8 was corrected radiometrically and geometrically. Radiometric correction is an important stages for spectral approaching. Then all pixel values were transformed to the surface reflectance. Several vegetation indices were calculated to monitor vegetation stress surrounding of oil and gas field. NDVI, EVI, DVI, GVI, GRVI, GDVI and GNDVI were applied for generating tentative sugar cane stress images. The results indicated that sugar cane surrounding of oil and gas field has been influenced by oil and gas field.

  5. Effect of aeration and agitation regimes on lipase production by newly isolated Rhodotorula mucilaginosa-MTCC 8737 in stirred tank reactor using molasses as sole production medium.

    PubMed

    Potumarthi, Ravichandra; Subhakar, Chennupati; Vanajakshi, J; Jetty, Annapurna

    2008-12-01

    The influence of media and process parameters (aeration and agitation) on fermentation broth rheology and biomass formation has been studied in 1.5-l stirred tank reactor for lipase production using Rhodotorula mucilaginosa MTCC 8737. Molasses, as sole production medium, is used for lipase production by varying aeration (1, 2, and 3 vvm) and agitation speeds (100, 200, and 300 rpm). Maximum lipase activity of 72 U/ml was obtained during 96 h of fermentation at 2 vvm, 200 rpm, pH 7, and 25 +/- 2 degrees C temperature. Lipase production kinetics with respect to dry cell weight of biomass showed Y (P/S) of 25.71 U/mg, specific product formation of 10.9 U/mg DC, and Y (X/S) 2.35 mg/mg. Maximum lipase activity (MC 2) of 56 U/ml was observed at 1% molasses, and a further increase in the molasses concentration of (%) 1.5 and 2 inhibited the product formation of lipase with 15 and 8.5 U/ml, respectively. The production kinetics of molasses media showed Y (P/X) was 14 U/mg DC, Y (P/S) 16 U/mg, and Y (X/S) 1.14 mg/mg during 96 h of bioreactor operation. The k(L)a values for all batches (MC 1-MC 4) at 96 h of fermentation were 32, 28, 21, and 19/h, and the |oxygen transfer rate were 54.4, 56, 35.7, and 17.29 mg/l h, respectively. Increase in molasses concentration resulted in decreased lipase activity by increase in viscosity of the fermentation broth.

  6. Improvement of Nutritive Value and In vitro Ruminal Fermentation of Leucaena Silage by Molasses and Urea Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Phesatcha, K; Wanapat, M

    2016-08-01

    Leucaena silage was supplemented with different levels of molasses and urea to study its nutritive value and in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. The ensiling study was randomly assigned according to a 3×3 factorial arrangement in which the first factor was molasses (M) supplement at 0%, 1%, and 2% of crop dry matter (DM) and the second was urea (U) supplement as 0%, 0.5%, and 1% of the crop DM, respectively. After 28 days of ensiling, the silage samples were collected and analyzed for chemical composition. All the nine Leucaena silages were kept for study of rumen fermentation efficiency using in vitro gas production techniques. The present result shows that supplementation of U or M did not affect DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber content in the silage. However, increasing level of U supplementation increased crude protein content while M level did not show any effect. Moreover, the combination of U and M supplement decreased the content of mimosine concentration especially with M2U1 (molasses 2% and urea 1%) silage. The result of the in vitro study shows that gas production kinetics, cumulation gas at 96 h and in vitro true digestibility increased with the increasing level of U and M supplementation especially in the combination treatments. Supplementation of M and U resulted in increasing propionic acid and total volatile fatty acid whereas, acetic acid, butyric acid concentrations and methane production were not changed. In addition, increasing U level supplementation increased NH3-N concentration. Result from real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed a significant effect on total bacteria, whereas F. succinogenes and R. flavefaciens population while R. albus was not affected by the M and U supplementation. Based on this study, it could be concluded that M and urea U supplementation could improve the nutritive value of Leucaena silage and enhance in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. This study also suggested that

  7. Improvement of Nutritive Value and In vitro Ruminal Fermentation of Leucaena Silage by Molasses and Urea Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Phesatcha, K.; Wanapat, M.

    2016-01-01

    Leucaena silage was supplemented with different levels of molasses and urea to study its nutritive value and in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. The ensiling study was randomly assigned according to a 3×3 factorial arrangement in which the first factor was molasses (M) supplement at 0%, 1%, and 2% of crop dry matter (DM) and the second was urea (U) supplement as 0%, 0.5%, and 1% of the crop DM, respectively. After 28 days of ensiling, the silage samples were collected and analyzed for chemical composition. All the nine Leucaena silages were kept for study of rumen fermentation efficiency using in vitro gas production techniques. The present result shows that supplementation of U or M did not affect DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber content in the silage. However, increasing level of U supplementation increased crude protein content while M level did not show any effect. Moreover, the combination of U and M supplement decreased the content of mimosine concentration especially with M2U1 (molasses 2% and urea 1%) silage. The result of the in vitro study shows that gas production kinetics, cumulation gas at 96 h and in vitro true digestibility increased with the increasing level of U and M supplementation especially in the combination treatments. Supplementation of M and U resulted in increasing propionic acid and total volatile fatty acid whereas, acetic acid, butyric acid concentrations and methane production were not changed. In addition, increasing U level supplementation increased NH3-N concentration. Result from real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed a significant effect on total bacteria, whereas F. succinogenes and R. flavefaciens population while R. albus was not affected by the M and U supplementation. Based on this study, it could be concluded that M and urea U supplementation could improve the nutritive value of Leucaena silage and enhance in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. This study also suggested that

  8. Ethanol fermentation from molasses at high temperature by thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453 and energy assessment for recovery.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Diptarka; Ghosh, Prasenjit; Ghosh, Debashish; Suman, Sunil Kumar; Khan, Rashmi; Agrawal, Deepti; Adhikari, Dilip K

    2014-10-01

    High temperature ethanol fermentation from sugarcane molasses B using thermophilic Crabtree-positive yeast Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453 was carried out in batch bioreactor system. Strain was found to have a maximum specific ethanol productivity of 0.688 g/g/h with 92 % theoretical ethanol yield. Aeration and initial sugar concentration were tuning parameters to regulate metabolic pathways of the strain for either cell mass or higher ethanol production during growth with an optimum sugar to cell ratio 33:1 requisite for fermentation. An assessment of ethanol recovery from fermentation broth via simulation study illustrated that distillation-based conventional recovery was significantly better in terms of energy efficiency and overall mass recovery in comparison to coupled solvent extraction-azeotropic distillation technique for the same.

  9. Improved ethanol production from cheese whey, whey powder, and sugar beet molasses by "Vitreoscilla hemoglobin expressing" Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Akbas, Meltem Yesilcimen; Sar, Taner; Ozcelik, Busra

    2014-01-01

    This work investigated the improvement of ethanol production by engineered ethanologenic Escherichia coli to express the hemoglobin from the bacterium Vitreoscilla (VHb). Ethanologenic E. coli strain FBR5 and FBR5 transformed with the VHb gene in two constructs (strains TS3 and TS4) were grown in cheese whey (CW) medium at small and large scales, at both high and low aeration, or with whey powder (WP) or sugar beet molasses hydrolysate (SBMH) media at large scale and low aeration. Culture pH, cell growth, VHb levels, and ethanol production were evaluated after 48 h. VHb expression in TS3 and TS4 enhanced their ethanol production in CW (21-419%), in WP (17-362%), or in SBMH (48-118%) media. This work extends the findings that "VHb technology" may be useful for improving the production of ethanol from waste and byproducts of various sources.

  10. Using pig manure to promote fermentation of sugarcane molasses alcohol wastewater and its effects on microbial community structure.

    PubMed

    Shen, Peihong; Han, Fei; Su, Shuquan; Zhang, Junya; Chen, Zhineng; Li, Junfang; Gan, Jiayi; Feng, Bin; Wu, Bo

    2014-03-01

    Molasses alcohol wastewater (MAW) is difficult to be bio-treated and converted into biogas. In this study, MAW mixed with pig manure (PM) in different ratios was co-digested. Biogas production, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and the structure of microbial communities were monitored in the process. Our results showed that under the optimal COD ratio of PM:MAW (1.0:1.5), CODremoval and biogas yield were the highest. And in fermentation tanks with different PM to MAW ratios, the structure and composition of bacterial communities varied in the early and late stage. Furthermore, the type of main bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) have no differences, yet the relative abundance of OTUs varied. The current research showed that there was a good potential to the use of PM as a co-digested material to anaerobic treatment of MAW and provided references for further improving bio-treatment of MAW.

  11. Role of different additives and metallic micro minerals on the enhanced citric acid production by Aspergillus niger MNNG-115 using different carbohydrate materials.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sikander; Haq, Ikram-ul

    2005-01-01

    The present investigation deals with the promotry effect of different additives and metallic micro minerals on citric acid production by Aspergillus niger MNNG-115 using different carbohydrate materials. For this, sugar cane bagasse was fortified with sucrose salt medium. Ethanol and coconut oil at 3.0% (v/w) level increased citric acid productivity. Fluoroacetate at a concentration of 1.0 mg/ml bagasse enhanced the yield of citric acid significantly. However, the addition of ethanol and fluoroacetate after 6 h of growth gave the maximum conversion of available sugar to citric acid. In another study, influence of some metallic micro-minerals viz. copper sulphate, molybdenum sulphate, zinc sulphate and cobalt sulphate on microbial synthesis of citric acid using molasses medium was also carried out. It was found that copper sulphate and molybdenum sulphate remarkably enhanced the production of citric acid while zinc sulphate was not so effective. However, cobalt sulphate was the least effective for microbial biosynthesis of citric acid under the same experimental conditions. In case of CuSO(4), the strain of Aspergillus niger MNNG-115 showed enhanced citric productivity with experimental (9.80%) over the control (7.54%). In addition, the specific productivity of the culture at 30 ppm CuSO(4) (Q(p) = 0.012a g/g cells/h) was several folds higher than other all other concentrations. All kinetic parameters including yield coefficients and volumetric rates revealed the hyper productivity of citric acid by CuSO(4) using blackstrap molasses as the basal carbon source.

  12. Near real-time imaging of molasses injections using time-lapse electrical geophysics at the Brandywine DRMO, Brandywine, Maryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versteeg, R. J.; Johnson, T.; Major, B.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Lane, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Enhanced bioremediation, which involves introduction of amendments to promote biodegradation, increasingly is used to accelerate cleanup of recalcitrant compounds and has been identified as the preferred remedial treatment at many contaminated sites. Although blind introduction of amendments can lead to sub-optimal or ineffective remediation, the distribution of amendment throughout the treatment zone is difficult to measure using conventional sampling. Because amendments and their degradation products commonly have electrical properties that differ from those of ambient soil, time-lapse electrical geophysical monitoring has the potential to verify amendment emplacement and distribution. In order for geophysical monitoring to be useful, however, results of the injection ideally should be accessible in near real time. In August 2010, we demonstrated the feasibility of near real-time, autonomous electrical geophysical monitoring of amendment injections at the former Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office (DRMO) in Brandywine, Maryland. Two injections of about 1000 gallons each of molasses, a widely used amendment for enhanced bioremediation, were monitored using measurements taken with borehole and surface electrodes. During the injections, multi-channel resistance data were recorded; data were transmitted to a server and processed using a parallel resistivity inversion code; and results in the form of time-lapse imagery subsequently were posted to a website. This process occurred automatically without human intervention. The resulting time-lapse imagery clearly showed the evolution of the molasses plume. The delay between measurements and online delivery of images was between 45 and 60 minutes, thus providing actionable information that could support decisions about field procedures and a check on whether amendment reached target zones. This experiment demonstrates the feasibility of using electrical imaging as a monitoring tool both during amendment emplacement

  13. Interaction of molasses and monensin in alfalfa hay- or corn silage-based diets on rumen fermentation, total tract digestibility, and milk production by Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Oelker, E R; Reveneau, C; Firkins, J L

    2009-01-01

    Sugar supplementation can stimulate rumen microbial growth and possibly fiber digestibility; however, excess ruminal carbohydrate availability relative to rumen-degradable protein (RDP) can promote energy spilling by microbes, decrease rumen pH, or depress fiber digestibility. Both RDP supply and rumen pH might be altered by forage source and monensin. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate interactions of a sugar source (molasses) with monensin and 2 forage sources on rumen fermentation, total tract digestibility, and production and fatty acid composition of milk. Seven ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows were used in a 5 x 7 incomplete Latin square design with five 28-d periods. Four corn silage diets consisted of 1) control (C), 2) 2.6% molasses (M), 3) 2.6% molasses plus 0.45% urea (MU), or 4) 2.6% molasses plus 0.45% urea plus monensin sodium (Rumensin, at the intermediate dosage from the label, 16 g/909 kg of dry matter; MUR). Three chopped alfalfa hay diets consisted of 1) control (C), 2) 2.6% molasses (M), or 3) 2.6% molasses plus Rumensin (MR). Urea was added to corn silage diets to provide RDP comparable to alfalfa hay diets with no urea. Corn silage C and M diets were balanced to have 16.2% crude protein; and the remaining diets, 17.2% crude protein. Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment, but there was a trend for lower milk production in alfalfa hay diets compared with corn silage diets. Despite increased total volatile fatty acid and acetate concentrations in the rumen, total tract organic matter digestibility was lower for alfalfa hay-fed cows. Rumensin did not affect volatile fatty acid concentrations but decreased milk fat from 3.22 to 2.72% in corn silage diets but less in alfalfa hay diets. Medium-chain milk fatty acids (% of total fat) were lower for alfalfa hay compared with corn silage diets, and short-chain milk fatty acids tended to decrease when Rumensin was added. In whole rumen contents, concentrations of

  14. The effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on the productivity of cane cutters on a sugar estate in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Fenwick, A.; Figenschou, B. H.

    1972-01-01

    In an attempt to justify future snail control on an irrigated sugar estate in Tanzania, the effects of Schistosoma mansoni infection on the productivity of apparently healthy cane cutters were investigated. The bonus earnings of cane cutters who were found to be infected with S. mansoni were compared, retrospectively, with earnings of uninfected cane cutters during the years 1968-69. For one 6-month period a more detailed study was made to correlate bonus earnings with actual output in tons of cane cut. It was found that in the four 6-month periods the mean bonus earnings of the uninfected cane cutters exceeded the mean bonus earnings of the infected men by 11.0%, 11.4%, 6.0%, and 13.7%, respectively. In all except the third period these differences were statistically significant. After treatment for S. mansoni infection, the workers were able to improve their earnings relative to both infected and uninfected workers. In a more detailed study of some of the workers during the third 6-month period, it was discovered that a 4% difference in bonus earnings represented a 1% difference in output. Taking into account the variations of bonus earnings it was estimated that the overall difference in productivity between infected and uninfected workers was 3-5%. PMID:4540675

  15. STELLAR POPULATIONS AND STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF ULTRA FAINT DWARF GALAXIES, CANES VENATICI I, BOOeTES I, CANES VENATICI II, AND LEO IV

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Sakurako; Arimoto, Nobuo; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Onodera, Masato

    2012-01-10

    We take deep images of four ultra faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies, Canes Venatici I (CVn I), Booetes I (Booe I), Canes Venatici II (CVn II), and Leo IV, using the Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. Color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) extend below main-sequence turnoffs (MSTOs) and yield measurements of the ages of stellar populations. The stellar populations of three faint galaxies, the Booe I, CVn II, and Leo IV dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs), are estimated to be as old as the Galactic globular cluster M92. We confirm that Booe I dSph has no intrinsic color spread in the MSTO and no spatial difference in the CMD morphology, which indicates that Booe I dSph is composed of an old single stellar population. One of the brightest UFDs, CVn I dSph, shows a relatively younger age ({approx}12.6 Gyr) with respect to Booe I, CVn II, and Leo IV dSphs, and the distribution of red horizontal branch (HB) stars is more concentrated toward the center than that of blue HB stars, suggesting that the galaxy contains complex stellar populations. Booe I and CVn I dSphs show the elongated and distorted shapes. CVn II dSph has the smallest tidal radius of a Milky Way satellite and has a distorted shape, while Leo IV dSph shows a less concentrated spherical shape. The simple stellar population of faint UFDs indicates that the gases in their progenitors were removed more effectively than those of brighter dSphs at the occurrence of their initial star formation. This is reasonable if the progenitors of UFDs belong to less massive halos than those of brighter dSphs.

  16. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.60 Section 409.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar...

  17. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.60 Section 409.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar...

  18. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.60 Section 409.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar...

  19. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.60 Section 409.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar...

  20. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.60 Section 409.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar...

  1. Assessment of Virally Vectored Autoimmunity as a Biocontrol Strategy for Cane Toads

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Anthony J.; Venables, Daryl; Voysey, Rhonda D.; Boyle, Donna G.; Shanmuganathan, Thayalini; Hardy, Christopher M.; Siddon, Nicole A.; Hyatt, Alex D.

    2011-01-01

    Background The cane toad, Bufo (Chaunus) marinus, is one of the most notorious vertebrate pests introduced into Australia over the last 200 years and, so far, efforts to identify a naturally occurring B. marinus-specific pathogen for use as a biological control agent have been unsuccessful. We explored an alternative approach that entailed genetically modifying a pathogen with broad host specificity so that it no longer caused disease, but carried a gene to disrupt the cane toad life cycle in a species specific manner. Methodology/Principal Findings The adult beta globin gene was selected as the model gene for proof of concept of autoimmunity as a biocontrol method for cane toads. A previous report showed injection of bullfrog tadpoles with adult beta globin resulted in an alteration in the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs as well as reduced survival. In B. marinus we established for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin exists. The effect of injecting B. marinus tadpoles with purified recombinant adult globin protein was then assessed using behavioural (swim speed in tadpoles and jump length in metamorphs), developmental (time to metamorphosis, weight and length at various developmental stages, protein profile of adult globin) and genetic (adult globin mRNA levels) measures. However, we were unable to detect any differences between treated and control animals. Further, globin delivery using Bohle iridovirus, an Australian ranavirus isolate belonging to the Iridovirus family, did not reduce the survival of metamorphs or alter the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs. Conclusions/Significance While we were able to show for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin does occur in B. marinus, we were not able to induce autoimmunity and disrupt metamorphosis. The short development time of B. marinus tadpoles may preclude this approach. PMID:21283623

  2. Study of Sugar Cane Management Systems in Brazil Using Laser Induced Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, Jader; Villas-Boas, Paulino; Carvalho, Camila; Corá, José Eduardo; Milori, Débora

    2014-05-01

    Brazil is the largest producer of cane sugar, consequently, is a leader in the production of bio-ethanol, a clean and renewable energy that fits the model of sustainable economy as discussed and pursued by our society. Our state of São Paulo concentrates 60% of national production, representing a sizeable share in the range of world production. All this economic potential is closely monitored by the scientific community, which develops numerous studies seeking an improvement in production efficiency and reduced environmental impacts caused by the planting. However, the study of soil samples, in plantation areas, demands results about the content and structural forms of organic matter (OM). Also, the soil carbon stocks depend on the type of management. Our goal is to study OM of soil samples from four sugar cane management systems: (i) unburned cane harvest, (ii) preharvest burned, (iii) addition of sugarcane bagasse ash and (iv) addition of residue from the extraction of sucrose, using Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of solid state. All the emission spectra were acquired using the system called LIFS-405, which consists of a diode laser Coherent, model cube with excitation at 405 nm, maximum output power of 50mJ and a mini-spectrometer, Ocean Optics USB2000-high sensitivity, with range of 194-894 nm and a fiber-optic bundle design (six excitation fibers in a circular path and one central fiber the collect the fluorescence). In this work, we will present the preliminary results evolving the humification index (HLIFS) of soil OM and total carbon amount (TC) for the different types of management. HLIFS shows a close correlation with the humification index of humic acid in solution obtained by means 2D conventional fluorescence spectroscopy.

  3. Chemometric Characterization of Alembic and Industrial Sugar Cane Spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Regina F. R.; Vidal, Carla B.; de Lima, Ari C. A.; Melo, Diego Q.; Dantas, Allan N. S.; Lopes, Gisele S.; do Nascimento, Ronaldo F.; Gomes, Clerton L.; da Silva, Maria Nataniela

    2012-01-01

    Sugar cane spirits are some of the most popular alcoholic beverages consumed in Cape Verde. The sugar cane spirit industry in Cape Verde is based mainly on archaic practices that operate without supervision and without efficient control of the production process. The objective of this work was to evaluate samples of industrial and alembic sugar cane spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil using principal component analysis. Thirty-two samples of spirits were analyzed, twenty from regions of the islands of Cape Verde and twelve from Ceará, Brazil. Of the samples obtained from Ceará, Brazil seven are alembic and five are industrial spirits. The components analyzed in these studies included the following: volatile organic compounds (n-propanol, isobutanol, isoamylic, higher alcohols, alcoholic grade, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetate); copper; and sulfates. PMID:23227051

  4. Chemometric characterization of alembic and industrial sugar cane spirits from cape verde and ceará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Regina F R; Vidal, Carla B; de Lima, Ari C A; Melo, Diego Q; Dantas, Allan N S; Lopes, Gisele S; do Nascimento, Ronaldo F; Gomes, Clerton L; da Silva, Maria Nataniela

    2012-01-01

    Sugar cane spirits are some of the most popular alcoholic beverages consumed in Cape Verde. The sugar cane spirit industry in Cape Verde is based mainly on archaic practices that operate without supervision and without efficient control of the production process. The objective of this work was to evaluate samples of industrial and alembic sugar cane spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil using principal component analysis. Thirty-two samples of spirits were analyzed, twenty from regions of the islands of Cape Verde and twelve from Ceará, Brazil. Of the samples obtained from Ceará, Brazil seven are alembic and five are industrial spirits. The components analyzed in these studies included the following: volatile organic compounds (n-propanol, isobutanol, isoamylic, higher alcohols, alcoholic grade, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetate); copper; and sulfates.

  5. Considerations Relative to the Use of Canes by Blind Travelers in Air Carrier Aircraft Cabins,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    U) JUL 80 R F CHANDLER , J 0 GARNER, D L LOWREY UNCLASSIF lED FAAA-012EEEMEh EIEF’Tmom FAA-AM-80-12 CONSIDERATIONS RELATIVE TO THE USE OF CANES BY...BLIND TRAVELERS IN AIR CARRIER AIRCRAFT CABINS 0R. F. Chandler , J. D. Garner, D. L. Lowrey, qJ. G. Blethrow, and J. A. Anderson Civil Aeromedical...TRAVELERS IN AIR CARRIER AIRCRAFT CABINS 6 Perarming Organization Code .. PerformingOrgan ationReport No. 7.Au R. F. Chandler J. D./Garner D. L./Lowrey J

  6. Exposure to elevated carbon dioxide concentration in the dark lowers the respiration quotient of Vitis cane wood.

    PubMed

    Smart, David R

    2004-01-01

    Cane cuttings of the grapevine rootstock Vitis rupestris Scheele x V. riparia Michx. cv. 3309 Couderc were brought out of endodormancy by warming at 30 degrees C. Cane pieces (12 to 13 cm long) with nodes containing a primary bud were placed in a gas exchange system and monitored for net respiratory fluxes of CO2 and O2. Grapevine respiration rates expressed on a wood volume basis were 1.4 to 3.4 mmol CO2 or O2 m-3s-1, which is higher than stem respiration rates reported for many other woody taxa but similar to rates measured for ecodormant buds of other Vitis species. Passive water loss from canes was 0.7 to 1.2 mmol H2O m-3s-1. During a 7-day period, nonstructural carbohydrate concentrations in cane wood declined only slightly, whereas sucrose was nearly completely consumed. When ambient CO2 concentration ([CO2]) was raised from 300 to 750 micro molmol-1 and then 2000 micromol mol-1, net CO2 exchange rates declined by 5.9 +/- 0.6 and then 11.0 +/- 0.6%, whereas net O2 consumption rates remained about constant. The mean respiration quotient (net CO2/O2 flux) for canes with intact ecodormant buds was 0.99 +/- 0.03 when the [CO2] was 300 micromol mol-1, and decreased to 0.87 +/- 0.03 and 0.088 +/- 0.02 when the [CO2] was increased to 750 and 2000 micromol mol-1, respectively. The results support the hypothesis that, in Vitis canes, inhibition of respiratory CO2 efflux in response to high [CO2] is an indirect consequence of non-photosynthetic carboxylation reactions, and not a result of inhibition of respiratory metabolism.

  7. Solid-state fermentation for gluconic acid production from sugarcane molasses by Aspergillus niger ARNU-4 employing tea waste as the novel solid support.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Amit; Vivekanand, V; Singh, Rajesh P

    2008-06-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) was evaluated to produce gluconic acid by metal resistant Aspergillus niger (ARNU-4) strain using tea waste as solid support and with molasses based fermentation medium. Various crucial parameters such as moisture content, temperature, aeration and inoculum size were derived; 70% moisture level, 30 degrees C temperature, 3% inoculum size and an aeration volume of 2.5l min(-1) was suited for maximal (76.3 gl(-1)) gluconic acid production. Non-clarified molasses based fermentation media was utilized by strain ARNU-4 and maximum gluconic acid production was observed following 8-12 days of fermentation cycle. Different concentrations of additives viz. oil cake, soya oil, jaggary, yeast extract, cheese whey and mustard oil were supplemented for further enhancement of the production ability of microorganism. Addition of yeast extract (0.5%) was observed inducive for enhanced (82.2 gl(-1)) gluconic acid production.

  8. Along-strike variations of structural styles in the imbricated Molasse of Salzburg and Upper Austria: a 3-D seismic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinsch, Ralph; Linzer, Hans-Gert

    2010-05-01

    At the southern border of the Northern Alpine Foreland Basin syntectonic deposits (Molasse Sediments) are partly incorporated into Alpine contractional deformation. Along the alpine chain style and timing of this deformation varies significantly. In this study we use one of the largest European on-shore 3-D seismic datasets, spanning the Molasse basin of Upper Austria and Salzburg states, to investigate the along-strike structural architecture of the alpine deformation front. In the Austrian Part of the Molasse basin, foredeep sedimentation started in Upper-Eocene times (Wagner, 1996). The sediments cover the European margin, consisting of a crystalline basement covered by variously thick Mesozoic sediments (Nachtmann und Wagner, 1987). In Oligocene to Lower Miocene times, syntectonic foredeep sedimentation took place in a deep marine environment, comprising an axial channel system (Linzer 2001, DeRuig and Hubbard, 2006). Parts of these syntectonic sediments are subsequently affected by the advancing thrust wedge. Within the study area, three distinct fold-and-thrust belt segments of different structural architecture can be defined. 1) The Perwang Imbricates are a promontory mostly situated in Salzburg at the border to Germany. Complexly deformed small thrust sheets evolve above a detachment horizon situated in Late Cretaceous shaly marls in Oligocene times. Syntectonic piggy-back and thrust top basins evolve (Covault et al. 2008), which are partly affected by subsequent Miocene overthrusting. 2) The Regau Segment is the area west of the Perwang lobe. It is dominated by few number of thrust sheets in the Molasse sediments. Instead, over-thrusting by the alpine wedge (pre-deformed Flysch and Helvetic thrust sheets) dominates. 3) The Sierning Imbricates segment is located further to the east, at the border of Upper Austria to Lower Austria. The structural inventory of this thrust belt is comprises varying numbers of thrust sheets along strike (1-5), ramp

  9. A Virtual Blind Cane Using a Line Laser-Based Vision System and an Inertial Measurement Unit.

    PubMed

    Dang, Quoc Khanh; Chee, Youngjoon; Pham, Duy Duong; Suh, Young Soo

    2016-01-13

    A virtual blind cane system for indoor application, including a camera, a line laser and an inertial measurement unit (IMU), is proposed in this paper. Working as a blind cane, the proposed system helps a blind person find the type of obstacle and the distance to it. The distance from the user to the obstacle is estimated by extracting the laser coordinate points on the obstacle, as well as tracking the system pointing angle. The paper provides a simple method to classify the obstacle's type by analyzing the laser intersection histogram. Real experimental results are presented to show the validity and accuracy of the proposed system.

  10. A Virtual Blind Cane Using a Line Laser-Based Vision System and an Inertial Measurement Unit

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Quoc Khanh; Chee, Youngjoon; Pham, Duy Duong; Suh, Young Soo

    2016-01-01

    A virtual blind cane system for indoor application, including a camera, a line laser and an inertial measurement unit (IMU), is proposed in this paper. Working as a blind cane, the proposed system helps a blind person find the type of obstacle and the distance to it. The distance from the user to the obstacle is estimated by extracting the laser coordinate points on the obstacle, as well as tracking the system pointing angle. The paper provides a simple method to classify the obstacle’s type by analyzing the laser intersection histogram. Real experimental results are presented to show the validity and accuracy of the proposed system. PMID:26771618

  11. Partitioning of the Taconic foreland basin: Middle to Late Ordovician flysch and molasse sub-basins of New York State and Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, D.; Brett, C.E.; Ingram, S.L. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of field and well data suggest that the foreland basin in New York and Ontario is divisible into two sub-basins containing siliciclastic fill which are separated by a moderately narrow, north/south oriented region of relatively thin siliciclastic strata. The eastern sub-basin contains a thick succession of late Middle and early Late Ordovician basinal black shales and turbiditic siltstones and sandstones (flysch). These strata thicken eastward to over 800 m beneath the thrust belt (Taconic allochthon) in the eastern most portion of the sub-basin. The flysch is, at least in part, time-correlative with ramp carbonates present in the western sub-basin. The western sub-basin contains a relatively thin succession of flysch deposits that overlie Upper Ordovician carbonates. The flysch deposits from the western sub-basin correlate with only the stratigraphically highest strata in the eastern sub-basin. In the western sub-basin, flysch deposits are overlain by Upper Ordovician shallow marine to non-marine mudstones and sandstones (molasse). The molasse is unconformably overlain by Lower Silurian strata. Due to the angularity of the unconformity surface, the molasse is stratigraphically most complete towards the western margin of the western sub-basin; thickest deposits in this sub-basin ([gt] 600 m) are not the most stratigraphically complete. The general sedimentary history of the New York portion of the Taconic siliciclastic wedge is bipartite: (1) rapid subsidence in the eastern sub-basin during the late Middle and early Late Ordovician accompanied by flysch-phase filling; (2) rapid subsidence in the western sub-basin during the middle to late Late Ordovician accompanied by molasse-phase filling.

  12. Polymalic acid fermentation by Aureobasidium pullulans for malic acid production from soybean hull and soy molasses: Fermentation kinetics and economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chi; Zhou, Yipin; Lin, Meng; Wei, Peilian; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2017-01-01

    Polymalic acid (PMA) production by Aureobasidium pullulans ZX-10 from soybean hull hydrolysate supplemented with corn steep liquor (CSL) gave a malic acid yield of ∼0.4g/g at a productivity of ∼0.5g/L·h. ZX-10 can also ferment soy molasses, converting all carbohydrates including the raffinose family oligosaccharides to PMA, giving a high titer (71.9g/L) and yield (0.69g/g) at a productivity of 0.29g/L·h in fed-batch fermentation under nitrogen limitation. A higher productivity of 0.64g/L·h was obtained in repeated batch fermentation with cell recycle and CSL supplementation. Cost analysis for a 5000 MT plant shows that malic acid can be produced at $1.10/kg from soy molasses, $1.37/kg from corn, and $1.74/kg from soybean hull. At the market price of $1.75/kg, malic acid production from soy molasses via PMA fermentation offers an economically competitive process for industrial production of bio-based malic acid.

  13. Production of Laccase by Recombinant Yarrowia lipolytica from Molasses: Bioprocess Development Using Statistical Modeling and Increase Productivity in Shake-Flask and Bioreactor Cultures.

    PubMed

    Darvishi, Farshad; Moradi, Marzieh; Madzak, Catherine; Jolivalt, Claude

    2017-03-01

    Laccases are used in numerous applications, from green degradation of various xenobiotic compounds, waste detoxification, textile dye bleaching, and delignification of lignocellulose materials to biofuel production. In this study, the recombinant Yarrowia lipolytica YL4 strain carrying the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor laccase IIIb gene was used for laccase production from beet molasses as an agro-industrial residue. Response surface methodology was used to statistical optimization of the production of laccase by Y. lipolytica using an industrial medium containing molasses which allows a six times increase in laccase activity compared to primary medium contains glucose after 144 h. In bioreactor cultivation after 48 h, laccase production reached to 3.7- and 22.5-fold more than optimized and primary media in shake-flask cultures, respectively. Laccase productivity in bioreactor (0.0937 U/h) was higher than shake-flask culture (0.0084 U/h). The present study provides valuable information about statistical optimization of bioprocess development for cost-effective production of laccase and other heterologous proteins in Y. lipolytica from beet molasses as sole carbon source, thus allowing the valorization and decreasing environmental pollution of this agro-industrial waste.

  14. Comparative respiratory toxicity of particles produced by traffic and sugar cane burning.

    PubMed

    Mazzoli-Rocha, Flavia; Magalhães, Clarissa Bichara; Malm, Olaf; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Zin, Walter Araujo; Faffe, Débora Souza

    2008-09-01

    The impact of particle emissions by biomass burning is increasing throughout the world. We explored the toxicity of particulate matter produced by sugar cane burning and compared these effects with equivalent mass of traffic-derived particles. For this purpose, BALB/c mice received a single intranasal instillation of either distilled water (C) or total suspended particles (15 microg) from an urban area (SP group) or biomass burning-derived particles (Bio group). Lung mechanical parameters (total, resistive and viscoelastic pressures, static elastance, and elastic component of viscoelasticity) and histology were analyzed 24h after instillation. Trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) metabolites of the two sources of particles were determined. All mechanical parameters increased similarly in both pollution groups compared with control, except airway resistive pressure, which increased only in Bio. Both exposed groups showed significantly higher fraction area of alveolar collapse, and influx of polymorphonuclear cells in lung parenchyma than C. The composition analysis of total suspended particles showed higher concentrations of PAHs and lower concentration of metals in traffic than in biomass burning-derived particles. In conclusion, we demonstrated that a single low dose of ambient particles, produced by traffic and sugar cane burning, induced significant alterations in pulmonary mechanics and lung histology in mice. Parenchymal changes were similar after exposure to both particle sources, whereas airway mechanics was more affected by biomass-derived particles. Our results indicate that biomass particles were at least as toxic as those produced by traffic.

  15. Sugar cane vinasse in water bodies: impact assessed by liver histopathology in tilapia.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Júlia Fernanda Urbano; Correia, Jorge Evangelista; Marcato, Ana Claudia de Castro; Pedro-Escher, Janaína; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

    2014-12-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are the main receptors of toxic substances from human activities. With the increase in sugar cane production, vinasse - the main residue of ethanol production - is a potential contaminant of water resources, due to its high organic matter content. This study was aimed at evaluating the toxicity of vinasse by examining the liver of the fish Oreochromis niloticus exposed to different dilutions of sugar cane vinasse (1%, 2%, 5%, 5% and 10%) in laboratory bioassays. Portions of liver were collected and fixed for histological and histochemical techniques to detect total proteins, polysaccharides and lipids. In the histological analysis, the groups treated with vinasse exhibited significant alterations, such as loss of cytoplasmic integrity, loss of cell limit and tissue disorganization. Protein and lipid profiles were not altered. Higher accumulation of polysaccharides was detected in fish exposed to lower concentrations of vinasse, with a gradual decrease in animals treated with vinasse in higher concentrations. We concluded that vinasse has a dose-dependent toxic and cytotoxic potential in water bodies and that the liver is strongly affected when acutely exposed to this contaminant.

  16. Long-term prospects for the environmental profile of advanced sugar cane ethanol.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Cinthia R U; Franco, Henrique Coutinho Junqueira; Junqueira, Tassia Lopes; van Oers, Lauran; van der Voet, Ester; Seabra, Joaquim E A

    2014-10-21

    This work assessed the environmental impacts of the production and use of 1 MJ of hydrous ethanol (E100) in Brazil in prospective scenarios (2020-2030), considering the deployment of technologies currently under development and better agricultural practices. The life cycle assessment technique was employed using the CML method for the life cycle impact assessment and the Monte Carlo method for the uncertainty analysis. Abiotic depletion, global warming, human toxicity, ecotoxicity, photochemical oxidation, acidification, and eutrophication were the environmental impacts categories analyzed. Results indicate that the proposed improvements (especially no-til farming-scenarios s2 and s4) would lead to environmental benefits in prospective scenarios compared to the current ethanol production (scenario s0). Combined first and second generation ethanol production (scenarios s3 and s4) would require less agricultural land but would not perform better than the projected first generation ethanol, although the uncertainties are relatively high. The best use of 1 ha of sugar cane was also assessed, considering the displacement of the conventional products by ethanol and electricity. No-til practices combined with the production of first generation ethanol and electricity (scenario s2) would lead to the largest mitigation effects for global warming and abiotic depletion. For the remaining categories, emissions would not be mitigated with the utilization of the sugar cane products. However, this conclusion is sensitive to the displaced electricity sources.

  17. Firmicutes dominate the bacterial taxa within sugar-cane processing plants

    PubMed Central

    Sharmin, Farhana; Wakelin, Steve; Huygens, Flavia; Hargreaves, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Sugar cane processing sites are characterised by high sugar/hemicellulose levels, available moisture and warm conditions, and are relatively unexplored unique microbial environments. The PhyloChip microarray was used to investigate bacterial diversity and community composition in three Australian sugar cane processing plants. These ecosystems were highly complex and dominated by four main Phyla, Firmicutes (the most dominant), followed by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi. Significant variation (p < 0.05) in community structure occurred between samples collected from ‘floor dump sediment’, ‘cooling tower water’, and ‘bagasse leachate’. Many bacterial Classes contributed to these differences, however most were of low numerical abundance. Separation in community composition was also linked to Classes of Firmicutes, particularly Bacillales, Lactobacillales and Clostridiales, whose dominance is likely to be linked to their physiology as ‘lactic acid bacteria’, capable of fermenting the sugars present. This process may help displace other bacterial taxa, providing a competitive advantage for Firmicutes bacteria. PMID:24177592

  18. Hydrolysis of Ammonia-pretreated Sugar Cane Bagasse with Cellulase, β-Glucosidase, and Hemicellulase Preparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prior, Bernard A.; Day, Donal F.

    Sugar cane bagasse consists of hemicellulose (24%) and cellulose (38%), and bioconversion of both fractions to ethanol should be considered for a viable process. We have evaluated the hydrolysis of pretreated bagasse with combinations of cellulase, β-glucosidase, and hemicellulase. Ground bagasse was pretreated either by the AFEX process (2NH3: 1 biomass, 100 °C, 30 min) or with NH4OH (0.5 g NH4OH of a 28% [v/v] per gram dry biomass; 160 °C, 60 min), and composition analysis showed that the glucan and xylan fractions remained largely intact. The enzyme activities of four commercial xylanase preparations and supernatants of four laboratory-grown fungi were determined and evaluated for their ability to boost xylan hydrolysis when added to cellulase and β-glucosidase (10 filter paper units [FPU]: 20 cellobiase units [CBU]/g glucan). At 1% glucan loading, the commercial enzyme preparations (added at 10% or 50% levels of total protein in the enzyme preparations) boosted xylan and glucan hydrolysis in both pretreated bagasse samples. Xylanase addition at 10% protein level also improved hydrolysis of xylan and glucan fractions up to 10% glucan loading (28% solids loading). Significant xylanase activity in enzyme cocktails appears to be required for improving hydrolysis of both glucan and xylan fractions of ammonia pretreated sugar cane bagasse.

  19. Physicochemical and sensory (aroma and colour) characterisation of a non-centrifugal cane sugar ("panela") beverage.

    PubMed

    García, Juliana María; Narváez, Paulo César; Heredia, Francisco José; Orjuela, Álvaro; Osorio, Coralia

    2017-08-01

    Non-centrifugal cane sugar (NCS), also called "panela", is a high carbohydrate-content food obtained by boil evaporation of the sugar cane juice. This study was undertaken to assess physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of panela beverage at two different concentrations. Evaluation of pH, °Brix, and colour (tristimulus colorimetry) was carried out in all panela drink samples. In order to characterise the odour-active volatiles of the beverage, a simultaneous steam distillation-solvent extraction method was applied using a mixture of diethyl ether-pentane (1:1,w/w) as solvent. The Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis revealed the presence of six odour-active compounds, being 2-methyl pyrazine the key aroma compound of this beverage. PCA (Principal Component Analysis) showed that there were no differences in the aroma and physicochemical properties (pH and °Brix) with respect to the geographical origin of analysed samples; however colour depends on heating during processing of NCS.

  20. Molecular characterization of the Bidder's organ in the cane toad (Bufo marinus).

    PubMed

    Abramyan, John; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Koopman, Peter

    2010-09-15

    In toads, both males and females develop a unique gonadal structure called the Bidder's organ (BO), which resembles ovarian tissue and is attached to the anterior part of the gonad. It is not clear whether the BO is a vestigial organ, or has an endocrine function. In this study, we investigated the expression of the gonadal development genes Dmrt1, Sox9, Sf1, Dax1, and p450arom in the developing BO as compared with the gonads of male and female cane toads. We demonstrate that Sf1, Dax1, and p450arom, key genes involved in vertebrate steroidogenesis, are transcriptionally active in the BO during developmental milestones associated with sexual development and maturation. Furthermore, the pattern of transcriptional activity in the BO is completely independent of the corresponding gonads in both sexes, despite its ovary-like morphology. These results suggest that the BO likely has a steroidogenic role in the development of the cane toad, distinct from that of the gonads.

  1. Immune Response Varies with Rate of Dispersal in Invasive Cane Toads (Rhinella marina)

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Gregory P.; Shine, Richard

    2014-01-01

    What level of immunocompetence should an animal maintain while undertaking long-distance dispersal? Immune function (surveillance and response) might be down-regulated during prolonged physical exertion due to energy depletion, and/or to avoid autoimmune reactions arising from damaged tissue. On the other hand, heightened immune vigilance might be favored if the organism encounters novel pathogens as it enters novel environments. We assessed the links between immune defense and long-distance movement in a population of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Australia. Toads were radio-tracked for seven days to measure their activity levels and were then captured and subjected to a suite of immune assays. Toads that moved further showed decreased bacteria-killing ability in their plasma and decreased phagocytic activity in their whole blood, but a heightened skin-swelling response to phytohemagglutinin. Baseline and post-stress corticosterone levels were unrelated to distance moved. Thus, long-distance movement in cane toads is associated with a dampened response in some systems and enhanced response in another. This pattern suggests that sustained activity is accompanied by trade-offs among immune components rather than an overall down or up-regulation. The finding that high mobility is accompanied by modification of the immune system has important implications for animal invasions. PMID:24936876

  2. Ethanol/Water Pulps From Sugar Cane Straw and Their Biobleaching With Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Regina Y.; Gonçalves, Adilson R.; Duarte, Marta C. T.

    The influence of independent variables (temperature and time) on the cooking of sugar cane straw with ethanol/water mixtures was studied to determine operating conditions that obtain pulp with high cellulose contents and a low lignin content. An experimental 22 design was applied for temperatures of 185 and 215°C, and time of 1 and 2.5 h with the ethanol/water mixture concentration and constant straw-to-solvent ratio. The system was scaled-up at 200°C cooking temperature for 2 h with 50% ethanol-water concentration, and 1∶10 (w/v) straw-to-solvent ratio to obtain a pulp with 3.14 cP viscosity, 58.09 kappa-number, and the chemical composition of the pulps were 3.2% pentosan and 31.5% lignin. Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus was then applied at a loading of 5-150 IU/g dry pulp in the sugar cane straw ethanol/water pulp at 50°C for 2 and 20 h. To ethanol/water pulps, the best enzyme dosage was found to be 20 IU/g dry pulp at 20 h, and a high enzyme dosage of 150 IU/g dry pulp did not decrease the kappa-number of the pulp.

  3. Rudimentary, low tech incinerators as a means to produce reactive pozzolan out of sugar cane straw

    SciTech Connect

    Martirena, Fernando . E-mail: f.martirena@enet.cu; Middendorf, Bernhard; Day, Robert L.; Gehrke, Matthias; Roque, Pablo; Martinez, Lesday; Betancourt, Sergio

    2006-06-15

    The ashes of agricultural wastes from the processing of sugar cane are recognized as having pozzolanic properties. Burning of these wastes under controlled conditions, e.g. temperature and residence time results in significant improvement in reactivity. There are many reports of low-tech incinerators that have been successfully used to produce reactive rice husk ash in Asia. The paper presents the results of the evaluation of a rudimentary incinerator where sugar cane straw is burnt in order to obtain a reactive ash. The incinerator is designed and constructed according to state-of-the-art recommendations for this kind of device. Various burning trials were performed in order to obtain ash for the experiment. X-ray diffraction analysis performed on powdered ash shows significant presence of amorphous (glassy) material. Lime-pozzolana pastes were prepared. The pastes were subjected to X-ray diffraction, thermo-gravimetric analysis, chemical titration, and SEM observation, as a means to examine the pozzolanicity of the ash via the progress with time of calcium hydroxide consumption, and changes in the pore size distribution and strength. Calcium silicate hydrate phases are the main reaction product of the pozzolanic reaction. The long residence time of the ash in the burning chamber seems to be the reason for the fairly low reactivity of the ash; the reactivity of the ash was not significantly improved in comparison with that of the ash burnt in uncontrolled conditions in the open air.

  4. The Interacting Effects of Ungulate Hoofprints and Predatory Native Ants on Metamorph Cane Toads in Tropical Australia

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera-Guzmán, Elisa; Crossland, Michael R.; González-Bernal, Edna; Shine, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Many invasive species exploit the disturbed habitats created by human activities. Understanding the effects of habitat disturbance on invasion success, and how disturbance interacts with other factors (such as biotic resistance to the invaders from the native fauna) may suggest new ways to reduce invader viability. In tropical Australia, commercial livestock production can facilitate invasion by the cane toad (Rhinella marina), because hoofprints left by cattle and horses around waterbody margins provide distinctive (cool, moist) microhabitats; nevertheless the same microhabitat can inhibit the success of cane toads by increasing the risks of predation or drowning. Metamorph cane toads actively select hoofprints as retreat-sites to escape dangerous thermal and hydric conditions in the surrounding landscape. However, hoofprint geometry is important: in hoofprints with steep sides the young toads are more likely to be attacked by predatory ants (Iridomyrmex reburrus) and are more likely to drown following heavy rain. Thus, anthropogenic changes to the landscape interact with predation by native taxa to affect the ability of cane toads in this vulnerable life-history stage to thrive in the harsh abiotic conditions of tropical Australia. PMID:24255703

  5. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in cane toads (Bufo marinus) from Grenada, West Indies, and their antimicrobial susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Drake, M; Amadi, V; Zieger, U; Johnson, R; Hariharan, H

    2013-09-01

    Cloacal swabs and caecal contents sampled from 58 cane toads (Bufo marinus) in St George's parish, Grenada, during a 7-month period in 2011 were examined by an enrichment and selective culture method for presence of Salmonella spp. Twenty-four (41%) toads were positive for Salmonella spp. of which eight were Salmonella enterica serovar Javiana, and eight were S. enterica serovar Rubislaw. The other serovars were as follows: Montevideo, 6; Arechavaleta, 1; and serovar: IV:43:-:-, 1. The high frequency of isolation of serovar Javiana, an emerging human pathogen associated with several outbreaks in the recent years in the eastern United States, suggests a possible role for cane toads in transmission of this serovar. Although S. Rubislaw has been isolated from lizards, bats and cases of some human infections, there is no report of its carriage by cane toads, and in such high frequency. The rate of carriage of S. Montevideo, a cause for human foodborne outbreaks around the world was also over 10% in the 58 toads sampled in this study. The antimicrobial drug susceptibility tests against amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, imipenem, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole showed that drug resistance is minimal and is of little concern. Antimicrobial resistance was limited to ampicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in one isolate of S. Javiana and one isolate of S. Rubislaw. This is the first report of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibilities of various Salmonella serovars not identified previously in cane toads in Grenada, West Indies.

  6. A Seamless Approach to Transitioning Cane Skills from the Diagonal to the Two-Point Touch Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penrod, William M.

    2012-01-01

    The profession of orientation and mobility (O&M) is replete with literature describing specific cane techniques, strategies for teaching O&M to specific populations and age groups, rationales, and appropriate settings. These strategies and techniques are also addressed in many university preparation programs. In this article, the author discusses…

  7. 77 FR 55451 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938, as amended, the sugar beet sector was allotted 5,278,064 STRV (54.35... will distribute the sector allotments among domestic sugar beet and sugarcane processors according to... the OAQ be assigned to the beet sector and cane sector. The OAQ for FY 2013 is being established...

  8. 76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing... marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and sugar beet processors, which apply to all... establishing, adjusting, or suspending sugar marketing allotments in the Federal Register. FOR...

  9. 75 FR 22095 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic...

  10. Habitat selection and coexistence of invasive cockroach species (Dictyoptera) in sugar-cane fields on Réunion island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Stéphane; Rivault, Colette

    2006-01-01

    Selection of habitat has a profound influence on interactions among species and the assembly of ecological communities. We investigated habitat preferences to understand how different cockroach species coexist in sugar-cane fields on Réunion island. Cockroach populations belonging to a guild of seven species were surveyed during one annual cycle in eight sugar-cane fields that differed by several environmental factors, in order to investigate ecological features of cockroach species and their patterns of coexistence. Structure variations of the cockroach communities were analyzed at the field scale, at the sample unit scale, and according to variations of environmental conditions related to the annual sugar-cane growth cycle. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to elucidate relationships between species diversity, population abundance and environmental characteristics. The examination of partitioning at different spatial and temporal scales evidenced that each species occupied a particular type of habitat. The main factors influencing spatial habitat selection were at the sample unit scale: presence of ants, edge effect, soil moisture and granulometry, at the field scale: irrigation, annual rainfall, altitude and age of the field. Although a pair of species shared the same type of habitat, annual population peaks of each species did not coincide in time. This suggests that resource partitioning is based both on ecological factors and interspecific competition. Factors enhancing cockroach coexistence and factors favoring population outbursts are discussed as well as specific invasive capacities of these cockroaches and the role of the cockroach community in the sugar-cane trophic web.

  11. Growth, Physiological and Yield Responses to the Mid-Season Application of Moddus for Seed Cane Quality in Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moddus is a plant growth regulator for sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and has been used to produce high quality of seed cane in Florida by reducing internode length, mitigating plant lodging, and facilitating harvest in addition to commonly using as a ripener for improving sucrose content. But little is...

  12. Use of pervaporation process for the recovery of aroma compounds produced by P. fermentans in sugarcane molasses.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Suzan Cristina; Medeiros, Adriane Bianchi Pedroni; Weschenfelder, Thiago André; de Paula Scheer, Agnes; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2017-03-17

    Natural fruity aroma was produced during submerged fermentation by Pichia fermentans using sugarcane molasses as a cultivation broth. The aroma compounds were recovered from the fermentation by a pervaporation process using a polydimethylsiloxane membrane (Pervap 4060-Sulzer). Isoamyl acetate, a characteristic compound associated with fruity aromas, was the major compound produced. The pervaporation module was fed at three different temperatures to test the best conditions to recover the natural fruity aroma. The total flux (J T), partial fluxes of each component (J i), and enrichment factors (β) were determined within the tested ranges. The process was performed at 45 °C, a feed flow of 1.5 mL/min and 0.1 kPa, for a duration of 13 h to concentrate the natural flavor. The pervaporation process can concentrate the isoamyl acetate from fermented broth from 9 to 61.8 mg/L in the first hour of pervaporation. As a single step of downstream operation, pervaporation was efficient for recovering and concentrating the natural fruity aroma. The obtained product was colorless and had a characteristic banana flavor.

  13. Mixed culture polyhydroxyalkanoates production from sugar molasses: the use of a 2-stage CSTR system for culture selection.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, M G E; Concas, S; Bengtsson, S; Reis, M A M

    2010-09-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are promising biodegradable polymers. The use of mixed microbial cultures (MMC) and low cost feedstocks have a positive impact on the cost-effectiveness of the process. It has typically been carried out in Sequencing Batch Reactors (SBR). In this study, a 2-stage CSTR system (under Feast and Famine conditions) was used to effectively select for PHA-storing organisms using fermented molasses as feedstock. The effect of influent substrate concentration (60-120 Cmmol VFA/L) and HRT ratio between the reactors (0.2-0.5h/h) on the system's selection efficiency was assessed. It was shown that Feast reactor residual substrate concentration impacted on the selective pressure for PHA storage (due to substrate-dependent kinetic limitation). Moreover, a residual substrate concentration coming from the Feast to the Famine reactor did not jeopardize the physiological adaptation required for enhanced PHA storage. The culture reached a maximum PHA content of 61%. This success opens new perspectives to the use of wastewater treatment infrastructure for PHA production, thus valorizing either excess sludge or wastewaters.

  14. Immediate and delayed signal of slab breakoff in Oligo/Miocene Molasse deposits from the European Alps

    PubMed Central

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Castelltort, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution 32–20 Ma-old stratigraphic records from the Molasse foreland basin situated north of the Alps, and Gonfolite Lombarda conglomerates deposited on the southern Alpine margin, document two consecutive sedimentary responses - an immediate and delayed response - to slab breakoff beneath the central Alps c. 32–30 Ma ago. The first signal, which occurred due to rebound and surface uplift in the Alps, was a regional and simultaneous switch from basin underfill to overfill at 30 Ma paired with shifts to coarse-grained depositional environments in the foreland basin. The second signal, however, arrived several million years after slab breakoff and was marked by larger contributions of crystalline clasts in the conglomerates, larger clast sizes, larger sediment fluxes and shifts to more proximal facies. We propose that this secondary pulse reflects a delayed whiplash-type erosional response to surface uplift, where erosion and sediment flux became amplified through positive feedbacks once larger erosional thresholds of crystalline bedrock were exceeded. PMID:27510939

  15. Immediate and delayed signal of slab breakoff in Oligo/Miocene Molasse deposits from the European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Castelltort, Sébastien

    2016-08-01

    High-resolution 32–20 Ma-old stratigraphic records from the Molasse foreland basin situated north of the Alps, and Gonfolite Lombarda conglomerates deposited on the southern Alpine margin, document two consecutive sedimentary responses - an immediate and delayed response - to slab breakoff beneath the central Alps c. 32–30 Ma ago. The first signal, which occurred due to rebound and surface uplift in the Alps, was a regional and simultaneous switch from basin underfill to overfill at 30 Ma paired with shifts to coarse-grained depositional environments in the foreland basin. The second signal, however, arrived several million years after slab breakoff and was marked by larger contributions of crystalline clasts in the conglomerates, larger clast sizes, larger sediment fluxes and shifts to more proximal facies. We propose that this secondary pulse reflects a delayed whiplash-type erosional response to surface uplift, where erosion and sediment flux became amplified through positive feedbacks once larger erosional thresholds of crystalline bedrock were exceeded.

  16. Decolorization of molasses spent wash by the white-rot fungus Flavodon flavus, isolated from a marine habitat.

    PubMed

    Raghukumar, C; Rivonkar, G

    2001-05-01

    Flavodon flavus (Klotzsch) Ryvarden, a basidiomycete (NIOCC strain 312) isolated from decomposing leaves of a sea grass, decolorized pigments in molasses spent wash (MSW) by 80% after 8 days of incubation, when used at concentrations of 10% and 50%. Decolorizing activity was also present in media prepared with half-strength seawater (equivalent to 15 ppt salinity). Decolorizing activity was seen in low-nitrogen medium, nutrient-rich medium and in sugarcane bagasse medium. The percentage decolorization of MSW was highest when glucose or sucrose was used as the carbon source in the low-nitrogen medium. The production of lignin-modifying enzymes, manganese-dependent peroxidase (MNP) and laccase decreased in a medium containing MSW. MNP production and MSW decolorization were inversely correlated, suggesting no role for MNP in MSW decolorization. The decolorization of MSW was not effective when F. flavus was immobilized in calcium alginate beads. Decolorization was achieved best in oxygenated cultures. Besides color, total phenolics and chemical oxygen demand were reduced by 50% in MSW treated with F. flavus, suggesting its potential in the bioremediation of effluents.

  17. Effect of different operational conditions on the decolorization of molasses spent wash using once developed soil inoculum.

    PubMed

    Adikane, H V; Dixit, J N

    2009-11-01

    A stirred vessel coupled with membrane unit containing cellulose acetate (0.45 mum) membrane was used to study the decolorization of anaerobically digested molasses spent wash (MSW). The soil collected from the MSW disposal site was used as inoculum to study the decolorization without addition of any additives. The same inoculum was used over a period of 163 days at room temperature to study the decolorization of 12.5-50% (v/v) MSW using different operational conditions. The reactor was entered in to the inhibition mode after the feeding of 50% MSW, which was restored 100% without changing any operational condition. The maximum decolorization obtained for 12.5% (v/v) MSW was 77.22 +/- 0.13%. The decolorization achieved for 25, 37.5, and 50% (v/v) MSW was 70.41 +/- 0.12, 56.47 +/- 0.17, and 48.78 +/- 0.09%, respectively. Increase in the utilization of protein and reducing sugar was observed up to 25% MSW whereas, higher concentration showed decrease in the utilization. Results indicate 63% removal of chemical oxygen demand for 12.5% (v/v) MSW. Membrane flux which was significantly reduced after the feeding of 50% MSW was regenerated without changing the washing procedure, however, 35% decrease in sample flux was observed over the continuous use of membrane for the period of 198 days.

  18. Enhancement of dibenzothiophene desulfurization by Gordonia alkanivorans strain 1B using sugar beet molasses as alternative carbon source.

    PubMed

    Alves, Luís; Paixão, Susana M

    2014-03-01

    There are several problems limiting an industrial application of fossil fuel biodesulfurization, and one of them is the cost of culture media used to grow the microorganisms involved in the process. In this context, the utilization of alternative carbon sources resulting from agro-industrial by-products could be a strategy to reduce the investment in the operating expenses of a future industrial application. Recently, Gordonia alkanivorans 1B was described as a fructophilic desulfurizing bacterium, and this characteristic opens a new interest in alternative carbon sources rich in fructose. Thus, the goal of this study was to evaluate the utilization of sugar beet molasses (SBM) in the dibenzothiophene (DBT) desulfurization process using strain 1B. SBM firstly treated with 0.25% BaCl2 (w/v) was used after sucrose acidic hydrolysis or in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process with a Zygosaccharomyces bailii Talf1 invertase (1%), showing promising results. In optimal conditions, strain 1B presented a μ max of 0.0795 h(-1), and all DBT was converted to 2-hydroxybiphenyl (250 μM) within 48 h with a maximum production rate of 7.78 μM h(-1). Our results showed the high potential of SBM to be used in a future industrial fossil fuel biodesulfurization process using strain 1B.

  19. Character & Cane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2009-01-01

    They say first impressions can be deceiving. The difficulty of getting to know someone increases when that person is mostly fictional. Whatever the author writes is all readers can know. Whatever they read about the character is all they have to go on. Now take it another step back, and imagine a portrait drawing, painting or print of that…

  20. Canes Venatici

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Hunting Dogs; abbrev. CVn, gen. Canum Venaticorum; area 465 sq. deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Ursa Major and Boötes, and culminates at midnight in early April. It was named by the astronomer Johannes Hevelius (1611-87) of Danzig (Gdansk), who included it in his atlas Firmamentum Sobiescianum sive Uranographia though the celestial figure had been shown in earlier charts da...

  1. Geophysical Methods for Locating Karst Conduits in Cane Run Watershed, Central Kentucky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J.; Paylor, R.; Currens, J. C.; Dinger, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    Cane Run watershed in central Kentucky was listed by the Kentucky Division of Water as one of four focus watersheds for clean-up under the State’s nonpoint-source pollution program. This watershed is degraded by pathogens, nutrients, siltation, and organic enrichment. The sources of pollution include both municipal point sources and nonpoint agricultural and nonagricultural sources. The relative contribution of different parts of the watershed to the contamination is not well understood, however. The geology of Cane Run watershed consists of Ordovician thin-bedded limestone with sparse interbeds of shale. The landscape is dominated by karst features such as sinkholes and springs. Cane Run only flows during times of significant rainfall, usually in the spring of the year. The remainder of the year, most water is recharged to a karst conduit system that leads from Lexington, Ky to Royal Spring, as demonstrated by groundwater tracing. Royal Spring is the major water supply for Georgetown in Scott County, Ky. We attempted to locate the karst conduit so that groundwater flowing through the conduit could be monitored. These monitoring data are essential for assessing the effectiveness of remediation plans. In 2008, based on geology, karst features, and hydrogeology, an initial round of electrical-resistivity and spontaneous-potential geophysical surveys were conducted to help pinpoint the location of the conduit at three sites. Fifteen exploratory boreholes were drilled on the basis of the geophysical results. The boreholes confirmed the geophysical surveys had located minor mud-filled conduits that were interpreted as tributaries to the main conduit. Another round of 2D and 3D electrical resistivity surveys were conducted in 2009 to search for the main conduit. The analysis of this round of surveys resulted in one promising site that is suspected to be in close proximity to the conduit. A time-lapse 2D electrical resistivity survey in conjunction with calcium chlorite

  2. Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

    2010-12-01

    With 4 million ha currently grown for ethanol in Brazil only, approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005 (Smeets 2008), and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Indeed, ethanol made from biomass is currently the most widespread option for alternative transportation fuels. It was originally promoted as a carbon neutral energy resource that could bring energy independence to countries and local opportunities to farmers, until attention was drawn to its environmental and socio-economical drawbacks. It is still not clear to which extent it is a solution or a contributor to climate change mitigation. Dynamic Global Vegetation models can help address these issues and quantify the potential impacts of biofuels on ecosystems at scales ranging from on-site to global. The global agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE describes water, carbon and energy exchanges at the soil-atmosphere interface for a limited number of natural and agricultural vegetation types. In order to integrate agricultural management to the simulations and to capture more accurately the specificity of crops' phenology, ORCHIDEE has been coupled with the agronomical model STICS. The resulting crop-oriented vegetation model ORCHIDEE-STICS has been used so far to simulate temperate crops such as wheat, corn and soybean. As a generic ecosystem model, each grid cell can include several vegetation types with their own phenology and management practices, making it suitable to spatial simulations. Here, ORCHIDEE-STICS is altered to include sugar cane as a new agricultural Plant functional Type, implemented and parametrized using the STICS approach. An on-site calibration and validation is then performed based on biomass and flux chamber measurements in several sites in Australia and variables such as LAI, dry weight, heat fluxes and respiration are used to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate the specific

  3. Cane Creek flood-flow characteristics at State Route 30 near Spencer, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gamble, Charles R.

    1983-01-01

    The Tennessee Department of Transportation has constructed a new bridge and approaches on State Route 30 over Cane Creek near Spencer, Tennessee. The old bridge and its approaches were fairly low, permitting considerable flow over the road during high floods. The new bridge and its approaches are considerably higher, causing different flow conditions at the site. Analysis of the effects of the new bridge, as compared to the old bridge, on floods of the magnitude of the May 27, 1973, flood is presented. The May 27, 1973, flood was greater than a 100-year flood. Analysis of the 50- and 100-year floods for the new bridge are also presented. Results of the study indicate that the new construction will increase the water-surface elevation for a flood equal to the May 27, 1973, flood by approximately 1 foot upstream from bridge. (USGS)

  4. Composting of sugar-cane waste by-products through treatment with microorganisms and subsequent vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rahul; Verma, Deepshikha; Singh, Bhanu L; Kumar, Umesh; Shweta

    2010-09-01

    The waste by-products of the sugar-cane industry, bagasse (b), pressmud (p) and trash (t) have been subjected to bioinoculation followed by vermicomposting to shorten stabilization time and improve product quality. Press-mud alone and in combination with other by-products of sugar processing industries was pre-decomposed for 30 days by inoculation with combination of Pleurotus sajorcaju, Trichoderma viridae, Aspergillus niger and Pseudomonas striatum. This treatment was followed by vermicomposting for 40 days with the native earthworm, Drawida willsi. The combination of both treatments reduced the overall time required for composting to 20 days and accelerated the degradation process of waste by-products of sugar processing industry, thereby producing a nutrient-enriched compost product useful for sustaining high crop yield, minimizing soil depletion and value added disposal of waste materials.

  5. Optimization of LG & E`s Cane Run 6 dual alkali FGD system

    SciTech Connect

    Colley, J.D.; Maller, G.; Schmitt, M.A.

    1995-06-01

    Louisville Gas and Electric operates a conventional dual alkali FGD system on its 258-megawatt Unit 6 at the Cane Run Station. This system, as is typical of other sodium-based scrubbers, has proven to be capable of high sulfur dioxide removal efficiency with minimal absorber scaling problems over the years. However, sodium reagent consumption has resulted in high FGD operating costs for this facility. This program, which was funded via EPRI Tailored Collaboration, investigated methods to reduce the soda ash and lime consumption. The paper presents the technical and economic results of a six-month test program where several different methods were tested to measure their effects on system reliability, SO{sub 2} performance, and costs.

  6. Decomposition of lignin from sugar cane bagasse during ozonation process monitored by optical and mass spectrometries.

    PubMed

    Souza-Corrêa, J A; Ridenti, M A; Oliveira, C; Araújo, S R; Amorim, J

    2013-03-21

    Mass spectrometry was used to monitor neutral chemical species from sugar cane bagasse that could volatilize during the bagasse ozonation process. Lignin fragments and some radicals liberated by direct ozone reaction with the biomass structure were detected. Ozone density was monitored during the ozonation by optical absorption spectroscopy. The optical results indicated that the ozone interaction with the bagasse material was better for bagasse particle sizes less than or equal to 0.5 mm. Both techniques have shown that the best condition for the ozone diffusion in the bagasse was at 50% of its moisture content. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to analyze the lignin bond disruptions and morphology changes of the bagasse surface that occurred due to the ozonolysis reactions as well. Appropriate chemical characterization of the lignin content in bagasse before and after its ozonation was also carried out.

  7. The effect of fire retardants on combustion and pyrolysis of sugar-cane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Griffin, G J

    2011-09-01

    Experiments were conducted by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and cone calorimetry to measure the affect of three fire retardants (ammonium sulphate, boric acid and borax) on the mass-loss rate and combustion characteristics of sugar-cane bagasse. Compared with untreated bagasse, bagasse impregnated with aqueous solutions of 0.1-0.5M fire retardants exhibited an increase in char mass production from 16% up to 41% when pyrolysed and up to a 41% reduction in total heat release (THR) during combustion. Char mass production was only a weak function of additive concentration over the range of concentrations (0.1-0.5M) used. Combining the additives did not show any synergistic effects for char production or heat release rate (HRR). Treatment of bagasse by these chemicals could be useful to enhance biochar yields in pyrolysis processes or to reduce flammability risk in composites containing bagasse.

  8. Washoff of Residual Photosystem II Herbicides from Sugar Cane Trash under a Rainfall Simulator.

    PubMed

    Dang, Aaditi; Silburn, Mark; Craig, Ian; Shaw, Melanie; Foley, Jenny

    2016-05-25

    Herbicides are often applied to crop residues, but their fate has not been well studied. We measured herbicide washoff from sugar cane trash during simulated rainfall, at 1, 8, and 40 days after spraying (DAS), to provide insight into herbicide fate and for use in modeling. Herbicides included are commonly used in the sugar industry, either in Australia or in Brazil. Concentrations of all herbicides and applied Br tracer in washoff declined exponentially over time. The rate of washoff during rainfall declined with increasing DAS. Cumulative washoff as a function of rainfall was similar for most herbicides, although the most soluble herbicides did have more rapid washoff. Some but not all herbicides became more resistant to washoff with increasing DAS. Of the total mass washed off, 80% washed off in the first 30 mm (∼40 min) of rainfall for most herbicides. Little herbicide remained on the trash after rainfall, implying nearly complete washoff.

  9. Distribution of prokaryotic organisms in a tropical estuary influenced by sugar cane agriculture in northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Lars; Schwalger, Berit; Knoppers, Bastiaan A.; da Silva, Luiz Antonio Ferreira; Medeiros, Paulo Ricardo Petter; Pollehne, Falk

    2010-01-01

    In a joint Brazilian-German case study, distribution patterns of microorganisms were compared with environmental variables in the tropical coastal Manguaba lagoon in northeast Brazil, which is situated downstream of several sugar cane processing plants . 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) gene fingerprinting were used to follow the composition and distribution of microorganisms throughout the salinity gradient of the lagoon. Potentially abundant microorganisms were identified by sequencing representative SSCP bands. It could be demonstrated that the distribution of microbes was in close relation to the physico-chemical environmental settings and followed a common scheme. In the in- and outlet areas of the lagoon rather transient microbial communities were found, whereas in the central part a stable, diverse community was encountered, that due to the long residence time of the water, had ample time for development and adaptation. PMID:24031568

  10. Wheelchairs, walkers, and canes: what does Medicare pay for, and who benefits?

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jennifer L; Agree, Emily M; Kasper, Judith D

    2005-01-01

    Medicare's role in the distribution of mobility-related assistive technology has not been well documented, yet rapid growth and regional variation in spending, and concerns over "in-the-home" coverage criteria, highlight the need for facts. Using the 2001 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, we find that 6.2 percent percent of beneficiaries obtained mobility assistive technology under the Medicare durable medical equipment (DME) benefit. These beneficiaries were disproportionately poor, disabled, and users of both acute and postacute services. Average per item spending ranged from $52 for canes to $6,208 for power wheelchairs. Among beneficiaries who acquired such technology through the DME benefit, these devices comprised just 2 percent of overall Medicare spending.

  11. Use of sugar cane vinasse to mitigate aluminum toxicity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    de Souza Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro; Rivas Torres, Beatriz; Zilli, Mario; de Araújo Viana Marques, Daniela; Basso, Luiz Carlos; Converti, Attilio

    2009-10-01

    Owing to its toxicity, aluminum (Al), which is one of the most abundant metals, inhibits the productivity of many cultures and affects the microbial metabolism. The aim of this work was to investigate the capacity of sugar cane vinasse to mitigate the adverse effects of Al on cell growth, viability, and budding, as the likely result of possible chelating action. For this purpose, Fleischmann's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was used in growth tests performed in 125-mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 30 mL of YED medium (5.0 g/L yeast extract plus 20 g/L glucose) supplemented with the selected amounts of either vinasse or Al in the form of AlCl(3) . H(2)O. Without vinasse, the addition of increasing levels of Al up to 54 mg/L reduced the specific growth rate by 18%, whereas no significant reduction was observed in its presence. The toxic effect of Al on S. cerevisiae growth and the mitigating effect of sugar cane vinasse were quantified by the exponential model of Ciftci et al. (Biotechnol Bioeng 25:2007-2023, 1983). The cell viability decreased from 97.7% at the start to 84.0% at the end of runs without vinasse and to 92.3% with vinasse. On the other hand, the cell budding increased from 7.62% at the start to 8.84% at the end of runs without vinasse and to 17.8% with vinasse. These results demonstrate the ability of this raw material to stimulate cell growth and mitigate the toxic effect of Al.

  12. Bioaccessible arsenic in soils of former sugar cane plantations, Island of Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Cutler, William G; Brewer, Roger C; El-Kadi, Aly; Hue, Nguyen V; Niemeyer, Patrick G; Peard, John; Ray, Chittaranjan

    2013-01-01

    Arsenical herbicides were used extensively for emergent weed control in Hawaiian sugar cane cultivation from 1913 to about 1950. As a result, surface soil arsenic concentrations average 280 mg kg(-1) across more than 60 km(2) of former sugar plantation land in the eastern portion of the Island of Hawaii. This study was conducted to elucidate the relationship between soil properties and arsenic bioaccessibility in the iron-rich volcanic soils. Soils are predominantly Andisols, formed by weathering of basaltic lava and tephra, with pedogenic solid phases consisting of short-range order iron oxyhydroxides, allophane-like aluminosilicates, and metal-humus compounds. These reactive solid phases strongly adsorb oxyanions, such as phosphate and arsenite/arsenate. High arsenic sorption capacity limits desorption and vertical migration within the soil column and prevents contamination of the underlying groundwater aquifer, despite high arsenic loading and precipitation rates. In vitro arsenic bioaccessibility, as measured by the SBRC gastric-phase test, ranges from 2% to 35% and averages 9% of total arsenic. Bioaccessible arsenic is higher in less weathered soils (Udifolists, Typic and Lithic Hydrudands) and lower in more weathered ash-dominant soils (Acrudoxic Hydrudands). Soil weathering indicators, such as reactive iron content, are strong predictors of arsenic bioaccessibility. Based on evidence from soil mineralogy, geochemistry and arsenic speciation, as well as limited soil arsenic bioavailability/bioaccessibility comparisons, risks to human health from direct contact (soil ingestion) are significantly reduced by low arsenic bioaccessibility. Nonetheless, some soils within former sugar cane cultivation areas contain bioaccessible arsenic concentrations exceeding Hawaii Department of Health risk-based action levels, and will require mitigating actions. Even higher levels of soil arsenic contamination have been identified at former pesticide storage and mixing areas

  13. Post 12 Ma tectonic activity of the Subalpine Molasse resolved by combining thermochronology and critical wedge analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hagke, C.; Oncken, O.; Ortner, H.; Cederbom, C.

    2012-04-01

    Thermochronological studies in the Northern Alpine Foreland Basin show that the folded and thrusted part of the basin, the Subalpine Molasse (SM), has been tectonically active during the last 12 Ma (Cederbom, C. E. et al., 2011; von Hagke, C. et al., in review). However, the amount of erosion and timing of thrusting is so far only reported from the Swiss Molasse basin. To test whether this is a local signal and whether climate contributed to this thrusting, we report thermochronological data from a profile south of Lake Constance and analyse the results in the framework of critical taper theory. We selected the Bregenzerach stream as suitable study area because it is one of the few profiles, which provides excellent outcrops in all stratigraphic units of the SM and is located east of the Jura fold and thrust belt, north of the Eastern Alps. We present new apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He (AHe) and apatite fission track (AFT) data. In contrast to the Central Alps, the new data do not show full resetting of the AFT system. This demonstrates that the eastern SM has experienced less erosion than the central SM. The AHe system in contrast, shows complete resetting also in the eastern SM. We observe age-offsets across the same thrusts which have been reactivated in the central SM. This confirms that the SM of the Eastern Alps must have been tectonically active until at least 5 Ma, as is also known from the central SM. This implies reactivation of thrusts, which formed originally in mid to late Miocene times. From critical taper analysis, reactivation of thrusting (assuming constant dip of the basal detachment through time) can only be obtained (1) by an increase of basal detachment strength or (2) a decrease of surface slope. An increase of detachment strength through time is either possible due to jumping of the detachment to another stratigraphic level or a change in pore fluid pressure. A decrease in surface slope is either tectonic- or erosion-controlled. We show that today the

  14. Modelling "reality" in tectonics: Simulation of the mechanical evolution of the Jura Mountains-Molasse Basin system, and routes to forward-inverse modelling of fold thrust belts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindle, David; Kley, Jonas

    2016-04-01

    The ultimate validation of any numerical model of any geological process comes when it can accurately forward model a case study from the geological record. However, as the example of the Jura-Molasse fold thrust belt demonstrates, geological information on even the most basic aspects of the present day state of such systems is highly incomplete and usually known only with large uncertainties. Fold thrust-belts are studied and understood by geologists in an iterative process of constructing their subsurface geometries and structures (folds, faults, bedding etc) based on limited subsurface information from boreholes, tunnels or seismic data where available, and surface information on outcrops of different layers and their dips. This data is usually processed through geometric models which involve conservation of line length of different beds over the length of an entire cross section. Constructing such sections is the art of cross section balancing. A balanced cross section can be easily restored to its pre-deformation state, assuming (usually) originally horizontal bedding to remove the effects of folding and faulting. Such a pre-deformation state can then form an initial condition for a forward mechanical model of the section. A mechanical model introduces new parameters into the system such as rock elasticity, cohesion, and frictional properties. However, a forward mechanical model can also potentially show the continuous evolution of a fold thrust belt, including dynamic quantities like stress. Moreover, a forward mechanical model, if correct in most aspects, should match in its final state, the present day geological cross section it is simulating. However, when attempting to achieve a match between geometric and mechanical models, it becomes clear that many more aspects of the geodynamic history of a fold thrust belt have to be taken into account. Erosion of the uppermost layers of an evolving thrust belt is the most obvious one of these. This can potentially

  15. Reservoir characterization of the Upper Jurassic geothermal target formations (Molasse Basin, Germany): role of thermofacies as exploration tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homuth, S.; Götz, A. E.; Sass, I.

    2015-06-01

    The Upper Jurassic carbonates of the southern German Molasse Basin are the target of numerous geothermal combined heat and power production projects since the year 2000. A production-orientated reservoir characterization is therefore of high economic interest. Outcrop analogue studies enable reservoir property prediction by determination and correlation of lithofacies-related thermo- and petrophysical parameters. A thermofacies classification of the carbonate formations serves to identify heterogeneities and production zones. The hydraulic conductivity is mainly controlled by tectonic structures and karstification, whilst the type and grade of karstification is facies related. The rock permeability has only a minor effect on the reservoir's sustainability. Physical parameters determined on oven-dried samples have to be corrected, applying reservoir transfer models to water-saturated reservoir conditions. To validate these calculated parameters, a Thermo-Triaxial-Cell simulating the temperature and pressure conditions of the reservoir is used and calorimetric and thermal conductivity measurements under elevated temperature conditions are performed. Additionally, core and cutting material from a 1600 m deep research drilling and a 4850 m (total vertical depth, measured depth: 6020 m) deep well is used to validate the reservoir property predictions. Under reservoir conditions a decrease in permeability of 2-3 magnitudes is observed due to the thermal expansion of the rock matrix. For tight carbonates the matrix permeability is temperature-controlled; the thermophysical matrix parameters are density-controlled. Density increases typically with depth and especially with higher dolomite content. Therefore, thermal conductivity increases; however the dominant factor temperature also decreases the thermal conductivity. Specific heat capacity typically increases with increasing depth and temperature. The lithofacies-related characterization and prediction of reservoir

  16. Effect of hydraulic retention time on suppression of methanogens during a continuous biohydrogen production process using molasses wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jeong Hee; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2017-01-02

    This study was undertaken to investigate the reduction of the hydraulic retention time (HRT) to decrease methane generation and recover hydrogen production during the long-term operation of biohydrogen production in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) using molasses wastewater. Reduction of HRT can be a simple and economic method to immediately control unfavorable methane generated during continuous operation of a hydrogen production system. The steady-state performance of the CSTR showed a hydrogen content of 41.3 ± 3.30% and a hydrogen production rate (HPR) of 63.7 ± 10.01 mmol-H2L(-1)d(-1) under an organic loading rate (OLR) of 29.7 g CODL(-1) at an HRT of 24 h. Increase in the methane level above 40% during long-term operation caused decrease in the hydrogen content and HPR to 5.9 ± 1.6% and 2.1 ± 1.1 mmoL-H2L(-1)d(-1), respectively. When methane increased to a high level over 40%, the CSTR at the HRT of 24 h was operated at the HRT of 12 h. Reduction of the HRT from 24 to 12 h led to decrease in the methane content of 12.1 ± 4.44% and recovery of the HPR value to 48.9 ± 15.37 mmol-H2L(-1)d(-1) over a duration of 13-22 d. When methane is generated in a continuously operated reactor, reduction of the HRT can be an easy way to suppress methanogens and recover hydrogen production without any additives or extra treatments.

  17. Effects of Rice Straw Supplemented with Urea and Molasses on Intermediary Metabolism of Plasma Glucose and Leucine in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Mohammad Khairul; Ogata, Yasumichi; Sato, Yukari; Sano, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    An isotope dilution method using [U-13C]glucose and [1-13C]leucine (Leu) was conducted to evaluate the effects of rice straw supplemented with urea and molasses (RSUM-diet) on plasma glucose and Leu turnover rates in sheep. Nitrogen (N) balance, rumen fermentation characteristics and blood metabolite concentrations were also determined. Four sheep were fed either mixed hay (MH-diet), or a RSUM-diet with a crossover design for two 21 days period. Feed allowance was computed on the basis of metabolizable energy at maintenance level. The isotope dilution method was performed as the primed-continuous infusion on day 21 of each dietary period. Nitrogen intake was lower (p = 0.01) for the RSUM-diet and N digestibility did not differ (p = 0.57) between diets. Concentrations of rumen total volatile fatty acids tended to be higher (p = 0.09) for the RSUM-diet than the MH-diet. Acetate concentration in the rumen did not differ (p = 0.38) between diets, whereas propionate concentration was higher (p = 0.01) for the RSUM-diet compared to the MH-diet. Turnover rates as well as concentrations of plasma glucose and Leu did not differ between diets. It can be concluded that kinetics of plasma glucose and Leu metabolism were comparable between the RSUM-diet and the MH-diet, and rumen fermentation characteristics were improved in sheep fed the RSUM-diet compared to the MH-diet. PMID:26949953

  18. Selection of bacteria capable of dissimilatory reduction of Fe(III) from a long-term continuous culture on molasses and their use in a microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Sikora, Anna; Wójtowicz-Sieńko, Justyna; Piela, Piotr; Zielenkiewicz, Urszula; Tomczyk-Zak, Karolina; Chojnacka, Aleksandra; Sikora, Radosław; Kowalczyk, Paweł; Grzesiuk, Elzbieta; Błaszczyk, Mieczysław

    2011-03-01

    Ferric ion-respiring microorganisms (FRMs) are a group of prokaryotes that use Fe(III) as well as other metals as terminal electron acceptors in the process of anaerobic respiration. Special attention is paid to a biotechnological significance of FRMs because of their potential role in electricity production in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) where the terminal acceptor of the electrons during anaerobic respiration is not a ferric ion but the anode. One of the best known FRMs is the Shewanellaceae family. Most of the Shewanella species have been isolated from marine environments. In this report, sugar beet molasses and ferric oxide were successfully used in the selection of a bacterial consortium capable of dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction in a long-term continuous culture. The inoculum was a sample of eutrophic lake bottom sediment. Among the bacteria present in this culture were representatives of the Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Pseudomonas, Arcobacter, and Shewanella. Two non-marine Fe(III)-reducing Shewanella-related clones named POL1 and POL2 were isolated. The abilities of the POL1 and POL2 isolates to metabolize a panel of 190 carbon sources were examined using a BIOLOG assay. The results confirmed the abilities of the shewanellas to utilize a broad range of carbon substrates. The utility of the POL1 and POL2 isolates in H-type MFCs operating on pyruvate or molasses was demonstrated. The operation of the MFC with shewanellas cultured on molasses was shown for the first time. A two-stage character of the fuel cell polarization curves, not previously noted in Shewanella MFC studies, was observed.

  19. The close relation between Lactococcus and Methanosaeta is a keystone for stable methane production from molasses wastewater in a UASB reactor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Gwan; Yun, Jeonghee; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2015-10-01

    The up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor is a promising method for the treatment of high-strength industrial wastewaters due to advantage of its high treatment capacity and settleable suspended biomass retention. Molasses wastewater as a sugar-rich waste is one of the most valuable raw material for bioenergy production due to its high organic strength and bioavailability. Interpretation for complex interactions of microbial community structures and operational parameters can help to establish stable biogas production. RNA-based approach for biogas production systems is recommended for analysis of functionally active community members which are significantly underestimated. In this study, methane production and active microbial community were characterized in an UASB reactor using molasses wastewater as feedstock. The UASB reactor achieved a stable process performance at an organic loading rate of 1.7~13.8-g chemical oxygen demand (COD,·L(-1) day(-1); 87-95 % COD removal efficiencies), and the maximum methane production rate was 4.01 L-CH4·at 13.8 g-COD L(-1) day(-1). Lactococcus and Methanosaeta were comprised up to 84 and 80 % of the active bacterial and archaeal communities, respectively. Network analysis of reactor performance and microbial community revealed that Lactococcus and Methanosaeta were network hub nodes and positively correlated each other. In addition, they were positively correlated with methane production and organic loading rate, and they shared the other microbial hub nodes as neighbors. The results indicate that the close association between Lactococcus and Methanosaeta is responsible for the stable production of methane in the UASB reactor using molasses wastewater.

  20. Effect of Applying Molasses and Propionic Acid on Fermentation Quality and Aerobic Stability of Total Mixed Ration Silage Prepared with Whole-plant Corn in Tibet

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lei; Guo, Gang; Yuan, Xianjun; Shimojo, Masataka; Yu, Chengqun; Shao, Tao

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of molasses and propionic acid on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR) silages prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. TMR (354 g/kg DM) was ensiled with four different treatments: no additive (control), molasses (M), propionic acid (P), and molasses+propionic acid (PM), in laboratory silos (250 mL) and fermented for 45 d. Silos were opened and silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 12 days, in which chemical and microbiological parameters of TMR silages were measured to determined the aerobic deterioration. After 45 d of ensiling, the four TMR silages were of good quality with low pH value and ammonia/total N (AN), and high lactic acid (LA) content and V-scores. M silage showed the highest (p<0.05) LA content and higher dry matter (DM) recovery than the control and P silages. P silage had lower (p<0.05) LA content than the control silage. During aerobic exposure, lactic acid contents decreased gradually in the control and M silages, while that of P and PM silages increased, and the peak values were observed after 9 d. M silage had similar yeast counts with the control silage (>105 cfu/g FM), however, it appeared to be more stable as indicated by a delayed pH value increase. P and PM silages showed fewer yeasts (<105 cfu/g FM) (p<0.05) and were more stable than the control and M silages during aerobic exposure. It was concluded that M application increased LA content and improved aerobic stability of TMR silage prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. P application inhibited lactic acid production during ensiling, and apparently preserved available sugars which stimulated large increases in lactic acid during aerobic exposure stage, which resulted in greater aerobic stability of TMR silage. PMID:25049961

  1. A suspected parasite spill-back of two novel Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea) causing disease in Australian endemic frogs found in the invasive Cane toad.

    PubMed

    Hartigan, Ashlie; Fiala, Ivan; Dyková, Iva; Jirků, Miloslav; Okimoto, Ben; Rose, Karrie; Phalen, David N; Šlapeta, Jan

    2011-04-25

    Infectious diseases are contributing to the decline of endangered amphibians. We identified myxosporean parasites, Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea: Myxozoa), in the brain and liver of declining native frogs, the Green and Golden Bell frog (Litoria aurea) and the Southern Bell frog (Litoria raniformis). We unequivocally identified two Myxidium spp. (both generalist) affecting Australian native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (Bufo marinus, syn. Rhinella marina) and demonstrated their association with disease. Our study tested the identity of Myxidium spp. within native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (brought to Australia in 1935, via Hawaii) to resolve the question whether the Cane toad introduced them to Australia. We showed that the Australian brain and liver Myxidium spp. differed 9%, 7%, 34% and 37% at the small subunit rDNA, large subunit rDNA, internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, but were distinct from Myxidium cf. immersum from Cane toads in Brazil. Plotting minimum within-group distance against maximum intra-group distance confirmed their independent evolutionary trajectory. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the brain stages localize inside axons. Myxospores were morphologically indistinguishable, therefore genetic characterisation was necessary to recognise these cryptic species. It is unlikely that the Cane toad brought the myxosporean parasites to Australia, because the parasites were not found in 261 Hawaiian Cane toads. Instead, these data support the enemy-release hypothesis predicting that not all parasites are translocated with their hosts and suggest that the Cane toad may have played an important spill-back role in their emergence and facilitated their dissemination. This work emphasizes the importance of accurate species identification of pathogens relevant to wildlife management and disease control. In our case it is paving the road for the spill-back role of the Cane toad and the parasite emergence.

  2. Effect of applying molasses or inoculants containing homofermentative or heterofermentative bacteria at two rates on the fermentation and aerobic stability of corn silage.

    PubMed

    Huisden, C M; Adesogan, A T; Kim, S C; Ososanya, T

    2009-02-01

    This study determined how the fermentation and aerobic stability of corn silage are affected by treatment with molasses or 2 dual-purpose inoculants applied at or above the recommended rate. Corn forage (DeKalb 69-70) was harvested at 39% dry matter (DM) and ensiled after treatment with no additives (control, CON), molasses (MOL), Buchneri 500 inoculant, or Pioneer 11C33 inoculant. Molasses was applied at 3% of forage DM. Buchneri 500 was applied at the recommended rate of 8 mg/kg fresh forage to supply 1 x 10(5) cfu/g of Pediococcus pentosaceus 12455 and 4 x 10(5) cfu/g of Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 (BB) or at twice the recommended rate (DBB). Pioneer 11C33 inoculant was applied at the recommended rate of 1.1 mg/kg fresh forage to supply 1 x 10(5) cfu/g of a mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum, L. buchneri, and Enteroccocus faecium (PN) or at twice the recommended rate (DPN). Each treatment was applied in quadruplicate and the treated forages were ensiled within 20-L mini silos for 135 d at 18 to 35 degrees C. Molasses-treated silages had greater ash and starch concentrations than CON silages and greater lactate and ethanol concentrations than other silages. Like CON silages, MOL silages had high yeast counts (>10(5) cfu/g); consequently, they deteriorated within 30 h as shown by temperature increase. Inoculant-treated silages had lower lactate to acetate ratios than CON or MOL silages largely because they had greater acetate concentrations. Consequently, all inoculant-treated silages had fewer yeasts (<10(5) cfu/g) and were more stable (>30 h) than CON and MOL silages. When applied at recommended rates, PN and BB had similar effects on silage chemical composition, fermentation, fungal counts, and aerobic stability, except for a lower lactate concentration in PN silages. Concentrations of VFA, and NH(3)-N, pH, and extent of aerobic stability were similar for PN, DPN, BB, and DBB silages. However, lactate concentration was greater in DPN than in PN. In conclusion

  3. First report of exotic ticks (Amblyomma rotundatum) parasitizing invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) on the Island of Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Kelehear, Crystal; Hudson, Cameron M; Mertins, James W; Shine, Richard

    2017-02-01

    Our surveys of 1401 invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) from the Hawaiian islands of Hawai'i, O'ahu, and Maui revealed the presence of an exotic tick, Amblyomma rotundatum. Immature and adult female ticks infested three wild adult toads at a single site in the vicinity of a zoo south of Hilo, Island of Hawai'i, Hawai'i, USA. We found no tick-infested toads on O'ahu or Maui. This tick infests cane toads in their native Neotropical range, but it was excluded from Hawai'i when the original founder toads were introduced over 80 years ago. The circumstances of our discovery suggest that A. rotundatum was independently and belatedly introduced to Hawai'i with imported zoo animals, and Hawai'i now joins Florida as the second U.S. state where this tick is established.

  4. Comparative effect of cane syrup and natural honey on abdominal viscera of growing male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Ajibola, Abdulwahid; Chamunorwa, Joseph P; Erlwanger, Kennedy H

    2013-04-01

    The high intake of refined sugars, mainly fructose has been implicated in the epidemiology of metabolic diseases in adults and children. With an aim to determine whether honey can substitute refined sugars without adverse effect, the long-term effects of natural honey and cane syrup have been compared on visceral morphology in growing rats fed from neonatal age. Honey increased the caecum and pancreas weights in male rats, which could enhance enzymatic activities of pancreas and digestive functions by intestinal microflora of caecum. Unlike honey, cane syrup caused fatty degenerations in the liver of both male and female rats. Honey enhanced intestinal villi growth, and did not cause pathology in the rodents' abdominal viscera, suggesting potential nutritional benefit as substitution for refined sugars in animal feed.

  5. The structure of the penis with the associated baculum in the male greater cane rat (Thryonomys swinderianus).

    PubMed

    Adebayo, A O; Akinloye, A K; Olurode, S A; Anise, E O; Oke, B O

    2011-08-01

    In this study, the structures of penises of eight sexually mature male greater cane rats were examined at both macroscopic and histological levels. Each animal was sacrificed after anaesthesia with ether and then dissected open with the penis exposed from its root. The penises were first grossly examined, measured, and then prepared for histological examination. From this study it was observed that the body size has no allometry with penile size, but the testicular weight correlated with Os penis length in the greater cane rat. Grossly, the penis which was whitish in colour, with a mean length of 5.46 ± 0.36 cm, has no obvious collum penis but a flexura that turns it caudo-ventral and separates the corpus and glans penis. There was the presence of cornified papillae covering parts of the corpus and glans penis as well as a blind sac sacculus urethralis under the urethra on the glans penis. Histologically, the corpora cavernosa penis were completely separated by a connective tissue septum which sent the trabeculae network into the cavernous tissues and replaced the caverns as it moves from corpus to glans penis. The Os penis formed through endochondral ossification after 42 months of age in this animal. Therefore, from a histological standpoint, the cane rat penis belongs to the intermediate type. In conclusion, these findings provide vital information on the penile anatomy of the greater cane rat, which will serve as a basis for comparing penile morphology among the suborder hystricomorpha and expand knowledge of the reproductive biology in this animal.

  6. A preliminary report on the use of cane and bamboo as basic construction materials for orthotic and prosthetic appliances.

    PubMed

    Banerji, B; Banerji, J B

    1984-08-01

    Cane and bamboo have been found to be viable and alternative basic construction materials for orthotic/prosthetic appliances and rehabilitation aids. Amongst the appliances made, the night splint and the upper limb splints have proved effective in field trials. The lower limb orthoses and prosthesis however are still at an experimental stage. Of the rehabilitation aids, walkers, crutches and wheelchairs have been found to be remarkably useful, cheap and light.

  7. Enzymatic saccharification of sugar cane bagasse by continuous xylanase and cellulase production from cellulomonas flavigena PR-22.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Rejón, Óscar A; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M; Ramos-Valdivia, Ana C; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo; Martínez, Alfredo; de la Torre, Mayra

    2016-03-01

    Cellulase (CMCase) and xylanase enzyme production and saccharification of sugar cane bagasse were coupled into two stages and named enzyme production and sugar cane bagasse saccharification. The performance of Cellulomonas flavigena (Cf) PR-22 cultured in a bubble column reactor (BCR) was compared to that in a stirred tank reactor (STR). Cells cultured in the BCR presented higher yields and productivity of both CMCase and xylanase activities than those grown in the STR configuration. A continuous culture with Cf PR-22 was run in the BCR using 1% alkali-pretreated sugar cane bagasse and mineral media, at dilution rates ranging from 0.04 to 0.22 1/h. The highest enzymatic productivity values were found at 0.08 1/h with 1846.4 ± 126.4 and 101.6 ± 5.6 U/L·h for xylanase and CMCase, respectively. Effluent from the BCR in steady state was transferred to an enzymatic reactor operated in fed-batch mode with an initial load of 75 g of pretreated sugar cane bagasse; saccharification was then performed in an STR at 55°C and 300 rpm for 90 h. The constant addition of fresh enzyme as well as the increase in time of contact with the substrate increased the total soluble sugar concentration 83% compared to the value obtained in a batch enzymatic reactor. This advantageous strategy may be used for industrial enzyme pretreatment and saccharification of lignocellulosic wastes to be used in bioethanol and chemicals production from lignocellulose. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:321-326, 2016.

  8. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium and nickel stress: the use of the sugar cane vinasse as a potential mitigator.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro de Souza; Basso, Luiz Carlos; Junior, Adalberto Pessoa; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni; Del Borghi, Marco; Converti, Attilio

    2012-01-01

    Most of the metals released from industrial activity, among them are cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni), inhibit the productivity of cultures and affect microbial metabolism. In this context, the aim of this work was to investigate the capacity of sugar cane vinasse to mitigate the adverse effects of Cd and Ni on cell growth, viability, budding rate and trehalose content of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, likely because of adsorption and chelating action. For this purpose, the yeast was grown batch-wise in YED medium supplemented with selected amounts of vinasse and Cd or Ni. The negative effects of Cd and Ni on S. cerevisiae growth and the mitigating one of sugar cane vinasse were quantified by an exponential model. Without vinasse, the addition of increasing levels of Cd and Ni reduced the specific growth rate, whereas in its presence no reduction was observed. Consistently with the well-proved toxicity of both metals, cell viability and budding rate progressively decreased with increasing their concentration, but in the presence of vinasse the situation was remarkably improved. The trehalose content of S. cerevisiae cells followed the same qualitative behavior as cell viability, even though the negative effect of both metals on this parameter was stronger. These results demonstrate the ability of sugar cane vinasse to mitigate the toxic effects of Cd and Ni.

  9. [Determination of brix and POL in sugar cane juice by using near infrared spectroscopy coupled with BP-ANN].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Ye, Hua-jun; Li, Qing-tao; Xie, Jin-chun; Lu, Jia-jiong; Xia, A-lin; Wang, Jian

    2010-07-01

    The models of quantitative analysis of brix and pol in sugar cane juice were established by using near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) coupled with the back propagation-artificial neural network method (BP-ANN). The spectra of cane juice samples were obtained by the way of 2 mm optical length transmission and using the NIR spectrometer of 1,000-1,800 nm wavelength. Firstly, the data of original spectra were pretreated by Savitzky-Golay derivative and mean-centering. Secondly, the wavelength range of model was optimized by using correlation coefficient method coupled with the characteristic absorbance of the spectrum. Finally, the principal components, obtained by PLS dimension-reducing, were inputed into BP-ANN. The calibration models were established by calibration set and validated by prediction set. The results showed that the related coefficients (R2) of prediction for brix and pol were 0.982 and 0.979, respectively; and the standard errors of prediction (SEP) for brix and pol were 0.159 and 0.137, respectively. BP-ANN was more accurate in the prediction of brix and pol compared with the partial least square method (PLS). The method can be applied to fast and accurate determination of brix and pol in sugar cane juice.

  10. A fuzzy-logic-based model to predict biogas and methane production rates in a pilot-scale mesophilic UASB reactor treating molasses wastewater.

    PubMed

    Turkdogan-Aydinol, F Ilter; Yetilmezsoy, Kaan

    2010-10-15

    A MIMO (multiple inputs and multiple outputs) fuzzy-logic-based model was developed to predict biogas and methane production rates in a pilot-scale 90-L mesophilic up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating molasses wastewater. Five input variables such as volumetric organic loading rate (OLR), volumetric total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal rate (R(V)), influent alkalinity, influent pH and effluent pH were fuzzified by the use of an artificial intelligence-based approach. Trapezoidal membership functions with eight levels were conducted for the fuzzy subsets, and a Mamdani-type fuzzy inference system was used to implement a total of 134 rules in the IF-THEN format. The product (prod) and the centre of gravity (COG, centroid) methods were employed as the inference operator and defuzzification methods, respectively. Fuzzy-logic predicted results were compared with the outputs of two exponential non-linear regression models derived in this study. The UASB reactor showed a remarkable performance on the treatment of molasses wastewater, with an average TCOD removal efficiency of 93 (+/-3)% and an average volumetric TCOD removal rate of 6.87 (+/-3.93) kg TCOD(removed)/m(3)-day, respectively. Findings of this study clearly indicated that, compared to non-linear regression models, the proposed MIMO fuzzy-logic-based model produced smaller deviations and exhibited a superior predictive performance on forecasting of both biogas and methane production rates with satisfactory determination coefficients over 0.98.

  11. Evaluating the efficiency of a mixed culture biofilm for the treatment of black liquor and molasses in a mediator-less microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Ali, Naeem; Yousaf, Sameen; Anam, Maira; Bangash, Zain; Maleeha, Sehrish

    2016-11-01

    A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an emerging environment-friendly technology to recover the useful energy available in waste by using microorganisms as catalyst. In this study, double chamber mediator-less MFCs separated by proton exchange membrane (PEM; Nafion) were constructed to determine the efficiency of mixed culture in using complex substrates (molasses and black liquor). It was found that activated sludge can serve as efficient source of electricigens for biofilm development on an anode. Power density of 2.425 W/m² was generated from molasses with chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 67% as compared to power density of 3.55 W/m² produced from black liquor along with COD removal efficiency of 78%. Moreover, it was demonstrated that surface area of PEM has a significant effect on power generation. An almost 5- to 8-fold increase in voltage was observed as the size of PEM was increased from 6.5 to 25 cm².

  12. Engineering and adaptive evolution of Escherichia coli W for L-lactic acid fermentation from molasses and corn steep liquor without additional nutrients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongze; Li, Kunpeng; Huang, Feng; Wang, Jinhua; Zhao, Jinfang; Zhao, Xiao; Garza, Erin; Manow, Ryan; Grayburn, Scott; Zhou, Shengde

    2013-11-01

    The D-lactic acid producing strain, Escherichia coli HBUT-D, was reengineered for L(+)-lactic acid fermentation by replacing the D-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhA) with an L(+)-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhL) from Pedicoccus acidilactici, followed by adaptive evolution in sucrose. The resulting strain, WYZ-L, has enhanced expression of the sucrose operon (cscA and cscKB). In 100 g L(-1) of sucrose fermentation using mineral salt medium, WYZ-L produced 97 g L(-1) of l(+)-lactic acid, with a yield of 90%, a maximum productivity of 3.17 g L(-1)h(-1) and an optical purity of greater than 99%. In fermentations using sugarcane molasses and corn steep liquor without additional nutrients, WYZ-L produced 75 g L(-1) of l(+)-lactic acid, with a yield of 85%, a maximum productivity of 1.18 g L(-1)h(-1), and greater than 99% optical purity. These results demonstrated that WYZ-L has the potential to use waste molasses and corn steep liquor as a resource for L(+)-lactic acid fermentation.

  13. Respiratory toxicity of repeated exposure to particles produced by traffic and sugar cane burning.

    PubMed

    Mazzoli-Rocha, Flavia; Carvalho, Giovanna M C; Lanzetti, Manuella; Valença, Samuel S; Silva, Luiz F F; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Zin, Walter A; Faffe, Débora S

    2014-01-15

    We compared the toxicity of subchronic exposure to equivalent masses of particles from sugar cane burning and traffic. BALB/c mice received 3 intranasal instillations/week during 1, 2 or 4 weeks of either distilled water (C1, C2, C4) or particles (15μg) from traffic (UP1, UP2, UP4) or biomass burning (BP1, BP2, BP4). Lung mechanics, histology and oxidative stress were analyzed 24h after the last instillation. In all instances UP and BP groups presented worse pulmonary elastance, airway and tissue resistance, alveolar collapse, bronchoconstriction and macrophage influx into the lungs than controls. UP4, BP2 and BP4 presented more alveolar collapse than UP1 and BP1, respectively. UP and BP had worse bronchial and alveolar lesion scores than their controls; BP4 had greater bronchial lesion scores than UP4. Catalase was higher in UP4 and BP4 than in C4. In conclusion, biomass particles were more toxic than those from traffic after repeated exposures.

  14. Immunostimulation of sugar cane extract on neutrophils to Salmonella typhimurium infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Hua; Lo, Dan-Yuan; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Hsuan, Shih-Ling; Chien, Maw-Sheng; Lin, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Ter-Hsin; Lee, Wei-Cheng

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of sugar cane extract (SCE) on the biological activities of neutrophils in mice. Six-week-old BALB/c mice were fed 1250 mg/kg of SCE once. The generation, migration and biological functions of neutrophils and the survival rates of the mice in response to Salmonella typhimurium infection were evaluated. The results show that the numbers of both bone marrow cells and neutrophils were significantly increased in response to SCE administration (p < 0.05) compared with controls. The migration, phagocytosis and H₂O₂ generation of neutrophils were all significantly enhanced in SCE-treated mice (p < 0.05). After challenge with S. typhimurium (lethal dose, 50% (LD₅₀), SCE-treated mice had a 19.2% higher survival rate and milder hepatic lesions than the controls. Additionally, fewer invasive bacteria were recovered from the spleens of SCE-treated mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that SCE has a positive regulatory effect on the biological function of mouse neutrophils that may increase host resistance against bacterial infections.

  15. Mechanical properties of the hindlimb bones of bullfrogs and cane toads in bending and torsion.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Megan P; Espinoza, Nora R; Shah, Sagar R; Blob, Richard W

    2009-07-01

    When compared with most vertebrates, frogs use a novel style of jumping locomotion powered by the hindlimbs. Hindlimb bones of frogs must withstand the potentially erratic loads associated with such saltatory locomotion. To evaluate the load bearing capacity of anuran limb bones, we used three-point bending, torsion, and hardness tests to measure the mechanical properties of the femur and tibiofibula from adults of two species that use different jumping styles: explosively jumping bullfrogs (Rana (Lithobates) catesbeiana) and cyclically hopping cane toads (Bufo (Chaunus) marinus). Yield stress and strain values for R. catesbeiana and B. marinus hindlimb bones are within the range of values previously reported for other vertebrates. However, anuran hindlimb bones generally stand out as having higher yield stresses in bending than those of closely related, nonsaltatory salamanders, highlighting the importance of considering phylogenetic context in comparisons of bone functional capacity and adaptation. Stiffness values for both frog species tested were also high, which may facilitate efficient transmission of muscular forces while jumping. Elevated stiffness may also contribute to some discrepancies between determinations of bone properties via hardness versus bending tests. In comparisons between species, B. marinus bones showed significantly higher bending yield stresses than R. catesbeiana, whereas R. catesbeiana bones showed significantly higher torsional yield stresses than B. marinus. These differences may correlate with differences in jumping style and limb anatomy between ranid and bufonid frogs, suggesting that evolutionary changes in bone mechanical properties may help to accommodate new functional demands that emerge in lineages.

  16. Optimizing the saccharification of sugar cane bagasse using dilute phosphoric acid followed by fungal cellulases.

    PubMed

    Geddes, C C; Peterson, J J; Roslander, C; Zacchi, G; Mullinnix, M T; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, L O

    2010-03-01

    A low level of phosphoric acid (1% w/w on dry bagasse basis, 160 degrees C and above, 10 min) was shown to effectively hydrolyze the hemicellulose in sugar cane bagasse into monomers with minimal side reactions and to serve as an effective pre-treatment for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Up to 45% of the remaining water-insoluble solids (WIS) was digested to sugar monomers by a low concentration of Biocellulase W (0.5 filter paper unit/gWIS) supplemented with beta-glucosidase, although much higher levels of cellulase (100-fold) were required for complete hydrolysis. After neutralization and nutrient addition, phosphoric acid syrups of hemicellulose sugars were fermented by ethanologenic Escherichia coli LY160 without further purification. Fermentation of these syrups was preceded by a lag that increased with increased pre-treatment temperature. Further improvements in organisms and optimization of steam treatments may allow the co-fermentation of sugars derived from hemicellulose and cellulose, eliminating need for liquid-solid separation, sugar purification, and separate fermentations.

  17. [Preliminary results of an herpetology investigation in sugar cane plantation in Democratic Republic of Congo].

    PubMed

    Malukisa, J; Collet, M; Bokata, S; Odio, W

    2005-11-01

    Out of the 3,000 species of snakes described in the world, 163 are currently known from D.R. of Congo. We performed a systematic survey in sugar-cane plantations of the Sugar Company of Kwilu-Ngongo (Bas-Congo), located at 160 km South-West from Kinshasa and exploiting nearly 10,000 ha. The plantation is divided into 3 sectors in the middle of which we deposited barrels filled of formaldehyde. All the employees of the Sugar Company of Kwilu-Ngongo were requested to collect encountered snakes and put them in the nearest barrel. Between August 9th and September 21st, 2004, we collected 36 snakes in two different sites, revealing the presence of 3 families and 12 species. The most abundant species in Causus maculatus (47% in the first site--Point 8--and 29% in the second site--Point 13). The most poisonous and dangerous species were captured only in the first site--point 8, and were Dendroaspis jamesoni and Naja melanoleuca, both young.

  18. Helpful invaders: Can cane toads reduce the parasite burdens of native frogs?

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Felicity B.L.; Brown, Gregory P.; Shilton, Catherine; Shine, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Many invading species have brought devastating parasites and diseases to their new homes, thereby imperiling native taxa. Potentially, though, invaders might have the opposite effect. If they take up parasites that otherwise would infect native taxa, but those parasites fail to develop in the invader, the introduced species might reduce parasite burdens of the native fauna. Similarly, earlier exposure to the other taxon's parasites might ‘prime’ an anuran's immune system such that it is then able to reject subsequent infection by its own parasite species. Field surveys suggest that lungworm counts in native Australian frogs decrease after the arrival of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina), and laboratory studies confirm that native lungworm larvae enter, but do not survive in, the toads. In laboratory trials, we confirmed that the presence of anurans (either frogs or toads) in an experimental arena reduced uptake rates of lungworm larvae by anurans that were later added to the same arena. However, experimental exposure to lungworms from native frogs did not enhance a toad's ability to reject subsequent infection by its own lungworm species. PMID:26236630

  19. The Development of Snail Control Methods on an Irrigated Sugar-Cane Estate in Northern Tanzania*

    PubMed Central

    Fenwick, A.

    1970-01-01

    In an attempt to prevent the transmission of Schistosoma mansoni on an irrigated sugar-cane estate, molluscicide experiments were carried out to find the optimum methods for controlling the intermediate-host snails, Biomphalaria pfeifferi. The ease of application of N-tritylmorpholine led to its adoption as the molluscicide of choice for the two separate irrigation systems on the estate. Experiments on the frequency and duration of molluscicide treatments were carried out, and from these it was concluded that 5-day applications of N-tritylmorpholine at 0.025 ppm every 7 weeks might lead to a break in transmission by control of the snails. In another set of trials, drainage ditches were treated alternately with N-tritylmorpholine and niclosamide ethanolamine salt, and although the chemicals differed only slightly in their effect, the latter—being ovicidal—was chosen to be applied at approximately 4 ppm by knapsack sprayer every 8 weeks. Extra treatment of small pools with the same compound was carried out during the long rains when irrigation was unnecessary and most of the canals were dry. It is pointed out that the effect of the control methods on S. mansoni transmission will need to be evaluated by studying the incidence of the disease in the population. PMID:5310954

  20. Mathematical models for prediction of rheological parameters in vinasses derived from sugar cane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacua, Leidy M.; Ayala, Germán; Rojas, Hernán; Agudelo, Ana C.

    2016-04-01

    The rheological behaviour of vinasses derived from sugar cane was studied as a function of time (0 and 600 s), soluble solids content (44 and 60 °Brix), temperature (10 and 50°C), and shear rate (0.33 and 1.0 s-1). The results indicated that vinasses were time-independent at 25°C, where shear stress values ranged between 0.01 and 0.08 Pa. Flow curves showed a shear-thinning rheological behaviour in vinasses with a flow behaviour index between 0.69 and 0.89, for temperature between 10 and 20°C. With increasing temperature, the flow behaviour index was modified, reaching values close to 1.0. The Arrhenius model described well the thermal activation of shear stress and the consistency coefficient as a function of temperature. Activation energy from the Arrhenius model ranged between 31 and 45 kJ mol-1. Finally, the consistency coefficient as a function of the soluble solids content and temperature was well fitted using an exponential model (R2 = 0.951), showing that the soluble solids content and temperature have an opposite effect on consistency coefficient values.

  1. Arundo donax cane as a precursor for activated carbons preparation by phosphoric acid activation.

    PubMed

    Vernersson, T; Bonelli, P R; Cerrella, E G; Cukierman, A L

    2002-06-01

    Canes from Arundo donax, a herbaceous rapid-growing plant, were used as precursor for activated carbon preparation by phosphoric acid activation under a self-generated atmosphere. The influence of the carbonization temperature in the range 400-550 degrees C and of the weight ratio phosphoric acid to precursor (R = 1.5-2.5) on the developed porous structure of the resulting carbons was studied for 1 h of carbonization time. Surface properties of the activated carbons were dependent on a combined effect of the conditions employed. Carbons developed either with R = 1.5 over the range 400-500 degrees C, or with R = 2 at 500 degrees C exhibited surface areas of around 1100 m2/g, the latter conditions promoting a larger pore volume and enhanced mesoporous character. For both ratios, temperature above 500 degrees C led to reduction in porosity development. A similar effect was found for the highest ratio (R = 2.5) and 500 degrees C. The influence of carrying out the carbonization either for times shorter than 1 h or under flowing N2 was also examined at selected conditions (R = 2, 500 degrees C). Shorter times induced increase in the surface area (approximately 1300 m2/g), yielding carbons with smaller mean pore radius. Activated carbons obtained under flowing N2 possessed predominant microporous structures and larger ash contents than the samples derived in the self-generated atmosphere.

  2. Techno-economic comparison of biojet fuel production from lignocellulose, vegetable oil and sugar cane juice.

    PubMed

    Diederichs, Gabriel Wilhelm; Ali Mandegari, Mohsen; Farzad, Somayeh; Görgens, Johann F

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a techno-economic comparison was performed considering three processes (thermochemical, biochemical and hybrid) for production of jet fuel from lignocellulosic biomass (2G) versus two processes from first generation (1G) feedstocks, including vegetable oil and sugar cane juice. Mass and energy balances were constructed for energy self-sufficient versions of these processes, not utilising any fossil energy sources, using ASPEN Plus® simulations. All of the investigated processes obtained base minimum jet selling prices (MJSP) that is substantially higher than the market jet fuel price (2-4 fold). The 1G process which converts vegetable oil, obtained the lowest MJSPs of $2.22/kg jet fuel while the two most promising 2G processes- the thermochemical (gasification and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) and hybrid (gasification and biochemical upgrading) processes- reached MJSPs of $2.44/kg and $2.50/kg jet fuel, respectively. According to the economic sensitivity analysis, the feedstock cost and fixed capital investment have the most influence on the MJSP.

  3. Protective effect of sugar cane extract against dextran sulfate sodium-induced colonic inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Li, Yansen; Mizu, Masami; Furuta, Toma; Li, ChunMei

    2017-02-01

    Sugar cane extract (SCE) exhibits various biological effects and has been reported to enhance animal growth performance. However, the effect of SCE on inflammation in animals is still obscure. To study the effects and underlying mechanism of SCE on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colonic inflammation, forty female ICR mice (26.63±0.19g, 6-week-old) were assigned into four groups: a control group (Cont), a DSS-challenged group (DSS), a SCE-supplemented group (SCE), and a DSS+SCE group (DSS+SCE). Mice in Cont group and DSS group were fed basic diet and other mice received 1% SCE supplemented in basic diet from 6-week to 8-week-old. Mice in DSS and DSS+SCE groups were also given a 4% DSS solution from 7-week to 8-week-old via drinking water to induce colonic inflammation. After 2 weeks, mice were sacrificed and samples were collected. The results showed that dietary SCE alleviated DSS induced growth suppression, splenic damage, colonic histological changes, colonic inflammation, oxidative stress, and colonic dysfunction of tight junctions. Meanwhile, the DSS exposure activated nuclear transcription factor kappa B p65 and inhibited nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), while SCE markedly attenuated the DSS-promoted effect on the p65 nuclear accumulation and the DSS-inhibited effect on the Nrf2 nuclear accumulation. In conclusion, SCE conferred a protective role in the DSS-induced inflammation and the mechanism might be associated with the activated signals of the nuclear factor kappa B p65 and Nrf2.

  4. Enterobacter sacchari sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bo; Zhou, Qing; Lin, Li; Hu, Chunjin; Shen, Ping; Yang, Litao; An, Qianli; Xie, Guanlin; Li, Yangrui

    2013-07-01

    Five nitrogen-fixing bacterial strains (SP1(T), NN143, NN144, NN208 and HX148) were isolated from stem, root or rhizosphere soil of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) plants. Cells were Gram-negative, motile, rods with peritrichous flagella. DNA G+C content was 55.0 ± 0.5 mol%. Sequence determinations and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene and rpoB indicated that the strains were affiliated with the genus Enterobacter and most closely related to E. radicincitans DSM 16656(T) and E. oryzae LMG 24251(T). Fluorimetric determination of thermal denaturation temperatures after DNA-DNA hybridization, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry differentiated the whole-genome, genotype and protein profiles from those of E. radicincitans and E. oryzae. The strains' cell fatty acid composition differentiated them from E. radicincitans and E. oryzae by containing a higher level of summed feature 2 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) and a lower level of C17 : 0 cyclo. Their physiological and biochemical profiles differentiated them from E. radicincitans by being positive for methyl red test, ornithine decarboxylase and utilization of putrescine, D-arabitol, L-fucose and methyl α-D-glucoside and being negative for arginine dihydrolase, and differentiated them from E. oryzae by being positive for aesculin hydrolysis and utilization of putrescine, D-arabitol and L-rhamnose and being negative for arginine dihydrolase, lysine decarboxylase and utilization of mucate. The five strains therefore represent a novel species, for which the name Enterobacter sacchari sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain SP1(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12102(T) = LMG 26783(T)).

  5. Geology of the Cane Branch and Helton Branch watershed areas, McCreary County, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, Erwin J.

    1957-01-01

    Cane Branch and Helton Branch in McCreary County, Kentucky, are about 1.4 miles apart (fig. 1). Can Branch, which is about 2.1 miles long, emptied into Hughes Fork of Beaver Creek. Its watershed area of about 1.5 square miles lies largely in the Wiborf 7 1/2-minute quadrangle (SW/4 Cumberland Falls 15-minute quadrangle), but the downstream part of the area extends northward into the Hail 7 1/2-minute quadrangle (NW/4 Cumberland Falls 15-minute quadrangle). Helton Branch, which is about 1.1 miles long, has two tributaries and empties into Little Hurricane Fork of Beaver Creek. It drains an area of about 0.8 square mile of while about 0.5 square mile is in the Hail quadrangle and the remainder in the Wilborg quadrangle. The total relief in the Can Branch area is about 500 feet and in the Helton Branch area about 400 feet. Narrow, steep-sided to canyon-like valley and winding ridges, typical of the Pottsville escarpment region, are characteristic of both areas. Thick woods and dense undergrowth cover much of the two areas. Field mapping was done on U.S. Geological Survey 7 1/2-minute maps having a scale of 1:24,000 and a contour interval of 20 feet. Elevations of lithologic contacts were determined with a barometer and a hand level. Aerial photographs were used principally to trace the cliffs formed by sandstone and conglomerate ledges. Exposures, except for those of the cliff- and ledge-forming sandstone and conglomerates, are not abundant. The most complete stratigraphic sections (secs. 3 and 4, fig. 2) in the two areas are exposed in cuts of newly completed Forest Service roads, but the rick in the upper parts of the exposures is weathered. To supplement these sections, additional sections were measured in cuts along the railroad and main highways in nor near the watersheds.

  6. Urinary corticosterone metabolite responses to capture and captivity in the cane toad (Rhinella marina).

    PubMed

    Narayan, Edward J; Cockrem, John F; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2011-09-01

    Urinary corticosterone metabolite responses to capture have recently been shown for the first time in amphibians, and in the present study urinary corticosterone metabolite responses to capture and to confinement in captivity were measured in adult cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Queensland, Australia. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge was used to provide a biological validation for urinary corticosterone metabolite concentrations measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Urinary corticosterone metabolite increased 1-2 days after ACTH but not saline injection and then returned to initial values, indicating that the RIA could detect changes in corticosterone secretion in toads. Urinary corticosterone metabolite responses to short-term capture and restraint in plastic bags were first apparent 2h after capture of wild toads. Toads held communally in captivity for 5 days had elevated urinary corticosterone metabolite concentrations. Mean corticosterone concentrations declined significantly after a further 7 days in individual housing chambers. There was no sex difference in urinary corticosterone metabolite responses of toads to ACTH challenge, short-term capture or captivity. The relative amount of variation in the mean corticosterone responses was quantified by calculating coefficients of variation (CV) for each mean corticosterone response. Mean corticosterone at 0 min was more variable for captive toads than wild toads. Furthermore, initial corticosterone concentrations (0 min) were more variable than concentrations during the ACTH challenge, short-term capture and captivity. There was little change in the amount of variation of mean corticosterone levels between male and female toads with increasing time in captivity (12-29 days). This study has shown individual corticosterone responses of amphibians for the first-time, and has provided a novel method for quantifying the relative amount of variation in amphibian corticosterone responses.

  7. Effects of tribasic copper chloride versus copper sulfate provided in corn-and molasses-based supplements on forage intake and copper status of beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Arthington, J D; Spears, J W

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of supplemental tribasic copper chloride (Cu(2)(OH(3))Cl; TBCC) vs. Cu sulfate (CuSO(4)) on Cu status and voluntary forage DMI in growing heifers. Two 90-d experiments were conducted using 48 non-pregnant, crossbred heifers (24 heifers/experiment; 355 +/- 10.7 and 309 +/- 9.9 kg for Exp. 1 and 2, respectively). In each experiment, 3 supplemental Cu treatments were randomly allocated to heifers in individual pens consisting of (1) 100 mg of Cu/d from CuSO(4), (2) 100 mg of Cu/d from TBCC, or (3) 0 mg of Cu/d. The 2 experiments differed by the form of supplement used to deliver the Cu treatments (corn- vs. molasses-based supplements for Exp. 1 and 2, respectively). Supplements were formulated and fed to provide equivalent amounts of CP and TDN daily but differed in their concentration of the Cu antagonists, Mo (0.70 vs. 1.44 mg/kg), Fe (113 vs. 189 mg/kg), and S (0.18 vs. 0.37%) for corn- and molasses-based supplements, respectively. All heifers were provided free-choice access to ground stargrass (Cynodon spp.) hay. Jugular blood and liver biopsy samples were collected on d 0, 30, 60, and 90 of each experiment. Heifer BW was collected on d 0 and 90. Heifer ADG was not affected by Cu treatment (average = 0.22 +/- 0.11 and 0.44 +/- 0.05 kg for Exp. 1 and 2, respectively; P > 0.20). In Exp. 1, heifers provided supplemental Cu, independent of source, had greater (P < 0.05) liver Cu concentrations on d 60 and 90 compared with heifers provided no supplemental Cu. In Exp. 2, average liver Cu concentrations were greater (P = 0.04) for heifers receiving supplemental Cu compared with heifers receiving no Cu; however, all treatments experienced a decrease in liver Cu concentration over the 90-d treatment period. Plasma ceruloplasmin concentrations did not differ in Exp. 1 (P = 0.83) but were greater (P = 0.04) in Exp. 2 for heifers receiving supplemental Cu compared with heifers receiving no Cu. In Exp. 1, voluntary

  8. Combined electron-beam and coagulation purification of molasses distillery slops. Features of the method, technical and economic evaluation of large-scale facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikaev, A. K.; Ponomarev, A. V.; Bludenko, A. V.; Minin, V. N.; Elizar'eva, L. M.

    2001-04-01

    The paper summarizes the results obtained from the study on combined electron-beam and coagulation method for purification of molasses distillery slops from distillery produced ethyl alcohol by fermentation of grain, potato, beet and some other plant materials. The method consists in preliminary mixing of industrial wastewater with municipal wastewater, electron-beam treatment of the mixture and subsequent coagulation. Technical and economic evaluation of large-scale facility (output of 7000 m 3 day -1) with two powerful cascade electron accelerators (total maximum beam power of 400 kW) for treatment of the wastewater by the above method was carried out. It was calculated that the cost of purification of the wastes is equal to 0.25 US$ m -3 that is noticeably less than in the case of the existing method.

  9. Biodegradation of organic compounds of molasses melanoidin (MM) from biomethanated distillery spent wash (BMDS) during the decolourisation by a potential bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sangeeta; Chandra, Ram

    2012-07-01

    Molasses melanoidin (MM) is a major pollutant in biomethanated distillery spent wash (BMDS) due to its recalcitrant properties. The 75% colour and 71% COD of MM (1,000 ppm) were reduced with developed bacterial consortium comprising Proteus mirabilis (IITRM5; FJ581028), Bacillus sp. (IITRM7; FJ581030), Raoultella planticola (IITRM15; GU329705) and Enterobacter sakazakii (IITRM16, FJ581031) in the ratio of 4:3:2:1 within 10 days at optimized nutrient. Bacterial consortium showed manganese peroxidase and laccase activity during MM decolourisation. The dominant growth of R. planticola and E. sakazakii was noted in consortium during MM decolourisation. The comparative GC-MS analysis of extracted compounds of control and degraded samples showed that most of the compounds present in control were completely utilized by bacterial consortium along with production of some metabolites. The developed bacterial consortium could be a tool for the decolourisation and degradation of melanoidin containing BMDS.

  10. Analysis of sucrose accumulation in the sugar cane culm on the basis of in vitro kinetic data.

    PubMed Central

    Rohwer, J M; Botha, F C

    2001-01-01

    Sucrose accumulation in developing sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) is accompanied by a continuous synthesis and cleavage of sucrose in the storage tissues. Despite numerous studies, the factors affecting sucrose accumulation are still poorly understood, and no consistent pattern has emerged which pinpoints certain enzyme activities as important controlling steps. Here, we develop an approach based on pathway analysis and kinetic modelling to assess the biochemical control of sucrose accumulation and futile cycling in sugar cane. By using the concept of elementary flux modes, all possible routes of futile cycling of sucrose were enumerated in the metabolic system. The available kinetic data for the pathway enzymes were then collected and assembled in a kinetic model of sucrose accumulation in sugar cane culm tissue. Although no data were fitted, the model agreed well with independent experimental results: in no case was the difference between calculated and measured fluxes and concentrations greater than 2-fold. The model thus validated was then used to assess different enhancement strategies for increasing sucrose accumulation. First, the control coefficient of each enzyme in the system on futile cycling of sucrose was calculated. Secondly, the activities of those enzymes with the numerically largest control coefficients were varied over a 5-fold range to determine the effect on the degree of futile cycling, the conversion efficiency from hexoses into sucrose, and the net sucrose accumulation rate. In view of the modelling results, overexpression of the fructose or glucose transporter or the vacuolar sucrose import protein, as well as reduction of cytosolic neutral invertase levels, appear to be the most promising targets for genetic manipulation. This offers a more directed improvement strategy than cumbersome gene-by-gene manipulation. The kinetic model can be viewed and interrogated on the World Wide Web at http://jjj.biochem.sun.ac.za. PMID:11513743

  11. Patterns of Genetic Variability in Island Populations of the Cane Toad (Rhinella marina) from the Mouth of the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Bessa-Silva, Adam Rick; Vallinoto, Marcelo; Sodré, Davidson; da Cunha, Divino Bruno; Hadad, Dante; Asp, Nils Edvin; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio; Sequeira, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The Amazonian coast has several unique geological characteristics resulting from the interaction between drainage pattern of the Amazon River and the Atlantic Ocean. It is one of the most extensive and sedimentologically dynamic regions of the world, with a large number of continental islands mostly formed less than 10,000 years ago. The natural distribution of the cane toad (Rhinella marina), one of the world’s most successful invasive species, in this complex Amazonian system provides an intriguing model for the investigation of the effects of isolation or the combined effects of isolation and habitat dynamic changes on patterns of genetic variability and population differentiation. We used nine fast-evolving microsatellite loci to contrast patterns of genetic variability in six coastal (three mainlands and three islands) populations of the cane toad near the mouth of the Amazon River. Results from Bayesian multilocus clustering approach and Discriminant Analyses of Principal Component were congruent in showing that each island population was genetically differentiated from the mainland populations. All FST values obtained from all pairwise comparisons were significant, ranging from 0.048 to 0.186. Estimates of both recent and historical gene flow were not significantly different from zero across all population pairs, except the two mainland populations inhabiting continuous habitats. Patterns of population differentiation, with a high level of population substructure and absence/restricted gene flow, suggested that island populations of R. marina are likely isolated since the Holocene sea-level rise. However, considering the similar levels of genetic variability found in both island and mainland populations, it is reliable to assume that they were also isolated for longer periods. Given the genetic uniqueness of each cane toad population, together with the high natural vulnerability of the coastal regions and intense human pressures, we suggest that these

  12. Air pollution from biomass burning and asthma hospital admissions in a sugar cane plantation area in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Arbex, Marcos Abdo; Martins, Lourdes Conceição; de Oliveira, Regiani Carvalho; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Arbex, Flávio Ferlin; Cançado, José Eduardo Delfini; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Braga, Alfésio Luís Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between the total suspended particles (TSPs) generated from preharvest sugar cane burning and hospital admission due to asthma (asthma hospital admissions) in the city of Araraquara. Design An ecological time‐series study. Total daily records of asthma hospital admissions (ICD 10th J15) were obtained from one of the main hospitals in Araraquara, São Paulo State, Brazil, from 23 March 2003 to 27 July 2004. The daily concentration of TSP (μg/m3) was obtained using Handi‐vol equipment (Energética, Brazil) placed in downtown Araraquara. The local airport provided the daily mean figures of temperature and humidity. The daily number of asthma hospital admissions was considered as the dependent variable in Poisson's regression models and the daily concentration of TSP was considered the independent variable. The generalised linear model with natural cubic spline was adopted to control for long‐time trend. Linear terms were used for weather variables. Results TSP had an acute effect on asthma admissions, starting 1 day after TSP concentrations increased and remaining almost unchanged for the next four days. A 10 μg/m3 increase in the 5‐day moving average (lag1–5) of TSP concentrations was associated with an increase of 11.6% (95% CI 5.4 to 17.7) in asthma hospital admissions. Conclusion Increases in TSP concentrations were definitely associated with asthma hospital admissions in Araraquara and, despite using sugar cane alcohol to reduce air pollution from automotive sources in large Brazilian urban centres, the cities where sugar cane is harvested pay a high toll in terms of public health. PMID:17435205

  13. Vinasse application to sugar cane fields. Effect on the unsaturated zone and groundwater at Valle del Cauca (Colombia).

    PubMed

    Ortegón, Gloria Páez; Arboleda, Fernando Muñoz; Candela, Lucila; Tamoh, Karim; Valdes-Abellan, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Extensive application of vinasse, a subproduct from sugar cane plantations for bioethanol production, is currently taking place as a source of nutrients that forms part of agricultural management in different agroclimatic regions. Liquid vinasse composition is characterised by high variability of organic compounds and major ions, acid pH (4.7), high TDS concentration (117,416-599,400mgL(-1)) and elevated EC (14,350-64,099μScm(-1)). A large-scale sugar cane field application is taking place in Valle del Cauca (Colombia), where monitoring of soil, unsaturated zone and the aquifer underneath has been made since 2006 to evaluate possible impacts on three experimental plots. For this assessment, monitoring wells and piezometers were installed to determine groundwater flow and water samples were collected for chemical analysis. In the unsaturated zone, tensiometers were installed at different depths to determine flow patterns, while suction lysimeters were used for water sample chemical determinations. The findings show that in the sandy loam plot (Hacienda Real), the unsaturated zone is characterised by low water retention, showing a high transport capacity, while the other two plots of silty composition presented temporal saturation due to La Niña event (2010-2011). The strong La Niña effect on aquifer recharge which would dilute the infiltrated water during the monitoring period and, on the other hand dissolution of possible precipitated salts bringing them back into solution may occur. A slight increase in the concentration of major ions was observed in groundwater (~5% of TDS), which can be attributed to a combination of factors: vinasse dilution produced by water input and hydrochemical processes along with nutrient removal produced by sugar cane uptake. This fact may make the aquifer vulnerable to contamination.

  14. Effect of maturity on chlorophyll, tannin, color, and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of sugarcane juice (Saccharum officinarum Var. Yellow Cane).

    PubMed

    Qudsieh, Hanan Yassin M; Yusof, Salmah; Osman, Azizah; Rahman, Russly Abdul

    2002-03-13

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of sugarcane maturation on the contents of chlorophyll, tannin, and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and on color change of sugarcane juice. The maturation period of the cane studied was between 3 and 10 months after planting. Different parts of the cane, namely, the top, middle, and bottom portions, were analyzed. Results obtained indicated that there were significant (P < 0.01) decreases in total chlorophyll a and b and tannin contents during maturity followed by slower rates of decrease of both parameters at the end of maturity stages. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in chlorophyll and tannin contents between the middle and bottom portions. On the other hand, the top portion of the stem had a significantly (P < 0.01) lower concentration of chlorophyll and a significantly (P < 0.01) higher content of tannin. PPO activity of sugarcane juice was determined using chlorogenic acid as a substrate. There was a highly significant difference (P < 0.01) in PPO activity of cane juice during maturity. PPO activity was high at the early development stage, decreased during maturation, and then remained relatively constant at the end of maturity. PPO activity was higher when chlorogenic acid was used as substrate. There were also significant differences (P < 0.01) in juice color (L*, a*, b* values) from different portions at different maturity stages. At the early stages, the color of extracted juice was dark, and then the juice turned to yellowish green during maturity. The decrease in green color or the increase in the yellow color could be associated with the decline in chlorophyll. The overall color change (DeltaE) at maturity indicated that the color of the middle and bottom portions was lower than that of the top portion.

  15. Patterns of Genetic Variability in Island Populations of the Cane Toad (Rhinella marina) from the Mouth of the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Bessa-Silva, Adam Rick; Vallinoto, Marcelo; Sodré, Davidson; da Cunha, Divino Bruno; Hadad, Dante; Asp, Nils Edvin; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio; Sequeira, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The Amazonian coast has several unique geological characteristics resulting from the interaction between drainage pattern of the Amazon River and the Atlantic Ocean. It is one of the most extensive and sedimentologically dynamic regions of the world, with a large number of continental islands mostly formed less than 10,000 years ago. The natural distribution of the cane toad (Rhinella marina), one of the world's most successful invasive species, in this complex Amazonian system provides an intriguing model for the investigation of the effects of isolation or the combined effects of isolation and habitat dynamic changes on patterns of genetic variability and population differentiation. We used nine fast-evolving microsatellite loci to contrast patterns of genetic variability in six coastal (three mainlands and three islands) populations of the cane toad near the mouth of the Amazon River. Results from Bayesian multilocus clustering approach and Discriminant Analyses of Principal Component were congruent in showing that each island population was genetically differentiated from the mainland populations. All FST values obtained from all pairwise comparisons were significant, ranging from 0.048 to 0.186. Estimates of both recent and historical gene flow were not significantly different from zero across all population pairs, except the two mainland populations inhabiting continuous habitats. Patterns of population differentiation, with a high level of population substructure and absence/restricted gene flow, suggested that island populations of R. marina are likely isolated since the Holocene sea-level rise. However, considering the similar levels of genetic variability found in both island and mainland populations, it is reliable to assume that they were also isolated for longer periods. Given the genetic uniqueness of each cane toad population, together with the high natural vulnerability of the coastal regions and intense human pressures, we suggest that these

  16. Physiology of invasion: cane toads are constrained by thermal effects on physiological mechanisms that support locomotor performance.

    PubMed

    Seebacher, Frank; Franklin, Craig E

    2011-05-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that constrain the invasiveness of introduced animals is essential for managing invasions and for predicting their limits. In most vertebrate species, the capacity for invasion relies upon the physiological systems that support locomotion, and oxygen transport and metabolism may become limiting as environmental temperatures increase as predicted by the oxygen limitation hypothesis. Here we test the oxygen limitation hypothesis and propose the alternative hypothesis that within-individual plasticity will compensate for thermal variation. We show that during exercise in the invasive cane toad (Rhinella marina) oxygen transport by the cardiovascular system was maximised in warm-acclimated toads at high (30°C) temperatures, and that oxygen content of arterial blood was not affected by temperature. Resting oxygen consumption remained stable across a 10°C temperature range (20-30°C) when toads were allowed to acclimate, so that there was no increase in resting oxygen demand that could lead to a decrease in aerobic scope at high temperatures. Additionally, temperature acclimation had no effect on arterial-venous differences in oxygen partial pressures. Toads relied more on glycolytic ATP production at low temperatures to support locomotor activity. Mitochondrial capacities (citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase activities) were greatest at warmer temperatures. Interestingly, the metabolic cost of exercise increased at low temperatures. In contradiction to predictions by the oxygen limitation hypothesis, aerobic performance was not limited by high temperatures. On the contrary, the relatively slow advance of cane toads to cooler climates can be explained by the constraints of low temperatures on the physiological systems supporting locomotion. It is likely that human-induced global warming will facilitate invasions of environments that are currently too cool to support cane toads.

  17. Increasing accessibility to the blind of virtual environments, using a virtual mobility aid based on the "EyeCane": feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Maidenbaum, Shachar; Levy-Tzedek, Shelly; Chebat, Daniel-Robert; Amedi, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Virtual worlds and environments are becoming an increasingly central part of our lives, yet they are still far from accessible to the blind. This is especially unfortunate as such environments hold great potential for them for uses such as social interaction, online education and especially for use with familiarizing the visually impaired user with a real environment virtually from the comfort and safety of his own home before visiting it in the real world. We have implemented a simple algorithm to improve this situation using single-point depth information, enabling the blind to use a virtual cane, modeled on the "EyeCane" electronic travel aid, within any virtual environment with minimal pre-processing. Use of the Virtual-EyeCane, enables this experience to potentially be later used in real world environments with identical stimuli to those from the virtual environment. We show the fast-learned practical use of this algorithm for navigation in simple environments.

  18. Performances of microbial fuel cells fed with rejected wastewater from BioCH4 and BioH2 processes treating molasses wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Yeong; Kim, Tae G; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2016-01-01

    An integrated process involving conventional anaerobic digestion and microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has attracted attention recently to produce sustainable energy and to treat wastewater efficiently. To evaluate the possibility of CH4-producing process (BioCH4)-MFC or H2-producing process (BioH2)-MFC integrating systems, the MFC performances were investigated using rejected wastewater from a BioCH4 reactor (RWCH4) or BioH2 reactor (RWH2) treating molasses wastewater. When RWCH4 or RWH2 was fed into a single-chamber MFC reactor (designated as AC-MFCCH4 and AC-MFCH2, respectively) at different hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 1-7 d, both MFC systems showed maximum electricity production efficiencies at a HRT of 3 d. In the AC-MFCCH4 reactor, the average current density and average power density were 60.5 mA·m(-2) and 8.8 mW·m(-2), respectively. The AC-MFCH2 reactor generated an average current density of 71.4 mA·m(-2) and an average power density of 12.0 mW·m(-2). The COD removal rates were 45.7% in the AC-MFCCH4 reactor and 90.3% in the AC-MFCH2 reactor. There were no significant differences of the eubacterial community structures between the MFC systems, where Proteobacteria was remarkably dominant in both MFC systems. However, the archaeal community structures were significantly different where Methanothrix (89.3%) was remarkably dominant in the AC-MFCCH4 system, while Methanothrix (52.5%) and Methanosarcina (33.5%) were abundant in the AC-MFCH2 system. These findings demonstrate that the utilization of MFCs after the BioCH4 or BioH2 process is advantageous for energy recovery as well as COD removal from molasses wastewater.

  19. Process contribution evaluation for COD removal and energy production from molasses wastewater in a BioH2-BioCH4-MFC-integrated system.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jeonghee; Lee, Yun-Yeong; Choi, Hyung Joo; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a three-stage-integrated process using the hydrogenic process (BioH2), methanogenic process (BioCH4), and a microbial fuel cell (MFC) was operated using molasses wastewater. The contribution of individual processes to chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and energy production was evaluated. The three-stage integration system was operated at molasses of 20 g-COD L(-1), and each process achieved hydrogen production rate of 1.1 ± 0.24 L-H2 L(-1) day(-1), methane production rate of 311 ± 18.94 mL-CH4 L(-1) day(-1), and production rate per electrode surface area of 10.8 ± 1.4 g m(-2) day(-1). The three-stage integration system generated energy production of 32.32 kJ g-COD(-1) and achieved COD removal of 98 %. The contribution of BioH2, BioCH4, and the MFC reactor was 20.8, 72.2, and, 7.0 % of the total COD removal, and 18.7, 81.2, and 0.16 % of the total energy production, respectively. The continuous stirred-tank reactor BioH2 at HRT of 1 day, up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket BioCH4 at HRT of 2 days, and MFC reactor at HRT of 3 days were decided in 1:2:3 ratios of working volume under hydraulic retention time consideration. This integration system can be applied to various configurations depending on target wastewater inputs, and it is expected to enhance energy recovery and reduce environmental impact of the final effluent.

  20. Spectrofotometric determination of copper in sugar cane spirit using biquinoline in the presence of ethanol and Triton X-100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    do Nascimento Rocha, Sarah Adriana; Dantas, Alaílson Falcão; Jaeger, Helena Valli; Costa, Antônio Celso Spínola; Leão, Elsimar dos Santos; Gonçalves, Mara Rúbia

    2008-12-01

    The present paper proposes a method for molecular spectrophotometric determination of copper in sugar cane spirits. The copper(I) reacts with biquinoline forming a pink complex with maximum absorption at 545 nm. The reaction occurs in the presence of hydroxylamine, ethanol and Triton X-100 tensioative. Determination of copper is possible in a linear range 0.2-20.0 mg L -1 with a detection limit 0.05 mg L -1. The great advantages of the proposed methodology are the elimination of liquid-liquid extraction step and the use of toxic organics solvents, like dioxane, to dissolve the reagent.

  1. Status Report - Cane Fiberboard Properties And Degradation Rates For Storage Of The 9975 Shipping Package In KAC

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2015-12-22

    Thermal, mechanical and physical properties have been measured on cane fiberboard samples following accelerated aging for up to approximately 10 years. The aging environments have included elevated temperature < 250 ºF (the maximum allowed service temperature for fiberboard in 9975 packages) and elevated humidity. The results from this testing have been analyzed, and aging models fit to the data. Correlations relating several properties (thermal conductivity, energy absorption, weight, dimensions and density) to their rate of change in potential storage environments have been developed. Combined with an estimate of the actual conditions the fiberboard experiences in KAC, these models allow development of service life predictions.

  2. The ecological impact of invasive cane toads on tropical snakes: field data do not support laboratory-based predictions.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gregory P; Phillips, Benjamin L; Shine, Richard

    2011-02-01

    Predicting which species will be affected by an invasive taxon is critical to developing conservation priorities, but this is a difficult task. A previous study on the impact of invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus) on Australian snakes attempted to predict vulnerability a priori based on the assumptions that any snake species that eats frogs, and is vulnerable to toad toxins, may be at risk from the toad invasion. We used time-series analyses to evaluate the accuracy of that prediction, based on >3600 standardized nocturnal surveys over a 138-month period on 12 species of snakes and lizards on a floodplain in the Australian wet-dry tropics, bracketing the arrival of cane toads at this site. Contrary to prediction, encounter rates with most species were unaffected by toad arrival, and some taxa predicted to be vulnerable to toads increased rather than declined (e.g., death adder Acanthophis praelongus; Children's python Antaresia childreni). Indirect positive effects of toad invasion (perhaps mediated by toad-induced mortality of predatory varanid lizards) and stochastic weather events outweighed effects of toad invasion for most snake species. Our study casts doubt on the ability of a priori desktop studies, or short-term field surveys, to predict or document the ecological impact of invasive species.

  3. CO2 co-gasification of lower sulphur petroleum coke and sugar cane bagasse via TG-FTIR analysis technique.

    PubMed

    Edreis, Elbager M A; Luo, Guangqian; Li, Aijun; Chao, Chen; Hu, Hongyun; Zhang, Sen; Gui, Ben; Xiao, Li; Xu, Kai; Zhang, Pingan; Yao, Hong

    2013-05-01

    This study investigates the non-isothermal mechanism and kinetic behaviour of gasification of a lower sulphur petroleum coke, sugar cane bagasse and blends under carbon dioxide atmosphere conditions using the thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The gas products were measured online with coupled Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The achieved results explored that the sugar cane bagasse and blend gasification happened in two steps: at (<500 °C) the volatiles are released, and at (>700 °C) char gasification occurred, whereas the lower sulphur petroleum coke presented only one char gasification stage at (>800 °C). Significant interactions were observed in the whole process. Some solid-state mechanisms were studied by the Coats-Redfern method in order to observe the mechanisms responsible for the gasification of samples. The results show that the chemical first order reaction is the best responsible mechanism for whole process. The main released gases are CO2, CO, CH4, HCOOH, C6H5OH and CH3COOH.

  4. Toads on Lava: Spatial Ecology and Habitat Use of Invasive Cane Toads (Rhinella marina) in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Ward-Fear, Georgia; Greenlees, Matthew J; Shine, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Most ecological research on cane toads (Rhinella marina) has focused on invasive populations in Australia, ignoring other areas where toads have been introduced. We radio-tracked and spool-tracked 40 toads, from four populations on the island of Hawai'i. Toads moved extensively at night (mean 116 m, from spool-tracking) but returned to the same or a nearby retreat-site each day (from radio-tracking, mean distance between successive retreat sites 11 m; 0 m for 70% of records). Males followed straighter paths during nocturnal movements than did females. Because moist sites are scarce on the highly porous lava substrate, Hawai'ian toads depend on anthropogenic disturbance for shelter (e.g. beneath buildings), foraging (e.g. suburban lawns, golf courses) and breeding (artificial ponds). Foraging sites are further concentrated by a scarcity of flying insects (negating artificial lights as prey-attractors). Habitat use of toads shifted with time (at night, toads selected areas with less bare ground, canopy, understory and leaf-litter), and differed between sexes (females foraged in areas of bare ground with dense understory vegetation). Cane toads in Hawai'i thrive in scattered moist patches within a severely arid matrix, despite a scarcity of flying insects, testifying to the species' ability to exploit anthropogenic disturbance.

  5. Selection of sugar cane families by using BLUP and multi-diverse analyses for planting in the Brazilian savannah.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, M H P; Ferreira, A; Peixoto, L A; Resende, M D V; Nascimento, M; Silva, F F

    2014-03-12

    This study evaluated different strategies to select sugar cane families and obtain clones adapted to the conditions of the Brazilian savannah. Specifically, 7 experiments were conducted, with 10 full sib families, and 2 witnesses in common to all experiments, in each experiment. The plants were grown in random blocks, with witnesses in common (incomplete blocks), and 6 repetitions of each experiment. The data were analyzed through the methodology of mixed patterns, in which the matrices of kinship between the families were identified by the method of restricted maximum likelihood. The characteristics that were evaluated included soluble solids content (BRIX), BRIX ton/ha, average mass of a culm, number of culms/m, and tons of culms/ha. A multi-diverse alternative based on the analysis of groupings by using the UPGMA method was used to identify the most viable families for selection, when considering the genotypic effects on all characteristics. This method appeared suitable for the selection of families, with 5 family groups being formed. The families that formed Group 2 appeared superior to all other families for all the evaluated characteristics. It is recommended that the families in Group 2 are preferentially used in sugar cane improvement programs to obtain varieties optimally adapted to the conditions of the Brazilian savannah.

  6. Simultaneous determination of 14 phenolic compounds in grape canes by HPLC-DAD-UV using wavelength switching detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ang; Wan, Li; Wu, Cuiyun; Fang, Yulin; Han, Guomin; Li, Hua; Zhang, Zhenwen; Wang, Hua

    2013-11-18

    The paper described a novel chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds such as gallic, protocatechuic, vanillic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric and salicylic acid, (+)-catechin, (‒)-epicatechin, rutin, morin, quercetin, coumarin and trans-resveratrol at their maximum absorbance wavelengths (MAW) employing reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography combined with DAD and UV detection via detection wavelength switching. The method was based on MAW acquisition by DAD and quantification by UV. The separation process was performed on a Shim-Pack VP-ODS C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) held at 30 °C, utilizing 3.0% acetic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min in the gradient elution mode. The method was fully validated in terms of linearity (r2 > 0.9990, 10‒350 mg/L), precision (both intra-day and inter-day RSD < 4.22%), accuracy (97.31%‒104.66%), specificity, robustness (0.59% < RSD < 2.86%), limit of detection and quantification. The switching method significantly improved the sensitivities of most phenolics studied in comparison with the standard constant wavelength detection (280 nm). The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of 14 phenolic compounds in 89 varieties of one-year-old Chinese grape one-year-canes. Grape canes contain many phenolics, especially trans-resveratrol, (‒)-epicatechin, and (+)-catechin.

  7. Toads on Lava: Spatial Ecology and Habitat Use of Invasive Cane Toads (Rhinella marina) in Hawai’i

    PubMed Central

    Ward-Fear, Georgia; Greenlees, Matthew J.; Shine, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Most ecological research on cane toads (Rhinella marina) has focused on invasive populations in Australia, ignoring other areas where toads have been introduced. We radio-tracked and spool-tracked 40 toads, from four populations on the island of Hawai’i. Toads moved extensively at night (mean 116 m, from spool-tracking) but returned to the same or a nearby retreat-site each day (from radio-tracking, mean distance between successive retreat sites 11 m; 0 m for 70% of records). Males followed straighter paths during nocturnal movements than did females. Because moist sites are scarce on the highly porous lava substrate, Hawai’ian toads depend on anthropogenic disturbance for shelter (e.g. beneath buildings), foraging (e.g. suburban lawns, golf courses) and breeding (artificial ponds). Foraging sites are further concentrated by a scarcity of flying insects (negating artificial lights as prey-attractors). Habitat use of toads shifted with time (at night, toads selected areas with less bare ground, canopy, understory and leaf-litter), and differed between sexes (females foraged in areas of bare ground with dense understory vegetation). Cane toads in Hawai’i thrive in scattered moist patches within a severely arid matrix, despite a scarcity of flying insects, testifying to the species’ ability to exploit anthropogenic disturbance. PMID:27027738

  8. Glycogen content and excitation-contraction coupling in mechanically skinned muscle fibres of the cane toad.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, D G; Nguyen, L T; Stephenson, G M

    1999-08-15

    1. Mechanically skinned skeletal muscle fibres from the twitch region of the iliofibularis muscle of cane toads were used to investigate the relationship between fibre glycogen content and fibre capacity to respond to transverse tubular (T-) system depolarization. 2. A large proportion of total fibre glycogen remained in mechanically skinned muscle fibres exposed to aqueous solutions. This glycogen pool (about 80% of total fibre glycogen) was very stable when the preparation was incubated in a rigor solution (pH 7.0) but decreased gradually at a rate of 0.59+/-0.20% min-1 in a relaxing solution (200 nM [Ca2+]). The rate was considerably higher (2.66+/-0.38% min(-1)) when the preparations were exposed to 30 microM [Ca2+]. An even greater rate of glycogen loss was found after T-system depolarization-induced contractions. The Ca2+-dependent loss of fibre glycogen was caused by endogenous glycogenolytic processes. 3. Silver stained SDS gels of components eluted into relaxing solution from single skinned fibres revealed a rapid (2 min) loss of parvalbumin and at least 10 other proteins varying in molecular mass between 10 and 80 kDa but there was essentially no loss of myosin heavy and light chains and actin. Subsequent elution for a further 30 min in either relaxing or maximally Ca2+-activating solution did not result in additional, appreciable detectable loss of fibre protein. 4. Depletion of fibre glycogen was associated with loss of fibre ability to respond to T-system depolarization even though the bathing solutions contained high levels of ATP (8 mM) and creatine phosphate (10 mM). 5. The capacity of mechanically skinned fibres to respond to T-system depolarization was highly positively correlated (P<0.0001) with initial fibre glycogen concentration. 6. In conclusion, the results show that (i) the capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to T-system depolarization is related directly or indirectly to the non-washable glycogen pool in fibres, (ii) this relationship

  9. Response of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tepritidae) to white and brown cane, coconut, date, date jaggery and panela sugar solutions with varying degrees of fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We measured the EAG response of Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), the Caribbean fruit fly to six different sugars (white and brown cane, coconut, date, date jaggery and panela sugars). Wild and lab female flies of different physiological states (immature and mature) were tested in dry crystals and 10% su...

  10. Strategies Needed to Maximize Industry Support for Breeding of Energy Cane as a Biomass Feedstock for Coal and other Co-Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research and advanced breeding have demonstrated that energy cane possesses all of the attributes desirable in a biofuel feedstock: extremely good biomass yield in a small farming footprint; negative/neutral carbon footprint; maximum outputs from minimum inputs; well-established growing model for fa...

  11. Changes in the physicochemical characteristics, including flavour components and Maillard reaction products, of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar during storage.

    PubMed

    Asikin, Yonathan; Kamiya, Asahiro; Mizu, Masami; Takara, Kensaku; Tamaki, Hajime; Wada, Koji

    2014-04-15

    Changes in the quality attributes of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar represented by physicochemical characteristics as well as flavour components and Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were monitored every 3 months over 1 year of storage. Stored cane brown sugar became darker, and its moisture content and water activity (a(w)) increased during storage. Fructose and glucose levels decreased as non-enzymatic browning via the Maillard reaction occurred in the stored sample, and a similar trend was also discovered in aconitic and acetic acids. Stored cane brown sugar lost its acidic and sulfuric odours (58.70-39.35% and 1.85-0.08%, respectively); subsequently, the nutty and roasted aroma increased from 26.52% to 38.59% due to the volatile MRPs. The browning rate of stored cane brown sugar was positively associated with the development of volatile MRPs (Pearson's coefficient = 0.860), whereas the amount of 3-deoxyglucosone, an intermediate product of the Maillard reaction, had a lower association with the brown colour due to its relatively slow degradation rate.

  12. Metal levels in sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) samples from an area under the influence of a municipal landfill and a medical waste treatment system in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Segura-Muñoz, S I; da Silva Oliveira, A; Nikaido, M; Trevilato, T M B; Bocio, A; Takayanagui, A M M; Domingo, J L

    2006-01-01

    In July 2003, duplicated samples of roots, stems and leaves of sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) were collected in 25 points of an area under direct influence of the municipal landfill site (MLS) and medical waste treatment system (MWTS) of Ribeirao Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The following concentrations (mg/kg) were found in roots: Cd, 0.22+/-0.12; Cr, 64.3+/-48.7; Cu, 140.6+/-27.7; Hg, 0.04+/-0.02; Mn, 561.6+/-283.3; Pb, 7.9+/-2.1 and Zn, 177.4+/-64.9. For some metals, these levels are higher than the concentrations previously reported for different plants, reaching, in some cases, values that might be considered toxic for vegetables. Metal levels in stems were 80-90% of those found in roots, while the concentrations detected in leaves were significantly lower than those in roots. The present results suggest that MLS and MWTS activities might have been increasing metal concentrations in edible tissues of sugar cane grown in the area under their influence. Moreover, the traditional agricultural practices in the production of sugar cane could be also another determinant factor to reach the current metal levels. The results of this study indicate that sugar cane is a crop that is able to grow in areas where metals in soils are accumulated.

  13. Energy balances in sugar cane, coffee and natural vegetation in the northeastern side of the São Paulo state, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de C. Teixeira, Antônio H.; Leivas, Janice F.; Ronquim, Carlos C.; Bayma-Silva, Gustavo; de C. Victoria, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Under land and climate change scenarios, agriculture has experienced water competitions among other sectors in the São Paulo state, Brazil. On the one hand, in several occasions, in the northeastern side of this state, nowadays sugar-cane is expanding, while coffee plantations are losing space. On the other hand, both crops have replaced the natural vegetation composed by Savannah and Atlantic Coastal Forest species. Under this dynamic situation, geosciences are valuable tools for evaluating the large-scale energy and mass exchanges between these different agro-ecosystems and the lower atmosphere. For quantification of the energy balance components in these mixed agro-ecosystems, the bands 1 and 2 from the MODIS product MOD13Q1 were used throughout SAFER (Surface Algorithm for Evapotranspiration Retrieving) algorithm, which was applied together with a net of 12 automatic weather stations, during the year 2015 in the main sugar cane and coffee growing regions, located at the northeastern side of the state. The fraction of the global solar radiation (RG) transformed into net radiation (Rn) was 52% for sugar cane and 53% for both, coffee and natural vegetation. The respective annual fractions of Rn used as λE were 0.68, 0.87 and 0.77, while for the sensible heat (H) fluxes they were 0.27, 0.07 and 0.16. From April to July, heat advection raised λE values above Rn promoting negative H, however these effects were much and less strong in coffee and sugar cane crops, respectively. The smallest daily Rn fraction for all agro-ecosystems was for the soil heat flux (G), with averages of 5%, 6% and 7% in sugar cane, coffee and natural vegetation. From the energy balance analyses, we could conclude that, sugar-cane crop presented lower annual water consumption than that for coffee crop, what can be seen as an advantage in situations of water scarcity. However, the replacement of natural vegetation by sugar cane can contribute for warming the environment, while when this

  14. The Levels of Trace Elements in Honey and Molasses Samples That Were Determined by ICP-OES After Microwave Digestion Method.

    PubMed

    Altundag, Huseyin; Bina, Emel; Altıntıg, Esra

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is determining the amount of Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in samples of molasses and honey which were gathered from the Sakarya and Istanbul regions. In this study, trace elements in 8 honey and 20 molasses samples with different botanic features were evaluated. The sample preparation phase was performed via wet decomposition method and microwave digestion system. The accuracy of the method was checked by the standard reference material; tea leaves (INCY-TL-1) and NIST-SRM 1515-apple. The concentrations of essential trace elements (TEs) were observed in the range of 1.61 ± 0.01-287.03 ± 1.07; 0.21 ± 0.01-11.04 ± 0.12; 0.35 ± 0.03-21.71 ± 0.02 and 1.19 ± 0.01-60.90 ± 1.09 μg g(-1) for iron, copper, manganese and zinc ions, respectively, while the toxic element contents were observed in the range of 0.82 ± 0.17-3.06 ± 0.03; 0.04 ± 0.05-1.96 ± 0.03 and 0.62 ± 0.01-120.52 ± 0.10 μg g(-1) for lead, nickel and aluminum ions, respectively. The concentrations of basic TEs iron, copper, manganese and zinc were determined as 3.87 ± 0.04-16.76 ± 0.06; 0.45 ± 0.03-2.15 ± 0.01; 0.13 ± 0.01-15.02 ± 0.14 and 0.80 ± 0.09-12.03 ± 0.19 for honey samples. Also, toxic metal, lead, nickel and aluminum values in the honey samples were determined as 1.21 ± 0.12-2.46 ± 0.21; 0.28 ± 0.14-0.88 ± 0.43 and 2.11 ± 0.02-8.04 ± 0.08. A comparison between gathered data and literature values has performed and it is determined that such findings are suitable with the literature.

  15. Integrated stratigraphy and 40Ar/39Ar chronology of the early to middle Miocene Upper Freshwater Molasse in western Bavaria (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Hayfaa Abdul; Böhme, Madelaine; Rocholl, Alexander; Prieto, Jerome; Wijbrans, Jan R.; Bachtadse, Valerian; Ulbig, Albert

    2010-12-01

    A detailed integrated stratigraphic study (biostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy) was carried out on five sections from the western part of the Bavarian Upper Freshwater Molasse of the North Alpine Foreland Basin (NAFB), greatly improving the chronostratigraphy of these sediments. The sections belong to the lithostratigraphic units Limnische Untere Serie (UL) and Fluviatile Untere Serie (UF) and contain 19 (mostly new) small-mammal bearing levels, significantly refining the local biostratigraphy. Radiometric ages obtained from glass shards from tuff horizons are used together with the biostratigraphic information for constructing and confirming the magnetostratigraphic correlation of the studied sections to the Astronomical Tuned Time Scale (ANTS04; Lourens et al. in Geologic Time Scale 2004, Cambridge University Press, 2004). This correlation implies that the UL lithostratigraphic unit corresponds to the latest Ottnangian and the Early Karpatian, whereas the UF corresponds to the Karpatian and the Early Badenian. This indicates that the Brackish- to Freshwater Molasse transition already occurred during the late Ottnangian. The pre-Riesian hiatus occurred in the latest Karpatian and lower Early Badenian in Eastern Bavaria and Bohemia and in the Late Karpatian and earliest Badenian in Western Bavaria. The geochemical and Ar-Ar data of volcanic ashes suggest that highly evolved silicic magmas from a single volcano or volcanic center, characterized by a uniform Nd isotopic composition, erupted repetitively over the course of at least 1.6 Myr. Three phases of eruptive activity were identified at 16.1 ± 0.2 Ma (Zahling-2), 15.6 ± 0.4 Ma (Krumbad), and 14.5 ± 0.2 Ma (Heilsberg, Hegau). The correlation of the local biostratigraphic zonation to the ANTS04 enables further the characterization of both the Ottnangian-Karpatian and Karpatian-Badenian boundaries in the NAFB by small-mammal biostratigraphy. According to these results the Ottnangian-Karpatian boundary is

  16. An invasive species induces rapid adaptive change in a native predator: cane toads and black snakes in Australia.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Ben L; Shine, Richard

    2006-06-22

    Rapid environmental change due to human activities has increased rates of extinction, but some species may be able to adapt rapidly enough to deal with such changes. Our studies of feeding behaviour and physiological resistance to toxins reveal surprisingly rapid adaptive responses in Australian black snakes (Pseudechis porphyriacus) following the invasion of a lethally toxic prey item, the cane toad (Bufo marinus). Snakes from toad-exposed localities showed increased resistance to toad toxin and a decreased preference for toads as prey. Separate laboratory experiments suggest that these changes are not attributable to learning (we were unable to teach naive snakes to avoid toxic prey) or to acquired resistance (repeated sub-lethal doses did not enhance resistance). These results strongly suggest that black snake behaviour and physiology have evolved in response to the presence of toads, and have done so rapidly. Toads were brought to Australia in 1935, so these evolved responses have occurred in fewer than 23 snake generations.

  17. Vitis vinifera canes, a new source of antifungal compounds against Plasmopara viticola, Erysiphe necator, and Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Schnee, Sylvain; Queiroz, Emerson F; Voinesco, Francine; Marcourt, Laurence; Dubuis, Pierre-Henri; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Gindro, Katia

    2013-06-12

    Methanolic and ethanolic crude extracts of Vitis vinifera canes exhibited significant antifungal activity against the three major fungal pathogens affecting grapevines, Plasmopara viticola, Erysiphe necator and Botrytis cinerea. The active extracts were analyzed by LC-PDA-ESI-MS, and selected compounds were identified. Efficient targeted isolation using medium-pressure liquid chromatography afforded six pure constituents in one step. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by NMR and HRMS. Six identified compounds (ampelopsin A, hopeaphenol, trans-resveratrol, ampelopsin H, ε-viniferin, and E-vitisin B) presented antifungal activities against P. viticola. ε-Viniferin also exhibited a low antifungal activity against B. cinerea. None of the identified compounds inhibited the germination of E. necator. The potential to develop a novel natural fungicide against the three major fungal pathogens affecting V. vinifera from viticulture waste material is discussed.

  18. Chemical torrefaction as an alternative to established thermal technology for stabilisation of sugar cane bagasse as fuel.

    PubMed

    Valix, M; Katyal, S; Cheung, W H

    2016-10-11

    Dry and chemical torrefaction of sugar cane bagasse was examined in this study with the aim of stabilising and upgrading the fuel properties of bagasse. Dry torrefaction was conducted at temperatures from 160°C to 300°C under inert conditions, whilst chemical torrefaction incorporated a H2SO4 pre-treatment of bagasse. Chemical torrefaction imparted superior chemical and physical properties inducing morphological transformation and textural development with the potential to address issues in handling, feeding and processing bagasse. It increased the energy density of the chars with maximum HHVmass 21.5 MJ/kg and maximum HHVvolume of 7.4 GJ/m(3). Chemically torrefied bagasse demonstrated resistance against microbiological attack for 18 months. These features demonstrate the practical value of chemical torrefaction in advancing the utilisation of bagasse as fuel.

  19. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Cane Valley, Arizona. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site in Cane Valley near Monument Valley, Arizona. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has relocated and stabilized this site`s tailings and other contaminated material in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project that evaluates potential health and environmental risks. It will help determine the approach required to address contaminated ground water at the site.

  20. Structural evaluation of sugar cane bagasse steam pretreated in the presence of CO2 and SO2

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies on the use of SO2 and CO2 as impregnating agent for sugar cane bagasse steam treatment showed comparative and promising results concerning the cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis and the low formation of the inhibitors furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural for the use of CO2 at 205°C/15 min or SO2 at 190°C/5 min. In the present study sugar cane bagasse materials pretreated as aforementioned were analyzed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy) aiming a better understanding of the structural and chemical changes undergone by the pretreated materials. Results SEM and TEM data showed that the structural modifications undergone by the pretreatment with CO2 were less pronounced in comparison to that using SO2, which can be directly related to the combined severity of each pretreatment. According to XRD data, untreated bagasse showed, as expected, a lower crystallinity index (CI = 48.0%) when compared to pretreated samples with SO2 (CI = 65.5%) or CO2 (CI = 56.4%), due to the hemicellulose removal of 68.3% and 40.5%, respectively. FTIR spectroscopy supported SEM, TEM and XRD results, revealing a more extensive action of SO2. Conclusions The SEM, TEM, XRD and FTIR spectroscopy techniques used in this work contributed to structural and chemical analysis of the untreated and pretreated bagasse. The images from SEM and TEM can be related to the severity of SO2 pretreatment, which is almost twice higher. The crystallinity index values obtained from XRD showed that pretreated materials have higher values when compared with untreated material, due to the partial removal of hemicellulose after pretreatment. FTIR spectroscopy supported SEM, TEM and XRD results. CO2 can actually be used as impregnating agent for steam pretreatment, although the present study confirmed a more extensive action of SO2. PMID:22616648